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Changes in students’ attitudes towards conservation resulting from outdoor education : a case study Tufuor, Joseph K. 1981

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CHANGES IN STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONSERVATION RESULTING FROM OUTDOOR EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY by JOSEPH K. TUFUOR B . S c , ( E d u c a t i o n ) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape C o a s t , 1972 B . S c , (Botany) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape C o a s t , 1973 M . S c , (Botany) U n i v e r s i t y of Cape C o a s t , 1975 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1981 © Joseph K. T u f u o r , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Mathematics and Science Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date November 24. 1981 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT In s c h o o l s , enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of the environment and i t s r e s o u r c e s i s one of the most p r e v a l e n t g o a l s of outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. I t has been assumed by outdoor e d u c a t o r s , t h a t a p o s i t i v e change i n the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g change i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r . Even though some s t u d i e s have been undertaken t o f i n d out i f outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs r e s u l t i n enhancing s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s , the r e s u l t s have not been v e r y c o n c l u s i v e . In a d d i t i o n , no s t u d i e s have been undertaken t o f i n d out i f the change i n a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e s e outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs l e a d t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g change i n b e h a v i o r s , and no s t u d i e s have been undertaken t o f i n d out the a s p e c t s of the programs which a t t r i b u t e t o the p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e s . T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d the n a t u r e of the change i n a t t i t u d e r e s u l t i n g from a r e s i d e n t i a l o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n program, and the a s p e c t s of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d t o or appeared t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the change i n a t t i t u d e s . The study r e s t r i c t e d i t s e l f t o c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h r e e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s — energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e . An a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d , t r i e d and used t o a s s e s s the n a t u r e of the change i n s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s f o l l o w i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. A t r i a n g u l a t e d case study approach u s i n g J:he views of s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r , was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e f a c t o r s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o have enhanced the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . The r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment study showed t h a t the program enhanced the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . The r e s u l t s f u r t h e r showed t h a t i n the a r e a of energy and p l a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n the p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e s was r e f l e c t e d i n the s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r . In the ar e a of w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , however, the b e h a v i o r of the s t u d e n t s d i d not r e f l e c t a p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e , but t h i s has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n , s i n c e s t u d e n t s had not been exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d p r a c t i c e w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . The r e s u l t s of the case study r e v e a l e d t h a t e i g h t a s p e c t s of the program c o n t r i b u t e d or appear t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p o s i t i v e change i n s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . These a s p e c t s a r e the pre-camp p r e p a r a t i o n s , the f i e l d s tudy s e s s i o n s , the outdoor s c h o o l environment, the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s of both the t e a c h e r s and the c o u n s e l l o r s , the f i l m s shown a t the outdoor s c h o o l , the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s used, the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n r e c e i v e d , and the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s . The f i n d i n g s of the study l e d t o two c o n c l u s i o n s : (1) That r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs can and do enhance s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . (2) That many a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e t o or appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the c o n c l u s i o n s , however, have some i v l i m i t a t i o n s : s u b j e c t s were not s e l e c t e d randomly, and a l s o because of the presence of the w r i t e r d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the s t u d y . TABLE OF CONTENTS P a 9 e ABSTRACT i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x CHAPTER I : The P r o b l e m 1.1 G e n e r a l P r o b l e m 1 1.2 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 2 1.3 B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e S t u d y 3 1.3.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t e x t o f t h e Study 3 1.3.2 E d u c a t i o n a l C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y 5 1.3.3 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y 10 1.4 S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m s o f t h e S t u d y 11 1.5 O v e r v i e w o f M e t h o d o l o g y 12 1.6 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 12 CHAPTER I I : Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 14 2.1 A t t i t u d e Development R e s u l t i n g f rom Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Programs 14 2.2 F i s h b e i n ' s T h e o r y o f A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n 20 2.3 C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s F a c i t T h e o r y 26 2.4 Ways o f E n h a n c i n g C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s 28 CHAPTER I I I : M e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e S t u d y 3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 34 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n 34 3.2 Sample 35 3.3 T r e a t m e n t 37 3.4 A t t i t u d e A s s e s s m e n t S t u d y 40 3.5 Case S t u d y : 52 CHAPTER I V : R e s u l t s o f t h e S t u d y 4.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 61 4.1 S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m #1 62 4.1.1 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s T e s t e d 62 4.1.2 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t M easures 62 4.1.3 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s 63 4.1.4 Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s e s 72 4.1.5 A n a l y s e s o f P a r e n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 75 4.2 S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m #2 79 4.2.1 S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s A f t e r t h e Program .... 80 4.2.2 R e s u l t s o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' I n t e r v i e w 87 4.2.3 R e s u l t s o f T e a c h e r s ' I n t e r v i e w 91 4.2.4 W r i t e r ' s P o i n t o f V i e w 98 4.2.5 T r i a n g u l a t i o n o f Views 125 4.2.6 D i s c u s s i o n o f Case S t u d y R e s u l t s 129 4.3 Summary o f R e s u l t s 144 v i P a 9 e CHAPTER V: C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 5.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 147 5.1 R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m s and C o r r e s p o n d i n g C o n c l u s i o n s . 147 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e F i n d i n g s 150 5.3 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 153 5.4 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f F i n d i n g s t o P r a c t i c e 154 BIBLIOGRAPHY 156 APPENDIX A: The A c t u a l T r e a t m e n t Used i n t h e S t u d y 171 APPENDIX B: A t t i t u d e Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n 177 APPENDIX C: T r i a l S h e e t 187 APPENDIX D: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e T e a c h e r f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 188 APPENDIX E: P a r e n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 189 APPENDIX F: S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( B e f o r e t h e Camp Program) 192 APPENDIX G: C o u n s e l l o r s ' I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( B e f o r e t h e Camp Program) 193 APPENDIX H: O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t ( F o r A c t i v i t i e s / S e s s i o n s ) 194 APPENDIX I : Q u e s t i o n s f o r S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w i n g ( A f t e r an A c t i v i t y ) 196 APPENDIX J : Q u e s t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s ( A f t e r a n A c t i v i t y ) 197 APPENDIX K: Q u e s t i o n s f o r A d u l t s ( A f t e r t h e Camp Program) 198 APPENDIX L: Q u e s t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w ( A f t e r A c t i v i t y ) 199 APPENDIX M: T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( A f t e r t h e Program) 200 APPENDIX N: S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( A f t e r t h e Program) 201 APPENDIX 0: Reasons G i v e n by S t u d e n t s Who Were Not S u r e o f a P o s i t i v e E f f e c t on T h e i r A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n o f E n e r g y 202 APPENDIX P: Responses G i v e n by S t u d e n t s About What They B e l i e v e d t o Have Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g P l a n t s 203 APPENDIX Q: S t u d e n t s ' Responses I n d i c a t i n g A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s B e l i e v e d t o Have Made them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g W i l d l i f e 205 v i i P a 9 e APPENDIX R: S t u d e n t s ' Responses I n d i c a t i n g A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which They B e l i e v e d t o Have Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g E n e r g y 208 APPENDIX S: The P a r t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s S a i d They L i k e d 210 APPENDIX T: Comments Made by P a r e n t s 211 APPENDIX U: R e s u l t s o f A d d i t i o n a l D a t a 219 v i i i L IST OF TABLES page TABLE 2.1 V a r i a b l e s i n t h e A t t i t u d e - B e h a v i o r U n i v e r s e .. 27 TABLE 2.2 L e v e l s o f A t t i t u d e - B e h a v i o r S c a l e P r o p o s e d by C a s t r o and J o r d a n (1977) 28 TABLE 3.1 T a b l e o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e Items Used i n O b t a i n i n g S c o r e s on t h e N i n e Dependent V a r i a b l e s 41 TABLE 3.2 T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ... 46 TABLE 3.3 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e S u b t e s t s f o r t h e C l a s s e s used i n t h e P i l o t S t u d y 48 TABLE 4.1 P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Groups 6 4 TABLE 4.2 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e P o s t t e s t S c o r e s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Groups 6 8 TABLE 4.3 S c a l e d W eights o f t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n t h e D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n 69 TABLE 4.4 F r e q u e n c y o f Group Responses I n d i c a t i n g " U n d e c i d e d o r Don't Know" i n P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t 74 TABLE 4.5 S t u d e n t s ' Responses t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do you T h i n k T h a t t h e Outdoor Program Made you F e e l L i k e S a v i n g .. 80 TABLE 4.6 A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s B e l i e v e d Made Them F e e l l i k e S a v i n g P l a n t s 82 TABLE 4.7 A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s B e l i e v e d Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g W i l d l i f e 83 TABLE 4.8 A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s B e l i e v e d Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g Energy 85 TABLE 4.9 A s p e c t s o f t h e Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program Which S t u d e n t s , C o u n s e l l o r s , T e a c h e r s and t h e W r i t e r B e l i e v e d t o Have C o n t r i b u t e d t o E n h a n c i n g S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s 126 LIST OF FIGURES i x page FIGURE 2.1 A c q u i s i t i o n o f Concept 22 FIGURE 2.2 C l a s s i c a l C o n d i t i o n i n g P r o c e s s L e a d i n g t o A t t i t u d e F o r m a t i o n 23 FIGURE 2.3 Development o f A s s o c i a t i o n Between Motor B o a t s and O i l S p i l l s and Fumes L e a d i n g t o N e g a t i v e E f f e c t s i n Lakes 25 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r would l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e thanks t o h i s r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. C.J. A n a s t a s i o u , and t o a l l members of h i s s u p e r v i s o r y committee, D r s . W.B. B o l d t ; S.F. F o s t e r ; P.J. G a s k e l l ; and M.F. Hoebel, f o r t h e i r guidance throughout the d u r a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . The w r i t e r would a l s o l i k e t o thank a l l the c o l l e a g u e s who c o n t r i b u t e d i n v a r i o u s ways a l l o w i n g the s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . In p a r t i c u l a r , he would l i k e t o thank the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s : B. Buchanan; S. Haggerty; S. Me n z i e s ; E. O'Regan; E. T a c k i e ; and S. T a y l o r . F i n a l l y , the w r i t e r would l i k e t o thank a l l those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s , making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the study t o be un d e r t a k e n . A s p e c i a l thank you s h o u l d go t o the members of the Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n Department, and t h e Graduate O f f i c e of the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n (U.B.C.), w i t h o u t whose c o o p e r a t i o n i t c o u l d not have been completed. 1 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM 1.1 G e n e r a l Problem The g e n e r a l problem which was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study was the change i n a t t i t u d e toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment presumed t o ta k e p l a c e among s u b j e c t s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. Outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs v a r y i n many r e s p e c t s ( e . g . , o b j e c t i v e , c o n t e n t , scope and p r a c t i c e ) , but a c c o r d i n g t o the l i t e r a t u r e , a t t i t u d e development i s one of the most p e r v a s i v e g o a l s of such programs ( L i n k e , 1980; Stapp, 1970; C a l d w e l l , 1970; and H a r t , 1978). A l t h o u g h t h e r e have been many s t u d i e s on a t t i t u d e measurement i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs, no s y s t e m a t i c s t u d i e s have been found on how t h e s e programs enhance the development of a t t i t u d e s . The need f o r such a study has been documented as b e i n g h e l p f u l f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s and f o r i m p r o v i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l (Lucas, 1980; Roth, 1976; and Doran, 1977). A l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o Lucas, v e r y few s t u d i e s have been done i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n which show how the a t t i t u d i n a l changes which a r e r e c o r d e d i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e a c t u a l l y l e a d t o b e h a v i o r a l change. T h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , i n v e s t i g a t e s the n a t u r e of the a t t i t u d e changes which occur i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program, and how these a t t i t u d e changes seem t o i n f l u e n c e o v e r t b e h a v i o r . I t a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e s a s p e c t s i n the program which c o n t r i b u t e t o , or 2 appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the change i n s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 1.2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms For a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s s t u d y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e f i n e s e v e r a l terms used i n the s t u d y . These terms a r e : 1.2.1 A t t i t u d e : F i s h b e i n ' s d e f i n i t i o n of a t t i t u d e was adopted i n t h i s s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975), a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o respond t o an o b j e c t , c l a s s of o b j e c t s , . a c t s , or e v e n t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e way. C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the above, the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t was c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The term " a t t i t u d e towards the c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s " was i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning the " f e e l i n g f o r or a g a i n s t c o n s e r v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . " 1.2.2 C o n s e r v a t i o n : The term " c o n s e r v a t i o n " i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s study t o mean the use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s so as t o y i e l d i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , maximum b e n e f i t s on a s u s t a i n e d and permanent b a s i s . 1.2.3 N a t u r a l R e sources: The term " n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e " was i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean any n a t u r a l f e a t u r e of the environment which has v a l u e or u s e f u l n e s s t o humans. 1.2.4 R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Programs: The term " r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs" r e f e r s t o those e d u c a t i o n a l programs which a re conducted i n camps s i t u a t e d i n urban or r u r a l a r e a s where s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s l i v e t o g e t h e r f o r a p e r i o d of time of a t l e a s t two days. 3 1.3 Background of the Study 1.3.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l Context of the Study The e x i s t i n g q u a l i t y of our b i o p h y s i c a l environment, a c c o r d i n g t o P e r k e s ( 1 9 7 3 ) , i s e v i d e n c e t h a t our problems have f a r exceeded our s o l u t i o n s . For example, a u t o m o b i l e fumes c l i n g t o the envelope of a i r which g i v e s us l i f e ; l a k e s , streams and o t h e r water r e s o u r c e s a r e p o l l u t e d ; s o i l washes away from f e r t i l e , t i l l a b l e l a n d ; f o r e s t s and farms are b e i n g c l e a r e d a t an a l a r m i n g r a t e , t o be c o v e r e d w i t h c o n c r e t e and a s p h a l t ; and space f o r r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e i s s h r i n k i n g ( P e r k e s , 1973; Askham, 1975; Laug, 1960; B l a c k , 1954, G u s t a f s o n , 1949; B o t k i n , E l m a n d j r a and M a l i t z a , 1979; R i l l o , 1967). A l l t h e s e problems a r e the consequences of human b e h a v i o r and can be e f f e c t i v e l y improved by a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a n g i n g or m o d i f y i n g human b e h a v i o r . Many r e p o r t s have shown t h a t i n the p a s t p e o p l e have taken the environment and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r g r a n t e d , and have not shown due concern about the f u t u r e (Askham, 1975; P e r k e s , 1973; R i l l o , 1967; and Laug, 1960). For example, w i l d a n i m a l s were k i l l e d because they were c o n s i d e r e d t o be enemies t o humans; f o r e s t s were burned down or c l e a r e d f o r v a r i o u s purposes w i t h o u t much c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the consequences of such a c t i o n s ; cheap energy was i n abundance and people used i t i n any way they d e s i r e d , t o the p o i n t where the amount of energy consumed became an index of development, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n was a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e and t o i n c r e a s e . A l t h o u g h these a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were q u i t e u n i v e r s a l d u r i n g the e a r l y days ( p a r t i c u l a r l y soon a f t e r the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n ) , they c o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o remain so f o r very 4 l o n g . Many l e a d e r s s t a r t e d g e t t i n g concerned about the d e p l e t i o n of f e r t i l e s o i l on farm l a n d s ( B l a c k , 1954; G u s t a f s o n , 1949). G u s t a f s o n r e p o r t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t i n c o n s e r v a t i o n grew a g a i n s t g r e a t p u b l i c apathy. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o the problem of c o n s e r v a t i o n had begun as e a r l y as 1873 by the f e d e r a l government. T h i s l e d t o the f o r m a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i o n Commission i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; and i n 1909 a Conference on C o n s e r v a t i o n i n the American c o n t i n e n t ( U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada, and Mexico) was h e l d . Such events c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r o u s i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n c o n s e r v a t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l problems have e s c a l a t e d s i n c e the e a r l y 1900's. S e v e r a l developments l e d t o t h i s reawakening. For example, i n the 1930's, drought and d e p r e s s i o n combined t o f o r c e the problem on the p u b l i c mind (Funderburk, 1948). Informed pe o p l e became concerned about e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems v e r y e a r l y , and worked t o i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n . Thus, a p p e a l s f o r .teaching c o n s e r v a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s s t a r t e d l o n g ago. The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t as f a r back as 1911, F r e d e r i c Burk, the then p r e s i d e n t of the S t a t e Normal S c h o o l i n San F r a n c i s c o , made a d i r e c t a p p e a l t o t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h the h e r i t a g e of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r w i s e use, a t an ad d r e s s b e f o r e the S c i e n c e Department of the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n (Funderburk, 1948). Such p l e a s can s t i l l be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e on outdoor e d u c a t i o n , as f o r example, i n the works of Jaus (1978), R o c c h i o (1971), Huether (1973), B a l t e s (1973), and A l l e n (1975). The l i t e r a t u r e on outdoor e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t s t h a t i n the 1920's laws were passed i n some s t a t e s a s k i n g s c h o o l s t o t e a c h c o n s e r v a t i o n ( P u b l i c A c t s of the S t a t e of Tennessee, 1921; 5 G e n e r a l Laws of M i s s i s s i p p i , 1926). 1.3.2 E d u c a t i o n a l Context of the Study. The g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l system has been i d e n t i f i e d t o be one way of m o d i f y i n g the b e h a v i o r of the p u b l i c (Commission on E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1972; A l b e r t a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1974; N i x o n , 1970; J a u s , 1978; R o c c h i o , 1971; B a l t e s , 1973; A l l e n , 1975). In s c h o o l s a l a r g e segment of the p o p u l a t i o n ( m a i n l y the youth) a re g a t h e r e d f o r the purpose of a t t a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n , and t h i s seems t o be a s u i t a b l e p l a c e t o be g i n i n t r o d u c i n g p e o p l e t o the d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the environment and d w i n d l i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . At a meeting of the Congress f o r R e c r e a t i o n and Park s h e l d i n Washington, D. C , i n 1966, Laurence S. R o c k e f e l l e r s t a t e d : I f - we ac c e p t a n a t i o n a l commitment t o a decent environment and man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as i t s s t e w a r d , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o educate our young people t o t h i s g o a l . Q u a l i t y of the environment, l i k e freedom, must be p r o t e c t e d and a c h i e v e d anew by each g e n e r a t i o n ( R i l l o , 1967). R u s s e l l (1970) t h i n k s s i m i l a r l y . He s t a t e s : We must h e l p our young p e o p l e t o d e v e l o p a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward our n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and our t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t — a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t r y t o pass on t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s through c a r e f u l s t e w a r d s h i p a b e t t e r w o r l d than we now have ( R u s s e l l , 1970). Both R i l l o and R u s s e l l f e e l t h a t by e d u c a t i n g young peop l e we can make good headway. In r e c e n t y e a r s many e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have embarked on programs d i r e c t e d t o meet the s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l needs ( P e r k e s , 1973). For example, Maben (1971) found t h a t 80% of elementary s c h o o l s i n the Great Lakes a r e a of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and 89% of those from the Far West o f f e r e d c o n s e r v a t i o n or e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n . At the secondary s c h o o l 6 l e v e l t h e r e were 55% and 68% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Almost e v e r y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia has some outdoor e d u c a t i o n (McClaren and Ramsey, 1972). S c h o o l boards have a l s o encouraged the development of such programs. For example, i n 1965 the O n t a r i o S c h o o l s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t was amended t o p e r m i t s c h o o l boards w i t h an enrolment of over 10,000 s t u d e n t s t o buy t h e i r own p r o p e r t y o u t s i d e t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r "the purpose of e r e c t i n g a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s c h o o l " and t o a l l o w them t o " b u i l d and o p e r a t e such a s c h o o l t h e r e o n . " I t a l s o mentions t h a t boards may "conduct a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and c o n s e r v a t i o n program i n co-o p e r a t i o n w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i o n a u t h o r i t y . " E d u c a t o r s are o p t i m i s t i c about the a b i l i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l system t o meet t h e s e needs (Alaimo and Doran, 1978; N u t t a l l , 1969). P h i l o s o p h e r s concur t h a t worthy e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s must e v e n t u a l l y d e a l w i t h b e h a v i o r a l change. The w i d e l y a c c e p t e d view i s t h a t many of our e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems are a c t u a l l y problems of human b e h a v i o r (Swan, 1969). Thus, as Ames (1971) r e p o r t s , " . . . i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s the s u c c e s s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be measured i n terms of i t s a b i l i t y t o change the b e h a v i o r of s o c i e t y " . In our p r e s e n t s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , b e h a v i o r a l change can be f a c i l i t a t e d t h r ough v a r i o u s methods. Perhaps the most extreme of t h e s e methods would be t o remove the f r e e agency of the p u b l i c t o choose a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s ( P e r k e s , 1973). As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , the p u b l i c w i l l not have the c h o i c e of p u r c h a s i n g a " n o n - p o l l u t i n g " or a " p o l l u t i n g " a u t o m o b i l e . L i k e w i s e , i f a monopoly c o n t r o l s the p r o d u c t i o n of an e s s e n t i a l i t e m , the consumer has no c h o i c e i n h i s / h e r p u r c h a s e . 7 Such changes i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of goods and s e r v i c e s , t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l l y remove the o p p o r t u n i t y of d e c i s i o n -making .. However , the e x i s t e n c e of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s i s the b a s i s of a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s , an i d e a l which i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . Hence, i n the s c h o o l s , removal of a c t i o n c h o i c e s would not be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y esteemed. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the removal of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n c h o i c e s i s the attachment of n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t (not punishment) t o those a c t i o n s which do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p u b l i c good ( P e r k e s , 1973). (As used h e r e , n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n v o l v e s d e c r e a s i n g an a v e r s i v e e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s , which l e a d s t o an i n c r e a s e i n response s t r e n g t h . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t from punishment, which i n v o l v e s an u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e consequent on a c e r t a i n c o u r s e of b e h a v i o r and mediated by an e x t e r n a l agent or by the s e l f a c t i n g as agent i n the hope of p r o v i d i n g r e t r i b u t i o n or of d i s c o u r a g i n g the r e p e t i t i o n of the b e h a v i o r . For example, d u r i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program a n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t would be one where a c a b i n group i s g i v e n low c a b i n marks f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r l i g h t s on when not i n use, w h i l e punishment would i n v o l v e d e n y i n g a c a b i n group the o p p o r t u n i t y of t a k i n g p a r t i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which a l l s t u d e n t s e n j o y , because the group l e f t the c a b i n l i g h t s on when not i n use.) Such a method, i f not w i d e l y s u c c e s s f u l , may r e s u l t i n governmental r e g u l a t i o n s and laws based on the u n d e s i r a b i 1 i t y of a s s o c i a t e d p e n a l t i e s . Such laws a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y and i t s environment from o f f e n d e r s and would not be needed i f u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r were not p r e s e n t . In t h i s case the 8 i n d i v i d u a l does have a c h o i c e of b r e a k i n g or of s u s t a i n i n g the la w s , but out of f e a r of punishment h i s / h e r b e h a v i o r i s c o n t r o l l e d . When t h i s f e a r no l o n g e r e x i s t s , laws a re v i o l a t e d . S i n c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e h a v i o r s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o s u p e r v i s e and t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o moral i m p l i c a t i o n s ^ t h i s method of a l t e r i n g b e h a v i o r s through n e g a t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t (not punishment, r e f . West and F o s t e r , 1976) i s not u s u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e as a p r e f e r r e d approach. A more p o s i t i v e means f o r changing b e h a v i o r , once used and a c c e p t e d q u i t e w i d e l y i n e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Perkes (1973), i s t h r o u g h e x t e r n a l p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . However, t h i s a pproach might be d e s i g n a t e d as " c o e r c i o n " ( P e r k e s , 1973) or i n d o c t r i n a t i o n ( R i l l o , 1967) and m a n i p u l a t i o n of b e h a v i o r , and the e x p e c t a t i o n of e x t e r n a l rewards seems t o most, t o be a p e d a g o g i c a l l y i n f e r i o r mode of e d u c a t i o n . A g a i n , r a t i o n a l judgement and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e not emphasized i n t h i s b e h a v i o r i s t i c l e a r n i n g model ( P e r k e s , 1973). The most p e d a g o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r o u t e by which b e h a v i o r may be changed i s t h a t where the b e h a v i o r i s preceded by a change i n a t t i t u d e ( R i l l o , 1967; Stapp e t a l . , 1969; P e r k e s , 1973). T h i s mode assumes t h a t b e h a v i o r i s a l o g i c a l consequence of an a t t i t u d e or i n t e r a c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s . Thus, i n s c h o o l s , t h e s e outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs a re geared towards c h a n g i n g b e h a v i o r v i a a t t i t u d e s . S c h o o l s f a c i l i t a t e the development of a p p r o p r i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s through a c o m b i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t ways. Teachers p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the environment, and tak e s t u d e n t s out on f i e l d t r i p s where they can 9 see and e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the environment. S c h o o l s have a l s o found t h a t f i e l d t r i p s which l a s t f o r more than a day a r e more e f f e c t i v e than s h o r t f i e l d t r i p s , because they p r o v i d e more time f o r s t u d e n t s t o undertake more s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s work i n s m a l l groups and t h e r e b y get the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . T h i s b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of o v e r n i g h t t r i p s has become u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d so t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs ( a t l e a s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia) have been more p o p u l a r than n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l ones (Bateson and W o r t h i n g , 1976). Outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs have t r a d i t i o n a l l y emphasized e n v i r o n m e n t a l t o p i c s . They began at the t u r n of the c e n t u r y as an outgrowth of the n a t u r e study movement ( R i l l o , 1967; A r c h i b a l d , 1971; and H i l l and White, 1971). In the m i d - f i f t i e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns such as c o n s e r v a t i o n and p o l l u t i o n had become i m p o r t a n t s o c i e t a l problems, and s c h o o l s took c h i l d r e n out t o l e a r n about and u n d e r s t a n d the environment. R e c e n t l y e c o l o g y and c o n s e r v a t i o n g o a l s have emerged t o be the main o b j e c t i v e s f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs ( H e r b e r t , 1966). In B r i t i s h Columbia t o d a y , i t appears t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l o utdoor e d u c a t i o n programs a r e p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s (Woodward, 1973). The p a r t i c u l a r outdoor program which was used i n t h i s s t u d y had as i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e the c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e . These c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s were s e l e c t e d because they were of prime concern t o the outdoor s c h o o l program, and a l s o because they seem t o be most c e n t r a l t o outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs i n 10 g e n e r a l . T h i s study attempted t o f i n d out i f an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program enhanced the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s (energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e ) , and i f so, t o f i n d out how the change i n a t t i t u d e was r e l a t e d t o b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , the study a l s o examined the a s p e c t s of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d or appeared t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 1.3.3 T h e o r e t i c a l Context of the Study There a r e a number of t h e o r i e s about how a t t i t u d e s d e v e l o p and change. A c c o r d i n g t o Zimbardo (1977), f o r example, t h e r e i s the Y a l e a t t i t u d e change approach; group dynamics; c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e t h e o r y ; a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y ; s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ; the f a c e t t h e o r y ( C a s t r o and J o r d a n , 1977); and a b e h a v i o r i s t t h e o r y ( F i s h b e i n , 1967, F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975; and Rhine, 1958). F i s h b e i n * s t h e o r y on how a t t i t u d e s a re d e v e l o p e d and changed i s c u r r e n t and w i d e l y used, and formed the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y . F i s h b e i n ' s model f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of a t t i t u d e , i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of an e a r l i e r model d e v e l o p e d by Rhine (1958). T h i s model i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the works of Doob (1947), L o t t (1955), Osgood et a l . , (1957) and o t h e r s . C a s t r o and Jo r d a n ' s t h e o r y was used t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r . C a s t r o and Jordan (1977) propose t h a t t h e r e a re s i x l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e (weak t o s t r o n g ) , and t h a t a t t i t u d e changes a t the h i g h e r ( s t r o n g e r ) l e v e l s a re more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o o v e r t b e h a v i o r than changes at the lower (weaker) l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e . Three l e v e l s of C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s t h e o r y were employed because they were found t o be 11 s u i t a b l e . They were s o c i e t a l norms, p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g and p e r s o n a l a c t i o n . 1.4 S p e c i f i c Problems of the Study From the above d i s c u s s i o n i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a need to change the b e h a v i o r of the p u b l i c towards the environment. However, "environment" i s . a complex c o n c e p t , one a s p e c t of which, the need t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , has a t t r a c t e d a l o t of p u b l i c c o n c e r n . T h i s study concerned i t s e l f o n l y w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s as an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . The s c h o o l system has been i d e n t i f i e d by many people t o be one of the most p r o m i s i n g p l a c e s f o r i n d u c i n g b e h a v i o r a l changes which w i l l meet the s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l needs ( M e s a r o v i c and P e s t e l , 1976; Dasmann, 1975; Smith e t a l . , 1972). A l t h o u g h t h e r e are many ways of d o i n g t h i s , c h a n g i n g the a t t i t u d e s of people towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s seems t o be one of the most p r o m i s i n g ways of i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o r a l change. In the s c h o o l s ' which were used i n t h i s s t u d y , such programs were r e f e r r e d t o as "outdoor e d u c a t i o n . " E x p e r i e n c e and the l i t e r a t u r e show evi d e n c e t o support the i d e a t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l o utdoor e d u c a t i o n programs a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d t o changing t h e s e a t t i t u d e s than the n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l ones. A l t h o u g h i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r e i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r , i t i s a l s o known t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e ( J o r d a n , 1968, 1971a, 1971b; C a s t r o and J o r d a n , 1977), and the e f f e c t s of each l e v e l may v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . No r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e has been found which shows 1 2 the n a t u r e and/or l e v e l of a t t i t u d i n a l change which outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs produce. The problem under study was f o c u s e d by the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s : 1. What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program have on t h e a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? 2. What a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e or appear t o c o n t r i b u t e towards p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? 1.5 Overview of Methodology To address the above problems, t h i s study proceeded i n two p a r t s . P a r t 1 was an a t t i t u d e assessment study and P a r t 2 was a case s t u d y . The a t t i t u d e s tudy d e t e r m i n e d i f the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the c o n s e r v a t i o n -r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s w h i l e , the case study i n v e s t i g a t e d the f a c t o r s i n the program which were or which appeared to be r e l a t e d t o the development of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 1.6 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h i s study was l i m i t e d by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , the s u b j e c t s were not randomly s e l e c t e d from the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . The sample was made up of s t u d e n t s from s c h o o l s which had agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n both the program and i n t h e . s t u d y . S e c o n d l y , P a r t 2 of the study r e q u i r e d the presence of the w r i t e r d u r i n g a l l phases of the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program, as 1 3 w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s . The mere presence of the w r i t e r , and the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the camp program, may have a f f e c t e d the s t u d e n t s . 14 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the g e n e r a l problem a r e a o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I . I t b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o the development of a t t i t u d e s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs and the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions and problems of t h e s e s t u d i e s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s f o l l o w e d by an e l a b o r a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e a c q u i s i t i o n , and C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s F a c e t Theory on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to how t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o the problems b e i n g s t u d i e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on components of outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs which appear t o be i m p o r t a n t f o r the enhancement of a t t i t u d e s . 2.1 A t t i t u d e Development R e s u l t i n g from Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  Programs Outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs a d d r e s s themselves t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s , and many s t u d i e s have been conducted on t h e s e programs. Most of t h e e a r l y programs o p e r a t e d under t h e assumption t h a t the unwise use of the environment and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was because the p u b l i c d i d not know about the consequences of these human b e h a v i o r s . S o u t h e r n (1971), f o r example, e x p l i c i t l y proposed t h a t " i f a c h i l d a c q u i r e s 15 p a r t i c u l a r broad e n v i r o n m e n t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g [knowledge], he w i l l d e v e l o p a s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e [ a t t i t u d e ] t h a t w i l l a f f e c t h i s b e h a v i o r [ a c t i o n s ] toward the environment." Many of the e a r l y s t u d i e s ( e . g . , C h r i s t i a n s e n and o t h e r s , 1969), t h e r e f o r e , used knowledge g a i n s as the c r i t e r i o n f o r measuring the s u c c e s s of programs, and most programs were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . A l t h o u g h some s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e n v i r o n m e n t a l knowledge and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s ( e . g . , Drawbaugh and Locandro, 1978; H a r t , 1978; and Ramsey and R i c k s o n , 1976), o t h e r r e c e n t s t u d i e s have shown t h a t knowledge per se i s a n e c e s s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r the development of a t t i t u d e s ( L u c a s , 1980; Bowman, 1977; L a H a r t , 1978; D i t t o n and Johnsen, 1974; Cohen, 1973). S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e has been a s h i f t i n e v a l u a t i o n methods from measurement of knowledge t o measurement of a t t i t u d e s . There have been many s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g assessment of a t t i t u d e changes r e s u l t i n g from outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. Most of t hese s t u d i e s have shown p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , (e.g. H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t , 1976; R o c c h i o , 1971; K a l l i n g a l , 1974; W i l s o n , 1975; Richmond and Morgan, 1977; H u c k e s t e i n , 1976; Coons, 1973; S t r o n c k , 1972; H a r t and M c C l a r e n , 1978; Hepburn, e t a l . , 1978; Simons, et a l . , 1977; and H o r s l e y , 1977). . In the study by K a l l i n g a l (1974), a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u m e n t was used on one group of grade s i x s t u d e n t s t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. More than 60% of the s t u d e n t s were found t o be i n the i d e a l quadrant of the semantic space, from which i t was i n f e r r e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d e n t s had 16 d e v e l o p e d d e s i r e d l e v e l s of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards the environment. Coons (1973) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of a two-week r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor camp program on the a t t i t u d e s of d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n (ages 10-13) toward the environment and towards t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l development. In t h a t s t u d y , the s t u d e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were found t o have developed a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the environment than the c o n t r o l group. A l o n g i t u d i n a l s tudy by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t (1973, 1976) a s s e s s e d s t u d e n t s ' (grade s i x ) a t t i t u d e s toward the environment and e v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . The study found t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s became more p o s i t i v e and remained so a f t e r more than a y e a r . These s t u d i e s have not been l i m i t e d t o o n l y grade s i x s t u d e n t s . H u c k e s t e i n (1976), undertook a study i n v o l v i n g the use of a p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t w i t h grade f i v e s t u d e n t s . In t h a t study he found t h a t those who were i n v o l v e d i n a one week r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor- e d u c a t i o n program had d e v e l o p e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the environment and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s than those who were i n the c o n t r o l group. Another study i n v o l v i n g grade f i v e s t u d e n t s was undertaken by Richmond and Morgan (1977). T h e i r study showed t h a t s t u d e n t s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s outdoor programs had more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards the environment than s t u d e n t s who had not p a r t i c i p a t e d . Other s t u d i e s have a l s o shown p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s beyond grades f i v e and s i x . R o c c h i o (1971) used a wider range of s t u d e n t s (13-18 y r s . ) t o e v a l u a t e a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program, and found t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s 1 7 towards the environment and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s were enhanced. The s t u d y by W i l s o n (1975), which i n v o l v e d grade n i n e s t u d e n t s , produced the same k i n d of r e s u l t s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were a g a i n o b t a i n e d by Hart and McClaren (1978), and a l s o by Hepburn, et a l . , (1978). The l a s t two s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d the use of h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . A l o n g i t u d i n a l study by Simons et a l . , (1977), and by H a r s l e y (1977), s i m i l a r t o the one by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t (1973, 1976), a l s o showed a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t on the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards the environment. Simons and h i s a s s o c i a t e s used secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , w h i l e H a r s l e y used c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . In a study by S t r o n c k (1972), the a t t i t u d e s of a wide range of t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s were measured, and a g a i n p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were r e c o r d e d . Other s t u d i e s have, however, shown t h a t not a l l - p r o g r a m s have been a b l e t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s ( e . g . , C a r t e r , 1973; Quinn, 1976; K o s t k a , 1976; Day, 1971; Baker, 1975; C r a t e r , 1977; Koch, 1975; and Howell and Warmbrod, 1974). The study by K o s t k a (1976) examined the e f f e c t of an on-going n a t u r e c e n t e r program on the a t t i t u d e s of i n n e r c i t y grade s i x s t u d e n t s , and found t h a t the program made l i t t l e impact on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . Day (1971), who i n v e s t i g a t e d the o p i n i o n s of h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s f o l l o w i n g a s c h o o l program i n which a l l the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a were o r i e n t e d towards oceanology, d i d not f i n d any change i n the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . C a r t e r (1973), i n a s u r v e y , examined the e f f e c t of e x p o s i n g s t u d e n t s t o the energy c r i s i s and d e t e r i o r a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . The r e s u l t s of the survey showed t h a t t h i s exposure d i d not i n f l u e n c e the 18 a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . Baker (1975) s t u d i e d one group of s t u d e n t s (16 y r s . and o v e r ) t o f i n d out the e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an outdoor l e a d e r s h i p s c h o o l , and used a o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e . He d i d not f i n d any change i n the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s , and a t t r i b u t e d t h e l a c k of a change t o the s t u d e n t s ' p r e v i o u s outdoor e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s e x p e d i t i o n s . Quinn (1976) examined the e f f e c t of u s i n g s h o r t l e s s o n s about c u r r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems accompanied by a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s on h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , and found t h a t i t d i d not a f f e c t the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward the environment. The responses of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l group were s i m i l a r , f o l l o w i n g the program. Koch (1975), who examined the views of t e a c h e r s b e f o r e and a f t e r an i n - s e r v i c e outdoor e d u c a t i o n program found t h a t i t d i d not a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems. A s t u d y by H o w e l l and Warmbrod (1974) examined the e f f e c t of a s t u d e n t s ' manual and the t e a c h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n on the a t t i t u d e s of h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s towards the p r o t e c t i o n of the environment. The study r e v e a l e d t h a t the use of the s t u d e n t s ' manual d i d not produce any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . However, i t found t h a t the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of the program was more l i n k e d w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s ' e d u c a t i o n . There a r e s e v e r a l problems w i t h these a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . F i r s t l y , even though most of the s t u d i e s which have been c a r r i e d out on outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs show p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , these a r e not accompanied w i t h d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of what a c t u a l l y goes on d u r i n g the programs, and so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c u l a t e about reasons f o r the s u c c e s s e s or f a i l u r e s of these programs or 19 t o r e l a t e any p o s s i b l e c a u s a l e v e n t s w i t h the outcomes (Lucas, 1980; Cohen, 1973; Howel and Warmbrod, 1974). S e c o n d l y , i n c o n s i s t e n c e s i n the r e s u l t s may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e were used. The v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s used and i n s t r u m e n t s c o n s t r u c t e d were not r e l a t e d t o any c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d t h e o r y of a t t i t u d e development. T h i r d l y , most of the s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h a t t i t u d e s toward the environment i n g e n e r a l , w i t h o u t f o c u s i n g on any s p e c i f i c a s p e c t of the environment. Environment i s such a broad t o p i c t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s one's a t t i t u d e s towards i t i n a manageable a t t i t u d e s t u d y . For the above reasons i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the r e s u l t s of the d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s t o be compared. H i s t o r i c a l l y , r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs p u r p o r t t o t e a c h towards the development of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s about the environment. They c l a i m s u c c e s s , and hope t h a t t h e s e a t t i t u d e changes w i l l be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o b e h a v i o r a l changes (Stapp et a l . , 1969; P e r k e s , 1973). T h i s mode of t h i n k i n g assumes t h a t b e h a v i o r i s a l o g i c a l consequence of an a t t i t u d e or i n t e r a c t i o n of a t t i t u d e s . But i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n the a t t i t u d e -b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d . S t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l show i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s ( P e t t u s , 1976; B a r n e t t , 1971; Manning, 1979; Kromm, P r o b a l d and W a l l , 1973). The i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n these s t u d i e s can a l s o be r e l a t e d t o the v a r i o u s and a t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e used i n them. In p a r t i c u l a r , these s t u d i e s d i d not use any w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r . 20 The review of the a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n shows t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s of problems. F i r s t , no w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y of a t t i t u d e has been used; second, the outdoor e d u c a t i o n s t u d i e s have not been r e l a t e d t o b e h a v i o r , and g e n e r a l s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r have not been based on a w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y ; and t h i r d , the s t u d i e s have not r e l a t e d the changes i n a t t i t u d e s t o components i n the programs. T h i s study responded t o these problems. F i r s t , a w e l l d e f i n e d a t t i t u d e t h e o r y by F i s h b e i n was used i n c o n s r u c t i n g the i n s t r u m e n t t o measure changes i n a t t i t u d e . Second, i d e a s from a t h e o r y on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r by C a s t r o and Jordan were used as a guide i n the development of the i n s t r u m e n t t o a l l o w f o r r e l a t i n g any changes i n a t t i t u d e t o b e h a v i o r . T h i r d , a case study approach was used t o f i n d out a s p e c t s of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d or appeared t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 2.2 F i s h b e i n ' s Theory of A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ( F i s h b e i n , 1967; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975), a t t i t u d e s a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o respond t o an o b j e c t , c l a s s of o b j e c t s , a c t s , or e v e n t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e way. That i s , a t t i t u d e s a r e l e a r n e d ; they a r e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and viewed as l a t e n t or u n d e r l y i n g v a r i a b l e s which a r e assumed to guide or i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r ; and the response i s c o n s i s t e n t ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975). In t h i s s t u d y , i t was the a t t i t u d e s of s u b j e c t s towards a s p e c t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s which were i n v e s t i g a t e d . 21 F u r t h e r , F i s h b e i n (1967), h o l d s t h a t "an a t t i t u d e may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a 'mediating e v a l u a t i v e response,' t h a t i s , as a l e a r n e d i m p l i c i t response t h a t v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y and tends t o 'mediate' or guide an i n d i v i d u a l ' s more o v e r t [ e v a l u a t i v e ] response t o an o b j e c t , [ a c t , e v e n t ] or c o n c e p t . " T h i s i d e a i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the work of Osgood and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (Osgood et a l . , 1957). The view of Osgood's a s s o c i a t e s (1957) i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e seen as re s p o n s e s toward an o b j e c t a l o n g an u n d e r l y i n g e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n of semantic space f o r the meaning of a c o n c e p t . They h o l d t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward an o b j e c t Ao can be thought of as components of Ao on the e v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n of t h e semantic space of Ao. F i s h b e i n , t o o , h o l d s t h a t a t t i t u d e i s a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l concept r e f e r r i n g t o the ' e v a l u a t i o n ' of a concept, as opposed t o a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l view of a t t i t u d e i n which t h e r e a r e u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e ( b e l i e f s ) , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l d i m e n s i o n s . He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t e v e r y p o i n t i n semantic space has an e v a l u a t i v e component ( F i s h b e i n , 1967). 2.2.1 Model of A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 6 7 ) , a c q u i s i t i o n of a t t i t u d e i s a p r o c e s s of c o n d i t i o n i n g and c h a i n i n g , a l t h o u g h he uses the term " m e d i a t i o n " i n s t e a d of " c o n d i t i o n i n g " . H i s i d e a i s t h a t i f a s t i m u l u s (S) or a group of s t i m u l i (S....S) are p r e s e n t e d t o a s u b j e c t , they produce an a n t i c i p a t o r y g o a l response ( r ) , which a l s o l e a d s t o a m e d i a t i o n a l meaning response s t i m u l u s ( s ) , and then a change (R) i n b e h a v i o r . ( o v e r t ) . T h i s model i s r e p r e s e n t e d 22 i n t h e F i g u r e 2.1 below: A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s model, t h e l i n k between S and r i s l e a r n e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . F i s h b e i n h o l d s t h a t d u r i n g l e a r n i n g an i n d i v i d u a l a l s o e v a l u a t e s t h e i n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, the p r o c e s s of p r e s e n t i n g a l e s s o n may be t h e same, but t h e way i t i s l e a r n e d may be d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , i . e., the re s p o n s e of p e o p l e can be d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e same s t i m u l u s . He a l s o c o n s i d e r s an a t t i t u d e t o be a summation of b e l i e f s and the e v a l u a t i o n of the b e l i e f s about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . One p a r t of t h i s s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on i d e n t i f y i n g t h e l e v e l ( s ) a t wh i c h a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program changes the a t t i t u d i n a l r e s p o n s e s of s u b j e c t s . The development and c h a n g i n g of a t t i t u d e s , a c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n , i s t h r o u g h c o n d i t i o n i n g , and i n ou t d o o r e d u c a t i o n t h e way t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n (knowledge) i s v i a a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e o r y of 23 a t t i t u d e ( u s i n g an example from c o n s e r v a t i o n ) , an u n c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s (UCS) e.g., f l o w e r , produces an u n c o n d i t i o n e d r e sponse (UCR) e.g., b e a u t i f u l , and i f a c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s , e.g., a p i c t u r e of a t r e e , i s r e p e a t e d l y p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the u n c o n d i t i o n a l s t i m u l u s ( f l o w e r ) t o the s u b j e c t s , some s t i m u l u s -r esponse c o n n e c t i o n s a r e made, whi c h e n a b l e the c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s ( t r e e ) t o produce the u n c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2.2 below. Conditioning U C R Figure 2.2: C l a s s i c a l conditioning process leading to a t t i t u d e formation. 24 2.2.2 Changing A t t i t u d e s 2.2.2.1 P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e s Outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs are o r g a n i z e d t o change a t t i t u d e s , and the approach used i s s i m i l a r t o the formats suggested by F i s h b e i n . For example, a c c o r d i n g t o the format used i n the New J e r s e y S t a t e S c h o o l of C o n s e r v a t i o n ( R u s s e l l , 1970), a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward, say, keeping our l a k e s f r e e from o i l and fumes from m o t o r b o a t s , would be a c q u i r e d ( o r developed) i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program as f o l l o w s . S u b j e c t s a re f i r s t exposed t o l a k e s , where they l e a r n about the use of l a k e s e.g. p r o v i d i n g food ( f i s h ) , r e c r e a t i o n , e x e r c i s e , e t c . , the id e a b e i n g t h a t humans d e r i v e many b e n e f i t s from l a k e s . S u b j e c t s a r e then exposed t o the c o m p o s i t i o n and e c o l o g y of l a k e s , t o d e v e l o p some a s s o c i a t i o n between the a s p e c t s of l a k e s and how thes e h e l p t o m a i n t a i n the l a k e i n p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r uses f o r humans. That i s , by a s s o c i a t i o n , the n a t u r e , components, and e c o l o g y of l a k e s a re e s t a b l i s h e d as good, and by i m p l i c a t i o n , s u b j e c t s a r e encouraged t o m a i n t a i n t h e s e good e c o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s e b a s i c p a t t e r n s , s u b j e c t s a re exposed t o s t i m u l i which enable them t o l e a r n how o i l s p i l l s and fumes a f f e c t l a k e s . For example, o i l s p i l l s a f f e c t r e s p i r a t o r y p r o c e s s e s i n the l a k e , make l a k e s u n s u i t a b l e f o r swimming, and a l s o a f f e c t the e c o l o g y of the l a k e . Thus, s u b j e c t s a re g r a d u a l l y made aware t h a t o i l s p i l l s a r e bad, because they p r e v e n t humans from o b t a i n i n g maximum use of the l a k e i n s o f a r as the b e n e f i t s ( e . g . , i n the amount of f i s h a v a i l a b l e ) a re concerned. 25 The next s t a g e i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y how o i l s p i l l s and fumes a f f e c t l a k e s (here motorboats w i l l be s t r e s s e d ) . By a s s o c i a t i o n , i t becomes e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m o t orboats i n l a k e s produce bad e f f e c t s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y i n F i g u r e 2.3 below. Motorboats As s o c i a t i o n . \ \ \ ^ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ X N \ \ \ \ \ \ \ Fumes & O i l ^ -S p i l l s \ \ \ \ \ \ Negative Relationship \ -••LAKES Figure 2.3: Development of a s s o c i a t i o n between motorboats and o i l s p i l l s  and fumes, leading to negative e f f e c t s i n lakes. A l s o w i t h t h e New J e r s e y a p p r o a c h , the p r o c e s s ends by a d i s c u s s i o n of how t h e s e ( o i l s p i l l s and fumes) can be p r e v e n t e d . In t h i s case i t can be done by d e v e l o p i n g some i d e a s about c o n t r o l l i n g m o t o r b o a t s . T h i s makes the s u b j e c t s aware of some c o n c e r n s , and they d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward k e e p i n g our l a k e s f r e e from o i l s p i l l s and fumes from m o t o r b o a t s . 26 2.2.2.2 N e g a t i v e A t t i t u d e s The o t h e r s i d e of the e f f i c i e n c y of motorboats i s t h a t they produce o i l s p i l l s and fumes which p o l l u t e l a k e s . I f t h e s e n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s a r e brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of s u b j e c t s d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , they d e v e l o p a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards i n d e s c r i m i n a t e use of motorboats i n l a k e s , because motorboats produce o i l s p i l l s and fumes. 2.3. C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s Facet Theory C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s (1977) Fa c e t Theory was used t o d e t e r m i n e the a t t i t u d i n a l l e v e l s . A c c o r d i n g t o these a u t h o r s , t h e r e a r e f i v e f a c e t s of an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r u n i v e r s e , namely: R e f e r e n t ( A ) , R e f e r e n t B e h a v i o r ( B ) , A c t o r ( C ) , A c t o r ' s I n t e r g r o u p B e h a v i o r (D), and Domain of A c t o r ' s B e h a v i o r ( E ) . 'They have r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e two 'elements' i n each f a c e t which a r e o r d e r e d low ( s u b s c r i p t 1) and h i g h ( s u b s c r i p t 2 ) . For example i n Facet A, the r e f e r e n t " o t h e r " (a1) i s weaker than the r e f e r e n t " s e l f - I " ( a 2 ) . C a s t r o and Jordan (1977) r e p o r t t h a t s e l e c t i o n of elements, c o m b i n a t i o n s , or p r o f i l e s , t o g e t h e r form what they c a l l the " C a r t e s i a n p r o d u c t of the f a c e t s of the t o t a l u n i v e r s e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . These new s e t s , p r o f i l e s , or c o m b i n a t i o n s which may be c a l l e d a t t r i b u t e s , s u b u n i v e r s e s or s u b s c a l e s have been d i v i d e d i n t o a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r l e v e l s by degree of s t r e n g t h , or i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t i m a c y . A l t h o u g h the f i v e , two-element f a c e t s p e r m i t the g e n e r a t i o n of 32 c o m b i n a t i o n s or p r o f i l e s , J o r d a n (1971) has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t o n l y 12 of these are l o g i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e l e v a n t , and nonredundant. T a b l e 2.1 shows the 27 v a r i a b l e s of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r u n i v e r s e . Table 2.1 Variables i n the attitude-behavior universe. FACETS A Referent B Referent Behavior C Actor D Actor's Intergroup Behavior E Domain of Actor's Behavior ELEMENTS a l others b l b e l i e f C l others d l comparison e l h y p othetical a2 s e l f (I) b2 experience (overt behavior) C2 s e l f (my/mine) d2 i n t e r a c t i o n 62 operational These 12 p r o f i l e s group i n t o s i x l e v e l s of s t r e n g t h . They chose t h e s e s i x p r o f i l e s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r a t t i t u d e b e h a v i o r s c a l e s , as shown i n T a b l e 2.2. L e v e l s 1 and 2 ( s o c i e t a l s t e r e o t y p e and s o c i e t a l norm) a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o g n i t i v e (knowledge) components. L e v e l 3 ( p e r s o n a l m o r a l e v a l u a t i o n ) d e a l s w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of the a f f e c t i v e component. L e v e l s 4 and 5 ( p e r s o n a l h y p o t h e t i c a l a c t i o n and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g ) d e a l w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n of bo t h the a f f e c t i v e and c o n a t i v e components, and L e v e l 6 ( p e r s o n a l a c t i o n ) d e a l s w i t h the c o n a t i v e a s p e c t . On the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r , C a s t r o and J o r d a n (1977) have shown t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h the l e v e l s , w i t h L e v e l 1 ( s o c i e t a l s t e r e o t y p e ) b e i n g the weakest, p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h t o L e v e l 6 ( p e r s o n a l a c t i o n ) , t he s t r o n g e s t . The a u t h o r s have p r o v i d e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g 28 Table 2.2: Levels of attitude-behavior scale proposed by Castro  and Jordan (1977). Subscale Type-Level Number of Strong Elements P r o f i l e by Notational System i n Table 2.1 A t t i t u d e Level D e s c r i p t i v e Term 1 0 a l b l C l d l 6 1 S o c i e t a l stereotype 2 1 a l b l C l d2 e l S o c i e t a l norm 3 2 a2 b l C l d2 e l Personal moral evaluation 4 3 a 2 b x c 2 d 2 e i Personal h y p o t h e t i c a l a c t i o n 5 4 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 e x Personal f e e l i n g 6 5 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 e 2 Personal a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e items f o r each l e v e l . The l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e p r o p o s e d by C a s t r o and J o r d a n were adopted and used as a g u i d e f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t e m s . However, o n l y t h r e e of the l e v e l s , t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d t o be the prime c o n c e r n of t h e o u t d o o r program, were used. 2.4 Ways of Enhancing C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s In o r d e r t o meet t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s of o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n programs, s c h o o l s a r r a n g e t o ta k e s t u d e n t s out on f i e l d t r i p s where they l e a r n about the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 29 C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s have a l s o been developed f o r d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l t o p i c s , and u s u a l l y t h e r e are e x p e r i e n c e d r e s i d e n t outdoor t e a c h e r s a t the camp t o h e l p i n the i n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , f a c i l i t i e s l i k e a l i b r a r y , t e a c h i n g a i d s , and o t h e r outdoor equipment are o f t e n a l s o a v a i l a b l e . No st u d y has been found which examines the way i n which the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program as a whole c o n t r i b u t e towards the enhancement of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s (Hart and M c C l a r e n , 1978). Some outdoor e d u c a t i o n books and j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s suggest ways of t e a c h i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs and a few c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s have a l s o examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of some of the outdoor e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s w i t h changes i n a t t i t u d e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a re s t u d i e s i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y which show t h a t c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e development. H o r s l e y (1977) and a l s o Richmond and Morgan (1977) have found t h a t f i e l d t r i p s which l a s t f o r more than a day a r e more s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor programs than s h o r t e x c u r s i o n s . T h i s b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of o v e r n i g h t t r i p s has become u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d , and has r e s u l t e d i n the many r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs t h a t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t . In o r d e r t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l , adequate p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e p l a n n i n g have been su g g e s t e d i n many t e x t b o o k s ( F r e e b e r g and T a y l o r 1961; Hammerman and Hammerman 1968; and Munzer and Brandwein, 1960). The importance of adequate p r e p a r a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d i n many outdoor e d u c a t i o n program manuals ( e . g . , Robertson and S h i e l d s , 1980a), and i t appears t o Gross and R a i l t o n (1972) t h a t adequate 30 p r e p a r a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l outdoor programs. From e x p e r i e n c e , F r e e b e r g (1961) has suggested t h a t p r i o r t o an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program the o b j e c t i v e s of the program s h o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and accompanied by adequate l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , t o enable the program t o be s u c c e s s f u l . The importance of adequate p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r t o an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program has a l s o been suggested by C o r d i e r (1966) and by Stapp (1964). A l t h o u g h the t e a c h i n g methods suggested i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n books ( e . g . , Hammerman and Hammerman, 1970) are not d i f f e r e n t from the t e a c h i n g methods used i n normal s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor e d u c a t o r s have suggested t h a t emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and t h a t the use of an e c o l o g i c a l approach i s more e f f e c t i v e ( F a l k , 1975; M i t c h e l l and Lunneborg, 1973; and F a l k and McCormack, 1974).-M i t c h e l l and Lunneborg (1973) have a l s o suggested t h a t , i f d u r i n g the t e a c h i n g , s t u d e n t s a re encouraged t o v a l u e e c o l o g i c a l l y sound p r a c t i c e s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a r e enhanced. Blackwood (1966) found t h a t the use of the d i s c o v e r y t e a c h i n g approach promoted a t t i t u d e development. Regan and F a z i o (1977), and Songer-Nocks (1976) have a l s o s u g g e sted t h a t d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t e d the development of a t t i t u d e s . I n t h e i r book, F r e e b e r g and T a y l o r (1961) h e l d t h a t an outdoor t e a c h e r who had the t e c h n i q u e t o c h a l l e n g e , t o m o t i v a t e , and t o impart knowledge t o s t u d e n t s was more l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s of h i s / h e r s t u d e n t s . On the background of the t e a c h e r , Jaus (1978) found i n a study t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h t r a i n i n g i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n seemed t o show a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and p e r s o n a l commitment towards t e a c h i n g outdoor 31 e d u c a t i o n t o p i c s than t e a c h e r s who d i d not r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g . I t appeared t o Jaus t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h t r a i n i n g were more l i k e l y t o enhance the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s on these programs. Yaakobi (1981) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the background knowledge and a t t i t u d e s of the t e a c h e r had an i n f l u e n c e on the a t t i t u d e s which s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e d i n outdoor programs. P e t t u s e t a l . , (1978) a l s o found out i n a c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d y t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h s c i e n c e background were b e t t e r a b l e t o enhance the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r s t u d e n t s than t e a c h e r s who had no s c i e n c e background. However, an e a r l i e r study by Crump e t a l . , (1977), found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s of s c i e n c e and n o n - s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s . S t u d i e s by F a l k , M a r t i n and B a l l i n g (1978) and by M a r t i n , F a l k and B a l l i n g (1981) have a l s o shown t h a t unfami 1 i a r i t y w i t h the outdoor s e t t i n g i n h i b i t e d l e a r n i n g of c o n c e p t s f o r which the t r i p was i n t e n d e d . S i m i l a r v i e w s have been e x p r e s s e d i n o t h e r j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s ( e . g . , L u c a s , 1980; S p o t l i g h t on the Northwest, 1978). A study by Askham (1975) found t h a t p e o p l e s ' p e r c e p t i o n of w i l d l i f e was dependent on t h e i r h i s t o r y , but t h a t as t h e i r exposure t o w i l d l i f e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s became m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Landes and H e t h e r i n g t o n (1979) have a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t the use of s m a l l groups of s t u d e n t s i n outdoor a c t i v i t i e s enhanced the development of a t t i t u d e s . Recent s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n by G l a s s and Smith (1979) show t h a t c l a s s s i z e a f f e c t s achievement, but t h i s i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n and A j z e n (1975), i f l e a r n i n g _ i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s , an a t t i t u d e i s d e v e l o p e d or 32 m o d i f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o what i s l e a r n e d . Other s t u d i e s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n (Alaimo and Doran, 1978) and i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( C i a l d i n i , P e t t y and Cacioppo, 1981) have argued t h a t , i f an i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s t h a t what he/she i s l e a r n i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g and/or v a l u a b l e , he/she d e v e l o p s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the c o n t e n t of what i s b e i n g l e a r n e d . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have found t h a t mere exposure ( H a r r i s o n , 1977) and the use of d i s c u s s i o n were e f f e c t i v e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s (Cook and F l a y , 1978; C i a l d i n i , P e t t y and Cacioppo, 1981; Crano, 1977; R o n i s et a l . , 1977; and Webb, 1979). Edgar (1971) and Hershey e t a l . , (1971) have suggested t h a t a t t i t u d e s can be d e v e l o p e d by p r a c t i c i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, w h i l e Bandura (1971) and Gorman (1974) argue t h a t p e o p l e copy and p r a c t i c e the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s of those who are seen as models. S i m i l a r views have been e x p r e s s e d i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n by Gage (1976). Other p s y c h o l o g i s t s have r e p o r t e d t h a t the e f f e c t of models i s g r e a t e r i f t h e s u b j e c t s a r e s e e k i n g r e c o g n i t i o n from the a d u l t s ( J a c o b , 1957; Lehmann, 1963). In outdoor e d u c a t i o n , Howenstine (1962) has a t t r i b u t e d the i n a b i l i t y of some outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t o s t a f f members who do not p r a c t i c e good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods th e m s e l v e s . Bandura (1971), a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e p e t i t i o n or a review of what has been l e a r n e d i n o t h e r forms, h e l p s . t o r e i n f o r c e o l d a t t i t u d e s . The need f o r f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program has a l s o been mentioned i n t e x t b o o k s and outdoor e d u c a t i o n manuals. 33 Thus the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t t h e r e a r e many p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s which can i n f l u e n c e the development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. For example, the adequacy of the p r e p a r a t i o n s which a r e done p r i o r t o an outdoor program, the manner of p r e s e n t i n g the f i e l d s t u dy l e s s o n s , the b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s of the t e a c h e r s , the s i z e of the f i e l d study groups, the v a l u e of what i s t a u g h t , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s which s t u d e n t s get t o p r a c t i c e good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods and what o c c u r s a f t e r the camp program, a l l can i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a few c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s which l o o k a t a t t i t u d e development and i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e a r e no s t u d i e s which l o o k a t the v a r i a b l e s i n a program as a whole. 34 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n For the convenience of the r e a d e r , the s p e c i f i c problems t o which t h i s study a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f a r e r e s t a t e d below: (1) What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program have on the a t t i t u d e of s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? (2) What a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e t o or appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? To a d d r e s s the above problems, t h i s study proceeded i n two p a r t s . P a r t 1 was an a t t i t u d e assessment study and P a r t 2 was a case s t u d y . The a t t i t u d e assessment study d e t e r m i n e d i f the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s , w h i l e t h e case study i n v e s t i g a t e d the f a c t o r s i n the program which were r e l a t e d t o the development of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . B e f o r e the methodology of these two s t u d i e s i s d e s c r i b e d , the p o p u l a t i o n and the tr e a t m e n t a r e d e s c r i b e d . 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s study i n c l u d e d grade s i x s t u d e n t s i n the No r t h Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . In t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d y e a r - l o n g p l a n i s made f o r a l l grade 35 s i x c l a s s e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i s t r i c t ' s r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. Two or t h r e e i n t a c t c l a s s e s go t o the d i s t r i c t ' s outdoor camp a t a t i m e , and they s t a y t h e r e f o r a week (Monday t o F r i d a y ) . The a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r the purposes of the study was made up of a l l grade s i x s t u d e n t s i n tho s e c l a s s e s which were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program and.the s t u d y . 3.2 Sample 3.2.1 S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were members of t h r e e i n t a c t c l a s s e s of grade s i x s t u d e n t s from the p o p u l a t i o n ; t h a t i s , t h r e e i n t a c t c l a s s e s which were t a k i n g p a r t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program a t the same tim e . The s u b j e c t s i n the c o n t r o l group were members of f o u r i n t a c t grade s i x c l a s s e s which had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor, e d u c a t i o n program b e f o r e and d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the s t u d y . The a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n of both the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups of s t u d e n t s was l i m i t e d by the d i f f i c u l t y of s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o b t a i n i n g the consent of the s c h o o l board, s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , camp - d i r e c t o r , p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s , and the p a r e n t s of s t u d e n t s who were s c h e d u l e d f o r the outdoor program i n the s p r i n g of 1981. One s e t of t h r e e grade s i x c l a s s e s , s c h e d u l e d t o take p a r t i n the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the stud y . They formed the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, c o m p r i s e d of 70 st u d e n t s - - 4 3 boys and 27 g i r l s . The second s e t of s t u d e n t s , 36 c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r grade s i x c l a s s e s s c h e d u l e d t o take p a r t i n the program a f t e r the s t u d y , a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and formed the c o m p a r a t i v e group. There were 80 s t u d e n t s i n t h i s group, 43 boys and 37 g i r l s . S u b j e c t s from both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups were from p u b l i c s c h o o l s , as opposed t o p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 3.2.2 C o u n s e l l o r s Ten c o u n s e l l o r s ( t h r e e females and seven males) were i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . E i g h t of them were grade 12 s t u d e n t s , one was a u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t on v a c a t i o n , and one was a r e c e n t h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e . They were a l l from N o r t h Vancouver. A l l had v o l u n t e e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program and took p a r t i n a week-end t r a i n i n g program, and a l l had had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i m i l a r outdoor camps and programs. E i g h t of the c o u n s e l l o r s had p a r t i c i p a t e d as s t u d e n t s i n the N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l program i n the p a s t . The two c o u n s e l l o r s who had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program as s t u d e n t s had p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d as c o u n s e l l o r s . 3.2.3 Teachers S i x p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s and one r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r were i n v o l v e d i n the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. Three of the t e a c h e r s were males and t h r e e were f e m a l e s . Three of the s i x t e a c h e r s were from the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l , and the o t h e r s were r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . A l l s i x had u n i v e r s i t y degrees, and they had taught f o r between two and o n e - h a l f and ten y e a r s . T h e i r i n d i v i d u a l grade s i x t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ranged from one year t o s i x y e a r s . A l l of the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s had been t o the Outdoor S c h o o l p r i o r t o the s t u d y , and a l l s i x t e a c h e r s had some 37 e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d t o p i c s . Two of the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s were r e g u l a r grade s i x t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l . The t h i r d r e g u l a r t e a c h e r was unable t o take p a r t i n the camp program and another t e a c h e r who was i n t e r e s t e d i n the program took her p l a c e . A l l t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s , and they a l s o s u p e r v i s e d the s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t the camp program. In a d d i t i o n t o the s i x t e a c h e r s t h e r e was a r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r . She was not a t e a c h e r by p r o f e s s i o n , but her r o l e i n the program was of a t e a c h e r . She had a u n i v e r s i t y degree i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and had been the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r f o r one y e a r . She s u p e r v i s e d a l l the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and o r d e r e d , p r e v i e w e d and s e l e c t e d a l l of the f i l m s shown a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . She supervi-sed the s c r e e n i n g of two of the f i l m s . She was a r e s i d e n t Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f member, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g the work of the c o u n s e l l o r s t h r o u g h o u t the camp program. She o r g a n i z e d and s u p e r v i s e d most of the a c t i v i t i e s which were h e l d a f t e r f i e l d s t u d i e s , each day. For example, she s u p e r v i s e d the camp f i r e , the square d a n c i n g , and the team c h a r a d e s . 3.3 Treatment The t r e a t m e n t used i n t h i s s tudy was a t t e n d a n c e a t a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. In g e n e r a l , programs of t h i s type a re h i g h l y complex, and d i f f e r i n many a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g s i t e , f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , t i m e - t a b l i n g , p r e v a i l i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems w i t h i n t h e community, i n t e r e s t s of s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s , and so on. In a d d i t i o n , numerous 38 u n a n t i c i p a t e d and u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n t s do occur d u r i n g the week at camp, which modify the planned program. For example, weather c o n d i t i o n s may p r o h i b i t c o n d u c t i n g an a n t i c i p a t e d a c t i v i t y . As such, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o determine p r e c i s e l y i n advance the exa c t d e t a i l s of a treatment used i n a study such as t h i s . 3.3.1 G e n e r a l Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Treatment In the N o r t h Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , the Outdoor S c h o o l program i s g e n e r a l l y made up of a p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , a week a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and u s u a l l y a one week f o l l o w - u p a f t e r the camp program. The p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d s t a r t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n days b e f o r e the t r i p . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s t u d e n t s a re t o l d the s o r t of t h i n g s which they may want t o t a k e t o the camp, such as s u i t a b l e t y p e s of c l o t h i n g . They a l s o l e a r n some c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s l i k e : k e e ping on t r a i l w h i l e h i k i n g t o a v o i d s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s , r e t u r n i n g a l l l i v i n g specimens back t o t h e i r n a t u r a l environment, and/or keeping the environment as n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e . They a r e a l s o p r e p a r e d t o expect good energy c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . There i s a l s o a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the camp, which i s aimed a t g i v i n g the s t u d e n t s an i m p r e s s i o n of how the camp i s s e t up, where they w i l l be l i v i n g , and some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e r n s a t the camp. In most cases the s c h o o l s a r r a n g e t o show some c o n s e r v a t i o n f i l m s ; a l s o s c h o o l s encourage s t u d e n t s t o read books about some of the a c t i v i t i e s which they w i l l be d o i n g d u r i n g the camp_ program. When s t u d e n t s a r r i v e at the camp, they a r e reminded of the 39 c o n c e r n s about the environment, p o l l u t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s what they l e a r n e d i n c l a s s . Throughout t h e i r s t a y a t the camp, t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s s u p e r v i s e the s t u d e n t s t o make sure t h a t they p r a c t i c e good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. E i g h t f i e l d study s e s s i o n s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hours each a r e set a s i d e , d u r i n g which s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and c a r r y out f i e l d study a c t i v i t i e s . They work i n groups w i t h s t u d e n t s from o t h e r c l a s s e s . These f i e l d s t udy groups are always s m a l l e r than the r e g u l a r c l a s s s i z e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h i n each f i e l d study group, s t u d e n t s o f t e n work i n y e t s m a l l e r groups on a c t i v i t i e s or p r o j e c t s . Teachers a r e a i d e d by the c o u n s e l l o r s i n s u p e r v i s i n g the s t u d e n t s . Most of these f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s d e a l w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s . Soon a f t e r l u n c h , on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, s t u d e n t s meet i n the a u d i t o r i u m , where they r e l a x w h i l e watching a f i l m . Most of t h e . f i l m s a r e about c o n s e r v a t i o n , and are s e l e c t e d t o p a r a l l e l the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d f o r the f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s . When the s t u d e n t s r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m s a f t e r the camp, f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s a r e a r r a n g e d . T h i s i s a l s o a v e r y i m p o r t a n t stage of the program. Many i d e a s are a v a i l a b l e t o the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . For example, a c l a s s , as a u n i t , may p l a n a p a r e n t s ' n i g h t or s c h o o l assembly t o share the e x p e r i e n c e s of the Outdoor S c h o o l , w r i t e l e t t e r s t o v a r i o u s Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f members, w r i t e a r t i c l e s f o r the s c h o o l newspaper, p l a n ways i n which the s c h o o l grounds might be made t o l o o k more a t t r a c t i v e , s tudy m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , make a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of a i r and water p o l l u t i o n , w r i t e t o v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s f o r pamphlets on 40 c o n s e r v a t i o n , or i n v i t e r e s o u r c e agency p e r s o n n e l i n t o the c l a s s r o o m f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n s . U s u a l l y the f i r s t t h i n g which i s done when s t u d e n t s r e t u r n t o the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m i s t o d i s c u s s what they d i d a t camp i n t h e i r groups, and t o share t h e i r i d e a s and f i n d i n g s w i t h the r e s t of t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s . Teachers a l s o d i s c u s s a n y t h i n g which the s t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h , w h i l e a t the camp. The d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n above i s the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of the t r e a t m e n t . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t u a l t r e a t m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix A. 3.4 A t t i t u d e Assessment Study The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n which was a d d r e s s e d i n the a t t i t u d e assessment s t u d y was: what e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program have on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? T h i s study was concerned w i t h t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s , namely energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e ; and t h r e e of the a t t i t u d e l e v e l s proposed by C a s t r o and Jordan (1977), namely s o c i e t a l norms, p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , and p e r s o n a l a c t i o n . These c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s and l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e were s e l e c t e d because they were of prime concern i n the No r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l program and they seemed t o be most c e n t r a l t o outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l . The e f f e c t of the program was de t e r m i n e d by comparing p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on n i n e a t t i t u d i n a l dependent v a r i a b l e s . These v a r i a b l e s have been p r e s e n t e d as items i n the c e l l s of T a b l e 3.1. T h i s seemed t o be a r e a s o n a b l e p r o c e d u r e , 41 because i n a complex program any impact i s l i k e l y t o be on a number of v a r i a b l e s a t the same time. . T h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i v a r i a t e outcome was found t o be the case i n the p i l o t s t u d y . The program was o r g a n i z e d i n such a way t h a t d u r i n g the week, s t u d e n t s were exposed t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n , and were encouraged t o d e v e l o p d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e s towards t h e s e a s p e c t s . Table 3.1 T a b l e of S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the Items Used i n  O b t a i n i n g Scores on the Nine Dependent V a r i a b l e s A t t i t u d e L e v e l s * (A) A s p e c t s of C o n s e r v a t i o n M a r g i n a l T o t a l s Energy (B1) P l a n t s (B2) W i l d l i f e (B3) Soc i e t a l Norms (A1) 10 items Y(A1B1) 10 items Y(A1B3) 10 items Y(A1B3) 30 items Y(A1.) P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g (A2) 10 items Y(A2B1) 10 items Y(A2B2) 10 items Y(A2B3) 30 items Y(A2.) P e r s o n a l A c t i o n (A3) 10 items Y(A3B1) 10 items Y(A3B2) 10 items Y(A3B3) 30 items Y(A3.) M a r g i n a l T o t a l s 30 items Y( .B1 ) 30 items Y(.B2) 30 items Y(.B3) 90 items Y(..) * D e s c r i p t i o n of terms, ( C a s t r o and J o r d a n , 1977) 3.4.1 Res e a r c h Hypotheses The s p e c i f i c problem which the a t t i t u d e assessment i n v e s t i g a t e d l e n d s i t s e l f t o two r e s e a r c h hypotheses. 1. Gi v e n no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the 42 e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups' p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on the nine dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s stemmed from the o b j e c t i v e s of the N o r t h Vancouver outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. From the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n the t e a c h e r s ' handbook (Robertson and S h i e l d s , 1980a), and what the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s were, a t t i t u d e enhancement was an e x p e c t e d outcome of s t u d e n t s who t a k e p a r t i n t h a t program. A l s o from the d e s c r i p t i o n of what u s u a l l y goes on d u r i n g the program, which has been d e s c r i b e d i n the t r e a t m e n t s e c t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was r e a s o n a b l e t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s might a c q u i r e a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , a f t e r the program. 2. I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e group c e n t r o i d s w i l l d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y - on the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n which w i l l i n c l u d e the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d e t e r m i n e which, i f any, of the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s would be s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the two groups, s i n c e the program was aimed a t p r o d u c i n g a change on the n i n e v a r i a b l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 3.4.2 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses ( N u l l ) (1) G i v e n no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n group d i s p e r s i o n s of the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a r e e q u a l . e c 43 (2) G i v e n no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s ( p o p u l a t i o n mean v e c t o r s ) of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s w i l l not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s were found t o e x i s t , i t was p l a n n e d t o determine a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n i n o r d e r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two groups i n terms of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e t h e r e were o n l y two groups i n the s t u d y , t h e r e c o u l d be o n l y one d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g group d i f f e r e n c e s . 3.4.3 Design of the Study S i n c e r a n d o m i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t s and t r e a t m e n t s was i m p o s s i b l e , Campbell and S t a n l e y ' s (1963) D e s i g n 10, t h e non-e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group d e s i g n was employed. There were t h r e e grade s i x c l a s s e s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group (N=70) and f o u r grade s i x c l a s s e s i n the c o n t r o l ( c o m p a r a t i v e ) group (N=80). A l l the s t u d e n t s i n b o t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups were t e s t e d two weeks b e f o r e the t r i p . The p r e t e s t was t o measure e x i s t i n g p r e - c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r t o the t r e a t m e n t ; t h e r e f o r e i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d two weeks p r i o r t o the t r i p , so t h a t i t would not be a f f e c t e d by the p r e p a r a t i o n p a r t of the program. 44 The d e s i g n can be diagrammed as f o l l o w s : Oe XI Oe Oc X2 Oc where X1 r e p r e s e n t s the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t (the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program) and X2 i s the treatment r e c e i v e d by the c o m p a r a t i v e group (the r e g u l a r c l a s s program). A f t e r the p r e t e s t , the e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t a r t e d w i t h the u s u a l p r e p a r a t i o n s and took p a r t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program, w h i l e the c o m p a r a t i v e group proceeded w i t h the r e g u l a r s c h o o l program i n normal f a s h i o n . A l l s t u d e n t s i n both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups were then p o s t t e s t e d , a g a i n w i t h the a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , one week a f t e r the program. I t was l a t e r d e c i d e d t o a d m i n i s t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a g a i n t o both groups, 10 days a f t e r the p o s t t e s t . In the e x p e r i m e n t a l group t h i s was t o f i n d out i f the a t t i t u d e change found a f t e r the program would p e r s i s t a f t e r 10 days, w h i l e i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group i t was t o f i n d out i f s i m i l a r e f f e c t s would be o b s e r v e d , s i n c e the c o m p a r a t i v e group a l s o took p a r t i n the program a f t e r the f i r s t p o s t t e s t . 3.4.4 Instrument The e f f e c t s of the program were det e r m i n e d through the use of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A f t e r a n a l y s i s of over 30 a t t i t u d e i n s t r u m e n t s which have been used i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs, one of these (by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t , 1973) was found t o be s u i t a b l e i n terms of coverage of c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s , and s u i t a b l e i n terms of r e a d a b i l i t y and l e v e l of s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s f o r grade s i x s t u d e n t s . I t was t h e r e f o r e used i n a 45 p i l o t study w i t h 65 grade s i x s t u d e n t s . A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s of the items u s i n g the l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e proposed by C a s t r o and Jordan (1977) r e v e a l e d t h a t i t d i d not cover a l l the l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e which were of i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y . Teachers c o m p l a i n e d t h a t the number of items was too g r e a t . Because of these f i n d i n g s a new q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t a l l y independent from the one used by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t was d e v e l o p e d a p r i o r i t o cover a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t . There were ten q u e s t i o n n a i r e items f o r each of the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i e d i n T able 3.1, thus p r o v i d i n g a t o t a l of 90 items on the whole q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s approach was more s u i t a b l e f o r the purpose of the study because i t f o c u s e d on o n l y the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s which were b e i n g s t u d i e d . T h i s approach has been suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e by Alaimo and Doran (1978) t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s . A l s o , by u s i n g 90 i t e m s , i n s t e a d of 120 items (as were used i n the p i l o t s t u d y ) , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s would r e q u i r e l e s s time t o c o mplete the whole q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A L i k e r t - t y p e response s c a l e was used f o r a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix B. 3.4.4.1 Development of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t e d i n two c l a s s e s ( c l a s s A and c l a s s B ) . Table 3.2 r e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of .the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r some of the dependent v a r i a b l e s was low. S u b s e q u e n t l y the w r i t e r i n t e r v i e w e d 46 the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . From the i n t e r v i e w i t was found t h a t the s t u d e n t s were not used t o the the type of q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e i n g used. T h e r e f o r e i t was d e c i d e d t o have a t r i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C) b e f o r e the main q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T a b l e 3.2 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s of the S u b t e s t s  f o r the C l a s s e s Used i n the P i l o t Study S u b t e s t s (dependent V a r i a b l e ) - C l a s s A C l a s s B Soc i e t a l Norm - Energy .46 .57 Soc i e t a l Norm - P l a n t s .47 .80 Soc i e t a l Norm - W i l d l i f e .81 .74 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - Energy .61 .72 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s .78 .72 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e .70 .76 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - Energy .70 .70 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s .81 .85 P e r s o n A l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e .75 .76 Hoyt's C o e f f i c i e n t * .92 .94 Cronbach 's A l p h a ** .88 .88 An i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measure of the t o t a l t e s t . A c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the s u b t e s t s and the t o t a l . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n (1967, p. 257), " a t t i t u d e s a re c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as l e a r n e d p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o respond t o an o b j e c t or c l a s s of o b j e c t s i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e way." T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a t t i t u d e s towards the n i n e v a r i a b l e s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses on each s u b t e s t were e x p e c t e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t . That i s , the same type of responses s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d over r e p e a t e d t e s t i n g s , i f an i n d i v i d u a l has 47 the same a t t i t u d e . T h i s type of r e l i a b i l i t y was determined by a d m i n i s t e r i n g f i r s t the t r i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C ) , f o l l o w e d w i t h the main q u e s t i o n n a i r e on two o c c a s i o n s t o a se p a r a t e group of 26 grade s i x s t u d e n t s from the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . One week was a l l o w e d between the two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the t e s t . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses were s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y s e d u s i n g the U.B.C. LERTAP computer program ( N e l s o n , 1974). The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the U.B.C. SPSS computer program: p a i r - w i s e comparison ( K i t a , 1980). The r e s u l t s have been p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3.3. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were h i g h , r a n g i n g from .84 t o .89. These r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was employed i n t h i s s t u d y was r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e f o r measuring the s t a b i l i t y of the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e l i a b i l i t y was t h a t , i f the in s t r u m e n t was t o be a measure of a c o n s t r u c t ( e . g . , a t t i t u d e towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of e n e r g y ) , the responses on each of the items on the s u b t e s t s h o u l d be i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . In t h i s study the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y on each of the s u b t e s t s was dete r m i n e d u s i n g Hoyt's method of e s t i m a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y . Cronbach's a l p h a (Cronbach, 1951) was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d , t o f i n d the e x t e n t t o which each of the s u b t e s t s measured c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 48 Tab l e 3.3 T e s t - r e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s For Dependent V a r i a b l e s In The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Dependent V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t * S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy .89 S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants .88 S o c i e t a l N o r m - W i l d l i f e .86 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - E n e r g y .88 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s .88 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e .88 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - E n e r g y .84 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s .88 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e .86 O v e r a l l .87 * n = 26 3.4.4.2 V a l i d i t y 3.4.4.2.1 Content V a l i d i t y The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was deve l o p e d t o c o v e r the r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of the co u r s e c o n t e n t of the N o r t h Vancouver outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. However, the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o the t e a c h i n g s t a f f of the N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l and t h e i r a p p r o v a l was used as the c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t c o v e r e d a s p e c t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n and l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e which were d e a l t w i t h a t the camp. 3.4.4.2.2 Face V a l i d i t y The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o g i v e n t o t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d outdoor e d u c a t o r s f o r them t o a c t as judges i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e appears t o measure a t t i t u d e toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . 3.4.4.2.3 R e a d a b i l i t y F i v e of the t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n the study and s i x 49 o t h e r t e a c h e r s found the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r grade s i x s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , F r y ' s r e a d a b i l i t y t e s t ( F r y , 1968) was c o n d u c t e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was found t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r grade s i x s t u d e n t s . 3.4.4.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the I n s t r u m e n t The same method was f o l l o w e d f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n a l l of the c l a s s e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the r e g u l a r c l a s s t e a c h e r , w i t h the w r i t e r b e i n g p r e s e n t as a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . The i n s t r u c t i o n s t o the t e a c h e r s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e have, been p r o v i d e d as Appendix D. There was an i n t r o d u c t i o n and a l s o a s h o r t t r i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix C) t o a c q u a i n t the s t u d e n t s w i t h the format of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b e f o r e they responded t o the main q u e s t i o n n a i r e . At the end of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t u d e n t s were reminded t o check t h e i r r e sponses b e f o r e g i v i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e i r t e a c h e r . When a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had been r e t u r n e d , the t e a c h e r proceeded t o t e a c h the normal l e s s o n , w i t h o u t any d i s c u s s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . 3.4.5 Method of A n a l y s i s 3.4.5.1 S c o r i n g of Item Responses Each i t e m response on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s c o r e d on a 5-p o i n t b a s i s , a c c o r d i n g t o L i k e r t ' s p r o c e d u r e (West and F o s t e r , 1976; and Edwards, 1957). A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s were encouraged to respond t o a l l items, i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s might omit one or more it e m s . An e x t r a c a t e g o r y was c r e a t e d , so t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d 50 i n d i c a t e i f they d i d not know, or c o u l d not d e c i d e how to respond t o any i t e m . Any item which was not responded t o was i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the s u b j e c t was n e u t r a l t o the i t e m , and was t h e r e f o r e g i v e n a s c o r e of 3 ( i . e . , a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e ) . Items which r e c e i v e d a "don't know" response, were a l s o s c o r e d 3. 3.4.5.2 A n a l y s i s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Responses The responses on t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t were a n a l y z e d by i t e m , s u b t e s t , and t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s , u s i n g the U.B.C. LERTAP computer program. The t o t a l s c o r e on each of the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s was used t o t e s t the s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o theses. 3.4.5.2.1 A n a l y s i s of P r e t e s t Scores I n i t i a l l y a" between-group a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s on the n-ine dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t o t e s t f o r e q u i v a l e n c e of the two groups. M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (which i n t h i s case was e q u i v a l e n t t o H o t e l l i n g T 2) was employed. Even though Cooley and Lohnes (1962) have r e p o r t e d t h a t the t e s t f o r group c e n t r o i d s i s r o b u s t under moderate d e p a r t u r e s from homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s , they have a l s o suggested t h a t the v a l u e of the t e s t f o r homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s l i e s i n i t s c a p a c i t y t o l e a d t o an i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g i n i t s own r i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t happens t o l e a d t o a r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Thus two t e s t s were c a r r i e d out on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s : the t e s t of homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s which Cooley and Lohnes c a l l the t e s t f o r H1, and the t e s t f o r e q u a l i t y of p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s , which the same a u t h o r s r e f e r t o as the t e s t f o r H2. 51 The s t a t i s t i c a l h ypotheses which were t e s t e d a r e : (1) The group d i s p e r s i o n s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a re e q u a l . Ho2 was to be t e s t e d r e g a r d l e s s of the r e s u l t s of Ho1, because the t e s t f o r H2 i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o moderate d e p a r t u r e s from homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s . Hoi would be t e n a b l e under normal c o n d i t i o n s , but Hoi would be r e j e c t e d i f one group responds t o the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n a u n i f o r m f a s h i o n , and i f the o t h e r group members share a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s of view. S i n c e the p r e t e s t preceded the v i s i t s 'to t h e s c h o o l s f o r the c a s e s t u d y , i t made i t c o n v e n i e n t t o f i n d out why the groups d i f f e r e d , u s i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e j e c t i n g Ho1 which have been s t a t e d above. The p r e t e s t a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out immediately a f t e r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , so t h a t i f Ho1 had been r e j e c t e d t e a c h e r s and some s t u d e n t s c o u l d have been i n t e r v i e w e d soon a f t e r , t o f i n d out why t h e r e were group d i f f e r e n c e s . (2) The p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . e c HI2:-JA e * M c 52 S i n c e Ho2 was t e n a b l e , the a n a l y s i s of the p r e t e s t s c o r e s ended. 3.4.5.2.2 A n a l y s e s of P o s t t e s t S c o r e s Because the p r e t e s t a n a l y s e s l e d t o acceptance of Ho2, i t was assumed t h a t the performance of the two groups on a l l n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , t aken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , was comparable d e s p i t e the n o n - r a n d o m i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n the d e s i g n . T h e r e f o r e , the p o s t t e s t a n a l y s e s f o l l o w e d e x a c t l y the same pr o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d f o r the p r e t e s t ( i . e . , the same hypotheses were t e s t e d ) . However, s i n c e Ho2 was not t e n a b l e i n the p o s t t e s t , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was performed on the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s t o f i n d the r e l a t i v e importance of each of the v a r i a b l e s i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the two groups. 3.5 Case Study The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i n P a r t 2 (case s t u d y ) was: what a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e or appear to c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement of a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? T h i s p a r t of the study was p i l o t e d w i t h 65 grade s i x s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the p i l o t study of the a t t i t u d e assessment i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t (1973). The p i l o t s t u d y l e d t o a r e a l i z a t i o n of the need t o a u d i o - t a p e the i n t e r v i e w s . I t a l s o h e l p e d the w r i t e r p r e p a r e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the main s t u d y . 3.5.1 G e n e r a l Approach t o the Case Study In o r d e r t o r e l a t e the a t t i t u d i n a l changes t o what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program, a case study method was employed. The w r i t e r 53 assumed the r o l e of a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t and u n o b t r u s i v e o b s e r v e r , and observed and r e c o r d e d a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o the development of a t t i t u d e s i n the program. C o u n s e l l o r s and s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a t d i f f e r e n t times b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the program, w h i l e t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d on the l a s t day of the camp program. P a r e n t s were s e r v e d w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix E) th r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t o f i n d out i f any e f f e c t s had been obser v e d by them. Because of the e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d from the p i l o t s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t o use a tape r e c o r d e r f o r a l l the i n t e r v i e w s . A c h e c k l i s t was devel o p e d t o guide the w r i t e r i n o b s e r v i n g each a c t i v i t y s e s s i o n , and l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d f o r use i n the i n t e r v i e w s . A l l these i n s t r u m e n t s have been p r e s e n t e d i n the a p p e n d i c e s . B e f o r e the program, the w r i t e r v i s i t e d the s c h o o l s which took p a r t i n the study t o meet w i t h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The w r i t e r v i s i t e d the c l a s s e s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s as a non-p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r , t o observe the way s t u d e n t s were p r e p a r e d f o r the Outdoor S c h o o l camp program. The w r i t e r a l s o a t t e n d e d the meetings which were r e l a t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. 3.5.2 B e h a v i o r of the R e s e a r c h e r I t i s known t h a t the way a r e s e a r c h e r i s i n t r o d u c e d and a c t s i n a c l a s s a f f e c t s the b e h a v i o r of s t u d e n t s (Smith and G e o f f r e y , 1 9 6 8 ) . In t h i s study t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o i n t r o d u c e the w r i t e r t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s as a t e a c h e r who had come t o the s c h o o l t o study how outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs are o r g a n i z e d . 54 The b a s i c s t r a t e g y which was used was t o always be i n t e r e s t e d i n what went on i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The w r i t e r s a t q u i e t l y d u r i n g v i s i t s and wrote down the way s t u d e n t s were b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r the program, f o r example, the way the c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s were p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s , the way s t u d e n t s r e a c t e d t o the s e r u l e s , and any o t h e r t y p e s of p r e p a r a t i o n ( e . g . , type of assignments) which were r e l a t e d t o the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s which had been plan n e d f o r the outdoor camp program. The w r i t e r was open t o the t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s , but remained o u t s i d e any d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p l a y . I t was a l s o a r r a n g e d t h a t a f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d s t u d e n t s c o u l d v i s i t and t a l k t o the w r i t e r , i f they so d e s i r e d . I t was found i n the p i l o t s tudy t h a t t h i s p u p i l - w r i t e r i n t e r a c t i o n h e l p e d the w r i t e r t o know more about what the s t u d e n t s were t h i n k i n g about. I t was a l s o found t h a t t h i s method appeared t o make the s t u d e n t s accomodate the pr e s e n c e of the r e s e a r c h e r . As was e n v i s a g e d , p u p i l s sometimes came t o the w r i t e r t o ask f o r some h e l p on a l e s s o n (as happened i n the p i l o t s t u d y ) . In h a n d l i n g such stud e n t r e q u e s t s , the w r i t e r r e s t a t e d and/or c l a r i f i e d the problem, and p o i n t e d out the p o s s i b i l i t i e s , w h i l e l e a v i n g the d e c i s i o n t o the p u p i l t o s e l e c t h i s / h e r own c o u r s e of a c t i o n . D u r i n g the l a s t few days p r i o r t o the t r i p , the w r i t e r spent more time i n the s c h o o l and i n t e r v i e w e d some of the s t u d e n t s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w c e n t e r e d around t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the Outdoor S c h o o l . 55 3.5.3 R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other Teachers i n the S c h o o l One f a c t o r which c o u l d have a f f e c t e d the data i n t h i s study was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the w r i t e r and the o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h t h i s study was c l e a r e d w i t h the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s and the grade s i x t e a c h e r s , i t was f e l t t h a t i t would not guarantee t h a t the o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l s would know about i t . I t i s a l s o known t h a t t e a c h e r s want t o know about s t u d i e s g o i n g on i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when new p e o p l e are c o n d u c t i n g the s t u d y . The w r i t e r i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f t o the r e s t of the- s c h o o l s t a f f as a graduate s t u d e n t from U.B.C. who was s t u d y i n g how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. D u r i n g r e c e s s and a t l u n c h t i m e t h e . w r i t e r took p a r t i n the s o c i a l l i f e i n the h a l l w a y and s t a f f room w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s ; however, more time was spent w i t h grade s i x s t u d e n t s and t h e i r t e a c h e r s . 3.5.4 Data G a t h e r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 3.5.4.1 Data Gathered B e f o r e the T r i p t o the Outdoor S c h o o l Apart from o b s e r v i n g the way s t u d e n t s were p r e p a r e d f o r the t r i p and the p e r i o d i c i n t e r v i e w s which were conducted d u r i n g r e c e s s , the w r i t e r i n t e r v i e w e d some s t u d e n t s and the c o u n s e l l o r s b e f o r e they went to the Outdoor S c h o o l . The s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s c e n t e r e d around how they had been p r e p a r e d f o r the outdoor camp program, and what the s t u d e n t s were ex p e c t e d t o l e a r n t h e r e . The b a s i c q u e s t i o n s f o r the i n t e r v i e w have been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix F. The i n t e r v i e w w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s was aimed at f i n d i n g out what t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s were and about the development of 56 c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . The b a s i c q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s i n t e r v i e w have been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix G. 3.5.4.2 Data Gathered D u r i n g the Camp Program The w r i t e r s t a y e d w i t h the s t u d e n t s throughout the week a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and kept a d i a r y of a l l d a i l y e v e n t s f o r the whole p e r i o d of the s t u d y . One problem which was e n c o u n t e r e d was t h a t s t u d e n t s worked i n groups, t h a t each a c t i v i t y group worked on a d i f f e r e n t f i e l d study t o p i c a t any one t i m e , and t h a t t h e r e were many f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e a t the same t i m e . The groups ro.tated, so t h a t by the end of the week a l l groups had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work t h r o u g h a l l of the f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s . S i n c e i t was not p o s s i b l e t o observe a l l f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s a t the same t i m e , o n l y one f i e l d s t udy t o p i c was s t u d i e d d u r i n g each f i e l d study p e r i o d . One study group was s e l e c t e d randomly b e f o r e the f i r s t s e s s i o n and i t was o n l y t h a t group which was obser v e d d u r i n g f i e l d s t udy p e r i o d s throughout the week. Teachers were, however, asked how the i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the o t h e r groups went, and/or d i f f e r e d from the ones obs e r v e d . McGrath and Altman (1966) p o i n t out t h a t t h i s method i s the best o b s e r v a t i o n a l scheme, i f e v e n t s , r a t e s or r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of b e h a v i o r a r e of p r i m a r y importance i n a s t u d y . An o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t (Appendix H) was used t o d i r e c t the o b s e r v a t i o n . T h i n g s of i n t e r e s t i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t matter c o n t e n t d e a l t w i t h , the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n , the type of t h i n g s s t u d e n t s d i d , the e x t e n t of st u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t , the e v i d e n c e of st u d e n t e n t h u s i a s m , and the way a l l these a r e r e l a t e d t o the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t . A l s o , d u r i n g an 57 a c t i v i t y s e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s who were more l i k e l y t o be h e l p f u l f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g were i d e n t i f i e d , and they were c o n t a c t e d a f t e r the a c t i v i t y s e s s i o n . Because s t u d e n t s used name tag s w h i l e at the camp, i t was easy t o i d e n t i f y the s t u d e n t s by t h e i r names. The s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s (Appendix I) c o n c e n t r a t e d on what they l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e , what they l i k e d and/or d i d not l i k e , and how the a c t i v i t y enhanced or i n h i b i t e d the development of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . C o u n s e l l o r s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t o f i n d out what t h e i r views were, and about the way the a c t i v i t y was l i k e l y t o enhance or i n h i b i t the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . A copy of the q u e s t i o n s f o r the i n t e r v i e w has been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix J . The same approach which was b e i n g used f o r the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s was a l s o used f o r the a f t e r n o o n f i l m s . D u r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n s e s s i o n , the w r i t e r v i s i t e d some of the s e s s i o n s each day, and a r r a n g e d the v i s i t s i n such a way t h a t a l l the d i f f e r e n t s e s s i o n s were observed by the end of the week. Because none of the r e c r e a t i o n s e s s i o n s was r e l a t e d t o the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s ( u n l i k e the c a s e i n the p i l o t s t u d y ) , t h e r e were no i n t e r v i e w s on them. 3.5.4.3 Data Gathered A f t e r the Camp Program At the end of the week, a l l the c o u n s e l l o r s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , t o f i n d out how, i n t h e i r v i e w , the program might have enhanced or have i n h i b i t e d the development of the a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s . The q u e s t i o n s asked have been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix K. A l l the r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s . were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d 58 i n d i v i d u a l l y . The i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s c e n t e r e d around two a r e a s - - t h e f i e l d s t u d i e s which they conducted i n d i v i d u a l l y , and t h e i r views about the whole program. The q u e s t i o n s used f o r the i n t e r v i e w on the f i e l d s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix L. The same q u e s t i o n s which were used w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s a f t e r the program (Appendix K) were used t o o b t a i n the views of the r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s t o o . The v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d , u s i n g the same i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s which were put t o the r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , some q u e s t i o n s were asked to e l i c i t g e n e r a l background i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , and some i n f o r m a t i o n about how they p r e p a r e d the s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l p r i o r t o the t r i p (Appendix M). The w r i t e r a l s o observed the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s e d , w i t h the c l a s s t e a c h e r , r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of those a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . , those which had a b e a r i n g on c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s ) which went on i n the c l a s s r o o m a f t e r the outdoor camp program. A f t e r the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s had been g a t h e r e d and a n a l y s e d , 12 s t u d e n t s who had made the g r e a t e s t s h i f t s ( i n c r e a s e and/or d e c r e a s e i n a t t i t u d e s c o r e s ) were i d e n t i f i e d and were i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r item r e s p o n s e s , t o f i n d out why they had changed t h e i r minds, and whether t h e r e was a n y t h i n g i n the program or o u t s i d e the program which c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d towards the s h i f t s . Other s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d as w e l l , u s i n g the q u e s t i o n s i n Appendix N. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o a l l p a r e n t s a f t e r the t r i p (Appendix E ) . The purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o f i n d out i f p a r e n t s had observed any e v i d e n c e of c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s 59 i n s t u d e n t s a f t e r the program. One week was a l l o w e d f o l l o w i n g the program b e f o r e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent o u t . 3.5.5 A n a l y s i s of the Case Study Data A f t e r the program, a l l the w r i t t e n d a t a which had been c o l l e c t e d , and a l l the t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w d a t a were a n a l y s e d . The d a t a f o r each phase of the study were a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The views of t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and the w r i t e r were compared t o determine which a s p e c t s of the program each of the d i f f e r e n t groups of p e o p l e p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g enhanced s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . For the p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d t h e r e was a d e s c r i p t i o n of the way the s t u d e n t s were p r e p a r e d f o r the Outdoor S c h o o l . The e x p e c t a t i o n s of t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and c o u n s e l l o r s i n so f a r as development of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s i s concerned were c o n s i d e r e d . L i k e the o t h e r a n a l y s e s c a r r i e d o u t , t h e r e was a " t r i a n g u l a t i o n " of d a t a . T r i a n g u l a t i o n i s a method which i n v o l v e s p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t views of what i s b e i n g observed ( S e v i g n y , 1978). In t h i s case f o u r views were p r e s e n t e d : the v iews of the w r i t e r , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and the c o u n s e l l o r s . T h i s method o f f e r e d a s t r o n g e r f o u n d a t i o n f o r c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . A t r i a n g u l a t e d approach, a c c o r d i n g t o G l a s s e r and S t r a u s s (1967), a l l o w s one t o get t o o t h e r p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from d i f f e r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Each f i e l d study s e s s i o n which took p l a c e d u r i n g the program was a n a l y s e d t o f i n d out which f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w i l d l i f e , and energy. 60 The views of the s e f a c t o r s as seen by the t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , s t u d e n t s , and the w r i t e r were r e v i e w e d . There was a l s o a t r i a n g u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s of the d a t a on the program as a whole, t o show the f a c t o r s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o i n f l u e n c e the development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s , as seen by the t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and the w r i t e r . The f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s which o c c u r r e d i n the c l a s s r o o m and the p a r e n t s ' comments were a l s o a n a l y s e d , but these were not t r i a n g u l a t e d ; they were used t o shed some l i g h t on f i n d i n g s which came out of the a t t i t u d e s t u d y . 61 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4.0. I n t r o d u c t i o n For the convenience of the reader the s p e c i f i c problems t o which t h i s s tudy a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f have been r e s t a t e d below: 1) What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program have on the a t t i t u d e of s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? 2) What a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e t o or appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? The r e s t of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f statement of the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses which were t e s t e d and the r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment i n s t r u m e n t , then w i l l proceed t o the re s u l t . s of the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s and the case s t u d y . The c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a summary of the main f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . 62 4.1 S p e c i f i c Problem #1 4.1.1 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses T e s t e d The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f i r s t s p e c i f i c problem t e s t e d i n t h i s study a r e s t a t e d below. Ho1: Under the c o n d i t i o n of no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n group d i s p e r s i o n s of the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , w i l l be e q u a l . M a t h e m a t i c a l l y , Ho1: A e - A c Ho2: Under the c o n d i t i o n of no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between group c e n t r o i d s , the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s ( p o p u l a t i o n mean v e c t o r s ) of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups on the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s w i l l not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . M a t h e m a t i c a l l y , Ho2: A* e = y w c 4.1.2 R e l i a b i l i t y of the P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Measures In o r d e r t o t e s t the above h y p o t h e s e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a d m i n i s t e r the n i n e s c a l e s or s u b t e s t s of the a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e f o r e ( r e f e r r e d to here as the p r e t e s t ) and a f t e r ( r e f e r r e d t o here as the p o s t t e s t ) the t r e a t m e n t . The responses of the s u b j e c t s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g the UBC LERTAP computer program. The t o t a l t e s t and s u b t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s 63 (Table 4.1) show t h a t f o r both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups the t e s t s were i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t t o a r e a s o n a b l e e x t e n t . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged between .68 and .87 f o r the n i n e s c a l e s , and reached a v a l u e of .95 f o r the whole t e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the s u b t e s t s c o r e s and the t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s (Cronbach's a l p h a ) ranged between .87 and .93. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was employed i n t h i s s tudy was r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e f o r the a n a l y s e s i n t e n d e d . 4.1.3 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s 4.1.3.1 P o p u l a t i o n D i s p e r s i o n s and C e n t r o i d s of S c o r e s on the  Nine Dependent V a r i a b l e s 4.1.3.1.1 P r e - t r e a t m e n t In o r d e r t o determine whether or not t h e r e was a t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d out i f the two ( e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e ) groups were s i m i l a r b e f o r e the t r e a t m e n t . I f they were s i m i l a r , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o s t t e s t s c o r e s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y . However, i f they were d i f f e r e n t i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e the i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o account i n the p o s t t e s t a n a l y s i s , by u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . The p r e t e s t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d computation of group d i s p e r s i o n s and group c e n t r o i d s . Two a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out on the p r e t e s t , (1) a t e s t of e q u a l i t y of group d i s p e r s i o n s , which C o o l e y and Lohnes (1962) c a l l H1, and, (2) the t e s t of 64 Tab l e 4.1 P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the  E x p e r i m e n t a l and Comparative Groups TEST/SUBTESTS EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE GROUP GROUP (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) PRE POST PRE POST TEST TEST TEST ; TEST S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy .68 .69 .68 .86 S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants .81 .80 .81 .85 S o c i e t a l N o r m - W i l d l i f e .76 .74 .81 .79 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - E n e r g y .80 .75 .77 .85 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s .79 .77 .81 .84 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e .73 .82 .87 .84 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - E n e r g y .80 .84 .81 .83 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s .79 .79 .86 .87 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e .77 .74 .80 .80 Hoyt's C o e f f i c i e n t * .95 .95 .95 .97 Cronbachs a l p h a ** .90 .89 .87 .93 * An ' i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measure of the t o t a l t e s t . * A c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the s u b t e s t s and the t o t a l t e s t . e q u a l i t y of group c e n t r o i d s , which the same a u t h o r s r e f e r t o a s , H2. The H1,H2 computer program by Cooley and Lohnes (1962) was used. The program d e t e r m i n e s and t e s t s both d i s p e r s i o n s and c e n t r o i d s f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i r s t s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s which was t e s t e d was: Ho1: The e x p e r i m e n t a l and co m p a r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n group d i s p e r s i o n s of the p r e t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a re e q u a l . Hoi: A - A 65 The a - l e v e l was s e t at .10 t o reduce somewhat the p r o b a b i l i t y of a c c e p t i n g a no d i f f e r e n c e c o n c l u s i o n when r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the group d i s p e r s i o n s e x i s t e d , t h a t i s , t o reduce Type I I e r r o r . The c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o f o r the d i s p e r s i o n s , 0.11, was l e s s than the t a b l e d F - r a t i o of 1.00 (c=0.10, df=(594,101265)). T h i s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e group d i s p e r s i o n s of the p r e t e s t s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , were e q u a l , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s of homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s was t e n a b l e . The second h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d was: Ho2: The p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a re e q u a l . The c - v a l u e was a g a i n s e t a t .10, t o reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of a type I I e r r o r . The c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o f o r the group c e n t r o i d s was 1.39 which was l e s s than the t a b u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.63 (o=0.10, d f = ( 9 , 1 2 4 ) ) . These r e s u l t s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , t a k e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; thus i t was r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t the performance of the two groups on a l l the nin e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r i o r t o the. t r e a t m e n t , was comparable. e 6 6 4.1.3.1.2 P o s t - t r e a t m e n t I n i t i a l l y , the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g the same H1,H2 program t o t e s t the two s t a t i s t i c a l h ypotheses i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d t e s t i n g f o r e q u a l i t y of group d i s p e r s i o n s . The c - l e v e l was s e t a t .05, t o conform w i t h the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e n o r m a l l y used i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s l i k e e d u c a t i o n where, as was the case i n t h i s s t u d y , we do not have much c o n t r o l over the s u b j e c t s ( K e r l i n g e r , 1964; K i r k , 1968). T h i s r e p r e s e n t s the l e v e l of chance the w r i t e r wanted t o t a k e i n making a Type I e r r o r . In t h i s case the w r i t e r wanted t o be a t l e a s t 95% s u r e t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n was c o r r e c t , i . e . , 5% chance of making a Type 1 e r r o r . The comparison of the d i s p e r s i o n s of the two groups on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , r e s u l t e d i n a c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 0.19. These r e s u l t s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , t a k i n g a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s p e r s i o n of s c o r e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l group. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the t r e a t m e n t s d i d not r e s u l t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the d i s p e r s i o n s of s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a f t e r the program. The comparison of the group c e n t r o i d s r e s u l t e d i n a c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 11.8. T h i s v a l u e was g r e a t e r than the t a b u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.96 a t a=.05, df=(9,127). That i s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n the group c e n t r o i d s , was h e l d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n r e j e c t i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n f a v o r of the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the 67 p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The e x a m i n a t i o n of the mean p o s t t e s t s c o r e s (Table 4.2) showed t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group's p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were more homogeneous and g r e a t e r than those i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group on a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s . The minimum d i f f e r e n c e r e c o r d e d was 4.85 and was o b s e r v e d i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s towards w i l d l i f e . These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the t r e a t m e n t r e c e i v e d by the e x p e r i m e n t a l group (outdoor e d u c a t i o n program) was more e f f e c t i v e i n i m p r o v i n g the a t t i t u d e s of the s u b j e c t s than the t r e a t m e n t r e c e i v e d by the c o m p a r a t i v e group ( r e g u l a r s c h o o l program). C o n s e q u e n t l y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 4.1.3.2 D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s on the Nine Dependent V a r i a b l e s Having o b t a i n e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the group c e n t r o i d s of the two groups, d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p erformed on the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s t o seek more i n f o r m a t i o n about the n a t u r e of the group d i f f e r e n c e s . The computer program DISCRIM, by Cooley and Lohnes (1962) was used, f o l l o w e d by the program RSPACE, by the same a u t h o r s , f o r t h i s purpose. The DISCRIM program computes a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n which shows the 68 Tab l e 4.2 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of the P o s t t e s t S c o r e s  f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l and Comparative Groups Dependent E x p e r i m e n t a l Comparat i v e D i f f e r e n c e Mean St a n . Mean S t a n . Between V a r i a b l e s (Y1 ) Dev. (Y2) Dev. Means S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy 38.078 4. 122 30.986 7.587 7.092 S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants 40.141 4.313 33.986 7.218 6. 1 55 Soc i e t a l N o r m - w i l d l i f e 40.422 4.246 34.808 6.456 5.614 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - E n e r g y 40.688 3.891 35.110 6.299 5.578 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s 42.266 3.793 37.027 6.464 5.239 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e 43.797 4.336 38.945 6.561 4.852 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - E n e r g y 40.531 4.690 31.548 6.958 8.983 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s 41.641 4. 1 46 36.466 7.219 5. 1 75 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e 42.500 3.846 37.096 6.713 5.404 r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each o-f the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t h e two groups, and hence t h e v a r i a b l e s on which the groups d i f f e r e d the most. RSPACE, on the o t h e r hand, shows the l o c a t i o n s of the group c e n t r o i d s i n d i s c r i m i n a n t space, t h a t i s , the l o c a t i o n of the c e n t r o i d s on the s i n g l e d imension spanning d i s c r i m i n a n t space i n the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The s i n g l e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n o b t a i n e d i n the a n a l y s i s has been p r e s e n t e d i n Table 4.3. S i n c e i t was found e a r l i e r t h a t the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were h i g h e r on a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s than those of the c o m p a r a t i v e group, the s c a l e d w e i g h t s suggest t h a t the e f f e c t s of the 69 r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program were r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r on a t t i t u d e s c o r e s of the s u b t e s t s d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s ; and what they b e l i e v e d t h a t most peop l e would do t o save energy ( s o c i e t a l norms-energy). T a b l e 4.3 S c a l e d Weights of the Dependent  V a r i a b l e s i n the D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n Dependent V a r i a b l e S c a l e d Weights* P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - E n e r g y 48.00 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s -38.89 S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy 17.08 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e 15.98 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s 1 3.68 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - E n e r g y -12.68 S o c i e t a l N o r m - W i l d l i f e 5.80 S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants -1.73 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e 0.31 * Cooley and Lohnes (1962, p. 121) The s c a l e d w e i g h t s a l s o showed t h a t of the n i n e v a r i a b l e s the t h r e e l e a s t a f f e c t e d a r e a s were: what the c h i l d r e n d i d i n c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e ( p e r s o n a l a c t i o n - w i l d l i f e ) , what they b e l i e v e d t h a t p e o p l e would do t o save p l a n t s ( s o c i e t a l norm p l a n t s ) , and what they b e l i e v e d t h a t people would do t o save w i l d l i f e ( s o c i e t a l norms - w i l d l i f e ) . These r e s u l t s seemed r e a s o n a b l e i n l i g h t of what went on d u r i n g the program, and what was l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d t o be one of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s t u d y . D u r i n g the program the s t u d e n t s 70 were exposed t o a l l the t h r e e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , but u n l i k e energy and p l a n t s , they were not a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h w i l d l i f e . For example, they were t o l d not t o d i s t u r b the b i r d s , t o approach any a n i m a l w i t h extreme c a r e because, i f f o r example, they went too near a b i r d the mother might abandon the young ones. A l s o , a p a r t from energy, where they c o u l d see the c o n s e r v a t i o n methods b e i n g used, t h e r e was not much emphasis on e x p l a i n i n g or d i s c u s s i n g what peop l e would do. One l i m i t a t i o n of the study which was c o n f i r m e d by some of the p a r e n t s was t h a t t h e r e was not much time a f t e r the program f o r the s t u d e n t s t o get i n t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d p r a c t i c e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods r e l a t e d t o w i l d l i f e . S i n c e the s t u d e n t s showed some c o n c e r n i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s f o r w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and had e x h i b i t e d t h e s e a t home, i t was ex p e c t e d t h a t i f they were exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s which demanded i t , they would p r a c t i c e i t . Another o b s e r v a t i o n which was made d u r i n g the post-camp i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the s t u d e n t s was a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards some p a r t i c u l a r w i l d a n i m a l s . Two s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t they would not save snakes, w h i l e a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s a i d t h a t she would not save c a t s . They s a i d t h a t they had taken t h e s e p o s i t i o n s because of t h e i r u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h those a n i m a l s . The st u d e n t who s a i d t h a t she would not save c a t s a l s o s a i d t h a t she d i d not l i k e c a t s because c a t s had been k i l l i n g s m a l l b i r d s . A l s o , d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the program and the s t u d y , the s t u d e n t s were not exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d see what o t h e r people would do t o save both p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . As 71 f a r as energy c o n s e r v a t i o n i s co n c e r n e d , however, they c o u l d see i t b e i n g p r a c t i c e d by the p u b l i c , they c o u l d see i t i n s i t u a t i o n s which a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v e s , and they c o u l d a l s o see i t on t e l e v i s i o n . One can h a r d l y a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s which do not c a l l f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy th e s e days. P r o b a b l y the reduced e f f e c t on what they t h i n k t h a t people would do t o save p l a n t s was due t o the f a c t t h a t some of them saw s i g n s of human a c t s which were a g a i n s t what they had l e a r n e d , l i k e p eople c a r v i n g t h e i r names on t r e e s and b r e a k i n g branches o f f t r e e s . The reader i s informed h e r e , t h a t the s t u d e n t s had come from a wooded neighborhood and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , c o u l d a l s o have seen such a c t s at home, a f t e r the program. With r e f e r e n c e t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the program was most e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e towards p e r s o n a l a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o energy. I t was m o d e r a t e l y e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards a l l the t h r e e a s p e c t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n at the l e v e l of p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - i . e . , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - w i l d l i f e , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - p l a n t s , and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - e n e r g y . The l e a s t e f f e c t i v e a r e a s were i n p e r s o n a l a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o w i l d l i f e , and s o c i e t a l norms w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e , but these a r e a s of l e a s t e f f e c t have t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . The RSPACE a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the c e n t r o i d s of the two groups i n the reduced space was 28.03 f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, and 21.51 f o r the c o m p a r a t i v e group. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the c e n t r o i d s of the two groups are w e l l - s e p a r a t e d on the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the two group 72 c e n t r o i d s were l o c a t e d toward the p o s i t i v e end of the d i m e n s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t both groups had f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s , and the d i f f e r e n c e between the c e n t r o i d s was an i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of f a v o r a b l e n e s s which the two groups h e l d . W i th r e f e r e n c e t o the second s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s shows t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the group c e n t r o i d s which was found i n the e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s was not o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t , but a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y wide a p a r t . A l s o , i t showed t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group had a more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e than the c o m p a r a t i v e group. Thus i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l group were, s i g n i f i c a n t on a t l e a s t t h r e e of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . 4.1.4 Q u a l i t a t i v e A n a l y s e s . 4.1.4.1 A n a l y s i s of " N o - A t t i t u d e " Responses One l i m i t a t i o n of a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e i s t h a t a "no r e sponse" c a t e g o r y i s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e u n d e c i d e d . Such i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have a n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e . In t h i s study i t was i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between an a c t u a l n e u t r a l response (an a t t i t u d e ) and an undecided ( i . e . , don't know) re s p o n s e , because one e f f e c t of the program c o u l d have been h e l p i n g the s t u d e n t s t o change from "no a t t i t u d e " ( i . e . , undecided) t o a n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e , t h a t i s , i n h e l p i n g the s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . An a d d i t i o n a l response c a t e g o r y "Don't know, or Undecided" 73 was t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o f i n d out i f the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d on t h a t response would h e l p t o l o c a t e such an e f f e c t . The f r e q u e n c y of responses which i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s were undecided or d i d not know, have been p r e s e n t e d i n Table 4.4. Even though on the p r e t e s t t h e r e were c o m p a r a t i v e l y b i g g e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f r e q u e n c i e s f o r some of the v a r i a b l e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i e t a l n o r m - p l a n t s , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - e n e r g y , and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g - p l a n t s ) , the f r e q u e n c i e s on the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were q u i t e c l o s e . The p a t t e r n of the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s and the means were more or l e s s b a l a n c e d , w i t h a s l i g h t tendency t o have more of such " n o n - a t t i t u d e " responses from s u b j e c t s i n the co m p a r a t i v e group. On the p o s t t e s t , however, t h e r e was a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n the p a t t e r n of the re s p o n s e s . Fewer s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group than i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group c i r c l e d "undecided or don't know" re s p o n s e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n the fr e q u e n c y of the responses i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group was d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . One s p e c u l a t i o n was t h a t p r o b a b l y some of the s u b j e c t s were undecided or d i d not know some of the a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n s and d e c i d e d to guess on the p r e t e s t , and were b e i n g more honest on the p o s t t e s t . Another p o s s i b l e s p e c u l a t i o n might have been t h a t because t h e r e was no d i s c u s s i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t u d e n t s might have d i s c u s s e d the i t e m s , and p r o b a b l y some of them were c o n f u s e d , hence undecided on the p o s t t e s t . A t h i r d s p e c u l a t i o n , which i s p r o b a b l y more l i k e l y , might have been t h a t the r e g u l a r s c h o o l program might have d e a l t w i t h 74 Table 4.4 Frequency of Group Responses I n d i c a t i n g 'Undecided or Don't Know' i n P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t TEST/SUBTESTS EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE GROUP GROUP * (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) PRE POST PRE POST TEST TEST TEST TEST S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy 37 7 31 32 S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants 31 6 21 31 S o c i e t a l N o r m - W i l d l i f e 20 8 23 45 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - E n e r g y 20 7 31 46 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - P l a n t s 18 5 29 43 P e r s o n a l F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e 23 2 21 29 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - E n e r g y 25 2 26 31 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - P l a n t s 18 1 19 31 P e r s o n a l A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e 21 1 24 44 Mean 23.7 4.3 25.0 36.9 • A d j u s t e d f o r n=63 ( i . e . , n f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l Group). some of the items i n a more a b s t r a c t way, and some s t u d e n t s were undecided about some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s t h i r d s p e c u l a t i o n was ge n e r a t e d from some of the comments which the c o u n s e l l o r s ( a d u l t s t u d e n t s ) made d u r i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. One f i n d i n g from t h i s a n a l y s i s was t h a t , w h i l e on both the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t the c o m p a r a t i v e group i n d i c a t e d many "Undecided or Don't know" r e s p o n s e s , i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group the number of such responses on the p o s t t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than what was r e c o r d e d on the p r e t e s t . In b oth the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t and the measuring s c a l e which were adopted f o r a s s e s s i n g the a t t i t u d e s i n t h i s study ( F i s h b e i n and L i k e r t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , any of the f i v e " r e g u l a r " 75 responses i n the a t t i t u d e i n s t r u m e n t (SA,A,N,D,SD) i n d i c a t e s an a t t i t u d e . For example, a n e u t r a l response i n d i c a t e s an a t t i t u d e . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e between the p r e t e s t and the p o s t t e s t fewer responses were r e c o r d e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group which i n d i c a t e d a "no a t t i t u d e " on the p o s t t e s t , w h i l e i n the co m p a r a t i v e group t h e r e was ho decrease i n the number of such r e s p o n s e s , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group the tr e a t m e n t was e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g the s t u d e n t s t o s e l e c t a t t i t u d i n a l r e s p o n s e s . T h i s can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program (the t r e a t m e n t f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group) was e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 4.1.4.2 A n a l y s i s of P a r e n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e As an a l t e r n a t e procedure f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the f i r s t r e s e a r c h problem, w r i t t e n comments of the p a r e n t s about any changes i n the a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r of t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o l l o w i n g the program were sought. S i x t y - t h r e e p a r e n t s of the s t u d e n t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were r e q u e s t e d t o respond t o a s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s purpose.. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix E. The s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h i r t y - n i n e of these were answered and r e t u r n e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a response r a t e of 61.90%. T h i s response r a t e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e a s o n a b l e f o r e s t i m a t i n g o b s e r v a b l e changes, i f any, i n the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . The p a r e n t s ' comments and responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t many 76 o b s e r v a b l e changes were seen i n the s t u d e n t s a f t e r the program. In the a r e a of energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , 16 of the p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had shown changes i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r towards c o n s e r v a t i o n . Some of the changes which the p a r e n t s had o b s e r v e d i n c l u d e d : t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s , t u r n i n g down h e a t , t a l k i n g about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n programs on energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , r e a d i n g about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , and b e i n g w o r r i e d about the d e p l e t i o n of energy. T h i r t e e n out of 39 p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t they had not seen any changes i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n s i n c e the program. The reason seven of them gave f o r t h i s response was t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d f a v o r a b l e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s b e f o r e the program. Ten p a r e n t s out of 39 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the-y d i d not know, or c o u l d not t e l l i f t h e i r c h i l d r e n had shown any changes i n energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . A g a i n , one p a r e n t from t h i s group commented t h a t t h e r e was not enough time t o observe such a change. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the p a r e n t s who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o , had o b s e r v e d p o s i t i v e changes i n the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n towards energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , a f t e r the program. The same p a t t e r n of r esponses which was r e p o r t e d on energy c o n s e r v a t i o n was a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e which accounted f o r s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s . F i f t e e n p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had shown changes i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s or b e h a v i o r towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s . The changes which the c h i l d r e n were r e p o r t e d t o have shown i n c l u d e d : w a t e r i n g p l a n t s , c a r i n g f o r 77 p l a n t s at home (e.g., removal of u n dergrowth), t a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n programs on c o n s e r v a t i o n , commenting on p o l l u t i o n , r e a d i n g , and e x p r e s s i n g some i n t e r e s t i n the c a r e of p l a n t s . Twelve p a r e n t s out of 39 r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had not shown any change. Three of t h e s e p a r e n t s commented t h a t the time between the camping e x p e r i e n c e and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o o s h o r t f o r them t o observe any s i g n i f i c a n t changes. One of them a l s o commented t h a t even though no change was n o t i c e d , because t h e i r c h i l d a l r e a d y had a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e , he/she thought t h a t i t had r e i n f o r c e d the o l d a t t i t u d e . Twelve p a r e n t s out of 39 were not i n a p o s i t i o n t o observe any such change, and no reason was o f f e r e d by them. The r e s u l t s of the responses on c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s showed t h a t most of the p a r e n t s who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o o bserve changes had n o t i c e d p o s i t i v e changes. A d d r e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n , the r e s u l t s showed t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s had improved. The o b s e r v e d changes w i t h r e s p e c t t o w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n was p r o b a b l y the one which most p a r e n t s n o t i c e d . As many as 22 of the 39 p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had shown p o s i t i v e changes towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e . T h e i r comments i n d i c t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n d i d t h i n g s l i k e : showing t h a t they were more aware of a n i m a l s ; d o n a t i n g money to save w i l d l i f e ; w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n programs r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e ; t a l k i n g about w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , r e a d i n g about w i l d a n i m a l s , and showing some concern f o r the need t o p r e s e r v e 78 w i l d l i f e . E i g h t out of 39 p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not observe any change i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S i x of the e i g h t p a r e n t s e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s l a c k of a change by a t t r i b u t i n g i t t o two r e a s o n s — t h a t the c h i l d r e n had a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d - t h i s a t t i t u d e p r i o r to the program but t h a t the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e had not d i m i n i s h e d , and t h a t t h e r e was not enough time t o observe a change. Some of the p a r e n t s who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n had a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s a l s o suggested t h a t the program might have r e i n f o r c e d the o l d f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s . Nine p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d not know or c o u l d not t e l l of any changes i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . One of them a g a i n s u g g e sted t h a t t h i s was p r o b a b l y due t o the f a c t t h a t the c h i l d r e n had not had a chance t o show a change. These r e s u l t s on w i l d l i f e showed t h a t even though some p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e r e was not much time f o r the s t u d e n t s t o p r a c t i c e w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, most p a r e n t s saw p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l changes a f t e r the program. T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the program r e s u l t e d i n enhancing the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e . A l t h o u g h more p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s had shown p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e changes, a c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n of the t h i n g s which the p a r e n t s had observed shows t h a t the e f f e c t s i n d i c a t e d more of how the s t u d e n t s f e l t about w i l d l i f e than t h e i r i n t e r r a c t i o n w i t h w i l d l i f e . T h i s f i n d i n g was not the same i n energy or p l a n t s . Most of the changes which the p a r e n t s had n o t i c e d i n those a r e a s i n d i c a t e d some o v e r t c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g energy and p l a n t s . 79 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n tends t o support the r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , which r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r w i l d l i f e , the e f f e c t of the program was g r e a t e r on p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g towards c o n s e r v i n g w i l d l i f e , and m i n i m a l towards p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . To summarize, the responses of the p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l or b e h a v i o r a l changes towards c o n s e r v a t i o n i n a l l t h r e e a r e a s of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s were observed i n the s t u d e n t s , as a p r o b a b l e • e f f e e t of the program. With r e s p e c t t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , t h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the program was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 4.2 S p e c i f i c Problem #2 The second r e s e a r c h problem was t o i d e n t i f y a s p e c t s of the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program which c o n t r i b u t e d t o or appeared t o have c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e the problem the w r i t e r assumed the r o l e of a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t and u n o b t r u s i v e o b s e r v e r of the program and r e c o r d e d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program. The o p i n i o n s of t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and s t u d e n t s were a l s o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b t a i n e d . The outdoor program has been d e s c r i b e d i n a g e n e r a l way i n Chapter Three, and s p e c i f i c e v e n t s are g i v e n i n Appendix A. Only those d e t a i l s of the program which had a b e a r i n g on the development of p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the o b s e r v a t i o n s and o p i n i o n s of 80 the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . 4.2.1 S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s A f t e r the Program T h i r t y - n i n e of the 69 s t u d e n t s who took p a r t i n the program were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r the program. T a b l e 4.5 shows the views e x p r e s s e d by the s t u d e n t s i n response t o the program. The r e s u l t s show a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s f o r a l l the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s . I f one can assume t h a t t h e s e responses i n d i c a t e d t h e i r o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e s , then one can i n f e r t h a t the e f f e c t was g r e a t e r f o r p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e than f o r energy. T a b l e 4.5 S t u d e n t * Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n 'Do You Think That the  Outdoor Program Made You F e e l L i k e S a v i n g ' CONSERVATION TOPIC Yes** No*** N % N % P l a n t s 36 92 3 8 W i l d l i f e 38 97 1 3 Energy 29 74 10 26 n=39 I n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e response I n d i c a t e s "no e f f e c t " and undecided r e s p o n s e s The reasons g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s who d i d not t h i n k t h a t the program had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on them have been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix 0. Three reasons were g i v e n : they d i d not do a n y t h i n g 81 about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n ; they a l r e a d y knew what they were t o l d ; and they e x p e r i e n c e d a bad ( n e g a t i v e ) c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e on the p a r t of one c a b i n group which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program. S i n c e almost everyone f e l t t h a t the program made them f e e l l i k e c o n s e r v i n g p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e , i t was i n f e r r e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s and the new knowledge i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g the program p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . D u r i n g the post-program i n t e r v i e w s , the s t u d e n t s were asked what made them f e e l l i k e s a v i n g p l a n t s . T h e i r r e s p o n s e s , p r e s e n t e d as Appendix P, were c l a s s i f i e d t o f i n d out the common view s which they had. T a b l e 4.6 shows t h e common i d e a s which t h e s t u d e n t s o f f e r e d . The r e s u l t s show t h a t 53% of the s t u d e n t s mentioned what they were taught or l e a r n e d g e n e r a l l y , 33% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o the f i e l d s t u d i e s , 25% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o a need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n which was s t i m u l a t e d by the camp e x p e r i e n c e , 11% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o the f i l m s , and 31% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e the program as a whole, because they l i k e d p l a n t s , because of p l a n t s h a v i n g the r i g h t t o e x i s t , p l a n t s b e i n g l i v i n g t h i n g s , and the poems they wrote. Almost a l l the responses which the s t u d e n t s gave were r e l a t e d t o what was taught a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . Thus, i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the main reason the s t u d e n t s gave f o r t h e i r change i n a t t i t u d e towards p l a n t s was what was taught d u r i n g the program. The s t u d e n t s ' responses t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a s p e c t s of the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program which c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s i n c l u d e d what was t a u g h t , the way those 82 T a b l e 4.6 A s p e c t s of the Program which S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d made them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g P l a n t s Idea p r e s e n t e d f %** 1. Teaching & l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l a) T e a c h i n g about p l a n t s b) S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g about p l a n t s i n g e n e r a l c) S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g about n a t u r e 19 8 5 6 53 22 1 4 1 7 2. What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y about the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n 9 25 3. F i e l d S t u d i e s 12 33 • 4. F i l m s 4 1 1 5. Others .... a) The whole program b) A p p r e c i a t i o n of p l a n t s c) F e e l i n g of the r i g h t t o e x i s t d) A c q u i r i n g new i d e a s about p l a n t s e) W r i t i n g poems 1 1 5 2 2 1 1 31 1 4 6 6 3 3 * n=36 perce n t a g e of s t u d e n t s who mentioned the i d e a ( a s p e c t ) t h i n g s were t a u g h t , the f i e l d s t u d i e s , and the f i l m s . The responses g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the post program i n t e r v i e w about what made them f e e l l i k e s a v i n g w i l d l i f e have been p r e s e n t e d as Appendix Q. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the resp o n s e s (Table 4.7) shows t h a t the s t u d e n t s a t t r i b u t e d the change of a t t i t u d e towards w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the program. T h i r t y - s e v e n p e r e c e n t of those i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s made them f e e l l i k e c o n s e r v i n g w i l d l i f e , 32% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o what they were taught or what they l e a r n e d g e n e r a l l y i n the program; 24% 83 a t t r i b u t e d i t t o the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n which was s t i m u l a t e d by the camp e x p e r i e n c e ; 11% s a i d t h a t the f i l m s i n f l u e n c e d them; and 26% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e the program as a whole, a p p r e c i a t i o n of w i l d l i f e , f e e l i n g of the r i g h t f o r the w i l d l i f e t o e x i s t , j u s t g o i n g t o the Outdoor S c h o o l , and through i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the peopl e and a n i m a l s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . T a b l e 4.7 A s p e c t s of the Program which S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d Made them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g W i l d l i f e Idea ( a s p e c t ) F %'*'* 1. T e a c h i n g & l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l 1 2 32 a) T e a c h i n g about w i l d l i f e 4 1 1 b) T e l l i n g s t u d e n t s about w i l d l i f e 2 5 c) S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g about w i l d l i f e i n g e n e r a l 4 1 1 d) U n d e r s t a n d i n g 2 5 2. What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y about the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n 9 24 3. F i e l d s t u d i e s 1 4 37 4. F i l m s 4 1 1 5. Others 10 26 a) The whole program 3 8 . b) A p p r e c i a t i o n of w i l d l i f e 3 8-c) F e e l i n g of r i g h t t o e x i s t 1 3 d) J u s t b e i n g at the Outdoor S c h o o l 2 5 e) The peopl e and a n i m a l s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l 1 3 * n = 38 ** p e r c e n t a g e of s t u d e n t s who mentioned the i d e a ( a s p e c t ) The responses g i v e n by the s t u d e n t s about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n (Appendix R) have been c l a s s i f i e d i n Ta b l e 4.8. The 84 a t t e n t i o n of the reader i s drawn t o the f a c t t h a t most of the s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h they f e l t l i k e s a v i n g energy, they c o u l d not t e l l how the program i n f l u e n c e d them. The responses p r e s e n t e d were o b t a i n e d from 20 s t u d e n t s of the 39 who were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r the program. The r e s u l t s show t h a t seven (35%) of those who o f f e r e d reasons f o r what made them f e e l l i k e s a v i n g energy i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were taught about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , w i t h o u t any e l a b o r a t i o n ; a n other seven (35%) a t t r i b u t e d i t . t o the concern f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i t was because of d w i n d l i n g energy r e s o u r c e s ; one (5%) s a i d t h a t i t was due t o the f i e l d s t u d i e s ; w h i l e f i v e (24%) a t t r i b u t e d i t t o " o t h e r " reasons ( t h r e e s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t i t was because of the c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t the outdoor camp, one s a i d t h a t i t was the whole program, and one s a i d t h a t i t was because she f e l t good about s a v i n g e n e r g y ) . One l i m i t a t i o n of t h e d a t a on energy was the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r number of s u b j e c t s (n=20) who responded t o the q u e s t i o n . Ten s t u d e n t s had i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t the program d i d not have any e f f e c t on t h e i r f e e l i n g towards energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e n i n e o t h e r s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t they d i d not know. From the w r i t e r s e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s u l t s , the views e x p r e s s e d by the 20 s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d what the program o f f e r e d . I t was assumed t h a t the 20 responses r e p r e s e n t e d the g e n e r a l view of the s t u d e n t s . That assumption was made t o p e r m i t a comparison of the r e s u l t s of a l l the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s . The views e x p r e s s e d by the s t u d e n t s about the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s r e v e a l e d t h a t the f i e l d s t u d i e s , what the t e a c h e r s t a u g h t , the reasons f o r c o n s e r v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , 85 T a b l e 4.8 A s p e c t s of the Program .which S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d Made them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g Energy Idea suggested Teaching & L e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l a) What they were t o l d about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n b) What they s a i d they l e a r n e d about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l y about the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g the program 3. F i e l d s t u d i e s 4. F i l m s O thers a) c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t camp b) through the whole progbam c) f e e l i n g good about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n 7 .6 1 5 3 1 1 0.** 35 30 5 35 0 24 1 5 5 5 * n = 20 ** Pe r c e n t a g e of s t u d e n t s who mentioned the i d e a ( a s p e c t ) and the f i l m , were the main a s p e c t s of the program which the s t u d e n t s a t t r i b u t e d - t o why they f e l t l i k e s a v i n g p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . For energy, however, what the s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t , and reasons f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e appeared t o be the main a s p e c t s of the program which enhanced t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . The reasons g i v e n by t h r e e of the s t u d e n t s who d i d not t h i n k t h a t the program a f f e c t e d them, a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h i s v i e w . The reason which th e s e s t u d e n t s gave f o r the l a c k of an e f f e c t s u g g e s t e d t h a t they d i d not do a n y t h i n g about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . A l s o , d u r i n g the program, t h e r e were t h r e e main s e s s i o n s which i n v o l v e d i n s t r u c t i o n ( i n - c l a s s t e a c h i n g , f i e l d 86 s t u d i e s , and the f i l m s ) . For energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , those t h r e e s e s s i o n s were o n l y i n v o l v e d w i t h some d i s c u s s i o n o f , and e x p l a n a t i o n of energy s h o r t a g e i n the w o r l d , and what p e o p l e can do t o cons e r v e i t . The responses which the s t u d e n t s gave and which were c l a s s i f i e d as " o t h e r " i n a l l the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s ( T a b l e s 4.6, 4.7, and 4.8) appeared t o be t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o what they l e a r n e d or t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o what they observed d u r i n g the c o u r s e of the program. For example, responses such as : " P l a n t s a r e s o r t of like-humans.-. . "; "The p l a n t s o u t s i d e our c a b i n made i t p r e t t y . . . " ; "The whole program i s about s a v i n g them..."; "We saw d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of b i r d f e e d e r s " ; "Because I found out how they r e a l l y a r e l i k e " ; "Because they don't use as much energy as they do i n towns"; "Because we were f o r c e d (expected) t o t u r n o f f our l i g h t s or e l s e we would not get v e r y good c a b i n marks." There was another i n d i c a t i o n which suggested t h a t the s t u d e n t s were a t t r i b u t i n g the e f f e c t of the program t o what they s t u d i e d . When they were asked which p a r t of the program they l i k e d , t h e i r responses (summarized i n Appendix S) showed t h a t they l i k e d the f i e l d s t u d i e s b e s t . Thus, from the s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t of view, the main a s p e c t of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d towards enhancing t h e i r a t t i t u d e s was what they were taught d u r i n g the outdoor program. T h i s i n c l u d e d the t h i n g s which they l e a r n e d , the way i t was p r e s e n t e d to them, and the a c t i v i t i e s which they were engaged i n . Other a s p e c t s of program which enhanced t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were the f i l m s which they saw, the c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s which were p r a c t i c e d 87 a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the Outdoor S c h o o l environment. 4.2.2 R e s u l t s of C o u n s e l l o r s ' I n t e r v i e w s Ten c o u n s e l l o r s took p a r t i n the camp program. They were i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the camp program. The p r e -camp i n t e r v i e w r e v e a l e d t h a t a p a r t from the weekend p r e p a r a t i o n a t the Outdoor S c h o o l a l l the c o u n s e l l o r s had had at l e a s t a one-week p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e a t the camp. A l l agreed t h a t the program had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . They o f f e r e d reasons t o e x p l a i n how the program enhanced t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . A f t e r the camp program they were a g a i n asked how i n t h e i r view the one-week program i n f l u e n c e d the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . Even though they responded, a l l of them agreed t h a t t h e i r e a r l i e r comments were s t i l l v a l i d . Thus t h e i r r e sponses f o r both p e r i o d s of the program have been combined and p r e s e n t e d below. ( 1) F i e l d S t u d i e s F i v e c o u n s e l l o r s mentioned the f i e l d s t u d i e s as an a s p e c t of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . They s a i d t h a t t h e r e was an emphasis on p l a n t s and a n i m a l s i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s . The i n s t r u c t o r s took the s t u d e n t s around and showed them d i f f e r e n t . t r e e s and a n i m a l s , and a l s o t o l d them new t h i n g s about n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . For example, they t o l d them how they c o u l d a f f e c t the p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . The f i v e c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s appeared t o arouse s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t i n p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , whi'le the a s s o c i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p e d them t o r e a l i z e 88 how they c o u l d c o n s e r v e r e s o u r c e s . (2) What S t u d e n t s Learned S p e c i f i c a l l y about C o n s e r v a t i o n F i v e c o u n s e l l o r s suggested t h a t the knowledge a c q u i r e d by the s t u d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . A c c o r d i n g t o the c o u n s e l l o r s , some of the s t u d e n t s p r o b a b l y d i d not r e a l l y know a n y t h i n g about the outdoor environment b e f o r e the camp. D u r i n g the program the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d new t h i n g s about e c o l o g y and were p r e s e n t e d w i t h f a c t s about d w i n d l i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . They were t o l d how the ecosystem worked and why they s h o u l d or s h o u l d not do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , and how i f everyone c o n t r i b u t e d a l i t t l e b i t , i t c o u l d save the environment. For example, a c c o r d i n g t o one c o u n s e l l o r , the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d t h a t s h o o t i n g one a n i m a l at a c e r t a i n time of the year c o u l d r e s u l t i n k i l l i n g the a n i m a l and i t s unborn b a b i e s . They a l s o got t o know t h a t an a c t which may be c o n s i d e r e d as t r i v i a l c o u l d l e a d t o a b i g g e r e f f e c t , because of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of an ecosystem. Thus they u n d e r s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d the v a l u e i n c o n s e r v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . They a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were many t h i n g s which they c o u l d do t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and they r e s p e c t e d the a t t e m p t s which a r e made by o t h e r people f o r the same purpose. (3) The Outdoor E x p e r i e n c e A c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e c o u n s e l l o r s , j u s t t a k i n g the s t u d e n t s out t o the outdoor camp was an a s p e c t of the program which enhanced the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . The t h r e e c o u n s e l l o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was a b e t t e r p l a c e t o l e a r n about c o n s e r v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s than s t u d y i n g i n the c i t y from books, because 89 they s t u d i e d about the environment i n the environment. One of them r e p o r t e d t h a t i t gave t h e s t u d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e what they had been s t u d y i n g i n s c h o o l , w h i l e another c o u s e l l o r added t h a t i t h e l p e d them t o a c q u i r e good h a b i t s , and to share the i d e a s by t a l k i n g w i t h f r i e n d s w h i l e a t the camp. A c c o r d i n g t o y e t another c o u n s e l l o r , the e x p e r i e n c e a t the camp r e i n f o r c e d what some of the s t u d e n t s knew. For example, he s a i d t h a t some of the s t u d e n t s had l e a r n e d about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n a t home, from t h e i r p a r e n t s . At the Outdoor School they saw t h a t what t h e i r p a r e n t s had been t e l l i n g them was p r a c t i c e d by everyone. They saw t h a t everyone t u r n e d o f f the l i g h t s and/or i n d i c a t e d t h a t they wanted l i g h t s t o be t u r n e d o f f to c o n s e r v e energy. A c c o r d i n g t o him, t h i s made them f e e l t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s were not b e i n g abnormal by t e l l i n g them t o t u r n o f f t h e i r l i g h t s a t home, and they l e a r n e d t o accept i t . (4) The Outdoor S c h o o l Environment A c c o r d i n g t o two c o u n s e l l o r s , c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i s the " b i g emphasis" a t the camp. One c o u n s e l l o r s a i d t h e r e was a f e e l i n g which one got from the people a t the camp. Everyone a t the Outdoor S c h o o l t a l k e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n and/or showed good c o n s e r v a t i o n h a b i t s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t because the s t u d e n t s saw how o t h e r people r e a c t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s i t might have i n f l u e n c e d them. He appeared t o b e l i e v e t h a t the c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e by c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s was l i k e l y t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . A c c o r d i n g t o him, i f the s t u d e n t s were by themselves i n the o u t d o o r s , t h i n g s might have been d i f f e r e n t , but because they were w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and they knew t h a t they were b e i n g watched, they f e l t i t . Another 90 c o u n s e l l o r suggested t h a t d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e time and w h i l e w a l k i n g around and l i s t e n i n g t o o t h e r people the s t u d e n t s got the same f e e l i n g t o c o n s e r v e . (5) P o s t e r s i n Ca b i n s One c o u n s e l l o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t the energy c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s i n the c a b i n s were one a s p e c t of the program which c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d the development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s . The w r i t e r observed t h a t t h e r e were energy c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s i n a l l the b u i l d i n g s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . (6) Enjoyment of the Outdoor E x p e r i e n c e A p a r t from the fun they had i n the f i e l d s t u d y s e s s i o n s , one c o u n s e l l o r suggested t h a t the s t u d e n t s p l a y e d and had fun d u r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s . Another c o u n s e l l o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the enjoyment h e l p e d t o enhance t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s because they would remember the fun they had i n the outdoor camp program. (7) I n t e r a c t i o n Among S t u d e n t s i n the Outdoors One c o u n s e l l o r suggested t h a t d u r i n g the program s t u d e n t s saw t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s , through t h e i r own o b s e r v a t i o n s , and when these o b s e r v a t i o n s o c c u r r e d they o f t e n t o l d o t h e r s t u d e n t s . T h i s was not e l a b o r a t e d upon by him. S i m i l a r t h i n g s were r e p o r t e d by the t e a c h e r s . (8) C o u n s e l l o r s ' I n f l u e n c e A comment by a c o u n s e l l o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s had a unique r o l e i n the enhancement of a t t i t u d e s i n the outdoor program. A c c o r d i n g t o h e r , most elementary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s see h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as t h e i r i d o l s . She i n d i c a t e d t h a t d u r i n g the camp program they made the s t u d e n t s f e e l wanted, and they 91 became more i n v o l v e d i n the program. She a l s o remarked t h a t because of the way the s t u d e n t s see the c o u n s e l l o r s , they were more prone t o ac c e p t what the c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d them, which i n c l u d e d a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . A c c o r d i n g t o the c o u n s e l l o r s ' v i e w s , the s e t - u p at the Outdoor S c h o o l , the p o s t e r s on energy c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the c a b i n s (and p r o b a b l y those i n the o t h e r b u i l d i n g s ) , the e x p e r i e n c e s which the s t u d e n t s got by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environment and the f i e l d s t u d i e s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , a l l the c o u n s e l l o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they enjoyed the s e s s i o n s . A l l of them thought t h a t the s t u d e n t s e n j o y e d the s e s s i o n s , and t h a t was c o n f i r m e d by the s t u d e n t s . T h i r t y - s e v e n (95%) of the 39 s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the program s a i d t h a t they e n j o y e d the s e s s i o n s , and a l l those who were asked a f t e r the program i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d . Apart from the p o s t e r s i n the c a b i n s , the s t u d e n t s ' views touched on a l l the key i d e a s suggested by the c o u n s e l l o r s e xcept t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s o f f e r e d a c l e a r e r e x p l a n a t i o n . One d i f f e r e n c e between the two views was t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not mention a n y t h i n g about the f i l m s . T h i s was not unexpected, because almost a l l the t e a c h e r s and a l l the c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i l m s e s s i o n s . 4.2.3 R e s u l t s of Teachers' I n t e r v i e w The t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the program i n c l u d e d the Outdoor S c h o o l r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r , t h r e e t e a c h e r s from the Outdoor S c h o o l , and t h r e e t e a c h e r s from the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l . Even though 92 the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r was not a t e a c h e r by t r a i n i n g , the r o l e she p l a y e d i n the program was t h a t of a t e a c h e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y she was c l a s s i f i e d as a t e a c h e r i n t h i s s t u d y . W A 1 1 seven t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r the program, and t h e i r views have been p r e s e n t e d below. From the t e a c h e r s ' p o i n t of view t h e r e were s i x a s p e c t s of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . (1) The P r e p a r a t i o n B e f o r e the Camp Program A l l seven t e a c h e r s suggested t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n which took p l a c e b e f o r e the camp program was one a s p e c t of the program which c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . These i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r e n t s , and the t e a c h e r s . They s a i d t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n l e d t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l the peopl e who were i n v o l v e d i n the program, and i n t u r n h e l p e d t o make the camp e x p e r i e n c e more e f f e c t i v e . For example, two t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t i t made them ( t e a c h e r s ) aware of the f i e l d s t u d i e s which were g o i n g t o be taught d u r i n g the camp program, they knew the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each t e a c h e r , and i t made them aware of the f u l l d e t a i l s of the o v e r a l l camp program. Another t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e a more r e c e p t i v e frame of mind f o r bo t h the s o c i a l and the academic a c t i v i t i e s which had been p l a n n e d . Even though a l l the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n was g o i n g to have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s , the t h r e e t e a c h e r s at the Outdoor S c h o o l f e l t t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l room f o r improvement. They would have l i k e d t o p l a y a more a c t i v e 93 r o l e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s , and t o have had more meeting time w i t h a l l the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s p r i o r t o the camp program. A c c o r d i n g t o them, i f they had had a g r e a t e r r o l e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n phase of the program they would have been a b l e to d i s c u s s the whole program w i t h a l l the t e a c h e r s and a l s o would have known the s t u d e n t s b e t t e r b e f o r e they a r r i v e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . The t e a c h e r s thought t h a t such a r o l e would have made them "more c o m f o r t a b l e " w i t h the group b e f o r e they a r r i v e d a t the camp. (2) F i e l d S t u d i e s A c c o r d i n g t o a l l the seven t e a c h e r s , the f i e l d s t u d i e s made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the enhancement of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . There were f o u r f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s and every t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t h i s / h e r f i e l d s t u d i e s had a r o l e i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . For example, one t e a c h e r s a i d " I d e f i n i t e l y t h i n k t h a t today's l e s s o n s would have an i n f l u e n c e on the c h i l d r e n s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n , because they were r i g h t i n the environment, s e e i n g how i t i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , how each p a r t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , how i t c o u l d not f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t a n i m a l s , p l a n t s , water and how the s e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y and have t o be c o n s e r v e d . And a g a i n we t a l k e d about energy t o o , so they can see how energy f i t s i n . " Another t e a c h e r s a i d "I would say y e s ; from the a t t i t u d e s the k i d s seem t o have when they l e a v e me a t the end of the day i n the f o r e s t . " W ith r e g a r d t o the stream study the same t e a c h e r s a i d "Yes, they see i t ve r y c l e a r l y . The k i d s see t h a t water, i s a ve r y e a s i l y a f f e c t e d medium. I f i t s temperature changes or t h e r e i s some substance i n the water t h a t i s 94 p o i s o n o u s , or t h e r e i s no oxygen... t h i n g s are a f f e c t e d r i g h t away. So they see t h a t they themselves s h o u l d not throw t h i n g s i n the w a ter, or throw garbage i n t o the water, and t h a t has an impact on i t r i g h t away." S i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s were made by each of the seven t e a c h e r s . When the t e a c h e r s were asked t o e x p l a i n how t h e i r f i e l d s t u d i e s enhanced the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , they s a i d t h a t the s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e d new knowledge about n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h a t they had f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e from i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h i t , t h a t they • found each s e s s i o n t o be i m p o r t a n t , i n t e r e s t i n g , and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were t h i n g s which they c o u l d do or a v o i d d o i n g t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . A g a i n , a l l the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e i r f i e l d study s e s s i o n s they t r i e d t o show the s t u d e n t s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the ecosystem, the v a l u e of each p a r t , and how p e o p l e can a f f e c t i t . A view which appeared t o have been shared by a l l the t e a c h e r s was p r o b a b l y best e x p r e s s e d i n what one t e a c h e r s a i d : "With the v a r i e t y of the f i e l d s t u d i e s we had,.... I t h i n k t h a t e v e r y s t u d e n t s h o u l d go away w i t h a l i t t l e more awareness of t h e d e l i c a t e n e s s of our environment and i t s r e s o u r c e s . " A l l the t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were t e a c h i n g w i t h the same concept of the ecosystem, but they a l s o agreed t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were d i f f e r e n t , t h a t they were g i v i n g the s t u d e n t s " d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , " and u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of examples. They a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d study s e s s i o n s were r e i n f o r c i n g each o t h e r . One t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t even though the t i t l e s of the f i e l d 95 study t o p i c s suggested t h a t they were r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n , he thought t h a t the t o p i c s a l o n e d i d not guarantee the enhancement of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . A c c o r d i n g t o him i t was the q u a l i t y of the e x p e r i e n c e which the s t u d e n t s got i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s and i n the whole program. He e x p l a i n e d t h a t the f i e l d s t u d i e s were of a h i g h q u a l i t y because the s t u d e n t s were exposed t o new e x p e r i e n c e s , new knowledge, t h a t they saw the v a l u e of what they were l e a r n i n g , and got a framework from which they c o u l d t h i n k about the o u t d o o r s . A c c o r d i n g t o him a program, or an a c t i v i t y c o u l d have been of a low q u a l i t y i f the s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n an u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e such as b e i n g sent out on a r a i n y day, or i f they were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a t a s k t h a t they had been s e t , or i f the s t u d e n t s became f r u s t r a t e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s . He thought t h a t i t was the f r e q u e n c y of the h i g h q u a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e s which the s t u d e n t s had i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s which c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of the a t t i t u d e s . (3) The Outdoor S c h o o l Environment Three of the t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t b e i n g i n the Outdoor S c h o o l environment f o r the f i v e days, a l o n e c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n , because t h a t environment was new, and i t a l s o s u p p o r t e d a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Two of the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t a t the camp the s t u d e n t s saw and worked w i t h t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s who p r a c t i c e d good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. A c c o r d i n g t o the r u l e s of the Outdoor School they were expect&d t o do the same. One t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t each s t u d e n t was s e e i n g h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f as a student i n a d i f f e r e n t environment, and was 96 p e r f o r m i n g d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h many o t h e r s t u d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o him, the t h i n g s which they saw and were expected t o do "...draws home some of the l e s s o n s which they have been h e a r i n g over and o v e r , and i t makes sense h e r e . " He b e l i e v e d t h a t i f they had gone t o the camp f o r the a c t i v i t i e s and r e t u r n e d home every e v e n i n g d u r i n g the week, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s would not have been e q u a l l y f a v o r a b l e . Because t h e y . l i v e d i n t h a t new and s u i t a b l e environment, they a c q u i r e d more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s . In an attempt t o defend the above p o s i t i o n , he argued t h a t , w h i l e they were t h e r e , they were b e i n g watched by the t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and t h e i r f r i e n d s , and were "i n u n d a t e d w i t h t h e i r ( s t u d e n t s ) b e h a v i o r . " For example, a group of s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have n o t i c e d a f r o g w h i l e on a walk and one -student a t t e m p t e d t o grab i t . A l l of a sudden, t h r e e s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have shouted "Don't t o u c h i t . You might h u r t i t . " A nother t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t she ove r h e a r d some s t u d e n t s t e l l i n g o t h e r s not t o walk i n the stream, and i n another case o t h e r s t u d e n t s were t e l l i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s not t o p i c k f l o w e r s i n the f o r e s t . Such immediate r e a c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e i r own f r i e n d s , were s a i d t o have an e f f e c t on them, and a l s o h e l p e d t o r e i n f o r c e what the t e a c h e r s had t o l d them. She argued t h a t the b e h a v i o r of s t u d e n t s b e f o r e the camp program, and what they l e a r n e d a t the camp made more sense because they were i n an a p p r o p r i a t e environment. They had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e and t o p r a c t i c e some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, and i n doi n g t h a t she s a i d t h a t they were more o b s e r v a n t . 97 (4) F i l m s Shown a t the Outdoor S c h o o l Two t e a c h e r s mentioned the f i l m s which were screen e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l as an a s p e c t of the program which they b e l i e v e d t o have an e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n . The t e a c h e r s were the two who s u p e r v i s e d and showed the t h r e e f i l m s . A c c o r d i n g t o the two t e a c h e r s , the f i l m s d e a l t w i t h some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s which were d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u dy s e s s i o n s . For example, they showed some of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the components of the f o r e s t and stream ecosystems, some e f f e c t s of p o l l u t i o n , and how people can h e l p t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . One of t h e s e t e a c h e r s a l s o mentioned t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r s c r e e n i n g each f i l m were a l s o h e l p f u l . The d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e each f i l m h e l p e d t o arouse the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t and t o f o c u s t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , w h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n s a f t e r each f i l m h e l p e d t o e x p l a i n what they saw. (5) A t t i t u d e s and B e h a v i o r of Teachers Two t e a c h e r s suggested t h a t the a t t i t u d e s of the t e a c h e r s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s . They s a i d t h a t even though the s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d t o the t e a c h e r s k e e n l y as they t a l k e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n , they a l s o watched them t o f i n d out i f they f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h what they s a i d t h e m s e l v e s . One s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y o b s e r v e d the t e a c h e r s , and would pay heed t o what they were t o l d o n l y i f the t e a c h e r s p r a c t i c e d what they s a i d t h e m s e l v e s . Both t e a c h e r s suggested t h a t s i n c e a l l the t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program showed a keen i n t e r e s t i n 98 c o n s e r v a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t a t t i t u d e might have been p i c k e d up by some of the s t u d e n t s t o o . (6) Post-camp E x p e r i e n c e s A l l the r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s commented t h a t even though the s t u d e n t s had been exposed t o the camp program, the e x p e r i e n c e s of the s t u d e n t s upon r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l c o u l d a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i f the a c q u i r e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were not r e i n f o r c e d . One t e a c h e r suggested t h a t the s c h o o l s h o u l d be more e n c o u r a g i n g and s u p p o r t i v e , i f the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s were g o i n g t o remain f o r l o n g . Another t e a c h e r noted t h a t because the Outdoor S c h o o l was i s o l a t e d from the normal s c h o o l , and a l s o because the Outdoor S c h o o l d i d not have much t o do w i t h the s t u d e n t s a f t e r the program, i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t some of the s t u d e n t s might t h i n k t h a t the c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c s were o n l y a p p l i c a b l e a t the. Outdoor S c h o o l , and might f o r g e t them once they l e f t the camp. She t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a f o l l o w - u p w i t h s i m i l a r i d e a s i n the s c h o o l a f t e r the camp program would h e l p t o r e i n f o r c e , and a l s o t o extend the a c q u i r e d a t t i t u d e s beyond the Outdoor S c h o o l . Another t e a c h e r suggested t h a t i t would be b e t t e r f o r one of the outdoor s t a f f members t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s i n the s c h o o l . 4.2.4 W r i t e r ' s P o i n t of View In the w r i t e r ' s view, e i g h t a s p e c t s of the program appear t o have c o n t r i b u t e d towards the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . These a s p e c t s have been p r e s e n t e d below. 99 (1) The P r e p a r a t i o n B e f o r e the Camp Program P r i o r t o the camp program t h e r e was a p r e p a r a t i o n phase which s e p a r a t e l y i n v o l v e d t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and p a r e n t s . D u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n phase the s t u d e n t s saw t h r e e f i l m s on f o r e s t e c o l o g y ; they s t u d i e d mammals and ecosystems; and they wrote poems on f o r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , they d i s c u s s e d the Outdoor S c h o o l c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s and the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the Outdoor S c h o o l . A l l t h r e e f i l m s , "The I n c r e d i b l e F o r e s t , " "A Tree i s a L i v i n g T h i n g , " and "Another S i d e of the F o r e s t , " were r e l a t e d t o p l a n t and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . For example, "The I n c r e d i b l e F o r e s t " showed the way humans i n t e r a c t w i t h , and a f f e c t the f o r e s t . B e f o r e each f i l m the t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e d i t s c o n t e n t , t e l l i n g t he s t u d e n t s what they were g o i n g t o see. They a l s o p r e s e n t e d the s t u d e n t s w i t h 12 or more q u e s t i o n s which they were e x p e c t e d t o answer i n w r i t i n g a f t e r the f i l m . A l l the q u e s t i o n s were open ended, i n t h a t they were not answered d i r e c t l y i n the f i l m . For example, s t u d e n t s were asked t o d e s c r i b e what would happen i f h a l f the bears i n the f o r e s t were k i l l e d . The answers which t h e s t u d e n t s wrote down i n c l u d e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a n i m a l s on which the bears f e d , an i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n of o t h e r a n i m a l s which competed w i t h bears f o r food , and o t h e r problems which would be c r e a t e d by the imbalance i n the p o p u l a t i o n of the communities w i t h i n the f o r e s t environment. The f i l m s , about h a l f - a n - h o u r l o n g , h e l d the s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n . I t was observed t h a t some s t u d e n t s took down no t e s d u r i n g the f i l m . A f t e r the f i l m , s t u d e n t s ' answers t o the 100 q u e s t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d . The en c o u r a g i n g response of the t e a c h e r t o t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s l e d the w r i t e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s e x e r c i s e c o u l d have enhanced s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e . The s c i e n c e t o p i c s which were taught p r i o r t o the camp program were "mammals" and "ecosystem." Each s t u d e n t was asked t o w r i t e a r e p o r t on a farm a n i m a l . As p a r t of the d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h a t assignment they were t o l d t o do l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h on one of the farm a n i m a l s l i v i n g a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . In the r e p o r t they were e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e about problems which t h a t farm a n i m a l would f a c e , i f i t was r e t u r n e d t o i t s n a t u r a l e n v i ronment. In language a r t s , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d the t h i n g s they l i k e d about f o r e s t s , and these i d e a s were used t o w r i t e some poems t o g e t h e r . They were t o w r i t e another poem on some a s p e c t of the f o r e s t and t o submit i t a f t e r the camp program. In a d d i t i o n t o the academic p r e p a r a t i o n , the s t u d e n t s were a l s o g i v e n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the c o n d i t i o n s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . Each s t u d e n t was g i v e n a copy of the s t u d e n t s ' handbook, s u p p l i e d by the Outdoor S c h o o l . T h i s book c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n which was c o n s i d e r e d t o be p e r t i n e n t t o the camp e x p e r i e n c e . For example, i t had i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t e , the outdoor s t a f f , the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Outdoor S c h o o l , the type of c l o t h i n g and equipment which •was a p p r o p r i a t e , d u t i e s , t a b l e manners, r u l e s and the g e n e r a l program s c h e d u l e . The t e a c h e r s a l l o w e d time f o r them to read the book on t h e i r own, and l a t e r d i s c u s s e d the c o n t e n t s w i t h them. In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s h e l p e d them t o a c q u i r e 101 a more r e c e p t i v e frame of mind f o r the o b j e c t i v e s of the program. N i n e t e e n s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e the camp program, and a l l of them i n d i c a t e d t h a t they knew what they were g o i n g t o do, l e a r n , and see a t the camp. A l l of them f e l t they knew what was ex p e c t e d of them a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and about h a l f of them i n d i c a t e d t h a t g o i n g t o the Outdoor S c h o o l was a p r i v i l e g e which they c o u l d l o s e i f they d i d not comply w i t h the r u l e s of c o n d u c t . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s h e l p e d t o ready them f o r the camp program. In- the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , t h e • p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and p a r e n t s d i d not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , s i n c e s t u d e n t s were not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was, however, i n d i r e c t l y e f f e c t i v e i n making the s t u d e n t s b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r the camp program than they would have been i f no p r e p a r a t i o n had been done. As p a r t of the p r e p a r a t i o n , the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were g i v e n c o p i e s of the t e a c h e r s ' handbook t o s t u d y . There were meetings a t the Outdoor S c h o o l i n v o l v i n g the outdoor s t a f f , meetings a t the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l i n v o l v i n g the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s , and one meeting between a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Outdoor S c h o o l and the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l . The meetings a t the Outdoor S c h o o l d i s c u s s e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r s , and the arrangements f o r the camp program. The meetings of the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s e d the way the s t u d e n t s were g o i n g t o be p r e p a r e d , d i s c u s s e d which of the suggested f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s t hey c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u i t a b l e f o r the camp program, and d i s c u s s e d which of the 1 02 suggested r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s would be s u i t a b l e f o r the s t u d e n t s . The meeting between the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Outdoor Sc h o o l and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l was m a i n l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s which had t o be f u l f i l l e d b e f o r e the Outdoor S c h o o l would accept the s t u d e n t s . For example, the t e a c h e r s checked t o ensure t h a t each p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t had the consent of a paren t i n w r i t i n g , and a w r i t t e n n o t a t i o n of any m e d i c a l problems any s t u d e n t might have, or any s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or problems of s t u d e n t s they s h o u l d be aware o f . In a d d i t i o n , the s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d t o c a b i n and study groups. A l s o a t t h a t meeting, the Outdoor S c h o o l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e asked about the f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s had s e l e c t e d -f o r the camp program. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h a t had not been made because a meeting had been p l a n n e d by the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s them. The two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n t a c t e d each o t h e r by t e l e p h o n e t o communicate the f i n a l d e c i s i o n l a t e r . I n t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s h e l p e d t o complete the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements of the camp program. The meetings s e r v e d many u s e f u l f u n c t i o n s . They e n a b l e d one outdoor s t a f f member to meet the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s b e f o r e t h e i r a r r i v a l a t the camp, encouraged t e a c h e r s to d i s c u s s and t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and gave t e a c h e r s a chance t o d i s c u s s p o t e n t i a l problems r e l a t e d t o the camp program. The p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d one m e e t i n g . D u r i n g the meeting the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s b r i e f e d the p a r e n t s about the camp 1 03 program, and encouraged p a r e n t s t o r e a c t t o the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d . There was, f o r example, a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Outdoor S c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n , one t e a c h e r r e v i e w e d the p l a n of the camp program and the arrangements which had been made i n the s c h o o l f o r the d e p a r t u r e and a r r i v a l of the s t u d e n t s t o and from the Outdoor S c h o o l . A f t e r , the b r i e f i n g , p a r e n t s were encouraged t o r e a c t t o the pla n n e d program. P a r e n t s s a i d they wanted t o know what arrangements had been plan n e d t o ensure the s a f e t y of the s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r s responded by d e s c r i b i n g the f a c i l i t i e s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , the e x p e r i e n c e of the a d u l t s who were g o i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n the camp program, and the s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s which had been d e s c r i b e d i n the Outdoor S c h o o l handbooks. F o l l o w i n g t h a t answer many p a r e n t s s a i d t h a t s a f e t y was t h e i r major c o n c e r n , and t h a t they were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s which were d e s c r i b e d . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s s e r v e d t o a l l a y the f e a r s of p a r e n t s about the s a f e t y of t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and i t a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n f i r m the support of the p a r e n t s f o r the camp program by making the p a r e n t s f e e l more p o s i t i v e l y about the program. In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the e f f e c t of the p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s on the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was i n d i r e c t . I t informed p a r e n t s about the program, t h e r e b y p l a c i n g the p a r e n t s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o r e l a t e t o q u e s t i o n s and/or comments which the s t u d e n t s made a f t e r the camp program. The p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s i n v o l v e d a meeting f o l l o w e d 104 by a weekend o r i e n t a t i o n program a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . The meeting was h e l d i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . A l l those who had v o l u n t e e r e d t o a s s i s t i n the program met and an outdoor s t a f f member e x p l a i n e d the r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r s i n the camp program. At t h a t meeting each p r o s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r was g i v e n a copy of the c o u n s e l l o r ' s handbook t o study b e f o r e the week-end o r i e n t a t i o n program. The Outdoor S c h o o l p i c k e d up a l l the p r o s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s from the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t on F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n program, and r e t u r n e d them on Sunday a f t e r n o o n . The o r i e n t a t i o n program c o n s i s t e d of l e c t u r e s , s e m i n a r s , and p r a c t i c a l work. Some of the t h i n g s d i s c u s s e d i n v o l v e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n and d a i l y o p e r a t i o n of the Outdoor S c h o o l , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e lementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , the r o l e of a c o u n s e l l o r , the t e a c h i n g of r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s , and the Outdoor S c h o o l r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s . A f t e r the week, the Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f e v a l u a t e d the c o u n s e l l o r s , and s e l e c t e d the b e s t ones f o r t h e Outdoor S c h o o l camp program. In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s c o n t r i b u t e d i n d i r e c t l y t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s because i t h e l p e d t o ready them f o r the camp program. S i n c e the c o u n s e l l o r s had no t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o making the camp program more e f f i c i e n t by i n s t r u c t i n g them how t o handle s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the younger s t u d e n t s . The p r e p a r a t i o n a l s o gave them the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see the Outdoor S c h o o l , t o meet the o u t d o o r s t a f f p r i o r t o the program, and t o p r a c t i c e some of the r e c r e a t i o n and f i e l d study s e s s i o n s b e f o r e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the 105 s t u d e n t s . B e s i d e s p r e p a r i n g the c o u n s e l l o r s , the p r e p a r a t i o n phase e n a b l e d the Outdoor S c h o o l t o s e l e c t the most s u i t a b l e c o u n s e l l o r s f o r the camp program. (2) F i e l d S t u d i e s There were f o u r f i e l d s tudy t o p i c s . The s t u d e n t s s a i d t h a t they l e a r n e d something new i n each s e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g new t h i n g s about what they c o u l d do t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Even though each f i e l d study s e s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h i n g s about energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e , the a c t i v i t i e s which the s t u d e n t s c a r r i e d out i n v o l v e d o n l y p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . E n e r g y - r e l a t e d i s s u e s were o n l y d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d y s e s s i o n s , w i t h o u t f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y . A l l the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s who were i n t e r v i e w e d s a i d t h a t they found each f i e l d study s e s s i o n t o be i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t . The c o u n s e l l o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they l e a r n e d something t h e m s e l v e s . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of each f i e l d s tudy t o p i c , and how i t enhanced the development of a t t i t u d e s f o l l o w s . In the farm s t u d i e s , t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of farm a n i m a l s and how those a n i m a l s were s i m i l a r t o w i l d a n i m a l s . For example, i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t d o m e s t i c a t e d goats are s i m i l a r t o w i l d g o a t s , and t h a t the w i l d r a b b i t s roaming around the farm a r e a were s i m i l a r t o the d o m e s t i c a t e d ones on the farm. S i n c e the s t u d e n t s c o u l d not see or t o u c h w i l d amimals i n the f o r e s t , the w r i t e r f e l t t h a t farm a n i m a l s were a good s u b s t i t u t e . S t u d e n t s c o u l d touch them, examine t h e i r f e e t , t e e t h , eyes, f e e d i n g h a b i t s , e t c . Four s t u d e n t s were asked i f they e n j o y e d the farm s t u d i e s , and a l l four responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . The s t u d e n t s 1 06 s a i d they l i k e d p e t t i n g the a n i m a l s , h e l p i n g t o fee d the a n i m a l s , and l e a r n i n g about them. They s a i d they were s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d out how u s e f u l the a n i m a l s were t o humanity and how w e l l adaped they were t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . At l e a s t one of the s t u d e n t s r e l a t e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t o w i l d a n i m a l s . He commented t h a t i f h u n t e r s had a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the an i m a l i n i t s environment, t h e i r d e s i r e f o r k i l l i n g w i l d a n i m a l s would be reduced. The farm s e s s i o n was h e l p f u l , t o o , i n e n a b l i n g the s t u d e n t s t o use the d i f f e r e n c e s among the farm a n i m a l s t o d i s c u s s c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . For example, d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of food which the farm a n i m a l s a t e , i t was mentioned t h a t , l i k e farm a n i m a l s , w i l d a n i m a l s f e e d on d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of f o o d , and t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t f o r peopl e who were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s e r v i n g them t o know t h i s b e f o r e a r r a n g i n g food f o r them. They were t o l d , f o r example, t h a t moose can not eat g r a s s but t h a t some p e o p l e , i n an attempt t o save them d u r i n g heavy snow p e r i o d s , had flown i n g r a s s t o h e l p them. Because the moose c o u l d not eat the g r a s s t h a t e f f o r t was not w o r t h w h i l e . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i t gave s t u d e n t s new i n f o r m a t i o n and a b e t t e r frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r them t o become i n t e r e s t e d i n and/or u n d e r s t a n d some c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . In the stream s t u d i e s , the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about the d e l i c a t e n e s s of the stream ecosystem. They were t o l d t h a t the p a r t s of an ecosystem were i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . They d i s c u s s e d how they c o u l d a f f e c t the stream both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . They l e a r n e d . the e f f e c t of w a l k i n g i n a stream, t h r o w i n g r o c k s i n t o i t , washing soap i n t o i t , and removing garbage from i t . 107 They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how they c o u l d share t h e i r knowledge and i d e a s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . In a n o t h e r s e s s i o n on streams, they l e a r n e d of the r o l e of streams i n the f o r e s t . The t e a c h e r used an analogy t o get t o the f e e l i n g s of the s t u d e n t s . For example, on t h r o w i n g r o c k s i n t o w a t e r , the t e a c h e r asked the s t u d e n t s how they would f e e l i f someone threw r o c k s i n t o t h e i r house, and they were t o l d t o r e a l i z e t h a t the stream was the home of o t h e r o r g a n i s m s . They observ e d the stream organisms and d i d water t e s t s , thus l e a r n i n g about the v a l u e of the stream, and becoming aware of the d e l i c a t e n e s s of the stream ecosystem, and how t h e i r ( s t u d e n t s ' ) b e h a v i o r c o u l d a f f e c t i t . In the f o r e s t e c o l o g y s e s s i o n s , two approaches were used. In one case the t e a c h e r began the l e s s o n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the v a l u e of the f o r e s t , and a d i s c u s s i o n of the f o r e s t ecosystem. Then the group went out i n t o the f o r e s t , where the t e a c h e r asked the s t u d e n t s t o s i t and q u i e t l y e x p e r i e n c e the f o r e s t f o r t e n m i n u t e s , and t o c o n s i d e r how humans c o u l d a f f e c t l i f e i n the f o r e s t . The d i s c u s s i o n which ensued l e d them t o a c c e p t t h a t humans were v e r y n o i s y . They r e a l i z e d t h a t the presence of humans i n the f o r e s t and t h e i r n o i s e s c a t t e r e d the b i r d s and o t h e r w i l d a n i m a l s . They d i s c u s s e d how the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a road t h r o u g h a f o r e s t c o u l d a f f e c t the w i l d l i f e . In the o t h e r c a s e , the t e a c h e r s t a r t e d a d i s c u s s i o n by h a v i n g s t u d e n t s draw some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of c o n i f e r s and de c i d u o u s t r e e s . D u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n , the t e a c h e r mentioned the uses of f o r e s t s , and why i t was n e c e s s a r y t o 108 cons e r v e them. Again t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of how they c o u l d conduct t h e i r s t u d i e s w i t h minimum damage t o the f o r e s t . D u r i n g t h a t d i s c u s s i o n , such t h i n g s l i k e s t a y i n g on the t r a i l s , u s i n g f a l l e n p a r t s of p l a n t s as specimens, and not s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s were mentioned. While i n the f o r e s t , the s t u d e n t s saw the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the f o r e s t communities. For example, b i r d s were n e s t i n g i n the t r e e s , t h e r e were mosses on the t r e e t r u n k s , s t u d e n t s saw i n s e c t s l i v i n g i n the mosses and woodpeckers f e e d i n g on the i n s e c t s . S t u d e n t s a l s o saw s q u i r r e l s g o i n g up a t r e e and f e e d i n g . They s t u d i e d the bark of t r e e s , and how such human a c t i o n s l i k e c a r v i n g names on t r e e s a f f e c t e d the p l a n t s . Towards the end of the s e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s were asked t o respond t o the q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i r w orksheet, which asked about how the f o r e s t was i n f l u e n c e d by humans, water, a n i m a l s , wind, i n s e c t s , f i r e , d i s e a s e , and i c e storms. The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the f o r e s t e c o l o g y s e s s i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d towards enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s , because they l e a r n e d about what they c o u l d do t o c o n s e r v e , and they were made aware of the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n . In the b i r d s t u d i e s , where they had the use of b i n o c u l a r s , s t u d e n t s saw many k i n d s of b i r d s . They saw many b i r d n e s t s , and noted v a r i a t i o n s i n the s i t e . For example, s t u d e n t s d i d not seem t o have p r e v i o u s l y known t h a t some b i r d s n e s t e d i n the sand. They were reminded of the importance of p l a n t s t o b i r d s , and why they were a d v i s e d not t o t r a m p l e over bushes. W h i l e they were t o u r i n g the p r o p e r t y and s t u d y i n g the b e h a v i o r of b i r d s , they l e a r n e d t h a t i f they touched a b i r d ' s eggs the b i r d would abandon the n e s t , t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the types of 109 songs made by b i r d s ( e . g . , o r d i n a r y songs and d i s t r e s s c r i e s ) , and t h a t humans a f f e c t b i r d s b o t h p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y by such a c t s as b u i l d i n g b i r d f e e d e r s and c o n s t r u c t i n g r o a d s . From the w r i t e r ' s p o i n t of view, a p a r t from the a p p r e c i a t i o n of b i r d s which the s t u d e n t s got from the b i r d s t u d i e s , they l e a r n e d about how p e o p l e c o u l d a f f e c t b i r d communities. A l l the f i e l d s t u d y s e s s i o n s i n v o l v e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p l a n t and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . Energy c o n s e r v a t i o n was o n l y mentioned i n the o v e r a l l need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n methods by humanity. (3) F i l m s Shown a t the Outdoor S c h o o l Three f i l m s were shown d u r i n g t h e camp. "A L i v i n g R i v e r " , "The Other World", and "Trees". The f i l m s were p r e v i e w e d by the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r and s e l e c t e d by her f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and f i t w i t h the theme of the f i e l d s t u d i e s . A l l the f i l m s d e a l t w i t h the ecosystem and c o n s e r v a t i o n . For example, t h e f i r s t f i l m d e a l t w i t h the m i g r a t o r y b e h a v i o r and l i f e c y c l e s of salmon, the a d a p t a t i o n of a n i m a l s t o l i f e i n r i v e r s , the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a q u a t i c a n i m a l s , the food c h a i n , water p o l l u t i o n and how i t a f f e c t s organisms l i v i n g i n water, the components of a stream ecosystem, and why i t i s im p o r t a n t t o c o n s e r v e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s i n and around a stre a m . The second f i l m d i s c u s s e d l i f e i n a stream, d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a q u a t i c p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , food c h a i n , and the b a l a n c e of n a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , the f i l m c i t e d some of the t h i n g s which people ( m a i n l y i n d u s t r i a l i s t s ) do, l i k e p u t t i n g some waste p r o d u c t s ( e. g., copper wastes) i n t o streams and r i v e r s . I t was mentioned i n the f i l m t h a t because the stream organisms c o u l d 1 10 not t o l e r a t e h i g h copper c o n t e n t i n the water they d i e d . The f i l m a l s o mentioned what people can do t o . r e d u c e p o l l u t i o n , and suggested t h a t i f people found o t h e r s p u t t i n g o i l , f o r example, i n t o a r i v e r they s h o u l d r e p o r t i t . The t h i r d f i l m was e s s e n t i a l l y about f o r e s t e c o l o g y and the uses of t r e e s . For example, i t d e s c r i b e d the l i f e c y c l e of an oak t r e e , how t h e t r e e i s a f f e c t e d by weather, how t h e community around the t r e e s u p p o r t s d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of l i f e , and the p r o c e s s of p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n , the f i l m showed t h a t t r e e s p r o v i d e o t h e r organisms ( e . g . , b i r d s , f e r n s , mosses, and i n s e c t s ) w i t h homes, t h a t a n i m a l s and some p l a n t s f e e d on t r e e s , and t h a t most of the organisms l i v i n g i n the f o r e s t depend on one a n o t h e r . I t showed how a n i m a l s i n g e n e r a l can damage t r e e s . The f i l m a l s o suggested some r a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n methods t o be used t o m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l environment. There was a d i s c u s s i o n p r e c e d i n g a l l t h r e e f i l m s , and a d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r the l a s t two. The d i s c u s s i o n s were s i m i l a r . The d i s c u s s i o n p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g one f i l m has been d e s c r i b e d below. B e f o r e the f i l m , the t e a c h e r asked s t u d e n t s t o e x p l a i n what the term " i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p " meant. A f t e r f i v e r e s p o n s e s , the t e a c h e r summarized the i d e a s which the s t u d e n t s mentioned, and t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t they were g o i n g t o l e a r n more about i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g t h i n g s i n a stream. The t e a c h e r a l s o t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e f i l m was g o i n g t o show them about: the l i f e c y c l e of an a n i m a l ; i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l i v i n g t h i n g s , the b a l a n c e of n a t u r e ; p o l l u t i o n ; and p r e d a t i o n . A f t e r the f i l m , the t e a c h e r asked the s t u d e n t s what they 111 l e a r n e d . T h e i r answers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had l e a r n e d some of the f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s which were i n t e n d e d . They s a i d they l e a r n e d the l i f e c y c l e s of the oak t r e e and some i n s e c t s ; the ecosystem around a t r e e ; how i n s e c t s depend on p l a n t s ; the importance of c o n s e r v i n g t r e e s ; and why they s h o u l d not touch the eggs i n b i r d ' s n e s t s . I t i s c l e a r , from the above, t h a t the s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d the c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e as a r e s u l t of v i e w i n g the f i l m ; and, the p o s i t i v e n a t u r e of the d i s c u s s i o n l e d the w r i t e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n c o u l d w e l l have been enhanced. A f t e r the f i l m , s t u d e n t s were t o l d t h a t the removal of any member of the environment a f f e c t s o t h e r organisms. The s t u d e n t s were a l s o t o l d t h a t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ( i n c l u d i n g energy) are b e i n g used up i n the w o r l d , and t h a t , i f peopl e d i d not save t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e w i l l not be enough f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . The t e a c h e r t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t one of the o b j e c t i v e s of the Outdoor S c h o o l •was t o h e l p s t u d e n t s t o un d e r s t a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the f i l m s c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . The f i l m s d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s about p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , about c o n s e r v a t i o n , and taught them what they can do t o c o n s e r v e . In a d d i t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r the f i l m s showed t h a t a l l the f i l m s were v a l u a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g . A l l 26 s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d c o n f i r m e d t h a t they l e a r n e d something new from the f i l m , about p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , and c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. One f a c t o r which the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d made the f i l m s 1 1 2 e f f e c t i v e was the d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e and a f t e r the s c r e e n i n g . The p r e - s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o a n t i c i p a t e what they were g o i n g t o see and h e l p e d them u n d e r s t a n d the f i l m s b e t t e r . The p o s t - s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s a l s o h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o un d e r s t a n d the f i l m s and t o r e l a t e them t o c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . D u r i n g those d i s c u s s i o n s the t o p i c of energy c o n s e r v a t i o n was r a i s e d , and c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s were mentioned. (4) The Outdoor S c h o o l Environment The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the s e t t i n g of the Outdoor S c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The camp p r o v i d e d a s a f e , happy, and a c a d e m i c a l l y r i c h environment f o r l e a r n i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . The camp was a s a f e p l a c e , because, a p a r t from the s a f e t y of the s t r u c t u r e s a t the s i t e , t h e r e was a nurse who l i v e d a t the camp, whose duty was t o ta k e c a r e of a l l m e d i c a l problems t h a t might o c c u r . She worked i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a p h y s i c i a n who was r e t a i n e d by the Outdoor S c h o o l . She had a l i s t of m e d i c a l problems of the s t u d e n t s from t h e i r p a r e n t s , and took over t h e i r m e d i c a t i o n s on the a r r i v a l of the s t u d e n t s a t the camp. At the f i r s t meeting she b r i e f e d a l l the t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s about s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e , and what needed t o be done i n case of an emergency. She a l o n e gave m e d i c a t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s . A p a r t from the s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e d c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e , a l l s t u d e n t s were c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s d u r i n g f i e l d s t u d i e s . D u r i n g r e c r e a t i o n , when they were w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s , 1 1 3 the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r p e r s o n a l l y s u p e r v i s e d both the c o u n s e l l o r s and s t u d e n t s . The p r o p e r t y and the camp a r e a had been marked, and when s t u d e n t s went o u t s i d e the marked a r e a f o r any purpose they c a r r i e d w a l k i e - t a l k i e s so t h a t any problems c o u l d be communicated t o the camp s t a f f f o r immediate a t t e n t i o n . The camp a l s o had a s t o c k of r a i n gear and f i r s t a i d equipment t o ensure t h a t s t u d e n t s were not exposed t o unsafe s i t u a t i o n s w h i l e a t the camp. In a d d i t i o n , o n l y a n i m a l s which were s a f e t o pet were m a i n t a i n e d on the farm. The camp was a r i c h environment t o l i v e i n , w i t h a swimming p o o l which the s t u d e n t s c o u l d use o f t e n d u r i n g r e c r e a t i o n , and f a c i l i t i e s f o r c a n o e i n g , a r c h e r y , water s a f e t y , games, e x p l o r i n g , and t r e a s u r e h u n t s . Or, d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e t i m e , s t u d e n t s c o u l d choose t o spend t h e i r time p l a y i n g t a b l e t e n n i s , f o o t b a l l , or f i s h i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , k i t c h e n s t a f f ensured t h a t s t u d e n t s were g i v e n good f o o d . S t u d e n t s were encouraged t o eat what they were g i v e n , and they d i d . Seconds were always a v a i l a b l e a f t e r everyone had been s e r v e d w i t h a b a l a n c e d d i e t , and most s t u d e n t s h e l p e d t h e m s e l v e s t o them. S t u d e n t s were a l s o s e r v e d w i t h a snack e v e r y a f t e r n o o n , a f t e r f i e l d s t u d i e s , and a g a i n b e f o r e bedtime. In t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e Outdoor S c h o o l was a r i c h environment f o r the development of f a v o r a b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . There were camp r u l e s which encompassed a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Both the t e a c h i n g and the n o n - t e a c h i n g s t a f f members r e s p e c t e d the r u l e s t h e m s e l v e s . There were many s i g n s i n and around the p r o p e r t y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the outdoor s c h o o l was f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s . These had been so 1 1 4 c o n v e n i e n t l y p l a c e d t h a t the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d everyone saw a t l e a s t one each day. There were over 20 d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of b i r d f e e d e r s which had been c o n v e n i e n t l y p l a c e d around the l i v i n g a r e a , and a l l s t u d e n t s saw them w h i l e they were a t the camp, because i t was one of the t h i n g s which c o u n s e l l o r s showed the s t u d e n t s w h i l e they were t o u r i n g the p r o p e r t y soon a f t e r a r r i v i n g a t the camp. There were many c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d magazines i n the lounge, and some s t u d e n t s were observed r e a d i n g them on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . There were energy c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s i n eve r y b u i l d i n g a t the camp. There were many b u l l e t i n boards i n the a u d i t o r i u m , which d i s p l a y e d , a p a r t from the e n e r g y - c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s , o t h e r p o s t e r s , on p o l l u t i o n , w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , the food web, the energy c y c l e , and poems w r i t t e n by p r e v i o u s s t u d e n t s , some of which a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e need t o c o n s e r v e the e n v i ronment, The Outdoor S c h o o l had v i d e o t a p e s and p l a y b a c k f a c i l i t i e s i n t he lounge which t e a c h e r s were encouraged t o use. Two of the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s were seen u s i n g them on two o c c a s i o n s . There was a m o b i l e l i b r a r y f a c i l i t y , and many m a t e r i a l s from the M i n i s t r y of the Environment on a c i d r a i n , p o l l u t i o n , salmon enhancement p r o j e c t s , f o r e s t f i r e s , and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . One of the p r a c t i c e s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l i n v o l v e d a d a i l y i n s p e c t i o n of c a b i n s by the nu r s e . The best c a b i n was awarded a tr o p h y which a l l the s t u d e n t s had h e l p e d t o make. A l t h o u g h c l e a n l i n e s s appeared to be the main co n c e r n of the n u r s e , any c a b i n which d i d not r e s p e c t the energy c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s l o s t p o i n t s . D u r i n g the program one c l e a n c a b i n l e f t t h e i r l i g h t s on 115 and c o n s e q u e n t l y d i d not win the t r o p h y . From the w r i t e r ' s p o i n t of view, the Outdoor S c h o o l was not o n l y a s a f e and e n j o y a b l e environment, but a l s o a s t i m u l a t i n g one t h a t enhanced the development of f a v o r a b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . (5) The Program S t a f f ' The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the program s t a f f ( t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s who took p a r t i n the program) c o n t r i b u t e d t o making the program a s u c c e s s . A l l the c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s s a i d that, they found the camp program and the f i e l d s t u d i e s t o be im p o r t a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g t o them, and t o the s t u d e n t s . A l l the c o u n s e l l o r s who took p a r t i n the program were i n t e r e s t e d and had v o l u n t e e r e d t o a s s i s t i n the program. A l l ten c o u n s e l l o r s had been t o s i m i l a r camps and, a p a r t from the week-end p r e p a r a t i o n a t the camp, e i g h t of them had been t o the camp as s t u d e n t s . They knew t h e i r r o l e i n the program, and worked h a r d . They knew what they were t e a c h i n g . For example, d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s they were heard u s i n g e c o l o g i c a l terms l i k e e cosystem, food c h a i n and p o l l u t i o n c o r r e c t l y . They were always h a p p i l y w i l l i n g t o h e l p the t e a c h e r s and the s t u d e n t s when the need a r o s e . The c o u n s e l l o r s h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s even a f t e r f i e l d s t u d i e s . For example, some of the c o u n s e l l o r s were o v e r h e a r d d i s c u s s i n g d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s i n the c a b i n s where s t u d e n t s asked them q u e s t i o n s about some of the f i e l d s t u d y s e s s i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y q u e s t i o n s on why they were l e a r n i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n . The c o u n s e l l o r s s a i d they e x p l a i n e d t o the s t u d e n t s t h a t the w o r l d was g o i n g through a phase of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n and unwise use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 116 A c c o r d i n g t o the c o u n s e l l o r s , they had t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t those problems were b e i n g caused by i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and o t h e r p e o p l e who d i d not un d e r s t a n d the problems, and t h a t p a r t of the o b j e c t i v e s of the program was t o h e l p them t o un d e r s t a n d so t h a t they would h e l p t o cons e r v e the environment and i t s r e s o u r c e s , and t o pass on the i n f o r m a t i o n t o o t h e r p e o p l e . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s were i n f l u e n t i a l because they were v e r y c l o s e t o the s t u d e n t s f o r most of the week. The s t u d e n t s needed the company of the c o u n s e l l o r s i n o r d e r t o do such t h i n g s as f i s h i n g , e x p l o r i n g , or p e t t i n g of farm a n i m a l s . The s t u d e n t s l i k e d the c o u n s e l l o r s . D u r i n g the f r e e t i m e , s t u d e n t s went t o the c o u n s e l l o r s and they were seen t a l k i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s f o r most of t h a t t i m e . The w r i t e r a l s o o b s e r v e d s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g down the a d d r e s s e s and phone numbers of the c o u n s e l l o r s on the l a s t day a t camp. L i k e the c o u n s e l l o r s , a l l the t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n the stu d y s a i d they e n j o y e d i t . One of the t e a c h e r s from the v i s i t i n g s c h o o l who was unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program was r e p l a c e d by an o t h e r t e a c h e r who was i n t e r e s t e d . The backgrounds of the s i x t e a c h e r s showed t h a t each of them had a u n i v e r s i t y degree and had taught f o r a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s . T h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a t the grade s i x l e v e l ranged between one and s i x y e a r s . A p a r t from the outdoor t e a c h e r s who l i v e d a t the camp, a l l t he o t h e r t e a c h e r s had v i s i t e d the camp p r i o r t o t h e camp program. A l l the t e a c h e r s had had some e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d t o p i c s , and a l l of them s a i d t h a t they b e l i e v e d i t was v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e . 1 17 T h e i r b e h a v i o r at the camp showed t h a t they were v e r y keen on c o n s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r e s t e d i n the s t u d e n t s . For example, they h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o d e s i g n c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s as f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s on two e v e n i n g s . The c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l the t e a c h e r s was e x c e l l e n t . They d i s c u s s e d t h e i r f i e l d s t udy t o p i c s and were open t o a l t e r n a t e i d e a s from anyone. The t e a c h e r s were a l s o e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r work. As an example, one t e a c h e r , soon a f t e r a r r i v i n g a t the camp, asked the r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s where i t would be p o s s i b l e t o see the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y of b i r d s . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the d e t a i l s of what she wanted she t o u r e d the p r o p e r t y w i t h another t e a c h e r and s e l e c t e d the be s t s i t e s f o r her b i r d s tudy s e s s i o n s . A view e x p r e s s e d by the r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r , and which the w r i t e r s h a r e d , was t h a t the t e a c h e r s were so e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r work t h a t the s t u d e n t s had t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n what they were b e i n g t a u g h t . The t e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o s u p e r v i s e or accompany the s t u d e n t s on some of the f r e e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s l i k e f i s h i n g and p e t t i n g the farm a n i m a l s . That r o l e e n a b l e d the t e a c h e r s and the c o u n s e l l o r s t o watch what the s t u d e n t s d i d , and t o r e a c t t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . D u r i n g those i n t e r r a c t i o n s the a d u l t s , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y showed the s t u d e n t s t h e i r own p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . For example, when one t e a c h e r was g o i n g out w i t h two s t u d e n t s who wanted t o spend t h e i r f r e e t i m e f i s h i n g , he asked the second stud e n t t o f o l l o w the f i r s t so t h a t they would not t r a m p l e over the bushes. He too f o l l o w e d the s t u d e n t s i n a f i l e . Thus, the program s t a f f c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement of the 1 18 s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s by s e r v i n g as good models. (6) V a r i a t i o n s i n the Teaching S t r a t e g i e s Used Even though a l l the t e a c h e r s used an e c o l o g i c a l approach t o d i s c u s s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s , they used s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s . One t e a c h e r used a u n i t which she had developed t o t e a c h a' f o r e s t e c o l o g y s e s s i o n . She b e l i e v e d i t was imp o r t a n t t h a t the s t u d e n t s study the f o r e s t p l a n t s and o t h e r organisms, and e n j o y d o i n g t h a t ; b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the c o n s e r v a t i o n a s p e c t , and t h a t was the approach she used. Another t e a c h e r began by s t r e s s i n g the importance of c o n s e r v a t i o n ; and e x p l a i n e d , f o r example, how energy c o n s e r v a t i o n c o u l d h e l p p e o p l e t o save money. A c c o r d i n g t o him, t h a t approach was more e f f e c t i v e because i f s t u d e n t s understood why c o n s e r v a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y , and knew t h a t p r a c t i c i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n would h e l p them i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or c o l l e c t i v e l y , they were more l i k e l y t o p r a c t i c e i t . The w r i t e r shared t h a t view w i t h the t e a c h e r , but wondered i f s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d s a v i n g money as b e i n g the best m o t i v a t i o n . A t h i r d t e a c h e r began by a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y some a n i m a l s which they would l i k e t o save, and o t h e r s which they would not l i k e t o save. He then asked s t u d e n t s t o o f f e r reasons f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s . He acknowledged h i s support f o r s a v i n g the a n i m a l s which they wanted t o save, and ad d r e s s e d the s t u d e n t s ' n e g a t i v e i d e a s about the o t h e r a n i m a l s ( e . g . , w i l d c a t s and s n a k e s ) . He e x p l a i n e d how those a n i m a l s were v a l u a b l e i n the f o r e s t t o c o n t r o l p o p u l a t i o n s of o t h e r a n i m a l s , and the importance of c o n s e r v i n g them. A f t e r t h a t i n t r o d u c t i o n he 119 proceeded t o d i s c u s s the r o l e of l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g t h i n g s i n an ecosystem and the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , b e f o r e e l a b o r a t i n g on the a c t i v i t i e s which had been p l a n n e d f o r the s e s s i o n . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , t h i s t e a c h i n g approach was e f f e c t i v e because i t r e i n f o r c e d the s t u d e n t s d e s i r e t o save some a n i m a l s and gave them new i n f o r m a t i o n t o h e l p them r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards the a n i m a l s which they d i d not l i k e t o c o n s e r v e . The f o u r t h t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e d the e f f e c t of what the s t u d e n t s d i d d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s . (Some of them were found w a l k i n g i n the stream d u r i n g the b i r d s t u d i e s . ) The t e a c h e r g a t h e r e d a l l the s t u d e n t s and asked them t o look a t the water, and t o d e c i d e i f w a l k i n g i n a stream was a good or bad p r a c t i c e . A f t e r a l l the s t u d e n t s had agreed t h a t i t was a bad p r a c t i c e , she asked them t o e x p l a i n why they c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be bad, which they d i d . She asked them t o suggest o t h e r a c t s which they c o n s i d e r e d t o be bad, ( i . e . , a n t i - c o n s e r v a t i o n ) and they l i s t e d many t h i n g s l i k e t h r o w i n g r o c k s i n t o a stream, w a l k i n g a l o n g the edges of a stream, and t h r o w i n g garbage i n t o a stream. Even though the t e a c h e r knew which s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h a t a c t , she d i d not mention any names i n the d i s c u s s i o n . One of them was seen a p o l o g i z i n g t o the t e a c h e r l a t e r , and two o t h e r s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have a p o l o g i z e d t o o . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n the c o n t e n t of the d i s c u s s i o n h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o r e a l i z e the e f f e c t of what they d i d , and the p o s i t i v e manner i n which the d i s c u s s i o n was h e l d p r o b a b l y made the s t u d e n t s who were i n v o l v e d i n the a c t t o f e e l g u i l t y . At l e a s t the s t u d e n t s who a p o l o g i z e d became c o n s c i o u s about what they d i d . A l t h o u g h the l a t t e r comment worked w i t h the s t u d e n t s , the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s 120 t h a t the same method may not a c h i e v e s i m i l a r e f f e c t s w i t h a d i f f e r e n t group of s t u d e n t s . The f i f t h t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e d the components of a stream ecosystem and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among the components. Stu d e n t s were then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups t o do some water c h e m i c a l t e s t s , a f t e r which the t e a c h e r i n v o l v e d them i n an a c t i v i t y which showed them how complex the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the components of an ecosystem c o u l d be. They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how the removal of any one component c o u l d a f f e c t the whole ecosystem. The w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h a t the s t u d e n t s enjoyed d o i n g the water t e s t s . They a l s o l e a r n e d about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t i n the stream ecosystem and why i t was i m p o r t a n t t o cons e r v e a l l the components of an ecosystem. The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the s e s s i o n was d i f f e r e n t from a l l the o t h e r s e s s i o n s because i t h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o see p i c t o r i a l l y ( s t u d e n t s used s t r i n g s t o connect i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the ecosystem) t h e c o m p l e x i t y of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n an ecosystem, and because they were i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g the p a t t e r n of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s i x t h t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g method showed t h a t enjoyment and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d were i m p o r t a n t t o him. For example, d u r i n g the farm s e s s i o n he encouraged the s t u d e n t s t o p e t the a n i m a l s , by showing the s t u d e n t s how t o pet them, and by a l l o w i n g time f o r a l l s t u d e n t s t o have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o pet the a n i m a l s . A l s o , he devo t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of time t o the e x p l a n a t i o n of why i t i s im p o r t a n t t o c o n s e r v e , and how c e r t a i n human a c t s a f f e c t p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . D u r i n g the e x p l a n a t i o n he used d i f f e r e n t a n a l o g i e s . For example, 121 he used human homes as an analogue of a b i r d ' s home. He asked s t u d e n t s t o imagine how d i s t u r b i n g i t would be i f someone threw a rock i n t o t h e i r home, and asked the s t u d e n t s t o r e l a t e the a c t t o the f e e l i n g s of b i r d s . He a l s o asked s t u d e n t s how they would f e e l i f someone were t o put o i l i n t o t h e i r d r i n k i n g water, and asked s t u d e n t s t o r e l a t e t h a t t o the f e e l i n g s of f i s h when people put d i s c a r d e d engine o i l i n t o streams. The t e a c h e r a l l o w e d the s t u d e n t s t o pet the a n i m a l s (an a c t which a l l of them enjoyed) and t o d e v e l o p a l i k i n g f o r the a n i m a l s , b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n . The p e t t i n g appeared t o have h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o a s s o c i a t e a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n i m a l s , and t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e d a f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n f o r them t o a c c e p t t o cons e r v e a n i m a l s . The use of a n a l o g i e s a l s o appeared t o the w r i t e r t o have h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o a s s o c i a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s t o the a n i m a l s . Even though i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n the use of a n a l o g i e s was s u c c e s s f u l f o r t h a t s e s s i o n , the w r i t e r d i d not t h i n k t h a t the method s h o u l d be used e x t e n s i v e l y , because the a n a l o g i e s were not always p o s i t i v e w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . A p a r t from the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way c o n s e r v a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d t o the s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a l s o had d i f f e r e n t ways of s u s t a i n i n g the i n t e r e s t of the s t u d e n t s . For example, two t e a c h e r s t o l d s t u d e n t s what they were g o i n g t o do and what was e x p e c t e d of them a t the end of t h e i r s e s s i o n s . D u r i n g t h o s e s e s s i o n s s t u d e n t s were v e r y a t t e n t i v e ; they wrote down n o t e s , and appeared to be competing among themselves f o r grades. Thus, w i t h those two t e a c h e r s the use of assignments was e f f e c t i v e i n s u s t a i n i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the f i e l d 122 s t u d i e s . The o t h e r f o u r t e a c h e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of the s t u d e n t s by g i v i n g them the freedom t o e x p l o r e the environment. For example, d u r i n g the stream s t u d i e s , one t e a c h e r demonstrated how t o use n e t s t o c a t c h organisms l i v i n g i n the stream, and asked s t u d e n t s t o observe d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . S t u d e n t s were e x c i t e d about the d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e - organisms ( m a i n l y a n i m a l s ) and o f t e n shouted i n e x c i t e m e n t about what they had found. A l t h o u g h they took t h e i r books w i t h them when they s t a r t e d the a c t i v i t y , they a l l r e t u r n e d t h e i r books t o the bank i n d i v i d u a l l y , w i t h i n the f i r s t few m i n u t e s , and r e t u r n e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the a c t i v i t y . D u r i n g the a c t i v i t y , the t e a c h e r v i s i t e d the s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r l i v i n g o rganisms. He t o l d the s t u d e n t s t o change the- l o c a t i o n s so t h a t they c o u l d sample d i f f e r e n t o rganisms. In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , b o t h methods were e f f e c t i v e , but w h i l e i n the former method s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d and wrote down many t h i n g s , i n the l a t t e r they e x p l o r e d the stream on t h e i r own and r e a l i z e d how and where they c o u l d f i n d more stream organisms. Each approach had i t s advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h were used d u r i n g the program were b o t h e f f e c t i v e and v a r i e d enough t o c a p t u r e the i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n of a l l s t u d e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s used c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 1 23 (7) I n d i v i d u a l A t t e n t i o n At s c h o o l , t h e r e were 23 s t u d e n t s i n each c l a s s g i v i n g a s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o of 1:23. D u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s the 69 s t u d e n t s who took p a r t i n the camp program (one s t u d e n t had l e f t the p r o v i n c e ) were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups, and the maximum number of s t u d e n t s per group was 14. In a d d i t i o n , two c o u n s e l l o r s h e l p e d each t e a c h e r d u r i n g the f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n , t h u s making more h e l p a v a i l a b l e t o the s t u d e n t s . The r a t i o of s t u d e n t s t o t h o s e who were i n v o l v e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n ( t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s ) d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s was 16:69. Because the f i e l d s t udy groups were s m a l l e r than a normal c l a s s , and because of the a s s i s t a n c e of c o u n s e l l o r s , s t u d e n t s had more i n d i v i d u a l h e l p . For example, the w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h a t i n s c h o o l , on many o c c a s i o n s , s t u d e n t s needed h e l p but had t o w a i t because the t e a c h e r was h e l p i n g o t h e r s . O f t e n some s t u d e n t s abandoned the r e q u e s t f o r h e l p because a s s i s t a n c e d i d not a r r i v e when they needed i t . D u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s , however, h e l p was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . For example, d u r i n g the s e s s i o n on f o r e s t e c o l o g y , s t u d e n t s were asked t o use a key t o i d e n t i f y some p l a n t s , and most of them asked f o r h e l p i n i d e n t i f y i n g some of the e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e s on the p l a n t s . The t e a c h e r and the two c o u n s e l l o r s h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s , and the w r i t e r o b s e r v e d an e x p r e s s i o n of s a t i s f a c t i o n on the f a c e s of s t u d e n t s f o l l o w i n g the h e l p . A l s o , w h i l e the s t u d e n t s were drawing the specimens, most of the s t u d e n t s wanted the t e a c h e r t o see what they had done and f o r the t e a c h e r t o respond t o the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work. Because the number of s t u d e n t s was s m a l l the t e a c h e r was a b l e t o h e l p a l l 124 the s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n the c o u n s e l l o r s p r o v i d e d h e l p . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the s t u d e n t s g a i n e d more than they o t h e r w i s e would have from the f i e l d s t u d i e s , because of the s m a l l s i z e of the s t u d e n t groups and because of the a d d i t i o n a l h e l p which was a v a i l a b l e from the two c o u n s e l l o r s . The h e l p of the c o u n s e l l o r s was w o r t h w h i l e because they had s t u d i e d the f i e l d study a c t i v i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s , and they had more knowledge about the s e s s i o n s than the s t u d e n t s . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i f the c o u n s e l l o r s had no p r i o r knowledge about the f i e l d s e s s i o n s they would have p r o b a b l y i n h i b i t e d the s u c c e s s of the f i e l d s t u d i e s , because i t was l i k e l y t h a t some of t h e i r t h oughts would have c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h a t of the t e a c h e r . (8) P o s t Camp-Program A c t i v i t i e s A f t e r the week a t the Outdoor S c h o o l the t e a c h e r s engaged the s t u d e n t s i n some f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s . They watched two f i l m s on c o n s e r v a t i o n , d i s c u s s e d what they d i d and l e a r n e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , wrote l e t t e r s t o the Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f , and completed a c h a p t e r on a n i m a l s i n the s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . In the w r i t e r ' s v i e w , the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k t h rough what they l e a r n e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . A l s o , because the f o l l o w - u p was done i n the s c h o o l , the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r r e d what they had l e a r n e d from the Outdoor S c h o o l environment t o t h e i r s c h o o l and t o t h e i r homes. For example, s t u d e n t s used the knowledge they g a i n e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l t o w r i t e a r e p o r t on a farm a n i m a l , and a l s o to w r i t e a poem. Both r e p o r t s were s u b m i t t e d a f t e r the camp program. The f o l l o w - u p a l s o h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r 125 a p p r e c i a t i o n of the camp program by w r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o thank the Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f . S t u d e n t s showed t h e i r l e t t e r s t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s and they t a l k e d about what they had done s i n c e the camp program. For example, one s t u d e n t mentioned t h a t she took her p a r e n t s t o a stream and showed them some of the t h i n g s they l e a r n e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and e x p l a i n e d how streams were a f f e c t e d by p o l l u t i o n and o t h e r human a c t s ( t h r o w i n g r o c k s i n t o a stream, w a l k i n g i n streams, p u t t i n g soap i n t o s t r e a m s ) . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s enhanced the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s by r e i n f o r c i n g the t h i n g s they l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . The f o l l o w - u p a l s o h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o extend what they l e a r n e d beyond the Outdoor S c h o o l environment. 4.2.5 T r i a n g u l a t i o n of Views S e v i g n y ' s (1978) view of t r i a n g u l a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g a comparison of the o p i n i o n of d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e on the same program, was used f o r t h i s s t u d y . The a l t e r n a t e views were e x p r e s s e d by the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r . These a l t e r n a t e views have been p r e s e n t e d as Ta b l e 4.9. The r e s u l t s show t h a t a l l shared the common view t h a t the f i e l d s t u d i e s , the outdoor s c h o o l environment, and the program s t a f f c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i l m s shown a t the Outdoor S c h o o l a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . . C o u n s e l l o r s d i d not c i t e the f i l m s , but t h a t was 126 T a b l e 4.9 A s p e c t s of the Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program Which S t u d e n t s ,  C o u n s e l l o r s , Teachers and the W r i t e r B e l i e v e d t o have  C o n t r i b u t e d t o Enhancing S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n of N a t u r a l Resources Aspect of the Program Stud. Couns. Teach. W r i t . 1. P r e p a r a t i o n phase N N Y Y 2. F i e l d Study S e s s i o n s Y Y Y Y 3. Outdoor S c h o o l Environment Y Y Y Y 4. Program S t a f f Y Y Y Y 5. V a r i a t i o n s i n T eaching S t r a t e g i e s Y 0 0 Y 6. I n d i v i d u a l A t t e n t i o n N N N Y 7. F i l m s Y 0 Y(O) Y 8. Post-camp A c t i v i t i e s N 0 Y(0) Y S t u d . = S t u d e n t s Couns. = C o u n s e l l o r s Teach. = Teachers W r i t . = W r i t e r N = D i d not c i t e a s p e c t 0 = Not i n a p o s i t i o n t o judge a s p e c t Y = C i t e d a s p e c t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , s i n c e they d i d not see any of the f i l m s . The f i l m s e s s i o n s were the f r e e t i m e s f o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r s and most t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r s who c i t e d the f i l m s as c o n t r i b u t i n g toward enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s were the two t e a c h e r s who s u p e r v i s e d the f i l m s e s s i o n s . S t u d e n t s and the w r i t e r shared the view t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s used d u r i n g the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e d toward the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . C o u n s e l l o r s 1 27 and t e a c h e r s d i d not suggest t h a t the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . T h i s was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r t e a c h e r s because they d i d not see the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which the o t h e r t e a c h e r s used. C o u n s e l l o r s were teamed w i t h t e a c h e r s f o r the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s . S i x c o u n s e l l o r s were teamed w i t h each of t h r e e t e a c h e r s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , these s i x c o u n s e l l o r s o n l y e x p e r i e n c e d the t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s of t h e i r team t e a c h e r and had no o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe any of the o t h e r s . Each of the o t h e r f o u r c o u n s e l l o r s worked w i t h two t e a c h e r s , but d i d not mention the e f f e c t of the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s as b e i n g a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the f o u r c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not c i t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g . s t r a t e g i e s f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , they saw o n l y two t e a c h e r s , and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s were p r o b a b l y not obvi o u s t o them. S e c o n d l y , a p a r t from the t e a c h e r s which the c o u n s e l l o r s were a s s i g n e d t o f o r the f i e l d s t u d i e s , a l l f o u r c o u n s e l l o r s worked w i t h a common t e a c h e r and a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d him t o be d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s . T h i s was i n d i c a t e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s a f t e r the program. Two of the f o u r c o u n s e l l o r s r e f e r r e d t o t h a t t e a c h e r i n q u e s t i o n as a " s p e c i a l i s t , " whereas i n f a c t he was one of the t e a c h e r s at the Outdoor S c h o o l . The c o n f u s i o n may have a r i s e n because t h a t t e a c h e r l i v e d o u t s i d e the camp ar e a w h i l e a l l the o t h e r t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n the program l i v e d on the camp p r o p e r t y . A p a r t from the f i v e f a c t o r s g e n e r a l l y agreed upon as c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h r e e o t h e r f a c t o r s 1 28 d i d not r e c e i v e consensus a p p r o v a l , even by those who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o n o t i c e t h e i r e f f e c t s . The t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r agreed t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n a s p e c t of t h e program h e l p e d t o enhance the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s , a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y , but no s t u d e n t or c o u n s e l l o r made mention of t h a t a s p e c t , even though both the s t u d e n t s and the c o u n s e l l o r s went t h r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t h e m s e l v e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the importance of the p r e p a r a t i o n phase i n the t e a c h e r s ' handbook, the e x t e n t of work which t e a c h e r s put i n t o i t , and the background of both the t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r p r o b a b l y e n a b l e d them t o r e l a t e the p r e p a r a t i o n phase t o the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . S i m i l a r l y , o n l y the t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r mentioned the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s as c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The reasons which were g i v e n f o r c i t i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n phase by t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r were a l s o a p p l i c a b l e f o r the post-camp program. The absence of the support from c o u n s e l l o r s on the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e because they were not i n v o l v e d , and they d i d not know what went on a f t e r the camp program. I t was the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h a t s i n c e the camp program was the c l i m a x of the whole outdoor e d u c a t i o n program, both the s t u d e n t s and the c o u n s e l l o r s p r o b a b l y f o c u s e d t h e i r responses on o n l y the camp program. The n o n - c i t a t i o n of the p r e p a r a t i o n ' phase and the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s was p r o b a b l y because they had not thought about i t then. The l a s t f a c t o r , mentioned by o n l y the w r i t e r , was the 129 i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n by s t a f f members d u r i n g the program. The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t he n o t i c e d t h a t f a c t o r because d u r i n g the p i l o t study the s t u d e n t s , the c o u n s e l l o r s and the t e a c h e r s a l l suggested t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l h e l p l e d t o enhanced a t t i t u d e s i n the s t u d e n t s . They a l s o s a i d t h a t h e l p was a v a i l a b l e when i t was needed. That f i n d i n g , and the d i s c u s s i o n s which f o l l o w e d , i n f l u e n c e d the w r i t e r t o observe t h a t f a c t o r d u r i n g the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The o t h e r s p r o b a b l y d i d not e i t h e r observe the d i f f e r e n c e i n the e x t e n t of i n d i v i d u a l h e l p which was a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s , or d i d not c o n s i d e r i t t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . From the views e x p r e s s e d by the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s and the w r i t e r : the f i e l d s t u d i e s , the Outdoor S c h o o l environment, the program s t a f f , the f i l m s which were shown at the Outdoor S c h o o l , and the v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g approaches which were used d u r i n g the f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s were a s p e c t s of the program which a l l those who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o observe them mentioned as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . Two a s p e c t s , the p r e p a r a t i o n s b e f o r e the camp program, and the post camp a c t i v i t i e s , were mentioned by o n l y the w r i t e r and the t e a c h e r s who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o judge the a s p e c t s . One a s p e c t ( the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n which s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d ) was c i t e d by o n l y the w r i t e r as c o n t r i b u t i n g to. the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 130 4.2.6 D i s c u s s i o n of Case Study R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of the case study show t h a t e i g h t a s p e c t s of t h e program were judged t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The e i g h t a s p e c t s were the p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e the camp program, the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s , the Outdoor S c h o o l environment, the program s t a f f , the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n , the f i l m s , and the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s . (1) The P r e p a r a t i o n Phase The i m p o r t a n t r o l e of p r e p a r i n g f o r an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program has been i d e n t i f i e d by the N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l (Robertson and S h i e l d s , 1980a) and o t h e r outdoor e d u c a t o r s l i k e C o r d i e r (1966) and Stapp (1964). The main components of the p r e p a r a t i o n phase a t t r i b u t i n g t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s were the f i l m s , the s c i e n c e l e s s o n s , the language a r t s l e s s o n s , and the d i s c u s s i o n of the Outdoor S c h o o l r u l e s . Three t h i n g s were r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e enhancement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n — s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n , they d i s c u s s e d i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about the f o r e s t , and the s c h o o l l e s s o n s were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the Outdoor S c h o o l . A l t h o u g h a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge i s not s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r a t t i t u d e development, i t has been found t o have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on a t t i t u d e s ( C a s t r o and J o r d a n , 1977; A j z e n and F i s h b e i n , 1980). The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of knowledge on c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t i t u d e s has a l s o been suggested i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n by Brown, 1971; T r i c h e n o r et a l . , 1972; Stapp et a l . , 1969;. Roth, 1973; and Cohen, 1973. 131 . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e development, the a s s o c i a t i o n of p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s t o what i s l e a r n e d e n a b l e s one t o a c q u i r e an a t t i t u d e toward the l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l . Thus, s i n c e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s which were i n t e r e s t i n g t o them, the c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r development or enhancement of a t t i t u d e s had been s a t i s f i e d . The need t o i n t e g r a t e the r e g u l a r s c h o o l l e s s o n s w i t h the Outdoor S c h o o l camp program has been i d e n t i f i e d i n the t e a c h e r s ' manual (Robertson and S h i e l d s , 1980a), and i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs i n g e n e r a l (Stapp, 1964) as im p o r t a n t f o r the s u c c e s s of outdoor programs. I t appeared t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n made s t u d e n t s a n t i c i p a t e t h i n g s which they were g o i n g t o l e a r n d u r i n g the camp program, t o be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d f o r the c o n t e n t of the i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h the l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , and t o take the f i e l d s t u d i e s s e r i o u s l y s i n c e they .had t o w r i t e a r e p o r t on t h e i r r e t u r n . The i n t e r v i e w b e f o r e the camp program i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d the program t o be a p r i v i l e g e which they c o u l d l o s e i f they d i d not comply w i t h the r u l e s of co n d u c t . The l i t e r a t u r e on a t t i t u d e s shows t h a t a l t h o u g h f o r c e d c o m p l i a n c e can r e s u l t i n p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r , i t can a l s o l e a d t o u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward the event ( P e r k e s , 1973). D u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n , s t u d e n t s had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s about the r u l e s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s were f r e e t o not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the camp program, but n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not obs e r v e d . The comments which s t u d e n t s made about c o m p l i a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , were c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s t u d e n t s were aware of the c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s even b e f o r e they went t o the Outdoor 132 S c h o o l . A l t h o u g h the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s , s t u d e n t s b e n e f i t e d . The meetings among t e a c h e r s h e l p e d them t o s e l e c t s u i t a b l e f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s , p r o v i d e d them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s the program, and t o complete arrangements which were needed b e f o r e s t u d e n t s c o u l d v i s i t the Outdoor S c h o o l . The p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s h e l p e d t o ready them f o r the camp program. I t gave them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet w i t h the Outdoor S c h o o l s t a f f , t o l e a r n about the r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r s i n the program, and t o p r a c t i c e the f i e l d s t u d i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s was i m p o r t a n t , because the c o u n s e l l o r s had no t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e or t r a i n i n g . The p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s , which i n v o l v e d one me e t i n g , s e r v e d t o c o n f i r m the support of the p a r e n t s f o r the camp program. The above d e s c r i p t i o n s show t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r t o the camp program was e x t e n s i v e , and i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . Even though o n l y the p r e p a r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s was r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the . enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s , the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and p a r e n t s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be h e l p f u l because i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s of the program. (2) F i e l d S t u d i e s There were f o u r f i e l d s t udy t o p i c s - - f o r e s t e c o l o g y , farm s t u d i e s , stream e c o l o g y , and b i r d s t u d i e s . Each i n c l u d e d some a s p e c t s of c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . T eachers, c o u n s e l l o r s , s t u d e n t s and the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t each of the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' 1 33 c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . The f a c t o r s i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o have enhanced t h e development of f a v o r a b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s i n c l u d e d what the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , what they saw about c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n what they l e a r n e d , and what they l e a r n e d they c o u l d do t o c o n s e r v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The t h i n g s the s t u d e n t s s a i d they l e a r n e d which had a b e a r i n g on c o n s e r v a t i o n i n c l u d e d the s i m i l a r i t y between d o m e s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s and w i l d a n i m a l s , the a d a p t a t i o n of a n i m a l s t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s , the b e h a v i o r of b i r d s , methods of d e t e r m i n i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n a stream, the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t ecosystems, the r a t e a t which n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e b e i n g used up and the e f f e c t s of these on the f u t u r e . I t was suggested e a r l i e r t h a t the new knowledge c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . Even though t h e r e i s c o n t r o v e r s y about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge and a t t i t u d e development, the l i t e r a t u r e s u p p o r t s the view t h a t knowledge i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the development of a t t i t u d e s ( C a s t r o and Jordan 1977; A j z e n and F i s h b e i n 1980; Southern 1971). D u r i n g the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s , s t u d e n t s had a v a r i e t y of e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n . They found t h a t even though t h e r e a re s i m i l a r i t i e s among a n i m a l s , t h a t each a n i m a l i s d i f f e r e n t i n many ways. For. example, they found t h a t a l l b i r d s i n the f o r e s t a re not the same and t h a t d i f f e r e n t b i r d s l i v e i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the f o r e s t , nest d i f f e r e n t l y , f e e d d i f f e r e n t l y , and behave d i f f e r e n t l y . They observed t h a t many stream organisms l i v e under r o c k s , and t h a t many human a c t s ( e . g . , s h o u t i n g i n a f o r e s t , t h r o w i n g a rock i n t o a stream, 134 w a l k i n g i n a stream, w a l k i n g a l o n g the bank of a r i v e r ) a f f e c t the p l a n t s and a n i m a l s i n a stream. A l l t h e s e a r e e x p e r i e n c e s which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . The e f f e c t of d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e on a t t i t u d e development has been documented (Regan and F a z i o , 1977; Songer-Nocks, 1976). These a u t h o r s even suggest t h a t d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e i s a good p r e d i c t o r of b e h a v i o r s . Because the e x p e r i e n c e s which s t u d e n t s were exposed t o were many and v a r i e d , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i e l d s t u d i e s gave s t u d e n t s a r i c h e x p e r i e n t i a l framework which they c o u l d r e l a t e t o on m a t t e r s concerned w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n . For example, they saw the b e h a v i o r of b i r d s as the s t u d e n t s approached the b i r d s ' n e s t s , and c o u l d r e l a t e i t t o how w i l d a n i m a l s were a f f e c t e d by humans. D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of the consequences of poor c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and d i s c u s s i o n of what i s observed has been suggested t o be h e l p f u l f o r enhancing a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s by Howenstine (1962). A c c o r d i n g t o Gorman (1974), d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e h e l p s t o d e v e l o p and/or enhance a t t i t u d e s i n g e n e r a l , i f a p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e . F i s h b e i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( F i s h b e i n , 1967; F i s h b e i n and A j z e n , 1975; A j z e n and F i s h b e i n , 1980) have argued t h a t i f l e a r n i n g about an e v e n t , a c t , ( i . e . , an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t ) i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s , an a t t i t u d e i s d e v e l o p e d or m o d i f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t . Other s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s l i k e A laimo and Doran (1978); C i a l d i n i , P e t t y and Cacioppo (1981) have a l s o s u g g s t e d t h a t i f the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s what he/she i s l e a r n i n g t o be v a l u a b l e , he/she d e v e l o p s a 1 35 p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the c o n t e n t of what i s b e i n g l e a r n e d . The s t u d e n t s , and a l s o t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and the w r i t e r found each f i e l d study s e s s i o n t o be i n t e r e s t i n g , and v a l u a b l e . Over h a l f of the s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r the f i e l d s t u dy s e s s i o n s s a i d they l i k e d " e v e r y t h i n g , " and when they were asked about what they d i d not l i k e , most of the s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s not o n l y s a i d "I l i k e d e v e r y t h i n g , " but a l s o e x p r e s s e d s u r p r i s e a t b e i n g asked the q u e s t i o n , because they thought t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s was o b v i o u s . D u r i n g the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s , s t u d e n t s a l s o l e a r n e d t h i n g s which they can do t o save energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . A p a r t from the o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g f i e l d s t u d i e s , s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about- o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i o n methods i n energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , f o r e s t c o n s e r v a t i o n , f i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and the ways through which they can share t h e i r a c q u i r e d i d e a s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . P r o b a b l y the c o n t e n t s of the l e t t e r w r i t t e n by the s t u d e n t about t a k i n g her p a r e n t s t o the stream and showing them what she l e a r n e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l was an outcome of t h a t d i s c u s s i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most of the c o n s e r v a t i o n methods which the s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d i n v o l v e d many n e g a t i o n s . For example, they l e a r n e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o be good c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s they s h o u l d not t o u c h a b i r d ' s n e s t , not walk o f f t r a i l s , not walk i n streams, not walk a l o n g a r i v e r bank, not break branches o f f p l a n t s , not l e a v e l i g h t s on when not i n use, not throw r o c k s i n t o streams, e t c . The t h i n g s which they were t o l d not t o do f a r outnumbered the t h i n g s they were t o l d t o do. I t appears t o the 1 36 w r i t e r t h a t the many "do n ' t s " are i n consonance w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n methods ( t h e r e are many t h i n g s not t o be done, . and a l s o many r u l e s and l a w s ) . The w r i t e r observed t h a t the " don'ts" were always a r r i v e d a t a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g and/or o b s e r v i n g the consequences of the a c t . The w r i t e r found t h a t approach t o be good, because i t h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d the reasons f o r the s u g g e s t i o n , and a l s o because the s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d i n a r r i v i n g a t those d e c i s i o n s . (3) F i l m s Shown at the Outdoor S c h o o l The t h r e e f i l m s shown were a l l on c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t was s uggested t h a t the f i l m s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s because the f i l m s p r o v i d e d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the development of the a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s . A l l 26 s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c o n f i r m e d t h a t they l e a r n e d something new from the f i l m s , and t h a t they found a l l f i l m s t o be b o t h v a l u a b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g . One f a c t o r which the w r i t e r a t t r i b u t e d t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the f i l m s was the d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r showing each f i l m . The p r e - s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o a n t i c i p a t e what they were g o i n g t o see and i t h e l p e d them t o u n d e r s t a n d the f i l m s b e t t e r . The p o s t - s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s a l s o h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d the f i l m s and t o r e l a t e the c o n t e n t s of the f i l m s t o c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . A l l of the f i l m s were b a s i c a l l y on c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e , and i t was d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t energy c o n s e r v a t i o n was a d d r e s s e d . Outdoor e d u c a t o r s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have found t h a t 137 d i s c u s s i o n s a re v e r y e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g methods f o r i n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s (Crano, 1977; Webb,1979; Ronis et a l . , 1977; Cook and F l a y , 1.981; C i a l d i n i , P e t t y and Cacioppo, 1981; and H a r r i s o n , 1977). In t h i s study the p r e - s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o a n t i c i p a t e what they were goi n g t o see and t h e r e f o r e h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d the f i l m s b e t t e r . The p o s t -s c r e e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s a l s o h e l p e d s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d the f i l m s and t o r e l a t e what they saw t o c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . In t h i s s t u d y , the d i s c u s s i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t because a l l the f i l m s w hich s t u d e n t s saw were about p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . I t was d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t the t o p i c of energy c o n s e r v a t i o n was r a i s e d , and energy c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s mentioned. (4) The Outdoor S c h o o l Environment The environment of the Outdoor S c h o o l was one of the a s p e c t s which a l l f o u r groups c o n s i d e r e d t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . I t was a s a f e , happy and a c a d e m i c a l l y r i c h environment f o r l e a r n i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . The s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o f e e l r e l a x e d and thus n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h what they l e a r n e d were reduced. The e x c i t e m e n t of the s t u d e n t s i n the environment h e l p e d s t u d e n t s to d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h what they l e a r n e d . The s a f e and r i c h environment c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s because i t made them more r e l a x e d and c o n t e n t e d w h i l e they l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n . There were camp r u l e s which i n c l u d e d a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r s which s t u d e n t s were aware of b e f o r e they even a r r i v e d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l and 138 which they r e s p e c t e d . Other f a v o r a b l e a s p e c t s of the environment which c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s were the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of b i r d f e e d e r s around the grounds, the c o n s e r v a t i o n magazines i n the lounge, the p o s t e r s on c o n s e r v a t i o n , the d i s p l a y s of poems on c o n s e r v a t i o n w r i t t e n by former s t u d e n t s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s on t h i n g s l i k e a c i d r a i n , p o l l u t i o n , w i l d l i f e and f o r e s t f i r e s . R e s earch i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y s u p p o r t s the view t h a t d i r e c t exposure t o an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t can r e s u l t i n p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , i f the e x p e r i e n c e i s p l e a s a n t or f a v o r a b l e ( K a t z , 1960). In a d d i t i o n , the p r a c t i c e s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l i n v o l v e d a p p r o p r i a t e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r s i n c a b i n s , and s t u d e n t s r e s p e c t e d the c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c s by t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s i n the c a b i n s . I t has been r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Edgar, 1972; Hershey e t a l . , 1971) t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s can be devel o p e d by p r a c t i c i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e had been a d i s c u s s i o n of the Outdoor S c h o o l r u l e s p r i o r t o the camp program, and s t u d e n t s knew t h a t they were t r y i n g t o cons e r v e energy; and a l t h o u g h they had agreed t o t u r n o f f l i g h t s , and d i d , s t u d e n t s were a l s o competing among themselves f o r the c a b i n award, and knew t h a t t u r n i n g o f f the l i g h t would h e l p them win. Thus, i n t e r e s t i n wi n n i n g the c a b i n award s p u r r e d them t o t u r n o f f the l i g h t s . (5) The Program S t a f f The program s t a f f ( i . e . , t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s ) i n f l u e n c e d the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r . Both t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s r e s p e c t e d the Outdoor S c h o o l r u l e s , and s i n c e the s t u d e n t s were 139 o f t e n i n the company of the a d u l t s , they saw what the a d u l t s d i d and s a i d . In a d d i t i o n , the a d u l t s a l s o responded to the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s of s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t h e i r r e a c t i o n s and comments; f o r example, i n the e n t h u s i a s t i c response of the t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s t o the s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the camp program. When a t e a c h e r accompanied some s t u d e n t s on a f i s h i n g t r i p , he encouraged them t o walk i n a f i l e so they would not tr a m p l e over the f o r e s t bushes. A g a i n , when s t u d e n t s d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s two t e a c h e r s encouraged them. C o u n s e l l o r s used c o n s e r v a t i o n terms c o r r e c t l y d u r i n g t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s and on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s they responded t o s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n s . The above examples show t h a t c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y the t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d t h e i r own p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , and a c t e d as models f o r the s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s o f t e n wanted t o be i n the company of the c o u n s e l l o r s and t h e t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the f r e e t i m e s , and a c c o r d i n g t o Bandura (1971) s t u d e n t s tend t o copy models. T h e r e f o r e , the s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t they might have c o p i e d the a t t i t u d e s and/or b e h a v i o r of the t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s . T h i s mode of l e a r n i n g was d i f f e r e n t from the one suggested by F i s h b e i n . The approach used by Bandura comes from the S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory. A c c o r d i n g t o the S o c i a l L e a r n i n g Theory, the model behaves i n a c e r t a i n way or makes v a l u e - o r i e n t e d statements which a re i m i t a t e d by the l e a r n e r . I f the l e a r n e r i s rewarded by a p p r o v a l , a s m i l e or t a n g i b l e reward, the a t t i t u d e w i l l t e n d t o become a r e l a t i v e l y permanent p a r t of the o u t l o o k and b e h a v i o r (Bandura, 1971). S i m i l a r comments have been made by Gorman (1974). 140 D u r i n g the camp program new people were i n v o l v e d ( c o u n s e l l o r s and the t e a c h e r s from the Outdoor S c h o o l ) . Jacob ( i 9 6 0 ) and Lehmann (1963) have r e p o r t e d t h a t they have found t h a t s t u d e n t s who a r e s e e k i n g r e c o g n i t i o n from the a d u l t s a r e apt t o change t h e i r v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , those who had n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were i n f l u e n c e d t o change, w h i l e t h o s e who had p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were i n f l u e n c e d t o m a i n t a i n them. One c o u n s e l l o r r e p o r t e d t h a t most ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s saw h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as t h e i r i d o l s , and because of the way s t u d e n t s saw- the c o u n s e l l o r s , the s t u d e n t s were more prone t o a c c e p t what the c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d them, i n c l u d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . In outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs, Howenstine (1962) has a t t r i b u t e d the i n a b i l i t y of some programs t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s because s t a f f members do not p r a c t i c e the r u l e s t h e m s e l v e s . Rosenshine (1971) and Gage (1976) have a l s o suggested t h a t the b e h a v i o r of s t a f f members a f f e c t s the b e h a v i o r of s t u d e n t s d u r i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. (6) V a r i a t i o n s i n the Teaching S t r a t e g i e s Used A l l s i x t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n the study used an e c o l o g i c a l approach which has been r e p o r t e d t o be e f f e c t i v e f o r t e a c h i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n ( M i t c h e l l and Lunneborg, 1973). T h i s e c o l o g i c a l approach i n v o l v e s a w h o l i s t i c view of an ecosystem i n v o l v i n g l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g t h i n g s , and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the components of the ecosystem. For a t t i t u d e development, i t h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o see the r o l e of each of the components i n an ecosystem, and why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o co n s e r v e them. 141 Even though a l l t e a c h e r s used the e c o l o g i c a l a pproach, the way each t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s was d i f f e r e n t . One of the t e a c h e r s used the t e a c h i n g approach suggested i n an outdoor t e a c h i n g u n i t of which she was a co-a u t h o r . Another t e a c h e r used an approach s u g g e s t e d by Rhye (1973). A l l o t h e r t e a c h e r s s a i d they used t e a c h i n g approaches which they had found" t o be good from t h e i r p a s t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The w r i t e r and a l l the s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d af.ter the f i e l d study s e s s i o n s s a i d they found each t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y t o be i n t e r e s t i n g and e f f e c t i v e . I t was t h e r e f o r e suggested t h a t the • t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s were v a r i e d enough t o c a p t u r e the i n t e r e s t of s t u d e n t s i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e development, i n t e r e s t enhances the development of a t t i t u d e s . The f i e l d study t o p i c s which the t e a c h e r s t a u g h t were d i f f e r e n t , and these d i f f e r e n c e s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . In any event a study by Yaakobi (1981), i n v o l v i n g a l a r g e r sample of t e a c h e r s , a l s o found t h a t t e a c h e r s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r manner of p r e s e n t i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e p t s . Howenstine (1962) has r e p o r t e d t h a t he c o n s i d e r s v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o be good i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n but o n l y i f the t e a c h e r has thought through the s t r a t e g y and has found i t t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . Munzer and Brandwein (1960) suggest t h a t , i n the t e a c h i n g of c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s , v a r i a t i o n s ' i n t e a c h i n g methods s h o u l d be expected because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s of t e a c h e r s , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of knowledge t e a c h e r s have about 1 42 c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s , and the type of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which t e a c h e r s are used t o . (7) I n d i v i d u a l A t t e n t i o n The r a t i o of s t u d e n t s t o a d u l t h e l p e r s ( t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s ) d u r i n g the program was s m a l l e r d u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s than t h a t i n r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s reduced r a t i o was o b s e r v e d t o f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g by making more h e l p r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o them d u r i n g the program. However, o n l y the w r i t e r r e l a t e d t h i s a s p e c t of the program t o a t t i t u d e development. The f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n the program d i d not c i t e i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n may not be s u f f i c i e n t reason f o r one t o r e j e c t i t s r o l e , because they were not asked about t h i s f a c t o r d i r e c t l y . A more d i r e c t q u e s t i o n would have e n a b l e d one t o a s s e s s t h e i r v i e w s . However, t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y d i d c i t e t h i s a s p e c t of the program as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a t t i t u d e enhancement, and the s t u d e n t - s t a f f r a t i o s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . In r e c e n t y e a r s , t e a c h e r s have a l s o argued t h a t c l a s s s i z e a f f e c t s s t u d e n t achievement. The e f f e c t of c l a s s s i z e on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g i s s t i l l a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i n e d u c a t i o n , but most s t u d i e s done i n N o r t h America have shown t h a t s m a l l e r c l a s s s i z e s r e s u l t i n b e t t e r achievement ( G l a s s and S m i t h , 1979). A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e development, i f a n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h something which i s l e a r n e d , a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t i t u d e i s d e v e l o p e d . D u r i n g the camp program, the reduced s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o made more h e l p r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s , and t h e r e f o r e , made the 1 43 l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e more p o s i t i v e . For example, i t was obser v e d t h a t i n s c h o o l on many o c c a s i o n s s t u d e n t s needed h e l p , but had to w a i t because the t e a c h e r was h e l p i n g o t h e r s . O f t e n some s t u d e n t s abandoned the r e q u e s t f o r h e l p because a s s i s t a n c e d i d not a r r i v e when they needed i t . D u r i n g the f i e l d s t u d i e s however, h e l p was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Thus the improved s t u d e n t -t e a c h e r r a t i o h e l p e d t o improve the c o n d i t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g by removing the f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g due t o h e l p not b e i n g a v a i l a b l e when needed. (8) Post-Camp Program A c t i v i t i e s A f t e r the camp program, the v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d the s t u d e n t s i n f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s . These i n c l u d e d w a t c h i n g two f i l m s on c o n s e r v a t i o n , d i s c u s s i n g what s t u d e n t s had l e a r n e d i n the Outdoor S c h o o l , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o the outdoor t e a c h e r s , d i s c u s s i n g s c i e n c e and language a r t s a s s i g n m e n t s , and c o m p l e t i n g a s c i e n c e l e s s o n on a n i m a l s . The f o l l o w - u p was h e l p f u l t o s t u d e n t s because i t made them t h i n k through what they had done d u r i n g the camp program, and a l s o h e l p e d the s t u d e n t s t o r e l a t e r e g u l a r s c h o o l work t o the Outdoor S c h o o l work, through the as s i g n m e n t s which they s u b m i t t e d . At the end of the camp program the Outdoor S c h o o l t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c oncern about the importance of f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s . They were concerned t h a t because of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Outdoor S c h o o l and the c i t y s c h o o l s , an e f f e c t i v e f o l l o w - u p was the be s t way of h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o t r a n s f e r t h e i r a c q u i r e d a t t i t u d e s beyond the Outdoor S c h o o l . S i m i l a r views have been e x p r e s s e d by Robertson and S h i e l d s i n the t e a c h e r s ' handbook (Robertson and S h i e l d s , 1980a), and a l s o by George 144 (1966) i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s i n the program i n v o l v e d l e a r n i n g t h i n g s about c o n s e r v a t i o n from the f i l m s , and many d i s c u s s i o n s . A c q u i s i t i o n of r e l e v a n t knowledge has been found t o be a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r a t t i t u d e development by C a s t r o and Jor d a n (1977) and A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (1980). Research i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y a l s o s u p p o r t s the view t h a t i n a t t i t u d e development, d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h i n k t h r o u g h what t h e y have l e a r n e d a l r e a d y , and r e p e t i t i o n a l s o h e l p s t o r e i n f o r c e o l d a t t i t u d e s (Bandura, 1971). The f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s l a s t e d f o r a week and d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d of time t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t d i s c u s s i o n s , and so t h e r e was c o n t i n u a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Bandura (1971), c o n t i n u e d r e i n f o r c e m e n t a l s o h e l p s t o s t r e n g t h e n a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d a t t i t u d e s . 4.3 Summary of R e s u l t s In t h i s t w o - f o l d s t u d y , P a r t 1 (the a t t i t u d e assessment s t u d y ) d e a l t w i t h f i n d i n g out i f the program had an e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s and the na t u r e of the e f f e c t , w h i l e P a r t 2 (the case study) d e a l t w i t h the a s p e c t s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o or appeared to have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the change i n a t t i t u d e . 4.3.1 Summary of A t t i t u d e Assessment Study The r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program was e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of the t h r e e a r e a s of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s — e n e r g y , p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e — t a k e n t o g e t h e r . 145 An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the o v e r a l l change i n a t t i t u d e , u s i n g F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y , suggested t h a t the s t u d e n t s responded p o s i t i v e l y t o the t h i n g s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s which they l e a r n e d d u r i n g the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. A l t h o u g h t h i s i n f e r e n c e i s based on the t h e o r y which was adopted f o r the s t u d y , the d e s c r i p t i o n of the treatment shows t h a t t h i s was a r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . The r e s u l t s f u r t h e r showed t h a t the g r e a t e s t impact of the program on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s was i n p e r s o n a l a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy and p l a n t s . The l e a s t impact of the program on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s was i n p e r s o n a l a c t i o n i n w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and s o c i e t a l norm i n energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s t h e o r y ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I of t h i s t h e s i s ) , t h i s meant t h a t the observed change i n the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s was more l i k e l y t o a f f e c t the p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r of the s t u d e n t s i n energy and p l a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n , than the p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r i n w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . The responses of some of the p a r e n t s suggested t h a t i f the s t u d e n t s were exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s which demanded p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r i n w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , they would p r a c t i c e the e x p e c t e d good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. 4.3.2 Summary of Case Study R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of the case study show t h a t the p o s i t i v e change i n the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s was a t t r i b u t e d t o e i g h t a s p e c t s of the program--the p r e p a r a t i o n s p r i o r t o the camp program, the f i e l d s tudy s e s s i o n s , the f i l m s shown at the 146 Outdoor S c h o o l , the Outdoor S c h o o l environment, the program s t a f f , the v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which were used, the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n which s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d , and the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s . The way each a s p e c t was r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s has been d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.2 of t h i s c h a p t e r . The case study r e v e a l e d t h a t many of the a s p e c t s which have have been r e p o t e d by o u t d o o r e d u c a t o r s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s as enhancing th e development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s (Chapter I I ) a l s o o p e r a t e d i n the N o r t h Vancouver r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. The case study r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t of the t h r e e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s which were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study t h e r e was more emphasis on p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n than on energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the f i l m s and i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s , where more time was devoted t o p l a n t and w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n than i n energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . The s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r the program ( s e c t i o n 4.2) a l s o showed t h a t they saw the program i n the same way. 1 47 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r of the study b e g i n s w i t h a re s t a t e m e n t of the problems which were i n v e s t i g a t e d and c o n t a i n s the c o n c l u s i o n s of the s t u d y . I t a l s o s p e c i f i e s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the c o n c l u s i o n s , and d i s c u s s e s the s e r i o u s n e s s of these l i m i t a t i o n s . The c h a p t e r ends w i t h some recommended f o l l o w - u p r e s e a r c h , and some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s t o p r a c t i c e . 5.1 Research Problems and C o r r e s p o n d i n g C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the change i n a t t i t u d e towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s presumed t o ta k e p l a c e among s t u d e n t s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. The study a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o two s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s . S p e c i f i c Problem #1 What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program have on the a t t i t u d e of s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? C o n c l u s i o n #1 With r e g a r d t o the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t : R e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs can and do enhance s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l 148 r e s o u r c e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on the r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment study from Chapter IV ( s e c t i o n 4.1.3) which i n v o l v e d the a d o p t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e development. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s , u s i n g C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s t h e o r y , showed t h a t i n the ar e a of energy and p l a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n , the res p o n s e s of the s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t e d a p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e s a t the p e r s o n a l a c t i o n l e v e l . I n . t h e a r e a of w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , however, the e v i d e n c e showed t h a t t h e i r b e h a v i o r d i d not r e f l e c t a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . The weak r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o v e r a l l change i n a t t i t u d e and the b e h a v i o r of t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , where t h e r e was l i t t l e change, has t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n , because e v i d e n c e showed t h a t s t u d e n t s had not been exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d p r a c t i c e w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s has been p r o v i d e d i n Chapter IV ( s e c t i o n s 4.1.3.2 and 4.1.4) S p e c i f i c Problem #2 What a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e t o or appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? C o n c l u s i o n #2 With r e g a r d t o t h i s s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t : The f o l l o w i n g e i g h t a s p e c t s of the program c o n t r i b u t e d or appeared t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l 149 r e s o u r c e s : (1) the pre-camp p r e p a r a t i o n s ; (2) the f i e l d study a c t i v i t i e s ; (3) the Outdoor S c h o o l environment; (4) the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r of the t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s ; (5) the f i l m s seen a t the Outdoor S c h o o l ; (6) the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s used; (7) the i n d i v i d u a l h e l p which s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d ; (8) the post-camp f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s . These e i g h t a s p e c t s were ranked i n t h r e e groups based on consensus. Group one, which had consensus a p p r o v a l of a l l those who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o judge the a s p e c t , i n c l u d e d the f i e l d s t udy s e s s i o n s which s t u d e n t s were engaged i n , the s u p p o r t i v e Outdoor S c h o o l environment, the enthusiasm and b e h a v i o r of the t e a c h e r s and the c o u n s e l l o r s , the c o n t e n t . and manner of p r e s e n t i n g the f i l m s . a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which were used. Group two, which had a p p r o v a l of the w r i t e r and those t e a c h e r s who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o judge the e f f e c t of the a s p e c t , i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n s which took p l a c e b e f o r e the camp program, and the post-camp a c t i v i t i e s . The a s p e c t i n group t h r e e , which was i d e n t i f i e d by o n l y the w r i t e r , was the i n c r e a s e d amount of i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n which s t u d e n t s had d u r i n g the camp program. An a n a l y s i s of t h e s e e i g h t f a c t o r s has been p r o v i d e d i n Chapter IV. 150 5.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of the F i n d i n g s The f i n d i n g s which have been p r e s e n t e d above have been a r r i v e d a t a f t e r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g the program. The f i n d i n g s have, however, some l i m i t a t i o n s . (1) The s u b j e c t s were not randomly s e l e c t e d f o r the s t u d y . T h i s problem of non-random samp l i n g g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . (2) The w r i t e r was w i t h the s u b j e c t s throughout t h e p e r i o d of the s t u d y . The mere presence of the w r i t e r may have d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the d a t a which was c o l l e c t e d . (3) A l l the t e a c h e r s who took p a r t i n the program had had p r e v i o u s outdoor e d u c a t i o n t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and were v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c about the program. Thus the e f f e c t s may not a p p l y t o ' s i m i l a r programs which use a l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c group of t e a c h e r s . (4) Most of the s t u d e n t s who took p a r t i n the program were from u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s homes. Thus the e f f e c t s of the program on s t u d e n t s from o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s may not be s i m i l a r . (5) The time i n t e r v a l between the camp program and the p o s t t e s t was s h o r t (one week), thus w i t h h o l d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s t o be exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d p r a c t i c e some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n 'methods. (6) No attempt was made t o prove the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the a s p e c t s of the program a c t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . 151 These l i m i t a t i o n s r e s t r i c t the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y ; however, they a re not s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t i v e . F i r s t l y , even though the s u b j e c t s were not s e l e c t e d randomly, the study has p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t o support the e x p e r i m e n t a l and s p e c u l a t i v e c l a i m s of many outdoor e d u c a t o r s , the h y p o t h e s i z e d a t t i t u d e change b e i n g found t o o c c u r . That i s , t h i s s tudy has e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s about a t t i t u d e change i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. S e c o n d l y , d u r i n g the s t u d y , a d d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measurement d a t a were c o l l e c t e d on both the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups a f t e r the co m p a r a t i v e group had taken p a r t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. These a d d i t i o n a l d a t a , w h i l e not p a r t of the main s t u d y , a re a n a l y s e d i n Appendix U. The r e s u l t s of t h a t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program produced s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e enhancement i n the co m p a r a t i v e group. Thus, the a d d i t i o n a l d a t a p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g a p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p o s i t i v e changes i n a t t i t u d e f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. The presence of the w r i t e r was e n v i s a g e d t o be one l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study even b e f o r e the s t u d y . Steps were t h e r e f o r e taken t o m i n i m i z e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s , f o r example, the w r i t e r adopted a n o n - o b t r u s i v e r o l e i n the program, and suspended the i n t e r v i e w i n g of t e a c h e r s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group u n t i l a f t e r the camp program. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was found t h a t s t u d e n t s i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group, who were i n v o l v e d i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n program a f t e r the main s t u d y , and w i t h whom, t h e r e f o r e , the w r i t e r d i d not i n t e r a c t , showed s i m i l a r changes i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . T h i s e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t 152 the r e s u l t s which were o b t a i n e d may not be a t t r i b u t e d t o the presence of the w r i t e r . A l t h o u g h a l l the t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n the program had had p r e v i o u s outdoor e d u c a t i o n t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and were e n t h u s i a s t i c about the program, t h i s l i m i t a t i o n does not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t an e x t e n s i o n of the f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs, s i n c e one t h i n g about r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor s c h o o l s i s t h a t they a re u s u a l l y s t a f f e d w i t h t e a c h e r s who have c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g outdoor t o p i c s . S e c o n d l y , t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o r the camp program h e l p s t o arouse the i n t e r e s t of t e a c h e r s who a r e new t o such programs. In a d d i t i o n , most t e a c h e r s who ta k e p a r t i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs a r e i n t e r e s t e d ; and l a s t l y , most t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r outdoor e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and i n - s e r v i c e workshops t o h e l p t e a c h e r s cope w i t h the demands of t h i s v a l u a b l e type of e d u c a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t most of the s t u d e n t s were from u p p e r - m i d d l e -c l a s s homes suggests t h a t the reader s h o u l d be c a u t i o u s i n g e n e r a l i z i n g the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . The time i n t e r v a l between the camp program and the p o s t t e s t was found t o be s h o r t i n t h i s s t u d y , so t h a t some s t u d e n t s had not had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o be exposed t o s i t u a t i o n s where they c o u l d p r a c t i c e some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n . The responses of the p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the e f f e c t s of the program would have been even g r e a t e r i f the p o s t t e s t had been a d m i n i s t e r e d a f t e r s t u d e n t s had been g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o 153 p r a c t i c e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods i n a l l t h r e e a r e a s of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s which were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , the s h o r t time i n t e r v a l between the camp program and the p o s t t e s t was a l i m i t a t i o n of the study and not a l i m i t a t i o n of the o v e r a l l f i n d i n g s i n a t t i t u d e change. In t h i s s t u d y , no attempt was made t o prove t h a t the a s p e c t s of the program r e s u l t e d i n the enhancement of the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . But the a s p e c t s were a r r i v e d a t o n l y a f t e r an a n a l y s i s of the independent views of the s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s , and the w r i t e r . And, these views were g a t h e r e d d u r i n g and soon a f t e r the program, so t h a t s u b j e c t s were i n a p o s i t i o n t o remember and t o r e l a t e t o what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program. In summary t h e n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were l i m i t a t i o n s t o the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s were not s e r i o u s . 5.4 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h In view of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study a number of s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e o f f e r e d . (1) I t i s suggested t h a t because of the problems of s a m p l i n g which were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t the study be r e p l i c a t e d so t h a t the e f f e c t of such f a c t o r s as the so c i o - e c o n o m i c background of s t u d e n t s , and the enthusiasm of t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , on a t t i t u d e enhancement be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . (2) I t i s suggested t h a t because of the problem i n the 154 t i m i n g of the p o s t t e s t , t h a t l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s be persued t o f i n d out i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n would change a f t e r an extended p e r i o d of t i m e , e.g., at the end of the summer h o l i d a y s , and a f t e r one y e a r . (3) I t i s suggested t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be employed t o f i n d out the r e l a t i v e importance of each a s p e c t of the program i n enhancing the s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . (4) I t i s suggested t h a t s i m i l a r s t u d i e s be conducted i n o t h e r outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs t o document the g e n e r a l c l a i m by outdoor e d u c a t o r s t h a t such programs do enhance s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r a ssumption about how c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s l e a d t o corres p o n d n g changes i n s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r . (5) I t i s a l s o s u g g ested t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h and t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r be employed i n e v a l u a t i n g outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs t o f i n d out how those d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s might endorse the c l a i m s made i n the s t u d y . 5.4 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s t o p r a c t i c e . The f i n d i n g s of the case study p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r e p a r i n g t e a c h e r s who are' a s p i r i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs, and f o r p r a c t i c i n g outdoor e d u c a t o r s who i n t e n d t o improve on t h e i r programs. The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t 155 many a s p e c t s of an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancing s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s , and t h a t t h e s e a s p e c t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n d e v e l o p i n g an outdoor e d u c a t i o n program which would be e f f e c t i v e i n enhancing s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g : 1) An adequate p r e p a r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s and a l l who a r e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the program, b e f o r e the camp program. 2) The q u a l i t y of the f i e l d s t u d i e s which a re s e l e c t e d f o r the camp program. 3) The use of an outdoor camp which encourages good c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . 4) The use of t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s who have p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e them. 5) The use of a p p r o p r i a t e f i l m s and d i s c u s s i o n s both b e f o r e and a f t e r showing each f i l m . 6) The use of e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s d u r i n g the program. 7) The a v a i l a b i l i t y of prompt h e l p t o s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the program. 8) Engaging s t u d e n t s i n e f f e c t i v e f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r the camp program. 156 BIBLIOGRAPHY A j z e n , I . , & F i s h b e i n , M. 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A t t i t u d e s v e r s u s a c t i o n : the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v e r b a l and o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l responses t o a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1969, 2_5, 41-74. W i l s o n , T. L. Student a t t i t u d e s change as a r e s u l t of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s . o p i n i o n s of s t r i p m i n i n g . 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 133164) 170 Woodward, R. W. A proposed s t r a t e g y f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n program i n  terms of a c h i e v i n g a s e l e c t e d g o a l . U n p u b l i s h e d major essay f o r M.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973. Y a a k o b i , D. Some d i f f e r e n c e s i n modes of use of an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n programme by s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and community l e a d e r s . European J o u r n a l of S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1981, 3 ( 1 ) , 69^76. Zimbardo, P. And Ebbesen, E. B. I n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s and changing b e h a v i o r . Reading, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A d d i s o n Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company. 1969. Zimbardo, P. G., Ebbesen, E. B., & M a s l a c h , C. I n f l u e n c i n g  a t t i t u d e s and c h a n g i n g b e h a v i o r . (2nd. Ed.) Read i n g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Addison-Wesley. 1977. 171 APPENDIX A THE ACTUAL TREATMENT USED IN THE STUDY In o r d e r t o d e f i n e the tre a t m e n t more c l e a r l y , the i n v e s t i g a t o r accompanied the e x p e r i m e n t a l group as a non-p a r t i c i p a n t and u n o b t r u s i v e o b s e r v e r , and r e c o r d e d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the program. In t h i s study the e n t i r e program c o n s t i t u t e d the t r e a t m e n t . I t was made up of a 12 day p r e p a r a t i o n phase, a week-long camp program a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , and a one week f o l l o w - u p a f t e r the camp program. The p r e p a r a t i o n phase and the f o l l o w - u p phase took p l a c e i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l , w h i l e the camp program was h e l d at a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor camp. The camp was l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the c i t y of Vancouver and o p e r a t e d year round f o r the d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s . C a b i n accommodation, meals and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were p r o v i d e d at the camp. The camp a l s o a r r a n g e d f o r bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and from the Outdoor S c h o o l f o r a l l those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program. P r e p a r a t i o n Phase D u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , s t u d e n t s saw t h r e e f i l m s on f o r e s t e c o l o g y ("The I n c r e d i b l e F o r e s t , " "A Tree i s a L i v i n g T h i n g , " and "Another S i d e of the F o r e s t " ) and were i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r each f i l m . In s c i e n c e , s t u d e n t s s t u d i e d about mammals and ecosystems, and they were asked t o do l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h on one of the farm a n i m a l s l i v i n g a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . In language a r t s , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s they l i k e d about f o r e s t s , and the i d e a s were used t o w r i t e poems t o g e t h e r . S t u d e n t s were a l s o p r e p a r e d f o r the c o n d i t i o n s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . They read and d i s c u s s e d the c o n t e n t s of the s t u d e n t s ' handbook which was s u p p l i e d by the Outdoor S c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were meetings among t e a c h e r s , a t r a i n i n g program f o r c o u n s e l l o r s , and a p a r e n t s ' m e e t i n g . Camp Program F i e l d S t u d i e s The s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e groups. Four of these r o t a t e d from t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r , w h i l e one group s t a y e d w i t h two t e a c h e r s throughout the week. The more f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e of the program c o n s i s t e d of fo u r f i e l d study t o p i c s and t h r e e f i l m s . Each t o p i c o c c u p i e d two s e s s i o n s . The f i e l d study t o p i c s were f o r e s t e c o l o g y , stream s t u d i e s , b i r d s t u d i e s , and farm s t u d i e s . 1 72 F o r e s t E c o l o g y D u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s examined and d i s c u s s e d the e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f o r e s t p l a n t s , and used b i o l o g i c a l keys t o i d e n t i f y c o n i f e r s and deciduous t r e e s . There was a d i s c u s s i o n of the uses of f o r e s t p l a n t s and f o r e s t ecosystems, and the need f o r t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n . S t u d e n t s drew some of the e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s of the f o r e s t p l a n t s , and were shown some i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among components of the f o r e s t ecosystem. D u r i n g the second s e s s i o n , they d i s c u s s e d two k i n d s of f e r n s ( b racken f e r n and sword f e r n ) and drew some of the m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d the f o r e s t ecosystem, and the r o l e of the b i o t i c and a b i o t i c components i n the f o r e s t ecosystem. S t u d e n t s examined the bark of f o r e s t t r e e s . They d i s c u s s e d the f u n c t i o n s of the bark and how c a r v i n g names i n the bark a f f e c t s the t r e e . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s answered q u e s t i o n s on how f o r e s t s were a f f e c t e d by human and n a t u r a l f a c t o r s . The s t u d e n t s ' answers were l a t e r d i s c u s s e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of how s t u d e n t s c o u l d share t h e i r knowledge w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . Farm S t u d i e s The farm s t u d i e s were conducted on the farm. D u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a farm, and the a p p r o p r i a t e way t o approach farm a n i m a l s w i t h o u t s c a r i n g them. They saw some farm a n i m a l s , namely sheep, g o a t s , c a t t l e and p i g s . They l e a r n e d about t h e i r e yes, t e e t h , f e e t , f e e d i n g h a b i t s , and b e h a v i o r s , and how they have adapted t o t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . D u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n , the p a r a l l e l between d o m e s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s and w i l d a n i m a l s was drawn. The need t o cons e r v e farm l a n d was a l s o d i s c u s s e d . S t u d e n t s h e l p e d t o c l e a n the p i g s t y and f e e d the a n i m a l s . A l l s t u d e n t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o touch each of the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a n i m a l s on the farm. The second s e s s i o n was m o s t l y about two farm a n i m a l s ( r a b b i t s and c h i c k e n s ) . There was a d i s c u s s i o n of food p r o d u c t s o b t a i n e d from those two a n i m a l s . S t u d e n t s saw w i l d r a b b i t s i n the farm a r e a and the t e a c h e r t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t . the w i l d a n i m a l s were s i m i l a r t o the d o m e s t i c a t e d ones. The t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d and demonstrated the p r o p e r way t o p i c k - u p r a b b i t s and c h i c k e n s , and a l l s t u d e n t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o handle each of those a n i m a l s . S t u d e n t s observed the b e h a v i o r and f e e d i n g h a b i t s of c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s . They a l s o saw the food of the a n i m a l s and how c h i c k e n s c o n t r o l l e d f l e a s . There was a farm chore which i n v o l v e d c l e a n i n g up the c h i c k e n coop. A f t e r the c h o r e s , s t u d e n t s were asked t o c a r r y out independent s t u d i e s . The 1 73 independent study i n v o l v e d w r i t i n g a poem or s t o r y on how one of the farm a n i m a l s would s u r v i v e i f i t were r e t u r n e d t o i t s n a t u r a l environment. Stream S t u d i e s There was a d i s c u s s i o n of the stream ecosystem, i t s d e l i c a t e n e s s , and how e a s i l y the ecosystem c o u l d be changed by p u t t i n g waste m a t e r i a l s i n t o a stream. S t u d e n t s examined the stream, c o n d u c t e d some water t e s t s (pH, te m p e r a t u r e , oxygen c o n t e n t ) , and used the d a t a p r o v i d e d by the t e a c h e r t o e s t i m a t e how " h e a l t h y " the stream was. The r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d , and the t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d how the a n a l y s e s c o u l d be used t o determine the e x t e n t of p o l l u t i o n , and the need t o c o n s e r v e r i v e r s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s were engaged i n an a c t i v i t y which showed them the complex n a t u r e of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the components of an ecosystem. The f i r s t s e s s i o n c o n c l u d e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the importance of each component of an ecosystem, and the need t o co n s e r v e them a l l . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how they c o u l d h e l p t o cons e r v e the stream. The d i s c u s s i o n was extended t o o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g f o r e s t p l a n t s , f o r e s t a n i m a l s , and energy. D u r i n g the second s e s s i o n , t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between a stream and a r i v e r . D u r i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n s , they a l s o d i s c u s s e d h y d r o - e l e c t r i c energy, and why i t had become i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s e r v e energy. They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how some human a c t i v i t i e s l e d t o stream p o l l u t i o n . The t e a c h e r d i s t r i b u t e d a handout on organisms which had been found i n the streams a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . She d i s t r i b u t e d n e t s , and e x p l a i n e d how the n e t s were used t o c a t c h stream organisms. The s t u d e n t s used the n e t s t o c a t c h some of the stream o r g a n i s m s , and they examined t h e i r organisms w i t h the a i d of m i c r o s c o p e s . At the end of the s e s s i o n , the s t u d e n t s v o l u n t e e r e d t o r e t u r n the specimens t o t h e i r n a t u r a l environment. B i r d S t u d i e s D u r i n g the f i r s t b i r d s tudy s e s s i o n t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of b i r d s which had been found a t the Outdoor S c h o o l i n the p a s t . The s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of b i r d s , and how v a r i a t i o n s i n the p a r t s of a b i r d were h e l p f u l f o r b i r d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S t u d e n t s were g i v e n b i n o c u l a r s and taken o u t d o o r s , and they saw many b i r d s and b i r d n e s t s . They saw many v a r i a t i o n s , f o r example, i n the appearance and b e h a v i o r of b i r d s , i n the s i t e s chosen f o r n e s t i n g , and i n what they f e d on. They d i s c u s s e d the importance of p l a n t s t o b i r d s , and how human a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t l i v i n g organisms i n g e n e r a l , w i t h emphasis on b i r d s . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how they c o u l d h e l p t o cons e r v e b i r d s and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s e s t i m a t e d the number of b i r d s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , of the f o r e s t , and d i s c u s s e d why t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n s of b i r d s a t the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . D u r i n g the second s e s s i o n t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of the need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and what s t u d e n t s 174 can do t o h e l p . The t e a c h e r a l s o reviewed how c e r t a i n human a c t s a f f e c t b i r d s . S t u d e n t s saw more b i r d s , and they saw how the b i r d s r e a c t e d t o human i n t r u s i o n on the a r e a s where t h e i r n e s t s were. S t u d e n t s d e s c r i b e d the s i z e , shape, c o l o r , sounds, b e h a v i o r , and l o c a t i o n . o f the d i f f e r e n t b i r d s and e s t i m a t e d the number of b i r d s , i n each a r e a . They a l s o saw and d i s c u s s e d the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between some b i r d s and c a t t l e , and the importance of good h i k i n g b e h a v i o r s i n o r d e r t o co n s e r v e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . F i lms S t u d e n t s saw t h r e e f i l m s d u r i n g the camp program. There were d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e each f i l m , and a f t e r the l a s t two. The f i r s t ("A L i v i n g R i v e r " ) was m a i n l y about stream organisms, how they were adapted t o l i f e i n the water, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the a q u a t i c a n i m a l s . The f i l m a l s o showed how streams were r e l a t e d t o l i f e on l a n d , and how streams were b e i n g p o l l u t e d . The second f i l m ("Trees") was about f o r e s t t r e e s and t h e i r u s es. I t d e s c r i b e d the l i f e c y c l e of the oak t r e e and how i t su p p o r t e d d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of l i f e . I t showed how a n i m a l s can a f f e c t t r e e s , and suggested t h a t r a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n methods be used t o m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l environment. The t h i r d f i l m ("The Other World") showed a food c h a i n and a f o o d web, and the in t e r d e p e n d e n c e between l i v i n g and non-l i v i n g t h i n g s . The f i l m d e s c r i b e d how the ba l a n c e of n a t u r e o p e r a t e d i n a stream. I t a l s o d i s c u s s e d h'ow some human a c t i v i t i e s and b e h a v i o r r e s u l t i n p o l l u t i n g streams and suggested t o the audie n c e t h a t they s h o u l d r e p o r t anyone found to be p o l l u t i n g streams and r i v e r s . Chores There were s i x t y p e s of c h o r e s which a l l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . A l l the c h o r e s were s u p e r v i s e d by c o u n s e l l o r s . The n a t u r e of the d i f f e r e n t c h o r e s has been d e s c r i b e d below. Farm Chores T h i s duty took p l a c e each morning and e v e n i n g . I t i n v o l v e d d a i l y r o u t i n e farm work, l i k e c o l l e c t i n g the farm produce, f e e d i n g the a n i m a l s , and c l e a n i n g the d w e l l i n g area of the a n i m a l s . F e t c h and C a r r y T h i s duty i n v o l v e d s e t t i n g up the t a b l e s b e f o r e meals. Because the f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y s t u d e n t s were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g food from the k i t c h e n f o r everyone d u r i n g a meal, each t a b l e had a t l e a s t one f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y s t u d e n t . He/she o c c u p i e d a s p e c i a l seat so t h a t i t was c o n v e n i e n t t o l e a v e the t a b l e w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g o t h e r s . 175 Weather Duty Each morning and ev e n i n g one c a b i n group was e x p e c t e d t o r e p o r t a t the weather s t a t i o n , t o read the weather i n s t r u m e n t s , and t o make a f o r e c a s t of the weather. By d o i n g t h i s duty they l e a r n e d about the weather i n s t r u m e n t s . They made a v e r b a l r e p o r t a t b r e a k f a s t and a t d i n n e r i n the d i n i n g h a l l . Host and H o s t e s s I t was the duty of the host t o i n v i t e a d i f f e r e n t s t a f f member or v i s i t i n g a d u l t t o be h i s guest a t each meal. The host headed the t a b l e , s e r v e d the main d i s h , and when more food was needed a t the t a b l e , r e q u e s t e d the f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y p e r s o n t o get i t . As h o s t , he gu i d e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n and s e t a good example by u s i n g p r o p e r t a b l e manners. He was a l s o expected t o thank h i s guest a f t e r the meal. L i k e the h o s t , the h o s t e s s i n v i t e d a s t a f f member or v i s i t o r t o be a guest at meals. She s a t at the o p p o s i t e end of the t a b l e from the h o s t . When the e n t i r e t a b l e had been s e r v e d , the h o s t e s s took the f i r s t b i t e and then everyone might begin e a t i n g . L i k e the h o s t , the h o s t e s s a l s o d i r e c t e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n and s e t a good example by u s i n g p r o p e r t a b l e manners. She was a l s o e x p e c t e d t o thank her guest a f t e r the meal. In a d d i t i o n , the host and h o s t e s s remained i n the d i n i n g h a l l a f t e r the meal and e l e a n e d up the d i n i n g room. Roustabout The duty of the r o u s t a b o u t c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of c o l l e c t i n g garbage and c l e a n i n g the camp grounds. There were a l s o s p e c i a l d u t i e s , a s s i g n e d by the r o u s t a b o u t c o u n s e l l o r , when the need a r o s e . V e g e t a b l e s Each morning -after b r e a k f a s t , the c a b i n group r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v e g e t a b l e s met w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r i n charge of the ch o r e . T h i s group was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of v e g e t a b l e s r e q u i r e d f o r the day's meals. F o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s For the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s s t u d e n t s saw and d i s c u s s e d two c o n s e r v a t i o n f i l m s . ( " D a y l i g h t i n the Swamp" and "Whatever a Man Soweth"). In a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of what s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d i n the Outdoor S c h o o l , and w r i t i n g of l e t t e r s t o the outdoor t e a c h e r s . S t u d e n t s a l s o s u b m i t t e d assignments i n s c i e n c e and language a r t s , and the s e were d i s c u s s e d . To summarize the t r e a t m e n t , a l l s t u d e n t s saw a l l of the f i l m s . They a l s o took p a r t i n a l l of the f i e l d s t udy t o p i c s but 176 the o r d e r of the f i e l d s t udy t o p i c s d i f f e r e d f o r the d i f f e r e n t groups. A l l s t u d e n t s took p a r t i n the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , but s t u d e n t s were f r e e t o choose o n l y one r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on each day. S t u d e n t s were a l s o encouraged t o s e l e c t a d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y each day. S i m i l a r l y , a l l s t u d e n t s took p a r t i n the c h o r e s , but not a l l s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l s i x c h o r e s . Most s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n f i v e of the s i x c h o r e s d u r i n g the program. 1 77 APPENDIX B  ATTITUDE TOWARDS CONSERVATION PURPOSE We a r e t r y i n g t o f i n d out how f a v o u r a b l e or u n f a v o u r a b l e you are towards s a v i n g energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . P l e a s e f i l l i n background i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s page. Then f o r each statement on the f o l l o w i n g pages show how s t r o n g l y you agree or d i s a g r e e by c i r c l i n g one of the r e s p o n s e s on the s c a l e t o the r i g h t of the i t e m s . Your t e a c h e r w i l l e x p l a i n the symbols t o you, and w i l l t e l l you when t o b e g i n . I f you are undecided or do not know, c i r c l e the l e t t e r U which i s t o the extreme r i g h t of the r e s p o n s e s . Read each i t e m c a r e f u l l y and c i r c l e o n l y one symbol f o r every s t a t e m e n t . YOUR FREEDOM A l t h o u g h your s c h o o l has agreed t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y , you are f r e e t o withdraw a t any time or r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I f you complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t w i l l be assumed t h a t you have agreed t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . Any i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from you w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . INFORMATION ABOUT YOU 1 . DIVISION 2. Name: (Surname or l a s t name) ( F i r s t name) 3. Sex - check one rj Female Q Male 4. Have you ever gone on a camping r-i Yes i - i No t r i p ? U u I f so, f o r how long? J - J One day • • Two days Three days n More than t h r e e days Wait f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s from your t e a c h e r b e f o r e you s t a r t a n s wering the next s e t of q u e s t i o n s . PLEASE ANSWER ALL'QUESTIONS through t o the end on page 10. N o t i c e t h a t the f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k i n g about what you b e l i e v e p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l do or would do (pages 2-4) about c o n s e r v a t i o n , and the second s e t of q u e s t i o n s (pages 5-7) asks how you f e e l about some of the same t h i n g s y o u r s e l f . The l a s t set of q u e s t i o n s (pages 8-10) a s k s what you y o u r s e l f do about these t h i n g s . 1 78 The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a re planned t o t e l l us what s t u d e n t s your age t h i n k about the p u b l i c . Read the q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and respond t o them the way s t u d e n t s your age t h i n k about the p u b l i c . ENERGY STUDENTS MY AGE BELIEVE THAT MOST PEOPLE ... 1) would t u r n o f f t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n s e t s when no one i s wat c h i n g SA A N D SD U 2) would not t u r n t h e i r t h e r m o s t a t s down at n i g h t SA A N D SD U 3) would t a k e the bus i n s t e a d of t h e i r c a r s SA A N D SD U 4) would hang t h e i r s m a l l washing up t o dry i n s t e a d of u s i n g a d r y e r SA A N D SD U 5) would not watch T.V. programs on how t o save energy SA A N D SD U 6) would r e a d books on how to' save energy ...SA A N D SD U 7) would t u r n o f f t h e i r l i g h t s a t home when not i n use SA A N D SD U 8) would not save energy i n s p i t e of what some p e o p l e say SA A N D SD U 9) would not check the amount of energy which d i f f e r e n t machines use b e f o r e buying one SA A N D SD U 10) would check t h e i r t i r e p r e s s u r e f r e q u e n t l y t o improve gas m i l e a g e SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U S t r o n g l y Agree Agree N e u t r a l Di sagree S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e Undec i d e d 179 PLANTS STUDENTS MY AGE BELIEVE THAT MOST PEOPLE 1) would grow t r e e s t o h e l p make the environment b e a u t i f u l SA A N D SD U 2) would p r o t e c t t r e e s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s SA A N D SD U 3) would support the s c h o o l s i f the s c h o o l s were t o t e a c h how t r e e s can be p r o t e c t e d SA A N D SD U 4) would break branches from t r e e s t o use as w a l k i n g s t i c k s SA A N D SD U 5) would d i g up f o r e s t p l a n t s t o b r i n g home SA A N D SD U • 6) would p u l l up p l a n t s i n the f o r e s t SA A N D SD U 7) would r e p o r t p e o p l e who are c a r e l e s s about f i r e s i n the f o r e s t ' SA A N D SD U 8) would be i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g how t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t p l a n t s SA A N D SD U 9) would c a r v e t h e i r names or i n i t i a l s on t r e e s .SA A N D SD U 10) would not be i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about laws t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t p l a n t s SA, A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or.Don't know WILDLIFE STUDENTS MY AGE BELIEVE THAT MOST PEOPLE 1) would support the idea of p r o t e c t i n g w i l d a n i m a l s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s SA A N D SD U 2) would support the s c h o o l s i f the s c h o o l s were t o te a c h how w i l d a n i m a l s can be saved SA A N D SD U 3) would support laws which p r e v e n t s h o o t i n g w i l d a n i m a l s SA A N D SD U 4) would not d r i v e t h e i r v e h i c l e s more c a r e f u l l y when t h e r e are w i l d a n i m a l s on the highway ....SA A N D SD U 5) would c o n t r i b u t e money t o buy hay f o r w i l d a n i m a l s d u r i n g bad weather ( e . g . , when t h e r e i s too much snow) SA A N D SD U 6) would not h e l p t o p r o v i d e homes (e. g . , b i r d houses) f o r w i l d a n i m a l s SA A N D SD U 7) would b r i n g w i l d a n i m a l s home t o keep as p e t s SA A N D SD U 8) would remove garbage from r i v e r s or streams so t h a t f i s h would not be harmed SA A N D SD U 9) would r e p o r t anyone b r e a k i n g laws which a re meant t o p r o t e c t w i l d a n i m a l s SA A N D SD U 10) would p i c k up any f i s h eggs they f i n d a l o n g a r i v e r and r e t u r n the eggs i n t o the r i v e r SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know 181 The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a re t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l about s a v i n g energy. C i r c l e t he response which d e s c r i b e s how you f e e l about each of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . ENERGY 1) I would l i k e t o check the t e l e v i s i o n and t u r n i t o f f i f no one i s w a t c h i n g i t . .SA A N D SD U 2) I would l i k e t o check the t h e r m o s t a t . t o be sure i t was t u r n e d down a t n i g h t ....SA A N D SD U 3) I would l i k e t o take the bus i n o r d e r t o save energy SA A N D SD U 4) I would want my p a r e n t s t o hang s m a l l l o a d s of washing up t o dry i n s t e a d of u s i n g a d r y e r , i n o r d e r t o save energy ...SA A N D SD U 5) I would r a t h e r watch a T.V. program on how ' t o save energy than watch o t h e r T.V. programs ....SA A N D SD U 6) I would not l i k e t o go t o a l i b r a r y t o get some books on how t o save energy .....SA A N D SD U 7) I would l i k e t o t u r n o f f l i g h t s a t home i f they a r e not i n use SA A N D SD U 8) I would make an e f f o r t t o save energy i n e very p o s s i b l e way SA A N D SD U 9) I would not spend time f i n d i n g out the amount of energy needed f o r d i f f e r e n t t o y s , b e f o r e a s k i n g my p a r e n t s t o buy me one SA A N D SD U 10) I would not l i k e my p a r e n t s t o have t i r e p r e s s u r e checked r e g u l a r l y SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided 182 The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a re t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l about s a v i n g p l a n t s . C i r c l e the response which d e s c r i b e s how you f e e l about each of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . PLANTS 1) I would not l i k e t o j o i n a group which i s t r y i n g t o p l a n t more t r e e s ..SA A N D SD U 2) Whil e h i k i n g I would be c a r e f u l t o s t a y on the t r a i l , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s SA A N D SD U 3) I would not agree w i t h s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g how t r e e s can be saved SA A N D SD U 4) I would l i k e t o break branches from t r e e s t o use as w a l k i n g s t i c k s SA A N D SD U 5) I would l i k e t o d i g up some p l a n t s i n the f o r e s t and b r i n g them home ..SA A N D SD U 6) I would not l i k e p u l l i n g up p l a n t s i n a f o r e s t .SA A N D SD U 7) I would be happy i f I c o u l d p r e v e n t f o r e s t f i r e s .SA A N D SD U 8) I would be g l a d t o r e p o r t people who throw c i g a r e t t e s out of t h e i r c a r s t o the RCMP SA A N D SD U 9) I would l i k e my p a r e n t s t o use a r t i f i c i a l C h r i s t m a s t r e e s SA A N D SD U 10) I would not l i k e t o l e a r n about laws which a r e meant t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t p l a n t s SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know 183 The f o l l o w i n g s et of q u e s t i o n s are t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l about s a v i n g w i l d a n i m a l s . C i r c l e the response which d e s c r i b e s how you f e e l about each of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . WILDLIFE 1) I would not v o l u n t e e r t o d i s t r i b u t e handouts about p r o t e c t i n g w i l d a n i m a l s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . SA A N D SD U 2) I would l i k e t o j o i n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who want the s c h o o l s t o t e a c h how w i l d a n i m a l s can be p r o t e c t e d SA A N D SD U 3) I would t e l l my f r i e n d s t o throw s t o n e s a t b i r d s SA A N D SD U 4) I would ask my f r i e n d s t o h e l p w i l d a n i m a l s d u r i n g bad weather ( e . g . , when t h e r e i s t o o much snow) SA A N D SD U 5) I would l i k e t o buy and hang up b i r d houses t o p r o v i d e a home f o r b i r d s SA A N D SD U 6) I f I went i n t o a f o r e s t and found a s m a l l w i l d a n i m a l , I would t e l l my f r i e n d s t o b r i n g i t home and keep i t as a pet SA A N D SD U 7) I would remove garbage from a stream so t h a t the p o l l u t i o n won't k i l l the f i s h SA A N D SD U 8) I would not l i k e t o r e p o r t p e o p l e t o the R.C.M.P. f o r b r e a k i n g laws which are meant t o p r o t e c t w i l d a n i m a l s SA A N D SD U 9) I would be g l a d t o p i c k up f r o g eggs from a r i v e r bank and t o put them back i n t o the water t o p r o t e c t the t a d p o l e s ...SA A N D SD U 10) I would b r i n g any b i r d s eggs I f i n d i n the f o r e s t home t o p l a y w i t h SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know 184 The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s are t o f i n d out what you a c t u a l l y DO about s a v i n g energy. C i r c l e the response which b e s t d e s c r i b e s your b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of the s t a t e m e n t s . ENERGY 1) I don't o f t e n t u r n o f f the t e l e v i s i o n s e t when no. one i s w a t c h i n g i t .SA A N D SD U 2) I o f t e n check the t h e r m o s t a t r e a d i n g i n the morning t o f i n d out i f i t was t u r n e d down a t n i g h t SA A N D SD U 3) I take the bus i n orde r t o save energy ...SA A N D SD U 4) I b e l i e v e i n hanging up washed c l o t h e s t o dry i n s t e a d of u s i n g a d r y e r SA A N D SD U 5) I don't watch T.V. programs which t e a c h how t o save energy SA A N D SD U 6) I don't r e a d books which d e a l w i t h how to save energy SA A N D SD U 7) I don't t u r n o f f the l i g h t s a t home, when they a r e not needed SA A N D SD U 8) I have not been s a v i n g energy SA A N D SD U 9) I have been c h e c k i n g the amount of energy used by my t o y s SA A N D SD U 10) I remind my p a r e n t s t o have t h e i r t i r e p r e s s u r e checked from time t o time SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s are t o f i n d out what you a c t u a l l y DO about s a v i n g p l a n t s . C i r c l e the response which best d e s c r i b e s your b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of the s t a t e m e n t s . PLANTS 1) I have not c a r e d f o r , or watered a p l a n t l a t e l y SA A N D SD U 2) I always s t a y on the t r a i l w h i l e h i k i n g t o a v o i d s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s SA A N D SD U 3) I have not shown an i n t e r e s t about how t r e e s can be p r o t e c t e d SA A N D SD U 4) I break branches from t r e e s t o use as w a l k i n g s t i c k s SA A N D SD U 5) I have been i n a f o r e s t l a t e l y , and dug up a p l a n t t o b r i n g home SA A N D SD U 6) I p u l l up p l a n t s i n the f o r e s t SA A N D SD U 7) I keep an eye on people who might cause f o r e s t f i r e s , so t h a t I can r e p o r t them i f t h e r e i s a f i r e SA A N D SD U 8) I read about how f o r e s t p l a n t s can be saved SA A N D SD U 9) I have c a r v e d my name or i n i t i a l s on a t r e e l a t e l y SA A N D SD U 10) I have s t u d i e d something about the laws which a r e meant t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t p l a n t s SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know 186 The f o l l o w i n g set of q u e s t i o n s are t o f i n d out what you a c t u a l l y DO about s a v i n g w i l d l i f e . C i r c l e the response which best d e s c r i b e s your b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of the s t a t e m e n t s . WILDLIFE 1) I have not shown an i n t e r e s t i n programs about s a v i n g w i l d a n i m a l s l a t e l y . . .SA A N D SD U 2) I have shown an i n t e r e s t i n w a n t i n g t o l e a r n about how w i l d a n i m a l s can be saved SA A N D SD U 3) I have thrown stones a t w i l d a n i m a l s ( e . g . , b i r d s ) l a t e l y SA A N D SD U 4) I watch out and s t o p w h i l e w a l k i n g or r i d i n g my b i c y c l e t o a v o i d k i l l i n g s m a l l a n i m a l s SA A N D SD U 5) I have put food out f o r w i l d a n i m a l s ( e . g . , b i r d s ) r e c e n t l y SA A N D SD U 6) I have bought and hung up, or c l e a n e d a b i r d f e e d e r or b i r d house l a t e l y SA A N D SD U 7) I watch out f o r a n i m a l s which I can b r i n g home as p e t s , when I go i n t o a f o r e s t SA A N D SD U 8) I have removed garbage from a r i v e r or stream l a t e l y SA A N D SD U 9) I don't watch f o r p e o p l e who are l i k e l y t o break laws which p r o t e c t w i l d a n i m a l s , so t h a t I can r e p o r t them • SA A N D SD U 10) I found some b i r d s or f r o g eggs and brought them home t o p l a y w i t h SA A N D SD U SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know P l e a s e go back and make sure t h a t you have responded t o a l l items and c i r c l e o n l y one response f o r each i t e m . When you have f i n i s h e d w i t h . i t r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o your t e a c h e r . Thank you f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . 187 APPENDIX G TRIAL SHEET Read the items c a r e f u l l y and i n d i c a t e how s t r o n g l y you agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h each of the f o l l o w i n g items by c i r c l i n g one of the responses on the s c a l e t o the r i g h t of each i t e m . The symbols have the f o l l o w i n g meanings: SA = S t r o n g l y Agree A = Agree N = N e u t r a l D = D i s a g r e e SD = S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e U = Undecided or Don't know 1. S t u d e n t s my age b e l i e v e t h a t most peo p l e would not watch c a r t o o n s on T.V SA A N D SD U 2. S t u d e n t s my age b e l i e v e t h a t most peo p l e would l i k e t o see shops open on Sundays ...SA A N D SD U 3. I would l i k e t o watch c a r t o o n s on T.V SA A N D SD U 4. I would not l i k e t o see shops open on Sundays SA A N D SD U 5. I don' t watch c a r t o o n s on T.V SA A N D SD U 6. I shop on Sundays SA A N D SD U 188 APPENDIX D INSTRUCTIONS TO THE TEACHER FOR ADMINISTERING THE QUESTIONNAIRE INTRODUCTION 1. D i s t r i b u t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 2. Read out the TITLE and PURPOSE. 3. Ask s t u d e n t s t o f i l l i n INFORMATION ABOUT YOU. Make sure t h a t the name i s p r i n t e d . • TRIAL 4. Hand out TRIAL SHEET. 5. Read out the m a t e r i a l i n the box t o the s t u d e n t s . Answer any q u e s t i o n s . 6. T e l l the s t u d e n t s t o go ahead and do the 6 items on the TRIAL SHEET. 7. A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n by e v e r y s t u d e n t , conduct a b r i s k b r i e f review ( e . g . , When do you c i r c l e "SA"? "SD"? " N " ? " U " ? ) Answer any q u e s t i o n s . MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE 8. T e l l them t o put the TRIAL SHEET a s i d e and r e t u r n t o the main QUESTIONNAIRE. 9. T e l l them t o read the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n . t h e l a s t box of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Page 1 ) . 10. T e l l them t o t u r n t o page 2 of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and b e g i n . 11. When the f i r s t s t u d e n t ( s ) f i n i s h , remind the whole c l a s s of the l a s t s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the lower box (Page 10). 12. Let them hand i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o you. ONCE STUDENTS BEGIN RESPONDING TO THE MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE, PLEASE DO NOT HELP THEM IN ANY WAY. TELL THEM TO CIRCLE "U" IF THEY DO NOT UNDERSTAND ANY ITEM. IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT THAT THEY RESPOND TO THE MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE INDIVIDUALLY. 189 APPENDIX E  PARENTS' QUESTIONNAIRE June 11, 1981 To the P a r e n t s of Grade S i x S t u d e n t s Dear P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n , T h i s year the s c h o o l i s t a k i n g p a r t i n a study t o f i n d out what e f f e c t the outdoor s c h o o l program has on the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s of s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and a n i m a l s . The purpose of t h i s s tudy i s t o f i n d out i f , and t o what e x t e n t , our s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e some of the c o n s e r v a t i o n methods which they l e a r n e d a t the outdoor s c h o o l i n each of t h e s e 3 a r e a s (energy, p l a n t s and a n i m a l s ) . As you know, our grade s i x s t u d e n t s took p a r t i n the outdoor s c h o o l program two weeks ago. B e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the program they were taught about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and a n i m a l s . W h i l e they were a t the outdoor s c h o o l they were ex p e c t e d t o p r a c t i c e good c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. We are i n t e r e s t e d i n f o l l o w i n g t h i s up t o f i n d out i f the s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e t o show concern f o r the need t o c o n s e r v e , and/or p r a c t i c e some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n from the outdoor s c h o o l . To enable us t o do t h i s we have e n c l o s e d t h i s s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and we would be g r a t e f u l i f you would respond t o i t and r e t u r n i t through your c h i l d . Because of the n a t u r e of t h i s s tudy we would a p p r e c i a t e your own comments i n the spaces p r o v i d e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the answers t o the q u e s t i o n s . Your response i s i m p o r t a n t t o us i n t h i s s t u d y , but your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y v o l u n t a r y ; you are f r e e t o r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n ( s ) w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . Your response w i l l be t r e a t e d as c o n f i d e n t i a l , and w i l l be used f o r r e s e a r c h purposes o n l y . N e i t h e r you nor your c h i l d w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d on your r e s p o n s e s ; we are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t of the program on our grade s i x s t u d e n t s as a whole. Thank you f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s r e q u e s t . Yours t r u l y , 1 90 QUESTIONNAIRE TO PARENTS/GUARDIANS OF GRADE SIX STUDENTS A. We are t r y i n g t o f i n d out i f what the grade s i x s t u d e n t s were taught i n the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program has had any e f f e c t on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and/or b e h a v i o r s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of ENERGY, PLANTS, and ANIMALS. P l e a s e read the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s below; f o r each q u e s t i o n check one of the boxes which best r e p r e s e n t s any change(s) which you may have o b s e r v e d i n your c h i l d s i n c e h i s / h e r r e t u r n from the outdoor s c h o o l . 1. Has you c h i l d shown any change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of ENERGY? Yes No Don't know/can't t e l l 2. Has your c h i l d shown any change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of PLANTS? Yes No Don't know/can't t e l l 3. Has your c h i l d shown any change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of ANIMALS (WILDLIFE)? Yes No Don't know/can't t e l l B. P l e a s e use the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces below t o p r o v i d e any comments on any change(s) which you may have o b s e r v e d . A few i d e a s have been p r e s e n t e d t o h e l p you i n w r i t i n g your comments. 1. Comments on change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of ENERGY. For example, a p o s i t i v e change may i n v o l v e d o i n g , and a n e g a t i v e change may i n v o l v e not d o i n g t h i n g s l i k e : t a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, r e a d i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed, w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about energy, t u r n i n g o f f the T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . COMMENTS: 2. Comments on change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of PLANTS. For example, a p o s i t i v e change may i n v o l v e d o i n g , and a n e g a t i v e change may i n v o l v e not d o i n g t h i n g s l i k e : 191 t a l k i n g about the need t o co n s e r v e p l a n t s , r e a d i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w a t e r i n g p l a n t s , c a r i n g f o r p l a n t s . COMMENTS: 3. Comments on change(s) i n a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of ANIMALS (WILDLIFE). For example, a p o s i t i v e change may i n v o l v e d o i n g , and a n e g a t i v e change may i n v o l v e not d o i n g t h i n g s l i k e : t a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s , r e a d i n g about a n i m a l s , w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s , f e e d i n g b i r d s , showing some concern f o r the need t o c o n s e r v e a n i m a l s . COMMENTS: 1 92 APPENDIX F STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BEFORE THE CAMP PROGRAM) Name of st u d e n t Gender (a) What k i n d s of t h i n g s do you hope t o l e a r n a t the camp? (b) What k i n d s of t h i n g s do you hope t o see a t the camp? (c) What t h i n g s have you been s p e c i f i c a l l y t o l d t o do a t the camp? (d) Why a r e you exp e c t e d t o do these ( o n l y those r e l a t e d w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n - e.g., take garbage t o the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e ) ? (e) What t h i n g s have you been t o l d s p e c i f i c a l l y not t o do a t the camp? ( f ) Why are you not exp e c t e d t o do these t h i n g s ( i . e . , t hose r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n o n l y . - e.g., c o l l e c t p l a n t s , e t c . ) ? (g) What do you hope t o l e a r n about, say, energy, p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , e t c . ? 193 APPENDIX G COUNSELLORS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BEFORE THE CAMP PROGRAM) 1. To what e x t e n t do you t h i n k i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o h e l p s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e ? 2. Have you ever been a s t u d e n t a t the camp y o u r s e l f ? Yes No 3. I f so, do you t h i n k t h a t i t h e l p e d you t o d e v e l o p more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e ? 4. - D e s c r i b e the way you t h i n k the program i n f l u e n c e d your b e h a v i o r towards t h e s e : energy, p l a n t s and a n i m a l s (both f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r a b l e , i f p o s s i b l e ) . 5. Do you t h i n k t h a t the grade s i x s t u d e n t s coming t o the camp w i l l d e v e l o p more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e a f t e r the program? 6. What do you t h i n k i s i n the program which would i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e ? 1 94 APPENDIX H OBSERVATION INSTRUMENT (FOR ACTIVITIES/SESSIONS) 1. Content (knowledge). (a) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e n t i n c l u d e d - C i r c l e Energy Yes/No P l a n t s Yes/No Ani m a l s Yes/No (b) D e s c r i b e , i n d e t a i l , what the c o n t e n t was. ( P r o v i d e any so u r c e s of r e f e r e n c e , e.g., books, e t c . i f p o s s i b l e . ) 2. How was the s u b j e c t matter p r e s e n t e d ? - e.g., .What type of t e a c h i n g method was used? Were t h e r e any d i s c u s s i o n s ? 3. What a c t i v i t i e s were s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n ? - D e s c r i b e . How many s t u d e n t s were on t a s k ? How many s t u d e n t s were not on t a s k ? (Note: over what time frame?) 4. What d i d s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y do? - D e s c r i b e . How many s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d (%)? 5. How much t i m e ' d i d s t u d e n t s spend d o i n g a c t i v i t i e s ? 6. D i d s t u d e n t s show any i n i t i a t i v e ? - e.g., what ty p e s of q u e s t i o n s d i d s t u d e n t s ask? 7. D i d s t u d e n t s suggest ways of c o n s e r v i n g ? I f so, how were these r e c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r and by the r e s t of the group? Was i t r e i n f o r c e d ? 8. How many s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g i n a group? 9. What were the r o l e s of the c o u n s e l l o r s ? 10. How e n t h u s i a s t i c were the s t u d e n t s i n the a c t i v i t y ? - e.g., happy (from f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , e t c . ). 11. How e n t h u s i a s t i c were the s t u d e n t s i n the l e s s o n ? ( i . e . , the l e s s o n as a wh o l e ) . 12. What s o r t s of t h i n g s d i d s t u d e n t s say? 13. D i d s t u d e n t s enjoy the a c t i v i t y ? - E v i d e n c e ( e . g . , s m i l e s , c h u c k l e s , r e a d i n g or t a l k i n g about the a c t i v i t y a f t e r l e s s o n ) . 14. D i d s t u d e n t s enjoy the l e s s o n as a whole? - G i v e e v i d e n c e . 15. D i d the l e s s o n / s e s s i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n ? I f so, d e s c r i b e the k i n d s of c o n s e r v a t i o n which were i n c l u d e d , and how these were handl e d - t e l l i n g , d i s c u s s i o n , problem s o l v i n g , e t c . 1 95 16. D i d s t u d e n t s e x h i b i t any c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r ? e.g., t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s a f t e r the l e s s o n . 17. Which s t u d e n t s may be h e l p f u l f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g ? L i s t t h e i r names, and o r d e r them from the p o i n t of view of those who ar e more l i k e l y t o be h e l p f u l . 18. Was the importance f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s c u s s e d ? I f so, how was i t r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s ? 19. Any o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s ? 1 96 APPENDIX I QUESTIONS FOR STUDENT INTERVIEWING (AFTER AN ACTIVITY) 1. What d i d you l e a r n t h a t was new i n the l e s s o n ? 2. D i d you l e a r n a n y t h i n g about .... P l a n t s ? Energy? W i l d l i f e ? 3. Do you t h i n k t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n about them? 4. On the whole, d i d you l i k e the s e s s i o n ? .... a c t i v i t i e s ? .... 5. Which p a r t s of the s e s s i o n d i d you l i k e ? Why? 6. Which p a r t of the s e s s i o n d i d you NOT l i k e ? Why? 7. Do you t h i n k t h a t t h i s s e s s i o n w i l l change the way you f e e l about s a v i n g energy? .... P l a n t s ? .... W i l d l i f e ? .... 8. D i d h a v i n g s t u d e n t s from o t h e r c l a s s e s w i t h you i n the s e s s i o n make any d i f f e r e n c e ? 9. What d i d you l e a r n about t h i n g s you can do t o save (a) energy? (b) p l a n t s ? (c) w i l d l i f e ? 197 APPENDIX J QUESTIONS FOR COUNSELLORS (AFTER ACTIVITY) How h e l p f u l do you t h i n k the a c t i v i t y was i n cha n g i n g the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of a) Energy? b) P l a n t s ? c) W i l d l i f e ? Do you c o n s i d e r the l e s s o n / a c t i v i t y t o be i m p o r t a n t ? How i n t e r e s t i n g was the l e s s o n t o you? and t o the s t u d e n t s ? In what way do you t h i n k t h a t the l e s s o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s ? - Towards p l a n t s , energy, and w i l d l i f e ? In what way do you t h i n k t h a t i t may i n h i b i t t he development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s ? In your o p i n i o n , do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o p r a c t i c e some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods a f t e r t h i s s e s s i o n ? I f we want t o f i n d out i f s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e d c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, a f t e r t h i s program, how s h o u l d we do i t or what k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s would you suggest? What d i d s t u d e n t s seem t o l i k e ? Why? What d i d s t u d e n t s not seem t o l i k e ? Why? 1 98 APPENDIX K QUESTIONS FOR ADULTS (AFTER THE CAMP PROGRAM) Check One C o u n s e l l o r R e g u l a r C l a s s Teacher Outdoor Teacher 1. L i s t or d e s c r i b e how, i n your o p i n i o n , t h i s one week program was a b l e t o improve the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of (a) Energy (b) P l a n t s (c) W i l d l i f e . 2. L i s t and/or d e s c r i b e how you t h i n k t h i s one week outdoor program may i n h i b i t the development of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , energy, and w i l d l i f e . 3. Do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p e d more f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e b e h a v i o r ? Support t h i s w i t h any reasons you have (e . g . , what they s a i d , what they d i d , e t c . ) . 4. I f we want t o f i n d out i f s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y p r a c t i c e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods, what k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s w i l l you suggest t h a t we ask t h e i r p a r e n t s ? 199 APPENDIX L QUESTIONS FOR TEACHER INTERVIEW (AFTER ACTIVITY) 1. How h e l p f u l was the a c t i v i t y i n c hanging the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of (a) Energy? (b) P l a n t s ? (c) W i l d l i f e ? 2. How i m p o r t a n t was the l e s s o n / a c t i v i t y t o the s t u d e n t ? - and to you? 3. How i n t e r e s t i n g was the s e s s i o n ? - t o s t u d e n t s and t o you? 4. Do you t h i n k t h a t the l e s s o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of (a) Energy? (b) P l a n t s ? (c) W i l d l i f e ? 5. In what ways do you t h i n k i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s ? 6. In what ways do you t h i n k i t may i n h i b i t the development of f a v o r a b l e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s ? 7. I f you were t o t e a c h the same t o p i c a g a i n , w i t h the aim of c h a n g i n g the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s , what would you do t o a c h i e v e a b e t t e r r e s u l t ? 8. Can you comment, or c r i t i c i s e , or suggest the ways i n which t h i s s e s s i o n w i l l change, or i n h i b i t changes, i n the b e h a v i o r of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s , and/or w i l d l i f e ? 9. In your o p i n i o n , do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e to p r a c t i c e some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods a f t e r t h i s s e s s i o n ? 10. I f we want t o f i n d out i f s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e d c o n s e r v a t i o n 200 APPENDIX M TEACHER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BEFORE THE PROGRAM) a) Background I n f o r m a t i o n Name of t e a c h e r : S c h o o l : Grade l e v e l s c u r r e n t l y t a u g h t : S u b j e c t S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , i f any: S p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n s c h o o l : No. of y e a r s of t e a c h i n g (a) i n t h i s grade: (b) o v e r a l l : H i g h e s t degree h e l d : Have you been t o camp b e f o r e ? I f y e s , number of y e a r s ? Number of tim e s ? b) Ideas About C o n s e r v a t i o n 1. How d i d you get i n v o l v e d i n c o n s e r v a t i o n ? 2. What c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s i n t e r e s t you the most? 3. What t o p i c s ( i f any) r e l a t i n g t o c o n s e r v a t i o n have you s t u d i e d e x t e n s i v e l y ? 4. What s p e c i a l a r e a s of e x p e r t i s e ( i f any) do you have on such t o p i c s ? 5. What o t h e r k i n d s of e x p e r i e n c e have you had r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s ? 6. What k i n d s of c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e p t s ( i f any) have you taught r e c e n t l y ? 7. What i s your most i m p o r t a n t reason f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s outdoor program? 8. What k i n d s of s k i l l s and/or a t t i t u d e s d i d you expect s t u d e n t s t o have a f t e r the program? 9. How imp o r t a n t i s changing the a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e t o you? c) P r e p a r a t i o n s Done f o r Development of C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s 1. What s p e c i f i c t h i n g s d i d you do t o p r e p a r e the s t u d e n t s f o r the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program? 2. How d i d you p r e s e n t the Outdoor S c h o o l r u l e s and p h i l o s o p h y t o the s t u d e n t s (e.g. t e l l i n g , d i s c u s s i o n s , e t c . )? 3. To what e x t e n t were the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n ? 4. D u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n , what d i d you d i s c u s s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and/or energy? 5. I f you d i d #4, i n what way do you t h i n k t h a t i t c o u l d have a f f e c t e d s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s and/or b e h a v i o r towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and energy? 6. What do you t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s want t o l e a r n about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and/or energy? 7. How much d i d they l e a r n d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , and/or energy? 201 APPENDIX N STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (AFTER THE PROGRAM) Think about what you d i d i n c l a s s b e f o r e the Outdoor S c h o o l , and what you d i d d u r i n g the outdoor program. 1. Do you t h i n k t h a t the outdoor s c h o o l program made you f e e l l i k e s a v i n g (a) p l a n t s ? (b) w i l d l i f e ? (c) energy? 2. What i s i t t h a t made you f e e l l i k e s a v i n g (a) p l a n t s ? (b) w i l d l i f e ? (c) energy? 3. What i s i t t h a t made you f e e l l i k e not s a v i n g (a) p l a n t s ? (b) energy? (c) w i l d l i f e ? 4. Which p a r t s of the program d i d you l i k e ? Why? -5. Which p a r t s of the program d i d you Not l i k e ? Why? 202 APPENDIX 0 REASONS GIVEN BY STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT SURE OF A POSITIVE EFFECT  ON THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 1. We d i d not do a n y t h i n g about energy t h e r e . 2. We d i d not l e a r n much about energy. 3. Gave me o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n . 4. I knew most of the t h i n g s a l r e a d y . 5. I a l r e a d y knew those t h i n g s . 6. In my c a b i n they l e f t the l i g h t s on, and we were l a s t . (Note: Four s t u d e n t s would not i n d i c a t e why.) 203 APPENDIX P RESPONSES GIVEN BY STUDENTS ABOUT WHAT THEY BELIEVED TO HAVE MADE THEM FEEL LIKE SAVING PLANTS C l a s s i f i c a t i o n W e l l , what i s happening t o a n i m a l s i s happening t o p l a n t s . Through the program at the Outdoor S c h o o l . J u s t s t u d y i n g and g o i n g out t h e r e and l o o k i n g a t them They t e a c h you s t u f f about t r e e s , then you know i f you a r e h u r t i n g t r e e s or n o t . Our s t u d i e s . We s t u d i e d p l a n t s . The p e o p l e a t the Outdoor S c h o o l t o l d us. L e a r n i n g about n a t u r e . Because I got t o know about them and e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e I never knew b e f o r e . We l e a r n e d t h a t we need the p l a n t s t o o and i f we don't have them we c a n ' t l i v e . Our t e a c h e r t o l d us t h a t t h e r e i s not much of e v e r y t h i n g , and i f one t h i n g d i e s a n o ther t h i n g w i l l d i e , and i t w i l l c a r r y on. A l l the e c o l o g y t h i n g s l i k e e very day, and our r e p o r t s . P l a n t s are s o r t of l i k e humans, r i g h t t o l i v e t o o . We l e a r n e d about the f o r e s t t r e e s They have a J u s t b e i n g t h e r e , a l l the t a l k s about i t and the f i l m s . We l e a r n e d not t o throw l i t t e r around. S e e i n g the p l a n t s and w a t c h i n g the f i l m s . We l e a r n e d not t o break any bushes or t r e e s . The f i l m s , we don't do t h i s i n s c h o o l . The f i l m s we saw, the farm s t u d i e s , and the books. 2 5 1,2 1,3 5 1 5,1,4 1 3,4 1 4,3 4,3,1 The f o r e s t e c o l o g y s t u f f . We don't have t o walk or p u l l p l a n t s . They a r e l i v i n g t o o . Because I l i k e them. The f i e l d s t u d i e s . We l e a r n e d t h a t the p l a n t s g i v e the a n i m a l s f o o d . Because i f we don't save them, i n about 20 y e a r s we w i l l not have v e g e t a t i o n . I f we p u l l the p l a n t s we w i l l not be a b l e t o l i v e ; we l e a r n e d i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s . T a l k i n g about them i n the f o r e s t , e t c . The f i e l d s t u d i e s . We were w r i t i n g poems. We d i d i t i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s . The way they taught us a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . L i k e they made i t a fun way t o l e a r n t o do t h i n g s . What we d i d i n the s t u d i e s . At s c h o o l they show you t h i n g s which don't move. I f we c u t them down t h e r e w i l l not be any l e f t . Because they a r e l i v i n g t h i n g s . J u s t b e i n g i n the o u t d o o r s . The p l a n t s o u t s i d e our c a b i n made i t p r e t t y . I f someone had dug them up i t would not have l o o k e d n i c e . We need the f o r e s t . They e x p l a i n what they do f o r you. Because they a r e b e a u t i f u l . I u n d e r s t a n d them. The f o r e s t i s l i k e a t e a c h e r i n many ways. I f we don't save them we w i l l not have the f o r e s t . We saw d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of t r e e s . I t made i t e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . 205 APPENDIX Q STUDENTS' RESPONSES INDICATING ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH STUDENTS BELIEVED TO HAVE MADE THEM FEEL LIKE SAVING WILDLIFE C l a s s i f i c a t i o n At s c h o o l you don't r e a l l y see the a n i m a l s . I f we keep k i l l i n g them t h e r e w i l l be n o t h i n g l e f t . The whole program i s about s a v i n g them. We l e a r n e d a l o t a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . We a r e not the o n l y ones. There a r e o t h e r t h i n g s i n the f o r e s t t h a t share a l l the t h i n g s w i t h us. They taught us a l l these a t the outdoor s c h o o l . They e x p l a i n what they do i n the f o r e s t . We always d i d a n i m a l s . I u n d e r s t a n d them b e t t e r . I t made i t e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . I f e e l good about s a v i n g them. I l e a r n e d a l o t , and we were f e e d i n g the farm a n i m a l s and the racoons. The f i e l d s t u d i e s . They are l i v i n g and we a r e l i v i n g t o o , so we don't have t o k i l l them. Because I l i k e d them. A l l the a n i m a l s would d i e . They t o l d us t o save them; and the bugs f o r the f i s h . The a n i m a l s a r e n i c e . We l e a r n e d t h a t we. s h o u l d save them. Because i f we don't save them now, i n about 20 y e a r s the a n i m a l s w i l l get e x t i n c t and d i e . We l e a r n e d t h e s e i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s . They t a l k e d about a n i m a l s and p l a n t s , t h a t we can p r o t e c t the eggs and l a r v a e . 206 We saw the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of b i r d f e e d e r s , I don't want people t o hunt the a n i m a l s because i f we keep h u n t i n g them t h e r e w i l l be n o t h i n g l e f t . We t a l k e d about how endangered they a r e . W e l l , when you l e a r n t h a t p e o p l e a r e not the o n l y ones l i v i n g and we s h o u l d take more c a r e because a l l the a n i m a l s w i l l d i e . Our t e a c h e r s t o l d us t h a t t h e r e i s not much of e v e r y t h i n g . I f one t h i n g d i e s another t h i n g w i l l d i e and i t w i l l a l l c a r r y on. A l l the e c o l o g y t h i n g s and our r e p o r t s . The farm s e s s i o n , and when we were d o i n g a l l s o r t s of s t u f f , they t o l d us. We l e a r n e d about b i r d s and some of the stream a n i m a l s , and the f i l m s . S e e i n g the a n i m a l s and w a t c h i n g the f i l m s . We l e a r n e d more about the w i l d a n i m a l s , and I l i k e d i t . The f i l m s and the f i e l d s t u d i e s . The f i l m s and the f i e l d s t u d i e s on the farm, b i r d s and stream. What i s happening t o a n i m a l s i s happening to p l a n t s . Through the program a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . J u s t s t u d y i n g the a n i m a l s and g o i n g out t h e r e t o loo k a t them. Through what we d i d a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . They t e a c h you about a n i m a l s and what they e a t . Our s t u d i e s , we s t u d i e d water, i n s e c t s and f i s h . The p e o p l e and the a n i m a l s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . Because I found out how they r e a l l y a r e l i k e , and i t i s more q u i e t e r . 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 .4 3 4 1 3 4 4 3 2 5 5 3 1 3 5 5 207 L e a r n i n g , where they l i v e d and e v e r y t h i n g , I d i d n ' t know about s t e p p i n g on them and e v e r y t h i n g . 1 T 208 APPENDIX R STUDENTS' RESPONSES INDICATING ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH THEY BELIEVED TO HAVE MADE THEM FEEL LIKE SAVING ENERGY C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Because we w i l l not have more l e f t over f o r f u t u r e y e a r s . the Through the program at the Outdoor S c h o o l . We c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d i t , i f t h e r e i s not much energy. They t o l d us t h i s [ save energy ] a t the Outdoor S c h o o l . Everybody i s u s i n g up a l l the power. What the peopl e t e l l you. Because they don't use as much energy as they do i n towns. Because we were f o r c e d [ e x p e c t e d ] t o t u r n o f f the l i g h t s or e l s e we would not get v e r y good c a b i n marks. When you l e a r n about a l l the d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s you s o r t of u n d e r s t a n d t h a t we may be r u n n i n g out soon, and man [humans] c a n ' t make i t a g a i n . Our t e a c h e r s t o l d us t h a t t h e r e i s not much of e v e r y t h i n g l e f t . Because we w i l l run out i n about 20 y e a r s . The c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d us. Because we d i d not use much i n the c a b i n s . I l e a r n e d more about i t . Because i f we don't save them i n about 20 y e a r s we w i l l not be a b l e t o d r i v e c a r s , heat homes, and w i l l a l s o d i e . We l e a r n e d t h e s e i n the f i e l d s t u d i e s . They t o l d us and gave us l o t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . They t o l d us e v e r y t h i n g . 2 5 1 2 1 5 1 209 I t h i n k I would save them because they are g o i n g t o run o u t . 2 I f e e l good i f I save them. 5 APPENDIX S THE PARTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH STUDENTS SAID THEY LIKED P a r t of Program n** <£*** F i e l d S t u d i e s 33 85 E v e r y t h i n g 1 7 44 R e c r e a t i o n 1 1 28 Chores 4 10 Food 2 6 Snacks 1 3 T o t a l no. of students=39. Number of s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d p a r t of the program. Number of responses p r e s e n t e d as p e r c e n t a g e s which add up more than 100. 21 1 APPENDIX T COMMENTS MADE BY PARENTS On Energy 1. M a r i a i s good a t s h u t t i n g o f f the l i g h t s and t u r n i n g down the he a t . 2. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed. Watching T.V. programs about energy. T u r n i n g o f f the T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . 3. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. Reading about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed. Watching T.V. programs about energy. 4. T u r n i n g down the heat i n the bedroom. Watched T.V. program on i n s e c t s . 5. S i n c e l e a r n i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, George has been showing an awareness of home h e a t i n g system and t u r n i n g down heat system below our normal s e t t i n g t o h e l p c o n s e r v e energy. 6. A l l a n ' s energy c o n s e r v a t i o n b e h a v i o r p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . He w o r r i e s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y we won't have enough energy but r e a l l y doesn't see any immediate s o l u t i o n . T u r n i n g o f f the T.V. i s d e f i n i t e l y NOT one of h i s s t r o n g p o i n t s . 7. No o b v i o u s change. 8. My c h i l d i s more concerned now, and t r i e s t o conse r v e 9. I n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g energy i s s u e s of N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c . C o n s c i o u s of e x t r a l i g h t s l e f t on i n house. 10. We have always been concerned about the c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy i n t h i s home - t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed, and our c h i l d r e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y t u r n o f f the T.V. when no one i s w a t c h i n g . 11. Show some r e a l i s m a t s c h o o l . S c h o o l s a r e always o v e r h e a t e d and o f t e n open windows t o c o o l . 12. T u r n i n g down heat when t h e r m o s t a t i s above 65°. 212 T u r n i n g o f f heat b e f o r e g o i n g t o s c h o o l . 13. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s and T.V. Has spoken about v a r i o u s t h i n g s c o n c e r n i n g Outdoor S c h o o l and w i l l p r o b a b l y put i n t o p r a c t i c e when o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f . 14. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s and T.V. s e t when not needed. 15. Sometimes! But we do t a l k about t h i s more o f t e n than b e f o r e Outdoor S c h o o l . 16. We have always taught our c h i l d r e n t o t u r n o f f l i g h t s or T.V. when not i n use. There has been no t a l k of c o n s e r v i n g energy. 17. I s more c a r e f u l about t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s (and t e l l i n g f r i e n d s who a r e v i s i t i n g , t o do the same!). We have t a l k e d about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n ( t u r n i n g down the t h e r m o s t a t , d r i v i n g a s m a l l c a r , b e n e f i t s of good i n s u l a t i o n i n the home, etc .) . 18. T a l k i n g about s a v i n g energy more than b e f o r e . 19. No change. Turns l i g h t s on i n the daytime and does not t u r n them o f f . Leaves T.V. on and l e a v e s the room t o do something e l s e . 20. My c h i l d t a l k s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy but does not t u r n o f f l i g h t s or T.V. when not used. 21. I t h i n k too l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n f o r changes t o become a p p a r e n t . I f e e l sure a f t e r a w h i l e the e x p e r i e n c e s of Outdoor S c h o o l w i l l s u r f a c e . 22. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy; r e a d i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy; t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed; w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about energy; t u r n i n g o f f the T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . 23. • We a l l t a l k , read and o c c a s i o n a l l y watch T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. She s t i l l d oesn't t u r n o f f every l i g h t . Yes T.V. t u r n e d o f f . Heat i s t u r n e d down a t n i g h t and d u r i n g the day i f a l l out. 24. Has always been good about t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s not i n use. 25. No, but o n l y because he has been v e r y much aware of c o n s e r v a t i o n a l r e a d y . Those not d e t e t e d ( i . e. t a k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed, t u r n i n g o f f 213 the T.V. set when no one i s watching.) Andre does a l r e a d y q u i t e a b i t . He d i d comment t h a t at the Outdoor S c h o o l t h e r e was a l o t of food wasted. Even i f t h i s d i s c a r d e d food does go to the p i g s , Andre und e r s t a n d s t h a t i t i s s t i l l a w a s t e f u l h a b i t f o r the k i d s , and t h a t the p i g s would be b e t t e r o f f whole g r a i n f e d r a t h e r than Campbells noodle f e d . 26. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed; t u r n i n g o f f the T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . 27. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when not needed; t u r n i n g o f f the T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . On P l a n t s 1. The Outdoor S c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s r e i n f o r c e d the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s which she a l r e a d y had. 2. She (M a r i a ) does water the p l a n t s . 3. Watching T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s . 4. T a l k i n g about the need t o cons e r v e p l a n t s . W a t e r i n g p l a n t s . 5. He has s i n c e been t a l k i n g about the need t o con s e r v e p l a n t s and he seems t o be concerned about the f u t u r e . He has a l s o been w a t e r i n g some p l a n t s around the house. 6. Has always shown an i n t e r e s t i n l i v i n g p l a n t s and p o s s i b l y the i n t e r e s t has i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t of your program. 7. No o b v i o u s change. 8. No o b v i o u s change has been o b s e r v e d . 9. Has own p l a n t s f o r which she c a r e s t o t a l l y . Comments on e r o s i o n - - d u e t o removal of t r e e s from our a r e a . Commented, when t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h f o r e s t f i r e a r e a - - w a s t e . 10. Our c h i l d was very impressed about what he l e a r n e d about t r e e s and p l a n t s and does watch i n f o r m a t i v e programs on p l a n t s and a n i m a l s a p a r t from r e g u l a r programs. He commented e s p e c i a l l y on t h i s p a r t of h i s e x p e r i e n c e a t Outdoor S c h o o l , because he does show an i n t e r e s t from time t o time i n the t r e e s and p l a n t s i n and 214 around our home and does h e l p w i t h the w a t e r i n g o u t - o f - d o o r s f o r which t h e r e i s n ' t a need at p r e s e n t . 11. Showing of f i l m s of l a n d d e v e l o p e r s d i s r e g a r d i n g p l a n t s and f o i l a g e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of complexes, e t c . E x p l a i n the weakness of the Government system a l l o w i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h i s . 12. Not as much i n t e r e s t shown i n t h i s a r e a , but may a p p l y t e a c h i n g s i f we s h o u l d go on a h i k e or s i m i l a r o u t i n g . 13. C a r i n g . f o r p l a n t s and removal of unwanted undergrowth and weeds. 14. My c h i l d has f o r the p a s t f o u r y e a r s , h e l p e d p l a n t , w a t e r, and weed a garden. A l s o h e l p s c a r e f o r i n d o o r p l a n t s and has own t o take c a r e o f . 15. We have n o t i c e d no change. 16. I cannot see any measurable change i n a t t i t u d e about p l a n t s - - t h e y do not h o l d any g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o him. However.... he has e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n s t a r t i n g h i s own v e g e t a b l e p a t c h , but I c a n ' t be c e r t a i n t h a t l o v e of p l a n t s and c a r i n g f o r them, i s the m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r ! I t h i n k the p l e a s u r e of e a t i n g f r e s h , own-grown v e g e t a b l e s i s the r e a s o n . 17. He s t a r t e d t o show some i n t e r e s t i n our b a c k y a r d f l o w e r s and p l a n t s . 18. No change. 19. My c h i l d c a r e s f o r p l a n t s by w a t e r i n g , p l a n t i n g , and w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about same. 20. I t h i n k t o o l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n f o r changes t o become a p p a r e n t . I f e e l sure a f t e r a w h i l e the e x p e r i e n c e s of Outdoor S c h o o l w i l l s u r f a c e . 21. Reading about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s ; w a t e r i n g p l a n t s ; c a r i n g f o r p l a n t s ? . 22. F a m i l y never d e s t r o y s n e e d l e s s l y . C h i l d r e n do c a r e f o r p l a n t s sometimes. (Not so p o s i t i v e about p l a n t s as energy s a v i n g and a n i m a l s . ) 23. No. T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of c o n s e r v a t i o n may have been r e i n f o r c e d by Outdoor S c h o o l , but was a l r e a d y i n s t i l l e d . Andre always d i d show a l o t of i n t e r e s t i n these a r e a s . We were g l a d t h a t the Outdoor S c h o o l r e i n f o r c e d these p r i n c i p l e s . 24. T a l k i n g about the need t o co n s e r v e p l a n t s , w a t e r i n g p l a n t s . A n i mals ( W i l d l i f e ) 1. A g a i n , the e x p e r i e n c e r e i n f o r c e d the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s . A l s o , she became more aware of a n i m a l s . A p p a r e n t l y i t was i n the a n i m a l s t h a t she was most i n t e r e s t e d . 2. M a r i a i s ve r y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o t e c t i n g w i l d a n i m a l s . She even donated her own money t o the Greenpeace to save the s e a l s . She i s i n t e r e s t e d i n an i m a l T.V. shows. 3. Watching T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of an i m a l s . 4. My c h i l d feeds the b i r d s on our p r o p e r t y each day and i s t a k i n g time t o watch a n i m a l - r e l a t e d T.V. programs such as Untamed World, W i l d Kingdom, e t c . 5. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s . Reading about a n i m a l s . Watching T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s . Showing some concern f o r the need t o c o n s e r v e a n i m a l s . 6. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s . Watching T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s . F e e d i n g b i r d s . 7. George has always been concerned r e : need t o co n s e r v e a n i m a l s and your program has c e r t a i n l y not d i m i n i s h e d t h i s a t t i t u d e . 8. 2 ( p l a n t s ) and 3 ( a n i m a l s ) can be answered t o g e t h e r . S i n c e we have a c a b i n i n H o l l y b u r n Mountain which i s s t i l l a w i l d e r n e s s a r e a , he has s i n c e he was v e r y young, been v e r y concerned w i t h l i t t e r and damage t o the p l a n t s and t r e e s on the mountain. Scraps a re always l e f t out f o r the j a y s and chipmunks and we once were r e f u s e d e n t r a n c e t o our "outhouse" by a r e s i d e n t racoon. A l l a n r e f u s e d t o l e t us move her out. 9. Seems t o be more aware of l i f e and e a t i n g h a b i t s of a n i m a l s . 10. No o b v i o u s change. 216 11. I n t e r e s t i n N a t i o n a l Geographic program on g o r i l l a . S u b s c r i b e s t o World Magazine - i n t e r e s t i n a n i m a l s from o t h e r l a n d s and t h e i r p e c u l i a r i t i e s . Member of f i s h and game c l u b - q u i t e aware of and a p p r e c i a t e s n a t u r e . 12. Our c h i l d does, from time t o t i m e , watch programs about a n i m a l s , and b i r d s . He a l s o commented on the b i r d w a t c h i n g a t Outdoor S c h o o l . He does sometimes r e a d about a n i m a l s and b i r d s . Our f a m i l y , i n g e n e r a l , does not l i k e the k i l l i n g o-f a n i m a l s . Our c h i l d e n j o y e d the Outdoor S c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . 13. E x p l a i n e d mans encroachment on the t e r r i t o r i e s of w i l d l i f e and d i s r e g a r d f o r them f o r the so c a l l e d advancement of humanity. Show some r e a l i s t i c f i l m s . 14. Reading and t a l k i n g about w i l d l i f e . Watching T.V. programs about w i l d a n i m a l s . 15. The s u b j e c t of a n i m a l s has come up but hasn't been i n a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n i m a l s o t h e r than our own dog. However, the c h i l d r e n have always f e d the ducks or b i r d s a t the pa r k . 16. F e e d i n g b i r d s and showing c o n c e r n f o r a n i m a l s . 17. E n j o y s w a t c h i n g d o c u m e n t a r i e s on T.V. about a l l forms of w i l d l i f e . B i r d f e e d e r s made and put out i n the w i n t e r . 18. Very concerned about the w e l f a r e of a n i m a l s , e s p e c i a l l y the v e r y young. 19. We have always taught the c h i l d r e n about w i l d l i f e and a r e s p e c t f o r i t . They have always watched many T.V. programs about a n i m a l c o n s e r v a t i o n and have read many books about w i l d l i f e . We n o t i c e no change i n a t t i t u d e . 20. He has always d i s p l a y e d a r e a l c o n c e r n f o r any l i f e - f o r m , and i s f r e q u e n t l y t r y i n g t o h e l p i n j u r e d a n i m a l s , b i r d s or i n s e c t s . We have o f t e n d i s c u s s e d the need f o r w i l d - l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and a n i m a l s t o r i e s on T.V. programs have always appeal e d t o him. I t ' s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o say whether or not t h e r e has been any change i n t h i s r e g a r d . 21. Has always l i k e d a n i m a l s , watches T.V. about a n i m a l s , and reads books on a n i m a l s . 217 22. My son has a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards a l l the above mentioned. He i s v e r y a n i m a l o r i e n t e d . 23. I t h i n k too l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n f o r changes t o become ap p a r e n t . I f e e l sure a f t e r a w h i l e the e x p e r i e n c e s of Outdoor S c h o o l w i l l s u r f a c e . 24. T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s , r e a d i n g about a n i m a l s , watching T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s , f e e d i n g b i r d s . 25. Always been p o s i t i v e . Tends wounded a n i m a l s , e.g. s q u i r r e l , made b i r d f e e d e r s and f e e d . D i s l i k e s c a t s - - o u r b i r d p o p u l a t i o n has d e c r e a s e d over the y e a r s . I f I s t a n d on an ant or s p i d e r , I get a row. We a l r e a d y have racoons and the o c c a s i o n a l bear i n our garden so are not unused to a n i m a l s . 26. No change as he has always shown a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards a n i m a l c o n s e r v a t i o n . 27. No. T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of c o n s e r v a t i o n may have been r e i n f o r c e d by the Outdoor S c h o o l , but was a l r e a d y i n s t i l l e d . Andre always d i d show a l o t of i n t e r e s t i n the s e a r e a s . We were g l a d t h a t the Outdoor S c h o o l r e i n f o r c e d t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . Andre t o l d us of a s i t u a t i o n which d i s t u r b e d him a t the Outdoor S c h o o l ; and t h a t was t o see a p i g which had got l o o s e from i t s pen p u l l e d back a l o n g d i s t a n c e on i t s back and by i t s l e g s , s q u e a l i n g i n f r i g h t and p a i n . 28. Reading about a n i m a l s ; w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s ; f e e d i n g b i r d s . 29. Reading about a n i m a l s ; w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s . Other Comments Made by Two P a r e n t s I have j u s t asked my c h i l d the q u e s t i o n s above, have read each one and when I f i n i s h e d the whole thi n g , (he/she) a s k s . "What does c o n s e r v a t i o n mean?" I guess we m i s s e d the boat! A c t u a l l y i t i s o n l y one week s i n c e Outdoor S c h o o l and perhaps i t i s t o o soon t o t e l l . S i n c e ( i t ) came back the T.V. has not been on, we always put out l i g h t s when not i n use, saves money, n o t h i n g has been r e a d , t h e r e i s no time i n our household, homework, and p r a c t i c i n g and e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g t a k e s i t a l l . Now we have heard e v e r y b i t of a l l the . s k i t s , a l l about the a n i m a l s , and the l o v e l y t i m e . J u s t because the c o n s e r v a t i o n b i t was a f l o p here doesn't m a t t e r , the camp was a huge su c c e s s and I w i s h t h e r e was g o i n g t o be a re p e a t f o r t h i s c h i l d . Thank you 218 a l l v e r y v e r y much. S i n c e r e l y , I have not responded t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e because I f e e l t h a t i n b e i n g t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e ( a l l answers No), I may convey the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t I do not f e e l the "Outdoor S c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e " t o be b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s i s not the c a s e , as I am i n f u l l agreement w i t h the aims of the s c h o o l and t h i n k the week was e x t r e m e l y w o r t h w h i l e . The reason f o r the No answers i s s i m p l y t h a t I f e e l my c h i l d was a l r e a d y aware of the a r e a s of concern t h a t you have i d e n t i f i e d i n your q u e s t i o n s . Yours t r u l y , 219 APPENDIX U RESULTS OF ADDITIONAL DATA A f t e r the p o s t t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups, s t u d e n t s i n the c o m p a r a t i v e group proceeded t o take p a r t i n the outdoor e d u c a t i o n program. Ten days a f t e r the second program the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s t u d e n t s i n both the o r i g i n a l e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e groups ( c a l l e d the p o s t - p o s t t e s t ) . The p o s t - p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were a n a l y s e d w i t h the same procedure which was used f o r the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , and a t a=.05. The comparison of the d i s p e r s i o n s of the two groups on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , r e s u l t e d i n a c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 0.11. T h i s l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , t a k i n g a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s p e r s i o n of s c o r e s between the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and the c o n t r o l group. That i s the two groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the d i s p e r s i o n s of s c o r e s on the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The comparison of the group c e n t r o i d s r e s u l t e d i n the c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.93. T h i s v a l u e was l e s s than the t a b u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.96 a t a=.05 and df=(9,123). These r e s u l t s l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on a l l the n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The r e s u l t s of the a d d i t i o n a l d a t a support the i d e a t h a t the e f f e c t of the program was r e a l . That i s , i t enhanced the c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s on both o c c a s i o n s . S e c o n d l y , the a d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t the e f f e c t of the program was not a t t r i b u t e d t o the presence of the w r i t e r d u r i n g the case study i n the f i r s t t r e a t m e n t , s i n c e the w r i t e r d i d not i n t e r a c t w i t h the c o m p a r a t i v e group d u r i n g the program, and s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . 

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