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Changes in students’ attitudes towards conservation resulting from outdoor education : a case study Tufuor, Joseph K. 1981

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CHANGES IN STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONSERVATION RESULTING FROM OUTDOOR EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY by JOSEPH K. TUFUOR B . S c , ( E d u c a t i o n ) U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , 1972 B . S c , ( B o t a n y ) U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , 1973 M . S c , ( B o t a n y ) U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , 1975 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of M a t h e m a t i c s  We a c c e p t t h i s  and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA November  1981  © J o s e p h K. T u f u o r ,  1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  agree that p e r m i s s i o n for  the Library  f o rextensive  financial  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of this  gain  shall  Department  o f Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  (2/79)  thesis  November 24. 1981  It i s thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  DE-6  I further  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  understood that  Date  make  copying of t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  shall  Columbia  written  i i  ABSTRACT  In  schools,  conservation  enhancement  of  by  outdoor  change i n t h e i r  if  addition, change  a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e  be t r a n s l a t e d  into the  the  programs  results  result  have  not  in  been  no s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n  in  attitudes  resulting  from  have  been  programs which This attitude and to  undertaken  attribute  study  the  restricted energy,  itself  to  find  out  behaviors,  In  i f the education and  no  out the a s p e c t s of the  the  change  of  outdoor  the  change  in  e d u c a t i o n program,  c o n t r i b u t e d t o or appeared in  attitudes.  The  study  t o c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h r e e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  —  p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e .  An a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d , assess  conclusive.  in  nature  the a s p e c t s of the program which to  very  students'  outdoor  find  from a r e s i d e n t i a l  have c o n t r i b u t e d  enhancing  t o t h e p o s i t i v e change i n a t t i t u d e s .  investigated  resulting  to  t o f i n d out  these  programs l e a d t o a c o r r e s p o n d i n g change studies  corresponding  some s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n  education  attitudes,  that  been  behavior.  though  outdoor  towards  e d u c a t i o n programs. I t has  educators,  a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s w i l l  Even  attitudes  o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and i t s r e s o u r c e s i s one o f t h e  most p r e v a l e n t g o a l s o f o u t d o o r assumed  students'  the  attitudes  nature  of  the  change  following a residential  triangulated counsellors,  case  study  in  outdoor  approach  t r i e d and used  students' conservation education  u s i n g J:he v i e w s  t e a c h e r s and t h e w r i t e r , was  to  used  to  program.  A  of s t u d e n t s , investigate  factors  which  were  considered  t o have e n h a n c e d t h e s t u d e n t s '  conservation attitudes. The the  r e s u l t s of t h e a t t i t u d e assessment  program  enhanced t h e s t u d e n t s '  r e s u l t s f u r t h e r showed t h a t i n t h e conservation  the  the  behavior.  students'  change i n a t t i t u d e , students  of  In the area  of  that  a t t i t u d e s . The  energy  and  of  wildlife  plant  conservation,  d i d not r e f l e c t  a positive  b u t t h i s h a s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h  had  not  caution,  been e x p o s e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where  they  conservation.  r e s u l t s of the case study  revealed  that  eight  aspects  t h e p r o g r a m c o n t r i b u t e d o r a p p e a r t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e  positive aspects the  area  of the students  could practice w i l d l i f e The  conservation  showed  p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e s was r e f l e c t e d i n  however, t h e b e h a v i o r  since  study  change  in  students'  conservation  a r e t h e pre-camp p r e p a r a t i o n s ,  outdoor  school  attitudes.  the f i e l d  and t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e f i l m s  outdoor  the  attention The  teaching  f i n d i n g s of the study  (1) T h a t r e s i d e n t i a l  students'  natural  resources. aspects  at  the  activities.  l e d t o two c o n c l u s i o n s :  outdoor education  enhance  shown  of  s t r a t e g i e s used, t h e i n d i v i d u a l  r e c e i v e d , and t h e post-camp  (2) T h a t many  sessions,  environment, t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s  both the teachers school,  study  These  attitudes  of  an  programs can and  toward  outdoor  conservation  education  do of  program  contribute  t o o r a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement o f  students'  attitudes  toward  conservation  of  natural  resources. The  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , however,  have  some  iv  limitations:  subjects  were  not  selected  because of the p r e s e n c e of the w r i t e r d u r i n g study.  randomly, the p e r i o d  and  also  of  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS P 9 a  ABSTRACT L I S T OF T A B L E S L I S T OF F I G U R E S ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.1 1.2 1.3  1.4 1.5 1.6  i v i i v i i i i x  I : The P r o b l e m General Problem D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Background t o t h e Study 1.3.1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y 1.3.2 E d u c a t i o n a l Context o f the Study 1.3.3 T h e o r e t i c a l Context o f the Study S p e c i f i c Problems o f t h e Study Overview o f Methodology L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  CHAPTER I I : R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 2.0 Introduction 2.1 A t t i t u d e D e v e l o p m e n t R e s u l t i n g f r o m O u t d o o r E d u c a t i o n Programs 2.2 F i s h b e i n ' s Theory o f A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n 2.3 C a s t r o and J o r d a n ' s F a c i t Theory 2.4 Ways o f E n h a n c i n g C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s CHAPTER 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5  I I I : Methodology o f t h e Study Introduction Population Sample Treatment A t t i t u d e Assessment Study Case S t u d y  e  1 2 3 3 5 10 11 12 12 ..  :  CHAPTER I V : R e s u l t s o f t h e S t u d y 4.0 Introduction 4.1 S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m #1 4.1.1 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses Tested 4.1.2 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Measures 4.1.3 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses 4.1.4 Q u a l i t a t i v e Analyses 4.1.5 A n a l y s e s o f P a r e n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 4.2 S p e c i f i c P r o b l e m #2 4.2.1 S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s A f t e r t h e P r o g r a m .... 4.2.2 Results of Counsellors' Interview 4.2.3 Results o f Teachers' Interview 4.2.4 W r i t e r ' s P o i n t o f View 4.2.5 T r i a n g u l a t i o n o f V i e w s 4.2.6 D i s c u s s i o n o f Case Study R e s u l t s 4.3 Summary o f R e s u l t s  14 14 20 26 28 34 34 35 37 40 52 61 62 62 62 63 72 75 79 80 87 91 98 125 129 144  vi P 9 a  CHAPTER 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4  V: C o n c l u s i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s Introduction Research Problems and Corresponding C o n c l u s i o n s . Limitations of the Findings Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research Suggestions f o rthe A p p l i c a t i o n o f Findings t o Practice  BIBLIOGRAPHY  e  147 147 150 153 154 156  A P P E N D I X A: T h e A c t u a l T r e a t m e n t  Used i n t h e Study  171  A P P E N D I X B: A t t i t u d e T o w a r d s C o n s e r v a t i o n  177  A P P E N D I X C: T r i a l  187  Sheet  A P P E N D I X D: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e T e a c h e r  f o r Administering  the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  188  A P P E N D I X E: P a r e n t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  189  A P P E N D I X F: S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( B e f o r e t h e Camp Program) A P P E N D I X G: C o u n s e l l o r s ' I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s ( B e f o r e t h e  192  Camp P r o g r a m ) A P P E N D I X H: O b s e r v a t i o n I n s t r u m e n t Sessions) APPENDIX I : Q u e s t i o n s f o r S t u d e n t Activity)  193 (For A c t i v i t i e s / 194 I n t e r v i e w i n g ( A f t e r an 196  APPENDIX J : Q u e s t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l o r s ( A f t e r a n Activity)  197  A P P E N D I X K: Q u e s t i o n s f o r A d u l t s Program)  198  APPENDIX L: Q u e s t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r Activity)  ( A f t e r t h e Camp Interview  (After 199  A P P E N D I X M: T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s Program)  (After the  A P P E N D I X N: S t u d e n t I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s Program)  (After the  200 201  A P P E N D I X 0: R e a s o n s G i v e n b y S t u d e n t s Who W e r e N o t S u r e of a P o s i t i v e E f f e c t on T h e i r A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Energy  202  A P P E N D I X P: R e s p o n s e s G i v e n by S t u d e n t s A b o u t What T h e y B e l i e v e d t o Have Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g Plants  203  A P P E N D I X Q: S t u d e n t s ' R e s p o n s e s I n d i c a t i n g A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which S t u d e n t s B e l i e v e d t o Have Made t h e m F e e l L i k e S a v i n g W i l d l i f e  205  vii P 9 a  e  A P P E N D I X R: S t u d e n t s ' R e s p o n s e s I n d i c a t i n g A s p e c t s o f t h e P r o g r a m Which They B e l i e v e d t o Have Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g E n e r g y  208  A P P E N D I X S: T h e P a r t s o f t h e P r o g r a m W h i c h S a i d They L i k e d  210  Students  A P P E N D I X T: Comments Made b y P a r e n t s  211  A P P E N D I X U: R e s u l t s o f A d d i t i o n a l D a t a  219  viii  L I S T OF TABLES  page TABLE 2.1  Variables i n the Attitude-Behavior Universe  TABLE 2.2  Levels of Attitude-Behavior Scale b y C a s t r o a n d J o r d a n (1977)  TABLE 3.1  TABLE 3.2 T A B L E 3.3 TABLE 4.1  TABLE 4.2  TABLE 4.3 TABLE 4.4  TABLE 4.5  TABLE 4.6 TABLE 4.7 T A B L E 4.8 TABLE 4.9  ..  27  Proposed 28  Table o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e Items Used i n O b t a i n i n g Scores on t h e Nine Dependent Variables Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficients f o r D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s i n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ... R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficients of the Subtests f o r the C l a s s e s used i n t h e P i l o t Study P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e Experimental and Comparative Groups Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e P o s t t e s t Scores f o r the Experimental and Comparative Groups  41 46 48  6  4  6  8  S c a l e d Weights o f t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the Discriminant Function  69  F r e q u e n c y o f Group Responses I n d i c a t i n g " U n d e c i d e d o r D o n ' t Know" i n P r e t e s t a n d Posttest  74  S t u d e n t s ' R e s p o n s e s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do y o u T h i n k T h a t t h e O u t d o o r P r o g r a m Made y o u F e e l L i k e S a v i n g ..  80  A s p e c t s o f t h e Program Which Students Made Them F e e l l i k e S a v i n g P l a n t s  82  Believed  Aspects o f t h e Program Which Students B e l i e v e d Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g W i l d l i f e  83  Aspects o f t h e Program Which Students Made Them F e e l L i k e S a v i n g E n e r g y  85  Believed  A s p e c t s o f t h e Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Program Which Students, C o u n s e l l o r s , Teachers and t h e W r i t e r B e l i e v e d t o Have C o n t r i b u t e d t o Enhancing S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s Towards Conservation o f N a t u r a l Resources  126  ix L I S T OF FIGURES page FIGURE 2.1  A c q u i s i t i o n o f Concept  22  FIGURE 2.2  C l a s s i c a l Conditioning Process Leading t o A t t i t u d e Formation  23  Development o f A s s o c i a t i o n Between Motor B o a t s a n d O i l S p i l l s a n d Fumes L e a d i n g t o Negative E f f e c t s i n Lakes  25  FIGURE 2.3  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The thanks  writer to  his  Anastasiou, committee,  would  like  research  and  to  a l l members  Dr.  C.J.  of h i s supervisory  D r s . W.B. B o l d t ; S.F. F o s t e r ; P . J . G a s k e l l ;  d u r a t i o n of t h i s writer  would  successful  particular,  he  individuals  guidance  throughout  the  study. also  c o l l e a g u e s who c o n t r i b u t e d the  express h i s sincere  supervisor,  and M.F. H o e b e l , f o r t h e i r  The  to  like  i n various  completion would  and  like  of to  their  S. H a g g e r t y ; S. M e n z i e s ;  to  thank a l l t h e ways  this  thank  study.  the  families:  E. O'Regan;  allowing In  following  B. B u c h a n a n ; E. T a c k i e ;  and  S. T a y l o r . Finally, who  participated  possible thank  t h e w r i t e r would  i n various  f o r the study t o  be  of  t o thank a l l those  aspects,  undertaken.  y o u s h o u l d go t o t h e members  and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n Office  like  Department,  making i t A  special  of the Mathematics and  the  t h e F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n (U.B.C.),  whose c o o p e r a t i o n i t c o u l d n o t h a v e been  Graduate without  completed.  1  CHAPTER I  THE PROBLEM  1.1 G e n e r a l The was  Problem  g e n e r a l p r o b l e m w h i c h was i n v e s t i g a t e d  the  change  environment  i n a t t i t u d e toward  presumed  residential  outdoor  Outdoor  to  education  education  literature,  pervasive  goals  Caldwell, studies no  has  vary  development  of  programs  s t u d i e s have been  outdoor  in  found  education  1976; a n d D o r a n ,  on  few s t u d i e s have been done i n o u t d o o r  how  occur  in a residential  attitude  changes  seem  investigates aspects  outdoor to  i n the  most  been  many  programs,  these  programs  teachers  according  behavioral  i n v e s t i g a t e s the nature  the  i n general  education  how t h e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e r e c o r d e d  therefore,  of  education  programs  1977). A l s o ,  to  respects  but according to  fortraining  very  lead  a  The need f o r s u c h a s t u d y  Roth,  actually  many  t h e r e have  1980;  literature  in  ( L i n k e , 1980; S t a p p , 1970;  t h e development of a t t i t u d e s .  improving  subjects  i s one  1978). A l t h o u g h  been d o c u m e n t e d a s b e i n g h e l p f u l  for  study  program.  a t t i t u d e measurement i n o u t d o o r  systematic  enhance  among  attitude  1970; a n d H a r t , on  place  scope and p r a c t i c e ) ,  such  this  c o n s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l  programs  (e.g., o b j e c t i v e , content, the  take  in  in  change.  and  (Lucas,  to  Lucas,  w h i c h show  the  research  This  study,  of t h e a t t i t u d e changes which  education  influence program  p r o g r a m , a n d how overt  which  behavior. contribute  these I t also t o , or  2  appear  to  contribute  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n  1.2 D e f i n i t i o n  to  the  of n a t u r a l  change  in  resources.  o f Terms  For a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of t h i s  study,  t o d e f i n e s e v e r a l terms used i n t h e study. 1.2.1  Attitude: Fishbein's definition  this  study.  attitudes respond  According  are to  above,  resources. natural  object,  The  term  resources"  1.2.2 C o n s e r v a t i o n : study  insofar  as  important  These terms a r e :  o f a t t i t u d e was a d o p t e d i n  learned  1975),  predispositions to  c l a s s of o b j e c t s , . a c t s , or events  attitude  object  was  "attitude  way. C o n s i s t e n t conservation  towards  the  ina  with of  the  natural  conservation  of  was i n t e r p r e t e d a s m e a n i n g t h e " f e e l i n g f o r  or a g a i n s t c o n s e r v i n g  this  as  favorable or unfavorable  the  i ti s  t o F i s h b e i n ( F i s h b e i n and A j z e n ,  conceptualized  an  consistently  students' a t t i t u d e s  natural  resources."  The t e r m " c o n s e r v a t i o n "  is  interpreted in  t o mean t h e u s e o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  so a s t o y i e l d  possible,  a  sustained  and  "natural  resource"  was  maximum  benefits  on  permanent b a s i s . 1.2.3  Natural Resources:  The  term  i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean any n a t u r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t has  value or usefulness  1.2.4  t o humans.  R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor E d u c a t i o n  "residential  outdoor  education  Programs:  programs"  e d u c a t i o n a l programs which a r e conducted urban  or  together  rural  areas  which  where  f o r a p e r i o d of time  students of a t l e a s t  in  The  refers camps  and  term to  situated  instructors  two d a y s .  those in live  3  1.3  B a c k g r o u n d of t h e  1.3.1  Environmental The  existing  according  to  e x c e e d e d our  to  the  fertile,  of t h e  quality  of  Study  our  biophysical  (1973), i s evidence  environment,  t h a t o u r p r o b l e m s have  s o l u t i o n s . For example, automobile  envelope  o t h e r water  Context  Perkes  far  Study  of a i r w h i c h  resources  tillable  are  g i v e s us l i f e ;  polluted;  l a n d ; f o r e s t s and  soil farms  for  recreation  Askham, 1975; Elmandjra  and  L a u g , 1960;  and  Malitza,  wildlife  streams  and  washes  away  from  are being c l e a r e d  shown  due  Rillo,  1967;  and  concern  because  Botkin,  1979;  1967). A l l t h e s e  problems  Rillo,  can  f o r e s t s were b u r n e d  desired,  effectively  o r m o d i f y i n g human b e h a v i o r .  was  in  1960). were  For  example,  wild  down o r c l e a r e d  abundance  and  an  i n d e x of d e v e l o p m e n t , and  to  c o n t i n u e and  not  Perkes,  1973;  animals  were  f o r v a r i o u s purposes  people  used  without  actions;  i t i n any  cheap  way  they  consumed became  environmental p o l l u t i o n  was  allowed  to increase.  t h e s e a t t i t u d e s and  b e h a v i o r s were q u i t e  d u r i n g the e a r l y days ( p a r t i c u l a r l y revolution),  have  taken  c o n s i d e r e d t o be e n e m i e s t o humans;  t o t h e p o i n t where t h e amount o f e n e r g y  Although  have  r e s o u r c e s f o r g r a n t e d , and  much c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u c h energy  be  a b o u t t h e f u t u r e (Askham, 1975;  they  1973;  1949;  natural  and L a u g ,  and  Gustafson,  r e p o r t s have shown t h a t i n t h e p a s t p e o p l e  the environment  killed  (Perkes,  at  B l a c k , 1954,  by a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a n g i n g  Many  asphalt;  i s shrinking  a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of human b e h a v i o r and improved  cling  lakes,  an a l a r m i n g r a t e , t o be c o v e r e d w i t h c o n c r e t e and space  fumes  they  could  not  soon  after  universal  the  industrial  be a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n  so f o r v e r y  4  l o n g . Many l e a d e r s of  fertile  soil  Gustafson great  on f a r m l a n d s  reported  that  to  interest  Conference  (United States, contributed  States  1900's.  i t was  to arousing  Several  and  Mexico)  have  developments  was  problem  on  the  escalated  mind  worked t o i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n .  conservation literature  and  direct  resources  to  of  the  Rocchio The laws  education, (1971),  still  1948).  (1973),  conservation  passed  in  some  (Public Acts  of  For  Informed  problems very e a r l y ,  started  l o n g a g o . The  Frederic  Burk,  the  i n San F r a n c i s c o ,  made  the h e r i t a g e of n a t u r a l the  Association  found  in  the  Baltes  states the  (1973),  literature  and A l l e n  reports that asking State  of  Science  (Funderburk,  as f o r example, i n t h e works of J a u s  Huether  early  issues  l i t e r a t u r e on o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n were  the  f o r .teaching  t o teach  be  events  appeals  National Education  1948). Such p l e a s can  continent  combined t o f o r c e  a n d t h e i r w i s e u s e , a t an a d d r e s s b e f o r e  Department  outdoor  teachers  in  Thus,  of t h e S t a t e Normal S c h o o l  appeal  and  reawakening.  (Funderburk,  shows t h a t a s f a r back a s 1 9 1 1 ,  then p r e s i d e n t a  environmental  of t h e  Such  since  this  p e o p l e became c o n c e r n e d a b o u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  that  i n conservation.  led to  public  States;  held.  example, i n t h e 1930's, drought and d e p r e s s i o n the  against  reported  i n the American  public interest  problems  grew  l e d to the formation  Conservation  Canada,  1949).  h a d begun a s e a r l y a s  Commission i n t h e U n i t e d on  Environmental  Gustafson,  i n conservation  by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s  a  1954;  the problem of c o n s e r v a t i o n  National Conservation 1909  (Black,  p u b l i c apathy. In the United  attention 1873  s t a r t e d g e t t i n g concerned about t h e d e p l e t i o n  in  schools  the to  Tennessee,  on  (1978), (1975). 1920's teach 1921;  5  General  Laws o f M i s s i s s i p p i ,  1.3.2 E d u c a t i o n a l C o n t e x t The one  general  s y s t e m h a s been i d e n t i f i e d  the behavior  Educational  Planning,  1974;  1970; J a u s ,  Allen,  of t h e Study.  educational  way o f m o d i f y i n g  Nixon,  1926).  1972;  of the p u b l i c  Alberta  1978;  t o be  (Commission  on  Department of E d u c a t i o n ,  Rocchio,  1971;  Baltes,  1973;  1975).  In  schools  a  youth) are gathered  l a r g e segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r the purpose of a t t a i n i n g  this  seems t o be a s u i t a b l e p l a c e t o b e g i n  the  deteriorating  natural  conditions  (mainly the  education,  and  i n t r o d u c i n g people t o  o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and d w i n d l i n g  resources.  At a m e e t i n g o f t h e Congress f o r R e c r e a t i o n and P a r k s i n W a s h i n g t o n , D. C ,  held  i n 1966, L a u r e n c e S. R o c k e f e l l e r s t a t e d :  I f - we a c c e p t a n a t i o n a l commitment t o a d e c e n t e n v i r o n m e n t and man's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s i t s s t e w a r d , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o educate o u r young people to this g o a l . Q u a l i t y of the e n v i r o n m e n t , l i k e f r e e d o m , must be p r o t e c t e d a n d achieved anew by e a c h g e n e r a t i o n ( R i l l o , 1 9 6 7 ) . Russell  (1970) t h i n k s s i m i l a r l y .  He  states:  We must h e l p o u r young people to develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward our n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and our t o t a l environment—a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t r y t o p a s s on t o future generations through careful stewardship a better w o r l d t h a n we now have ( R u s s e l l , 1 9 7 0 ) . Both can  Rillo make  and good  Russell feel headway.  In  institutions  have  environmental  needs ( P e r k e s ,  found  embarked  t h a t 80% of e l e m e n t a r y  t h a t by e d u c a t i n g young p e o p l e recent  many  educational  on p r o g r a m s d i r e c t e d t o meet 1973). F o r schools  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d 89% o f t h o s e conservation or environmental  years  example,  i n the Great  from  the  Far  we  Maben  these (1971)  Lakes area of West  e d u c a t i o n . At t h e secondary  offered school  6  level  there  district  were 55% and  in  (McClaren  British  and  r e s p e c t i v e l y . Almost every  Columbia  has  Ramsey, 1 9 7 2 ) . S c h o o l  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s u c h Ontario  68%  Schools  programs.  e n r o l m e n t of o v e r  own  outside  their  For  may  operate  a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and  education  in  1965  amended t o p e r m i t  jurisdiction  such a s c h o o l t h e r e o n . "  "conduct  example,  10,000 s t u d e n t s  e r e c t i n g a n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s c h o o l " and and  outdoor  boards have a l s o encouraged  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A c t was  b o a r d s w i t h an property  some  school  to  the school  buy  their  f o r " t h e p u r p o s e of  t o a l l o w them  to  "build  I t a l s o mentions that  boards  c o n s e r v a t i o n program i n co-  operation with a conservation authority." Educators educational Nuttall,  are  optimistic  about  s y s t e m t o meet t h e s e  change.  objectives  must  widely  accepted  The  environmental  problems  i n terms of In  success  view  is  b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e can  worthy deal  the  Doran,  1978;  environmental  with  that  reports,  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  present  and  of  behavioral  many  of  a r e a c t u a l l y p r o b l e m s of human  its ability  our  that  eventually  (Swan, 1 9 6 9 ) . T h u s , as Ames ( 1 9 7 1 ) a n a l y s i s the  ability  needs (Alaimo  1969). P h i l o s o p h e r s concur  education  the  "...in  education  t o change the b e h a v i o r  s o c i e t y and be  through  behavior  the be  measured  education,  various  methods w o u l d be  methods.  t o remove  f r e e agency of the p u b l i c t o choose a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s 1973).  As  an  of p u r c h a s i n g Likewise,  illustration,  the p u b l i c w i l l  a "non-polluting"  or  a  not  no c h o i c e  in his/her  of an  purchase.  the  (Perkes,  have the  "polluting"  i f a monopoly c o n t r o l s t h e p r o d u c t i o n  i t e m , t h e c o n s u m e r has  final  of s o c i e t y " .  i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s of  facilitated  P e r h a p s t h e most e x t r e m e o f t h e s e  will  our  choice  automobile. essential  7  Such c h a n g e s i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y therefore,  essentially  remove  the  m a k i n g .. However , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f basis  of a democratic  widely accepted.  choices  Hence,  the  punishment) public  to  good  in  to  the  the  attachment those  of  schools,  1973).  to  experience  increase  punishment,  consequent  on  hope  of  repetition outdoor  providing  in  here,  response  on  when  denying  a c a b i n group  recreational group l e f t if and  the  activity  certain  undesirable  an  course  or  of  use,  of  discouraging  during  a  based  in the  residential w o u l d be one  leaving  their  punishment would i n v o l v e  opportunity  which  unpleasant b e h a v i o r and  reinforcement  while  This i s  a c t i n g as agent  low c a b i n marks f o r  of  taking  a l l students  s u c c e s s f u l , may r e s u l t  enjoy,  part  in  a  because t h e method,  i n governmental r e g u l a t i o n s  on t h e u n d e s i r a b i 1 i t y o f a s s o c i a t e d p e n a l t i e s .  Such laws a r e n e c e s s a r y environment  in  (not  negative  t h e c a b i n l i g h t s on when n o t i n u s e . ) Such a  not widely laws  not  action  strength.  involves  program a n e g a t i v e  lights  action  reinforcement  used  For example,  where a c a b i n g r o u p i s g i v e n  of  do n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e  retribution  of the behavior.  education  i s the  alternative  m e d i a t e d by an e x t e r n a l a g e n t o r by t h e s e l f the  actions  an a v e r s i v e e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s ,  which a  of  (As  which  from  decision-  esteemed.  which  involves decreasing  different  of  removal  negative  reinforcement  an  services,  opportunity  removal  actions  (Perkes,  leads  and  s o c i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , an i d e a l w h i c h i s  related  is  goods  alternative  c h o i c e s w o u l d n o t be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y Closely  of  from behavior  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of  offenders were  not  and  would  present.  society  not In  be  this  and i t s needed case  i f the  8  individual  does  laws,  out  but  controlled.  have a c h o i c e o f b r e a k i n g o r o f s u s t a i n i n g t h e of  When t h i s  Since environmental this of  fear  his/her  behavior  are d i f f i c u l t  ref.  through  to  West  and  negative Foster,  is  laws a r e v i o l a t e d . supervise  i s subject t o moral i m p l i c a t i o n s ^ t h i s  behaviors  punishment,  punishment  f e a r no l o n g e r e x i s t s ,  behaviors  supervision altering  of  method  reinforcement  1976)  and  (not  i s not  usually  a c c e p t a b l e as a p r e f e r r e d approach. A more p o s i t i v e means f o r c h a n g i n g accepted is  quite widely  through  approach  be  indoctrination the  pedagogically  may  external  rewards  mode  of  decision-making  l e a r n i n g model  are  (Perkes,  be  changed  1973).  where  T h i s mode assumes t h a t b e h a v i o r  outdoor  behavior  Again,  and  rational  emphasized  r o u t e by  et  which  in  this  1969;  i sa logical Thus,  a r e geared  behavior  i s preceded  al.,  of a t t i t u d e s .  programs  behavior,  by a  Perkes,  consequence in  schools,  towards  changing  via attitudes.  Schools environmental Teachers  education  1973) o r  t o m o s t , t o be a  the behavior  1967; S t a p p  o f an a t t i t u d e o r i n t e r a c t i o n  not  this  1973).  most p e d a g o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e  (Rillo,  seems  education.  The  i s that  of  and  (1973),  However,  as " c o e r c i o n " (Perkes,  1967) a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n  inferior  change i n a t t i t u d e  these  reinforcement.  designated  of  and  behavioristic  positive  (Rillo,  expectation  judgement  i n e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o Perkes  external  might  b e h a v i o r , once u s e d  facilitate attitudes  provide  through  students  environment, and take  the  development a combination  with  students  factual  o u t on f i e l d  of  appropriate  of d i f f e r e n t  ways.  i n f o r m a t i o n about the t r i p s where t h e y c a n  9  see and  experience d i f f e r e n t  have a l s o are more  found  that f i e l d  more e f f e c t i v e time  for  investigations  t r i p s which  than s h o r t f i e l d students  on  to  has  residential  outdoor  programs  been  popular  than  Archibald,  of  1971;  environmental  in  universally  (at l e a s t  the  efficacy  accepted  so  of that  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) have  non-residential  learn  e c o l o g y and objectives  programs  the  nature  and H i l l  concerns  become i m p o r t a n t  ones  (Bateson  about  such  and  f o r outdoor  British  concern  they  seem  to  and  and  have  today,  in  topics  t o the outdoor  the  emerged  it  appears  of  study  energy,  were  be  children Recently the  main  residential to  achieve  particular  plants,  had  1966).  that  had  as  outdoor  i t s primary  and  wildlife.  s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y were of  s c h o o l program,  be most c e n t r a l  took  designed The  1967;  pollution  to  as  mid-fifties  (Herbert,  primarily  this  century  the environment.  (Woodward, 1 9 7 3 ) .  used  In  emphasized  (Rillo,  schools  e d u c a t i o n programs  o b j e c t i v e the c o n s e r v a t i o n conservation  1971).  understand  Columbia  was  movement  as c o n s e r v a t i o n and  e d u c a t i o n programs a r e  prime  study  and W h i t e ,  conservation goals  which  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  s o c i e t a l problems,  conservation objectives  These  belief  t o p i c s . They began a t t h e t u r n of t h e  outgrowth  program  become  education  environmental  outdoor  This  1976).  Outdoor  In  scientific  interact  trips  to  more  provide  t h e r e b y get the o p p o r t u n i t y t o  overnight  out  because they  day  students  issues.  an  f o r more t h a n a  trips,  issues.  Schools  In a d d i t i o n ,  with environmental  Worthing,  last  undertake  environmental  work i n s m a l l g r o u p s and  more  a s p e c t s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  to outdoor  and  also  because  e d u c a t i o n programs i n  10  general. This study attempted program  t o f i n d o u t i f an  education  enhanced t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s  the three c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s (energy, if  outdoor  so, t o f i n d  behavior.  o u t how t h e c h a n g e i n  In  addition,  towards  p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e ) , and attitude  was  related  to  t h e study a l s o examined t h e a s p e c t s of  t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d o r a p p e a r e d t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement o f s t u d e n t s ' c o n s e r v a t i o n 1.3.3 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n t e x t  attitudes.  of the Study  T h e r e a r e a number o f t h e o r i e s a b o u t how a t t i t u d e s and  change. A c c o r d i n g  t o Zimbardo (1977),  the Y a l e a t t i t u d e change dissonance the  theory;  facet theory  theory  approach;  attribution  ( C a s t r o and J o r d a n ,  (Fishbein,  1967,  Fishbein  1 9 5 8 ) . F i s h b e i n * s t h e o r y on changed  is  attitude,  Rhine  (1958).  dynamics;  social  1977);  l e a r n i n g theory;  and  a  and A j z e n ,  attitudes  cognitive  behaviorist  1975; a n d  are  Rhine,  developed  and  c u r r e n t and w i d e l y u s e d , and formed t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s of  how  f o r example, there i s  group  theory;  develop  s t u d y . F i s h b e i n ' s model f o r t h e  acquisition  i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f an e a r l i e r model d e v e l o p e d T h i s model i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e  works  of  by  Doob  ( 1 9 4 7 ) , L o t t ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Osgood e t a l . , ( 1 9 5 7 ) and o t h e r s . Castro  and  Jordan's  theory  was  used  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r . (1977)  propose  that  Castro  explore and  t h e r e a r e s i x l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e  s t r o n g ) , and t h a t a t t i t u d e levels  to  a r e more d i r e c t l y  changes related  at  the  higher  t o overt behavior  Jordan (weak t o  (stronger) than  at the lower  (weaker) l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e .  and  t h e o r y were e m p l o y e d b e c a u s e t h e y were f o u n d  Jordan's  the  changes  Three l e v e l s of C a s t r o to  be  11  suitable. personal  1.4  They  were  societal  norms,  personal  Specific  change  P r o b l e m s of t h e  the  behavior  However, " e n v i r o n m e n t " which, lot  Study  the  of the p u b l i c towards the  is. a  complex  need t o c o n s e r v e  of p u b l i c c o n c e r n .  that there i s a  concept,  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , has  This study  concerned  The  s c h o o l s y s t e m has  been i d e n t i f i e d  need  environment.  one  itself  c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a s an a t t i t u d e  one  and  action.  From t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n i t i s c l e a r to  feeling  aspect  of  attracted only  a  with  object.  by many p e o p l e  to  be  o f t h e most p r o m i s i n g p l a c e s f o r i n d u c i n g b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e s  which w i l l  meet t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  1976;  Dasmann, 1975;  many  ways  of  Smith  doing  needs ( M e s a r o v i c  et a l . ,  this,  1972).  changing  the  t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s most p r o m i s i n g ways of schools ' which referred  to  literature outdoor  were  influencing used  in  this  education."  show  evidence  to support  such  there  it  is  generally  are  different  1971a, 1971b; C a s t r o and may  people of  the  In  the  p r o g r a m s were  Experience the  are  idea that  and  the  residential  changing  these  the n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l ones. accepted  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e s and  level  change.  e d u c a t i o n programs are b e t t e r s u i t e d t o  Although  there  seems t o be one  study,  "outdoor  Pestel,  a t t i t u d e s of  behavioral  as  a t t i t u d e s than  that  Although  and  vary a c c o r d i n g to the  a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . No  behavior,  levels  Jordan,  that  of  it  attitude  1 9 7 7 ) , and  has  is  i s some  also  known  (Jordan,  1968,  t h e e f f e c t s of  each  s t r e n g t h of t h e  research evidence  there  relationship  been f o u n d  to  w h i c h shows  12  the n a t u r e and/or education  of  attitudinal  change  p r o g r a m s p r o d u c e . The p r o b l e m under  by t h e f o l l o w i n g 1.  level  specific  outdoor  s t u d y was f o c u s e d  questions:  What e f f e c t d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n education  which  program  have  on  in a residential the  outdoor  a t t i t u d e s of students  toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? 2.  What a s p e c t s o f an o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m or  appear  to  contribute  towards  contribute  positive  attitudes  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ?  1.5 O v e r v i e w  of Methodology  To a d d r e s s t h e a b o v e p r o b l e m s , parts. case  Part  study proceeded  1 was an a t t i t u d e a s s e s s m e n t  study.  education  this  The  program  attitude  study  was e f f e c t i v e  study and P a r t  determined  i f the  related  i n t h e program  t o the development  two  2 was a outdoor  i n enhancing the c o n s e r v a t i o n -  r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s w h i l e , the case study the f a c t o r s  in  w h i c h were o r w h i c h of c o n s e r v a t i o n  investigated  appeared  to  be  attitudes.  1.6 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y This  s t u d y was l i m i t e d by two f a c t o r s . F i r s t ,  were n o t randomly sample  selected  from  the  target  the subjects  population.  was made up o f s t u d e n t s f r o m s c h o o l s w h i c h had a g r e e d t o  participate  i n both the program  and i n t h e . s t u d y .  Secondly, P a r t 2 of t h e study r e q u i r e d t h e presence of writer  The  during  a l l phases  of t h e outdoor e d u c a t i o n program,  the as  13  w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s w i t h mere  presence  participants students.  of of  the the  students, writer, camp  c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s .  The  and  the  program,  the  interviews  may  have  with  affected  the  14  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n This problem of  chapter  reviews  area o u t l i n e d  studies  literature  i n Chapter  related  relevant to the general  I . I t begins with a  t o t h e development of a t t i t u d e s  e d u c a t i o n programs and t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s of  these studies. This d i s c u s s i o n  o f F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e Jordan's  discussion i n outdoor  and  problems  i s f o l l o w e d by an e l a b o r a t i o n acquisition,  and  Castro  and  F a c e t T h e o r y on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e s a n d  behavior. Particular attention  i s p a i d t o how t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e  related  studied.  with  t o the problems being  a  review  education  of  programs  the  literature  which  appear  The  on to  chapter  concludes  components be  of outdoor  important  for  the  enhancement o f a t t i t u d e s .  2.1  A t t i t u d e Development R e s u l t i n g  from Outdoor  Education  Programs Outdoor  education  environmental  issues,  programs and  address  many s t u d i e s h a v e been c o n d u c t e d  t h e s e programs. Most of t h e e a r l y programs assumption resources  that was  consequences example,  the  these  explicitly  operated  unwise use of the environment  because of  themselves  the human  proposed  public  d i d not  behaviors. that  know  Southern  " i f a  child  under  to on the  and n a t u r a l about  the  (1971), f o r acquires  15  particular will  broad  environmental  understanding  develop a s o c i a l conscience  behavior  [ a c t i o n s ] toward  studies  (e.g.,  [attitude] that w i l l  the environment."  C h r i s t i a n s e n and  knowledge g a i n s as the c r i t e r i o n  Many  positive  some  studies  relationship  f o r measuring  environmental Hart,  1978;  have  shown  attitudes  and  knowledge  se  is  early  success  that  and  there  is a  knowledge  and  Locandro,  1978;  other recent  studies  a  but  necessary  s u f f i c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r the development of a t t i t u d e s 1980;  Bowman, 1977;  Cohen, 1973). methods  LaHart,  1978;  Subsequently,  from  Ditton  and  of  knowledge  to  not  (Lucas,  Johnsen,  t h e r e has been a s h i f t  measurement  of  in this respect.  Drawbaugh  per  affect his the  the  indicated  R i c k s o n , 1976),  he  t h e r e f o r e , used  environmental  (e.g.,  Ramsey and  that  have  between  of  o t h e r s , 1969),  p r o g r a m s , and most p r o g r a m s were s u c c e s s f u l Although  [knowledge],  1974;  in evaluation  measurement  of  assessment  of  att i tudes. There  have  been  many  a t t i t u d e changes r e s u l t i n g of  these  studies  and  Liggett,  1976;  Richmond  and  Stronck,  1972;  Simons, et a l . , Kallingal one  an o u t d o o r f o u n d t o be which  it  involving  from outdoor  have shown p o s i t i v e Rocchio,  Morgan,  1971;  1977;  1977;  and  of g r a d e  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . Most results,  Kallingal,  Huckestein,  H a r t and M c C l a r e n , Horsley,  (1974), a semantic  group  studies  1978;  1976;  was  Wilson,  1975;  Coons,  1973;  Hepburn, et a l . , the  1978;  study  i n s t r u m e n t was  by  used  on  s i x s t u d e n t s to a s s e s s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . More t h a n 60% i n the  1974;  1977). . In  differential  (e.g. Hounshell  i d e a l quadrant  inferred  that  of the  of t h e s t u d e n t s were  semantic  space,  t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s t u d e n t s  from had  16  developed d e s i r e d  levels  of  favorable  attitudes  environment.  Coons  (1973)  studied  the  effect  residential  outdoor  camp  program  on  the  disadvantaged towards  children  their  students  interpersonal  positive  control  group. 1976)  environment students'  attitude A  the  o f a two-week attitudes  of  10-13) t o w a r d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  development.  In  that  towards  longitudinal  the  and  study,  i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p were f o u n d t o h a v e  a more  (1973,  (ages  towards  the  developed  environment  than  s t u d y by H o u n s h e l l and  the  Liggett  a s s e s s e d s t u d e n t s ' (grade s i x ) a t t i t u d e s toward and  e v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . The  attitudes  study  became more p o s i t i v e and  found  that  remained  so  the the  after  more t h a n a y e a r . T h e s e s t u d i e s have n o t  been  limited  students. H u c k e s t e i n (1976), undertook of  a  pretest  s t u d y he  and  found that those  residential  outdoor-  positive attitude issues  posttest  than  involving Morgan  towards  five  (1977).  participated attitudes  education  t h o s e who  grade  in  various  study  in  the  a  one  developed and  undertaken  showed  outdoor  programs  environment  by  that  than  six use  s t u d e n t s . In t h a t  had  environment  s t u d e n t s was  the  five  involved  program  the  grade  week a more  environmental  were i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A n o t h e r  Their  towards  were  only  a study i n v o l v i n g  w i t h grade  who  to  Richmond  students had  study  who  more  and had  positive  s t u d e n t s who  had  not  part ic ipated. Other grades  studies  five  students education  have  and  (13-18  six. yrs.)  program,  and  also Rocchio to  shown  (1971)  evaluate  found  positive  that  a the  used  results  beyond  a w i d e r range  residential students'  of  outdoor attitudes  17  t o w a r d s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and The  s t u d y by W i l s o n  produced  and  by  Hart  ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The  school  (1975), which  and  last  McClaren  two  Liggett  (1977),  (1973,  studies  similar  1976),  Similar  enhanced. students,  were  the  use  of  s t u d y by Simons e t a l . , the  one  showed  a  again  a l s o by H e p b u r n , e t  involved  to  also  results  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and  students. A longitudinal  by H a r s l e y  i s s u e s were  i n v o l v e d grade nine  t h e same k i n d of r e s u l t s .  obtained al.,  environmental  by  (1977),  Hounshell  positive  and  r e s u l t on  the  and  his  associates  school students, while Harsley  used  secondary  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . I n a s t u d y by S t r o n c k a w i d e r a n g e o f t e a c h e r s and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s were Other  studies  1971;  have,  1975;  and  h o w e v e r , shown t h a t n o t  Crater,  changes i n  Quinn,  1977;  1976;  Koch,  attitudes  Kostka,  1975;  1976;  and  n a t u r e c e n t e r p r o g r a m on t h e a t t i t u d e s of  g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s , and  impact  on  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Day students  (1971),  who  found  were  oriented  effect  t h a t t h e p r o g r a m made students.  towards  in  which  oceanology,  a l l  the  d i d not  school find  Carter  survey,  s t u d e n t s t o the  crisis the  and  survey  the e f f e c t  of e x p o s i n g  d e t e r i o r a t i n g environmental showed  inner little  c h a n g e i n t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e s t u d e n t s . examined  and  i n v e s t i g a t e d the o p i n i o n s of h i g h s c h o o l  f o l l o w i n g a s c h o o l program  curricula  (1976) e x a m i n e d t h e  a t t i t u d e s of t h e  Day,  Howell  of city  s t u d y by K o s t k a  the  The  on-going  again  all-programs  Warmbrod, 1 9 7 4 ) . an  of  recorded.  ( e . g . , C a r t e r , 1973;  Baker,  (1972), the a t t i t u d e s  s t u d e n t s were m e a s u r e d ,  h a v e been a b l e t o p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t of s t u d e n t s  Simons  the  students' a t t i t u d e s towards used  environment.  high  that  this  (1973),  q u a l i t y . The  exposure  d i d not  in  any a  energy  results  of  i n f l u e n c e the  18  a t t i t u d e s of the  s t u d e n t s . Baker  students  y r s . and  (16  participation opinion  in  an  He  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s , and students'  previous  e x p e d i t i o n s . Quinn lessons  about  The  not  responses  were  students'  experience  found  and  study  m a n u a l d i d n o t p r o d u c e any of  the  There are  of  any  change  and  their  effect  of  used  after  using  found the  short  the  control  (1975),  an  a it  environment. group  who  examined  in-service  outdoor  t h a t i t d i d not a f f e c t  their  attitudes  Warmbrod ( 1 9 7 4 ) e x a m i n e d and  the  teachers'  of t h e  s i g n i f i c a n t change i n  with  the  t h a t the p o s i t i v e instructors' these  effect  of  education. studies. carried  results,  a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of what  f o r the successes  the  attitudes  attitude  p r o g r a m s show p o s i t i v e  the  students'  outdoor  g o e s on d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m s , and  on  towards the p r o t e c t i o n of  more l i n k e d w i t h t h e  education  effect  education  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e use  s e v e r a l problems  the  out  about reasons  the  that  e v e n t h o u g h most o f t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n  a r e not  i n the  wilderness  Firstly, on  a  p r o b l e m s a c c o m p a n i e d by  g r o u p and  s t u d e n t s . However, i t f o u n d  t h e p r o g r a m was  effect  problems.  manual  The  of  and  the program. Koch  a t t i t u d e s of h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s environment.  group  school,  find  environmental  following  A s t u d y by H o w e l l a  the  on h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , and  towards environmental  of  out  the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward  program  one  a t t r i b u t e d t h e l a c k of a change t o  t h e v i e w s o f t e a c h e r s b e f o r e and education  find  not  of the e x p e r i m e n t a l  similar,  studied  leadership did  outdoor  current  affect  to  (1976) e x a m i n e d t h e  s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s did  over)  outdoor  questionnaire.  (1975)  so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  these  actually speculate  o r f a i l u r e s of t h e s e p r o g r a m s o r  19  to  relate  1980;  any p o s s i b l e  Cohen,  1973; Howel  inconsistences different  causal  events with  and  t h e outcomes  Warmbrod,  1974).  (Lucas,  Secondly,  i n t h e r e s u l t s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t  definitions  of  attitude  were  used.  The  that  various  d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d a n d i n s t r u m e n t s c o n s t r u c t e d were n o t r e l a t e d t o any  clearly  s p e c i f i e d theory of a t t i t u d e  most o f t h e s t u d i e s in  general,  dealt  without  attitude  to  attitudes  focusing  environment. Environment difficult  with  is  on  such  toward the  any  a  development.  Historically,  the  outdoor  e n v i r o n m e n t . They c l a i m  et  assumes t h a t interaction  al.,  behavior  education  (Pettus,  inconsistencies  various  and  This  and b e h a v i o r  1976;  these  changes  mode o f t h i n k i n g  Barnett,  Studies  i n general 1971;  on show  Manning,  1973). can a l s o  be r e l a t e d t o  d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e  them. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s e s t u d i e s  behavior.  behavioral  investigated.  i n these s t u d i e s  atheoretical  theoretical perspective  attitudes  c o n s e q u e n c e o f an a t t i t u d e o r  h a v e n o t been  Kromm, P r o b a l d a n d W a l l , The  the  results  positive  programs  But i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n t h e a t t i t u d e -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s  inconsistent  into  1973).  i sa logical  of a t t i t u d e s .  f o r the  s u c c e s s , a n d hope t h a t  translated  1969; P e r k e s ,  behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p s  1979;  be  i t is  t o be c o m p a r e d .  residential  a t t i t u d e changes w i l l  the  that  towards i t i n a manageable  p u r p o r t t o teach towards t h e development of  (Stapp  topic  s t u d y . F o r t h e above r e a s o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t  r e s u l t s of the d i f f e r e n t studies  about  environment  s p e c i f i c aspect of the  broad  a s s e s s one's a t t i t u d e s  Thirdly,  d i d n o t u s e any w e l l  used i n defined  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e a n d  20  The  review  of  the  attitude  s t u d i e s i n outdoor  shows t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f defined  theory  education  a t t i t u d e has  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e and  related  programs.  defined attitude  t h e o r y on  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Jordan  instrument  to  of  third,  allow  the  for  relating  a  well  used i n c o n s r u c t i n g  the  Second, i d e a s from a by  i n the development of  the  any  and  changes i n a t t i t u d e  was  used  to  find  to out  w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d or a p p e a r e d t o have  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e enhancement of t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n  2.2  the s t u d i e s  behavior  study approach  program  have  the  attitudes  were u s e d as a g u i d e  behavior. T h i r d , a case aspects  general  in  t o measure changes i n a t t i t u d e .  C a s t r o and  outdoor  responded to these problems. F i r s t ,  t h e o r y by F i s h b e i n was  well  behavior  the changes i n a t t i t u d e s t o components  This study  instrument  no  t o b e h a v i o r , and  been b a s e d on a w e l l d e f i n e d t h e o r y ; and  have n o t  First,  been u s e d ; s e c o n d , t h e  s t u d i e s have not been r e l a t e d  s t u d i e s on not  of  problems.  education  attitudes.  F i s h b e i n ' s T h e o r y of A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n According  1975),  t o F i s h b e i n ( F i s h b e i n , 1967;  attitudes  to respond  a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as  favorable  or  unfavorable  way.  a r e l e a r n e d ; t h e y a r e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and variables  b e h a v i o r ; and 1975). aspects  In  the response  t h i s study,  of  investigated.  which  of  in  a  That i s , a t t i t u d e s  viewed  as  assumed t o g u i d e  is consistent  i t was  conservation  are  Ajzen,  learned predispositions  t o an o b j e c t , c l a s s o f o b j e c t s , a c t s , o r e v e n t s  consistently  underlying  F i s h b e i n and  (Fishbein  latent  or  or i n f l u e n c e and  Ajzen,  the a t t i t u d e s of s u b j e c t s towards natural  resources  which  were  21  Further,  Fishbein  (1967),  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a 'mediating implicit  holds  learned  to  ' m e d i a t e ' o r g u i d e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s to  an  consistent with al.,  are  underlying meaning  is,  as  response t h a t v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y and tends  object,  more  overt  [evaluative]  [ a c t , event] or concept." This  t h e work o f O s g o o d a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s  1 9 5 7 ) . The v i e w  attitudes  "an a t t i t u d e may be  e v a l u a t i v e response,' that  a  response  that  seen  of  Osgood's  as  responses  evaluative  associates  dimension  o f a c o n c e p t . They h o l d  Ao c a n be t h o u g h t o f a s  toward of  (Osgood e t  (1957)  an  semantic  idea i s  is  that  object  along  an  space  f o r the  t h a t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d an o b j e c t  components  of  Ao  on  the  evaluative  d i m e n s i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c s p a c e o f Ao. F i s h b e i n , t o o , h o l d s  that  attitude  the  is  'evaluation'  a  unidimensional  referring  to  of a concept, as opposed t o a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  of a t t i t u d e i n w h i c h t h e r e affective,  concept  and  are underlying  behavioral  every point  in  semantic  (Fishbein,  1967).  cognitive  view  (beliefs),  d i m e n s i o n s . He a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t space  has  an  evaluative  component  2.2.1 M o d e l o f A t t i t u d e A c q u i s i t i o n According  to Fishbein  (1967),  a c q u i s i t i o n of a t t i t u d e i s a  p r o c e s s of c o n d i t i o n i n g and c h a i n i n g , a l t h o u g h "mediation"  instead  stimulus  or a group of s t i m u l i  (S)  subject, also leads  they  of  "conditioning".  then a change  H i s idea  (S....S)  p r o d u c e an a n t i c i p a t o r y g o a l  to a mediational  he u s e s t h e i s that  are presented  term i fa to  a  response  ( r ) , which  meaning response s t i m u l u s  ( s ) , and  (R) i n b e h a v i o r . ( o v e r t ) . T h i s model i s r e p r e s e n t e d  22  i n t h e F i g u r e 2.1 b e l o w :  According  to  this  model,  the  l e a r n e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t during  learning  an  link  people.  individual  between Fishbein  o f p r e s e n t i n g a l e s s o n may be  the  l e a r n e d may be d i f f e r e n t  i.  i t  is  e., t h e r e s p o n s e  stimulus.  He  of people  also  can  considers  be  an a t t i t u d e beliefs  object.  will  level(s)  at  part  of  which  a  t h i s study residential  changes the a t t i t u d i n a l responses The Fishbein, way  development i s through  teachers  and  process. According  to  same,  for  but  people,  the  about  the  same  attitude  f o c u s on i d e n t i f y i n g t h e  outdoor  education  program  of s u b j e c t s .  changing  of a t t i t u d e s ,  according to  education  i n f o r m a t i o n (knowledge) i s v i a a the  that  t o be a s u m m a t i o n o f  c o n d i t i o n i n g , and i n outdoor  present  the  for different  different  b e l i e f s and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e One  holds  also evaluates the i n s t r u c t i o n .  Thus, the process way  S and r i s  classical  conditioning  the  similar  theory  of  23  attitude stimulus (UCR)  ( u s i n g an e x a m p l e f r o m c o n s e r v a t i o n ) , an  (UCS) e . g . , f l o w e r , p r o d u c e s an u n c o n d i t i o n e d  e.g.,  beautiful,  p i c t u r e of a t r e e , unconditional  stimulus  (tree)  illustrated  and i f a c o n d i t i o n e d  i s repeatedly  response connections stimulus  unconditioned  presented  s t i m u l u s , e.g., a  together  with  made,  which  enable  t o produce the unconditioned  the  conditioned  response. This i s  2.2 b e l o w .  Conditioning  UCR  F i g u r e 2.2:  the  ( f l o w e r ) t o t h e s u b j e c t s , some s t i m u l u s -  are  i n Figure  response  Classical attitude  c o n d i t i o n i n g process l e a d i n g t o formation.  24  2.2.2  Changing  Attitudes  2.2.2.1 P o s i t i v e Outdoor attitudes,  Attitudes  education and  the  approach  s u g g e s t e d by F i s h b e i n . in  t h e New J e r s e y  programs  are  used  organized  is  similar  For example, a c c o r d i n g  State  to  t o the formats  t o the format  School of C o n s e r v a t i o n  (Russell,  a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward, say, keeping our lakes and  fumes f r o m m o t o r b o a t s , w o u l d be a c q u i r e d  residential first  are  free  providing  being that  from o i l  (or developed) i n a  e d u c a t i o n program as f o l l o w s . S u b j e c t s a r e  food  (fish),  humans d e r i v e  recreation, exercise,  many b e n e f i t s  t h e n exposed t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and  develop  some  these help humans.  association  i s , by  ecology of l a k e s subjects  are  from l a k e s .  ecology  of  in  providing  better  lakes  etc., the Subjects  lakes,  between t h e a s p e c t s of l a k e s  to maintain the lake  That  used  1970),  e x p o s e d t o l a k e s , where t h e y l e a r n a b o u t t h e u s e o f  e.g. idea  outdoor  change  to  a n d how  uses  for  a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e n a t u r e , components, and  are established  encouraged  as good,  to  maintain  these  basic  and these  by  implication,  good  ecological  practices. After  establishing  exposed t o s t i m u l i fumes  affect  affect  l a k e s . For example, o i l s p i l l s  gradually  the  ecology  made aware t h a t  of  benefits  concerned.  (e.g.,  in  unsuitable  the  lake.  o i l spills  p r e v e n t humans f r o m o b t a i n i n g the  subjects  are  w h i c h e n a b l e them t o l e a r n how o i l s p i l l s a n d  p r o c e s s e s i n t h e l a k e , make l a k e s also  patterns,  are  affect  f o r swimming, Thus, bad,  amount  of  fish  and  subjects  are  because  they  maximum u s e o f t h e l a k e  the  respiratory  i n s o f a r as  available) are  25  The oil  next stage i n t h i s process i s to t r y  spills  and  fumes  affect  lakes  By  association,  i t  motorboats  in  lakes  bad e f f e c t s .  been p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y  becomes  in Figure  identify  (here motorboats  stressed).  produce  to  2.3  how  will  established  be  that  This association  has  below.  Motorboats  \ \ \^ \  Association.  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  X  N  \  \  \  \ \  Fumes & O i l ^ Spills  F i g u r e 2.3:  discussion this  o f how case  controlling  free  \  \ \ \  \  \  -••LAKES  between motorboats and  J e r s e y approach, the process  these ( o i l s p i l l s  it  can  be  and  o i l spills  by  a  done by d e v e l o p i n g some i d e a s a b o u t  they develop p o s i t i v e  from o i l s p i l l s  ends  f u m e s ) c a n be p r e v e n t e d .  m o t o r b o a t s . T h i s makes t h e s u b j e c t s  c o n c e r n s , and lakes  Negative Relationship  \  fumes, l e a d i n g to n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i n l a k e s .  A l s o w i t h t h e New  In  \  Development of a s s o c i a t i o n and  \  and  attitudes  fumes f r o m  aware  toward  motorboats.  of  some  k e e p i n g our  26  2.2.2.2 N e g a t i v e The  Attitudes  o t h e r s i d e of t h e e f f i c i e n c y  produce  o i l  spills  and  fumes  n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s are brought  of m o t o r b o a t s  which  pollute  use  produce o i l s p i l l s  2.3.  C a s t r o and Castro  determine  which  Behavior  (subscript  referent  (a2).  "self-I"  s e l e c t i o n of e l e m e n t s , what t h e y c a l l under  of  be  been  psychologically  Actor's 'elements' high  was  used  or  and J o r d a n  Actor's  Behavior  (E).  i n each  facet For  i s weaker t h a n  the  (1977) r e p o r t t h a t form  of t h e f a c e t s of t h e  total  new  attributes,  sets, profiles, subuniverses  permit  Jordan  (1971)  logically  and  intimacy. the has  Although  generation  of  established  or or  into attitude-behavior levels  interpersonal  r e l e v a n t , and  (C),  namely:  together  These  called  facets  are  to  (subscript 2).  " o t h e r " (a1)  Castro  divided  or p r o f i l e s , these  Actor  c o m b i n a t i o n s , or p r o f i l e s ,  w h i c h may  have  combinations  1) and  consideration".  two-element  12  of  the " C a r t e s i a n product  degree of s t r e n g t h ,  only  (B),  ( D ) , and Domain  the r e f e r e n t  five,  Theory  l e v e l s . According to these authors,  e x a m p l e i n F a c e t A,  subscales  Facet  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e two  combinations  motorboats  Theory  (1977)  Referent  a r e o r d e r e d low  universe  i n l a k e s , because  towards  f a c e t s of an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r u n i v e r s e ,  (A),  have  Facet  Jordan's  Intergroup Behavior 'They  attitude  fumes.  attitudinal  there are f i v e Referent  and  motorboats  Jordan's  and the  of  lakes. I f these  t o the a t t e n t i o n of s u b j e c t s d u r i n g  the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , they develop a negative indescriminate  i s t h a t they  by the 32  that  semantically consistent,  nonredundant. Table  2.1  shows  the  27  v a r i a b l e s of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  Table  2.1  V a r i a b l e s i n the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r u n i v e r s e .  A FACETS  B  Referent  a  Referent Behavior  l  b  others  ELEMENTS  a  2  b  12  chose these scales,  stereotype  Actor  Actor's Intergroup Behavior  l  d  others  2  C  E Domain o f Actor's Behavior  l  comparison  2  d  self (my/mine)  l  e  hypothetical  2  6  2  interaction operational  p r o f i l e s group i n t o s i x l e v e l s of s t r e n g t h .  shown  to  develop  their  attitude  in  Table  2.2.  and s o c i e t a l  norm)  are characterized  (knowledge) deals  D  C  experience (overt behavior)  six profiles  as  C  l  belief  s e l f (I)  These  universe.  components.  Level  3  Levels  1  (personal  and  behavior  2  by  (societal cognitive  moral evaluation)  w i t h e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a f f e c t i v e component. L e v e l s  ( p e r s o n a l h y p o t h e t i c a l a c t i o n and p e r s o n a l combination Level  of  the conative  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r , (1977)  have  levels,  with Level  proceeding The  shown  that  there  1 (societal  through t o Level authors  have  is a  6 (personal action),  provided  aspect.  Castro  being  guidelines  a  components, and  and  progression  stereotype)  4 and 5  feeling) deal with  both t h e a f f e c t i v e and c o n a t i v e  6 (personal action) deals with  They  On t h e Jordan  through the  the weakest, the strongest.  for constructing  28  T a b l e 2.2:  Levels and  of a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  Jordan  Number of Subscale T y p e - L e v e l S t r o n g Elements 1  0  2  1  3  2  4  3  5  4  6  5  s c a l e proposed by C a s t r o  (1977).  P r o f i l e by N o t a t i o n a l System i n T a b l e 2.1 a  l  b  l  C  l  a  l  b  l  C  l 2  e  l  a  2  b  l  C  l 2 d  e  l  d  d  Attitude Level D e s c r i p t i v e Term  l 1 6  Societal  stereotype  Societal  norm  Personal moral evaluation Personal action  hypothetical  a  2  b  x  c  2  d  2  e  a  2  b  2  c  2  d  2  e  x  Personal f e e l i n g  a  2  b  2  c  2  d  2  e  2  Personal  i  questionnaire  items f o r each  proposed  C a s t r o a n d J o r d a n were a d o p t e d a n d u s e d a s a g u i d e  by  for constructing the l e v e l s ,  level.  levels  of  attitude  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t e m s . However, o n l y t h r e e o f  t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d t o be  outdoor program,  The  action  the  prime  concern  of  the  were u s e d .  2.4 Ways o f E n h a n c i n g C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s In  order  to  e d u c a t i o n programs, field  trips  where  meet  t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor  schools arrange they  learn  to  about  take  students  the n a t u r a l  out  on  environment.  29  C u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s have environmental outdoor  outdoor  at  facilities  the like  camp  equipment a r e o f t e n a l s o  various  contribute (Hart  towards and  the  McClaren,  books and j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s education  programs  and  examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p practices studies  with  changes  influence attitude  found  a of  In  outdoor  education  in  1978).  of  of  the In  w h i c h show t h a t  to  suggested  in  and  also  importance  outdoor  outdoor  s t u d i e s have a l s o outdoor  education  addition,  there are  certain  variables  R i c h m o n d a n d Morgan  the  many  are  and has r e s u l t e d  objectives  textbooks  more  programs  i n t h e e f f i c a c y of o v e r n i g h t  programs t h a t c u r r e n t l y meet  (1977) have  f o r more t h a n a d a y  in  the  than trips many  exist. of  outdoor  education  preplanning  have  ( F r e e b e r g a n d T a y l o r 1961;  Hammerman a n d Hammerman 1968; a n d M u n z e r and The  education  teaching  i n a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of outdoor  order  other  conservation  Some o u t d o o r  ways  attitude.  t r i p s which l a s t  outdoor  and  program as a  of  programs i n g e n e r a l , adequate p r e p a r a t i o n and been  aids,  enhancement  some  become u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d ,  residential  teaching  few c o r r e l a t i o n a l  short excursions. This b e l i e f has  resident  development.  (1977)  that f i e l d  successful  different  available.  suggest  i n s o c i a l psychology  Horsley  for  w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e  a s p e c t s of a r e s i d e n t i a l  attitudes  developed  t o h e l p i n the i n s t r u c t i o n . In  a library,  No s t u d y h a s been f o u n d  whole  been  t o p i c s , and u s u a l l y t h e r e a r e e x p e r i e n c e d  teachers  addition,  also  Brandwein,  1960).  o f a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n h a s been r e p o r t e d i n many  e d u c a t i o n program manuals ( e . g . , Robertson  1980a), and i t a p p e a r s t o G r o s s and R a i l t o n  and S h i e l d s ,  (1972) t h a t a d e q u a t e  30  preparation  i scharacteristic  experience,  Freeberg  of  (1961)  a l l outdoor  has  suggested  programs. that  outdoor e d u c a t i o n program t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e be c l e a r l y to  prior  the  program  to  adequate p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r  be  the  e d u c a t i o n books different  the  teaching  methods  used  experienced outdoor educators  has  (1964).  suggested  ( e . g . , Hammerman a n d Hammerman,  from  situations,  methods  research,  program  ( 1 9 6 6 ) a n d by S t a p p  teaching  should  The i m p o r t a n c e o f  t o an o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n  a l s o been s u g g e s t e d by C o r d i e r Although  successful.  t o an  program  d e f i n e d a n d a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e q u a t e l i b r a r y  enable  From  i n outdoor  1970) a r e n o t in  have  normal  school  suggested  that  e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n a n d t h a t t h e u s e of  an  ecological  approach  i s more  M i t c h e l l a n d L u n n e b o r g , 1973; a n d Mitchell during  and the  Lunneborg  teaching,  ecologically  sound  (1973)  Falk  and  have  students  practices,  effective  also  are  (Falk,  McCormack,  attitudes  to  (1966) f o u n d t h a t t h e u s e o f  approach  p r o m o t e d a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . Regan a n d F a z i o  Songer-Nocks  (1976)  have  also  value  a r e enhanced.  Blackwood  and  the  1974).-  suggested that, i f  encouraged  their  1975;  discovery  suggested  that  teaching (1977), direct  e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t e d the development of a t t i t u d e s . In  their  book,  Freeberg  and  Taylor  ( 1 9 6 1 ) h e l d t h a t an  o u t d o o r t e a c h e r who h a d t h e t e c h n i q u e t o c h a l l e n g e , t o m o t i v a t e , and t o impart knowledge the a t t i t u d e s of h i s / h e r teacher, training attitude  Jaus  (1978)  t o s t u d e n t s was more l i k e l y students. found  i n outdoor education and  personal  in a  On  the study  seemed t o  commitment  show  towards  to influence  background that a  of the  teachers more  teaching  with  positive outdoor  31  education  t o p i c s than teachers  who  appeared to Jaus that teachers enhance  the  attitudes  of  (1981) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the the  teacher  acquired  an  i n outdoor  Pettus study  had  students  with  science their  b a c k g r o u n d . However, an  (1977),  f o u n d no  significant  science by  was  intended.  1978). A study wildlife  in  a  correlational  earlier  than t e a c h e r s study  non-science  who  by Crump  had  et  teachers.  Balling  1980;  ( 1 9 7 8 ) and  S p o t l i g h t on  by Askham (1975) f o u n d t h a t d e p e n d e n t on  exposure to w i l d l i f e  increased  their  no  al.,  by  Martin, with  l e a r n i n g of c o n c e p t s f o r which  Lucas,  to  conservation  S i m i l a r v i e w s h a v e been e x p r e s s e d i n  (e.g.,  was  of  students  (1981) h a v e a l s o shown t h a t u n f a m i 1 i a r i t y  journal articles  of  and  out  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  outdoor s e t t i n g i n h i b i t e d  trip  attitudes  b a c k g r o u n d were b e t t e r a b l e  F a l k , M a r t i n and  Balling  to  these programs. Yaakobi  the a t t i t u d e s which  students  science  the  on  b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e and  i n f l u e n c e on  enhance the a t t i t u d e s of  Studies  It  programs.  teachers  a t t i t u d e s of  receive training.  w i t h t r a i n i n g were more l i k e l y  e t a l . , (1978) a l s o f o u n d  that  F a l k and  d i d not  the  peoples'  h i s t o r y , but  their attitudes  the  other  Northwest, perception  t h a t as  became  their  modified  accordingly. Landes use  Hetherington  of s m a l l g r o u p s of  the  development  Glass but  and  and  this  Smith  of  (1979) h a v e a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t  students  i n outdoor  attitudes.  associated  Recent s t u d i e s  enhanced  in education  by  (1979) show t h a t c l a s s s i z e a f f e c t s a c h i e v e m e n t ,  i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue  According  activities  the  t o F i s h b e i n and  with  pleasant  in  education.  Ajzen  f e e l i n g s , an  (1975),  if  learning_  is  a t t i t u d e i s developed  or  32  modified with respect to outdoor  education  (Alaimo  psychology  (Cialdini,  that,  an  if  Petty  individual  i n t e r e s t i n g and/or towards  what  is  learned.  and  Doran,  and  Cacioppo,  1977)  and  influencing attitudes Cacioppo,  and  1981)  in  in  social  have  argued  v a l u a b l e , he/she d e v e l o p s a p o s i t i v e  psychologists  (Harrison,  1978)  studies  f i n d s t h a t what h e / s h e i s l e a r n i n g i s  t h e c o n t e n t o f what i s b e i n g  Social  Other  have  attitude  learned.  found  that  mere  exposure  t h e use o f d i s c u s s i o n were e f f e c t i v e f o r (Cook  and F l a y ,  1981;  Crano,  1977;  (1971)  and H e r s h e y  1978;  Ronis  Cialdini,  et  Petty  a l . , 1977;  and  and Webb,  1979). Edgar  et a l . ,  (1971)  a t t i t u d e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d by p r a c t i c i n g while  Bandura  (1971)  and Gorman  have s u g g e s t e d  conservation  (1974) a r g u e  methods,  that people  and p r a c t i c e t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s o f t h o s e who as  models.  Similar  views  have  been  expressed  that  are in  copy seen  outdoor  e d u c a t i o n by Gage ( 1 9 7 6 ) . O t h e r p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t the e f f e c t of models i s g r e a t e r recognition outdoor  from  the  education,  inability  of  objectives  to  some staff  adults  Howenstine  if  the  subjects  ( J a c o b , 1957;  seeking  Lehmann, 1 9 6 3 ) .  the  outdoor e d u c a t i o n programs t o a c h i e v e  their  who  has  In  attributed  members  (1962)  are  do  not  practice  good  c o n s e r v a t i o n methods t h e m s e l v e s . Bandura  (1971),  a  social  psychologist,  suggests that a  r e p e t i t i o n o r a r e v i e w o f what h a s been l e a r n e d i n o t h e r helps .to  reinforce  activities  a f t e r an o u t d o o r  mentioned  old  attitudes. education  The  need  program  i n t e x t b o o k s and o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n  for has  manuals.  forms,  follow-up also  been  33  Thus  the  available  potential variables favorable For  which  literature can  influence  attitudes in a residential  example, t h e adequacy of t h e  prior study  shows t h a t t h e r e a r e many the  development  outdoor education  preparations  which  of  program. are  done  t o an o u t d o o r p r o g r a m , t h e manner o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i e l d lessons, the behavior  s i z e of t h e f i e l d opportunities methods influence  and  which what  the  correlational  study  and a t t i t u d e s of t h e  groups, the value  students occurs  attitudes  after  the  camp  variables,  are  variables  i n a program as a whole.  at  attitude  no  studies  conservation  program,  of students. Although  isolated  the  o f what i s t a u g h t , t h e  g e t t o p r a c t i c e good  s t u d i e s which look there  teachers,  a l l can  t h e r e a r e a few development  and  which look a t the  34  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY  3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n For which  the convenience  this  (1)  study addresses  itself  toward  program  have  on  or  in a residential the  attitude  outdoor  of students  c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ?  What a s p e c t s o f an o u t d o o r to  problems t o  a r e r e s t a t e d below:  What e f f e c t d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n education  (2)  of the reader, the s p e c i f i c  e d u c a t i o n program  contribute  a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement o f s t u d e n t s '  a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources? To a d d r e s s parts. case  Part  t h e above p r o b l e m s ,  study proceeded  in  two  1 was an a t t i t u d e a s s e s s m e n t s t u d y a n d P a r t 2 was a  s t u d y . The a t t i t u d e  outdoor  this  education  assessment  program  was  study  determined  effective  in  i f the  enhancing  c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s , w h i l e t h e case investigated the factors  i n t h e program which  were  the study  related  to  the development of c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . Before  the  methodology of these  t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e t r e a t m e n t  two s t u d i e s i s d e s c r i b e d ,  are described.  3.1 P o p u l a t i o n The students district  t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of  this  study  included  i n the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t .  grade s i x  In t h i s  school  a w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d y e a r - l o n g p l a n i s made f o r a l l g r a d e  35  six classes to participate e d u c a t i o n program. district's  Two  outdoor  i n the d i s t r i c t ' s  or  camp  three  at  intact  residential classes  a t i m e , and they  outdoor  go  to the  stay there f o r a  week (Monday t o F r i d a y ) . The  accessible population available  f o r the purposes  s t u d y was made up o f a l l g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s which  were w i l l i n g  to participate  in  those  of the classes  i n t h e program and.the  study.  3.2 Sample  3.2.1  Subjects The  subjects  in  the  experimental  g r o u p were members o f  three  i n t a c t c l a s s e s o f g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s from  that  i s , three  residential the  outdoor  control  which  intact  classes  selection  of  students  was  and both  -director,  subjects  in  grade s i x c l a s s e s  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  outdoor,  education  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y . The a c t u a l the  limited  o b t a i n i n g the consent camp  The  g r o u p were members o f f o u r i n t a c t  before  population;  were t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e  p r o g r a m a t t h e same t i m e .  had n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d  program  which  the  control by  the  and  difficulty  of the s c h o o l  participating  s t u d e n t s who were s c h e d u l e d  experimental  board,  teachers,  f o r the  of  groups  simultaneously  school and  outdoor  of  principals,  the  parents  program  of  i n the  s p r i n g o f 1981. One  s e t of t h r e e grade s i x c l a s s e s ,  in the outdoor study.  They  students--43  e d u c a t i o n program agreed formed  the  experimental  b o y s a n d 27 g i r l s .  The  scheduled  to  participate  group,  second  t o take  i n the  comprised  set  of  part  o f 70  students,  36  consisting  of  four grade s i x c l a s s e s scheduled  the program a f t e r  the study, a l s o expressed  p a r t i c i p a t e , and formed t h e c o m p a r a t i v e students the  their  and  comparative  s c h o o l s , as opposed t o p r i v a t e  willingness to  group.  i n t h i s g r o u p , 43 b o y s a n d 37 g i r l s .  experimental  t o take part i n  There  were  S u b j e c t s from  groups  were  from  schools i n that school  80 both  public  district.  3.2.2 C o u n s e l l o r s Ten involved was  counsellors  (three  females  student  They were a l l from  volunteered  participate  to  week-end t r a i n i n g outdoor  participated in  participated  males)  were  12 s t u d e n t s , one  on v a c a t i o n , a n d one was a r e c e n t  school graduate.  program  seven  i n t h e s t u d y . E i g h t o f them were g r a d e  a university  similar  and  program,  in and  North  Vancouver.  high  A l l had  t h e program and took p a r t i n a a l l had  had  experience  with  camps and p r o g r a m s . E i g h t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a d  as the  students past.  i n the North Vancouver Outdoor  The  two  counsellors  who  School  had  not  i n t h e p r o g r a m a s s t u d e n t s had p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d a s  counsellors. 3.2.3  Teachers Six  involved  p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s a n d one r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r i n the outdoor  e d u c a t i o n program. Three of the t e a c h e r s  were m a l e s a n d t h r e e were f e m a l e s . were  from  the  visiting  school,  Three  of  the  six  t h e y had t a u g h t  degrees,  f o r b e t w e e n two and o n e - h a l f and t e n y e a r s .  Their  individual  grade s i x t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e  year  t o s i x y e a r s . A l l of t h e v i s i t i n g  Outdoor School p r i o r  teachers  a n d t h e o t h e r s were r e s i d e n t  t e a c h e r s a t t h e Outdoor S c h o o l . A l l s i x had u n i v e r s i t y and  were  ranged  from  one  t e a c h e r s had been t o t h e  t o t h e s t u d y , and a l l s i x t e a c h e r s h a d some  37  experience visiting The  teaching  topics.  Two  of  the  t e a c h e r s were r e g u l a r g r a d e s i x t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l .  third  regular  program and another took  conservation-related  her  t e a c h e r was u n a b l e  t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e camp  t e a c h e r who was i n t e r e s t e d  in  the  program  place. A l l teachers instructed during the f i e l d  s e s s i o n s , and they a l s o s u p e r v i s e d t h e s t u d e n t s  study  throughout  the  camp p r o g r a m . In  addition  director. the  to  the  s i x t e a c h e r s t h e r e was a r e c r e a t i o n  She was n o t a t e a c h e r by p r o f e s s i o n , b u t h e r  program  was  of  role  a t e a c h e r . She h a d a u n i v e r s i t y  degree i n  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d h a d been t h e r e c r e a t i o n d i r e c t o r y e a r . She s u p e r v i s e d a l l t h e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , previewed  and  selected  a  resident  supervising  and  throughout  the  Outdoor  f o r one  and o r d e r e d ,  a l l o f t h e f i l m s shown a t t h e O u t d o o r  S c h o o l . She s u p e r v i - s e d t h e s c r e e n i n g o f two o f was  in  School  coordinating  staff  the  the  films.  She  member, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  work  of  the  counsellors  camp p r o g r a m . She o r g a n i z e d and s u p e r v i s e d most  of t h e a c t i v i t i e s  which  were h e l d a f t e r  field  For  e x a m p l e , she s u p e r v i s e d t h e camp f i r e ,  and  t h e team  s t u d i e s , each day.  the  square  dancing,  charades.  3.3 T r e a t m e n t The  treatment  residential  outdoor  this  are  type  including  site,  environmental students  and  used  in  this  study  was  attendance  e d u c a t i o n program. In g e n e r a l ,  highly  complex,  facilities, problems  teachers,  staff,  within and  and  so  the on.  differ  programs  of  i n many a s p e c t s ,  time-tabling, community, In  at a  prevailing  interests  addition,  of  numerous  38  unanticipated  a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n t s do o c c u r d u r i n g t h e week  a t camp, w h i c h  modify  conditions such,  may  the planned  program. For example,  p r o h i b i t c o n d u c t i n g an a n t i c i p a t e d a c t i v i t y .  i t i s impossible t o determine  exact d e t a i l s of a treatment  used  3.3.1 G e n e r a l O u t d o o r E d u c a t i o n In  weather  precisely  in  advance  the  i n a study such as t h i s .  Treatment  the North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ,  the Outdoor  School  p r o g r a m i s g e n e r a l l y made up o f a p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , a week the  Outdoor  As  at  S c h o o l , a n d u s u a l l y a one week f o l l o w - u p a f t e r t h e  camp p r o g r a m . The  p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d s t a r t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n days b e f o r e  the t r i p .  During  t h i n g s which  this period  students  are  told  the  sort  t h e y may want t o t a k e t o t h e camp, s u c h a s s u i t a b l e  t y p e s o f c l o t h i n g . They a l s o l e a r n  some c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s  keeping  to  on  returning  trail  while  a l l living  environment, possible.  and/or  They  conservation  hiking specimens  keeping  are  also  practices  the  at  will camp.  an  be l i v i n g , In  conservation books  impression  about  of  cases  films; also some  of  to  as  expect  natural  natural good  as  energy  is  aimed  at  giving  the  how t h e camp i s s e t up, where t h e y  the  conservation schools  schools the  their  the Outdoor S c h o o l . There i s a l s o a  a n d some o f t h e  most  to  environment  prepared  like:  a v o i d s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s ,  back  s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e camp, w h i c h students  of  arrange  encourage  activities  concerns  which  to  at  the  show  some  students  to  read  they w i l l  be d o i n g  d u r i n g t h e camp_ p r o g r a m . When s t u d e n t s a r r i v e a t t h e camp, t h e y a r e r e m i n d e d  of  the  39  concerns  about  the  environment,  T h i s r e i n f o r c e s what t h e y stay  at  the  camp,  students  t o make  methods.  Eight  each are and  learned  teachers  sure  that  field  study  in  and they  students  out  field  from o t h e r  study  practice  students  field  group, students  deal  with  receive  study  they  relax  watching  and  are  a c t i v i t i e s planned When  the students  field  to study  return to their  teachers a  stage and  parents'  the c o u n s e l l o r s i n study  sessions  l u n c h , on  Tuesday, where  parallel  the  about  specific  sessions. regular classrooms This  after  the  s t u d e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a c l a s s , as a u n i t , may n i g h t or s c h o o l assembly to share write  write  letters  articles  to  study  municipal  and  various  resource  plan  the e x p e r i e n c e s  various  Outdoor  of  School  f o r the s c h o o l newspaper, p l a n  s c h o o l grounds might  l e g i s l a t i o n , make a d e t a i l e d s t u d y to  on  o f t h e p r o g r a m . Many i d e a s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o  ways i n w h i c h t h e  write  each  very  members,  attractive,  within  i s also a  the Outdoor S c h o o l , staff  with  always  a f i l m . Most o f t h e . f i l m s a r e  t h e camp, f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s a r e a r r a n g e d . important  instruction  meet i n t h e a u d i t o r i u m ,  selected  f o r the  hours  s m a l l e r groups  field  Soon a f t e r  Thursday, students  while  conservation,  these  topics.  two  groups are  o f t e n work i n y e t  s t u d e n t s . Most of  the  conservation  regular c l a s s s i z e s . Furthermore,  conservation  Wednesday, and  supervise  good  a c t i v i t i e s o r p r o j e c t s . T e a c h e r s a r e a i d e d by s u p e r v i s i n g the  their  They work i n g r o u p s  c l a s s e s . These f i e l d  the  Throughout  counsellors  activities.  s m a l l e r than study  class.  conservation.  s e s s i o n s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  set a s i d e , during which  carry  p o l l u t i o n , and  be  made  to  look  more  provincial pollution control o f a i r and agencies  water for  pollution,  pamphlets  on  40  c o n s e r v a t i o n , or classroom  invite  resource  for presentations.  agency  personnel  Usually the f i r s t  and  findings  with  groups,  the  t h i n g which i s  done when s t u d e n t s r e t u r n t o t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m what t h e y d i d a t camp i n t h e i r  into  i s to discuss  and t o share  their  ideas  the r e s t of t h e i r classmates. Teachers  d i s c u s s a n y t h i n g which  t h e s t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y  with,  also while  a t t h e camp. The  description  treatment.  g i v e n above i s t h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of t h e  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t u a l treatment  i s presented i n  A p p e n d i x A.  3.4 A t t i t u d e A s s e s s m e n t The  s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n which  assessment  study  residential attitudes  was:  outdoor toward  was c o n c e r n e d plants,  Study  by C a s t r o a n d J o r d a n  program  conservation  in  the  attitude  participating have  topics,  and t h r e e of t h e a t t i t u d e  (1977),  personal  namely  action.  l e v e l s o f a t t i t u d e were s e l e c t e d concern  does  in  on  in a  students'  c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ? T h i s  with three  and  effect  education  and w i l d l i f e ;  feelings,  what  was a d d r e s s e d  societal  study  namely  energy,  levels  proposed  norms,  personal  T h e s e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s and because  they  were  of  prime  t h e N o r t h Vancouver Outdoor S c h o o l program and they  seemed t o be most  central  to  outdoor  education  programs  in  determined  by c o m p a r i n g  general. The pretest  effect and  variables. cells  posttest  These  of T a b l e  of  the  program  scores  on  was nine  attitudinal  dependent  v a r i a b l e s have been p r e s e n t e d a s i t e m s  3.1. T h i s seemed t o be  a  reasonable  i n the  procedure,  41  because  in  number  of  a  complex  variables  multivariate  outcome  p r o g r a m any i m p a c t at  the  was  same  found  is likely  time.. This  to  be  t o be on a  simultaneous  the case  i n the p i l o t  s t u d y . The p r o g r a m was o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a way t h a t  during  week,  aspects  students  were  exposed  to  c o n s e r v a t i o n , and were e n c o u r a g e d a t t i t u d e s towards  different  to develop d i f f e r e n t  the of  l e v e l s of  these aspects.  Table  3.1  T a b l e o f S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e I t e m s Used i n O b t a i n i n g S c o r e s on t h e N i n e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s  Attitude  Aspects of C o n s e r v a t i o n  Marginal  Levels* (A)  Energy (B1)  Plants (B2)  Wildlife (B3)  Totals  Soc i e t a l Norms (A1)  10 i t e m s Y(A1B1)  10 i t e m s Y(A1B3)  10 i t e m s Y(A1B3)  30 i t e m s Y(A1.)  Personal F e e l i n g (A2)  10 i t e m s Y(A2B1)  10 i t e m s Y(A2B2)  10 i t e m s Y(A2B3)  30 i t e m s Y(A2.)  Personal A c t i o n (A3)  10 i t e m s Y(A3B1)  10 i t e m s Y(A3B2)  10 i t e m s Y(A3B3)  30 i t e m s Y(A3.)  Marginal Totals  30 i t e m s Y( .B1 )  30 i t e m s Y(.B2)  30 i t e m s Y(.B3)  90 i t e m s Y(..)  * D e s c r i p t i o n of terms,  3.4.1 R e s e a r c h The  1977)  Hypotheses  specific  problem  investigated  lends i t s e l f  1.  no  Given  ( C a s t r o and J o r d a n ,  statistically  which  the  attitude  assessment  t o two r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s .  pretest  differences,  significant  there  differences  will  between  be the  42  experimental  and  control  groups'  the nine dependent v a r i a b l e s , The  justification  objectives  of  the  for  North  this  p o s t t e s t scores  taken  simultaneously.  hypothesis  stemmed  Vancouver outdoor  from  education  From t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' handbook and  Shields,  were, who  attitude  and  what t h e t e a c h e r s s a i d  enhancement was  an e x p e c t e d  the  program. (Robertson  their objectives  outcome o f  students  take p a r t i n t h a t program. Also  the in  1980a),  on  from  program,  the d e s c r i p t i o n which  this chapter,  has  i t was  of what u s u a l l y  on  during  been d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t  section  reasonable  to  postulate  m i g h t a c q u i r e a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e , a f t e r 2.  centroids  discriminant dependent was  dependent  variables  a c h a n g e on  (1)  will  function  would  groups,  be  program. comparative  significantlywill  include  no p r e t e s t  comparative  i f any,  significant  on  the  the nine  in  of the  nine  discriminating  aimed a t  producing  simultaneously.  (Null) differences,  populat ion  s c o r e s on  simultaneously, are e  which,  s i n c e t h e p r o g r a m was  S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses  posttest  which  to predetermine  the nine v a r i a b l e s  Given  differ  students  variables.  difficult  b e t w e e n t h e two  3.4.2  the  that  I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and group  It  goes  group  the  experimental  dispersions  of  the nine dependent v a r i a b l e s , equal. c  and the taken  43  (2)  Given  no p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e  (population  mean  vectors)  c o n t r o l g r o u p s on  population  of  the  centroids  experimental  the p o s t t e s t scores w i l l  not  and  differ  signi f icantly.  If  significant  were f o u n d function  differences  to e x i s t , in  i t was  order  to  terms of the dependent  planned  only  one  population centroids  to determine  differentiate  a  discriminant  between t h e two  groups i n  variables.  S i n c e t h e r e were o n l y two be  between  discriminant  groups i n the s t u d y ,  function  for  there  could  discriminating  group  di f ferences. 3.4.3  Design Since  of t h e  randomization  impossible,  Campbell  equivalent control grade  Study  six  of  and  subjects  Stanley's  g r o u p d e s i g n was  classes  in  the  were  tested  measure therefore that  i n both two  existing it  was  i t would not  program.  the  weeks  employed. There  pre-conditions  the  and  a d m i n i s t e r e d two be a f f e c t e d by t h e  10, t h e were  nonthree four  g r o u p (N=80). A l l  comparative  trip.  prior  was  g r o u p (N=70) and  (comparative)  experimental before  treatments  (1963) D e s i g n  experimental  grade s i x c l a s s e s i n the c o n t r o l the s t u d e n t s  and  The  to  p r e t e s t was  the  weeks p r i o r preparation  groups to  treatment;  to the t r i p , part  of  so the  44  The  d e s i g n c a n be d i a g r a m m e d a s  where X1  Oe  Oc  X2  Oc  p r o g r a m ) and X2  comparative  usual  XI  r e p r e s e n t s the e x p e r i m e n t a l treatment  education  After  Oe  follows:  group  (the r e g u l a r c l a s s  the p r e t e s t ,  preparations  i s the treatment  took  part  All groups  s c h o o l program i n normal  students were  in  then  questionnaire,  one  both  the  posttested, week a f t e r  group  out  posttest.  again  be  later  10  t h i s was  the program would  observed,  i t was  since  decided days  to  find  persist  to f i n d  the  out  comparative  the f i r s t  posttest.  Instrument The  of  attitude  groups,  In the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  e f f e c t s would  with  comparative  the  t h e p r o g r a m . I t was  group a l s o took p a r t i n the program a f t e r 3.4.4  and  with  10 d a y s , w h i l e i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e g r o u p  similar  outdoor  proceeded  experimental  i f the a t t i t u d e change found a f t e r  after if  the  the  fashion.  to a d m i n i s t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e again to both after  the  started with  i n the r e s i d e n t i a l  e d u c a t i o n program, w h i l e the comparative the r e g u l a r  r e c e i v e d by  program).  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group  and  (the outdoor  a  e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m were d e t e r m i n e d  questionnaire. After  analysis  of  instruments  w h i c h have been u s e d  one  (by H o u n s h e l l and L i g g e t t ,  of t h e s e in  terms  of  coverage  suitable  in  terms  of  readability  concepts  for  grade  six  over  i n outdoor  suitable  of  students.  through the  1973)  30  was  level  I t was  attitude  e d u c a t i o n programs, found  conservation and  use  of  to  be  topics,  and  scientific  t h e r e f o r e used  in a  45  pilot  study A post  attitude did  not  in  the  w i t h 65 hoc  grade s i x  analysis  proposed cover  of  by C a s t r o  a l l the  study.  the  items  and  Jordan  using  the  levels  (1977) r e v e a l e d  T e a c h e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e number of  i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e one a priori  f i n d i n g s a new  used  to cover  by  interest items  questionnaire  Hounshell  and  of  that i t  l e v e l s o f a t t i t u d e w h i c h were of  t o o g r e a t . B e c a u s e of t h e s e  developed  students.  was  totally  Liggett  was  a l l t h e n i n e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s of  interest. T h e r e were t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e dependent total  of  variables 90  items  on  specified  items in  the  approach  each  T a b l e 3.1,  of  been  nine  thus p r o v i d i n g a  study  suggested  in  was  because i t focused  n i n e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were b e i n g has  the  the whole q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s approach  more s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e only  for  the l i t e r a t u r e  studied.  on This  by A l a i m o  Doran  (1978) t o be a p p r o p r i a t e  for assessing a t t i t u d e s . Also,  using  90  items  study),  items, i t was  i n s t e a d of  Appendix  items.  response  would r e q u i r e l e s s time  to  The  was  used  for  a l l  the  questionnaire  has  been  presented  as  B.  questionnaire  c l a s s B ) . T a b l e 3.2 consistency results  pilot  scale  3.4.4.1 D e v e l o p m e n t of t h e The  by  questionnaire.  Likert-type  questionnaire  (as were u s e d i n t h e  expected that students  c o m p l e t e the whole A  120  and  was  Questionnaire piloted  represents  of .the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  showed t h a t t h e  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was  the on  i n two  classes  results  of  the  f o r some of  Subsequently the w r i t e r  and  internal  the dependent v a r i a b l e s .  r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient low.  (class A  The the  interviewed  46  the  teachers  the  and s t u d e n t s .  students  being  were  used.  not  Therefore  questionnaire  From t h e i n t e r v i e w i t was f o u n d used  t o the the type  i t was  Table  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e  decided  to  t h e main  questionnaire.  ( A p p e n d i x C) b e f o r e  that  have  a  trial  3.2  R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s of the Subtests f o r t h e C l a s s e s Used i n t h e P i l o t Study  Subtests  (dependent V a r i a b l e ) -  Soc i e t a l Soc i e t a l Soc i e t a l Personal Personal Personal Personal Personal PersonAl  Class A  Norm - E n e r g y Norm - P l a n t s Norm - W i l d l i f e F e e l i n g - Energy Feeling - Plants Feeling - Wildlife Act ion - Energy Act ion - P l a n t s Action - Wildlife  Hoyt's C o e f f i c i e n t * C r o n b a c h 's A l p h a **  Class B  .46 .47 .81 .61 .78 .70 .70 .81 .75  .57 .80 .74 .72 .72 .76 .70 .85 .76  .92 .88  .94 .88  An i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e o f t h e t o t a l t e s t . A coefficient indicating t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s u b t e s t s and t h e t o t a l .  According  to  Fishbein  conceptualized  as  learned  object or c l a s s unfavorable considered variables,  of  the  p.  257),  predispositions  objects  way." T h i s reliable  (1967,  in  a  to  consistently  f o r determining  questionnaire  be o b t a i n e d  respond  a t t i t u d e s towards  responses  on  over repeated  are  t o an  favorable  implies that f o r the questionnaire  or  t o be  the  nine  each s u b t e s t  were  e x p e c t e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t . T h a t i s , t h e same t y p e should  "attitudes  of  responses  t e s t i n g s , i f an i n d i v i d u a l h a s  47  the  same a t t i t u d e . T h i s t y p e  administering  first  the  f o l l o w e d w i t h t h e main separate  group  of  of r e l i a b i l i t y trial  grade  test.  analysed  using  1 9 7 4 ) . The posttest using  The  correlation scores  responses  LERTAP  These  results  results  this  a  target  between  subsequently  program the  (Nelson,  pretest  and  computer  program:  pair-wise  comparison  have  been  presented  instrument towards  was  reasonably  of the conservation  Another  consideration  on t h e s u b t e s t internal  of  .84  3.3.  The  t o .89.  should  f o r measuring  a  consistency method  Cronbach's  alpha  (Cronbach,  was  construct  that, i f the  (e.g.,  attitude  t h e r e s p o n s e s on e a c h o f t h e  be i n t e r n a l l y  Hoyt's  the  attitudes.  energy),  using  attitudes.  Table  from  for reliability  determined  the e x t e n t  ranging  reliable  was t o be a m e a s u r e o f  conservation  the  in  showed t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was e m p l o y e d  study  stability  study  the  were  computer  coefficient  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were h i g h ,  items  from  to  1980).  The  in  occasions  C),  on t h e n i n e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was c a l c u l a t e d  t h e U.B.C. SPSS  (Kita,  U.B.C.  two  (Appendix  by  b e t w e e n t h e two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  questionnaire  the  on  s i x students  p o p u l a t i o n . One week was a l l o w e d of t h e  determined  questionnaire  questionnaire  26  was  consistent.  on  each  of  estimating  In  this  o f t h e s u b t e s t s was reliability.  1951) was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d , t o f i n d  t o which each of t h e s u b t e s t s  measured  conservation  48 Table  3.3  T e s t - r e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s For Dependent V a r i a b l e s I n The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Dependent V a r i a b l e  C o r r e l a t ion Coefficient*  S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants Societal Norm-Wildlife Personal Feeling-Energy Personal Feeling-Plants Personal F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e Personal Action-Energy Personal Action-Plants Personal A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e  .89 .88 .86 .88 .88 .88 .84 .88 .86  Overall  .87  * n = 26  3.4.4.2  Validity  3.4.4.2.1 C o n t e n t The aspects  questionnaire of the course  education the  the  was  content  developed of  the  to  cover  North  the relevant  Vancouver  outdoor  p r o g r a m . However, t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o  teaching  their  Validity  staff  approval  instrument  of the North  Vancouver  was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n covered  aspects  of  Outdoor  School  and  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g that  conservation  and  levels  of  a t t i t u d e w h i c h were d e a l t w i t h a t t h e camp. 3.4.4.2.2 F a c e The  Validity  questionnaire  outdoor educators the  also  given  to  f o r them t o a c t a s j u d g e s  questionnaire  conservation  was  appears  to  measure  three in  experienced  determining  attitude  i f  toward  o f e n e r g y , p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e .  3.4.4.2.3 R e a d a b i l i t y F i v e of the teachers  who t o o k p a r t  in  the  study  and s i x  49  other  teachers  grade  six  1968) was  was  found the  students.  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  appropriate  same  questionnaire  method  in a l l  appropriate  readability and  the  Instrument  was  followed  for  administering  the  the  classes.  The  questionnaire  was  present  as  a non-participant observer.  teachers  f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  provided  as A p p e n d i x  questionnaire format  of  regular c l a s s teacher,  ( A p p e n d i x C)  to  t h e end  check  questionnaire  to t h e i r  returned,  teacher  without  3.4.5  the  any  3.4.5.1 S c o r i n g  and  item  was  items.  of the  i n s t r u c t i o n s to  also  the they  have,  short  students  the been  the  responded t o the  main  students  before  to  teach  the  were  giving  When a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  proceeded  trial  with  responses  teacher.  a  administration  of  had  normal  the been  lesson,  items.  Item Responses  r e s p o n s e on  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  to L i k e r t ' s procedure  students  extra  (West  scored and  on a  5-  Foster,  1957). were e n c o u r a g e d t o r e s p o n d t o a l l i t e m s ,  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s An  being  Analysis  Edwards,  Although it  and  to acquaint  their  point basis, according 1976;  The  d i s c u s s i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  M e t h o d of  Each  introduction  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , before  reminded  w i t h the w r i t e r  D.  an  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . At  (Fry,  students.  by  was  test  for  questionnaire  administered  There  the  of  t o be  f o r grade s i x  3.4.4.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e The  level  In a d d i t i o n , F r y ' s  c o n d u c t e d on  f o u n d t o be  readability  category  was  might  created,  omit  one  or  more  so t h a t s t u d e n t s  could  50  indicate  i f they d i d not  respond  to  any  item.  know, Any  or  could  i t e m w h i c h was  i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t t h e s u b j e c t was and  was  which  scored  received  a  "don't  The  responses  know"  subtest,  v a r i a b l e s was  and  to  the  a neutral response,  was  item,  response). were  also  pretest  total  s c o r e on e a c h of t h e n i n e  Scores  on  the  n-ine  simultaneously,  to  test  for  of  dependent  2  was  (which  under  dispersions,  moderate  test  departures  they have a l s o s u g g e s t e d  for  h o m o g e n e i t y of d i s p e r s i o n s l i e s  an  important  research finding  of  t h e two  in  this  were  carried  dependent v a r i a b l e s : Cooley  equality  and  the  from  Lohnes c a l l  for  H2.  was  of  and  of  t h a t the v a l u e of the  test  i n i t s capacity to  hypothesis.  t h e p r e t e s t s c o r e s on homogeneity  the t e s t  lead  to  right, particularly i f  f o r H1,  of p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r o i d s , w h i c h the  as the t e s t  case  homogeneity  i n i t s own  out on test  groups.  f o r group c e n t r o i d s i s  happens t o l e a d t o a r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l tests  the  taken  e m p l o y e d . Even t h o u g h C o o l e y  Lohnes (1962) have r e p o r t e d t h a t the robust  c a r r i e d o u t on variables,  equivalence  variance  to H o t e l l i n g T )  dependent  hypotheses.  a" b e t w e e n - g r o u p a n a l y s i s was  Multivariate analysis  by  s c o r e s , u s i n g t h e U.B.C. LERTAP  the s t a t i s t i c a l  scores  equivalent  p o s t t e s t were a n a l y z e d  test  used to t e s t  Initially  which  responded to  total  3.4.5.2.1 A n a l y s i s o f P r e t e s t  two  to  Responses  on t h e p r e t e s t and  c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . The  to  not  how  3.  3.4.5.2 A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  it  decide  neutral  t h e r e f o r e g i v e n a s c o r e of 3 ( i . e . ,  Items  item,  not  same  of and  Thus  the  nine  dispersions the t e s t  authors  for  refer  51  The  statistical  (1)  Ho2  h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h were t e s t e d a r e :  The g r o u p d i s p e r s i o n s  on t h e n i n e  taken simultaneously,  are equal.  was  to  be  tested  regardless  b e c a u s e t h e t e s t f o r H2 i s i n s e n s i t i v e  dependent  variables,  o f t h e r e s u l t s o f Ho1,  to  moderate  departures  from homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n s . Hoi be a  w o u l d be t e n a b l e  rejected uniform  points  'to t h e s c h o o l s out Ho1  and  i f the  of view. Since  other  group  variables in  members  f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y , i t made i t c o n v e n i e n t t o f i n d  have  been  stated  the conditions  above.  for rejecting  The p r e t e s t  a n a l y s i s was  c a r r i e d out immediately a f t e r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , so t h a t had been  rejected teachers  interviewed  share  the pretest preceded the v i s i t s  why t h e g r o u p s d i f f e r e d , u s i n g which  but Hoi would  i f one g r o u p r e s p o n d s t o t h e d e p e n d e n t fashion,  alternate  under normal c o n d i t i o n s ,  soon  after,  i f Ho1  a n d some  students  could  have  to  out  why  there  were g r o u p  of  the  experimental  find  been  di f ferences. (2)  The  population  control  centroids  groups  on  the  pretest  signi f icantly.  e  HI2:  -JA  e *M  c  c  scores  and  do n o t d i f f e r  52  S i n c e Ho2 was t e n a b l e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  pretest  scores  ended. 3.4.5.2.2 A n a l y s e s Because  of P o s t t e s t Scores  the  p r e t e s t analyses l e d t o acceptance  o f Ho2, i t  was assumed t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e two g r o u p s on dependent despite  variables, the  Therefore, procedure were  taken  simultaneously,  non-randomization  the  posttest  outlined  tested).  of  subjects  in  analyses  followed  exactly  f o r the pretest  However,  since  (i.e.,  Ho2  was  to find  the r e l a t i v e  in discriminating  3.5 C a s e The  between t h e two  the  t h e same  same  not  tenable on  design.  hypotheses  the  i n the posttest  of each of the v a r i a b l e s  groups.  Study specific  what a s p e c t s o f appear  importance  comparable  the  p o s t t e s t , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d scores  was  a l l nine  to  question addressed an  outdoor  contribute  to  i n P a r t 2 ( c a s e s t u d y ) was:  education  program  enhancement  of  contribute  attitudes  or  towards  conservation of n a t u r a l resources? This part of the students  during  the  instrument developed study  led to  a  study  was  pilot  study  piloted of  with  the a t t i t u d e  by H o u n s h e l l a n d L i g g e t t  realization  interviews.  I t a l s o helped  o f t h e main  study.  of  the  need  the w r i t e r prepare  3.5.1 G e n e r a l A p p r o a c h t o t h e C a s e  65  grade  six  assessment  ( 1 9 7 3 ) . The  pilot  to audio-tape the for administration  Study  I n o r d e r t o r e l a t e t h e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e s t o what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program, a case  s t u d y method was e m p l o y e d . The w r i t e r  53  assumed t h e r o l e o f a n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t and u n o b t r u s i v e and  observed  and r e c o r d e d a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o  the development of a t t i t u d e s  in  the  program.  s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a t d i f f e r e n t after day  the of  the  camp  program.  and  times b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and  (Appendix  Parents  E) t h r o u g h  any e f f e c t s had been o b s e r v e d  were  decided  to  use  a tape  served  with  a  t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t o f i n d out  by them.  Because o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d was  Counsellors  p r o g r a m , w h i l e t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d on t h e l a s t  questionnaire if  observer,  from t h e p i l o t  study,  i t  recorder f o r a l l the interviews. A  checklist  was d e v e l o p e d  t o guide  activity  s e s s i o n , a n d l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d f o r u s e  in the i n t e r v i e w s . A l l these the  the w r i t e r  in  each  i n s t r u m e n t s have been p r e s e n t e d  in  appendices. Before  the  program,  the w r i t e r v i s i t e d  the schools which  t o o k p a r t i n t h e s t u d y t o meet w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d writer  visited  participant for  observing  the  the  classes  on  observer, t o observe  Outdoor  a  regular  students.  basis  t h e way s t u d e n t s were  as  The  a nonprepared  S c h o o l camp p r o g r a m . The w r i t e r a l s o a t t e n d e d  t h e m e e t i n g s w h i c h were r e l a t e d  t o r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor  education  program. 3.5.2 B e h a v i o r It acts  of the Researcher  i s known t h a t t h e way a  in  a  Geoffrey,  class  1968).  affects In  this  study  to their  to  study  school  organized.  to  is  introduced  the behavior of s t u d e n t s  introduce the w r i t e r the  researcher  teachers  were  and  (Smith and  requested  to  s t u d e n t s a s a t e a c h e r who had come  how  outdoor  e d u c a t i o n programs a r e  54  The  basic  interested writer were  strategy  which  was  always  be  i n what went on i n t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  The  sat q u i e t l y during v i s i t s being  prepared  reacted  these  type  of  conservation  to  students  f o r t h e p r o g r a m , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e way t h e  r u l e s were p r e s e n t e d  (e.g.,  was  a n d w r o t e down t h e way  conservation to  used  rules,  and  assignments)  t o students, any  other  which  were  t h e way  types  students  of p r e p a r a t i o n  related  to  the  t o p i c s w h i c h h a d been p l a n n e d f o r t h e o u t d o o r camp  p r o g r a m . The w r i t e r was open t o t h e  teachers  and  pupils,  but  r e m a i n e d o u t s i d e any d i s c u s s i o n a n d i n t e r p l a y . It  was  also  arranged  students  could v i s i t  It  found  was  interaction students  in  and t a l k the  helped  that after  the  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  t o the w r i t e r , i f they  pilot  study  writer  to  that know  this more  so d e s i r e d . pupil-writer  a b o u t what t h e  were t h i n k i n g a b o u t . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h i s  a p p e a r e d t o make t h e s t u d e n t s  accomodate  the  period  presence  method of  the  researcher. As  was  envisaged,  p u p i l s s o m e t i m e s came t o t h e w r i t e r t o  ask  f o r some h e l p on a l e s s o n  In  handling  clarified leaving  such  student  ( a s happened i n t h e p i l o t  requests,  t h e p r o b l e m , and p o i n t e d the  study).  the w r i t e r r e s t a t e d and/or  out the p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  while  d e c i s i o n t o t h e p u p i l t o s e l e c t h i s / h e r own  course  of a c t i o n . During spent  more  students.  the last time  This  the Outdoor  few d a y s p r i o r  in  the  school  interview centered  School.  to and  the  trip,  interviewed  around t h e i r  the  writer  some o f t h e  expectations  of  55  3.5.3  R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Other Teachers i n the One  was  f a c t o r w h i c h c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h e d a t a  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e w r i t e r and  i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g with  the  felt  School  schools. Although  s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s and  this  study  teachers  was  cleared  the grade s i x t e a c h e r s , t h a t the other  i t was the  s c h o o l s w o u l d know a b o u t i t . I t i s a l s o known t h a t t e a c h e r s  want  know  guarantee  the o t h e r  study  in  to  t h a t i t would not  in this  about  studies going  when new  people  are conducting  The  writer  i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f to the  staff  as  a  children  acquire  education took  graduate  other  3.5.4  During  their  basic  was  attitudes  time  their  the-  school  studying  through  how  outdoor  at lunch time t h e . w r i t e r  was  staff  spent  Before  room  with  w i t h grade s i x  the T r i p t o the Outdoor  t h e way  t h e y had  for  the  School  s t u d e n t s were p r e p a r e d which  were  been p r e p a r e d  interview  have  conducted  during  the c o u n s e l l o r s  student  interviews camp  to l e a r n there. been  i n t e r v i e w w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s was e x p e c t a t i o n s were and  f o r the  f o r the outdoor  what t h e s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d  questions  what  f r o m U.B.C. who  went t o t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l . The  A p p e n d i x F. The out  of  i n t e r v i e w e d some s t u d e n t s and  c e n t e r e d a r o u n d how p r o g r a m , and  rest  i n t h e h a l l w a y and more  particularly  study.  r e c e s s and  the p e r i o d i c i n t e r v i e w s  they  schools,  Procedures  from o b s e r v i n g  r e c e s s , the w r i t e r before  in their  teachers.  3.5.4.1 D a t a G a t h e r e d  t r i p and  life  however,  Data G a t h e r i n g  Apart  student  social  teachers;  s t u d e n t s and  the  conservation  programs.  part i n the  on  teachers  presented  aimed at  The as  finding  about the development  of  56  conservation attitudes.  The b a s i c q u e s t i o n s f o r  this  interview  h a v e been p r e s e n t e d a s A p p e n d i x G. 3.5.4.2 D a t a G a t h e r e d The  writer  During  t h e Camp P r o g r a m  stayed w i t h the students throughout  the Outdoor S c h o o l , and kept a d i a r y of a l l d a i l y w h o l e p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y . One p r o b l e m that  s t u d e n t s worked i n groups,  on a d i f f e r e n t were The had  many  field  field  study  study  which  opportunity  events  f o r the  was e n c o u n t e r e d  t h a t each a c t i v i t y  group  was  worked  t o p i c a t any one t i m e , a n d t h a t t h e r e  s e s s i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e same t i m e .  g r o u p s r o . t a t e d , so t h a t by t h e e n d o f t h e the  t h e week a t  to  work  through  week  a l l groups  a l l of t h e f i e l d  study  topics. Since sessions  i t was at  the  not  possible  same  time,  s t u d i e d d u r i n g each f i e l d selected  was o b s e r v e d  t h e week. T e a c h e r s other  with,  related  student  importance  study  study  group  periods  was was  throughout  how t h e i n s t r u c t i o n from  t h e ones  with  observed.  the  enthusiasm,  frequencies  H) was u s e d t o d i r e c t  included the subject  method  extent  relative  i n a study.  (Appendix  of i n t e r e s t  things students d i d , the of  study t o p i c  s e s s i o n a n d i t was o n l y t h a t  r a t e s or  instrument  the o b s e r v a t i o n . Things  evidence  One  study  ( 1 9 6 6 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s method i s t h e b e s t  observation  dealt  a l l field  field  period.  were, however, asked  b e h a v i o r a r e of primary  content  one  during f i e l d  o b s e r v a t i o n a l scheme, i f e v e n t s ,  An  observe  groups went, and/or d i f f e r e d  McGrath and Altman  of  only  randomly b e f o r e the f i r s t  group which  the  study  to  matter  of p r e s e n t a t i o n , the type of of  student  and  the  involvement, way  the  a l l these a r e  to the c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t . A l s o , d u r i n g  an  57  activity for the  session,  who  activity  The  student  what  they  easy to i d e n t i f y  activity  enhanced  or  and/or  inhibited  a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v i n g Counsellors v i e w s w e r e , and  The  the  attitudes  During  not  which  the  day,  t h a t a l l the d i f f e r e n t week. B e c a u s e none of conservation  like,  and  and  was  students.  been p r e s e n t e d being  what  likely A as  used f o r the  arranged  their  t o enhance  copy  of  the  Appendix  J.  field  study  films.  the v i s i t s  some  of  i n such a  way  the  r e c r e a t i o n s e s s i o n s was  end  of  the  r e l a t e d to  t o p i c s ( u n l i k e the c a s e i n the p i l o t  i n t e r v i e w s on  the  of p o s i t i v e  out  s e s s i o n s were o b s e r v e d by the  and  how  r e c r e a t i o n s e s s i o n , the w r i t e r v i s i t e d each  names.  resources.  the  was  at  concentrated  development  a l s o used f o r the a f t e r n o o n  sessions  were no  of  after  of e n e r g y , p l a n t s ,  the a c t i v i t y  i n t e r v i e w has  approach  s e s s i o n s was  the  a b o u t t h e way  their  I)  were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t o f i n d  f o r the  same  by  (Appendix  the  these  were c o n t a c t e d  students  did  t o be h e l p f u l  u s e d name t a g s w h i l e  l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n liked  questions  they  the  interview questions  what t h e y  inhibit  and  s e s s i o n . Because s t u d e n t s  wildlife,  or  were more l i k e l y  i n t e r v i e w i n g were i d e n t i f i e d ,  t h e camp, i t was  on  students  study),  the  there  them.  3.5.4.3 D a t a G a t h e r e d A f t e r t h e Camp P r o g r a m At  the  interviewed  end  of  the  individually,  week,  the  p r o g r a m m i g h t have e n h a n c e d o r have i n h i b i t e d  the development  of  the  asked  have  also  interviewed  presented All  as A p p e n d i x the  The  how,  were the  attitudes.  f i n d out  counsellors i n t h e i r view,  appropriate  to  a l l  questions  been  K.  resident  teachers.  were  58  individually. areas--the their  The  field  interview  s t u d i e s which they  on t h e f i e l d  same q u e s t i o n s  conducted  (Appendix  resident  teachers too.  The v i s i t i n g  K)  were  teachers  interview questions addition,  studies are presented  w h i c h were u s e d w i t h t h e  program  used  to  i n d i v i d u a l l y , and  on t h e i r  prior  were a s k e d t o e l i c i t  experience  t o the t r i p  aspects  bearing  on  classroom After  12 s t u d e n t s decrease  of  the  prepared  attitudes)  posttest scores  attitude  item  (i.e., which  outside  the  whether program  Other students  using  i n A p p e n d i x N.  the questions  questionnaire  was  shifts were  responses,  towards the s h i f t s .  A  background  students  those  in  went  teacher,  w h i c h had a on  in  the  sent  there  and a n a l y s e d ,  (increase  identified  and/or  and  were  t o f i n d o u t why t h e y had was  anything  i n the  which c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d were  to  interviewed  a l l parents  ( A p p e n d i x E ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e parents  the  h a d been g a t h e r e d  scores)  changed t h e i r minds, and or  general  In  t h e o u t d o o r camp p r o g r a m .  i n t e r v i e w e d about t h e i r  program  the  the views of the  with the c l a s s  activities  who h a d made t h e g r e a t e s t in  after  ( A p p e n d i x M ) . The w r i t e r a l s o o b s e r v e d  those  conservation  after  i n A p p e n d i x L. The  i n conservation-related issues,  f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s and d i s c u s s e d ,  relevant  used f o r t h e  counsellors obtain  two  were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d , u s i n g t h e same  some i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how t h e y  school  if  around  w h i c h were p u t t o t h e r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s .  some q u e s t i o n s  information  the  centered  v i e w s a b o u t t h e w h o l e p r o g r a m . The q u e s t i o n s  interview  and  questions  after  was t o  h a d o b s e r v e d any e v i d e n c e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n  as  well,  the t r i p find  out  practices  59  in  students  after  t h e p r o g r a m . One  the program b e f o r e 3.5.5  the  c o l l e c t e d , and data  The  was  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t  program,  a l l  the  out.  w r i t t e n data  of  teachers,  study  were  different  students' For  groups  conservation  analysed  of  people  students  of  analysed.  separately. the w r i t e r  p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g  of  enhanced  attitudes.  were  prepared  e x p e c t a t i o n s of t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s development  been  of t h e p r o g r a m e a c h  t h e p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d t h e r e was  the  w h i c h had  s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and  were c o m p a r e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a s p e c t s  way  following  a l l t h e t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w d a t a were  f o r e a c h p h a s e of t h e  views  the  allowed  A n a l y s i s of t h e Case S t u d y D a t a After  The  week  conservation  for and  a description  of  the  the Outdoor S c h o o l .  The  c o u n s e l l o r s i n so f a r  as  attitudes  is  concerned  were  considered. Like  the  other  "triangulation"  analyses  of  data.  1978).  In  v i e w s of t h e w r i t e r , This of and  method  teachers,  (1967),  Each f i e l d program be  was  analysed  contributing  attitudes  allows  from d i f f e r i n g study  session  students  and  foundation  one  method being  to  which  the  the  a  which observed the  counsellors.  for cross-validation  according get  participant  t o f i n d out towards  is  a  was  c a s e f o u r v i e w s were p r e s e n t e d :  i n f o r m a t i o n . A t r i a n g u l a t e d approach, Strauss  there  is  v i e w s of what  offered a stronger  interpretations  to  this  out,  Triangulation  involves presenting different (Sevigny,  carried  to  to  Glasser  other p l a u s i b l e  perspectives.  took  place  w h i c h f a c t o r s were development  of  t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w i l d l i f e ,  during  the  considered favorable and  energy.  60  The v i e w s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a s s e e n by t h e t e a c h e r s ,  counsellors,  students,  was  and  triangulation show  the  the  writer  The and  factors  which  counsellors, follow-up  the parents'  triangulated;  reviewed.  There  also  a  a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a on t h e p r o g r a m a s a w h o l e , t o  development of f a v o r a b l e students,  were  were  considered  a t t i t u d e s , as  seen  to  influence  by  the  the  teachers,  and t h e w r i t e r .  activities  which occurred  i n the classroom  comments were a l s o a n a l y s e d , b u t t h e s e were n o t  t h e y were u s e d t o  w h i c h came o u t o f t h e a t t i t u d e  shed study.  some  light  on  findings  61  CHAPTER I V  RESULTS OF THE STUDY  4.0.  Introduction For  which  the convenience  this  1)  study addressed  What  effect  outdoor  What  education  aspects  contribute of  itself  does  s t u d e n t s toward  2)  of the reader  problems t o  have been r e s t a t e d below:  participation  in  a  program  on  the a t t i t u d e of  have  residential  c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources?  of  to  the s p e c i f i c  an  outdoor  education  program  o r a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o enhancement  students' a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l  resources? The of  the  rest  statistical  reliability will case  of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l hypotheses  begin with a b r i e f  statement  which  and  were  r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment  proceed  t o t h e result.s of t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  s t u d y . The c h a p t e r w i l l  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  study.  conclude  tested  instrument,  the then  a n a l y s e s and t h e  w i t h a summary o f t h e main  62  4.1  S p e c i f i c Problem  4.1.1  Statistical The  specific  #1  Hypotheses  statistical  hypotheses  problem tested  Ho1:  Under  the  Tested  in this  and  dispersions  of  the  Mathematically,  Under  t h e c o n d i t i o n of no  vectors)  groups  on  the  significantly.  Reliability order  administer  (referred of  the  before  t o h e r e as  subjects  program.  The  scales  -  or  and  using  will  A*  Ho2:  subtest  between  comparative not  e = yw  differ c  Measures  of  necessary  the  the p r e t e s t )  t r e a t m e n t . The  the  be  (population  and  will  Posttest  the  nine  Ac  scores  posttest)  the  centroids  subtests  the  group  pretest differences  ( r e f e r r e d t o h e r e as  test  on  a b o v e h y p o t h e s e s , i t was  were a n a l y s e d total  scores  experimental  P r e t e s t and  the  population  Ae  Mathematically,  of t h e  nine  the  first  below.  simultaneously,  population  posttest  to t e s t the  the  questionnaire  of  Ho1:  the  pretest differences,  posttest  equal.  mean  In  no  taken  group c e n t r o i d s , the  4.1.2  of  to  stated  comparative  dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  Ho2:  study are  condition  experimental  corresponding  UBC  LERTAP  to  attitude and  after  responses computer  reliability coefficients  63  ( T a b l e 4.1) groups  show t h a t f o r b o t h  the  tests  were  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  internally  and  comparative  consistent to a  reasonable  extent. The  reliability  coefficients  the n i n e  s c a l e s , and  reached  The  correlation  scores  4.1.3  indicate  study  was  that  4.1.3.1  ranged  .95  and  between  reliable  .87  f o r the whole  .87  and  for  test.  the t o t a l .93.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was  reasonably  Statistical  a v a l u e of  .68  t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s and  (Cronbach's alpha)  results this  between  r a n g e d between  test These  employed i n  f o r the analyses  intended.  Analyses  P o p u l a t i o n D i s p e r s i o n s and  C e n t r o i d s of S c o r e s  on  the  Nine Dependent V a r i a b l e s  4.1.3.1.1 In  order  effect, and they  Pre-treatment  it  to determine was  with  different  a n a l y s i s of  greater  t h e r e was  i f t h e two  before  in  clarity.  i n the p o s t t e s t  the  posttest However,  t o take the  analysis,  by  a  treatment  (experimental treatment.  If  scores could  be  if  they  were  i n i t i a l differences using  multivariate  covariance. pretest  d i s p e r s i o n s and the  differences  i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  i n t o account  The  to f i n d out  g r o u p s were s i m i l a r  similar,  interpreted  on  necessary  comparative) were  whether or not  and  involved  g r o u p c e n t r o i d s . Two  pretest,  which Cooley  analysis  (1)  computation  analyses  a t e s t of e q u a l i t y  L o h n e s (1962) c a l l  H1,  were  of  group  carried  out  of g r o u p d i s p e r s i o n s ,  and,  (2)  the  test  of  64  Table  4.1  P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Groups  TEST/SUBTESTS  EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  (dependent v a r i a b l e s )  f o r the  COMPARATIVE GROUP  PRE TEST  POST TEST  S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants Societal Norm-Wildlife Personal Feeling-Energy Personal Feeling-Plants Personal Feeling-Wildlife Personal Action-Energy Personal Action-Plants Personal Action-Wildlife  .68 .81 .76 .80 .79 .73 .80 .79 .77  .69 .80 .74 .75 .77 .82 .84 .79 .74  .68 .81 .81 .77 .81 .87 .81 .86 .80  .86 .85 .79 .85 .84 .84 .83 .87 .80  Hoyt's C o e f f i c i e n t * Cronbachs alpha **  .95 .90  .95 .89  .95 .87  .97 .93  PRE TEST ;  * An ' i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e o f t h e t o t a l * A coefficient indicating the correlation s u b t e s t s and t h e t o t a l t e s t .  equality H2.  The  o f g r o u p c e n t r o i d s , w h i c h t h e same a u t h o r s H1,H2 c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m by C o o l e y  u s e d . The p r o g r a m d e t e r m i n e s centroids for s t a t i s t i c a l The Ho1:  The  first  and  tests  and  taken Hoi:  simultaneously,  A  to as,  (1962) was  dispersions  and  w h i c h was t e s t e d was:  comparative  d i s p e r s i o n s of t h e p r e t e s t scores variables,  refer  the  significance.  s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis  experimental  test. between  and Lohnes both  POST TEST  - A  on  population the nine  are equal.  group  dependent  65  The  a-level  was  set  at  .10  to  a no d i f f e r e n c e  reduce  somewhat  probability  of a c c e p t i n g  conclusion  differences  i n the group d i s p e r s i o n s e x i s t e d , t h a t  the  when  real  i s , t o reduce  Type I I e r r o r . The c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o f o r t h e d i s p e r s i o n s , 0.11, was  less  than  the  tabled  df=(594,101265)).  This  experimental  comparative  scores  and  on t h e n i n e  were e q u a l ,  led  dependent  population  comparative  the  of  1.00  conclusion  (c=0.10, that  the  group d i s p e r s i o n s of the p r e t e s t taken  simultaneously,  that the hypothesis  of homogeneity  tenable.  The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s Ho2: The  to  variables,  and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  of d i s p e r s i o n s was  F-ratio  t e s t e d was:  centroids  groups  simultaneously,  on  of the  the  experimental  pretest  scores,  and taken  are equal.  e  The c - v a l u e was a g a i n of  a  type  II  c e n t r o i d s was 1.63  error.  s e t a t .10, t o r e d u c e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  The  calculated  F-ratio  1.39 w h i c h was l e s s t h a n t h e t a b u l a t e d F - r a t i o  of  (o=0.10, d f = ( 9 , 1 2 4 ) ) . These  results  led  to  the  conclusion  that there  statistical  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on  dependent  variables,  reasonable all  f o r the group  taken  simultaneously;  a l l the thus  t o assume t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e two  the nine  the. t r e a t m e n t ,  dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y was c o m p a r a b l e .  was no nine  i t  was  groups  on  prior to  66  4.1.3.1.2 P o s t - t r e a t m e n t Initially, H1,H2  the  posttest  program to t e s t the  research  question.  equality  of  conform  with  social  two  The  statistical  first  group d i s p e r s i o n s . the  level  sciences like  s t u d y , we  s c o r e s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e  do  not  analysis The  of  significance  have much c o n t r o l  was  the  writer  w a n t e d t o t a k e i n m a k i n g a Type I e r r o r .  writer  w a n t e d t o be i . e . , 5%  The  least  the  n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s F-ratio  These  of  the  results  the the  dispersion  control  led  of  calculated tabulated difference  taken  scores  comparison F-ratio F-ratio i n the  the  .05  level  null  hypothesis  case  in  the this  (Kerlinger, the  In t h i s c a s e  his  of  conclusion  the  two  the  decision  was  g r o u p s on  the  resulted  of of 1.96  that,  on  was  i n any the  no  experimental interpreted  in  a  a l l the  difference group  and  t o mean  that  s i g n i f i c a n t change  in  n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s ,  the taken  program. the  group  centroids  11.8.  This  v a l u e was  at  a=.05,  of  the  resulted greater  df=(9,127). was  held  alternate  That  t o be  p r o b a b i l i t y . This resulted  in favor  taking  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e r e was  group c e n t r o i d s , of  of  simultaneously,  t o the  result  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a f t e r the The  dispersions  group. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n  of  to  l e v e l of chance  that  s c o r e s between the  t r e a t m e n t s d i d not  dispersions  .05,  0.19.  nine dependent v a r i a b l e s in  the  sure  for  c h a n c e of m a k i n g a Type 1 e r r o r .  c o m p a r i s o n of  calculated  95%  at  subjects  Kirk,  at  the  n o r m a l l y used i n  over the  represents  in  testing  set  1964;  correct,  This  involved  c - l e v e l was  e d u c a t i o n where, as  1968).  hypotheses  same  in  a  than  the  is,  the  s i g n i f i c a n t at  in rejecting  hypothesis  that  the the  67  population differed  examination that  the  recorded towards  g r e a t e r than  nine was  comparative  groups  dependent  4.85  and  was  posttest  scores  (Table  4.2)  g r o u p ' s p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were more  those  i n the comparative  variables. observed  in  The  group  minimum  their  on  difference  personal  feelings  wildlife.  These  results  experimental effective  improving  i t was  education  r e c e i v e d by  program)  was  the more  the a t t i t u d e s of the s u b j e c t s than  the  Consequently,  question,  t h a t the treatment  (outdoor  r e c e i v e d by  program).  outdoor  suggest  group  in  treatment  in  of t h e mean  the experimental  homogeneous and all  and  significantly.  The showed  c e n t r o i d s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  comparative with  concluded  group  reference  t o the  that participation  e d u c a t i o n program r e s u l t e d  t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e s t u d e n t s  (regular  in  first a  the  school research  residential  in a significant  improvement  t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l  resources.  4.1.3.2 D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s on Having  obtained a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  t h e g r o u p c e n t r o i d s of t h e two performed  on  the nature DISCRIM,  the Nine Dependent V a r i a b l e s  of by  significant  groups,  difference  in  discriminant analysis  was  t h e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s t o s e e k more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the  group  Cooley  p r o g r a m RSPACE, by  and  the  differences.  Lohnes same  The  (1962) was  authors,  for  computer  program  u s e d , f o l l o w e d by this  purpose.  the The  DISCRIM p r o g r a m c o m p u t e s a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n w h i c h shows t h e  68 Table  4.2  Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e P o s t t e s t S c o r e s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o m p a r a t i v e G r o u p s  Dependent  Experimental  Variables  Mean (Y1 )  Societal Norm-Energy Societal Norm-Plants Soc i e t a l Norm-wildli fe Personal Feeling-Energy Personal Feeling-Plants Personal Feeling-Wildli fe Personal Action-Energy Personal Action-Plants Personal Action-Wildlife  relative  Comparat i v e  Stan. Dev.  Mean (Y2)  Stan. Dev.  Between Means  38.078  4. 122  30.986  7.587  7.092  40.141  4.313  33.986  7.218  6. 1 55  40.422  4.246  34.808  6.456  5.614  40.688  3.891  35.110  6.299  5.578  42.266  3.793  37.027  6.464  5.239  43.797  4.336  38.945  6.561  4.852  40.531  4.690  31.548  6.958  8.983  41.641  4. 1 46  36.466  7.219  5. 1 75  42.500  3.846  37.096  6.713  5.404  contribution  of  each  o-f  t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s i n  differentiating  b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s ,  on  groups  which  the  Di f ference  differed  and hence t h e  variables  t h e m o s t . RSPACE, on t h e o t h e r  h a n d , shows t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e g r o u p c e n t r o i d s i n d i s c r i m i n a n t space,  t h a t i s , the l o c a t i o n of  dimension The has  spanning single  been p r e s e n t e d  the  centroids  d i s c r i m i n a n t space i n the p r e s e n t discriminant function obtained i n Table  4.3. S i n c e  the  the  single  situation.  i n the analysis  i t was f o u n d  the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group all  on  were  earlier higher  that on  n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s than those of t h e comparative  group, the s c a l e d  weights  suggest  that  the  effects  of  the  69  residential attitude action  outdoor education  scores in  greater  of t h e s u b t e s t s d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s '  conservation  conservation  p r o g r a m were r e l a t i v e l y  of  energy,  o f p l a n t s ; a n d what t h e y  w o u l d do t o s a v e e n e r g y  (societal  Table  personal  on  personal  action  in  b e l i e v e d t h a t most p e o p l e  norms-energy).  4.3  S c a l e d Weights of t h e Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the D i s c r i m i n a n t Function  Dependent V a r i a b l e  Scaled  Personal Action-Energy Personal Action-Plants S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy Personal F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e Personal Feeling-Plants Personal Feeling-Energy Societal Norm-Wildlife S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants Personal A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e  Weights*  48.00 -38.89 17.08 15.98 1 3.68 -12.68 5.80 -1.73 0.31  * C o o l e y a n d L o h n e s ( 1 9 6 2 , p. 121)  The s c a l e d w e i g h t s a l s o showed t h a t o f t h e the  three  least  conservation  wildlife  and  of w i l d l i f e  what  (societal  These r e s u l t s during the  the  variables  a f f e c t e d a r e a s w e r e : what t h e c h i l d r e n d i d i n (personal action - w i l d l i f e ) ,  b e l i e v e d t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d do t o s a v e p l a n t s plants),  nine  they  (societal  what  they  norm  b e l i e v e d t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d do t o s a v e  norms - w i l d l i f e ) . seemed r e a s o n a b l e  in light  p r o g r a m , a n d what was l a t e r  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y .  During  the  of  what  identified program  went  on  t o be one o f the  students  70  were  exposed  energy  to  a l l the  and p l a n t s ,  t h e y were n o t a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h  For example, they approach  any  were  told  not  to  Also,  a bird  apart  from  t h e mother energy,  c o n s e r v a t i o n methods b e i n g u s e d ,  might where  the  limitation  abandon they  the  students  get  into  was c o n f i r m e d  situations  p r a c t i c e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods r e l a t e d students  showed  some  concern  in  c o n s e r v a t i o n , and had e x h i b i t e d that  to  young  see  the on  would do.  of the study which  to  the  could  t h e p a r e n t s was t h a t t h e r e was n o t much t i m e a f t e r for  birds,  t h e r e was n o t much e m p h a s i s  e x p l a i n i n g o r d i s c u s s i n g what p e o p l e One  disturb  wildlife.  animal w i t h extreme care because, i f f o r example,  t h e y went t o o n e a r ones.  t h r e e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , but u n l i k e  to their  by some o f  the  where  program  they  wildlife.  could  Since  the  feelings for wildlife  t h e s e a t home, i t was  i f t h e y were e x p o s e d t o s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h  expected  demanded i t , t h e y  would p r a c t i c e i t . Another interviews attitude that she  o b s e r v a t i o n which with  the  was  students  was  t o w a r d s some p a r t i c u l a r  they would not save snakes,  made  because  w i l d a n i m a l s . Two s t u d e n t s  said  while another  that  had  said  taken  these  a n i m a l s . The s t u d e n t who s a i d t h a t she w o u l d n o t s a v e c a t s  also  she  small  birds.  d i d not l i k e  unpleasant  they  student  those  that  their  post-camp  experiences with  said  of  the  a pre-established negative  w o u l d n o t s a v e c a t s . They s a i d t h a t  positions  during  c a t s b e c a u s e c a t s had been  A l s o , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of t h e program and t h e students  were  not  what o t h e r p e o p l e  exposed  killing  study,  the  t o s i t u a t i o n s where t h e y c o u l d s e e  w o u l d do t o s a v e b o t h p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e .  As  71  far  as energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  it  being  practiced  by  i s c o n c e r n e d , however, they the  public,  s i t u a t i o n s which a f f e c t e d t h e i r it  on  call  reduced  effect  of energy  on what t h e y  p l a n t s was due t o t h e f a c t which  carving The  could  and they  see  could  were  their  reader  these  also  days.  what  they  had l e a r n e d ,  names on t r e e s and b r e a k i n g i s informed  Probably  t h a t some o f them saw s i g n s o f  against  a c t s a t home, a f t e r  here,  branches  that the students  to the  in enhancing the students' to  people  off  trees.  h a d come f r o m a  c o u l d a l s o have seen  research  question,  personal  energy.  It  of personal  was  moderately e f f e c t i v e  areas  were  in  personal  action  a n d s o c i e t a l norms w i t h r e s p e c t  wildlife,  but these  with  action  with  i n enhancing  feeling-wildlife,  to  least  with  respect  both  plants  to and  a r e a s o f l e a s t e f f e c t have t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  caution. The  RSPACE  analysis  groups i n the reduced group,  and  21.51  showed t h a t t h e c e n t r o i d s o f t h e two  space  f o r the  was  28.03  f o r the  comparative  group.  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c e n t r o i d s o f t h e two g r o u p s a r e on  effective  f e e l i n g - e n e r g y . The  wildlife,  the  of c o n s e r v a t i o n at  feeling - i . e . , personal  f e e l i n g - p l a n t s , and p e r s o n a l  effective  such  therefore,  a t t i t u d e towards p e r s o n a l  a t t i t u d e s towards a l l the three aspects  level  human  like  d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e p r o g r a m was most  respect  the  the program.  With reference  the  see  t h i n k t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d do t o s a v e  wooded n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  their  i t in  t e l e v i s i o n . One c a n h a r d l y a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h do n o t  f o r the conservation  acts  lives,  they  c o u l d see  the  discriminant  function.  The  fact  that  experimental These  results  well-separated t h e two g r o u p  72  centroids  were l o c a t e d  indicated  that  difference  between the  of  both  favorableness  in  the  group  had  least three  of  the  groups  an  not  dimension  a t t i t u d e s , and the  the  degree  held.  only  hypothesis,  this  w h i c h was  significant,  a t t i t u d e than the  the  the  i n d i c a t i o n of  i t showed t h a t  the  of  group c e n t r o i d s  was  Also,  concluded that g r o u p and  was  i n the  a more f a v o r a b l e  experimental  favorable  second s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses  wide a p a r t .  Thus i t was  4.1.4  two  to the  p o s i t i v e end  had  centroids  difference  earlier  considerably  groups  which the  With reference shows t h a t t h e  toward the  the  found  but  also  experimental  comparative  observed d i f f e r e n c e s  group.  between  c o n t r o l g r o u p were, s i g n i f i c a n t on  the at  dependent v a r i a b l e s .  Q u a l i t a t i v e Analyses.  4.1.4.1 A n a l y s i s One  of  limitation  response"  category  "No-Attitude" of  a  Responses  Likert-type  i s usually provided  scale  a  "no  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  that  u n d e c i d e d . Such i n d i v i d u a l s are  considered  attitude.  In t h i s  i m p o r t a n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between  an  neutral  actual  (i.e.,  don't  could  have  attitude" helping  conservation An  been  i t was  response  know)  (i.e.,  the  study  (an  attitude)  r e s p o n s e , b e c a u s e one helping  undecided)  students to of n a t u r a l  the  to  is  students  have  and  an  e f f e c t of to  a  neutral  undecided the  change  from  to a neutral a t t i t u d e , that  acquire  a  positive  program  attitude  "no  i s , in towards  resources.  a d d i t i o n a l response category  "Don't know, o r  Undecided"  73  was t h e r e f o r e information an  included  i n the questionnaire  g a t h e r e d on t h a t  to find  response would h e l p  were  frequency of responses which  undecided  or  did  differences  in  (particularly personal  the  there  frequencies  societal  indicated  feeling-plants),  for  some  of  the frequencies  "non-attitude"  comparative On  responses  from  variables and  variables  t e n d e n c y t o have subjects  i n the  was a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n  o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . Fewer s u b j e c t s  increase  comparative  speculation undecided  the  bigger  o f t h e o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e  p o s t t e s t , however, t h e r e  know" r e s p o n s e s . T h i s the  i n Table  group.  the  pattern  subjects  on t h e o t h e r  group than i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e group c i r c l e d  was or  that  did  not  group  i n the  was  difficult some  of  to  the  explain.  One  subjects  were  know some o f t h e a t t i t u d e q u e s t i o n s  speculation  more  s t u d e n t s m i g h t have d i s c u s s e d  p r o b a b l y some o f them were  confused,  hence  and  honest  m i g h t have been  was no d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  administration,  don't  i n the frequency of the responses  probably  p o s t t e s t . Another p o s s i b l e  because there  experimental  "undecided or  d e c i d e d t o g u e s s on t h e p r e t e s t , and were b e i n g  the  such  feeling-energy,  means were more o r l e s s b a l a n c e d , w i t h a s l i g h t more o f s u c h  that  were c o m p a r a t i v e l y  norm-plants, personal  were q u i t e c l o s e . The p a t t e r n  the  to locate  n o t know, have been p r e s e n t e d  4.4. Even t h o u g h on t h e p r e t e s t  in  i f the  effect. The  the  out  that  items  after  the items,  undecided  on  on  and the  posttest. A  third  h a v e been t h a t  speculation, the regular  w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y more l i k e l y , school  p r o g r a m m i g h t have d e a l t  might with  74  Table  4.4  F r e q u e n c y o f G r o u p R e s p o n s e s I n d i c a t i n g ' U n d e c i d e d o r Don't Know' i n P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t  TEST/SUBTESTS (dependent  EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  variables)  S o c i e t a l Norm-Energy S o c i e t a l Norm-Plants Societal Norm-Wildlife Personal Feeling-Energy Personal Feeling-Plants Personal F e e l i n g - W i l d l i f e Personal Action-Energy Personal Action-Plants Personal A c t i o n - W i l d l i f e Mean •Adjusted  PRE TEST  POST TEST  PRE TEST  POST TEST  37 31 20 20 18 23 25 18 21  7 6 8 7 5 2 2 1 1  31 21 23 31 29 21 26 19 24  32 31 45 46 43 29 31 31 44  4.3  25.0  36.9  23.7 f o r n=63 ( i . e . ,  n f o r Experimental  some o f t h e i t e m s i n a more a b s t r a c t undecided  COMPARATIVE GROUP *  Group).  way, a n d some s t u d e n t s were  a b o u t some o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n  statements. This  speculation  was g e n e r a t e d f r o m some o f t h e  counsellors  ( a d u l t s t u d e n t s ) made d u r i n g  comments  which  the r e s i d e n t i a l  third the  outdoor  program. One pretest  f i n d i n g f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s was t h a t , w h i l e and  "Undecided the  posttest or  the  comparative  group  on b o t h t h e  indicated  Don't know" r e s p o n s e s , i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  number o f s u c h r e s p o n s e s on t h e p o s t t e s t  was  many group  significantly  l e s s t h a n what was r e c o r d e d on t h e p r e t e s t . In  both  the t h e o r e t i c a l construct  w h i c h were a d o p t e d f o r a s s e s s i n g (Fishbein  and  Likert,  the  and t h e m e a s u r i n g  attitudes  in  this  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , any of t h e f i v e  scale study  "regular"  75  responses  i n the a t t i t u d e  instrument  (SA,A,N,D,SD)  indicates  an  a t t i t u d e . F o r example, a n e u t r a l response  i n d i c a t e s an a t t i t u d e .  Therefore,  and t h e p o s t t e s t  since  responses  were  indicated  a  between recorded  "no  the in  attitude"  pretest  the on  experimental  the  comparative  g r o u p t h e r e was ho d e c r e a s e  responses,  i t was c o n c l u d e d  treatment  was  attitudinal residential  effective responses.  outdoor  in  helping  the  e d u c a t i o n program  an  alternate  number  students  experimental  in  (the  treatment  for  investigating  of  the  select  f o r the  the f i r s t  parents  about  group  were r e q u e s t e d t o r e s p o n d  f o r t h i s purpose..  Appendix  The  observable  parents.  students  r e t u r n e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a response rate  following  was  Thirty-nine  considered  to  be  in  to a special  questionnaire  answered  response  their  E.  The  to  and  any  S i x t y - t h r e e parents of the students  questionnaire  estimating  such  Questionnaire  w r i t t e n comments  questionnaire designed  This  of  to  i n t h e a t t i t u d e or b e h a v i o r of t h e i r c h i l d r e n  presented  i n the  i n helping students to develop  procedure  t h e p r o g r a m were s o u g h t . the  while  attitudes.  research problem, changes  which  T h i s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t t h e  4.1.4.2 A n a l y s i s o f P a r e n t s ' As  i n the  group  t h a t i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group the  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ) was e f f e c t i v e conservation  posttest,  fewer  presented of  these  is the were  r a t e of 61.90%. reasonable  for  changes, i f any, i n t h e a t t i t u d e s of the  students. The  p a r e n t s ' comments and  responses  indicated  that  many  76  observable  c h a n g e s were s e e n i n t h e  In the area  of e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  that  their  children  had  shown  behavior  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n .  parents  had  heat,  observed  talking  programs  about  on  any  and  energy  changes  their  in their  the  a t t i t u d e or which  the  t u r n i n g down  watching  television  about  energy  energy.  reported  not  t h a t they  had  s i n c e t h e p r o g r a m . The  r e s p o n s e was  that t h e i r  f a v o r a b l e energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  seen reason  children  attitudes  had  before  program. Ten  parents  c o u l d not  tell  out  of  39  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the-y d i d n o t  i f t h e i r c h i l d r e n had  t h e r e was  enough t i m e t o o b s e r v e s u c h a c h a n g e .  These  results  parent  attitudes  of  from t h i s group  commented  suggest t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  were i n a p o s i t i o n t o , had  observed  know, o r  changes i n energy  Again,  not  one  shown any  conservation.  the  indicated  changes  reading  program.  a b o u t t h e d e p l e t i o n of  children  s e v e n o f them gave f o r t h i s  the  Some of  worried  o f 39 p a r e n t s  acquired  changes  conservation,  T h i r t e e n out  already  the  16 of t h e p a r e n t s  conservation,  being  in  after  included: turning off l i g h t s ,  energy  conservation,  students  positive  that  the parents changes  in  t h e i r c h i l d r e n towards energy c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  who the  after  program. The  same p a t t e r n of  conservation another  was  important  r e s p o n s e s w h i c h was  also reported  changes  conservation reported  to  in  their  of p l a n t s . The have  f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n  on  energy  of p l a n t s ,  v a r i a b l e which accounted for s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s . F i f t e e n parents shown  reported  shown  indicated that t h e i r attitudes changes  or  which  included: watering  children  behavior the  group had  towards  children  were  plants, caring for  77  p l a n t s a t home ( e . g . , conservation  of  removal  of  undergrowth),  plants,  watching  conservation,  c o m m e n t i n g on  pollution,  some i n t e r e s t  i n the care  Twelve not  shown any  time the  parents  out  the  was  c h a n g e s . One  no  was  39 r e p o r t e d  showed  parents  that  question,  most  no  of  the  parents  short  and  for  because  had  commented t h a t  the  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of them  to  observe  their  child  it  had  any  though  already  had  reinforced  The  of  39 were n o t  r e a s o n was  noticed  39  a the  changes  wildlife;  were  changes.  respect  towards  that  more  their  conservation did  aware of a n i m a l s ;  ; t a l k i n g about w i l d l i f e  animals,  Addressing  to w i l d l i f e  w h i c h most p a r e n t s  reported  and  plants  were i n a p o s i t i o n t o the  students  children  22  had  shown  of  wildlife.  Their  things  like:  donating to  conservation,  s h o w i n g some c o n c e r n  conservation  n o t i c e d . As many a s  watching t e l e v i s i o n programs r e l a t e d  of w i l d l i f e  of  improved.  comments i n d i c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n they  who  observe  them.  conservation  positive  o f p l a n t s had  t h e one  parents  positive  on  parents  observed changes w i t h  probably  o f f e r e d by  responses the  in a p o s i t i o n to  r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e  toward c o n s e r v a t i o n  of the  out  r e s u l t s of t h e  o b s e r v e c h a n g e s had  wild  expressing  that their c h i l d r e n  he/she thought t h a t  s u c h c h a n g e , and The  that  and  on  attitude. Twelve  was  programs  of them a l s o commented t h a t even  noticed,  favorable attitude,  any  of  too  significant  old  reading,  camping e x p e r i e n c e  questionnaire  change  television  about  of p l a n t s .  c h a n g e . T h r e e of t h e s e  between  talking  showing  money t o  save  conservation reading  f o r t h e need t o  about  preserve  78  w i l d l i fe. E i g h t out any  change  their  on  reasons—that to  39 p a r e n t s  in  elaborated  prior  of  children.  this  lack  program  and  but  already  acquired  not  who  of  any  in  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s was c h i l d r e n had These parents  had  practice  attitudes  more  their  wildlife  more  how  interraction  changes  students  activity  in  not  observe  parents  the with  those  a had  a l s o suggested that  the  d i d not  children. due  to  know o r c o u l d One  the  showed  not  o f them fact  again  that  the  t h a t e v e n t h o u g h some  methods,  after  towards  indicated  had  the  the  students  most  parents  program.  conservation  saw  This  that  the  of  was the  wildlife.  students of  to  had  the  shown things  o b s e r v e d shows t h a t t h e e f f e c t s i n d i c a t e d  students  felt  wildlife.  e n e r g y or p l a n t s . Most of t h e noticed  attitude  mean t h a t t h e p r o g r a m r e s u l t e d i n e n h a n c i n g  the p a r e n t s of  to  two  that their children  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e changes, a c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n which  this  time  n o t much t i m e f o r  conservation  attitudinal to  i t to  old favorable a t t i t u d e s .  probably  t h a t t h e r e was  a t t i t u d e s of t h e Although  on  wildlife  interpreted  parents  a c h a n c e t o show a c h a n g e .  results  felt  positive  not  enough  i n d i c a t e d that they  changes  eight  acquired-  reported  program might have r e i n f o r c e d the  tell  the  observe  t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e had  favorable  Nine parents  of  already  t h a t t h e r e was  c h a n g e . Some of t h e p a r e n t s  Six  d i d not  of a c h a n g e by a t t r i b u t i n g  t h e c h i l d r e n had  the  diminished,  i n d i c a t e d that they  areas  about  This  i n v o l v i n g e n e r g y and  f i n d i n g was  changes  indicated plants.  wildlife  which some  not  the overt  than the  their same i n  parents  had  conservation  79  This observation discriminant effect  analysis,  wildlife To  wildlife,  to  which  of t h e p r o g r a m was  conserving  support revealed  g r e a t e r on  and  summarize, the attitudinal  in a l l three areas students,  as  minimal  Problem  order a  p r o g r a m and during  the  students The  the  towards  personal action in  indicated  that  conservation  observed  in  to  mean  that  i n e n h a n c i n g the a t t i t u d e s of the  the to the  students  resources.  #2 to i d e n t i f y aspects  program which c o n t r i b u t e d t o  or  of  the  appeared  to  t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s resources.  t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o b l e m t h e w r i t e r assumed non-participant  recorded  and  relevant  p r o g r a m . The  unobtrusive  information  observer  from  what  of  the the  occurred  o p i n i o n s of t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and  were a l s o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b t a i n e d . o u t d o o r p r o g r a m has  C h a p t e r T h r e e , and those  feeling  were  interpreted  t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l  of  towards  s e c o n d r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m was  contributed  role  the  a p r o b a b l e • e f f e e t of t h e p r o g r a m . W i t h r e s p e c t  outdoor education  In  personal  of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  effective  Specific  have  of  that for w i l d l i f e ,  or b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e s t o w a r d s  t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l  The  results  r e s p o n s e s of t h e p a r e n t s  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , t h i s was  p r o g r a m was  4.2  the  conservation.  positive  the  tends  details  of  specific the  been d e s c r i b e d events  program  are given which  i n a g e n e r a l way i n A p p e n d i x A.  had  a  bearing  on  development of p o s i t i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s w i l l  be  in t h i s  opinions  s e c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the o b s e r v a t i o n s  and  in Only the  presented of  80  the  students,  counsellors,  teachers  and  the  writer will  be  presented.  4.2.1  Students'  Attitudes After  the  Program  T h i r t y - n i n e o f t h e 69 s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r expressed  by  the  the program. Table  students  in  r e s u l t s show a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t conservation topics.  took p a r t i n the  I f one  response  4.5  shows  to  assume  indicated  their  overall attitudes,  e f f e c t was  g r e a t e r f o r p l a n t s and  Table  wildlife  these can  than  for  Yes**  That '  %  N  %  Plants  36  92  3  8  Wildlife  38  97  1  3  Energy  29  74  10  26  0.  g i v e n by t h e s t u d e n t s who a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on  Three reasons  the  the  No***  n=39 I n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e response I n d i c a t e s "no e f f e c t " and u n d e c i d e d  Appendix  that  energy.  N  t h e p r o g r a m had  three  4.5  CONSERVATION TOPIC  reasons  The  responses  infer  S t u d e n t * R e s p o n s e s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n 'Do You T h i n k O u t d o o r P r o g r a m Made You F e e l L i k e S a v i n g  The  views  f o r a l l the  that  t h e n one  the  the program.  on t h e s t u d e n t s  can  program  did  responses  not  think  that  them have been p r e s e n t e d  were g i v e n : t h e y d i d n o t do  as  anything  81  about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n ; told;  and  they  they  already  experienced  a  p r a c t i c e on t h e p a r t o f one c a b i n the  program.  them f e e l that  students'  which  they  were  conservation  occurred  during  t h a t t h e p r o g r a m made i t was  inferred  a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e new k n o w l e d g e c o n t r i b u t e d towards the  introduced enhancement  conservation a t t i t u d e s .  During what  group  p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e ,  t h e program p r o b a b l y  of t h e i r  what  (negative)  almost everyone f e l t  l i k e conserving  the  during  Since  bad  knew  made  presented  the post-program i n t e r v i e w s , the students them  feel  like  saving  plants.  a s A p p e n d i x P, were c l a s s i f i e d  views which they students  attributed  Their  responses,  t o f i n d out the  common  h a d . T a b l e 4.6 shows t h e common i d e a s w h i c h t h e  offered.  m e n t i o n e d what  were a s k e d  The  they  results  were  show  taught  i t to the f i e l d  t h a t 53% of the s t u d e n t s  or  learned  generally,  33%  s t u d i e s , 25% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o a need  for conservation  w h i c h was s t i m u l a t e d by  11%  i t t o t h e f i l m s , and 31% a t t r i b u t e d i t t o other  attributed  factors  like  the right  t h i n g s , a n d t h e poems t h e y students  School. gave  The  of  towards  the  conservation  plants, living which  a t the Outdoor  t h a t t h e main r e a s o n t h e s t u d e n t s  c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s p l a n t s was what was  t h e program.  students'  aspects  liked  wrote. Almost a l l the responses  T h u s , i t was c o n c l u d e d  during  experience,  t o e x i s t , p l a n t s being  gave were r e l a t e d t o what was t a u g h t  for their  taught  camp  t h e program as a whole, because they  because of p l a n t s having  the  the  the  responses  outdoor  enhancement of  therefore  education of  indicated  program  positive  that  the  which c o n t r i b u t e d attitudes  p l a n t s i n c l u d e d what was t a u g h t ,  towards  t h e way  those  82 Table Aspects  4.6  o f t h e P r o g r a m w h i c h S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d made them F e e l Like Saving P l a n t s  Idea  presented  f  1. T e a c h i n g & l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l a) T e a c h i n g a b o u t p l a n t s b) S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g a b o u t plants i n general c) Students l e a r n i n g about nature  19 8  2. What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a b o u t t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n 3. F i e l d  Studies  %** 53 22  5 6  14 17  9  25  12  4. F i l m s 5. O t h e r s .... a) The w h o l e p r o g r a m b) A p p r e c i a t i o n o f p l a n t s c) F e e l i n g o f t h e r i g h t t o e x i s t d) A c q u i r i n g new i d e a s a b o u t p l a n t s e) W r i t i n g poems  33 •  4  1 1  1 1 5 2 2 1 1  31 14 6 6 3 3  * n=36 p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who m e n t i o n e d the idea (aspect)  t h i n g s were t a u g h t , t h e f i e l d The  responses  s t u d i e s , and t h e f i l m s .  g i v e n by t h e s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e p o s t  i n t e r v i e w a b o u t what made them f e e l  like  been  The  presented  responses change  of  interviewed feel were  Appendix  Q.  ( T a b l e 4.7) shows t h a t  of  aspects  as  attitude the  towards w i l d l i f e  program.  indicated  that  o r what t h e y  the f i e l d  wildlife  classification students  have  of t h e  attributed  the  conservation to different  Thirty-seven  l i k e conserving w i l d l i f e , taught  the  saving  program  perecent study  32% a t t r i b u t e d  of  those  s e s s i o n s made them i t to  what  they  l e a r n e d g e n e r a l l y i n t h e p r o g r a m ; 24%  83  attributed  i t t o t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n w h i c h  by t h e camp e x p e r i e n c e ; and  26%  attributed  11% s a i d  i n f l u e n c e d them;  i t t o other factors l i k e  t h e program as a  to e x i s t , just  interacting  f e e l i n g of the  w i t h the people  and a n i m a l s a t t h e Outdoor  School.  4.7  (aspect)  1. T e a c h i n g & l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l a) T e a c h i n g a b o u t w i l d l i f e b) T e l l i n g s t u d e n t s a b o u t w i l d l i f e c) S t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g about w i l d l i f e in general d) U n d e r s t a n d i n g 2. What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a b o u t t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n 3. F i e l d s t u d i e s 4. F i l m s Others a) The w h o l e p r o g r a m . b) A p p r e c i a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e c) F e e l i n g of r i g h t t o e x i s t d) J u s t b e i n g a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l e) The p e o p l e a n d a n i m a l s a t the Outdoor School * n = 38 ** p e r c e n t a g e  The  f o r the  o f t h e P r o g r a m w h i c h S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d Made them F e e l Like Saving W i l d l i f e  Idea  5.  right  g o i n g t o t h e Outdoor S c h o o l , and through  Table Aspects  stimulated  that the films  whole, a p p r e c i a t i o n of w i l d l i f e , wildlife  was  %'*'*  12 4 2  32 1 1 5  4 2  1 1 5  9  24  14  37  4  1 1  10 3 3 1 2  26 8 83 5  1  3  o f s t u d e n t s who m e n t i o n e d t h e i d e a  responses  conservation  F  (Appendix  given  by  the  students  R) have been c l a s s i f i e d  (aspect)  about  i n Table  energy 4.8. The  84  a t t e n t i o n of the reader students  said  that although  c o u l d not t e l l presented  energy in  were  obtained  without  explanation  that  one s a i d t h a t  was  because  limitation  of  students  the  students  evaluation  the  students.  20  another  felt  data  reasons  good on  taught,  energy  resources;  studies; while  (three students  practices  about  at  saving  to  five  said that  the  outdoor  energy).  the  smaller  question.  towards energy c o n s e r v a t i o n , d i d not the  know.  views  represented  by  revealed  One  Ten  t h a t t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t have any  From  expressed  what t h e p r o g r a m o f f e r e d .  expressed  topics  conservation  e n e r g y was t h e r e l a t i v e l y  results,  responses  views  saving  i t was t h e w h o l e p r o g r a m , a n d one s a i d t h a t  feeling  the  like  w i t h an  the  the  It  general  T h a t a s s u m p t i o n was made t o p e r m i t  conservation teachers  o f t h e 39 who were  f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  conservation  s a i d t h a t they  of  responses  (35%)  r e s u l t s of a l l the three c o n s e r v a t i o n The  The  they  seven  (n=20) who r e s p o n d e d  subjects represented that  concern  had i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r on t h e i r  of the  energy,  about energy  i t was due t o t h e f i e l d  she  number o f s u b j e c t s  other  them.  i t was b e c a u s e o f d w i n d l i n g  was b e c a u s e o f t h e  effect  saving  students  elaboration;  a t t r i b u t e d i tt o "other"  camp,  20  were t a u g h t  any  the  (5%) s a i d that  it  from  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  i t . to  it  like  most  t h e p r o g r a m . The r e s u l t s show t h a t s e v e n ( 3 5 % )  attributed  (24%)  felt  that  who o f f e r e d r e a s o n s f o r what made them f e e l  general,  one  they  how t h e p r o g r a m i n f l u e n c e d  interviewed after of those  i s drawn t o t h e f a c t  while  the  writers  by was  nine  t h e 20 assumed  view of t h e  a comparison of t h e  topics. students  about  that the f i e l d  the reasons f o r conserving  the  three  s t u d i e s , what t h e  natural  resources,  85 Table Aspects  4.8  o f t h e P r o g r a m .which S t u d e n t s * B e l i e v e d Made them F e e l L i k e Saving Energy  Idea  suggested  0.**  Teaching & Learning i n general a) What t h e y were t o l d a b o u t energy c o n s e r v a t i o n b) What t h e y s a i d t h e y l e a r n e d about energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  7  35  .6  30  1  5  What s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d s p e c i f i c a l y a b o u t t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e program 3. F i e l d  35  studies  4. F i l m s  0  Others a) c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a t camp b) t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e progbam c ) f e e l i n g good a b o u t e n e r g y conservat ion * n = 20 ** P e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s (aspect) and  the  students  film,  For  felt  their  be  like  saving  plants  t h e main a s p e c t s  and  were  conservation  and  taught, practice  of t h e program which enhanced  attitudes. The  think  to  of the program which t h e  h o w e v e r , what t h e s t u d e n t s  reasons f o r energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  appeared  The  energy,  24 15 5 5  who m e n t i o n e d t h e i d e a  t h e main a s p e c t s  a t t r i b u t e d - t o why t h e y  wildlife. and  were  5 3 1 1  r e a s o n s g i v e n by t h r e e o f  the  students  who  t h a t t h e p r o g r a m a f f e c t e d them, a l s o s u p p o r t e d  reason  suggested  which these that  students  they  did  gave f o r t h e l a c k o f not  do  anything  c o n s e r v a t i o n . A l s o , d u r i n g the program, there sessions  which  involved  instruction  were  d i d not this  view.  an  effect  about  energy  three  main  (in-class teaching,  field  86  s t u d i e s , and t h e f i l m s ) . sessions  were  only  For energy  involved  e x p l a n a t i o n of energy  conservation,  with  some  those  discussion  three  o f , and  s h o r t a g e i n t h e w o r l d , and what p e o p l e c a n  do t o c o n s e r v e i t . The  responses  classified  as  which  "other"  the in  students  a l l the  ( T a b l e s 4.6, 4.7, a n d 4.8) a p p e a r e d what  they  learned  or  their  to  be  For  made  i t pretty...";  them..."; "We found  saw d i f f e r e n t  which  t o what t h e y  towns";  to  observed  responses  such  "The p l a n t s o u t s i d e o u r  k i n d s of b i r d  in  were  responses  "The w h o l e p r o g r a m i s a b o u t  o u t how t h e y r e a l l y a r e l i k e " ; do  their  example,  " P l a n t s a r e s o r t o f l i k e - h u m a n s . - . . ";  cabin  and  three conservation topics  reactions  d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e program. as:  gave  feeders";  "Because "Because  "Because  they don't  much e n e r g y  as they  we  (expected)  t o t u r n o f f o u r l i g h t s o r e l s e we w o u l d  saving I  use as  were  forced  not get very  good c a b i n m a r k s . " T h e r e was  another  indication  s t u d e n t s were a t t r i b u t i n g studied. liked,  their  they l i k e d Thus, the  When  they  were  responses  the f i e l d  the e f f e c t  what  suggested  that  the  o f t h e p r o g r a m t o what t h e y  asked which p a r t of t h e program they  (summarized  i n Appendix  S)  showed  that  studies best.  f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s ' p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e main a s p e c t o f  program which c o n t r i b u t e d  was  which  they  were  taught  towards  enhancing  during  their  attitudes  t h e outdoor program.  This  i n c l u d e d t h e t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y l e a r n e d , t h e way i t was p r e s e n t e d to  them, a n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t h e y were  a s p e c t s of program which enhanced t h e i r which  engaged  i n . Other  a t t i t u d e s were t h e f i l m s  t h e y saw, t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s w h i c h were  practiced  87  at the Outdoor School, School  and t h e i r  the  Outdoor  environment.  4.2.2 R e s u l t s o f C o u n s e l l o r s ' Ten  counsellors  interviewed  before,  took  the  Outdoor  one-week p r i o r program  had  conservation  School  f r o m t h e weekend  preparation  a l l t h e c o u n s e l l o r s had had a t l e a s t a  positive  of  i n t h e camp p r o g r a m . They were  and a f t e r t h e camp p r o g r a m . The p r e -  that apart  experience a  Interviews part  during,  camp i n t e r v i e w r e v e a l e d at  i n t e r a c t i o n with  natural  at  the  effect  camp. on  resources.  A l l agreed  their They  that  attitudes offered  the  towards  reasons  to  e x p l a i n how t h e p r o g r a m e n h a n c e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . A f t e r t h e camp program  they  were  again  a s k e d how i n t h e i r  program i n f l u e n c e d t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e they  responded,  were s t i l l  valid.  Field Five  Thus t h e i r  counsellors  conservation  students also  of  the  below.  mentioned the f i e l d contributed  towards  the  studies.  enhancement  them  new  things  five  counsellors  sessions  appeared t o  arouse  animals,  whi'le t h e a s s o c i a t e d  of  was an e m p h a s i s on  The  instructors  a r o u n d a n d showed them d i f f e r e n t . t r e e s a n d  told  The  s t u d i e s a s an a s p e c t  a t t i t u d e s . They s a i d t h a t t h e r e  took  animals,  about n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . For  e x a m p l e , t h e y t o l d them how t h e y c o u l d animals.  though  e a r l i e r comments  responses f o r both periods  p l a n t s and a n i m a l s i n t h e f i e l d  and  Even  Studies  of t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h  the  students.  a l l o f them a g r e e d t h a t t h e i r  p r o g r a m h a v e been c o m b i n e d a n d p r e s e n t e d (1)  v i e w t h e one-week  affect  reported  student  the  plants  that the f i e l d  interest  d i s c u s s i o n s helped  in  plants  and study and  them t o r e a l i z e  88  how t h e y  could conserve  (2) What S t u d e n t s Five  resources.  Learned  counsellors  Specifically  suggested  about  Conservation  t h a t t h e k n o w l e d g e a c q u i r e d by  t h e s t u d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . According  t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , some  probably  really  d i d not  know  anything  e n v i r o n m e n t b e f o r e t h e camp. D u r i n g learned  new  t h i n g s about ecology  about d w i n d l i n g ecosystem  natural  worked  and  the  about  They  the  year  considered  could result also  got  they  understood  r e s o u r c e s . They  things  which  to  know  they  and  facts  how  bit,  the  i t could  at a c e r t a i n  the animal  that  an  act  parts  of  realized  c o u l d do t o c o n s e r v e  that  time  and i t s unborn which  an  appreciated the value  also  respected the attempts  may  be  because of ecosystem.  i n conserving  there  were  many  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and  w h i c h a r e made by o t h e r  people  for  same p u r p o s e .  (3) The O u t d o o r According out  with  told  as t r i v i a l c o u l d l e a d t o a b i g g e r e f f e c t ,  natural  the  in killing  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i f f e r e n t  Thus  they  students  s h o u l d o r s h o u l d n o t do c e r t a i n  l e a r n e d t h a t s h o o t i n g one a n i m a l  b a b i e s . They  the  outdoor  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o one c o u n s e l l o r ,  the students of  the  were  students  the  program  t h i n g s , a n d how i f e v e r y o n e c o n t r i b u t e d a l i t t l e save  the  a n d were p r e s e n t e d  resources. why t h e y  of  Experience to  t o t h e outdoor  enhanced suggested natural  the  three camp was  students'  counsellors, just an  aspect  attitudes.  of The  t h a t i t was a b e t t e r p l a c e t o l e a r n resources  than  studying i n the c i t y  t a k i n g the students the  program  three about  which  counsellors conserving  from books, because  89  they  s t u d i e d about the environment  them  reported  that  i t gave  experience  what t h e y  cousellor  added t h a t  to  i n the  the  f r i e n d s w h i l e a t t h e camp.  r e i n f o r c e d what some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  said  that  they  the  students  by  parents  everyone.  They  off  parents  their  were  According  to  good  students might  two  have  influenced  telling  a b n o r m a l by t e l l i n g learned  School  them  o f f the  feel  that  them t o t u r n  conservation  of  natural  t a l k e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n  said  their  they  people reacted them.  He  attitudes.  but because they were  and/or  h a b i t s . He b e l i e v e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e to conservation  being  issues  i t  appeared t o b e l i e v e that the  According  were by t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e o u t d o o r s ,  that  was  t o accept i t .  s u r v e i l l a n c e by c o u n s e l l o r s a n d t e a c h e r s  been d i f f e r e n t , knew  been  t o h i m , t h i s made them  counsellors,  conservation  influenced  students  At the Outdoor  a f e e l i n g w h i c h one g o t f r o m t h e p e o p l e a t t h e camp.  saw how o t h e r  have  constant  energy  Environment  Everyone a t t h e Outdoor School showed  about  i s t h e " b i g e m p h a s i s " a t t h e camp. One c o u n s e l l o r  was  the  w a n t e d l i g h t s t o be t u r n e d o f f  l i g h t s a t home, and t h e y  resources  learned  saw t h a t e v e r y o n e t u r n e d  not being  (4) The O u t d o o r S c h o o l  there  had  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  conserve energy. According  their  had  at  knew. F o r e x a m p l e , he  a t home, f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s .  l i g h t s and/or to  of  saw t h a t what t h e i r  practiced  another  t o yet another c o u n s e l l o r , the experience  some  of  the opportunity t o  i n school, while  camp  conservation  One  them t o a c q u i r e g o o d h a b i t s , a n d  s h a r e t h e i d e a s by t a l k i n g w i t h According  students  had been s t u d y i n g i thelped  environment.  to  things  were w i t h o t h e r  watched,  they  was l i k e l y him, might  to  i f the have  p e o p l e and they  felt  i t . Another  90  counsellor walking the  suggested that  around  and  same f e e l i n g  (5) P o s t e r s One posters have  to  during  listening  their  free  to other  time  and  people the students got  conserve.  i n Cabins  counsellor  suggested  i n the cabins  influenced  that  were one a s p e c t  the  development  the  energy  conservation  of the program which  of  the b u i l d i n g s a t the Outdoor  (6) E n j o y m e n t o f t h e O u t d o o r Apart one  from  the  that  the the  attitudes  posters  in  School.  Experience  fun they  had i n t h e f i e l d  c o u n s e l l o r suggested that the students  during  could  f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s . The  w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e were e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n all  while  played  study  sessions,  and  had  fun  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s . Another c o u n s e l l o r i n d i c a t e d  enjoyment because  helped they  to  enhance  their  conservation  w o u l d remember t h e f u n t h e y  had i n t h e  o u t d o o r camp p r o g r a m . (7) I n t e r a c t i o n Among S t u d e n t s i n t h e O u t d o o r s One c o u n s e l l o r s u g g e s t e d t h a t d u r i n g saw  things themselves, through t h e i r  these  observations  occurred  was n o t e l a b o r a t e d the  A  own o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  often t o l d other  students and when  students.  upon by h i m . S i m i l a r t h i n g s were r e p o r t e d  This by  comment  Influence by  a unique r o l e  program. A c c o r d i n g high  program  teachers.  (8) C o u n s e l l o r s '  had  they  the  school  a counsellor indicated that the counsellors  i n t h e enhancement o f a t t i t u d e s i n t h e o u t d o o r t o h e r , most e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  students  as t h e i r  idols.  t h e camp p r o g r a m t h e y made t h e s t u d e n t s  students  She i n d i c a t e d t h a t feel  wanted,  and  see during they  91  became  more  involved  in  the  b e c a u s e o f t h e way t h e s t u d e n t s more  prone  to  accept  included appropriate According  what  (and  those  which the students field  in  behaviors. the  set-up  on e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n the other  that  they  them t h o u g h t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s by  views,  buildings),  at  the  i n the cabins  the  experiences  environment  a t t i t u d e s . During the i n t e r v i e w ,  indicated  confirmed  were  and  a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f  positive conservation  was  they  that  c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d them, w h i c h  g o t by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e  studies  counsellors  the  t o the c o u n s e l l o r s ' the posters  the  see the c o u n s e l l o r s ,  conservation  Outdoor S c h o o l , probably  p r o g r a m . She a l s o r e m a r k e d  the  a l l the  enjoyed t h e s e s s i o n s . A l l of  enjoyed the  students.  sessions,  Thirty-seven  and  that  ( 9 5 % ) o f t h e 39  students  who were i n t e r v i e w e d  during  enjoyed  the  a l l t h o s e who were a s k e d a f t e r t h e  sessions,  program i n d i c a t e d Apart  and  from t h e p o s t e r s  the  i n the cabins,  counsellors  students'  views  s u g g e s t e d by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s  except  offered  a  anything  about  the  because almost a l l the teachers participate  i n the f i l m  4.2.3 R e s u l t s The School School,  counsellors  This  One  d i d not  was n o t u n e x p e c t e d ,  and a l l t h e c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not  Interview  involved  recreation director, and t h r e e  films.  explanation.  sessions.  of Teachers'  teachers  the  clearer  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two v i e w s was t h a t mention  they  that they d i d .  t o u c h e d on a l l t h e key i d e a s that  the program s a i d t h a t  teachers  i n the program i n c l u d e d three  teachers  from t h e v i s i t i n g  from  the Outdoor the  s c h o o l . Even  Outdoor though  92  the  recreation director  she  played  she  was c l a s s i f i e d W  A11  was n o t a t e a c h e r  i n t h e p r o g r a m was t h a t o f as a t e a c h e r  in this  teacher.  Consequently  t h e program, and  b e l o w . From t h e t e a c h e r s '  point  view t h e r e were s i x a s p e c t s o f t h e program w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d  t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' (1) The P r e p a r a t i o n B e f o r e All took  seven t e a c h e r s  place before  which  contributed  attitudes  towards  included and  t h e Camp P r o g r a m  suggested  that  the  towards  the  conservation  of  of  resources.  natural  and  that  cooperation  the  the students'  of  preparation  a l l the  more  be  led  people  to  make  e f f e c t i v e . F o r e x a m p l e , two t e a c h e r s  made them ( t e a c h e r s ) aware o f t h e f i e l d to  which  of t h e program  enhancement  i n t h e program, and i n t u r n h e l p e d  experience  going  preparation  t h e camp p r o g r a m was one a s p e c t  t h e t e a c h e r s . They s a i d  involved  attitudes.  These  the p r e p a r a t i o n of the students, c o u n s e l l o r s , p a r e n t s ,  understanding  it  the role  study.  s e v e n t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r  t h e i r v i e w s h a v e been p r e s e n t e d of  a  by t r a i n i n g ,  taught  during  the  camp  studies  to  who  were  the  camp  said  that  which  program, they  were  knew t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e a c h t e a c h e r , a n d i t made them aware o f full  an  the  d e t a i l s o f t h e o v e r a l l camp p r o g r a m . Another  teacher  said  that  the  preparation  helped  the  s t u d e n t s t o a c q u i r e a more r e c e p t i v e f r a m e o f m i n d f o r b o t h  the  s o c i a l and t h e a c a d e m i c a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h had been Even going  t o have a p o s i t i v e  teachers for  though a l l the teachers  at  the  effect  Outdoor School  planned.  s a i d t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n was on felt  i m p r o v e m e n t . They w o u l d have l i k e d  the  students,  the  t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l to  play  a  more  three room active  93  role  in  the  p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d t o have had more  meeting time w i t h a l l the v i s i t i n g program.  According  to  teachers prior  them, i f t h e y  to  the  had h a d a g r e a t e r r o l e i n  the p r e p a r a t i o n phase of t h e program they would have to  discuss  the  whole  program  w o u l d h a v e known t h e s t u d e n t s O u t d o o r S c h o o l . The t e a c h e r s made at  camp  been  able  w i t h a l l t h e t e a c h e r s and a l s o  b e t t e r before they a r r i v e d a t thought  them "more c o m f o r t a b l e "  t h a t such  the  a r o l e w o u l d have  w i t h the group before  they  arrived  t h e camp.  (2) F i e l d  Studies  According the  t o a l l t h e seven t e a c h e r s , the f i e l d  greatest  contribution  towards  conservation  attitudes.  every  said that his/her f i e l d  teacher  enhancing teacher an  said  T h e r e were f o u r f i e l d  "I d e f i n i t e l y  influence  function  natural  how  i n the environment,  each  without  resources  i n . " Another  attitudes  part i s very  animals,  are  teacher  is  changes or  a  "Yes, they very there  is  some  role  in  l e s s o n s would have  seeing  how  i t is  and  how  these  a n d have t o be c o n s e r v e d .  said  "I  can  would  see  substance  energy  say y e s ; from t h e  regard t o the stream  affected  how  And  l e a v e me a t t h e end o f  see i t v e r y c l e a r l y .  easily  a  F o r e x a m p l e , one  water  t h e k i d s seem t o h a v e when t h e y  said  t o p i c s and  i m p o r t a n t , how i t c o u l d  plants,  necessary  t h e day i n t h e f o r e s t . " W i t h  water,  had  of  a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  a g a i n we t a l k e d a b o u t e n e r g y t o o , s o t h e y  teacher  study  studies  t h i n k that today's  on t h e c h i l d r e n s '  interdependent,  fits  enhancement  the students' conservation a t t i t u d e s .  b e c a u s e t h e y were r i g h t  not  the  s t u d i e s made  study  The k i d s  medium. I f i t s in  the  water  t h e same see  that  temperature that  is  94  poisonous,  or  there  away. So  they  in  water,  the  impact  on  of t h e  seven  see  i s no o x y g e n . . .  t h a t they  themselves  s h o u l d not  or throw garbage i n t o the water,  i t r i g h t away." S i m i l a r  When  t h i n g s are a f f e c t e d r i g h t  statements  throw and  things  t h a t has  were made  an  by  each  their  field  teachers.  the  teachers  were  asked  t o e x p l a i n how  s t u d i e s e n h a n c e d t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of natural  r e s o u r c e s , they  knowledge  about  experience  from  session  to  said  natural  that  resources,  interacting  be  important,  with  their  resources.  field  study  Again,  among  A view which appeared was  probably  "With  the v a r i e t y  every  student  delicateness teachers  They  a l l  avoid  the  teachers  tried  how  people  doing  to  have  field  to  conserve that in  students  the  ecosystem,  shared  i n what one  by  a l l  of  our  environment  and  they a l s o  that  said:  had,.... I t h i n k  that the  i t s r e s o u r c e s . " A l l the  agreed  that  t h e y were g i v i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n , " and  the  teacher  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were t e a c h i n g w i t h t h e same  reinforcing  there  affect i t .  been  s t u d i e s we  each  that  indicated  t o show t h e  can  first-hand  • found  realized  or  their  the students  using d i f f e r e n t  a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n t  One  they  new  s h o u l d go away w i t h a l i t t l e more a w a r e n e s s of  different,  p i e c e s of  t h e y had  i t , that  best expressed  of t h e  of t h e e c o s y s t e m , b u t were  that  acquired  t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e  t h e v a l u e o f e a c h p a r t , and  teachers  do  s e s s i o n s they  interrelationships  students  i n t e r e s t i n g , and  were t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y c o u l d natural  the  field  types study  of  concept  activities "different examples.  s e s s i o n s were  each o t h e r .  teacher  said  t h a t even though the t i t l e s  of  the  field  95  study he  topics  thought  suggested that  enhancement  of  the  t h a t t h e y were r e l a t e d topics  alone  studies  field  and  the  to  new  experiences,  new  on  a r a i n y day,  task  that  frequency  of  the  s t u d i e s which  Outdoor School  Three  of  the  saw  the which  A c c o r d i n g t o him a p r o g r a m ,  experience  set,  or  i f the  students  such as b e i n g s e n t  if  s t u d i e s . He  the  students  thought  experiences which  c o n t r i b u t e d towards  out  became  t h a t i t was  the  the s t u d e n t s  had  the  teachers b e l i e v e d that being the  five  the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s  t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t was conservation  new,  practices.  camp t h e s t u d e n t s saw  enhancement  and  and Two  it of  days,  alone  i n the Outdoor contributed  the Outdoor School One  teacher as  a  also  supported  worked w i t h t e a c h e r s  s a i d t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t was in  a  appropriate  the t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t at  t h e y were e x p e c t & d t o do  student  to  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n , because  and  p r a c t i c e d good c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s . A c c o r d i n g  herself  were  Environment  environment f o r  enhancing  of  the  attitudes.  (3) The  who  been  of t h e h i g h q u a l i t y  the f i e l d  School  had  d u r i n g the f i e l d  in  the  o r i f t h e y were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a  they  frustrated  in  got a framework from  c o u l d have been of a low q u a l i t y  w e r e i n v o l v e d i n an u n p l e a s a n t  i t was  students  knowledge, t h a t they  they c o u l d t h i n k about the o u t d o o r s . an a c t i v i t y  got  the  explained that  because the  v a l u e of what t h e y were l e a r n i n g , and  or  guarantee  students  i n t h e w h o l e p r o g r a m . He  s t u d i e s were of a h i g h q u a l i t y  exposed  not  c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s . A c c o r d i n g t o him  the q u a l i t y of the e x p e r i e n c e which field  did  to conservation,  different  the  seeing  the  counsellors to the  rules  same. himself  environment,  and  or was  96  performing  different  activities  with  A c c o r d i n g t o him, the t h i n g s which do  "...draws  home  some  of  i f  they  had  gone  to  r e t u r n e d home e v e r y e v e n i n g would  not  have  been  other  students.  t h e y saw and were e x p e c t e d t o  the  l e s s o n s which  h e a r i n g o v e r a n d o v e r , a n d i t makes that  many  the  sense camp  during  t h e y have been  here."  He  believed  f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s and  the  week,  their  attitudes  e q u a l l y f a v o r a b l e . Because t h e y . l i v e d i n  t h a t new a n d s u i t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t ,  t h e y a c q u i r e d more  favorable  attitudes.  t h e above p o s i t i o n ,  he  that,  I n an a t t e m p t  while  they  t o defend  were  there,  t h e y were b e i n g w a t c h e d by t h e  t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and t h e i r with  their  (students)  friends,  behavior."  and  For  were  example,  "inundated a  s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have n o t i c e d a f r o g w h i l e and  one  -student  attempted  t o grab  s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have might h u r t  teacher  said  o t h e r s not t o walk  forest.  Such  that  their  "Don't  touch  she  overheard  a  and  in  an  students  another  effect  on  them,  from and  t o r e i n f o r c e what t h e t e a c h e r s h a d t o l d them. She  that  their also argued what  l e a r n e d a t t h e camp made more s e n s e b e c a u s e t h e y were i n an  appropriate and  case  f r i e n d s not t o p i c k f l o w e r s i n  t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r o f s t u d e n t s b e f o r e t h e camp p r o g r a m , and they  walk  i t . You  some  immediate r e a c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  own f r i e n d s , were s a i d t o h a v e helped  shouted  on  of  A l l of a sudden, t h r e e  i n the stream,  o t h e r s t u d e n t s were t e l l i n g the  it.  group  it."  Another telling  argued  environment.  to practice she s a i d  They had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e  some o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s , a n d  t h a t t h e y were more  observant.  in  doing  97  ( 4 ) F i l m s Shown a t t h e O u t d o o r  School  Two t e a c h e r s m e n t i o n e d t h e f i l m s w h i c h were s c r e e n e d Outdoor to  School  have  an  a s an a s p e c t  effect  conservation.  The  showed t h e t h r e e According  on  of t h e program which they b e l i e v e d  the  teachers  students'  were  the  attitudes  two  towards  who s u p e r v i s e d a n d  films.  t o t h e two t e a c h e r s , t h e f i l m s d e a l t w i t h some o f  t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d study  at the  sessions.  For  example,  they  during  showed  the  some  of  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e f o r e s t a n d e c o s y s t e m s , some e f f e c t s o f p o l l u t i o n , to conserve One  of  discussions  these  s c r e e n i n g each  before  each  each f i l m helped  film  teachers  film  were  helped  suggested  the  attitudes  Both  the students' discussions  listened  the  students.  to the teachers  only  said  themselves.  t h e t e a c h e r s , and  would  i f the teachers p r a c t i c e d  themselves.  teachers  participated  of  what t h e y  u s u a l l y observed  t o what t h e y were t o l d said  t o arouse  The  t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s of t h e t e a c h e r s  followed through  One s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s  what t h e y  helpful.  t a l k e d a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e y a l s o w a t c h e d them  f i n d out i f they  heed  help  of Teachers  They s a i d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s keenly as they  also  observations, while the  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing  pay  can  t o e x p l a i n what t h e y saw.  (5) A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o r  to  stream  teachers a l s o mentioned that the d i s c u s s i o n s  i n t e r e s t and t o f o c u s t h e i r  Two  the  n a t u r a l resources.  b e f o r e and a f t e r  after  a n d how p e o p l e  field  in  suggested the  that since  program  showed  a l l the a  keen  teachers interest  who in  98  conservation by  t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t a t t i t u d e m i g h t have been p i c k e d  some o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o o .  (6) P o s t - c a m p All  Experiences  the resident teachers  students of  had  upon r e t u r n i n g  i f  the  and  isolated School  positive  teacher  d i d not  and  therefore  much  to  do w i t h  forget  them  once  aspects  should  not  be more  conservation  the  the students  they l e f t  with similar  attitudes  was  Outdoor  a f t e r the  might  think  suggested that members  to  t h e camp. She ideas  i n the  t o r e i n f o r c e , and a l s o  beyond  the  Outdoor  School.  i t w o u l d be b e t t e r f o r one o f t h e be  involved  with  the  follow-up  P o i n t of View  In t h e w r i t e r ' s view, e i g h t a s p e c t s contributed  attitudes  were  i n the school.  4.2.4 W r i t e r ' s  have  their  e t h i c s were o n l y a p p l i c a b l e a t the. O u t d o o r  to extend the acquired  activities  attitudes  some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  suggested that a follow-up  staff  experiences  affect  because  a f t e r t h e camp p r o g r a m w o u l d h e l p  outdoor  the  noted t h a t because t h e Outdoor School  have  might  Another teacher  could  students'  from t h e normal s c h o o l , and a l s o  School,  though  t o remain f o r l o n g .  the conservation  school  school  i f the  p r o g r a m , i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t that  even  suggested that the school  supportive,  a t t i t u d e s were g o i n g Another  to  acquired  r e i n f o r c e d . One t e a c h e r encouraging  commented t h a t  been e x p o s e d t o t h e camp p r o g r a m , t h e  the students  attitudes  to  up  towards  towards  program  appear  t h e enhancement o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  conservation  have been p r e s e n t e d  of the  below.  of  natural  resources.  These  99  (1) The P r e p a r a t i o n Prior  to  Before  the  which s e p a r a t e l y  camp  t h e Camp P r o g r a m p r o g r a m t h e r e was a p r e p a r a t i o n  involved teachers,  students,  phase  counsellors,  and  parents. During on  the  preparation  forest ecology;  they  phase t h e s t u d e n t s  saw t h r e e  s t u d i e d mammals a n d e c o s y s t e m s ; a n d t h e y  w r o t e poems on f o r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y the  Outdoor School  i n the Outdoor All  three  L i v i n g Thing," plant  and  conservation  films,  r u l e s and t h e l i v i n g  "The I n c r e d i b l e  and "Another Side  wildlife  Before  telling  conservation.  each  the students  film  interact the teacher  what t h e y with  were  "A  with,  t o answer i n w r i t i n g a f t e r  to  the f i l m .  They  the  students  wrote  population  of animals  population  of other animals  and  other  problems  the p o p u l a t i o n The  i n the  what w o u l d  during  an  answers  increase i nthe  on w h i c h t h e b e a r s f e d , an i n c r e a s e  i n the  which competed w i t h bears f o r  w h i c h w o u l d be c r e a t e d  food,  by t h e i m b a l a n c e i n  of the communities w i t h i n the f o r e s t environment.  films,  attention.  included  were  A l l the questions  were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e  down  also  which they  happen i f h a l f t h e b e a r s i n t h e f o r e s t were k i l l e d . The which  the  i t s content,  were n o t a n s w e r e d d i r e c t l y  students  is a  affect  see.  12 o r more q u e s t i o n s  were open e n d e d , i n t h a t t h e y  Tree  and  introduced  going  expected  example,  Forest,"  F o r e x a m p l e , "The I n c r e d i b l e  the students  For  conditions  o f t h e F o r e s t , " were r e l a t e d t o  presented  film.  discussed  School.  F o r e s t " showed t h e way humans forest.  films  It  the f i l m .  about was  half-an-hour  long,  held  o b s e r v e d t h a t some s t u d e n t s  After  the  film,  students'  the  students'  t o o k down n o t e s answers  to the  100  questions teacher  were  t o these  exercise  could  discussed.  The  suggestions  l e d the writer  have  enhanced  encouraging  of  the  to believe that  this  students'  response  attitudes  towards  c o n s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e . The  science  topics  which  were  taught  prior  t o t h e camp  p r o g r a m were "mammals" a n d " e c o s y s t e m . " E a c h s t u d e n t to  write  a  r e p o r t on a f a r m  they  were  animal  living  expected  would  face,  asked  a n i m a l . As p a r t o f t h e d i r e c t i o n s  f o r t h a t a s s i g n m e n t t h e y were t o l d of t h e farm a n i m a l s  was  t o do l i b r a r y  r e s e a r c h on one  a t t h e Outdoor S c h o o l .  to  write  i f  i t was  about  In the  report  problems which that  returned  to  i t s  farm  natural  e n v i ronment. In  language a r t s ,  students d i s c u s s e d the t h i n g s they  about f o r e s t s , and these together.  i d e a s were u s e d  They were t o w r i t e a n o t h e r  f o r e s t and t o submit i t a f t e r  to  write  some  poems  poem on some a s p e c t  of the  t h e camp p r o g r a m .  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e academic p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s a l s o g i v e n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e Outdoor Each  student  was  given  a  copy  of  the  students'  s u p p l i e d by t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l . T h i s book c o n t a i n e d w h i c h was c o n s i d e r e d example, living  the  type  duties,  School.  handbook,  information  the outdoor  c o n d i t i o n s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e of  were  t o be p e r t i n e n t t o t h e camp e x p e r i e n c e . F o r  i t had i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s i t e ,  the  liked  clothing  and  equipment  program  f o r them t o r e a d  schedule.  The  teachers  own,  a n d l a t e r d i s c u s s e d t h e c o n t e n t s w i t h them. I n t h e w r i t e r ' s  opinion,  time  School,  w h i c h •was a p p r o p r i a t e ,  t a b l e manners, r u l e s and t h e g e n e r a l allowed  Outdoor  staff,  the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e students helped  t h e book on t h e i r  them t o  acquire  101  a  more  receptive  program. Nineteen  frame  of  students  mind  were  for  the  interviewed  p r o g r a m , a n d a l l o f them i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y going  to  of  them  of  camp  knew what t h e y were  o f them a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l , a n d  they c o u l d l o s e  conduct.  about  i f they d i d not comply w i t h  and  a t t i t u d e s towards  t h e • p r e p a r a t i o n of  parents d i d not d i r e c t l y natural resources,  affect  since  students  i n v o l v e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was, h o w e v e r ,  effective  i n making the s t u d e n t s b e t t e r p r e p a r e d they  would  teachers,  the students'  directly  than  the  them f o r t h e camp p r o g r a m .  In- t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e w r i t e r , counsellors,  they  In t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of  the s t u d e n t s helped t o ready  program  the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t g o i n g t o t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l was a  p r i v i l e g e which rules  before  d o , l e a r n , a n d s e e a t t h e camp. A l l o f them f e l t  knew what was e x p e c t e d half  o b j e c t i v e s of the  for  were  not  indirectly the  camp  h a v e been i f no p r e p a r a t i o n h a d been  done. As p a r t o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e  visiting  school  teachers  were g i v e n c o p i e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' handbook t o s t u d y . T h e r e were meetings meetings  at  the  at the v i s i t i n g  and  one m e e t i n g  and  the v i s i t i n g The  Outdoor  school involving  of  the outdoor  the v i s i t i n g  of  at  the  teachers,  the  Outdoor  counsellors, of the  School  suitable  for  School  discussed  field  the  camp  study  visiting  topics  program,  the  and t h e arrangements f o r t h e teachers  discussed  way t h e s t u d e n t s were g o i n g t o be p r e p a r e d , d i s c u s s e d the suggested  staff,  school.  camp p r o g r a m . The m e e t i n g s the  involving  between a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f r o m t h e O u t d o o r  meetings  preparation  School  and  they  considered  discussed  which  which to  be  of the  1 02  suggested  recreational activities  would  be  suitable  f o r the  students. The  meeting  School and t h e mainly  the  representative  involved  fulfilled For  between  with  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from from  visiting  administrative details  example,  the  teachers  checked  written  notation  of  to  was  h a d t o be  the  students.  ensure  of a parent  any m e d i c a l  school  which  b e f o r e the Outdoor School would accept  p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t had t h e consent a  the  t h e Outdoor  that  each  in writing,  problems any s t u d e n t or  they  t h e s t u d e n t s were a s s i g n e d  to  cabin  School  and  study  groups.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e asked  recreational activities for  the  camp  A l s o a t that meeting,  about t h e  which  of  might  have, o r any s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d be aware o f . I n a d d i t i o n ,  problems  and  field  the v i s i t i n g  study  students  t h e Outdoor topics  t e a c h e r s had s e l e c t e d -  p r o g r a m . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h a t h a d n o t been  made b e c a u s e a m e e t i n g  h a d been p l a n n e d  by t h e  visiting  school  t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s them. The two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n t a c t e d o t h e r by t e l e p h o n e In to of  t o communicate t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  enabled  one  outdoor  staff  member  teachers before t h e i r a r r i v a l  a t t h e camp,  to  suitable  discuss  and  to  select  recreational activities, potential The meeting  encouraged  field  study  teachers t o p i c s and  to  discuss  t o t h e camp p r o g r a m .  p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r e n t s the v i s i t i n g  functions.  t o meet t h e v i s i t i n g  a n d gave t e a c h e r s a c h a n c e  problems r e l a t e d  helped  arrangements  t h e camp p r o g r a m . The m e e t i n g s s e r v e d many u s e f u l  They  each  later.  t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the p r e p a r a t i o n of teachers  complete  and  i n v o l v e d one m e e t i n g .  teachers briefed  During the  t h e p a r e n t s a b o u t t h e camp  1 03  program,  and  encouraged  parents  to  react to the information  p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e was, f o r e x a m p l e , a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n Outdoor  School.  In  a d d i t i o n , one t e a c h e r  reviewed  on  the  the p l a n of  t h e camp p r o g r a m a n d t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h h a d been made i n t h e school  f o r t h e d e p a r t u r e and a r r i v a l  the Outdoor  School.  After, the b r i e f i n g , planned  of t h e s t u d e n t s t o and from  program.  arrangements  p a r e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d t o r e a c t t o t h e  Parents  had  been  said  they  planned  to  wanted ensure  to the  know  what  s a f e t y of the  s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d e d by d e s c r i b i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s a t the Outdoor S c h o o l , the experience to  be  o f t h e a d u l t s who were  going  i n v o l v e d i n t h e camp p r o g r a m , a n d t h e s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s  w h i c h had  been  described  Following  that  answer  major concern,  in  the  Outdoor  many p a r e n t s  and t h a t they  were  School  handbooks.  s a i d t h a t s a f e t y was  satisfied  with  their  the  safety  the w r i t e r ' s opinion, the preparation of parents  served  p r e c a u t i o n s w h i c h were d e s c r i b e d . In to a l l a y  the f e a r s of parents about t h e s a f e t y of t h e i r  a t t h e Outdoor S c h o o l , and i t a l s o h e l p e d  children  t o c o n f i r m the support  of t h e p a r e n t s f o r t h e camp p r o g r a m by m a k i n g  the  parents  feel  more p o s i t i v e l y a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m . In  the  p a r e n t s on natural  w r i t e r ' s opinion, the e f f e c t  the  students'  resources  was  attitudes  indirect.  after  to  questions  and/or  towards  I t informed  program, thereby p l a c i n g the parents relate  of t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of  in  comments  a  conservation  of  p a r e n t s about t h e  better  position  which the students  to made  t h e camp p r o g r a m . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n v o l v e d a m e e t i n g  followed  104  by  a  weekend  m e e t i n g was had  orientation  held  i n the  volunteered  staff  to  copy  of  at the Outdoor S c h o o l .  school d i s t r i c t  assist  member e x p l a i n e d  program. At  program  the  in  The  role  of  School  counsellors  p r o g r a m , and  orientation  program work.  picked  returned  consisted  Some  of  the  characteristics  of  elementary  teaching  of  them on  the  the  of  camp  given  a  week-end  school  Outdoor  and  involved  the  School,  the  c h i l d r e n , the  r o l e of  a  School  s e l e c t e d the best  ones f o r  camp p r o g r a m .  In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , indirectly  towards conservation  to  the  preparation  enhancing  the  of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  t h e camp p r o g r a m . S i n c e  experience,  counsellors  students'  because i t  attitudes helped  by  gave them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  instructing  t o see  f i e l d study  them The  how  to  t o meet  t o p r a c t i c e some of  sessions before  no the  handle  preparation  the Outdoor S c h o o l ,  t o t h e p r o g r a m , and  to  t h e c o u n s e l l o r s had  i n v o l v i n g the younger s t u d e n t s .  prior  of  t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o making  camp p r o g r a m more e f f i c i e n t  and  seminars,  A f t e r t h e week, t h e O u t d o o r  t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , and  outdoor s t a f f  The  Outdoor  evaluated  for  Sunday a f t e r n o o n .  the  staff  them  the  r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s , and  procedures.  contributed  prospective for  discussed  the  r u l e s and  the Outdoor School  the  lectures,  School  recreation  outdoor  Friday afternoon  things  daily operation  situations  an  in  before  a l l  on  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  up  school d i s t r i c t  orientation  teaching  and  who  program.  c o u n s e l l o r s from the  counsellor,  those  t h a t m e e t i n g e a c h p r o s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r was  Outdoor  practical  All  t h e p r o g r a m met  t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s handbook t o s t u d y  orientation  ready  office.  The  interacting with  also the the the  105  students. phase  Besides  enabled  counsellors (2) F i e l d  preparing  the  the  Outdoor  preparation  t o s e l e c t t h e most s u i t a b l e  Studies  they learned  s o m e t h i n g new  about  they  what  could  though each f i e l d  out  School  the  f o r t h e camp p r o g r a m .  T h e r e were f o u r f i e l d  plants  counsellors,  and  study  wildlife,  study  i n each s e s s i o n , do  included  the a c t i v i t i e s  during  the  students  said  that  i n c l u d i n g new  things  to conserve n a t u r a l resources.  session  i n v o l v e d o n l y p l a n t s and  only discussed  t o p i c s . The  which the  animals.  field  things  about  study  energy,  students  Energy-related  Even  carried  i s s u e s were  sessions, without  further  activity. All  the  interviewed  study  counsellors  and  s a i d that they found each f i e l d  interesting learned  students,  and  important.  The  and  how  study  who  d i s c u s s i o n of  i t enhanced the  were  session  counsellors reported  something themselves. A b r i e f topic,  teachers  to  that  each  be they  field  development of a t t i t u d e s  follows. In the and it  how was  was  t h o s e a n i m a l s were s i m i l a r pointed  goats,  and  were s i m i l a r students  out  that  felt  could  touch  to w i l d animals.  that d o m e s t i c a t e d goats are  that  farm animals For  not  see  a l l four  farm.  or t o u c h w i l d amimals i n the  f a r m a n i m a l s were a good  them,  the  examine  their  were a s k e d  feet,  example,  similar  to  wild  farm  area  Since  the  the w i l d r a b b i t s roaming around the  e t c . Four students  s t u d i e s , and  a d i s c u s s i o n of  t o t h e d o m e s t i c a t e d o n e s on  could  writer  habits,  farm s t u d i e s , t h e r e  f o r e s t , the  substitute.  Students  t e e t h , eyes,  i f they enjoyed  r e s p o n d e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . The  feeding  the  farm  students  1 06  said  they  liked  petting  the  animals,  helping  to  feed the  a n i m a l s , a n d l e a r n i n g a b o u t them. They s a i d t h e y were  surprised  t o f i n d o u t how u s e f u l t h e a n i m a l s were t o h u m a n i t y a n d how adaped  they  were  students related that  to  their  environments.  At l e a s t  t h i s experience to wild animals.  He  one o f t h e commented  i f h u n t e r s had a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e a n i m a l  environment,  their  desire  for  killing  wild  animals  well  in i t s  would  be  reduced. The f a r m to  use  s e s s i o n was h e l p f u l ,  the  differences  among  too, i n enabling the students the  farm  animals  c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . For example, d u r i n g the  different  types of food which  mentioned  that,  like  different  types  of  who were i n t e r e s t e d  farm  discussion  animals,  wild  animals  f o o d , a n d t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t in  of  t h e f a r m a n i m a l s a t e , i t was  conserving  them  arranging  f o o d f o r them. They were t o l d ,  can  eat  not  the  to discuss  to  know  feed  on  f o r people  this  before  f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t moose  g r a s s b u t t h a t some p e o p l e ,  i n an a t t e m p t  t o save  them d u r i n g h e a v y snow p e r i o d s , h a d f l o w n i n g r a s s t o h e l p them. B e c a u s e t h e moose c o u l d n o t e a t t h e g r a s s t h a t worthwhile.  In  the  writer's  i n f o r m a t i o n and a b e t t e r interested In  i n and/or understand  the  stream  of  an  studies,  ecosystem  they c o u l d a f f e c t They into  washing  was  not  s t u d e n t s new to  become  some c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . the  students  ecosystem.  l e a r n e d about t h e  They were  told  that  the  were i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . They d i s c u s s e d how  the stream  learned . the e f f e c t it,  i t gave  frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r them  d e l i c a t e n e s s of the stream parts  opinion,  effort  soap i n t o  both  positively  and  of w a l k i n g i n a stream, it,  and  removing  negatively.  throwing  garbage  rocks  from i t .  107  They  also  discussed  ideas with other In another  how  they c o u l d share  their  k n o w l e d g e and  people. s e s s i o n on s t r e a m s ,  they  l e a r n e d of t h e r o l e  s t r e a m s i n t h e f o r e s t . The t e a c h e r u s e d an a n a l o g y feelings water,  of  the  someone  threw  realize  about  rocks  the stream  the  value  t h e s t u d e n t s how  into  t h a t the stream  observed  their  they  the  the  stream,  other  the teacher  the  of  value  and  teacher  the  asked  They  aware o f t h e (students')  s e s s i o n s , two a p p r o a c h e s were u s e d .  began t h e l e s s o n w i t h  forest,  the  and  students  f o r ten minutes, in  a  the  forest.  of  and  discussion  construction  of  The  of  noisy.  animals.  road  of  the forest where  the  experience the affect  d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h e n s u e d l e d them t o  very  wild a  discussion  forest,  t o s i t and q u i e t l y  They  realized  humans i n t h e f o r e s t a n d t h e i r  other  a  a n d t o c o n s i d e r how humans c o u l d  t h a t humans were  presence birds  i f  thus l e a r n i n g  becoming  e c o s y s t e m . Then t h e g r o u p went o u t i n t o t h e  accept  organisms.  e c o s y s t e m , a n d how t h e i r  forest ecology  I n one c a s e  life  feel  into  could affect i t .  In  forest  would  organisms and d i d water t e s t s , of  rocks  h o u s e , a n d t h e y were t o l d t o  was t h e home o f  d e l i c a t e n e s s of the stream behavior  t o get t o the  s t u d e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , on t h r o w i n g  the teacher asked  of  They  through  a  the  noise s c a t t e r e d the  discussed  forest  that  could  how  the  a f f e c t the  w i l d l i fe. In t h e o t h e r c a s e , having  students  draw  c o n i f e r s and d e c i d u o u s  the  teacher  some  of  a  discussion  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  trees. During  mentioned t h e uses of f o r e s t s ,  started  and  by  f e a t u r e s of  the d i s c u s s i o n , the teacher why  i t was  necessary  to  108  conserve  them.  conduct t h e i r that  Again  there  was a d i s c u s s i o n o f how  they  s t u d i e s w i t h minimum damage t o t h e f o r e s t .  discussion,  such t h i n g s  like  mentioned.  While  in  the  forest,  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e f o r e s t birds  were  trunks,  nesting  students  woodpeckers  feeding  insects  s u c h human a c t i o n s  plants.  Towards  like  the  insects, the  s t u d e n t s saw t h e For  example,  in  the  mosses  and  They s t u d i e d carving  t h e b a r k o f t r e e s , and  names on t r e e s a f f e c t e d  the  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o asked  about  f o r e s t was i n f l u e n c e d by humans, w a t e r , a n i m a l s ,  wind,  fire,  disease,  i n t h e i r worksheet, which  and i c e s t o r m s . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e d  forest ecology sessions  students'  plants  were mosses on t h e t r e e  t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n ,  respond t o the questions how  living  on  using  on t h e i n s e c t s . S t u d e n t s a l s o saw s q u i r r e l s  g o i n g up a t r e e and f e e d i n g . how  the  communities.  i n the t r e e s , there  saw  During  s t a y i n g on t h e t r a i l s ,  f a l l e n p a r t s of p l a n t s as specimens, and not s t e p p i n g were  could  contributed  towards  a t t i t u d e s , because they l e a r n e d  do t o c o n s e r v e , and  they  were  made  enhancing  a b o u t what t h e y  aware  of  the  need  that the could for  conservation. In  the b i r d  s t u d i e s , where t h e y h a d t h e u s e o f b i n o c u l a r s ,  s t u d e n t s saw many k i n d s  o f b i r d s . They saw many b i r d n e s t s ,  noted v a r i a t i o n s i n the s i t e . to  have  previously  known  and  F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t s d i d n o t seem that  some b i r d s n e s t e d i n t h e s a n d .  They were r e m i n d e d o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p l a n t s  t o b i r d s , and why  t h e y were a d v i s e d  While  touring learned abandon  the that the  not t o trample over bushes.  property i f they nest,  and s t u d y i n g touched  that  a  there  they  were  t h e b e h a v i o r of b i r d s , they  bird's  eggs  are differences  the  bird  would  i n t h e types of  109  s o n g s made by b i r d s ( e . g . , o r d i n a r y and  that  humans a f f e c t b i r d s b o t h p o s i t i v e l y  such a c t s as b u i l d i n g b i r d  feeders  the w r i t e r ' s p o i n t of view, a p a r t which the students  and  the f i e l d  wildlife  mentioned i n  bird  study  a n d n e g a t i v e l y by From  from t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n of b i r d s  sessions  overall  cries),  s t u d i e s , they  learned  about  involved a c t i v i t i e s with  plant  communities.  conservation. the  distress  and c o n s t r u c t i n g roads.  g o t from t h e b i r d  how p e o p l e c o u l d a f f e c t All  songs and  Energy  need  conservation  f o r conservation  was  only  methods  by  humanity. (3) F i l m s Shown a t t h e O u t d o o r Three "The  films  fit  and  director  life  the  first  ecosystem  the  the  important The  components  of  a  second f i l m d i s c u s s e d p l a n t s and a n i m a l s ,  nature.  In  people  (mainly  products  conservation.  stream  addition,  the  the food  living  in  i n and around a stream.  life  i n a stream, d i f f e r e n t  food  c h a i n , and  do,  in  e c o s y s t e m , a n d why i t i s  film cited  industrialists)  organisms  behavior  to l i f e  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a q u a t i c a n i m a l s ,  t o conserve p l a n t s and animals  of a q u a t i c  and  of animals  c h a i n , w a t e r p o l l u t i o n a n d how i t a f f e c t s water,  i n t e r e s t and  f i l m dealt with the migratory  c y c l e s of salmon, the a d a p t a t i o n  rivers,  the  studies.  the f i l m s dealt with the  example,  River",  The f i l m s were p r e v i e w e d by  a n d s e l e c t e d by h e r f o r t h e i r  w i t h t h e theme o f t h e f i e l d All  For  w e r e shown d u r i n g t h e camp. "A L i v i n g  Other World", and "Trees".  recreation  School  the  balance  some o f t h e t h i n g s  like  of  which  some  waste  ( e . g., c o p p e r w a s t e s ) i n t o s t r e a m s and r i v e r s .  I t was  mentioned i n the f i l m t h a t because the  putting  types  stream  organisms  could  1 10  not  tolerate  high  copper  content  i n the water  t h e y d i e d . The  f i l m a l s o m e n t i o n e d what p e o p l e  c a n do t o . r e d u c e  suggested  others putting o i l ,  that i f people  into a river  they  The t h i r d  found  pollution,  t r e e , how  f i l m was e s s e n t i a l l y a b o u t f o r e s t e c o l o g y a n d t h e  the  process  of p h o t o s y n t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n ,  tree  provide  supports  different  other organisms  another.  I t showed how a n i m a l s  The f i l m a l s o s u g g e s t e d  of  the  film  i n the  discussion after  what  the  the l a s t  preceding  told  showed  that  f e r n s , m o s s e s , and  forest  trees,  depend  trees.  three  films,  and  two. The d i s c u s s i o n s were s i m i l a r .  the teacher asked  students  " i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p " meant. A f t e r the  to  a The  five  students  explain  responses, mentioned,  t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e y were g o i n g t o l e a r n more a b o u t  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i v i n g  and  stream.  the students that the f i l m  going  on  environment.  the teacher summarized the ideas which and  and t h e  and f o l l o w i n g one f i l m has been d e s c r i b e d  the f i l m ,  term  life,  i n g e n e r a l c a n damage  T h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n p r e c e d i n g a l l  below. Before  an  some r a t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s t o be  used t o m a i n t a i n the n a t u r a l  discussion  of  a n d some p l a n t s f e e d on  t h a t most o f t h e o r g a n i s m s l i v i n g  one  kinds  (e.g., b i r d s ,  i n s e c t s ) w i t h homes, t h a t a n i m a l s and  cycle  t h e t r e e i s a f f e c t e d by w e a t h e r , how t h e community  around  trees  f o r example,  should report i t .  uses of t r e e s . F o r example, i t d e s c r i b e d the l i f e oak  and  The to  teacher  show  them  interrelationships pollution; After  also  told  about:  among  the  living  non-living  life  cycle  things  of  t h i n g s , the balance  an  in  a was  animal;  of n a t u r e ;  and p r e d a t i o n . the f i l m ,  the teacher asked  the  students  what  they  111  learned. the  Their  answers i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  f a c t s a n d p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h were  learned  the  life  of  intended.  They  some o f  said  they  c y c l e s o f t h e oak t r e e a n d some i n s e c t s ; t h e  ecosystem around a t r e e ; importance  had l e a r n e d  how  conserving  insects  depend  on  t r e e s ; a n d why t h e y  plants;  should  the  not touch  the eggs i n b i r d ' s n e s t s . It the the  i s clear,  conservation film;  writer  from t h e above, t h a t t h e o f p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e  and, the p o s i t i v e nature  to believe that t h e i r  of  students  considered  as a r e s u l t  of viewing  the  discussion  l e d the  a t t i t u d e s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n  could  w e l l have been e n h a n c e d . After  the f i l m ,  students  were t o l d  member o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a f f e c t s o t h e r were  also  being  u s e d up i n t h e w o r l d ,  their  told  that  resources,  generations. objectives  will  told  the  Outdoor  understand conservation  not  of n a t u r a l  be  •was  d i d not  enough  students  School  students  ( i n c l u d i n g energy) a r e  and t h a t , i f p e o p l e  there  the  o r g a n i s m s . The  natural resources  The t e a c h e r of  t h a t t h e r e m o v a l of any  that  to  for one  help  save future  of  the  students t o  resources.  The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f i l m s c o n t r i b u t e d t o e n h a n c i n g the  students'  conservation  about p l a n t s and a n i m a l s , what the  they films  a t t i t u d e s . The f i l m s d i s c u s s e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  c a n do t o c o n s e r v e . showed  that  i n t e r e s t i n g . A l l 26 s t u d e n t s they  learned  animals, One  something  and c o n s e r v a t i o n factor  which  taught  them  In a d d i t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w s  after  a l l the  new  films  were  and  things  valuable  who were i n t e r v i e w e d c o n f i r m e d from  the  film,  and that  about p l a n t s and  methods. the  writer  believed  made  the  films  11 2  e f f e c t i v e was t h e d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e a n d a f t e r pre-screening d i s c u s s i o n helped were The  going  t o see and h e l p e d  post-screening  understand  the  practices.  During  conservation  s t u d e n t s t o a n t i c i p a t e what them u n d e r s t a n d  discussions films  and  those  was  also  to  relate  and  the films  helped  discussions  raised,  t h e s c r e e n i n g . The  the  them the  better.  students  to  to  conservation  topic  conservation  they  of  energy  practices  were  mentioned. (4) The O u t d o o r S c h o o l The  writer  contributed  Environment  b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e t t i n g of t h e Outdoor  to  the  enhancement o f s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s  c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The happy,  and  academically  conservation-related The of  the  rich  camp  might  occur.  at the s i t e ,  over camp.  problems  of  the  first  Outdoor  what  needed  gave m e d i c a t i o n s required supervised  on t h e a r r i v a l meeting  studies. During  safe,  learning  the  safety  who l i v e d a t problems  of  to  their  students.  Apart  surveillance, teachers  She their the  had  a  list  of  p a r e n t s , and took students  at  the  she b r i e f e d a l l t h e t e a c h e r s and  t o be done i n c a s e  constant by  from  a l l medical  School.  c o u n s e l l o r s a b o u t s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e d and  for  t h e r e was a n u r s e  t h e s t u d e n t s from  their medications At  a  She w o r k e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a p h y s i c i a n  who was r e t a i n e d by t h e medical  towards  issues.  t h e camp, whose d u t y was t o t a k e c a r e o f that  provided  environment  camp was a s a f e p l a c e , b e c a u s e , a p a r t structures  School  constant  o f an e m e r g e n c y . She a l o n e from  the  a l l students  and  surveillance,  counsellors  students were during  who  closely field  r e c r e a t i o n , when t h e y were w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ,  113  the  recreation  director  c o u n s e l l o r s and s t u d e n t s . been any  personally  The p r o p e r t y  m a r k e d , a n d when s t u d e n t s purpose they  and  to  camp  carried walkie-talkies  a l s o had a s t o c k  ensure that students  while pet  were m a i n t a i n e d  so  that  to  canoeing,  archery,  hunts.  Or,  or f i s h i n g . Furthermore, kitchen  students  were  given  again  with before  a  and  helped  they  school  was  time,  staff  ensured  that  were  always  with a balanced  t h e m s e l v e s t o them. S t u d e n t s were  snack every  f o r the  afternoon,  after  Outdoor  development  practices.  members r e s p e c t e d in  free  d i d . Seconds  of  a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e were camp r u l e s w h i c h  signs  their  games,  field  diet, also  s t u d i e s , and  bedtime.  environment  staff  safety,  and  S t u d e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d t o e a t  In t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e  conservation  recreation,  time p l a y i n g t a b l e t e n n i s ,  e v e r y o n e h a d been s e r v e d  most s t u d e n t s  served  good f o o d .  given,  after  i n , w i t h a swimming  during  football,  available  situations  w h i c h were s a f e t o  water  c o u l d choose t o spend t h e i r  were  problems  a i d equipment  unsafe  c o u l d use o f t e n d u r i n g  students  they  had  on t h e f a r m .  e x p l o r i n g , and t r e a s u r e  what  area  any  of r a i n gear and f i r s t  were n o t exposed  pool which the students for  the  f o r immediate a t t e n t i o n .  camp was a r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t t o l i v e  facilities  camp  both  t h e marked a r e a f o r  a t t h e camp. I n a d d i t i o n , o n l y a n i m a l s  The  and  the  went o u t s i d e  c o u l d be c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e camp s t a f f The  supervised  and  around  School  favorable  and t h e  the r u l e s themselves.  f o r environmental  There  indicating  studies.  These  a  rich  conservation  encompassed  Both the teaching  the property  was  appropriate non-teaching were  many  that the outdoor had  been  so  1 1  conveniently least  placed  that  been  20 d i f f e r e n t  conveniently  placed  students  saw them w h i l e t h e y  one  of  the  they  were t o u r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y  There and  w r i t e r b e l i e v e d e v e r y o n e saw a t  one e a c h d a y . T h e r e were o v e r  had  the  4  were  some  many  There  were a t t h e camp,  soon a f t e r  feeders  which  a r e a , and a l l  because  i t was while  a r r i v i n g at the  camp.  c o n s e r v a t i o n - r e l a t e d magazines i n the lounge, were were  observed energy  reading  which d i s p l a y e d , apart  f o o d web, t h e  energy  and  different i n every  boards  i n the  energy-conservation  wildlife  poems  on  posters  bulletin  from t h e  p o s t e r s , on p o l l u t i o n , cycle,  them  conservation  posters, other  students,  bird  around the l i v i n g  b u i l d i n g a t t h e camp. T h e r e were many auditorium,  of  t h i n g s w h i c h c o u n s e l l o r s showed t h e s t u d e n t s  students  occasions.  types  conservation, the  written  by  previous  some o f w h i c h a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e n e e d t o c o n s e r v e t h e  e n v i ronment, The  Outdoor School  had v i d e o  tapes  and playback  facilities  i n t h e l o u n g e w h i c h t e a c h e r s were e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e . Two o f visiting  teachers  was a m o b i l e Ministry  were s e e n u s i n g them on two o c c a s i o n s .  library  of  the  facility,  Environment  and on  enhancement p r o j e c t s , f o r e s t f i r e s ,  many  acid  materials  One o f t h e p r a c t i c e s a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l i n s p e c t i o n o f c a b i n s by t h e n u r s e .  The b e s t  trophy  had  which  a l l the  students  cabin  which  points. During  d i d not r e s p e c t  salmon  conservation. involved a daily  of  t o make. the  the energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  t h e p r o g r a m one c l e a n c a b i n  the  c a b i n was a w a r d e d  helped  c l e a n l i n e s s a p p e a r e d t o be t h e main c o n c e r n  There  from  rain, pollution,  and w i l d l i f e  the  left  their  a  Although  nurse, rules lights  any lost on  115  and c o n s e q u e n t l y From only  a  d i d not win the trophy.  the w r i t e r ' s p o i n t of view, safe  and e n j o y a b l e  one t h a t e n h a n c e d  the  the Outdoor School  was n o t  environment, but a l s o a s t i m u l a t i n g  development  of  favorable  conservation  t h a t t h e program s t a f f  ( t e a c h e r s and  attitudes. (5) The P r o g r a m ' The  Staff  writer  believed  c o u n s e l l o r s who t o o k the  program  a  p a r t i n t h e program) c o n t r i b u t e d t o  success.  that, they  found  important  and i n t e r e s t i n g  All  the  A l l t h e c o u n s e l l o r s and t e a c h e r s  t h e camp p r o g r a m a n d t h e  field  counsellors  who  took  part  be  were  i n the program. A l l t e n from the  week-  p r e p a r a t i o n a t t h e camp, e i g h t o f them h a d been t o t h e camp  a s s t u d e n t s . They They  field  knew t h e i r  role  in  studies  happily  they  were  heard  using  willing  program,  and  worked  s t u d i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , some o f discussing  different  the  occasions  specifically  questions  conservation.  The  environmental  terms  c o r r e c t l y . They were  like  always  t h e s t u d e n t s even a f t e r  on  world  degradation  were  were  they  going  and unwise use of  study  students sessions,  learning  explained through natural  a  field  overheard  c a b i n s where  field  they  said  was  the  the  why  counsellors the  counsellors  in  them q u e s t i o n s a b o u t some o f  that  ecological  t o h e l p t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e s t u d e n t s when t h e  n e e d a r o s e . The c o u n s e l l o r s h e l p e d  students  the  knew what t h e y were t e a c h i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e  ecosystem, food c h a i n and p o l l u t i o n  asked  to  i n t h e program  c o u n s e l l o r s h a d been t o s i m i l a r camps a n d , a p a r t  hard.  studies  said  t o them, a n d t o t h e s t u d e n t s .  i n t e r e s t e d a n d had v o l u n t e e r e d t o a s s i s t  end  making  about  to phase  the of  resources.  116  According  to  the  c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e y had t o l d  t h o s e p r o b l e m s were b e i n g c a u s e d people  who d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d  by  the students  industrialists  the problems,  and  and  would  help t o conserve  because  they  very  to  do  such  company  talking  went  the  students  influential  f o r most o f t h e  the  counsellors in  e x p l o r i n g , or p e t t i n g of counsellors.  During  time.  The  w r i t i n g down t h e a d d r e s s e s  writer  a n d phone  study  s a i d they  visiting  enjoyed  i t . One  s c h o o l who was u n a b l e  replaced  by a n o t h e r  of  the  numbers  and  to participate  Apart  had taught  from  A l l the  the outdoor  ranged  had  teachers  had  between  t h e camp p r i o r had  t o p i c s , and a l l of  believed  important  attitudes  i n t h e p r o g r a m was  a  university  one  t e a c h e r s who l i v e d  conservation-related i t was v e r y  the  f o r at least three years. Their teaching  t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s had v i s i t e d  program.  from  t e a c h e r who was i n t e r e s t e d . The b a c k g r o u n d s  e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e grade s i x l e v e l years.  part i n the  teachers  t h e s i x t e a c h e r s showed t h a t e a c h o f them  degree  all  also  t h e c o u n s e l l o r s on t h e l a s t d a y a t camp. L i k e t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , a l l t h e t e a c h e r s who t o o k  of  the  t o t h e c o u n s e l l o r s a n d t h e y were s e e n  w i t h s t u d e n t s f o r most o f t h a t  observed of  students  of  t h i n g s as f i s h i n g ,  f a r m a n i m a l s . The s t u d e n t s l i k e d freetime,  were  c l o s e to the students  week. The s t u d e n t s n e e d e d t h e order  people.  believed that the counsellors were  so t h a t  t h e environment and i t s r e s o u r c e s ,  t o p a s s on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o o t h e r The w r i t e r  other  and t h a t p a r t of t h e  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m was t o h e l p them t o u n d e r s t a n d they  that  and s i x  a t t h e camp, to  the  some e x p e r i e n c e them  said  camp  teaching  that  they  f o r students t o acquire favorable  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy,  p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e .  1 17  T h e i r b e h a v i o r a t t h e camp showed t h a t t h e y were conservation  and  interested  very  keen  i n the s t u d e n t s . F o r example,  helped the students t o design c o n s e r v a t i o n p o s t e r s as activities The  cooperation  from  their  field  anyone.  of  see  follow-up  a l l t h e t e a c h e r s was e x c e l l e n t .  study The  t o p i c s a n d were  open  to  the  greatest  expressed  variety  of  b i r d s . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the  by  the  sites  f o r her b i r d  recreation  another  study s e s s i o n s .  d i r e c t o r , and which t h e  writer  s h a r e d , was t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were s o e n t h u s i a s t i c  their  work  were b e i n g The on  t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a d t o be i n t e r e s t e d  i n what  like  f i s h i n g and p e t t i n g t h e  t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e c o u n s e l l o r s  t o w a t c h what t h e s t u d e n t s d i d , a n d t o r e a c t t o t h e i r behaviors.  consciously or  During  those  unconsciously  interractions  showed  the  not  students  attitudes  the  adults,  their  own  a t t i t u d e s . F o r e x a m p l e , when one t e a c h e r was g o i n g o u t  w i t h two s t u d e n t s who w a n t e d t o s p e n d t h e i r asked  they  t e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o s u p e r v i s e o r accompany t h e s t u d e n t s  farm a n i m a l s . That r o l e e n a b l e d  positive  about  taught.  some o f t h e f r e e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s  and  at  t h e r e s i d e n t t e a c h e r s where i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e  t e a c h e r and s e l e c t e d t h e b e s t view  about  arriving  d e t a i l s o f what she w a n t e d she t o u r e d t h e p r o p e r t y w i t h  A  They  alternate  t e a c h e r s were a l s o e n t h u s i a s t i c  work. As an e x a m p l e , one t e a c h e r , soon a f t e r  t h e camp, a s k e d to  they  on two e v e n i n g s .  discussed their ideas  on  the second student trample  over  to follow  the f i r s t  f r e e t i m e f i s h i n g , he so t h a t they  would  t h e b u s h e s . He t o o f o l l o w e d t h e s t u d e n t s  in a  file. Thus, t h e program s t a f f  c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement  of  the  1 18  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s by s e r v i n g a s good m o d e l s . (6) V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e T e a c h i n g  S t r a t e g i e s Used  E v e n t h o u g h a l l t h e t e a c h e r s u s e d an e c o l o g i c a l discuss  their  individual  t e c h n i q u e s . One t e a c h e r teach that  a' f o r e s t  doing  s e s s i o n s , they used s l i g h t l y  u s e d a u n i t w h i c h she h a d  ecology  the students  study  t h e f o r e s t p l a n t s and  enjoy  and  t h a t was t h e a p p r o a c h she u s e d .  conservation;  began  and  by  stressing  explained,  could help people  for  conservation  were  more  view w i t h the  was  and  knew  teacher,  third  animals would for  to practice but  i f students  t o save.  t o save,  and  He t h e n a s k e d  animals  which  negative  i d e a s about t h e o t h e r  forest  to  importance  they wanted t o save,  explained control of  t o him,  understood practicing  shared  that  considered  how  students  populations  conserving  them.  (e.g.,  animals  of  other  After  which  to offer for  and addressed  animals those  to identify  others  t h e i r c h o i c e s . He a c k n o w l e d g e d h i s s u p p o r t  He  energy  collectively,  The w r i t e r  began by a s k i n g s t u d e n t s  which they would l i k e  snakes).  of  the best m o t i v a t i o n .  teacher  not l i k e  wondered  that  and/or  it.  aspect,  how  because i f s t u d e n t s  necessary,  likely  s a v i n g money a s b e i n g A  organisms,  importance  example,  c o n s e r v a t i o n w o u l d h e l p them i n d i v i d u a l l y they  other  the  to  important  t o s a v e money. A c c o r d i n g  t h a t a p p r o a c h was more e f f e c t i v e why  developed  t h a t ; before d i s c u s s i n g the conservation  teacher  conservation  different  s e s s i o n . She b e l i e v e d i t was  and  Another  approach t o  some they  reasons  saving  the  the students'  wild  cats  and  were v a l u a b l e i n t h e animals,  that  and  introduction  the he  119  proceeded  t o d i s c u s s the r o l e of l i v i n g  and n o n - l i v i n g  an e c o s y s t e m and t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , on t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h writer's it  opinion,  reinforced  them  new  fourth  students  and  t o h e l p them r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r  which  they d i d not l i k e  teacher  discussed  d i d d u r i n g the f i e l d i n the stream  gathered  during  studies. the  i f walking  i n a stream  asked  them  to  t h e y d i d . She a s k e d  considered  throwing  edges of a stream, though  them  the  knew  seen  The  realize  the  the e f f e c t  of  garbage  a  bad  practice,  they listed  walking along the  into  a  stream.  Even  s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h a t the  discussion. later,  One  of  and two o t h e r the  writer's  the d i s c u s s i o n helped the students to  o f what t h e y d i d , a n d t h e p o s i t i v e manner i n  which  t h e d i s c u s s i o n was h e l d p r o b a b l y  were  involved  i n the a c t t o f e e l  made  guilty.  who a p o l o g i z e d became c o n s c i o u s a b o u t what the l a t t e r  teacher  other a c t s which  a p o l o g i z i n g to the teacher  content  found  t h e y c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be b a d ,  rocks i n t o a stream,  which  the  was a good o r bad p r a c t i c e .  s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have a p o l o g i z e d t o o . I n opinion  what  them t o l o o k a t t h e w a t e r ,  she d i d n o t m e n t i o n any names i n was  attitudes  a n t i - c o n s e r v a t i o n ) and t h e y  and t h r o w i n g  teacher  of  studies.)  t h a t i t was  why  gave  to conserve. effect  them t o s u g g e s t  t o be b a d , ( i . e . ,  many t h i n g s l i k e  act,  explain  and  (Some o f them were  bird  A f t e r a l l t h e s t u d e n t s had a g r e e d  which  the  a l l t h e s t u d e n t s and a s k e d  to decide  she  was e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e  t h e s t u d e n t s d e s i r e t o s a v e some a n i m a l s  information  The  elaborating  f o r the s e s s i o n . In the  t h i s t e a c h i n g approach  towards the animals  walking  had been p l a n n e d  before  things in  the  students  At l e a s t they  who  the students  did.  Although  comment w o r k e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s  120  that  the  different  same  ecosystem  among  the  were t h e n d i v i d e d tests, which  the  after  components  ecosystem.  doing  the  which  of  the  similar effects  water  was i m p o r t a n t  components among  with a  of  the  components.  teacher  i n v o l v e d them i n an  the  ecosystem  do  some  water  interrelationships  could  be.  They a l s o  o f any one component c o u l d a f f e c t  tests.  observed They  which  exist  t o conserve  that the students  also  learned  i n the stream  strings  to  ecosystem)  the  complexity  ecosystem,  and  because  they  the  e c o s y s t e m a n d why ecosystem.  from a l l t h e  t h e s t u d e n t s t o see p i c t o r i a l l y  connect of  the  enjoyed  about  a l l t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f an  other s e s s i o n s because i t helped used  stream  to  b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e s s i o n was d i f f e r e n t  (students  a  groups  complex  an  The w r i t e r  interrelationships  The w r i t e r  i n t o two  showed them how  whole  the  interrelationship  d i s c u s s e d how t h e r e m o v a l  it  not a c h i e v e  teacher discussed  and  chemical activity  may  group of s t u d e n t s .  The f i f t h  Students  method  the were  interrelationships interrelationships  i nthe in  an  involved i n developing the  p a t t e r n of t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s i x t h t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g method showed and  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f what was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d  to him. F o r example, d u r i n g t h e farm students  opportunity  by  allowing to  amount o f t i m e  During  s e s s i o n he  were  enjoyment important  encouraged  the  t o p e t t h e a n i m a l s , by s h o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t s how t o p e t  them, a n d  conserve,  that  pet  time  f o r a l l students  t h e a n i m a l s . A l s o , he d e v o t e d  t o the e x p l a n a t i o n of  a n d how c e r t a i n  why  i t is  human a c t s a f f e c t  to  have  the  considerable important  to  p l a n t s and a n i m a l s .  t h e e x p l a n a t i o n he u s e d d i f f e r e n t a n a l o g i e s . F o r e x a m p l e ,  121  he u s e d human homes a s an a n a l o g u e o f a b i r d ' s students a rock  t o imagine  into their  how d i s t u r b i n g  home, and a s k e d  if  asked  students to relate  people  He  s t u d e n t s how  they  that  put d i s c a r d e d engine  a l l of  them  before  appeared  to  to  the  o i l into  enjoyed)  discussing  have  helped  and their  feelings  of  condition  for  analogies also  them  to  appeared  and  fish  when  streams. (an a c t  to develop a l i k i n g  f o r the  conservation.  petting  The  the students to a s s o c i a t e a p o s i t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n i m a l s , and  therefore  accept to  students to associate t h e i r  that  would  someone were t o p u t o i l i n t o t h e i r d r i n k i n g w a t e r ,  animals,  in  threw  the students to r e l a t e the act  The t e a c h e r a l l o w e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o p e t t h e a n i m a l s which  asked  i t w o u l d be i f someone  t o t h e f e e l i n g s o f b i r d s . He a l s o a s k e d feel  home.  created  t o conserve  the  writer  a  favorable  a n i m a l s . The u s e o f  to  have  helped  the  f e e l i n g s t o t h e a n i m a l s . Even t h o u g h  t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h e u s e o f a n a l o g i e s was s u c c e s s f u l f o r s e s s i o n , t h e w r i t e r d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e method s h o u l d be  u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y , b e c a u s e t h e a n a l o g i e s were n o t a l w a y s  positive  with conservation-related issues. Apart  from  introduced  expected  and with  the told  interest  of  the  way  conservation  the  students.  For  students  were  of  their  sessions.  very a t t e n t i v e ;  those  attention  of  the  During  f o r grades.  two t e a c h e r s t h e u s e o f a s s i g n m e n t s the  example,  two was  those  t h e y w r o t e down n o t e s ,  a p p e a r e d t o be c o m p e t i n g among t h e m s e l v e s  sustaining  was  s t u d e n t s what t h e y were g o i n g t o do a n d what  o f them a t t h e e n d  sessions  in  t o t h e s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a l s o h a d d i f f e r e n t ways o f  sustaining teachers  the d i f f e r e n c e s  students  Thus,  was e f f e c t i v e i n  during  the  field  122  studies. The  other  four  s t u d e n t s by g i v i n g  teachers  maintained the a t t e n t i o n of the  them t h e f r e e d o m  t o explore the  environment.  F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e s t r e a m s t u d i e s , one t e a c h e r how asked  to  use  nets  t o c a t c h organisms  students t o observe d i f f e r e n c e s  S t u d e n t s were e x c i t e d a b o u t  found.  Although  s t a r t e d the a c t i v i t y , individually,  within  the  first  the students to i d e n t i f y  students  different  few  During  books t o t h e  activity,  living  the  bank  teacher  o r g a n i s m s . He  told  t o c h a n g e the- l o c a t i o n s s o t h a t t h e y c o u l d s a m p l e  organisms.  I n t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , b o t h methods were while  they  m i n u t e s , and r e t u r n e d t o  the  their  what  b o o k s w i t h them when t h e y  they a l l r e t u r n e d t h e i r  continue with the a c t i v i t y . visited  i n t h e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s .  i n e x c i t e m e n t about  they took t h e i r  the  i n t h e s t r e a m , and  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e - o r g a n i s m s  ( m a i n l y a n i m a l s ) and o f t e n s h o u t e d had  living  demonstrated  effective,  but  i n t h e f o r m e r method s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d a n d w r o t e down many  things,  i n the l a t t e r  t h e y e x p l o r e d t h e s t r e a m on t h e i r  r e a l i z e d how a n d where t h e y c o u l d Each approach  had i t s a d v a n t a g e s  find  more  stream  own a n d  organisms.  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s .  The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h  were  u s e d d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m were b o t h e f f e c t i v e a n d v a r i e d e n o u g h t o c a p t u r e t h e i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n o f a l l s t u d e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y the  writer  believed  in  the  teaching  s t r a t e g i e s used c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e enhancement of  the  students  a t t i t u d e s towards  that  the  variations  c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  1 23  (7) I n d i v i d u a l A t t e n t i o n At  school,  student-teacher s t u d e n t s who the  of  r a t i o of  were  students  counsellors  were 23 s t u d e n t s  i n each c l a s s g i v i n g  1:23.  field  During  divided per  and  group  t h o s e who  was  14.  Because the f i e l d and  because  and  In field  s t u d i e s was  abandoned the r e q u e s t  (teachers  a  normal  observed  h e l p i n g others. Often  that  the  field  to  some s t u d e n t s  f o r h e l p because a s s i s t a n c e d i d not  when t h e y n e e d e d i t . D u r i n g  arrive  s t u d i e s , however, h e l p  was  available.  F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n on were a s k e d  t o use  asked  for  a key  to i d e n t i f y  help  in  the  satisfaction the  students, on  and  were  t e a c h e r and  the teacher to respond students  some  of  the  two  following the  students  and  most  the  external  counsellors  the h e l p .  Also,  s p e c i m e n s , most o f  of t h e i r  s m a l l t h e t e a c h e r was  of  an e x p r e s s i o n o f  t o see what t h e y had  to the q u a l i t y was  plants,  the w r i t e r observed  drawing  s t u d e n t s wanted the t e a c h e r  of  some  the f a c e s of s t u d e n t s  students  forest ecology,  identifying  s t r u c t u r e s on t h e p l a n t s . The  number  of  many o c c a s i o n s , s t u d e n t s n e e d e d h e l p b u t had  w a i t b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r was  while  ratio  of the a s s i s t a n c e of c o u n s e l l o r s , s t u d e n t s  school,  helped  study s e s s i o n ,  s t u d y g r o u p s were s m a l l e r t h a n  in  them  two  16:69.  more i n d i v i d u a l h e l p . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e w r i t e r  readily  left  t h e maximum  The  had  on  a 69  addition,  to the s t u d e n t s .  field  the  s t u d e n t had  were i n v o l v e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n  c o u n s e l l o r s ) d u r i n g the  class,  (one  helped each t e a c h e r d u r i n g the  to  studies  i n t o f i v e groups,  t h u s m a k i n g more h e l p a v a i l a b l e students  the  t o o k p a r t i n t h e camp p r o g r a m  province)  number  there  done  and  work. B e c a u s e  the for the  able to help a l l  124  the s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n The  w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s g a i n e d more t h a n  o t h e r w i s e would have from small  size  h e l p which the  if  was  available was  study a c t i v i t i e s  about  the  field  field  studies,  f r o m t h e two  because  b e c a u s e of t h e  of  because  themselves,  and  t h e y had  t h e y had  the  additional  c o u n s e l l o r s . The  worthwhile  they  help  of  s t u d i e d the  more  knowledge  s e s s i o n s than the s t u d e n t s . In the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n ,  the c o u n s e l l o r s  sessions  the  o f t h e s t u d e n t g r o u p s and  counsellors  field  the c o u n s e l l o r s p r o v i d e d h e l p .  they  had  no  prior  knowledge  w o u l d have p r o b a b l y  s t u d i e s , b e c a u s e i t was  about  inhibited  likely  the  field  t h e s u c c e s s of  t h a t some of t h e i r  the  thoughts  would have c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h a t of the t e a c h e r . (8) P o s t Camp-Program After the  Activities  t h e week a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l t h e  students  in  some  follow-up  teachers  activities.  f i l m s on c o n s e r v a t i o n , d i s c u s s e d what t h e y d i d the  Outdoor  and  completed In  students  S c h o o l , wrote  letters  a c h a p t e r on a n i m a l s  from  think  through  to  learned  they  the Outdoor School environment  done i n t h e s c h o o l ,  to their  s c h o o l and  the knowledge t h e y  were  the  l e a r n e d a t the Outdoor  submitted  after  the  learned to  their  gained  O u t d o o r S c h o o l t o w r i t e a r e p o r t on a f a r m a n i m a l , and reports  at  staff,  helped  b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r r e d what t h e y had  w r i t e a poem. B o t h  two  i n the s c i e n c e c l a s s e s .  what  homes. F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t s u s e d the  and  t o the Outdoor School  S c h o o l . A l s o , b e c a u s e t h e f o l l o w - u p was writer  They w a t c h e d  the w r i t e r ' s view, the f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s to  engaged  at also  the  camp  the students to express  their  program. The  follow-up  also  helped  125  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e camp p r o g r a m by w r i t i n g Outdoor School  staff.  s t u d e n t s and they program. parents  For  at  showed  their  example,  the  one s t u d e n t  In the  a n d showed them  some  of  the  i n streams,  attitudes  by  they  (throwing rocks  p u t t i n g soap i n t o  towards  reinforcing  the  things  to  extend  what  they  into  streams).  conservation  c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l . The students  other  things  the w r i t e r ' s opinion, the follow-up a c t i v i t i e s  students'  School  to  O u t d o o r S c h o o l , a n d e x p l a i n e d how s t r e a m s were  walking  resources  the  letters  m e n t i o n e d t h a t she t o o k h e r  a f f e c t e d by p o l l u t i o n and o t h e r human a c t s a stream,  t o thank t h e  t a l k e d a b o u t what t h e y h a d done s i n c e t h e camp  t o a stream  learned  Students  letters  enhanced  of  they  natural  learned  follow-up  about  also  helped  l e a r n e d beyond t h e Outdoor  environment.  4.2.5 T r i a n g u l a t i o n o f V i e w s Sevigny's comparison  (1978)  of  the  view  of  triangulation,  opinion  of  different  p r o g r a m , was u s e d f o r t h i s expressed These  study.  views  have  r e s u l t s show t h a t a l l s h a r e d the  contributed  outdoor  to  conservation the w r i t e r  people  alternate  a  on t h e same views  were  by t h e s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s a n d t h e w r i t e r .  alternate  studies,  The  involving  of  been  s c h o o l environment, and t h e program  staff  natural  students'  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing did  that  attitudes  towards  r e s o u r c e s . The s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d  b e l i e v e d that the f i l m s  Counsellors  view  4.9. The field  the  common  as Table  the  enhancing  the  presented  not  shown a t t h e  the students' cite  the  Outdoor  School  attitudes..  films,  but  that  was  126 Table  4.9  A s p e c t s of t h e O u t d o o r E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m W h i c h S t u d e n t s , C o u n s e l l o r s , T e a c h e r s and t h e W r i t e r B e l i e v e d t o have C o n t r i b u t e d t o E n h a n c i n g S t u d e n t s ' A t t i t u d e s Towards C o n s e r v a t i o n of N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s  A s p e c t of  the  Program  1. P r e p a r a t i o n  Stud.  phase  Couns. Teach. W r i t .  N  N  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  Y  5. V a r i a t i o n s i n T e a c h i n g Strategies  Y  0  0  Y  6.  Individual Attention  N  N  N  Y  7.  Films  Y  0  Y(O)  Y  8.  Post-camp  N  0  Y(0)  Y  2.  Field  Study  Sessions  3. O u t d o o r S c h o o l 4.  Environment  Program S t a f f  Activities  Stud. = Students Couns. = C o u n s e l l o r s Teach. = Teachers Writ. = Writer N = D i d not c i t e a s p e c t 0 = Not i n a p o s i t i o n t o j u d g e Y = C i t e d aspect u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , s i n c e t h e y d i d not film  sessions  teachers. toward two  The  were t h e teachers  enhancement of  teachers  who  S t u d e n t s and the  teaching  program attitudes  aspect  films.  The  f r e e t i m e s f o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r s and  most  who  see  cited  students'  supervised  the  the  contributed  film  used  toward  toward c o n s e r v a t i o n  of  as  contributing  a t t i t u d e s were  the  view t h a t v a r i a t i o n s  in  sessions.  during  the  the  films  conservation  the w r i t e r shared the  strategies  any  the  outdoor  enhancement  education  of  students'  of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  Counsellors  1 27  and  t e a c h e r s d i d not suggest  strategies  contributed  attitudes. not  the  t o enhancing  T h i s was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  variations  were  teamed  sessions.  Six  teachers;  consequently,  the t e a c h i n g  counsellors  f o r teachers  counsellors  worked  of  with  factor.  reasons.  differences  teamed  with  conservation  because they d i d teachers the  were a s s i g n e d  study  of  three  each  team  teacher  experienced and  in  teaching writer  strategies believed  as  that  had  being  a  four  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching . s t r a t e g i e s  First,  apart  no four  the  they  saw  only  two  teachers,  i n t h e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s were p r o b a b l y  t o them. S e c o n d l y ,  field  s i xcounsellors only  their  used.  two t e a c h e r s , b u t d i d n o t m e n t i o n t h e  The  c o u n s e l l o r s d i d not c i t e two  for  teaching  any o f t h e o t h e r s . E a c h o f t h e o t h e r  of the v a r i a t i o n s  contributing  teachers  were  these  techniques  o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe  effect  with  in  the students'  see t h e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s which t h e o t h e r  Counsellors  for  that  and  not obvious  from t h e t e a c h e r s which t h e c o u n s e l l o r s  t o f o r the f i e l d  studies,  a l l four  counsellors  w o r k e d w i t h a common t e a c h e r a n d a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d h i m t o be different  from  the  others.  This  interview with counsellors after  indicated  t h e p r o g r a m . Two  teacher  lived  may  have  from  contributing  the  five  factors  as  a  the  a r i s e n because t h a t  o u t s i d e t h e camp a r e a w h i l e a l l t h e o t h e r  who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m l i v e d Apart  question  four  w h e r e a s i n f a c t he was one o f t h e t e a c h e r s a t confusion  in  the  "specialist,"  The  teacher  of  the  referred  School.  that  during  counsellors  Outdoor  to  was  teachers  on t h e camp p r o p e r t y .  generally  agreed  t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f t h e s t u d e n t s '  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , three  other  upon  as  attitudes factors  1 28  did  n o t r e c e i v e c o n s e n s u s a p p r o v a l , even by t h o s e who were i n a  position The aspect  to notice their  effects.  t e a c h e r s and t h e w r i t e r of  the  program  agreed  helped  conservation attitudes, at least counsellor  made  mention  of  to  that  the  enhance  indirectly,  preparation  the  b u t no  students'  student  or  t h a t a s p e c t , even though both t h e  s t u d e n t s a n d t h e c o u n s e l l o r s went t h r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n themselves.  The  preparation  p h a s e i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' h a n d b o o k , t h e e x t e n t o f work  which  identification  teachers put into  teachers  and  the  it,  of  and  writer  the  procedures  the  probably  importance  background enabled  post-camp the  o n l y t h e t e a c h e r s and t h e w r i t e r  a c t i v i t i e s as c o n t r i b u t i n g  students'  attitudes  resources.  The  preparation  phase  applicable from  towards  reasons by  which  teachers  of  both  attitudes. mentioned  conservation were and  given the  of  for citing  writer  were  also  was  understandable  was  the  students  opinion  of  and  the  writer  phase  and  program.  the  because they had not thought last  t h a t s i n c e t h e camp education  the c o u n s e l l o r s probably  on o n l y t h e camp  preparation'  The  went  t h e camp p r o g r a m .  the  responses  the  f o r t h e p o s t - c a m p p r o g r a m . The a b s e n c e o f t h e s u p p o r t  p r o g r a m was t h e c l i m a x o f t h e w h o l e o u t d o o r both  the  natural  b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e n o t i n v o l v e d , a n d t h e y d i d n o t know what  It  the  t o w a r d s t h e enhancement o f  c o u n s e l l o r s on t h e p o s t - c a m p a c t i v i t i e s  on a f t e r  the  them t o r e l a t e t h e  p r e p a r a t i o n p h a s e t o t h e enhancement o f s t u d e n t s ' Similarly,  of  The  post-camp about  f a c t o r , m e n t i o n e d by  focused  non-citation activities  program,  of  their the  was p r o b a b l y  i t then. only  the  writer,  was  the  129  individual  attention  by  staff  members d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m . The  writer  b e l i e v e d t h a t he n o t i c e d t h a t f a c t o r b e c a u s e  pilot  study  suggested the  the students,  that the i n d i v i d u a l  That  finding,  h e l p l e d t o enhanced a t t i t u d e s i n t h a t h e l p was a v a i l a b l e when i t was  and  the  discussions  which  followed,  i n f l u e n c e d the w r i t e r t o observe that f a c t o r during the study. in  The o t h e r s p r o b a b l y  the extent  field  study  aspect  o f i n d i v i d u a l h e l p w h i c h was a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e  s e s s i o n s , or d i d not consider  and  expressed  a t t i t u d e s towards  the writer:  by  Outdoor  School,  the  the f i e l d  environment, the program s t a f f , the  i t t o be a  and  students,  the f i l m s which  the  them  students'  conservation attitudes.  the  mentioned  camp  as  program,  position  to  judge  the  a t t e n t i o n which students as  contributing  att i tudes.  aspects.  the post  shown  the  at  teaching  sessions  were  to  teachers  One  enhancement  the  aspect  who  of  preparations  camp a c t i v i t i e s ,  r e c e i v e d ) was c i t e d  to. the  School  who were i n a p o s i t i o n t o  Two a s p e c t s ,  m e n t i o n e d by o n l y t h e w r i t e r a n d t h e  in  study  contributing  and  counsellors,  were  variations  of t h e program which a l l those  observe  before  conservation  s t u d i e s , the Outdoor  a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h were u s e d d u r i n g t h e f i e l d aspects  significant  resources.  From t h e v i e w s teachers  present  d i d not e i t h e r observe the d i f f e r e n c e  i n enhancing the students'  of n a t u r a l  the  t h e c o u n s e l l o r s and t h e t e a c h e r s a l l  s t u d e n t s . They a l s o s a i d  needed.  during  were  were in  a  (the individual  by o n l y t h e  enhancement o f s t u d e n t s '  writer  conservation  130  4.2.6  Discussion The  the  students'  were  judged  show t h a t  aspects  of  t o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancing  the  a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n  eight aspects  the  Results  r e s u l t s of t h e c a s e s t u d y  program  The  of C a s e S t u d y  field  study  were t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  s e s s i o n s , the Outdoor  of  attention,  f i l m s , and  Preparation  Phase  important  role  The  p r o g r a m has School  identified  (Robertson  and  like  components  of  students'  language  Cordier  by  the  Shields, (1966)  f o r an  outdoor  1980a)  and  Stapp  a r t s l e s s o n s , and  films,  the  education  Vancouver  Outdoor  other  (1964).  the p r e p a r a t i o n phase a t t r i b u t i n g  a t t i t u d e s were t h e  the  strategies, individual  North  and  environment,  activities.  of p r e p a r i n g  been  educators  of  the post-camp  resources.  t h e camp p r o g r a m ,  School  the v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a c h i n g  (1) The  natural  before  program s t a f f , the  eight  outdoor The  main  t o enhancement  science  lessons,  t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e O u t d o o r  the  School  rules. T h r e e t h i n g s were r e l a t e d t o a t t i t u d e preparation — students  l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  interesting  t h i n g s about the  integrated  with  knowledge  is  development, attitudes The  the not  it  been  Trichenor Cohen,  suggested et  1973.  al.,  School.  sufficient been  1977;  1972;  outdoor Stapp  they  school  Although  in  the  discussed  lessons  were  acquisition for  Ajzen  and  Fishbein,  corresponding education  by  of  attitude  t o have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t  k n o w l e d g e on in  the  precondition  found  Jordan,  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of  also  f o r e s t , and  Outdoor  has  ( C a s t r o and  enhancement  on  1980).  a t t i t u d e s has Brown,  e t a l . , 1969;. R o t h ,  1973;  1971; and  131  . A c c o r d i n g t o F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s t o what i s one  to  acquire  an a t t i t u d e  toward  conditions  necessary  a t t i t u d e s h a d been The  were i n t e r e s t i n g  f o r development  or  (Robertson  outdoor  and S h i e l d s , (Stapp,  programs.  students anticipate  It  1980a),  1964) a s i m p o r t a n t appeared  t h i n g s which  through  studies seriously  them,  with  that  education  f o r the  success  the integration  t h e y were g o i n g t o l e a r n  the l i b r a r y  the  i n the teachers'  and i n outdoor  t h e camp p r o g r a m , t o be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d instruction  to  enhancement o f  need t o i n t e g r a t e t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l l e s s o n s  programs i n g e n e r a l of  Thus,  satisfied.  O u t d o o r S c h o o l camp p r o g r a m h a s been i d e n t i f i e d manual  enables  the learned m a t e r i a l .  s i n c e students d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s which the  learned  f o r the content  made  during of  the  r e s e a r c h , and t o take t h e f i e l d  s i n c e t h e y .had t o  write  a  report  on  their  return. The  interview  before  the  camp  s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o g r a m t o be could  a  indicated  privilege  result  attitudes  on  attitudes  toward  the  students  event had  f e e l i n g s about t h e r u l e s . participate observed.  shows t h a t a l t h o u g h  i n positive behavior,  preparation,  which  they  compliance  1973).  opportunity  In a d d i t i o n ,  to  During discuss  comments  which  the  the their  s t u d e n t s were f r e e t o n o t  i n t h e camp p r o g r a m , b u t n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was The  The  i t can a l s o l e a d t o u n f a v o r a b l e (Perkes,  an  forced  s t u d e n t s made a b o u t  not  compliance,  t h e r e f o r e , were c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s t u d e n t s were of  that  l o s e i f they d i d not comply w i t h t h e r u l e s of conduct.  literature can  program  aware  c o n s e r v a t i o n r u l e s e v e n b e f o r e t h e y went t o t h e O u t d o o r  132  School. Although counsellors  the  preparation  d i d not  topics,  teachers,  involve students,  m e e t i n g s among t e a c h e r s study  of  helped  provided  them  them  students  to  an  parents  select  could v i s i t  The camp  opportunity  to  It  Outdoor School  because  to  staff,  them  an  The  confirm The  the  preparation  of parents,  the support above  camp  related  Even  directly  of  of t h e p a r e n t s  was  extensive,  though to  and  t h e . enhancement  aspects  meeting,  served  involved  different  of  the  of t e a c h e r s ,  was  students' counsellors  t o be h e l p f u l b e c a u s e i t c o n t r i b u t e d  Studies  stream  ecology,  of c o n s e r v a t i o n  counsellors, field  or t r a i n i n g .  of t h e program.  T h e r e were f o u r f i e l d studies,  important,  only the p r e p a r a t i o n of students  was c o n s i d e r e d  (2) F i e l d  in  f o r t h e camp p r o g r a m .  and  the success  was  experience  w h i c h i n v o l v e d one  a t t i t u d e s , the preparation  to  t o meet w i t h t h e  s t u d i e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l  counsellors  conservation parents  before  d e s c r i p t i o n s show t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r t o  program  individuals.  needed  t o l e a r n about t h e r o l e of c o u n s e l l o r s  t h e c o u n s e l l o r s h a d no t e a c h i n g  preparation  d i s c u s s the  t o r e a d y them f o r t h e  opportunity  program, and t o p r a c t i c e t h e f i e l d  activities.  The  gave  field  School.  p r e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s helped  program.  the  the Outdoor  b e n e f i t e d . The suitable  p r o g r a m , a n d t o c o m p l e t e a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h were students  and  study  students  study  topics--forest  and b i r d  ecology,  farm  s t u d i e s . E a c h i n c l u d e d some  o f e n e r g y , p l a n t s and a n i m a l s .  and t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t each  s e s s i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e enhancement o f  Teachers, of  the  students'  1 33  conservation  attitudes.  were c o n s i d e r e d conservation natural  do  t o have enhanced t h e  what  i n what t h e y  they  saw  learned  similarity  which  of  animals  to  animals  which n a t u r a l resources on  the  future.  It  Even  though  literature  supports  development Fishbein  of  the f i e l d  and  (Castro  animals,  study  and  in  attitude  and  differently,  and  among  the  behave  forest,  t h a t t h e new  the  development,  the  f o r the  1977; A j z e n a n d  had a v a r i e t y  that  each  found t h a t  nest  differently.  under r o c k s ,  (e.g.,  a  in  of  forest,  of  They f o u n d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h  animals,  stream organisms l i v e shouting  effects  conservation  t h e f o r e s t a r e n o t t h e same a n d t h a t d i f f e r e n t of  stream,  about  Jordan  i n many ways. For. e x a m p l e , t h e y  parts  a  the  students'  sessions, students  similarities  different  the  1971).  there  in  included the  i s controversy  related to conservation.  different  said  ecosystems, the rate a t  the  experiences are  students  t h e view t h a t knowledge i s n e c e s s a r y  1980; S o u t h e r n  During  could  suggested e a r l i e r  there  attitudes  their  they  wild  of l i f e  u s e d up  was  r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge  learned  about  environments, the behavior of  knowledge c o n t r i b u t e d t o e n h a n c i n g attitudes.  conservation,  and  the q u a l i t y  a r e being  favorable  learned  on c o n s e r v a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t  these  of  The t h i n g s t h e  their  b i r d s , methods o f d e t e r m i n i n g the  about  had a b e a r i n g  between d o m e s t i c a t e d  adaptation  development  l e a r n e d , a n d what t h e y  t o conserve natural resources.  they  s t u d i e s which  a t t i t u d e s i n c l u d e d what t h e s t u d e n t s  resources,  interest  The f a c t o r s i n t h e f i e l d  and  animal i s a l l birds  birds live i n  differently,  feed  They o b s e r v e d t h a t many that  throwing  many  a rock  human  acts  i n t o a stream,  134  walking the  i n a stream,  plants  which The  and  directly  animals  relate  e f f e c t of d i r e c t  documented  (Regan  i n a stream.  river)  A l l these are  to conservation a t t i t u d e s  affect  experiences  and  behaviors.  e x p e r i e n c e on a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t has and  a u t h o r s even s u g g e s t of  w a l k i n g a l o n g t h e bank of a  F a z i o , 1977;  that direct  Songer-Nocks,  experience  1976).  i s a good  been These  predictor  behaviors. Because the e x p e r i e n c e s which  many  and  varied,  students a r i c h t o on m a t t e r s the  humans.  was  of  birds  could relate Direct  suggested  framework which  as  i t t o how  of  the  consequences  d i s c u s s i o n o f what  helpful  for  b e h a v i o r s by H o w e n s t i n e  (1962).  According  experience  general,  if  a  relate  helps to develop  pleasant  saw  birds'  w i l d a n i m a l s were a f f e c t e d  be  direct  could  the students approached the  observation  to  they  s t u d i e s gave  w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n . For example, they  c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and been  b e l i e v e d that the f i e l d  experiential  concerned  behavior  n e s t s , and  i t  s t u d e n t s were e x p o s e d t o were  is  enhancing to  of  by poor  observed  has  attitudes  and  Gorman  (1974),  and/or enhance a t t i t u d e s  experience  is  associated  with  in the  experience. Fishbein Ajzen,  1975;  learning  and  his associates (Fishbein,  A j z e n and  about  an  Fishbein,  event,  act,  1967;  1980)  have  (i.e.,  an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t ) i s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s , an a t t i t u d e modified  with  respect  p s y c h o l o g i s t s l i k e Alaimo Cacioppo  to and  the  attitude  Doran  (1981) have a l s o s u g g s t e d  what h e / s h e i s  learning  to  be  F i s h b e i n and  argued  is  developed  o b j e c t . Other  (1978); C i a l d i n i , t h a t i f the  valuable,  that  he/she  or  social  Petty  individual  if  and finds  develops  a  1 35  positive  attitude  towards the content  The s t u d e n t s , and a l s o t e a c h e r s , found  each f i e l d  Over h a l f study asked  study  of what i s b e i n g  counsellors,  s e s s i o n s s a i d they l i k e d a b o u t what t h e y  did  thought  surprise  their  interest  the  field  " e v e r y t h i n g , " a n d when t h e y  not  at  writer  and v a l u a b l e .  o f t h e s t u d e n t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r  expressed  they  the  s e s s i o n t o be i n t e r e s t i n g ,  like,  most  t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s n o t o n l y s a i d also  and  learned.  the  the  students,  "I l i k e d e v e r y t h i n g , " but  being asked  in  of  were  field  the q u e s t i o n , because study  sessions  was  obvious. During  the  t h i n g s which Apart field in  from  and with  the obvious  sessions,  students a l s o learned plants  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r  and  experiences  during  conservation, forest conservation, fishing regulations  other  people.  by t h e s t u d e n t a b o u t them  what  outcome o f t h a t  which  they can share  Probably taking she  their  acquired  the c o n t e n t s of the l e t t e r her  parents  learned  at  to  the  students  involved  many  l e a r n e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o be good a  bird's  nest,  not walk a l o n g a r i v e r  plants,  not  leave  lights  negations.  stream  and  which  the  For example,  they  c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s they  not  streams,  i n t o streams,  written  discussion.  learned  touch  ideas  t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l was an  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n methods  not  wildlife.  s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d about- o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i o n methods  t h e ways t h r o u g h  showing  study  t h e y c a n do t o s a v e e n e r g y ,  studies,  energy  field  walk  bank,  off trails, not  break  should  not walk i n  branches  on when n o t i n u s e , n o t t h r o w  e t c . The t h i n g s w h i c h  t h e y were t o l d  o u t n u m b e r e d t h e t h i n g s t h e y were t o l d  off rocks  n o t t o do f a r  t o do. I t a p p e a r s  to  the  1  writer  that  conservation  the  many  are  writer  The  helped  observed that the  writer  the  suggestion,  consonance  found  students and  t o be  with  d o n e , . and  laws). " d o n ' t s " were a l w a y s a r r i v e d  at a f t e r d i s c u s s i n g and/or o b s e r v i n g act.  in  methods ( t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s n o t  a l s o many r u l e s and The  "don'ts"  36  that  to  also  the  consequences  approach  understand  because  t o be  the  the  the  good, because i t  reasons  students  of  for  the  became i n v o l v e d  in  a r r i v i n g at those d e c i s i o n s . (3) F i l m s The  Shown a t t h e O u t d o o r three  suggested  f i l m s shown were  that  the  films  students'  conservation  relevant  information  attitudes. A l l learned  One of the  26  something  f i l m s t o be  The  the  students new  contents  the of  the  was  during  the  on  the  films  of  was  enhancement  the  that  of  provided  appropriate  confirmed  f i l m s , and  w r i t e r a t t r i b u t e d to the and  discussions t o see  it  post-screening  conservation conservation  discussions  after helped  and  to understand the  f i l m s to  the  It  that  they  they found a l l  and i n t e r e s t i n g .  f i l m s b e t t e r . The  f i l m s were b a s i c a l l y it  because  the d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e  students  to  interviewed  a n t i c i p a t e what t h e y were g o i n g  helped  conservation.  development  from the  pre-screening  understand the  on  contributed  for  both valuable  f i l m s was  a l l  attitudes  f a c t o r which the  film.  School  showing students  helped  them  discussions  f i l m s and practices.  of p l a n t s and  that  effectiveness  to r e l a t e All  of  each to to also the the  wildlife,  and  energy c o n s e r v a t i o n  was  addressed. O u t d o o r e d u c a t o r s and  s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have found  that  137  discussions attitudes Flay,  are very  (Crano,  1.981;  1977).  In  students helped  effective  1977; Webb,1979; R o n i s  Cialdini, this  t e a c h i n g methods f o r i n f l u e n c i n g  study  students  1981; and H a r r i s o n ,  the  discussions  pre-screening were g o i n g  to understand  screening d i s c u s s i o n s a l s o helped films this all It  and t o r e l a t e what t h e y study,  during  conservation  the  was  t h e f i l m s b e t t e r . The students  to  post-  understand  the  saw t o c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . I n important  because  saw were a b o u t p l a n t s and  wildlife.  discussions  raised,  helped  t o s e e and t h e r e f o r e  t h e d i s c u s s i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y  the f i l m s which students was  and  P e t t y and C a c i o p p o ,  t o a n t i c i p a t e what t h e y the  e t a l . , 1977; Cook  and  that  the  energy  topic  of  conservation  energy  practices  mentioned. (4) The O u t d o o r S c h o o l The aspects the  environment  Environment of  the  enhancement  of  and  The  students'  academically  conservation-related students  of t h e s t u d e n t s positive  attitudes  one o f t h e  t o have c o n t r i b u t e d  were  I t was a  rich  for  learning  r e l a x e d and t h u s  negative  environment  able to feel  l e a r n e d were r e d u c e d . The  i n the environment helped  contributed  to  students  excitement to  develop  l e a r n e d . The s a f e and  enhancing  students'  l e a r n e d about c o n s e r v a t i o n . There appropriate conservation they  even a r r i v e d  were  behaviors at  the  camp  rules  which students Outdoor  rich  conservation  b e c a u s e i t made them more r e l a x e d and c o n t e n t e d  aware o f b e f o r e  to  conservation attitudes.  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h what t h e y  environment  was  issues.  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h what t h e y  included  School  which a l l four groups c o n s i d e r e d  s a f e , happy  they  Outdoor  School  while which were and  138  which they  respected.  Other f a v o r a b l e aspects  of t h e environment  w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o enhancement o f s t u d e n t s '  a t t i t u d e s were t h e  different  the  grounds,  the  the  posters  on  kinds  conservation  bird  magazines  conservation,  the  former students things  of  like  feeders  in  the  around lounge,  d i s p l a y s o f poems on c o n s e r v a t i o n  a t the Outdoor S c h o o l ,  acid  rain,  pollution,  Research i n s o c i a l psychology  and v i s u a l  the experience  supports  In  addition,  appropriate  the  respected  in  cabins.  the  by p r a c t i c i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n .  program,  students  and  Outdoor  energy; and a l t h o u g h students  award,  1960).  in  they  involved  cabins,  and  i n the l i t e r a t u r e attitudes  Although  rules  that they  had agreed t o  (Edgar, be  t h e r e h a d been a  prior  to  were t r y i n g turn  can  off  the  camp  t o conserve lights,  and  were a l s o c o m p e t i n g among t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e c a b i n  a n d knew t h a t t u r n i n g o f f t h e l i g h t  Thus, i n t e r e s t off  School  knew  direct  e t h i c s by t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s  I t h a s been r e p o r t e d  the  fires.  that  (Katz,  behaviors  the conservation  d i s c u s s i o n of  did,  or favorable  conservation  on  in positive attitudes,  H e r s h e y e t a l . , 1971) t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e  developed  view  the p r a c t i c e s a t t h e Outdoor School  energy  students  1972;  i s pleasant  materials  w i l d l i f e and f o r e s t  e x p o s u r e t o an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t c a n r e s u l t if  w r i t t e n by  i n winning  w o u l d h e l p them w i n .  t h e c a b i n award s p u r r e d  them  to  turn  the l i g h t s .  (5) The P r o g r a m S t a f f The  program  staff  influenced the students' own  attitudes  respected  and  (i.e.,  conservation  behavior.  the Outdoor School  Both  teachers  and  attitudes teachers  counsellors)  through  and  their  counsellors  r u l e s , and s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s  were  139  often and  i n t h e company o f t h e a d u l t s , t h e y said.  In  addition,  the  adults  c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s reactions response  and of  the  participation some s t u d e n t s file  teachers  in  the  and  teachers  terms  different The  during  occasions  of students  trip,  they  over  the  their  accompanied  forest  bushes.  Again,  own c o n s e r v a t i o n  posters  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s a n d on  used  conservation  questions. or  unconsciously  own p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , a n d a c t e d a s  the  company  particularly  during  the  students  counsellors  free  o f t e n wanted t o  and  the  teachers,  t i m e s , and a c c o r d i n g t o Bandura  tend t o copy models. T h e r e f o r e ,  the  suggestion  t h a t t h e y m i g h t have c o p i e d t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d / o r b e h a v i o r o f teachers  different  and  counsellors.  f r o m t h e one s u g g e s t e d  This  mode  of  learning  Social  tangible permanent  According  used to  L e a r n i n g T h e o r y , t h e m o d e l b e h a v e s i n a c e r t a i n way  o r makes v a l u e - o r i e n t e d s t a t e m e n t s learner.  was  by F i s h b e i n . The a p p r o a c h  by B a n d u r a comes f r o m t h e S o c i a l L e a r n i n g T h e o r y . the  students'  their  be  the  the  Counsellors  f o r the students. In a d d i t i o n ,  the  their  he e n c o u r a g e d them t o w a l k i n a  models  is  to  a b o v e e x a m p l e s show t h a t c o n s c i o u s l y  (1971) s t u d e n t s  through  the enthusiastic  responded t o students'  of  to the  them.  the t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d t h e i r  in  in  counsellors  t o develop  encouraged  correctly  responded  camp p r o g r a m . When a t e a c h e r  on a f i s h i n g  students decided  also  f o r example,  so t h e y w o u l d n o t t r a m p l e  when two  comments;  saw what t h e a d u l t s d i d  If  the  reward, part  learner  which  are  by t h e  i s r e w a r d e d by a p p r o v a l , a s m i l e o r  the a t t i t u d e w i l l  tend  of  and behavior  the  imitated  outlook  t o become  S i m i l a r comments have been made by Gorman  a  relatively  (Bandura,  (1974).  1971).  140  During  the  (counsellors  camp  and  program  the  new  t e a c h e r s from  people  apt  students  who  t o change t h e i r  had  involved  the Outdoor S c h o o l ) .  ( i 9 6 0 ) a n d Lehmann (1963) h a v e r e p o r t e d that  were  that  they  a r e s e e k i n g r e c o g n i t i o n from  have  found  the adults are  v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e ,  those  who  n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s were i n f l u e n c e d t o c h a n g e ,  while those maintain  who  them.  had One  positive  attitudes  counsellor  because  of  the  were more p r o n e including  to  inability  of  staff  accept  appropriate programs,  what  the  t h a t most as  Howenstine  behaviors.  (1962)  has  some p r o g r a m s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r  members a f f e c t s t h e b e h a v i o r  idols,  All  i n the Teaching  s i x teachers  e c o l o g i c a l approach  of  told  them,  In  outdoor  attributed  the  o b j e c t i v e s because Rosenshine  that the behavior of  students  during  outdoor  which  who  S t r a t e g i e s Used were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y u s e d an  h a s been r e p o r t e d t o be e f f e c t i v e  t e a c h i n g a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n ( M i t c h e l l and L u n n e b o r g , ecological  approach  involves  involving  living  and  interrelationships  among  a wholistic  non-living the  view  1973).  components  things,  and  components of t h e ecosystem.  them.  i n an e c o s y s t e m ,  for This  o f an e c o s y s t e m  a t t i t u d e development, i t h e l p s s t u d e n t s t o see t h e r o l e of  conserve  and  programs.  (6) V a r i a t i o n s  the  to  elementary  themselves.  a n d Gage ( 1 9 7 6 ) h a v e a l s o s u g g e s t e d  education  their  counsellors  conservation  members do n o t p r a c t i c e t h e r u l e s  (1971)  influenced  way s t u d e n t s saw- t h e c o u n s e l l o r s , t h e s t u d e n t s  education  staff  were  reported  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s saw h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s  of  Jacob  the For each  and why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o  141  Even t h o u g h a l l t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , way  each  teacher  d i f f e r e n t . One suggested  of  in  (1973). which  the  an  author. Another All  presented  t h e y had  teachers  outdoor  teacher  other  conservation used  to  the  students  teaching  t e a c h i n g u n i t of w h i c h  used  an  approach  the was  approach  she  was  a  suggested  by  coRhye  t e a c h e r s s a i d they used t e a c h i n g approaches  found"  to  be  good  from  their  past  teaching  experiences. The  w r i t e r and  the f i e l d to  be  study  a l l t h e s t u d e n t s who  s e s s i o n s s a i d they  i n t e r e s t i n g and  the • t e a c h i n g  effective.  strategies  found  I t was  each t e a c h i n g  strategy  t h e r e f o r e suggested  the  According  to  F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t , i n t e r e s t e n h a n c e s  the  d e v e l o p m e n t of The  and  variations Yaakobi found  in  (1981), that  i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n  study  topics  which  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may teaching  strategies.  involving a  teachers  larger  differed  outdoor the  variations  Brandwein topics,  in  the  and  has  In  (1960) s u g g e s t variations ' in  that,  contributed any  event  of  their  reported  strategies has  i n the t e a c h i n g methods  differences  the  a study  teachers,  to  by  also  that  he  be  good i n  thought  through  of  should  b e c a u s e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s the  to  i t t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . M u n z e r  teaching  were  manner of p r e s e n t i n g  (1962) has  teaching  found  teachers taught  have  e d u c a t i o n but o n l y i f the t e a c h e r  strategy  to  topics.  sample  in  c o n s e r v a t i o n concepts. Howenstine considers  enough  attitudes.  field  different,  varied  that  capture  i n t e r e s t of s t u d e n t s  were  were i n t e r v i e w e d a f . t e r  and  conservation be of  expected teachers,  i n t h e amount o f k n o w l e d g e t e a c h e r s h a v e a b o u t  1 42  conservation  t o p i c s , and  t h e t y p e of t e a c h i n g  strategies  which  t e a c h e r s are used t o . (7) I n d i v i d u a l A t t e n t i o n The  ratio  of  students  to  adult  c o u n s e l l o r s ) d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m was studies  than  r a t i o was  smaller  (teachers  during  the  to f a c i l i t a t e  help readily available related  student  and  field  that in regular classroom c o n d i t i o n s . This  observed  the w r i t e r  helpers  reduced  l e a r n i n g by m a k i n g more  t o them d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m . H o w e v e r , o n l y  this  aspect  of  the  program  to  attitude  development. The part  fact  t h a t s t u d e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s and  i n the program d i d not c i t e  sufficient not  reason  asked  f o r one  about  this  w o u l d have e n a b l e d counterparts program  as  to assess  to  years,  teachers  learning  is still  studies  done  attitude  have  negative  which the  their  and  i n the p r e s e n t  study.  that class  issue in education,  or p o s i t i v e  program,  help readily available  to  size  student  but  most  h a v e shown t h a t s m a l l e r c l a s s ( G l a s s and  experience  the reduced  the the  Smith,  1979).  t o F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y on a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t ,  i s learned, a corresponding camp  were  t h i s a s p e c t of  argued  be  question  e f f e c t of c l a s s s i z e on  America  not  However,  enhancement,  also  i n b e t t e r achievement  According a  North  views.  to those  a controversial  in  A more d i r e c t  study d i d c i t e  a f f e c t s s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . The  sizes result  their  r a t i o s were s i m i l a r  took  i t s r o l e , because they  factor d i r e c t l y .  contributing  recent  i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n may  to r e j e c t  d u r i n g the p i l o t  student-staff In  one  t e a c h e r s who  i s associated with  attitude  students,  and  something  i s developed.  student-teacher  if  During  r a t i o made more  therefore,  made  the  1  learning that to  e x p e r i e n c e more p o s i t i v e .  F o r e x a m p l e , i t was  i n s c h o o l on many o c c a s i o n s s t u d e n t s n e e d e d h e l p , wait  because  the  teacher  s t u d e n t s abandoned t h e r e q u e s t not  arrive  when  they  was  needed  i t .  During  the  field  Thus t h e i m p r o v e d  teacher  ratio  the  learning  by r e m o v i n g t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d  due  to  improve  had some  studies  student-  c o n d i t i o n s f o r student with  learning  t o h e l p n o t b e i n g a v a i l a b l e when n e e d e d .  (8) P o s t - C a m p P r o g r a m After students films  Activities  t h e camp p r o g r a m , t h e v i s i t i n g  i n follow-up a c t i v i t i e s .  on  These  teachers involved the  included  discussing  letters  to  the  lesson  on  animals.  The  follow-up  s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e i t made them t h i n k t h r o u g h during  t h e camp p r o g r a m , a n d a l s o h e l p e d  regular  s c h o o l work t o t h e  assignments  which  two  they  Outdoor  their  activities.  was h e l p f u l t o  what t h e y  concern  Outdoor  had  done  the students to r e l a t e  School  work,  through  the  submitted.  about  They were c o n c e r n e d  the  teachers,  and c o m p l e t i n g  t h e end o f t h e camp p r o g r a m t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l  expressed  between  outdoor  s c i e n c e and language a r t s assignments,  science  At  watching  c o n s e r v a t i o n , d i s c u s s i n g what s t u d e n t s h a d l e a r n e d i n  the Outdoor S c h o o l , w r i t i n g  a  but  assistance d i d  h o w e v e r , h e l p was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . helped  observed  h e l p i n g others. Often  f o r h e l p because  43  the  importance  of  teachers follow-up  t h a t because of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  S c h o o l and t h e c i t y  s c h o o l s , an e f f e c t i v e  f o l l o w - u p was t h e b e s t way o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o t r a n s f e r  their  a c q u i r e d a t t i t u d e s beyond t h e Outdoor S c h o o l . S i m i l a r views  have  been  expressed  handbook  by  (Robertson  Robertson and  and  Shields,  Shields  in  the  teachers'  1980a),  a n d a l s o by G e o r g e  144  (1966) i n o u t d o o r The things  education.  follow-up  activities  about c o n s e r v a t i o n  Acquisition necessary Jordan  of  relevant  psychology  learned  and  attitudes  (Bandura,  week a n d  during  discussions, conservation reinforcement  has  and F i s h b e i n  the view that  and  repetition  period  so  there  helps  to  what  helps  to  be  a  in  social  there  continual t o Bandura  they  lasted fora  were  different  reinforcement (1971),  strengthen  have  to reinforce o l d  activities  time  was  Research  through  also  of  a t t i t u d e s . According also  found  i n a t t i t u d e development,  1 9 7 1 ) . The f o l l o w - u p  that  been  (1980).  individuals to think  already,  learning  f o r a t t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t by C a s t r o and  a l s o supports  discussions help  involved  f r o m t h e f i l m s , a n d many d i s c u s s i o n s . knowledge  precondition  (1977) a n d A j z e n  i n t h e program  of  continued  already  acquired  attitudes.  4.3 Summary o f R e s u l t s In t h i s t w o - f o l d study) the case  dealt  students study)  with  study,  with  the  the  aspects  students' natural  while  attitudes  p r o g r a m was  2 (the t o or  Study  effective  towards c o n s e r v a t i o n  resources—energy,  Part  which c o n t r i b u t e d  r e s u l t s of the a t t i t u d e assessment study  outdoor education  assessment  t o t h e change i n a t t i t u d e .  Summary o f A t t i t u d e A s s e s s m e n t The  (the attitude  of the e f f e c t ,  a p p e a r e d t o have c o n t r i b u t e d 4.3.1  1  f i n d i n g o u t i f t h e p r o g r a m had an e f f e c t on  and the nature dealt  Part  in  i n d i c a t e d that enhancing  of t h e t h r e e  the  a r e a s of  p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e — t a k e n t o g e t h e r .  145  An  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  Fishbein's  theory,  positively which  to the  they this  for  study,  was  The program  energy  during  i s b a s e d on  the  of n a t u r a l  resources  education  theory  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e  results.  to conservation the  program  of e n e r g y  on  the n i n e  to  i n C h a p t e r I I of t h i s change i n the  of the  was  students  the p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r some of t h e p a r e n t s situations  conservation,  plants.  Castro  likely  and  least  norm  Jordan's meant  affect  that  i f the  students  positive  e x p e c t e d good  the  positive than  responses of were  behavior  in  conservation the  The  in  theory  plant conservation,  in w i l d l i f e conservation.  would p r a c t i c e the  action  The  societal  this  to  i n e n e r g y and  demanded  the  a t t i t u d e s towards  suggested that  which  they  more  i m p a c t of  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was  thesis),  students'  this  in personal  a c t i o n i n w i l d l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and According  adopted  shows t h a t  greatest  and  program.  w h i c h was  treatment  n i n e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was  the  using  responded  the  of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  to  outdoor  attitude,  students  on  (discussed  behavior  the  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of  conservation.  observed  the  f u r t h e r showed t h a t t h e  of  personal  that  in  results  with respect impact  change  t h i n g s about c o n s e r v a t i o n  inference  a reasonable  overall  suggested  learned  Although the  the  exposed  in wildlife conservation  methods.  4.3.2  Summary o f C a s e S t u d y The  i n the aspects  Results  r e s u l t s of t h e c a s e s t u d y  students' of  program, the  conservation  the field  program--the study  show t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e c h a n g e  a t t i t u d e s was  a t t r i b u t e d to  preparations  sessions,  the  prior  films  eight  to the  shown  at  camp the  146  Outdoor  School,  the  Outdoor  e n v i r o n m e n t , the  staff,  the  variations in  used,  the  i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n which students  post-camp  activities.  conservation chapter. have  case study  been  psychologists attitudes  The  more  case  study  by  outdoor the  results  than  the  program i n the  same  also  on p l a n t s and  show  and  to this  which social  of  favorable  North  Vancouver  that  of  the  three  study  there  w i l d l i f e conservation  reflected  ( s e c t i o n 4.2) way.  the  program.  i n the  f i l m s and  d e v o t e d t o p l a n t and  i n energy c o n s e r v a t i o n .  program  of  the aspects  t o p i c s w h i c h were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s  T h i s was  were  related  i n s e c t i o n 4.2  development in  which  was  educators  operated  program  r e c e i v e d , and  aspect  t h a t many of  s t u d i e s , where more t i m e was  the  strategies  been d i s c u s s e d  II) also  emphasis  conservation after  each  enhancing  energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . field  way  outdoor education  conservation was  as  teaching  revealed  repoted  (Chapter  residential  The  a t t i t u d e s has  The  have  the  School  The  student  than in  on the  wildlife  interviews  a l s o showed t h a t t h e y  saw  the  1  47  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  5. 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n This  concluding  restatement the  chapter  of t h e problems which  c o n c l u s i o n s of the study.  of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , limitations.  The  and  chapter  the  study  begins  with  a  were i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d c o n t a i n s  I t also specifies  discusses  the  the l i m i t a t i o n s  seriousness  of  e n d s w i t h some recommended  r e s e a r c h , a n d some s u g g e s t i o n s to  of  f o rapplication  of  these  follow-up  the  findings  practice.  5.1 R e s e a r c h This  Problems and C o r r e s p o n d i n g  study  investigated  the  Conclusions  change  in attitude  c o n s e r v a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s presumed t o take students  in a residential  addressed  itself  Specific  Problem  outdoor  t o two s p e c i f i c  place  among  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . The s t u d y  questions.  #1  What e f f e c t d o e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n education  towards  program  in  a  residential  outdoor  h a v e on t h e a t t i t u d e o f s t u d e n t s  toward  conservation of n a t u r a l resources?  C o n c l u s i o n #1 With  regard to the s p e c i f i c R e s i d e n t i a l outdoor students'  q u e s t i o n , i t was c o n c l u d e d  e d u c a t i o n programs c a n and  attitudes  toward  conservation  that:  do  enhance  of  natural  148  resources. This conclusion assessment  study  the a d o p t i o n  of  showed  conservation,  the  that  on a t t i t u d e  findings,  in  the  conservation,  behavior  d i d not r e f l e c t  the  attitude  of  involved  development. and  energy  The  Jordan's  and  plant  reflected a positive  action level.  In.the  area of  h o w e v e r , t h e e v i d e n c e showed t h a t a p o s i t i v e change i n  their  their  attitudes.  weak r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o v e r a l l c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e a n d behavior  conservation, interpreted had  of  Castro  t h e responses of the s t u d e n t s  wildlife  the  using  area  change i n a t t i t u d e s a t t h e p e r s o n a l  The  results  f r o m C h a p t e r I V ( s e c t i o n 4.1.3) w h i c h  of F i s h b e i n ' s theory  interpretation theory,  i s b a s e d on t h e  of  the  where  students  there  was  respect  little  to  change,  conservation.  A  where  discussion  they  of  could  i n C h a p t e r I V ( s e c t i o n s 4.1.3.2 a n d 4.1.4)  Specific  Problem  o f an o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n  or  to  appear  contribute  to  a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n  The  be  students practice  #2  What a s p e c t s  With regard  to  t h e r e s u l t s h a s been  provided  Conclusion  wildlife  has  w i t h c a u t i o n , b e c a u s e e v i d e n c e showed t h a t  n o t been e x p o s e d t o s i t u a t i o n s  wildlife  with  program c o n t r i b u t e  enhancement  of n a t u r a l  of  to  students'  resources?  #2 to this  specific  question,  f o l l o w i n g eight aspects  appeared students'  to  have  of t h e program  contributed  attitudes  i t was c o n c l u d e d  towards  to  that:  contributed  or  t h e enhancement o f t h e  conservation  of  natural  149  resources: (1)  t h e pre-camp p r e p a r a t i o n s ;  (2)  the f i e l d study  (3)  the Outdoor School  (4)  the  attitudes  activities; environment;  and  behavior  of t h e t e a c h e r s and  counsellors; (5)  the f i l m s  seen a t t h e Outdoor  (6)  the v a r i a t i o n s  (7)  the i n d i v i d u a l h e l p which students  (8)  the post-camp f o l l o w - u p  i n teaching strategies  T h e s e e i g h t a s p e c t s were r a n k e d consensus.  sessions  Outdoor School teachers  activities.  i n three  and  t o judge t h e a s p e c t ,  which  groups  based  counsellors,  presenting the films.at  of a l l those  included  the  field  the  t h e Outdoor  and b e h a v i o r  content . and  School,  and  of  and  those  t e a c h e r s who were i n a p o s i t i o n  effect  of the a s p e c t ,  before  t h e camp  the  aspect  and  the  post-camp  has  of the  t o judge t h e  activities.  place The  i n g r o u p t h r e e , w h i c h was i d e n t i f i e d by o n l y t h e w r i t e r ,  was t h e i n c r e a s e d amount o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n w h i c h had  of  teaching  i n c l u d e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s which took  program,  the  manner  s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h were u s e d . G r o u p t w o , w h i c h h a d a p p r o v a l writer  on  s t u d e n t s were engaged i n , t h e s u p p o r t i v e  environment, the enthusiasm the  used;  received;  Group one, which had consensus a p p r o v a l  who were i n a p o s i t i o n study  School;  d u r i n g t h e camp p r o g r a m . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e been p r o v i d e d  i n Chapter  IV.  eight  students factors  150  5.2  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e F i n d i n g s The  arrived  f i n d i n g s which at  after  t h e p r o g r a m . The (1)  The  have  been  f i n d i n g s h a v e , h o w e v e r , some  s u b j e c t s were n o t  writer  was  directly  (3)  randomly s e l e c t e d f o r the  of t h e  outdoor  effects  may  study.  restricts study. the p e r i o d  o f t h e w r i t e r may  have  i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the data  education  which  about  group of  M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s who  had  teaching experiences  and  the  the  program.  Thus  not a p p l y t o ' s i m i l a r p r o g r a m s w h i c h  less enthusiastic  use  students  may  similar.  not  be  time  interval  p o s t t e s t was  short  t o o k p a r t i n t h e p r o g r a m were  opportunity  for  from o t h e r  between (one  socio-economic  week),  thus  some  of  withholding  the  the  levels  t h e camp p r o g r a m and  s t u d e n t s t o be e x p o s e d t o  where t h e y c o u l d p r a c t i c e  a  teachers.  u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s homes. Thus t h e e f f e c t s of  p r o g r a m on  The  during  t o o k p a r t i n t h e p r o g r a m had  were v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c  (5)  been  collected.  A l l t h e t e a c h e r s who  from  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  mere p r e s e n c e  or i n d i r e c t l y  previous  (4)  greatly  w i t h the s u b j e c t s throughout  of t h e s t u d y . The  was  have  limitations.  of non-random s a m p l i n g  the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n The  above  c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d  T h i s problem  (2)  presented  the an  situations  conservation  'methods. (6)  No  attempt  was  made t o p r o v e  a s p e c t s of t h e p r o g r a m a c t u a l l y  the a s s e r t i o n  that  resulted  enhancing  the students' c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t i t u d e s .  in  the  151  These  limitations  however, they though  the  are  restrict  not  subjects  seriously  t o support  claims  outdoor  many  change b e i n g indirect  found  of t h i s  restrictive.  the  experimental  educators,  for generalization  change i n outdoor  and  both  the  comparative program.  showed  that  e d u c a t i o n programs. Secondly,  during  attitude  of  the  additional  data  generalization  part  in  data,  the  while  collected  groups  after the  residential not  outdoor  education  in  the  provides  outdoor  presence  limitation  of t h i s  therefore  taken  program  comparative  some  evidence  of  produced  group.  similar  Thus,  the  supporting a possible following  program. the  study  writer  even  to minimize  was  before  envisaged the  study.  possible effects,  students  were  f o r example, t h e  w i t h whom, similar  outdoor  group,  who  were  e d u c a t i o n program a f t e r  therefore,  the  program. Furthermore,  i n the comparative  residential  in  Steps  one  group  camp  role  be  suspended t h e i n t e r v i e w i n g of t e a c h e r s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l the  non-obtrusive  to  and  after  a  analysis  program,  until  adopted  outdoor  p a r t of t h e main  r e g a r d i n g p o s i t i v e changes i n a t t i t u d e  the r e s i d e n t i a l  writer  comparative  were  i n A p p e n d i x U. The r e s u l t s o f t h a t  enhancement  The  and  additional  the  attitude  about  g r o u p had t a k e n  study, are analysed  speculative  findings  experimental  These  even  study has e s t a b l i s h e d  t h e s t u d y , a d d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measurement d a t a on  study;  Firstly,  the hypothesized  t o o c c u r . That i s , t h i s  evidence  attitude  findings  were n o t s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y , t h e s t u d y h a s  provided evidence of  the  the  changes i n t h e i r  writer  attitudes.  i t was f o u n d involved  that  i n the  t h e main s t u d y , and  d i d not  interact,  This evidence  showed  suggests  that  152  t h e r e s u l t s w h i c h were o b t a i n e d may n o t presence  enthusiastic  seriously  affect  residential  teachers  preparation  extension education  schools  of classroom  are  the  the  experiences, limitation  findings  they  are  help  their  teachers  and  part  other  staffed  and i n t e r e s t i n  involvement  in  lastly,  education  teachers  to  i n the  f o r t h e camp p r o g r a m h e l p s t o  take  outdoor  does n o t  usually  o f t e a c h e r s who a r e new t o s u c h who  and  p r o g r a m s , s i n c e one t h i n g a b o u t  i s that  interested;  institutions offer to  of  Secondly,  a d d i t i o n , most t e a c h e r s  workshops  the program, t h i s  topics.  the interest  programs  teaching  who h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e  t e a c h i n g outdoor  arouse  an  outdoor  education  about  outdoor  residential with  to  a l l t h e t e a c h e r s who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o g r a m  had p r e v i o u s outdoor  were  attributed  of the w r i t e r .  Although had  be  cope  outdoor  most  the  education  teacher  courses  with  programs. In  and  training in-service  demands  of t h i s  v a l u a b l e type of e d u c a t i o n . The class  fact  homes  t h a t most o f t h e s t u d e n t s were f r o m suggests  that  the  g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s The  time  t o be s h o r t i n t h i s  not  an  could practice area  of  s h o u l d be c a u t i o u s i n  study.  i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e camp p r o g r a m a n d t h e p o s t t e s t  was f o u n d had  reader  study,  s o t h a t some  students  had  o p p o r t u n i t y t o be e x p o s e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where  they  some c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s ,  wildlife  conservation.  The  particularly  responses  i n d i c a t e d that i t i s p o s s i b l e that the e f f e c t s would  have  upper-middle-  been  administered after  even  greater  i f the  s t u d e n t s h a d been g i v e n  of the parents  of  the  posttest the  i n the  program  had  opportunity  been to  153  practice  conservation  resources which short  time  methods  in  were i n v e s t i g a t e d  interval  a l l three areas  i n t h i s study. Therefore,  of the  overall  i n a t t i t u d e change.  In  this  study,  a s p e c t s of t h e students'  students, views  no  program  an  counsellors,  were  and  not  attempt  in  attitudes. of  a  was  resulted  analysis  were g a t h e r e d  subjects  study  conservation  at only a f t e r  the  of  t o prove  the  enhancement  independent and  the  the  that the of  B u t t h e a s p e c t s were  teachers,  a position  limitation  made  d u r i n g a n d soon a f t e r  in  the  b e t w e e n t h e camp p r o g r a m and t h e p o s t t e s t  was a l i m i t a t i o n findings  of n a t u r a l  the  arrived  views  of  w r i t e r . And,  the program,  the these  so  that  t o remember and t o r e l a t e  t o what  there  to  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the program. I n summary t h e n , a l t h o u g h findings  of  this  were  limitations  study, there i s evidence  t o suggest  the  that the  l i m i t a t i o n s were n o t s e r i o u s .  5.4 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r In  view  suggestions (1)  of  the  findings  for further  It  is  the  which  study  be  of  this  that  because  were e n c o u n t e r e d replicated  the  enthusiasm  attitude  a  number  of  enhancement  be  of in  the  of  this  problems of study,  so t h a t t h e e f f e c t  f a c t o r s as the socio-economic and  study  research are offered.  suggested  sampling  Research  background of  that  of  such  students,  t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , on investigated  in  further  research. (2)  It  is  suggested  that  because of t h e problem  i n the  154  t i m i n g of t h e p o s t t e s t , t h a t l o n g i t u d i n a l persued  to  attitudes  find  and  conservation  out  i f the  behavior  with  e.g., a t t h e end of  after  one y e a r .  (3)  It  is  relationship respect  would change a f t e r  time,  the  program  in  between  to  wildlife  summer  holidays,  the  and  be e m p l o y e d t o  importance of each aspect  enhancing  be  an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f  suggested that f u r t h e r research  f i n d out the r e l a t i v e  studies  students'  of the  conservation  attitudes. (4)  It  is  other  suggested that s i m i l a r outdoor  general do  education  s t u d i e s be c o n d u c t e d i n  programs  c l a i m by o u t d o o r e d u c a t o r s  enhance s t u d e n t s '  assumption  about  conservation  how  It  i s also  theoretical behavior programs  suggested  that  perspectives  a t t i t u d e s and  the  their  attitudes lead t o  behavior.  other  research  and  f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s and  be e m p l o y e d i n e v a l u a t i n g to find  document  t h a t such programs  conservation  correspondng changes i n students' (5)  to  o u t how t h o s e  outdoor  different  education  perspectives  m i g h t e n d o r s e t h e c l a i m s made i n t h e s t u d y .  5.4 S u g g e s t i o n s The  f i n d i n g s of the  preparing education intend  f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s t o p r a c t i c e .  teachers  who  case  study  improve  information  for  are' a s p i r i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n o u t d o o r  programs, and f o r p r a c t i c i n g  to  provide  on t h e i r  outdoor  educators  p r o g r a m s . The r e s u l t s  suggest  who that  155  many a s p e c t s enhancing aspects The  of  an  outdoor  students'  education  conservation  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  program  attitudes,  i n outdoor  which  conservation  would  be  attitudes,  effective  i t is  and  education  r e s u l t s showed t h a t i n d e v e l o p i n g  program  contribute  in  that  to  these  programs.  an o u t d o o r  education  enhancing  students'  necessary  to  consider  the  following: 1)  An  adequate  directly  preparation  or i n d i r e c t l y  o f s t u d e n t s a n d a l l who a r e  related  t o t h e program,  before  t h e camp p r o g r a m . 2)  The for  3)  quality  of  the f i e l d  s t u d i e s which are s e l e c t e d  t h e camp p r o g r a m .  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R e d i r e c t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l 1 9 7 1 , 5 ( 3 ) , 3-4.  education.  Compact,  Webb, P. H. Consumer i n i t i a l p r o c e s s i n g i n a d i f f i c u l t m e d i a e n v i r o n m e n t . J o u r n a l o f Consumer R e s e a r c h , 1979, 6, 225236. W e s t , C. K. And F o s t e r , S. F. The p s y c h o l o g y o f human l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a : W a d s w o r t h P u b l i s h i n g Co. 1976. W i c k e r , A. W. A t t i t u d e s v e r s u s a c t i o n : t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v e r b a l and o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l responses t o a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 1969, 2_5, 41-74. W i l s o n , T. L. S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s change a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s . o p i n i o n s of s t r i p m i n i n g . 1975. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 133164)  170  Woodward, R. W. A p r o p o s e d s t r a t e g y f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m i n terms of a c h i e v i n g a s e l e c t e d g o a l . U n p u b l i s h e d major essay f o r M.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973. Y a a k o b i , D. Some d i f f e r e n c e s i n modes o f u s e o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n programme by s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n d c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s . E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l o f S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1981, 3 ( 1 ) , 69^76. Z i m b a r d o , P. And E b b e s e n , E. B. I n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d changing b e h a v i o r . Reading, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Addison Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company. 1969. Z i m b a r d o , P. G., E b b e s e n , E. B., & M a s l a c h , C. I n f l u e n c i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d c h a n g i n g b e h a v i o r . ( 2 n d . Ed.) R e a d i n g , Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. 1977.  171  APPENDIX A THE ACTUAL TREATMENT USED IN THE STUDY In order to define the treatment more c l e a r l y , t h e investigator accompanied the experimental g r o u p a s a nonparticipant and u n o b t r u s i v e observer, and r e c o r d e d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the program. In t h i s s t u d y t h e e n t i r e p r o g r a m c o n s t i t u t e d t h e t r e a t m e n t . I t was made up o f a 12 day p r e p a r a t i o n p h a s e , a w e e k - l o n g camp program a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l , a n d a one week f o l l o w - u p a f t e r t h e camp p r o g r a m . The p r e p a r a t i o n p h a s e and t h e f o l l o w - u p p h a s e t o o k p l a c e i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l , w h i l e t h e camp p r o g r a m was h e l d at a residential o u t d o o r camp. The camp was l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e c i t y of V a n c o u v e r a n d o p e r a t e d y e a r r o u n d f o r t h e d i s t r i c t schools. Cabin accommodation, meals and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were provided a t t h e camp. The camp a l s o arranged f o r bus transportation t o a n d f r o m t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l f o r a l l t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e program. Preparation  Phase  D u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d , s t u d e n t s saw t h r e e f i l m s on forest ecology ("The I n c r e d i b l e F o r e s t , " "A T r e e i s a L i v i n g T h i n g , " a n d " A n o t h e r S i d e o f t h e F o r e s t " ) a n d were involved i n discussions before and a f t e r each f i l m . In s c i e n c e , students s t u d i e d a b o u t mammals and e c o s y s t e m s , a n d t h e y were a s k e d t o do library research on one o f t h e f a r m animals l i v i n g at the Outdoor S c h o o l . In language a r t s , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s they l i k e d a b o u t f o r e s t s , and t h e i d e a s were u s e d t o w r i t e poems together. Students were a l s o p r e p a r e d f o r the c o n d i t i o n s at the O u t d o o r S c h o o l . They r e a d a n d d i s c u s s e d the contents of the students' handbook w h i c h was s u p p l i e d by t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were m e e t i n g s among t e a c h e r s , a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m for c o u n s e l l o r s , and a p a r e n t s ' meeting. Camp P r o g r a m Field  Studies  The s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e g r o u p s . F o u r of these r o t a t e d f r o m t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r , w h i l e one g r o u p s t a y e d w i t h two t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e week. The more f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r f i e l d study t o p i c s and three films. Each t o p i c occupied two sessions. The f i e l d study t o p i c s were f o r e s t e c o l o g y , s t r e a m s t u d i e s , b i r d s t u d i e s , and farm s t u d i e s .  1 72  Forest  Ecology  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , s t u d e n t s examined and d i s c u s s e d the external characteristics of f o r e s t plants, and used b i o l o g i c a l keys t o i d e n t i f y c o n i f e r s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s . There was a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e uses of f o r e s t p l a n t s and f o r e s t e c o s y s t e m s , a n d t h e need f o r t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n . S t u d e n t s drew some o f t h e e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e f o r e s t p l a n t s , and were shown some i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e f o r e s t ecosystem. During t h e second s e s s i o n , they d i s c u s s e d two k i n d s o f ferns (bracken fern and s w o r d f e r n ) a n d drew some o f t h e morphological features. They also discussed the forest ecosystem, and t h e r o l e of t h e b i o t i c and a b i o t i c components i n the forest ecosystem. Students examined t h e bark of f o r e s t t r e e s . They d i s c u s s e d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e b a r k a n d how c a r v i n g names i n t h e b a r k a f f e c t s t h e t r e e . In addition, students answered q u e s t i o n s on how f o r e s t s were a f f e c t e d by human a n d n a t u r a l factors. The s t u d e n t s ' answers were later d i s c u s s e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n o f how s t u d e n t s c o u l d share their knowledge with t h e i r f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . Farm S t u d i e s The farm s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d on t h e f a r m . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , students discussed the p r i n c i p l e s underlying the establishment of a farm, a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way t o a p p r o a c h f a r m a n i m a l s w i t h o u t s c a r i n g them. They saw some farm animals, namely sheep, g o a t s , c a t t l e a n d p i g s . They l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e i r e y e s , t e e t h , f e e t , f e e d i n g h a b i t s , a n d b e h a v i o r s , a n d how they have a d a p t e d t o t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . During the discussion, t h e p a r a l l e l between d o m e s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s a n d w i l d a n i m a l s was d r a w n . The n e e d t o conserve farm land was a l s o discussed. Students helped t o clean the p i g s t y and f e e d t h e a n i m a l s . A l l s t u d e n t s h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t o u c h e a c h o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a n i m a l s on t h e f a r m . The second s e s s i o n was m o s t l y about two f a r m a n i m a l s ( r a b b i t s a n d c h i c k e n s ) . T h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n o f f o o d products obtained from those two a n i m a l s . S t u d e n t s saw w i l d r a b b i t s i n the farm a r e a and the t e a c h e r t o l d t h e s t u d e n t s that .the w i l d a n i m a l s were s i m i l a r t o t h e d o m e s t i c a t e d o n e s . The teacher d e s c r i b e d a n d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e p r o p e r way t o pick-up rabbits and c h i c k e n s , and a l l s t u d e n t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o handle each of those a n i m a l s . Students observed the behavior and f e e d i n g h a b i t s of c h i c k e n s a n d r a b b i t s . They a l s o saw t h e f o o d o f t h e a n i m a l s and how chickens controlled fleas. There was a f a r m c h o r e w h i c h involved c l e a n i n g up t h e c h i c k e n c o o p . After the chores, students were a s k e d to carry out independent s t u d i e s . The  1 73  i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y i n v o l v e d w r i t i n g a poem o r s t o r y on how one o f the farm a n i m a l s would survive i f i t were returned to i t s n a t u r a l environment. Stream  Studies  There was a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t r e a m ecosystem, i t s d e l i c a t e n e s s , a n d how e a s i l y t h e e c o s y s t e m c o u l d be c h a n g e d by putting waste m a t e r i a l s i n t o a stream. Students examined t h e s t r e a m , c o n d u c t e d some w a t e r tests (pH, t e m p e r a t u r e , oxygen content), a n d u s e d t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r t o e s t i m a t e how " h e a l t h y " t h e s t r e a m was. The r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d , a n d the teacher explained how the analyses could be u s e d t o determine t h e extent of p o l l u t i o n , a n d t h e need to conserve rivers. I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s were e n g a g e d i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h showed them t h e c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f an e c o s y s t e m . The f i r s t s e s s i o n c o n c l u d e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the importance o f e a c h component of an ecosystem, a n d t h e need t o conserve them a l l . They also discussed how they could help t o conserve t h e s t r e a m . The d i s c u s s i o n was e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r natural resources, including f o r e s t p l a n t s , f o r e s t a n i m a l s , and energy. During the second s e s s i o n , t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a stream and a r i v e r . D u r i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e y a l s o d i s c u s s e d h y d r o - e l e c t r i c e n e r g y , and why it h a d become i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s e r v e e n e r g y . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how some human a c t i v i t i e s l e d t o s t r e a m p o l l u t i o n . The teacher distributed a h a n d o u t on o r g a n i s m s w h i c h had been f o u n d i n t h e streams a t t h e Outdoor School. She d i s t r i b u t e d n e t s , and explained how t h e n e t s were u s e d t o c a t c h s t r e a m o r g a n i s m s . The s t u d e n t s u s e d t h e n e t s t o c a t c h some o f t h e s t r e a m organisms, and they examined t h e i r organisms w i t h the a i d of microscopes. At t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n , t h e s t u d e n t s volunteered to return the specimens t o t h e i r n a t u r a l environment. Bird  Studies  During t h e f i r s t b i r d s t u d y s e s s i o n t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n of b i r d s w h i c h had been f o u n d a t t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l i n t h e p a s t . The s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e different p a r t s o f b i r d s , a n d how v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p a r t s o f a b i r d were h e l p f u l f o r b i r d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S t u d e n t s were given binoculars a n d t a k e n o u t d o o r s , a n d t h e y saw many b i r d s a n d b i r d n e s t s . They saw many v a r i a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e and behavior o f b i r d s , i n t h e s i t e s chosen f o r n e s t i n g , and i n what t h e y f e d o n . They d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of p l a n t s t o birds, a n d how human a c t i v i t i e s affect l i v i n g organisms i n g e n e r a l , w i t h e m p h a s i s on b i r d s . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d how they could help t o conserve b i r d s and other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d e n t s e s t i m a t e d t h e number o f b i r d s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , o f t h e f o r e s t , a n d d i s c u s s e d why t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n s of b i r d s a t the d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . During the second session t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e need f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a n d what students  174  can do t o h e l p . The t e a c h e r a l s o r e v i e w e d how c e r t a i n human a c t s affect birds. Students saw more b i r d s , a n d t h e y saw how t h e b i r d s r e a c t e d t o human i n t r u s i o n on t h e a r e a s where t h e i r nests were. Students described the s i z e , shape, c o l o r , sounds, b e h a v i o r , and l o c a t i o n . o f t h e d i f f e r e n t b i r d s a n d e s t i m a t e d the number o f b i r d s , i n e a c h a r e a . They a l s o saw a n d d i s c u s s e d t h e interrelationships between some b i r d s a n d c a t t l e , and t h e importance o f good h i k i n g b e h a v i o r s i n o r d e r t o c o n s e r v e p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . F i lms S t u d e n t s saw t h r e e f i l m s d u r i n g t h e camp p r o g r a m . There were d i s c u s s i o n s b e f o r e e a c h f i l m , a n d a f t e r t h e l a s t t w o . The f i r s t ("A L i v i n g R i v e r " ) was m a i n l y a b o u t s t r e a m o r g a n i s m s , how they were adapted to life in the water, and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e a q u a t i c animals. The f i l m also showed how s t r e a m s were r e l a t e d t o l i f e on l a n d , a n d how s t r e a m s were b e i n g p o l l u t e d . The s e c o n d f i l m ( " T r e e s " ) was a b o u t f o r e s t t r e e s a n d t h e i r u s e s . I t d e s c r i b e d t h e l i f e c y c l e o f t h e oak t r e e a n d how i t supported different kinds o f l i f e . I t showed how a n i m a l s c a n a f f e c t t r e e s , and suggested t h a t r a t i o n a l conservation methods be u s e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The t h i r d f i l m ("The O t h e r W o r l d " ) showed a f o o d c h a i n a n d a f o o d web, a n d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between living a n d nonliving t h i n g s . The f i l m described how t h e b a l a n c e o f n a t u r e operated i n a stream. I t also discussed h'ow some human activities and behavior result in polluting s t r e a m s and suggested t o the audience that they should r e p o r t anyone found t o be p o l l u t i n g s t r e a m s a n d r i v e r s . Chores There were s i x types of chores which a l l students participated i n at different times. A l l the chores were supervised by c o u n s e l l o r s . The n a t u r e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c h o r e s has been d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . Farm C h o r e s T h i s duty took p l a c e each morning and e v e n i n g . I t i n v o l v e d daily routine farm work, like collecting t h e farm p r o d u c e , f e e d i n g t h e a n i m a l s , and c l e a n i n g the d w e l l i n g area of the animals. Fetch  and C a r r y  This duty involved setting up t h e t a b l e s b e f o r e m e a l s . B e c a u s e t h e f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y s t u d e n t s were a l s o responsible for collecting food from the k i t c h e n f o r everyone d u r i n g a meal, e a c h t a b l e had a t l e a s t one f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y student. He/she occupied a s p e c i a l s e a t so t h a t i t was c o n v e n i e n t t o l e a v e t h e table without d i s t u r b i n g others.  175  Weather Duty E a c h m o r n i n g a n d e v e n i n g one c a b i n g r o u p was e x p e c t e d to report a t t h e weather s t a t i o n , t o read t h e weather i n s t r u m e n t s , and t o make a f o r e c a s t o f t h e w e a t h e r . By d o i n g t h i s duty they l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e w e a t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . They made a v e r b a l r e p o r t at b r e a k f a s t and a t d i n n e r i n t h e d i n i n g h a l l . Host and H o s t e s s It was t h e d u t y of t h e host t o i n v i t e a d i f f e r e n t s t a f f member o r v i s i t i n g a d u l t t o be h i s g u e s t a t e a c h m e a l . The h o s t headed t h e t a b l e , s e r v e d t h e main d i s h , a n d when more f o o d was needed a t t h e t a b l e , r e q u e s t e d t h e f e t c h - a n d - c a r r y p e r s o n t o g e t i t . As h o s t , he g u i d e d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d s e t a good example by u s i n g p r o p e r t a b l e m a n n e r s . He was a l s o e x p e c t e d t o t h a n k h i s guest a f t e r the meal. Like the host, the hostess invited a s t a f f member o r v i s i t o r t o be a g u e s t a t m e a l s . She s a t a t t h e o p p o s i t e end o f the t a b l e f r o m t h e h o s t . When t h e e n t i r e t a b l e h a d been s e r v e d , the h o s t e s s took t h e f i r s t b i t e and then everyone might begin eating. Like the host, the hostess a l s o d i r e c t e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d s e t a good example by u s i n g p r o p e r table manners. She was a l s o e x p e c t e d t o thank h e r guest a f t e r t h e meal. hall  In a d d i t i o n , t h e host and h o s t e s s remained in a f t e r t h e m e a l a n d e l e a n e d up t h e d i n i n g room.  the  dining  Roustabout The duty of the roustabout c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of c o l l e c t i n g g a r b a g e a n d c l e a n i n g t h e camp g r o u n d s . There were a l s o s p e c i a l d u t i e s , a s s i g n e d by t h e r o u s t a b o u t c o u n s e l l o r , when t h e need a r o s e . Vegetables Each morning -after b r e a k f a s t , t h e c a b i n group r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v e g e t a b l e s met w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l o r i n c h a r g e o f t h e c h o r e . This g r o u p was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f v e g e t a b l e s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e day's meals. Follow-up  activities  F o r t h e f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t i e s s t u d e n t s saw a n d d i s c u s s e d two c o n s e r v a t i o n f i l m s . ( " D a y l i g h t i n t h e Swamp" a n d "Whatever a Man S o w e t h " ) . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e was a d i s c u s s i o n o f what students learned i n t h e Outdoor S c h o o l , and w r i t i n g of l e t t e r s t o t h e outdoor t e a c h e r s . Students a l s o submitted assignments i n s c i e n c e and l a n g u a g e a r t s , a n d t h e s e were d i s c u s s e d . To s u m m a r i z e t h e t r e a t m e n t , a l l s t u d e n t s saw a l l o f t h e films. They a l s o t o o k p a r t i n a l l o f t h e f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s b u t  176  t h e o r d e r of t h e f i e l d s t u d y t o p i c s d i f f e r e d f o r t h e different g r o u p s . A l l s t u d e n t s took p a r t i n the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , but students were free t o c h o o s e o n l y one r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on e a c h d a y . S t u d e n t s were a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t o select a different recreation a c t i v i t y each day. S i m i l a r l y , a l l s t u d e n t s took p a r t i n t h e c h o r e s , but not a l l s t u d e n t s participated in a l l six chores. Most students were i n v o l v e d i n f i v e of t h e s i x c h o r e s d u r i n g the program.  1 77  PURPOSE  APPENDIX B ATTITUDE TOWARDS CONSERVATION  We a r e t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t how f a v o u r a b l e or u n f a v o u r a b l e y o u a r e t o w a r d s s a v i n g e n e r g y , p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e . Please fill i n b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s p a g e . Then for each s t a t e m e n t on the following pages show how strongly you agree or d i s a g r e e by c i r c l i n g one o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e s c a l e t o t h e r i g h t of the items. Your t e a c h e r w i l l e x p l a i n t h e s y m b o l s t o y o u , and w i l l t e l l y o u when t o b e g i n . If you a r e u n d e c i d e d o r do n o t know, c i r c l e t h e l e t t e r U w h i c h i s t o t h e e x t r e m e r i g h t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . Read each item carefully and circle only one symbol f o r every statement. YOUR FREEDOM A l t h o u g h y o u r s c h o o l has a g r e e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y , you are free to withdraw a t any time or r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . I f you complete the questionnaire it will be assumed t h a t you have a g r e e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s study. Any information received from you will remain confidential. INFORMATION ABOUT YOU 1 . DIVISION 2. Name: (Surname o r l a s t name) 3. Sex - c h e c k one 4. Have you e v e r gone on a c a m p i n g trip? I f s o , f o r how l o n g ?  (First rj  r - i Yes U J - J One  • •  Q  Female  Two  name) Male  i - i No u day days  Three  days  More t h a n t h r e e d a y s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n s from your t e a c h e r b e f o r e you s t a r t a n s w e r i n g the next s e t of q u e s t i o n s . n  Wait  PLEASE ANSWER ALL'QUESTIONS t h r o u g h t o t h e end on page 10. Notice that the f i r s t s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k i n g about what y o u b e l i e v e p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l do o r w o u l d do (pages 2-4) about c o n s e r v a t i o n , and t h e s e c o n d s e t o f q u e s t i o n s ( p a g e s 5-7) a s k s how y o u feel about some of the same things yourself. The l a s t s e t of q u e s t i o n s ( p a g e s 8-10) a s k s what y o u y o u r s e l f do a b o u t t h e s e t h i n g s .  1 78  The f o l l o w i n g s e t o f q u e s t i o n s are planned t o tell u s what s t u d e n t s y o u r age t h i n k a b o u t t h e p u b l i c . Read t h e q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y a n d r e s p o n d t o them t h e way s t u d e n t s y o u r age t h i n k about the p u b l i c . ENERGY STUDENTS MY PEOPLE ... 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  AGE  BELIEVE  THAT  would t u r n o f f t h e i r television when no one i s w a t c h i n g would not turn at n i g h t  their  MOST sets SA A N D SD U  t h e r m o s t a t s down SA A N D SD U  w o u l d t a k e t h e bus cars  instead  of  their SA A N D SD U  would hang t h e i r s m a l l w a s h i n g up t o dry i n s t e a d of u s i n g a d r y e r w o u l d n o t w a t c h T.V. to  p r o g r a m s on  how  save energy  SA A N D SD U  6)  w o u l d r e a d b o o k s on how to' s a v e e n e r g y  7)  would turn o f f t h e i r l i g h t s a t home when n o t i n u s e w o u l d n o t s a v e e n e r g y i n s p i t e o f what some p e o p l e s a y  8) 9)  SA A N D SD U  w o u l d n o t c h e c k t h e amount which different machines b u y i n g one  ...SA A N D SD U  of energy use b e f o r e  10) w o u l d check their tire pressure f r e q u e n t l y t o improve gas m i l e a g e SA A N D SD U  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Di sagree Strongly Disagree Undec i d e d  SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U  SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U  179  PLANTS STUDENTS PEOPLE 1) 2) 3)  4) 5)  MY  AGE  BELIEVE  w o u l d grow trees to environment b e a u t i f u l would protect generations  THAT  help  MOST  make  the SA A N D SD U  trees  for  future SA A N D SD U  would support the schools i f the s c h o o l s were t o t e a c h how t r e e s c a n be protected  SA A N D SD U  would break b r a n c h e s from t r e e s t o use as w a l k i n g s t i c k s  SA A N D SD U  would  dig  up  forest plants  to bring  home  SA A N D SD U  6)  would p u l l  7)  w o u l d r e p o r t p e o p l e who are careless about f i r e s i n t h e f o r e s t ' w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g how t o protect forest plants  8) 9)  up p l a n t s  would c a r v e t h e i r trees  i n the forest  names o r i n i t i a l s  SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U  on .SA A N D SD U  10) w o u l d n o t be i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g about laws t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t p l a n t s SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Undecided or.Don't  SA, A N D SD U  know  •  WILDLIFE STUDENTS PEOPLE 1) 2)  3)  MY  AGE  BELIEVE  THAT  MOST  would support the idea of p r o t e c t i n g w i l d animals f o r future generations  SA A N D SD U  would support the schools i f the s c h o o l s were t o t e a c h how w i l d a n i m a l s c a n be s a v e d  SA A N  would support laws shooting w i l d animals  SA A N D SD U  which  D SD U  prevent  4)  would not d r i v e their vehicles more carefully when t h e r e a r e w i l d a n i m a l s on t h e h i g h w a y ....SA A N D SD U  5)  w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e money t o buy hay f o r w i l d a n i m a l s d u r i n g bad w e a t h e r ( e . g . , when t h e r e i s t o o much snow)  SA A N D SD U  w o u l d n o t h e l p t o p r o v i d e homes b i r d houses) f o r w i l d animals  SA A N D SD U  6) 7) 8)  9)  (e.g.,  would b r i n g w i l d a n i m a l s home t o keep as p e t s  SA A N D SD U  w o u l d remove g a r b a g e from r i v e r s or streams so t h a t fish would n o t be harmed  SA A N D SD U  would r e p o r t anyone breaking which are meant t o p r o t e c t animals  SA A N D SD U  laws wild  10) w o u l d p i c k up any f i s h e g g s t h e y find a l o n g a r i v e r and r e t u r n t h e eggs i n t o the r i v e r SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  SA A N D SD U  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't know  181  The following s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l a b o u t saving energy. C i r c l e the r e s p o n s e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s how y o u f e e l a b o u t e a c h of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . ENERGY 1)  I would and t u r n it  l i k e t o check t h e t e l e v i s i o n i t o f f i f no one i s w a t c h i n g  . .SA A N D SD U  2)  I would l i k e t o check t h e t h e r m o s t a t . t o be s u r e i t was t u r n e d down a t n i g h t ....SA A N D SD U  3)  I w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h e bus i n to save energy  order SA A N D SD U  4)  I w o u l d want my p a r e n t s t o hang s m a l l l o a d s o f w a s h i n g up t o d r y i n s t e a d o f u s i n g a d r y e r , i n o r d e r t o s a v e e n e r g y ...SA A N D SD U  5)  I w o u l d r a t h e r w a t c h a T.V. p r o g r a m on how ' t o s a v e energy than watch o t h e r T.V. p r o g r a m s ....SA A N D SD U  6)  I w o u l d n o t l i k e t o go t o a l i b r a r y t o get some b o o k s on how t o s a v e e n e r g y .....SA A N D SD U  7)  I would l i k e t o t u r n off lights home i f t h e y a r e n o t i n u s e  8) 9)  I w o u l d make an e f f o r t i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way  at SA A N D SD U  t o save energy SA A N D SD U  I would n o t spend time f i n d i n g o u t t h e amount o f e n e r g y needed f o r d i f f e r e n t toys, b e f o r e a s k i n g my p a r e n t s t o buy me one  10) I w o u l d n o t l i k e my p a r e n t s t o t i r e p r e s s u r e checked r e g u l a r l y SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  SA A N D SD U  have  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Undecided  SA A N D SD U  182  The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l a b o u t saving plants. C i r c l e the r e s p o n s e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s how y o u f e e l a b o u t e a c h of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . PLANTS 1) 2)  3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)  9)  I would not l i k e t o j o i n a group which i s t r y i n g t o p l a n t more t r e e s  ..SA A N D SD U  While h i k i n g I would be c a r e f u l t o s t a y on t h e t r a i l , i n o r d e r to avoid s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s  SA A N D SD U  I would not agree with schools t e a c h i n g how t r e e s c a n be s a v e d  SA A N D SD U  I would l i k e t o break t r e e s t o use as w a l k i n g  SA A N D SD U  branches sticks  from  I w o u l d l i k e t o d i g up some p l a n t s i n t h e f o r e s t a n d b r i n g them home I would not l i k e p u l l i n g a forest I would be forest fires  up p l a n t s  ..SA A N D SD U  in .SA A N D SD U  happy i f I c o u l d p r e v e n t .SA A N D SD U  I w o u l d be g l a d t o r e p o r t p e o p l e who throw c i g a r e t t e s out of t h e i r c a r s t o t h e RCMP  SA A N D SD U  I would like my p a r e n t s a r t i f i c i a l Christmas trees  SA A N D SD U  10) I w o u l d not l i k e which a r e meant plants  to  use  t o l e a r n about laws to protect forest  SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  SA A N D SD U  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't know  183  The following s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d out how YOU f e e l a b o u t s a v i n g w i l d animals. Circle the r e s p o n s e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s how y o u f e e l a b o u t each of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s .  WILDLIFE 1)  2)  3) 4)  5) 6)  7)  8)  9)  I would not v o l u n t e e r to distribute handouts about p r o t e c t i n g w i l d a n i m a l s for future generations.  SA A N D SD U  I would like t o j o i n those students who want t h e s c h o o l s t o t e a c h how w i l d a n i m a l s c a n be p r o t e c t e d  SA A N D SD U  I would tell my stones at birds  SA A N D SD U  friends  to  throw  I would a s k my f r i e n d s t o h e l p w i l d a n i m a l s d u r i n g b a d w e a t h e r ( e . g . , when t h e r e i s t o o much snow)  SA A N D SD U  I w o u l d l i k e t o buy a n d hang up bird h o u s e s t o p r o v i d e a home f o r b i r d s  SA A N D SD U  I f I went i n t o a f o r e s t and found a small wild animal, I would tell my friends t o b r i n g i t home a n d k e e p i t as a p e t  SA A N D SD U  I w o u l d remove g a r b a g e f r o m a s t r e a m so that t h e p o l l u t i o n won't k i l l t h e fish  SA A N D SD U  I would not l i k e t o r e p o r t people to the R.C.M.P. f o r b r e a k i n g laws which a r e meant t o p r o t e c t w i l d a n i m a l s  SA A N D SD U  I w o u l d be g l a d t o p i c k up f r o g eggs f r o m a r i v e r bank a n d t o p u t them back i n t o t h e w a t e r t o p r o t e c t t h e t a d p o l e s ...SA A N D SD U  10) I w o u l d b r i n g any b i r d s e g g s I f i n d i n the f o r e s t home t o p l a y w i t h SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  SA A N D SD U  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't know  184  The following s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d out what y o u a c t u a l l y DO a b o u t s a v i n g e n e r g y . C i r c l e the r e s p o n s e which b e s t d e s c r i b e s your b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of the s t a t e m e n t s . ENERGY 1)  I don't o f t e n t u r n o f f t h e t e l e v i s i o n s e t when no. one i s w a t c h i n g i t  .SA A N D SD U  I o f t e n check the thermostat reading in t h e m o r n i n g t o f i n d o u t i f i t was t u r n e d down a t n i g h t  SA A N D SD U  3)  I t a k e t h e bus i n o r d e r t o save energy  ...SA A N D SD U  4)  I b e l i e v e i n h a n g i n g up washed c l o t h e s to d r y i n s t e a d of u s i n g a d r y e r  SA A N D SD U  I don't watch T.V. programs t e a c h how t o s a v e e n e r g y  SA A N D SD U  2)  5) 6) 7)  8)  which  I don't r e a d books which d e a l w i t h to save energy I  don't  how SA A N D SD U  t u r n o f f t h e l i g h t s a t home,  when t h e y a r e n o t needed  SA A N D SD U  I have n o t been s a v i n g e n e r g y  SA A N D SD U  9)  I have been c h e c k i n g t h e amount o f e n e r g y u s e d by my t o y s 10) I r e m i n d my p a r e n t s t o h a v e t h e i r t i r e p r e s s u r e checked from time t o time SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  SA A N D SD U SA A N D SD U  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't know  The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d out what y o u a c t u a l l y DO a b o u t s a v i n g p l a n t s . C i r c l e the response which best d e s c r i b e s your behavior w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of t h e s t a t e m e n t s . PLANTS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  I have n o t plant l a t e l y  cared  f o r , or watered a SA A N D SD U  I always stay on t h e t r a i l while h i k i n g t o a v o i d s t e p p i n g on p l a n t s  SA A N D SD U  I h a v e n o t shown an i n t e r e s t a b o u t how t r e e s c a n be p r o t e c t e d  SA A N D SD U  I break branches from t r e e s t o use as walking s t i c k s  SA A N D SD U  I have been i n a f o r e s t lately, dug up a p l a n t t o b r i n g home  SA A N D SD U  6)  I pull  7)  I k e e p an e y e on p e o p l e who m i g h t cause f o r e s t fires, so t h a t I can r e p o r t them i f t h e r e i s a f i r e  SA A N D SD U  I read saved  SA A N D SD U  8) 9) 10)  up p l a n t s  and  i n the forest  SA A N D SD U  a b o u t how f o r e s t p l a n t s c a n be  I have c a r v e d tree l a t e l y  my name o r i n i t i a l s  on a SA A N D SD U  I have studied something about t h e l a w s w h i c h a r e meant t o p r o t e c t f o r e s t plants SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't  SA A N D SD U  know  186 The f o l l o w i n g s e t of q u e s t i o n s a r e t o f i n d o u t what you actually DO about saving wildlife. Circle the response which best d e s c r i b e s your b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o e a c h of t h e statements. WILDLIFE 1)  2)  3) 4)  5) 6) 7)  8) 9)  10)  I have not shown an programs about saving lately  interest in wild animals  . . .SA  A N D SD  U  SA  A N D SD  U  SA  A N D SD  U  I w a t c h o u t and s t o p w h i l e w a l k i n g or riding my b i c y c l e to avoid k i l l i n g small animals  SA  A N D SD  U  I have put f o o d out f o r (e.g., b i r d s ) r e c e n t l y  SA  A N D SD  U  I h a v e b o u g h t and hung up, o r c l e a n e d a b i r d f e e d e r or b i r d house l a t e l y  SA  AND  SD  U  I watch out f o r a n i m a l s which bring home as p e t s , when I go forest  SA  A N D SD  U  SA  A N D SD  U  I don't watch for people who are likely to break laws which p r o t e c t w i l d a n i m a l s , so that I can report them •  SA  A N D SD  U  I found some b i r d s o r f r o g e g g s b r o u g h t them home t o p l a y w i t h  SA  A N D SD  U  I h a v e shown an l e a r n a b o u t how saved  i n t e r e s t i n wanting w i l d animals can  I have thrown stones (e.g., b i r d s ) l a t e l y  at w i l d  wild  animals  animals  I can into a  I h a v e removed g a r b a g e f r o m a r i v e r stream l a t e l y  SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  to be  or  and  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't know  P l e a s e go back and make sure that you have responded to a l l items and circle o n l y one r e s p o n s e f o r e a c h i t e m . When you have finished with .i t return the questionnaire to your teacher. Thank you f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y .  187  APPENDIX G TRIAL  SHEET  Read t h e i t e m s c a r e f u l l y a n d i n d i c a t e how s t r o n g l y you a g r e e or d i s a g r e e w i t h each of t h e f o l l o w i n g items by c i r c l i n g one o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e s c a l e t o t h e r i g h t o f e a c h i t e m . The s y m b o l s have the f o l l o w i n g m e a n i n g s : SA A N D SD U  = = = = = =  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree U n d e c i d e d o r Don't  know  1. S t u d e n t s my age b e l i e v e t h a t most p e o p l e w o u l d n o t w a t c h c a r t o o n s on T.V  SA  A  N  D  SD  U  ...SA  A  N  D  SD  U  SA  A  N  D  SD  U  SA  A  N  D  SD  U  5. I don' t w a t c h c a r t o o n s on T.V  SA  A  N  D  SD  U  6. I s h o p on S u n d a y s  SA  A  N  D  SD  U  2. S t u d e n t s my age b e l i e v e t h a t most p e o p l e would l i k e  t o s e e s h o p s open on S u n d a y s  3. I w o u l d l i k e  t o w a t c h c a r t o o n s on T.V  4. I w o u l d n o t l i k e  t o s e e s h o p s open on  Sundays  188  APPENDIX D INSTRUCTIONS TO THE TEACHER FOR ADMINISTERING THE QUESTIONNAIRE INTRODUCTION 1. D i s t r i b u t e  the questionnaires.  2.  Read o u t t h e T I T L E a n d PURPOSE.  3.  Ask sure  4.  Hand o u t TRIAL SHEET.  5.  Read o u t t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e box t o t h e s t u d e n t s . Answer any q u e s t i o n s .  6.  T e l l the students t h e TRIAL SHEET.  7.  After completion by e v e r y b r i e f r e v i e w ( e . g . , When do "N" ? "U" ?) Answer any q u e s t i o n s .  • TRIAL  students t o f i l l i n INFORMATION ABOUT YOU. Make t h a t t h e name i s p r i n t e d .  t o go a h e a d a n d do t h e  6  items  on  student, conduct a b r i s k you c i r c l e "SA"? "SD"?  MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE 8.  Tell them t o p u t t h e T R I A L SHEET a s i d e a n d r e t u r n t o t h e m a i n QUESTIONNAIRE.  9.  T e l l them t o r e a d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  the i n s t r u c t i o n s (Page 1 ) .  in.the last  box  of  10.  Tell them begin.  t o t u r n t o page 2 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d  11.  When t h e f i r s t s t u d e n t ( s ) finish, remind t h e whole c l a s s o f t h e l a s t s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e l o w e r box (Page 1 0 ) .  12.  L e t them hand i n t h e i r  questionnaires  t o you.  ONCE STUDENTS BEGIN RESPONDING TO THE MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE, PLEASE DO NOT HELP THEM IN ANY WAY. TELL THEM TO CIRCLE "U" I F THEY DO NOT UNDERSTAND ANY ITEM. I T I S ALSO IMPORTANT THAT THEY RESPOND TO THE MAIN QUESTIONNAIRE INDIVIDUALLY.  189  APPENDIX E PARENTS' QUESTIONNAIRE  June  To  the Parents  Dear  of Grade S i x  11,  1981  Students  Parent/Guardian,  This y e a r t h e s c h o o l i s t a k i n g p a r t i n a s t u d y t o f i n d out what e f f e c t t h e o u t d o o r s c h o o l p r o g r a m has on t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s o f s t u d e n t s t o w a r d c o n s e r v a t i o n of e n e r g y , p l a n t s , and animals. The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o f i n d o u t i f , and t o what e x t e n t , o u r s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e some of the conservation methods w h i c h they learned at t h e o u t d o o r s c h o o l i n e a c h of t h e s e 3 a r e a s ( e n e r g y , p l a n t s and a n i m a l s ) . As y o u know, our grade s i x students took part in the outdoor s c h o o l p r o g r a m two weeks ago. B e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the program they were taught about conservation of energy, plants, and a n i m a l s . W h i l e t h e y were a t t h e o u t d o o r s c h o o l t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o p r a c t i c e good c o n s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s . We are interested in following this up t o f i n d out i f the s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e t o show c o n c e r n f o r the need to conserve, and/or practice some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n f r o m t h e outdoor s c h o o l . To e n a b l e us t o do this we have e n c l o s e d this short questionnaire, and we w o u l d be g r a t e f u l i f you w o u l d r e s p o n d t o i t and r e t u r n i t t h r o u g h y o u r c h i l d . B e c a u s e o f the nature of this study we w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e y o u r own comments i n t h e s p a c e s p r o v i d e d , i n a d d i t i o n to the answers t o the q u e s t i o n s . Y o u r r e s p o n s e i s i m p o r t a n t t o us i n t h i s study, but your participation is totally v o l u n t a r y ; you a r e f r e e t o r e f u s e t o a n s w e r any q u e s t i o n ( s ) w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . Y o u r r e s p o n s e w i l l be treated a s c o n f i d e n t i a l , and w i l l be u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . N e i t h e r y o u nor y o u r c h i l d will be identified on your responses; we are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t of the program on our g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s a s a w h o l e . Thank y o u  f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s  request. Yours  truly,  1 90  QUESTIONNAIRE TO A.  1.  2.  1.  STUDENTS  Has you c h i l d shown any c h a n g e ( s ) i n a t t i t u d e or behavior ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of ENERGY? Yes No Don't k n o w / c a n ' t t e l l Has y o u r c h i l d shown any c h a n g e ( s ) i n a t t i t u d e o r b e h a v i o r ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of PLANTS? No  Has y o u r c h i l d (positive or (WILDLIFE)? Yes  B.  GRADE SIX  We a r e t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t i f what t h e grade six students were taught i n t h e o u t d o o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m has had any effect on their attitudes and/or behaviors toward conservation of ENERGY, PLANTS, and ANIMALS. P l e a s e r e a d the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s below; f o r each q u e s t i o n check one of t h e b o x e s w h i c h b e s t r e p r e s e n t s any c h a n g e ( s ) w h i c h you may have observed i n your c h i l d s i n c e h i s / h e r r e t u r n from the outdoor s c h o o l .  Yes 3.  PARENTS/GUARDIANS OF  Don't k n o w / c a n ' t  tell  shown any c h a n g e ( s ) i n a t t i t u d e o r behavior negative) towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of ANIMALS No  Don't k n o w / c a n ' t  tell  P l e a s e use t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p a c e s below to provide any comments on any c h a n g e ( s ) w h i c h y o u may have o b s e r v e d . A few i d e a s h a v e been p r e s e n t e d t o h e l p you i n w r i t i n g your comments. Comments on change(s) in attitude or behavior toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of ENERGY. F o r e x a m p l e , a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e may involve d o i n g , and a n e g a t i v e c h a n g e may i n v o l v e n o t d o i n g things l i k e : talking reading turning watching turning  a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n of e n e r g y , a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n of e n e r g y , o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d , T.V. programs about energy, o f f t h e T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g .  COMMENTS:  2.  Comments on change(s) in attitude or behavior toward conservation of PLANTS. F o r e x a m p l e , a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e may i n v o l v e d o i n g , and a n e g a t i v e c h a n g e may i n v o l v e n o t doing things l i k e :  191  t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e need t o c o n s e r v e p l a n t s , r e a d i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , w a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p l a n t s , watering p l a n t s , caring for plants. COMMENTS:  3.  Comments on c h a n g e ( s ) i n attitude or behavior toward c o n s e r v a t i o n o f ANIMALS ( W I L D L I F E ) . F o r e x a m p l e , a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e may i n v o l v e d o i n g , a n d a n e g a t i v e c h a n g e may i n v o l v e not d o i n g t h i n g s l i k e : talking reading watching feeding showing COMMENTS:  about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s , about a n i m a l s , T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n o f a n i m a l s , birds, some c o n c e r n f o r t h e need t o c o n s e r v e animals.  1 92  APPENDIX F STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  (BEFORE THE CAMP PROGRAM)  Name o f s t u d e n t Gender (a) What k i n d s o f t h i n g s do y o u hope t o l e a r n a t t h e camp? (b) What k i n d s o f t h i n g s do y o u hope t o s e e a t t h e camp? ( c ) What t h i n g s have y o u been s p e c i f i c a l l y camp? (d) Why a r e y o u e x p e c t e d t o do t h e s e with conservation e.g., appropriate place)? (e) What t h i n g s h a v e y o u been t o l d t h e camp?  told  t o do a t t h e  (only those take garbage  specifically  related to the  n o t t o do a t  ( f ) Why a r e y o u n o t e x p e c t e d t o do t h e s e t h i n g s ( i . e . , t h o s e r e l a t e d t o c o n s e r v a t i o n o n l y . - e.g., c o l l e c t plants, etc.)? (g) What do y o u hope t o l e a r n a b o u t , s a y , e n e r g y , p l a n t s , animals, etc.?  193  APPENDIX G COUNSELLORS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BEFORE THE CAMP PROGRAM) 1.  To what e x t e n t do y o u t h i n k i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o h e l p s t u d e n t s to develop favorable a t t i t u d e s towards conservation of energy, p l a n t s , and w i l d l i f e ?  2.  Have y o u e v e r been a s t u d e n t a t t h e camp y o u r s e l f ? Yes No  3.  I f s o , do y o u t h i n k that i t h e l p e d y o u t o d e v e l o p more favorable a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, plants, and w i l d l i f e ?  4. - D e s c r i b e t h e way y o u t h i n k t h e program i n f l u e n c e d your behavior towards these: energy, plants and animals (both f a v o r a b l e and unfavorable, i f p o s s i b l e ) . 5.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s c o m i n g t o t h e camp w i l l d e v e l o p more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s conservation of e n e r g y , p l a n t s a n d w i l d l i f e a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m ?  6.  What do y o u t h i n k i s i n t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h w o u l d i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s of t h e s t u d e n t s toward c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e ?  1 94  APPENDIX H OBSERVATION INSTRUMENT 1.  (FOR A C T I V I T I E S / S E S S I O N S )  Content (knowledge). (a) The i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n t e n t i n c l u d e d Circle Energy Yes/No Plants Yes/No Animals Yes/No (b) D e s c r i b e , i n d e t a i l , what t h e c o n t e n t was. ( P r o v i d e sources of r e f e r e n c e , e.g., books, e t c . i f p o s s i b l e . )  any  2.  How was t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r p r e s e n t e d ? - e . g . , .What t y p e o f t e a c h i n g method was u s e d ? Were t h e r e any d i s c u s s i o n s ?  3.  What a c t i v i t i e s were s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n ? - D e s c r i b e . How many s t u d e n t s were on t a s k ? How many s t u d e n t s were n o t on t a s k ? ( N o t e : o v e r what t i m e f r a m e ? )  4.  What d i d s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y do? - D e s c r i b e . How many s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d (%)?  5.  How much t i m e ' d i d s t u d e n t s s p e n d d o i n g  6.  D i d s t u d e n t s show any i n i t i a t i v e ? questions d i d students ask?  7.  Did students suggest ways o f c o n s e r v i n g ? I f s o , how were t h e s e r e c e i v e d by t h e t e a c h e r a n d by t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o u p ? Was i t r e i n f o r c e d ?  8.  How many s t u d e n t s were w o r k i n g  9.  What were t h e r o l e s o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ?  -  activities? e.g.,  what  types  of  i n a group?  10. How e n t h u s i a s t i c were t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e a c t i v i t y ? - e . g . , happy ( f r o m f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i l l i n g n e s s to participate, e t c . ). 11. How e n t h u s i a s t i c were t h e s t u d e n t s l e s s o n as a whole). 12. What s o r t s o f t h i n g s d i d s t u d e n t s  i n the lesson?  ( i . e . , the  say?  13. D i d s t u d e n t s enjoy the a c t i v i t y ? - Evidence (e.g., s m i l e s , chuckles, reading or t a l k i n g about the a c t i v i t y after lesson). 14. D i d s t u d e n t s e n j o y  the l e s s o n as a whole? - G i v e  evidence.  15. D i d t h e l e s s o n / s e s s i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n ? If so, describe the kinds of c o n s e r v a t i o n which were included, a n d how t h e s e were h a n d l e d - t e l l i n g , d i s c u s s i o n , problem s o l v i n g , e t c .  1 95  16. D i d s t u d e n t s exhibit any c o n s e r v a t i o n t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s a f t e r the l e s s o n .  behavior?  e.g.,  17. W h i c h students may be h e l p f u l f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g ? L i s t t h e i r names, and o r d e r them f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w of those who a r e more l i k e l y t o be h e l p f u l . 18. Was was  the importance for conservation discussed? i t r e c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s ?  19. Any o t h e r  observations?  I f s o , how  1 96  APPENDIX I QUESTIONS FOR STUDENT INTERVIEWING (AFTER AN A C T I V I T Y ) 1.  What d i d y o u l e a r n t h a t was new i n t h e l e s s o n ?  2.  D i d you l e a r n a n y t h i n g Plants? Energy? Wildlife?  3.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t  4.  On t h e w h o l e , d i d y o u l i k e  5.  Which p a r t s of t h e s e s s i o n d i d you l i k e ? Why?  6.  W h i c h p a r t o f t h e s e s s i o n d i d y o u NOT Why?  7.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h i s s e s s i o n w i l l c h a n g e t h e way y o u a b o u t s a v i n g e n e r g y ? .... P l a n t s ? .... W i l d l i f e ? ....  8.  D i d having students from other s e s s i o n make a n y d i f f e r e n c e ?  9.  What d i d y o u l e a r n a b o u t t h i n g s y o u c a n do t o s a v e (a) e n e r g y ? (b) p l a n t s ? (c) w i l d l i f e ?  about  ....  i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n about  them?  t h e s e s s i o n ? .... a c t i v i t i e s ? ....  like?  classes  feel  w i t h you i n the  197  APPENDIX J QUESTIONS FOR COUNSELLORS  (AFTER A C T I V I T Y )  How h e l p f u l do y o u t h i n k t h e a c t i v i t y was a t t i t u d e s of students towards c o n s e r v a t i o n a) Energy? b) P l a n t s ? c) W i l d l i f e ? Do y o u c o n s i d e r How  in of  changing  the  t h e l e s s o n / a c t i v i t y t o be i m p o r t a n t ?  i n t e r e s t i n g was t h e l e s s o n  t o you? and t o t h e  students?  In what way do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e l e s s o n w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s ? - Towards p l a n t s , energy, and w i l d l i f e ? I n what way do y o u t h i n k of f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s ?  that  i t may i n h i b i t  t h e development  I n y o u r o p i n i o n , do y o u t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l able to practice some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods session?  be better after this  I f we want t o f i n d o u t i f s t u d e n t s practiced conservation methods, after this program, how s h o u l d we do i t o r what k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s would you suggest? What d i d s t u d e n t s seem t o l i k e ? Why? What d i d s t u d e n t s n o t seem t o l i k e ? Why?  1 98  APPENDIX K QUESTIONS FOR ADULTS (AFTER THE CAMP PROGRAM) Check One Counsellor Regular C l a s s Teacher Outdoor Teacher 1.  L i s t o r d e s c r i b e how, i n y o u r o p i n i o n , t h i s one week p r o g r a m was a b l e t o improve t h e a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of (a) E n e r g y (b) P l a n t s (c) W i l d l i f e .  2.  List and/or describe how y o u t h i n k t h i s one week o u t d o o r p r o g r a m may i n h i b i t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s towards c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p l a n t s , e n e r g y , and w i l d l i f e .  3.  Do y o u t h i n k that students d e v e l o p e d more f a v o r a b l e o r u n f a v o r a b l e b e h a v i o r ? S u p p o r t t h i s w i t h any r e a s o n s y o u h a v e ( e . g . , what t h e y s a i d , what t h e y d i d , e t c . ) .  4.  I f we want to find out i f students conservation methods, what kinds of s u g g e s t t h a t we a s k t h e i r p a r e n t s ?  actually questions  practice w i l l you  199  APPENDIX L QUESTIONS FOR  TEACHER INTERVIEW (AFTER A C T I V I T Y )  1.  How h e l p f u l was t h e a c t i v i t y i n c h a n g i n g s t u d e n t s t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n of (a) E n e r g y ? (b) P l a n t s ? (c) W i l d l i f e ?  2.  How important t o you?  3.  How  4.  Do you t h i n k t h a t t h e l e s s o n w i l l the students towards c o n s e r v a t i o n (a) E n e r g y ? (b) P l a n t s ? (c) W i l d l i f e ?  i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e s of of  5.  I n what ways do y o u  influence their attitudes?  6.  I n what ways do y o u t h i n k i t may i n h i b i t favorable conservation attitudes?  7.  I f you were t o t e a c h t h e same t o p i c a g a i n , w i t h t h e a i m c h a n g i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s , what w o u l d you do achieve a better r e s u l t ?  8.  Can you comment, o r c r i t i c i s e , o r s u g g e s t t h e ways i n w h i c h this session will change, or inhibit changes, in the b e h a v i o r of s t u d e n t s t o w a r d s c o n s e r v a t i o n o f e n e r g y , p l a n t s , and/or w i l d l i f e ?  9.  In y o u r o p i n i o n , do y o u t h i n k t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e p r a c t i c e some c o n s e r v a t i o n methods a f t e r t h i s s e s s i o n ?  10.  I f we  was  i n t e r e s t i n g was  the the  lesson/activity  to the  session? - to students  think i t w i l l  want t o f i n d o u t  the  i f students  attitudes  student? and  -  of  and  t o you?  the development  practiced conservation  of of to  to  200  APPENDIX M TEACHER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (BEFORE THE PROGRAM) a) B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n Name o f t e a c h e r : School: Grade l e v e l s c u r r e n t l y t a u g h t : Subject S p e c i a l i z a t i o n , i f any: Special r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n school: No. o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g ( a ) i n t h i s g r a d e : (b) o v e r a l l : Highest degree h e l d : Have y o u been t o camp b e f o r e ? I f y e s , number o f y e a r s ? Number o f t i m e s ? b)  Ideas About C o n s e r v a t i o n 1. How d i d y o u g e t i n v o l v e d i n c o n s e r v a t i o n ? 2. What c o n s e r v a t i o n t o p i c s i n t e r e s t y o u t h e m o s t ? 3. What t o p i c s ( i f a n y ) r e l a t i n g t o c o n s e r v a t i o n have you studied extensively? 4. What s p e c i a l a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e ( i f a n y ) do y o u have on such t o p i c s ? 5. What o t h e r k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e have y o u h a d r e l a t e d t o conservation issues? 6. What kinds o f c o n s e r v a t i o n c o n c e p t s ( i f a n y ) have y o u taught r e c e n t l y ? 7. What i s y o u r most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s outdoor program? 8. What kinds of s k i l l s and/or a t t i t u d e s d i d you expect s t u d e n t s t o have a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m ? 9. How i m p o r t a n t i s c h a n g i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s of students towards conservation of energy, p l a n t s and w i l d l i f e t o you?  c ) P r e p a r a t i o n s Done f o r D e v e l o p m e n t o f C o n s e r v a t i o n A t t i t u d e s 1. What s p e c i f i c t h i n g s d i d y o u do t o p r e p a r e t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e outdoor e d u c a t i o n program? 2. How d i d y o u p r e s e n t t h e Outdoor School r u l e s and philosophy t o the students (e.g. telling, discussions, e t c . )? 3. To what extent were the students involved in this preparation? 4. D u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , what d i d y o u d i s c u s s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and/or energy? 5. I f y o u d i d #4, i n what way do y o u t h i n k t h a t i t c o u l d have a f f e c t e d s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s a n d / o r b e h a v i o r towards c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , animals and energy? 6. What do y o u t h i n k that s t u d e n t s want t o l e a r n a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , animals and/or energy? 7. How much d i d t h e y l e a r n d u r i n g the preparation period about c o n s e r v a t i o n of p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , and/or energy?  201  APPENDIX N STUDENT INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (AFTER THE PROGRAM)  Think a b o u t what y o u d i d i n c l a s s before t h e Outdoor S c h o o l , a n d what y o u d i d d u r i n g t h e o u t d o o r p r o g r a m . 1.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e o u t d o o r s c h o o l l i k e saving  p r o g r a m made  (a) p l a n t s ? (b) w i l d l i f e ? (c) energy? 2.  What i s i t t h a t made y o u f e e l (a) p l a n t s ? (b) w i l d l i f e ? (c) energy?  like  saving  3.  What i s i t t h a t made y o u f e e l (a) p l a n t s ? (b) e n e r g y ? (c) w i l d l i f e ?  like  not saving  4.  Which p a r t s of t h e program d i d you l i k e ? Why? -  5.  Which p a r t s o f t h e program d i d you Not l i k e ? Why?  you  feel  202  APPENDIX 0 REASONS GIVEN BY STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT SURE OF A P O S I T I V E EFFECT ON THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  1.  We d i d n o t do a n y t h i n g  2.  We d i d n o t l e a r n much a b o u t  3.  Gave me o n l y  4.  I knew most o f t h e t h i n g s  5.  I already  6.  I n my c a b i n  (Note:  about energy  there.  energy.  information.  knew t h o s e they  Four students  left  already.  things. t h e l i g h t s o n , a n d we were  w o u l d n o t i n d i c a t e why.)  last.  203  APPENDIX P RESPONSES GIVEN BY STUDENTS ABOUT WHAT THEY BELIEVED TO MADE THEM FEEL L I K E SAVING PLANTS  HAVE  Classi f ication Well, what i s h a p p e n i n g t o a n i m a l s to p l a n t s . Through the  i s happening  program at the Outdoor  Just studying them  and  g o i n g out  there  School. and  5  looking  They t e a c h y o u s t u f f a b o u t t r e e s , t h e n you i f you a r e h u r t i n g t r e e s o r n o t . Our  s t u d i e s . We  The  people at the Outdoor School t o l d  Learning  about  studied  at  know  plants. us.  nature.  B e c a u s e I g o t t o know a b o u t them and l i k e I n e v e r knew b e f o r e .  everything,  We l e a r n e d t h a t we n e e d t h e p l a n t s t o o d o n ' t h a v e them we c a n ' t l i v e .  and  i f we  Our teacher told us t h a t t h e r e i s n o t everything, and i f one thing d i e s a n o t h e r t h i n g w i l l d i e , and i t w i l l c a r r y on.  much of  All the ecology things reports.  and  P l a n t s a r e s o r t of like r i g h t to l i v e too. We  learned  about the  Just being films.  there,  We  not  learned  We  not  films,  The films books.  we we  e v e r y day,  humans,  They  1,2  have  our a  trees  talks  about  w a t c h i n g the  t o b r e a k any d o n ' t do saw,  this  i t and  the  the  5  5,1,4 1  films.  bushes or in  1,3  1  t o throw l i t t e r around.  p l a n t s and  The  like  forest  a l l the  S e e i n g the learned  2  3,4  trees.  1  school.  f a r m s t u d i e s , and  4,3 the 4,3,1  The  forest ecology  stuff.  We d o n ' t have t o w a l k l i v i n g too. Because I l i k e The  field  or p u l l  plants.  They  are  them.  studies.  We learned food.  that  the  plants  g i v e the  animals  B e c a u s e i f we d o n ' t save them, i n a b o u t 20 we w i l l n o t have v e g e t a t i o n . I f we p u l l live; we studies.  t h e p l a n t s we w i l l not learned i n the f i e l d  be  years  able  to  T a l k i n g a b o u t them i n t h e f o r e s t , e t c . The We  field  s t u d i e s . We  were w r i t i n g  d i d i t i n the f i e l d  poems.  studies.  The way t h e y t a u g h t us a t the Outdoor Like they made i t a f u n way t o l e a r n t o do t h i n g s .  School.  What we d i d i n t h e s t u d i e s . A t s c h o o l t h e y y o u t h i n g s w h i c h d o n ' t move. If  we  c u t them down t h e r e w i l l  Because they are l i v i n g Just being  i n the  n o t be any  show left.  things.  outdoors.  The p l a n t s o u t s i d e o u r c a b i n made i t p r e t t y . I f someone had dug them up i t w o u l d n o t have l o o k e d n i c e . We  need t h e  forest.  They e x p l a i n what t h e y do Because they are  beautiful.  I u n d e r s t a n d them. The i n many ways. If we don't forest.  f o r you.  save  forest  them  We saw d i f f e r e n t t y p e s easier to understand.  of  we  is like will  trees.  a  teacher  n o t have It  made  the it  205  APPENDIX Q STUDENTS' RESPONSES INDICATING ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH STUDENTS BELIEVED TO HAVE MADE THEM FEEL L I K E SAVING WILDLIFE Classification At  s c h o o l you don't r e a l l y  If we left.  keep  killing  see t h e a n i m a l s .  them t h e r e w i l l  The w h o l e p r o g r a m i s a b o u t s a v i n g We  be n o t h i n g  them.  l e a r n e d a l o t at the Outdoor School.  We a r e n o t t h e o n l y o n e s . T h e r e a r e o t h e r in the f o r e s t t h a t share a l l the things with us. They t a u g h t us a l l t h e s e a t t h e o u t d o o r  things  school.  They e x p l a i n what t h e y do i n t h e f o r e s t . We  a l w a y s d i d a n i m a l s . I u n d e r s t a n d them  I t made i t e a s i e r I I  feel  to understand.  good a b o u t s a v i n g  them.  l e a r n e d a l o t , and we were a n i m a l s and t h e r a c o o n s .  The f i e l d  better.  feeding  the  farm  studies.  They are l i v i n g and we a r e l i v i n g d o n ' t have t o k i l l them. Because I l i k e d  t o o , s o we  them.  A l l t h e a n i m a l s w o u l d d i e . They t o l d them; and t h e bugs f o r t h e f i s h .  us t o  save  The a n i m a l s a r e n i c e . We  l e a r n e d t h a t we. s h o u l d s a v e  them.  Because i f we d o n ' t s a v e them now, years the animals will get e x t i n c t and d i e . We  learned these  They talked can p r o t e c t  i n the f i e l d  i n a b o u t 20  studies.  about a n i m a l s and p l a n t s , t h e eggs and l a r v a e .  that  we  206  We saw t h e d i f f e r e n t  k i n d s of b i r d  feeders,  I d o n ' t want p e o p l e t o h u n t t h e a n i m a l s if we k e e p h u n t i n g them t h e r e w i l l be n o t h i n g l e f t .  because 2  We t a l k e d a b o u t how e n d a n g e r e d t h e y a r e . W e l l , when y o u l e a r n t h a t p e o p l e only ones l i v i n g a n d we s h o u l d t a k e more c a r e b e c a u s e a l l the animals w i l l d i e . Our teachers everything.  not  the 1 2  t o l d us t h a t t h e r e i s n o t much o f  I f one t h i n g d i e s a n o t h e r w i l l a l l c a r r y on. All  are  3  thing w i l l  d i e and i t  t h e e c o l o g y t h i n g s and our r e p o r t s .  2 3  The farm s e s s i o n , a n d when we were d o i n g a l l s o r t s of s t u f f , they t o l d us. We l e a r n e d a b o u t b i r d s a n d some a n i m a l s , and t h e f i l m s .  of  S e e i n g t h e a n i m a l s and w a t c h i n g We learned liked i t . The  more  the  stream  the f i l m s .  3 4  a b o u t t h e w i l d a n i m a l s , and I  f i l m s and t h e f i e l d  studies.  The f i l m s a n d t h e f i e l d b i r d s and s t r e a m .  studies  What is plants.  animals  happening  to  3 .4  1 3 4  on  the  farm,  i s happening  Through t h e program a t t h e Outdoor  to  School.  4 3 2 5  J u s t s t u d y i n g t h e a n i m a l s and g o i n g o u t t h e r e t o l o o k a t them.  5  T h r o u g h what we d i d a t t h e O u t d o o r  3  School.  They t e a c h y o u a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d what t h e y e a t .  1  Our  3  s t u d i e s , we s t u d i e d w a t e r ,  The people School.  and  the  animals  Because I found o u t how t h e y and i t i s more q u i e t e r .  i n s e c t s and at  the  fish.  Outdoor 5  really  are l i k e , 5  207  L e a r n i n g , where t h e y didn't know a b o u t them and e v e r y t h i n g .  lived and e v e r y t h i n g , s t e p p i n g on  I 1 T  208  APPENDIX R STUDENTS' RESPONSES INDICATING ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH THEY BELIEVED TO HAVE MADE THEM FEEL L I K E SAVING ENERGY C l a s s i f icat ion B e c a u s e we w i l l future years. Through  n o t have more l e f t  t h e program  We couldn't energy.  afford  a t the Outdoor  over f o r School.  i t , i f there  [ save energy  the  They t o l d School.  us t h i s  Everybody  i s u s i n g up a l l t h e p o w e r .  2 5  i s n o t much  ] a t the Outdoor  What t h e p e o p l e t e l l y o u . B e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t u s e a s much e n e r g y a s t h e y do in towns. B e c a u s e we were f o r c e d [ e x p e c t e d ] the l i g h t s o r e l s e we w o u l d n o t g e t v e r y good c a b i n m a r k s .  to  turn  When y o u l e a r n a b o u t a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t you sort o f u n d e r s t a n d t h a t we may be r u n n i n g o u t s o o n , a n d man [humans] c a n ' t make i t a g a i n . Our t e a c h e r s t o l d us t h a t t h e r e everything l e f t . B e c a u s e we w i l l  i s not  off  things  much  of  r u n o u t i n a b o u t 20 y e a r s .  1 2  The c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d u s .  1  B e c a u s e we d i d n o t u s e much i n t h e c a b i n s .  5  I  1  l e a r n e d more a b o u t i t .  Because i f we d o n ' t s a v e them i n a b o u t 20 y e a r s we w i l l n o t be a b l e to drive cars, h e a t homes, and w i l l a l s o die. We l e a r n e d t h e s e i n t h e f i e l d  studies.  They t o l d  us a n d gave us l o t s  of i n f o r m a t i o n .  They t o l d  us e v e r y t h i n g .  209  I t h i n k I w o u l d s a v e them b e c a u s e t h e y a r e g o i n g t o run o u t .  2  I f e e l good  5  i f I s a v e them.  APPENDIX S  THE PARTS OF THE PROGRAM WHICH STUDENTS SAID THEY LIKED  P a r t of Program  n**  <£***  F i e l d Studies Everything Recreation Chores Food Snacks  33 17 1 1 4 2 1  85 44 28 10 6 3  T o t a l no. o f s t u d e n t s = 3 9 . Number o f s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d p a r t of the program. Number o f r e s p o n s e s p r e s e n t e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s w h i c h a d d up more t h a n 100.  21 1  APPENDIX T COMMENTS MADE BY PARENTS On  Energy  1.  M a r i a i s good a t s h u t t i n g t u r n i n g down t h e h e a t .  off  the  lights  and  2.  Talking about conservation of energy. Turning o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d . W a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t e n e r g y . Turning o f f t h e T.V. s e t when no one is watching.  3.  T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. Reading about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy. T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d . W a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t e n e r g y .  4.  T u r n i n g down t h e h e a t i n t h e bedroom. W a t c h e d T.V. p r o g r a m on i n s e c t s .  5.  Since learning about conservation of energy, G e o r g e h a s been s h o w i n g an a w a r e n e s s o f home heating system and t u r n i n g down h e a t s y s t e m below our normal setting to help conserve energy.  6.  Allan's energy conservation behavior probably r e f l e c t s the majority of the p o p u l a t i o n . He worries that eventually we won't h a v e enough energy but r e a l l y doesn't s e e any immediate s o l u t i o n . T u r n i n g o f f t h e T.V. i s d e f i n i t e l y NOT one o f h i s s t r o n g p o i n t s .  7.  No o b v i o u s  change.  8.  My c h i l d conserve  i s more  9.  I n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g energy i s s u e s of N a t i o n a l Geographic. C o n s c i o u s o f e x t r a l i g h t s l e f t on i n h o u s e .  10.  We have always been c o n c e r n e d about t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy i n t h i s home turning off lights when n o t n e e d e d , and o u r c h i l d r e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y t u r n o f f t h e T.V. when no one i s watching.  11.  Show some r e a l i s m a t s c h o o l . S c h o o l s a r e a l w a y s o v e r h e a t e d a n d o f t e n open windows t o c o o l .  12.  T u r n i n g down h e a t when t h e r m o s t a t i s a b o v e 65°.  c o n c e r n e d now, a n d t r i e s t o  212  Turning  o f f heat before  going  to school.  13.  T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s a n d T.V. Has s p o k e n about various things concerning Outdoor S c h o o l and w i l l p r o b a b l y p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e when o p p o r t u n i t y presents i t s e l f .  14.  Turning  15.  S o m e t i m e s ! B u t we do t a l k a b o u t t h i s more than b e f o r e Outdoor S c h o o l .  16.  We have always taught our c h i l d r e n t o t u r n o f f l i g h t s o r T.V. when n o t i n u s e . T h e r e h a s been no t a l k o f c o n s e r v i n g e n e r g y .  17.  I s more c a r e f u l about t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s (and t e l l i n g f r i e n d s who a r e v i s i t i n g , t o do t h e s a m e ! ) . We have t a l k e d a b o u t e n e r g y c o n s e r v a t i o n (turning down the thermostat, d r i v i n g a small c a r , b e n e f i t s o f good i n s u l a t i o n i n t h e home, e t c .) .  18.  T a l k i n g a b o u t s a v i n g e n e r g y more t h a n  19.  No c h a n g e . Turns l i g h t s on i n t h e d a y t i m e a n d does n o t t u r n them o f f . L e a v e s T.V. on a n d l e a v e s t h e room t o do s o m e t h i n g e l s e .  20.  My c h i l d t a l k s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy but d o e s n o t t u r n o f f l i g h t s o r T.V. when n o t u s e d .  21.  I t h i n k t o o l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d s i n c e their return f o r changes t o become a p p a r e n t . I f e e l sure a f t e r a w h i l e the experiences of Outdoor School w i l l surface.  22.  T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy; reading about c o n s e r v a t i o n of energy; t u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d ; w a t c h i n g T.V. programs about energy; t u r n i n g o f f t h e T.V. s e t when no one i s watching.  23.  • We a l l t a l k , r e a d a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y w a t c h T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n o f e n e r g y . She s t i l l doesn't turn o f f e v e r y l i g h t . Y e s T.V. t u r n e d o f f . Heat i s t u r n e d down a t n i g h t a n d d u r i n g t h e day i f a l l o u t .  o f f l i g h t s a n d T.V. s e t when n o t n e e d e d .  turning  often  before.  24.  Has a l w a y s been good a b o u t not i n u s e .  off  lights  25.  No, b u t o n l y b e c a u s e he h a s been v e r y much aware of conservation already. Those not deteted ( i . e. t a k i n g a b o u t conservation of energy, turning o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d , t u r n i n g o f f  213  t h e T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g . ) Andre d o e s a l r e a d y q u i t e a b i t . He d i d comment t h a t a t the Outdoor School there was a l o t o f f o o d w a s t e d . Even i f t h i s d i s c a r d e d f o o d d o e s go t o the pigs, Andre understands t h a t i t i s s t i l l a w a s t e f u l h a b i t f o r t h e k i d s , and t h a t the pigs would be b e t t e r o f f w h o l e g r a i n f e d r a t h e r t h a n Campbells noodle f e d . 26.  T u r n i n g o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d ; t u r n i n g t h e T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g .  27.  Turning o f f l i g h t s when n o t n e e d e d ; t u r n i n g o f f t h e T.V. s e t when no one i s w a t c h i n g .  On  off  Plants  1.  The O u t d o o r S c h o o l experiences positive a t t i t u d e toward the p l a n t s w h i c h she a l r e a d y h a d .  2.  She ( M a r i a ) d o e s w a t e r t h e p l a n t s .  3.  W a t c h i n g T.V. plants.  4.  Talking about the Watering plants.  5.  He h a s s i n c e been talking about t h e need t o conserve plants and he seems t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e f u t u r e . He h a s a l s o been w a t e r i n g some p l a n t s around t h e house.  6.  Has a l w a y s shown an i n t e r e s t and possibly the interest r e s u l t of your program.  7.  No o b v i o u s c h a n g e .  8.  No o b v i o u s c h a n g e h a s been  9.  Has own p l a n t s f o r w h i c h she c a r e s t o t a l l y . Comments on e r o s i o n - - d u e t o removal of trees from our a r e a . Commented, when t r a v e l l i n g through f o r e s t f i r e area--waste.  10.  Our c h i l d was v e r y impressed about what he learned about trees and p l a n t s and d o e s w a t c h i n f o r m a t i v e p r o g r a m s on p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s a p a r t f r o m r e g u l a r p r o g r a m s . He commented e s p e c i a l l y on this part of h i s e x p e r i e n c e a t Outdoor S c h o o l , b e c a u s e he d o e s show an i n t e r e s t from time t o time i n t h e t r e e s a n d p l a n t s i n and  programs  about  need  to  r e i n f o r c e d the c o n s e r v a t i o n of  conservation conserve  of  plants.  in living plants has i n c r e a s e d as a  observed.  214  a r o u n d o u r home and d o e s h e l p w i t h t h e watering out-of-doors for which there i s n ' t a need a t present. 11.  S h o w i n g o f f i l m s of l a n d d e v e l o p e r s d i s r e g a r d i n g plants and foilage i n the construction of complexes, e t c . E x p l a i n the w e a k n e s s of t h e G o v e r n m e n t s y s t e m a l l o w i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h i s .  12.  Not as much i n t e r e s t shown i n t h i s a r e a , b u t a p p l y t e a c h i n g s i f we s h o u l d go on a hike similar outing.  13.  C a r i n g . f o r p l a n t s and u n d e r g r o w t h and weeds.  14.  My c h i l d has f o r t h e past four years, helped p l a n t , w a t e r , and weed a g a r d e n . A l s o h e l p s c a r e f o r i n d o o r p l a n t s and has own t o t a k e c a r e o f .  15.  We  16.  I cannot see any m e a s u r a b l e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e about p l a n t s - - t h e y do not hold any great i n t e r e s t t o him. H o w e v e r . . . . he has e x p r e s s e d an interest in starting h i s own v e g e t a b l e p a t c h , but I c a n ' t be c e r t a i n t h a t l o v e of plants and caring f o r them, i s the m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r ! I t h i n k t h e p l e a s u r e of eating fresh, own-grown v e g e t a b l e s i s the reason.  17.  He s t a r t e d t o show some i n t e r e s t f l o w e r s and p l a n t s .  18.  No  19.  My c h i l d c a r e s f o r p l a n t s by w a t e r i n g , p l a n t i n g , and w a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t same.  20.  I t h i n k t o o l i t t l e t i m e has e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n f o r c h a n g e s t o become a p p a r e n t . I feel sure after a w h i l e the e x p e r i e n c e s of Outdoor School w i l l surface.  21.  R e a d i n g a b o u t c o n s e r v a t i o n of plants; caring for plants?.  22.  Family never destroys n e e d l e s s l y . C h i l d r e n do care f o r p l a n t s sometimes. (Not so positive a b o u t p l a n t s as e n e r g y s a v i n g and a n i m a l s . )  23.  No. This p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e of c o n s e r v a t i o n may have been r e i n f o r c e d by O u t d o o r S c h o o l , but was already instilled. A n d r e a l w a y s d i d show a l o t of i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e a r e a s . We were g l a d that the Outdoor School r e i n f o r c e d these p r i n c i p l e s .  h a v e n o t i c e d no  removal  of  may or  unwanted  change.  i n our  backyard  change.  plants;  watering  24. Animals  Talking watering  about the plants.  need  to  conserve  plants,  (Wildlife)  1.  Again, the experience r e i n f o r c e d the attitude toward the conservation of Also, she became more aware of Apparently i t was i n the animals that most i n t e r e s t e d .  2.  Maria i s very interested in protecting wild animals. She even d o n a t e d h e r own money t o t h e G r e e n p e a c e to save t h e s e a l s . She i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a n i m a l T.V. shows.  3.  Watching an i m a l s .  4.  My c h i l d f e e d s t h e b i r d s on o u r p r o p e r t y each day and i s t a k i n g time t o watch a n i m a l - r e l a t e d T.V. programs s u c h a s Untamed W o r l d , Wild Kingdom, e t c .  5.  T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s . Reading about a n i m a l s . Watching T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t conservation of animals. S h o w i n g some c o n c e r n f o r t h e need to conserve animals.  6.  T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g Watching T.V. p r o g r a m s animals. Feeding b i r d s .  7.  G e o r g e h a s a l w a y s been c o n c e r n e d r e : need t o conserve animals and your program has c e r t a i n l y not d i m i n i s h e d t h i s a t t i t u d e .  8.  2 ( p l a n t s ) and 3 ( a n i m a l s ) c a n be a n s w e r e d together. Since we have a c a b i n i n Hollyburn Mountain w h i c h i s s t i l l a w i l d e r n e s s a r e a , he h a s s i n c e he was v e r y young, been v e r y c o n c e r n e d w i t h l i t t e r a n d damage t o t h e p l a n t s a n d t r e e s on t h e mountain. Scraps a r e always left out f o r the jays and c h i p m u n k s and we o n c e were r e f u s e d e n t r a n c e t o o u r " o u t h o u s e " by a r e s i d e n t r a c o o n . A l l a n r e f u s e d t o l e t us move h e r o u t .  9.  Seems t o be more aware o f l i f e of a n i m a l s .  10.  No o b v i o u s  T.V.  programs  change.  about  positive animals. animals. she was  conservation of  animals. about c o n s e r v a t i o n of  and e a t i n g h a b i t s  216  11.  Interest i n National G e o g r a p h i c program on gorilla. Subscribes t o World Magazine - interest in animals from other lands and their peculiarities. Member o f f i s h a n d game c l u b - q u i t e aware o f and a p p r e c i a t e s n a t u r e .  12.  Our c h i l d does, from t i m e t o t i m e , watch programs about animals, and b i r d s . He also commented on t h e b i r d watching at Outdoor S c h o o l . He d o e s s o m e t i m e s r e a d a b o u t a n i m a l s a n d b i r d s . Our f a m i l y , i n g e n e r a l , d o e s n o t l i k e t h e killing o-f a n i m a l s . Our c h i l d enjoyed the Outdoor S c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e .  13.  E x p l a i n e d mans e n c r o a c h m e n t on t h e t e r r i t o r i e s of wildlife a n d d i s r e g a r d f o r them f o r t h e s o called advancement of humanity. Show some realistic films.  14.  Reading and t a l k i n g about w i l d l i f e . W a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s a b o u t w i l d a n i m a l s .  15.  The s u b j e c t o f a n i m a l s h a s come up b u t h a s n ' t been i n a s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n i m a l s o t h e r t h a n o u r own d o g . However, t h e c h i l d r e n have always fed the ducks or b i r d s a t the park.  16.  F e e d i n g b i r d s and showing c o n c e r n f o r a n i m a l s .  17.  E n j o y s w a t c h i n g d o c u m e n t a r i e s on T.V. a b o u t a l l f o r m s o f w i l d l i f e . B i r d f e e d e r s made a n d p u t o u t in the winter.  18.  Very concerned about the welfare e s p e c i a l l y t h e v e r y young.  19.  We have always taught the c h i l d r e n about w i l d l i f e a n d a r e s p e c t f o r i t . They have always watched many T.V. programs about a n i m a l c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d have read many b o o k s about w i l d l i f e . We n o t i c e no c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e .  20.  He h a s a l w a y s d i s p l a y e d a r e a l c o n c e r n f o r a n y l i f e - f o r m , and i s f r e q u e n t l y trying to help i n j u r e d a n i m a l s , b i r d s o r i n s e c t s . We have o f t e n discussed t h e need f o r w i l d - l i f e c o n s e r v a t i o n , and a n i m a l s t o r i e s on T.V. p r o g r a m s have always appealed t o him. I t ' s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o say w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e h a s been any change i n t h i s regard.  21.  Has a l w a y s l i k e d animals, w a t c h e s T.V. a b o u t a n i m a l s , a n d r e a d s books on a n i m a l s .  of  animals,  217  22.  My s o n h a s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s a l l t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d . He i s v e r y a n i m a l o r i e n t e d .  23.  I t h i n k t o o l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i r r e t u r n f o r c h a n g e s t o become a p p a r e n t . I feel sure after a w h i l e the e x p e r i e n c e s of Outdoor School w i l l surface.  24.  T a l k i n g about c o n s e r v i n g a n i m a l s , r e a d i n g animals, watching T.V. p r o g r a m s c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s , f e e d i n g b i r d s .  25.  A l w a y s been positive. T e n d s wounded a n i m a l s , e.g. squirrel, made b i r d feeders and f e e d . D i s l i k e s c a t s - - o u r b i r d p o p u l a t i o n has d e c r e a s e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . I f I s t a n d on an a n t o r s p i d e r , I g e t a row. We a l r e a d y h a v e r a c o o n s a n d t h e o c c a s i o n a l bear i n our garden so a r e n o t unused to a n i m a l s .  26.  No c h a n g e a s he h a s a l w a y s shown a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards animal c o n s e r v a t i o n .  27.  No. T h i s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n may have been r e i n f o r c e d by t h e O u t d o o r S c h o o l , b u t was a l r e a d y i n s t i l l e d . A n d r e a l w a y s d i d show a lot of i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e a r e a s . We were g l a d that t h e Outdoor School reinforced these principles. Andre t o l d us of a s i t u a t i o n which d i s t u r b e d him a t t h e Outdoor School; and t h a t was t o s e e a p i g w h i c h h a d g o t l o o s e f r o m i t s pen p u l l e d back a l o n g d i s t a n c e on i t s back a n d by i t s l e g s , s q u e a l i n g i n f r i g h t and p a i n .  28.  Reading about animals; w a t c h i n g T.V. p r o g r a m s about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s ; f e e d i n g b i r d s .  29.  Reading about a n i m a l s ; watching about c o n s e r v a t i o n of a n i m a l s .  Other  Comments Made by Two  T.V.  about about  programs  Parents  I have j u s t a s k e d my c h i l d t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o v e , have r e a d e a c h one a n d when I f i n i s h e d t h e whole thing, (he/she) asks. "What d o e s c o n s e r v a t i o n mean?" I g u e s s we m i s s e d t h e b o a t ! A c t u a l l y i t i s o n l y one week s i n c e O u t d o o r S c h o o l a n d p e r h a p s i t i s t o o soon t o t e l l . S i n c e ( i t ) came back t h e T.V. h a s n o t been on, we a l w a y s put out l i g h t s when n o t i n u s e , s a v e s money, n o t h i n g h a s been r e a d , there i s no t i m e i n our household, homework, a n d p r a c t i c i n g a n d e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g t a k e s i t a l l . Now we have h e a r d e v e r y b i t o f a l l t h e . s k i t s , a l l about t h e animals, and t h e l o v e l y t i m e . J u s t b e c a u s e t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n b i t was a f l o p h e r e d o e s n ' t m a t t e r , t h e camp was a huge s u c c e s s and I w i s h t h e r e was g o i n g t o be a r e p e a t f o r t h i s c h i l d . Thank y o u  218  a l l very very Sincerely,  much.  I have n o t r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e c a u s e I feel that i n being t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e ( a l l a n s w e r s N o ) , I may c o n v e y the impression that I do n o t f e e l the "Outdoor School experience" t o be b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e , a s I am i n f u l l agreement w i t h t h e aims of t h e s c h o o l and t h i n k t h e week was e x t r e m e l y w o r t h w h i l e . The reason f o r t h e No a n s w e r s i s s i m p l y t h a t I f e e l my c h i l d was a l r e a d y aware o f t h e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n that y o u have i d e n t i f i e d i n your q u e s t i o n s . Yours  truly,  219  APPENDIX U RESULTS OF  ADDITIONAL DATA  After t h e p o s t t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o m p a r a t i v e g r o u p s , s t u d e n t s i n t h e comparative group proceeded to take p a r t i n the outdoor education program. Ten days a f t e r t h e s e c o n d p r o g r a m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d to students i n both the o r i g i n a l experimental and comparative groups ( c a l l e d the p o s t - p o s t t e s t ) . The post-posttest scores were a n a l y s e d with the same p r o c e d u r e w h i c h was u s e d f o r t h e p r e t e s t and posttest scores, and at a=.05. The comparison of t h e d i s p e r s i o n s of t h e two g r o u p s on t h e n i n e dependent v a r i a b l e s taken simultaneously, resulted in a c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 0.11. T h i s l e d to the conclusion t h a t , t a k i n g a l l the nine dependent variables simultaneously, there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s p e r s i o n of s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and the c o n t r o l group. That i s the two groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the d i s p e r s i o n s o f s c o r e s on t h e nine dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken simultaneously. The comparison of the group c e n t r o i d s r e s u l t e d i n the c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.93. This value was less than the t a b u l a t e d F - r a t i o of 1.96 a t a=.05 and d f = ( 9 , 1 2 3 ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s led to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on a l l the nine dependent v a r i a b l e s , taken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The results of the a d d i t i o n a l data support the idea t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m was r e a l . T h a t i s , i t enhanced the conservation a t t i t u d e s of s t u d e n t s on b o t h o c c a s i o n s . S e c o n d l y , the a d d i t i o n a l r e s u l t s also showed that the effect of the p r o g r a m was n o t a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g the case study i n the f i r s t t r e a t m e n t , s i n c e the w r i t e r d i d not interact with the comparative g r o u p d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m , and s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  

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