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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changes in student-teacher perceptions following a residential outdoor program Bateson, David J. 1981

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CHANGES IN STUDENT-TEACHER PERCEPTIONS FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL OUTDOOR PROGRAM DAVID JOHN BATESON B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 M.Sc, P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Mathematics and Science Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 o © D a v i d John Bateson, 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. D a v i d J o h n B a t e s o n Department of Mat.hpmatir<; anH S r i p n r p FHnratirm The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 23, 1981 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT P o s i t i v e changes i n st u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s have long been p o s t u l a t e d to be one of the d e s i r a b l e outcomes of R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Programs. T h i s study examines changes of students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s as w e l l as changes i n te a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l student p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e i r c l a s s e s f o l l o w i n g a R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t u a l R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program examined i n the study i s p r e s e n t e d . The program was / e v a l u a t e d i n terms of p r e d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a f o r c o n d u c t i n g ^ program e f f e c t i n g p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The Program was judged to have- met these c r i t e r i a . Using pre-program and post-program s c o r e s from the Teacher  Pupi1 R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory, students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program were found to have changed t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s in a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n when compared to students who had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n such a program. Teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r Bales I n t e r a c t i o n Process  A n a l y s i s . Using t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the te a c h e r s were found to have changed t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of some i n d i v i d u a l student p e r s o n a l i t i e s f o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. Although no commonalities were found i n these p e r c e p t i o n changes, the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s h i f t s were documented and i n t e r p r e t e d . F o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program, i t was i n f e r r e d that the teachers p e r c e i v e d the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c l a s s e s to be more u n i f i e d than had been the case p r i o r to the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. I s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h i n the c l a s s e s were p e r c e i v e d to have been drawn i n t o the main r e l a t i o n s h i p networks of the c l a s s e s f o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. Dr. Walter B. Boldt i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t . ,: i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements v i i i Chapter I: The Problem i n i t s S e t t i n g 1 General Problem 1 H i s t o r i c a l Context of the Problem 2 T h e o r e t i c a l Context of the Problem 5 E x p e r i e n t i a l Context of the Problem 11 E d u c a t i o n a l Context of the Problem . .. 14 S p e c i f i c Problems of the Study 18 B a s i c Assumptions of the Study 19 Chapter I I : Review of R e l a t e d S t u d i e s 20 Chapter I I I : Methodology of the Study 22 S p e c i f i c Problems of the Study 22 P o p u l a t i o n and Sample 22 Treatment . . . . 24 Instruments 35 I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s 35 Teacher P u p i l R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory 41 Design of the Study . 48 S p e c i f i c Problem # 1 48 S p e c i f i c Problem # 2 50 S p e c i f i c Problem # 3 51 Chapter IV: R e s u l t s of the Study 52 S p e c i f i c Problem # 1 52 S p e c i f i c Problem # 2 56 S p e c i f i c Problem # 3 82 Chapter V: C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 87 C o n c l u s i o n s 87 L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations 88 References 92 Appendix A: I n t e r p e r s o n a l R a t i n g s , Forms A, B and C 97 Appendix B: H i s t o r i c a l Items of the TPRI • 103 Appendix C: Teacher P u p i l R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory 106 Appendix D: E v a u a t i v e , C r i t e r i a of Vogan 107 Appendix E: Mini-Computer Program 112 Appendix F: A d d i t i o n a l Methods of A n a l y s i s 115 Appendix G: A n a l y s i s of A d d i t o n a l Data 121 V • LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1: Personnel S t r u c t u r e of Cabin Groups 27 Table 3.2: Personnel S t r u c t u r e of Study Groups 28 Table 3.3: Composition of P i l o t Group by Sex and Age -45 Table 3.4: Composition of P i l o t Group by Sex and Grade 45 Table 4.1: C l a s s Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the TPRI • 53 Table 4.2: A n a l y s i s of Covariance Table 54 Table 4.3: I PA data f o r C l a s s A 56 Table 4.4: I PA data f o r C l a s s B 57 Table 4.5: Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Score Changes f o r Each Teacher on Each A x i s 58 Table F . l : P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Means f o r C l a s s e s and Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 116 Table F.2: Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Expected and Observed P o s t t e s t Scores 119 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1.1: Three Dimensional S p a t i a l Model of Bales 7 F i g u r e 3.1: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of the A p p l i c a t i o n of I PA Data to Two Students 39 F i g u r e 4.1: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A01 59 F i g u r e 4.2: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A02 60 F i g u r e 4.3: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A04 ..61 F i g u r e 4.4: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A05 62 F i g u r e 4.5: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A07 62 F i g u r e 4.6: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A10 63 F i g u r e 4.7: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A l l 64 F i g u r e 4.8: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A12 65 F i g u r e 4.9: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A14 66 F i g u r e 4.10: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A15 67 F i g u r e 4.11: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A16 68 F i g u r e 4.12: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A17 69 F i g u r e 4.13: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A19 70 F i g u r e 4.14: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A21 71 F i g u r e 4.15: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A22 72 F i g u r e 4.16: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A23 72 F i g u r e 4.17: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A26 73 F i g u r e 4.18: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student *B02 % 74 F i g u r e 4.19: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B05 76 F i g u r e 4.20: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B06 76 F i g u r e 4.21: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B08 77 F i g u r e 4.22: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student BIO 78 F i g u r e 4.23: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B12 79 F i g u r e 4.24: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B14 79 v i i F i g u r e 4.25: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s A P r i o r to the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program 83 F i g u r e 4.26: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s A F o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program 84 F i g u r e 4.27: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s B P r i o r to the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program 85 F i g u r e 4.28: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s B F o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program 86 F i g u r e F . l : Repeated iMeasures Groups by Occasions I n t e r a c t i o n and C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups by Occasions I n t e r a c t i o n 117 F i g u r e G . l : Grade 4's from C l a s s B Comapred to the Group by Occasion I n t e r a c t i o n 122 F i g u r e G.2: Second and T h i r d T e s t i n g of C l a s s C Compared to the Group by Occasion I n t e r a c t i o n 124 *" v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Whenever a task such as t h i s t h e s i s i s completed t h e r e . a r e many people to thank: - My most h e l p f u l committee: Bob C a r l i s l e , Gaalen E r i c k s o n , Ray Peterson, Bob Conry, and most e s p e c i a l l y , Walter Boldt/. - The people who s t i m u l a t e d me to take t h i s course of a c t i o n : Fred G o r n a l l , Hazel Huckvale, and My Mother, Winnie. - The people who allowed me to conduct the study: D e l l e , Helen, Bruce, B a z i l , and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t a f f and School Board T r u s t e e s of Howe .Sound School D i s t r i c t . - Without the understanding of Simon, B r i a n , John, Peter and L a r r y t h i s task would have been much more d i f f i c u l t . - I t a l s o would not have been much fun without Todd Rogers around to keep me honest. ^ - F i n a l l y , f o r being so p a t i e n t with me, and even encouraging me d u r i n g my second c h i l d h o o d , I owe my g r a t i t u d e to my wife and p a r t n e r , Lynne. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM IN ITS SETTING General Problem The g e n e r a l problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study i s the change i n t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s presumed to take p l a c e among i n t e r m e d i a t e grade s u b j e c t s i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor education program. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the changes i n students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t e a c h e r , and changes in teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l student p e r s o n a l i t i e s and the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c l a s s . F a c t o r s p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to these changes are examined. Res i d e n t i a l Outdoor Programs are e d u c a t i o n a l programs conducted at r u r a l or s e m i - r u r a l s i t e s where students and t e a c h e r s l i v e t o gether i n a communal s i t u a t i o n away from the s t u d e n t s ' normal r e s i d e n c e s f o r a p e r i o d of time of at l e a s t three days. In the l i t e r a t u r e and i n p r a c t i c e these s i t e s are r e f e r r e d to as "outdoor s c h o o l s " , "school camps", " r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor c e n t r e s " , "wilderness e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e s " and the l i k e . The program i s e v e r y t h i n g that happens at the s i t e : "the planned and unplanned; the o r g a n i z e d and unorganized; the t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e ; i n f o r m a l as w e l l as f o r m a l " ( K r e i g e r , 1970, p.36). Intermediate Grades c o n s i s t of grades 4 to 7 i n c l u s i v e . They i n c l u d e students g e n e r a l l y between the ages of 9 and 13 y e a r s . 2 H i s t o r i c a l Context of the Problem The f i r s t formal venture of p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t o the domain of camping, and thus -into r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, appears to have o c c u r r e d i n 1919 when Camp Roosevelt was e s t a b l i s h e d by the Chicago P u b l i c School System (Gibson, 1946). T h i s camp, and o t h e r s that soon f o l l o w e d , was designed on the t r a d i t i o n s of p r e v i o u s p r i v a t e and s o c i a l agency camps. The s k i l l s of w i l d e r n e s s l i v i n g and improvement of. h e a l t h , which were the f o u n d a t i o n s of camps beginning with the Round H i l l Camp e s t a b l i s h e d by George B a n c r o f t and Joseph Cogswell i n 1823 (Mand, no d a t e ) , were the o b j e c t i v e s of the new s c h o o l camps or r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were expected to " l e a r n standards of c l e a n l i v i n g , d i s c o v e r h i g h i d e a l s , match wits with the elements and l e a r n to take care of themselves" ( M i l l e r , 1936, p.471). With the approach of the 1930's, r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs i n c l u d e d the development of s o c i a l s k i l l s . Germany appeared to be a l e a d e r i n the f i e l d ( C u r t i s , 1936), but American camps, too, began to f u n c t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y as s o c i a l l a b o r a t o r i e s . The former purposes of d e v e l o p i n g h e a l t h , m o r a l i t y and w i l d e r n e s s s u r v i v a l s k i l l s , were not abandoned, but emphasis s h i f t e d to " s o c i a l adjustment * ( l i v e t o g e t h e r s u c c e s s f u l l y , h a p p i l y and harmoniously) and p e r s o n a l i t y growth (emotional s t a b i l i t y and m a t u r i t y ) " (Sharman et a l . , 1938, p.115). During the 1940*s and e a r l y 1950's the g o a l s of " c o n s e r v a t i o n e d u c a t i o n " were added to a l l the p r i o r aims of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs and became a major g o a l . The l e a d e r i n t h i s f i e l d , and the model that many emerging camps f o l l o w e d , 3 was the C l e a r Lake Camp near B a t t l e Creek, Michigan ( E l l i o t and Smith, 1974). T h i s was the b e g i n n i n g of an era i n which the o b j e c t i v e s of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs i n c l u d e d l e a r n i n g s i n s u b j e c t matter areas of the s c h o o l s , most p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d of s c i e n c e , along with the p r e v i o u s h e a l t h , p e r s o n a l i t y , moral and s o c i a l development goals'. The decade 1955-65 saw the development of r e s i d e n t a l outdoor c e n t r e s as " l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r l e a r n i n g " (Smith, 1966). As s t a t e d by Freeburg: "In the l a r g e r outdoor classroom educators have found a unique t e a c h i n g medium f o r r e v i t a l i z i n g s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . They are u s i n g f i r s t - h a n d experience to augment v e r b a l c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g " (Freeburg, 1961, p.14). "The medium of Outdoor E d u c a t i o n . . . g i v e s a meaning to content and thereby makes s u b j e c t matter more i n t e r e s t i n g , manageable, c h a l l e n g i n g and a p p l i c a b l e f o r many members of the c l a s s " (Brown, 1961, p.3). Thus, the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program developed i n t o an e x t e n s i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . D e s p i t e the f a c t that a l l areas of the c u r r i c u l u m were encompassed by these r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, s c i e n c e c o n t i n u e d to be the dominant s u b j e c t a r e a . The p e r i o d from 1965 to th& present has seen a more s p e c i f i c focus of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs on a s p e c t s of s c i e n c e i n the areas of e c o l o g i c a l and environmental s t u d i e s . R e s i d e n t i a l outdoor c e n t r e s began to a c t on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t "outdoor e d u c a t i o n connotes i n s t r u c t i o n about the n a t u r a l environment through d i r e c t and immediate e x p e r i e n c e , u s u a l l y with emphasis on c o n s e r v a t i o n and ecology" (Herbert, 1966, p.71). T h i s s h i f t i n focus i s probably due, i n l a r g e p a r t , to 4 the " i n c r e a s i n g concern and a t t e n t i o n now being given to environmental q u a l i t y " (Smith, 1970, p.4). With t h i s s h i f t , c e r t a i n areas of science, became even more predominant as the f o c a l s c h o o l s u b j e c t f o r r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor c e n t r e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia today i t would appear t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs are p r i m a r i l y designed to achieve e c o l o g i c a l and c o n s e r v a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , while the o r i g i n a l h e a l t h , moral, p e r s o n a l , s u r v i v a l and s o c i a l s k i l l s o b j e c t i v e s are subordinate (Woodward, 1973). In one study, p r a c t i c i n g outdoor t e a c h e r s l i s t e d "ways of making students aware of the impact of humans on t h e i r environment" and "ways of h e l p i n g students understand the need to conserve the n a t u r a l environment" as the two most important components of an outdoor education teacher t r a i n i n g program, while " f a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among st u d e n t s " ranked t e n t h on the same l i s t (Tufuor, 1978). However, a comprehensive study of outdoor programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia conducted i n 1975 showed that most r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs s t i l l p l a c e a c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the development of p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior (Bateson & Worthing, 1976). A nationwide survey conducted i n 1972 summarized the e i g h t most common important g o a l s of o p e r a t i n g outdoor .programs. In c l u d e d i n the l i s t i s the statement that r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs can "help p u p i l s to develop a b e t t e r understanding of themselves, t h e i r teacher and t h e i r t o t a l e d u c a t i o n " (Passmore, 1972, p.14). I t seems reasonably c l e a r t h a t , d e s p i t e the s h i f t i n g - t i d e of f o c a l g o a ls which have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the e v o l u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l 5 behavior g o a l s continue to pervade the programs. If one examines the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s based on these goals one f i n d s that one of the most predominant o b j e c t i v e s i s to improve the r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and t e a c h e r . T y p i c a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s type a r e : To promote the development of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through group l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e d u c a t i o n , where there are unique o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the camp community (Smith et a l . , 1972, p.31). Good rapport i s e s t a b l i s h e d between the teacher and the p u p i l - one that makes guidance more f u n c t i o n a l . Teachers gain new p e r c e p t i o n s and knowledge of i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s (Smith, 1957, p.7). The s i t u a t i o n s which occur outdoors a l l o w f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t s , and between teacher and s t u d e n t s i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . With t h i s comes a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of o t h e r s ( O n t a r i o Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1970, p . 4 ) . In the outdoor s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s the teacher i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to e s t a b l i s h genuine rapport with p a r t i c i p a t i n g students (Major & C i s s e l , 1971, p . 4 ) . The c i t a t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e make i t e v i d e n t that the development of t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s an important and p e r v a s i v e o b j e c t i v e and p o s t u l a t e d outcome of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. T h e o r e t i c a l Context of the Problem A p s y c h o l o g i c a l model which i s u s e f u l f o r understanding i n d i v i d u a l s ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s i n groups has been developed by Bales (1970). Bales p o s t u l a t e s a: Three dimensional s p a t i a l model which may be used to v i s u a l i z e and d e s c r i b e the p o s i t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a group and to i n f e r what t h e i r r e l a t i o n s are l i k e l y to be (Bales, 1970, p . v i ) . 6 The axes of the model are l a b e l e d "up-down", " p o s i t i v e -n e g a t i v e " and "forward-backward". At t h i s p o i n t , these l a b e l s are simply used f o r d i r e c t i o n a l convenience. The dimensions can, however, be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d once i n d i v i d u a l s have been l o c a t e d w i t h i n the space. The model i d e n t i f i e s 26 key i n t e r s e c t i o n p o i n t s p l u s the o r i g i n as shown i n F i g . 1.1. These p o i n t s are a s s o c i a t e d with c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s presumed to c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s l o c a t e d a t , or i n the p r o x i m i t y of, these p o i n t s or a s s o c i a t e d with v e c t o r s d i r e c t e d towards these p o i n t s . Bales s t a t e s that i n d i v i d u a l s l y i n g on or near the v e c t o r s d i r e c t e d from the o r i g i n to the i n t e s e c t i o n p o i n t s show p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are moving as f o l l o w s : Toward m a t e r i a l success and power Toward s o c i a l success . -Toward s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and pr o g r e s s Toward group l o y a l t y and c o o p e r a t i o n Toward a u t o c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y Toward tough-minded a s s e r t i v e n e s s Toward rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m and g r a t i f i c a t i o n Toward v a l u e - r e l a t i v i s m and e x p r e s s i o n Toward emotional s u p p o r t i v e n e s s and warmth Toward e q u a l i t a r i a n i s m Toward a l t r u i s t i c love Toward c o n s e r v a t i v e group b e l i e f s Toward value-determined r e s t r a i n t Toward i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i s o l a t i o n i s m Toward r e j e c t i o n of s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y Toward r e j e c t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i v e group b e l i e f Toward p e r m i s s i v e l i b e r a l i s m Toward t r u s t i n the goodness of o t h e r s Toward s a l v a t i o n through lo v e Toward self-knowledge and s u b j e c t i v i t y Toward s e l f - s a c r i f i c e f o r v a l u e s Toward r e j e c t i o n of s o c i a l success Toward f a i l u r e and withdrawal Toward w i t h h o l d i n g of c o o p e r a t i o n Toward i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d Toward d e v a l u a t i o n of the s e l f ( o r i g i n ) Towards a balanced average i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . u UP UPF UF UNF UN UNB UB UPB P PF F NF N NB B PB DP DPF DF DNF DN DNB DB DPB D Ave-F i g u r e 1.1: T h r e e D i m e n s i o n a l S p a t i a l Model o f B a l e s . 8 T h i s typology of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i s based on e x t e n s i v e f a c t o r a n a l y s e s of scores o b t a i n e d using a s p e c i a l l y developed instrument, I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s (IPA), and s e v e r a l other p s y c h o l o g i c a l instruments such as: The Minnesota  M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1951) and The S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( C a t t e l l et a l . , 1951). A l s o i n c l u d e d i n the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was i n f o r m a t i o n on o v e r t behavior of i n d i v i d u a l s i n groups and v a l u e statements by i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r group i n t e r a c t i o n . A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of these t r a i t s i s given i n P e r s o n a l i t y and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Behavior (Bales, 1970). Bales goes on to use the p o s i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the three d i m e n s i o n a l space, and p r o x i m i t y measures between i n d i v i d u a l s , t o : 1. Obtain a c o n c e p t i o n of the most probable c o a l i t i o n s among subgroups of members; 2. Locate p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s and s t r a t e g i c a l l y - p l a c e d persons in these c o a l i t i o n s ; 3. Locate probable i s o l a t e s ; 4. Form estimates of the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the c o a l i t i o n s w i l l l i n k up with each other to form more powerful subgroups; 5. Locate who are the s t r a t e g i c a l l y - p l a c e d persons to make these l i n k a g e s ; and so on f o r many s i m i l a r problems ( B a l e s , 1970, p. 34). Bales argues that i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h i s space have: A s t r o n g p e r v a s i v e tendency to d i r e c t t h e i r communication upward ,as i f they were seeking s t a t u s f o r t h e i r ideas and v a l u e s , i f not f o r themselves (B a l e s , 1970, p.36). The members of any group t h e r e f o r e tend to form a l l i a n c e s , c o a l i t i o n s or even unconscious r e l a t i o n s h i p s with members in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y but h i g h e r i n the power d i r e c t i o n (upwards). I n d i v i d u a l s may a l s o l i n k themselves with members lower i n the 9 power d i r e c t i o n f o r the purposes of support. In t h i s way, a network of c o a l i t i o n s i s formed w i t h i n the group. B a l e s f u r t h e r contends that these l i n k s w i l l c o n t i n u e to form w i t h i n the group unl e s s an i n d i v i d u a l has no other i n d i v i d u a l i n c l o s e enough p r o x i m i t y , " i n which case the given person w i l l remain e i t h e r an / i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t e , or w i l l remain the t e r m i n a t i n g upper member of a network of those f u r t h e r downward l i n k e d to him" (Ba l e s , 1970, p.37). The model i s dynamic i n the sense that i n d i v i d u a l s are seen as c o n s t a n t l y moving w i t h i n the space as s i t u a t i o n s and r o l e s change, and as time p r o g r e s s e s . Networks of r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a l t e r e d or r e p l a c e d as i n d i v i d u a l s change t h e i r s t a t u s w i t h i n the group. Bales a l s o p o i n t s out that the r o l e an i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s i n a group, and t h e r e f o r e h i s p o s i t i o n or l o c a t i o n i n the group space, i s o f t e n determined by the behavior of other group members and the e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l by other group members. Two other major f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the r o l e a person p l a y s are b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e v i o u s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e . At the same time, a change i n s i t u a t i o n can change the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s o v e r t behavior. T h i s change has o f t e n been witnessed i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. Since a change i n s i t u a t i o n or r o l e can a l t e r f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , i t f o l l o w s that a d i v e r s i o n t o a new or d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n , where an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n i n the group space i s a l t e r e d , can r e s u l t i n a change of h i s or her p o s i t i o n i n the o r i g i n a l group space upon r e t u r n to the o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n . T h i s a l t e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s 10 p o s i t i o n i n the group space w i l l a l t e r the c o a l i t i o n s formed and t h e r e f o r e a l t e r the e n t i r e network of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the group. In the context of e d u c a t i o n , the phenomenon of change . i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s behavior and group i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c lassroom f o l l o w i n g r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs has o f t e n been noted by p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . T h i s t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l model can serve as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t f o r e s t i m a t i n g the o v e r t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s and the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n a group at any given p o i n t i n time. A s e r i e s of g r a p h i c a l d e p i c t i o n s of the group space d e s c r i b e d by the model, recorded over time, can d i s p l a y both the amount and the nature of changes i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r d e s c r i b i n g the nature of the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p that should e x i s t between the student and the teacher can be found i n s t u d i e s on t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n psychotherapy. F i e d l e r (1950) and Heine (1950) conducted e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s with p r a c t i c i n g p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s to determine whether there was a consensus on t h e r a p i s t - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s which were most and l e a s t conducive to s u c c e s s f u l therapy. The r e s u l t s support the n o t i o n that there i s an i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Lewis, L o v e l l and Jesse (1965) present a s t r o n g case, based on the works of F i e d l e r (1950), Rogers (1957), and Lewis and Wigel (1964), that an i d e a l s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p should p a r a l l e l the i d e a l t h e r a p i s t - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p as i d e n t i f i e d by Heine and F i e d l e r . The argument r e s t s on Rogers' (1957) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l 11 c o n d i t i o n s f o r any c o n s t r u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y change i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . Knoblock and G o l d s t i e n (1971) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the p a r a l l e l nature of. these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They c o n s t r u c t e d a twenty item i n v e n t o r y of p e r c e p t i o n s by the student which would i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i d e a l s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Appendix B p r e s e n t s a l i s t of b e h a v i o r a l statements used by Heine, Lewis et a l . , and Knoblock and G o l d s t e i n to t y p i f y c o n d i t i o n s most and l e a s t i n d i c a t i v e of the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t these b e h a v i o r a l statements are i n d i c a t o r s of a p o s i t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d by Lewis et a l . (1965). T h i s evidence w i l l be f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d d u r i n g e l a b o r a t i o n of the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n Chapter 3. E x p e r i e n t i a l Context of the Problem Since 1965 the r e s e a r c h e r has had c o n s i d e r a b l e involvement with numerous r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, conducted under the a u s p i c e s of both schools and summer camp a g e n c i e s . As a d i r e c t o r of outdoor education f o r a l a r g e School d i s t r i c t i»n B r i t i s h Columbia, the re s e a r c h e r has witnessed and taken an a c t i v e p a r t i n programs which have m i r r o r e d the v a r i o u s stages of h i s t o r i c a l development noted in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , from predominantly s o c i a l o r i e n t e d programs to h i g h l y academic programs. D e s p i t e the o r i e n t a t i o n of the programs, experience suggests" that p o s i t i v e growth i n t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a frequent outcome of programs 12 where students and teachers l i v e and work together i n a new environment away from home and the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l . Since r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs f o s t e r s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e s from the s i t u a t i o n s , r o l e s and t a s k s of the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l or classroom, they f a c i l i t a t e the emergence of new views of p a r t i c i p a n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t i m o n i a l s of experiences to t h i s e f f e c t are t y p i c a l : I t g i v e s them (the p a r t i c i p a n t s ) an o p p o r t u n i t y to s o r t of s t r e t c h themselves. Some strange t h i n g s happen to youngsters when they come to camp. Not j u s t new v i t a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n classwork, but new o u t l o o k s on the p e r s o n a l i t y of t h e i r c lassmates and new v a l u e s of l i v i n g with people (Schramm, 1969, p.140). What impressed me most was that many of us showed another s i d e of our p e r s o n a l i t y . Some who are l e a d e r s i n the c l a s s became t i m i d outdoors. Some of the l e a s t l i k e l y students became l e a d e r s ( O n t a r i o Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1970, p.5). Documentation of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program ex p e r i e n c e s c o n s i s t e n t l y pay t r i b u t e to the change in s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t occur: ...teachers who have embarked upon such e n t e r p r i s e s have r e p o r t e d these s o c i a l g a i n s : 1. Understanding of c l a s s m a t e s . 2. Improved r e l a t i o n s h i p s and communication between teach e r s and s t u d e n t s . ( V i v i a n & R i l l o , 1970, p.6). The n a t u r a l world i s a wonderful l e v e l l e r . Often c h i l d r e n are heard to remark on a f i r s t f i e l d t r i p , 'I d i d n ' t know teach e r s had o l d c l o t h e s . ' On a p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n as a c l a s s r e t u r n e d from a lengthy h i k e , a l i g h t r a i n began to f a l l . In a true s p i r i t of democracy i t soaked the teacher as w e l l as the s t u d e n t s , and at t h i s p o i n t the teacher heard a boy on the t r a i l comment, 'He looks j u s t l i k e one of us-' ( O n t a r i o Teachers F e d e r a t i o n , 1970, p.5). I asked the classroom t e a c h e r s whether camp r e a l l y had made a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c h i l d r e n . They s a i d i t had. They knew the p u p i l s b e t t e r and more p e r s o n a l l y , and had a common experience to t a l k about (Schramm, 1969, p.187). A comment which has been r e p o r t e d by a t e a c h e r , and a 13 comment which the i n v e s t i g a t o r has heard many times from t e a c h e r s , perhaps expresses the magnitude of the p e r c e i v e d change. I ' l l say t h i s . I've been a b l e to get c l o s e r t o my p u p i l s up here t h i s week and t a l k with them more f r a n k l y about t h e i r r e a l f e e l i n g s than I was ever a b l e to do at home... I'd give anything to be a b l e to come up here with them e a r l y i n the f a l l , and get s t a r t e d on t h i s kind of a r e l a t i o n s h i p at the .beginning of the s c h o o l year (Schramm, 1969, p.140). F u r t h e r , i t has been suggested that these g o a l s and achievements can b e t t e r be r e a l i z e d , or perhaps only be r e a l i z e d , i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor s i t u a t i o n and not i n the normal s c h o o l or classroom. ...you would see no s u l l e n d o c i l i t y - which i s never e n t i r e l y absent i n d o o r s . Instead, you would see more f r i e n d l i n e s s - between student and student, and between student and teacher - than the w a l l s of a classroom would ever e n c o u r a g e . . . R e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s and students show a h e a l t h y improvement (Conrad, 1947, p.40). Again and again they come back to the f a c t t h at the camping experience g i v e s them a chance to study and know c h i l d r e n i n a way that n o t h i n g e l s e can...The c h i l d r e n are together d u r i n g the e n t i r e twenty-four hours of the day. The teacher sees them i n work and p l a y combinations and group s i t u a t i o n s t hat would never occur any p l a c e except camp... Nothing e l s e i n the u s u a l school program...permits such d i s c l o s u r e of group s t r u c t u r e and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n to i t . Teachers have s a i d over and over that the camping ex p e r i e n c e i s worth having i f f o r 'no other reason than the chance i t g i v e s them to see the a c t u a l s o c i a l make-up of the c l a s s (Sack, 1953, p.501). The many s i d e s of the p e r s o n a l i t y which are almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y drawn out when teacher and p u p i l share a r e a l experience may never be seen i n the more r e s t r i c t e d atmosphere of the c l a s s r o o m . . . One of the s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s that comes to t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s who share i n the v i v i d and adventurous e x p e r i e n c e s that outdoor e d u c a t i o n o f f e r s i s that of a b e t t e r understanding of each other (Smith, 1957, p.31). 14 E d u c a t i o n a l Context of the Problem The l i t e r a t u r e and s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g the impact of the t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p on e d u c a t i o n as a whole i s h i g h l y ambiguous and even c o n t r a d i c t o r y . D e s p i t e numerous attempts to gauge the e f f e c t of t h i s f a c t o r on t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g We remain very l a r g e l y ignorant of how t e a c h e r s a f f e c t the i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development of the p u p i l s they teach, and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y we remain l a r g e l y i gnorant of how best to go about d e v e l o p i n g the knowledge ( N u t h a l l & Church, 1973, p.9). T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g i f one examines the nature of the many other v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The f a c t i s t h a t the number and complexity of the v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s makes r i g o r o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s , such as t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , almost unmanageable (Hargreaves, 1972). However, theory and t r a i n e d i n t u i t i o n have l e d most educators to take the p o s i t i o n that t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t and student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s are important to the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The argument takes i t s b a s i s from the l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o n c l u s i o n t hat education i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s . The p r i n c i p l e that development of ex p e r i e n c e comes about through i n t e r a c t i o n means that e d u c a t i o n i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s " (Dewey, 1938, p.58). T h i s p o s i t i o n has withstood the t e s t of time and has been s t a t e d i n many ways by many a u t h o r s : ...one of the most c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s of e d u c a t i o n i s i t s s o c i a l q u a l i t y (Hargreaves, 1972, p.2). The most fundamental t h i n g about classroom experience i s t h a t i t i s s o c i a l ; i t i s a c o n t i n u a l set of i n t e r a c t i o n s with other people. I c a l l t h i s the most fundamental t h i n g because t h e r e i s no escape; the 15 demands are there and they must be met... These i n t e r a c t i o n s are most fundamental f o r another reason: they make a d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . . . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s set the c o n d i t i o n s under which l e a r n i n g occurs (Thelan, 1954, p . v i ) . If one concurs with these views then the i n t e r a c t i o n s between students and teachers become one of the primary f o c a l / i p o i n t s of e d u c a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h as w e l l . The conduct of these i n t e r a c t i o n s between student and teacher i s governed, in p a r t , by teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . a f f e c t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of s t u d e n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , they . a f f e c t teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t s , and t h i s i n turn a f f e c t s the way the t e a c h e r s d e a l with the students (Brophy & Good, 1974, p.29). Other s t u d i e s have shown that the nature of these i n t e r a c t i o n s i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by student a t t i t u d e s towards the teacher as w e l l as the e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s that the teacher has of the students ( H e r r e l l , 1971; K l e i n , 1971). In a d d i t i o n , Hoyt's (1955) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conclude that the knowledge that t e a c h e r s have of p u p i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can a l t e r the students' a t t i t u d e s towards, and p e r c e p t i o n s of, t e a c h e r s . The process of changing s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s , then, seems to depend on a c o n t i n u a l feedback loop which can be s u b s t a n t i v e l y a l t e r e d by i n c r e a s i n g student knowledge and p e r c e p t i o n s of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or i n c r e a s i n g teacher knowledge and p e r c e p t i o n s of student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The teacher must know relevant, f a c t s about each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . . . . A t t i t u d e s and behaviors of t e a c h e r s and students are h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n that they have, or t h i n k t h a t they have, on hand (Brophy & Good, 1974, p.29). 16 . . . i f educators are a b l e to d i s c o v e r the f e e l i n g s , f e a r s and wishes that move people e m o t i o n a l l y they can more e f f e c t i v e l y engage p u p i l s from any background (Weinstein & F a n t i n i , 1971, p.10). If r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs can p r o v i d e , to both students and t e a c h e r s , new p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g each o t h e r , a change i n p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e . F u r t h e r , a c c o r d i n g to c u r r e n t views of p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior, a person's conduct in a group i s o f t e n only a r e f l e c t i o n of one dimension of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . A change in the person's r o l e , group s t r u c t u r e , group a c t i v i t y or task may l e a d to a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of another dimension of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . ' B a l e s s t a t e s t h a t : You see only h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior which may r e f l e c t only one s i d e of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , e l i c i t e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group, i t s s t r u c t u r e and h i s r o l e i n i t . . . ( B a l es, 1970, p.10). A change in the s t r u c t u r e or r o l e of a c l a s s from the t r a d i t i o n a l s chool should then f a c i l i t a t e the exposure of new p e r s o n a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n upon which both students and t e a c h e r s may a l t e r t h e i r mutual p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s p r o v i d e s input f o r the feedback loop, s t i m u l a t i n g new s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r and t e a c h e r -student r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Since present-day r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs . are u s u a l l y conducted i n the c o n t e x t of the r e g u l a r s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m of the s c h o o l s , s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r should be aware of the p o t e n t i a l merit of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs f o r b r i n g i n g about c o n s t r u c t i v e changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r . As r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs have developed, and more 17 and more c h i l d r e n have taken p a r t i n the programs, r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor s c h o o l s , t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , s t r u c t u r e and f a c i l i t i e s , have come more and more to m i r r o r the normal or t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s , which are " . . . o f t e n designed to shut the c h i l d away from l i f e i n order to make i t easy f o r the teacher to pursue b o o k - l e a r n i n g . . . " ( P a r t r i d g e , 1943). As e a r l y as 1947, l e a d e r s i n the f i e l d of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs c a u t i o n e d t h a t the h i g h degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n and s c h e d u l i n g , the employment of more and more s p e c i a l i s t s to l e a d "departments" of the camps, the i n c r e a s i n g use of "assembly l i n e gadgets where the c h i l d i s simply the l a s t s t e p i n a p r e - f a b r i c a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e " (Sharp & P a r t r i d g e , 1947, p.8) and the tendency of the camp program to r e v o l v e around equipment and f a c i l i t i e s r a t h e r than the student were: ...moving camping away from the o r i g i n a l meaning of the term and, at worst, have robbed the youngster of the very experience f o r which he should be going t o camp (Sharp & P a r t r i d g e , 1947, p.18). I t i s t h i s c u r r e n t t r e n d i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs which has given the impetus f o r the proposed study: a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l venture, which may have c r u c i a l p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l consequences, i s t h r e a t e n e d by e x t i n c t i o n f o r l a c k of understanding of what can be accomplished. The purpose of t h i s study i s to shed some l i g h t on changes i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t e a c h e r s and students that e x p e r i e n c e suggests do take p l a c e , and theory suggests should take p l a c e , in r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. H o p e f u l l y , the study w i l l r e - k i n d l e the flame of enthusiasm f o r a venture which i s so u n i q u e l y s u i t e d t o meeting some of the most p r e s s i n g s o c i a l needs of t h i s e r a : p e r s o n a l and 18 s o c i a l growth and development. P i a g e t i s supposed to have s a i d t h a t there should be two classrooms, one where the teacher i s , and one where the teacher i s not. R e s i d e n t i a l outdoor c e n t r e s are p l a c e s where the teacher should be, but as K e l l y puts i t : ...textbooks and l e s s o n s should be l e f t at home...Teachers need to accompany ( t h e i r c l a s s e s ) but not to c a r r y on t h e i r c l a s s e s as u s u a l i n a new s e t t i n g ( K e l l y , 1972, p.3). Spec i f i c Problems of the Study From the above d i s c u s s i o n i t i s c l e a r t h a t a change i n both student and teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s should take p l a c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. There i s a l s o s t r o n g evidence to p o s t u l a t e an i d e a l student p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t e a c h e r . T h e r e f o r e , when examining the students' r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher, or the students' p e r c e p t i o n of that r e l a t i o n s h i p , d i r e c t i o n may be taken from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . No such evidence e x i s t s to p o s t u l a t e an i d e a l teacher p e r c e p t i o n of student p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e r e f o r e , the examination of these p e r c e p t i o n s must be more g e n e r a l and e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . In order to examine the g e n e r a l problem then, three s p e c i f i c problems f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n are proposed: 1. What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program have on students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the teacher? 2. What i s the nature of the change in teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of student p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f t e r completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? 19 3. What i s the nature of the change i n teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c l a s s a f t e r completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? / B a s i c Assumptions of the Study T h i s study i s s t r u c t u r e d around f i v e assumptions concerning e d u c a t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e r c e p t i o n s , and r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs: 1. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r s has a major i n f l u e n c e on h i s or her i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s . 2. P o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s in i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l f a c i l i t a t e p o s i t i v e change i n f u t u r e ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . 3. A b e t t e r understanding by the t e a c h e r of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p u p i l s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s w i l l promote a b e t t e r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . 4. An improved student p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t eacher, as determined by the statements of Lewis et a l . (1965), w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a b e t t e r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . 5. C e r t a i n a s p e c t s of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs are conducive to the promotion of p o s i t i v e change in i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s . 20 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES A review of the l i t e r a t u r e shows on l y one study p e r t a i n i n g to s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which has been done s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the f i e l d of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. There are, however, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which have been done i n a s s o c i a t e d areas which are of i n t e r e s t t o , and support the r a t i o n a l e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. Peterson (1963) found p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s through p r a i s e , i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s and other emotional supports when working i n s c h o o l s . At the same time, K l e i n d i e n s t (1957) showed the s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the e d u c a t i o n a l process i n classrooms and school camps. She i m p l i e d t h a t f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l were a p p l i c a b l e to a l l p o r t i o n s of a s c h o o l program. As such, the f i n d i n g s of Peterson (1963) are most l i k e l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e to r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. The need to understand the group process and to improve work s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s were r e p o r t e d by Berger (1958) and O'Hare (1964). . • Jensen (1965), Davidson (1965) and K r i e g e r .(1970) a l l examined p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t changes through r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. Although these s t u d i e s came to few s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s , the n e c e s s i t y of examining the v a r i o u s dimensions of a f f e c t i v e outcomes due to r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs was a f f i r m e d by each of them. Doty (1960), i n a ten year study of YMCA camps, 21 c o n c e n t r a t e d on c h a r a c t e r development with r e f e r e n c e to e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o p e r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i n camping e x p e r i e n c e s . She found that p o s i t i v e changes in s p e c i f i e d c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s can occur d u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. The study c l o s e s t in scope to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was conducted by Vogan (1970). She e s t a b l i s h e d an instrument "to p r o v i d e a b e h a v i o r a l guide and an e v a l u a t i v e t o o l f o r the teacher p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the outdoor e x p e r i e n c e " . T h i s instrument l i s t s o b j e c t i v e s which are p o s t u l a t e d to e f f e c t p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p changes and b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a necessary f o r attainment of those o b j e c t i v e s . Appendix D c o n t a i n s the items of t h i s instrument. Although necessary c r i t e r i a f o r attainment of the o b j e c t i v e s were proposed, Vogan made no attempt to examine a c t u a l s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p changes. Rather, she proposed that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would be r e q u i r e d to examine the nature and degree of s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p changes d u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. One of the major goals of t h i s study i s to accomplish the above p r o p o s a l of Vogan. 22 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Sp e c i f i c Problems of the Study For the convenience of the. resader, the s p e c i f i c problems of the study are restated below: 1. What effect does p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program have on students' perceptions of their r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the teacher? 2. What i s the nature of the change in teacher perceptions of student personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f t e r completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? (' 3. What i s the nature of the change in teacher perceptions of the interpersonal relationships within a c l a s s after completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? Population And Sample The target population for the study was a l l students in intermediate grades taking part in r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs in the province'of B r i t i s h Columbia. The determination of" the accessible population and the actual selection of the experimental groups of students was limit e d by the d i f f i c u l t y of simultaneously obtaining the consent of camp owners, school boards and their o f f i c i a l s , school p r i n c i p a l s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers and parents of classes which had already planned a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program for the f a l l of 1 9 8 0 . 23 The above l o g i s t i c a l problems of sampling p r o h i b i t e d random s e l e c t i o n and assignment of s t u d e n t s . In an attempt to compensate f o r t h i s problem, as recommended by Campbell and S t a n l e y (1963), comparison groups, matched f o r grade l e v e l , socio-economic s t a t u s , g e n e r a l g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , and teacher v a r i a b l e of w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs had to be s e l e c t e d f o l l o w i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. T h i s imposed f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on the l o c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t s for- the study. Four c l a s s e s i n a semi-urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f i t t i n g the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned requirements were ' f i n a l l y l o c a t e d . These c l a s s e s c o n s t i t u t e the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n and a l l f o u r c l a s s e s were used i n the study. Three of the c l a s s e s were grade f i v e c l a s s e s and were used i n the study i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . The f o u r t h c l a s s was a s p l i t grade f o u r - f i v e c l a s s and only the grade f i v e p o r t i o n of the c l a s s was used. When c o n s i d e r i n g male-female r a t i o , i n t e l l i g e n c e , socio-economic s t a t u s of f a m i l i e s , e t h n i c makeup , and the l i k e , there was n o t h i n g a p p a r e n t l y unusual about any of the c l a s s e s used i n the study. As such they may, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be thought of as t y p i c a l grade f i v e c l a s s e s i n the lower mainland suburban communities of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two of the c l a s s e s , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as C l a s s e s A (n=26) and B (n=14), p a r t i c i p a t e d together i n the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e as experimental groups. The other two groups, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as C l a s s e s C (n=21) and D (n=23), were used as comparison groups. 24 Treatment The treatment used i n t h i s study was a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program as p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d i n the study. Programs of t h i s type are h i g h l y complex and d i f f e r on many as p e c t s of s i t e , f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , t i m e - t a b l i n g , programs, e t c . In a d d i t i o n , numerous u n a n t i c i p a t e d and u n p r e d i c t a b l e events can occur d u r i n g the e x p e r i e n c e which w i l l modify the planned program. For example, weather c o n d i t i o n s may p r o h i b i t the conduct of an a n t i c i p a t e d a c t i v i t y . As such i t was i m p o s s i b l e , and p r o b a b l y u n d e s i r a b l e , to determine i n advance the p r e c i s e treatment used i n t h i s study. In order more c l e a r l y t o d e f i n e the treatment, the r e s e a r c h e r accompanied the c l a s s e s as a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r f o r the time p e r i o d of the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. An account of the a c t i v i t i e s of the c l a s s d u r i n g the week was recorded and i s c o n s i d e r e d to c o n s t i t u t e the treatment. In the d e s c r i p t i o n of the treatment, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r s d e f i n e d by Vogan (1970) as being important i n the development of s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l i s t of the c r i t e r i a used i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix D. For each of the l i s t e d c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r s the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were answered • * - -1. Is the c r i t e r i o n behavior a p p r o p r i a t e to . t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? ( i f the answer i s "no" then ignore the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s and go on to the next c r i t e r i o n b e havior.) As an example, i f no other c l a s s e s w i l l be u s i n g the s i t e , the c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r s with r e s p e c t to c o n t a c t i n g other c l a s s e s are not a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i t u a t i o n . 2. Was the c r i t e r i o n behavior e x h i b i t e d ? 3. How o f t e n was the c r i t e r i o n behavior e x h i b i t e d ? 4. When was the c r i t e r i o n behavior e x h i b i t e d ? 5. How was the c r i t e r i o n behavior e x h i b i t e d i n each i n s t a n c e ? In order to p r o v i d e data f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the 25 treatment a monitoring process of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and procedures was e s t a b l i s h e d . Since t h i s study d e a l t with changes i n s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the a c t i v i t i e s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c lassroom t e a c h e r s as they i n t e r a c t e d with students were of primary i concern. For t h i s reason the i n d i v i d u a l classroom t e a c h e r s formed the b a s i s of the m o n i t o r i n g process and i t was t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s which were observed and recorded r a t h e r than the a c t i v i t i e s of other .on-site t e a c h e r s , teacher a i d e s and accompanying s u p e r v i s o r s . To accomplish an e q u a l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n time on each classroom t e a c h e r , the r e s e a r c h e r began the f i r s t time p e r i o d where the t e a c h e r s were p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d by observing Teacher A. During the second time p e r i o d where the teachers were p h y s i c a l l y separated, o b s e r v a t i o n s were taken on Teacher B. T h i s procedure was c o n t i n u e d , a l t e r n a t i n g between t e a c h e r s d u r i n g each time p e r i o d that the t e a c h e r s were s e p a r a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , each teacher was i n t e r v i e w e d p e r i o d i c a l l y to ensure accuracy of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s and to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the time p e r i o d s when the r e s e a r c h e r was not a b l e to monitor t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r a c t i o n s . To supplement the above data, the l o g i s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the program in terms of p h y s i c a l l i v i n g procedures and r e c r e a t i o n / i n s t r u c t i o n / f r e e time o r g a n i z a t i o n was documented. T h i s was done by r e c o r d i n g types of. a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, the p e r s o n n e l s t r u c t u r e f o r each a c t i v i t y , the d u r a t i o n of each a c t i v i t y , the p l a c e of conduct of each a c t i v i t y , the d i r e c t o r of the a c t i v i t y , and how the 26 a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d out. The i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from t e a c h e r s ' day books, w r i t t e n p l a n s and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s . During i n t e r v i e w s with- the t e a c h e r s , checks were made to ensure agreement between what was planned and what was a c t u a l l y conducted. Any d i s c r e p a n c i e s were noted and s u i t a b l e a l t e r a t i o n s / to the w r i t t e n r e c o r d were made. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the treatment used i n t h i s study f o l l o w s . The r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was a three-day experience with a "Heritage. S t u d i e s " theme. The s i t e was an o p e r a t i n g r u r a l farm i n south-western B r i t i s h Columbia. Accommodation was pr o v i d e d i n a group of l o g c a b i n s forming a " h e r i t a g e v i l l a g e " on the farm s i t e . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n the v i l l a g e were a pioneer s t o r e b u i l d i n g and an o l d schoolhouse. There was no t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d h e a t i n g , e l e c t r i c a l power or running water p r o v i d e d . Heating f o r the c a b i n s was accomplished by wood-fired cook stoves and water was drawn from a c e n t r a l p i p e d - i n supply. Three unisex p i t t o i l e t s were l o c a t e d on the edges of the v i l l a g e . Gas lamps p r o v i d e d l i g h t and students s l e p t on foam mats i n bunks or on the f l o o r of s l e e p i n g l o f t s . The e n t i r e v i l l a g e had been c o n s t r u c t e d to simulate p i o n e e r c o n d i t i o n s with minor a l t e r a t i o n s to p r o v i d e f o r student s a f e t y and h e a l t h . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n to the s i t e was p r o v i d e d by t r a i n and a scho o l bus c a r r i e d the students and t h e i r equipment the l a s t 22 km. The r e t u r n t r i p was accomplished e n t i r e l y by s c h o o l bus. The weather d u r i n g the program was cloudy with frequent l i g h t showers and o c c a s i o n a l heavy r a i n . The temperatures ranged from four degrees C e l s i u s to twelve degrees C e l s i u s . Although 27 the weather was not conducive to s t a y i n g o u t s i d e f o r long p e r i o d s of time, the students were w e l l prepared with a p p r o p r i a t e c l o t h i n g and the a c t i v i t i e s proceeded as had been planned. Students i n the two experimental c l a s s e s were pooled and then d i v i d e d i n t o four c a b i n groups and three study groups. T a b l e s 3.1 and 3.2 d i s p l a y the s t r u c t u r e of these groups. For the purposes of t h i s r e p o r t the students i n c l a s s A w i l l be numbered and r e f e r r e d to as students "A01" to "A26". Students i n c l a s s B w i l l be numbered and r e f e r r e d t o as s t u d e n t s "B01" to "B14". Classroom t e a c h e r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "CTA" and "CTB". In a d d i t i o n to the classroom t e a c h e r s there were three o n - s i t e t e a c h e r s and/or teacher a i d e s and two v o l u n t e e r h e l p e r s accompanied the c l a s s f o r the e x p e r i e n c e . They w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "TA1", "TA2", "TA3", "HI" and "H2'\ r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s e a r c h e r w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as "R". Table 3.1 Personnel S t r u c t u r e of Cabin Groups Cabin Group 1 Cabin Group 2 Cabin Group 3 Cabin Group 4 (CGI) (CG2) (CG3) (CG4) A01 A02 A15 A12 A04 A03 A17 • A13 A 0 7 A05 A18 A14 A08 A06 A19 A16 A09 A l l A20 A24 A10 B03 A21 A26 B02 B06 A22 B01 B05 B13 A23 B07 BIO H2 A25 B09 B14 B04 B12 R B08 CTA B l l CTB HI 28 Table 3.2 Personnel S t r u c t u r e of Study Groups Study Group 1 (SGI) Study Group 2 (SG2) Study Group 3 (SG3) A02 A01 A05 A03 A04 A08 A l l A06 A09 A17 A07 A10 A18 A12 A21 A19 A13 A22 A20 A14 A23 B01 A15 A24 B03 A16 A25 B04 B06 A26 B07 B09 B02 B13 BIO B05 B14 B l l B08 B12 The more formal s t r u c t u r e of the program c o n s i s t e d of three study a c t i v i t i e s , three o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and an o r g a n i z e d evening of " h e r i t a g e c r a f t s " . -The three study a c t i v i t i e s were: SI) Pioneer Cooking, S2) Log C o n s t r u c t i o n and S3) Farm S t u d i e s . Pioneer Cook ing (Study Act i v i ty SI) The Pioneer Cooking a c t i v i t y v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the time of the a c t i v i t y and thus the meal to be prepared. In a l l i n s t a n c e s students i n the study group worked under teacher guidance to prepare and serve meals to the e n t i r e camp. A l l cooking was done in the v i l l a g e c a b i n s on wood s t o v e s . Recipes were p r o v i d e d f o r a l l d i s h e s and students worked from b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t s . Eggs were gathered from the p o u l t r y house and potatoes were c o l l e c t e d from a l a r g e root c e l l a r . Some ve g e t a b l e s were h a r v e s t e d from the garden, while other v e g e t a b l e s were p r o v i d e d i n bulk. Honey produced on the farm was 29 a l s o used i n cooking. A f t e r the meal, the same students were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r washing d i s h e s and c l e a n i n g up. The a c t u a l food prepared was: Day 1 Supper Meat Loaf Soda Bread B o i l e d Potatoes F r u i t S a l a d Orange J u i c e Day 2 Lunch Potato Soup Baking Powder B i s c u i t s F r e s h F r u i t Apple J u i c e Day 2 Supper Chicken Drumsticks Baked Beans --—" Cole Slaw Apple C r i s p Orange J u i c e I n d i v i d u a l c a b i n groups prepared t h e i r b r e a k f a s t s i n t h e i r own c a b i n s on both days. A supply of j u i c e , oatmeal, sugar, milk", bread, b u t t e r , jam, peanut b u t t e r , bacon and f r e s h l y c o l l e c t e d eggs was a v a i l a b l e . Menu v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s but i n c l u d e d such t h i n g s as scrambled eggs, f r i e d eggs and f r e n c h t o a s t . The f i r s t day's lunch was brought from home by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . On the l a s t day, each student made a packed l u n c h , a c c o r d i n g to h i s or her own i n d i v i d u a l tastes,, d u r i n g the b r e a k f a s t p e r i o d . Students were s u p p l i e d with bread, b u t t e r , jam, peanut b u t t e r , s l i c e d meats, cheese, f r u i t and canned j u i c e . Log C o n s t r u c t i o n (Study A c t i v i t y S2) The l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n study groups examined types and methods of l o g c a b i n b u i l d i n g . Students examined both c h i n k e d 30 and c h i n k l e s s c o n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as saddle and V methods of no t c h i n g . The c a b i n s i n the v i l l a g e had been c o n s t r u c t e d using a v a r i e t y of l o g c o n s t r u c t i o n methods and the o l d stor;e was of hewn plank, d o v e t a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n . These s t r u c t u r e s p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t study examples f o r the s t u d e n t s . The students were / then p r o v i d e d equipment and green l o g s and attempted t o d u p l i c a t e the methods. A d i s c u s s i o n of r o o f i n g m a t e r i a l s and methods l e d to a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the manufacture and use of cedar shakes. Each student made t h e i r own m a l l e t from green a l d e r using bow saws and h a t c h e t s . These m a l l e t s and commercially manufactured f r o e s were used to s p l i t shakes from p r o v i d e d b o l t s . The students proceeded to l a y a shake r o o f , u s i n g t h e i r own shakes on a prepared, ground l e v e l roof frame l o c a t e d behind the o l d schoolhouse. A f t e r the students were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , they crouched under the roof and the teacher a i d e t e s t e d the roof by pouring a bucket of water over the completed s t r u c t u r e . The a c t i v i t y ended with a l o g sawing c o n t e s t using two-man c r o s s c u t saws. Farm S t u d i e s (Study A c t i v i t y S3) The farm study groups spent t h e i r time i n the p o u l t r y house, barn, hay l o f t and f i e l d s of the farm. A c t i v i t i e s f o r each group v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the chores that were r e q u i r e d to be done d u r i n g the time p e r i o d of the a c t i v i t y . However, the a c t i v i t i e s always i n c l u d e d f e e d i n g of animals, c l e a n i n g of pens, m i l k i n g and g a t h e r i n g , c a n d l i n g and weighing eggs. Animals a v a i l a b l e on the farm i n c l u d e d c h i c k e n s , ducks, 31 pheasants, doves, r a b b i t s , horses, c a t t l e (both beef and d a i r y ) , sheep, goats and swine. A l l students had the o p p o r t u n i t y to at l e a s t view and touch a l l the types of animals. In a d d i t i o n , the students had the o p p o r t u n i t y to examine v a r i o u s types of both manual and powered far..i equipment. The t h r e e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t e s were: Rl-Bees and Honey, R2-Gold Panning and R3-Exploratory Hike. Bees and Honey ( R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t y Rl) The farm has a s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d bee study house and s e v e r a l a c t i v e h i v e s of bees. Students examined these bee h i v e s , as w e l l as methods of comb c o l l e c t i n g and honey e x t r a c t i n g . Comb was sampled and students spun out honey to be used i n cooking. L i f e c y c l e s of bees and uses of apian products were d i s c u s s e d . Gold Panning ( R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t y R2) Students went to sand bars on the nearby r i v e r to attempt methods of e x t r a c t i n g p l a c e r g o l d from g r a v e l and sand. Rockers and s l u i c e s were t r i e d along with the more t r a d i t i o n a l g o l d pan. Although no v i s i b l e g o l d was recovered heavy m i n e r a l i z e d black sand was o b t a i n e d . D i s c u s s i o n s were conducted on both the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s of g o l d p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the s c i e n t i f i c concepts u n d e r l y i n g the o p e r a t i o n a l procedures of p l a c e r g o l d e x t r a c t i o n . E x p l o r a t o r y Hike (Recreat ion Act i v i ty R3) T h i s a c t i v i t y v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the c a p a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g . T r a i l s up the mountain, p r o v i d i n g e x c e l l e n t views of the v a l l e y below, were e x p l o r e d . The evening of "pioneer c r a f t s " c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e 32 a c t i v i t i e s conducted i n two c a b i n s : Cabin 1- Beeswax candle d i p p i n g , Cabin 2- Soap making from l y e and animal f a t , and Goat-milk i c e cream making. Students d i v i d e d between the two c a b i n s and began t h e i r a s s i g n e d a c t i v i t i e s . A f t e r the i n i t i a l c a ndle making group f i n i s h e d d i p p i n g t h e i r c a n d l e s , the students r o t a t e d between c a b i n s . The students who had begun by making c a n d l e s , completed the soap and i c e cream that the p r e v i o u s group had s t a r t e d . A f t e r completion of the a c t i v i t i e s the i c e cream p r o v i d e d a bed-time snack and each student had a beeswax candle and a bar of soap to take home. The t i m e t a b l e and personnel makeup f o r the program was as f o l l o w s : ( i f no p e r s o n n e l s t r u c t u r e i s i n d i c a t e d then the a c t i v i t y a p p l i e d to the t o t a l group) DAY 1 -08:45 - Board t r a i n and depart 10:40 - Leave t r a i n and board bus 11:20 - A r r i v a l at the s i t e , unload, b r i e f on s a f e t y , s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s , water, s i t e , wood, sto v e s , lamps, e t c . 12:00 - Lunch at the p h y s i c a l c h a l l e n g e course (rope course and maze) 12:45 - Break i n t o study groups and begin f i r s t study s e s s i o n Si-Cooking S2-Logs S3-Farm SG2 SGI SG3 CTA T A l TA2 CTB HI ' TA3 -R H2 15:15 - Free time 15:45 - S t r u c t u r e d r e c r e a t i o n Rl-Bees R2-Gold R3-Hike SGI SG3 SG2 TA2 TAl CTA R 17:00 - Dinner 17:35 - Free time 18:35 - Square dancing outdoors under the l i g h t s i n f r o n t of the barn 19:30 - Songs and s t o r i e s i n the l o f t 20:30 - Hot c h o c o l a t e , wash and brush t e e t h , f r e e time 21:30 - Bed and l i g h t s out 33 DAY 2 07:30 09:30 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:10 15:30 16:00 17 17 18 18 19 21 21 22 15 30 00 30 00 00 :30 :00 DAY 3 07:00 09:45 11:00 11:30 12:00 13:15 14:20 B r e a k f a s t , c l e a n c a b i n s , morning jog and f r e e time Second study p e r i o d S2-Logs SG2 TA1 HI Sl-Cooking SG3 CTA CTB R Free time Lunch Free time T h i r d study p e r i o d Sl-Cooking S2-Logs SG3 SG2 SGI SG3 CTA TA1 CTB HI R Free time S t r u c t u r e d r e c r e a t i o n S3-Farm SGI TA2 TA3 H2 Rl-Bees SG3 TA1 R2-Gold SG2 TA1 S3-Farm SGI SG2 TA2 TA3 H2 R3-Hike SGI CTA R Free time Dinner Free time Songs and s t o r i e s i n the o l d schoolhouse Pioneer c r a f t s Ice cream, songs and s t o r i e s Wash,brush t e e t h , f r e e time Bed and l i g h t s out B r e a k f a s t , make bag lunches, pack up, c l e a n c a b i n s and f r e e time S t r u c t u r e d r e c r e a t i o n Rl-Bees R2-Gold R3-Hike SG2 SGI ' SG3 TA2 TA3 CTA R Work c l e a r i n g rocks o f f t r a i l s on the s i t e Lunch and t r y the p h y s i c a l c h a l l e n g e course Bus loaded and de p a r t u r e Break and jog to f a l l s A r r i v e back at s c h o o l In terms of the o b j e c t i v e s and c r i t e r i a of Vogan (1970) as d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix D, both t e a c h e r s were judged to have met the a p p l i c a b l e c r i t e r i a . What f o l l o w s i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the conduct of the te a c h e r s d u r i n g the course of the r e s i d e n t i a l 34 outdoor program. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , coupled with the f o r e g o i n g l o g i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the program, documents the correspondence of the program used i n t h i s study w i t h the c r i t e r i a of Vogan (1970). Both t e a c h e r s had read or taken courses i n Outdoor E d u c a t i o n . They had p r e v i o u s l y taken students to the same s i t e and had met and planned t h i s t r i p with the d i s t r i c t Outdoor E d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r and o n - s i t e s t a f f . T h e i r d r e s s was a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s e t t i n g and s i t u a t i o n ( o l d e r c l o t h e s , pants, boots, e t c . ) . The t i m e t a b l e r e p o r t e d above was the a c t u a l observed schedule and rou g h l y , but not e x a c t l y f o l l o w e d the planned schedule. D i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d when a c t i v i t i e s ran longer or s h o r t e r than was a n t i c i p a t e d . However, p r i o r i t y was given to the a c t u a l time r e q u i r e d f o r an a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than adhering s t r i c t l y to the planned time s t r u c t u r e . S u f f i c i e n t f r e e time to allow f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s was p r o v i d e d . Teachers were very open with the students, o f t e n s h a r i n g p e r s o n a l thoughts, needs and exp e r i e n c e s with i n d i v i d u a l s or sm a l l groups. They a l s o encouraged students i n d i v i d u a l l y to share t h e i r own p e r s o n a l thoughts. ' ' -The te a c h e r s encouraged students to teach them and the group new songs and s t o r i e s . They c a r r i e d on t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n / f r e e time p u r s u i t s ( j o g g i n g , photography, k n i t t i n g , r e a d i n g , e t c . ) and encouraged students to j o i n them. They a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d wtih students i n student o r g a n i z e d games and a c t i v i t i e s ( k i c k the can, arm w r e s t l i n g , joke t e l l i n g , e t c . ) . A l l the study a c t i v i t e s were very student o r i e n t e d with 35 very l i t t l e teacher i n t e r f e r e n c e . Required w r i t t e n work was c o n f i n e d to reading r e c i p e s . Any other w r i t t e n work was l e f t t o the o p t i o n of the student. T r a d i t i o n a l s chool r u l e s and r o u t i n e s were r e l a x e d and emphasis was p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d e c i s i o n making. A c a r e f u l study of the f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n terms of Vogan's (1970) c r i t e r i a , r e v e a l s that the a p p l i c a b l e c r i t e r i a were met to a reasonably high degree by bo vth t e a c h e r s , and t h a t Vogan's (1970) c r i t e r i a do serve to d e s c r i b e the treatment a d e q u a t e l y . Instruments I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s An understanding of the development of s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r and tea c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e q u i r e s some understanding of the nature of human or i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s as a whole: how people i n t e r a c t as i n d i v i d u a l s and as groups. I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed that man's s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by d i v e r s e f a c t o r s with p e r c e p t i o n s being one of the most fundamental f a c t o r s . Combs and Snygg (1957) p o i n t t h i s out when they s t a t e : " p e r c e p t i o n s are the very f a b r i c of which human r e l a t i o n s a re made". S o l l e y and Murphy (1960) i d e n t i f y p e r c e p t i o n as an i n f e r r e d p r o c e s s , with the r e s u l t s of p e r c e p t i o n o b s e r v a b l e through i n d i v i d u a l s ' behavior and the c o n d i t i o n s of b e h a v i o r . Overt i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior i s t h e r e f o r e an i n d i c a t o r of a person's p e r c e p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g h i s or her i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . An examination of the t e a c h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the 3 6 students then depends upon an understanding of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the t e a c h e r , i n c l u d i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of the students' p e r s o n a l i t i e s , s o c i a l groups and the s t r u c t u r e of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n the c l a s s . The methods of I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s (IPA) as developed by B a l e s (1970) / a l l o w s examination of p e r c e p t i o n s that group members form of each o t h e r . The methods may a l s o be used f o r e l i c i t i n g the group i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r c e p t i o n s of group members. The i n t e r p r e t i v e and d i a g n o s t i c theory (of I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s ) takes the form of a t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l s p a t i a l model which may be used to v i s u a l i z e and d e s c r i b e the p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a group, and to i n f e r what t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with each other are l i k e l y to be ( B a l e s , 1970, p . v i ) . These methods u t i l i z e three p a r a l l e l forms of a twenty-six q u e s t i o n instrument, the items of which are to be answered 'yes' or 'no'. Items are then s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g to developed keys, l e a d i n g to three scores f o r each member of the group. These sc o r e s r e p r e s e n t a p o i n t i n the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space. Expected p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can then be i n f e r r e d by the l o c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the space, and i n t e r p e r s o n a l networks can be p r e d i c t e d through r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s and p r o x i m i t y measures between the i n d i v i d u a l s . Any one form can be used to g i v e s u b j e c t i v e impressions of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and group s t r u c t u r e , but the r e l i a b i l i t y of the impressions • can be enhanced by using more than one form. An examination of the it.ems of the three forms i n d i c a t e d some p o s s i b l e redundancy and p o s s i b l y some comprehension problems with a few items. Appendix A c o n t a i n s the o r i g i n a l p a r a l l e l items c o l l e c t e d from the three forms, and keys 37 for s c o r i n g . For the purposes of t h i s study, one q u e s t i o n from each set of three p a r a l l e l items was d e l e t e d to compensate f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of the above mentioned problems. The e l i m i n a t e d items are marked with an a s t e r i s k i n Appendix A. The order of the items was randomized producing a form of f i f t y - t w o q u e s t i o n s which were to be answered "yes" or "no" by the teacher f o r each student i n the group. In order to s t a n d a r d i z e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument an APPLE II mini-computer was used to present the i n s t r u c t i o n s and the q u e s t i o n s on the v i d e o screen and the computer keyboard was used to r e c o r d the responses to the items. A l i s t i n g of the mini-computer program used by the study i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix Each item of the instrument was scored a c c o r d i n g to the keyed answers as i d e n t i f i e d by B a l e s , adding one p o i n t to the student's score i n the c a t e g o r i e s "U", "D", "F", "B", "N", and/or "P" as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each student. As an example; i f the response f o r student A to q u e s t i o n 13 was "yes" and the key f o r q u e s t i o n 13 "yes" was DB, then 1 p o i n t was added to student A's score i n the "D" category and 1 p o i n t was added to h i s or her score i n the "B" c a t e g o r y . A f t e r a l l items were scored, the summary score f o r each student was obtained by t a k i n g the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e between the "U" score and the "D" score and a s s i g n i n g the l a b e l "U" or "D" a c c o r d i n g to whichever was the l a r g e r of the two a b s o l u t e v a l u e s . Scores on "F" or "B" and "P" or "N" were o b t a i n e d i n an i d e n t i c a l manner. As an example; i f student A ended with scores 3 8 of "U"=24, "D"=12, "F"=34, "B"=2, "P"=20, and "N"=16 then h i s or her summary score would be c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : 24U-12D= 12U ; 34F-2B= 3 2 1 ' 20P-16N= 4P In order to use the i n t e r p r e t i v e techniques as d e s c r i b e d by B a l e s , which are based on a s i n g l e 26 item form y i e l d i n g a maximum score of 18 i n any given d i r e c t i o n , the numerical v a l u e s o b t a i n e d from the 52 item insturment were d i v i d e d by two. The f i n a l s c o r e s i n our p r e v i o u s example would then be: 12U/2= 6U, 32F/2= 16F, and 4P/2= 2P. Each student was then a s s i g n e d a s c o r e c o n s i s t i n g of three numerical v a l u e s and l a b e l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to simple c o o r d i n a t e s and d i r e c t i o n s which were then used to p l o t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the group space. The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s as d e s c r i b e d by B a l e s (1970) were then i n f e r r e d from s i g n i f i c a n t d i r e c t i o n a l components of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e . Bales recommends t h a t any d i r e c t i o n a l component having a c o r r e s p o n d i n g numeric value l e s s than three should not be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t and should be ignored f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e purposes. In the above example, s i n c e student A's summary score was 6U 16F 2P, only the combination of "U" and "F" would be i n t e r p r e t e d . T h i s study f o l l o w s B a l e s ' recommendation and no score l e s s than three was i n t e r p r e t e d . Probable c o a l i t i o n s , networks, l e a d e r s , and i s o l a t e s were then i d e n t i f i e d by c o n n e c t i n g members who were i n c l o s e enough proximity.- These c o n n e c t i o n s , as d i r e c t e d by B a l e s , were made beginn i n g from the i n d i v i d u a l with the h i g e s t score i n the "D" c a t e g o r y and working through each i n d i v i d u a l towards the h i g h e s t score i n the "U" d i r e c t i o n . D i s t a n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s were c a l c u l a t e d by o b t a i n i n g the square root of the sum of the t h r e e squared a l g e b r a i c d i f f e r e n c e s between matching c o o r d i n a t e s . T h i s i s the three d i mensional e q u i v a l e n t of c a l c u l a t i n g the hypotenuse of a r i g h t - a n g l e d t r i a n g l e . As an example; i f student A' s summary score was 60* 16F 2N and student B's summary score was 1U 2B 3N then the d i s t a n c e between them would be c a l c u l a t e d / as f o l l o w s : Student A 6U 16F 2N Student B 1U 2B 3N D i f f e r e n c e 5 18 1 (. 5X5 + 18X18 + 1X1 = 25 + 324 + 1 = 350 Square root of 350 i s 18.71 The d i s t a n c e between student A and student B i s then 18.71 u n i t s . Note that the a l g e b r a i c d i f f e r e n c e between 16F and 2B i s 18. If the scores had been 16F and 2F then the a l g e b r a i c d i f f e r e n c e would have been 14. F i g u r e 3.1 i l l u s t r a t e s the p l a c i n g of student A and student B w i t h i n the s p a t i a l model. U B P F i g u r e 3.1: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of the A p p l i c a t i o n of IPA Data to Two Students. 40 B a l e s p r o v i d e s an e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d r u l e of thumb re g a r d i n g the e s t i m a t i o n of a c u t - o f f p o i n t beyond which the d i s t a n c e between i n d i v i d u a l s i s too f a r to i n f e r a probable c o a l i t i o n . He s e t s t h i s estimate to be 58% of the r a d i u s of the group space. In the case of t h i s study, the maximum r a d i u s was 18 y i e l d i n g an estimated c u t - o f f d i s t a n c e of 10.44. In our p r e v i o u s example the d i s t a n c e between student A and student B was 18.71 and t h e r e f o r e would be judged to be too f a r to i n f e r a c o a l i t i o n . F o l l o w i n g connection of i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s to form networks of c o a l i t i o n s , probable l e a d e r s and i s o l a t e s were then i d e n t i f i e d . Those members who had no c o n n e c t i o n s with any other members of the group were i d e n t i f i e d as i s o l a t e s . Leaders were i d e n t i f i e d as the t e r m i n a l upper members of a network. A l l of the above procedures were c a r r i e d out p r e c i s e l y as B a l e s recommends. Bales contends that s u b j e c t i v e impressions are a v a l i d source of i n f o r m a t i o n on which to p l o t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group space. He suggests that the use of s u b j e c t i v e impressions from only one source w i l l b i a s and d i s t o r t the model a c c o r d i n g to the p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i n g l e source. I f t e a c h e r s - i n v o l v e d with r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs complete the m o d i f i e d procedures of IPA, the i n f o r m a t i o n they provide should then i n d i c a t e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of student p e r s o n a l i t i e s , s o c i a l groupings and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r . These p e r c e p t i o n s should not then be used to estimate a c t u a l student p e r s o n a l i t y " t r a i t s or a c t u a l c o a l i t i o n s , networks, i s o l a t e s and l e a d e r s . The i n f o r m a t i o n can only be used to estimate the p e r c e p t i o n s the 41 i n d i v i d u a l teacher has of student p e r s o n a l i t i e s and c l a s s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from the above procedures then may or may not r e f l e c t the a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r or s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of any one student but i t does r e f l e c t the te a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the student at the time of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument. When c o n s i d e r i n g the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of stude n t s , I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s seemed h i g h l y s u i t e d f o r the purposes of t h i s study; however, the items used by IPA have a very high r e a d i n g and comprehension l e v e l . As such, the IPA was not s u i t a b l e f o r probing student p e r c e p t i o n s of the tea c h e r , and a l t e r n a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to the students was r e q u i r e d . D e t a i l s of t h i s methodology f o l l o w . Teacher Pupi1 R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory In order to examine the nature of the students' p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her r e l a t i o n s h i p with the tea c h e r , the study u t i l i z e d the Teacher Pupi1 R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory. T h i s instrument i s an a d a p t a t i o n of an i n v e n t o r y developed i n the f i e l d of psychotherapy where the f i r s t form was used by Heine (1950) to determine the nature of the t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The twenty items of Heine's instrument were d e r i v e d from an in v e n t o r y by F i e d l e r (1950) and were p o s t u l a t e d to present p e r c e p t i o n s which were most conducive and l e a s t conducive to an i d e a l t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . A c c o r d i n g to Lewis, L o v e l l and Jessee (1965), the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a student and teacher i s very much the same as the i d e a l p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . The w r i t e r s 42 conclude t h a t , "...the good t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not unique to therapy but can be matched i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t hat do not have a s t a t e d goal of therapy" (Lewis et a l . , 1965). The e s s e n t i a l elements of t h i s i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p are embodied in the statements of the r e s e a r c h e r s as l i s t e d i n Appendix B. The items used by Heine were then m o d i f i e d to r e f l e c t t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n e d u c a t i o n , r a t h e r than t h e r a p i s t - p a t i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n psychotherapy, and renamed the Teacher Pupi1 R e l a t i o n s h i p Inventory (TPRI). The c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument based on a sample of grade f i v e s , u s i n g the Ruder-Richardson 20 formula, was given as 0.75 by Lewis et a l (1965). F u r t h e r , the r e s e a r c h e r s found that " . . . s i x t h graders with h i g h TPRI scores r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r achievement-test t o t a l s c ores than d i d those students with low TPRI s c o r e s " (Lewis et a l . , 1965). In the study, the achievement t e s t s used were the Reading Comprehension, Word Usage, A r i t h m e t i c Concepts, and A r i t h m e t i c Problem S o l v i n g s u b t e s t s of the Iowa Test of B a s i c S k i l l s . The items used by Lewis and h i s co-workers were f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d by Knoblock and G o l d s t e i n i n 1971. The items were shortened and the wording s i m p l i f i e d to make them more s u i t a b l e f o r elementary s t u d e n t s . The r e a d a b i l i t y of the items f o r elementary students appeared to be improved but r e c a l c u l a t e d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were not r e p o r t e d . However, when they a d m i n i s t e r e d the form to students f o r the purpose of r a t i n g a t e a c h e r , the scores c o r r e l a t e d 0.72 with s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from peer teacher r a t i n g s of the same teacher u s i n g the o r i g i n a l form. T h i s seems i n d i c a t i v e of a r e l a t i v e l y high r e l i a b i l i t y f o r 43 the new pup i l form of the TPRI. A copy of the items used on a l l three forms i s included in Appendix B. Since the modified instrument is short and suitable for rapid administration to elementary students, and since the scores on the instrument have been shown to be related to / academic achievement, the instrument appeared to be suitable for the present study. Furthermore, the items appear to r e f l e c t student perceptions that, according to teachers involved in r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, show mar.ked change as a result of the programs. On these grounds, a modified form of the TPRI was used in t h i s study to indicate the nature of the students' perceptions of their r elationships with the teacher. A c r i t i c a l factor in u t i l i z i n g the TPRI in t h i s study i s i t s s u i t a b i l i t y for detecting real change in student perceptions of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher. However, since the reported r e l i a b i l i t i e s were calculated using KR-20 on the o r i g i n a l form and no new r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were reported for the modified form, t h i s study also examined the psychometric properties of the elementary form. Since new psychometric properties had to be estimated, the researcher also made some changes in an attempt to improve the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. For example, since the study i s concerned with the students' perceptions of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r teacher at the exact point in time when the instrument was administered, the wording of the items was a l t e r e d to r e f l e c t the present rather than the past tense and a l l references to the teacher were reworded to "my teacher". Also, a four point L i k e r t scale, anchored by "strongly agree" and "strongly disagree", was used 44 as a response format r a t h e r than the o r i g i n a l "yes-no" response mode in an attempt to i n c r e a s e the s e n s i t i v i t y of the instrument. A copy of the items used i n t h i s study i s i n c l u d e d in Appendix C. Each item was scored 1 ( s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) to 4 ( s t r o n g l y agree) with s c o r i n g on n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y items r e v e r s e d . A student's t o t a l score was o b t a i n e d through simple a d d i t i o n of h i s or her item s c o r e s . Each student then had a s i n g l e t o t a l score ranging from a p o s s i b l e low of 20 to a p o s s i b l e high of 80. Students r e c e i v i n g a h i g h score on the instrument were c o n s i d e r e d to p e r c e i v e a more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the t e a c h e r . A p e r c e p t i o n of a more ne g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher was i n d i c a t e d by a low s c o r e . Change over the,time p e r i o d of the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program was of major i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e the instrument had to be s t a b l e over time given no change i n student p e r c e p t i o n s . Students having no c o n t a c t with t h e i r t e a c h e r s should r e t a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r t e a c h e r s . As such, s t a b i l i t y of the instrument was estimated u s i n g t e s t - r e t e s t procedures on a sample of i n t e r m e d i a t e students on summer v a c a t i o n . Since a l t e r a t i o n s had a l s o been made to the wording of the -items and the response format, i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures of r e l i a b i l i t y were a l s o re-examined u s i n g the same sample. The p i l o t i n g of the instrument to estimate i t s psychometric p r o p e r t i e s was conducted i n August using a sample of students from the lower mainland area of B r i t i s h Columbia a t t e n d i n g a 45 summer camp. A l l students normally l i v e d i n urban or semi-urban l o c a t i o n s but attended v a r i o u s schools and had d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s . The male-female r a t i o and the makeup of the group by grade and age are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Tables 3,3 and 3.4. Table 3.3 Composition of P i l o t Group by Sex and Age 9 10 11 AGE 12 13 14 15 T o t a l Male 1 6 12 5 6 3 0 33 Female 0 7 11 7 8 3 1 37 T o t a l 1 13 23 12 14 6 1 70 Table 3.4 Composition of P i l o t Group by Sex and Grade GRADE 4 5 6 7 8 9 T o t a l Male 4 9 12 6 2 0 33 Female 2 14 8 9 3 1 37 TOTAL 6 23 20 15 5 1 70 The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by s u p e r v i s o r s at the camp d u r i n g lunch on the f i r s t day of camp and again on the l a s t day of camp, nine days l a t e r . Students were i n s t r u c t e d to respond to the instrument by c o n s i d e r i n g the teacher they spent most of t h e i r time with d u r i n g the 1979-80 school y e a r . None of these t e a c h e r s were i n attendance at the camp, or had a n y t h i n g a t a l l to do with the camp. As such, there was no reason to b e l i e v e that the s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e f e r e n t teacher would change between the f i r s t and second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the instrument. Students' scores on the TPRI were expected to remain 46 constant between a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . Item a n a l y s i s s t a t i s t i c s and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures from the r e s u l t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the LERTAP package. C o r r e l a t i o n s of sex, grade and age with the i n d i v i d u a l t o t a l s c o r e s , and betwen p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s were ob t a i n e d u s i n g the CORN program. The range on the p r e t e s t was from a low of 29 to a h i g h of 79. The mean was 53.66 and the standard d e v i a t i o n was 12.25. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y , as es t i m a t e d by Hoyt's procedure, was .89, with a standard e r r o r of measurement of 3.92. On the p o s t t e s t the range was from a low of 27 to a h i g h of 76. The mean was 52.11 and the standard d e v i a t i o n was 11.86. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y was again .89 with a standar d e r r o r of measurement of 3.77. The t e s t - r e t e s t s t a b i l i t y , as es t i m a t e d by the c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , was .88. The range of change scores was from a low of -14 to a high of +12. The mean of the change scores was -1.55 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 3.96. In a d d i t i o n , the instrument appeared to be e q u a l l y s t a b l e throughout the range of scores with no n o t i c a b l e r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t s f o r extreme s c o r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s of age and grade with i n d i v i d u a l t o t a l s c o r e s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , l e a d i n g the r e s e a r c h e r to b e l i e v e t h a t the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the instrument are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e over the age and grade range of the p i l o t group. The f a c t that there was a mean change score of -1.55 was of some concern. The t - v a l u e f o r that d i f f e r e n c e , as c a l c u l a t e d 47 a p p l y i n g the t e s t between means u s i n g dependent samples (Glass and S t a n l e y , 1970), was -3.50 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t , at p. = .001. Since the change from p r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s f a c t had to be taken i n t o account i n the study. Based on the p i l o t d a t a , i t was expected t h a t , given no change i n student p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , p o s t t e s t scores would be lower than p r e t e s t s c o r e s . No d i r e c t attempt was made to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s r e s u l t . I t may, however, be a t t r i b u t a b l e to a combination of s t u d e n t s ' s e n s i t i z a t i o n to the type of judgements r e q u i r e d by the items of the instrument and to the response format. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s problem should be c a r r i e d out i n the f u t u r e to account f o r t h i s phenomenon. An example of a study which might be used to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s problem i s to a d m i n i s t e r the instrument to two randomly a s s i g n e d groups where the order of the items f o r the groups i s a l t e r e d . Examination of item s c o r e s between the two groups c o u l d l e a d to a d e t e c t i o n of the type of s e n s i t i z a t i o n suggested. It was concluded t h a t , d e s p i t e the tendency f o r students to score lower on the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the instrument c o u l d be used to compare groups i n t h i s study. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n appears warranted i n l i g h t of the h i g h p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , i n d i c a t i n g good s t a b i l i t y over the time p e r i o d necessary i n t h i s study. Based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s p i l o t the TPRI appeared to be s u i t a b l e p s y c h o m e t r i c a i l y f o r the purposes of t h i s study. 4 8 Design of the Study Since randomization of s u b j e c t s and treatments was i m p o s s i b l e , Design 10,- the non-equivalent c o n t r o l group d e s i g n of Campbell and Stanley (1963) was employed to s t r u c t u r e the study. A l l students i n the treatment c l a s s e s and comparison c l a s s e s were p r e t e s t e d using the TPRI at the same time, two days bef o r e the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. The experimental c l a s s e s then took p a r t i n the program while the comparison c l a s s e s proceeded with s c h o o l i n t h e i r normal f.ashion. A l l four c l a s s e s were then p o s t t e s t e d , again u s i n g the TPRI on the Monday f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e . Teachers i n the experimental c l a s s e s completed the I PA i n f o r m a t i o n on the same days t h a t the TPRI was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s t u d e n t s . S p e c i f i c Problem _# 1. 1. What e f f e c t does p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program have on s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the t e a c h e r ? On the b a s i s of what has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d about the problem, the f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was deemed worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n : If i n t e r m e d i a t e grade students p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program d e s c r i b e d as the treatment in t h i s study,; then t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r teacher w i l l change i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d by the TPRI. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses to be t e s t e d a r e : H0.1: With regard to s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r 49 r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r t e a c h e r , there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean f o r the treatment group and the mean f o r the comparison group not exposed to a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, as measured by the m o d i f i e d form of the TPRI f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. H l . l : With regard to students' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r t e a c h e r , there w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between .the mean f o r the treatment group and the mean f o r the comparison group not exposed to a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, as measured by the m o d i f i e d form of the TPRI f o l l o w i n g ^ the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. HI.2: The mean of the exp e r i m e n t a l group w i l l be g r e a t e r than the mean of the comparison group as measured by the TPRI f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. In order to compensate f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on student p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s , a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e u s i n g the p r e t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e and the p o s t t e s t as the dependent v a r i a b l e , as d e s c r i b e d i n K i r k (1968), was employed to t e s t the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses. In employing the p r e t e s t as a c o v a r i a t e , "the hig h c o r r e l a t i o n between the c o v a r i a t e and the dependent v a r i a b l e was r e c o g n i z e d . However, no other s u i t a b l e c o v a r i a t e was a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r . 5 0 Spec i f i c Problem #_ 2 2. What i s the nature of the change i n teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of -student p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f t e r completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? T h i s problem was not suited/ to a t e s t of s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses. U n l i k e S p e c i f i c Problem # 1, l i t t l e i s known r e g a r d i n g how teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of student p e r s o n a l i t i e s should change i n order to f a c i l i t a t e a b e t t e r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . As such the nature of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s problem had to be more d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l i n n a t u r e . To address t h i s problem an a n a l y s i s was made of the change i n t eacher p e r c e p t i o n s of s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s as determined from responses to the I n t e r a c t i o n Process A n a l y s i s instrument by the t e a c h e r s . Teachers were asked to complete the I PA i n f o r m a t i o n both b e f o r e and a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. Wherever the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l f o r any student changed from b e f o r e to a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e , the change was noted and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h a t change was p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . Bales notes t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e l e s s than t h r e e u n i t s should not be i n t e r p r e t e d , t h e r e f o r e where the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l changed by more than three u n i t s i n any d i r e c t i o n the d i s c r e p a n c y was noted and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the change i n p e r c e p t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by B a l e s ' (1970) p e r s o n a l i t y t y p o l o g i e s , was presented. T h i s was done r e g a r d l e s s of whether or not the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l f o r the student changed. An a n a l y s i s of these changes was then undertaken i n order to d e t e c t s p e c i f i c t r e n d s . 51 S p e c i f i c Problem # 3 3. What is the nature of the change in teacher perceptions of the interpersonal relationships within a class after completion of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program? This problem i s similar in nature to S p e c i f i c Problem # 2. Its examination was again descriptive and analytic in form. To examine t h i s problem an analysis was made of the change in teacher perceptions of interpersonal .. re l a t i o n s as inf e r r e d from the Interaction Process Analysis responses of the teacher. Using the plots of the group space -obtained from S p e c i f i c Question #2, perceived c o a l i t i o n s , networks, leaders and i s o l a t e s were i d e n t i f i e d for both before and~ a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. Any discrepancy between the analyses of the f i r s t and second estimates of the -teachers' perceptions of group interactions was noted and the nature of these changes was described. The educational s i g n i f i c a n c e of these changes was explored using Bales' theory of personality and interpersonal behavior. 5 2 CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY Spec i f i c Problem #_ 1 For the c o n v e n i e n c e of the r e a d e r , the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses to be t e s t e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a re r e s t a t e d be low: H 0 . 1 : W i t h r e g a r d to s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r , t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean fo r the t rea tment group and the mean fo r the compar i son group not exposed to a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, as measured by the m o d i f i e d form of the TPRI f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. H l . l : W i t h r e g a r d to s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r , t h e r e w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean fo r the t rea tment group and the mean for the compar i son group not exposed to a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, as measured by the m o d i f i e d form of the TPRI f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. H I . 2 : "The mean of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group w i l l be g r e a t e r than the mean of the compar i son group as measured by the TPRI f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. S c o r i n g of s tudent responses and i tem a n a l y s i s were c a r r i e d out u s i n g the LERTAP computer package . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures c o n f i r m e d t h a t the s u b j e c t s responded t o the i tems of the TPRI ins t rument i n a s i m i l a r manner to the s u b j e c t s i n the p i l o t s t u d y . As an example, r e l i a b i l i t i e s were c a l c u l a t e d fo r 53 each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument to each c l a s s with the r e s u l t i n g i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures ranging from .74 to .90. Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s o b t a i n e d f o r each c l a s s on each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TPRI are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.1. Table 4.1 C l a s s Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r the TPRI. Treatment P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t C o n d i t i o n C l a s s n Mean St.Dev. Mean St.Dev. Ex p e r i m e n t a l A 26 64.42 8.13 66.62 6.25 Exp e r i m e n t a l B 14 58.36 10.55 60.64 8.87 Comparison C 21 56.67 7.97 52.43 8.23 Comparison D 23 62.52 8.71 59.57 10.51 The s c o r e s f o r each student on each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TPRI, t r e a t i n g each c l a s s as a group, were then t e s t e d f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e u s i n g the B a r t l e t t - B o x homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n t e s t as c a l c u l a t e d by the OWMAR computer program. The c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o was 1.164 co r r e s p o n d i n g to a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of .28. T h i s l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that assumptions of homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e were t e n a b l e . A n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e , u s i n g i n i t i a l l y the d e s i g n , c l a s s e s nested w i t h i n treatment c o n d i t i o n s , was performed, u s i n g the MULTIVARIANCE computer program. The p r e t e s t was employed as the c o v a r i a t e - and the a n a l y s i s was performed on the a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means. The r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4.2. Durin g the MULTIVARIANCE a n a l y s i s the t e s t f o r equal s l o p e s of r e g r e s s i o n was c a r r i e d out. The F - r a t i o , the t e s t s t a t i s t i c , was 2.876 co r r e s p o n d i n g to p = .0416. T h i s would suggest that 54 Table 4.2 A n a l y s i s of Covariance T a b l e . Source of V a r i a t i o n df Mean Square F P Treatment R e s i d u a l C o v a r i a t e C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups 1 2 1 79 2525.39 72.49 919.44 41.23 1.7582 22.3018 <.1791 <.0001 the r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s were probably not e q u a l : a v i o l a t i o n of one of the u n d e r l y i n g assumptions of a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . The consequences of the v i o l a t i o n of t h i s assumption have been s t u d i e d and r e p o r t e d . A 1968 unpublished study by Peckham was r e f e r e n c e d by G l a s s , Peckham and Sanders (1972). Peckham found that a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e i s robust with r e s p e c t to the above v i o l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y where the d e p a r t u r e from homogeneity was not extreme. "As the degree of h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n c r e a s e d the a n a l y s i s became more c o n s e r v a t i v e with r e s p e c t to making a Type I e r r o r . " ( G l a s s , Peckham and Sanders, 1972) T h i s robustness h e l d even in q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s where the groups d i f f e r e d with r e s p e c t to c o v a r i a t e means. A recent study by Levy (1980) seems to c o n f i r m the c o n c l u s i o n s of G l a s s , et a l . , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the departure from homogeneity i s not extreme. The p o s i t i o n on t h i s matter taken i n t h i s study i s that the consequences of the v i o l a t i o n of the assumption of homogeneity of r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s w i l l probably not l e a d to s p u r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Since the v i o l a t i o n of an assumption, d e s p i t e the consequences, should be a matter of concern to the reader, the data was a l s o analyzed from the p e r s p e c t i v e of repeated measures and the p e r s p e c t i v e of a n a l y s i s of r e s i d u a l s . The r e s u l t s of 55 these two f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s are pre s e n t e d i n Appendix F. R e f e r r i n g back to Table 4.2, s i n c e the c l a s s e s w i t h i n groups term i s not s i g n i f i c a n t , an examination of the simple treatment c o n d i t i o n s , c o l l a p s i n g the nested f a c t o r , was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e . As can be seen, the e f f e c t of the treatment was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , l e a d i n g to r e j e c t i o n of h y p o t h e s i s H0.1 i n favor of the a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s HI.1. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c l a s s e s which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program and c l a s s e s which d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e . In order to t e s t h y p o t h e s i s HI.2, c a l c u l a t i o n and examination of a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means was r e q u i r e d . The a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means, as c a l c u l a t e d by the MULTIVARIANCE program were: Experimental Group Mean = 63.048 Comparison Group Mean = 56.578 Since the a d j u s t e d experimental group mean i s h i g h e r than the comparison group mean, s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s HI.2 was h e l d v t e n a b l e . The experimental c l a s s e s scored higher on the average than the comparison c l a s s e s , i n the p o s t u l a t e d d i r e c t i o n . With both s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses HI.1 and HI.2 being confirmed, the co r r e s p o n d i n g r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s , i f i n t e r m e d i a t e grade students p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program d e s c r i b e d as the treatment i n t h i s study, then t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h e i r teacher - w i l l change i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n as i d e n t i f i e d by the TPRI, i s judged to be confirmed. 56 Spec i f i c Problem #_ 2 Responses made by the t e a c h e r s on the I PA, both b e f o r e and a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e , were s c o r e d u s i n g the APPLE II mini-computer and the program documented i n Appendix E. Tab l e s 4.3 and 4.4 give s c o r e s , i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l s and changes from p r e t e s t to p o s t t e s t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s tudents i n the experimental c l a s s e s , based upon the responses of the t e a c h e r s . T a b l e 4.3 IPA Data f o r C l a s s A Student P r e t e s t I n t e r p r e t i v e P o s t t e s t I n t e r p r e t i v e Pre-Post Number Score L a b e l Score L a b e l Change A01 3U9P3F UPF 9D3P4F DPF -12,-6,+1 A02 4D8P2B DP 6D2P4B DB - 2,-6,-2 A0.3 4D5P3B DPB 7D7P3B DPB - 3,+2, 0 A04 8D1P4F DF 4D3P1B DPB + 4,+2,-5 A05 2D8N8B NB 3D3N0 . D - l,+6,+8 A06 5D1P2F D 8D2N1B D - 3,-3,-3 A07 0 3P2B P 2U8P4F PF + 2,+5,+6 A08 0 8P1B P 1D6P0 P - l , - 2 , + l A09 2U10P1B P 2U12P2F P 0,+2,+3 A10 3D4P1B DP 2D6P2F P + l,+2,+3 A l l 4U7P2F UP 1U8P0 P - 3,+1,-2 A12 1D6P0 P 1D10P0 P 0,+4, 0 A13 1U9P3F PF 2U10P3F PF + 1,+1, 0 A14 5U8P6F UPF 4U3P2F UP + 1,-5,-4 A15 8U6P5F UPF 2D4P1B P -10,-2,-6 A16 6D8P1B DP • 7D12P1B DP - l,+4, 0 A17 1U6P1F P 4D3P1F DP -- 5,-3, 0 A18 9D7P2F DP 9D9P1F DP 0,+2,-l A19 8D5P1F DP 4D9P2F DP + 4,+4,+l A20 09P3F PF 1U9P4F PF + 1, o , + i A21 1U10P2B P 4D8P2B DP - 5,-2, 0 A22 2U8P4F PF 4U12P0 UP + 2,+4,-4 A23 •3D3P3F DPF 4U9P3F UPF + 7,+6, 0 A24 7D7P1B DP 7D4P0 DP 0,-3,+l A25 7U7P0 UP 7U8P2F UP 0,+l,+2 A26 1U8P2F P 4U8P5F UPF + 3, 0,+3 If one examines the mean change of scores on each a x i s f o r Table 4.4 57 I PA Data from C l a s s B Student P r e t e s t I n t e r p r e t i v e Number Score Label B01 5D7P4F -DPF B02 1D6N5B NB B03 1D10P3F PF B04 5D7P4F DPF B05 5D2P3F DF B06 1D7P5F PF B07 4U12P10F UPF B08 4D6P6F DPF B09 6U7P8F UPF BIO 5U0 2B U B l l 4D7P5F DPF B12 4D5P5F DPF B13 4U9P0 UP B14 2U8P8F PF P o s t t e s t I n t e r p r e t i v e Pre-Post Score L a b e l Change 5D8P4F DPF 0,+l, 0 6U5N6B DPF + 7,+1,-1 2D11P5F PF -l,+l,+2 5D9P5F DPF 0,+2,+l 9D3N2B DN -4,-5,-5 2D13P3F PF -1,+6,-2 4U12P9F UPF 0, 0,-1 7D7P2F DP -3,+1,-4 6U5P7F UPF 0,-2,-1 11U2N1B U +6,-2,+1 5D9P5F DPF -l,+2, 0 6D9P4F DPF -2,+4,-1 7U7P2F UP +3,-2,+2 2D11P7F PF -4,+3,-1 each t e a c h e r , i n Table 4.5, i t i s obvious that the t e a c h e r s ' o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r c l a s s e s d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s r e s u l t a i d s the r e s e a r c h e r i n i n t e r p r e t i n g those i n d i v i d u a l changes which are judged to be i n t e r p r e t a b l e without a concern f o r the confounding e f f e c t s of a s h i f t i n the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the c l a s s e s as a whole. Table 4.5 g i v e s the mean score changes and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the changes of p e r c e p t i o n of each teacher on each a x i s . There were, however, numerous i n d i v i d u a l changes which were i n t e r p r e t a b l e a c c o r d i n g to the procedures of Bales (1970). As can be seen from Tables 4.3 and 4.4, there were 14 s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l changes i n C l a s s A, and 3 s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l changes i n C l a s s B. In a d d i t i o n , 3- students i n C l a s s A and 4 students i n C l a s s B showed changes g r e a t e r than 3 p o i n t s on at l e a s t one a x i s , d e s p i t e r e t a i n i n g t h e i r o r i g i n a l i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l s . Each of these cases was i n t e r p r e t e d u s i n g Bales' (1970) d e s c r i p t i o n s of types. These 58 Table 4.5 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Score Changes f o r Each Teacher on Each A x i s . A x i s Teacher Mean Score Change St.Dev. U-D U-D P-N P-N F-B F-B A B A B A B -0.84 0.00 + 0.54 + 0.71 -0.12 -0.71 4.06 3.31 3.54 2.81 3.14 2.02 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and diagrams of the p o s i t i o n a l changes f o r each case are presented below. In the f i g u r e s , d o t t e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e d the p e r c e p t i o n of the teacher p r i o r to. the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program and s o l i d l i n e s i n d i c a t e the p e r c e p t i o n of the teacher a f t e r the e x p e r i e n c e . — Student A01 changed from a s c o r e of 3U9P3F, type UPF, to a score of 9D3P4F, type DPF. Both UPF and DPF types seem to be task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d and s t r o n g on f r i e n d l y and l i k e a b l e c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s . The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between the types i s t h a t where the UPF type i s seen to be ascendant and l e a d e r s h i p o r i e n t e d , o f t e n i n i t i a t i n g group t a s k s , the DPF type i s seen to be a f o l l o w e r and to be more su b m i s s i v e . In a d d i t i o n , Student A01 showed a 6 p o i n t drop on the P-N a x i s while r e t a i n i n g the P l a b e l . T h i s a x i s r e f l e c t s a g r e g a r i o u s - i s o l a t i o n i s t or - f r i e n d l y -u n f r i e n d l y aspect of p e r s o n a l i t y . The teacher now seems to view the student as s l i g h t l y l e s s f r i e n d l y and g r e g a r i o u s , and more of a f o l l o w e r than a l e a d e r , than b e f o r e the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.1. Student A02 changed from a score of 4D8P2B, type DP, to a sco r e of 6D2P4B, type DB. Type DP i s seen as calm, n o n - a s s e r t i v e 5 9 F i g u r e 4.1: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A01. and f r i e n d l y with a tendency to i m i t a t e those t h a t he or she l i k e s , pn the other hand, the DB type i s seen as anxious and n e g a t i v e to l e a d e r s h i p advances and a u t h o r i t y . The DB type i s not b l a t a n t l y d i s o b e d i e n t but must be urged to comply. The teacher now sees t h i s student as l e s s f r i e n d l y and l e s s c o o p e r a t i v e than was p r e v i o u s l y the case. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.2. Student A04 changed from a score of 8D1P4F, type DF, to a score of 4D3P1B, type DP. Types DF and DP are s i m i l a r i n that they are both seen as submissive or n o n - a s s e r t i v e , and c o n v e n t i o n a l . The major d i f f e r e n c e i s that where the DF type i s seen as impersonal and i n h i b i t e d , the DP type i s r e s p o n s i v e t o , and t r u s t i n g o f, o t h e r s . As w e l l as the t y p o l o g y change, the r a t i n g of t h i s student on the U-D a x i s i n c r e a s e d 4 p o i n t s . T h i s change i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a new p e r c e p t i o n of the student as 60 D F i g u r e 4.2: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A02. ' being l e s s submissive than had been p r e v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d . In t o t a l , the teacher views the student as more p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d and l e s s submissive a f t e r the experience than b e f o r e . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pre s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.3. Student A05 changed from a score of 2D8N8B, type NB, to a score of 3D2N0, type D. Type NB i s seen t o be u n f r i e n d l y , autonomous and r e s i s t a n t to a u t h o r i t y . Words which are used to d e s c r i b e t h i s type are e v a s i v e , stubborn, o b s t i n a t e and c y n i c a l . The i n d i v i d u a l i s seen to r e j e c t s o c i a l r o l e s expected of him or her. I n s e c u r i t y i s one of the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s noted. The D type i s somewhat s i m i l a r i n that he or she tends to devalue the s e l f . The D type i s , however, seen to be p a s s i v e and acceptant of whatever s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . The teacher now sees the student as l e s s u n f r i e n d l y and l e s s d e l i n q u e n t , but s l i g h t l y more withdrawn. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s 61 U D F i g u r e 4.3: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A04. presented i n F i g u r e 4.4. Student A07 changed from a score of 03P2B, type P, to a score of 2U8P4F, type PF. Both P and PF types are seen to be f r i e n d l y , a greeable and e q u a l i t a r i a n , with the PF type seen as more task and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d . The i n c r e a s e on the F-B a x i s corresponds to a view of the student as more p e r s i s t e n t and conforming while the i n c r e a s e on the P-N a x i s r e f l e c t s an i n c r e a s i n g p e r c e p t i o n of the student i n the f r i e n d l y d i r e c t i o n . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pre s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.5. Student A10 changed from a score of 3D4P1B, type DP, to a score of 2D6P2F, type P. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s t y p o l o g i c a l change r e f l e c t s a d i f f e r e n c e i n submissiveness. The P type i s seen as more autonomous and l e s s of a f o l l o w e r than the DP type. 6 2 F i g u r e 4.5: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A07. 63 In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case, however, the change i n score which l e d to the t y p o l o g i c a l change i s only of the magnitude of 1, l e a d i n g the r e s e a r c h e r to regard t h i s change as a chance change due. to p o s s i b l e measurement e r r o r . For t h i s reason, the change i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s case w i l l be i g n o r e d f o r the f i n a l a n a l y s i s of a l l changes. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pr e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.6. D F i g u r e 4.6: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A10. Student A l l changed from a score of 4U7P2F, type UP, to a score of 1U8P0, type P. The UP type i s seen to be more e x t r a v e r t e d and l e a d e r s h i p - o r i e n t e d than the P type while remaining f r i e n d l y and s o c i a b l e . The P type i s a l s o seen as l e s s a s c e n d i n g i n a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . Again, as f o r Student A10, the i n t e r p r e t i v e change r e s u l t e d from a minor score change and c o u l d 64 p l a u s i b l y have r e s u l t e d from measurement e r r o r . T h i s case w i l l t h e r e f o r e a l s o be ignored i n the f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t o t a l changes. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.7. U I 1 . 8 / 1 ) F i g u r e 4.7: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's Percept ion Changes Regarding Student A l l . Student A12 d i d not change on the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l but the magnitude of the score of the P-N a x i s changed from 6P to 10P. T h i s change i s viewed as an i n c r e a s e i n the success of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and i n f r i e n d l i n e s s . The P type i s seen to be i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c w h ile s t i l l r e t a i n i n g i d e n t i t y w i t h the group. The score change r e f l e c t s a p e r c e p t i o n which p l a c e s the student more s t r o n g l y i n t o the above p o s i t i o n . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.8. 6 5 P D F i g u r e 4.8: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A12. ' Student A14 changed from a score of 5U8P6F, type UPF, to a score of 4U3P2F, type UP. Both of these types are seen to be' ascendant and f r i e n d l y . The UPF type, however, i s more goal and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d than the UP type, who i s n e i t h e r c l e a r l y f o r , nor c l e a r l y a g a i n s t , group g o a l s and v a l u e s . I t should be noted that the t e a c h e r ' s percept ion of t h i s student a l s o decreased 5 p o i n t s on the P-F a x i s r e f l e c t i n g a l e s s s t r o n g p e r c e p t i o n of the f r i e n d l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the student. The teacher now sees the student as l e s s f r i e n d l y and l e s s task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d than p r e v i o u s to the e x p e r i e n c e . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.9. Student A15 changed from a score of 8U6P5F, type UPF, to a score of 2D4P1B, type P. The UPF type i s seen to be f r i e n d l y and ascendant, o f t e n assuming a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e w i t h i n the group on task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t s . In comparison, the P type, 66 F i g u r e 4.9: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A14. while remaining f r i e n d l y i s seen as e q u a l i t a r i a n and n e i t h e r ascendant nor submissive. Since the magnitude of t h i s p e r c e i v e d change i s one of the s t r o n g e s t d e t e c t e d i n t h i s study, f u r t h e r comment on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case seems a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s student was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l and dominant i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . The student i s strong i n academic achievement and had occupied a p o s i t i o n of s e c u r i t y as a l e a d e r . When removed from the class r o o m t o the outdoor s i t u a t i o n , the s k i l l s and q u a l i t i e s which had served t h i s student w e l l i n the classroom were no longer as important. The student had problems a d j u s t i n g to the l i f e s t y l e and c o n d i t i o n s of the program. Student A15 f e i g n e d numerous i n j u r i e s and i l l n e s s e s i n an attempt to a v o i d attempting t a s k s at which at would be d i f f i c u l t to e x c e l . When t h i s t a c t i c f a i l e d , the student e l i c i t e d the support of w i l l i n g s t u d e n t s , who were doing w e l l i n the program, to pro v i d e a i d and 67 a s s i s t a n c e . In d o i n g , so, Student A15 admitted to those i n d i v i d u a l s that h e l p was both wanted and needed. T h i s type of case, where a student who e x c e l s i n the c l a s s r o o m has unaccustomed problems coping with and succeeding i n the outdoors, has o f t e n been r e f e r r e d to by outdoor e d u c a t o r s . The documentation" of the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t u a l change on t h i s student supports the p r e v i o u s a n e c d o t a l c l a i m s of outdoor educators i n d e s c r i b i n g the i n f l u e n c e s of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.10. U F i g u r e 4.10: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A15. Student A16 i s another case where the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l , i n t h i s case DP, d i d not change. The change that was d e t e c t e d f o r t h i s student was a 4 p o i n t i n c r e a s e on the P-N a x i s . The DP 68 type person i s seen as f r i e n d l y and n o n - a s s e r t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , the DP type tends to t r u s t and i d e n t i f y with o t h e r s . The change in p e r c e p t i o n of the teacher r e f l e c t s a s t r o n g e r teacher o p i n i o n of the student i n the f r i e n d l y and l o v i n g d i r e c t i o n . I t should be noted t h a t t h i s student p r o v i d e d the most a i d and support f o r Student A15 i n that i n d i v i d u a l ' s attempts to a v o i d f a i l u r e and to cope with the outdoor s i t u a t i o n . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.11. D F i g u r e 4.11: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A16. Student A17 changed from a s c o r e of 1U6P1F., type P, to a score of 4D3P1F, type DP. Both type P and type DP are viewed as s o c i a b l e and f r i e n d l y . The DP type r e f l e c t s a g r e a t e r tendency to admire and i d e n t i f y with o t h e r s , as w e l l as e x h i b i t i n g a more submissive nature. The change r e f l e c t e d here i s t h a t the teacher 69 p e r c e i v e d the student as being more i n f l u e n c e d and l e d by ot h e r s a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor experience than b e f o r e . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pres e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.12. F i g u r e 4.12: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's Percept ion Changes Regarding Student A17. Student A19 r e t a i n e d the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l DP, but the sc o r e s on the U-D and P-N axes both i n c r e a s e d 4 p o i n t s . T h i s r e f l e c t s a new p e r c e p t i o n by the teacher which i s st r o n g e r i n the l i k e a b l e and s o c i a b l e d i r e c t i o n s . The teacher a l s o now p e r c e i v e s the student to be somewhat l e s s of a f o l l o w e r and more dependent on the s e l f than had been p r e v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pres e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.13. 7 0 P C S O S P I F . ) D F i g u r e 4.13: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A19. Student A21 changed from a score of 1U10P2B, type P, to a score of 4D8P2B, type DP. T h i s change i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the change i n p e r c e p t i o n of Student A17, and the i n t e r p r e t i v e comments made f o r that student are e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to Student A21. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.14. Student A22 changed from a score of 2U8P4F, type PF, to a score of 4U12P0, type UP. Types PF and UP are both seen as agreeabl e and f r i e n d l y . The d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that the PF type i s more task and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d , and i s n e i t h e r submissive nor a s s e r t i v e . The UP type i s more a s s e r t i v e but group task or value g o a l s tend to be de-emphasized i n favor of m a i n t a i n i n g a happy f r i e n d l y group atmosphere. The teacher t h e r e f o r e now p e r c e i v e s t h i s student as more a t t e n t i v e to s o c i a l success and l e s s o r i e n t e d towards task accomplishment 71 D F i g u r e 4.14: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A21. than p r i o r to the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d in F i g u r e 4.15. Student A23 changed from a score of 3D3P3F, type DPF, to a score of 4U9P3F, type UPF. Both UPF and DPF types appear task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d , f r i e n d l y and l o v i n g . However, where the DPF type assumes a submissive r o l e , o f t e n seeking l e a d e r s h i p from o t h e r s , the UPF type takes the i n i t i a t i v e of assuming a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . The teacher p e r c e i v e s t h i s student .to have changed from a f o l l o w e r to more of a l e a d e r . The i n c r e a s e d score on the P-N a x i s a l s o r e f l e c t s an i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t i o n of the student as l i k e a b l e and f r i e n d l y . . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p resented i n F i g u r e 4.16. Student A26 changed from a score of 1U8P2F, type P, to a score of 4U8P5F, type UPF. Type UPF d i f f e r s from type P i n t h a t 72 F i g u r e 4.16: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A23. 73 the UPF type assumes l e a d e r s h i p and i s more a s s e r t i v e , while working towards task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d group g o a l s . The P type i s more e q u a i i t a r i a n , .being l e s s concerned with t a s k - r e l e v a n c e and d i s p l a y i n g n e i t h e r submissiveness nor a s s e r t i v e n e s s . As such, the teacher p e r c e i v e s t h i s student as being more a s s e r t i v e and g o a l - o r i e n t e d than p r e v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.17. F i g u r e 4.17: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student A26. Student B02 changed from a score of 1D6N5B, type NB, to a sc o r e of 6U5N6B, type UNB. Types NB and UNB have the common t r a i t s of r e s i s t a n c e to a u t h o r i t y and stubbornness, coupled with i n d i v i d u a l i s m and autonomy. However, where the NB type i s n e i t h e r ascendant nor a c t i v e l y r e b e l l i o u s , the UNB type, can be dominating and openly h o s t i l e . A l s o , where the goal of the NB 74 type seems to be simply r e j e c t i o n of s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y , the UNB type seems o r i e n t e d towards g r a t i f i c a t i o n of s e l f and appears more s e l f - c e n t e r e d and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . The change i n the te a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n may r e f l e c t a g r e a t e r understanding of the m o t i v a t i o n of t h i s student's o v e r t b e h a v i o r . Th« student d i d not do w e l l w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of the sch o o l c l a s s r o o m . In the outdoor s e t t i n g , the student succeeded and even e x c e l l e d i n many t a s k s . T h i s student was a l s o supported by Student BIO and the change p e r c e i v e d i n t h i s student may have been a m p l i f i e d by the p e r c e i v e d change of Student BIO. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.18. U F i g u r e 4.18: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B02. Student B05 changed from a score of 5D2P3F, type DF, to a score of 9D3N2B, type DB. Type DF i s d e s c r i b e d as being 75 sub m i s s i v e , impersonal, i n h i b i t e d and w i l l i n g to f o l l o w a value or t a s k - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r , while f e a r i n g d i s a p p r o v a l of o t h e r s . In comparison, the DB type appears unresponsive, i s o l a t e d , s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t , and even u n f r i e n d l y and r e s e n t f u l . T h i s type seems i n d i f f e r e n t to task or v a l u e - o r i e n t e d goalr> and appears to r e j e c t o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l s u c c e s s . From the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, t h i s change i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n or j u s t i f y . T h i s student was, however, q u i t e unremarkable to the r e s e a r c h e r , and i t i s very c o n c e i v a b l e that s u b t l e behaviors ,of the student were ov e r l o o k e d by the r e s e a r c h e r while being d e t e c t e d by the t e a c h e r . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.19. Student B06, while not changing i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l , changed score on the P-N a x i s from 7P to 13P. T h i s change r e f l e c t s a more i n t e n s e teacher p e r c e p t i o n of the l i k e a b l e , f r i e n d l y and l o v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y q u a l i t i e s of the student. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.20. Student B08 changed from a s c o r e - o f 4D6P6F, type JDPF, to a score of 7D7P2F, type DP. Both of these types seem f r i e n d l y and submissive, d i s p l a y i n g t r a i t s of t r u s t and g e n t l e n e s s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the types i s that where the DPF type i s more task and v a l u e - o r i e n t e d , the DP type seems more i n v o l v e d with the group on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ; people are more important than the task at hand. T h i s change i n d i c a t e s that the teacher now p e r c e i v e s the student as more p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d and l e s s g o a l -76 F i g u r e 4.19: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B05. F i g u r e 4.20: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B06. 77 (7D7P2F) D F i g u r e 4.21: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B08. o r i e n t e d than was p r e v i o u s l y the case. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pre s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.21. Student BIO d i d not change i n i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l but the score i n c r e a s e d 6 p o i n t s on the U-D a x i s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i s a r e f l e c t i o n of an i n c r e a s e i n power, a s s e r t i v e n e s s and l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the group. The student was a str o n g f i g u r e w i t h i n the r e g u l a r classroom and e x c e l l e d i n the outdoor s i t u a t i o n . As such, more students looked to t h i s student f o r a i d and l e a d e r s h i p . Student BIO and B02 were c l o s e f r i e n d s w i t h i n the clas s r o o m environment and t h i s c o n n e c t i o n c o n t i n u e d i n the outdoors. I t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e that Student BIO, by t r e a t i n g Student B02 as an u n o f f i c i a l but obvious "deputy", was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c r e a s e on the U-D a x i s that was noted f o r Student B02. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s pr e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.22. U1U2.N18P Post^ F i g u r e 4.22: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student BIO. Student B12 a l s o d i d not change i n i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l but i n c r e a s e d 4 p o i n t s on the P-N a x i s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s change i s i d e n t i c a l to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the change i n Student B06. A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 4.23. Student B14 decreased 4 p o i n t s on the U-D a x i s while r e t a i n i n g the o r i g i n a l PF i n t e r p r e t i v e l a b e l . T h i s change r e f l e c t s a decreased p e r c e p t i o n i n the power, a s s e r t i v e , dominance d i r e c t i o n . The teacher now p e r c e i v e s the student to be l e s s a s s e r t i v e and more w i l l i n g to be l e d than p r i o r to the e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be tempered by the f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r the pre nor post score on the U-D a x i s was s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g to be i n t e r p r e t e d a l o n e . A g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s change i s presented i n F i g u r e 4.24. An examination of the t o t a l i t y of the recorded i n d i v i d u a l 7 9 F i g u r e 4.24: G r a p h i c a l D e p i c t i o n of Teacher's P e r c e p t i o n Changes Regarding Student B14. 80 changes f a i l e d to y i e l d any changes which appeared to be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y or l o g i c a l l y l i n k e d . The changes appear on the s u r f a c e to be haphazard and unconnected. Since no p a t t e r n s or " t y p i c a l " expected changes c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r , i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d with Teacher A i n an attempt to gain a f u r t h e r understanding of the p e r c e p t i o n changes f o r s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s . I t was a l s o hoped to v e r i f y some of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from the procedures of Bales (1970). S c o r i n g and i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the changes were accomplished soon a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program so the experience was s t i l l q u i t e f r e s h i n the mind of Teacher A.when the d i s c u s s i o n s took p l a c e . The d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r e d around three types of q u e s t i o n s posed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r r e g a r d i n g s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s : 1) The teacher was asked to d e s c r i b e the p e r s o n a l i t y of the student to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t y . . 2) The teacher was then asked whether t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the student had changed a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, and, i f so, how had i t changed. 3) I f the teacher n o t i c e d any change, the teacher was asked whether there were any p a r t i c u l a r " i n c i d e n t s or '" student behaviours that they c o u l d i d e n t i f y that might have s t i m u l a t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l change of the student. The " r e s u l t s of these d i s c u s s i o n s i n d i c a t e d that the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from the procedures of Bales (1970) were, i n g e n e r a l , congruent with the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s made by the t e a c h e r . Any d i s c r e p a n c i e s were a r e s u l t of teacher omissions r a t h e r than c o n f l i c t s with B a l e s ' 81 (1970) i n f e r e n c e s . Since the r e s e a r c h e r d i d noth i n g to s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r f e a r that the c r i t i c i s m of " l e a d i n g the witn e s s " might be l e v e l e d , t h i s e r r o r of om i s s i o n would be expected. The teacher was a l s o aware o f , and d e s c r i b e d many of the d e t e c t e d p e r c e p t i o n changes and c o u l d o f t e n d e s c r i b e i n c i d e n t s or a s e r i e s of o b s e r v a t i o n s which had caused the teacher t o a l t e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s . As an example, the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r used to d e s c r i b e the changes of student A15 and A16 i n the p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were a l s o v e r b a l i z e d by the t e a c h e r . The l a c k of a p e r c e i v e d p a t t e r n i n the changes coupled with the a b i l i t y of the teacher to e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y the noted changes has l e d the r e s e a r c h e r to conclude t h a t there are no changes i n t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of students that can be d e l i n e a t e d a p r i o r i due to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. However, changes do occur, and d e s p i t e the f a c t that the exact nature of these changes cannot be p r e d i c t e d , they may be d e t e c t e d and d e s c r i b e d . 82 Spec i f i c Problem #_ 3 The p o s i t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e s f o r each student i n the group space were used to c a l c u l a t e the d i s t a n c e s between i n d i v i d u a l s . Procedures used were as d e s c r i b e d i n the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e c t i o n of Chapter I I I . A simple program f o r a TRS-80 mini-computer was w r i t t e n and employed to do the c a l c u l a t i o n s . Using these c a l c u l a t e d d i s t a n c e s and the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned te c h n i q u e s , probable c o a l i t i o n s , networks, l e a d e r s and i s o l a t e s were i d e n t i f i e d . F i g u r e 4.25 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n f e r r e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n C l a s s A p r i o r to the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e . D i s t a n c e s between members of the network are given by the bracketed numbers i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g F i g u r e s . As can be seen, the i n f e r e n t i a l process d e p i c t s the teacher as p e r c e i v i n g one major network with Student A15 p o s i t i o n e d as the l e a d e r . Student A05 i s i d e n t i f i e d as an i s o l a t e , being too f a r from any other student to i n f e r a c o a l i t i o n . F i g u r e 4.26 d e p i c t s the same c l a s s a f t e r the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor e x p e r i e n c e . An examination of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n f e r r e d from the responses of the t e a c h e r s f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program i n d i c a t e s that v a r i o u s members have moved p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the network. However, the major d i f f e r e n c e s between the two o c c a s i o n s are a change of l e a d e r s h i p and the l i n k i n g of the former i s o l a t e to the network. Student A15 has moved from a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n to a p o s i t i o n about h a l f way down the network. Student A25 has moved up to take the l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n formerly occupied by Student 8 3 ( 1 1 0 ) I A 2 0 ( 4 : i ) (4.1) (3:0) ( 4 . 7 ) A10 ( 2 L ) I A 0 3 A23 o!o) I A06 A04 (2.2) (2.2) A19 A18 F i g u r e 4.25: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s A P r i o r to the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. A15. For a p o s s i b l e understanding of the change in Student Al5's p o s i t i o n the reader i s r e f e r r e d to the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h i s Chapter where the p e r s o n a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n change of Student A15 i s d i s c u s s e d . Student A05, while i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as an i s o l a t e , has moved f i r m l y i n t o the network. T h i s student i s now seen as being c l o s e enough to at l e a s t one other member of the group to i n f e r a c o a l i t i o n . In t h i s c l a s s , f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i e n c e , the teacher 84 A14 F i g u r e 4.26: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s A F o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. p e r c e i v e d a s i n g l e s o c i a l network with no member of the c l a s s i s o l a t e d and each i n d i v i d u a l l i n k e d to every other i n d i v i d u a l i n some way. F i g u r e 4.27 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n f e r r e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of C l a s s B b e f o r e going on the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. In t h i s case the i n f e r e n c e i s that the teacher p e r c e i v e s the c l a s s to be d i v i d e d i n t o two separate networks. Students B02 and BIO form one network with Student BIO being i n f e r r e d to be the l e a d e r . The r e s t of the c l a s s forms the second network with 8 5 BIO o!o) I B02 (8.5) (3.3) B08 B l l B12 (1.4) / N S(1.4) (3(7) BOl B04 B05 B13 ( 5 . 9 ) I B03 F i g u r e 4.27: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s B P r i o r to the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. Student B09 as the l e a d e r . The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s c l a s s as i n f e r r e d from t,ne p e r c e p t i o n s of the teacher f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4.28. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the two networks have merged to become one, with Student BIO now being i n f e r r e d the l e a d e r . Student B02 remains d i r e c t l y connected o n l y to Student BIO, but i n t h i s way forms an i n d i r e c t l i n k with the e n t i r e group. Student B09 has l o s t the former leader r o l e but remains h i g h i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Again, v a r i o u s students have shown minor movement w i t h i n the network. Here a g a i n , the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s changed, f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, to a p e r c e p t i o n of a s i n g l e network with no i s o l a t e s and each student l i n k e d to every other student i n some way. In the a n a l y s i s of t h i s problem both t e a c h e r s changed from t h e i r i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n of the c l a s s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , which 86 BOl (3.0) (1.4) ( l i 4 ) (1.4) (3.0) B08 (10.0) -I B05 F i g u r e 4.28: P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of C l a s s B F o l l o w i n g the R e s i d e n t i a l Outdoor Program. i n c l u d e d i s o l a t e s and more than one s o c i a l network, to a p e r c e p t i o n of a s i n g l e i n t e g r a t e d network f o r the whole c l a s s . The t e a c h e r s now see t h e i r own c l a s s e s as being more " s o c i a l l y c o h e s i v e . 8 7 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Co n c l u s i o n s of the Study Educators i n v o l v e d with r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs have long p o s t u l a t e d that s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s change f o r the b e t t e r d u r i n g the time p e r i o d of the outdoor program. Theory has been used as a b a s i s to support those c o n j e c t u r e s . T h i s study has shown that s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s can and do change as a r e s u l t of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. T h i s study has demonstrated that students i n v o l v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs change t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r teacher i n a d i r e c t i o n which i s g e n e r a l l y accepted to be more conducive to a p o s i t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I t has found t h a t teachers i n v o l v e d i n the program change t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l student p e r s o n a l i t i e s . The tendency of the teacher to view the c l a s s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as a more coh e s i v e e n t i t y f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program has a l s o been shown. In t o t a l i t y , the changes i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of teachers and students that experience" suggests do take p l a c e , and that theory p r e d i c t s should take' p l a c e i n r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor, programs, have been demonstrated and documented. From the d i s c u s s i o n s of Chapter 1, these changes cannot h e l p but s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to both the academic development and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r , now knowing a d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t f a c t s about 88 s t u d e n t s , should be a b l e to more e f f e c t i v e l y engage them i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Based on the arguments pre s e n t e d i n Chapter I, the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n of the c l a s s should have improved. Perhaps r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs are a more e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l program than the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m program f o r r e a l i z i n g the s o c i a l development g o a l s of e d u c a t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations of the Study In the f i n d i n g s presented i n the f i r s t t h ree paragraphs of t h i s c hapter, the study has been q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e . The f i n d i n g s , however, pose and i n d i c a t e many more i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s than were i n v e s t i g a t e d by the study. T h i s study made no attempt to determine the a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s or p e r s o n a l i t y changes of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , but ra t h e r i t examined the change i n teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l student p e r s o n a l i t i e s . I t was assumed t h a t the te a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s would become more r e a l i s t i c due t o the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . However, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the congruence between a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d student p e r s o n a l i t i e s , both b e f o r e and a f t e r the conduct of a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program would a s s i s t g r e a t l y i n an e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t of the documented change.' In a s i m i l a r manner, the study made no attempt to i d e n t i f y i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between students but only a n a l y z e s the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The congruence of the a c t u a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and those p e r c e i v e d by the teacher i s another area e q u a l l y worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The change i n the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l networks 89 documented i n t h i s study i s not s u f f i c i e n t to g e n e r a l i z e to other programs. The f a c t that the two t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study moved to a p e r c e p t i o n of a s i n g l e c o h e s i v e network w i t h i n t h e i r c l a s s e s only i n d i c a t e s a t r e n d which c o u l d be t e s t a b l e i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . The e f f e c t o f , and d u r a t i o n of, p e r c e i v e d l e a d e r s h i p and i s o l a t e changes w i t h i n the s o c i a l network(s) i s another area which r e q u i r e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n in order to more f u l l y i l l u m i n a t e the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. T h i s study has only i n v e s t i g a t e d the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p component of the s o c i a l outcomes of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. While only the students' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s were s t u d i e d , e q u a l l y important outcomes r e g a r d i n g the students' p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f , peers and s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l should a l s o be examined in f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Another area worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs may a l t e r the p e r c e p t i o n s of parents and " r e l e v a n t o t h e r s " r e g a r d i n g the s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s i n t u r n may i n f l u e n c e the academic success and emotional adjustment of the s t u d e n t . O b v i o u s l y i f we are to more f u l l y understand the s o c i a l impact of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs, many more a s p e c t s of the phenomenon must be addressed. An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s - study t h a t might be of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t would be to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between student and teacher p e r c e p t i o n s h i f t s . "What i s the nature of the t e a c h e r ' s s h i f t of p e r c e p t i o n on students who r a d i c a l l y s h i f t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the t e a c h e r ? " And "What i s the nature of s h i f t s i n students' p e r c e p t i o n s of the teacher f o r those students that the teacher now views in a d i f f e r e n t manner?" 90 would be q u e s t i o n s posed i n such a study. T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d a program which was judged to meet the c r i t e r i a as e s t a b l i s h e d by Vogan (1970) f o r .programs conducive to p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n h i p changes. S u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l of the a c t u a l treatment and the treatment / groups has been p r o v i d e d to enable the reader to judge the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s t o any other p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . However, i t may be th a t the proposed c r i t e r i a vary i n importance; that some c r i t e r i a are c r u c i a l to p o s i t i v e s tudent-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p change while o t h e r s are not so important. Documentation of a d d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l programs which meet some of the c r i t e r i a but not o t h e r s , or p o s s i b l e a c t u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of the components of the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program, c o u l d l e a d to a r e a l i z a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a . T h i s knowledge would permit the d e s i g n e r s of r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs to ensure the i n c l u s i o n of the c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i a while being more s e l e c t i v e about the i n c l u s i o n of o ther c r i t e r i a . In t h i s way, the i n f o r m a t i o n would be i n v a l u a b l e i n ens u r i n g the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the b e n e f i c i a l outcomes documented by t h i s study. The problem of sampling g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s study. However, with the h y p o t h e s i z e d changes i n student p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r t eacher a c t u a l l y being found to occur, the study has p r o v i d e d s t r o n g evidence to support the e x p e r i e n t i a l and s p e c u l a t i v e c l a i m s of many outdoor educators and i n t h i s way has e s t a b l i s h e d i n d i r e c t evidence f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s to the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . During the course of the study, some 91 a d d i t i o n a l data were c o l l e c t e d on the Grade 4 p a r t of C l a s s B. A d d i t i o n a l data was a l s o c o l l e c t e d from C l a s s C a f t e r they had taken p a r t i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. T h i s a d d i t i o n a l d a t a , while not a p a r t of the main study, i s a n a l y z e d i n Appendix G and p r o v i d e s some evidence s u p p o r t i n g the p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the p o s i t i v e change i n students p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s and the nature of the change i n t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of student p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c l a s s , coupled with the d e s c r i p t i v e data framed by the c r i t e r i a of Vogan ~ (1970), should p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . 92 REFERENCES Bal e s , R.F. P e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r . New York: H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1970. Bateson, D.J., & Worthing, D.C. 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Chicago: Rand McNally, 1963. . C a t t e l l , R.B., Saunders, D.R., & S t i c e , G.F. The s i x t e e n p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The I n s t i t u t e f o r  P e r s o n a l i t y and A b i l i t y Test i n g , Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1951. Conrad, L.H. The teacher o u t - o f - d o o r s . The B u l l e t i n of the  Nat i o n a l Assoc i a t ion of Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s . 1947, 31, 36-41. Combs, A.W. & Snygg, D. I n d i v i d u a l b ehavior. New York: Harper and Row, 1959. C u r t i s , H.S. The school camp. J o u r n a l of the Nat i o n a l  Educat ion Assoc i a t i o n , 1936, 24.' 113-116. Davidson, N. Changes.in s e l f - c o n c e p t s and s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s  of f i f t h and s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t of two  d i f f e r e n t school camp c u r r i c u l a . U n p u b l i s h e d Ed. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1965. Dewey, J . Experience and e d u c a t i o n . New York: Macmillan, 1938. Doty, R.S. The c h a r a c t e r dimension of camping. New York: A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1960. 93 E l l i o t , E.B., & Smith, J.W. The Michigan program i n a c t i o n . The B u l l e t i n of the N a t i o n a l Assoc i a t i o n of Secondary  P r i n c i p a l s , 1974, 31, 60-74. F i e d l e r , J.D. The concept of the i d e a l t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . J o u r n a l of Consult ing Psychology, 1950, 41, 239-243. Freeburg, W.H. Outdoor education - A method of i n s t r u c t i o n . I l l i n o i s J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 1961, 52, 11-15. Gibson, H.F. The h i s t o r y of o r g a n i z e d camping. Camping  Magazine, 1946, 8, 13-15. G l a s s , G.V., Peckham, P.D. & Sanders, J.R. Consequences of f a i l u r e to meet assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e . Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1972, 42, 237-288. G l a s s , G.V. & S t a n l e y J.C. S t a t i s t i c a l methods i n educat ion  and psychology. Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1970. Hargreaves, . D.H. I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n . London: Routledge and Regan P a u l , 1972. Hathaway, S.R., & McKinley, J.C. The Minnesota m u l t i p h a s i c  p e r s o n a l i ty i n v e n t o r y manual ( r e v i s e d ) . New York: P s y c h o l o g i c a l Corp., 1951. Heine, R.W. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between changes and r e s p o n s i b l e f a c t o r s as seen by c l i e n t s f o l l o w i n g treatment by p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s of the p s y c h o a n a l i t i c , A d l e r ian and n o n - d i r e c t i v e s c h o o l s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1950. H e r b e r t , C L . Outdoors with T i t l e I I I . The N a t i o n a l  Elementary P r i n c i p a l , 1966, 46, 71-75. H e r r e l l , J . G a l a t e a i n the c l a s s r o o m ' : Student e x p e c t a t i o n s  a f f e c t teacher b e h a v i o r . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the annual meeting of the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n , - 1971. Hoyt, R. A study of the e f f e c t of teacher knowledge of p u p i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on p u p i l achievement and a t t i t u d e s towards classwork. J o u r n a l of Educat i o n a l Psychology, 1955, 46, 302-310. Jensen, B.E. Development of a camper a t t i t u d e s c a l e to  e v a l u a t e a t t i t u d i n a l change toward a spec i f i c camp  o b j e c t i v e • Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1965. 94 K e l l y , E.C. Reasons f o r outdoor e d u c a t i o n . P e r s p e c t i v e s on  Outdoor Educat ion j_ Readings, (G.W.Donalson & O.Goering e d . ) . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1972. K i r k , R.E. Experimental d e s i g n : Procedures f o r the b e h a v i o r a l  s c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a ! Brooks/Cole, 1968. K l e i n d i e n s t , V.K. A study of the exper i e n c e s of camping f o r  the purpose of p o i n t i n g out ways i n which a school camp  program may supplement the elementary s c h o o l at the s i x t h  grade l e v e l . Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. K l e i n , S. Student i n f l u e n c e on teacher b e h a v i o r . American  E d u c a t i o n a l Reasearch J o u r n a l , 1971, 8, 403-421. Knoblock, P., & G o l s t e i n , A.P. T h e . l o n e l y t e a c h e r . Boston : A l l y n and Bacon, 1971. K r i e g e r , W. The e f f e c t s of an o r g a n i z e d camping experience on  s e l f - c o n c e p t change i n r e l a t i o n to t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : Age,  sex and observable behavior change. Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico, 1970. Levy,K.J. A monte c a r l o study of a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e under v i o l a t i o n s of the assumptions of n o r m a l i t y and equal r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s . Educat i o n a l and . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 1980, 40, 835-840. Lewis, W.A., L o v e l l , J.T., & J e s s e e , B.E. I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and p u p i l p r o g r e s s . P e r s o n n e l and Guidance  J o u r n a l , 1965, XLIV, 396-401. Lewis, W.A, & Wigel, W. I n t e r p e r s o n a l understanding and assumed s i m i l a r i t y . Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 1964, X L I I I , 155-158. Major, J.M., & C i s s e l , C.A. E n v i ronmental educat ion  o b j e c t i v e s and f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s ( 4 t h e d . ) . Report prepared under the a u s p i c e s of the West Kentucky ESEA T i t l e I I I Region I, 1971. Mand, C.L. Outdoor educat i o n . Columbus: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , (no date!"! M i l l e r , P.S. The summer camp r e e n f o r c e s e d u c a t i o n . The  C l e a r i n g House, 1936, 10, 471. N u t h a l l , G., & Church, J . E x p e r i m e n t a l , s t u d i e s of t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r . Towards A Sc ience Of Teaching, ( G a b r i e l Chanan, e d . ) . Windsor: N a t i o n a l Foundation f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1973. 95 O'Hare, M.R.D. Teachers' a t t i t u d e s toward the development of' the group process i n the elementary s c h o o l . Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Fordham U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. O n t a r i o Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . Outdoor e d u c a t i o n manual j_ Part. I_. O n t a r i o : O n t a r i o Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , 1970. P a r t r i d g e , E.D. Some p s y c h o l o g i c a l backgrounds of camping. Camping Magazine, 1943, 15_, 6-8. Passmore, J . Outdoor educat ion in Canada ^ 1972. Toronto: Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1973. Peterson, R.D. A c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t study of elementary s c h o o l  t e a c h e r - p u p i 1 r e l a t ions i n Washington S t a t e . Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1963. Rogers, C R . The necessary and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s of t h e r a p e u t i c p e r s o n a l i t y change. J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l l i n g  Psychology, 1957, 21, 95-103. Sack, M.J. School camping - A potent f a c t o r i n guidance. E d u c a t i o n , 1953, 7 J 3 , 501-503. Schramm, W. Classroom out-of-doors j_ Educat ion through s c h o o l  camping. Kalamazoo: Sequoia P r e s s , 1969. Sharman, J.R., P a t t y , W.W., S c h o r l i n g , R., & Mason, B.S. E d i t o r i a l comment : Camps meet new need; s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the camps; a new world. The Phi D e l t a Kappan, 1938, 21, 113-119. Sharp, L.B. & P a r t r i d g e , E.D. Some h i s t o r i c a l backgrounds of camping. B u l l e t in of the Nat i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Secondary  School P r i n c i p a l s , 1947, 3_1, 15-20. Smith, J.W. Outdoor educat ion f o r Amer i c a n youth. Monograph a v a i l a b l e from the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , Washington, D.C, 1957. Smith, J.W. A decade of p r o g r e s s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Outdoor Educat i o n , 1966, 1, 3-5. Smith, J.W. Where have we been; where are we; what w i l l we become. The T a f t Campus Outdoor E d u c a t i o n Award L e c t u r e , 1970. Smith, J.W., C a r l s o n , R.E., Donaldson, G.W., & Masters, H.B. Outdoor educat ion (2nd ed.). Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1972. S o l l e y , C M . & Murphy, G. Development of the p e r c e p t u a l world . New York: Basic Books, 1960. 96 Thelan, H.A. Dynamics of groups at work. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1954. Tufuor, J.K. E s s e n t i a l components of a teacher t r a i n i n g  course i n outdoor education j_ A survey. Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. We i n s t e i n , G., & F a n t i n i , M.D. Toward humanistic e d u c a t i o n A c u r r i c u l u m of a f f e c t . New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Woodward, R.W. A proposed s t r a t e g y f o r e v a l u a t i n g the  ef f e c t iveness of an environmental educat ion program i_n terms of a c h i e v i n g a s e l e c t e d g o a l . Unpublished major essay f o r M. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973. V i v i a n , V.E., & R i l l o , T .J. Focus on environmental educat i o n . G l a s s b o r o , New J e r s e y : The C u r r i c u l u m Development C o u n c i l f o r Southern New J e r s e y , 1970. Vogan, C.L. Cr i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t ing condi t ion changes af f e c t i n g t e a c her-student r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n outdoor e d u c a t i o n . Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. Winer, B.J. S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n experimental d e s i g n (2nd e d . ) . New York: McGraw H i l l , 1971. 97 APPENDIX A INTERPERSONAL RATINGS, FORMS A, B AND C The f o l l o w i n g are the combined items of the o r i g i n a l ' three forms of the IPA developed by B a l e s . Each set of three q u e s t i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d in the ord e r : Form A, Form B, Form C; and i s f o l l o w e d by the d i r e c t i o n a l s c o r i n g key f o r those q u e s t i o n s . Items with a s t e r i s k s w i l l be d e l e t e d i n t h i s study. 1. Does he (or she) seem to r e c e i v e a l o t of i n t e r a c t i o n from othe r s ? 1. Is h i s (or her) r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t ion g e n e r a l l y high? * 1. Does he (or she) tend to address, the group as a whole r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s ? YES = U NO = D 26. Does he tend to devalue h i m s e l f ? 26. Does he seem to c o n f i n e h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n mostly to only  g i v i n g i n f or mat ion, when asked? * 26. Is h i s t o t a l r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t ion g e n e r a l l y very low? YES = D NO = U * 2. Does he seem p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the group? 2. Does he seem to assume t h a t he w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l and  po p u l a r ? 2. Does he ' seem to r a t e h i m s e l f h i g h l y on a l l good or  s o c i a l l y popular t r a i t s ? YES = UP NO = DN 93 22. Does he seem r e s e n t f u l ? 22. Does he seem only to part i c i p a t e when ot h e r s ask him f o r h i s o p i n i o n ? * 22. Does he tend to be somewhat depressed? YES = DN NO = UP 3. Does he seem v a l u a b l e f o r a l o g i c a l task? * 3. Does he seem to see h i m s e l f as a good and kind parent? 3. Does he seem l i k e l y to be r a t e d h i g h l y on " l e a d e r s h i p " ? YES = UPF NO = DNB 23. Does he seem to accept f a i l u r e and withdrawal f o r h i m s e l f ? 23. Does he seem p r e o c c u p i e d with f e e l i n g s of d i s l i k e f o r ot h e r s ? * 23. Does he tend to b e l i e v e that o t h e r s d i s l i k e him? YES = DNB NO = UPF., 4. Does he assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r group l e a d e r s h i p ? 4. Is h i s r a t e of g i v i n g suggest ions on group t a s k s high? * 4. Does he seem to f e e l he represents- some impersonal higher  p l a n f o r the group? YES = UF NO = DB 24. Does he seem to w i t h h o l d c o o p e r a t i o n p a s s i v e l y ? 24. Does he show many si g n s of t e n s i o n and p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e ? 24. Is l a u g h t e r h i s main or only mode of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group? YES = DB NO = UF 99 5. Does he speak l i k e an a u t o c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y ? 5. Is h i s r a t e of r e c e i v i n g disagreement g e n e r a l l y high? * 5. Does he make i n h i b i t o r y demands and want to enf o r c e d i sc i p l i n e ? YES = UNF NO = DPB / * 25. Does he seem to i d e n t i f y with some group of u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d persons? 25. Does he seem u n l i k e l y to arouse d i s l i k e s ? 25. Does he seem to be a p p e a l i n g f o r understanding? YES = DPB NO = UNF / 6. Does he seem dominating? 6. Does he seem to make o t h e r s f e e l he d i s l i k e s them? * 6. Does he tend to r a t e o t h e r s low on s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ? YES = UN NO = DP 18. Does he seem to make ot h e r s f e e l he admires them? * 18. Does he seem calm understanding? 18. Does he seem to have a g e n e r a l t r u s t i n the goodness of  ot h e r s ? YES = DP NO = UN 7. Does he seem to.demand p l e a s u r e and g r a t i f i c a t i o n ? 7. Does he r e c e i v e a l o t of l a u g h t e r ? * 7. Does he guess that o t h e r s w i l l r a t e him high on  dominat ion? YES = UNB NO = DPF 100 19. Does he seem to b e l i e v e that e q u a l i t y and humanitarian  concern f o r ot h e r s i s important? 19. Does he seem to be s u b m i s s i v e l y good? * 19. Does he tend to b e l i e v e that a g g r e s s i o n and sex can be r e p l a c e d by tender love? YLS = DPF NO = UNB * 8. Does he seem to t h i n k of h i m s e l f as e n t e r t a i n i n g ? 8. Does he seem very e x t r o v e r t e d ? 8. Does he make many jokes or show many f a n t a s i e s ? YES = UB NO = DF * 20. Does he seem very i n t r o v e r t e d , s e r i o u s and shy? 20. Does he seem o f t e n to ask f o r suggest ions or f o r t a s k -l e a d e r s h i p ? 20. Does he seem to be very acceptant of a u t h o r i t y ? YES = DF NO = UB 9. Does he seem warm and per s o n a l ? * 9. Does he seem ab l e to gi v e a l o t of a f f e c t i o n ? 9. Does he seem to be ab l e to make others f e e l l e s s anxious? YES = UPB NO = DNF * 21. Does he seem to b e l i e v e that i t i s necessary to s a c r i f i c e  the s e l f f o r higher values? 21. Does he seem to f e e l anxious, f e a r f u l of not conforming? 21. Does he seem to plow p e r s i s t e n t l y ahead with great i n e r t i a ? YES = DNF NO = UPB 101 * 10. Does he arouse your ad m i r a t i o n ? 10. Does he seem f r i e n d l y i n h i s behavior? 10. Is h i s r a t e of a s k i n g o t h e r s f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s high? YES = P NO = N 14. Does he seem to f e e l that h i s i n d i v i d u a l independence i s very important? * 14. Does he seem u n f r i e n d l y i n h i s behavior? 14. Is h i s r a t e of disagreement g e n e r a l l y high? YES = N NO = P * 11. Does he seem e s p e c i a l l y to be addressed when o t h e r s have  s e r i o u s o p i n i o n s about which they want c o n f i r m a t i o n ? 11. Is h i s r a t e of g i v i n g agreement g e n e r a l l y high? 11. Does he seem g e n e r a l l y prone to f e e l a d m i r a t i o n f o r o t h e r s ? YES = PF NO = NB 15. Does he seem to f e e l t h a t others are g e n e r a l l y too  conforming to c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ? 15. Does he seem p e s s i m i s t i c about group i d e a l s ? 15. Does he have a tendency to f e e l others are dominating? YES = NB NO = PF 102 * 12. Does he seem to stand f o r the most c o n s e r v a t i v e ideas and  b e l i e f s of the group? 12. Does he tend mostly to g i v e o p i n i o n or a n a l y s i s when he p a r t i c i p a t e s ? -12. Is he g e n e r a l l y very s t r o n g l y work-oriented? YLS = F NO = B / * 16. Does he seem to r e j e c t r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s g e n e r a l l y ? 16. Does he seem pr e o c c u p i e d with w i s h f u l f a n t a s i e s ? 16. Does he tend to see others as too acceptant of a u t h o r i t y ? YES = B NO = F / 13. Does he always seem to t r y to speak o b j e c t i v e l y ? 13. Does he seem to emphasize moderation, value-determined  r e s t r a i n t ? * 13. Does he tend to arouse g u i l t i n o t h e r s ? YES = NF NO = PB 17. Do you f e e l l i k i n g f o r him or her? 17. Does he seem to make ot h e r s f e e l they are e n t e r t a i n i n g ,  warm? * 17. Do o t h e r s tend to address t h e i r jokes and f a n t a s i e s t o him? YES = PB NO = NF 103 APPENDIX B HISTORICAL ITEMS OF THE TPRI The f o l l o w i n g i s a comparison of the items used by Heine, Lewis et a l , , and Knoblock and G o l d s t e i n . Items with a s t e r i s k s are i n d i c a t i v e of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p while the remaining items are i n d i c a t i v e of a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . HEINE'S ITEMS LEWIS ET AL'S ITEMS KNOBLOCK AND GOLDSTEIN'S ITEMS *1) The t h e r a p i s t never l e t me f e e l t h a t he r a t h e r than I was to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l v i n g my problems. 1) The teacher always l e t s me f e e l t h a t I was to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what I l e a r n e d . 1) The teacher always l e t s me f i g u r e out my sch o o l work. 2) I t seemed to me that the t h e r a p i s t d i d n ' t take h i s work too ser i o u s l y . 2) I t seemed to me that the teacher d i d n ' t take h i s work very s e r i o u s l y . 2) The teacher i s a hard worker. (the item on t h i s form i s p o s i t i v e ) *3) The t h e r a p i s t got a c r o s s the f e e l i n g t h a t we were r e a l l y working together to understand my problem. 3) The teacher got a c r o s s the f e e l i n g that we were r e a l l y working together to h e l p me l e a r n . 3) The teacher made me f e e l we were working t o g e t h e r . *4) There was d e f i n i t e l y a f e e l i n g of mutual t r u s t i n my r e l a t i o n s with the t h e r a p i s t . 4) I f e l t sure that I c o u l d t r u s t the teacher and he seemed to f e e l t h a t he c o u l d t r u s t me. 4) The teacher and I . t r u s t one another. 5) The t h e r a p i s t seemed to want me to m aintain p r e t t y c l o s e c o n t r o l over my emotions when I was with him. 5) The teacher seemed not to want me to show i t when I was very happy or sad. 5) The teacher d i d n ' t want me to show when I was happy or sad. 104 6) I had the f e e l i n g t h a t the t h e r a p i s t was so sympathetic t h a t he c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y be h e l p f u l . *7) The t h e r a p i s t was a very n a t u r a l , u n a f f e c t e d s o r t of person 6) I had the f e e l i n g that the teacher was so sympathetic that he c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y be h e l p f u l . 7) The teacher was a very n a t u r a l . He d i d not t r y to be l i k e someone e l s e . 6) The teacher was kind but c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y h e l p me. 7) The teacher a c t e d j u s t l i k e h i m s e l f , s o r t of n a t u r a l . *8) Aside from a n y t h i n g e l s e , the t h e r a p i s t was a l i k e a b l e f e l l o w . 8) Without t h i n k i n g about a n y t h i n g e l s e , the teacher was a l i k e a b l e person. 8) The teacher was a l i k e a b l e person. 9) I somehow caught the f e e l i n g that the t h e r a p i s t c o u l d n ' t regard me as an e q u a l . 9) I somehow caught the f e e l i n g t h a t the teacher c o u l d n ' t t h i n k of me.as an e q u a l . 9) The teacher thought he was b e t t e r than me. 10) I t seemed as i f the t h e r a p i s t always l a p s e d i n t o wordy e x p l a n a t i o n s when he might have l e t me f i n i s h . 10) I t seemed as i f the teacher always s t a r t e d wordy e x p l a n a t i o n s when he might have l e t me f i n i s h . 10) The teacher always t a l k e d a l o t and d i d n ' t l e t me f i n i s h what I wanted to say. *11) I had the f e e l i n g that there was one person I c o u l d r e a l l y t r u s t . • 11) I had the f e e l i n g t h a t here was one person I c o u l d r e a l l y t r u s t . 11) I f e l t I c o u l d r e a l l y t r u s t my t e a c h e r s . 12) I never had the f e e l i n g that the t h e r a p i s t r e a l l y understood what I was t r y i n g to get a c r o s s . 12) I never had the f e e l i n g t h a t the teacher r e a l l y understood what I was t r y i n g to get a c r o s s . 12) I never f e l t t hat the teacher r e a l l y understood what I was t r y i n g .. to say and do. *13) The t h e r a p i s t always seemed to know what I was t r y i n g to get a c r o s s to him. 13) The teacher always seemed to know what I was t r y i n g to get ac r o s s to him. 13) The teacher always knew what I was t r y i n g to do. 105 14) The t h e r a p i s t o f t e n seemed to be l o s t i n h i s own thoughts r a t h e r than a t t e n d i n g to what I s a i d . 14) The teacher o f t e n seemed to be l o s t i n h i s own thoughts r a t h e r than t h i n k i n g about what I s a i d . 14) The teacher o f t e n p a i d more a t t e n t i o n to what he was t h i n k i n g than to what I s a i d . *15) I never had the f e e l i n g t h at the t h e r a p i s t was i n over h i s depth i n t r y i n g to h e l p me. 15) I had the f e e l i n g t h at the teacher knew what he was doing i n t r y i n g to teach me. 15) I had the f e e l i n g t h at the teacher always knew what he was t r y i n g to teach me. *16) The t h e r a p i s t was anything but c o l d and d i s t a n t . 16) I t was easy to t a l k to the teacher. He seemed i n t e r e s t e d . 16) I t was easy to t a l k to- the te a c h e r . He seemed i n t e r e s t e d . 17) I always had the f e e l i n g t h at I was j u s t another p a t i e n t as f a r as the t h e r a p i s t was concerned. 18) I o f t e n f e l t , " I ' d b e t t e r not t e l l the t h e r a p i s t t h a t " . *19) The t h e r a p i s t seemed to be i n p r e t t y good c o n t r o l of hi m s e l f at a l l times. 2 0 ) I was a l i t t l e a f r a i d r e a l l y to t e l l the t h e r a p i s t what I thought about myself. 17) I always had the f e e l i n g that I was j u s t another student as f a r as the teacher was concerned. 18) I o f t e n f e l t , " I ' d b e t t e r not' t e l l the teacher t h a t " . 19) The teacher seemed to be i n p r e t t y good c o n t r o l ' o f h i m s e l f at a l l times. ' 2 0 ) I was a l i t t l e a f r a i d r e a l l y to t e l l the teacher what I thought about myself and the c l a s s . 17) I f e l t _ the teacher d i d n ' t r e a l l y l i k e me. 18) There were many t h i n g s I r e a l l y c o u l d n ' t t e l l the t e a c h e r . 19) The teacher h a r d l y ever l o s t h i s temper. 2 0 ) I was a l i t t l e a f r a i d to t e l l the teacher what I was f e e l i n g about myself and the c l a s s . 106 APPENDIX C TEACHER PUPIL RELATIONSHIP INVENTORY The f o l l o w i n g are the items of the TPRI used i n t h i s study. For female t e a c h e r s , the masculine pronouns were changed to the feminine form. The a l t e r e d pronouns are marked below with a "*". 1. My teacher always l e t s me f i g u r e out my s c h o o l work. 2. My teacher i s a hard worker. 3. My teacher makes me f e e l we are working t o g e t h e r . 4. My teacher and I t r u s t each o t h e r . 5. My teacher doesn't want me to show'when I am happy or sad. 6. My teacher i s kind but can't r e a l l y h e l p me. 7. My teacher a c t s j u s t l i k e h i m s e l f * , s o r t of n a t u r a l . 8. My teacher i s a l i k a b l e person. ' 9. My teacher t h i n k s he* i s b e t t e r than me. 10. My teacher always t a l k s a l o t and doesn't l e t me f i n i s h what I want to say. 11. I f e e l I can r e a l l y t r u s t my t e a c h e r . 12. I never f e e l that my teacher r e a l l y understands what I am t r y i n g to say and do. 13. My teacher always knows what I am t r y i n g to do. 14. My teacher o f t e n pays more a t t e n t i o n to what he* i s t h i n k i n g than to what I say 15. I have the f e e l i n g t h a t my teacher always knows what he* i s t r y i n g to teach me 16. I t i s easy to t a l k to my t e a c h e r . He* seems i n t e r e s t e d . 17. I f e e l my teacher doesn't r e a l l y l i k e me. 18. There are many t h i n g s I r e a l l y can't t e l l my t e a c h e r . 19. My teacher h a r d l y ever l o s e s h i s * temper. 20. I am a l i t t l e a f r a i d t o t e l l my teacher what I am f e e l i n g about myself and the c l a s s . 107 APPENDIX D EVALUATIVE CRITERIA OF VOGAN The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t i n g of the o b j e c t i v e s l e a d i n g to the development of p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the accomplishment of the o b j e c t i v e s as i d e n t i f i e d by Vogan. OBJECTIVES CRITERIA p r i o r to the e x p e r i e n c e : a. to gain a f e e l i n g of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and ease about the exper ience b. to e x h i b i t s i n c e r i t y about the purpose of the e x p e r i e n c e c. to seek an awareness of the p o t e n t i a l of the e x p e r i e n c e d. to work with students i n p l a n n i n g 1. become ac q u a i n t e d with the s i t e to be used 2. have an o v e r n i g h t outdoor experience 3. t a l k with t e a c h e r s who have been to the s i t e 4. a t t e n d meetings and workshops o f f e r e d t h a t p e r t a i n to the e x p e r i e n c e 5. to 'take s p e c i a l s t e p s to prepare f o r those s p e c i f i c areas i n which work w i l l be done on the t r i p 1. speak i n p o s i t i v e terms to a s s o c i a t e s and students 2. e s t a b l i s h p e r s o n a l g o a l s 3. encourage d i s c u s s i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s among students 1. prepare with students a l i s t of t h i n g s r e l a t e d t o the t r i p that you c o u l d do upon r e t u r n i n g 2. read s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s c o n c e rning outdoor e d u c a t i o n 3. t a l k with students who have been camping and - f i n d out what types of t h i n g s were important to them 1. work as a p a r t i c i p a n t as w e l l as an a d v i s o r 2. e x p l o r e the v a r i o u s ways of grouping f o r a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as ideas f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t s 3. i n c l u d e i n t h i n k i n g i d e a s of what you would l i k e to l e a r n and do (as a person, not teacher) 108 e. to guide students i n determ i n i n g goals and behavior p a t t e r n s 5. to prepare, w i t h the students, l i s t s of academic and non-academic t h i n g s to do work with students i n a r r a n g i n g a f i n a l l i s t with a t t e n t i o n to l e n g t h of time and major emphasis of the program a s s i s t the students i n p r e p a r i n g working guides f o r acc o m p l i s h i n g t h e i r g o a l s prepare a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s that r e q u i r e agreement among students r e g a r d i n g behavior g i v e guidance to the c l a s s in d e t e r m i n i n g the behavior to be used and a s s i s t them in p r e p a r i n g a copy f o r each student f. to a s s i s t students in d e v e l o p i n g e v a l u a t i v e t o o l s talk" with the students about the purpose of e v a l u a t i o n s guide s t u d e n t s i n determining what t h i n g s need to be e v a l u a t e d work with them i n determining a p p r o p r i a t e ways to e v a l u a t e each area g i v e guidance in- p r e p a r i n g the t o o l s f o r e v a l u a t i o n g. to a s s i s t students i n p r e p a r i n g to c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s with other c l a s s groups secure the names and addresses of c l a s s e s and tea c h e r s who w i l l be at the s i t e at the same time encourage student r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to w r i t e to the other groups to i n q u i r e about t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and to t e l l them of your p l a n s i n v i t e other groups to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s i f the c l a s s wishes i t h e l p the c l a s s to c o n s i d e r areas of events that w i l l r e q u i r e c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s - - s u c h as l i v i n g space, d i n i n g room, e t c . 109 2) d u r i n g exper i e n c e : the a. to c o n t r i b u t e e x p e r i e n c e 1. p r o f e s s i o n a l l y outdoor to the 2. p e r s o n a l l y b. to be an a c t i v e ' l e a r n e r ' g i v e some d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n to your c l a s s as i s a p p r o p r i a t e prepare a p p r o p r i a t e a i d s , m a t e r i a l s , etc . . . . c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t h i s area would r e l a t e c l o s e l y to on-going r o l e : academic, student ' c o u n s e l o r ' , necessary d e c i s i o n s , e t c . as a p p r o p r i a t e i n p l a n n i n g , share a hobby with the c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t e i n planned c l a s s r e c r e a t i o n a l program dress a p p r o p r i a t e l y to the o c c a s i o n c a r r y out p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t p u r s u i t s , i f planned a l s o by the group, and share the i n t e r e s t i f student response would so i n d i c a t e p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n at l e a s t one a c t i v i t y as a l e a r n e r t r y to l e a r n at . l e a s t one new t h i n g as taught by a student p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by c o n s u l t a n t s and other resources c. to encourage an 'openness' about c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t o p i c s t r y to l i s t the v a r i o u s t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d with students d u r i n g i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s — i d e n t i f y those not u s u a l l y pursued i n the classroom observe co-workers to see i f you can f i n d t o p i c s t h a t they c o n s i d e r 'verboten' see i f you can l i s t a new — non s c h o o l p r i e n t e d - - b i t of i n f o r m a t i o n about each of your s t u d e n t s . T h i s should be gathered through c o n v e r s a t i o n , not q u e s t i o n i n g 110 d. to use the a v a i l a b l e time more e f f e c t i v e l y schedule y o u r s e l f ' f r e e -time' and be around and a v a i l a b l e i f students wish to t a l k with you (doesn't need to be announced) use a s e t ' amount of time each day f o r p e r s o n a l r e n e w a l — w a l k i n g , c o f f e e , r e a d i n g , hcbby, e t c . ( t h i s need not be too e x t e n s i v e , but necessary to be a t best) see that each student has un-scheduled time f o r p e r s o n a l p u r s u i t s c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y the time spent walking s l o w l y and t a l k i n g — i d e n t i f y the v a l u e s of these u n h u r r i e d moments e. to a s s i s t students i n more e f f e c t i v e use of the f a c i l i t i e s f . t o develop a ' f o r g e t f u l n e s s ' about classroom r o u t i n e s become f a m i l i a r w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s go -- over the a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s w ith s t u d e n t s and d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e uses of such prepare the stu d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g the r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g to the use of f a c i l i t i e s and i n t e r p r e t the reasons develop t e a c h i n g approaches that use n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s and do not r e q u i r e a textbook p l a n with students about the amount and nature of w r i t t e n work to be done at camp each time you say--"we must stop and go to . . . , " or a s i m i l a r phrase, make a note of i t and put down the reason i t must be. so (except meals, e t c . ) e v a l u a t e the reasons d a i l y - - i s i t necessary each time? a v o i d s e a t i n g students i n a ' c l a s s ' manner overcome any f e e l i n g of n e c e s s i t y to have the c l a s s always together i n order to do t h i n g s — d e v e l o p a buddy system f o r a c t i v i t i e s I l l 3) f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i e n c e : a. to share with the - students i n the e v a l u a t i o n b. to b r i n g back to the classroom and use new s k i l l s and ideas p r i o r to l e a v i n g the s i t e , determine a time f o r the t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n f o l l o w the e v a l u a t i o n method designed b e f o r e camp d i s c u s s with students the need f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n any new areas as a r e s u l t of the experie n c e — i f yes, proceed d i s c u s s , e x p l a i n , and c a r r y but with the students any other e v a l u a t i o n s as may be requested by o t h e r s not i n c l u d i n g the c l a s s l i s t of ideas f o r follow-up a c t i v i t i e s , can you i d e n t i f y at l e a s t four new t h i n g s you are or can use i n the classroom now, that you would not have p r i o r to the exper ience? i d e n t i f y at l e a s t four t h i n g s t hat you and your students share i n the way of new ideas or s k i l l s that are or can become a pa r t of your classroom a c t i v i t i e s . 112 APPENDIX E MINI-COMPUTER PROGRAM The f o l l o w i n g i s the mini-computer program used to pose the IPA q u e s t i o n s and re c o r d the t e a c h e r s ' responses. 10 HOME 20 PRINT "HOW MANY STUDENTS IN THE CLASS"; 30 INPUT Z / 40 HOME 50 DIM U(Z):DIM P(Z):DIM F(Z):DIM S(Z,52):DIM A$(Z) 60 FOR 1=1 TO Z 7 0 HOME:PRINT "PLEASE TYPE IN THE NAME OF STUDENT " ; I ; " AND PRESS RETURN":INPUT A $ ( l ) 80 NEXT 90 HOME 100 FOR J = l TO 5 2 110 READ Q$,D,N,B 120 FOR 1=1 TO Z 130 HOME:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT Q$:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT A$(I):PRINT 140 GET Y$: IF Y$="" THEN 140 150 IF Y$="Y" THEN R=B:G=D:H=N:GOTO 180 160 IF Y$="N" THEN R=-B:G=-D:H=-N:GOTO 180 ' 170 GOTO 140 180 S(I,J)=ASC(Y$):U(I)=U(I)+G:P(I)=P(I)+H:F(I)=F(I)+R 190 NEXT 200 NEXT 210 HOME:PRINT "THANK YOU!" 220 GET L$:IF L$ = "" THEN 220 230 FOR 1=1 TO Z 240 HOME 250 PRINT A$(I )'; " " ; 260 FOR J=l TO 52 270 PRINT " " ; J ; " = " ;CHR$(S (I , J) ); " "; 280 NEXT 290 PRINT:PRINT "U=";U(I):PRINT "P=";P(I):PRINT "F=";F(D 300 GET LS:IF L$ = "" THEN 300 310 NEXT 320 PRINT:PRINT "DID YOU GET THEM ALL?": INPUT M$ 330 IF LEFT$(M$,1)="N" THEN 230 34 0 HOME 3 50 INPUT "TEACHER'S NAME IS ";W$ 360 HOME 370 D$="": 380 PRINT D$;"OPEN "+W$ 390 PRINT D$;"WRITE "+W$ 400 FOR 1=1 TO Z 410 PRINT A$(I ) 420 PRINT U(I ) 430 PRINT P(I ) 440 PRINT F ( I ) 4 50 NEXT 460 PRINT D$;"CLOSE "+W$ 470 END 480 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO MAKE OTHERS FEEL HE/SHE DISLIKES 113 THEM?",1,-1 ,0 490 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO PLOW PERSISTENTLY AHEAD WITH GREAT INERTIA?",-1,-1,1 500 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF GIVING SUGGESTIONS ON GROUP TASKS HIGH?",1,0,1 510 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM ONLY TO PARTICIPATE WHEN OTHERS ASK HIM/HER FOR HIS/HER OPINION?",-1,-1,0 520 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BE SUBMISSIVELY GOOD?",-1,1,1 530 DATA "DOES HE/SHE TEND MOSTLY TO GIVE OPINION OR ANALYSIS WHEN HE/SHE PARTI CI PATES? " , 0 , 0,1 540 DATA "DOES HE/SHE TEND TO SEE OTHERS AS TOO ACCEPTANT OF AUTHORITY?" , 0 , 0,-1 550 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO HAVE A GENERAL TRUST IN THE GOODNESS OF OTHERS?",-1,1,0 560 DATA "IS HE/SHE GENERALLY VERY STRONGLY WORK ORIENTED?" , 0 , 0,1 570 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO RATE HIMSELF/HERSELF HIGHLY ON ALL GOOD OR SOCIALLY POPULAR TRAITS?", 1 , 1 , 0 580 DATA "DOES HE/SHE HAVE A TENDENCY TO FEEL THAT OTHERS ARE DOMINATING?" ,0,-1,-1 590 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM GENERALLY PRONE TO FEEL ADMIRATION FOR OTHERS?" , 0,1,1 - " 600 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO WITHHOLD COOPERATION PASSIVELY?",-1,0,-1 610 DATA "DOES HE/SHE RECEIVE A LOT OF LAUGHTER?1,-1,-1 620 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO CONFINE HIS/HER PARTICIPATION MOSTLY TO ONLY GIVING INFORMATION WHEN ASKED?",-1,0 , 0 630 DATA "DOES HE/SHE ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY FOR GROUP LEADERSHIP?",1 , 0,1 640 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF RECEIVING DISAGREEMENT GENRALLY HIGH?",1,-1,1 650 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SPEAK LIKE AN AUTOCRATIC AUTHORITY?",1 -1 1 660 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM FRIENDLY IN HIS/HER 3EHAVIOR?",0,1,0 670 DATA "DOES HE/SHE ALWAYS TRY TO SPEAK OBJECTIVELY?",0,-1,1 680 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO MAKE OTHERS FEEL THEY ARE ENTERTAINING, WARM?",0,1,"1 690 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF DISAGREEMENT GENERALLY HIGH?",0,~ 1,0 700 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM DOMINATING?",1,"1,0 710 DATA "DOES HE/SHE TEND TO DEVALUE HIMSELF/HERSELF?"-.,-1, 0 , 0 720 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF GIVING AGREEMENT GENERALLY HIGH?",0,1,1 730 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO ACCEPT FAILURE AND WITHDRAWL FOR HIMSELF/HERSELF?",-1,-1,-1 740 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO DEMAND PLEASURE AND GRATIFICATION?",1,-1,-1 750 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM VERY EXTROVERTED?",1.0,-1 760 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM UNLIKELY TO AROUSE DISLIKES?",-1,1,-1 770 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO ASSUME THAT HE/SHE WILL BE SUCCESSFUL AND POPULAR?",1,1,-1 780 DATA "DOES. HE/SHE SEEM TO FEEL THAT HIS/HER INDIVIDUAL INDEPENDENCE IS VERY IMPORTANT?",0,-1,0 790 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM PREOCCUPIED WITH WISHFUL FANTASIES?",0,0,-1 800 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF ASKING OTHERS FOR THEIR OPINIONS 114 HIGH?",0,1,0, 810 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BELIEVE THAT EQUALITY AND HUMANITARIAN CONCERN FOR OTHERS IS IMPORTANT?",-1,1,1 820 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BE APPEALING FOR UNDERSTANDING?-1,1,-1 8 30 DATA "DOES HE/SHE MAKE MANY JOKES OR SHOW MANY FANTASIES?",0,0,-1 84 0 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SHOW MANY SIGNS OF TENSION AND PASSIVE RESISTANCE?",-1,0,-1 8 50 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM LIKELY TO BE RATED HIGH ON 'LEADERSHIP*?",1,1,1 860 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM OFTEN TO ASK FOR SUGESTIONS OR FOR TASK LEADERSHIP?",-1,0,1 870 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BE PREOCCUPIED WITH FEELINGS OF DISLIKE FOR OTHERS?",-1,-1,-1 880 DATA "IS HIS/HER RATE OF PARTICIPATION GENERALLY HIGH?",1,0,0 890 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM RESENTFUL?",-1,-1,0 900 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO EMPHASIZE MODERATION,VALUE-DETERMINED RESTRAINT?",0,-1,1 910 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BE VERY ACCEPTANT OF AUTHORITY?",-1,0,1 920 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM WARM AND PERSONAL?",1,1,-1 930 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO BE ABLE TO MAKE OTHERS FEEL LESS ANXIOUS?",1,1,-1 940 DATA "DO YOU FEEL LIKING FOR HIM/HER?2,0,1,-1 950 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM VALUABLE FOR A LOGICAL TASK?",1,1,1 960 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO FEEL ANXIOUS, FEARFUL OF NOT CONFORMING?",-1,-1,1 970 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM PESSIMISTIC ABOUT GROUP IDEALS?",0,-1,-1 980 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO MAKE OTHERS FEEL HE/SHE ADMIRES THEM?",-1,1,0 990 DATA "DOES HE/SHE SEEM TO RECEIVE A LOT OF INTERACTION FROM OTHERS?",1,0,0 1000 DATA "THANK YOU",0,0,0 115 APPENDIX F ADDITIONAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS In a d d i t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e performed i n Chapter 4, two a l t e r n a t e forms of a n a l y s i s were performed on the d a t a . Repeated Measures A repeated measures a n a l y s i s was performed u s i n g the MULTIVARIANCE computer program. For t h i s a n a l y s i s the d e s i g n was t r e a t e d as a three f a c t o r d e s i g n with one dependent v a r i a b l e . The f a c t o r s were d e f i n e d as: A) Group with two l e v e l s ( experimental and comparison) B) C l a s s e s w i t h i n groups with two l e v e l s per group (A and B w i t h i n experimental and C and D w i t h i n comparison) C) Occasion ( p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ) The dependant v a r i a b l e used was s c o r e s on the TPRI. T h i s design i s d e s c r i b e d as a "Repeated Measures i n the N-Sample Case" i n Bock (1975). In t r e a t i n g the design i n t h i s f a s h i o n , any treatment e f f e c t on the groups w i l l be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Group by Occasion i n t e r a c t i o n . In other words, the treatment groups should change i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than the comparison groups from one o c c a s i o n to the next. Table F . l p r e s e n t s the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means f o r both the C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups f a c t o r and the simple Groups f a c t o r . An examination of the C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups by Occasion term produced an F - r a t i o of .0614 c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a p r o b a b i l t y l e v e l of .94. With no s i g n i f i c a n t C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups by O c c a s i o n term being found, the nested f a c t o r was c o l l a p s e d p e r m i t t i n g an examination of the Groups by Occasion i n t e r a c t i o n . 116 The c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o f o r the Group by Occasion i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s study was 4.7649 c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l l e s s than .03. As such one may conclude t h a t there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t Group by Occasion i n t e r a c t i o n i n the present study(p<.05). Table F . l P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Means f o r C l a s s e s and Treatment C o n d i t i o n s . Group P r e t e s t Mean P o s t t e s t Mean C l a s s A 64.42 66.62 C l a s s B 58.36 60.64 Expe r i m e n t a l Group 62.30 64.53 C l a s s C 56.67 52.43 C l a s s D 62.52 59.57 Comparison Group 59.73 56.16 With a s i g n i f i c a n t Group by Occasion i n t e r a c t i o n being d e t e c t e d , g r a p h i c a l procedures as d e s c r i b e d i n Winer (1971) were used to examine the nature of that i n t e r a c t i o n . F i g u r e F . l d i s p l a y s the i n t e r a c t i o n components of both the C l a s s e s w i t h i n Groups by Occasions i n t e r a c t i o n and the Groups by Occasions i n t e r a c t i o n . As can be seen from the graph, the mean of the scores of the e x p e r imental groups went up between the p r e t e s t and the p o s t t e s t whereas the s c o r e s f o r the comparison groups decreased between the f i r s t and- second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t should be noted t h a t the decrease i n the mean score f o r the comparison group was not unexpected i n l i g h t of the f i n d i n g s of the p i l o t study. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i s that the e x p e r i m ental groups improved i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s when 117 compared to the groups which did not take part in a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. The interpretation of t h i s analysis confirms the interpretation of the analysis of covariance in Chapter 4 of the body"of the text. Figure F . l : Repeated Measures Groups by Occasion Interaction and Classes within Groups by Occasions Interaction. 118 A n a l y s i s of P i f f e r e n c e s between P r e d i c t e d and Observed Scores T h i s a n a l y s i s was performed by c a l c u l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between sc o r e s that students would be expected to o b t a i n on the p o s t t e s t , given t h a t there was no treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n , and the a c t u a l score they obtained with a treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t i s s i m i l a r to the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e but d i f f e r s i n that the r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r p r e d i c t i n g the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s of the experimental students was o b t a i n e d from the comparison sample of s t u d e n t s . The comparison group s c o r e s were used to c o n s t r u c t a r e g r e s s i o n equation to p r e d i c t an expected p o s t t e s t score f o r any student based on h i s or her performance on the p r e t e s t , given t h a t ho e f f e c t of the treatment would e x i s t . T h i s equation was determined to be: P r e d i c t e d P o s t t e s t Score = .8761 X P r e t e s t Score + 3.8295 The v a l i d i t y of using the above equation i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the comparable r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r the p i l o t study, which was again based on the assumption that no change i n s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n would occur, was .8456 X P r e t e s t Score + 6.7693. T h i s equation i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the equation developed on the b a s i s of the comparison group responses. T h i s equation was then a p p l i e d to p r e d i c t a p o s t t e s t score f o r each student i n the experimental c l a s s e s based upon h i s or her p r e t e s t s c o r e . T h i s p r e d i c t e d score, then, was the score that a student would be expected to o b t a i n given that there was no change i n h i s or her p e r c e p t i o n of the t e a c h e r . T h i s score was then compared to the obtained p o s t t e s t score by s u b t r a c t i n g 119 the p r e d i c t e d score from the observed score to y i e l d a d i f f e r e n c e score f o r each student i n the experimental c l a s s e s . If no treatment e f f e c t s were pr e s e n t , the mean of the d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r the experimental c l a s s e s should not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from z e r o . If the treatment had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , the mean of the d i f f e r e n c e scores should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than z e r o . The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s of the two experimental c l a s s e s , as w e l l as t h e i r combined mean and standard d e v i a t i o n are d i s p l a y e d i n Table F.2. Table F.2 — Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of D i f f e r e n c e s Between Expected and Observed P o s t t e s t Scores Group Mean St.Dev. • C l a s s A 6.35 6.69 ... ~-C l a s s B 5.69 7.28 T o t a l Group 6.11 8.82 With the thought that the two experimental c l a s s means might be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another, the h y p o t h e s i s of equal means was t e s t e d using a t - s t a t i s t i c . The c a l c u l a t e d t - v a l u e f o r the d i f f e r e n c e h y p o t h e s i s was 0.1258 which i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . S i n c e t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t between c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e , the c l a s s e s were pooled to t e s t whether the mean d i f f e r e n c e score f o r the experimental c l a s s e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from z e r o . The t - v a l u e c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h i s t e s t was 5.673 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t beyond alpha = .001. Since the mean f o r the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y 120 higher than zero, the c o n c l u s i o n was that the e x p e r i m e n t a l group s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than would be expected based upon the comparison c l a s s e s ' . s c o r e s (p<.001); the treatment had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . T h i s a n a l y s i s a g a i n c o n f i r m s the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e performed i n the body of the t e x t . 121 APPENDIX G ANALYSIS OF ADDITIONAL DATA Grade 4's During the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TPRI to c l a s s B the r e s e a r c h e r , d e s i r i n g to be as u n o b t r u s i v e as p o s s i b l e , a d m i n i s t e r e d the instrument to the whole c l a s s r e g a r d l e s s of grade l e v e l . As such, TPRI scores were a v a i l a b l e f o r the Grade 4 p a r t (n=9) of C l a s s B. These st u d e n t s d i d not a t t e n d the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program but were not c o n s i d e r e d to be a comparison c l a s s f o r the purposes of the study. The reasons f o r not i n c l u d i n g them were t w o f o l d : they were not i n the same grade as the students in the study, and t h e r e was a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they might f e e l some resentment at being l e f t behind d u r i n g the time p e r i o d of the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program. However, some a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e may be gained through an examination of t h e i r s cores on the TPRI. By a p p l y i n g the r e g r e s s i o n formula and f o l l o w i n g the procedures f o r o b t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e scores between p r e d i c t e d and observed p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix F, the mean d i f f e r e n c e score can be o b t a i n e d f o r the group. The o b t a i n e d mean d i f f e r e n c e score f o r t h i s group was 0.581 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 5.81. T h i s mean i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero; the group i s l i k e the comparison group and u n l i k e the experimental group. The mean f o r the Grade 4's on the p r e t e s t was 56.22 wit h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 9.80. On the p o s t t e s t , the mean was 54.78 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 12.74. F i g u r e G.l i l l u s t r a t e s these 122 means plotted on the Groups by Occasions graph developed in Appendix F. E 5 0 1 PRETEST POSTTEST Figure G.l: Grade 4's From Class B Compared to the Group by Occasions Interaction. As can be seen, the l i n e i s not unlike the l i n e for the comparison group and d i f f e r s markedly from the experimental group l i n e . The r e s u l t s of both the above analyses indicate that the Grade 4 part of Class B was behaving, on the TPRI, much in the 123 manner of the comparison group. D e s p i t e the problems of u s i n g the Grade 4 p a r t of C l a s s B as a comparison group, the f a c t t h a t they behaved as would be expected g i v e n no change in p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r t e a c h e r , has f u r t h e r supported the c o n c l u s i o n s of the a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the body of the t e x t . C l a s s C F o l l o w i n g the completion of the study, C l a s s C p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program which was almost i d e n t i c a l to the program used by C l a s s e s A and B. The students i n C l a s s C were a d m i n i s t e r e d the TPRI, f o r a t h i r d time, the day f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e t u r n to the classroom. T h i s meant that these students had completed the instrument three times. While the p i l o t data suggested t h a t there should be a drop i n s c o r e s between the f i r s t and second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TPRI, the r e s e a r c h e r knows nothin g r e g a r d i n g the behavior of s c o r e s between the second and t h i r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . As such, the data o b t a i n e d from the t h i r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may or may not be r e l i a b l e . However an i n s p e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s may g i v e f u r t h e r evidence of the g e n e r a l i z a b i l t y of the f i n d i n g s ' of t h i s study. -By t r e a t i n g the s c o r e s of the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as p r e t e s t s c o r e s and the scores from the t h i r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , a comparison of t h i s group to the groups of the study may be undertaken. The mean of the c l a s s on the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was 52.43 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 8.22. On the t h i r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( f o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor program) the 124 mean was 53.81 with.a standard d e v i a t i o n of 10.28. F i g u r e G.2 i l l u s t r a t e s C l a s s C embodied w i t h i n the Groups by Occasions i n t e r a c t i o n graph from Appendix F. ° U P R E T E S T P O S T T E S T F i g u r e G.2: Second and T h i r d T e s t i n g of C l a s s C Compared to the Group by Occasions I n t e r a c t i o n . As can be seen, the slope of the l i n e f o r C l a s s C i s u n l i k e the comparison group slope and i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the slope f o r the experimental group. By f o l l o w i n g the procedures f o r o b t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s 125 between the expected and observed p o s t t e s t s c o r e s , a mean d i f f e r e n c e score f o r C l a s s C of 4.047 with a standard d e v i a t i o n of 6.383 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s mean i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from z e r o . The c o n c l u s i o n i s that C l a s s C i s now more l i k e the experimental c l a s s e s and does not f i t the p a t t e r n of the comparison c l a s s e s . The above two se t s of a n a l y s e s are i n no way c o n c l u s i v e . They do, however, i n d i c a t e that the f i n d i n g s of the study are p o t e n t i a l l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e to other c l a s s e s and other r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs. 

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