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A case study of curriculum leadership and development with a global perspective Myronuk, Carol A. 1993

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"A CASE STUDY OF CURRICULUM LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENTWITH A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE"byCAROL ANN MYRONUKA THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THEREQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTERS OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESTHE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATIONTHE FACULTY OF EDUCATIONWe accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard:The University of British ColumbiaAugust 1993© Carol Ann Myronuk, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of IA,0461LTML,65^eate, ECtaCaAktryt)The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ^e40e)(401 -2 1 tqc13 DE-6 (2/88)iiABSTRACTIn April, 1990, a team of teachers at General Wolfe Elementary School, Vancouver, B.C., began theplanning and design of an interrelated curriculum with a global perspective. The implementation of theinterrelated grade 6 and 7 curriculum, named "Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. (Elementary Youth Earth Studies)", com-menced in September, 1990.During the 1990-1991 school year, the teaching team concentrated its efforts on cross-curricularapproaches to develop a practical infrastructure that significantly connected skills and content from thevarious curricular domains. Their eclectic reworking of the school's existing curriculum models to include aglobal perspective provided opportunities for the team to gain professional knowledge within the context oftheir own classrooms.The problems addressed in this study are: What does the infrastructure of the global curriculum looklike; and what were the roles of the practitioners in the context of this curriculum development?This study is a unique-case description of a site-developed curriculum initiated by a team of elemen-tary teachers. This recording of their first year of collaboration is derived from their planning notes, day-books, unit plans, files, yearly previews, journals, photographs and audio and video tapes. The purpose of thisdocument is to present evidence of curriculum leadership and development in global education.This study consists of descriptions of the global curriculum and the team's leadership roles, followedby a two part comparative analysis using elements indicating effective curriculum leadership and develop-ment. The study concludes that indicators of effective curriculum leadership and development are present,that the team's work has influenced the school's culture, and that practising elementary teachers can assumeleadership in initiating curriculum change.CONTENTSABSTRACT^List of Tables List of Figures ^ ix1Chapter One INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY^1A Glimpse of the Future.^1Rationale for the StudyThe Underlying Theoretical Perspective^ - 2The Research Questions^ 23Methods of the StudyOverview of the Thesis^ 34Summary^Chapter Two REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE^ 55Introduction  5Context of the Study^The Intended Curriculum 5The Implemented or Experienced Curriculum^ 6The Attained Curriculum^ 8^Summary    11Chapter Three CONTEXT OF THE STUDY^ 12Introduction    12The Vision: Opening Wolfe's E.Y.E.S.^  12The Site     15The Participants    16The Students ^  16The Teaching Team 17The Context of the Curriculum Change^  17Teaching Assignments^  18Perceiving Change  18Scouting the Learning Environment^  18Setting the Site^ 20Summary 20Chapter Four CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT^ 21Introduction^ 21Educational Models Established at Wolfe^ 21Adding Hanvey's Global Dimensions 22Remodelling the Prescribed Curriculum^ 22Global Issues Awareness^ 24Global Issues Selection 24Theory Into Practice ^ 25Setting the Yearly Plan 26The Implemented or Experienced Curriculum^ 30Monthly themes. ^ 30Weekly Plans 33Collegial Collaboration in the Development of Key Visuals ^ 35The Attained Curriculum^ 38Over the Course of the Year^ 38The Culminating Event 39Summary^ 42Chapter Five CURRICULUM LEADERSHIP^ 43Introduction ^ 43Expertise Tasks 431. Making Connections With Other Major On-Site Initiatives ^ 43iv2. Participating in Creative Problem Solving^ 443. Connecting With Resource Persons 454. Being Resource Persons for On-Site Administrator and Teachers^ 45Role Function Tasks^ 461. Full-Time Teaching Assignments^ 462. Participation in School-Wide Theme Studies^ 463. Developing the Working Model of the Global Curriculum^ 474. Scope and Sequence Development^ 475. Answering Correspondence 477. Developing Budget Proposals^ 488. Long Range Planning 48Communication Tasks ^ 491. Public Relations 492. Collecting and Summarizing Critical Analysis ^ 493. Speaking on Curriculum and Instructional Topics 494. Disseminating Research ^ 505. Writing Memos^ 506. Preparing Agendas 50Supervisory Tasks^ 501. Development of Models^ 502. Co-operative Management 513. Monitoring the Project^  51Professional Development Tasks 511. Participation in Professional Activities ^  512. Literature Reviews ^ 513. Developing Professional Materials ^  51Summary^ 51Chapter Six INDICATORS OF CURRICULUM EFFECTIVENESS^ 53Introduction^ 53Bradley's Indicators of Effective Curriculum Leadership^  53Indicator # 1: Others Seek Out Curriculum Leaders For Help^ 53Indicator #2: Consistency of Curriculum Document Quality 54Indicator #3: Teacher Willingness to Work on Curriculum Committees ^ 54Indicator #4: Communication^ 55Indicator #5: Identifying Working Models^ 55Indicator #6: Moulding of a Workable Group 55Indicator #7: Comprehensive Ownership of the Curriculum ^ 56Indicator #8: Problem Solving^ 57Indicator #9: Use of Personal Power over Positional Authority^ 57Indicator #10: Use of Multiple Leadership Styles^ 59Bradley's (1985) Ten Indicators of Effective Curriculum Development^ 61Indicator #1: Vertical Curriculum Continuity ^  61Indicator #2: Horizontal Curriculum Continuity  61Indicator #3: Instruction Based on Curriculum ^ 61Indicator #4: Curriculum Priority ^  62Indicator #5: Broad Involvement 62Indicator #6: Long Range Planning^ 63Indicator #7: Decision-Making Clarity 64Indicator # 8: Positive Human Relationships^ 64Indicator #9: Theory Into Practice Approach 64Indicator #10: Planned Change^ 65Summary^ 65Chapter Seven CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS^ 66Introduction ^ 66viReview of the Theoretical Perspectives^ 66Conclusion of the Study^ 67Limitations of the Study 68Implications for Further Research^ 69References^ 71viiLIST OF TABLESTable 1^Wolfe School Planning Process^ p. 27Table 2^Assignment of Monthly Themes p. 28Table 3^Notes Taken from Planning Grid^ p. 30Table 4^Mohan's Framework^ p. 31Table 5^Sample Framework p. 33Table 6^Topics Chosen by Students^ p. 42viiiLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1^The Graphic Organizer^ p. 14Figure 2^Example Challenge Problem p. 20Figure 3^Four Areas of Curriculum^ p. 22Figure 4^The E.Y.E.S. Model p. 23Figure 5^Hanvey's Model^ p. 24Figure 6^Sections of the Framework^ p. 32Figure 7^Example Problem^ p. 34Figure 8^Colour-coded Time Table p. 35Figure 9^Example of Weekly Planner^ p. 36Figure 10^Example Visual^ p. 37Figure 11^Key Visuals used with the Framework^ p. 38Figure 12^Examples of Student Roles^ p. 40Figure 13^Process of Presentation Preparation^ p. 41ix1CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION TO THE STUDYA Glimpse of the Future. A fairly large body of literature exists on the philosophy and strategies for developing curricula witha global perspective (see Algers & Harf, 1986; Hanvey, 1982; Kniep, 1986; Leestma, 1979; Pike & Selby,1986; for discussions of this work). However, within that literature, there is a surprising lack of informationon translating the philosophy of global perspective curricula into interrelated, practical classroom experiencesfor early intermediate students. The literature also reveals little evidence of cooperative efforts betweenelementary specialists to develop interdisciplinary studies with a global perspective. Given the global issueswith common ground in all disciplines, and more than a decade of scholarly endeavours, it is odd that inGlobal Education there is not more evidence of teacher collaboration in curriculum designs linking contentareas.Recently, there has been a recognition that the global challenges of the present and future are of suchmagnitude and complexity that interdisciplinary cooperative action in problem-finding and problem-solving isnot only desirable but is increasingly necessary (Gang, 1989; Meyers, 1990; Suzuki, 1990). Leestma (1979),stated that a global perspective was the most urgent common challenge now confronting educators, and urgedthat the scope of efforts be widened and the pace of development be accelerated. If, as educators, we acceptthe premise of the need for interdisciplinary action by future global citizens, then we also must accept thechallenge of working together as specialists-in-the-field to prepare our students through their studies to liveand make decisions as global crises evolve throughout their lifetimes.While the literature argues the need for a global perspective in curriculum design, it rarely docu-ments specific case studies of curriculum leadership and development in global education. This study con-tributes to knowledge by presenting a unique case study of the first year of a locally developed global curricu-lum.Rationale for the StudyThe intent of this case study is to offer educators an example of local curriculum leadership and2development in global education. Instead of building content studies around specific global issues, teachersmay be able to effectively relate issues across disciplines as proposed in the literature. Teachers withexpertise in specific content areas could suggest ways to address issues from their disciplinary perspectives.Professional consultation facilitating interdisciplinary studies of issues might lead to collegial cooperation andteam teaching. It is the process of the design and implementation of global curriculum combined with theelements of professional leadership that this investigator hoped to define and document in this study.The Underlying Theoretical PerspectiveThe underlying theoretical perspective for this study is the Bradley Community Curriculum ChangeModel (Bradley, 1985). This model was chosen because of its compatibility with the holistic philosophy ofglobal education, the collaborative process, and the inclusion of community components. The Bradley modelfocuses on how leadership and development come together in curriculum design and implementation withincommunities.From his research in curriculum leadership and development, Bradley has described indicatorspresent in successful curriculum implementation. He has selected ten indicators each for curriculum develop-ment and leadership which he suggests are common across disciplines. Bradley's model provides an anno-tated checklist of the indicators his analysis has shown to be significant in curriculum leadership and develop-ment.The teaching team selected examples from their work that they felt matched Bradley's twentyindicators, which were submitted to the investigator. Submissions were evaluated for their consistency withthe indicators by discussions with the teaching team. This was done informally, following strategies used inpeer coaching, collegial consultation, and other techniques familiar to the team members.The Research Questions1. What does the infrastructure of the constructed global curriculum look like? More specifically, whattheoretical models are present? What is the nature of the global education model used? How are theprescribed knowledge and skills accounted for?2. What are the roles of the teachers in the context of developing this global curriculum? More specifi-cally, what tasks are specific to the development of this curriculum? What are the roles of the3teachers during the development and implementation process?Methods of the StudyTwo intermediate teachers who had previously worked together were the focus of this study. Theirefforts at curriculum development and leadership in global education involved their peers, who were invitedto participate in this study. As a participant-observer, the author contributed as one of the curriculum design-ers, and consequently, as an implementer through team teaching situations.The documentation of the process of designing and implementing the year-one curriculum wasapproached through a variety of records produced by the team. Our planning notes, daybooks, unit plans,content files, yearly previews, personal journals, photographs, audio and video tape recordings were re-viewed, and reflected upon by the author. Initially, questions from other teachers concerning student activi-ties directed the public presentation of our work. Their individual requests were discussed collegially, and weresponded collaboratively. As interest in the project increased, patterns could be seen in the inquiries.Teachers continued to be interested in obtaining ideas and materials, but increasingly they were also askingfor guidance in obtaining administrative support at their school and district levels. Some were taking theopportunity to connect with us to share their experiences as global educators. Their enthusiasm and commit-ment have been encouraging and greatly appreciated.While I submit this thesis as an individual, I write as a team member. In order to form as accurateand comprehensive an understanding as possible, material to be included was agreed upon before committingour ideas to this paper.Overview of the ThesisThis document is presented in six chapters. Chapter one presents the general problem area, thechoice of approach, and the conceptual orientation. Data collection and analysis procedures are brieflydiscussed. Chapter two describes the review of the literature dealing with intermediate curriculum develop-ment and leadership in global education, and recent educational directives promoting the kind of curriculumproposed in global education. Chapter three describes the context of the study. Chapter four documents theintended, implemented, and attained global curriculum. Chapter five describes the roles assumed by theglobal curriculum leadership team. Finally, chapter six presents the conclusions based on Bradley's model, a4discussion of the limitations of the study, and recommendations for further research.summaryIf credence is given to the global education view of an interrelated world, it follows that studies ofworld issues might benefit from an interconnected approach. Furthermore, the onus will be on teachers tofacilitate the interdisciplinary studies of world issues in their classrooms. A curriculum has been proposedwhich may provide teachers with an infrastructure for interdisciplinary studies in global education. Thisstudy allows a team of participant practitioners to make explicit their theoretical base, some of their practicalknowledge and reflective activity. In chapter two, a review of the literature dealing with the notions ofcurriculum leadership and development in global education is undertaken.5CHAPTER TwoREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREIntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to review the literature pertaining to the theoretical perspectives whichunderpin this study. Calls for curriculum leadership and development, Bradley's notion of community changein schools, and recent literature in global education will be drawn together to promote curriculum change.Context of the StudyBritish Columbia's emerging Intermediate Program is a move away from the traditional view ofcurriculum as a prescribed, finely specified, sequentially ordered body of topics for all learners, to a broadervision of curriculum that begins with a focus on the learner. All planned and unplanned experiences studentshave while at school form the basis of knowledge gained in the school setting. Because students' learningexperiences are affected by their needs, interests and choices, and because curriculum is interpreted throughteachers' expertise and influenced by their judgements, it is useful to examine curriculum leadership anddevelopment by their intents, manifestations, and outcomes. A clear distinction of these three aspects of thecurriculum was made in The Report of the Royal Commission on Education (Sullivan, et al, 1988). Accord-ing to the report, the intended curriculum, the implemented or experienced curriculum, and the attainedcurriculum are three aspects closely associated with the cyclical pattern of curriculum decision making,implementation, and evaluation.The Intended Curriculum The intended curriculum refers to the goals that community curriculum planners intend to havestudents pursue, and the learning experiences they plan to facilitate. Many individuals including curriculumleaders, academics, classroom teachers, parents and citizens should be involved as curriculum is the oneuniversal element of the school that reaches the entire school community (Bradley, 1985). Including students,their families, educators, support staff and the public in decision making, and extending learning opportunitiesbeyond the classroom contribute to the creation of school culture and a feeling of community (Ministry ofEducation, 1992). Such a collective process should result in the reflection of the interests and needs of the6stakeholders and determine the ethos of the school (Lounsbury, 1990). Addressing curriculum intentions isthe responsibility of schools and districts (Ministry of Education, 1992). As a result, responsibility forimplementing the goals of human and social development, and career development is shared by the school,family and community (Bradley, 1985).The current development of B.C.'s Intermediate Program is in response to a call to restructurecurriculum (Sullivan, 1988; Shanker, 1990; Ministry of Education, 1992). One of the problems identified bythe Sullivan Report was a fragmented intended curriculum resulting in a less than coherent program, ill-suitedto the physical, social, and emotional needs of adolescents. Responding to this problem requires change atthe school, specifically, those who develop curriculum (Sullivan, 1988). As well as developing knowledge,skills and attitudes associated with school subjects, underlying conceptual understandings should be pursued(Ministry of Education, 1992). Value is placed on fostering the ways that young people think and expresstheir learning (Sullivan, 1988; Breivik, 1991; Brown, 1991; Nelson, 1989). Connections between and amongvarious issues and questions may form the basis of multidisciplinary study and information literacy (Ministryof Education, 1992).Multidisciplinary studies across subject areas provide an opportunity for more relevant, less frag-mented learning experiences, and begin to actively foster a range of perspectives that will serve learners inthe larger world (Jacobs, 1989). It is claimed that such restructuring will empower students to becomelifelong learners and enhance their sense of social responsibility (Betts, 1985; Gang, 1989; Breivik, 1991).Greig, Pike and Selby (1987), argue that global educators have made the transition fromcompartmentalized views of knowledge to an awareness of the interconnectedness of all things because theyemphasize the importance of interdisciplinary approaches, infuse the school curriculum with a local-globalperspective, and regard education as a lifelong process. They further suggest that the intended curriculummust develop students' capabilities to deal constructively with personal and global change so that they will bebetter equipped to assume responsibility in an increasingly complex world.The Implemented or Experienced CurriculumWhen planning the curriculum, justifiable experiences for students is the main priority of the educa-tional endeavour. The planned curriculum bridges the gap between theory and practice. If a planned curricu-7lum exists, and it is being used in the classroom, then the curriculum intentions are being practically imple-mented. The scope and sequence of curricula are controlled and maintained through systematic monitoring ofthe horizontal and vertical continuities (Bradley, 1985). Curriculum goals are lateralized at each grade level,and become a part of the greater sequential hierarchy. But the curriculum and its goals must engage studentsin relevant tasks and situations so that their learning is meaningful to them (Gang, 1985; Nelson, 1989;Sullivan, 1988). Our goal as educators must be to help students become increasingly able and willing toguide their own learning for the rest of their lives (Betts, 1985; Haas, 1987; Wigginton, 1989; Myers, 1990).Rogers (1983) writes about what needs to be done to humanize schools. Students must havefacilitative conditions for learning where they feel free to learn and find new ways of personalizing theirexperiences. Such autonomous learning provides the opportunity for students to set independent educationalgoals. Further, such learning entails the development of the ability to engage in self-learning and to take theresponsibility to pursue knowledge (Betts, 1985). Treffinger (1978) defines self-directed learning as responsi-ble autonomy in which students become actively engaged in making meaning of both the immediate worldand the global community (Betts, 1985; Sisk, 1987; Whaley, 1987). The degree of autonomy experienceddiffers for each student and is determined by individual interests, needs, attitudes and abilities. Curriculumquality control is indirect through strategies built into the learning environment by the teacher (Kirstead,1985).A great deal of time, energy and money has been committed to build the Foundations for B.C.'seducational restructuring task, as evidenced by the number and variety of published documents related to theintended curriculum. However, Bradley (1985), states that the intended curriculum has at least four obstaclesto overcome in order implement curricular change. First, the amount of money required to fund the changesis not as significant as the source and duration of the financial support. Curriculum changes may be unpopu-lar if they are seen as short-term, or isolated. Second, there is need for participants to have specific timeduring the regular working day, to devote to the collective planning process. Non-instructional time ispreferable so that participants can concentrate their efforts on the curriculum task at hand, without the inter-ference of classroom responsibilities. Third, the lack of commitment on the part of some teachers, adminis-tration or support staff could make the curriculum changes more difficult than necessary. Stages in careers,8degrees of personal resistance to change, and job satisfaction are just some of the factors affecting curriculumimplementation. Fourth, the lack of expertise in curriculum leadership and development could seriouslyhamper local implementation of new programs.Bradley's four obstacles may effectively handicap the implementation of the Intermediate Programfor students in Vancouver's schools, as the School Board contends with funding shortfalls, resulting in loss ofexpert personnel. Without continued expertise support, there is danger that Bradley's obstacles will deterimplementation of the new Intermediate Program and in so doing, perpetuate the continuation of the out-moded traditional curriculum in Vancouver schools. Hopefully, some locally developed curricula withfuture-oriented studies will provide initiatives for students seeking global perspective education.The Attained Curriculum The attained curriculum refers to the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students actually acquire asa result of the experienced curriculum. Betts (1985) states that most content presented to students is "pre-scribed" and limiting in the variety and complexity of thinking skills. Because the majority of the content isconfined to the use of recall and comprehension thinking, the entire range of thinking skills is seldom in-cluded. Gang (1989) argues that education is not a series of adult impositions on the student but rather asearch for freedom on the part of the learner. He describes freedom without responsibility as anarchy;responsibility without freedom as despotism. Earlier writings by both Friere (1984) and Montessori (1946]1974:3) support Gang's position by advocating the creation of learning environments which foster inquiry;that is, experiential learning where the traditional roles of teachers as masters to students cease to exist, andthe relationships of teachers as students with students as teachers emerge.As the transition from the traditional, prescribed curriculum to the B. C. Intermediate Program takesplace, both students and teachers will experience a shift in emphasis from what is taught, to how studentslearn. It is similar in kind to other types of changes around us. The acceleration of change has shown thatknowledge is based on a range of possibilities in a given time and place (Sagan, 1975; Gang, 1985; Suzuki,1989; Meyers, 1990). Traditional education "imparts" knowledge and experiences and portrays it in terms ofcause and effect relationships, which are measurable and predictable. The focus on objective testing withwell defined exact answers, contradicts the reform efforts currently under way in schools. Gang (1989)9asserts that individuals who have experienced traditional education, are ill prepared for dialogue, collabora-tion and cooperation with other human beings: these are three essential elements in the foundation of ademocratic society. Betts (1985) and Gang (1989) suggest that we should view schooling as "real world"experience that contributes to the lifelong learning for all.Jacobs (1989) suggests multidisciplinary studies help students break with a traditional view ofknowledge and begin to foster a range of perspectives that will serve the students in the larger world. Col-laborative work by teachers in multidisciplinary teams benefits learners by sharing resources, approaches,experience and expertise; by providing mutual support; by developing complementary strategies and opera-tional procedures; by reducing redundancy, and by maximizing opportunities for in-depth study (Ministry ofEducation, 1992). Sullivan (1988), supported the assignment of an interdisciplinary team of teachers todifferent groups of students. The rationale for the support cited the need to assist students in making sense ofthe many complex, interrelated dimensions of our world, to counteract the perception of many students thatschool subjects are arbitrary and fragmented divisions, and to recognize the value in enhancing students'abilities to apply competencies gained in one context to other appropriate contexts.Personal, curricular integration can be fostered by involving students in curricular decision making toenhance perceived relevance (Kennedy & Mitchell, 1980; L.S.Team/Richmond, S.D.38, 1990; Tripp, 1990).Schwartz (1991) comments that students often bring aspects of their learning to his attention that he wouldn'thave seen if he had been the only evaluator. Students can provide insights into their emotional security, skillcompetency, knowledge integration strategies, and personal values that they bring to given tasks. Studentsbenefit from a strong sense of identification with their community and especially with adults in that commu-nity (Sullivan, 1988). Collaborative consultation helps learners to negotiate their personal educational pathsby allowing them to negotiate the degree of difficulty and amount of time involved in given tasks.Global educators accept that teachers no longer have "all the answers," but instead should strive tobecome facilitators of co-operative, participatory learning situations. Consequently their classroom teachingplaces emphasis on experiential and co-operative learning, group problem solving, active participation byindividuals and groups, on the initiation, direction and evaluation of what is experienced, and on creative,imaginative and divergent thought and action (Pike & Selby, 1988). Enhancement of communication and10negotiation skills enables students to explore their own biases and attitudes and to consider other points ofview and feelings (Hanvey, 1982).Hanvey (1982) describes certain modes of thought, sensitivities, intellectual skills and explanatorycapacities that he feels contribute to the formation of a global perspective and are attainable by young peopleduring the course of their formal and informal education. Hanvey suggests five dimensions to put flesh on thetruisms that 1) there are underlying factors to the visible event and 2) culture affects the perception of humanaffairs.The first dimension, "perspective consciousness," concerns the recognition or awareness on the partof the individual that their world-view is unique, that it has been and will be shaped by overt and covertinfluences, and that others view the world profoundly different. The second dimension, "state of the planet,"deals with awareness of prevailing world conditions, trends and developments in order to obtain a sense ofimportant patterns and influences. Dimension three, "cross-cultural awareness," examines the diversity ofideas and practices found in societies around the world, to engender respect, acceptance and willingness toparticipate in other social groups. "Knowledge of global dynamics" is central to global education. Key traitsand mechanisms of the world system are examined with emphasis on theories and concepts of change.Hanvey presents three rules of global change: 1) things ramify; 2) there are no "side effects" but there are"surprise effects;" and 3) look for the concealed wiring. The first two rules are his prescription for cautionand humility, while the last explains the need for both. Finally, dimension five "awareness of human choice,"is based on the proposition that as new knowledge of effects finds rational use in planning human action,human choices expand. Put simply, the more we understand, the more options become available to us.Through using his five dimensional model, Hanvey feels educators might be able to 1) increase the number ofsolutions students propose for a given problem, 2) increase the quality of solutions measured in terms ofglobal cognition, and 3) incorporate empathy for individuals and generations directly and indirectly involvedin given situations.Rogers (1983) writes about what needs to be done to humanize schools, and implores teachers tofacilitate conditions for learning that provide environments with a feeling of freedom to learn, and guidancefor students to find new ways of personal growth. He states "changingness," a reliance on process rather than11static knowledge, is the only thing that makes sense as a goal for education, if we are to survive in the modernworld.SummaryThe related literature reviewed in this chapter has indicated the breadth of proposals of how globaleducation might be promoted. It has suggested the plausibility of developing and implementing trans-disciplinary studies which purport to foster understanding of global issues. It has given little evidence of casestudies of teachers' design or implementation of global studies, but exhorts teachers to use their practicalteaching knowledge to make changes in their classrooms. Furthermore, the literature reveals the uniquenessof the problem which this study pursues: to document the leadership and development of a practical global -education curriculum.12CHAPTER THREECONTEXT OF THE STUDYIntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to describe the events that led to the curriculum change and therationale for initiating the change. In addition, the chapter provides background information about the site,the student participants and the teaching team. By providing the context of the study, the results of the studypresented in chapter six may be better understood.The Vision: Opening Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. In April, 1990, a team of teachers at General Wolfe Elementary School, Vancouver, began theplanning and design of an interrelated grades 6 and 7 curriculum with a global perspective. Implementationof the interdisciplinary studies, named "Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. (Elementary Youth Earth Studies)" began inSeptember, 1990.The global political and social crisis of the first months of 1990, exacerbated by vivid media cover-age, caused such emotional upheaval in their classrooms that the teachers undertook the task of reworking thecurriculum to allow students opportunities to engage in global studies. World events had presented the teamwith classroom opportunities for "Verification of likelihood of improvement" (Bradley, 1985); that is, teach-ing situations arose concerning the rate and complexities of global change, that needed curriculum revision.The prescribed Social Studies curriculum was in most need of change. Students initiated the first curricularadjustments by repeatedly requesting extensions of "Current Event" discussions, by their intense interest indebating the newest world issues, by seeking public audiences for their views and by their personal willing-ness to participate in voluntary community relief-action initiatives.For many of the students it was a time of awakening of their personal consciousness as globalcitizens. For some it was a reawakening of emotional trauma caused by their experiences in previous socio-political conflicts. For everyone it was a time of coming together as a group in search of comfort throughmutual understanding and support.The emotional involvement of the students caused their teachers to re-examine the existing, pre-13scribed curriculum for opportunities to incorporate more current affairs background information. Weeklyscheduled problem-solving sessions were the first areas to be reworked to include practical problems con-nected to global issues. Prescribed Social Studies texts became just one of many resources for backgroundinformation on global issues, as current information became more abundant and accessible. Figure 1 illus-trates the process of the global problem-solving sessions.The process is symbolized by the world map in the centre of four roles variously performed by theFigure I. The graphic organizer used to signal the beginning of student problem-solving sessions focusing on gaining aglobal perspective.participants during round-table discussions of world issues. During discussions, students are encouraged toexpress different points of view that might represent opinions from stakeholders such as government, busi-ness, scientists, artists, lobbyists, etc. Students take turns assuming responsibilities for recording ideas,speaking on behalf of their group, and qualifying their proposals to the larger group. This arrangement ofrole-tasks for students allows flexibility of the number of students in working groups. Groups of two, three orfour are easily formed without the loss of any role-task.Each problem-solving task requires the participants to cooperatively 1) discover and uncover under-14lying problems contributing to the issues event, 2) elicit as many solutions as possible given their collectiveknowledge of the issue, 3) evaluate their solutions and make recommendations, and 4) assess their thinking asindividuals and as a group.Solutions are classified as "possible", "plausible" and "preferable." Possible solutions must have anexplanatory relationship to the given problem. Plausible solutions are those that 1) will have a positiveimpact on the problem, 2) are practical to implement, and 3) are most likely to receive the most support,locally and globally.By establishing criteria for factors such as cost, time, personnel and safety, the small student groupsanalyse their plausible solutions to select their most preferable solution for presentation to the larger classgroup. The class then elects to 1) accept and support all recommended solutions as equally viable, 2) querystudent groups for clarification of their proposal, 3) debate the recommended solutions, and 4) select newcriteria to evaluate the proposals in order to reach a consensus.With each new session, the students demonstrated increasing enthusiasm for the problem solvingtasks, greater use of their inter-personal skills, and better understanding of the complexity of global issues.Several parents reported their childrens' enthusiasm for the "new" approach. These positive results were soencouraging to the teaching team, that they began the rethinking of the traditional grades 6 and 7 curriculum.They began to envision an interrelated global curriculum, using existing low-cost, high-value materials. Asthey explored the possibilities, they soon realized they would only be limited by their own imaginations. Theglobal pursuit had begun!In a very short time period, the team members had experimented with the innovative idea of a globalperspective within their areas of expertise, and were ready to begin the formal process of planned curriculumchange. By reworking the educational models already in use at the school to include Hanvey's dimensions,the team developed a practical classroom programme of studies and started the field test.The field test was awarded "Lighthouse" status by the British Columbia Teachers' Federation, andhas received ongoing support from Wolfe's Administration, parents and students. Now, as the five-year fieldtest reaches its mid-point, its emergent model faces a great challenge. As the innovation and developmentprocess continues, the model must move from the security of the field test site to implementation at other15sites, an area where Bradley (1985) says planned change often fails.This study may be one of many needed to clarify the worth of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project, to validateits continuation or termination. While formal evaluation may reflect specifics, student, staff and communityperceptions will continue to be based on the total role performance of all participants in the project. UsingBradley's Community Curriculum Change Model, key indicators can be identified to decide whether effectivecurriculum development and/or leadership has taken place. This study blends the curriculum leadership anddevelopment together and illustrates the key indicators of success by presenting for each indicator, verifica-tion evidence to substantiate its presence in Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project.The SiteGeneral Wolfe Elementary School is located in the geographical centre of Vancouver, BritishColumbia. The original building was completed in 1910, with two classroom wing additions added in 1912.An adjoining gymnasium was constructed in 1956. Presently, there is a "Temporary" classroom annexexisting on the site, as it has for more than 20 years.The traditional wood and brick design of the school is shared by other Vancouver schools builtduring the same time period. Unlike some of its contemporaries that have undergone major renovations tocreate larger learning areas, Wolfe's separated, self-contained classrooms have been upgraded, but remainstructurally isolated from each other.Classrooms are on all levels of the 3 story main building and on a single level in the annex. Fewclassroom spaces are available for large group full-participation activities on a regular basis. Negotiatedtimetabling of non-classroom spaces allows multiple use of the 2 basement play areas and the studentlunchroom. Access to the gymnasium is extremely limited and usually requires trading because of strictlyscheduled times. Other than their classroom, the school spaces most often available for the grades 6 and 7students were the school's library and student lunchroom.The physical plant had definite limitations of space and times that different sized spaces wereavailable. The team analysed the compatibility of group sizes to the various space options available duringweekly timetables. The larger spaces that were available least were reserved for cooperative events involvingother classes. The school library was used for cross-grade buddy activities, for research purposes involving16small group studies and independent assignments. The classrooms were the most frequently used spaces.In order to enhance a broader world view, a concerted effort was made to change the perception ofthe traditional classroom through the rearrangement of its furniture. Rows of individual student desks remi-niscent of former lecture methods were abandoned and continually reconfigured to allow maximum studentinteraction for given student tasks. Peripheral benches and tables with collections of texts were reclaimed.Though some were permanently fixed, the tables and benches served multiple purposes such as display areas,study stations, and centres for interactive student activities. Because the classroom teachers had maintained atraditional approach in the classrooms for several years, they felt the reworking of classroom space was aclear indicator of significant curriculum change, and was necessary in spite of a limiting physical environ-ment." The old floor plan just doesn't work with the round-table discussion format, or thehands-on problem- solving! We need more options for grouping and mobility."" Boy! This `new' room is going to surprise them! Talk about CHANGE, and ADAPT-ABILITY."The ParticipantsThe participants in this study were the educational professionals and students directly involved in thedesign, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the first year of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project. The focus wason the teaching team and their collaboration in meeting the needs of their students in the grades 6 and 7classes. The time period analysed starts in April, 1990, and ends in June, 1991; that is, from the earlieststages to the first major public event.The StudentsMost of Wolfe's students come from within its catchment area. Students in Wolfe's two DistrictESL and two District Communications classes (who may live in other areas of Vancouver) partially partici-pate in the regular intermediate classes. The students at Wolfe represent a broad range of ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Approximately 60% of the school's population is ESL, but with integration, thegrades 6 and 7 ESL population factor ranges between 65-70%. As in all regular classes at Wolfe, the grades 6and 7 students had been randomly placed in two multi-ability level classes. Though Wolfe has a fairly high17rate of change in student population over the school year, sixty grades 6 and 7 students were involved in theE.Y.E.S. Project from September, 1990, to June, 1991.The Teaching Team Heather and Sandy, as full-time enrolling (FTE) classroom teachers co-planned and exchangedcontent expertise responsibilities. Heather had more than 10 years experience at Wolfe, and mentored Sandy,who was a second-year teacher. In my role as Gifted & Talented/ESL Resource Teacher (GT/ESL-RT), Icollaborated with Heather to design the intended curriculum, to co-plan the implemented curriculum, and tohelp facilitate the attained curriculum by team teaching with her or by model teaching for Sandy. Peter, ourMusic/Computer Resource Teacher collaborated with us by using his curricular areas to enhance the knowl--edge students gained through other subject areas.During the 1990-91 school year, Heather mentored Margaret, a fourth-year student teacher for twopractica. As well, both Heather and Sandy took six-week Maternity/Parenting Leaves, in December andApril respectively. During their absences, I mentored their substitute, who worked in both classrooms.The Context of the Curriculum ChangeAt Wolfe, no formal effort had previously been made to interrelate all prescribed subject areas in thegrades 6 and 7 curriculum, nor had there been a conscious effort to present content with a global perspective.Until the global curriculum initiative, the curriculum had been approached through continuous, lineally-sequenced units of information and skills. Teacher specialists independently developed the various contentareas within their assignments as specialists.The separation of the content strands had been further reinforced by the on-going practice ofplatooning students to teachers with expertise in a particular curricular domain. Objectives for the separatecourses of study were set by individual instructors from provincially prescribed curricula. Hence there wasgreat variation in emphasis of content, depth and breadth of studies and skills, through learning situationsranging from very traditional to very innovative.The staff at Wolfe had previously participated in the successful design and completion of severalmonth-long, school-wide, theme studies. Topics were chosen by consensus, then each classroom teacherdeveloped their own course of studies for their age/grade level within the theme. Co-planning was limited to18resource access and public display/events. Resource teachers planned only for their student groups who wereregularly "pulled-out" of their enrolling classrooms for special needs. While the continuation of the yearlythematic studies suggests the staff and students enjoy the thematic studies, the collection and preservation ofthe ideas seem to be major problems in recording these popular events.Teaching AssignmentsTeachers in this study had had no previous formal training or experience in collegial collaboration.They approached their teaching assignments as specialists in specific studies and kept content objectiveswithin their own curricular domains. Most student tasks were paper and pencil type, with enrichment andproblem-solving assigned to particular time periods over the week. While there was a strong sense of camara-derie among the teachers, professional exchanges of ideas and materials usually arose from casual discussionsof questions/concerns/celebrations of specific student achievements, rather than from curricular analysis andplanning. The teachers' timetables did not allow formal co-planning during the regular school day. Profes-sional development time was usually used to pursue individual teaching interests.Perceiving ChangeBy the early Spring of 1990, major political and ecological events of global importance had impactedon the staff and students at Wolfe. Emotional responses, such as anger, fear and hopelessness expressed bythe grades 6 and 7 students caused concern for their teachers. The impact of the global events on theirclassrooms forced the teachers to each make major professional decisions. The extraneous events hadpresented the ultimate "teachable moments", just as the teachers were being encouraged to endorse theMinistry's Year 2000 Document. A "window of opportunity" had presented itself, and a decision had to bemade whether to slam it shut in retreat or to step forward and gain a global perspective.Scouting the Learning EnvironmentAs the 1990 school year ended, the teachers involved with the grades 6 and 7 students had beenexperimenting with real-world issues in their scheduled creative problem-solving (CPS) sessions. Studentswere required to use familiar strategies on unfamiliar problems. They began to use skills and knowledge fromvarious content areas to complete cooperative, jig-sawed tasks (Johnson & Johnson, 1984). An example ofone of the problems is presented in figure 2.Ocean Environment; Group Problem Solving/Decision Making Task IA) Problem:^Design a self-contained ocean environment capable of sustaining the life of agiven community for 2 earth years.B) Question:C) Process:D) Product:What would be the important factors you would have to consider when thinkingof a shelter for an ocean environment? Consider all factors as you are to beisolated for 2 earth-years in this sealed ocean environment!) (Students brainstorm Factors in co-operative groups, then return to wholeclass group to share ideas.)0 (Whole class involvement in list-making of Factors to consider.)C) (Group consensus as to priority of list items.)® (In original co-operative groups, students design a plan for a sealed oceanshelter that will meet the priority needs of the inhabitants, consideringtheir isolation period of 2 earth-years.)(One group listed these factors, and ranked them in this order.)Air, food, pollution, medical, heat, disaster plan, water, light, government,power/energy, communication, transportation, waste disposal, entertainment,education, vegetation, personal hygiene/needs, equipment/storage,animals/pets, security/defense, personal space/housing, time, maintenance.19Figure 2. Ocean environment challenge problemThe successful completion of several global CPS sessions and the satisfaction expressed by studentsof varying abilities and language competencies, encouraged the teachers to continue. When students began toresearch information concerning global issues, their literature searches uncovered the deficiencies of theprescribed-Text approach for the E.Y.E.S. project. The available texts were insufficient as resources forstudies for a global perspective on topics such as world resource management, international law, human andanimal rights, and environmental terrorism.When free of text book limitations, students involved in the global CPS sessions repeatedly contrib-uted ideas and information from their cultural perspectives."In my country, no one thinks about maybe there won't be [sic] any (natural resources)one day. I worry about that.""I remember something like this from before I came to Canada." (Student examinessimple water pump.)20"People in my country treat animals very differently.""My father says Canada lets in too many criminals. He's afraid that things will turn badhere, too."The richness of these accounts, (often from recently integrated ESL students), further convinced theteachers to draw more from their students' experiences. Through their daily communications on globalissues, students naturally embellished their curriculum by adding their own international perspectives. Wolfeapparently had its own valuable global resources waiting to be used.Setting the SiteWhile students were experiencing the events that usually mark the finishing of the school year, thegrades 6 and 7 teachers began referring to themselves as a team and became more productive as their com-mitment to the emerging E.Y.E.S. Project revitalized their usually waning year-end energies. As the schoolyear ended, the teaching team expressed the desire to work collaboratively and plan across the content areasfor the following school year. The school's administration supported the proposed curricular exchange ofexpertise and encouraged collaboration though no special timetable arrangements were made to accommodatecollegial planning during school hours.lm This chapter's description of the characteristics of the site and participants in the study discusses thelimitations of the physical school building and the readiness experiences of the participants as world eventsimpacted on their classrooms. While the physically isolated classrooms and the practice of platooningstudents to content specialists reinforced the separation of content areas, this team of teachers began to designinterdisciplinary problem-solving activities. The students' increasing interest and enthusiasm for the activi-ties prompted the teachers to request administrative support in order to continue their work in developingcurriculum with a global perspective.Figure 3. The four areas of curriculaconsidered the basis for studentclassroom experiences at Wolfe.21CHAPTER FOURCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTIntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to discuss the development of the intended, implemented and attainedcurricula of the first year of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project, when the existing grades 6 and 7 curriculum wasreworked to attain a global perspective. The underlying principle of global education: that all things areinterconnected, is reflected in the transdisciplinary studies designed by the teaching team.Educational Models Established at WolfeSeveral recognized instructional models and heuristics are in place at Wolfe (Johnson & Johnson,1984; DeBono, 1985; Mohan, 1986; Buzan, 1974; Betts, 1985). Earliest informal discussions by the grades 6and 7 teaching team centred around the identification of expertise available and accessible on-site, and theassessment of the collective knowledge with the global educational models being considered. Once thetheoretical models had been agreed upon, more formal planning took place to analyse the models for theircommon and unique elements. From this analysis, the team connected the established elements in a way thatexpressed the origin of the theoretical base for the E.Y.E.S. Project. The following graphic (Figure 3) showsthe four areas of consideration in designing student experiences at Wolfe prior to the global initiative.The mandate to develop a curriculum, and the desire to add a global perspective required theE.Y.E.S. team to include a representative model from the Global Education domain. The addition ofHanvey's (1982) model was represented as follows (see Figure 4).22Figure 4. The EYES. theoretical model,including Hanvey's model and notingspecifics from the four areas of curricularconcern at Wolfe.Adding Hanvey's Global DimensionsOf the Global Education models researched and discussed by the teaching team, it was decided toincorporate Hanvey's (1982) Five Dimensional Model into the E.Y.E.S. Project. Hanvey's inclusion ofCross-cultural awareness as one of his dimensions particularly appealed to the team members because of theethnic diversity of students at Wolfe. Hanvey's assertion that the model was modest increased the team'scomfort in adopting it. The team used their familiar Venn circle graphic to interpret Hanvey's model (seefigure 4).Remodelling the Prescribed Curriculum Hanvey's model proposes three important principles of change; 1) things ramify, 2) there are no"side effects" but there are "Surprise effects", and 3) look for the concealed wiring. As several sources hadcalled for educators to use multidisciplinary approaches with students (Gang, 1989; Suzuki, 1990; Meyers,23The Way We PerceiveWhat's Going On...Assumptions andExplanationsWorld ConditionsandDevelopmentMechanics ofWorld SystemsHow WeChoose toDeal with ProblemsConfronting UsDiversity of Ideasand PracticesFigure 5. The teaching team's representation of Hanvey's model, illustrating the "interconnectedness" of his ideas andthe goals of the EY.ES. project.1984), and the team had had some experience in integrating content in theme studies, they accepted thechallenge of applying Hanvey's three principles to their new work.The teaching team intended to rework existing materials and to develop their own ideas throughcollaboration. In their support roles, computer and ESL resource teachers agreed to take their planning cuesfrom the team's efforts to interrelate concepts across the content areas.Informal discussions outside of class times provided opportunities for team members to clarify theirunderstanding of the interrelated models, overview curriculum and content, articulate new ideas, and toreflect on previous work. Prescribed scope and sequences were reviewed as team members rethought theirareas of expertise. Each subject specialist contributed by ensuring essential knowledge and skills wereincluded and by providing suggestions for linking subject concepts across content areas. The collaboration of24the subject specialists produced patterns which Drake (1992) has termed Transdisciplinary Webbing.Global Issues AwarenessIn order to become competent facilitators of a global curriculum, the team began an ardent quest forknowledge and information sources on emerging global issues. The team reviewed and considered theexploration of those issues in light of Hanvey's five global dimensions. As well, they began experimentingwith global problem-solving through roleplay simulations. The team presented students with problemsrequiring them to assume stakeholder roles to make decisions about topics such as resource distribution(arbitrary allotment of cookies to different-sized groups), ethical practices ( restricting water access to sickand healthy age groups in a community) and bartering for materials needed to accomplish a goal.The initial collection of information on current issues challenged the management skills of the team.Items included the usual newspaper, flier, pamphlet and magazine articles. As well, cartoons, advertisements,free materials, lists of resources, calendars, kits, and memos circulated between team members. Soon thenumber of transient bits and pieces required an easily accessible storage-retrieval system. Recycled filefolders and cardboard boxes housed in one of the resource rooms provide a user-friendly system.Global Issues SelectionAt first, the issues files were labelled with key content words in issue topics (e.g., "Water", "Air","Rainforest"). When the plethora of print and visual information swelled the topic files, secondary classifica-tion took place. Items from original topic files were sorted into an alphabetical series of files by topic nameand an issues clarifier. Hence the original "Water" file was reorganized into such titles as "Water-Conserva-tion", "Water-Pollution", etc.The reorganization of the files expedited the tally of the accumulating resources. Team memberscould quickly assess the quantity of information readily available by noting the increasing volume of the files.Variations in volume and the number of related files were taken as indicators of the frequency of the occur-rences of the topics and the number of concerns related to the issues in the public domain. When timeallowed, team members assessed the balance between factual and emotional content of filed items. Wheneverpossible, credibility was checked by cross-referencing similar items from various sources. Varying points of25views from local, national and international sources were actively pursued. Once a set of related files hadbeen screened and judged to have merit, the items they contained were referenced to content areas and to thedimensions of Hanvey's model.The files also revealed which global issues were receiving more "Press" attention than others. Theteam concentrated its effort on finding materials for topics that were not being filled by newspapers, maga-zines and other publications available locally. Then, members began extending their searches beyond theirhomes and school site into the larger zommunity.Telephone calls and personal visits were made to businesses, universities, non-governmental offices,government agencies, and research institutions. A file of willing resource persons was begun and cross-referenced with the themes. The team previewed and assessed all the materials collected. Usable items werecollated and filed, the remaining items were either passed on to other interested teachers or returned to theirsource with thanks and an explanation.Then, the simple filing system provided the team with an unexpected benefit. As a result of thesecondary sorting, eight different topics each had more than 5 related files. Quite by accident, the filingsystem had organized an incredible amount of information into the beginning of eight thematic units, withother topics showing similar potential. The team began to align issues across the content areas, and overtime, their casual comments indicated that they were encouraged."I had a gut feeling that the chaos would sort itself out!""I wondered if we would EVER make sense out of all that STUFF!""Well, there's September!" (pointing to a thick set of files)Theory Into Practice The team used a 6-step planning process developed through their participation in Wolfe's school-wide theme studies. As all team members were familiar with the process, it was decided to continue thisapproach as long as it served the project well. This six-step planning process is outlined in Table 1.26Wolfe's Six-Step Planning ProcessStep I^^ Survey prescribed materials for topics/skills^ Search for available support resourcesStep 2^^ Develop scope/sequence across disciplines^ Establish essential sub-topicsStep 3^^ Using Steps 1 & 2, develop Principles of Knowledge Framework (Mohan, 1986).^ Develop rest of Knowledge FrameworkStep 4^^ Identify content-specific vocabulary, skills, and processes^ Develop checklists for above across disciplines^ Brainstorm: Enrichment, Folklore, connections between ideas^ Develop student tasksStep 5^^ Prepare Key Visuals (Mohan, 1986) for classroom presentations to students^ Prepare progress report for rest of staffStep 6^^ Individual, peer, group, collegial evaluation^ Reflection^ Recommendations^ Formal recording of theme planTable 1. The Wolfe school planning process.Setting the Yearly PlanA portable bulletin board was used as the planning board for the E.Y.E.S. Project. It provided alarge enough space to practically plan the preview of the whole year. Its central location allowed it to beeasily accessed by all. As a public display area, it was open to all who were interested; staff, students,parents, and visitors.The team was determined to interrelate as many global issues as possible across the discipline areas.27Early in their planning, the team opted to use a cross-matrix grid as the organizer for the year's scope andsequence. Curriculum strands were listed down the vertical axis, while the months of the school year ranacross the top. The team then began to plan collaboratively the rest of the grid utilizing their eight sets oftheme files. Ideas placed on 3x5 cards were posted, reworked, and rearranged throughout the grid withrelative ease. The exercise tested the team's collaboration abilities.The more analysis the team did, the more connections in and between issues were revealed, and themore complex the organization became. It was agreed that it would be very difficult to manage the eightthemes simultaneously over the school year. However, Hanvey's model required the issues be related in waysthat allowed their interconnectedness to be explored.Team members felt positive about the manipulative grid as an organizational strategy." It's great being able to mesh the whole year, vertically and horizontally."" It appeals to me because I can explore options by physically moving thingsaround...like a board game."" Sometimes I just like to come in and say WOW! This is going to be great!After several hours of "playing" with the grid, a monthly thematic approach was felt to be the mostmanageable (see Table 2). It was decided to order the themes to allow students to acquire a cumulativeMonth Theme RationaleSeptember Environment Adjustment/back to schoolOctober Food/Water World Food Day/ThanksgivingNovember Conflict Res. Remembrance Day/PeaceDecember Cross-Cultural Winter festivalsJanuary Resolutions/laws Constants/change over timeFebruary Communication Self expressionMarch World Management New beginnings/growthApril Connectedness Pulling it all togetherMay Community Action planningJune Reflection Looking back-looking forward Table 2. Assignment of Monthly Themes28knowledge base about the issues and their influences. Consideration was also given to the traditional eventsof the school's culture over the year. During the first week in September, with those ideas in mind, the teamordered, reordered and finally assigned the monthly themes after several good-humoured attempts.Whenever time permitted, team members would work individually or together to complete the grid.Post-it notes were used to mark items that needed reviewing for change or replacement. Notes could be madeon the Post-it without altering the original card until it was agreed to do so. The notes served as memoscommunicating questions and reflections between team members, allowing each teacher to work independ-ently, but in concert with the rest of the team.As the planning grid evolved, the team began to invite other interested persons to review their work.The enthusiastic encouragement received by the team was gratifying and reinforced their commitment to theproject. The planning board became a meeting place. The grid became both a concrete measure of thedevelopment of the E.Y.E.S. Project, and a constant reminder of the task at hand, as the grid's vacant spaceschallenged its viewers." The whole thing has the challenge of a giant multi-dimensional puzzle with themagical element of all pieces having the potential to fit each other. It could drive youcrazy!"Once the team was satisfied with the finished grid, they focused on the first 2 months of the 1990-91school year. While they concentrated their attention on the beginning of the next school year, they agreed tocontinue to work on the other themes and to monitor and adjust the curriculum for depth and breadth ofcontent and skills once it was being implemented in the classrooms (see Table 3).29September Themes October ThemesSubjectShelterEnvironment Food & WaterThink Note WriteCAF—different biomesFIP—types of pollutionPMI—journalAGO—survival in biomesP&O—archeology role-playAlternatives—resourcesPrioritize—uses of waterPMI—distribution of resourcesAGO—journalConsequences—no electricityReading creation stories, main ideasequencing and settingfolktales, character analysis, plot, predicting andsummarizingLanguage adjectives, adverbs, thesaurus,comparatives, nouns and verbsphrases & prepositions, sentence combining andconjunctionsWriting discriptive paragraphs, topic &closing sentences and summariescharacterizations, phrase poems, early man role-playnarrativesVocabulary thesaurus—words for biomes, contextand changing descriptorsnoun & verb vocabulary expansion, word caches forfood & waterJournal family statistics, using your sensesand weekly self-evaluationgoal setting, needs vs. wants and privileges vsresponsibilitiesSocial Studies evolution, early man and archaeology early/modern farming comparisionScience biomes, ecosystems and adaptations water cycle, water purification & distribution,hydroelectricityResearch Skills note taking, skimming and scanning;mind-mappingoutlines, proofreading, multiple source, indexes, andalmanacsProblem Solving graphing, survival problems, types ofpollutionhands-on group problem solving--designing biomesheltersMathwhole numbers, rounding off,estimation and graphing place value and expanded notationGuide for Life conflict resolution strategies forces that shape behaviour, basic needs andfriendshipActivities archaeology trunk, VanCity contest,jigsaw, class presentations guest--Jim Scoton and refugee gameArt Hopes for the Future posters Canadian stamp designComputers designing shelters for the futureAudio-Visual Canadian Wildlife posters Water: The Hazardous Necessity; Fanning Aroundthe WorldDisplays timeline graphs, food chain charts,biome poems and posters water usage survey and water distribution mapTable 3. Notes taken from the planning grid showing the topics and skills for September and October across thecontent areas.30The Implemented or Experienced Curriculum Monthly themes. All team members were familiar with the Framework For Teaching and Learning (Mohan,1986). While the framework is an organizational tool that allows the team to compact learning objectives andstudent tasks onto one page, the team values it most for its inclusion of higher order thinking (see Table 4).The framework approach was initiated as a strategy that integrated language and content teaching forClassification Principles EvaluationBackgroundInformationclassifying,categorizing,definingexplaining, predicting,interpeting data &drawing conclusion,developinggeneralizations,hypothesizingevaluating, judging,criticizing, justifying,preferences & personalopinions, recommendingAction Situationobserving,describing, naming,comparing,contrasting,illustratingtime relations betweenevents, sequencing,spatial relationships,steps in processforming personalopinions, makingdecisions, planningactionDescription Sequence ChoiceTable 4. Mohan's (1986) Framework For Teaching and Learning illustrating some of the thinking tasks associatedwith each elementESL students. Team members had been using the framework since 1987 as a way to support ESL students'academic and cognitive development while they acquired English. It is generally accepted at Wolfe that thestrategy helps ALL students in the mainstreamed classrooms. Verification of the framework's strategic valuehas come from its use by classroom teachers in preparing Wolfe's annual school-wide theme studies.Team members were comfortable using the framework and felt their prior common knowledgepreparing and working from the frameworks would help the implementation process. The frameworks wouldalso serve as records of the course of studies within the theme issues.Other Vancouver schools use the framework approach, but the Wolfe team has made two uniqueadaptations. First, the items listed in each frame relate directly to those in horizontal line in adjacent frames.31Secondly, the horizontal lines of the top three "Background information" frames provide the base for thestudent "Action situations" of the bottom three frames, in order, top to bottom. Hence, the first classificationitem relates directly to the first description activity, the first principle to the first sequence, the first evaluationto the first student choice, and so on (see Figure 6).After the monthly themes had been established for the E.Y.E.S. Project, the staff collectively agreedto develop two school-wide themes, "Shelter" (October), and "Environment (February). The team opted toCLASSIFICATION^PRINCIPLES^EVALUATIONx20Z^IDescription^Sequence^ChoiceFigure 6. Illustration showing the relationship between the top and bottom sections of a framework, as developed bythe Wolfe team.include those topics within the themes already in place, as part of the projected cumulative knowledge base.The team consolidated key ideas from the three monthly themes they had previously prepared to make asingle framework that overviewed the first trimester, emphasizing the idea of "shelter" (see Table 5).The process of working through this framework helped the team make significant connectionsbetween the ideas within the three themes. It also helped them to prioritize topics and skills within thethemes, in the order that students needed them to successfully build on their prior knowledge. The teamgenerated many ways to enlarge on the ideas, and to keep everyone's expectations reasonable, the classroomteacher calculated the amount of class time available in each calendar month. The time factor had a soberingeffect on the team's grandiose plans but couldn't dampen their enthusiasm. The team began experimentingwith ways to get the most out of each time period by grouping natural combinations of concepts, thinkingClassification Principles EvaluationTypes of Shelters: permanentvs. temporary, rural vs. urbanand biome specifichumans need shelter; shelterused is determined byavailability of materials,function, and climateIn given biomes, evaluategoals of shelter, shelter needspast and present.Cultural Diversity: modern,traditional and statusinfluences of family, culturepopulation density on accessto sheltersRank shelter suitabilitycross-culturally.Emergency Shelters:stationary, mobile, group andindividualnatural disasters displacepeopleEvaluate people's opinions onthe homeless.Laws: owners, renters andhomelessrules governing shelter Evaluate fairness of laws,and rules.Housing: needs vs. wants essentials vs. dispensables Justify opinions on shelterissues.Describe types and uses ofresources and tools in shelterconstruction. Compare andcontrast shelters in differentbiomes.changes in shelters over time,tool development & housedesign changesChoose material and designfor suitable shelter in givenbiome. Prioritize tools,resources available and theneed for shelterCompare and contrast culturaldifferences in shelters.development and land use,construction & planningChoose suitable shelter, giventhe culture.Observe the effects of naturaldisasters on shelters.shelter & health issues Identify the type of threat toshelters in given biomes.Describe types of emergencyshelters.emergency preparedness Problem-solve sheltersolutions to natural disasters.Description Sequence ChoiceTable 5. A framework showing some key ideas in relating shelter to biome resources, food and water, and conflictresolution.skills and social skills. Figure 7 presents an example of an interdisciplinary problem.Weekly Plans3233Hands-On Challenge! Team Work!Problem:^With your group and using the materials provided,design and build a model shelter of maximum height,surface area covered and stability.* Your builtshelter must support 500g weight and wind velocityof the classroom fan on "high."Materials: 2 full sheets of newspaper, 6 computer cards, lm 1/2"masking tape, and 6 plastic straws* You may n tape your shelter to a surface.Your structure must demonstrate use of naturalresources found in your given biome.Figure 7. An example of a hands-on problem presented to students at the end of September.In facilitating an interrelated curriculum, the classroom teachers had to contend with seven, 40-minute periods per school day (regulated by bells), and the platooning of various groups of grades 6 and 7students to and from other teachers in various parts of the 3 story building. Also, there were some built-intimetable restraints. Gym time was the least flexible as all students had several regularly scheduled P.E.classes per week. Access to the computer lab was also limited due to the availability of the lab instructor,who is also the school's intermediate music/band teacher. Intermediate Art classes are scheduled as 2 blocksof 2 back-to-back 40 minute periods per week. Once the P.E., music, band, choir, computer, and art timeshad been set by the administration, the remaining subject areas were timetabled by the classroom teachers.Determined to maximize the potential for interrelating the subject areas, the classroom teachers innovativelyreworked the class' timetables.In contrast to the previous year's fragmented timetables separating each discipline, an attempt wasmade to combine disciplines when concepts or ideas overlapped, when different disciplines were taught bythe same teacher, when co-planning, and when collaboratively team teaching. The team combined LanguageArts and Social Studies to become "Humanities", taught by the classroom teachers. The classroom teachersalso exchanged their classes, one teacher assuming responsibility for Science for both classes, the other forMath. Students in both classes platooned to other teachers for P.E., Art, Music, and Computers. In-class1 2 3 4 5 6 7=Ian;111••■• 1!/11•=1.1^ ••••■•...•....• MI•MINO----• --6.7•M•1•!:MO =II • MO KAIM• I= MA: IMI =IV= • It Mt IMIX =MIMEO =MINN MO NM ME a.Woid"• • OM MN I • MI •MIN • • MIN I= • •• MNIMI MIMS SOMME 1,OM VII WM III IN NEM VitiL14EN mi. ism^1•• ••• •1111 Mil NM MI =1• 1=1 • 11••■•• ••■■•• •11=1•••IM^ ME NO MO MIME MS =I NM MO• IM • WM • • IM ••• • • I■ MN •=I MN_•_.•reAWAHumanitiesScienceMathArtP E.MusicComputerMon.Tue.Wed.Thu.Fri.••11•110• UN MI •IVAcx34support for ESL, LAC and Gifted students was arranged by the classroom teachers through consultation withthe resource members of the team. Every effort was made to amalgamate rather than scatter discipline timesover the school week.To help students adjust to the new interrelated timetables, a colour coding system was uses toindicate the larger, chunked blocks of study times (see Figure 8).The formal timetable ensured the prescribed allocation of time for each subject and was a concessionFigure 8. The colour coded grade 7 timetable.to the need to observe the scheduled platooning times. The rest of the "timetable" had been designed to helpthe students shift viewpoints by symbolizing when themes would be approached from the various academicperspectives.The sequence of the shifts in discipline perspectives was taken into account when weekly learningexperiences were arranged. The anticipated difficulty of the concepts helped to determine the amount of timestudents might need to familiarize themselves with the ideas. The quantity of quality material that met thevarying language competencies of the students indicated the choices in presentation and grouping. Over thecourse of any given week, opportunities were given for students to participate in whole class, large group,small group, paired and individual activities.This weekly planning graphic (Figure 9) was used during collaborative planning sessions. It hadbeen drafted originally to track idea sources and resource references, but soon was used more to ensure abalance of starting points in planning across the disciplines. The symbol in the boxes indicates the initiator35WEEKLY PLANNERweek of: lee 9-13Humanities Topics Resources Skills ActivitiesReadingFictionReadingNon-fictionboundaries see, student154121isyrolliinoteipcno(cni rt.scarclv,usinl niul-tiple resources,wrk-ta.knl5-b.-fists, conlarisoncl,art, culturalockanye, acrossbound onesWritingdialogue; directrotations-aesawits itotatitn niade.s, -faywords, pararapignyit ^diallue-sProblemSolvingcross-cultural sl,arinynativitylearning about ofkrs,194,1010.4v:tzvestioni7, ?e,exin-texas-fiats5-Eudorts Aidels5540:k wl,o can lit210,44 criteriaMath/Sciences Topics Resources Skills ActivitiesScienceGe.ne-iics, ke,re,011-ty biology tests, ii-varylooks, re-sourceperson--W3C & Osotudop knowledge base ;analysis classificationtree, olicv4,-",classification clart,refroduc-tive, arksMathProblemSolvingFigure 9. A weekly planner showing Heather's organization of her responsibilities for this week.of the activities.Collegial Collaboration in the Development of Key VisualsMost of the collegial collaboration focused on the development and use of key visuals and keyvocabulary within the themes. The potential power of key visuals had been introduced to the team at WolfeZonesof the36through a previous ESL Pilot Initiative (Early, Mohan, Hooper, 1988). Team members had developed, usedand evaluated the effectiveness of their own and other visuals throughout the pilot. The team was satisfiedthat key visuals display content information in ways that lower the language barriers for ALL students. Theyalso knew the importance of visible knowledge structures underlying the content information in key visuals.As the team wanted the students to develop an integrated knowledge base over the year, it wasimportant to provide structures that could be returned to repeatedly to maximize learning opportunities overtime. The designing of such key visuals became an ongoing challenge.The key visual in Figure 10 was used to help students understand the interconnectedness of geogra-Figure 10. An example of a visual produced by the teaching team.37phy, water, and food. Significant information was added to the original structure as it accumulated over time.Using this visual, students recorded: the types of land configurations in oceans (during their environmentstudies in September), the vertical zones of the oceans and ocean food chains (during water and food studiesin October), and the ocean resources/political boundaries (during conflict resolution studies in November).The frequent use of this visual throughout the three monthly theme periods focused students on the interrelat-edness of the basic components involved in the issues concerning ocean use, conservation, and internationallaw.As information accumulated on this visual, it served as a presentation aid for new information, as asummary of previously given data, and as an advanced organizer for information to follow. The diagramformat chosen for this key visual supports the knowledge structures that underlie the content, i.e., a cross-section of an ocean. By including a number of related concepts, it organized the various information unitsinto a concept "ocean."Other key visuals were also used by the team (see Figure 11).During the planning of key visuals, the team identified key concepts and skills typically taughtClassification Principles EvaluationBackgroundInformationwebs, trees, tables,graphs, data basediagrams, graphs,tables, cyclesrating charts, gridsAction Situationtables, diagrams,pictures, plans,drawings, mapssteps, flow charts, timelines, action strips,cyclesdecision trees, choiceswheels, flow chartsDescription Sequence ChoiceFigure 11. Some of the key visuals used with the framework.within the single-subject approach. Once the priorities had been established, the team looked for sharedcommonalities of the curricula strands. In the visual in Figure 10, the geography of the ocean environment3 8was combined with the biology of its inhabitants to lead to the exploration of international laws concerningthe harvest, conservation and claims to ocean resources.Using this strategy, the team reworked dense text information into visuals known as "Text busters".The ocean visual compacts the significant information from several resources concisely and explicitly.Team-designed visuals were used to support discussion presentations. Students were encouraged to develop arepertoire of knowledge structures. As part of their research assignments, students used key visuals to plantheir investigations, organize their data, and present their findings.Many of the key visuals designed by the team required the students to conduct research in order tocomplete them. While the underlying knowledge structures remained the same for all students, they allowedstudents choices in degree of difficulty in text language as they searched through various resources to com-plete their assignments. Co-operative visuals helped students to add others' ideas, and to evaluate theirefforts.For the team, the most exciting key visuals were those produced by the students from their ownresearch. Sometimes students were guided by choices of knowledge structures within a given theme. Oftenthey were given free choice in producing informative key visuals. Students were encouraged to experimentwith a variety of key visuals as they organized their own understanding and made presentations to enhanceothers' learning.The Attained CurriculumOver the Course of the YearAs students explored the issues related to the monthly thematic studies, they were required to usetheir knowledge and skills to research and develop new ideas. Projects often required students to employtheir interpersonal skills to share ideas and promote community problem-solving. As well, students wereencouraged to bridge generations to facilitate their own and others' learning. Exploration of career opportuni-ties were an integral part of the thematic studies, and students were encouraged to do independent studies inareas of special interest to them. Students were offered many opportunities to extend their ideas into thepublic forum, and were expected to actively participate in decision making processes. Students contributedverbal-visual displays for neighbourhood businesses, non-governmental organizations, shopping malls, media39centres, and a provincial exhibition. Some students participated in public forums and hearings, others lobbiedpoliticians, and most were involved in letter writing to newspapers, business and community leaders, andspecial interest organizations.The Culminating Event At Wolfe, the end of the school year was celebrated traditionally with public participation in aschool-wide event. Wolfe's first Global Conference continued the tradition of presentation but changed therole of the audience. Rather than being passive viewers, the audience was invited to participate in interactivedisplays and student presentations.The initial impression of the conference reminded the viewer of a science fair, as students eachmanned booths displaying verbal-visuals and science experiments or models. A closer examination revealedsignificant differences. Unlike science fairs where students compete with each other, this conference was acelebration of student-community effort. With the help of mentors, students had worked together gatheringideas, data and materials, collecting whatever they could find whether it was for their own topic or forsomeone else's. Some partnerships shared the same view of an issue, while others, as individuals, developedopposing points of view, and embarked on friendly, responsible debates. Also in contrast to science fairs,issues presented were required to demonstrate local-global connections through their verbal-visual, experi-ment or model, and oral presentations.In preparation for the event, an intensive six-week mini-course was designed to focus students ontransferring the knowledge they had acquired through mentorships with volunteer resource persons from thewider community. Students assumed roles as "Experts-In-The-Field" (see Figure 12).Communication skills were emphasized as students prepared their verbal-visual displays and theirStudent Role IssueDarylJudyCarolineCarlosSarahPublic Rd. AdvocateResearcher,^CriticPublic^EducatorCaregiverElderPulp & PaperPulp & PaperHousehold WasteAnimal RightsHuntingFigure 12. Examples of roles students assumed relating to global issues.VV Globaloverviewiir graphsurveyexperimentmodel* final copiesbibliographyself-evaluationCue cards Invitation tomentorwHost & guidefor mentorIv Presentationat^4^conferencewwLetters ofthanksPost-conferenceactivitiesi 40oral presentations. Figure 13 showed the students the process of preparing their presentations.Students were asked to select topics from global issues that had special interest for them. StudentsFigure 13. The process studentsfollowed in preparing theirpresentations for the global conference.Visuals* Banner &LogoProjectDiscussionOverviewChoosetopicFactorsPrioritiesOutlinelir Questions (3per heading)PracticetelephoneconversationJrTelephoneMentor*Businessletter;Confirmationof interviewi Interviewaccompanied bybuddyFact sheet &pamphletwNotesTranscribeinformation from allsources41were encouraged to work with a "Partner" who would develop an opposing point of view on their issue.Some students worked cooperatively on a single issue or related issues. Forty-one student-designed exhibitsproduced and presented by sixty students engaged the public in dialogues concerning a wide range of local-global related issues (see Table 6).While they were preparing their projects, students also designed and produced interactive computerTopics1. Pulp and Paper Industry 22. Hazardous Wast Disposal2. Dioxins and Furans 23. Water Purification/Control3. Fishing Industry 24. Water Reservoirs/Dams4. Marine Biology 25. Pest Control5. Oil Industry 26. Transportation/Fuel Consumption6. Oil Spills 27. Garbage Gardening7. Transportation Expert 28. Insulation8. Air Pollution 29. World Food Production9. Resource Developer 30. Water Pumps/Water Hazards10. De forestation 31. Home Energy Use/Waste11. Agricultural Practices 32. Excessive Packaging12. Organic Gardening 33. Recycling Garbage13. Hunting 34. Composter/Worm Ranching14. Wildlife Management 35. Mining15. Diaper Industry 36. Mining/Environmental Damage16. Benefits of Space Research 37. In Your Own Backyard17. Solar Energy 38. Home Water Use/Waste18. Nuclear Energy 39. Deadly Throwaways19. Noise Pollution/Air Pollution 40. S.P.C.A.20. Composting 41. Animal Rights21. Soil Pollution Landfill Sites 42. Gift Giving PracticesTable 6. Topics chosen by students for presentation at Wolfe's Student Global Conference, 1 99 1.displays giving the public access to data on global issues, collaboratively painted a mural entitled "The BluePlanet" (to completely cover the back wall of the school's stage), researched, developed and performed a42mock hearing on the expansion of Vancouver's Airport. They also wrote, rehearsed, and dedicated theirmural in their opening address.Prior to the public opening of the Global Conference, students participated in a dress -rehearsal asthey were evaluated by adjudicators representing academic, business, and community organizations. Duringtheir adjudications, students were required to explain the significance of their verbal-visuals, their models orexperiments, and the local and global connections of their issues. Their presentation style and self-confidencewere as important as their grasp of the content. Adjudicators had been instructed to give positive commentsand coaching tips when debriefing with students. No letter grades or rankings were involved. Studentsreceived anecdotal comments and recommendations from their adjudicators, teachers and peers.SummaryThis chapter discussed the development of the intended, implemented, and attained curricula of thefirst year of the global project. The existing grades 6 and 7 curricula were reworked to incorporate Hanvey's(1982) five dimensional model for global education. The model was used to design and implementtransdisciplinary thematic studies on global issues, that culminated in a Student Global Conference open tothe public.43CHAPTER FIVECURRICULUM LEADERSHIPIntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to examine the various roles performed by the teaching team as theydesigned and implemented the curriculum changes. This chapter details the five groups of tasks shared by theteaching team as they developed the global curriculum.Breaking down each team member's role into functions might make it easier to understand, butthe effectiveness of a team depends on how well it all blends together to make a total performance. Aside fromtheir usual teaching responsibilities, the team members variously performed voluntary day-to-day operationstasks particular to Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project. The majority of these voluntary tasks can be grouped into thefollowing areas: expertise tasks, role-function tasks, communication tasks, supervisory tasks, and personalgrowth tasks (Bradley, 1985). These various tasks will now be discussed in more detail.Expertise Tasks 1. Making Connections ^ r Major On-Site InitiativesOther significant on-site projects also required the expertise of the teaching team. At Wolfe, there hasbeen a long term commitment to the establishment of strong support for ESL students. Consequently, throughdistrict initiatives, the staff has been involved in on-going inservice, management and evaluation of their ESLsupport system. The teaching team members have undergraduate and graduate level coursework in ESL andeach member has 6-12 years practical classroom experience supporting ESL students. The global curriculummaintained or increased the level of ESL student support, through co-planning involving ESL resource teachers,and through team teaching that lowered the student-teacher ratio within the regular classroom.Another initiative directly involving the Vancouver District was the provision of an on-site resourceperson responsible for the support of gifted students. At Wolfe, this support has evolved over the last 6 yearsand includes gifted ESL students.From the work done with gifted students, the staff has gradually incorporated the Autonomous Learner44Model (Betts, 1985) into regular classroom curricula.Both the ESL and gifted initiatives presented a wide range of student support, from small group pull-outs to in-class monitoring. Concomitant with the service for students was the level of support given to class-room teachers. Some teachers requested little support, while others expected to collegially plan, peer coach andteam teach. The resource persons had to be available to meet the needs of both students and their classroomteachers.2. Participating in Creative Problem SolvingThe uniqueness of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project required the team to seek new ideas and to consider,adapt, combine and assess them. The team was charged with the responsibility of considering new ideas,continually producing useful ideas for the school administration to consider, interpreting theory into practiceand giving sufficient attention to the action research process. Their thoughts ranged from the practical, feasible,possible ideas:"Let's use the old 'Science Fair' set-up, but use a GLOBAL agenda!" to lofty, idealideas:"If we're really going to go 'Global,' wouldn't it be great to actually link our kids withothers around the world? We could use the computers, modem and satellite technology!"The onus was on each member to stay current in their specific field of expertise while maintaining theperspective of global education. The team exchanged pertinent readings collected from different sources.From their readings and through their personal connections with other groups, each team member keptabreast of the current issues and trends in their own curricular areas and within their extended social environ-ments. This gathering of opinions from professional and personal sources provided balance in determining thevalues of the current issues in the public domain, helped determine the selection of the study themes andreinforced the neutral role of the teaching team in their presentations on issues.The team's eclectic collection of skills and strategies offered them a comprehensive repertoire to drawfrom when they planned student activities. Their successful transfer of pedagogical knowledge to and fromvarious educational domains facilitated their interdisciplinary approach.As those not directly involved became more aware of the E.Y.E.S Project, there were numerous45requests for input from the team. Teachers asked for innovative ideas to help them make their own local-globalconnections. Business interests consulted the team on ways to include student work in their public displays.Non-governmental organizations asked the team to preview educational materials. Independent film-makershad the team help produce two videos for international audiences. Through correspondence, inservice, infor-mal and formal talks, published articles, and by hosting guests, the team tried to share their ideas and to inspireothers to get involved.3. Connecting With Resource PersonsThrough personal networking, team members initiated the search for available materials. While on-site resources were being collected, reviewed and assessed, colleagues at other sites, businesses, publishers andnon-profit organizations were being contacted for their support. As information and materials accumulated,resources from different content domains were reviewed and shared by the teaching team.4. Being Resource Persons for On-Site Administrator and TeachersBecause team members had expertise in various content areas, other staff looked to them whenthey needed specific information. At least two team members reviewed all materials for factual content andbias of opinion. Then the materials and evaluation comments were passed on to other team members whoscreened the material for their content/skills domain, selecting useful items and forwarding others. By sharingthe task of screening of materials, it was manageable, and allowed the team access to limited resources.Team members used five criteria to sort and select materials to be used in the project.1. Materials had to fit Hanvey's 5 Dimensions.2. Materials had to support educationally sound practices.3. Materials had to be practical to use with grades 6 and 7 students.4. Materials had to be of low cost, high educational value.5. Materials had to have other points of view available.Those materials that met the screening criteria were filed under theme headings. Materials that met thecriteria but were not age appropriate, were offered to other interested teachers on-site. Materials that failed tomeet the criteria were returned to their source with a note of explanation.46Team members recruited a number of persons from the off-site community on behalf of the E.Y.E.S.Project. As a result of these contacts, a number of resource persons became directly or indirectly involved withthe school. In several cases, resource persons made extended or return visits in order to include students inother classes in similar presentations.Role Function Tasks1. Full-Time Teaching AssignmentsThe E.Y.E.S. teaching team was composed of both enrolling and non-enrolling teachers. The enroll-ing teachers' responsibilities centred on the management of the learning experiences for students in theirassigned classes with extensions into the wider school experiences through various student and teacher initiatedprojects. Non-enrolling teacher' assignments involved the support of all Wolfe students and their teachers.Since the commitment of the team to develop the global perspectives curriculum, the team had assumed theadded responsibilities for the redesign of the existing grades 6 and 7 traditional curricula, and of infusing globalawareness into the regular school-wide theme studies.2. Participation in School-Wide Theme StudiesFor several years, Wolfe teachers have on occasion, cooperatively planned simultaneous month-longthematic events for all students. Formerly the themes chosen related to content topics that were commonstrands through the prescribed course of K-7 studies. Early topics included "Space", "Time", and "Clothing."With global awareness, the themes were related to local and global issues. Recent themes were developedconcerning "Shelter", "Sharing and Caring", "Physical/Affective Environments", "Recycling", and "Adopt AnElephant." The school-wide themes often evolved as extensions of the monthly thematic studies planned for theE.Y.E.S. students (see Table 7).3. Developing the Working Model of the Global CurriculumE.Y.E.S. Project School ThemeBiomes/Adaptive behaviourBiome resourcesCross cultural/generationsZoos/Endangered speciesEnvironmentShelterSharing and CaringAdopt an ElephantTable 7. School-wide theme studiesplanned to coincide with the grade 6and 7 global themes.47Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project evolved from curriculum documents written prior to its beginning. Previousgoals, objectives, skills and concepts from prescribed academic content areas were continually redefined as newministry documents became available. Because team members came from various fields of expertise, it wasexpedient to begin with the work that was completed and available, and then adapt it for a global perspectivethrough additions, deletions, and revisions.There was a security in reworking the prescribed curriculum. By using existing documents, the teammaintained consistency of educational language, while writing on a level of generality that provided neededflexibility. The working model for the E.Y.E. S. Project was a combination of strengths from many educationalsources.4. Scope and Sequence DevelopmentThe team replaced the traditional grades 6 and 7 curricula. They reorganized individual prescribedscopes and sequences into interdisciplinary thematic studies. They added content concerning global issues,specified thinking skills to be taught, and included short-term independent studies with off-site mentors. Theyincorporated the elements of Hanvey's (1982) global dimensions within monthly themes and over the year'scourse of studies. The team designed key visuals to reinforce the interconnectedness of content and skills acrossdisciplines over time. Real-world issues were topics of choice in planning student experiences. Task emphasiswas on student participation in the problem-solving process, and on their active involvement as citizens incommunity groups.5. Answering CorrespondenceOnce the team made requests for assistance from the public domain, answering the mail became asignificant task. There was a temptation to allow the excitement and novelty of the new sources to intrude intoother daily tasks. No clerical help was available to the project, so each team member received, assessed,distributed and/or filed materials. Heather and I answered requests and sent thank-yous on behalf of the team,but students were responsible for communications with their mentors, once the team had established thementorships.6. Setting Up In-service Meetings and Conducting Workshops48Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project was not intended to be developed and implemented in isolation. The rest ofWolfe's staff was kept abreast of the latest developments through regular information items presented at thePrincipal's meetings and through their Teacher Action Committee meetings. Less formal debriefing took placeover lunches, in small groups or during the team's peer coaching sessions.On several occasions the school staff requested the team to provide coaching and/or workshops arisingfrom some particular aspect of the project. Thinking skills, interrelating the curriculum, and future-orientedproblem solving were some of the topics specifically requested. When time allowed, arrangements for inservicesessions were made as soon as possible, on-site, at the convenience of the majority of those interested in theparticular topic.7. Developing Budget ProposalsIn order to make Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. model easily transferable to other sites, the team was determined tominimize the cost. It was also important to the team members that the project did not burden the school board'sfunds. Consequently, outside support that included a small discretionary fund was gratefully received, and usedto purchase global information materials and graphic art supplies for the students. When and how the moneywas spent was decided through collective agreement. Because money used by the school must be audited,bookkeeping was monitored by the team but maintained in an account through the school's office.8. Long Range PlanningAs the project developed, the range of long term planning extended. Initially, the long range plancovered one school year. Then it was extended to three years and has since been set at five years by the partici-pating team members.While the current year was being implemented, the next year was planned and the following year wasin the design stage. Input from the grades 4,5 and 6 teachers helped the team select the content and approachesthat were suitable to the incoming class. Target dates for the goals, objectives and activities were set during theimplementing year when they were adjusted to meet individual student needs and aptitudes. Throughout thecourse of the project, the team, the school's staff, parents, and students, were involved in review of theproject's long range plans.Communication Tasks49I Public RelationsAs well as educators, representatives from various community groups such as business, special interest,and the media have visited Wolfe School to experience the E.Y.E.S. Project first-hand. To acquaint visitors tothe global curriculum, the team shared their knowledge of global education and expressed the goals, objectivesand strategies of the project. Visitors were invited to participate actively in the classrooms and students wereencouraged to take active roles in demonstrating the skills they were acquiring and their applications is explor-ing global issues.Regular, written communications sent by the team to parents ensured the on-going information ex-change between school and home. Information sent home concerning major events reiterated the goals of theproject and related them to the practical experiences in which the students were involved.Through personal interaction with other staff members, parents, off-site professional resource persons,and the general community, the team was able to survey interested groups to determine their perception of theproject. Occasionally, through these interactions, new resources were discovered, or the project found newways to be involved with the off-site community.2. Collecting and Summarizing Critical AnalysisTeam members welcomed others to evaluate their efforts. In response, the team received both oral andwritten communications expressing colleagues', parents', mentors' and visitors' impressions and recommenda-tions. All written communications received from off-site parties were shared by the team. There has been someon-going written communication with formal evaluators through the B.C.T.F. Global Education Project. Todate, no formal evaluation of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S. Project has been undertaken.3. Speaking on Curriculum and Instructional TopicsThe teaching team was frequently requested to make formal and informal presentations concerning thedevelopment of the global perspectives curriculum. Regular updating and debriefmg sessions during Principal'sand Teachers' Committee meetings kept Wolfe's staff informed. Continuous interaction with the wider com-munity offered many opportunities to communicate the goals and objectives of the project. The lighthousestatus of the project encouraged the linking of the project with other global development sites in British Colum-bia through mutual exchanges and collaboration, and provided opportunities to network with global educators50across Canada.4. Disseminating ResearchWhen other teachers expressed interest in global education, the teaching team offered to help themwith information and ideas. Theme bibliographies and literature sources were made available, and field testedbooks and student materials were recommended by the team. The team directed inquirers to the resources thatwould be most helpful to them.5. Writing MemosEffective communication between the teaching team members required few written memos. Duringthe early planning stage, informal notes were exchanged several times daily, as ideas were generated. The notescovered a wide range of topics, some with great detail, others with graphics. Because of team member'spersonal styles of note making, no official form was designed. Memos requiring action from the receiver werekept until the task was completed, then the memo was initialled and rerouted back to the originator. Largeritems, such as budget proposals, inservice preparations, and requests to visit, requiring greater team input, wereexchanged through a file folder system.6. Preparing AgendasMost meetings held by the teaching team were informal, often over lunch. For such gatherings, noformal written agenda was made. When major events were being planned, an agenda was posted in the resourceroom where the meetings took place. The posting looked more like a listing of ideas to be considered inreaching a goal than a compilation of information/interest topics. The team met as often as necessary to ensurethe continuity and management of the project.Supervisory TasksI. Development of ModelsThe team was required to generate an exemplary global education model suitable for use by otherteachers. The team was in charge of generating this model. They set goals and organized themselves for thetasks involved with curriculum development.2. Co-operative Management51Because team members assumed many roles in the school, they had to stay in close communicationwith the administrator. As interactions between the global project and the off-site community became morevaried and frequent, Heather and I met regularly with our principal in order to give ample time to consider ideasthat required administrative support.3. Monitoring the ProjectThe team's evaluation of the project centred on the project's progress, activities, resource materials androles of personnel within the project. It did not infringe upon the principal's administrative evaluation areas.Professional Development Tasks1. Participation in Professional ActivitiesThe nature of this curriculum with a global perspective required the team to stay current with curricu-lum trends and research in education. The team members regularly surveyed current literature sources. Theyattended district, provincial, and international professional meetings. They arranged and hosted visits with otherteaching professionals, and were in regular communication with university professors and specialists at theB.C.Teachers' Federation.2. Literature ReviewsMembers of the team set aside some time each day for reading and reflection. The volume of materialshared demonstrated their eagerness to pass on anything worthwhile. They enjoyed learning from each other asthey manipulated their out-of-school/on-site time for regular brainstorming and problem-solving sessions.3. Developing Professional MaterialsThe team designed and presented professional workshops throughout the development of the project.The presentations were for on-site, district, regional, and provincial teaching professionals. In conjunction withthose presentations, packages of written materials were designed for distribution.SUMAC/This chapter describes the leadership roles performed by the teaching team as they designed andimplemented the global project. In addition to their usual teaching responsibilities, team members performedvarious day-to-day operations tasks particular to the project. Their leadership tasks were grouped as 1) expertisetasks, 2) role function tasks, 3) communication tasks, 4) supervisory tasks, and 5) personal growth tasks, as in52Bradley's (1985) model.With respect to expertise tasks, team members were resource persons to the school's staff, students,and off-site community. They used their talents to gather global content materials, stage real-world problemsolving situations, and link students to off-site mentors.In performing role function tasks, the team adapted their participation in regular school events by usingHanvey's (1982) model to guide the selection and design of student experiences. As classroom facilitators, theteam worked collegially to provide students with curricula plans, resource materials and mentors current withglobal issues.With respect to communication tasks, the team made both written and oral transmissions. The teamsent, received and answered requests, surveyed and collated ideas and opinions, and made presentations onbehalf of the project. They also held meetings and debriefing sessions, recorded work related to the themes,hosted visitors, and reported on the project's development, student achievements, and the roles of facilitators.Supervisory tasks were also shared by the team. They focused on the development of the globaleducation model, with the support of the school's administrator.Personal growth tasks centred around literature and trends in global education curriculum develop-ment. Team members actively pursued ideas and materials that promoted a global perspective in all contentareas. They attended professional meetings and hosted visitors in order to network with other global educators.Through teamwork they supported each other to achieve competence in interdisciplinary curriculum develop-ment, and gained confidence to help other teachers gain insights into global education.53CHAPTER SIXINDICATORS OF CURRICULUM EFFECTIVENESSIntroductionThis chapter relates the previous chapters' descriptions of curriculum leadership and developmentwithin the global education project, to indicators of effective curriculum leadership and development asdescribed in Bradley's (1985) model. His model provides specific indicators to be used to determine ifeffective curriculum leadership and development are present.Bradley's model was not known by the teaching team until late in the second year of implementa-tion. At the beginning of their third year, team members agreed to review their first year's work for evidenceof curriculum development and leadership in global education. This chapter's discusiion begins with evi-dence indicating effective curriculum leadership, and ends with evidence indicating effective curriculumdevelopment.Bradley's Indicators of Effective Curriculum LeadershipIndicator # 1: Others Seek Out Curriculum Leaders For Help There were many processes and decisions that the teaching team was involved in because of theirvarious assignments in the school. However there were many other decisions and processes that the team alsoparticipated in as a direct result of their commitment to global education, and the E.Y.E.S. Project.Increasingly, other teachers requested personal consultation time with the team for the purpose ofglobal perspectives curriculum planning, materials preview, cross-grade sharing and reflective problem-solving. Several requests were made for guidance in selecting student activities, books, guest speakers andaudio-visual materials. A few requests were for readings from the team's literature reviews.As the E.Y.E.S. Project evolved, the team received information and materials from agencies request-ing their consideration for use within the curriculum. Community media and video makers approached theteam on numerous occasions inviting participation in productions for various causes associated with globalissues. The team regularly hosted visiting professionals interested in gaining personal insight into a class-room environment with a global perspective. As requested, the team made inservice presentations on-site,54and at District, Provincial and International conferences, often infusing global awareness into other educa-tional domains.While none of these events may be unique to a global classroom, the frequency of occurrence, depthof personal involvement, and time commitments of the team members were significant.Indicator #2: Consistency of Curriculum Document QualityThe number of teachers comprising the teaching team required that the curriculum documentsgenerated be formalized from the beginning. As the project continued, the originals were modified and newformats were added as the needs arose. The planning formats were deliberately chosen for their universalityin application across disciplines. The team set the standards for the documentation of the global curriculum.The use of the cross-matrix grid for the thematic unit layout provided the team with a practicalorganizer for the yearly scope and sequence. The Framework for Teaching and Learning standardized theoutlines for thematic units. Weekly overviews provided all team members with up-to-date modifications tomeet immediate student needs. The use of Key Visuals throughout the curriculum provided everyone withadvance organizers, information structures, and review graphics, to enhance text.By using these formalized documents, design elements did not vary significantly because of thecontent or subject issue of the curriculum development. Each thematic study followed the same designprocess and was recorded using the same unit organizers.Indicator #3: Teacher Willingness to Work on Curriculum Committees Members of the teaching team were experienced in the curriculum development process. They hadindividually and collectively been involved in many local, district, and provincial curriculum committees, asspecialists and as generalists, as participants and as facilitators.The time committed to their curriculum work ranged from individual days to blocks of time. Theteam had been involved in other pilot initiatives and innovative projects prior to initiating the E.Y.E.S.Project. Previously, as individuals, they had spent time providing inservice symposiums and presenting atconferences, for their various special interest professional associations. Presentations concerning the E.Y.E.S.Project were co-presented. As a result of the global project, the team became more actively involved in thewider school community, specifically with local interest groups, community associations, and their Partner in55Education, a local bank. As these commitments were by invitation and voluntary, the teams' willingness toserve again and again indicated that the time and effort were considered worthwhile.Indicator #4; Communication Initially, the team sought other educators knowledgable in the global education domain, in order toclarify their understanding and to seek guidance in implementation of their ideas. During the planning stage,the team explained the curriculum changes to the various groups of people who were affected by it. Theyexplained the project to other educators in terms of classroom implementation while communicating with thepublic in lay terminology.During implementation, communication was continuous in order to nurture ownership in theprojects' various stakeholders. Community resource persons were most often kept informed by personalphone calls from the team, though on occasion there were written communications. There were regular oraland written communications with colleagues responding to specific enquiries and/or requesting input for plansof special events that concerned them. Parents received daily debriefing through student homework logswhich doubled as response journals between home and school. The off-site school community receivedupdated information through the regularly published school newsletter. The level of public communicationover time was proportionate to the degree of direct involvement in the project.Indicator #5: Identifying Working ModelsBecause attaining a global perspective does not require the replacement of, or adding-on to thetraditional curriculum, the models already in place became the foundation for the organization of the globalcurriculum. Hanvey's (1982) Global Perspectives Model was selected by the team because of its modesty ofgoals and because it seemed likely that its dimensions would fit the school's established models with reason-able success.Indicator #6: Moulding of a Workable GroupThe teaching team had worked together at this site for more than 5 years. Some members hadworked together for more than ten years. As Intermediate teachers, platooning each others' students, theycomprised an informal group. Also, they had previously worked together formally to produce intermediatecourses of studies and activities for school-wide thematic studies. The experimentation with the global56perspective initiative followed from their informal and formal relationships as intermediate curriculumdevelopers. The successes of the various short-term global issues experiments carried out by individualteachers, sparked their interests in pursuing the long -term group-process development of the E.Y.E.S. Project.Indicator #7: Comprehensive Ownership of the CurriculumThe commitment of the teachers to the development of a global perspective curriculum was acollective response to anxieties expressed by their students over the catastrophic global events of early 1990.Their students' attempts to debate issues and make sense of the ramifications they were feeling in their dailylives, required the team to make as much time and information as possible available to the students. Thestudents indicated a deficiency in their studies , demanded change in their courses of study, and began topursue information concerning global issues.The global events of the time were of such magnitude and frequency that the team opted to facilitatethe teaching of skills to help students deal with the global challenges presented daily by the media. Veryquickly, the experimental phase showed that the future role of the teaching team would be as facilitators ofskills and strategies needed to manage the ever increasing amount of incoming information. No shortage ofcontent was anticipated for the global education studies.From the beginning, parents were pleased to have their children take active interest in the expandedcurrent event discussions. Some parents commented that they were mildly amused with the seriousness theirchildren expressed concerning world issues. Several parents expressed surprise at the depth of interest theirchildren pursued, while others commented on the pressure they were feeling to keep abreast of affairs them-selves.Students were encouraged to survey their family and friends for opinions and beliefs connected toissues of concern to them. They participated in cross-generation activities, establishing links with their widerglobal community. Though their active participation in the school and their wider community, studentsbecame "ambassadors" for the E.Y.E.S. Project. Their contribution to a number of public displays in supportof global issues furthered their visibility in the off-site community.Because of the frequency of pilot initiatives at Wolfe, the advent of the E.Y.E.S. Project did notreceive special attention. Typically, colleagues expressed interest in its development and included it in the57staff sharing sessions. As the curriculum developed, their support was shown in their continuous recommen-dations of materials, resources and ideas. They encouraged cross-grade sharing of issue studies and asked tobe included in numerous special projects undertaken through the project. Gradually, other intermediateteachers began experimenting with a global perspective in an effort to prepare younger students for the grades6 and 7 E.Y.E.S. Project. It was not long before the global curriculum became a favourite project involvingmany people working together.Indicator #8: Problem SolvingBecause team members have worked together on several previous projects, they were aware of eachothers' professional strengths and interests. They have established a working relationship based on theirwillingness and ability to participate in problem-solving processes. Part of problem-solving is problem-finding, the ability to sense potential problems before they become a reality. The team seems to have aninnate ability to intuitively assess and determine plausible solutions, and they are able to prioritize preferablealternatives very quickly and easily.Another strength of the teaching team was their collective positive attitude. This attitude wasreflected in their approach to the challenges of developing a new curriculum. They were positive in theirsupport of each other's efforts and were willing to accept mistakes as well as to participate in attempts tocorrect them. There was a relaxed atmosphere and great sense of security within the team.Their collegial support of each other reduced the risk to any one member through their sharedresponsibility of accepting any professional risk involved in developing new curricula. Creativity and humourwere always welcomed by the group, but were especially prized during their problem solving sessions.The team was as comfortable using thinking skills strategies in their own problem solving sessions asthey were using them with students in the classrooms. As well, the team had formally trained and usedstrategies in creative problem solving, future problem solving and conflict resolution.Observers commented on the team's continual state of activity. Members of the team responded toquestions about their state of perpetual motion claiming they were a reciprocal "event" with energy flowingback and forth between themselves and the students as they learned together.Indicator #9: Use of Personal Power over Positional Authority58The team took the opportunity to develop and implement a global perspectives curriculum during thetime of the transition from the former Provincial Intermediate Curriculum to the proposed Provincial Interme-diate Foundations Curriculum. The length of time taken in the development and implementation of the newProvincial Intermediate Curriculum provided impetus to continue the development of Wolfe's E.Y.E.S.Project, as its base was firmly rooted in the skill and discipline areas of the former curriculum, yet it alsoincorporated new ideas and concepts through global future studies.This project was self-initiated by a small group of local teachers, responding to the needs of theirstudents at a given time in space. It was not mandated, and demonstrated a willingness by the teachers tocommit to work in areas not necessarily within the team's legal responsibilities.Team members had many functions entrusted to them that were not vested authority. They per-formed these functions through entrusted power from others, given to them personally, and derived from theinfluences of their personalities and behaviours. Their collective power came from their knowledge of theprescribed curriculum, their areas of specialty and their understanding of issues in global education. Theyalso had understanding of the school and its off-site community based on their years of teaching at Wolfe andtheir personal involvement with its stakeholders. The members of the team had previously contributedindividually and in other arrangements to provide leadership and cohesiveness to the school. Aside from theirprofessional contributions, they had been involved in setting up private support for individual students, inorganizing fund-raising events, in sponsoring social events for both students and staff, and in producingcelebrations of students' accomplishments. Team members were often approached for their consul bystudents, staff and parents when an idea for an event came forth. It was assumed that the members wereadvocates and that their inclusion would ensure some measure of success for the event.The ongoing leadership of the team members in the everyday affairs of the school attested to theirrequisite skills in human relations, and not simply on positional power or authority. They did not agree witheveryone or about every idea, but they did disagree agreeably. The result was usually a rousing, enthusiasticdiscussion ending in good-natured resolution.One of the strongest human relations skills exhibited by the team was their ability to manage disa-greements. Within the team, on the rare occasions when disagreements occurred, they developed over ideas,59concepts or decisions....not over personalities. Their ability to work closely on projects beyond their regularassignments, over extended periods of time, attested to their collective interpersonal skills and their manipula-tion of conflict as a positive element in a change process, factors indicating power through personality andbehaviour.The team maintained a low profile. As individuals, they pursued other interests and professionalcommitments that took precedence over their contributions to the E.Y.E.S. Project. Responsibilities for theglobal project were shared and no one assumed a role of positional authority. Through mutual support, teammembers kept other members informed about personal adjustments they perceived and the actions theyintended to take. Their respect for each other did not require defence of their positions though there was a -sense that it would have been willingly given if requested.The strength of their personal bonds allowed the team to complete the first year of the project and tosuccessfully manage two full term pregnancies at the same time. There was an intrinsic satisfaction shared bythe team that needed no window dressing nor flashing lights.Indicator #10: Use of Multiple Leadership StylesTeam members' full time teaching assignments were content based. As curriculum developers, theirtask was viewed differently. Because of the diverse academic nature of the global curriculum they did notexpect to be experts in all content areas. They had a collective knowledge in curriculum planning, design,format, decision making, and evaluation. As a team they facilitated the whole curriculum developmentprocess from planning through evaluation. Each member was expected to make content decisions, and to leadin the curriculum process as part of the interrelated curriculum development. Given the diverse nature ofeach team member's job, behaviour while performing roles was not always the same, no one member wasalways in control, or directing, or identifiable by some consistent leadership style.The following leadership styles (Bradley, 1985) were used by the team.I. Instructor:In situations calling for the dissemination of information from a specific content area, the resourcemember assumed an "Instructor" style using lecture methods until the rest of the team was comfortable withthe input. The assumption of the instructor style was useful when time was limited because it gave informa-60tion quickly, enhanced the team's collective understanding and reduced the risks of shared ignorances.2. Advocate:The team's advocacy of the development of an interrelated curriculum with a global perspective hadbeen clearly stated. They shared their beliefs through discussions with all interested parties. They added aglobal dimension to their school's culture and developed a model for the global curriculum's organization,development and implementation. Because they advocated what they thought was best for their students,they were confident of their position and received ongoing support from their colleagues, administration,parents, and off-site community. It was recognized generally that the global education project was THEgrades 6 and 7 curriculum at Wolfe.3. Servitor:The development of the global curriculum provided many opportunities for discussions, debates, andcompromises. Many decisions needed to be made in which there was no right or wrong, but many plausiblechoices. To serve the development process, members participated in group problem-solving, then facilitatedthe work by performing tasks necessary to complete the curriculum development. By acknowledging manypoints of view, it was reasonable to assume that the best possible choices were made given the variables oftime and situation. Team members took turns organizing and performing tasks given priority by the team.4. Troubleshooter:There was no evidence of personal desperation, lack of ability to reach a solution, or conflict. Minorcontent-based problems needing immediate attention were dealt with by the resource-expertise persons. Theselection of materials and resources to present a balance of points of view on issues and the exposure of biaswere examples of content watchdog tasks. A larger problem that required continuous monitoring by the teamwas the issue of teacher neutrality. Many problem-solving sessions included reflections on personal values,biases and professional accountability. The team's experience with problem-solving processes allowed themto anticipate potential problems and reach consensus on appropriate actions. Team members were comfort-able initiating problem-solving sessions and facilitating recommendations.5. FacilitatorThrough the collaborative efforts of the team, they supported each other in their attempts to achieve61a level of competence in global curriculum development. By working across disciplines, they gained self-confidence as curriculum developers that allowed them to help other teachers interested in interdisciplinarystudies and attaining a global perspective in their own classrooms. The team's inservice presentationsconcentrated on the needs that were commonly important to most people advocating global perspectivecurriculum development.Bradley's (1985) Ten Indicators of Effective Curriculum DevelopmentIndicator #1: Vertical Curriculum ContinuityThe evidence for vertical curriculum continuity came from the prescribed curriculum documentsused by the team in the first steps of their planning process. The content and skills for grades 6 and 7 weresequenced to follow those prescribed for earlier grades and precede those presented in later grades. Rein-forcement of learning objectives occurred through the ordering of skills and content over the school year.Through interrelated thematic studies (e.g., the "layered" graphic, Figure 10), students were encouraged touse prior knowledge and skills in ongoing interdisciplinary problem solving. There was a system for theintroduction and reinforcement of significant learning objectives.Indicator #2: Horizontal Curriculum ContinuityThe cross-disciplinary approach taken by the team integrated the four major disciplines, Math,Science, Humanities and the Arts, by setting curricular priorities in each and finding the overlapping skills,concepts and attitudes in all of them. The ideas that were interconnected came from within the variousdisciplines and the connections were made as commonalities evolved. For example, the study of ratio wasused in Math to determine scale measurements (e.g., models); in Science for exploration of natural resources(e.g., supply:demand); in Humanities to compare population density; and in Art for the analysis of relation-ships of colour proportions in camouflage patterns.Indicator #3: Instruction Based on CurriculumLesson plans were derived from the models used to pattern the content. Within the general themes,lessons and student activities were selected for specific relationships to the issues studied, and thus providedthe rationale for their inclusion at given times on the year's curricular continuum. Planning guides were usedto monitor and adjust the curriculum, to provide enrichment and remediation to meet individual student62needs.Indicator #4: Curriculum PriorityThe establishment of educational priorities and commitment to curriculum development was twofold: personal and financial.The school administrator's commitment was shown through efforts made to overlap timetabledpreparation periods for team members, and by her willingness to meet regularly with Heather and I. E.Y.E.S.Project updates appeared regularly on the agendas for Teacher Action Committee and Principal's Meetings.School board consultants and the school's administrator rerouted research and related articles from educa-tional leadership sources that the team did not usually have access to. By permitting off campus/on dutydays, the administrator encouraged team members to be involved in global education professional develop-ment as participants and as facilitators.The B.C. Teachers' Federation Global Education Project provided guidance from the earliest stagesof the E.Y.E.S. Project. They provided access to inservice, resource persons and opportunities for the team todevelop as global education facilitators, locally and provincially. Their co-ordinator helped the team through-out the development of the curriculum as an off-site professional who was knowledgeable about globaleducation curriculum development. It is only because of the co-ordinator's interest and enthusiasm, that theteam has had any financial assistance.As a result of the advocacy of the BCTF Global Education Co-ordinator, the E.Y.E.S. Project wasawarded "Lighthouse" status. Inherent in the award was BCTF's commitment to provide funding for opportu-nities for team members to host educators interested in global education curriculum development, to provideclerical assistance necessary to process the curriculum work and products produced, and to provide substitutepay and travelling expenses for inservice related to global education for team members as participants and/orfacilitators. The school's administrator and the B.C.T.F. would not have given these special considerationshad the E.Y.E.S. Project not been a curriculum priority.Indicator #5: Broad InvolvementMany people were involved with the global project. Those persons affected by the global educationcurriculum development were invited to give their input during every phase of the curriculum development.63Whether parents, teachers, administrators, or students, three different roles were possible. They might havebeen consulted prior to decision making, they might have been actual participants in the decision makingprocess, or they might have received and communicated decisions to those concerned. All the roles wereappropriate during various stages of the curriculum development.Part of the planning process was regular requests for other educators' input. There was no formalstructure in place to provide adequate time to gather quantitative or qualitative input. While the team hadaccess to agendas for both teachers' and principal's meetings, input reception and correlation usually tookplace out of school time.Time limitations did not allow the luxury of negotiation of roles with other persons involved with theglobal education curriculum development. It was most expedient to have all concerned cognizant of theirroles. It was the practice of the team to clearly state their objectives for formal meetings, to quickly explainwhy the participants had been invited and to express thoughts about their possible roles in the curriculumdevelopment.Indicator #6: Long Range PlanningThe development of the grid system organizing the curriculum strands through monthly themesproved useful as a yearly preview organizer. The grid system provided an ongoing plan for development and/or revision that included all courses found within the grades 6 and 7 curricula. Records of the grid, frame-works and lesson plans provided the vehicles for long-range curriculum planning by providing documentationthat was present and verified. The yearly preview grid also provided a method of assessing the adequacy andavailability of resources before they were needed, allowing time to search for, secure, adapt and designrequired items.The presence of the grades 6 and 7 global education project has contributed to the school's otherintermediate courses of study, and has had some influence in some primary classrooms. Schoolwide themescollegially chosen by Wolfe's staff were derived from the global education project. Team members haverecently begun to co-plan and team teach with other intermediate classroom teachers in informal mentorshiparrangements promoting global education. Some primary teachers consulted with the team on specificthemes/resources. Sponsorship of special events, cross-classroom sharing and public displays helped keep the64project visible in the larger community and served as awareness vehicles for the philosophy and theoreticalbase of the E.Y.E.S. Project.Indicator #7: Decision-Making ClarityFor the E.Y.E.S. Project, integrating curriculum and instruction meant connecting the content, skillsand delivery systems. The team believed that curriculum went beyond the printed documents: that it was aliving process involving people. People accepting responsibility for the E.Y.E.S. Project thought of them-selves as facilitating personnel. By working as a team of facilitators, individual egos could be separated fromthe problem-solving processes of curriculum development. This was important to the team as curriculumdecisions involved personnel and personnel decisions involved the curriculum.Decision-making clarity was assessed through the identification of significant curriculum decisions,the identification of primary and secondary decision makers and the resolution of how to communicate thedecisions. Throughout the curriculum development process, the team members performed different decision-making roles. Team members regularly clarified their roles to each other, students, the administrator, the on-site staff, and off-site community during the curriculum process so that all involved were clear as to whoaccepted responsibility for what.Indicator # 8: Positive Human RelationshipsThe teams' collegial approach to the development of the global perspective curriculum was the mostsignificant educational indicator of a positive human relationship environment. Their ability to co-plan,team-teach and interrelate content across subject areas demonstrated their willingness to risk disagreementswith each other with some faith that they would be resolved. Recognizing the worth of other points of viewwas shown by the initiation of ideas on curriculum that came from varied sources.The number of years the team had voluntarily worked together, their professional support of eachother, and their ability to use humour as a problem-solving vehicle, strengthened their professional relation-ships.Indicator #9: Theory Into Practice ApproachThe team made every effort to work from models recognized as part of the day-to-day- curriculumat Wolfe. The team added an additional model to allow an emphasis on the attainment of a global perspec-65tive. The team monitored and adjusted the existing prescribed curriculum as suggested by the new Intermedi-ate Foundations Documents.The process for the development of the global perspectives curriculum remained constant. Thepractices of interrelating the content areas, the teaching of thinking skills, the emphasis on global choice,action and social responsibility, and extensions into the wider public community were recognizable andconsistent.Indicator #10: Planned ChangeThe staff and community continues to support Wolfe's team in developing a grade 7 curriculum witha global perspective, as the team prepares for the fourth year of its five year implementation plan. Recentchanges in staffing assignments at Wolfe may affect the number of facilitators, and the expertise support. Atthe time of this writing, Peter will stay at Wolfe. It is likely that Heather will also remain at Wolfe, but herpartner Sandy and I may be declared "surplus" and be assigned to another school. We have found the last fewmonths difficult as we prepare ourselves for the possible dissolution of our team, but it has helped us toconsolidate our theme work, and treasure our friendships. We are confident that we will continue as globaleducators wherever our teaching assignments take us.SummaryThis chapter has presented a description of curriculum leadership and development within the globaleducation project in terms of the indicators described in Bradley's (1985) model. His model provided specificindicators used to determine if effective curriculum leadership and development were present.Team members agreed to review their first year's work in the global project, and select data repre-senting their work in curriculum development and leadership. From items submitted by the team, thisinvestigator was able to match elements of the global curriculum development and roles of the practitioners toall specific indicators of Bradley's model.66CHAPTER SEVENCONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONSIntroduction Chapter seven begins with a review of the theoretical perspectives which underpin the study. This isfollowed by a review of the development of the curriculum and curriculum leadership which the studydocuments. Then the results of the descriptive analysis are given. The chapter closes with the conclusionsand limitations of the study.Review of the Theoretical PerspectivesThe study began with considerations of the nature of curriculum leadership and development inglobal education. Taking the view that global issues are interconnected, exploration of those issues could beenhanced by interdisciplinary studies. This is done by reworking the existing curriculum to include elementsthat could help participants gain a global perspective. Through collaboration, content specialists could helpclassroom teachers to facilitate interdisciplinary studies. Alternatively, a team of experienced teachers couldprovide leadership in global curriculum development.The purpose of this study was to describe the intended, implemented and attained global curriculumfacilitated by a team of grade six and seven teachers. It was suggested that review of the team's first year ofwork in generating a global curriculum model would show elements indicating effective curriculum develop-ment and leadership. It is the description of the global curriculum development and leadership of the practi-tioners which served as the basis for this study.The investigator reviewed relevant literature which dealt with the philosophy of global education,curriculum design and implementation, design of interdisciplinary studies, collegial collaboration and educa-tional leadership. Most of the literature dealing with global education does so in the context of what globalcurriculum might be developed despite the fact that presently, practitioners identify themselves as practisingglobal educators. Curriculum design and educational leadership models helped the investigator to conceptu-alize the connections between curriculum leadership and development of interdisciplinary studies in globaleducation.67The approach adopted in this study was twofold. First, the curriculum development and the leader-ship roles of the developers were described in a contextually rich fashion including examples agreed upon bythe participants as representative of their first year of work in the project. The result is a description whichhelps the reader "make connections" with the global curriculum and its participants, and which providesinsight into the attainment of a global perspective.In the second component, the global education project was examined for value as an educationalmodel. This was done by comparing data to criteria of specific indicators of effective "curriculum develop-ment" and "curriculum leadership". Elements within the project were matched to lists of specific indicators.The reader was shown how the identified elements verified the presence of the given indicators.Conclusions of the StudyThe documentation in chapters 5 and 6 has led to a number of conclusions. These conclusions weredrawn from the examination of the work of the team in an attempt to answer the research questions.Research Question 1. What does the infrastructure of this global curriculum look like?The E.Y.E.S. Project follow the direction set out by the Sullivan Report (1988), and predates manyof the recommendations made in the evolving Intermediate Program: Foundations (Ministry of Education,1990). The prescribed grades 6 and 7 curricula have been reworked into interdisciplinary thematic unitsexamining global issues that provide students opportunities to connect with the school's off-site community.Graphic organizers were used to generate the global model, present the content and skills scope and sequence,document the steps of the curriculum design process, note explicit connections of ideas within and betweeninterdisciplinary theme studies and to provide visible knowledge structures underlying the global content.Consequently, it is concluded that curriculum infrastructures can be designed that promote thematic,interdisciplinary curricula with a global perspective.Research Question 2. What are the roles of the teachers in the context of developing this global curriculum? The second conclusion arises from the examination of the roles performed by team members in-volved in the design and implementation of the global curriculum. After field-tests of global problem-solvingactivities, the team initiated the E.Y.E.S. Project. They assumed responsibility for the generation of a global68education model that other teachers could use. The generation of the model required team members toperform various roles to facilitate the curriculum development process. Consequently, it is concluded thatteachers are able to identify and develop curriculum models with a global perspective.Another conclusion arises from changes in school-wide theme studies that occurred during the firstyear of the E.Y.E.S. Project. Other teaching colleagues of the team members collectively agreed to developthemes complimentary to two monthly themes of the global project. The team collaborated with theseclassroom teachers to develop activities concerning global issues for grades 1 through 5 students. Conse-quently, it is concluded that experienced teachers can collegially plan and develop Primary and Interme-diate curriculum with a global perspective.A final conclusion arises from the fact that this global project was site-developed. The commitmentto the global curriculum development came from within the group of teachers who shared teaching responsi-bilities for students who were expressing needs concerning global issues. The study shows that the teamassumed responsibilities beyond their regular assignments to facilitate the development of the global curricu-lum. Consequently, it is concluded that commitment to curriculum design may induce leadership inglobal curriculum development.Limitations of the StudyAny description which involves the participant-observer presents an insider's perspective. Atrusting relationship must be built that allows the participants comfort in disclosing concepts, values andfeelings. If participants are too uncomfortable, their recall may be selective and reflection diminished,compromising the value of the curriculum project and the study. The possibility of limiting information inorder for the participants to "look good" must also be considered. Fortunately, in this study, participants hadalready developed a collegial relationship and helped this investigator collect examples of their work incurriculum design and development. Furthermore, they submitted personal items such as daybooks andjournals completed before the study began, to assist the reflective process of the recall of past events and theclarification of their significance at that time.Another limitation of this study is that it is highly contextually bound and may be limiting toother educators. In this study, every attempt was made to document representative examples of the partici-69pants' insights, ways of thinking, and communicating.The descriptions of the data identified elements and issues which seem important to the partici-pants. The items they chose as representative of their work determined the data base for the discussion, theimage they projected about their practice, their perceived roles in the development of the global curriculum,and the scope of the global interdisciplinary studies. The non-directive nature of this study precluded theinvestigator from requesting specific data from the participants directly. However, the post-selection discus-sions held by the team provided some corroboration for the inferences made by the investigator.Implications for Further ResearchIn the judgement of this investigator, the global curriculum model which is described in thisstudy has merit as an infrastructure to promote thematic, interdisciplinary studies of global issues. However, anumber of questions arise from this study which have implications for further study.In the area of global curriculum development:* What do other intended, implemented and attained global curricula look like?* Are studies in global education necessary for practitioners to facilitate dimensions ofa global perspective in their classrooms?* What is the nature of interdisciplinary studies available in teacher preparation, andcontinuing education?* Is collegial collaboration training the most appropriate preparation for leadership indevelopment and implementation of interdisciplinary global studies?In the area of leadership in global education:* What is the meaning of the term "global educator"?* Which practitioners fit the definition of "global educators"?* What are the roles of identified "global educators"?* In what ways are "global educators" similar to and different from other practitioners?* In teacher preparation programs, which content disciplines promote participation ininterdisciplinary studies, development of curriculum with a global perspective, anddevelopment of leadership potential?70* To what degree have "global educators" assumed leadership roles in curriculumdevelopment?* Is there a correlation between the number of "global educators" and the developmentof curricula with a global perspective?These questions, as well as the results of this study, have led the investigator to envisage aprofessional leadership program designed to promote and to study the development of interdisciplinarycurriculum with a global perspective. This program might involve three aspects. First, it might nurtureleadership potential through emphasis on interpersonal skills and leadership styles. This might generate a"pool" of teachers interested in providing global curriculum leadership, who have developed supportive,collegial relationships. Second, the program could provide opportunities similar to this study, for practitionersto further develop their collegiality, to develop shared understanding of the language used to discuss leader-ship and curriculum development in global education, to lead in the design and evaluation of exemplaryinterdisciplinary global studies, and to promote collective reflective activities of practitioners facilitatingglobal studies environments. Finally, the program might include a range of problem-solving strategies, inwhich teachers participate in various structured, interactive processes by which they discover and clarifyunderlying problems, summarize problems, generate solutions, evaluate options, and plan personal actions.By giving problems global and social contexts, attitudes about the world and the nature of knowledge maychange. Individuals may feel they belong within a caring community and are in a secure position to exploreideas and accept new challenges.The vision is to assist students to recognize that they are members of a global community, andto reach their individual potential as lifelong learners, educators, and "real-world" problem-solvers. Ourquality of life, perhaps even our existence, may depend on how well we meet challenges in the world tomor-row. 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