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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A case study of an elementary generalist teacher's trial implementation of an art curriculum guide Wilson, Wendy Elizabeth 1988

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A CASE STUDY OF AN ELEMENTARY GENERAL1ST TEACHER'S TRIAL IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM GUIDE by WENDY ELIZABETH WILSON B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n T H E V A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n ' ^ We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (c^) Wendy E l i z a b e t h Wilson, 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of x/ig.u^l CKTAT^XQerC m \ f \ < W Vn ^ o j u . c a k ^ ° « ^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT This study addresses the problem of how an elementary g e n e r a l i s t teacher implements u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l , i n t h i s case a d r a f t a r t c u r r i c u l u m , when pro v i d e d with a s s i s t a n c e from the rese a r c h e r i n the r o l e of c o n s u l t a n t . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was posed: To what extent are the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation as o u t l i n e d by F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , evident i n the implementation of a d r a f t a r t c u r r i c u l u m guide by a g e n e r a l i s t teacher: c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the change, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the school d i s t r i c t l e v e l , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the school l e v e l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x t e r n a l to the l o c a l system A review of l i t e r a t u r e undertaken on the s t a t u s of a r t education r e v e a l s a s c a r c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e data base about c u r r e n t a r t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s i n Canada today, and r e v e a l s a d i s c r e p a n c y between theory and p r a c t i c e i n a r t t e a c h i n g . C a r e f u l l y planned c u r r i c u l u m implementation was c i t e d as one way to e f f e c t p o s i t i v e changes i n ar t t e a c h i n g . A review of l i t e r a t u r e a l s o undertaken of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation of new m a t e r i a l i n classrooms focused on the four areas c i t e d above by F u l l a n (1982) . The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d a case study and f i e l d t e s t i n g of m a t e r i a l s with a Grade 4 /5 elementary g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r . Data c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g and document a n a l y s i s as part of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r e s e a r c h method u s i n g many of the techniques a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n , and ethnography. F u l l a n ' s (1982) f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation were used to provide a s t r u c t u r e from which the implementation and aspects of c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o v i d e d c o u l d be analyzed. Some changes took plac e i n regards to the teacher's use of the new c u r r i c u l u m and m a t e r i a l s but there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t implementation or change i n t e a c h i n g approaches, b e l i e f s or use of new m a t e r i a l s . i v T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i C h a p t e r 1 . I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 . 1 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 1 1 . 2 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 2 1 . 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 3 1 . 4 A s s u m p t i o n s 3 1 . 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 4 1 . 6 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y . . 5 1 . 7 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d 5 1 . 8 O v e r v i e w o f t h e S t u d y 6 2 . L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W - S T A T U S OF A R T E D U C A T I O N AND I M P L E M E N T A T I O N 2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 7 2 . 2 S t a t u s o f A r t E d u c a t i o n 7 2 . 3 I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 15 3 . R E S E A R C H M E T H O D 3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 35 3 . 2 T h e C o n c e p t u a l F r a m e w o r k o f a D e s c r i p t i v e R e s e a r c h 35 3 . 3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e R e s e a r c h M e t h o d 39 3 . 4 D e s i g n o f S t u d y 41 3 . 5 M e t h o d o f I n q u i r y 43 3 . 6 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n a n d D a t a A n a l y s i s 51 3 . 7 C o n c l u s i o n 54 4 . T H E R E S E A R C H C O N T E X T AND A C T I V I T I E S 4 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 55 4 . 2 T h e R e s e a r c h e r ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S c h o o l 55 4 . 3 T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T e a c h e r - R e s e a r c h e r R e l a t i o n s h i p . 6 0 4 . 4 A n O v e r v i e w o f t h e G r a d e 4 / 5 T e a c h e r ' s A r t P r o g r a m 65 4 . 5 I n i t i a l R e a c t i o n s t o t h e C u r r i c u l u m 76 4 . 6 U s e o f t h e C u r r i c u l u m 78 5 . C O N C L U S I O N S AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 5 . 1 C o n c l u s i o n s 92 5 . 2 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 1 0 1 B i b l i o g r a p h y 105 A p p e n d i c e s 1 0 9 1 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N R e c e n t l y a c r o s s C a n a d a t h e r e h a v e b e e n a n u m b e r o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s i n a r t i n b o t h o u r e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a new s e c o n d a r y a r t c u r r i c u l u m was i n t r o d u c e d p r i o r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e m i d - e i g h t i e s . O n e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o i s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m w i l l b e u s e d b y g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s who f o r t h e m o s t p a r t h a v e h a d o n l y o n e m e t h o d s c o u r s e i n a r t w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r i c u l u m i s d e s i g n e d t o b e u s e d b y s p e c i a l i z e d a r t t e a c h e r s . I t w o u l d s e e m t o p o s e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s t o d e v e l o p a n d i m p l e m e n t a g u i d e i n a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a f o r g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h a g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r u n d e r t a k e s w h e n f a c e d w i t h a new c u r r i c u l u m a n d t o d o c u m e n t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s h e h a s w i t h i t w h e n p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a n a r t c o n s u l t a n t . 1.1 P U R P O S E OF T H E S T U D Y T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f a l t e r i n g e x i s t i n g c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s a s e x p e r i e n c e d b y a n e l e m e n t a r y g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r i n t h e s u b j e c t a r e a o f a r t . T h r o u g h a c a s e s t u d y m e t h o d , u t i l i z i n g a d r a f t c o p y o f t h e new B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n F i n e A r t s C u r r i c u l u m a s t h e e l e m e n t o f c h a n g e , t h e u n d e r l y i n g n a t u r e o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g i n g c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s w e r e e x a m i n e d . A c t i n g a s a c o n s u l t a n t t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d a G r a d e 4/5 t e a c h e r w i t h new m a t e r i a l s , 2 lessons and c o n s u l t a t i o n i n a r t , using the new c u r r i c u l u m guide as the b a s i s f o r change, and then documented the teacher's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and adaptation to these proposed c u r r i c u l u m changes. This study was i n i t i a t e d before the formal implementation of the new guide i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools and t h e r e f o r e i s viewed as a p i l o t study. It i n v e s t i g a t e s important aspects of the implementation of the guide when a teacher was pro v i d e d with expert a s s i s t a n c e of the resear c h e r a c t i n g i n the r o l e of a c o n s u l t a n t . Through the research method o u t l i n e d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o classroom r e a l i t i e s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to e x i s t i n g knowledge about implementation. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study addresses the problem of how an elementary g e n e r a l i s t teacher i n t e r p r e t s and adapts a new a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n a t r i a l implementation s i t u a t i o n when p r o v i d e d with a s s i s t a n c e from a c o n s u l t a n t . F u l l a n ' s (1982) f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation were used to pr o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e from which the implementation and aspects of c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o v i d e d c o u l d be analyzed. These are c a t e g o r i z e d as four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Change 2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the School D i s t r i c t L e v e l 3. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the School L e v e l 4. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s E x t e r n a l to the L o c a l System 3 1 . 3 S I G N I F I C A N C E OF T H E S T U D Y A r e v i e w o f r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e ( C h a p m a n 1 9 8 2 , S a d o w y 1 9 8 4 , M a j o r 1 9 8 3 , W a l t e r s 1 9 8 0 ) r e v e a l s t h a t a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s d o n o t r e f l e c t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y . W h a t e d u c a t o r s t h e o r e t i c a l l y k n o w a b o u t how a r t s h o u l d b e t a u g h t i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h w h a t i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g d o n e i n a r t c l a s s e s i n o u r s c h o o l s . O n e r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e t w o may b e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s o r g u i d e l i n e s p r o v i d e d t o t e a c h e r s f o r a r t i n s t r u c t i o n a r e n o t i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . M u c h o f t h e r e s e a r c h d o n e i n a r t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d b e p o i n t l e s s i f i t i s n o t b e i n g t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e i n t h e s c h o o l s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s o n l y o n e o f m a n y p o s s i b l e w a y s o f i m p r o v i n g a r t t e a c h i n g , t h e p r o c e s s h a s b e e n c h o s e n a s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . 1 . 4 A S S U M P T I O N S 1 . T h e s t a t u s o f a r t t e a c h i n g i s s i m i l a r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a . 2 . A r t i s n o t b e i n g t a u g h t a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s i t c o u l d b e i n o u r s c h o o l s . S p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r e a s c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d , s u c h a s a n o v e r e m p h a s i s o n p r o d u c t i o n a s o p p o s e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l a c k o f s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g a n d a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t t h e r o l e o f a r t i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 3 . T h e new C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , i f p r o p e r l y i m p l e m e n t e d , c o u l d i m p r o v e a r t t e a c h i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 4 . W i t h o u t c a r e f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h e new B . C . a r t c u r r i c u l u m 4 guide might not be adequately used by elementary g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . 5. Elementary g e n e r a l i s t teachers are capable of t e a c h i n g an e f f e c t i v e a r t program i f given the proper support i n the way of i n s e r v i c e s , m a t e r i a l s , and c o n s u l t a t i o n s . 6 . Most a r t t e a c h i n g at the elementary l e v e l at t h i s time i s done by g e n e r a l i s t t e a chers, not by a r t s p e c i a l i s t s . 7. The l i t e r a t u r e review of i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation can be a p p l i e d to a r t educat i o n . 1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. The term implementation i s d i s c u s s e d by F u l l a n . "Implementation i s the process of a l t e r i n g e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e i n order to achieve more e f f e c t i v e l y c e r t a i n d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r students" ( F u l l a n , 1981, p.6) . Implementation i s evident when p r a c t i c e s are changed, such as when a new program i s used f o r the f i r s t time. The r o l e of implementation i n the change process i n classrooms i s as a middle stage, between the p l a n n i n g and r e v i s i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m or program. 2. The c u r r i c u l u m used f o r the purposes of t h i s study was a d r a f t copy of the 1985 B r i t i s h Columbia Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m which was l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t of the Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide/Resource Book 1985. Throughout t h i s study i t i s r e f e r r e d to as the guide, c u r r i c u l u m or d r a f t guide. 5 1 . 6 L I M I T A T I O N S OF T H E S T U D Y I n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y c e r t a i n f a c t o r s m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A s a c a s e s t u d y t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o n e t e a c h e r a n d may n o t r e p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l . T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r m a y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . A s w e l l t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a d h e r own b i a s e s o f s e l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . F u r t h e r t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e t e a c h e r may h a v e b e e n a d i s a d v a n t a g e t o o b t a i n i n g a n d r e c o r d i n g o b j e c t i v e n o t e s . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e s e w e r e o u t w e i g h e d b y t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f f i r s t - h a n d r e c o r d i n g o f b e h a v i o u r s a s t h e y o c c u r r e d . T h e n e c e s s i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n v o l v i n g h e r s e l f w i t h t h e t e a c h e r was p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . T i m e was a l s o a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . A t o t a l o f 15 w e e k s was i n v o l v e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e s c h o o l . V i s i t s t o t h e s c h o o l w e r e m a d e 18 t i m e s b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s b y t h e t e a c h e r w h i c h i m p i n g e d o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r 4 . 1 . 7 T H E R E S E A R C H M E T H O D T h e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d a c a s e s t u d y a n d f i e l d t e s t i n g o f m a t e r i a l s w i t h a G r a d e 4 / 5 e l e m e n t a r y g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r . O v e r a p e r i o d o f f o u r m o n t h s t h e r e s e a r c h e r v i s i t e d t h e c l a s s r o o m a t l e a s t 3 - 4 h o u r s w e e k l y t o o b s e r v e c l a s s e s , c o l l e c t d o c u m e n t s a n d i n t e r v i e w t h e t e a c h e r . A n o v e r v i e w o f t h e c l a s s , t e a c h e r a n d a r t p r o g r a m i n p r o g r e s s w a s d o c u m e n t e d b e f o r e t h e s t u d y o f t h e 6 i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d r a f t c o p y o f t h e a r t c u r r i c u l u m b e g a n . C o n s u l t a t i o n , m a t e r i a l s a n d " e x p e r t a d v i c e " w e r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r a s s h e i m p l e m e n t e d a u n i t b a s e d o n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d u n d e r t a k e n i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d a s a f o r m o f e t h n o g r a p h y b e c a u s e i t s o u g h t d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t i n t o c h a n g e s t a k i n g p l a c e b e t w e e n a t e a c h e r , h e r s t u d e n t s a n d new m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m . T h e s u b t l e t i e s a n d c o m p l e x i t i e s o f c h a n g e w e r e " t h e p i c t u r e " o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r a d a p t e d t h e m e t h o d s o f r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n , q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , a n d f i e l d s t u d y i n s o f a r a s t h e s e w e r e b e n e f i c i a l i n p r o v i d i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t . A s a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d f i e l d n o t e s f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g , a n d d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s . T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d w e r e a n a l y z e d , c a t e g o r i z e d a n d s u m m a r i z e d . 1 . 8 O V E R V I E W OF T H E S T U D Y T h i s s t u d y c o n t i n u e s w i t h a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n C h a p t e r 2 . C h a p t e r 3 i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d a n d t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g t h i s m e t h o d . T h e r o l e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i s d e t a i l e d a n d m e t h o d o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a o u t l i n e d . I n C h a p t e r 4 t h e o b s e r v e r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l , d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r - r e s e a r c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s a r t p r o g r a m a r e c o n d e n s e d f r o m f i e l d n o t e s . A f t e r t h e new d r a f t c u r r i c u l u m w a s g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r h e r i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s w e r e 7 r e c o r d e d a s w e l l a s h e r u s e o f i t d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g a n d e x e c u t i o n o f a u n i t . C o n c l u s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e m a d e i n C h a p t e r 5 . 8 C H A P T E R 2 R E V I E W OF L I T E R A T U R E - S T A T U S OF A R T E D U C A T I O N AND I M P L E M E N T A T I O N 2 . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A r e v i e w " o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a s d e s c r i b e d b y v a r i o u s a r t e d u c a t o r s p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t i m p r o v e m e n t s c o u l d b e m a d e i n a r t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a r t c u r r i c u l u m s a r e o n e way t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s s h o w n t o e x i s t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a r e o u t l i n e d f o l l o w e d b y a d i s c u s s i o n o f w h a t t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . T h e n a r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y i n e d u c a t i o n , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n a r t e d u c a t i o n w h e n l i t e r a t u r e was a v a i l a b l e was u n d e r t a k e n . F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d b y F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) . 2 . 2 S T A T U S OF A R T E D U C A T I O N C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E T h e r e a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n : 1) t h e s c a r c i t y o f a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n 2) e m p h a s i s o n s u r v e y s 3) A m e r i c a n - C a n a d i a n s i m i l a r i t i e s 4) a n d t h e l a c k o f c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . E a c h o f t h e s e w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d b y a r e v i e w o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . 9 F i r s t l y i t can be noted that there i s a s c a r c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n upon which to determine the s t a t u s of a r t education i n our elementary s c h o o l s . It has been w e l l documented that a r t education l a c k s a d e s c r i p t i v e data base. Chalmers and Gray wrote "considered o p i n i o n i s that North American a r t education c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n research s t i l l l a c k s an adequate data base" (1980, p.3) and Gray (1984) commented upon "the scarce and obscure Canadian data c o l l e c t i o n s " (Gray, 198 4, p.7) . S i m i l a r l y Chapman w r i t e s that the " c o n d i t i o n s under which schools o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n have not been w e l l documented" (Chapman, 1982, p.13) and "the study of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s and the c o n d i t i o n s under which the a r t teacher works are n e g l e c t e d i n r e s e a r c h " (Chapman, 1982, p.107). In 1976 Hodder undertook a study of the a r t f a c i l i t i e s i n the elementary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia because "no r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e to educators concerning the s t a t u s of a r t education i n elementary schools other than i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from well-meant "guestimates" of i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s , p r o f e s s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " (Hodder, 1979, p.30). Many a r t educators reasonably conclude that there i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the s t a t u s of a r t education i n our s c h o o l s . Secondly, the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e p e r t a i n i n g to the s t a t u s of a r t e d u c a t i o n has overwhelmingly been generated from surveys and q u e s t i o n n a r i e s which y i e l d s t a t i s t i c a l data (Chappell, 1976; Chapman, 1978; M i l l s , 1981; Hodder, 1979). They have p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about a v a r i e t y of items from p u p i l enrollment to time a l l o t t e d to a r t c l a s s e s , t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s , resources and 10 f a c i l i t i e s i n a r t education and program content i n a r t . The responses from hundreds of respondents r e v e a l general trends i n ar t education but do not r e v e a l the i n t r i c a c i e s of classroom t e a c h i n g through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . Chapman notes that "accurate d e s c r i p t i o n s of a r t programs are r a r e " (Chapman, 1982, p.107). Jackson (1968), Goodlad and K l e i n (1974) and others have provided i n f o r m a t i o n about schools through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . These o b s e r v a t i o n a l or ethnographic methods which provide new data, and have done so on other aspects of school p r a c t i c e s , have been l a c k i n g i n a r t educ a t i o n . F u r t h e r , the i n f o r m a t i o n which i s a v a i l a b l e may t e l l us what people would l i k e us to b e l i e v e i s happening i n schools, r a t h e r than what a c t u a l l y o c c u r s . Comments such as the f o l l o w i n g t e l l only part of what i s going on du r i n g a r t c l a s s e s . "Almost a l l teachers devote one hour per week to a r t , as w e l l as i n t e g r a t i n g i t with other s u b j e c t s . Most use c u r r i c u l u m guides and have access to c o n s u l t a n t help" (Arts, A Survey, 1983 ) . Hodder reminds us that "the simple i n c l u s i o n of a sub j e c t i n the programme of s t u d i e s does not ensure that i t w i l l be taught w e l l or even that i t w i l l be taught at a l l " (Hodder, 1979, p.39). T h i r d l y , h i s t o r i c a l l y a r t education i n Canada has had str o n g l i n k s to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . These continue to e x i s t today. The m a j o r i t y of books used i n teacher t r a i n i n g courses i n Canada are by American authors, many u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s i n a r t education departments i n Canada were themselves educated at the graduate l e v e l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and "American a r t educa t i o n ideas and resources s t i l l flow over the border and i n t o our schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s " (Gray & Chalmers, 1981, p . l ) . 11 K i n g c o m m e n t s o n s o m e o f t h e c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y A m e r i c a n a r t t e a c h e r s . He m a k e s t h e p o i n t t h a t " E i s n e r s p e l l s o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n v e r y c l e a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o A m e r i c a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . W h a t c o n c e r n s me i s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n s i t u a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r " ( K i n g , 1 982 , p . 1 5 ) . G r a y w r i t e s o f t h e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s a n d n o t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e m o r e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o . T h e r e f o r e i t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t o i n c l u d e t h e A m e r i c a n i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n , a n d a s s u m e t h a t i n a g e n e r a l way i t a l s o r e f l e c t s p r a c t i c e s i n C a n a d a . F o u r t h l y a n d f i n a l l y i t s e e m s t h a t , m u c h a s we w o u l d l i k e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e h a v e b e e n r a d i c a l c h a n g e s i n e d u c a t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , g e n e r a l l y t h e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n h a s n o t c h a n g e d v e r y m u c h . A r t e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t m a k e c l a i m s t h a t a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t . " A r t e d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a ' s p u b l i c s c h o o l s s e e m n o t t o h a v e c h a n g e d m u c h o v e r t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s " ( G r a y & C h a l m e r s , 1 9 8 0 , p . l ) . T h e r e f o r e t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l s u m m a r i z e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a n d a s s u m e i t t o b e i n d i c a t i v e o f p r a c t i c e s s t i l l e x i s t i n g t o d a y . C O N T E N T OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E A g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d f r o m a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t w h i l e t h e r e h a v e b e e n s o m e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i n o u r s c h o o l s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l m a n y a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s . T h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a m u c h d i s c u s s e d g a p b e t w e e n t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e i n e d u c a t i o n . 12 T h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n w h a t a r t e d u c a t o r s t h e o r e t i c a l l y k n o w a b o u t how a r t s h o u l d b e t a u g h t a n d w h a t h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s . P r o b l e m s c i t e d b y v a r i o u s w r i t e r s i n c l u d e l a c k o f m o n e y , t o o f e w a r t s p e c i a l i s t s , a t t i t u d i n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s a s w e l l a s w e a k n e s s e s i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g . C h a p m a n p r o v i d e s t h o r o u g h r e c e n t s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t o d a y . I n h e r b o o k I n s t a n t A r t , I n s t a n t C u l t u r e s h e d e s c r i b e s t h e a r t b e i n g t a u g h t i n o u r s c h o o l s a s " i n s t a n t a r t " . " I n s t a n t a r t , l i k e m a n y o t h e r i n s t a n t p r o d u c t s i n o u r l i v e s , m a k e s f e w d e m a n d s o n a l l who p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . I t r e q u i r e s m i n i m u m s k i l l , l i t t l e o r n o k n o w l e d g e , t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e e f f o r t , a n d p r a c t i c a l l y n o i n v e s t m e n t o f t i m e . I n s t a n t a r t i s s h a m , b u t i t h a s b e c o m e t h e s t a n d a r d f a r e A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s o f f e r t o m o s t o f o u r y o u n g p e o p l e " ( C h a p m a n , 1 9 8 2 , p . x i i i ) . S h e s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t w h a t we o f f e r t o s t u d e n t s i s " l i t t l e m o r e t h a n t o k e n e x p o s u r e " t o a r t , a n d o f t e n we m i s e d u c a t e o r d o w o r s e t h a n i f we d i d n o t t e a c h a r t a t a l l . S h e w r i t e s a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . W a l t e r s r e p e a t s t h i s b y s t a t i n g t h a t t o i m p r o v e t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s b y t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y n e e d t o b e r e - e v a l u a t e d ( W a l t e r s , 1 9 8 0 ) . L e s s o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e , S a d o w y w r i t e s " C l o u d s o f d o o m h a n g h e a v i l y o n t h e h o r i z o n o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . . . t h e d r o u g h t o f m e a n i n g f u l a r t e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s " ( S a d o w y , 1 9 8 4 , p . 4 3 ) . A s d o e s C h a p m a n , 13 s h e s u g g e s t s t h a t i n o r d e r t o s e e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n a r t t e a c h i n g u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s a n d b a s i c b e l i e f s a n d a t t i t u d e s a b o u t a r t e d u c a t i o n n e e d t o b e r e a s s e s s e d b y o u r t e a c h e r s . T h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w v a l u e w h i c h a r t e d u c a t i o n c o m m a n d s i n o u r s o c i e t y a n d w h i c h i s p e r p e t u a t e d b y o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , i s c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n . "We a r e s a y i n g t h a t t h e a r t s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n r e a l l i f e b u t t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s a n d t h e r e i s n o t i m e t o w a s t e o n m a r g i n a l s u b j e c t s , m e a n i n g a r t " ( M a j o r , 1983 , p . 2 ) . S i m i l a r i l y E f l a n d w r i t e s " t h a t a r t i s n o t r e g a r d e d a s t h e m o s t v a l u e d o f s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i s d r i v e n home w i t h r e p e a t e d r e g u l a r i t y " ( E f l a n d , 1976 , p . 3 7 ) . W a l t e r s c a n d i d l y d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a . " V i s u a l a r t p r o g r a m s a t a l l l e v e l s a r e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i n t e r e s t s , i n i t i a t i v e a n d s k i l l s o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . T h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e w h i c h e m e r g e s i s o n e o f u n c o n n e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e s t u d e n t s s o m e t h i n g i n t e r e s t i n g a n d e n j o y a b l e t o d o . P r o g r a m s a r e r a r e l y k n i t t o g e t h e r i n a n y s o r t o f c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n o r s e q u e n c e o f s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t . A r t c l a s s e s a r e a s e r i e s o f o n e s h o t a c t i v i t e s , t h a t i s , e a s y p r o j e c t s w h i c h c a n b e c o m p l e t e d ( o r n o t ) i n o n e l e s s o n a n d j u s t a s q u i c k l y f o r g o t t e n ; r a t h e r t h a n a c o n t i n u o u s p r o g r a m w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s , a e s t h e t i c a w a r e n e s s , i m a g i n a t i o n o r a n y c l e a r l y d e f i n e d g o a l s t h r o u g h a p l a n n e d s e q u e n c e o f a c t i v i t i e s " ( W a l t e r s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 8 ) . K u z m i n s k i r e p o r t s f r o m S a s k a t c h e w a n " O c c a s i o n a l g o o d c l a s s e s i n a l l t h e s e s u b j e c t s ( f i n e a r t s ) d o e x i s t , b u t t h e y a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e r u l e " ( 1980 , p . 1 7 ) . K i n g m a k e s t h e 14 p o i n t t h a t t h e r a n g e o f a r t t e a c h i n g a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l s e e m s m u c h b r o a d e r t h a n a t o t h e r l e v e l s , t o i n c l u d e b o t h p o o r a n d e x e m p l a r y p r o g r a m s ( K i n g , 1 982 ) . H o d d e r s e e s t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n t h a t " t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n a s a p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m h a s b e e n r e - e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e l i g h t o f r e c e n t c o n c e r n s a b o u t v e r b a l l i t e r a c y " ( H o d d e r , 197 9, p . 3 8 ) . H i s s u r v e y o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n B . C . r e v e a l e d l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s , f a c i l i t i e s , a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s i n a r t a n d v e r y l i t t l e u s e o f a s e q u e n t i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m . K i n g s u m s u p t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n b y s t a t i n g a b o u t A l b e r t a " A r t p r o g r a m m i n g i n A l b e r t a h a s n ' t r e a c h e d a l e v e l w h e r e we c a n b e c o n t e n t w i t h w h a t w e ' v e a c c o m p l i s h e d " ( K i n g , 1982 , p . 1 7 ) . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n c l u d e a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new a r t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . H o d d e r w r i t e s t h a t " t h e g r e a t e s t n e e d l i e s i n t h e a r e a o f a r t c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e g r e a t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s w i t h t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a c u r r i c u l u m . L e s s t h a n 10% o f t h e s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s e q u e n t i a l a r t c u r r i c u l u m i s e i t h e r i n e f f e c t o r b e i n g p l a n n e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ( H o d d e r , 1979) . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a r t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s c o u l d b e o n e way t o e f f e c t p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s i n t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . C O N C L U S I O N A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s t a t u s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n h a s r e v e a l e d f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1) a s c a r c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r a d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a b a s e 2) i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e h a s 15 overwhelmingly been generated from surveys and q u e s t i o n n a r i e s which y i e l d s t a t i s t i c a l data 3) much in f o r m a t i o n i s American but can be assumed to r e f l e c t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s i n Canada a l s o 4) g e n e r a l l y changes i n te a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s i n a r t have not a l t e r e d d u r i n g the past 15 years. The content of the l i t e r a t u r e on the st a t u s of a r t education r e v e a l s a much d i s c u s s e d d i s c r e p a n c y between theory and p r a c t i c e . 2.3 IMPLEMENTATION The study of implementation i n a r t education being of only recent i n t e r e s t , has not y i e l d e d an abundance of l i t e r a t u r e . Horsland (1982) i n h i s study of a r t c u r r i c u l u m implementation noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e an abundance of c u r r i c u l u m development p r o j e c t s , c u r r i c u l u m guides and d e s c r i p t i o n s of a r t a c t i v i t e s and resource m a t e r i a l s , but l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n of a r t c u r r i c u l u m implementation. He r e p o r t e d that "many c u r r i c u l a are being developed, but there are few s t u d i e s that e i t h e r analyze t h e i r long-term impact or observe and i n t e r p r e t any r e l a t e d implementation e f f o r t s " (Horsland, 1982 , p .6 ) . Therefore, i t was necessary to review the ge n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on implementation and when a v a i l a b l e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on implementation i n a r t educat i o n . Recently vast sums of money, energy and time have been spent on d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l u m s i n a l l s u b j e c t areas i n ed u c a t i o n . "Canadian and American e d u c a t i o n a l scenes spawned such a myriad of c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s that C a r l s o n (1965) equated t h i s development a c t i v i t y with the "advanced s t a t e s of a r e v o l u t i o n i n education" (Common, 1980, p.3). These s t u d i e s were mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n the development of c u r r i c u l u m and i t s e v a l u a t i o n and not t h e i r implementation. It was assumed that a f t e r development of the c u r r i c u l u m i t would n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w that the teacher would put i t i n t o p r a c t i c e . It became i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious that the c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s being developed were not f i n d i n g t h e i r way i n t o classrooms as had been intended. "In 1970, Goodlad and K l e i n (1970) d i s c o v e r e d that many of the most noted and recommended c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s were e i t h e r dimly conceived or, at best, p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e d i n schools c l a i m i n g t h e i r use" (Common, 1980, p.3). They wrote "many of the changes we have b e l i e v e d to be t a k i n g p l a c e i n s c h o o l i n g have not been g e t t i n g i n t o classrooms; changes widely recommended f o r schools over the past 15 years were b l u n t e d on school and classroom doors" (Goodlad & K l e i n , 1970, p.97). C u r r i c u l u m developers had been attempting to develop c u r r i c u l u m s that were "teacher proof" i n order to minimize the teacher's involvement i n implementation (Coles, 1981; Werner, 1981). They began to r e a l i z e that f a r from d e v e l o p i n g "teacher p r o o f " c u r r i c u l u m s they needed to contend with the f a c t that t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n s were only p r o p o s a l s f o r change and f o r these to be put i n t o p r a c t i s e they would need to be implemented by t e a c h e r s . "Many attempts at p o l i c y change have c o n c e n t r a t e d on product development, l e g i s l a t i o n , and other on paper change i n a way which ig n o r e d the f a c t t h a t what people d i d and d i d not do was the c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e " ( F u l l a n , p.54, 1982) . The development of a c u r r i c u l u m came to be seen as only the beginning of the process i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l change. An emphasis on implementation and the teacher's r o l e became a new f o c a l p o i n t f o r c u r r i c u l u m change (Horsland, 1982) . F o l l o w i n g the development of a c u r r i c u l u m four general stages have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the change process: 1) i n i t i a t i o n or adoption which i s the d e c i s i o n to go ahead with the change, 2) the implementation or i n i t i a l use which i n c l u d e s the f i r s t attempts at change u s u a l l y d u r i n g the f i r s t 2-3 years, 3) c o n t i n u a t i o n 4) outcome ( F u l l a n , 1982). The i n i t i a t i o n or adoption of c u r r i c u l u m guides i n Canada i s g e n e r a l l y done by the Department of Education. Guides are r e v i s e d every few years i n a l l s u b j e c t areas as part of ongoing r e v i s i o n s . The Department of Education, once i t has decided to r e v i s e a guide, appoints a committee, arranges funding and sets the b a s i c procedure. The department i n i t i a t e s the a c t i o n and maintains c o n t r o l d u r i n g the developmental process. It a l s o i n i t i a t e s the implementation but then passes c o n t r o l of t h i s over to the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . "In B.C. c u r r i c u l u m i s developed at the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implementation i s l e f t to the l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t " (Coles, 1981, p.18). The new B.C. Elementary Fine A r t s C u r r i c u l u m Guide i s an example of such a guide that was developed under the Department of Education and then d i s t r i b u t e d to the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s to be implemented l o c a l l y . The e f f e c t s of the guide are widespread i n terms of time, u s u a l l y ten to f i f t e e n years, and scope, s i n c e every teacher 18 t e a c h i n g a r t i n the province should have a copy of the guide. "The p r o v i n c i a l guide i s the only way i n which change i n a r t education can be e f f e c t e d across the province and one of the few e f f e c t i v e ways to improve programs i n g e n e r a l " (Walters & H a r r i s , 1984, p.15). Across Canada provinces each have t h e i r own guides which set the p o l i c y f o r a r t te a c h i n g i n that p r o v i n c e . "A c u r r i c u l u m i s a p o l i c y document; i t p r e s c r i b e s and suggests; i t sets c e r t a i n l i m i t s . As i t s t a t e s what ought to be done i t i s meant to be acted upon" (Daniels & Wright, 1980, I n t r o . ) . The second stage i n the change process, implementation, i s the focus of t h i s study. Recent research r e v e a l s that implementation i s a complex and d i f f i c u l t undertaking " r e l a t e d to pl a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a m u l t i l e v e l s o c i a l process i n v o l v i n g thousands of people" ( F u l l a n & Park, 1981, p . l ) . Some general p o i n t s about implementation w i l l be made f o l l o w e d by a summary of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation. A r e c u r r i n g theme i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s that implementation must be seen as a c o n t i n u i n g process ( G u i d e l i n e s , 1982; Common, 1980). "Program implementation must be seen, not as a s i n g l e event, or even as a f i x e d s e r i e s of events, but as a process o c c u r r i n g over time and r e q u i r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y " ( G u i d e l i n e s , 1982, p.5) . M i s t a k e n l y , o f t e n i t i 3 assumed that change i s the r e s u l t of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n , and as such i s a d e c i s i o n - p o i n t r a t h e r than a p r o c e s s . McLaughlin, working as part of Rand's Change Agent Study, d e s c r i b e s s u c c e s s f u l implementation as a process of mutual a d a p t a t i o n . He found that "implementation d i d not merely i n v o l v e the d i r e c t and 19 s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a p p l i c a t i o n o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y o r p l a n . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n was a d y n a m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h a t was s h a p e d o v e r t i m e b y i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n p r o j e c t g o a l s a n d m e t h o d s , a n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g " ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1976 , p . 3 4 1 ) . F u l l a n ( 1980 ) n a m e s t h i s a m u t u a l - a d a p t a t i o n o r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e f i d e l i t y a p p r o a c h w h i c h a s s u m e s t h a t o n c e a n i n n o v a t i o n h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d i t s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e o n e " c o r r e c t " way a s o u t l i n e d b y t h e d e v e l o p e r . Common d e s c r i b e s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g p r o c e s s w h e r e o p e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y b e t w e e n e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c u r r i c u l u m t h e n i s s e e n a s a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s , o f t e n t a k i n g p l a c e o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s . T h e c u r r i c u l u m i s c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g c h a n g e d , a d a p t e d , a n d m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h u s e b y t e a c h e r s s o t h a t t h e l i n e s d r a w n b e t w e e n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n i t i a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s a r e i n f a c t n o n - e x i s t e n t . T h e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s g o e s t h r o u g h s t a g e s i n t h e l e v e l o f u s e o f t h e new p r o g r a m . T h e s e l e v e l s o f u s e h a v e b e e n d o c u m e n t e d b y ( H a l l e t a l , 1975) b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e s t a g e a t w h i c h t h e u s e r h a s n o k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , c o n t i n u i n g t o f i r s t u s e , r o u t i n u e u s e a n d f i n a l l y a d v a n c e d u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d i n g a d a p t a t i o n a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o s u i t p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r i l y H a v e l o c k o u t l i n e s a 3ix s t e p s e q u e n c e : a w a r e n e s s , i n t e r e s t , e v a l u a t i o n , t r i a l , a d o p t i o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n ( H a v e l o c k , 1 970 ) . Implementation must a l s o be seen as m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l . C e r t a i n l y i t i n v o l v e s the use of new m a t e r i a l s , and new te a c h i n g approaches and s k i l l s but beneath these o f t e n a very d i f f i c u l t change must take place i n regards to p h i l o s o p y and b e l i e f s u n d e r l y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r approach. F u l l a n ' s view i s that a l l three of these are i n t e r r e l a t e d and necessary f o r there to be what he co n s i d e r s a s i g n i f i c a n t or fundamental change ( F u l l a n , 1981). As such implementation i s an extremely complex l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l and adaptive process. Implementation i s brought about as the r e s u l t of changes experienced by people ( F u l l a n & Park, 1981) . Because i n d i v i d u a l teachers b r i n g about changes the implementation process must focus on people and t h e i r needs. In connection with t h i s they suggest that i n d i v i d u a l s a l l experience change i n t h e i r own way and t h e r e f o r e implementation i s a p e r s o n a l experience and w i l l be d i f f e r e n t f o r everyone. The d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the development of a c u r r i c u l u m and i t s use by teachers that have been shown to e x i s t have been e x p l a i n e d i n many ways. Coles notes "the m a j o r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e c i t e s the root of the problem as the f a i l u r e to adequately a t t e n d to any one of a number of f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the implementation of an i n n o v a t i o n " (Coles, 1981, p.13) . The f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation are d i s c u s s e d by many authors but probably most c o n c i s e l y o u t l i n e d by F u l l a n (1982) He has c a t e g o r i z e d the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the implementation process under four headings: A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Change 21 B . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t L e v e l C . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e S c h o o l L e v e l D . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s E x t e r n a l t o t h e L o c a l S y s t e m E a c h o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l b e f u r t h e r d i v i d e d a n d t h e i r c o m p o n e n t p a r t s d i s c u s s e d a s i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF T H E C H A N G E N e e d a n d R e l e v a n c e o f t h e C h a n g e : A k e y f a c t o r i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e t e a c h e r s ' s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e s a n d a d e s i r e t o i m p l e m e n t t h e m . " I t now a p p e a r s a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t o u s t h a t n o d e p t h o f s c h o l a r s h i p , n o t e c h n i c a l e x c e l l e n c e , n o c l a s s r o o m e x p e r t i s e w i l l s e r v e t h e n e e d s o f t h e n e w . . . p r o g r a m u n l e s s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a n d d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a r e s u p p o r t i v e o f i t s i n t e n t s " ( W e r n e r , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 4 2 ) . T h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e n e e d f o r c h a n g e i s p e r c e i v e d b y t h o s e i n v o l v e d a f f e c t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o s e e a r e a s o n f o r a c h a n g e t e a c h e r s m u s t b e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e way t h i n g s a r e a n d b e s h o w n p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r how t h i n g s c o u l d b e i m p r o v e d . T h e c h a n g e m u s t b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' own e x p e r i e n c e t o b e d e e m e d w o r t h w h i l e . W e r n e r w r i t e s " I t i s t o b e e x p e c t e d t h a t i f a t e a c h e r d o e s n o t i n t e r p r e t t h e i n t e n t s , a c t i v i t i e s , o r m a t e r i a l s a s b e i n g r e l e v a n t i n s o m e way t o h i s o r h e r own s i t u a t i o n , t h e c u r r i c u l u m w i l l b e a b a n d o n e d i n f a v o u r o f s o m e t h i n g e l s e , o r a t l e a s t c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y " ( W e r n e r , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 4 1 ) . C o n v e r s e l y a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n m a y c r e a t e r e s i s t a n c e t o c h a n g e . 22 G e n e r a l l y t h e r e w i l l b e a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i f t h e r e a s o n f o r c h a n g e h a s c o m e f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s may l a c k c o m m i t m e n t t o a c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h h a s b e e n i m p o s e d u p o n t h e m . F u l l a n r e p o r t s " W h e n c h a n g e i s i m p o s e d f r o m o u t s i d e i t i s b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d . . . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y f o r p e o p l e t o a d j u s t t o t h e n e a r o c c a s i o n o f c h a n g e , b y c h a n g i n g a s l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e - e i t h e r a s s i m i l a t i n g o r a b a n d o n i n g c h a n g e s " ( F u l l a n , 1982 , p . 55) . I n o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c h a n g e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l m e n t a t i o n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d a n d s h o u l d b e u s e d d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o o n e c o r r e c t way t o i m p l e m e n t e d u c a t i o n c h a n g e s a n u m b e r o f s t r a t e g i e s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h s e e m c r i t i c a l a n d w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s . M c L a u g h l i n o u t l i n e s t h r e e s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h h e h a s f o u n d p a r t i c u l a r i l y u s e f u l . T h e y a r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a t e r i a l s b y t e a c h e r s t o u s e i n t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s , s t a f f t r a i n i n g i n c l u d i n g p r e s e r v i c e a n d i n s e r v i c e , a n d a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g a n d s t a f f m e e t i n g s ( M c l a u g h l i n , 197 6) . T h e n e e d f o r c h a n g e a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s i s i n r e l a t i o n t o a n a b u n d a n c e o f d e m a n d s w h i c h may b e p l a c e d u p o n t h e t e a c h e r . T h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w h e n t h e t e a c h e r i s f a c e d w i t h m a n y d e m a n d s . T h e c h a n g e m a y b e s e e n a s a n o t h e r b a n d w a g o n , i m p o r t a n t a t t h e m o m e n t , b u t n o t l o n g l a s t i n g . D o l l n o t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s b e c o m e s u s p i c i o u s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who a r e c o n t i n u a l l y i n t r o d u c i n g i n n o v a t i o n s w i t h o u t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t t h e y w i l l m e a n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . ( D o l l , 1982) " T e a c h e r s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d w a v e a f t e r 23 w a v e o f e d u c a t i o n a l f a d s o t h e y h a v e a n a t u r a l s k e p t i c i s m t o w a r d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t b a s e d o n p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " ( F l a n d e r s , 1 9 8 3 , p . 1 4 3 ) . C l a r i t y : C l a r i t y a b o u t t h e g o a l s o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e way t h e y c a n b e b e b r o u g h t a b o u t i s o f t e n a m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . " L a c k o f c l a r i t y - d i f f u s e g o a l s a n d u n s p e c i f i e d m e a n s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n - r e p r e s e n t s a m a j o r p r o b l e m a t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e ; t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r s f i n d t h a t t h e c h a n g e i s s i m p l y n o t v e r y c l e a r a s t o w h a t i t m e a n s i n p r a c t i c e " ( F u l l a n , 1 9 8 2 , p . 5 7 ) . He a l s o n o t e s a d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s i n a c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e r e a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s o f a t e a c h e r . " T h e r a t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n s , a b s t r a c t i o n s , a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a p r o p o s e d new c u r r i c u l u m d o n o t m a k e s e n s e i n t h e c a p r i c i o u s w o r l d o f t h e t e a c h e r " ( F u l l a n , 1 9 8 2 , p . 5 2 ) . L a c k o f c l a r i t y c a n l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n a n d u n n e c e s s a r y a n x i e t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h o s e t r y i n g t o i m p l e m e n t , a n d c o u l d l e a d t o t h e i r r e j e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c h a n g e . " I f t h e c u r r i c u l u m c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d c l e a r l y a n d i f t h e c u r r i c u l u m c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a g e n t s , r e j e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l o c c u r " ( C o m m o n , 1 9 8 0 , p . 4 ) . C o m p l e x i t y : C o m p l e x i t y (how d i f f i c u l t t h e g u i d e i s t o u s e ) i s a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . " O n e t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d a s c o n s i s t i n g o f m a n y p a r t s a n d r e q u i r i n g e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g t o l e a r n t o u s e i s h i g h l y c o m p l e x ; o n e w h i c h i s s i m p l e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , a n d r e q u i r e s n o . t r a i n i n g t o u s e i3 l o w i n c o m p l e x i t y " ( H u g h e s & K e i t h , 1 9 8 0 , p . 4 4 ) . 24 A g r e a t d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s e e n a s a n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h e a m o u n t o f c o m p l e x i t y r e l a t e s t o how m u c h c h a n g e i s b e i n g a t t e m p t e d . T h e g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y u s u a l l y t h e g r e a t e r t h e a m o u n t o f c h a n g e t a k i n g p l a c e a n d t h e m o r e b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d . S i m p l e c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e o f t e n b o t h e a s y t o c l a r i f y a n d n o t p a r t i c u l a r i l y c o m p l e x a r e e a s y t o c a r r y o u t b u t t h e y d o n o t m a k e a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f e r e n c e o r a c h i e v e v e r y m u c h c h a n g e . B u t Common d o e s n o t e t h a t i f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s t o o c o m p l e x o r w i l l d e m a n d t o o m u c h o f c h a n g e f r o m w h a t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s i t w i l l n o t b e u s e d ( C o m m o n , .1,980 ) . Q u a l i t y a n d P r a c t i c a l i t y o f t h e P r o g r a m : T h e a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e s c h o o l s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h e f o c u s o f t h e a t t e n t i o n i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . B u t i n 1964 M i l e s s a w a n e e d f o r t h e f o c u s t o s h i f t a w a y f r o m t h i s . " T h e d o m i n a n t f o c u s i n m o s t c o n t e m p o r a r y c h a n g e e f f o r t s , h o w e v e r , t e n d s t o b e o n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e d e s i r e d c h a n g e , r a t h e r t h a n o n t h e f e a t u r e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s e s " ( M i l e s , 1981 , p . 2 ) . F u l l a n a n d P a r k r e m i n d u s t h a t " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o r c h a n g e i n p r a c t i c e i s n o t a t h i n g , a s e t o f m a t e r i a l s , a n a n n o u n c e m e n t , o r a d e l i v e r y d a t e ; r a t h e r , i t i s a p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g a n d r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e a n d r e l a t i o n s a m o n g p e o p l e i n o r d e r t o a l t e r p r a c t i c e " ( F u l l a n & P a r k , 1 9 8 1 , p . 2 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e q u a l i t y a n d p r a c t i c a l i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l s i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e o n e f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T e a c h e r s b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i o n a b o u t t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m o n how w e l l i t m e e t s t h e i r own a n d 25 s t u d e n t s n e e d s a n d t a k e s a c c o u n t o f c l a s s r o o m c o n s t r a i n t s ( G u i d e l i n e s , 1982) . Common c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , s c o p e a n d s e q u e n c e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , o r v a g u e n e s s . T h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l t e a c h e r s a r e a s k e d t o i m p l e m e n t i s a l s o a s o u r c e o f d i s c o n t e n t . " T e a c h e r s w a n t , n e e d , a n d b e n e f i t f r o m t a n g i b l e , r e l e v a n t p r o g r a m m a t e r i a l s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d a n d t e s t e d i n r e a l l i f e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s " ( F u l l a n , 1982 , p . 6 0 ) b u t t e a c h e r ' s o f t e n h a v e n o t b e e n p r o v i d e d w i t h s u c h . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A T T H E S C H O O L D I S T R I C T L E V E L T h e H i s t o r y o f I n n o v a t i v e A t t e m p t s : T h e p a s t h i s t o r y w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f a t t e m p t s a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l a f f e c t t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a n y f u t u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . R e p e a t e d f a i l u r e c a n l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n , w a s t e d t i m e , f e e l i n g s o f i n c o m p e t e n c e a n d l a c k o f s u p p o r t a n d d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . A s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c a n d e v e l o p a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n f o r c h a n g e a f t e r r e p e a t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s a t c h a n g e . T h e A d o p t i o n P r o c e s s : A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t F u l l a n i d e n t i f i e s a s a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s . M u c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n r e c e n t l y a b o u t t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u r r i c u l u m s ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 7 6 ; B e n - P e r e t z , 1 9 8 0 ; M a h a n & G i l l , 1972) b u t t h i s i s n o t u n a n i m o u s l y a g r e e d u p o n . A c c o r d i n g t o F u l l a n t e a c h e r s who h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m w i l l s h o w a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o m m i t m e n t t o w a r d s i t , b u t t h a t t h i s w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l . I n v o l v e m e n t o f t e a c h e r s d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m a y b e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n i n v o l v e m e n t d u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . F u l l a n m a k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n a d o p t i n g a c h a n g e . " I t i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l : t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a p p r o a c h a t t h e a d o p t i o n s t a g e i s c o m b i n e d w i t h p l a n n i n g a h e a d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " ( F u l l a n , 1982 , p . 6 4 ) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e i s i m p o r t a n t , s o t h a t t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d s e l e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m , a n d s o t h a t t h e y c a n d e v e l o p a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e c h a n g e , b e m o t i v a t e d t o t r y new i d e a s a n d i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . G e n e r a l l y t e a c h e r s l i k e t o b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f c h a n g e s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r d a i l y t e a c h i n g i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m ( H o r s l a n d , 1982 , p . 8 ) . W h a t i s n e e d e d i s i n v o l v e m e n t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b y a l l t e a c h e r s , who c a n t h e n d i s c u s s t h e i r own c o n c e r n s . T h e p e o p l e a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e s t k n o w t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o s u g g e s t w a y s o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e m . I n v o l v e m e n t b y t e a c h e r s i s a g o o d i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f m a n y p l a n n e d a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a n d s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e s s u c c e s s f u l i n s e r v i c e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . C e n t r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S u p p o r t a n d I n v o l v e m e n t : T h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s n e e d e d f o r c h a n g e t o t a k e p l a c e d i s t r i c t w i d e a n d c a n p r o v i d e a n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n a n y s o r t o f c h a n g e . T e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s c a n m a k e c h a n g e s w i t h i n t h e i r own s c h o o l b u t t h e s e 27 w i l l n o t e x t e n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t w i t h o u t f u r t h e r s u p p o r t . V e r b a l s u p p o r t m u s t b e f o l l o w e d b y s o m e s o r t o f a c t i o n b y t h e d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s t o g e n u i n e l y f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s n o t j u s t t a l k , b u t a c t i o n . T h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c a n p r o v i d e a " s i g n a l " t o t h e t e a c h e r s a b o u t how s e r i o u s l y t h e y s h o u l d t a k e t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e s t r o n g e r t h e d i s t r i c t c o m m i t m e n t t h e m o r e e f f o r t t e a c h e r s g i v e a n d m o r e p e r s i s t e n t t h e y a r e i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m . S t a f f D e v e l o p m e n t ( i n - s e r v i c e ) a n d P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I n s e r v i c e i s o n e way f o r t e a c h e r s t o a q u i r e s k i l l s t h a t t h e y may b e l a c k i n g ( C o m m o n , 1980 ) . R e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s s o m e d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t w h a t d o e s a n d d o e s n o t m a k e a d i f f e r e n c e i n i n - s e r v i c e . T h e a m o u n t o f i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d i s n o t t h e d e c i d i n g f a c t o r ; i t i s r a t h e r i t s q u a l i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t m u s t g o b e y o n d a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d i n v o l v e t h e t e a c h e r i n d i s c u s s i n g a n d a d a p t i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m ( H o r s l a n d , 1982 ) . M o s t s u c c e s s f u l i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g a s w e l l a s t r a i n i n g d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F o u n d t o b e i n e f f e c t i v e a r e p r e - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w o r k s h o p s a l o n e , o r o n e s h o t w o r k s h o p s . S p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d b y p r o f e s s i o n a l s o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s h e l p f u l o n l y i n t h e s h o r t r u n b u t d o e s n o t h a v e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s . " M o s t f o r m s o f i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e o n g o i n g , i n t e r a c t i v e , c u m u l a t i v e l e a r n i n g 28 n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p new c o n c e p t i o n s , s k i l l s and b e h a v i o r " ( F u l l a n , 1982, p.66) . T i m e - l i n e a n ^ I n f o r m a t i o n Sygtgm ( e v a l u a t i o n ) : Werner d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b e l i e f , c o n v e r s a t i o n and time i n r e l a t i o n t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e s c o n v e r s a t i o n t o m o d i f y b e l i e f s and i s a p r o c e s s o c c u r i n g o v e r t i m e t h e n i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y o n g o i n g . E v a l u a t i o n i s seen as a n e c e s s a r y o n g o i n g p a r t of t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The c o n c e r n s o f a l l t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e change s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d , i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and p a r e n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m a wide v a r i e t y o f methods and s o u r c e s and s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e . B o a r d and_Commun_it^_CharaoterA.st.ic^s: H o r s l a n d w r i t e s o f t h e need f o r t h e s c h o o l b o a r d t o e n c o u r a g e and s u p p o r t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and a c c e p t change and growth by t h e i r t e a c h e r s (1982) . Community s u p p o r t i s d e s i r a b l e b e c a u s e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a change can be p a s s e d f r o m p a r e n t s t o c h i l d r e n . C o n t i n u o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d between t h e s c h o o l and community. CHARACTERISTICS AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL The P r i n c i p a 1 : Common r e f e r s t o t h e "manager" i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s as any p e r s o n who p e r f o r m s t h e management t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c o u l d be t h e p r i n c i p a l o r a change a g e n t i t must be someone who can a c t as a l e a d e r , e s t a b l i s h an open e n c o u r a g i n g a t m o s p h e r e , and be k n o w l e d g e a b l e about t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 29 Common di s c u s s e s the three fundamental elements of c u r r i c u l u m implementation as a c u r r i c u l u m , agents of implementation and a r e c e i v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n which the c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be used. A temporary subsystem i s set up w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r as long as the implementation process continues, to act as a problem s o l v i n g system. Within t h i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n must make a v a i l a b l e a v a r i e t y of human t e c h n i c a l m a t e r i a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resources d u r i n g the implementation process (Common, 1 980 ) . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the school have been p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to implementation. They are a d a p t a b i l i t y , openness, r e c e p t i v i t y , and a w i l l i n g n e s s to accommodate demands of those i n v o l v e d i n the implementation pr o c e s s . Other c r u c i a l f a c t o r s are morale, rewards, time, energy, m a t e r i a l s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resources (Common, 1 980 ) . Teacher-Teacher R e l a t i o n s : Implementation seen as a process p l a c e s great importance on the continued i n t e r a c t i o n of teachers i n v o l v e d . F u l l a n s t a t e s c l e a r l y that "The r e s e a r c h I have been reviewing p r o v i d e s d i r e c t c o n f i r m a t i o n that the q u a l i t y of working r e l a t i o n s h i p s among teachers i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to implementation" ( F u l l a n , 1982, p.72). The changes o f t e n necessary i n a teacher's b e l i e f s and p h i l o s o p h i e s can be brought about by c o n t a c t with other teachers who are e x p e r i e n c i n g s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Werner maintains that these changes i n b e l i e f s are achieved through the s o c i a l process of t a l k or c o n v e r s a t i o n . " C l a r i t y of b e l i e f s emerges through a c t u a l use of the c u r r i c u l u m , through i n f o r m a l t a l k , and through r e g u l a r planned d i s c u s s i o n 30 s e s s i o n s i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f y the elements of change (eg., knowledge, s t r a t e g i e s , assumptions) e s s e n t i a l to the new c u r r i c u l u m i n comparison with the o l d c u r r i c u l u m " (Werner, 1981, p. 144) . While teachers f e e l that they l e a r n best from other teachers, i n r e a l i t y they i n t e r a c t very l i t t l e with one another. Goodlad concluded a f t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n many classrooms that teachers are very much alone i n t h e i r work and are faced with s o l v i n g classroom problems by themselves (Goodlad & K l e i n , 197 4) . Flanders notes that one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t e a c h i n g i s that "teachers spend most of t h e i r time i n a form of s o l i t a r y confinement; that i s , they work away from other a d u l t s " (Flanders, 1983, p.139). Improving teacher i n t e r a c t i o n s would be a p o s i t i v e step towards a c h i e v i n g implmentation. T e a c h e r _ _ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and _ Orie_n.tations: Among the l i t e r a t u r e there i s a common consensus that the teacher i s the key person i n v o l v e d i n the implementation p r o c e s s . " C l e a r l y the f o c a l p o i n t of the e f f o r t i s the student, while the key agent i n implementation i s the t e a c h e r " ( G u i d e l i n e s , 1982, p.9). " I t i s the classroom teacher who i s the key to c u r r i c u l u m implementation f o r the i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , i n p l a i n terms, the c u r r i c u l u m i s what the teacher makes of i t " ( M i c h a e l i s et a l . , 1975, p.459) . "The key to any c u r r i c u l u m reform i s the t e a c h e r s ' a b i l i t y to understand, f e e l comfortable with, and, hence implement program change" (Major, 1983, p.10). A c u r r i c u l u m i n v o l v e s new m a t e r i a l s but more i m p o r t a n t l y i t may i n c l u d e a new approach, p h i l o s o p h y or method of t e a c h i n g . 31 F o r t e a c h e r s who a r e a s k e d t o i m p l e m e n t a p r o g r a m w h i c h i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r own t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n a n d b e l i e f s , i t i s a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d t a s k . M o r e o f t e n t h o u g h , o n c e t h e t e a c h e r u n d e r s t a n d s t h e u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e new p r o g r a m i t may b e d i f f e r e n t o r i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f s a n d m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g ( W e r n e r , 1 9 8 1 ) • B e n h a m e x p l a i n s why c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 6 0 s f a i l e d " T h e r e f o r m s , o f t e n w e r e i n s t a l l e d ; t h a t i s , t e a c h e r s w e r e t o l d t o f i n d w a y s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g c h a n g e m o d e l s g r o u n d e d i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t t h e y f o u n d g r e a t l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e i r own b e l i e f s " ( B e n h a m , 1 9 7 7 , p . 2 0 6 ) . C r o c k e r m a k e s a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n . " A r e c u r r i n g t h e m e i n t h e r e c e n t w o r k o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s e e m s t o b e t h a t s o m e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s t e m s f r o m i n c o m p a t i b l i t i y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s y s t e m i n t o w h i c h i t i s i n t r o d u c e d " ( C r o c k e r , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 6 1 ) . T e a c h e r s m a y r e s i s t t h e c h a n g e s b e c a u s e " n e w w a y s o f c o n c e i v i n g t h e w o r l d , new q u e s t i o n s a n d m e t h o d s , a n d d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s m a y u p s e t t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d , t h e s t a t u s q u o , t h e s e c u r e c u s t o m a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h f o r m e r c u r r i c u l u m " ( W e r n e r , 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 4 1 ) . W a s s e r m a n ( 1 9 8 3 ) d e s c r i b e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s w h i c h m a y g i v e u s i n s i g h t i n t o how t h e y d e a l w i t h c h a n g e . T h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e p e o p l e who a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s q u o r a t h e r t h a n w a n t i n g . t o c h a n g e t e a c h i n g . T h e y a r e 32 low on the h e i r a r c h y of the education p r o f e s s i o n and encouraged to "not make waves". Flanders found that teachers s u f f e r from f e e l i n g s of inadequacy. "The source of t h i s f e e l i n g seems to d e r i v e from a general d e v a l u a t i o n of the teacher's judgment. It seems that anyone and everyone has some s u p e r i o r c l a i m to p r i o r i t y over teacher judgment: a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have formal a u t h o r i t y , academics have c r e d e n t i a l s and s o - c a l l e d research r e s u l t s , parents have i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s " (Flanders, 1983, p.142). He a l s o found that they f e e l powerless to implement change and f e e l r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r range of choices w i t h i n s c h o o l s . Some of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s of contemporary t e a c h i n g i d e n t i f i e d were time pressu r e , classroom i s o l a t i o n , a network of u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x t r a d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which c o u l d a l l n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t implementation. CHARACTERISTICS EXTERNAL TO THE LOCAL SYSTEM Government Agencies: The f i n a l two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s acknowledge the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the school d i s t r i c t and e x t e r n a l f o r c e s which c o u l d have a b e a r i n g upon implementation. These are c a t e g o r i z e d as government agencies and e x t e r n a l ass i s t a n c e . In Canada the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i s upon the p r o v i n c i a l governments. (See Status of Art Education Chapter 2 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s . ) But implementation and the a c t u a l use of the guide w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be undertaken by teachers i n t h e i r classrooms. Lack of communication between government and t e a c h e r s has been c i t e d as a problem because of t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h c a n a l s o l e a d t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . F u l l a n i n d i c a t e s t h a t " t h e q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c r o s s t h i s g u l f i s c r u c i a l t o s u p p o r t i n g c h a n g e e f f o r t s w h e n t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t a n d t o r e c o n c i l i n g p r o b l e m s w h e n t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t " ( F u l l a n , 1 9 8 2 , p . 74 ) . E x t e r n a l A s s i s t a n c e : M o n e y a n d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s m a y b e a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s . T o b e o f b e n e f e i t t o w a r d s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m o n e y a n d o u t s i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e way o f m a t e r i a l s , c o n s u l t i n g o r s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t m u s t b e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e f a c t o r s a t t h e l o c a l s y s t e m . C O N C L U S I O N B e c a u s e o f a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e o n l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o a r t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m s was o u t l i n e d a n d t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h r e e s t a g e s . C u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d a s a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g c h a n g e s b y t e a c h e r s i n t h e u s e o f new m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s a n d b e l i e f s . T h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w e r e d i s c u s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d b y F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) : A . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C h a n g e B . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t L e v e l C . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e S c h o o l L e v e l D . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s E x t e r n a l t o t h e L o c a l S y s t e m The d e g r e e t o which i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5. 35 C H A P T E R 3 T H E R E S E A R C H METHOD 3 . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N A l t h o u g h t h e m e t h o d s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e i n m a n y w a y s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h t h e y h a v e s o m e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s i t c s . W h a t f o l l o w s t h e n i s a d e s c r i p t i o n a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d u s e d . A g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n w i l l b e p r o v i d e d f o l l o w e d b y a m o r e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e new B . C . E l e m e n t a r y A r t C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e i n a c l a s s r o o m . T h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d a l l o w e d f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g w i t h a h y p o t h e s i s f r a m e d i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , a n d t h e n a f o c u s i n g i n o n s p e c i f i c s d u r i n g t h e f i e l d w o r k . T h i s i n v o l v e d f i e l d w o r k a n d c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w i n g , a n d d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s , t o c u l m i n a t e i n a w r i t t e n r e p o r t . T h i s c a s e s t u d y i n v o l v e d a n e l e m e n t a r y g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r a n d h e r g r a d e 4 / 5 c l a s s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s p e n t f o u r m o n t h s i n t h e f i e l d v i s i t i n g w i t h t h e t e a c h e r a n d c l a s s f o r a n a v e r a g e o f 3 - 4 h o u r s e a c h w e e k . 3 . 2 T H E C O N C E P T U A L FRAMEWORK OF A D E S C R I P T I V E R E S E A R C H A r e l u c t a n c e t o a p p l y t h e l a b e l e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h t o t h i s s t u d y m a y b e a r e a c t i o n t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f l i t e r a t u r e s o u r c e s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e t h n o g r a p h y . P o h l a n d n o t e s " t h e 36 l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s i n a i m s , p r o c e d u r e s , a n d o u t c o m e s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e v a r i e t y o f t e r m s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d o l o g y " ( P o h l a n d , 1 9 7 1 , p . 6 ) He p r o v i d e d a n o u t l i n e o f t h e l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d a t t h a t t i m e a n d t h e v a r i o u s t e r m s a n d p u r p o s e s w h i c h t h e y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e t h n o g r a p h y . T h e t e r m s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n , q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h , e t h n o g r a p h y , c a s e s t u d y a n d f i e l d s t u d y a r e o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . " P r o c e d u r e s m a y i n v o l v e s o m e o r a l l o f o b s e r v a t i o n , i n f o r m a n t a n d r e s p o n d e n t i n t e r v i e w i n g , d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s , a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h s e l f - a n a l y s i s " ( B e r s s o n , 1 9 7 7 , p . 6 1 ) . T h e d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s may i n c l u d e s o m e o r a l l o f d e s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e o r y . T h e r e f o r e i t s e e m e d u s e f u l t o a d a p t m a n y o f t h e s e i d e a s i n t o a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d m e t h o d o l o g y s p e c i f i c t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p r o b l e m d e f i n e d b y t h i s s t u d y . T h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d f i e l d w o r k i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , o b s e r v i n g t h e t e a c h e r s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d r a f t c o p y o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e r e a r e t w o p o i n t s o f i m p o r t a n c e t o n o t e h e r e . O n e i s t h a t t h e f o c u s i s o n t h e t e a c h e r ' s b e h a v i o r a n d t h e s e c o n d i s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r i s s t u d i e d w i t h i n a c o n t e x t . B y d e f i n i t i o n a n e t h n o g r a p h y i s a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s " p i c t u r e " o f t h e way o f l i f e o f s o m e i n t e r a c t i n g h u m a n g r o u p ( W o l c o t t , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t i s a s t u d y o f h u m a n b e h a v i o u r , b u t a l w a y s w i t h i n a c o n t e x t . F o r t h i s s t u d y t h e h u m a n b e h a v i o r b e i n g o b s e r v e d was t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d h e r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e c o n t e x t was t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d m o r e g e n e r a l l y a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . T h e e n d r e s u l t s o u g h t was a " p i c t u r e " o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e g u i d e . M a c G r e g o r a n d H a w k e a l s o n o t e t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t o e t h n o g r a p h y a s 37 i t i s " a m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h c a n b e u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s " ( M a c G r e g o r & H a w k e , 1982, p . 3 8 ) . W i l s o n p r o v i d e s t w o r a t i o n a l e s f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c m e t h o d , t h e f i r s t o f w h i c h e c h o e s t h i s n e e d t o s t u d y s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n c o n t e x t . H i s t w o h y p o t h e s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e r a t i o n a l e s a r e , o n e , , t h a t h u m a n b e h a v i o r i s c o m p l e x l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t o c c u r s , a n d t h u s t h a t we m u s t s t u d y p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t . A n d s e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s o f t e n m o r e m e a n i n g t o a s i t u a t i o n t h a n t h e o b s e r v a b l e f a c t s , a n d t h e r e f o r e we m u s t s t u d y l a t e n t m e a n i n g s ( W i l s o n , 1 977 ) . E i s n e r c r e a t e d t h e t e r m " e d u c a t i o n a l c o n n o i s s e u r " t o d e s c r i b e a r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m u n d e r t a k i n g e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . He o u t l i n e s t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m a s o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n d e v a l u a t i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n i s t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k a n d t h e b a s i s f o r c r i t i c a l a n d e v a u a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t o b e m a d e . T o b e a c o n n o i s s e u r i s t o k n o w how t o l o o k , t o s e e , a n d t o a p p r e c i a t e . C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d i s t h e a r t o f a p p r e c i a t i o n . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o c r i t i c i s m b e c a u s e w i t h o u t t h e a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e w h a t i s s u b t l e a n d i m p o r t a n t , c r i t i c i s m i s l i k e l y t o b e s u p e r f i c i a l o r e v e n e m p t y ( E i s n e r , 1 97 9 , p . 193) . A l e x a n d e r , h a v i n g a d a p t e d m a n y o f E i s n e r ' s i d e a s i n h e r r e s e a r c h e x p l a i n s " I t d i f f e r s f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t h a t i t c o n s i s t s o f l e n g t h y p a s s a g e s o f d e s c r i p t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d e v a l u t i o n , m o d e s a d a p t e d f r o m a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e a r t o f t e a c h i n g " ( A l e x a n d e r , 1979, p .28) . T h e i n i t i a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s n o t . s t a t e d i n t h e f o r m 38 o f a h y p o t h e s i s t o b e t e s t e d . I t b e g a n w i t h a n i d e a a b o u t a p r o b l e m a n d a n a r e a t o e x p l o r e , f o c u s i n g e v e r i n c r e a s i n g l y u p o n t h e r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s a s t h e y b e c a m e a p p a r e n t . A m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s b o u n d b y h i s / h e r o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s . " P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y u n s t r u c t u r e d s o a s t o m a x i m i z e d i s c o v e r y a n d d e s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y t e s t i n g " ( B e r s s o n , 1 9 7 7 p . 6 1 ) . A n o t h e r m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e n o t s t u d i e d , a s i s s o o f t e n t h e c a s e i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r how t h e y a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e r e s t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . W o l c o t t m a k e s t h i s p o i n t . " T h e e t h n o g r a p h e r i s c o m m i t t e d t o l o o k a t p e o p l e a n d e v e n t s i n a t o t a l m i l i e u r a t h e r t h a n o n l y a t b i t s a n d p i e c e s " ( W o l c o t t , 1 9 7 5 , p . 1 1 3 ) . W o l c o t t ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i s c u s s e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " f o r e s h a d o w e d p r o b l e m s " a n d " p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s " , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a v i n g a n i d e a o f a f o r e s h a d o w e d p r o b l e m may g o i n t o t h e f i e l d o p e n m i n d e d , a n d n o t b o u n d t o s u p p o r t o r r e j e c t a h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s s t u d y b e g a n w i t h a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e d i s p a r i t y t h a t was n o t e d b e t w e e n t h e o r y a b o u t a r t e d u c a t i o n a n d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . A w a r e t h a t a new c u r r i c u l u m h a d b e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d w o u l d s o o n b e i m p l e m e n t e d i n s c h o o l s i t was t h o u g h t t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s m i g h t r e v e a l how a n d i f t h e s e i d e a s w e r e b e i n g e m p l o y e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . " T h e f o r e s h a d o w e d p r o b l e m s r e p r e s e n t i n i t i a l a n d p a r t i a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e p r o b l e m , t h e t e n o r o f t h i n k i n g o f 39 people who are working i n r e l a t e d and r e l e v a n t areas, and p r o v i s i o n a l modes of t h i n k i n g " (Smith, 1978, p.331). The researcher enters the f i e l d with h i s / h e r t r a i n i n g , experiences, and research i n t e r e s t s i n the area. " I n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s guided mainly by s e n s i t i v i t i e s to data d e r i v e d from both p r o f e s s i o n a l background and general notions about the nature of the research s e t t i n g " (Sevigny, 1978, p.7). Time spent e a r l y on i n the f i e l d i n o b s e r v a t i o n allows the r e s e a r c h e r to d i s c o v e r what the problems are, and work from these. Change of focus may a l s o take place d u r i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i n i t i a l ideas may d i f f e r g r e a t l y from those l a t e r deemed important. One of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s a great amount of f l e x i b i l i t y . 3.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH METHOD The past s e v e r a l years i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h have seen a growing sense of disappointment with the abundant amount of s c i e n t i f i c a l l y based r e s e a r c h . I n t e r e s t has developed i n other more q u a l i t i a t i v e methods of re s e a r c h as a l t e r n a t i v e s or complementary to r e s e a r c h that has been undertaken. " S e v e r a l recent a r t i c l e s and s t u d i e s a t t e s t to the growing p o p u l a r i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of ethnographic methods as means to r e p o r t upon and monitor events i n the classroom" (MacGregor & Hawke, 1982, p.38). Although these methods have long been used i n the f i e l d s of s o c i o l o g y and anthropology, the methods of ethnography are now being a p p l i e d to e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . It i s E i s n e r ' s understanding that e v a l u a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n 40 t h e a r t s , m u s t e x t e n d b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s i m p o s e d b y t r a d i t i o n a l , p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y - b a s e d m o d e l s o f e v a l u a t i o n . " W h a t I b e l i e v e t h e s t u d y o f e d u c a t i o n n e e d s i s n o t a new o r t h o d o x y b u t r a t h e r a v a r i e t y o f new a s s u m p t i o n s a n d m e t h o d s t h a t w i l l h e l p u s a p p r e c i a t e t h e r i c h n e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , t h a t w i l l b e u s e f u l f o r r e v e a l i n g t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r a l l t o s e e " ( E i s n e r , 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 9 ) . M o d e l s t h a t we m i g h t f o l l o w t o t h e s e e n d s a r e t h o s e f o u n d i n a r t c r i t i c i s m a n d e t h n o g r a p h y . E i s n e r d i r e c t l y l i n k s t h e n e e d f o r t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h t o c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A s p a r t o f h i s K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t - " C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g f o r t h e Wee F o l k " h e d e v e l o p e d a n d a s s e s s e d t h e n e e d s o f t e a c h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l s . T h e p r o b l e m a s h e s a w i t was t h a t "we h a v e p r e c i o u s l i t t l e d a t a t o h e l p u s p r e d i c t " t h e a m o u n t o f g u i d a n c e t h a t t e a c h e r s n e e d i n o r d e r t o u s e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s e f f e c t i v e l y ( E i s n e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . S c i e n t i f i c / a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h h a s p r o v i d e d u s w i t h m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t a s W i l s o n n o t e s i t i s n o t a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h u m a n b e h a v i o r w h i c h o t h e r m o r e q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d s o f r e s e a r c h c a n . I t i s t h e s t u d y o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e new c u r r i c u l u m , w i t h i n t h e i r c o n t e x t t h a t t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e a n d u n d e r s t a n d . L i k e w i s e A l e x a n d e r s t a t e s " E d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m r e v e a l s a r i c h e r b o d y o f c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e t h a n m a n y o f t h e m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l m o d e s o f r e s e a r c h " ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 9 ) . S h e a l s o s e e s a b e n e f i t i n t h a t t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h m a y b e m o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t o t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 41 Jackson a l s o sees t h i s as a b e n e f i t because he f e e l s that i n c r e a s e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s w i l l develop a language common to teachers and researchers and le a d to b e t t e r communication between these two groups who have o f t e n been wary of one another (Jackson, 1968 ) . Jackson sees a need to "seek an understanding of the te a c h i n g process as i t i s commonly performed before making an e f f o r t to change i t " (Jackson, 1968, p.175). One way to gain an understanding of the t e a c h i n g process i s through classroom o b s e r v a t i o n of the kind d e s c r i b e d here. E i s n e r (1968) agrees that f a r too much resea r c h i s t a k i n g p l a c e with too few res e a r c h e r s i n the classroom. A b e n e f i t f o r teachers of research done i n the classroom i s that they get a sense that r e s e a r c h i s not j u s t conducted i n " i v o r y towers" and has some relevance to them. "Many teachers continue to b e l i e v e that the world of resea r c h i s a world apart from t h e i r own o f f e r i n g them no p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the t e a c h i n g endeavor" (Day & D i B l a s i o , 1983, p.169) . 3.4 DESIGN OF STUDY The r a t i o n a l e f o r conducting t h i s study stems from an i n t e r e s t i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the process of changing classroom t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . One way i n which improvements i n present t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s may be p o s s i b l e i s through the implementation of the new Fine A r t s Elementary C u r r i c u l u m Guide i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n s posed f o r t h i s study r e l a t e d to how an elementary g e n e r a l i s t implements such a new guide, when 42 p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a r e s e a r c h e r . F o c u s was u p o n f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s o u t l i n e d b y F u l l a n ( 1 9 8 2 ) a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e f a c t o r s b e c a m e a p p a r e n t . I n i t i a l c o n t a c t was m a d e w i t h a n u r b a n s c h o o l b o a r d i n a m a j o r c i t y i n a n a t t e m p t t o e n l i s t a w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s s t u d y . F o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y i t was n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d a t e a c h e r who was a b l e t o s p e n d t w o h o u r s o u t s i d e c l a s s t i m e w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r e a c h w e e k , was c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h a n o b s e r v e r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d was w i l l i n g t o t r y a n d e x c h a n g e new i d e a s a n d b e c r i t i c a l o f h e r own t e a c h i n g . T h e t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d was a n e x p e r i e n c e d G r a d e 4 / 5 g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s u r b a n s c h o o l o f m o d e r a t e s i z e . T h e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d f r o m M a r c h t o J u n e 1 9 8 5 . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e m a d e o n l y d u r i n g a r t c l a s s e s . D i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r u s u a l l y t o o k p l a c e a t s c h o o l , d u r i n g l u n c h , r e c e s s o r a f t e r s c h o o l . I n i t i a l l y a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n was m a d e d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r i e n t e d h e r s e l f w i t h t h e s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s , a n d s t u d e n t s . A p r o f i l e o f t h e s c h o o l - i t s s i z e , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , c o m m u n i t y , s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r a n d c l a s s r o o m was r e c o r d e d . T h i s t i m e was a l s o s p e n t m a k i n g a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e a r t p r o g r a m i n t h e c l a s s r o o m f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e new a r t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e was g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r f o r h e r t o s t u d y . T h r o u g h q u e s t i o n i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e g u i d e w e r e d o c u m e n t e d . B y m u t u a l a g r e e m e n t o n e u n i t w a s p l a n n e d u s i n g t h e new p i l o t c u r r i c u l u m a n d i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r . C o n s u l t a t i o n , l e s s o n s 43 a n d m a t e r i a l s w e r e p r o v i d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r a s n e e d e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r b a s e d o n t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e u n i t was i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r n o t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n o n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 3 . 5 METHOD OF I N Q U I R Y E N T R Y AS P A R T I C I P A N T O B S E R V E R W h a t f o l l o w s i s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e n t r y i n t o t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t w o a r e a s . O n e i s t h e p e r m i s s i o n t o s e e k e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , i n t h i s c a s e c o m i n g f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d t h e s e c o n d i s t h e m e t h o d o f e n t r y t o t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d i n i t i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s a n d m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . T h e p r o c e s s o f g a i n i n g e n t r y i n t o t h e s c h o o l b e g a n b y o b t a i n i n g a p p r o v a l f r o m t h e E t h i c a l R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s a p p r o v a l i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a l l r e s e a r c h e r s f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y who w i l l b e w o r k i n g w i t h h u m a n s u b j e c t s a s p a r t o f t h e i r s t u d y . My i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t h a t I h a d s e l e c t e d t o w o r k w i t h i n was t h r o u g h a l e t t e r t o a z o n e c o - o r d i n a t o r . ( S e e A p p e n d i x 1) I n c l u d e d was a c o p y o f my p r o p o s a l a n d a b r i e f s t a t e m e n t a b o u t w h a t I was s e e k i n g t o o b t a i n f o r t h e s t u d y , n a m e l y - a t e a c h e r . I was a d v i s e d t h a t p e r m i s s i o n t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e s t u d y i n t h e d i s t r i c t w o u l d n e e d a p p r o v a l f r o m t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e s t u d y a n d c o p y o f t h e 44 p r o p o s a l was s e n t t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d w i t h i n a w e e k a r e p l y was r e t u r n e d t o me s t a t i n g a p p r o v a l . T h e z o n e c o - o r d i n a t o r c o n t a c t e d a t e a c h e r whom h e t h o u g h t w o u l d b e s u i t a b l e , a n d f i n d i n g t h a t I h a d o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s u g g e s t e d I c a l l t h i s t e a c h e r a n d a r r a n g e t o m e e t w i t h h e r . I p h o n e d t h e s c h o o l a t a t i m e I k n e w s h e w o u l d n o t b e i n c l a s s . D u r i n g o u r f i r s t c o n v e r s a t i o n I v e r y b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d t h e s t u d y a n d a s k e d i f I c o u l d m e e t w i t h h e r t o d i s c u s s i t f u r t h e r . H a v i n g b e e n a d v i s e d t h a t m e e t i n g o n n e u t r a l g r o u n d m i g h t b e b e s t I s u g g e s t e d we c o u l d g o o u t f o r c o f f e e a f t e r s c h o o l . S e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e t o c o n t a c t t h e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l b e f o r e I m e t C a t h y a n d a g a i n o n t h e d a y I f i r s t w e n t t o t h e s c h o o l . A t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h C a t h y I p r e s e n t e d h e r w i t h my t h e s i s p r o p o s a l a n d w e n t o v e r t h e m a j o r p o i n t s . S h e d i d n o t a s k m a n y q u e s t i o n s b u t s e e m e d t o h a v e a l r e a d y d e c i d e d s h e w o u l d l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . B u t my n e x t c o n t a c t was w i t h t h e z o n e c o - o r d i n a t o r who s a i d t h a t C a t h y h a d r e a d my p r o p o s a l a n d d i s a g r e e d w i t h m a n y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s I- h a d m a d e a n d was n o t w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c a p a t e i n t h e s t u d y a s i t w a s . T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s why C a t h y m a y h a v e d e c i d e d n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . S h e m a y h a v e f e l t t h r e a t e n e d b y g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s m a d e a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f a r t t e a c h i n g a n d f e l t t h e y w e r e a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o n h e r s e l f . A s w e l l , s h e m a y h a v e f e l t t h r e a t e n e d b y w h a t s h e s a w a s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f h e r own t e a c h i n g . I t b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l c o n t a i n e d m a n y i d e a s 45 a b o u t t e a c h i n g w h i c h c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s b e i n g n e g a t i v e a b o u t w h a t a r t t e a c h e r s w e r e d o i n g . R e w o r d i n g t h e p r o p o s a l was n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f my i d e a s m o r e p o s i t i v e t o t h e t e a c h e r . A l t h o u g h i t h a d s e e m e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r j u s t i f y i n g t h e p r o p o s a l t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y p e r h a p s i t d i d n o t c o n t a i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r a t e a c h e r t o e n l i s t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r i t was r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e i n v o l v e d o n l y i n t h e f i e l d w o r k p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a n d s h o u l d n o t h a v e i n p u t i n t o t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r p r o p o s a l . T h e z o n e c o - o r d i n a t o r t h e n c a m e f o r t h w i t h a n o t h e r t e a c h e r who w o u l d b e a l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e f i c t i c i o u s n a m e g i v e n t o t h i s s e c o n d t e a c h e r w i l l b e K a r e n . O n c e a g a i n , I c h o s e t o p h o n e t h e s c h o o l a t a t i m e w h e n I k n e w s h e w o u l d n o t b e i n c l a s s . D u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n I t o l d h e r v e r y b r i e f l y a b o u t t h e s t u d y , b u t s a i d t h a t I w o u l d r e a l l y l i k e t o m e e t w i t h h e r t o d i s c u s s i t i n m o r e d e t a i l . S h e was e x t r e m e l y f r i e n d l y o v e r t h e p h o n e , d i s c u s s i n g t h e s o r t s o f t h i n g s s h e d i d i n a r t , b u t was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e t i m e c o m m i t m e n t t h a t w o u l d b e a s k e d o f h e r b e c a u s e s h e was v e r y b u s y w i t h e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e s c h o o l . S h e w a n t e d me t o c o m e a n d s e e h e r c l a s s t h a t w e e k a n d t h e n we c o u l d t a l k a f t e r w a r d s . I p r e p a r e d a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f w h a t i t was I w a n t e d t o d o i n t h e f o r m o f a t w o p a g e b r i e f w h i c h I g a v e t o K a r e n a n d r e a d o v e r w i t h h e r . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d h o n e s t l y b u t w i t h o n l y t h e r e l e v a n t f a c t s w h i c h w e r e i m p o r t a n t t o h e r i n v o l v e m e n t . S h e was c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e t e s t i n g o r f u r t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s l a t e r o n i n t h e s t u d y a n d a s k e d me 46 to w r ite out e x a c t l y what my involvement with the students would be. Again she seemed h e s i t a n t about the time i n v o l v e d and had d i f f i c u l t y making a commitment. But we arranged that I would come back the next week f o r a general o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d and at that time she was ready to continue with the study. My choice f o r her to be the teacher used i n t h i s study was i n part a r e a c t i o n to the time pressure I was f e e l i n g . In order to complete the study before the end of the year i n June and have at l e a s t a 10 week p e r i o d of ob s e r v a t i o n s i t was necessary f o r me to begin r i g h t away. Otherwise I would have to wait u n t i l a f t e r September when sc h o o l had reopened and teachers were f e e l i n g comfortable with t h e i r new c l a s s e s to ask a teacher to become i n v o l v e d . Many of the s i g n a l s I got from Karen i n our f i r s t meeting and telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n i n d i c a t e d to me that she had many of the q u a l i t i e s I was l o o k i n g f o r . Pike i d e n t i f i e s two main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that should be used i n s e l e c t i n g teachers f o r a study such as t h i s (Pike, 1981) . One i s t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to share t h e i r experiences openly and f r e e l y and the other i s t h e i r a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t e a s i l y upon experiences i n order to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s . From the f i r s t time I spoke to Karen on the phone she had t a l k e d openly about her t e a c h i n g , c l a s s , and a r t t e a c h i n g . There seemed to be very l i t t l e h e s i t a t i o n on her part about l e t t i n g me know what went on i n her classroom. A measure of her comfort with the s i t u a t i o n was that she was open about having an o u t s i d e r i n her 47 room. Although there was a seat made a v a i l a b l e to me at the side of the c l a s s , Karen made i t c l e a r from the f i r s t day that I was fre e to move about the classroom and i n t e r a c t with the students. It was of great importance to develop good rapport with the teacher. There was always the p o s s i b i l i t y that my presence i n the classroom c o u l d be seen as an i n v a s i o n of p r i v a c y , although t h i s was never apparent to me. In order that she not t h i n k I was only i n t e r e s t e d i n my study, and that I genuinely cared about the c l a s s I t r i e d to begin our co n v e r s a t i o n s each v i s i t by asking what had gone on with the classroom and how th i n g s were going f o r her. As I got to know i n d i v i d u a l students and s p e c i a l events that the c l a s s was i n v o l v e d i n I would make a po i n t to ask about these. I n i t i a l l y data g a t h e r i n g was s a c r i f i c e d to some extent as I worked towards de v e l o p i n g our r e l a t i o n s h i p and not p r e s s i n g with q u e s t i o n s , d e t a i l s and note t a k i n g . The f i r s t notes I d i d take Karen seemed q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d about, so I immediately o f f e r e d to l e t her read them to show my openness and set at r e s t any an x i e t y that might develop. This a l s o served as a check on the accuracy of my n o t e t a k i n g . I n i t i a l l y I t r i e d to l i m i t my questions to f a c t g a t h e r i n g so that she would f i n d answers that she was being asked f o r r e l a t i v e l y n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g . Bogdan makes these recommendations: Observers who dive i n t o the f i e l d are u n l i k e l y to e s t a b l i s h the kinds of r e l a t i o n s h i p s conducive to f r e e and easy data c o l l e c t i o n . . . A good r u l e to f o l l o w i n the i n i t i a l stage of the f i e l d w o r k i s not to c h a l l e n g e the behavior or statements of the s u b j e c t s or to ask questions that are l i k e l y to put them on the d e f e n s i v e (1975, p.41). 48 It was a l s o important e a r l y on to e s t a b l i s h that I was not a s s o c i a t e d with any one group, such as the d i s t r i c t ' s c e n t r a l o f f i c e or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Wilson, 1 977 ) . Because I had approached the school i n a r e l a t i v e l y independent way and the teacher knew I had l i m i t e d involvement with the zone c o - o r d i n a t o r I was seen as q u i t e autonomous. I was i n t r o d u c e d to the students as someone from the u n i v e r s i t y who was i n t e r e s t e d i n what they do i n a r t c l a s s e s . A c e r t a i n amount of e x p e r t i s e was a s s o c i a t e d with me i n the area of a r t . In the beginning the students had a f r i e n d l y , c u r i o u s i n t e r e s t towards me and began by t r y i n g to please me. It was important that the students p e r c e i v e d me as n e i t h e r a teacher nor a student. I was i n t r o d u c e d q u i t e openly to the s t a f f , to whom my i n t e n t i o n s at the school were known more d i r e c t l y than they were to the students. I was working with the new a r t c u r r i c u l u m and g e t t i n g Karen's r e a c t i o n s to i t . They a l l seemed q u i t e a c c e p t i n g of that idea and agreed that Karen was a good choice but at the time i n the s t a f f r o o m no one seemed t e r r i b l y i n t e r e s t e d . I was i n t r o d u c e d to the p r i n c i p a l through Karen on my second v i s i t . He was aware that I was working with Karen, and was p l e a s e d to meet me. I had thought that he might be concerned about some of the d e t a i l s or e t h i c s of the study but he was not . Ethnographers are c a r e f u l to note that the r e s e a r c h e r must not allow the informant or s e t t i n g to i n t e r f e r e or set c o n d i t i o n s 49 u p o n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a ( B o g d a n , 1 977 ) . A l t h o u g h I n e v e r f e l t t h e t i m e s I c o u l d o b s e r v e w e r e r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r , t h e r e w e r e t i m e c o n t r a i n t s b e c a u s e o f o t h e r t h a n a r t c o u r s e w o r k a n d e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t e s w h i c h w e r e n u m e r o u s . A s w e l l K a r e n d i d n o t h a v e a t i m e t a b l e w h i c h s h e f o l l o w e d r e g u l a r l y , a n d was i n t h e h a b i t o f g i v i n g a n a r t l e s s o n w h e n i t was c o n v e n i e n t . T h e r e f o r e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t i m e s h a d t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r my o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t w e r e m u t u a l l y a g r e e a b l e . R O L E OF P A R T I C I P A N T O B S E R V E R W o l c o t t p r e s e n t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . " F o r a l l h i s e f f o r t s a t g e t t i n g a n d v e r i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s , t h e f i e l d w o r k e r s ' s e s s e n t i a l r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t h a s a l w a y s b e e n h i m s e l f " ( W o l c o t t , 1 9 7 5 , p . 1 1 5 ) . T h i s i s i n c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t t o s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h w h e r e r e s e a r c h e r p r e s e n c e i s n e u t r a l i z e d o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s a r e o f t e n u s e d f o r m e a s u r e m e n t . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e c r e d e n t i a l s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r who i s t h e m a i n i n s t r u m e n t b e c o m e s i g n i f i c a n t . T h r e e s e t s o f u s e f u l s k i l l s f o r f i e l d w o r k e r s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s o n e , a s e n s i t i v e a n d p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v e r . . . s y m p a t h e t i c , s k e p t i c a l , o b j e c t i v e , a n d i n o r d i n a t e l y c u r i o u s . , t w o , p h y s i c a l s t a m i n a , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , a n d p e r s o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y , a n d t h r e e t h e s k i l l s o f a s t o r y t e l l e r a n d w r i t e r ( W o l c o t t , 1 9 7 5 , p . 1 1 6 ) . My f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s c h o o l s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f e e l i n g o f e a s e f o r me i n t h e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n . H a v i n g s p e n t t i m e i n s c h o o l s a s a s t u d e n t , t e a c h e r , t e a c h e r a i d e , a n d v e r y r e c e n t l y a s a r e s e a r c h e r I h a d n o u n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e 50 g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n s w e r e f a m i l i a r t o me a n d t o b e e x p e c t e d . I h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h i n v o l v e d my d o i n g f i e l d w o r k a s a n o b s e r v e r a n d was a l s o f a m i l i a r w i t h t h a t r o l e . I was a w a r e t h a t i t was o f u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t o m a i n t a i n a n d m o n i t o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t I h a d d e v e l o p e d w i t h K a r e n . T o a l a r g e d e g r e e t h i s was m a d e e a s i e r f o r me b y K a r e n b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r a l g e n e r o s i t y a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h s h e t o o k i n m a k i n g me f e e l w e l c o m e . F o r e x a m p l e , s h e s e n t a c h i i d d o w n t o t h e s t a f f r o o m o n my f i r s t v i s i t t o e s c o r t me t o t h e c l a s s . I n t h e c l a s s r o o m p o l i t e n e s s was c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s e d a n d t h i s was e x t e n d e d t o w a r d s me b y t h e c l a s s . " G o o d m o r n i n g " a n d " g o o d n i g h t " w e r e s a i d t o b o t h K a r e n a n d m y s e l f i n u n i s o n b y t h e c l a s s . T h e t e r m p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i m p l i e s t h a t o n e i s i n t h e f i e l d s e t t i n g a s a p a r t i c i p a n t b u t a l s o h a s a s p e c i a l r o l e a s a n o b s e r v e r . V a r y i n g l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p o s s i b l e . On o n e e x t r e m e t h e o b s e r v e r w o u l d r e m a i n u n i n v o l v e d w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e h e w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s ( S p r a d l e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h e r e o n e s t a n d s a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o i s u p t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n i t i a l l y I o n l y o b s e r v e d t h e a r t p r o g r a m i n p l a c e b u t a f t e r i n t r o d u c i n g t h e new c u r r i c u l u m I a s s i s t e d t h e t e a c h e r i n p l a n n i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r a r t l e s s o n s . I r e m a i n e d t o o b s e r v e t h e s e l e s s o n s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d o n l y w h e n c a l l e d u p o n f o r e x p e r t a s s i s t a n c e . My r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . E a r l y o n t h e y w e r e s h y b u t c u r i o u s a n d w a n t i n g t o p l e a s e m e . T h e m o r e t i m e I 51 spent i n the c l a s s the more they became used to me and expected me to come again. One day I made note of t h i s i n my f i e l d notes I was aware that my r e l a t i o n s h i p with the students was changing. They were g e t t i n g used to having me around. I t h i n k they a s s o c i a t e d me with fun, d i f f e r e n t t h i ngs they were being allowed to do. A couple of times d u r i n g the lesson students would ask me what I thought of t h e i r work, or i f they thought i t was f i n i s h e d , or what they should do next. If I f e l t i t was i n my realm of a u t h o r i t y I would a i d them, but otherwise d i r e c t e d them to t h e i r teacher. She d i d many things d i f f e r e n t l y than I would have and I was conscious of t h i s being her classroom (May, 30 , 1985 ) . 3.6 DATA COLLECTION AND DATA ANALYSIS Various experts w r i t i n g about research i n v o l v i n g f i e l d w o r k and data c o l l e c t i o n recommend d i f f e r e n t methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . "One of the few areas of agreement among p a r t i c i p a n t observers i s that the methodology c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y embraces not one, but a blend or combination of methods and techniques" (Pohland, 1971, p. 11). Sevigny d e s c r i b e s h i s approach of t r i a n g u l a t e d i n q u i r y . "My n o t i o n of t r i a n g u l a t i o n i n v o l v e s an ethnomethodological o r i e n t a t i o n and combines m u l t i p l e case study i n v e s t i g a t i o n , m u l t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n , m u l t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r data p r o c e s s i n g , and m u l t i p l e s t r a t e g i e s f o r data a n a l y s i s " (Sevigny, 197 8 , p.7) . Smith and Pohland d e s c r i b e t h e i r approach as the multi-method, m u l t i - p e r s o n , m u l t i - s i t u a t i o n , m u l t i - v a r i a b l e nature of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n (Pohland, 1971) . The consensus i s that by r e l y i n g on more than one source or method the p a r t i c i p a n t observer i s b e t t e r able to o b t a i n a complete p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n and i s able to v e r i f y i n f o r m a t i o n by comparison. The 52 t e c h n i q u e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d o b s e r v a t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t i n t e r v i e w i n g , a n d d o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s . T h e t y p e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e c h a n g e d i n f o c u s d u r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h . E a r l y o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e t o o b t a i n a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e c l a s s r o o m , p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o u t i n e s . S p r a d l e y e x p l a i n s how t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s t h e n b e c o m e m o r e f o c u s e d a n d f i n a l l y s e l e c t i v e ( S p r a d l e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . A f t e r I o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e , a n d o n c e t h e c u r r i c u l u m was b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d I f o c u s e d o n t h e c h a n g e s b e i n g m a d e t h r o u g h t h e t e a c h e r ' s u s e o r n o n u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n i n t e r v i e w s r a n g e d f r o m a f r i e n d l y c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e s t a f f r o o m t o a m o r e f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n s . I n t h i s s t u d y a c o n t i n u a l d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d t e a c h e r p r o v i d e d d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s . T h e a m o u n t o f p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g f o r i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d v a r y . F i e l d w o r k i n v o l v e s c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n o n o n e ' s n o t e s . I a l w a y s h a d s o m e t o p i c s w h i c h I w o u l d h a v e i n m i n d t o d i s c u s s e a c h d a y b u t w h e n a n d how t h e s e w o u l d b e b r o a c h e d w o u l d d e p e n d o n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d b e w r i t t e n i n my n o t e s , b u t I w o u l d o n l y r e f e r t o t h e m a s n e e d e d . S o m e t i m e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g I w o u l d w r i t e a l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s a n d we w o u l d g o t h r o u g h t h e m l i k e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s w h e n I was o b t a i n i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . U s u a l l y t h o u g h i t s e e m e d m o s t b e n e f i c i a l t o " p l a y i t m o r e b y e a r " a n d l e t K a r e n s p e a k a b o u t w h a t w a s i m p o r t a n t f o r h e r a t t h e t i m e . L e a r n i n g t o l i s t e n a n d a s k f e w e r q u e s t i o n s was a s k i l l t h a t I d e v e l o p e d . S p r a d l e y o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d d i a g n o s i s o f e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s w h i c h 53 p r o v i d e s m u c h c o m m o n s e n s e a d v i c e o n c o n d u c t i n g a n i n t e r v i e w ( S p r a d l e y , 197 9) . D o c u m e n t a n a l y s i s t o o k t h e f o r m o f t i m e t a b l e s , r e p o r t c a r d s , l e s s o n p l a n s , b u l l e t i n b o a r d s , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k . P h o t o g r a p h s w e r e t a k e n o f t h e b u l l e t i n b o a r d s a n d a r t w o r k a s w e l l a s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s w r i t t e n . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n t h e f i e l d t h r o u g h n o t e s a n d d o c u m e n t s was e x t e n d e d a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e f i e l d s e t t i n g , n u m b e r e d a n d c o l o u r c o d e d a c c o r d i n g t o i d e a s t h a t w e r e e m e r g i n g . C o n s t a n t r e r e a d i n g o f n o t e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s p r o v i d e d a f o c u s i n g o n c e r t a i n t o p i c s a n d a l l o w e d c a t e g o r i e s a n d r e p e t i t i o n s o f i d e a s t o b e c o m e c l e a r . N o t e - t a k i n g was o f t h r e e k i n d s . I n s i t u f i e l d n o t e s a r e w h a t S p r a d l e y d e s c r i b e s a s " c o n d e n s e d " ( S p r a d l e y , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e s e r e c o r d k e y p h r a s e s o r m a j o r e v e n t s t h a t a r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d s i t u a t i o n . I t o o k s o m e n o t e s i n t h e f i e l d w h i l e o b s e r v i n g , b u t a l s o w o u l d d e p e n d o n w r i t i n g t h e s e n o t e s i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n l e a v i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h e c o n d e n s e d n o t e s w e r e t h e n r e w r i t t e n i n t o a n e x p a n d e d a c c o u n t a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e f i e l d . U s i n g t h e a n e c d o t a l n o t e s a n d f r o m m e m o r y o f o b s e r v a t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r m u s t a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e i n a s m u c h d e t a i l h i s a c c o u n t o f w h a t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e f i e l d . T h e t h i r d t y p e o f n o t e s I k e p t was a d i a r y o r f i e l d j o u r n a l . T h i s b e g a n w i t h n o t e s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g m e e t i n g w i t h u n i v e r s i t y a d v i s e r s e a r l y o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c a n d c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y . A l l d a t e s o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p e o p l e , i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s t o r e a d , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t s o f t h e p r o c e s s I was g o i n g t h r o u g h w e r e r e c o r d e d . 3 . 7 C O N C L U S I O N T h e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s h a v i n g m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , e t h n o g r a p h y a n d n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e c h o i c e o f a u n i q u e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d h a s b e e n j u s t i f i e d a s t h e b e s t way t o o b t a i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e e n t r y a n d r o l e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r was o u t l i n e d a n d t h e k e y r o l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n p l a y s was n o t e d . T h e v a r i o u s m e t h o d s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f d a t a was d i s c u s s e d . 55 CHAPTER 4 THE RESEARCH CONTEXT AND ACTIVITIES 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter i s a s y n t h e s i s of the data obtained while at the sc h o o l . It begins with an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the school and c l a s s and d e s c r i b e s the teacher - resear c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The a r t program i n place i n the classroom i s d e s c r i b e d by: 1) ob s e r v a t i o n of the teacher's a r t and other c l a s s e s 2) observ a t i o n s of a r t d i s p l a y s 3) d i s c u s s i o n s with the teacher about her p e r c e p t i o n s of her program 4) comments by students and other t e a c h e r s . A f t e r the new d r a f t c u r r i c u l u m was given to the teacher her i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s are recorded and her use of the c u r r i c u l u m d u r i n g the planned u n i t . The comments that f o l l o w are intended to be honest, p e r s o n a l statements of ob s e r v a t i o n s made by the resear c h e r d u r i n g the course of the r e s e a r c h . While t r y i n g to maintain a c e r t a i n amount of o b j e c t i v i t y they are a l s o , by the nature of the res e a r c h , w r i t t e n by someone i n v o l v e d i n the s i t u a t i o n and are not meant to be p r o f e s s i o n a l statements but r a t h e r r e f l e c t i o n s and o p i n i o n s by a novice r e s e a r c h e r . 4.2 THE RESEARCHER'S INTRODUCTION TO THE SCHOOL An i n d i c a t i o n as to what the sch o o l would be l i k e came before I a c t u a l l y caught s i g h t of the s c h o o l . Climbing higher and higher up the mountain, past t a l l t r e e s and houses b u i l t on a slope that would seem l i k e a b u i l d e r ' s nightmare, I turned on to 56 a q u i e t r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t a n d c a m e u p o n t h e s c h o o l . T h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d was f u l l o f l a r g e , w e l l k e p t h o m e s a n d g a r d e n s , m a n y w i t h a v i e w o f a c i t y f a r b e l o w . T h e s c h o o l t h o u g h , h a d n o o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s . I t i s a l o n g , l o w t w o s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e , w i t h m a n y w i n d o w s a l o n g t h e f r o n t a n d a g y m n a s i u m a t o n e e n d . B e t w e e n t h e r o a d a n d t h e s c h o o l i s a p a v e d l o t f o r t e a c h e r s ' c a r s a n d a p a v e d p l a y g r o u n d . B e h i n d t h e s c h o o l a r e b a s e b a l l d i a m o n d s a n d b e y o n d t h a t f o r e s t . U p o n e n t e r i n g y o u a r e i n t h e l o w e r f l o o r a n d m u s t c l i m b u p a s t a i r c a s e , p a s t t h e l i b r a r y t o t h e o f f i c e o n t h e t o p f l o o r . C l a s s r o o m s a r e p l a c e d o n b o t h f l o o r s o f f o n e ' l o n g h a l l w a y . G r e e t e d b y a c h e e r f u l s e c r e t a r y I was t o l d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n i n f o r m e d b y K a r e n t h a t I w o u l d b e a r r i v i n g a n d s u g g e s t e d I c o u l d w a i t i n t h e s t a f f r o o m . A f t e r a f e w m o m e n t s o f p e r u s i n g t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t y p i c a l s t a f f r o o m n o t i c e s a s t u d e n t k n o c k e d a t t h e d o o r a n d s a i d s h e h a d b e e n s e n t b y K a r e n t o t a k e me t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e " r o y a l t r e a t m e n t " I was b e i n g g i v e n s e e m e d a t f i r s t t o o c o n s i d e r a t e , b u t l a t e r I r e a l i z e d t h i s t o b e p a r t o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h i n g s i n K a r e n ' s G r a d e 4 / 5 c l a s s r o o m . C l a s s e s w e r e i n s e s s i o n a l o n g t h e l o n g h a l l w a y w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d n o i s e a n d a c t i v i t y o f h u n d r e d s o f c h i l d r e n o n a F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n . A l o n g t h e w a l l s t h e r e w a s o n e b u l l e t i n b o a r d o u t s i d e e a c h c l a s s r o o m w h i c h was d e c o r a t e d w i t h a n a r t l e s s o n f r o m t h e c l a s s w i t h i n . T h e s e w e r e b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d a n d c a r e f u l l y d i s p l a y e d a r t l e s s o n s b u t w i t h a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y . T h i s v i s u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n p e r m i t t e d me t o s e e a t a g l a n c e h a l f a d o z e n a r t l e s s o n s . 57 A t t h e c l a s s r o o m t h e t e a c h e r g r e e t e d me a n d s a i d " h e l l o " a n d a s k e d me t o s i t a t a l a r g e t a b l e a l o n g t h e s i d e o f t h e r o o m . I was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c l a s s a s s o m e o n e f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y who w o u l d b e s p e n d i n g s o m e t i m e w i t h t h e c l a s s , a n d t h a t I h a d a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r a r t l e s s o n s . S h e t h e n c o n t i n u e d t a l k i n g t o t h e c l a s s w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e a r t l e s s o n . I t s e e m e d a g o o d s i g n t h a t s h e was s o o b l i v i o u s t o my p r e s e n c e a n d c o u l d e a s i l y c o n t i n u e o n w i t h w h a t s h e h a d b e e n d o i n g . T h e c l a s s r o o m was a b r i g h t , b u s y p l a c e . I t h a d a f a m i l i a r c l u t t e r e d f e e l i n g o f a n e l e m e n t a r y c l a s s r o o m w h e r e 29 p e o p l e s t u d y e i g h t d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s a n d i n t e r a c t d a i l y . T h e r e w e r e m a n y d i s p l a y s o f s t u d e n t ' s w o r k a r o u n d t h e r o o m , m a i n l y o f a r t a n d v i s u a l i m a g e s f r o m o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . T h e r e h a d o b v i o u s l y b e e n g r e a t c a r e t a k e n w i t h t h e d i s p l a y s w h i c h l o o k e d a s i f t h e t e a c h e r h a d p u t t h e m u p . W o r k was a l l m o u n t e d o n c o l o u r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r a n d s p a c e d e q u a l l y o n b u l l e t i n b o a r d s . T h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s k s w e r e a l l s i n g l y s p a c e d i n r o w s f a c i n g t h e f r o n t o f t h e c l a s s . I t was a l a r g e c l a s s o f 29 s t u d e n t s w h i c h m e a n t t h a t t h e d e s k s a n d a f e w o t h e r p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y f i l l e d t h e r o o m . T h e r e w e r e m o d e l s t h a t h a d b e e n b u i l t o n a n a t i v e t h e m e i n t h e s h e l v e s a b o v e t h e c o a t r a c k s a n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k w a s p i l e d w i t h b o o k s a n d p a p e r s . A l o n g t h e b a c k w a l l w e r e l o w s h e l v e s c o m p l e t e l y p a c k e d w i t h t e x t b o o k s e r i e s . T h e r e w a s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f s h y n e s s a n d c u r i o s i t y b y t h e s t u d e n t s a b o u t who I m i g h t b e a n d w h a t I was d o i n g t h e r e . T h e c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g c l o s e s t t o me v e n t u r e d t o t a l k t o me d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n . T h e c l a s s was m a d e u p o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y C a u c a s i a n 58 s t u d e n t s who w e r e a l l w e l l d r e s s e d a n d r e a s o n a b l y c h e e r f u l . F r o m my e x p e r i e n c e t h i s was a q u i e t a n d w e l l b e h a v e d c l a s s . T h e r e w e r e r o u t i n e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s e x p e c t e d o f t h e m w h i c h t h e y k n e w a n d f o l l o w e d . T h e l e s s o n c o n t i n u e d . T h e c l a s s w o u l d b e m a k i n g E a s t e r b u n n i e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e E a s t e r h o l i d a y c o m i n g u p . K a r e n s h o w e d t h e t w o p i e c e s o f w h i t e p a p e r e a c h s t u d e n t w o u l d g e t , how t o f o l d t h e m a n d c u t a h e a r t . " R e m e m b e r w e ' v e u s e d h e a r t s h a p e s b e f o r e . P l a c e t h e t w o p i e c e s o f p a p e r t o g e t h e r . U s e t h e o t h e r p a p e r t o d e c o r a t e y o u r b u n n y . " W i t h t h e t w o l a r g e w h i t e h e a r t s s h e d e m o n s t r a t e d how t h e y c o u l d b e g l u e d t o g e t h e r t o m a k e t h e f a c e a n d b o d y o f a r a b b i t . E v e r y o n e u n d e r s t o o d how t h i 3 m i g h t g i v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a r a b b i t a n d b e c a m e e x c i t e d a b o u t i t . K a r e n b e g a n s o m e q u e s t i o n i n g a b o u t how t h e b u n n i e s c o u l d b e d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h e c o l o u r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r . C h i l d r e n v o l u n t e e r e d i d e a s a b o u t p u t t i n g a r i b b o n t h r o u g h t h e b u n n i e s ' e a r s , c l o t h e s , bow t i e s , h a t s e t c . ( M a r c h 2 2 , 1 9 8 5 ) Row b y r o w t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e t o l d t o g e t t h e i r p a p e r w h i l e K a r e n w r o t e t h e s t e p s o f w h a t was t o b e d o n e o n t h e b o a r d . T h e n o i s e l e v e l r o s e a s t h e s t u d e n t s b e g a n m o v i n g t o g e t s u p p l i e s a n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r b u n n i e s . T h e y w e r e o b v i o u s l y e n j o y i n g t h i s l e s s o n . K a r e n m o v e d a r o u n d t h e c l a s s d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e l e s s o n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s a n d t a l k i n g t o t h e m . T h e r e was c o n t i n u o u s l y a h i g h n o i s e l e v e l a n d a l o t o f i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g t h e s t u d e n t s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e q u i e t w h e n I f i r s t e n t e r e d t h e c l a s s a n d w h e n t h e l e s s o n w a s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d . K a r e n h e l d u p a f e w b u n n i e s a n d d r e w t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t s h e f e l t h a d b e e n d o n e 59 v e r y w e l l . T h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o o k n o t i c e a n d g o t t h e i d e a t o t r y i t . T h e r e w e r e m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r i n g a m o n g t h e b u n n i e s . A l l s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d w o r k i n g f o r a b o u t 40 m i n u t e s u n t i l c l e a n u p t i m e . When t h e y a r e a n n o u n c e d , t h e s t u d e n t s s t o p p e d t o l i s t e n t o d i r e c t i o n s . A l l s t u d e n t s h a v e a n u m b e r w h i c h t h e y m u s t p u t o n t h e i r b u n n i e s a n d a n y p i e c e s o f p a p e r t h e y h a v e c u t w h i c h h a v e n o t y e t b e e n a t t a c h e d . S m a l l p a p e r s c r a p s a r e t h r o w n a w a y a n d l a r g e o n e s p u t b a c k i n c o l o u r e d p i l e s o n t h e s i d e t a b l e . R o u t i n e s h a v e o b v i o u s l y b e e n s e t u p w h i c h a r e w o r k i n g v e r y w e l l . K a r e n h a s t a u g h t a c l a s s i n w h i c h t h e r e w e r e n o c r i s e s o r d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m s . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e e a g e r t o p l e a s e t h e i r t e a c h e r , a n d w e r e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t e n t h u s i a s t i c a n d w e l l b e h a v e d . S h e s p e n t h e r e n t i r e t i m e i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . N e v e r d i d s h e r a i s e h e r v o i c e . Q u i t e t h e o p p o s i t e . H e r v o i c e was n o t i c e a b l e i n t h a t i t was s o q u i e t , c a l m , s l o w a n d c o n t r o l l e d w h e n s h e s p o k e . S t i l l s o m e s t r a i n a n d u n e a s i n e s s was d i s c e r n a b l e , p e r h a p s d u e t o f a t i g u e f r o m a b u s y a f t e r n o o n . When t h e b u n n i e s h a d a l l b e e n p u t a w a y t h e s t u d e n t s g o t r e a d y t o g o h o m e . T h e y r e c i t e d a p o e m a n d t h e n l e f t n o i s i l y . K a r e n s t o o d a t t h e d o o r a n d a s t h e y w e r e l e a v i n g , p a t t e d e a c h o n e o n t h e h e a d a n d s a i d " H a v e a g o o d w e e k e n d " . T h e r e was a r e a l s e n s e o f c a r i n g i n t h e w a y s h e r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s , w h i c h s h e h a d f i r s t s h o w n t o me b y h a v i n g a s t u d e n t w a l k me f r o m t h e s t a f f r o o m t o t h e c l a s s a n d w h i c h s h e e n c o u r a g e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o a l w a y s s h o w o n e a n o t h e r . I s t h i s s n a p s h o t o f a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e b e g i n n i n g t o a p p e a r 60 almost too good to be true? I t h i n k i n some respects that i s what I thought a f t e r t h i s f i r s t v i s i t . However, these were upper-middle c l a s s c h i l d r e n motivated to l e a r n with a very experienced, c o n s c i e n t i o u s teacher who was l e a d i n g her c l a s s . 4.3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF IHE_TEACHER - RESEARCHER RELATIONSHIP My i n t r o d u c t i o n to the c l a s s and Karen had been made at the beginning of that f i r s t a r t l e s s o n , but our r e l a t i o n s h i p r e a l l y began a f t e r s chool that day when we had time to s i t together and t a l k . Karen was much the same alone as she was with the c l a s s . The f a t i g u e of a F r i d a y afternoon had set i n and I f l a s h e d back to how I would have f e l t when t e a c h i n g i f someone had wanted to c a r r y on a t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n with me a f t e r 3:30 on a F r i d a y . We spoke about the classroom and I made i n t r o d u c t i o n s about myself and what my p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d . I had brought a summary of the r e s e a r c h I was hoping to do with Karen and went over i t with her. Karen spoke at l e n g t h about the commitments she had a l r e a d y made f o r the r e s t of the school year and how they would take much of her and the c l a s s ' s time. T h i s year was the a n n i v e r s a r y o f . t h e s c h o o l and her c l a s s would be performing a dance f o r the parents, r e p o r t cards were coming up, and Karen was o r g a n i z i n g a l l the t r a c k and f i e l d f o r the s c h o o l . The amount of time that would be r e q u i r e d of Karen was a r e a l concern to her, and a r e a l concern to me that she would be u n w i l l i n g to give the time or q u i t the p r o j e c t once s t a r t e d . As the c o n v e r s a t i o n 61 c o n t i n u e d s h e a s k e d i f I w o u l d w r i t e o u t e x a c t l y w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s t u d y w o u l d b e . I t was a g r e e d t h a t I w o u l d r e t u r n t h e n e x t w e e k t o b e g i n g e t t i n g a q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l a n d s t u d e n t s . K a r e n h a d b e e n t e a c h i n g a t t h i s s c h o o l f o r f i v e y e a r s a n d b e f o r e t h a t h a d b e e n a t t w o o t h e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e s a m e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . S h e h a d a t o t a l o f e i g h t e e n y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n v a r i o u s g r a d e l e v e l s a n d s u b j e c t s . S h e h a d m a j o r e d d u r i n g h e r B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n d e g r e e p r o g r a m i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d t a k e n o n e m e t h o d s c o u r s e i n t e a c h i n g a r t . S h e was s t i l l a b l e t o r e c a l l t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s name a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e b o o k s h e h a d d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h a t c o u r s e was s t i l l o n e o f h e r m a i n s o u r c e s f o r l e s s o n p l a n n i n g . S h e h a d f o u n d t h e c o u r s e v e r y w o r t h w h i l e a n d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d t h e s a m p l e s w h i c h s h e h a d d e v e l o p e d b e c a u s e t h e s e w e r e v e r y u s e f u l t o h e r i n h e r t e a c h i n g . S i n c e t h e n s h e h a d a t t e n d e d m a n y a r t w o r k s h o p s o f f e r e d b y h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a n d t r i e d i n t h e s u m m e r d o t o e x t r a r e a d i n g w h e n s h e h a d t h e t i m e . W h e n a s k e d a b o u t h e r p e r s o n a l a r t i n t e r e s t s s h e d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s g o i n g t o t h e t h e a t r e a n d was p r o u d t h a t s h e h a d b e e n t o t h e c i t y a r t g a l l e r y . S h e f e l t t h a t s h e h e r s e l f h a d n o " t a l e n t " i n a r t , t h a t s h e c o u l d n ' t d r a w , a n d d i d n o t f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e d o i n g s o i n f r o n t o f t h e c l a s s . O u r r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s j u s t a t i t s b e g i n n i n g b u t c o n t i n u e d t o g r o w . U n s u r e o f e a c h o t h e r a t t h a t t i m e we w e r e c a u t i o u s a b o u t w h a t was s a i d . My f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s w e r e o f a t e a c h e r who was g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d a n d c a r i n g f o r h e r s t u d e n t s , v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s , a n d h a r d w o r k i n g . S h e h a d o b v i o u s l y won t h e 62 r e s p e c t o f h e r c l a s s . S h e p u t f o r t h m u c h e f f o r t t o g e t r o u t i n e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h e v e r y o n e f o l l o w e d . H e r d i s p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e c l a s s was o n e o f c a l m c o n t r o l a l t h o u g h I a l w a y s g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t s h e w o r k e d h a r d t o m a i n t a i n t h i s a n d f e l t s h e was o p e r a t i n g u n d e r a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f s t r a i n . A s we t a l k e d a f t e r s c h o o l t h a t f i r s t d a y i n h e r c l a s s r o o m a n o t h e r t e a c h e r who was a g o o d f r i e n d o f K a r e n ' s c a m e i n . We w e r e i n t r o d u c e d a n d s h e s t a y e d t o t a l k f o r a f e w m i n u t e s . When s h e was p r e s e n t I n o t i c e d t h a t K a r e n was m u c h m o r e a t e a s e . T h i s i n t e r r u p t i o n , a l o n g w i t h n u m e r o u s i n t e r r u p t i o n s f r o m s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , j a n i t o r s , l i b r a r i a n s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , was a c o n t i n u a l p r o b l e m I f a c e d w h e n t r y i n g t o g e t t h e u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n o f K a r e n a t t h e s c h o o l . A t t i m e s i t was a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o g e t K a r e n ' s u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n b e c a u s e s h e h a d s o m u c h e l s e o n h e r m i n d . S h e was a " l e a d e r " i n t h e s c h o o l a m o n g s t t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d s e e m e d t o c a r r y a h e a v y b u r d e n o f t h e w o r k l o a d f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . H a v i n g t o b e i n v o l v e d a n d h a v e e v e r y t h i n g d o n e h e r way t o o k a l o t o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y . O n e d a y i n t h e s t a f f r o o m w h i l e we w e r e t a l k i n g a t e a c h e r c a m e i n a n d m a d e s o m e s o r t o f a c o m m e n t a b o u t b e i n g u n a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e r i b b o n s f o r t h e t r a c k m e e t . T h i s t e a c h e r was g o i n g t o d o s o m e t h i n g f o r a r e p l a c e m e n t . K a r e n , who w a s a l s o o n t h e c o m m i t t e e , w a n t e d t o s e e i t h e r s e l f a n d l e f t t o h a v e a l o o k . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r i n t h e r o o m m a d e a c o m m e n t t o t h e e f f e c t " G o d h a s s p o k e n " a n d t h a t K a r e n h a d t o h a v e e v e r y t h i n g d o n e h e r w a y . 63 On t h e n e x t v i s i t K a r e n c o n t i n u e d w i t h h e r p o l i t e c o n c e r n f o r me b y i n t r o d u c i n g me t o t h e s t a f f a t r e c e s s . S h e a l s o c o n t i n u e d t o s e e m c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h me i n h e r c l a s s r o o m a s a n o b s e r v e r a n d was m o r e r e l a x e d i n o u r c o n v e r s a t i o n s . D u r i n g r e c e s s s h e a s k e d me s o m e p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s a n d we t a l k e d a b o u t o u r f a m i l i e s . S h e was i n t e r e s t e d t o k n o w m o r e a b o u t who I was r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h a t I was f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s s e e m e d r e a s o n a b l e t o me b e c a u s e I was p r y i n g s o m u c h i n t o h e r w o r l d a s a t e a c h e r a n d p e r s o n , i t m a d e s e n s e t h a t i t s h o u l d b e r e c i p r o c a l f o r h e r t o k n o w m o r e a b o u t m e . A s t i m e w e n t o n I w o u l d m a k e a p o i n t a b o u t a s k i n g a b o u t w h a t h a d h a p p e n e d i n t h e c l a s s d u r i n g my a b s e n c e a n d a s k i n g a b o u t e v e n t s i n K a r e n ' s l i f e t h a t I k n e w w e r e t a k i n g p l a c e . B e i n g a b l e t o t a l k a b o u t t h i n g s o t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e a r t l e s s o n s a n d my i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c l a s s m a d e me f e e l m u c h c l o s e r t o w h a t was h a p p e n i n g . I f e l t t h a t my n o t e t a k i n g m a d e K a r e n u n e a s y o n my f i r s t v i s i t s . T h e s e w e r e t i m e s w h e n I was t r y i n g t o s o r t o u t w h a t was i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , s o I t o o k e x t e n s i v e n o t e s o n e v e r y t h i n g . My s e e k i n g o u t a n d r e c o r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n m a y h a v e b e e n a l i t t l e o v e r w h e l m i n g . A s t i m e w e n t o n I r e l i e d m u c h m o r e o n j o t t i n g d o w n a f e w k e y w o r d s o r p h r a s e s a n d f i l l i n g i n my n o t e s l a t e r w i t h t h e d e t a i l s . E a r l y o n t h o u g h I o f f e r e d t o l e t K a r e n r e a d w h a t I h a d w r i t t e n t h a t d a y . I r a t i o n a l i z e d t h a t s h e w o u l d n o t f e e l a s i n t i m i d a t e d i f s h e k n e w e x a c t l y w h a t I was u p t o . S h e r e a d t h r o u g h a f e w p a g e s a n d s e e m e d p u z z l e d t h a t I f o u n d a n y t h i n g o f i n t e r e s t a n d t h o u g h t i t was a l l a b i t s t r a n g e . 64 O n e d a y K a r e n a n d I w e r e i n t h e s t a f f r o o m a f t e r s c h o o l t a l k i n g a b o u t h e r p r e s e n t a r t p r o g r a m . I was a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h e r p h i l o s o p h y , g o a l s , r e s o u r c e s , p l a n n i n g e t c . S h e s p o k e v e r y o p e n l y a b o u t w h a t s h e d o e s a n d w h y . On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d a y I was t r y i n g t o g e t h e r t o t a l k i n d e t a i l a b o u t t h e p a r t s o f h e r p r o g r a m . H a v i n g b e e n a t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l f o r t h e p a s t s i x m o n t h s t a l k i n g d a i l y t o o t h e r g r a d u a t e a r t s t u d e n t s a n d p r o f e s s o r s I was u s e d t o d i a l o g u i n g a b o u t a r t a t a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l . W i t h K a r e n I was t r y i n g t o g e n e r a t e a s i m i l a r d i s c u s s i o n , n o t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n was e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . K a r e n was t a l k i n g a b o u t e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s a n d I was s t u c k m u c h f a r t h e r a w a y o n a t h e r o e t i c a l l e v e l . I f e l t f r u s t r a t i o n b e c a u s e I was n o t g e t t i n g t h e a b u n d a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n I w a n t e d , n o t k n o w i n g t h a t my n o t b e i n g a b l e t o g e t i t was i t s e l f v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . P a r t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y , I r e a l i z e d , w a s t h a t my q u e s t i o n s w e r e t o o o p e n e n d e d . I n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m w h i c h s h e c o u l d c h o o s e t h e r e s p o n s e . B u t m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y I r e a l i z e d t h a t we w e r e t a l k i n g a b o u t a r t i n t h e way f a m i l i a r t o h e r a n d t h a t I c o u l d n o t p u s h my d i a l o g u e o n h e r . T h a t d a y I w r o t e i n my j o u r n a l " K a r e n w a s m u c h m o r e r e l a x e d . We c o u l d l a u g h t o g e t h e r a n d w i t h h e r f r i e n d s i n t h e s t a f f r o o m . S h e i s n ' t s h y a b o u t w h a t s h e i s a n d i s n o t d o i n g ( i n h e r a r t p r o g r a m ) . My q u e s t i o n i n g n e e d s i m p r o v i n g . G o t a g o o d g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d t o d a y b u t n e e d t o g o o v e r s a m e m a t e r i a l i n d e t a i l " ( A p r i l , 1 1 , 1 9 8 5 ) . L a t e r I r e a l i z e d d e t a i l s w o u l d c o m e o n l y t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s a n d i n s m a l l p i e c e s . A b o u t s i x w e e k s l a t e r I w r o t e a b o u t t h i s s a m e f r u s t r a t i o n i n my j o u r n a l . 65 "I am academically f r u s t r a t e d by the i n a b i l i t y f o r us to t a l k about a r t education at a meaningful l e v e l . I understand that I can't push my ideas on her but I only see a small change i n her a r t t e a c h i n g with the new c u r r i c u l u m , i f t h a t . I r e a l i z e that I'm not documenting a change here and probably should not even be expecting t h a t " (May, 24, 1985) . An important aspect of t h i s research was that as the reseacher I was i n v o l v e d and a part of the scene which I was d e s c r i b i n g . Researcher presence i s not to be avoided, but i s an important part of the r e s e a r c h . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Karen and myself was r e c i p r o c a l . She shared the experiences of her d a i l y t e a c h i n g and I shared my knowledge of a r t t e a c h i n g and the new c u r r i c u l u m . We worked together, both making d e c i s i o n s and n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c i n g one another. I was c a r e f u l not to l e t her f e e l that someone had come i n t o her c l a s s and was t a k i n g over. At a l l times i t was her classroom and I was the v i s i t o r . 4.4 AN OVERVIEW OF THE _GRADE 4/5 ART PROGRAM OBSERVATIONS OF ART AND OTHER CLASSES During the f i r s t month that I observed t h i s c l a s s they were i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s a r t p r o j e c t s . These were: -cut paper bunnies, as an E a s t e r p r o j e c t -thumbprint p i c t u r e s , f u r t h e r drawn with p e n c i l and f e l t crayons -paper q u i l l i n g of r a d i a l designs -poodle dogs made from coat hangers and yarn F i e l d notes w r i t t e n d u r i n g one of these l e s s o n s are i n Appendix 2 . Observations of these l e s s o n s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to view s i m i l a r i t i e s and d e s c r i b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a r t program i n 66 t h i s c l a s s . L e s s o n s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d a s a w h o l e g r o u p a c t i v i t y , u s u a l l y w i t h a 1 0 - 1 5 m i n u t e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , s a m p l e s a n d q u e s t i o n s , f o l l o w e d b y 40 m i n u t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t w o r k a n d a 10 m i n u t e c l e a n - u p . T h e l e s s o n i n t r o d u c t i o n s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s t e p - b y - s t e p d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f how t o c o m p l e t e t h e a r t a c t i v i t y c h o s e n f o r t h a t d a y b y t h e t e a c h e r . M o t i v a t i o n was m i n i m a l . A s a m p l e o f w h a t t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s h o u l d l o o k l i k e was s h o w n , f o l l o w e d b y t h e s t e p s w h i c h s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o a c h i e v e t h i s e n d . D u r i n g t h e b u n n y l e s s o n t h e t e a c h e r s h o w e d t h e s t u d e n t s how t o f o l d a p a p e r a n d c u t a h e a r t , a n d t h e n how t o p l a c e t h e t w o h e a r t s t o g e t h e r t o m a k e a b u n n y b o d y . F o r t h e r a d i a t i n g d e s i g n l e s s o n t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e i n s t r u c t e d o n how t o f i n d t h e c e n t e r o f t h e i r p a g e , a n d t h e n how t o f o l d p a p e r s h a p e s a n d g l u e t h e m d o w n . T h e s t e p s t o b e t a k e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o j e c t w e r e w r i t t e n o n t h e b o a r d a s w e l l a s g i v e n v e r b a l l y . F o r t h e t h u m b p r i n t l e s s o n t h e y w e r e w r i t t e n a s f o l l o w s : - p i c k a t h e m e - u s e f e l t t o m a k e t h e " c h a r a c t e r s " - c o l o u r w i t h p e n c i l c r a y o n - i f y o u f i n i s h t r y a n o t h e r A c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f t e a c h e r c o n t r o l a n d d i r e c t i v e n e s s w a s a p p a r e n t i n t h e s e l e s s o n s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o r r e c t way t o c o m p l e t e t h e a r t p r o j e c t . O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h i s w e r e t h e c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r p l a c e d u p o n t h e s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s . F o r e x a m p l e w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e t h u m b p r i n t s a b o v e t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e t o l d e x a c t l y w h a t m a t e r i a l s t o u s e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r 67 c h a r a c t e r s . F i r s t they were to use f e l t pens and then colour i n with p e n c i l crayons. One c h i l d who s t r a y e d from these d i r e c t i v e s was t o l d "Don't use p e n c i l . Use p e n c i l crayon or f e l t pen" ( A p r i l 11, 1985). For the r a d i a t i n g design l e s s o n students were t o l d that they c o u l d only use 3 c o l o u r s . The teacher h e l d up combinations of c o l o u r s together and asked i f those c o l o u r s went together. L a t e r she expressed her d i s a p p r o v a l to me about a boy who was using black and red. She s a i d he always used those c o l o u r s and they were awful t o g e t h e r . As the students worked Karen c i r c u l a t e d around the room. She would ho l d up examples of artwork and comment upon what she f e l t was done e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l . The other c h i l d r e n took note of t h i s and ideas would then be d u p l i c a t e d . There was constant noise from t a l k i n g i n the classroom. I n o t i c e d that copying was not uncommon. Routines had o b v i o u s l y been worked out e a r l i e r i n the year and now were part of the working order of t h i s smoothly run c l a s s . With seemingly no d i r e c t i v e from the teacher, students c a l l e d out the attendance, c l o s e d the drapes, and ran the s l i d e p r o j e c t o r . Students were i n t h e i r seats a f t e r the b e l l rang to s i g n a l the end of r e c e s s , and desks were c l e a r e d a f t e r c l a s s e s . Artwork was numbered i n the corner, and students knew which scraps of c o n s t r u c t i o n paper were small enough to be thrown away and which should be kept. The smooth f u n c t i o n i n g of t h i s classroom wa3 expressed by the behaviour of the s t u d e n t s . When t o l d to l i s t e n to c l e a n up i n s t r u c t i o n s they d i d so almost immediately, s t o p p i n g work. They would move by rows to c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s , completed o r d e r l y c l e a n 68 up and took care with m a t e r i a l s . Karen r a r e l y had to r a i s e her v o i c e . She spoke calmly and q u i e t l y . D i s c i p l i n e problems were almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . Karen's t i m e t a b l e d i d not show any i n d i c a t i o n of an a r t p e r i o d . But a r t was taught each week f o r u s u a l l y one hour, most oft e n on F r i d a y afternoon between 1:45-2:45. Scheduling was very f l e x i b l e i n t h i s busy classroom; but a r t was i n c l u d e d at some time d u r i n g the week. When p r o j e c t s were not completed i n the time set aside f o r a r t , students were given other o p p o r t u n i t i e s to complete these during the week. Art was taught by the homeroom teacher i n the r e g u l a r classroom, as t h i s school d i d not have an a r t room. In Karen's classroom students worked at t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l desks which were not i d e a l l y s u i t e d to a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Students' desks were of the i n d i v i d u a l type with seats attached and s l o p i n g desk tops. These were arranged i n d i v i d u a l l y i n s i x rows of about f i v e desks each, f a c i n g the f r o n t blackboard. Two long t a b l e s at the s i d e of the room c o u l d accommodate h a l f of the c l a s s working at one time, but other than that the room was very crowded. It con t a i n e d one small sink at the back of the classroom and i t was equipped with a screen f o r viewing s l i d e s and c u r t a i n s to black out the l i g h t . When asked Karen s a i d that i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to do p a i n t i n g i n the classroom. Equipment and s u p p l i e s were i n good order. There was a c e n t r a l supply room where a l l s u p p l i e s were org a n i z e d i n rows on s h e l v e s . Both the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of s u p p l i e s was adequate f o r the les s o n s I observed. When asked about the s u p p l i e s Karen s t a t e d 69 These are ordered by the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l who does a wonderful job. She never has not been able to do an a c t i v i t y because of la c k of s u p p l i e s . She e x p l a i n e d thatthey never run out of red paper at Christmas time. There i s a c e n t r a l supply room which everyone takes from. There i s no hoarding ( A p r i l 11, 1 985) . OBSERVATIONS OF ART DISPLAYS Stake provides a framework from which to observe the q u a l i t y of a school a r t program. Using many of h i s c a t e g o r i e s the artwork i n the school and classroom w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to environment, workspace and support shown f o r the a r t s . Stake wri t e s "we f i r s t c o n s i d e r the e a s i l y observable f e a t u r e s of the school which we suspect may r e v e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r , or neglect of, the a r t s . We look f o r signs which say, perhaps i n d i r e c t l y , that a r t i s encouraged and i s welcome here" (Stake, 1975, p.43). A f t e r l o o k i n g at the completed artwork and observing the a r t c l a s s e s I had a f e e l i n g that there was something too c o n t r o l l e d , too much the same about what was going on. It c o u l d be that the students own c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n was being s t i f l e d by the l e s s o n s , that they were aiming to please t h e i r teacher or that they were copying one another. Karen's i n f l u e n c e upon the students' artwork was f e l t i n other ways and r e s u l t e d i n artwork with a u n i f o r m i t y and emphasis on neatness. This u n i f o r m i t y became apparent a f t e r o b s e r v i n g a few l e s s o n s and many classroom d i s p l a y s . The b u l l e t i n board d i s p l a y of the bunny p r o j e c t i n the hallway was evidence of a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y . A l l of the bunnies 70 had e a r s w i t h p i n k i n s i d e s , a l l eyes were made of one l a r g e shape w i t h a s m a l l e r shape i n s i d e , a l l had arms, and a l l but one had c u r l e d w h i s k e r s . But t h e s e b u n n i e s a l s o d i s p l a y e d a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e r e was a b a s e b a l l p l a y e r , s h e r i f f , an a r t i s t w e a r i n g r i b b o n s , a bunny w i t h a t u x e d o and a p o c k e t watch, a n o t h e r w i t h an a p r o n and c a r r y i n g a b a s k e t , and a bunny e a t i n g a c a r r o t . A n o t h e r d i s p l a y o f an a r t l e s s o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was o f b u t t e r f l i e s c u t f r o m y e l l o w c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r w i t h gummed shapes p l a c e d upon them. The b u t t e r f l i e s had been c u t from a f o l d e d p i e c e o f p a p e r so t h a t t h e wings would be s y m m e t i c a l . The wing shape f o r e a c h b u t t e r f l y was a d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n of b u t t e r f l y w i n g s . Each one had b l a c k a n t e n n a and t h e gummed shapes p l a c e d u n i f o r m l y a r o u n d t h e w i n g s . The m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e l e s s o n were s u c h t h a t n o n c o n f o r m i t y was i m p o s s i b l e . The f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t was a b u l l e t i n b o a r d o f a t t r a c t i v e b u t t e r f l i e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m one a n o t h e r . T h i s sameness was a p p a r e n t t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s o b s e r v e d a r o u n d t h e room. A d i s p l a y o f a b s t r a c t d e s i g n s had e a c h one on t h e same s i z e and c o l o u r of p a p e r , w i t h s t r a i g h t b l a c k l i n e s d i v i d i n g up t h e p a p e r . In t h e sh a p e s c r e a t e d p e n c i l c r a y o n p a t t e r n s had been made. By c o n t r a s t , t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l models o f n a t i v e themes w h i c h had been done w i t h g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s a t home, showed v a r i e t y i n use of m a t e r i a l s , s i z e , e t c . L a t e r i n t h e y e a r i d e n t i c a l p o o d l e dogs were made by t h e s t u d e n t s t o g i v e t o t h e i r m o t h e r s f o r M o t h e r ' s Day. These were made by making a frame f r o m a c o a t h a n g e r and w i n d i n g wool a r o u n d f o r t h e f u r . Within the school there seemed to be a j o i n t consensus about keeping a t t r a c t i v e d i s p l a y s on the hallway b u l l e t i n boards, although there wasn't a schedule f o r t h i s . When asked about the importance of d i s p l a y s Karen s a i d " D i s p l a y s reduce vandalism. Students never mark other students work." Karen f e e l s a r e a l b e n e f i t i s that other students n o t i c e her d i s p l a y s and would comment upon them. The d i s p l a y s help students develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r school and p r o p e r t y ( A p r i l , 11, 1985) . Although these comments are v a l i d reasons f o r d i s p l a y i n g student work they i n no way acknowledge the b e n e f i t s or meaning that d i s p l a y i n g one's own a r t may have f o r the a r t i s t or viewer. They are reasons e x t e r n a l to the a r t i t s e l f . Student artwork was d i s p l a y e d i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . From my notes t h i s was w r i t t e n : Some students were s t i l l completing p a s t e l masks. The best of these had been put up i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . When I asked why (the best) Karen s a i d "because i t s amazing what people end up i n h i s o f f i c e " (June 7, 1985) . The "best" artwork was that chosen by the teacher. Her choice would give a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n to the students of the q u a l i t y which she looked f o r i n t h e i r artwork. Karen put up a l l of her own c l a s s d i s p l a y s . Sometimes students would hand her the work and the pins and she would put i t up. When asked why students d i d not put up the d i s p l a y s she rema rked "Students used to do the d i s p l a y s but now there i s an alarm system so that i f any paper f a l l s down i t goes o f f . It i s very c o s t l y to have f a l s e alarms. A l s o students don't do a good job" ( A p r i l 11, 1985) . One day Karen was eager to show me a d i s p l a y that had been put up i n the gym f o r a concert by another t e a c h e r . It i n v o l v e d very l a r g e checkerboard p r i n t s , and hanging l a r g e f r u i t s and vegetables that had been hung i n the middle of the gym. O v e r a l l the e f f e c t was c o l o u r f u l , e x c i t i n g and p l e a s i n g . Karen seemed q u i t e envious that t h i s looked so good, but was b a f f l e d because i t had taken the teacher so l i t t l e time. From t h i s Karens i n t e r e s t i n producing v i s u a l l y p l e a s i n g work without having to spend a great deal of time seemed e v i d e n t . I got the f e e l i n g from her that she f e l t she put a tremendous e f f o r t i n t o her a r t lessons and was wondering i f there was an e a s i e r way. THE TEACHER/ S PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HER ART PROGRAM An obvious way of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Karen's program was to ask her about i t . What she s a i d she was doing was not always c o n s i s t e n t with what I saw happening and d i d not seem to be c o n s i s t e n t with a w e l l thought out p h i l o s o p h y . A r t i c u l a t i n g her ideas was d i f f i c u l t f o r Karen and at times she was confused by my q u e s t i o n s . Although my q u e s t i o n i n g may not have always been very c l e a r she had not been asked to c o n s i d e r these s o r t s of questions r e c e n t l y and found them d i f f i c u l t to answer. She d i d not submit any long range plans f o r a r t , and does not p l a n by u n i t or sequence any l e s s o n s ; but r a t h e r , plans lessons week by week. She had never seen the 1972 Fine A r t s Guide and was unable to l o c a t e one i n the school even though we looked a l l through the book storage room. Notes taken about the resources she uses were as f o l l o w s : Karen attends workshops but mainly gets ideas from other teachers i n the s c h o o l . Once i n a while she w i l l get together with an a r t teacher from another s c h o o l who has great ideas and get her i d e a s . Mainly she has a r e p e r t o i r e of ideas that she has b u i l t up over the years and r e p e a t s . 73 She doesn't l i k e to use ideas from the Grade 6 and 7 c l a s s e s at her school because those teachers are desperate f o r what to do ( A p r i l 11, 1985) . Twice t h i s year Karen had the a r t c o n s u l t a n t i n her d i s t r i c t come to her classroom to teach a r t l e s s o n s . She spoke very h i g h l y of him and f e l t that the students had gained a l o t from hi s lessons which she could see them using even now. Her philosophy or o b j e c t i v e s f o r her a r t program were that a r t i s a d i f f e r e n t , very important form of e x p r e s s i o n . The importance she p l a c e d upon a r t education was apparent when she t o l d me about an annual event which her c l a s s undertakes. At Karen's c l a s s concert each year she has asked someone from the community to speak on the importance of the a r t s i n education. While I found t h i s to be q u i t e e x t r a o r d i n a r y , Karen s a i d i t very m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y and remarked that she has been doing i t f o r years. The p l a n n i n g and execution of her lessons depended upon a number of v a r i a b l e s which were evident.through d i s c u s s i o n s . A c o n t i n u a l focus was upon the m a t e r i a l s she used with the student s. It i s most important to use a l o t of d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s but these are r e s t r i c t e d by what she knows how to use and manage. It i s too much h a s s l e to use p a i n t and she doesn't know anything about c l a y , k i l n s e t c . Uses mainly p a s t e l s , crayons, f e l t etc - 2 dimensional ( A p r i l 11, 1985) . When I r e t u r n e d the week a f t e r the c l a s s had worked on the bunny p r o j e c t s they had a l l been completed and were d i s p l a y e d . The students had only j u s t begun them d u r i n g t h e i r a r t l e s s o n . Karen when asked, s a i d t h a t they had been making such a mess that s h e h a d g i v e n t h e m e x t r a t i m e t o g e t t h e m f i n i s h e d a n d o u t o f t h e w a y . T h e p l a n n i n g a n d e x e c u t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n h a d t o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e n e r g y l e v e l o f t h e t e a c h e r . H e r c h o i c e o f t h e t h u m b p r i n t l e s s o n was n o t e d . K a r e n s a i d t h a t o n t h i s d a y s h e f e l t s h e c o u l d n ' t h a n d l e a n y t h i n g m o r e t h a n t h e s e p r i n t s . P a i n t i n g o r a l e s s o n i n v o l v i n g a l o t o f m a t e r i a l s was j u s t t o o m u c h . S h e p l a n s a c c o r d i n g t o h e r n e e d s ( A p r i l 1 1 , 1 985 ) . H e r c o n c e r n f o r t h e t i m e i t t o o k t o c o m p l e t e l e s s o n s was e v i d e n c e d b y h e r c o m m e n t a b o u t a d i s p l a y b y a n o t h e r c l a s s . T h e y ' r e G r a d e 6 . T e d H a r r i s o n - we d i d t h e m a b i t e a r l i e r . We w a t c h e d t h e f i l m . S h e h a d t h e m c o l o u r t h e i r p i c t u r e s f i r s t a n d t h e n p a i n t t h e m . I t t o o k t h e m f o r e v e r ( M a r c h 2 7 , 1 985 ) . E v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' p r o g r e s s i n a r t was n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t I was a w a r e o f t h r o u g h my o b s e r v a t i o n s . K a r e n s p o k e a b o u t t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t s h e h a d i n t h e a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y o f h e r s t u d e n t s a n d how t h e i r w o r k w a s s o m u c h b e t t e r t h a n a n y t h i n g s h e c o u l d d o . S h e s a i d t h a t s h e i n s t i n c t i v e l y k n o w s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w o r k . F o r r e p o r t i n g p u r p o s e s 3he m u s t g i v e a c h i l d e i t h e r a o n e , t w o o r t h r e e a s a n u m b e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; a p p l i e d s k i l l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s , a p p r e c i a t e s a n d i n t e r p r e t s a n d e x p r e s s e s i d e a s . F o r s o m e s t u d e n t s s h e m a y a l s o w r i t e a c o m m e n t . V e r y r a r e l y d o p a r e n t s e x p r e s s a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t p r o g r e s s d u r i n g p a r e n t t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s . C O M M E N T S BY S T U D E N T S AND O T H E R T E A C H E R S When I was i n t r o d u c e d t o s t a f f a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f my 3tudy t h e y w e r e t o l d t h a t I was i n t e r e s t e d i n K a r e n ' s a r t p r o g r a m . D u r i n g t h e s t u d y I was m a d e a w a r e o f how o t h e r s v i e w e d h e r p r o g r a m . O n e i n f o r m a n t 3 a i d t h a t K a r e n was a g r e a t p e r s o n f o r me 75 because she always had l o t s of i n t e r e s t i n g a r t things happening. Another s a i d that Karen was a good choice because her a r t lessons were r e a l l y g r e at. Karen's students' i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm during her a r t lessons would have s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s . Two students' views on a r t were that " a r t i s f o r g e t t i n g messy". "Yea, you have to get messy to do a r t " ( A p r i l , 11, 1985) . CONCLUSION The a r t program t a k i n g p l a c e i n Karen's classroom when I a r r i v e d has been d e s c r i b e d from four d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : 1) through o b s e r v a t i o n s of the teacher's a r t c l a s s e s as w e l l as other c l a s s e s 2) d i s c u s s i o n s with Karen about her p e r c e p t i o n s of her program 3) o b s e r v a t i o n s of the artwork and d i s p l a y s i n the classroom and school 4) comments by students and other t e a c h e r s . Karen's a r t program c o n s i s t e d of i n d i v i d u a l a r t lessons taught once a week. There was no o v e r a l l or long range p l a n n i n g of these a r t c l a s s e s . The lessons were organized and w e l l managed. The q u a n t i t y of artwork produced i n Karen's c l a s s was abundant. Each week a r t was taught and most p r o j e c t s were completed, and d i s p l a y e d . There were always at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t a r t p r o j e c t s d i s p l a y e d e i t h e r i n the classroom or b u l l e t i n board o u t s i d e i n the hallway. The d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the a r t program was more l i m i t e d . Most emphasis was p l a c e d on two dimensional p r o j e c t s , and m a t e r i a l s such as p e n c i l , p e n c i l crayons, f e l t pens, p a s t e l s , v a r i o u s papers and c o l l a g e were used most o f t e n . P a i n t and c l a y were not used. T e c h n i c a l e x c e l l e n c e was a c r i t e r i o n set by the teacher and achieved by the students. An important part of t h i s a r t program was proper use of m a t e r i a l s , neatness and p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r d i s p l a y . Standards were those imposed by the teacher r a t h e r than those emanating from the students. O r i g i n a l i t y was l a c k i n g i n the students' work and a u n i f o r m i t y i n much of the artwork was observed. 4.5 REACTIQNSTO THE_GUIDE Karen had not r e c e i v e d any " o f f i c i a l word" about the new guide from e i t h e r her school d i s t r i c t or the Department of Education. She had o r i g i n a l l y heard about i t from a guest speaker at a workshop she had attended e a r l i e r that year w i t h i n her school d i s t r i c t . Not being f a m i l i a r with the e a r l i e r Fine A r t s Guide she was c u r i o u s to f i n d out what was i n t h i s guide. I gave her a d r a f t copy of the guide that had been p r i n t e d f o r her to get aquainted with d u r i n g her week long s p r i n g break. This was a very t h i c k document, which was l a t e r reduced to 77 pages i n i t s f i n a l form to be i n c l u d e d i n the p u b l i s h e d Fine A r t s Guide. She was eager to read the guide but her r e a c t i o n s a f t e r having done so were not as e n t h u s i a s t i c . Her i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s were that i t was not i n s p i r i n g f o r her and she d i d not t h i n k i t would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r her a r t program. She s p e c u l a t e d that other teachers would not f i n d the guide u s e f u l and that i t would not be read. Unable to s t a t e e x a c t l y what she had wanted or expected she s a i d only that she thought i t would be something d i f f e r e n t . When her school r e c e i v e d c o p i e s of Hubbard and Rouse's Method, Me ajn i. ng_ and Media she thought that had been the new guide and was more what she had 77 e x p e c t e d . ( T h e H u b b a r d a n d R o u s e m a t e r i a l i s a s e q u e n t i a l g r a d e l e v e l a r t p r o g r a m w i t h l e s s o n p l a n s i n c l u d e d . ) A c o n s i s t e n t c o n c e r n f o r K a r e n was t h a t t h e g u i d e was t o o t h e o r e t i c a l a n d d i d n o t c o n t a i n e n o u g h s p e c i f i c i d e a s f o r w h a t t o d o i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . S p e c i f i c a l l y s h e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e was o n l y o n e l e s s o n p l a n f o r e a c h o f t h e g r a d e l e v e l s s h e t a u g h t , a n d t h i s h a d b e e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e S o c i a l s t h e m e o f I n d i a n s . K a r e n g a v e t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a t t h i s g r a d e l e v e l I n d i a n s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n s t u d i e d t o o m u c h . T h e l e s s o n p l a n s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e n o t c l e a r . S h e f o u n d t h e t e r m i n o l o g y d i f f i c u l t a n d t h e l a y o u t p o o r . S h e s e e m e d t o h a v e b e e n l o o k i n g f o r l e s s o n s a n d f o c u s e d m a i n l y o n t h e l a c k o f l e s s o n s i n t h e g u i d e . When h e r f r i e n d c a m e b y a n d w a n t e d t o s e e i t , t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n e d t o t h e l e s s o n s t o c h e c k t h e m o u t . B o t h f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t c l e a r e n o u g h a n d t h a t t h e r e was n o t e n o u g h o f t h e m . T h e y w a n t e d i t l a i d o u t w i t h m a t e r i a l s , t i m e , a n d s t e p b y s t e p w h a t t o d o . H e r f r i e n d ( K a r e n a g r e e d ) w a n t e d a p a r t o f t h e l e s s o n t o s t a t e w h a t p r o b l e m s t o b e a w a r e o f (May 2 , 1 9 8 5 ) . S h e was c o n f u s e d t h a t s o m a n y t e r m s h a d b e e n i n c l u d e d a n d t h a t t h e r e was s o l i t t l e i n c l u d e d o n e v a l u a t i o n . S h e was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y b u t was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h a n y o f t h e b o o k s . S h e w a n t e d t o t a k e a n o t h e r , c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e b o o k l i s t d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r . ( J u s t b e f o r e t h e s u m m e r v a c a t i o n K a r e n s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d me w h a t b o o k s I c o u l d r e c o m m e n d t o h e r f r o m t h i 3 l i s t ) . A s w e l l , s h e e x p r e s s e d d o u b t s a b o u t w h e t h e r m o s t t e a c h e r s h a d t h e t r a i n i n g a n d b a c k g r o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e g u i d e . F r o m f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g I b e g a n t o w o n d e r i f p a r t o f h e r d i s s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h t h e g u i d e was t h a t s h e h a d e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t w h a t a c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e was o r s h o u l d b e t h a t w e r e n o t m e t 78 by the Guide. She was expecting a document f u l l of lesson ideas and s p e c i f i c scope and sequence c h a r t s . What she r e c e i v e d was a document s t r e s s i n g u n i t p l a n n i n g around four content areas - more a s k e l e t o n approach to a l l o w i n g teachers to develop t h e i r own programs. Karen's comments i n d i c a t e d that she wanted more s p e c i f i c ideas, which i s i n keeping with the way she planned her own a r t program. 4.6 USE OF THE NEW GUIDE In keeping with the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of t h i s research i t was decided to use the new c u r r i c u l u m to develop and teach an a r t u n i t . Planning was to i n v o l v e both the teacher and myself, but t e a c h i n g would be done, as always, by Karen. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n was more that of a c o n s u l t a n t , to provide ideas, and m a t e r i a l s as r e q u i r e d and help the teacher make use of and I n t e r p r e t the guide. On May 2nd we both agreed that the next week we would meet, a f t e r i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g what u n i t or theme we would l i k e to develop. I f e l t very s t r o n g l y , and t o l d Karen so, that I would l i k e the u n i t to be one which i n t e r e s t e d her and was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r her c l a s s . At the next meeting we d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . My notes read: She had two ideas - puppets and masks. The puppet idea she had got from a workshop. It i n v o l v e d p l a c i n g k n i t f a b r i c over a soap b o t t l e shape and wetting with Rhoplex to allow i t to maintain i t s form. She had a few samples f o r a few years but had never t r i e d i t because she was u n c e r t a i n i t would work. I s a i d I hadn't done i t b e f o r e . 79 The other idea she had never done was masks. She had a few sample p a s t e l drawings of masks that she had kept. Also another grade four teacher had made masks with her students and they were on a b u l l e t i n board i n the hallway. Karen thought they were good but that her students were so t a l e n t e d they could do b e t t e r . She d i d n ' t l i k e the dark c o l o u r s they were p a i n t e d (May 9 , 1985 ) . We agreed upon masks p a r t l y because I had done work with them before and because the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e l a t i n g t h i s to the new c u r r i c u l u m seemed g r e a t e r to me. Karen f e l t that her students would enjoy doing masks and i t was a high p r i o r i t y f o r her to have them do something d i f f e r e n t that they had not a l r e a d y done. Karen immediately became focused on the task of making masks and what m a t e r i a l s would be needed. She began hunting around the room f o r v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s she f e l t they c o u l d use. I became f r u s t r a t e d because there was so much pl a n n i n g which should precede c o l l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s . But f o r Karen t h i s was her f i r s t p r i o r i t y . I became f r u s t r a t e d at t h i s time because I f e l t that the p l a n n i n g wasn't going the way I would have l i k e d i t t o . What was important to Karen was not important to me. I wanted to t a l k about o b j e c t i v e s and what the students would l e a r n and she wanted to t a l k about time, m a t e r i a l s and doing something d i f f e r e n t . I was working from the guide from an i n t e l l e c t u a l standpoint and not able to keep Karen on my t r a c k . I r e p e a t e d l y brought her back to t a l k i n g about the four content areas which we should i n c l u d e i n our p l a n n i n g but i t was very hard to get a response from her (May 9, 1985) I t r i e d to get her to r e f e r to the guide and the steps that should be taken to p l a n the u n i t . This was o b v i o u s l y not something which Karen was f a m i l i a r with, nor was she i n t e r e s t e d i n the t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of a r t . She was working with her own frame of r e f e r e n c e developed over years, and had taken p r a c t i c a l l y no n o t i c e of the new ideas c o n t a i n e d i n the 80 c u r r i c u l u m . Her i n i t i a l p e r u s a l of the guide remained ju s t t h a t . Her ideas about a r t te a c h i n g had not been threatened or a l t e r e d as a r e s u l t of the new guide. In f a c t the new ideas had not even r e g i s t e r e d as being worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n by her. I l e f t some m a t e r i a l s with her that I had on u n i t planning and masks, f o r her to look at durin g the week. We both agreed to c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s and meet the next week to plan f u r t h e r . I suggested to Karen that she take 1 another look at the c u r r i c u l u m but she s a i d she would not have time. The next week we got together with books and other m a t e r i a l s we had both c o l l e c t e d . She had books on masks which her l i b r a r i a n had c o l l e c t e d f o r her, l a r g e c o l o u r f u l p o s t e r s from the S o c i a l Studies u n i t s , and a wooden mask. I had an ext e n s i v e set of s l i d e s of masks, samples of p a p i e r mache masks, a s s o r t e d p i c t u r e s , a hockey mask, samples of drawings and p a s t e l masks, and books. (Steggles) I again t r i e d to d i s c u s s the four content areas from the c u r r i c u l u m and how we would want to i n c l u d e each of these i n our p l a n n i n g . Karen seemed q u i t e u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s . My notes s t a t e : G e n e r a l l y t h i s day was very much l i k e the l a s t . Karen focused on m a t e r i a l s while I t a l k e d o b j e c t i v e s . Very l i t t l e was ever w r i t t e n down (May 15, 1985) . I f e l t very much that I was at odds with how Karen was going to organize f o r t e a c h i n g . A f t e r repeated attempts I had been unable to get her to use the guide even as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g . She was using her own ways of doing t h i n g s . 81 K a r e n s e e m e d u n u s u a l l y a g i t a t e d o n t h i s d a y . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o u l d h a v e b e e n t h a t s h e h a d f o u n d o u t t h a t d a y t h a t a g a i n n e x t y e a r s h e w o u l d b e t e a c h i n g a s p l i t g r a d e c l a s s . When s h e t o l d me t h i s s h e was n o t a t a l l p l e a s e d . S h e r e s e n t e d t h e f a c t t h a t , b e c a u s e s h e was c o n s i d e r e d a g o o d t e a c h e r , s h e was b e i n g g i v e n t h i s e x t r a b u r d e n i n h e r t e a c h i n g l o a d . K a r e n f o c u s e d o n t h e t e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n o f t h e s l i d e p r o j e c t o r t o u s e f o r s h o w i n g t h e s l i d e s . S h e d i d n o t s e e m k e e n o n s h o w i n g t h e s l i d e s a n d f e l t t h e s l i d e p r o j e c t o r c o u l d b e a r e a l p r o b l e m . S h e s a i d s h e h a d u s e d a l l s o r t s o f a u d i o - v i s u a l e q u i p m e n t b u t n e v e r a s l i d e p r o j e c t o r b e c a u s e s h e h a d s o m u c h t r o u b l e w i t h t h e m n o t w o r k i n g . We r u s h e d d o w n t o t h e l i b r a r y t o g e t t h e p r o j e c t o r j u s t a s t h e l i b r a r i a n was l e a v i n g . I s e t u p t h e p r o j e c t o r a n d we s t a r t e d g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e s l i d e s t o e l i m i n a t e s o m e b e c a u s e we f e l t we w o u l d n ' t h a v e t i m e t o s h o w a l l 6 5 . K a r e n w a n t e d t o k e e p i n a n y t h a t d e a l t w i t h c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t w e r e b r i g h t a n d d e t a i l e d . T h o s e e l i m i n a t e d w e r e v e r y d a r k a n d s i m p l e . A t t h i s t i m e i t o c c u r r e d t o me t h a t s h e h a d a v e r y d e f i n i t e i d e a o f w h a t s h e w a n t e d t h e f i n i s h e d m a s k s t o l o o k l i k e ( M a y 1 5 , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e i d e a s w h i c h s e e m e d t o b e f o r m u l a t i n g now w e r e i n f a c t v e r y c l o s e t o w h a t t h e f i n i s h e d m a s k s l o o k e d l i k e . H e r i n t e n t i o n s a b o u t t h e m a s k s t h a t t h e o t h e r g r a d e f o u r c l a s s h a d m a d e a b o u t b e i n g t o o d a r k , a n d t h e way s h e was c h o o s i n g s l i d e s t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e s l i d e s , was s i g n i f i c a n t . A s w e l l t h a t d a y we p u t u p a b u l l e t i n b o a r d d i s p l a y i n g t h e i t e m s we h a d b o t h c o l l e c t e d . T h i s was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t I s a w a b u l l e t i n b o a r d i n K a r e n ' s c l a s s t h a t r e l a t e d t o a u n i t , i n a n y s u b j e c t a r e a . T i m e w a s r u n n i n g o u t a n d K a r e n w a n t e d t o p u t a l l o u r m a s k i d e a s u p o n a b u l l e t i n b o a r d . T h i s s e e m e d t o b e a b i g j o b f o r h e r . I r e m e m b e r e a r l i e r s h e o n c e s a i d s h e n e v e r p u t s u p a b u l l e t i n b o a r d o n h e r o w n . S h e a l w a y s h a s a f r i e n d h e l p h e r b e c a u s e i t i s m o r e f u n a n d s h e n e e d s h e l p g e t t i n g t h i n g s s t r a i g h t . . . I t r e a l l y l o o k e d g o o d a n d o n l y t o o k 15 m i n u t e s t o d o ( M a y 1 5 , 1 9 8 5 ) . 82 The b u l l e t i n board was one of the d i f f e r e n c e s that I could see i n the p l a n n i n g f o r t h i s u n i t from what Karen u s u a l l y d i d . As w e l l she had now thought i n terms of a sequence of lessons, as opposed to j u s t "one shot" l e s s o n s . She had considered using more than one medium and planned a l e s s o n i n which the c h i l d r e n would see and d i s c u s s a v a r i e t y of mask imagery. Karen had wanted to i n t r o d u c e the l e s s o n with a d i s c u s s i o n , show the s l i d e s and then have the students draw a mask on c o l o u r e d c o n s t r u c t i o n paper with p a s t e l s . They would then move i n t o three dimensions by making p a p i e r mache masks. Most of t h i s had come about as a r e s u l t of my suggestions to her, and not by her i n i t i a t i v e s to gain an understanding of u n i t p l a n n i n g as o u t l i n e d i n the guide. There were changes from the way Karen u s u a l l y prepared a r t lessons but these seemed to be more because of my presence than because of use of the guide. I f e l t that what we had planned was reasonably sound and i n accordance with the new guide, but t h i s d i d not seem to be a concern f o r Karen. In f a c t she had r a r e l y c o n s u l t e d the guide while I was t h e r e . I was aware of p l a n n i n g i n accordance with the guide, and where our u n i t was and was not meeting these c r i t e r i a . Karen, although she had read the guide, d i d not r e f e r to i t o f t e n , and was not concerned with b r i n g i n g about changes i n her p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g to b r i n g them i n t o l i n e with the Guide's g o a l s . Karen gave the f i r s t l e s s o n i n the mask u n i t the next day. I c o n s i d e r e d that very l i t t l e time had been spent on d e v e l o p i n g the u n i t , but I know, with a l l of Karen's other commitments, she had 83 given i t much val u a b l e time. I l e f t with her some notes about the s l i d e s which she was unable to read the day before. She s a i d she had f a l l e n asleep reading them the night b e f o r e . Despite my f r u s t r a t i o n s and what 1 had considered inadequate p l a n n i n g f o r a u n i t , I was impressed with the l e s s o n she presented as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to masks. She began by asking f o r comments about the d i s p l a y . Students s a i d there were d i f f e r e n t types of masks, and s i x comments were made, aided by Karen about the shapes and c o l o u r s of the masks. She then l e d a d i s c u s s i o n about why people wear masks and where they wear masks. From a v a r i e t y of responses she made t h i s l i s t on the board - d i s g u i s e - p r o t e c t i o n -oxygen masks -hockey p r o t e c t i o n -scare e v i l s p i r i t s -Halloween costumes -Indians represent animals -dust - r o b b e r s , c r i m i n a l s -doctors,dent i s t s -Lone Ranger -drama She asked whether one f e e l s d i f f e r e n t with a mask on. Then she asked the students to r e l a t e these ideas to what they knew about drama. She r e c a l l e d what the students had s t u d i e d about Shakespearean t h e a t r e and how masks were hung o u t s i d e the t h e a t r e 84 showing e i t h e r a happy mask, i f i t was to be a comedy, or a sad mask f o r a tragedy. Great question was asked - Why would they use a mask i n s t e a d of j u s t p o s t i n g the words? F i n a l l y got the r e p l y that people c o u l d not read. Teacher then i n d i c a t e d that we can communicate ideas through masks (May 1 6, 1985) . The d i s c u s s i o n then extended to hockey and the Stanley Cup and geography. The map on d i s p l a y was p u l l e d down and r e p l a c e d by one of Mexico found by a student. Masks of t h i s area were d i s c u s s e d . The students became very i n v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n and I was amazed by the wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n they were able to o f f e r on t h i s s u b j e c t with Karen's prompting. Karen was able to l e a d the d i s c u s s i o n i n a number of d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s drawing upon her background knowledge, not j u s t i n a r t but a v a r i e t y of subject areas. This made f o r an e x c e l l e n t b r a i n s t o r m i n g and d i s c u s s i o n about masks. Before the l e s s o n Karen had s a i d "I don't know anything about masks" but she was o b v i o u s l y unaware of her own a b i l i t i e s . Her t e a c h i n g s k i l l s were so s u p e r i o r that she was able to l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n i n a r t about a sub j e c t with which she f e l t i n e x p e r i e n c e d with. The same p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s continued through the s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Her questions were answered by s e v e r a l students. The teacher's enthusiasm was r e f l e c t e d i n the students' i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm a l s o . The range of a r t - r e l a t e d terms used d u r i n g the s l i d e s i n c l u d e d t e x t u r e and m a t e r i a l s used, types of l i n e s and spaces, symmetry, c o l o u r tones, p r o p o r t i o n , and techniques of b u i l d i n g . As w e l l they spoke of mime and who was the most famous 85 mime a r t i s t . When the students could not provide the answer they were asked to f i n d out that night and b r i n g back the answer the next day. They were a l s o asked what c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t masks they were shown were from. The le s s o n had now been 25 minutes i n length and the students were beginning to get r e s t l e s s . The l e s s o n continued with Karen i n s t r u c t i n g the students to draw masks with p a s t e l s . She reminded them of work they had done on p o r t r a i t s e a r l i e r i n the year where they had lea r n e d about placement of f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . This constant review of previous concepts was a te a c h i n g s k i l l Karen drew upon c o n t i n u a l l y . She asked them to use the whole paper, f e e l t h e i r faces and draw an oval i n the a i r , then l i g h t l y on t h e i r paper. The students only j u s t got a s t a r t on t h e i r drawing as the c l a s s was almost over. The next time I re t u r n e d Karen proudly showed the mask drawings to me. I was at f i r s t s u r p r i s e d by how s i m i l a r the drawings looked to the one which Karen had put on the b u l l e t i n board. They r e v e a l e d use of b r i g h t c o l o u r s , but there was a u n i f o r m i t y about the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of f a c i a l f e a t u r e s which was u n n a t u r a l . I wondered what the i n f l u e n c e s were upon these students to c r e a t e a uniform type of mask, when that was not what I had heard and seen presented about the v a r i e t y of masks i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n . Karen showed me the p a s t e l drawings which had been cut out and glued on black c o n s t r u c t i o n paper. The s i m i l a r i t y of many of them was s t r i k i n g . The copying was n o t i c e a b l e . During the week Karen had spontaneously decided to h o l d a d i s c u s s i o n about the p a s t e l masks with the e n t i r e c l a s s . She 86 f e l t the Grade 5's who had not begun t h e i r s could l e a r n from what the Grade 4's had done. Using magnets she had taken the student's masks and p l a c e d them on the chalkboard. She then proceeded with questions r e l a t i n g to the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, i n r e l a t i o n to the masks. She s a i d that the students were eager to d i s c u s s t h e i r masks and then they went on to d i s c u s s t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Karen had not r e f e r r e d to the c u r r i c u l u m , which contains i n f o r m a t i o n of responding to a r t , but had i n s t i n c t i v e l y used her e x c e l l e n t q u e s t i o n i n g techniques with her s tudents. To a c e r t a i n extent Karen was i n t u i t i v e l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g many of the ideas from the new c u r r i c u l u m i n t o her t e a c h i n g of t h i 3 u n i t . With my prompting a u n i t had been planned, r a t h e r than "one shot" l e s s o n s . M o t i v a t i o n m a t e r i a l was presented and a s e r i e s of c r e a t i v e and t a l k i n g about a r t a c t i v i t e s planned. From what I c o n s i d e r e d a very s k e l e t a l plan Karen was using her own t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and i n t u i t i o n to round out and e n r i c h the u n i t . She c o u l d not v e r b a l i z e i n terms of the c u r r i c u l u m what content area she was working i n nor d i d i t matter to her. The next day the c l a s s was to be d i v i d e d i n t o the grade l e v e l s . One would continue with p a s t e l masks, and the other would use paste and paper to c r e a t e a mask form. Karen and I set up the s i d e t a b l e f o r paste and paper. (This i s a form of paper mache us i n g newspaper and wallpaper paste.) I mixed the paste and demonstrated to Karen how to p l a c e the newspaper s t r i p s over b a l l o o n armatures. I was concerned that t h i s was a much messier a r t p r o j e c t than Karen would have attempted on her own. From 87 past experiences I knew that too much of a mess would c o n s t i t u t e a poor lesson f o r her. The students found i t d i f f i c u l t to papier mache the b a l l o o n s at f i r s t . We suggested they help one another by working i n p a i r s . As they had more paper on t h e i r b a l l o o n s i t became e a s i e r f o r them, but there was q u i t e a b i t of noise and one boy was sent back to h i s seat to work on h i s own. The other group worked q u i e t l y on i t s p a s t e l drawings. When completed the b a l l o o n masks were hung on a c l o t h e s l i n e to dry but were very heavy and d i d n ' t seem to be d r y i n g very w e l l . One broke and had to be r e p l a c e d onto another b a l l o o n . Karen was concerned that the b a l l o o n s d i d not have a smooth enough su r f a c e and would not dry p r o p e r l y . I c a l l e d the next day to get a progress report and they seemed to be doing b e t t e r . A few days l a t e r when I went to see them students were proudly showing me which one was t h e i r s . I d i s c u s s e d with Karen a l t e r n a t e masks we c o u l d do with the other h a l f of the c l a s s i f she was not happy with the paper mache ones, but she wanted to continue with them. Karen had another idea which she was keen to l e t her Grade 4's t r y . She had a p a p i e r mache p i g which another c l a s s had made e a r l i e r i n the year and she thought i t was cute. Karen showed me the p a p i e r mache p i g and s a i d some of her students wanted to make those. I was a c t u a l l y i n a s t a t e of shock that she would change the u n i t now. She seemed to be t r y i n g to j u s t i f y the students making the p i g s , by saying they f i t i n because she had been reading C h a r l o t t e ' s Web to the c l a s s . Karen s a i d that- she would allow the Grade 4's to choose what they would make (May 30 , 1985) . 88 At t h i s p o i n t I f e l t that although I could i n s i s t that the students a l l continue with the masks as planned, i t was b e t t e r to allow Karen to continue with her plans. It was an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g on i t s own that she would change a u n i t part way through to something that was completely u n r e l a t e d because she found a "cute" i d e a . I f e l t that she d i d not have any concept of o b j e c t i v e s or imagery development, nor had she given any c o n s i d e r a t i o n to student l e a r n i n g i n respect to the planned u n i t . I was d i s a p p o i n t e d but f e l t that t h i s was a very r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n which I was i n . The p r e p a r a t i o n of the p a i n t s f o r students was a r e a l concern to Karen, but I assured her I would help mix the p a i n t s and then she c o u l d l e a r n from t h i s how to do i t on her own next time. I had some understanding of the e f f o r t i t would take Karen to organize p a i n t i n g a f t e r I had done so. It took me one hour to set up the p a i n t s . I t i n v o l v e d g e t t i n g m a t e r i a l s from two d i f f e r e n t rooms. Half of the p a i n t s we used were pre-mixed, but the c o n t a i n e r s were po o r l y packaged and i t was d i f f i c u l t to get the p a i n t out . The other h a l f of the p a i n t s I mixed with pigment, paste, s t a r c h and water. At the beginning of the p e r i o d when I was mixing the p a i n t s the students were a l l s t a r i n g i n f a s c i n a t i o n and I r e a l i z e d at t h i s p o i n t that they should have been taught how to mix them. I d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up a pa i n t group i n the c l a s s who would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a i n t s . Karen s a i d yes there was one g i r l i n the c l a s s who co u l d do t h a t , but d i d n ' t seem to t h i n k i t was something a l l c o u l d do. I s a i d l e a r n i n g care and p r e p a r a t i o n of p a i n t s was a s k i l l the students should l e a r n but I don't t h i n k she agreed with t h i s (June 7 , 1985) . The students' l a c k of p a i n t i n g experience was evidenced as they began working. Most students were not h o l d i n g the p a i n t brushes p r o p e r l y , were not wiping o f f excess p a i n t so that they had d r i p s , and many were p l a c i n g wet c o l o u r s together causing 8 9 them to run i n t o one another. They were very e n t h u s i a s t i c about what they were doing. Karen had asked them to sketch t h e i r designs on t h e i r masks f i r s t , but most were so eager to begin p a i n t i n g that they d i d very b r i e f sketches. This seemed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to me of students having been given a new m a t e r i a l to work with. Karen was concerned that the p a i n t i n g looked too sloppy. I suggested that because the students had not p a i n t e d very much t h e i r s k i l l s were weak. As w e l l I i n d i c a t e d that the students seemed to be very pleased with what they were doing. Karen r e p l i e d "They must reach a c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l standard" (June 7 , 1 985 ) . Meanwhile the grade 4's were c r e a t i n g paper masks from some samples I p r o v i d e d to Karen. They were given p r a c t i c a l l y no i n s t r u c t i o n because the teacher's a t t e n t i o n had gone to g e t t i n g the grade 5's prepared f o r p a i n t i n g . Nevertheless these students were able to work on t h e i r own and w i t h i n the p e r i o d most had c r e a t e d c o l o u r e d cut paper masks with which both they and the teacher were p l e a s e d with. They were immediately d i s p l a y e d i n the classroom. These students were used to working e x t e n s i v e l y with cut paper and produced high q u a l i t y work i n t h i s medium. Karen's c r i t e r i a f o r success depended h i g h l y upon the v i s u a l impact of the f i n i s h e d product. It should be c o l o u r f u l , neat, e x c i t i n g , a d u l t - l i k e and c a r e f u l y presented. Thi3 p r o j e c t met a l l of these c r i t e r i a f o r Karen. The students continued to p a i n t t h e i r masks d u r i n g the next c l a s s e s . When completed a f i n a l coat of varathane was a p p l i e d to give a shiny f i n i s h . Some students added wool or straw hanging 90 down as h a i r around the masks. Karen commented that the students had completed p a i n t i n g t h e i r masks q u i c k l y and everyone had f i n i s h e d . This was very important to Karen. She t r i e d to maintain a sense of the group and a l l working together and completing t h e i r work. Pa i n t s had been l e f t out on the s i d e t a b l e . Karen made the comment that next time she would provide fewer c o l o u r s of p a i n t s and would use s m a l l e r paintbrushes so that they could get t h i n n e r l i n e s . (These had not been a v a i l a b l e at the time.) When asked i f she would repeat t h i s u n i t she s a i d i t would depend on the students. She had f e l t f o r t u n a t e t h i s year with the group of students she had, but i n past years she had had students with whom she would not have done a u n i t such as t h i s . She d e f i n i t e l y would again do p a s t e l and paper masks, as these she f e l t were very s u c c e s s f u l . O v e r a l l I got the impression that she was very p l e a s e d with the students' work but that i t had i n v o l v e d more time, energy and mess that she normally gave to a r t c l a s s e s . I am not sure she was w i l l i n g to s u s t a i n t h i s energy l e v e l i n a r t . The students' masks were d i s p l a y e d on a l a r g e b u l l e t i n board o u t s i d e Karen's classroom and i n the showcase at the entrance to the s c h o o l . Karen wanted to put these up so that i n the f a l l when the students r e t u r n e d to school the w a l l s would not be bare. The c o l o u r and v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s used had a strong impact; the d i s p l a y s were extremely a t t r a c t i v e . Karen had many fa v o u r a b l e comments from other t e a c h e r s . 91 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5;. 1 _ CONCLUSIONS The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s are based upon the f o r e g o i n g study of the t r i a l implementation of a d r a f t copy of an a r t c u r r i c u l u m by an elementary g e n e r a l i s t teacher when pro v i d e d with a s s i s t a n c e from the resear c h e r i n the r o l e of a c o n s u l t a n t . The extent to which the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation as o u t l i n e d by F u l l a n (1982) were analyzed and re p o r t e d i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n the degree to which s i g n i f i c a n t implementation had taken place i n the way of changing m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h i n g approaches and a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . The teacher was pro v i d e d with c o n s u l t a t i o n by the res e a r c h e r d u r i n g the pl a n n i n g and implementation of a u n i t while using the new c u r r i c u l u m . The research provides many responses to the c u r r i c u l u m by the teacher and sheds l i g h t on the process of implementation. To the extent that t h i s teacher i s not a t y p i c a l the f i n d i n g s c o u l d represent what might be found among other teachers i n s i m i l a r t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . But i t i s a l s o understood that implementation focuses on i n d i v i d u a l teachers and t h e i r p e r s o n a l experiences, and t h e r e f o r e change w i l l be d i f f e r e n t f o r everyone. It i s the o p i n i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r that the teacher i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study i s above average i n her commitment to t e a c h i n g and to her students. She was chosen by the zone c o - o r d i n a t o r of her sc h o o l d i s t r i c t f o r involvement i n t h i s study and there i s reason to b e l i e v e that h i s choice i n d i c a t e d t h at he a l s o c o n s i d e r e d her 92 an exemplary teacher. This study then represents a "best case" s c e n a r i o of the i n t e r a c t i o n of a teacher with a new curriculum, who was exemplary to begin with and was al s o given continued support and c o n s u l t a t i o n from myself, an a r t s p e c i a l i s t . Without these two p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s the implementation of the new c u r r i c u l u m would l i k e l y be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than i n d i c a t e d by t h i s study. Some of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g implementation as d i s c u s s e d by F u l l a n i n the l i t e r a t u r e review on implementation i n Chapter 3 were c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, while others were not. S t i l l others were not r e l e v a n t and t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u s i o n s cannot be drawn. G e n e r a l l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l e v a n t to the change, teacher, school and resear c h e r a c t i n g as c o n s u l t a n t , are d i s c u s s e d . As t h i s was a t r i a l implementation the school d i s t r i c t , community and governmental involvement i n implementation was not a s c e r t a i n e d . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHANGE Need and relevance of the change: The l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s that implementation i s impeded when there i s an i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between the c u r r i c u l u m and the teacher's b e l i e f s and method of t e a c h i n g . In t h i s study Karen was not able to c l e a r l y express a phi l o s o p h y before u s i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m and t h e r e f o r e i t d i d not seem that the c u r r i c u l u m was being i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a s i t u a t i o n at odds with i t . But the c u r r i c u l u m d i d not help the teacher to c l a r i f y or develop her own phi l o s o p h y e i t h e r . Karen e x h i b i t e d a d e s i r e to change on her own accord to 93 improve her program before encountering the new d r a f t guide. F u l l a n s t a t e s that t h i s w i l l p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t implementation. But the changes she wanted to make were not to develop or address the u n d e r l y i n g philosophy of why she was te a c h i n g a r t . She was g e n e r a l l y p l e a s e d with the s o r t s of experiences she was p r o v i d i n g i n her a r t program and wished to supplement them. Improving her art program meant f i n d i n g new lessons to teach which had not been done before, were not too messy, which i n t e r e s t e d and cha l l e n g e d the students and co u l d be d i s p l a y e d e f f e c t i v e l y . She a l s o s a i d that she co u l d see l i t t l e reason f o r many teachers to put much time and e f f o r t i n t o using a new c u r r i c u l u m because they were not going to be h e l d accountable f o r i t . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and parents d i d not r o u t i n e l y ask about a r t programs and the s o r t s of rewards which Karen got from her a r t program by c r e a t i n g b u l l e t i n boards and d i s p l a y i n g the students' artwork would not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e as a r e s u l t of using the new c u r r i c u l u m . Another m o t i v a t i o n was the rewards she and her students got from e n t e r i n g artwork i n e x h i b i t i o n s and a r t c o n t e s t s . The new c u r r i c u l u m d i r e c t l y discourages a r t co m p e t i t i o n s . There was d e f i n i t e l y a f e e l i n g that the change was being imposed from the o u t s i d e , which had an adverse e f f e c t on Karen's w i l l i n g n e s s to implement. Karen e x h i b i t e d a sense of s k e p t i c i s m towards a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , as d i s c u s s e d by D o l l (1982). She f e l t t h a t there had been too many changes i n c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s that year and that those o u t s i d e the school were not s e n s i t i v e to the many changes being imposed upon t e a c h e r s . 94 C l a r i t y and Complexity: Lack of c l a r i t y and too much complexity i n a guide are a major d i f f i c u l t y i n implementation according to F u l l a n (1982). Karen s a i d that the guide was not re l e v a n t to her because she d i d not understand what i t would mean to her everyday t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . Lesson plans which she wanted were not provided i n abundance and the other more t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l on o b j e c t i v e s and u n i t p l a n n i n g was l o s t to her. As we l l the format of the guide p e r c e i v e d as too complex and d e t a i l e d , d i d not provide her with easy access to i n f o r m a t i o n . There was a f e e l i n g of "why are they g i v i n g t h i s to me. I t ' s not what I want or need." Q u a l i t y and P r a c t i c a l i t y of Program: Karen made a d e c i s i v e statement about her d i s a p p r o v a l of the guide. Very q u i c k l y and without h e s i t a t i o n she s a i d t h at f o r h e r s e l f the guide would not be u s e f u l . She had the a b i l i t y to peruse the guide and know whether or not i t would serve her purposes. The a b i l i t y was probably developed as a way to deal with the q u a n t i t y of new m a t e r i a l s which she was asked to read. S p e c i f i c a l l y she s t a t e d that there were too few l e s s o n plans, the l e s s o n plans were p o o r l y presented and omitted too much p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about m a t e r i a l s and methods which a g e n e r a l i s t teacher would need. The themes were over-used. She p o i n t e d out that i n Grade Four the students 3tudy Native people i n many other s u b j e c t areas. There were too many terms i n c l u d e d that she was not f a m i l i a r with and too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about e v a l u a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y she f e l t that the t r a i n i n g and background experiences that were needed to use t h i s guide were beyond those 95 of most g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . On the p o s i t i v e side she was very i n t e r e s t e d i n the b o o k l i s t as a p o s s i b l e source of other new ideas f o r her a r t t e a c h i n g which r e v e a l s that she was committed to c o n s i d e r i n g new ideas i n her a r t t e a c h i n g . She a l s o made mention of the stages of a r t i s t i c development which she had not seen before and would l i k e to know more about. The m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by the researcher, i n the r o l e of c o n s u l t a n t , and used f o r b u l l e t i n boards and as m o t i v a t i o n f o r the u n i t , p r o v i d e d a major change i n the way Karen taught. She used these m a t e r i a l s and was able to draw upon her own experiences i n a meaningful way to d i s c u s s a r t even though she f e l t her own a r t background was l a c k i n g . The p i c t u r e s and s l i d e s acted as a c a t a l y s t to a d i s c u s s i o n of elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design, techniques, uses of m a t e r i a l s , a r t c r i t i c i s m and h i s t o r i c a l , contemporary and a r t from other c u l t u r e s . The p r a c t i c a l i t y of the d r a f t c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h i s teacher must be questioned because i t d i d not provide her with l e s s o n plans f o r new ideas which i s what she r e a l l y wanted. The r e s u l t was that Karen read the guide when i t was given to her but d i d not r e f e r to i t as she was p l a n n i n g her u n i t or when t e a c h i n g . CHARACTERISTICS AT THE SCHOOL DISTRICT LEVEL The H i s t o r y of Innovative Attempts: Karen spoke g e n e r a l l y about the i n f l u x of new m a t e r i a l s and the constant pressure to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n . She d i d not c i t e any s p e c i f i c implementations or changes i n t r o d u c e d to her i n the past which might i n d i c a t e that there had been a h i s t o r y of i n n o v a t i o n 96 attempts, and which had e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y o r - n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d her d e s i r e to implement t h i s a r t c u r r i c u l u m . The Adoption Process: Karen had not been i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r the development of thes guide or i n i t s p l a n n i n g f o r implementation, and t h e r e f o r e t h i s i s not r e l e v a n t . £§Ilt£iI_Ml!!illiitIitiZ£_2HEE°£t_iIl^_IIlZ£lZ£55Ilt : Permission to conduct the study i n t h i s school d i s t r i c t had been granted by the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , but otherwise they were not i n v o l v e d i n t h i s t r i a l implementation. t a f f. _D e v e l o p_m e n t [IH ;3.ervice] M^_£.i£ti£iEiti£H: I n s e r v i c e as i t a f f e c t s implementation can be d i s c u s s e d with respect to my involvement as a c o n s u l t a n t p r o v i d e d to a s s i s t the teacher. Short term t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s has been found to be e f f e c t i v e only i n the short run (Horsland, 1982) . Such a c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by t h i s study. It i s d o u b t f u l the c o n s u l t a t i o n o f f e r e d by the res e a r c h e r w i l l have long term e f f e c t s . The r e s e a r c h e r - a s - c o n s u l t a n t was able to a i d i n Karen's understanding of the c u r r i c u l u m , by p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l s support and encouragement. Without these i t i s l i k e l y that her involvement with implementing the c u r r i c u l u m would have been f a r l e s s . The c o n t i n u i n g involvement of a human resource person, a c o n s u l t a n t or f a c i l i t a t o r , seems necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e implementation as the l i t e r a t u r e suggests. (Common, 1980). T i m e - l i n e and Information System (Evaluation) : Karen p r o g r e s s e d through the s i x phases of the adoption process as o u t l i n e d by Havelock (1970): awareness, i n t e r e s t , e v a l u a t i o n , t r i a l , adoption and i n t e g r a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to H a l l et a l , (1975) 97 she began to use the new c u r r i c u l u m but i t i s presumptuous to s t a t e that she would continue with adaptation and m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m to s u i t her own s i t u a t i o n due to the short length of t h i s study. I n d i c a t i o n s were that very l i t t l e of the new guide would be used i n her a r t program i n the f u t u r e , other than what was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed as a u n i t f o r her with t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . 52iIPLi£^_^£™!i£i£l_5^i£i£iilil£i£l: As a t r i a l implementation t h i s study d i d not i n v o l v e the school board or community. But comments by Karen i n d i c a t e d that parents r a r e l y showed an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t progress at paren t - t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s . Karen attempted to i n t e r e s t parents i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a r t education by asking a guest speaker to speak about the a r t s a f t e r her c l a s s ' s s p r i n g c o n c e r t . CHARACTERISTICS AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL The P r i n c i p a l : During the four months which I spent c o l l e c t i n g data f o r t h i s study the p r i n c i p a l d i d not approach me to i n d i c a t e any i n t e r e s t i n the implementation of the guide. Karen s a i d t h at she f e l t that she was not accountable to anyone f o r her a r t t e a c h i n g . A new p r i n c i p a l with an i n t e r e s t i n a r t t e a c h i n g was t a k i n g over the next year and Karen pondered one day about whether i t would make a d i f f e r e n c e to a r t at her s c h o o l . Teacher-Teacher R e l a t i o n s : Because t h i s t r i a l implementation was conducted with only one teacher the extent to which i n t e r a c t i o n with other t e a c h e r s undertaking implementation a l s o a f f e c t e d Karen's implementation of the guide c o u l d not be 98 s t u d i e d . Karen d i d r e c e i v e support from one teacher on s t a f f with whom she was f r i e n d l y and they d i d d i s c u s s the new c u r r i c u l u m . T h e i r f e e l i n g s towards i t were very s i m i l a r . As w e l l , Karen spoke with her about the new lessons she was teachin g with the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e . Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and O r i e n t a t i o n : Some of the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s Karen possessed which seemed to a s s i s t i n her implementation e f f o r t s were: a genuine c a r i n g about teaching and the students, a w i l l i n g e s s to spend e x t r a time ou t s i d e of c l a s s , many years of t e a c h i n g experience, confidence i n the a b i l i t y of her students, and d i s c i p l i n e and c l a s s management systems which had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the classroom. A s e r i o u s impediment to implementing t h i s c u r r i c u l u m seems to have been a la c k of knowledge about a r t t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s and l a c k of p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y on why a r t should be taught and how to b r i n g about the o b j e c t i v e s of an a r t program. As w e l l a l a c k of confidence about her own " a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s " l i m i t e d her e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Time pr e s s u r e s , u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x t r a d u t i e s a l l a f f e c t e d implementation n e g a t i v e l y , as d i s c u s s e d by F u l l a n (1982). Accor d i n g to F u l l a n (1981) a s i g n i f i c a n t or fundamental change i n v o l v e s the use of new m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h i n g approaches and o f t e n an u n d e r l y i n g change i n b e l i e f s or p h i l o s o p h y . Karen made use of new m a t e r i a l s . These were the new c u r r i c u l u m and s l i d e s , books, v i s u a l a i d s , and media i n c l u d i n g p a i n t and paste and paper. Her t e a c h i n g approach d u r i n g the execution of the planned u n i t showed some a l t e r a t i o n s from her p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g . Lessons were r e l a t e d as p a r t of a planned u n i t , a b u l l e t i n board with 99 v i s u a l aids was d i s p l a y e d , and m o t i v a t i o n through the use of s l i d e s , books and a c t u a l masks were in t r o d u c e d . A l l of these were i n keeping with the new guide and provided the teacher with a "ready made" u n i t to use again but does not ensure that she w i l l continue to develop subsequent u n i t plans i n the same way on her own. Less evident was a change i n Karen's b e l i e f s or philosophy about a r t e d u c a t i o n . Karens concern before and a f t e r u s ing the new d r a f t guide with producing r e c o g n i z a b l e , neat a r t o b j e c t s with an uncanny s i m i l a r i t y which c o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e l y d i s p l a y e d , i n d i c a t e s that her b e l i e f s remained unchanged. Other areas of Karen's a r t program were not n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t e d by the use of the c u r r i c u l u m . Planning appeared to be i n c i d e n t a l . Lesson plans were not w r i t t e n out and there was no mention of e v a l u a t i o n as i t was d i s c u s s e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Emphasis was on m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r a t i o n and manipulation by the students and not upon student l e a r n i n g and o b j e c t i v e s . CHARACTERISTICS EXTERNAL TO THE LOCAL SYSTEM Role of Government: The government's involvement at the time of t h i s study had been to develop the guide. Any implementation a s s i s t a n c e t h a t was to be p r o v i d e d to school d i s t r i c t s was not i n evidence t h i s time. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Karen had heard about the development of the new guide, but d i d not know when i t was to be implemented. The l a c k of communication was c o n f u s i n g to her. E x t e r n a l A s s i s t a n c e : Any e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e was the rese a r c h e r a c t i n g i n the r o l e of a co n s u l t a n t and d i s c u s s e d under s t a f f development and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 100 provided by i s 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The review of l i t e r a t u r e on the statu s of a r t education r e v e a l e d that there i s a s c a r c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from which the st a t u s of a r t education i n our elementary schools can be determined. More research, p a r t i c u l a r i l y that which i s Canadian and d e s c r i p t i v e based on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s , r a t h e r than s t a t i s t i c a l , i 3 needed. 2. Cur r i c u l u m development and implementation l i t e r a t u r e i n gene r a l education and s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t areas c o u l d provide a s s i s t a n c e to a r t educators. An attempt should be made f o r ar t education to generate more i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c to the development and implementation of a r t m a t e r i a l s . 3. This study attempted to use a v a i l a b l e Canadian l i t e r a t u r e as much as p o s s i b l e . Much of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g to Canadian a r t education i s p u b l i s h e d i n p r o v i n c i a l a r t j o u r n a l s which are u n f o r t u n a t e l y not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y . Some recent copies of Jou r n a l s such as FINE (the J o u r n a l of the Fine A r t s C o u n c i l The A l b e r t a Teacher's A s s o c i a t i o n ) , Art Education (the Jo u r n a l of the Saskatchewan S o c i e t y f o r Education through Art) are a v a i l a b l e , but more o f t e n must be obtained through i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n . With such an imbalance i n the amount of American l i t e r a t u r e i n Canadian l i b r a r i e s i t would seem 101 reasonable to o b t a i n the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e that i s a v a i l a b l e . 3. F u r t h e r to encouraging e a s i e r access to l i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d throughout Canada on a r t education i t would be u s e f u l f o r those i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m development and implementation to gain an understanding of what i s being done elsewhere i n Canada. Recently elementary a r t curriculums have been r e v i s e d i n at l e a s t three p r o v i n c e s , which may have meant that the "wheel i s being r e i n v e n t e d " . An i n t e r e s t i n g study c o u l d be made l o o k i n g at the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n a r t c u r r i c u l a across Canada. 4. Within B r i t i s h Columbia follow-up research on the implementation of the f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m would be u s e f u l , done at p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s a f t e r the o f f i c i a l implementation. With the understanding that implementation i s a process o c c u r i n g over time, changes c o u l d be noted i n the use or non-use of the guide and of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the guide and v a r i o u s implementation approaches. 5. From t h i s r e s e a r c h i t was observed that there was a lac k of communication between the C u r r i c u l u m Branch and teachers about a c u r r i c u l u m which they were soon to implement. By the end of June Karen had r e c e i v e d no i n f o r m a t i o n from e i t h e r the M i n i s t r y of Education or her school d i s t r i c t about the a r t c u r r i c u l u m which was to begin t r i a l implementation i n September. If p r o v i d i n g teachers with i n f o r m a t i o n about c u r r i c u l u m changes has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r implementation of these changes i t would seem that more 102 i n f o r m a t i o n about the proposed a r t c u r r i c u l u m changes should be given i n the f u t u r e . An o v e r r i d i n g theme i n t h i s study was that what c u r r i c u l u m developers p r o v i d e d i n the new f i n e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m was not what the teacher looked f o r i n a new c u r r i c u l u m . The end r e s u l t i n t h i s study was that much of the i n f o r m a t i o n provided to the teacher was ignored. R e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s needed between what those i n v o l v e d i n the development of a c u r r i c u l u m b e l i e v e teachers need i n order to improve teaching and what teachers want and w i l l use i n t h e i r classrooms. D i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered with respect to communication between the teacher and res e a r c h e r d u r i n g t h i s study. In h i n d s i g h t i t would seem that i t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be aware of and s e n s i t i v e to the teacher's everyday use of language and to make the necessary adjustments to enable a f r e e flow of i d e a s . The res e a r c h e r must come out of the " i v o r y tower" and be prepared to i n t e r a c t with the teacher on her own ground. The s o r t s of m a t e r i a l s sought by the teacher i n t h i s study, and made use of most e f f e c t i v e l y , were p r a c t i c a l m a t e r i a l s such as s l i d e s , v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , books and l e s s o n p l a n s . These should be p r o v i d e d along with the new c u r r i c u l u m as support m a t e r i a l . They made the most d i r e c t change i n improving the a r t program d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study. 103 9. The need f o r a resource person or mediator during the implementation of a new c u r r i c u l u m i s evidenced by t h i s study. Without myself a c t i n g as a resource person i t i s d o u b t f u l whether implementation of the guide would have taken place to the extent that i t d i d with t h i s teacher. Rush (1984) wr i t e s about the need f o r a r t educators who can act as i n t e r p r e t e r s and make the l i n k between theory and p r a c t i c e . The e x c l u s i o n of a r t c o n s u l t a n t s by school d i s t r i c t s who can perform t h i s i n t e r p r e t e r ' s r o l e leaves the p o s s i b i l i t y open that implementation w i l l be minimal at best. 10. Any c u r r i c u l u m to be used by g e n e r a l i s t teachers should take i n t o account those t e a c h e r s ' education i n a s p e c i f i c s ubject area and t h e i r g e n e r a l l e v e l of e x p e r t i s e . The c u r r i c u l u m must be w r i t t e n to the l e v e l of g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s , not s p e c i a l i s t a r t t e a c h e r s . 104 APPENDIX I Dear S i r : I am a graduate student i n Art Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and am p r e s e n t l y working on my master's t h e s i s As part of my t h e s i s I am i n t e r e s t e d i n conducting research on the implementation of the new elementary a r t c u r r i c u l u m guide using one teacher i n your school d i s t r i c t . One of your a r t teachers suggested that I submit to you a copy of my t h e s i s p r o p o s a l i n order to o b t a i n permission f o r my study. Enclosed please f i n d a copy of the p r o p o s a l f o r you to review. I understand that i f a l l i s i n order you w i l l be able to give me a u t h o r i z a t i o n to conduct the study. It i s expected that between January 1 9 8 5 and January 1 9 8 6 a new elementary c u r r i c u l u m guide w i l l be i s s u e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. There i s reason to b e l i e v e that because of r e s t r a i n t the implementation of t h i s guide c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y c u r t a i l e d . The f i n d i n g s of my proposed study c o u l d be u s e f u l to your school d i s t r i c t f o r i n s e r v i c i n g and workshops r e l a t e d to t h i s c u r r i c u l u r n . One g e n e r a l i s t teacher p r e s e n t l y t e a c h i n g at grade l e v e l 4 , 5 o 6 w i l l be needed f o r t h i s study. The teacher w i l l be i n v o l v e d an exchange of ideas with the r e s e a r c h e r about the new c u r r i c u l u m . Classroom o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l be necessary. The proposed time frame f o r the study i s March to June 1 9 8 5 . I would a p p r e c i a t e your guidance i n t h i s matter as soon as p o s s i b l e as I would l i k e to begin the study i n March. If you r e q u i r e any c l a r i f i c a t i o n or f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n please do not h e s i t a t e to contact me. Yours s i n c e r e l y , 105 APPENDIX I I A r t L e s s o n - T h u r s d a y A p r i l 11, 1985 Approx. 1:45 P a p e r t o w e l f o r e a c h s t u d e n t p a s s e d out ahead o f t i m e . W r i t t e n on b l a c k b o a r d -C r i t e r i a : - p i c k a theme - use f e l t t o make t h e " c h a r a c t e r s " - c o l o u r w i t h p e n c i l c r a y o n s - i f you f i n i s h t r y a n o t h e r Desks c l e a r e d o f f b e f o r e a r t c l a s s . S t a n d when desk i s c l e a r e d . S i t . Must s h a r e m a t e r i a l s . I n t r o d u c e s t o p i c - f i n g e r p r i n t a r t . Must make t h u m b p r i n t i n t o a c h a r a c t e r . "What m a t e r i a l s were u s e d ? " - q u e s t i o n s about m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n sample shown. T e a c h e r shows examples f r o m b o o k s . Reads d i r e c t i o n s . Shows b o r d e r s . L i k e done i n p o e t r y . Ink - won't wash, use same f i n g e r b e c a u s e i t i s permanent -compares t o p a i n t . Theme. "What i 3 a theme?" About 8 s t u d e n t s g i v e a n s w e r s . Examples - c i r c u s , dog pound, camping, c i t y . W r i t t e n on b o a r d . S t e p s -1. t h u m b p r i n t -2 . C h a r a c t e r s w i t h f e l t - t h e y f a d e -3. c o l o u r w i t h c r a y o n Shows 4 e x a m p l e s . Asks what theme i t i s . Humour i n p i c t u r e - p e r s o n t h o u g h t c a r e f u l l y . D e c o r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s . C h i l d r e n seem v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g examples by o t h e r s t u d e n t s . C o - o p e r a t e - 1 stamp pad f o r e a c h row. P a p e r - d i f f e r e n t s h a p e . T r y once - must f i n i s h and g i v e good t r y - t h e n can t r y a n o t h e r . T h i n k about theme - what shape o f p a p e r would you need. S m a l l s i z e p a p e r about h a l f s h e e t s . Row by row t h e y g e t p a p e r w h i c h i s on a l a r g e t a b l e a t t h e s i d e of t h e room. N o i s e l e v e l r i s e s . S t u d e n t s s h a r e stamp pad a r o u n d one s t u d e n t s d e s k . "You have t o g e t messy t o do a r t . " - S t u d e n t T e a c h e r - "Don't use p e n c i l . Use p e n c i l c r a y o n o r f e l t p e n." -some s t u d e n t s p u t f i n g e r p r i n t s down f i r s t and t h e n draw a r o u n d them - o t h e r s drew f i r s t and t h e n p u t f i n g e r p r i n t s on. - s t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g c h a r a c t e r s . N o i s e l e v e l d r o p s o f f a f t e r s t u d e n t s g e t m a t e r i a l s and b e g i n work . T e a c h e r p a t r o l s a r o u n d c l a s s r o o m . S h a r i n g between s t u d e n t s - m a t e r i a l s , pens, i d e a s 106 2 : 1 2 T e a c h e r s h o w s e x a m p l e o f o n e s t u d e n t s w o r k - w h a t i s t h e t h e m e -n o t e c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . - s h o w s 2 m o r e s t u d e n t s w o r k a n d r e p e a t s . T e l l s t h e m t o w o r k l e s s o n b a c k g r o u n d a n d m o r e o n c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . S t u d e n t s h a v e t a k e n b o o k s a s e x a m p l e s t o l o o k a t . H u m o u r - o f c h a r a c t e r s t h e s t u d e n t s a r e c r e a t i n g . M o v e m e n t - s t u d e n t s l e a v e d e s k s t o g e t m a t e r i a l s , v i s i t , u s e s t a m p p a d s . S t u d e n t s t a l k q u i e t l y o r w h i s p e r . 2 : 2 0 H a l f o f s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g o n t h e i r o w n , n o t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o w h a t o t h e r ' s a r e d o i n g . D a v i d h a s s p e n t a l m o s t n o t i m e a t h i s d e s k w o r k i n g . S o c i a l i z i n g b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s . T e a c h e r s p e a k s i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h s t u d e n t s a b o u t w h a t t h e y a r e w o r k i n g o n - h a s s p o k e n t o e n t i r e c l a s s o n l y o n c e . 2 : 2 5 T e a c h e r s h o w s e x a m p l e o f s t u d e n t s w o r k - a s k s w h a t t h e t h e m e i s -s a y s s h e l i k e s c o n t r a s t o f l i g h t a n d d a r k p r i n t s . T e a c h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y m a k e s s u g g e s t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s a b o u t t h e i r w o r k . 2 : 3 0 " S i t , p u t y o u r p e n c i l s d o w n a n d l i s t e n " . S t u d e n t s a r e a l m o s t i n s t a n t l y q u i e t . O n e s t u d e n t i s f i n i s h e d . T e a c h e r s h o w s how t o p u t o n b l a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r t o f r a m e . S t u d e n t s m u s t g l u e d o w n u s i n g o n l y a d a b o f g l u e i n e a c h c o r n e r - A s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t g l u e i n g a n d s t u d e n t s k n e w t h a t g l u e c o u l d g e t m e s s y l o o k i n g . "I l i k e t h e a u d i e n c e b a c k t h e r e . T h a t ' s w o n d e r f u l . " - r e a c t i o n b y T e a c h e r t o s t u d e n t s w o r k . "How e x c i t i n g . " No c o m m e n t s m a d e t o c l a s s a s a w h o l e . 2 : 4 0 A b o u t 6 s t u d e n t s h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r w o r k a n d m o u n t e d o n b l a c k c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r . 2 : 4 1 "3 m o r e m i n u t e s b o y s a n d g i r l s . " - w a r n i n g o f t i m e . E a c h s t u d e n t h a s a n u m b e r f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y p u t i n t h e c o r n e r . H a l f t h e c l a s s ( a l m o s t ) o u t o f t h e i r s e a t s . 2 : 4 5 " E v e r y o n e i n t o s e a t s n o w . H a v e y o u g o t y o u r n u m b e r i n t h e b o t t o m r i g h t h a n d c o r n e r ? " T e a c h e r c a l l s o u t n u m b e r s a n d w o r k i s c o l l e c t e d i n o r d e r . C l e a n - u p - w i p e h a n d s o n p a p e r t o w e l - i n k p a d s b a c k o n my d e s k O n e b o y t a k e s g a r b a g e c a n a r o u n d . C l e a r y o u r d e s k o f f . - s t u d e n t c l e a n s t h e b o a r d . D i s c i p l i n e - d e t e n t i o n . Homewo r k . M u s t b r i n g i n 2 0 0 g r a m s o f w o o l b y t o m o r r o w . C a n s o m e o n e b r i n g i n s h o p p i n g b a g s . R e c i t a t i o n o f p o e t r y . 107 R E F E R E N C E S A l e x a n d e r , R . R . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Mr J e w e l as a m o d e l . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 2 1 , ( 3 ) , 2 5 - 2 9 . A r t s i a s u r v e y o f p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . ( 1 983 ) . C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f E d u c a t i o n , C a n a d a . B e n h a m , B . J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h o u g h t s o n t h e f a i l u r e o f c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , ( 1 1 ) . B e n - P e r e t z , M . ( 1 980 ) . T e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t : A n a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , _5, (2) , 5 2 - 6 2 . B e r s s o n , R . D . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e u s e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a r t p r o g r a m s . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 , (2) . 6 1 - 6 7 . B o g d a n , R. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o q u a l i t i a t i v e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s . New Y o r k : W i l e y . C h a p m a n , L . ( 197 8 ) . T e a c h e r v i e w p o i n t s u r v e y . S c h o o l A r t s , 7 8 , (4) , 5 1 - 5 2 . C h a p m a n , L . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n s t a n t ^ r t ^ I n s t a n t _ C u l t u r e . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s . C h a p p e l l , G . ( 1 9 7 6) . A s u r v e y o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 t o 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r t T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 16_, (1) , 1 8 - 1 9 . C o l e s , K . A . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e B . C . e l e m e n t a r y . l a n g u a g e a r t s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . C o m m o n , D . L . ( 1 980 ) . A c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n M . D a n i e l s & I. W r i g h t ( E d s . ) , I m p l e m e n t a t i o n v i e w p o i n t s , V a n c o u v e r : U B C C e n t r e f o r S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n . C r o c k e r , R . K . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C l a s s r o o m p r o c e s s r e s e a r c h a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n K . L e i t h w o o d & A . Hughes ( E d s . ) , C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a I I I : C u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c r i t i c a l student_outcomes (p . 1 1 6 ) 108 D a n i e l s , M . & W r i g h t , I. ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n v i e w p o i n t s . V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n . D a y , M. & D i B l a s i o , M . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f a r t . 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C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g f o r t h e Wee F o l k : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ' s K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t , S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n . j ) , (3) , 4 5 - 5 6 . E i s n e r , E . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e e d u c a t i o n a l i m a g i n a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g C o . I n c . F l a n d e r s , T . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T e a c h e r r e a l i t i e s , n e e d s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n R . B u t t , J . O l s o n & J . D a i g n a u l t ( E d s . ) . C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a I V : U B C C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n F u l l a n , M . ( 197 9) . C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g p r o b l e m s o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n W. W e r n e r ( E d . ) . C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a ( p . 4 0 - 5 0 ) . U B C C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n . 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