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Teacher collaboration around computer use with English as a second language students 1991

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TEACHER COLLABORATION AROUND COMPUTER USE WITH ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE STUDENTS By WENDY-JENE MINNES B.A., P r i n c i p i a College, 1981 B.Ed., Queen's University, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l © Wendy-Jene BRITISH COLUMBIA 1991 Minnes, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive i copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date A p r i l 1991 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y a n a l y z e s what h a p p e n e d when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e d some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e w i t h E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( E S L ) s t u d e n t s was i m p l e m e n t e d . I t d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o u n d t o o c c u r a n d s e e k s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t emerged by e x a m i n i n g some p r e v a l e n t s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f s c h o o l l i f e . The p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n v o l v e s e x p l i c i t , o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g . N C o n d i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r work a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g o f ESL s t u d e n t s . O b s e r v a t i o n a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s o u r c e a n d ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t e n d e d t o engage i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " o r " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r c o m p u t e r k n o w l e d g e . G e n e r a l l y common t o b o t h f o r m s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e were t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s : o n e - o n - o n e e n c o u n t e r s ; b r i e f , i n f o r m a l e x c h a n g e s ; s h o r t - t e r m p l a n n i n g ; i m p l i c i t r o l e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s ; a n d a f o c u s on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s p a c e , t i m e , a n d a u t h o r i t y , a s w e l l a s t e a c h e r norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d ii n o n i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e i r c l a s s r o o m - c e n t e r e d f o c u s a n d a d h e r e n c e t o a p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c , may h a v e s e r v e d t o s h a p e t h e e m e r g e n t f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . iii TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements v i D e d i c a t i o n v i i 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 P u r p o s e o f S t u d y 3 B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e S t u d y 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 8 Key Terms 9 2. Review of L i t e r a t u r e 11 C u l t u r e s o f T e a c h i n g 14 T e a c h e r I s o l a t i o n 17 S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l S p a c e 18 The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Time 19 The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f A u t h o r i t y 20 C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : Norms o f I n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d N o n i n t e r a c t i o n 21 The I m m e d i a c y o f t h e C l a s s r o o m 26 An E t h i c o f P r a c t i c a l i t y 27 T e a c h e r C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n a C o n t e x t o f T e a c h e r I s o l a t i o n 29 T e a c h e r C o l l a b o r a t i o n : S u p p o r t i v e C o n d i t i o n s 31 iv 3 . Methodology 40 O b s e r v a t i o n s 41 I n t e r v i e w s 43 A n a l y s i s 45 4. D i s c u s s i o n of F i n d i n g s 48 E x p e c t a t i o n s of C o l l a b o r a t i o n . . . . 49 Forms of C o l l a b o r a t i o n 50 Emergent P a t t e r n s 59 Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n : The I n f l u e n c e of P r e v a l e n t S c h o o l C o n d i t i o n s 69 S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Space 70 The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Time.... 73 The O r g a n i z a t i o n of A u t h o r i t y 76 C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : Norms of I n d i v i d u a l i s m and N o n i n t e r a c t i o n 78 The Immediacy of the C l a s s r o o m 80 An E t h i c of P r a c t i c a l i t y 83 Summary: The Accommodation of the I n n o v a t i o n t o F i t P r e v a l e n t S c h o o l C o n d i t i o n s 85 5 . C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s 87 C o n c l u s i o n s 87 I m p l i c a t i o n s 90 D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 94 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 97 R e f e r e n c e s 99 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . M a r g a r e t E a r l y , D r . B e r n a r d Mohan, a n d D r . W a l t e r W e r n e r , f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e a n d g u i d a n c e i n t h e r e s e a r c h a n d w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o want t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e s e v e n t e a c h e r s who, a s k ey i n d i v i d u a l s e n g a g e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g an i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , g e n e r o u s l y a g r e e d t o s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h me. I am f u r t h e r g r a t e f u l t o t h e many f r i e n d s a n d f a m i l y members who c o n t r i b u t e d , e a c h i n t h e i r own way, t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o M i d g e , G e o f f , C i n d i , C h r i s , a n d G r a n t M i n n e s , t h e Romero f a m i l y , C a r l a S p i n o l a , a n d G e o r g e P a v l i c h . F i n a l l y , a n d s p e c i a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k M i g u e l Romero M a r t i n e z d e l S o b r a l f o r t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o u r f r i e n d s h i p p r o v i d e s . vi To my g r a n d f a t h e r , Burdette Farrand v i i 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The n o t i o n of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t e n c o n j u r e s up f a v o r a b l e images of two or more teachers a c t i v e l y engaged i n j o i n t ventures r e l a t e d , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , to school improvement e f f o r t s . Over the past decade, the r o l e of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n s u p p o r t i n g meaningful school change has emerged r e p e a t e d l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( L i t t l e , 1987, 1982; Lieberman, 1988, 1986; Zahorik, 1987; F u l l a n , 1982). Notably, however, even though t h i s concept i s promoted as a way to generate v i b r a n t and e f f e c t i v e school programs, r e s e a r c h t h a t documents and accounts f o r what the " a t t r a c t i v e i d e a l s of c o l l a b o r a t i o n " (Hord, 1986, p. 25) look l i k e i n p r a c t i c e i s s c a r c e . When tea c h e r s work together to implement an i n n o v a t i o n , v a r i o u s forms of c o l l a b o r a t i o n are p o s s i b l e . T h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s may i n v o l v e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n f o r m a l and b r i e f exchanges p e r t a i n i n g to the i n n o v a t i o n ' s use or the s h a r i n g of m a t e r i a l s without any need f o r f u r t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , c o l l a b o r a t i o n may i n v o l v e more ex t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n to c l a r i f y s p e c i f i c problems as they a r i s e . The p a r t i c u l a r form of c o l l a b o r a t i o n that occurs i n any given context w i l l depend on the i n n o v a t i o n i t s e l f , the t e a c h e r s themselves, as w e l l as the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n which teach e r s work. 2 C u r r e n t l y the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a p a r t i c u l a r view of c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s i n g on an ongoing b a s i s , what they are doing and why ( L i t t l e , 1987, 1982; Lieberman, 1988; F u l l a n , 1982). However, t h i s form of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n i n schools because of the c u l t u r e i n which they work (Hargreaves, 1989; Bullough, 1987). C e r t a i n l y t h i s c u l t u r e i s not i d e n t i c a l a c r o s s s c h o o l s i t e s (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986; L i t t l e , 1982), yet some general norms are s a i d to p r e v a i l (Goodlad, 1984; Sarason, 1982; L o r t i e , 1975). Predominant among these i s teacher i s o l a t i o n , a f e a t u r e of school l i f e t h a t may present a b a r r i e r to s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n among teachers such that more formal c o l l a b o r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s are "not the r u l e , but the r a r e , o f t e n f r a g i l e e x c e p t i o n " ( L i t t l e , 1987, p. 493). In the f i e l d of t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL), language and content t e a c h e r s are more commonly o p t i n g t o combine t h e i r e x p e r t i s e to s i m u l t a n e o u s l y promote academic language and content l e a r n i n g among ESL students (Mohan, 1989, Snow, Met, and Genesee, 1989; B r i n t o n , Snow, and Wesche, 1989, Benesch, 1988). Furthermore, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of two or more t e a c h e r s working together to enhance ESL t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g may i n c r e a s e with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of computers as an i n n o v a t i v e t e a c h i n g t o o l (Higgins and Johns, 1984; Wyatt, 1984). In l i g h t of what i s known about c o l l a b o r a t i v e teacher r e l a t i o n s , q u e s t i o n s are 3 i n e v i t a b l y r a i s e d a b o u t t h e f o r m s t h a t s u c h c o l l a b o r a t i o n may t a k e g i v e n t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s w o r k . The p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a p r e d o m i n a n t one i n c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s f o r m o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n e n t a i l s e x p l i c i t d i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o an i n n o v a t i o n , a n d w o r k i n g o u t s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e . O t h e r f o r m s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a s r i c h a s t h e y u n d o u b t e d l y a r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s t h e y p r o m o t e , a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . Purpose of the Study T h i s s t u d y a n a l y z e s t h e f i r s t y e a r o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o b r e a k down t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n by a d v o c a t i n g a means f o r p l a n n i n g s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . The p r o v i s i o n o f s e v e r a l s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d work t o g e t h e r i n some c o l l a b o r a t i v e f o r m a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e w i t h s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ESL s t u d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o u n d t o o c c u r among t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d a n d a c c o u n t s f o r t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t emerged by e x a m i n i n g some s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s c h o o l l i f e . The m a j o r q u e s t i o n a s k e d i s : What h a p p e n s t o an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s sumes some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n when i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n ? M ore s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e : What f o r m s d o e s t e a c h e r 4 c o l l a b o r a t i o n t a k e a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s ? ; a n d what s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s c a n be s a i d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e ? The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s t u d y l i e s i n i t s e f f o r t t o l o o k a t t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t e r m s o f s c h o o l norms. W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t numerous o t h e r f a c t o r s may s e r v e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r m s t h a t t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n may t a k e ( f o r e x a m p l e , g e n d e r , p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s ) t h i s s t u d y s e e k s t o a c c o u n t f o r what was f o u n d t o o c c u r t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l c u l t u r e . By l o o k i n g a t what h a p p e n e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n where i t was a s s u m e d ESL c l a s s r o o m a n d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s w o u l d f i n d ways t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r work a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g o f ESL s t u d e n t s , i n s i g h t i s g a i n e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v a i l i n g s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s on t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f f i v e c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r two p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . C h a p t e r t h r e e d e s c r i b e s t h e m e t h o d s u s e d t o c o l l e c t a n d a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . C h a p t e r f o u r d i s c u s s e s t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , a n d c h a p t e r f i v e s t a t e s c o n c l u s i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 5 Background to the Study In September 1989, a c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n promoting the use of computers with ESL students was implemented at an inner c i t y high s c h o o l . The p r o p o s a l was supported by u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d and d i s t r i c t ESL c o n s u l t a n t s . Funding f o r the l a b and r e l e a s e time f o r three resource t e a c h e r s was pro v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y of Educat i o n and the ESL Fund f o r E x c e l l e n c e P r o j e c t . Three resource teachers and four ESL c o n s u l t a n t s comprised the p r o j e c t "team". The c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of the i n n o v a t i o n are as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , i t advocates Mohan's knowledge framework (Mohan, 1986) as the p r e f e r r e d means f o r ESL teachers to organize the i n t e g r a t i o n of academic language and content t e a c h i n g f o r ESL students; second, i t i n v o l v e s the use of computers to support t h i s approach to second language t e a c h i n g ; and t h i r d , i t assumes, but does not s p e c i f y , some form of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n around p l a n n i n g computer use f o r ESL stude n t s . The knowledge framework i s comprised of s i x o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , or knowledge s t r u c t u r e s , s a i d to r e f l e c t " s i x major types of knowledge" ( E a r l y , 1990a, p. 83). The c a t e g o r i e s termed " d e s c r i p t i o n " , "sequence", and " c h o i c e " are equated with p r a c t i c a l knowledge, while those of " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , " p r i n c i p l e s " and " e v a l u a t i o n " are l i n k e d with t h e o r e t i c a l , or background knowledge ( i b i d ) . Each knowledge s t r u c t u r e can be i d e n t i f i e d i n , and expressed 6 t h r o u g h , w r i t t e n t e x t a n d g r a p h i c s . When u s i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k t o d e s i g n t a s k s a n d t e a c h i n g u n i t s f o r ESL s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s e x a m i n e a c o n t e n t t o p i c f o r s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s . Once i d e n t i f i e d , t h e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l a n d s e l e c t e d k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s a r e c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c s . T h e s e " k e y v i s u a l s " g u i d e s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e n h a n c e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r s i n c e t h e y s e r v e t o l e s s e n t h e l i n g u i s t i c demand p l a c e d on s t u d e n t s . C o m p u t e r s were s e e n t o p r e s e n t a n o v e l way t o e x t e n d t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k s i n c e t h e y h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y t o r e p r e s e n t i t s s i x c a t e g o r i e s i n t e x t and g r a p h i c f o r m a n d work w i t h t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s d y n a m i c a l l y . C o n d i t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d j o i n t l y p l a n a n d c r e a t e c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s e m p l o y i n g k e y v i s u a l s t o l i n k l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . The p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s e n s u r e d t h a t someone f a m i l i a r w i t h c o m p u t e r s was a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t a n y ESL t e a c h e r who c h o s e t o b r i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b . As w e l l , two o f t h e t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s w e re e x p e r i e n c e d i n a d a p t i n g c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s u s i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a n d b o t h w e re a b l e t o a p p l y t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s t o c o m p u t e r u s e . W h i l e t h e i n n o v a t i o n a ssumed t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n some way a r o u n d p l a n n i n g ESL s t u d e n t s ' c o m p u t e r u s e , t h e f o r m s t h a t i t w o u l d t a k e were l e f t open t o t h e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . 7 The h i g h s c h o o l where t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d h a s a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f f o u r t e e n h u n d r e d a n d s t a f f o f n i n e t y . C o n s i d e r a b l e e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y e x i s t s among t h e s t u d e n t body w i t h s t u d e n t s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m s i x t y two c o u n t r i e s , w o r l d w i d e . O v e r s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s s p e a k E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d , o r a d d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e i n r e g u l a r a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e ESL p r o g r a m . S i n c e many o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s a r e r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s , t h e number o f ESL s t u d e n t s f l u c t u a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . Ten t e a c h e r s a r e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e ESL p r o g r a m on e i t h e r a f u l l o r p a r t t i m e b a s i s . The l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e s e t e a c h e r s h a v e been a t t h e s c h o o l v a r i e d f r o m one t o t w e n t y y e a r s . An ESL d e p a r t m e n t , f o r m e d s i x y e a r s e a r l i e r , p r o v i d e s a f o r u m f o r t e a c h e r s t o meet m o n t h l y , i f n o t more o f t e n , t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s r a i s e d e i t h e r by t h e d e p a r t m e n t h e a d o r t h e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . M o s t ESL t e a c h e r s h a v e t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l o t h e r s , s p e c i f i e d a s " f l o a t e r s " , move f r o m room t o room b e c a u s e o f a s h o r t a g e o f s p a c e . A l t h o u g h one ESL c l a s s r o o m i s a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b , t h e r e s t a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b u i l d i n g . 8 L i m i t a t i o n s Two l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. T h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d on s e l e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o v e r a f o u r week p e r i o d a n d t e a c h e r s e l f r e p o r t s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h u s , no c l a i m s a r e made a b o u t t h e a c t u a l f o r m s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s w e re a s k e d t o r e f l e c t on t h e f o r m s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d e a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r , t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s a p i c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t o n l y one p o i n t i n t i m e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o j e c t . 2. The s t u d y d o e s n o t e x a m i n e a l l p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d . I t i s l i m i t e d t o e x a m i n i n g t h e f o r m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n ; one t h a t f o c u s e s on o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g a r o u n d p r o b l e m s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y , no c l a i m s a r e made a b o u t a n y o f t h e v a r i o u s o t h e r k i n d s o f r i c h i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t t e a c h e r s e n g a g e d i n d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e y e a r . 9 Key Terms C o l l a b o r a t i o n : J o i n t a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g two o r more i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r t o commonly d e f i n e p r o b l e m s a n d work o u t s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e . T h i s may r a n g e f r o m b r i e f , i n f o r m a l e x c h a n g e s t o more l e n g t h y d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n i t s e l f a n d p l a n n i n g f o r i t s u s e . I n t h i s s t u d y , c o l l a b o r a t i o n more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s t o t h o s e i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t i n v o l v e o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d j o i n t p l a n n i n g a r o u n d i n n o v a t i o n - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . T h i s f o r m o f s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i f i c s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r : A t e a c h e r who w o r k s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s e n g a g e d i n l e a r n i n g a c a d e m i c c o n t e n t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a ( f o r e x a m p l e , E n g l i s h , S c i e n c e , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , M a t h ) . ESL s t u d e n t s : S t u d e n t s who a r e r e g i s t e r e d i n a s c h o o l p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d o r an a d d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : R e f e r s t o what t e a c h e r s i n n o v a t i o n , how i t i s u s e d , i n t e r p r e t e d , c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . a c t u a l l y do w i t h an a n d t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 10 I n n o v a t i o n : A n y t h i n g t h a t i s new r e l a t i v e t o t h e u s e r ( f o r e x a m p l e , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , s t r a t e g i e s , a c t i v i t i e s , p r o g r a m p l a n s o r c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y ) . Resource t e a c h e r : A t e a c h e r who h a s been a l l o t t e d s p e c i f i c t i m e i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b t o a l l o w them t o a s s i s t t h o s e ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who want t o u s e c o m p u t e r s a s an a i d t o i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g . Teacher I s o l a t i o n : R e f e r s t o t h e l a c k o f s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t among t e a c h e r s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a d d r e s s i n g c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the te a c h e r s ' r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l change has been widely acknowledged ( C r a n d a l l , 1983; Cuban, 1982; F u l l a n , 1982). As Doyle and Ponder (1977) a s t u t e l y c l a i m , t e a c h e r s are the " u l t i m a t e a r b i t e r s of classroom p r a c t i c e " (p. 75) s i n c e they decide not only what i n n o v a t i o n s t o accept, but a l s o how an i n n o v a t i o n w i l l be used w i t h i n a classroom s e t t i n g . C e r t a i n l y an i n n o v a t i o n may advocate s p e c i f i c changes; f o r example, i n program g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s , e v a l u a t i o n , resources and/or assumptions about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g (Werner, 1988, p. 2). However, the form an e d u c a t i o n a l change takes u l t i m a t e l y depends upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that i n d i v i d u a l teachers g i v e to a p a r t i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n . Numerous f a c t o r s are s a i d to i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n s that t e a c h e r s ' make r e g a r d i n g the a c t u a l use of an i n n o v a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , three important c r i t e r i a that t e a c h e r s may use when a s s e s s i n g any e d u c a t i o n a l change i n c l u d e : f i r s t , need ( i e . , Does the i n n o v a t i o n address a p e r c e i v e d need?); second, c l a r i t y ( i e . , Are the u n d e r l y i n g concepts and the process of implementation c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d ? ) ; and t h i r d , complexity ( i e . , Do the p e r c e i v e d c o s t s outweigh the b e n e f i t s ? ) (Werner & Case, 1988). A d d i t i o n a l l y , F u l l a n (1982) s p e c i f i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the 12 school and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s (for example, teacher-teacher r e l a t i o n s , administrative support, s t a f f development and par t i c i p a t i o n ) as well as those external to the school system i t s e l f (for example, the extent of support from government agencies) that are believed to further influence the implementation process (pp. 63-75). The studies that form the basis for these assertions, undoubtedly some provide insight for those who choose to adopt a managerial perspective towards school change. Viewing the process from t h i s perspective, the successful implementation of an innovation may e n t a i l the manipulation of i d e n t i f i a b l e and c l e a r l y defined variables, with the intent of persuading a classroom teacher to adopt a new program over time. However, such a perspective may u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y assume the teacher i s a "passive consumer at the end of the chain w i l l i n g to adopt a new product" (House, 1981, p. 22); that i s , an ind i v i d u a l to be worked on rather than wi t h. A major drawback of the managerial perspective on educational change seems to l i e in i t s f a i l u r e to acknowledge the "larger c u l t u r a l dynamics" at work within school settings; those patterns of b e l i e f and behavior assumed 'normal' by the many individuals immersed in school l i f e (Rossman, Corbett, and Firestone, 1988, p. 18). Yet, an examination of these dynamics appears to offer an alte r n a t i v e explanation for the adaptations teachers may make when presented with an innovation based on one or more 13 assumptions t h a t run c o n t r a r y to the s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n the context where they work. S e v e r a l prominent r e s e a r c h e r s whose w r i t i n g s have shed v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t on the process of e d u c a t i o n a l change, ( f o r example, Goodlad, 1984, L o r t i e , 1975, and Sarason 1971, 1982) emphasize the i n s i g h t to be gained by understanding the "matrix of e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p r a c t i c e s and i d e a s " of which teac h e r s are a p a r t (Sarason, 1971, p. 171). T h e i r s t u d i e s i d e n t i f y s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s of schools that serve to maintain s t a b i l i t y r a t h e r than induce change, r e g a r d l e s s of the nature or number of i n n o v a t i o n s proposed. One p r e v a l e n t f e a t u r e , noted by each of these r e s e a r c h e r s , i s that of teacher i s o l a t i o n . To date, few r e s e a r c h e r s ( F l i n d e r s , 1988, Goodlad, 1984, and Tye & Tye, 1984) have s t r e s s e d the impact of teacher i s o l a t i o n on e f f o r t s at change w i t h i n s c h o o l s , yet i t s i n f l u e n c e i s r e p o r t e d l y p e r v a s i v e . R e s t r i c t e d by p h y s i c a l and temporal f e a t u r e s of s c h o o l l i f e , and a d d i t i o n a l l y by a tendency to embrace norms of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and autonomy ( L o r t i e , 1975) teachers are f r e q u e n t l y l e f t to make sense of new programs on t h e i r own. What happens then when an i n n o v a t i o n assuming teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s implemented i n a context where teacher i s o l a t i o n i s a commonly shared e x p e c t a t i o n of those w i t h i n the workplace? In t h i s c hapter, based on a review of c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s argued that the predominance of s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s r e i n f o r c i n g teacher i s o l a t i o n leads to 14 t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : a n i n n o v a t i o n a s s u m i n g t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i l l be s h a p e d by t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o accommodate e x i s t i n g s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s s t u d y a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e on e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e i s a d o p t e d . T h u s , an e x p l a n a t i o n o f what i s meant by t h e " c u l t u r e s o f t e a c h i n g " i s s e t f o r t h i n i t i a l l y . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s t h a t p r o m o t e a c e n t r a l c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e , t h a t o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . The i m p a c t o f t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s on i n n o v a t i o n s a s s u m i n g t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t h e n e m p h a s i z e d . S u g g e s t i o n s a s t o p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h s u c h i n n o v a t i o n s may work a r e a d d i t i o n a l l y p r e s e n t e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s . C u l t u r e s of Teaching The e x p l a n a t i o n o f c u l t u r e t h a t Van Maanan ( 1 9 8 8 ) s e t s f o r t h i n h i s book e n t i t l e d , T a l e s o f t h e F i e l d : On W r i t i n g E t h n o g r a p h y , i s a d o p t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . He c l a i m s t h a t " c u l t u r e r e f e r s t o t h e k n o w l e d g e members...of a g i v e n g r o u p a r e t h o u g h t t o more o r l e s s s h a r e ; k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s o r t t h a t i s s a i d t o i n f o r m , embed, s h a p e , a n d a c c o u n t f o r t h e r o u t i n e a n d n o t - s o - r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e members o f t h e c u l t u r e " ( p . 3 ) . Van Maanen a d m i t s c u l t u r e " i s n e c e s s a r i l y a l o o s e , s l i p p e r y c o n c e p t , s i n c e i t i s a n y t h i n g 15 but unchanging", yet nonetheless states that i t i s expressed "by the words and actions of i t s members" ( i b i d ) . Although not s p e c i f i e d by Van Maanen, culture, as employed in t h i s study, also refers to the complex interplay of b e l i e f s , values, assumptions, and expectations held in common by group members and expressed through th e i r words and actions. In an informative summary of research broadly subsumed under the heading, "The Cultures of Teaching", Feiman-Nemser & Floden (1986) state that teaching cultures are embodied in the work-related b e l i e f s and knowledge teachers s h a r e — b e l i e f s about appropriate ways of acting on the job and rewarding aspects of teaching, and knowledge that enables teachers to do the i r work" (p. 508). Said to be integral to such teaching cultures are "shared sentiments, habits of mind, and patterns of inter a c t i o n " (p. 515). In their notion of teaching cultures, Feiman-Nemser and Floden support the more general concept of culture advocated here. Teachers, as members of an i d e n t i f i a b l e group, are seen to share certain " b e l i e f s , knowledge, attitudes, and values" (p. 520) which lead to common actions and forms of interaction that are cl o s e l y adhered to by the group. Feiman-Nemser and Floden are reluctant, however, to speak about a single teaching culture as they prefer instead to acknowledge the presence of teaching "cultures". According to these authors, "the question of whether even a majority of teachers shares a common culture has not been answered" (p. 506). Recognizing that teachers " d i f f e r in 16 age, experience, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background, gender, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , s u b j e c t matter, wisdom, and a b i l i t y " , and t h a t furthermore, the s c h o o l s where they teach and the students they teach d i f f e r as w e l l (p. 507), arguably r e s u l t s i n v a r i a t i o n s i n the knowledge, b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , assumptions, and e x p e c t a t i o n s that t e a c h e r s h o l d about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . In f u r t h e r support of the n o t i o n of t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e s , Hargreaves (1989) and Bullough (1987) both d i s c u s s " p a t t e r n s of t h i n k i n g , b e l i e f and assumption" that communities of educators tend to share (Hargreaves, p. 26). Hargreaves a s s e r t s there are "dominant f e a t u r e s " that are "reasonably w e l l known, even i f t h e i r range, c o n s i s t e n c y and o r i g i n s remain matters of d i s p u t e " (p. 27). While Bullough (1987) a l s o r e c o g n i z e s that t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e s are " c l e a r l y not a l l of a p i e c e " , he n e v e r t h e l e s s acknowledges that "there are c e r t a i n common threads" (p. 84). Both w r i t e r s focus on these commonalties and shared understandings among t e a c h e r s . In t h i s study, the c u l t u r e s of t e a c h i n g , l i k e the n o t i o n of c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , are not viewed as m o n o l i t h i c (Van Maanen, 1988, p. 3) nor, as Hargreaves (1980) s t a t e s , are they " f r e e from i n c o n s i s t e n c y and c o n t r a d i c t i o n " (p. 127). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the prevalence of c e r t a i n "dominant f e a t u r e s " (Hargreaves, 1989) and "common threads" (Bullough, 1987) w i t h i n t e a c h i n g c u l t u r e s , make i t p o s s i b l e to pursue one c e n t r a l f e a t u r e , that of teacher i s o l a t i o n . In acknowledging the predominance of teacher i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n 17 these c u l t u r e s , c e r t a i n norms r e f l e c t i n g what teachers c o n s i d e r to be t h e i r " a p p r o p r i a t e " r o l e (Bullough, p. 83), can be i d e n t i f i e d and seen to enhance " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " tendencies (Hargreaves, p. 27; Bullough, p. 83). Teacher I s o l a t i o n Somewhat of a paradox e x i s t s i n u s i n g the term " i s o l a t i o n " t o d e s c r i b e a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of most tea c h e r s ' work environment. Teachers are r a r e l y alone s i n c e t h e i r work demands c o n t i n u a l c o n t a c t with students d u r i n g c l a s s time and f r e q u e n t l y before and a f t e r as w e l l . Cuban (1982), f o r example, s t a t e s that i n a t y p i c a l high s c h o o l , teachers and students "spend 70% to 80% of the school day...with one another" (p. 114). A d d i t i o n a l l y , Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) a s s e r t that " i f t e a c h i n g i s to be understood as a ' l o n e l y p r o f e s s i o n ' , then the source of that l o n e l i n e s s l i e s o u t s i d e of the realm of c h i l d r e n " (p. 11). C e r t a i n l y , there are many educators who i d e n t i f y with Lieberman and M i l l e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of t e a c h i n g as "a p e r s o n a l i z e d and i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t y " (p. 42) or, i n t u r n , r e l a t e to Sarason's (1982) no t i o n of t e a c h i n g as "a l o n e l y p r o f e s s i o n " (p. 133). Such a view of t e a c h i n g stems from the minimal c o n t a c t that teachers have with other a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r peers, and the subsequent l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to d i s c u s s c u r r i c u l a r and i n s t r u c t i o n a l matters. 18 W h i l e c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s r e s t r i c t t h e e x t e n t o f i n t e r a c t i o n among t e a c h e r s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t i m e s p e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s ) , t h e r e a r e , a s w e l l , c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , common b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a n d a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t e a c h i n g ) t h a t f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e t h e i r i s o l a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f some c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s t h a t l e a d t o s u c h i s o l a t i o n f o l l o w s . S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Space The p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e i r p e e r s h a s be e n w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d ( s e e f o r e x a m p l e , G o o d l a d , 1 9 8 4 , L i e b e r m a n & M i l l e r , 1984, L o r t i e , 1 975, a n d S a r a s o n , 1971, 1 9 8 2 ) . As n o t e d by G o o d l a d , t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d " c l a s s r o o m c e l l s " e n c o u r a g e s t e a c h e r s e p a r a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a s a b e h a v i o r a l norm ( p . 1 8 6 ) . L o r t i e ( 1 9 7 5 ) p r e s e n t s an i n s i g h t f u l h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e " m u l t i p l e d i s t i n c t c l a s s r o o m s " ( p . 1 4 ) , c i t i n g h i g h t u r n o v e r s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s a n d t h e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a s r e a s o n s f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t e m e r g e n c e o f t h e "egg c r a t e " a r c h i t e c t u r e o f s c h o o l s ( p . 1 5 ) . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e some s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s i n s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s a n d a s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e g r o w t h r a t e , a " s e p a r a t i o n a n d l o w t a s k i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among t e a c h e r s " p e r s i s t s n e v e r t h e l e s s ( i b i d ) . T h i s p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n o f c e l l u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n 19 appears to have entrenched a s o c i a l pattern whereby teachers work for extended periods of time largely confined to t h e i r classroom, with l i t t l e or no c o l l e g i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In an excerpt from the book e n t i t l e d , Teachers, Their World and Their Work, the essence of t h i s s o c i a l pattern i s portrayed: Once sign-in procedures are completed, greetings exchanged with colleagues, the l a s t s i p of coffee downed in the teachers' room, and the warning b e l l sounded, the classroom becomes a teacher's t o t a l world. It i s a world that i s unique and separate from the world of other adults. For six hours a day, fiv e days a week, teachers l i v e in an exclusive and t o t a l l y controlled environment. For the majority of the day they are bound in space and time (Lieberman and M i l l e r , 1984, p. 5). S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Time As the above sketch of a teacher's "world and work" suggests, teacher i s o l a t i o n i s not only encouraged by the self-contained classrooms t y p i c a l of many schools, but i s also reinforced by the school schedule. Teachers work in an environment where the major portion of any given day i s spent in the classroom with students. A high school day, for instance, i s described by Cuban (1982) as, . . . . s l i c e d into periods of less than an hour, with teachers facing between 125-170 students a day in batches of 25 to 35, with a teaching load of fiv e classes and two or more d i f f e r e n t lesson preparations with a dozen other external requirements of grading, c r e d i t s , and exams" (p. 117). Inevitably, under such conditions, opportunities for contact between teachers are severely limited to b r i e f 20 encounters between classes, before or after school, and/or during lunch periods. This assumes, however, that any "free" time has not already been a l l o t t e d for "duty" assignments, school sports, c l a s s preparation, marking of student work, and/or formal meetings with either students or s t a f f . As Sarason (1982) observed, time constraints pose considerable obstacles to teacher interaction since teachers spend almost their entire day with students (p. 132). Consequently "face-to-face contacts" are rare and generally do not exceed a few minutes ( i b i d ) . L o r t i e (1975) also found teachers' contacts with one another were "peripheral to their major obligations" (p. 232), that of ensuring i n s t r u c t i o n a l q u a l i t y i s maintained in their classrooms (Flinders, 1988, p. 25). S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of A u t h o r i t y The structure of authority in schools i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , with the p r i n c i p a l at the top of the "ladder" and teachers at the bottom. Ad d i t i o n a l l y , there may be an assistant or vice p r i n c i p a l accountable to the p r i n c i p a l and, in turn, department heads (at the secondary level) or lead teachers (at the elementary level) who a s s i s t in coordinating the a c t i v i t i e s of a s p e c i f i c group of teachers (Lieberman and M i l l e r , 1984, p. 38). Even so, authority within schools tends to be "loosely coupled". While the l i n e s of command are in place, they are frequently not s p e c i f i e d unless 21 contested. Within the classroom sphere, teachers are given "almost complete authority" (Lieberman & M i l l e r , p. 14) and seem to prefer " l i t t l e interference in their d a i l y classroom routines, p a r t i c u l a r l y for decisions about curriculum and ins t r u c t i o n " (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986, p. 509). Any supervision and evaluation of their work by the p r i n c i p a l or v i c e - p r i n c i p a l i s often a formality that occurs only rarely. However, in contrast to the extent of control that teachers exercise within t h e i r own classroom, once outside, teachers are said to "have l i t t l e authority in making decisions that a f f e c t t h e i r environment" (Lieberman & M i l l e r , p. 14). Rather, in the larger school context i t i s the p r i n c i p a l who ultimately retains control and "sets a tone" that can "make working in a school pleasant or unbearable" ( i b i d , p. 12). Recognizing that teachers' authority i s , for the most part, confined to the classroom, serves to reinforce teacher i s o l a t i o n , since i t i s largely within the privacy of the i r own room that teachers can and do, determine not only what they teach, but how they choose to teach i t ( i b i d , p. 14). C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : Norms of I n d i v i d u a l i s m and N o n i n t e r a c t i o n Structural constraints in and of themselves pose obstacles to enhanced teacher interaction, making i t d i f f i c u l t "for teachers to know how well they are doing or to see what others are doing" (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986, p. 516). As Hargreaves (1989) observes, "the f a c t t h a t s c h o o l s are segmented i n t o i s o l a t e d and i n s u l a t e d compartments... ( d i v i d e s ) t e a c h e r s from one another and (makes) comparison and c o l l a b o r a t i o n between them d i f f i c u l t " (p. 27). In t u r n , teacher i s o l a t i o n c u l t i v a t e s "a p r e o c c u p a t i o n with classroom a f f a i r s , with those matters over which teac h e r s have d i r e c t and immediate c o n t r o l and which consume the major p a r t of t h e i r time and energy" ( i b i d ) . Sarason (1982) a l s o comments t h a t the l a c k of " s u s t a i n e d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t " with other a d u l t s d u r i n g the course of a school day, means not only are teachers " p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y alone...but they adapt to being alone" (p. 133). Such o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that i n t e r a c t i n g and o v e r l a p p i n g with s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s of s c h o o l l i f e are c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s that r e f l e c t a p r e f e r e n c e f o r i s o l a t i o n among t e a c h e r s , or to view i t i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t , a p r e f e r e n c e f o r "autonomy" (Hargreaves, 1980). The adherence of t e a c h e r s to norms of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and n o n i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h e i r focus on the immediacy of the classroom; and, a d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e i r adoption of a " p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c " that f r e q u e n t l y r e s i s t s r a t h e r than i n s p i r e s change, are examples of c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s promoting teacher i s o l a t i o n . Norms of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and n o n i n t e r a c t i o n among teache r s can be seen as p r e v a l e n t when one r e a l i z e s that many "teachers have peers but no c o l l e a g u e s " (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986, p. 508). Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984),. f o r 23 i n s t a n c e , b e l i e v e that there i s , o v e r a l l , a l a c k of s h a r i n g among te a c h e r s "about t e a c h i n g , about c l a s s e s , about students, about p e r c e p t i o n s " (p. 8 ) . Instead, these r e s e a r c h e r s note, " r e l a t i o n s with peers may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as remote, o b l i q u e , and d e f e n s i v e l y p r o t e c t i v e " (p. 11). While d i s c u s s i o n of the news, weather, and s p o r t s are viewed as a c c e p t a b l e t o p i c s f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n , any d i s c u s s i o n t h a t r e l a t e s to " i n s t r u c t i o n and what happens i n classrooms" i s g e n e r a l l y not accepted or encouraged ( i b i d ) . Feiman-Nemser and Floden a l s o a f f i r m that although teachers "may very w e l l be and l i k e l y are on ' f r i e n d l y terms'", t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n s tend to a v o i d s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s r e l a t e d to " c u r r i c u l u m , i n s t r u c t i o n a l content, or t e a c h i n g methods" (p. 509). As they e x p l a i n , In most s c h o o l s , the classroom i s c o n s i d e r e d i n v i o l a t e . Teachers are not supposed to invade one another's classroom or a d v i s e on methods or content u n l e s s d i r e c t l y asked. The p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n (of classrooms) conveys the message that t e a c h e r s ought to cope with t h e i r problems on t h e i r own, r e i n f o r c i n g the norm of i n d i v i d u a l i s m . Working i t out alone comes to be accepted as the way i t should be i n t e a c h i n g (p. 517). When L o r t i e (1975) i n t e r v i e w e d elementary and secondary teach e r s to determine t h e i r views of " a p p r o p r i a t e c o l l e a g u e s h i p " (p. 193), he l e a r n e d that a "good c o l l e a g u e " was c o n s i d e r e d to be f r i e n d l y , open and w i l l i n g to share (p. 194). However, s h a r i n g i n the sense used by these t e a c h e r s , was seen to merely i n v o l v e the exchange of resource m a t e r i a l s and u s e f u l " t r i c k s of the t r a d e " 24 ( p . 1 9 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , n o t a b l y l a c k i n g i s a n y m e n t i o n o f c o l l e g i a l i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i s c u s s i n g new p r o g r a m s o r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e s e h o l d f o r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . L e f t l a r g e l y t o work i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m one a n o t h e r , t e a c h e r s l e a r n t o d e a l w i t h c l a s s r o o m d i l e m m a s on t h e i r own. The " * s i n k o r swim' s o c i a l i z a t i o n " o f t e a c h e r s ( L o r t i e , p. 210) means t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y draw on t h e i r own e x p e r t i s e t o make c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s . G o o d l a d ' s ( 1 9 8 4 ) f i n d i n g s f u r t h e r show t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n , i n t h e way o f " o n g o i n g e x c h a n g e s o f i d e a s a n d p r a c t i c e s a c r o s s s c h o o l s , b e t w e e n g r o u p s o f t e a c h e r s , o r b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e same s c h o o l s " ( p . 187) a s s u m e s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s i m p o r t a n c e f o r t e a c h e r s t h a n t h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s w h i c h l i e w i t h t h e c o r e t a s k s o f t e a c h i n g . As a r e s u l t , G o o d l a d c o n c l u d e s , " t e a c h e r s . . . t o a l a r g e e x t e n t c a r r y on s i d e by s i d e s i m i l a r b u t e s s e n t i a l l y s e p a r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s " ( p . 1 8 8 ) . The t e n d e n c y o f t e a c h e r s t o e m b r a c e an " i d e o l o g y o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m " may, a s L o r t i e ( 1 9 7 5 ) c l a i m s , p r o m o t e an image o f " s e l f - a s s u r e d c r u s t i n e s s o r e v e n a r r o g a n c e " ( p . 2 1 0 ) . H o w e v e r , L o r t i e f u r t h e r comments t h a t " t e a c h e r i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s more g u a r d e d a n d c a u t i o u s — i t l i e s b e h i n d a f o r m a l r h e t o r i c g i v e n t o p r a i s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n a n d d e n y i n g c o n f l i c t " ( i b i d ) . The i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s , he e x p l a i n s , " i s n o t c o c k y a n d s e l f - a s s u r e d ; i t i s h e s i t a n t a n d u n e a s y " ( i b i d ) . T h i s h e s i t a n c y , L o r t i e s u g g e s t s , may s t e m f r o m " e n d e m i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s " i n h e r e n t i n t e a c h i n g a s an 25 o c c u p a t i o n ( p . 1 3 4 ) ; u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t c a n a r i s e , f o r e x a m p l e , i n s e t t i n g g o a l s , m o n i t o r i n g s t u d e n t o u t c o m e s a n d j u d g i n g t h e s c o p e o f o n e ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( p p . 1 4 3 - 1 4 8 ) . A l t h o u g h some t e a c h e r s do o c c a s i o n a l l y t u r n t o t h e i r p e e r s f o r a s s i s t a n c e , c o n f i d e n t t h a t r e q u e s t s f o r h e l p w i l l be met ( L o r t i e , p. 1 9 5 ) , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , t e a c h e r s g r a p p l e w i t h t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t i e s a l o n e . A l t e r n a t e l y , H a r g r e a v e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t "most t e a c h e r s s i m p l y p r e f e r t o work a l o n e " w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s ( p . 1 4 1 ) . W h i l e he b e l i e v e s " t h i s r e f l e c t s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s c o n c e r n f o r a u t o n o m y " , he n e v e r t h e l e s s c a u t i o n s , " t h i s i s n o t an a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t s i n c e t e a c h e r s do n o t w i s h m e r e l y t o be a u t o n o m o u s i n f r e e d o m f r o m c o n t r o l by ' o u t s i d e r s ' : t h e y s e e k i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a utonomy f r o m one a n o t h e r " ( p p . 1 4 1 - 1 4 2 ) . H a r g r e a v e s , l i k e o t h e r s b e f o r e h i m , a s s e r t s t h a t "as f a r a s c o l l e a g u e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , . . . a t l e a s t i n r e l a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g , t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c u l t u r e d i s p l a y s a p o w e r f u l c u l t o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m " ( p . 1 4 2 ) . He r e m i n d s u s , h o w e v e r , t h a t norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n c a n , a n d d o , " e x i s t s i d e by s i d e w i t h f r i e n d l y a n d c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n s t a f f r o o m a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s l i f e " ( p . 1 4 4 ) . As Feiman-Nemser a n d F l o d e n ( 1 9 8 6 ) comment, " i n a s y s t e m where s h a r e d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g r a r e l y o c c u r s a n d t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o work t h i n g s o u t on t h e i r own" ( p . 5 0 6 ) , i t seems u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n p r e v a i l . W o r k i n g i n a 26 culture that tends to accept only "limited, s p e c i f i e d , and circumscribed cooperation" (Lortie, 1975, p. 211), teachers must independently assess and ultimately come to terms with those practices and ideas which best suit t h e i r personal s t y l e and teaching s i t u a t i o n . In such a work environment, a tendency to focus on the "immediacy" of the classroom becomes another i d e n t i f i a b l e norm. C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The Immediacy of the C l a s s r o o m A necessary extension of any discussion that focuses on teachers' "unwillingness" (Hargreaves and Woods, 1984, p. 3) or avoidance of collaboration with colleagues (Hargreaves, 1989, p. 27), i s to mention the classroom-centered focus of teachers. According to Hargreaves (1989), t h i s "classroom- centeredness...arises from and i s in turn fed by the d a i l y , recurring experience of classroom i s o l a t i o n " (p. 27). Furthermore, he states, ...add to this...the necessities of coping d a i l y with classroom constraints of low resources, poor buildings and large class sizes, along with the strains that arise from the conflict-based character of the teacher- pupil r e l a t i o n s h i p , and one can understand why teachers become not just concerned with but confined to classroom l i f e and i t s problems. In such circumstances, i t i s hardly surprising that most teachers show l i t t l e interest in becoming involved in extra-classroom a c t i v i t i e s . . . " ( i b i d ) . Required to spend the bulk of one's day in a r e s t r i c t e d environment, as Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984) also comment, i t 27 becomes understandable that "the most important and immediate interactions that teachers have are with their students" (p. 9). Feiman-Nemser and Floden (1986) note, however, that "such i s o l a t i o n prevents teachers from enjoying the rewards of c o l l e g i a l i n t e r a c t i o n — s u p p o r t and praise for work well done, stimulation of new ideas" (p. 511). Furthermore in working apart from one another, teachers "have l i t t l e opportunity to a r t i c u l a t e and compare what they know" (p. 512), nor do they have "time to unravel the complex causes of the r e a l i t y teachers face" (p. 516). Subsequently, teachers' preoccupation with the "immediacy" of the classroom i s linked in turn to teachers' adherence to a " p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c " , said to guide t h e i r acceptance or rejection of curriculum innovations. An explanation of the t l i n k between these, as well as the role played by the " p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c " in helping to reinforce teacher i s o l a t i o n , follows. C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : An E t h i c of P r a c t i c a l i t y Doyle and Ponder's (1977) i n s i g h t f u l discussion of the "ethic of p r a c t i c a l i t y " that exists among teachers, highlights the notion that teachers tend to be most receptive to proposals for change that are "communicated c l e a r l y " (p. 77) and congruent with "conventional classroom procedures" (p. 79). Lieberman and M i l l e r (1984), also 28 found that teachers search for " p r a c t i c a l ideas (that) are immediate and concrete and can be effected with the resources and structures that currently e x i s t " (p. 8). This behavior seems to reveal not only teachers recognition of "the added complications that flow from attempts to a l t e r established practice", but a d d i t i o n a l l y , "the degree to which current practices are highly adaptive to classroom r e a l i t i e s " (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, 1986, p. 516). Hargreaves and Woods (1984) further mention the tendency of teachers to avoid "long-term planning", concentrating their e f f o r t s instead "on short-term projects which might make a difference" (p. 3). In the classroom, Feiman-Nemser and Floden (1986) explain, "the sheer number and pace of events c a l l for quick and decisive actions" (p. 516). Since teachers are required "to make innumerable instantaneous decisions", time for " r e f l e c t i o n or c r i t i c a l thought" i s scarce (Hargreaves & Woods, i b i d ) . Not surp r i s i n g l y , the pressing and complex demands of the classroom, lead teachers to seek "simple explanations and p r a c t i c a l solutions" (Feiman-Nemser & Floden, i b i d ) . Accordingly, as Bullough (1987) notes, teachers rarely talk among themselves "about the aims of education; what they want to know i s how to do something better. They show very l i t t l e patience with anything that i s not ' p r a c t i c a l ' and make quite a show of how s i l l y 'theory' i s " (p. 88). This focus on the classroom, emphasis on p r a c t i c a l i t y and adherence to established procedures by teachers, 29 inevitably serves to perpetuate the culture as i t i s , rather than create p o s s i b i l i t i e s for fundamental change. Teacher' i s o l a t i o n , as one central feature of t h i s culture, can thus be seen to aris e not only from s t r u c t u r a l constraints (such as those described e a r l i e r ) but in turn, by certain b e l i e f s , values, and assumptions that teachers themselves hold about teaching and learning. In the next section, consideration is given to the impact that school conditions reinforcing teacher i s o l a t i o n can have on innovations that assume, but do not plan for, teacher collaboration. Additionally, supportive conditions are outlined that may serve to enhance collaborative e f f o r t s among teachers, rather than detract from these. Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n a C o n t e x t of Teacher I s o l a t i o n Teacher collaboration may be said to involve two or more teachers working together on projects of mutual concern, over a period of time. While the s p e c i f i c s of what such collaboration may e n t a i l predictably d i f f e r from one context to the next, collaborative teacher e f f o r t s generally aim to bring about "improvement in education" (Wideen, 1989, p. 6). Currently there i s ample talk about educational collaboration (of which teacher-teacher collaboration i s only one of many possible a l l i a n c e s ) yet, s t i l l lacking are descriptions of what the actual practice 30 e n t a i l s and how c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n schools e i t h e r enhance or d e t r a c t from t h i s p r o c e s s . In s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t , what has been r e p e a t e d l y documented i s the prevalence of teacher i s o l a t i o n i n l a r g e numbers of s c h o o l s . Both s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s have been shown t o r e i n f o r c e a s i t u a t i o n where te a c h e r s f o r the most p a r t , "work out of s i g h t and h e a r i n g from one another, p l a n and prepare t h e i r l e s s o n s and m a t e r i a l s alone, and s t r u g g l e on t h e i r own to so l v e most of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l , c u r r i c u l a r , and management problems" ( L i t t l e , 1987, p.491). Thus, when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t assumes teachers w i l l "work tog e t h e r " (Lieberman, 1986) e n t e r s a context where c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s not the norm, two p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s e x i s t . One of these i s that the i n n o v a t i o n w i l l be r e j e c t e d by those f o r whom i t was meant or, a l t e r n a t e l y , i t may be adapted t o f i t the context i n which i t i s i n t r o d u c e d . Whether one or the other of these o p t i o n s predominates, would seem to depend on the extent to which c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t s are made f i r s t l y , to acknowledge, and secondly, to a l t e r those s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s known to i n h i b i t i n t e r a c t i o n s among t e a c h e r s . Without such e f f o r t , any i n n o v a t i o n that assumes c o l l a b o r a t i o n may understandably be d i s r e g a r d e d by those t e a c h e r s f o r whom the i n n o v a t i o n was meant. On the other hand, and perhaps more r e a l i s t i c a l l y ( c o n s i d e r i n g t h at there i s the assumption t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l work t o g e t h e r ) , i f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s are a l t e r e d such that the norm of teacher i s o l a t i o n i s , at l e a s t , c h a l l e n g e d , i t 31 i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n n o v a t i o n w i l l be a d a p t e d by t h o s e t e a c h e r s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t o f i t t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t . A d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s o f s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s t h a t h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o s u p p o r t r a t h e r t h a n impede i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n s a s s u m i n g t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . W h e t h e r s u c h p o t e n t i a l i s a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d , h o w e v e r , d e p e n d s on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s u c h c o n d i t i o n s c h a l l e n g e t h o s e more f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d c o n d i t i o n s known t o p e r p e t u a t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n : S u p p o r t i v e C o n d i t i o n s L i t t l e ( 1 9 8 7 ) , i n h e r summary o f l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e " p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d l i m i t s o f c o l l e g i a l i t y among t e a c h e r s " ( p . 4 9 1 ) , o u t l i n e s s i x g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s , o r , a s she c a l l s them, " d i m e n s i o n s o f s u p p o r t " t h a t , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , a r e t h o u g h t t o e n h a n c e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t e a c h e r s . E a c h o f t h e s e i s d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y ; t h e n , i n summary, r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e p h y s i c a l a n d / o r s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g t o t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n t h a t t h e s e " i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t s " s e e k t o c o u n t e r . 32 1. Public Endorsements and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Policy P u b l i c endorsement, by l e a d e r s a t t h e d i s t r i c t and s c h o o l l e v e l , of the "team e f f o r t s " of t e a c h e r s and, i n t u r n , p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n s of what such e f f o r t s a r e thought t o e n t a i l , i s c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n e n c o u r a g i n g " j o i n t a c t i o n " among t e a c h e r s (p. 508). A l s o viewed as e s s e n t i a l , i s t h e p r o v i s i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s t o work t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h "the r o u t i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s t a f f a s s i g n m e n t s , t i m e , and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s " , r e f l e c t e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y ( i b i d ) . 2 . School Organization and Teacher Leadership As an e x t e n s i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a s c h o o l s t a f f i n t o teams, " e a c h . . . r e s p o n s i b l e . . . f o r the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s " of a s p e c i f i c group of s t u d e n t s , i s thought t o go "a l o n g way toward p e r m i t t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e work (among t e a c h e r s ) but does not guarantee i t " (p. 509). C e r t a i n l y , the s c h e d u l e and s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n can l e a d , i d e a l l y , t o a s i t u a t i o n where d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , " w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c h e d u l i n g , g r o u p i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , and t h e development of c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s or i n s t r u c t i o n a l a pproaches" ( i b i d ) , i s s h a r e d by t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l i k e . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t e a c h e r s f e e l t h e i r d e c i s i o n s c a r r y w e i g h t . O t h e r w i s e , t h e y may o n l y meet " t o r e s o l v e r o u t i n e m a t t e r s " 33 b u t n o t t o d i s c u s s " i s s u e s t h a t s t r i k e c l o s e t o t h e h e a r t o f d a i l y c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e " ( i b i d ) . 3. L a t i t u d e f o r I n f l u e n c e T e a c h e r s a r e s a i d t o be more i n c l i n e d t o work t o g e t h e r , i f t h e r e i s "some t o p i c o f c o m p e l l i n g i m p o r t a n c e " t h a t i s " c o m p l e x e n o u g h t o make two ( o r s i x ) h e a d s b e t t e r t h a n one a n d t o make i t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e f l e c t e d g l o r y o f t h e team w i l l o u t s h i n e s u c c e s s t h a t e a c h member c o u l d e x p e c t f r o m w o r k i n g a l o n e " ( p . 5 1 0 ) . H o w e v e r , f o r t h i s t o h a p p e n , a s was m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t e a c h e r s n e e d t o know t h a t t h e i r " d e c i s i o n s i n c r u c i a l a r e a s o f c u r r i c u l u m , m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t i o n , s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p i n g , c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y a nd t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s " a r e v a l u e d a n d s u p p o r t e d a t b o t h t h e s c h o o l a n d d i s t r i c t l e v e l ( i b i d ) . W i t h o u t s u c h s u p p o r t , t e a c h e r s w i l l l i k e l y r e s t r i c t a n y c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s t o m a t t e r s o f a t e c h n i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n s u b s t a n t i a l , n a t u r e . 4. Time and the Master Schedule F o r t e a c h e r s t o engage i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e w o r k , t h e m a s t e r s c h e d u l e o f a s c h o o l must accommodate a n d e n c o u r a g e t h i s a c t i v i t y . T h r o u g h t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c b l o c k s o f t i m e , " e a c h d a y o r e a c h week", t e a c h e r s w i t h " s t u d e n t s , s u b j e c t s , o r o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i n common" c a n be a s s u r e d t h a t 34 o p p o r t u n i t i e s " t o work t o g e t h e r " a r e e n h a n c e d by t h e m a s t e r s c h e d u l e ( p . 5 1 1 ) . N o t a b l y , r e s e a r c h shows t h a t m e e t i n g s s c h e d u l e d m o n t h l y o r q u a r t e r l y , a r e f a r l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a t t h o s e t h a t o c c u r more r e g u l a r l y . To e n a b l e " t e a c h e r s t o work on p r o b l e m s o f c u r r i c u l u m a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e p e r s i s t e n c e a n d r e g u l a r i t y n e e d e d t o a c h i e v e c o n t i n u i t y a n d d e p t h o r t o r e s o l v e d i s a g r e e m e n t s " , d a i l y , s c h o o l - w i d e " m o r n i n g m e e t i n g s " seem p r o m i s i n g ( i b i d ) . 5. T r a i n i n g and A s s i s t a n c e S i n c e t e a c h e r s , f o r t h e most p a r t , " w o r k . . . w i t h s t u d e n t s . . . o u t o f s i g h t a n d s o u n d o f o t h e r s " , t h e i r a b i l i t y t o work c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h o t h e r a d u l t s , " i s o f t e n l e s s p o l i s h e d a n d p r a c t i c e d " ( p . 5 1 1 ) . As w e l l , " i n a p r o f e s s i o n i n w h i c h t h e norm o f n o t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h a n o t h e r t e a c h e r ' s v i e w s o r p r a c t i c e s i s p o w e r f u l , s e r i o u s a n d s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o c u r r i c u l u m a n d i n s t r u c t i o n p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e " ( i b i d ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t e a c h e r s c a n m a s t e r c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s and d e v e l o p e x p l i c i t a g r e e m e n t s t o g o v e r n t h e i r work t o g e t h e r . E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e i n c l u d e , " s c h e d u l i n g r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s , u s i n g an a g e n d a , p r i o r i t i z i n g i s s u e s , f a c i l i t a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n , a n d r e a c h i n g c l o s u r e on d e c i s i o n s a n d t a s k s " ( p . 5 1 2 ) . T h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g a n d a s s i s t a n c e t o t e a c h e r s e n g a g e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s , t h e number o f g r o u p s t h a t s u c c e e d i n c r e a t i n g " a c h i e v e m e n t s w o r t h c e l e b r a t i n g " 35 ( p . 511) may w e l l be e n h a n c e d . 6. M a t e r i a l Support The f i n a l " d i m e n s i o n o f s u p p o r t " f o r t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r t o a d d r e s s i s s u e s o f common c o n c e r n i s s a i d t o b e , " t h e q u a l i t y a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e f e r e n c e t e x t s a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , a d e q u a t e c o p y i n g e q u i p m e n t , c o n s u l t a n t s on s e l e c t e d p r o b l e m s , a n d o t h e r f o r m s o f m a t e r i a l a n d human s u p p o r t " , a l t h o u g h t h e s e " o t h e r f o r m s " a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d ( p . 5 1 2 ) . W i t h s u c h m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t s f i r m l y i n p l a c e , " t e a c h e r s ' a b i l i t y a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o work s u c c e s s f u l l y t o g e t h e r " i s n o t a b l y h e i g h t e n e d ( i b i d ) . A l t e r n a t e l y , h o w e v e r , when a l a c k o f m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s l e a d s t o a s e v e r e s h o r t a g e o f " t i m e a n d i n c l i n a t i o n f o r g r o u p w o r k " ( i b i d ) , t e a c h e r s a r e f o u n d t o r e f r a i n f r o m t h e k i n d a n d q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t m i g h t o t h e r w i s e c h a l l e n g e t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h L i t t l e ( 1 9 8 7 ) s p e c i f i e s t h e s e s i x " d i m e n s i o n s o f s u p p o r t " f o r t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n , on c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p i s e v i d e n t among them. M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , i t seems, i n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s f o u n d t o p e r p e t u a t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n , c e r t a i n " i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t s " ( p . 513) must be i n p l a c e . L i t t l e s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e i n c l u d e : t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e m a s t e r t i m e t a b l e a n d t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f 36 to ensure that " o p p o r t u n i t y f o r shared work and shared study ( i s ) prominent i n the schedule f o r the day, the week, and the year" (p. 516); the p u b l i c endorsement, as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t y to engage i n " c o m p e l l i n g " and "complex" tasks t h a t can be s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished o n l y through the combined e f f o r t s of two or more teachers working together (p. 510); and the adequate p r o v i s i o n of m a t e r i a l resources and human a s s i s t a n c e , as r e q u i r e d , to enable t e a c h e r s to most e f f i c i e n t l y use the time a v a i l a b l e to them f o r "the r i g o r o u s mutual examination of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g " (p. 513). Taken together, these c o n d i t i o n s , found to be s u p p o r t i v e of s u s t a i n e d teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n , can p o t e n t i a l l y counter the s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s known to l e a d to teacher i s o l a t i o n . For i n s t a n c e , norms re g a r d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l space, time, and, a u t h o r i t y are o f f s e t by those proposed by L i t t l e (1987), who a s s e r t s t h a t the t i m e t a b l e and t e a c h i n g s t a f f can be o r g a n i z e d to promote " r i g o r o u s " c o l l a b o r a t i o n among tea c h e r s , r a t h e r than d e t r a c t from i t (p. 513). A d d i t i o n a l l y , norms of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and n o n i n t e r a c t i o n are c h a l l e n g e d , when teachers are given not o n l y the o p p o r t u n i t y and a u t h o r i t y to make v i t a l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l matters, but i n turn they are r e g u l a r l y engaged i n co n c r e t e tasks that r e q u i r e two or more teachers to work together to achieve goals that they have set themselves. Furthermore, the classroom-centered focus and 37 p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c known t o e x i s t among t e a c h e r s , may be o f f s e t by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t s a l r e a d y h i g h l i g h t e d . As w e l l , e n s u r i n g t h e r e a d y a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a n d human a s s i s t a n c e i s e s s e n t i a l , i f t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o e x p l o r e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l , w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s . H a v i n g s p e c i f i e d c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s known t o s u p p o r t r a t h e r t h a n impede c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s among t e a c h e r s , t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s c a n a l s o be s a i d t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e s t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , a s h a s been shown i n t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o s c h o o l c u l t u r e s , s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p e r p e t u a t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n c o l l a b o r a t i o n , c o n t i n u e t o d o m i n a t e s c h o o l l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o presume t h a t a n y i n n o v a t i o n a s s u m i n g t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d a s i n t e n d e d , u n t i l t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n a r e s u p p l a n t e d by c o l l a b o r a t i v e n o r m s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was a r g u e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h a t a n y i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e s t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n may be c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e c u l t u r e i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s w o r k , a n d may s u b s e q u e n t l y be m o d i f i e d by t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t o f i t p r e v a l e n t s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s . 38 Numerous q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o b o t h t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e r a i s e d by t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t e x a m i n e s t h e c u l t u r e o f s c h o o l s . T h i s s t u d y p u r s u e s a n s w e r s t o a few o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t c a n be a s k e d a b o u t t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . M o re s p e c i f i c a l l y , q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k e d a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n ; one t h a t i m p l i e d some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1) What h a p p e n s when s u c h an i n n o v a t i o n i s i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t where t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n i s t h e norm?; 2) What f o r m s d o e s t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n t a k e ? ; a n d 3) What s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s c a n be s a i d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n s ? B a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i n n o v a t i o n may be a l t e r e d t o f i t t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d . I n t u r n , t h i s means t h a t t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i l l n o t assume t h e f o r m t h a t L i t t l e t e r m s " s e r i o u s " ( 1 9 8 7 , p. 5 1 3 ) ; a f o r m o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t w o u l d i n v o l v e e x p l i c i t a n d e x t e n s i v e t a l k a r o u n d t h e i n n o v a t i o n ' s u s e . I n s t e a d , c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t e a c h e r s may be s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c a n d t h e i r p l a n n i n g s h o r t - t e r m . B o t h s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s ( i n c l u d i n g , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t i m e , s p a c e , a n d a u t h o r i t y ) a s w e l l a s c u l t u r a l o n e s ( i n c l u d i n g norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r f e r e n c e , a c l a s s r o o m - c e n t e r e d f o c u s , a n d t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c among t e a c h e r s ) may be s e e n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e s u b s e q u e n t f o r m s t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n t a k e s . 39 I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , t h e m e t h o d s u s e d t o r e s e a r c h t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e s e t f o r t h , f o l l o w e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s . 40 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e me t h o d s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s . As s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r o n e , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o f i n d o u t what h a p p e n e d when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e d some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n was i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t where t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n i s a p r e d o m i n a n t norm o f s c h o o l l i f e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t s o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e what f o r m s t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a c t u a l l y t o o k a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s a n d , i n t u r n , what s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t e m e r g e d . To e x a m i n e t h e f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , I s p e n t t i m e i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b , o b s e r v i n g i t s d a i l y " r h y t h m s " ( L i e b e r m a n a n d M i l l e r , 1984, p. 5 ) . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few v i s i t s t o t h e l a b , t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e a r o u n d t h e i r u s e o f c o m p u t e r s t o a i d s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g seemed p l a u s i b l e . U n l i k e most o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s i n t h e s c h o o l , w h ere o n l y one t e a c h e r w o r k e d w i t h a g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s a t any g i v e n t i m e , two o r more t e a c h e r s were f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d t o g e t h e r i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b e i t h e r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s , c h a t t i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r , o r g r a p p l i n g w i t h a p r o j e c t o f t h e i r own. Ho w e v e r , a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e c u l t u r e s o f s c h o o l s r e v e a l e d t h a t c e r t a i n 41 s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s c h o o l s p r o m o t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a s a norm. From my r e v i e w o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e a n d v i s i t s t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b , an o v e r r i d i n g q u e s t i o n t h a t s e r v e d t o g u i d e s u b s e q u e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n e m e r g e d ; t h a t i s , what h a p p e n s when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s sumes some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s i m p l e m e n t e d ? To a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n I o b s e r v e d t h e f o r m s t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o o k among t h o s e t e a c h e r s u s i n g c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s i n t h e l a b , a n d a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d t h e s e same t e a c h e r s t o g a i n t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . A more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r v i e w s f o l l o w s . Observations P r i o r t o s t a r t i n g f o r m a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , my a t t e n d a n c e a t two a f t e r - s c h o o l m e e t i n g s ( i n v o l v i n g t h e t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s , ESL d e p a r t m e n t h e a d , two d i s t r i c t ESL c o n s u l t a n t s a n d two u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s ) a n d two m o r n i n g v i s i t s t o t h e l a b , s e r v e d t o r e v e a l t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d work t o g e t h e r t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g o f ESL s t u d e n t s u s i n g c o m p u t e r s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n e n a b l e d me t o g a i n a s e n s e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' a n d s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e l a b . T h u s , t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t u d y f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e a n d i n t u r n , t h e 42 c o n d i t i o n s of school l i f e t h a t helped and/or hindered t e a c h e r s ' c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s , was reached through these e a r l y encounters with t e a c h e r s . Once formal data c o l l e c t i o n began, I observed t h i r t y - f i v e c l a s s p e r i o d s i n the computer l a b d u r i n g May and June, 1990. I made f i e l d n o t e s d u r i n g t h i s time, expanding them at the end of each school day. The m a j o r i t y of these o b s e r v a t i o n s would be termed n o n p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n (Spradley, 1980) s i n c e I was g e n e r a l l y not i n v o l v e d i n working with the students or t e a c h e r s . However, on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , I assumed a more a c t i v e r o l e when asked to prov i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to b e g i n n i n g - l e v e l ESL students, many of whom were us i n g computers f o r the f i r s t time. During t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d the study p o p u l a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d . I t i n c l u d e d the three resource teachers who were knowledgeable about computers and four ESL classroom teachers who spent at l e a s t one c l a s s p e r i o d i n the l a b when resource teacher support was a v a i l a b l e . Of the three resource t e a c h e r s , two were a l s o experienced ESL teachers and f a m i l i a r with the knowledge framework as a means f o r d e s i g n i n g ESL t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . The four ESL classroom teachers were i n i t i a l l y l i m i t e d i n t h e i r understanding of computers; two were f a m i l i a r with u s i n g the knowledge framework to c r e a t e student t a s k s . By o b s e r v i n g events i n the computer l a b before i n t e r v i e w i n g each of these seven t e a c h e r s , I gained some 43 s e n s e o f t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e b e f o r e a s k i n g them t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . I a l s o c o n t i n u e d o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e l a b w h i l e c o n d u c t i n g my i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e s e t e a c h e r s . T h u s , I was a b l e t o c o n f i r m comments t h a t t e a c h e r s i n i t i a l l y made a s w e l l a s e x p l o r e i s s u e s a n d themes i n f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s . Interviews I n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s a n d f o u r ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were h e l d o v e r a t h r e e week p e r i o d . Two t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d t h e f i r s t week, two t h e s e c o n d week, a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e i n t h e t h i r d week. F l e x i b i l i t y was r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t i m e a n d p l a c e f o r e a c h i n t e r v i e w . R a t h e r t h a n e s t a b l i s h an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e c o m m i t t i n g t e a c h e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r d a t e , t i m e a n d p l a c e many d a y s i n a d v a n c e , I a r r a n g e d i n t e r v i e w s one by o n e , l e t t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s s e l e c t a c o n v e n i e n t t i m e a n d l o c a t i o n . T h u s , i n t e r v i e w t i m e s r a n g e d f r o m a p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d t o l u n c h t i m e t o a f t e r s c h o o l , w h i l e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e d t h e c o m p u t e r l a b , s t a f f r o o m , l i b r a r y , m u s i c room, a n d s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s ' own c l a s s r o o m s . P r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g e a c h i n t e r v i e w , t e a c h e r s s i g n e d an i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t f o r m and a g r e e d t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s b e i n g t a p e r e c o r d e d . I n t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s , e a c h o f t h e s e v e n t e a c h e r s was a s k e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t o f i n d o u t what t h e s e 44 t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t o o d c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o mean a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e y h a d " c o l l a b o r a t e d " w i t h one o r more t e a c h e r s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e y e a r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b a n d t o comment on c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d h a d e i t h e r h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d t h e i r e f f o r t s a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s were " s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d " ( B o r g & G a l l , 1989, p. 452) A c e r t a i n number o f q u e s t i o n s were p r e p a r e d b e f o r e h a n d , b a s e d on t h e p r o b l e m t h a t I h a d d e f i n e d y e t t e a c h e r s w e re e n c o u r a g e d t o e x p a n d on i s s u e s a n d c o n c e r n s t h e y r a i s e d t h e m s e l v e s . As w e l l , I e n c o u r a g e d them t o c l a r i f y a n d e l a b o r a t e on p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s e s . F o l l o w i n g e a c h i n t e r v i e w I t r a n s c r i b e d t h e r e c o r d i n g a n d h i g h l i g h t e d a l l comments r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y ' s f o c u s . The f i r s t two f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c g u i d e q u e s t i o n s . H owever, I q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , a s w e l l a s t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f my r o l e a s i n t e r v i e w e r , i n h i b i t e d t h i s i n f o r m a l a p p r o a c h t o i n t e r v i e w i n g . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , s p e c i f i c f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n s were c r e a t e d f o r e a c h t e a c h e r b a s e d on comments made d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s . T h e s e s e r v e d t o g u i d e t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w s , h e l d w i t h f i v e o f t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d t h e t h i r d i n t e r v i e w s , h e l d w i t h t h e two t e a c h e r s who h a d e a r l i e r e n g a g e d i n t h e o p e n - e n d e d f o l l o w - u p d i s c u s s i o n . T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e two weeks p r i o r t o t h e e n d o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r when s t u d e n t s were 45 no l o n g e r i n c l a s s e s . S i n c e t e a c h e r s h a d more f l e x i b i l i t y d u r i n g t h e d a y , i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be s p a c e d more c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r . T h u s , s i x were h e l d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week a n d t h r e e t h e week f o l l o w i n g . A g a i n e a c h t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d a d a t e , t i m e , a n d p l a c e t h a t was c o n v e n i e n t . F i v e t e a c h e r s c h o s e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l d a y w h i l e t h e o t h e r two were i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . The l o c a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s a g a i n i n c l u d e d t h e c o m p u t e r l a b , s t a f f r o o m , l i b r a r y , a n d t e a c h e r s ' own c l a s s r o o m s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w was t o g i v e t e a c h e r s a c h a n c e t o c o n f i r m , c l a r i f y , a n d / o r e x p a n d on p a t t e r n s , t h e m e s , a n d i s s u e s t h a t e m e r g e d when e a c h o f t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w s w e r e e x a m i n e d . When c o n d u c t i n g t h e s e v e n i n i t i a l a n d n i n e f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s I was c o n s c i o u s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on t e a c h e r s ' t i m e . A f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e l i m i t was t h u s s e t on a l l i n t e r v i e w s . H o w e v e r , t h e s i x t e e n i n t e r v i e w s r a n g e d i n d u r a t i o n f r o m t h i r t y t o s e v e n t y - f i v e m i n u t e s . A n a l y s i s A r e v i e w o f f i e l d n o t e s a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s s u g g e s t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s , t h e m e s , a n d i s s u e s t h a t were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f o c u s o f s t u d y . T h i s i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s s e r v e d t o g u i d e t h e d e s i g n o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t were l a t e r a s k e d i n t h e f o l l o w - 46 up i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s . Once t h e s e were t r a n s c r i b e d , a more e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a was c o n d u c t e d . D e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f e x a m i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a s k e d i n an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e s e t e a c h e r s c h o s e t o d e s c r i b e a n d a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . T h i s a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s a n d b e l i e f s t h a t t e a c h e r s h e l d a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s a n d , i n t u r n , how t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e d t o o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b . Not o n l y d i d t h e i r comments s e r v e t o c l a r i f y a n d c o n f i r m c e r t a i n o f t h e p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t emerged t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n , b u t a d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y s e r v e d t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t t o a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w o u l d n o t h a v e been o t h e r w i s e n o t e d . An i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on what t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s r e v e a l e d a b o u t t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y w o r k e d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' comments a n d t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r h i g h l i g h t e d t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f i n d i n g s f o l l o w s i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . R e f e r e n c e t o a n d d i r e c t e x c e r p t s f r o m t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s a r e c o d e d u s i n g a l e t t e r a nd number c o m b i n a t i o n . The l e t t e r s A t h r o u g h G r e f e r t o i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . A, C, E, a n d G a r e 47 the four ESL classroom t e a c h e r s while B, D, and F are the three resource t e a c h e r s . The numbers 1,2, or 3 immediately f o l l o w i n g one of these l e t t e r s r e f e r to the f i r s t , second, or t h i r d i n t e r v i e w . The second number s p e c i f i e s the t r a n s c r i p t page number. For example, use of the code "A1.6" a f t e r a comment quoted or paraphrased i n the body of the t h e s i s , means that r e f e r e n c e to t h i s i s found on page s i x of Teacher A's f i r s t i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t . A l t e r n a t e l y , "G2.9" r e f e r s t o an idea expressed on page nine of Teacher G's second i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t . 48 CHAPTER FOUR DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS B a s e d on d a t a c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s , t h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s a n d a c c o u n t s f o r what h a p p e n e d when a c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s sumed some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , was i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t where t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n i s a p r e d o m i n a n t norm. W h i l e i t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t e a c h e r s d i d c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r work w i t h one a n o t h e r i n v a r i o u s ways, t h i s s t u d y c o n s i d e r s a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n ; t h a t w h i c h i n v o l v e s j o i n t p l a n n i n g a n d o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n t o d e a l w i t h i n n o v a t i o n - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s a s t h e y a r i s e . F i r s t , an o v e r v i e w i s g i v e n o f s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were i n p l a c e when t h e i n n o v a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d w h i c h r e v e a l t h e i n h e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o u s e c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s . S e c o n d , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o r m s t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n was f o u n d t o t a k e i s s e t f o r t h . T h i r d , p r e v a l e n t s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e e x a m i n e d . I n summary, an e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f f e r e d f o r why t h i s i n n o v a t i o n was a d a p t e d t o accommodate t h e s c h o o l c u l t u r e . 49 E x p e c t a t i o n s of C o l l a b o r a t i o n The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n some f o r m a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s was i n h e r e n t i n t h e i n n o v a t i o n f r o m t h e s t a r t . An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s was t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s . Out o f s i x b l o c k s o f l a b t i m e ( p e r c y c l e ) a l l o t t e d f o r ESL t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t u s e , f i v e o f t h e s e h a d a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s c h e d u l e d a s w e l l . Two r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s w e re e a c h g i v e n two b l o c k s o f r e l e a s e t i m e w h i l e t h e t h i r d was g i v e n one ( D 1 . 2 / D 1 . 6 ) . I t was t h u s a s s u m e d t h a t a n y ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who c h o s e t o u s e t h e c o m p u t e r l a b w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s c o u l d be a s s u r e d t h a t a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r s was s c h e d u l e d t o be i n t h e l a b a t t h e same t i m e . A f u r t h e r e x p e c t a t i o n o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n was e v i d e n t i n t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f c o m p u t e r s i n t e n d e d m a i n l y f o r t h e u s e o f ESL t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . As was e a r l i e r m e n t i o n e d , s i x b l o c k s o f t i m e , o u t o f a p o s s i b l e t o t a l o f e i g h t , were a l l o t t e d f o r ESL u s e ; t h e r e m a i n i n g two b l o c k s o f t i m e were f o r t h e u s e o f s t u d e n t s i n a n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t . S i n c e few t e a c h e r s i n t h e ESL d e p a r t m e n t h a d p r i o r c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e o r were f a m i l i a r w i t h Mohan's k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a s a means t o l i n k l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r them t o j o i n t l y p l a n a n d t e a c h c o m p u t e r - b a s e d work w i t h r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t was a v a i l a b l e . 50 While these c o n d i t i o n s encouraged some form of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n around the use of computers, n e i t h e r one alone, nor i n combination, c o u l d guarantee that t h i s would happen. However, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of teachers e x p l o r i n g a v a r i e t y of c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements seemed t o be enhanced by the p r o v i s i o n of the s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d . Forms of C o l l a b o r a t i o n In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the term " c o l l a b o r a t i v e " p a i r r e f e r s to two teachers known to have spent time together with a group of students i n the computer l a b , at l e a s t once du r i n g the p e r i o d of data c o l l e c t i o n . While the extent t o / which these teachers worked together v a r i e d somewhat with each p a i r , common p a t t e r n s emerged. These are summarized f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of the two forms t h a t teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n took. The f i r s t form of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d to as an " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p while the second i s termed a r e l a t i o n s h i p among "peers". The l a b e l s are based on the extent of t e a c h e r s ' f a m i l i a r i t y with computers as an a i d to language and content l e a r n i n g . In the " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p , the resource teacher (RT) i s viewed as an "expert" i n computer use, while the ESL classroom teacher (CT) i s c o n s i d e r e d a " n o v i c e " . A l t e r n a t e l y , i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p among "peers", both teachers have a s i m i l a r degree of p r o f i c i e n c y i n terms of 51 t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r . Expert-Novice R e l a t i o n s h i p s I n an e x p e r t - n o v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e r o l e s o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a n d ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r were somewhat r i g i d l y d e f i n e d . S i n c e t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was c o n s i d e r e d an " e x p e r t " , a n d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a " n o v i c e " i n c o m p u t e r u s e , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r g e n e r a l l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a t i n g what s h e / h e h o p e d t o a c h i e v e a n d f o r p r o v i d i n g r e l e v a n t c o n t e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t u r n , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a ssumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d a p t i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' i d e a s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r . The d i s t i n c t i o n i n r o l e s a s sumed by t h e r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i s r e v e a l e d i n w o r d s s p o k e n by t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s : RT: " . . . t h e t e a c h e r . . . ( w o u l d t e l l ) t h e l a b p e r s o n . . . w h a t i t i s t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o do o r what a r e a s t h e y ' d l i k e t o c o v e r a n d t h e n ( t h e l a b p e r s o n ) w o u l d v e r y q u i c k l y come up w i t h an i d e a t h a t m i g h t s u i t t h a t . . . " ( B 1 . 2 ) . RT: " . . . I n e e d e d t o t a l k t o h e r t o s a y what a r e y o u d o i n g ? how a r e y o u d o i n g i t ? How many a r e y o u d o i n g ? what t i m e f r a m e s ? . . . . s h e w o u l d t e l l me what she was d o i n g a n d I w o u l d v i r t u a l l y do a l l o f t h e c o m p u t e r w o r k . . . " ( B 2 . 4 ) CT: " . . . t h e t e a c h e r h a s t o s p e l l o u t what t h e y want t o do a n d t h e c o m p u t e r p e r s o n h a s t o s p e l l o u t what c a n be d o n e . . . " ( 6 1 . 1 ) CT: " . . . ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) a s k e d i f I c o u l d p r e s e n t h i m w i t h some i d e a s . . . a n d s o I d i d . . . a g a i n ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) h a s t a k e n them a n d he made t h e a c t i v i t y t h a t we d i d l a s t week..." (C2.6) 52 CT: " . . . I was new t o M a c i n t o s h so I was b r i n g i n g my c l a s s e s i n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d I g a v e a r o u g h i d e a o f what I w a n t e d t o do a n d . . . . i t was up t o ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) t o m o u l d i t i n t o s o m e t h i n g on t h e c o m p u t e r f o r me..." ( A 1 . 1 ) . CT: " . . . I w o u l d h a v e an i d e a o f what I w a n t e d (my c l a s s . , s e e B1.3) t o do a n d t h e n we'd s t a r t t o work f r o m t h e r e . . . h o w c a n we p u t t h i s i d e a i n t o c o m p u t e r s . " (A1.8) On s e v e r a l o t h e r o c c a s s i o n s , when a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r h a d l i t t l e n o t i o n , a t l e a s t i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , a b o u t t h e c o m p u t e r s ' c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was t h e one t o " t a k e t h e r e i n s " ( E 1 . 2 ) , k e e p i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n f o r m e d a b o u t what t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d be d o i n g . One c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r " t o t a l l y i n c h a r g e " w h i l e s h e j u s t d i d what sh e c o u l d ( € 1 . 1 0 ) . I n c o n t r a s t , a n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r w a n t e d t o r e t a i n c o n t r o l o f what h e r s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d e v e n t h o u g h s he a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r w o u l d s p e c i f y a n d d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o m p u t e r s k i l l s r e q u i r e d ( E 1 . 4 / E 2 . 2 ) . As t h e " e x p e r t " i n c o m p u t e r u s e , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a l s o a s sumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c o m p u t e r t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g new s t e p s a s r e q u i r e d . A l t h o u g h one c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r made a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o f a m i l i a r i z e b o t h h e r s t u d e n t s a n d h e r s e l f w i t h new v o c a b u l a r y a n d key s t e p s a h e a d o f t i m e , s he n e v e r t h e l e s s s t a t e d , " I w a s n ' t a l o t o f h e l p t h e n . . . I was s t i l l t r y i n g t o f i g u r e i t o u t " ( E 1 . 2 ) . A n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d , "When I f i r s t went i n t h e r e I was a s t e p a h e a d o f t h e s t u d e n t s a l l t h e t i m e . . . I ' d w a t c h what ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) d i d a n d t h e n I l e a r n e d i t . . . w h e n ( s t u d e n t s ) a s k e d 53 me l a t e r how t o do i t I j u s t d i d what I saw ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) d o . . . " ( A 1 . 1 ) . I n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n s a p p e a r e d t o be c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a s w e l l . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a t t e n d e d t o s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r w h i l e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c o n c e r n e d h e r / h i m s e l f w i t h l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t m a t t e r s ( F 2 . 4 / C 1 . 4 / E 2 . 4 ) . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s c i t e d by one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r who m e n t i o n e d an o c c a s i o n when he "was s p e n d i n g q u i t e a b i t o f t i m e t r y i n g t o f i g u r e o u t why ( t h e s t u d e n t s ) c o u l d n ' t ( u s e t h e p a i n t t o o l s c o r r e c t l y ) , what went w r o n g , p u t t i n g ( h i s ) d i s k i n t h e i r m a c h i n e s a n d g i v i n g them a n o t h e r t r y " ( F 2 . 4 ) . M e a n w h i l e , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was a b l e t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s w i t h a s p e c t s o f t h e t a s k r e l a t e d t o b o t h l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t . The r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r e n d e d h i s a c c o u n t o f t h i s e v e n t s a y i n g , " I t h i n k t h a t ' s p a r t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g two p e o p l e i n h e r e . . . y o u know t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e b r a i n u s e d . . . t h e r e ' s a l o t o f c o g n i t i v e l o a d i f y o u ' r e d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g " ( i b i d ) . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s a p p a r e n t d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r among " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " p a i r s , o c c u r r e d when t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d by t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e d o n l y s e v e r a l b a s i c p r o c e d u r e s deemed " s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d " (G1.3) a n d " v e r y s i m p l e " (G1.4) by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . As i t t u r n e d o u t , t h e o r i g i n a l e m p h a s i s on l e a r n i n g t h e c o m p u t e r q u i c k l y s h i f t e d t o what she f e l t was an e n t i r e e m p h a s i s on l a n g u a g e ( G 1 . 9 ) . 54 S i n c e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r seemed n o t t o h a v e d i s c u s s e d h e r e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d l e a r n more a b o u t t h e c o m p u t e r t h a n t h e y d i d (G1.2/G2.4) o r t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r w o u l d a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s ( G 1 . 5 ) , she c h o s e t o r e t u r n t o h e r own c l a s s r o o m o n c e she r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ' s "agenda o f how t h i n g s o u g h t t o be d o n e " d i f f e r e d f r o m h e r s ( G 1 . 2 ) . A n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was n o t a s a v a i l a b l e a s he w o u l d h a v e l i k e d ( A 2 . 5 ) . H o w e v e r , he c o u l d s t i l l a d d r e s s many o f h i s s t u d e n t s ' c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s b e c a u s e o f h a v i n g w o r k e d i n t h e l a b on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , a s w e l l a s h a v i n g s p e n t t i m e l e a r n i n g t o u s e t h e c o m p u t e r a f t e r s c h o o l a n d on weekends ( A 1 . 5 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , he h a d e a r l i e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an i n t e n s i v e c o m p u t e r w o r k s h o p a n d c r e a t e d t h e c o m p u t e r s t a c k t h a t h i s ESL s t u d e n t s w e re u s i n g . T h u s , o n l y when s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s a r o s e t h a t he c o u l d n o t d e a l w i t h , d i d t h i s t e a c h e r r e q u e s t a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . H owever, i f he was n o t i n t h e l a b a t t h e t i m e , t h i s c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r f o u n d he h a d t o w a i t f o r h i m t o r e t u r n ( i b i d ) . U l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r t o a s s i s t w i t h c e r t a i n c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e two t e a c h e r s c o u l d be s a i d t o h a v e assumed an " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " f o r m . Y e t , i n t h e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e s e two t e a c h e r s , u n l i k e t h a t o f o t h e r " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " p a i r s , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was n o t d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r t o a d a p t h i s i d e a s f o r u s e on t h e 55 computer nor d i d the classroom teacher r e q u i r e support to int r o d u c e or demonstrate new steps to h i s stu d e n t s . While t h i s classroom teacher s a i d he would have l i k e d more a s s i s t a n c e from the resource teacher i n responding to students' computer-related q u e s t i o n s and i n h e l p i n g with the design and c r e a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l ESL computer " s t a c k s " , t h i s d i d not happen (A2.5). S t i l l , the classroom teacher found he knew enough about computers to continue t o b r i n g h i s students to the l a b , with o n l y minimal resource teacher support. The form of c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t thus ensued among these two t e a c h e r s , does not d i r e c t l y c o i n c i d e with the d e s c r i p t i o n s of "e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s presented e a r l i e r . Instead, t h e i r working r e l a t i o n s h i p may be s a i d to represent another form of c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t was a l s o observed among resource and classroom teachers scheduled to work together i n the l a b . T h i s a l t e r n a t e form of c o l l a b o r a t i o n can be s a i d to comprise a r e l a t i o n s h i p among "peers". A d e s c r i p t i o n of the form that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to take i s set f o r t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n that f o l l o w s . Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p s A "peer" r e l a t i o n s h i p among a classroom and resource teacher i s s a i d to e x i s t when both t e a c h e r s scheduled to be i n the computer l a b together, are c o n s i d e r e d competent i n 56 t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s a n d i d e a s f o r c o m p u t e r u s e , a s w e l l a s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i n t r o d u c e c o m p u t e r p r o c e d u r e s t o s t u d e n t s a n d r e s p o n d t o any c o n c e r n s . G e n e r a l l y , " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o u n d t o o c c u r when two r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s were i n t h e l a b a t t h e same t i m e , a l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t a l w a y s s o , a s t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d e x a m p l e showed. H o w e v e r , when two r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s were i n t h e l a b t o g e t h e r , one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a c t u a l l y a s sumed t h e r o l e o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n c e t h e y c h o s e t o b r i n g a g r o u p o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b a t a t i m e when no o t h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r r e q u e s t e d t o come. I n t u r n , t h e o t h e r , s c h e d u l e d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was t h e r e t o a c t a s a " c o n s u l t a n t " ( F 1 . 6 / F 1 . 1 4 ) o r " t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t " ( D 1 . 4 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , where t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r p r o v i d e d t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r w i t h i d e a s a n d c o n t e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t were t h e n a d a p t e d f o r c o m p u t e r u s e , i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p among " p e e r s " , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d e c i d e d n o t o n l y what t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d d o , b u t a d d i t i o n a l l y , how t h i s was t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r . The r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was t h e n f o u n d t o c h o o s e one o f two o p t i o n s . E i t h e r , he a s s i s t e d t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n a c h i e v i n g t h e g o a l s t h a t h a d been s e t o r , a l t e r n a t e l y , he w a i t e d u n t i l s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . D e s c r i b i n g t h e f o r m e r o p t i o n , one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d , " B a s i c a l l y , ( t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ) i s i n c o n t r o l b e c a u s e he knows a s much a b o u t c o m p u t e r s a s I d o , i f n o t 57 more s o . . . I j u s t a c t a s a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t . . . h e s a y s t h i s i s what w e ' r e g o i n g t o do a n d I t r y t o k e e p ( t h e s t u d e n t s ) on t a s k . . . . " ( D 1 . 4 ) . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n t h i s same t e a c h e r c l a r i f i e d h i s r o l e , o n c e a g a i n , s t a t i n g , " I t was more l i k e I was a t e a c h e r ' s a s s i s t a n t ( t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ) . . . c a u s e I knew he had a h a n d l e on w h a t e v e r c o n t e n t he was t r y i n g t o g e t a c r o s s . . . H e was a l s o my e q u a l , o r h i g h e r , i n t e r m s o f t h e ( c o m p u t e r ) a n d i t ' s l i t t l e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , s o I was j u s t t h e r e t o a s s i s t . . . " ( D 2 . 4 ) . A l t e r n a t e l y , t h e r e were i n s t a n c e s o f " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ere t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h a s s i s t a n c e t o s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r work w i t h c o m p u t e r s was l a c k i n g . One c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , s p e c u l a t i n g on t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , e x p l a i n e d : " I t h i n k ( t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ) t a k e s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e f a c t t h a t I know t h e c o m p u t e r a n d i t ' s u s u a l l y a s m a l l g r o u p o f k i d s s o . . . . h e ' s t h e r e when he w a n t s t o b e . . . " ( D 1 . 4 - 5 ) . A n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was " n e v e r t h e r e " when he b r o u g h t h i s s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b e a r l i e r i n t h e y e a r ( F 1 . 1 4 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s he o p t i m i s t i c a l l y c l a i m e d , " I l e a r n e d a l o t h a v i n g t o o p e r a t e i n t h e r e by m y s e l f w i t h k i n d o f s p o t t y k n o w l e d g e . . . " ( F 1 . 1 5 ) . W h i l e t h i s r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r may n o t h a v e been i n t h e l a b t o p r o v i d e o n g o i n g s u p p o r t f o r c e r t a i n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o one o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s he w o r k e d i n " i n t e n s e b u r s t s " when s p e c i f i c h e l p was r e q u i r e d o r when t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r "had a new i d e a " 58 he wanted to share (F3.5). A second classroom teacher confirmed t h i s saying t h a t the resource teacher r e a d i l y p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e when asked (D1.9/D2.5). A d d i t i o n a l l y , he was seen as "the one that brought most of the new i n f o r m a t i o n about the computer i n t o the lab. . . . m o s t l y they were i d e a s . . . . l i t t l e bundles of software t h a t . . . . g i v e s you another source of ideas on how you might want to prese n t i n f o r m a t i o n " (D2.6). Another form of idea s h a r i n g o c c u r r e d among a resource and classroom teacher who worked together i n the l a b more r e g u l a r l y . Much of what these two teachers d i d was d e s c r i b e d by one of the teac h e r s as " e x p l o r a t o r y " s i n c e i t was s a i d t o i n v o l v e "wondering together (and) s p e c u l a t i n g " as both t e a c h e r s sought "to f i n d out the same t h i n g s " r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n (F3.3). T h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s focused, f o r example, on ways that software c o u l d be s t r u c t u r e d to make i t "more a c c e s s i b l e or a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a l l e n g i n g " f o r students (F3.7); on "the order of p r i o r i t y of t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n s k i l l s " ; or, on how to achieve a "balance between computer-related l e a r n i n g and content and d e s i g n " (F3.3). Since both t e a c h e r s had "roughly the same number of ideas about what to do" i n the computer l a b , any d i s t i n c t i o n i n r o l e s between that of " c o n s u l t a n t " and classroom teacher tended to b l u r with time (F1.6). U n l i k e what happened i n an " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p among "peers", the resource teacher found that he " d i d n ' t have to have that computer resource r o l e " (D2.4). 59 I n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h e r e b o t h t e a c h e r s w e re c o n s i d e r e d c o m p e t e n t i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r , a n d b o t h were a b l e t o a d d r e s s s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e , c o n t e n t , a n d / o r c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s , a s w e l l a s t o d e m o n s t r a t e new s t e p s i n c o m p u t e r u s e , u l t i m a t e l y , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d e t e r m i n e d what s t u d e n t s w o u l d a c h i e v e d u r i n g t h e i r t i m e i n t h e l a b . When t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , he assumed t h e r o l e o f an " a s s i s t a n t " i n t h e l a b . As s u c h , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r r e s p o n d e d t o numerous r e q u e s t s f o r h e l p f r o m b o t h t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , he o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r m i g h t d e c i d e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on (D2.10- 11/A2.2). I n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g c o m p u t e r - b a s e d l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s l a y w i t h t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . The r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r , a s a " p e e r " , a t t i m e s o f f e r e d s u p p o r t i n t h e d e s i g n a n d c r e a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r . I n t h e c a s e o f " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u c h s u p p o r t was more g e n e r a l l y g u a r a n t e e d . Emergent P a t t e r n s I n c o m p a r i n g a n d c o n t r a s t i n g " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t e a c h e r s , common p a t t e r n s e m e r g e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e d : 1) one-on - o n e e n c o u n t e r s among t e a c h e r s ; 2) i n f o r m a l a n d b r i e f m e e t i n g s ; 3) s h o r t - t e r m p l a n n i n g ; 4) 60 i m p l i c i t r o l e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s ; a n d 5) a f o c u s on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , e a c h o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d . When a p p r o p r i a t e , m e n t i o n i s made o f any d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t o c c u r b e t w e e n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h n o t a b l y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e s e two f o r m s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e more p r e v a l e n t t h a n t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 . One-On-One Encounters W h e t h e r r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s e n g a g e d i n e i t h e r an " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " o r " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one a n o t h e r , a common t r e n d e m e r g e d ; t h a t i s , t e a c h e r s w o r k e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n p a i r s . E a c h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who c h o s e t o b r i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b e s t a b l i s h e d some f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h e d u l e d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . As was e a r l i e r m e n t i o n e d , i t was g e n e r a l l y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who d e t e r m i n e d what c o n t e n t a n d l a n g u a g e i d e a s w o u l d be c o n v e y e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r . O n l y when a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r h a d l i t t l e n o t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r s c a p a b i l i t i e s d i d an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s o c c u r . I n t h e c a s e o f " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a ssumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d a p t i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' i d e a s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r , w h e r e a s i n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was a b l e t o do t h i s a l o n e . I n t h e l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was t h e n a b l e t o o f f e r f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e t e a c h e r a n d 61 s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r work on t h e c o m p u t e r , o r a l t e r n a t e l y , t o f o c u s on o t h e r more t e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n s . B o t h o p t i o n s w e re f o u n d t o o c c u r . The p a t t e r n t h a t emerged t h e n was n o t one o f a s i n g l e c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t i n v o l v i n g a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g a p r o g r a m f o r g e n e r a l u s e ( B 2 . 1 5 ) . R a t h e r , e a c h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r , came up w i t h t h e i r own " c l a s s s p e c i f i c " a c t i v i t i e s ( G 2 . 3 ) . The i n t e r e s t s a n d s t r e n g t h s o f t h e r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , t h e l a n g u a g e l e v e l o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o work i n t h e l a b were a l l t h o u g h t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c h o i c e s made ( F 1 . 1 ) . T h u s , e a c h g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s u s e d t h e c o m p u t e r s f o r s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t . T a s k s r a n g e d f r o m w r i t i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , s t o r y r e p o r t s a n d p r o j e c t s a b o u t t h e s o l a r s y s t e m , t o l a b e l l i n g maps, d e s c r i b i n g E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , c r e a t i n g c h a r t s a n d i d e n t i f y i n g , a s w e l l a s c l a s s i f y i n g t y p e s o f b e e s a n d h o u s e f l i e s . 2. Informal and B r i e f Meetings I n f o r m a l a n d b r i e f m e e t i n g s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s was a n o t h e r common p a t t e r n t h a t e m e r g e d w i t h b o t h " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T e a c h e r s s p o k e a b o u t i n f o r m a l e x c h a n g e s b e f o r e c l a s s t o d i s c u s s l e s s o n p l a n s . A c c o r d i n g t o one c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , " i t was v e r y c a s u a l i n t h e c o f f e e room...what a r e we d o i n g t o d a y ? " ( E 1 . 2 ) . A n o t h e r 62 teacher r e p o r t e d that she and the resource teacher d i s c u s s e d t h e i r plans " i n two minutes before three d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s " (G2.2). S e v e r a l other t e a c h e r s a l s o spoke about having to meet d u r i n g "the f i v e minutes between c l a s s e s " (B1.2) although even that amount of time c o u l d be reduced to "one minute or t h i r t y seconds" when te a c h e r s had to move from one classroom to the next (C2.6). C o n v e r s a t i o n s at "lunch" (A1.8) or when two t e a c h e r s happened to "see each ot h e r " were a l s o s a i d t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r computer-related d i s c u s s i o n (A1.9) concerning, f o r example, what had or had not worked d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n or what might need f u r t h e r work (E1.6). However, such encounters were not r e g u l a r l y scheduled (A1.11). While one classroom teacher expressed her d e s i r e to l e a r n how to b u i l d "tasks r e l a t e d to the knowledge framework and...to the computer" (C2.9) she found there was no time f o r t h i s . Instead, meetings between te a c h e r s , more o f t e n than not, were " r e a l l y i n f o r m a l " (El.2) and "on the f l y " (B1.17/B2.11/C2.5). Among the resource t e a c h e r s , no one f e l t the need f o r r e g u l a r , scheduled meetings (F3.6/D1.8/B2.10). Instead, spontaneous, i n f o r m a l exchanges were c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e s i n c e , i n the words of one resource teacher, i t was " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " when teach e r s might "need to c o n s u l t " (F3..6). N e v e r t h e l e s s , he claimed, i f they needed t o , they would and d i d ( i b i d ) . A c c o r d i n g to a second resource teacher, no review s e s s i o n s were scheduled r e g a r d i n g t e a c h i n g i n the l a b because that was the way people i n v o l v e d 63 wanted i t (D1.8/D1.11). As he s t a t e d , "(we came) to our own s o r t of system" (D1.11). L a t e r , he f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d that t h e r e was an absence of formal meetings because "...the people i n v o l v e d . . . ( a r e ) not people who go to meetings or...people who s t i c k to agendas at meetings" (D3.4) Thus, even i f meetings were h e l d , he d i d not expect much to be accomplished ( i b i d ) . A t h i r d resource teacher s t a t e d h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r " f a s t e r meetings" (B2.1/B2.16) s i n c e he was more concerned with t e a c h e r s g e t t i n g i n t o the l a b to use the computers that were there (B1.17). One of the classroom teachers who a l s o commented that t h e r e were no r e g u l a r , scheduled meetings to d i s c u s s the use of the computer, as a group or i n p a i r s , a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to the " l o o s e " (A2.8), " r e l a x e d " (A2.9) nature of the ESL department and accepted " i t ' s j u s t the way i t seems to be" (A2.8). Rather than having set meetings to d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the computer's use, p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s were s a i d to have "developed an i n f o r m a l way of t a l k i n g with each oth e r " (A2.9). A f t e r an i n i t i a l focus on the computer l a b d u r i n g ESL department meetings e a r l y i n the year, teachers depended on i n f o r m a l exchanges with one another to "get an idea (about) what d i f f e r e n t people were doing" (A1.11). 3. Short-Term P l a n n i n g Short-term p l a n n i n g was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by teachers meeting to d i s c u s s t h e i r l e s s o n plans d u r i n g the few minutes 64 b e t w e e n c l a s s e s a n d d e p e n d i n g on e n c o u n t e r s i n t h e h a l l w a y , s t a f f r o o m , o r c a f e t e r i a f o r t h i s . A c c o r d i n g t o one t e a c h e r , l i t t l e a t t e m p t was made t o e s t a b l i s h "a l o n g r a n g e p l a n f o r t h e l a b i n t e r m s o f (what t e a c h e r w o u l d come) d u r i n g what p e r i o d o f t i m e " ( D 3 . 4 ) . I n s t e a d , d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s t e n d e d t o f o c u s on " i m m e d i a t e " ( F 2 . 2 ) c o n c e r n s . A s one c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t a t e d , i t was "more o f a f r e e - f o r - a l l . . . f o r us t o g e t i n a t i m e . P e o p l e who were l e s s i n t i m i d a t e d by c o m p u t e r s . . . g o t i n t h e r e f i r s t " ( E 1 . 1 ) . Once i n t h e l a b , a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r e s t a b l i s h e d a o n e - t o - one w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s c h e d u l e d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r . I t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e s e " c l a s s - s p e c i f i c " e n c o u n t e r s (G2.3) d i d n o t g e n e r a l l y a l l o w f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f more " c o m p l e t e " p a c k a g e s t h a t t e a c h e r s c o m i n g t o t h e l a b i n f u t u r e y e a r s m i g h t u s e ( D 1 . 3 / D 3 . 4 ) , o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t c o u l d b e n e f i t a l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ( B 2 . 3 ) . 4. I m p l i c i t Roles and E x p e c t a t i o n s A l s o n o t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' u s e o f c o m p u t e r s t o e n h a n c e c o n t e n t a n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s , was l i t t l e e x p l i c i t d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s a n d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o m p u t e r u s e . A l t h o u g h t h e r o l e s t h a t v a r i o u s c l a s s r o o m a n d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s a ssumed were d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e s e were a p p a r e n t l y n o t a d o p t e d 65 on t h e b a s i s o f any d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f e i t h e r t h e i n n o v a t i o n o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . R a t h e r t e a c h e r s seemed t o a d o p t a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , o r l a c k o f i t , r e g a r d i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l u s e o f c o m p u t e r s . W h i l e s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e r a c t e d o n l y m i n i m a l l y , a l t e r n a t e l y o t h e r s c h o s e t o i n t e r a c t somewhat more. I n t u r n , d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s . F o r some t e a c h e r s , t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a n d what t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a c t u a l l y c h o s e t o d o , c a u s e d c o n c e r n . One c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , e x p e c t e d t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r t o t a k e a more " a c t i v e r o l e " i n t h e d e s i g n a n d c r e a t i o n o f ESL m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r . H owever, t h i s c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was d i s a p p o i n t e d when t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r " n e v e r o f f e r e d t o h e l p e v e n t h o u g h he k e p t s a y i n g . . . b r i n g ( y o u r c l a s s ) i n s o m e t i m e " ( A 2 . 5 ) . When t h i s t e a c h e r e v e n t u a l l y d i d b r i n g h i s s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was s a i d t o h a v e done " a l m o s t n o t h i n g w i t h them". The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r went on t o s a y , " I t h o u g h t he was g o i n g t o be t h e one who w o u l d do t h e l e s s o n . . . a n d t h e n i t was l i k e , d e a d " ( i b i d ) . A s e c o n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s ' r o l e when s h e s a i d , " I f e e l t h e p e r s o n i n ( t h e c o m p u t e r l a b ) n e e d s t o be a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s . . . t h e y ' r e h e l p i n g w i t h t h e c l a s s a s s u c h " ( G 1 . 5 ) . She a l s o w o u l d h a v e 66 l i k e d the resource teacher to have helped her gather resources i n the way a teacher l i b r a r i a n does ( i b i d ) . However, n e i t h e r of her e x p e c t a t i o n s were met s i n c e she a p p a r e n t l y d i d not d i s c u s s them with the resource teacher. Instead t h i s teacher found that the resource teacher "wasn't r e a l l y ( i n the lab) much...and when he was...he was working on the computer" (G1.4). S e v e r a l other comments f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e the i m p l i c i t n e s s of t h e i r r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . For example, one resource teacher, attempting to account f o r the r o l e s t h a t he and a classroom teacher assumed i n the l a b , s t a t e d , "so much j u s t happened...it happened n a t u r a l l y " (D2.4). According to t h i s teacher, " i t would have been hard to p l a n f o r i t because we r e a l l y have no experience d e a l i n g with the computer l a b . . . . i t ' s such a new t h i n g " ( i b i d ) . T h i s classroom teacher a l s o spoke about being a b l e to work " i n t u i t i v e l y " , f u r t h e r s t a t i n g there was no need to c o n s c i o u s l y d i v i d e the work between the resource teacher and h i m s e l f (F2.5). A t h i r d teacher s p e c u l a t e d that h i s l o n g - standing f r i e n d s h i p with another teacher enabled the quick r e s o l u t i o n of any concerns r e g a r d i n g t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As t h i s teacher e x p l a i n e d , "...he knows t h i n g s t h a t I do...I know t h i n g s that he does so there are many t h i n g s I would j u s t leave to him cause I know h e ' l l do the b e t t e r job of them..." (B1.3). From the v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e r a c t i o n among " c o l l a b o r a t i v e p a i r s " observed i n the l a b and d e s c r i b e d by t e a c h e r s themselves, there was an 67 i n d i c a t i o n t h at some tea c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n the l a b d i f f e r e d . 5. A Focus on Computer-Related Concerns Regardless of the extent of i n t e r a c t i o n among resource and classroom t e a c h e r s , another commonly emerging p a t t e r n was a r e c u r r i n g focus on computer-related matters. Teachers engaged both i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " and "peer" r e l a t i o n s h i p s , appeared concerned with d i s c u s s i o n f o r the purposes of a d d r e s s i n g computer-related q u e s t i o n s and concerns more than with a d d r e s s i n g other key aspects of the i n n o v a t i o n . In the case of " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , where classroom teachers l a c k e d a s u f f i c i e n t understanding of computers to b r i n g t h e i r students to the l a b without support, a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with a resource teacher was n e c e s s a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d . However, once a classroom teacher p r o v i d e d the i n i t i a l ideas f o r student a c t i v i t i e s , the resource teacher undertook to adapt these f o r computer use with l i t t l e , i f any, f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n about the c h o i c e of s u b j e c t matter (F1.4/G1.9). A resource and classroom teacher might o n l y meet b r i e f l y before a c l a s s to review the computer tasks that the resource teacher had designed (C2.4) or to s p e c i f y the steps i n computer use students would have to l e a r n i n order to complete the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t had been prepared (G1.2). 68 I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r o l e a s s u m e d by c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e re a b l e t o a d a p t c o n t e n t a n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e m s e l v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y w e re a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o s t u d e n t s ' c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s a s w e l l a s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e v a r i o u s s t e p s i n c o m p u t e r u s e . T h u s , a s s i s t a n c e f r o m a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was r e q u i r e d o n l y when a c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m a r o s e t h a t a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c o u l d n o t d e a l w i t h a l o n e ( D 3 . 2 / A 1 . 5 ) . W h i l e t h e s e t e a c h e r s a l s o s h a r e d i d e a s w i t h one a n o t h e r when someone h a d new s o f t w a r e t o show ( F 3 . 6 ) , t h e r e was no m e n t i o n o f e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e r e l e v a n c e , o r p o s s i b l y i r r e l e v a n c e , o f s u c h i d e a s . The w o r d s o f one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e how s u c h " s h a r i n g " most commonly o c c u r r e d . As he e x p l a i n e d , " t h e most i m p r e s s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . w o u l d be when somebody made s o m e t h i n g new a n d t h e y ' d show i t a n d t h a t w o u l d o f t e n j u s t i n v o l v e p u t t i n g i t i n t h e h a r d d r i v e a n d s a y i n g h a v e a l o o k a t t h i s f i l e n e x t t i m e y o u ' r e i n ( t h e c o m p u t e r l a b ) a n d t h e n two d a y s l a t e r ( t h e p e r s o n w o u l d r e s p o n d by s a y i n g ) oh I saw t h a t , i t ' s p r e t t y c u t e b u t t h i s a n d t h i s a n d t h i s a n d t h a t w o u l d be t h e e n d o f i t " ( i b i d ) . G e n e r a l l y , c o n v e r s a t i o n s among v a r i o u s " c o l l a b o r a t i v e " p a i r s t e n d e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e s h a r i n g a n d / o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . T h u s , a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who a c q u i r e d a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f c o m f o r t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n 69 t h e i r c o m p u t e r u s e c o u l d be f o u n d w o r k i n g i n t h e l a b w i t h o u t r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t . Teacher C o l l a b o r a t i o n : The I n f l u e n c e of P r e v a l e n t S c h o o l C o n d i t i o n s As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s were f i r m l y i n p l a c e when t h e c o m p u t e r l a b f i r s t o p e n e d i t s d o o r s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f ESL t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d an i n h e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n some way a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s t o e n h a n c e l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t t e a c h i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s ; t h e s e c o n d was t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f c o m p u t e r s t h a t w e r e i n t e n d e d m a i n l y f o r t h e u s e o f ESL t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s . S i n c e few t e a c h e r s h a d p r i o r c o m p u t e r e x p e r i e n c e o r e x p e r i e n c e u s i n g Mohan's k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a s a means t o l i n k s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g , most o f t h e ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w a n t i n g t o u s e c o m p u t e r s a s a t e a c h i n g a i d r e q u i r e d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t . C e r t a i n l y t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e re c o n d u c i v e t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . I f n e i t h e r were i n p l a c e , i t i s u n l i k e l y ESL t e a c h e r s w o u l d h a v e h a d a n y i n c e n t i v e t o l e a v e t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s t o work c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y i n t h e l a b . Ho w e v e r , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f o r m s t h a t t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o o k 70 a n d t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t emerged when t h e s e " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s were e x a m i n e d , h i n t a t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l c o n t e x t t h a t l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e s e same c o n d i t i o n s , e a r l i e r h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e c h a p t e r , i n c l u d e d t h e ways t h a t p h y s i c a l s p a c e , t i m e , a n d a u t h o r i t y w e r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g ; t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e among t e a c h e r s o f norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o f o c u s on t h e " i m m e d i a c y " o f t h e c l a s s r o o m ; a n d , c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h i s , t h e i r a d h e r e n c e t o an e t h i c o f p r a c t i c a l i t y . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , e a c h o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i s shown t o more commonly p r o m o t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s . S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Space The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s p a c e w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r h i g h s c h o o l , l i k e s o many o t h e r s , was t y p i c a l o f what L o r t i e ( 1 9 7 5 ) r e f e r s t o a s " e g g - c r a t e " a r c h i t e c t u r e w h e re e a c h c l a s s r o o m i s d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e n e x t . An ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r w a n t i n g t o u s e t h e c o m p u t e r s a s a t o o l t o p r o m o t e l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g b r o u g h t h e r / h i s s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b o r e l s e a r r a n g e d t o meet them t h e r e , d u r i n g a t i m e when r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t was a v a i l a b l e . 71 A l t e r n a t e l y , two r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e c o m p u t e r l a b a s t h e i r r e g u l a r ESL " c l a s s r o o m " d u r i n g two p e r i o d s when a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was s c h e d u l e d t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e . Thus e a c h assumed t h e r o l e o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h e s e t i m e s . T h e s e t e a c h e r s a l s o s h a r e d t h e l a b a s t h e i r common home b a s e (D2.11) f o r a p o r t i o n o f t h e y e a r b e c a u s e o f a s h o r t a g e o f c l a s s r o o m s p a c e i n t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g ( F 1 . 1 4 ) . A l t h o u g h b o t h t a u g h t i n o t h e r rooms a t v a r i o u s t i m e s o f t h e d a y , t h e y k e p t t h e i r f i l e s a n d p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b . The p r o v i s i o n o f an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s p a c e where two t e a c h e r s w o u l d meet f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f t i m e e a c h c y c l e , a n d , i n some c a s e s e a c h d a y , s u p p o r t e d t h e one-on-one e n c o u n t e r s common among t e a c h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e e n g a g e d i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " o r " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A t l e a s t a s s u r e d o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h a r e t h e same p h y s i c a l s p a c e a s a n o t h e r t e a c h e r , i f o n l y f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e , meant t h e p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e d f o r some d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s b o t h s o u g h t t o a c h i e v e i n t h e l a b . H o w e v e r , a s one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r p o i n t e d o u t , e v e n t h o u g h two t e a c h e r s w e r e t h e r e a t t h e same t i m e , t h e y were u n a b l e t o c h a t a t any l e n g t h w h i l e o n e , t h e o t h e r , o r b o t h were i n v o l v e d w i t h an o n - g o i n g l e s s o n ( B 2 . 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t h e e n d o f a c l a s s , b o t h t e a c h e r s u s u a l l y h a d o t h e r c l a s s e s o r s t u d e n t s r e q u i r i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n a n d s o t h e y w o u l d l e a v e f o r o t h e r rooms i n t h e b u i l d i n g , o n l y t o p e r h a p s meet a g a i n , b r i e f l y , b e t w e e n c l a s s p e r i o d s ( B 1 . 1 ) . 72 Yet, another d i f f i c u l t y with the s c h o o l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l space, more g e n e r a l l y , arose when one teacher wanted to c o n t a c t another d u r i n g the course of a s c h o o l day. T h i s problem was m a g n i f i e d when both were " f l o a t i n g t e a c h e r s " s i n c e n e i t h e r had a permanent classroom and moved "from c l a s s t o c l a s s a l l over the s c h o o l " (C2.9). Apart from the one p e r i o d t h a t they shared i n the computer l a b , most t e a c h e r s ' paths d i d not o f t e n c r o s s (C1.15). In some cases, when a teacher wanted to t a l k with another about an upcoming l e s s o n s t h i s e n t a i l e d having to walk "four f l o o r s , almost two b l o c k s " to reach them (C2.6). By the time t h i s d i s t a n c e had been t r a v e l l e d , only seconds would remain before the next c l a s s began. S t i l l , these b r i e f moments between c l a s s e s were the few they f o r exchanging i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s . C e r t a i n l y the p r o v i s i o n of a p h y s i c a l space where a resource and classroom teacher would meet while a c l a s s was i n p r o g r e s s , p o t e n t i a l l y enabled them to engage i n more lengthy one-on-one encounters. Yet merely s h a r i n g such space d i d not guarantee e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g to t h e i r work t o g e t h e r . Even the two teachers who shared the computer l a b as t h e i r common classroom and c l a i m e d they t a l k e d (D2.11) and worked together a l o t when there at the same time (F3.4-5), were c o n s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s by other p r e v a l e n t school c o n d i t i o n s . One of these was undoubtedly the way t h a t time was o r g a n i z e d . A 73 d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m s a n d p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , f o l l o w s . S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Time The p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s was a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l t o p r o m o t e t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r s w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s . D u r i n g f i v e o f t h e s i x b l o c k s o f t i m e a l l o t t e d f o r ESL t e a c h e r s ' a n d s t u d e n t s ' u s e , any ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who b r o u g h t t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o t h e l a b c o u l d be a s s u r e d t h a t a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a n d , i n some c a s e s , t a k e c h a r g e o f a d a p t i n g l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t a c t i v i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s ' u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r . K n o w i n g t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was s c h e d u l e d t o be i n t h e l a b a t a s p e c i f i c t i m e l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n w h ere ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a r r a n g e d t o work one-on-one w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r who was t h e r e f o r t h e c l a s s p e r i o d t h e y c h o s e t o come. H o w e v e r , a s was a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , t h e s e one-on-one e n c o u n t e r s v a r i e d i n t h e i r f o c u s d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r t h e t e a c h e r s w e re e n g a g e d i n an " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " o r " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d t h e y v a r i e d i n t h e e x t e n t o f i n t e r a c t i o n among t e a c h e r s . T h u s , p r o v i d i n g r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s t o a s s i s t ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s d u r i n g s c h e d u l e d c l a s s t i m e i n t h e l a b , d i d n o t e n s u r e s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . I n s t e a d 74 the o r g a n i z a t i o n of time w i t h i n the l a r g e r school s e t t i n g appeared t o impose numerous c o n s t r a i n t s that hindered t e a c h e r s ' c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s . Simply put, as noted by an ESL classroom teacher, "schools a r e n ' t set up f o r t a l k i n g " (G1.7). Resource and classroom t e a c h e r s a l i k e r e p e a t e d l y mentioned that they found i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d time to d i s c u s s and r e f l e c t on what was going on i n the l a b (F1.9/F1.17/D3.3/B2.8/C2.9) s i n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s were l i m i t e d f o r them to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s p r i o r to a classroom t e a c h e r s ' a r r i v a l with h e r / h i s students (D1.3/G1.2/G1.6/C2.11). Such l i m i t a t i o n s may be l i n k e d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the school t i m e t a b l e which, i n the words of one resource person, "locked (teachers) i n t o a classroom s e t t i n g " almost every hour of the school day (B2.3). Furthermore, the master t i m e t a b l e d i d not enable teachers to use t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n p e r i o d s to meet with one another, s i n c e r a r e l y , i f ever, d i d t h e i r *prep' p e r i o d s o v e r l a p . More common was the s i t u a t i o n that one teacher d e s c r i b e d . A c c o r d i n g to him, "when you want to t a l k to another teacher that person's i n a classroom and then the next hour they're a v a i l a b l e but you're not" ( i b i d ) . Thus, i f te a c h e r s were to j o i n t l y p l a n , implement, and eval u a t e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s i n the computer l a b , e f f o r t would be r e q u i r e d on the p a r t of both t o f i n d time i n an a l r e a d y crowded schedule (C2.8-9/G1.6/B1.10/B1.20). Si n c e time was not a v a i l a b l e f o r te a c h e r s to r o u t i n e l y s i t down f o r pl a n n i n g purposes (C2.6/G1.7-8/A1.9/B2.12), s e v e r a l teachers 75 s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t s c o u l d h a v e been made t o meet a t l u n c h , o r a f t e r s c h o o l ( G 1 . 6 / D 3 . 3 ) . H o w e v e r , l u n c h t i m e s were o f t e n t a k e n up w i t h s t u d e n t s u p e r v i s i o n , s t u d e n t c o u n s e l l i n g , d e p a r t m e n t m e e t i n g s , a n d / o r l e s s o n p r e p a r a t i o n . I n t u r n , many t e a c h e r s were n o t p r e p a r e d t o s t a y a f t e r s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f " o t h e r c o m m i t m e n t s " (G1.7/D3.3) o r s i m p l y b e c a u s e " e v e r y o n e i s p r e t t y w e l l b u s h e d a n d j u s t w a n t s t o go home" ( B 1 . 1 6 ) . R e a l i z i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s work i n an e n v i r o n m e n t where t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e m a s t e r t i m e t a b l e c o n f i n e s t e a c h e r s t o a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g where t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h s t u d e n t s f o r t h e v a s t p o r t i o n o f any g i v e n d a y , b e g i n s t o e x p l a i n t h e p a t t e r n s t h a t e m e r g e d when t h e f o r m s o f " c o l l a b o r a t i o n " among r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s were e x a m i n e d more c l o s e l y . A l t h o u g h t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s were g i v e n s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e t o a s s i s t ESL t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r u s e o f c o m p u t e r s t o e n h a n c e s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g , a c o r r e s p o n d i n g t i m e was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s e same c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . T h u s , c l a s s r o o m a n d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s w e re f o u n d t o meet i n f o r m a l l y b e t w e e n c l a s s e s t o d i s c u s s l e s s o n p l a n s . As w e l l , t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d on r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s may h a v e l e d them t o f o c u s on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s s i n c e t h e s e c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be d e a l t w i t h i n l e s s t i m e t h a n c o u l d t h o s e i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . E x a m i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t i m e i n an a t t e m p t t o s u g g e s t why t e a c h e r s c o l l a b o r a t e d a s t h e y d i d , o f f e r s a p a r t i a l , b u t 76 n o t f i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , d i s c u s s i o n now t u r n s t o a t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , a n d i t s i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The O r g a n i z a t i o n of A u t h o r i t y W h i l e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n a h i g h s c h o o l s e t t i n g c a n be g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d a s h i e r a r c h i c a l , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h o s e w i t h i n t h i s h i e r a r c h y , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l , d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s a n d t e a c h e r s , t e n d t o be l o o s e l y c o u p l e d . E v e n t h o u g h t e a c h e r s a r e s e e n a s u l t i m a t e l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l f o r a n y d e c i s i o n s made a n d / o r a c t i o n s t a k e n , i n t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r c h o i c e o f c u r r i c u l u m a n d metho d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , a n y s u p e r v i s i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r work i s m i n i m a l . A t t h e h i g h s c h o o l w here t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y was f i r m l y i n p l a c e , a s o b s e r v a t i o n a n d c e r t a i n t e a c h e r comments made " o f f t h e r e c o r d " r e v e a l e d . A l s o e v i d e n t was t h e l o o s e l y c o u p l e d n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h o s e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g c o m p u t e r s w i t h s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h r e e t e a c h e r s were g i v e n t h e s t a t u s o f " r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r " , t h u s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them f r o m t h e o t h e r ESL t e a c h e r s who came t o t h e l a b , t h e i r a u t h o r i t y l a y i n t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n c o m p u t e r s a n d c o m p u t e r i n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n a n y p o w e r , o r " r i g h t t o e n f o r c e 77 o b e d i e n c e " , i n v e s t e d i n them. I n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s where t h e r e s o u r c e a n d ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r b o t h h a d t h e a b i l i t y t o a d a p t l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e on t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d e t e r m i n e d what s t u d e n t s w o u l d l e a r n a s w e l l a s how t h e c o m p u t e r was t o be u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s t h e y s e t . The r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was n o t f o u n d t o " t a k e c h a r g e " a s s u c h , b u t r a t h e r c h o s e t o a c t a s a " t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t " (D1.4) o r e l s e r e s p o n d t o r e q u e s t s f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a s r e q u i r e d ( D 1 . 9 / D 2 . 5 ) . I n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was t h e one t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d a p t i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t i d e a s f o r c o m p u t e r u s e s i n c e t h e y l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t c o m p u t e r k n o w l e d g e t o do t h i s t h e m s e l v e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e a c h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t i l l m a i n t a i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what h e r / h i s s t u d e n t s w o u l d be t a u g h t . F u r t h e r r e f l e c t i n g on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y , w h ere t e a c h e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y i n c h a r g e o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s , w o r k i n g i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b w i t h a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r m i g h t u n d e r s t a n d a b l y h a v e been p e r c e i v e d , by some, a s i n v o l v i n g a l o s s o r t r a n s f e r o f c o n t r o l ( D 2 . 1 2 ) . Y e t , no ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r e v e r r e l i n q u i s h e d c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r s t u d e n t s l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t a c t i v i t i e s . E v e n t h o s e who f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e c o m p u t e r s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s , s t i l l a ssumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s p e c i f y i n g what i t was t h e y w o u l d d o . I n t u r n , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r r e t a i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d a p t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s t h e s e " n o v i c e " t e a c h e r s p r o v i d e d , a c c e p t i n g , w i t h o u t any 78 a p p a r e n t q u e s t i o n o r l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n , a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' c h o i c e o f c o n t e n t . A l s o common t o b o t h " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , was t h e t e n d e n c y o f r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s t o f o c u s on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s l e a v i n g q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' h a n d s . As w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s p a c e a n d t i m e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y o f f e r s a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r some o f t h e e m e r g e n t p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Y e t , i t i s o n c e a g a i n e m p h a s i z e d t h a t r e g a r d f o r o n l y one a s p e c t o f s c h o o l l i f e l a c k s t h e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t p r o v i d e d by e x a m i n i n g a number o f p r e d o m i n a n t s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s . T h u s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : Norms of I n d i v i d u a l i s m and N o n i n t e r a c t i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h i n g s c h e d u l e s o f b o t h r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s n e v e r s p e n t t h e b u l k o f t h e i r t i m e w o r k i n g w i t h a n o t h e r i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b . D u r i n g any g i v e n c y c l e , an ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r m i g h t come t o t h e l a b f o r one p e r i o d o u t o f s e v e n , w h i l e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s , a t t h e m o s t , were a v a i l a b l e t o work w i t h c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s f o r a maximum o f two c l a s s p e r i o d s . E v e n t h o u g h a r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r was 79 s c h e d u l e d t o be i n t h e l a b , t h i s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a n d h e r / h i s s t u d e n t s were a l s o t h e r e . F o r i n s t a n c e , d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , two b l o c k s o f t i m e , o u t o f t h e f i v e b l o c k s s c h e d u l e d t o h a v e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t , w e re u s e d o n l y on o c c a s i o n . Of t h e t h r e e b l o c k s o f t i m e r e g u l a r l y f i l l e d , two o u t o f t h e s e t h r e e w e re u s e d by two d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s who b r o u g h t t h e i r ESL c l a s s e s t o t h e l a b when a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e o f a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . T h u s , b o t h r e s o u r c e and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a l i k e w e r e f o u n d t o s p e n d t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g t i m e w o r k i n g a l o n e i n a c l a s s r o o m w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The s c h e d u l e s o f ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y , a p p e a r e d t o i n c l u d e n umerous o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t f r o m b r i n g i n g one o f t h e i r ESL c l a s s e s t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b . L i m i t e d i n t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r f o r much o f e a c h day a n d g e n e r a l l y l e f t f r e e t o d e c i d e n o t o n l y what t h e y w o u l d t e a c h b u t how, t e a c h e r norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n a p p e a r e d t o p r e v a i l . A l t h o u g h t h e c o m p l e x i n t e r p l a y o f k n o w l e d g e , b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a s s u m p t i o n s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t c o m p r i s e t h e s e norms a r e i n t a n g i b l e , t h e y a r e r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h t e a c h e r s ' w o r d s a n d a c t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e f o r r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s a n d a l a b w i t h c o m p u t e r s i n t e n d e d m a i n l y f o r t h e u s e o f ESL t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r s t u d e n t s p e r m i t t e d e n c o u n t e r s among t e a c h e r s t h a t w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e o t h e r w i s e . H o w e v e r , c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d o f comments t h e y made r e g a r d i n g t h e i r 80 c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , s u g g e s t t h a t norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n w e r e n o t l e f t a t d o o r when r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a r r i v e d i n t h e l a b . I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s among t h e s e t e a c h e r s may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s i t u a t i o n w h ere t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g . W h i l e t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r a s s i s t e d w i t h a d a p t i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r c o m p u t e r u s e , n o t a b l y t h i s was o n l y done when r e q u i r e d , a s i n t h e c a s e o f " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r when s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d . G e n e r a l l y , i n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s where t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was a b l e t o a d a p t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s h i m s e l f , t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r m i g h t a c t a s a t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t o r s h a r e new s o f t w a r e i d e a s . T h u s , t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s f o c u s e d on s h a r i n g a n d a c q u i r i n g c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d k n o w l e d g e a s o p p o s e d t o more e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n , r e g a r d i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s c o m p u t e r u s e may h a v e f o r t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t t o ESL s t u d e n t s . C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : The Immediacy of the Classroom As w i t h norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e t e n d e n c y among t e a c h e r s t o f o c u s c o n s i d e r a b l e e n e r g y on p r e s s i n g c l a s s r o o m demands, a p p e a r s t o h a v e been p e r p e t u a t e d by s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t r e i n f o r c e t h e p r i o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s a n d r e s t r i c t t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r a l 81 c o n d i t i o n s were i n p l a c e t h a t c r e a t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , when a r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r w e re s c h e d u l e d t o work t o g e t h e r , t h e y w e r e i n t h e company o f ESL s t u d e n t s who r e q u i r e d a n d e x p e c t e d a t t e n t i o n f r o m o n e , i f n o t b o t h , t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s ' a d h e r e n c e t o b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a s s u m p t i o n s , a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t g i v e p r e c e d e n c e t o t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s , i s a g a i n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r comments a n d a c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r , f o r an ESL c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o d e c i d e t o b r i n g s t u d e n t s t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e " . . . t h e y h a v e t o s e e v a l u e i n ( i t ) " ( B 1 . 1 0 ) . H o w e v e r , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t e a c h e r s who a r e " a l r e a d y b o g g e d down i n what t h e y a r e d o i n g " ( B 1 . 2 0 ) a r e n o t l i k e l y t o g i v e up c l a s s r o o m t i m e t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b s i n c e t h i s may h i n d e r t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c o v e r t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d may p l a c e an e x t r a b u r d e n on s c h e d u l e s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y f u l l ( B 1 . 9 ) . A n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on why ESL t e a c h e r s m i g h t n o t r u s h t o b r i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o t h e c o m p u t e r l a b was o f f e r e d by a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who e x p l a i n e d h e r r e a s o n f o r n o t c o m i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e y e a r . As she s a i d , "...none o f my s t u d e n t s i f I h a v e a b e g i n n i n g l e v e l c l a s s a r e r e a d y t o go i n t h e c o m p u t e r l a b u n t i l t h e y ' v e b een h e r e t h r e e m o n t h s . . . I j u s t t h i n k I n e e d them f o r t h r e e months t o i n s t i l l l e t ' s come w i t h o u r b o o k s , l e t ' s come w i t h o u r p e n c i l s , what do we do when we come i n t o a room?...how do we t r e a t a c o m p u t e r ? " ( E 2 . 7 ) . R e g a r d l e s s , h o w e v e r , o f w h e t h e r t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n s l a y w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h a t h a d t o be 82 c o v e r e d ( B 1 . 9 ) , w i t h a t t e m p t s t o o r i e n t s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r new s c h o o l ( E 2 . 7 ) o r b o t h a t t h e same t i m e , t h e s e comments r e v e a l e d t e a c h e r s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s t u d e n t s . F o r some t e a c h e r s t h i s may h a v e l e d t o an a v o i d a n c e o f t h e l a b a l t o g e t h e r ( B 1 . 1 0 ) . F o r o t h e r s , s u c h a p r e o c c u p a t i o n m i g h t h a v e f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p a t t e r n s o f a c t i v i t y t h a t o c c u r r e d among t h o s e who e n g a g e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , a f t e r a l l . O ne-on-one e n c o u n t e r s among r e s o u r c e a n d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a p p e a r e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r a b l e f o r t h o s e i n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e . t h e y e n h a n c e d t e a c h e r s ' o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e s p o n d t o s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n s a n d c o n c e r n s . T h i s was s a i d t o be e s p e c i a l l y a d v a n t a g e o u s when s t u d e n t s w e re f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c o m p u t e r s a n d n e e d e d "a l o t o f h e l p a n d g u i d a n c e " ( A 2 . 3 ) . As one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r n o t e d , "when y o u h a v e two p e o p l e i n t h e l a b who know what t h e y ' r e d o i n g i n t e r m s o f c o n t e n t a n d method i t ' s a l m o s t n o t w o r k . . . " ( F 2 . 4 ) . A s e c o n d r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r , r e i t e r a t i n g t h i s b e l i e f , s t a t e d , " . . . t h e j o b becomes h a l f a s t o u g h b e c a u s e f o r e v e r y two p r o b l e m s t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r .(can) a n s w e r o n e " ( D 3 . 3 ) . I n c o n t r a s t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s t u d e n t s c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s c o u l d n o t be r e a d i l y s h a r e d i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S t i l l , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h e t h e r one o r two t e a c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e , t h e i r f o c u s was p r i m a r i l y on d i r e c t i n g s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s a n d a d d r e s s i n g a n y p r o b l e m s t h a t a r o s e . 83 Any s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o c o m p u t e r u s e seemed t o f a r o u t w e i g h t h o s e p e r t a i n i n g t o l a n g u a g e a n d / o r c o n t e n t m a t t e r s . T h u s , i n f o r m a l a n d b r i e f m e e t i n g s among t e a c h e r s , w h e t h e r b e f o r e , d u r i n g , o r a f t e r c l a s s , s e e m i n g l y e n a b l e d t h o s e i n " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o d e a l w i t h a n y i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s t h e y h a d w i t h t h e i r u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r s ( B 2 . 1 0 ) . F o r t h o s e t e a c h e r s i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s s e r v e d t o r e a s s u r e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e work t o do i n t h e l a b ( F 1 . 4 ) . C u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s : An E t h i c of P r a c t i c a l i t y L i n k e d t o t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r p r e s s i n g c l a s s r o o m m a t t e r s was t h e i r s e e m i n g a d h e r e n c e t o an e t h i c o f p r a c t i c a l i t y . T h i s c l a s s r o o m - c e n t e r e d f o c u s i s t h o u g h t t o c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n f o r c e t h e v a l u e t h a t t e a c h e r s ' p l a c e on i n n o v a t i o n s o r p r o p o s a l s f o r c h a n g e deemed p r a c t i c a l , c o n c r e t e , a n d c o n g r u e n t w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . A l t e r n a t e l y , t e a c h i n g i d e a s t h a t a r e u n c l e a r a n d do n o t f i t w i t h t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n may be r e j e c t e d , i f n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e d . T e a c h e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r p r a c t i c a l i t y was e v i d e n t i n t h e s c a r c i t y o f s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a s a way t o c r e a t e t e a c h i n g u n i t s f o r ESL s t u d e n t s on t h e c o m p u t e r . T h o s e few t e a c h e r s who h a d p r i o r ' " e x p o s u r e " t o ( F 1 . 9 ) a n d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e d e s i g n o f 84 s t u d e n t t a s k s on t h e c o m p u t e r were f o u n d t o t a c i t l y i n c o r p o r a t e key a s p e c t s o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k i n t h e i r w o r k . O t h e r s were s a i d n o t t o h a v e e x p r e s s e d much i n t e r e s t i n d i s c u s s i n g how t h i s m e t hod o f o r g a n i z i n g l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g was a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n ( F 1 . 1 0 ) . The w o r d s o f one r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r o f f e r a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s . As he commented, " . . . i t ' s n o t c l e a r what y o u s h o u l d do w i t h them ( m e a n i n g t h e s i x b o x e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k ) . . . a n d t h a t ' s what ( t e a c h e r s ) want t o know...and I d o n ' t h a v e an a n s w e r f o r t h a t " ( F 1 . 9 ) . F o r t h i s t e a c h e r t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k was " n o t a s t a r t i n g p l a c e " ( F 1 . 8 ) a l t h o u g h he m e n t i o n e d t h a t he t h o u g h t i t was u s e f u l a s a means f o r c h e c k i n g what t y p e o f l a n g u a g e was b e i n g l e a r n e d a n d i n t u r n what " g a p s " n e e d e d t o be f i l l e d a t some l a t e r p o i n t i n t i m e ( F 1 . 1 0 ) . The c o m p l e x i t y a n d a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a p p e a r s t o h a v e been s u c h t h a t e v e n a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h i t s c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a t i o n , s t i l l e x p r e s s e d t h e d e s i r e t o "know more a b o u t b u i l d i n g t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k a n d ( a b o u t ) b u i l d i n g t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e c o m p u t e r " ( C 2 . 9 ) . Y e t t h e c o n s t a n t demands o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e d i d n o t a l l o w f o r a n y l e n g t h y d i a l o g u e a b o u t t h e s e m a t t e r s a n d s o t h i s t e a c h e r g ave a l m o s t c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l t o t h e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r o v e r d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t t a s k s f o r t h e c o m p u t e r ( C 2 . 4 ) . T e a c h e r s a p p e a r e d t o f o c u s t h e i r c o n c e r n s on s h a r i n g c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The f o r m 85 o f t h e i r e n c o u n t e r s may i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g i d e a s p e r c e i v e d t o be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d i m m e d i a t e l y a p p l i c a b l e r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e t h a t r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n a n d / o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n p r i o r t o u s e . Summary: The Accommodation of The Innovation t o F i t P r e v a l e n t School C o n d i t i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r b e g a n w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n p l a c e t h a t r e v e a l e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n some way a r o u n d t h e i r u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n o f t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t e a c h e r s who were e n g a g e d i n " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " a n d " p e e r " r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h i m m e d i a t e p e d a g o g i c a l c o n c e r n s . The r e c u r r e n c e o f b r i e f , i n f o r m a l e x c h a n g e s among t e a c h e r s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n one- on-one e n c o u n t e r s ; t h e i r s h o r t - t e r m p l a n n i n g ; t h e i m p l i c i t n e s s o f t h e i r r o l e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s ; a n d t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o f o c u s on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s , may p o i n t t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v a l e n t s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s on t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n n o v a t i o n . F rom t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , i t a p p e a r s t h a t s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s e t t i n g r e s t r i c t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e . The p r o v i s i o n o f s c h e d u l e d 86 r e l e a s e t i m e f o r t h r e e r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s t o s u p p o r t t h e work o f ESL t e a c h e r s a nd t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n t h e l a b , a s w e l l a s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c o m p u t e r s a n d c l a s s t i m e i n t e n d e d m a i n l y f o r t h e i r u s e s u g g e s t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n s i n c e t h e s e s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s b e g i n t o work a g a i n s t t h o s e s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r o m o t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s p a c e , t i m e , a n d . a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l c o n t e x t , a s w e l l a s t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t c o l l e g i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a p p e a r t o h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n n o t e d . T h u s , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s j o i n t l y p l a n n i n g k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k u n i t s on t h e c o m p u t e r was n o t r e a l i z e d i n a n y e l a b o r a t e f a s h i o n . E v e n t h o s e t e a c h e r s w i t h a s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t what t h i s e n t a i l e d , f o c u s e d t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s m a i n l y on c o m p u t e r - r e l a t e d , r a t h e r t h a n c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l , c o n c e r n s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y a r e s e t f o r t h . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s f o r t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d , a n d d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t e d . CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n (one t h a t i n v o l v e s o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g ) , r e f e r e n c e i s made o n c e a g a i n t o p r e v a i l i n g s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d t o p r o m o t e t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . A s w e l l , t h e " i n s t i t u t i o n a l " s t r u c t u r e s t h a t L i t t l e ( 1 9 8 7 ) deems s u p p o r t i v e o f s u s t a i n e d t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e f u r t h e r m e n t i o n e d . T a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e s e may be s e e n t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t t o t h e , p r o b l e m t h a t t h i s s t u d y s o u g h t t o a d d r e s s ; t h a t i s , what h a p p e n s when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t i m p l i e s some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n ? S e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r a n i n n o v a t i o n ' s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e a l s o s e t f o r t h . F i n a l l y , s u g g e s t i o n s a r e g i v e n r e g a r d i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s s t u d y s e t o u t t o d e t e r m i n e what h a p p e n e d when an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t assumed t e a c h e r s w o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e i n some way a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s f o r l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t 88 l e a r n i n g , was implemented i n a h i g h school s e t t i n g where s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s support teacher i s o l a t i o n . Two s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were asked: 1) what forms does teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n take i n such a context? and 2) What s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s can be s a i d to account f o r these? Through o b s e r v a t i o n i n the computer l a b over a four week p e r i o d and i n t e r v i e w s with the resource and ESL classroom t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d , some answers to these q u e s t i o n s were obt a i n e d . Resource and classroom teachers were found to engage i n two forms of c o l l a b o r a t i o n around computer use seemingly dependent on the extent of t h e i r computer knowledge. Rather than e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s matters p e r t a i n i n g to the nature of the i n n o v a t i o n and i t s broader i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r ESL t e a c h i n g , t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t h e i r b r i e f , i n f o r m a l exchanges to p r a c t i c a l , computer- r e l a t e d concerns. The recur r e n c e of these p a t t e r n s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether teachers were engaged i n "expert- n o v i c e " or "peer" r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p r o v i d e d some evidence of the i n f l u e n c e of sc h o o l c o n d i t i o n s that made s u s t a i n e d teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that p a r t i c u l a r types of c o l l a b o r a t i o n may be d i f f i c u l t t o engage i n , even when the i n n o v a t i o n assumes teachers w i l l work together to commonly d e f i n e and work out problems p e r t a i n i n g to i t s use. S p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l supports f o r teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d , which a r e , as L i t t l e (1987) s t a t e s , " . . . l i k e the p r a c t i c e s themselves, n e i t h e r s u b t l e nor 89 mysterious" (p. 513). As was e a r l i e r mentioned i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e c hapter, i n c l u d e d i n L i t t l e ' s proposed "dimensions of support" a r e : 1) the p u b l i c endorsement of "team e f f o r t s " and p r o v i s i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r teachers to engage i n "complex" and "com p e l l i n g " t a s k s that r e q u i r e t h e i r combined e f f o r t ; 2) the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the master t i m e t a b l e and s t a f f assignments to allow t e a c h e r s to work together on c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t s d u r i n g s c h o o l hours; and 3) the p r o v i s i o n of adequate m a t e r i a l and human resources to enable t e a c h e r s to use any time a l l o t t e d f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . C o n s i d e r i n g the hi g h s c h o o l where t h i s study was conducted i n terms of L i t t l e ' s s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , a l a c k of planned support f o r more formal teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n around computer use becomes apparent. Endorsement of teacher c o l l a b o r a t i o n , at both the school and d i s t r i c t l e v e l , seems evident s i n c e r e l e a s e time f o r three resource t e a c h e r s was pr o v i d e d , as w e l l as computers and l a b time intended mainly f o r ESL teach e r s and t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The school t i m e t a b l e and c e r t a i n s t a f f assignments p e r m i t t e d a resource and content teacher to meet i n the computer l a b to work with ESL students, although r e g u l a r l y scheduled o p p o r t u n i t i e s were not planned o u t s i d e c l a s s time which might have enabled these t e a c h e r s to more e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s t h e i r work t o g e t h e r . As w e l l , there was not a s p e c i f i c forum e s t a b l i s h e d by resource and classroom t e a c h e r s as a group, or i n p a i r s , to address any p e r c e i v e d 90 l a c k o f c o n c e p t u a l a n d p r o c e d u r a l c l a r i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e t a s k t h a t t h e y e n g a g e d i n ; t h a t i s , u s i n g c o m p u t e r s t o p r o m o t e a c a d e m i c l a n g u a g e a n d c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s . T h u s , t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h s u p p o r t s f o r more f o r m a l t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s s u c h a s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l s p a c e a n d t i m e i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l c o n t e x t , may h a v e e n a b l e d norms o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d n o n i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e i r c l a s s r o o m - c e n t e r e d f o c u s , a n d a d h e r e n c e t o a p r a c t i c a l i t y e t h i c , t o p r e v a i l . The i n n o v a t i o n ' s m o d i f i c a t i o n t o f i t s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g . E v e n w i t h t e a c h e r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n , c o m p u t e r k n o w l e d g e , a n d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Mohan's k n o w l e d g e f r a m e w o r k , t h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s how i m p l e m e n t a t i o n may be c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e c u l t u r e i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s w o r k . I m p l i c a t i o n s T h e r e a r e some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e i n v o l v e d b o t h i n p l a n n i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an i n n o v a t i o n a s s u m i n g more f o r m a l o r s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t e a c h e r s . T h o s e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r s i m p o r t a n t a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1) f a c i l i t a t e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f an y a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n an i n n o v a t i o n ; 2 ) f a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r s ' c l a r i f i c a t i o n of r o l e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s ; 3 ) p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y 91 f o r r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e d m e e t i n g s ; 4) p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l , c o n c r e t e i d e a s , a s w e l l a s t i m e t o d i s c u s s them a n d d e v e l o p t h e i r own; a n d 5) g u a r a n t e e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p p o r t . C e r t a i n l y a s p e c t s o f t h e s e s u p p o r t i v e c o n d i t i o n s w e re i n p l a c e a t t h e s c h o o l where t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s e r v e a s a r e m i n d e r o f t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e t h e s e may h a v e f o r t h o s e e n g a g e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . E a c h o f t h e s e g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s i s f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s . 1. F a c i l i t a t e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of any assumptions regarding collaboration inherent in an innovation. Any i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e s t e a c h e r s s h o u l d c o l l a b o r a t e f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e , c a n be e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d a n d o p p o r t u n i t y g i v e n f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o r m s c o l l a b o r a t i o n c o u l d t a k e . T h r o u g h s u c h d i s c u s s i o n t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , i f t e a c h e r s l a c k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , t h e i n n o v a t i o n w i l l l i k e l y be m o d i f i e d t o f i t t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l c o n t e x t . 92 2 . F a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r s ' c l a r i f i c a t i o n of r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n h e r e n t i n any i n n o v a t i o n t h a t a s s u m e s some f o r m o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . By p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c l a r i f y t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t e a c h e r s ' r o l e s e n t a i l , c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g may be f o u n d t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d f o r m f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , t h i s f o r m o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n may n o t be n e c e s s a r y . Y e t w i t h o u t s u c h d i s c u s s i o n , t e a c h e r s w i l l l i k e l y c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r a c t i n ways t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u l t u r a l n o r m s . 3. P r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e d m e e t i n g s . I n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s on t e a c h e r s a n d t o h e l p r a i s e t h e s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r s ' work o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m , t e a c h e r s may n e e d t o be g i v e n r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d r e l e a s e t i m e t o d i s c u s s c u r r i c u l a r a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t t e r s . T h i s w o u l d seem p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l when t e a c h e r s a r e e n g a g e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s more e x t e n s i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n . M e e t i n g s h e l d on a w e e k l y b a s i s , f o r e x a m p l e , may a l l o w t e a c h e r s t o c l a r i f y i n an o n g o i n g manner t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n a n d t o e n g a g e i n j o i n t 93 p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r p r o g r e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , such meetings might encourage t e a c h e r s t o c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and on the b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t u n d e r l i e t h e s e . In c o n t r a s t , monthly o r q u a r t e r l y meetings l i k e l y w i l l not c o u n t e r the i n f l u e n c e of the l a r g e r s c h o o l c u l t u r e on a t t e m p t s t o c o l l a b o r a t e more f o r m a l l y . 4. P r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h numerous p r a c t i c a l , c o n c r e t e i d e a s as w e l l as ample time t o d i s c u s s them and d e v e l o p t h e i r own. L i n k e d t o the seeming advantage of r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s t h e i r use of an i n n o v a t i o n assuming s u s t a i n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n , may be t h e need t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l , c o n c r e t e i d e a s t h a t t e x e m p l i f y t h i s . To ensure t h a t t h e s e i d e a s h e l p b r i n g c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g the i n n o v a t i o n ' s use, t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s the r e l e v a n c e of such i d e a s t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , f u r t h e r e x t e n d them i f d e s i r e d , and d e v e l o p new i d e a s of t h e i r own. Through the p r o v i s i o n of t a n g i b l e t e a c h i n g i d e a s and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s and c r e a t e m a t e r i a l s t h e m s e l v e s , i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t they may a l s o e x p l o r e v a r i o u s ways t o adapt the i n n o v a t i o n t o s u i t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . 94 5. Guarantee the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p p o r t . T e a c h e r s e n g a g e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g an i n n o v a t i o n t h a t assumes t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n may be f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n c l u d i n g c o n s u l t a n t s , p r o j e c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d t e a c h e r s f r o m o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s s u p p o r t may t a k e t h e f o r m o f a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s t o c l a r i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n an i n n o v a t i o n a n d t o s p e c i f y t h e i r r o l e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s may p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l i d e a s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n i t s e l f a n d t o ways t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s among t e a c h e r s may be e n h a n c e d . The r e a d y a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u c h a s s i s t a n c e may be p a r t i c u l a r l y e s s e n t i a l w i t h t h o s e i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t l a c k c o n c e p t u a l o r p r o c e d u r a l c l a r i t y . By w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who h a v e b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e a n d p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d t o an i n n o v a t i o n , t e a c h e r s may s e e k t o c l a r i f y t h o s e a s p e c t s t h a t m i g h t o t h e r w i s e r e m a i n a m b i g u o u s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h a s s i s t a n c e , t e a c h e r s may d i s r e g a r d one o r more ke y f e a t u r e s . D i r e c t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h N o t o n l y do t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s h i g h l i g h t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e e n g a g e d i n p l a n n i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an i n n o v a t i o n a s s u m i n g t e a c h e r 95 c o l l a b o r a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e y f l a g p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . E i g h t s u g g e s t i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d h e r e . 1. I n t e r v i e w t h o s e t e a c h e r s who c h o s e n o t t o c o l l a b o r a t e a r o u n d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r s a n d a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e why. C l o s e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r comments may p r o v i d e f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h o s e s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s c h o o l l i f e f o u n d t o d e t r a c t f r o m , r a t h e r t h a n p r o m o t e , t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . 2. E x p l o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g e n d e r , e t h n i c i t y , a g e , a n d / o r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e on t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r n o t e r e g a r d i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e seems t o be t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f g e n d e r a s t h e r e was e v i d e n c e i n t h i s s t u d y o f v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o m p u t e r i n t e r e s t a n d e x p e r t i s e among m a l e a n d f e m a l e t e a c h e r s . S i n c e c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s a r e l a t i o n a l i s s u e , g e n d e r may a l s o a c c o u n t f o r c e r t a i n o f t h e f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e d o c u m e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 3. E x t e n d t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l c o n t e x t , t o i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h o s e who p o s s e s s e x p e r t i s e t h a t o t h e r s l a c k . As " k e e p e r s o f k n o w l e d g e " , t h e s e t e a c h e r s may h a v e an i n v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n l i m i t i n g t h e amount o f s h a r i n g t h a t o c c u r s s i n c e t h i s e n s u r e s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o w i e l d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h o s e l a c k i n g s i m i l a r e x p e r t i s e . 96 4. Conduct a case study of two "collaborative" p a i r s : one exemplifying an "expert-novice" rel a t i o n s h i p and the other, a relationship among "peers". In doing so, the findings documented in t h i s study may be probed more extensively and an e f f o r t made to highlight other factors, such as gender, that either discourage or promote collaboration among teachers. 5. Compare and contrast the forms and patterns of teacher collaboration highlighted in t h i s study with those that emerge among teachers involved in team teaching. Give p a r t i c u l a r consideration to s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between the two in terms of prevalent structural and c u l t u r a l school conditions that lead to teacher i s o l a t i o n . 6. Examine teacher/administrator collaboration around computer use in a context of teacher i s o l a t i o n . Before proceeding, however, i t would seem necessary to confirm that administrators had an interest in teachers' using computers for a s p e c i f i c purpose. This would then ensure administrator involvement in at least some form of collaboration with those teachers attempting to incorporate computers into their program. Documentation of their collaboration might offe r additional insight on how an innovation i s adapted to f i t prevalent school conditions. 97 7. Assess the nature of student collaboration around computer use and seek to determine what s t r u c t u r a l and c u l t u r a l features of school l i f e may account for any recurring forms of collaboration. Consideration might also be given to the s p e c i f i c supports required i f students are expected to engage in substantive collaboration pertaining to matters of language and content, as opposed to a focus on computer-related concerns. 8. Pursue a study of teacher collaboration around computer use focusing on the second and/or t h i r d years of the innovation's implementation. Since the innovation began as an exploratory notion, i t can be expected to take two or more years to c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h what form i t w i l l ultimately assume in the s i t e where used. Thus, a follow-up study one might explore whether or not teacher collaboration i s di f f e r e n t than was documented here. As well, any additional conditions supportive of teacher collaboration, or on the contrary, any that have been withdrawn, should be considered in terms of the i r influence on what happens to an innovation that assumes some form of teacher collaboration in a context of teacher i s o l a t i o n . Concluding Remarks This study explored what happened when an innovation that assumed teachers would coordinate th e i r work around 98 c o m p u t e r u s e i n some way, was i m p l e m e n t e d i n a c o n t e x t o f t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n . The f o c u s was n o t on i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s . I n s t e a d , t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t y p i c a l l y p r e v a i l i n a s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o u n d t o o c c u r . E v e n t h o u g h t e a c h e r s ' may be g e n e r a l l y u n a w a r e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e e f f e c t s on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n t o accommodate t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t was u s e d , p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f a c u l t u r e p r o m o t i n g t e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n c o l l a b o r a t i o n . U n t i l t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e a l t e r e d , any e x p e c t a t i o n o f s u s t a i n e d t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n a n d m u t u a l p l a n n i n g , seems u n r e a l i s t i c . C e r t a i n l y , no s t r u c t u r a l o r c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n a l o n e c a n be s a i d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m s a n d p a t t e r n s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o u n d t o emerge t h r o u g h o n - s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n a n d t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s . H o w e v e r , t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o m b i n e d i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v a l e n t s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s s e r v e d t o s h a p e t h e f o r m s o f t e a c h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t emerged a r o u n d c o m p u t e r u s e w i t h ESL s t u d e n t s . 99 REFERENCES B a l l , S., & Lacey, C. 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