UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

"The war was a very vivid part of my life" : British Columbia school children and the Second World War Montgomery, Emilie L., 1961- 1991

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1991_A8 M66.pdf [ 10.12MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055227.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055227-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055227-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055227-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055227-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055227-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055227-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055227-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055227.ris

Full Text

"THE WAR WAS A VERY V I V I D PART OF MY L I F E " : B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR. By E M I L I E L. MONTGOMERY B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1991 © E m i l i e L. Mon t g o m e r y In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of tducdrar\ CtAvy!r,A luw $ ImW The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War o n t h e l i v e s o f B r i t i s h , C o l u m b i a s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I t e m p l o y s a v a r i e t y o f p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a d u l t s who, d u r i n g 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 5 , a t t e n d e d s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . War t i m e news a n d p r o p a g a n d a t h r o u g h s u c h means a s n e w s p a p e r , m o v i e s , n e w s r e e l s a n d r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s p e r m e a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . War i n f l u e n c e d t h e w h o l e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a n d e s p e c i a l l y l e d t o c h a n g e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . The w a r a l s o c r e a t e d a w i d e r a n g e o f w a r -r e l a t e d e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . War a l s o a l t e r e d t h e r o u t i n e o f c h i l d r e n s 1 d a i l y l i v e s . B l a c k o u t s , a i r r a i d d r i l l s , r a t i o n i n g , p r o s p e r i t y , p e o p l e i n u n i f o r m , f e a r o f i n v a s i o n , a n d l o v e d o n e s k i l l e d o v e r s e a s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o m a k i n g l i f e d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e e r a s t h a t p r e c e d e d a n d f o l l o w e d i t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I: CHILDREN AND THE MEDIA: PROPAGANDA IN WAR TIME 10 CHAPTER I I : THE WAR'S EFFECT ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL CURRICULUM 51 CHAPTER I I I : EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES: CHILDREN WORK FOR THE WAR EFFORT 109 CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION: "OUR LIVES WERE TERRIBLY DISLOCATED": THE WAR AND THE LIVES OF CHILDREN 157 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 205 I V L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. A t t e n d a n c e : V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l : 1939-1945.... 94 V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T h e r e a r e many p e o p l e t o thank f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e t o me d u r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h i n g and w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r T t h a n k my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , N e i l S u t h e r l a n d f o r h i s c o n s t a n t encouragement and f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g h i s v a s t knowledge and s k i l l s w h i c h s e r v e d ' a s a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n . I thank my committee members, Nancy Sheehan and R o i D a n i e l s f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and g u i d a n c e . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o th e i n t e r v i e w e e s who s h a r e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l memories w i t h me. I owe s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my husband f o r h i s p r a c t i c a l and s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . 1 INTRODUCTION I n S e p t e m b e r 1939 " h e s i t a n t l y a n d w i t h o u t e n t h u s i a s m " C a n a d i a n s a g a i n w e n t t o w a r . 1 A g e n e r a t i o n e a r l i e r C a n a d i a n s h a d c h e e r e d t h e p r o s p e c t o f w a r ; s i n g i n g "God S a v e t h e K i n g " a n d " R u l e B r i t a n n i a " a s t h e i r s o l d i e r s p a r a d e d t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s . T h e i r c h e e r s q u i c k l y t u r n e d t o c r i e s o f d e s p a i r ; t h e d e a t h l i s t s g r e w a s t h o u s a n d s u p o n t h o u s a n d s o f C a n a d i a n s w e r e k i l l e d . C a n a d i a n s w o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h e c a r n a g e o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War a s t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War r a g e d on f o r s i x l o n g y e a r s . C a n a d a was s t i l l a t p e a c e when B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e d e c l a r e d w a r , 3 S e p t e m b e r 1939. B e g i n n i n g on 7 S e p t e m b e r , a s p e c i a l t h r e e d a y C a n a d i a n p a r l i a m e n t a r y "war s e s s i o n " was h e l d . M a c k e n z i e K i n g s t a t e d a t t h i s s e s s i o n : "We s t a n d f o r t h e d e f e n c e o f C a n a d a ; we s t a n d f o r t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s c o u n t r y a t t h e s i d e o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . . . " 2 K i n g a l s o r e p e a t e d h i s M a r c h 1939 p l e d g e a g a i n s t c o n s c r i p t i o n f o r o v e r s e a s m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . He knew a n e l e c t i o n w o u l d s o o n be c a l l e d a n d h i s L i b e r a l P a r t y d e p e n d e d o n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s f o r v o t e s . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s h a d made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e y h a d no d e s i r e t o go t o war f o r B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t v o t e d t o j o i n t h e war a g a i n s t Germany a n d on 10 S e p t e m b e r 1939, K i n g G e o r g e V I s i g n e d t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n . Once C a n a d a d e c l a r e d war 58,337 men a n d women e n l i s t e d a s v o l u n t e e r s . T h o u s a n d s o f C a n a d i a n s , u n e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e G r e a t 2 D e p r e s s i o n , l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o d a i l y p a y , t h r e e s q u a r e m e a l s a n d a warm u n i f o r m . By 1940, t h e w o r l d was s h o c k e d ; H i t l e r c o n t r o l l e d w e s t e r n E u r o p e a n d F r a n c e . The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t , i n J u n e 1940, p a s s e d a b i l l known a s t h e N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s M o b i l i z a t i o n A c t . I t a l l o w e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t h e power t o m o b i l i z e t h e more t h a n 8,000,000 C a n a d i a n s o v e r t h e age o f 16 t o d e f e n d o n C a n a d i a n s o i l a n d i n t e r r i t o r i a l w a t e r s . C o n s c r i p t s , known a s t h e "R" r e c r u i t s t o g e t h e r w i t h v o l u n t e e r s c a l l e d t h e "A" r e c r u i t s w e n t t h r o u g h f o u r m o n t h s o f t r a i n i n g i n camps a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . Y o u n g men a n d women w e r e j o i n i n g up i n g r e a t numbers, t h e p l a n was t o t r a i n 2 4 0 ,000 C a n a d i a n s a y e a r . Unemployment v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d by A p r i l o f 1941 a n d e v e r y f a c t o r y i n Canada i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n , " t h e g r o w t h i n w a r i n d u s t r y was p h e n o m e n a l . " 3 I t seemed a s i f e v e r y man, woman a n d c h i l d was b u s y a n d p r o s p e r i n g . O v e r s e a s t h e p i c t u r e was n o t a s b r i g h t f o r C a n a d i a n s . Many C a n a d i a n s l o s t t h e i r l i v e s f i g h t i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. I n 1940 members o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e f l e w i n t h e B a t t l e o f B r i t a i n , a n d some w e r e k i l l e d . I n 1941 J a p a n a t t a c k e d t h e Crown C o l o n y o f Hong K o n g and C a n a d i a n s f o u g h t t o d e f e n d h e r . I n t h e summer o f 1942, C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e m e n l e f t f o r D i e p p e a n d many l o s t t h e i r l i v e s i n " t e n h o u r s o f u n a d u l t e r a t e d h e l l " . 4 C a n a d i a n s c o n t i n u e d t o f i g h t b r a v e l y i n many b a t t l e s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n v a s i o n s o f N o r t h A f r i c a i n November 1942; S i c i l y a n d I t a l y i n 1 9 4 3 ; a n d D-Day i n F r a n c e i n 1944. C a n a d i a n t r o o p s a g a i n s u f f e r e d l o s s e s i n t h e b a t t l e o f S c h e l d t n e a r A n t w e r p , B e l g i u m . By F e b r u a r y 1945 t h e 9 t h C a n a d i a n I n f a n t r y B r i g a d e m a r c h e d t h r o u g h " t h e S i e g f r i e d L i n e " w e s t o f t h e R h i n e r i v e r i n G e r m a n y . 5 I n A p r i l 1 9 4 5, when s u r r e n d e r n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e u n d e r way t h e 3 f i g h t i n g f i n a l l y c e a s e d a n d on 7 May t h e war i n E u r o p e was o v e r . C a n a d i a n f o r c e s w e r e e x p e c t i n g t o f i g h t i n t h e P a c i f i c t h e a t r e o f war b u t t h o s e p l a n s c h a n g e d . The P a c i f i c w ar e n d e d o n 14 A u g u s t 1 9 4 5 , s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e a t o m i c b o m b i n g o f H i r o s h i m a a n d N a g a s a k i . The r o l e t h a t c h i l d r e n p l a y e d i n t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War h a s n o t r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n i n h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s . The p u r p o s e o f my t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t s i x y e a r s o f w o r l d c o n f l i c t h a d o n t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c h i l d r e n c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e w a r on t h e home f r o n t . C h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s f r o m n e w s r e e l s a n d f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d ' s Canada C a r r i e s On a n d W o r l d i n  A c t i o n s e r i e s . T h e y c h e e r e d a s t h e i r f a v o u r i t e a c t o r s f o u g h t t h e h a t e d N a z i s a n d J a p a n e s e on t h e m o v i e s c r e e n . T h e y f o l l o w e d t h e news o n t h e r a d i o a n d i n t h e n e w s p a p e r s . T h e y s a n g "God S a v e t h e K i n g " a n d , a t s c h o o l , s a l u t e d t h e U n i o n J a c k a n d p l e d g e d t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o B r i t a i n a n d t o t h e K i n g . T h e y s t u d i e d t h e w a r i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s a n d i n t h e i r s c h o o l b o o k s a n d w e r e t a u g h t t h a t t h e i d e a l s o f d e m o c r a c y w o u l d c o n q u e r N a z i t y r a n n y . Many c h i l d r e n h o n e d t h e i r t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o s e r v e i n t h e w a r i n d u s t r i e s , w h i l e o t h e r s d r i l l e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l ' s c a d e t c o r p s i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h e s e r v i c e . T h e y made e x t r a money w o r k i n g , a f t e r s c h o o l a n d on w e e k e n d s , i n s h i p y a r d s a n d f a c t o r i e s a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e war e f f o r t by p u r c h a s i n g War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . T h e y a l s o r a i s e d f u n d s , c o l l e c t e d b o t t l e s , c a n s , f o i l , f a t a n d b o n e s a n d t h e y w o r k e d t i r e l e s s l y f o r t h e C a n a d i a n J u n i o r R e d C r o s s . T h e y e x p e r i e n c e d t h e c h a n g e s t h a t t h e war b r o u g h t t o t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . T h e y l e a r n e d n o t t o t a k e t h i n g s l i k e c h o c o l a t e a n d 4 i c e cream for granted as certain foods were rationed and items l i k e toys and bicycles were hard to come by. Many children were forced to look a f t e r the household when both parents went to work for the war e f f o r t . They were frightened or excited by the a i r r a i d d r i l l s and the blackouts, they list e n e d to the t a l k of invasion and t r i e d to understand why t h e i r Japanese Canadian friends and neighbours had been taken away. They said goodbye to friends and r e l a t i v e s leaving for overseas service and watched the death l i s t s i n the newspapers as they hoped for t h e i r safe return. Many of these children never saw t h e i r loved ones again and suffered the great loss that the Second World War i n f l i c t e d . To learn about children's experiences during the Second World War, I asked adults to t e l l me what they could remember. Thus, using excerpts from these interviews throughout my thesis I add the dimension of f e e l i n g to that part of my narrative derived from t r a d i t i o n a l sources. As N e i l Sutherland argues i n h i s a r t i c l e on employing the memories of adults to recapture t h e i r childhoods, " I f we are ever to get 'inside' childhood experiences, then we must ask adults to r e c a l l how they thought, f e l t and experienced t h e i r growing up." 6 "I remember I was crying", one of the interviewees t o l d me, "I was so a f r a i d of H i t l e r . " 7 Another discussed the bombing of Hiroshima and shared what he remembered f e e l i n g at the time: "I had kind of mixed fe e l i n g s : pride on the one hand of the Canadian involvement, I remember f e e l i n g that, I guess two to three days afterward i t started to sink in...and saying to myself 'I don't think they should have done i t . ' " 8 People remember both unique events and the pattern of 5 r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . They o f t e n o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n s i f t h e s e ' r e c u r r e n t e v e n t s ' i n t o what some d e s c r i b e as ' s c r i p t s ' o r •schemas'. When p e o p l e r e c a l l t h e r e g u l a r i t i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as g o i n g t o s c h o o l , p l a y i n g a game, o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s ' m e altime t h e y remember not each i n d i v i d u a l t r i p t o s c h o o l o r game o r meal but a g e n e r a l i z e d v e r s i o n , o r s c r i p t , o f t h e s e e v e n t s . D u r i n g t h e Second World War t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e o f p e o p l e s ' l i f e , t h e i r s c r i p t s , were a l t e r e d by t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g e v e n t s o f t h e war. The s c r i p t s o f t y p i c a l s c h o o l days were a b r u p t l y changed by t h e a d d i t i o n o f new a c t i v i t i e s : r o l l i n g bandages f o r t h e Red C r o s s ; b u y i n g War S a v i n g s Stamps; m a r c h i n g i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d , w e a r i n g a u n i f o r m and c a r r y i n g a r i f l e . The memories o f t h e weekly S a t u r d a y matinee movies were a l t e r e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e d r a m a t i c n e w s r e e l s showing Canadians a t war. I n t e r v i e w e e s d e s c r i b e d , w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e r e g u l a r s c r i p t s o f d a i l y l i f e , s i x y e a r s o f new e x p e r i e n c e s . The changes t h a t t h e war broug h t a l t e r e d t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e i r d a i l y l i f e and were remembered v i v i d l y . One i n t e r v i e w e e r e c o u n t e d a memory o f t h e war as " t h e l i g h t s on t h e s t r e e t s would go o u t and we would have t o p u l l down t h e shades a t home and on t h e s t r e e t c a r s . " 9 To a n o t h e r , t h e change was s i m p l y " t h e r e were some t h i n g s you c o u l d n o t g e t and i c e cream was among them." 1 0 C h i l d r e n cannot always e x p l a i n how t h e y f e e l . They a r e sometimes s c a r e d , unsure o r s i m p l y i n d i f f e r e n t . A d u l t s , however, can communicate t h e i r remembered f e e l i n g s more e f f e c t i v e l y . An a d u l t t e l l s us t h a t "We went down...to t r y t o v i s i t and we saw t h e Japanese i n s i d e t h e compound. They had s t r u n g b a rbed w i r e up around t h e t o p o f t h e w i r e f e n c e . We l e a n e d our b i k e s a g a i n s t t h e 6 f e n c e a n d t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d come o v e r a n d s p i t o n u s . " T h i s was a memory d e s c r i b e d , q u i t e d i s t i n c t l y , by a n i n t e r v i e w e e . He t h e n c o n t i n u e s o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t e d h i s f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h i s e v e n t , s h a r i n g a n i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n o f h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n : "We n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d , t h e y w e r e a s f r i g h t e n e d a s we w e r e . . . " 1 1 The e v e n t i s r e c o u n t e d , some m i g h t a r g u e , t h r o u g h a h a z e o f o t h e r s u c c e e d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T h a t same i n t e r v i e w e e may h a v e , o v e r t h e y e a r s , d i s c u s s e d t h e e v e n t w i t h o t h e r s , l i s t e n e d t o o p i n i o n s f r o m t h e m e d i a , t a l k e d t o a n i n t e r n e d J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n , o r r e a d b o o k s on t h e s u b j e c t . H i s memory h a s b e e n a f f e c t e d b y t i m e a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e v e r y s h a p e o f h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n may h a v e c h a n g e d , a s he h a s . Y e t t h e o r i g i n a l e v e n t o c c u r r e d o n c e , i t was r e a l , a n d i t i s s t i l l d i s c e r n i b l e . A t t h i s p o i n t one must a s k how r e l i a b l e a r e t h e s e m e m o r i e s , a n d how i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e p a s t a r e t h e y ? The p r o b l e m s w i t h u s i n g a d u l t m e m o r i e s o f t h e i r c h i l d h o o d a r e t w o f o l d : F i r s t , "memory i s f a l l i b l e ; e v e n t s may be f o r g o t t e n o r t r a n s f o r m e d w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e . " 1 2 However v i v i d some m e m o r i e s a r e t h e y a r e n o t a l w a y s a c c u r a t e . S e c o n d , memory i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o e v o k e i t . When i n t e r v i e w i n g a d u l t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e m e m o r i e s t h e y r e c o u n t c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n v o l u n t a r y . T h e y a r e r e q u e s t e d t o r e c a l l e v e n t s a n d m u s t do s o u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w i t h an i n t e r v i e w e r c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h a n d t a k i n g n o t e s . A f e w o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t i n t e r v i e w e e s n a r r a t e d t o me w e r e f a l l i b l e ; t h e y d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h known f a c t s . A few t o l d s t o r i e s t h a t s o u n d e d w e l l r e h e a r s e d . A f e w d i d n o t w a n t t o t a l k a b o u t c e r t a i n t h i n g s s u c h a s t h e w a r t i m e b l a c k m a r k e t , a nd one i n t e r v i e w e e , f o r p e r s o n a l 7 r e a s o n s , d i d n o t w a n t t o t a l k much a t a l l . I i n t e r v i e w e d f i f t e e n a d u l t s who h a d a t t e n d e d s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. S e v e n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s w e r e f e m a l e and e i g h t w e r e m a l e s . T h e i r a g e s r a n g e d f r o m b e i n g i n p r i m a r y g r a d e s d u r i n g t h e war r i g h t t h r o u g h t o h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . F i v e i n t e r v i e w e e s h a d g r o w n up i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f t h e w e s t s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r , t h r e e w e r e f r o m t h e e a s t s i d e , two f r o m t h e w e s t e n d a n d one f r o m t h e N o r t h S h o r e . One i n t e r v i e w e e was f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and t h r e e o t h e r s w e r e f r o m O l i v e r , T r a i l a n d N e l s o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n a d d i t i o n I u t i l i z e d a s e l e c t i o n o f e x c e r p t s f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y f i v e i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e C a n a d i a n C h i l d h o o d H i s t o r y P r o j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d h o o d s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s d i f f e r e d i n l o c a l e , c l a s s , g e n d e r , r e l i g i o s i t y a n d e t h n i c i t y , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War came t o g e t h e r a r o u n d c e r t a i n t h e m e s . I n t e r v i e w s w e r e h e l d e i t h e r i n t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s home o r o f f i c e a n d t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d t w o h o u r s . I b e g a n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h a s h o r t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d a n o f f e r t o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t i t . I s u p p o r t e d e a c h i n t e r v i e w w i t h a w r i t t e n summary o f t h e p r o j e c t . I n t h e i n t e r v i e w I was a b l e t o r e f e r t o a l i s t o f t o p i c s t h a t I h o p e d w o u l d be c o v e r e d . I b e g a n e a c h i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n : "What do y o u remember a b o u t g r o w i n g up d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War?" The i n t e r v i e w e e u s u a l l y p r o c e e d e d w i t h o u t f u r t h e r p r o m p t i n g . Once t h e i n t e r v i e w b e g a n , a n d i f p r o m p t i n g was n e c e s s a r y I made comments s u c h a s : "What do y o u remember o f war w o r k a t s c h o o l ? ; What f o r m s o f m e d i a w e r e y o u e x p o s e d t o ? " T h i s p r o m p t i n g was u s e d o n l y t o w a r d s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s o a s n o t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s 8 " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a s t . " 1 3 A s S u t h e r l a n d e x p l a i n s f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , t h e most e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w s "meant l e t t i n g s i l e n c e s go o n u n t i l t h e i n t e r v i e w e e f e l t t h e n e e d t o f i l l t h e m . . . P e o p l e s h i f t f r o m d e s c r i b i n g e v e n t s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e i r f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e m . " 1 4 I n w h a t f o l l o w s I e m p l o y t h e s e m e m o r i e s t o e x p a n d o n f a c t s a n d e n l i g h t e n o r i n f o r m t h e r e a d e r w i t h a s e n s e o f i n t i m a c y . To d e t e r m i n e t h e t o l l t h a t t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t o o k o n C a n a d i a n s , on e m i g h t e x a m i n e w o r l d o r C a n a d i a n w o r l d h i s t o r y . A n o t h e r s o u r c e m i g h t be a n i n t e r v i e w e e r e c o u n t i n g h i s c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e o r s i m p l y , 'one man's h i s t o r y ' . T h us t h e f a c t s d r a w n f r o m a g e n e r a l h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e t h a t a t t h e end o f t h e war i n E u r o p e 2,2 04 members o f t h e C a n a d i a n Navy w e r e k i l l e d i n a c t i o n , 17,101 i n t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e a n d 22,917 i n t h e a r m y . 1 5 I n t h i s c o n t e x t a n i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d , " t h e war d i d t o u c h a l l t h e f a m i l i e s i n my s c h o o l . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d was d r a s t i c a l l y t o u c h e d , a l o t o f f a m i l i e s l o s t t h e i r s o n s . " 1 6 My t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r s 'one man's h i s t o r y ' w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f w o r l d h i s t o r y . 9 1. J . L . G r a n a t s t e i n a n d Desmond M o r t o n , A N a t i o n F o r g e d i n F i r e :  C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War 1939-1945 ( T o r o n t o : L e s t e r & O r p e n D e n n y s , 1 9 8 9 ) , 1. 2. I b i d . , 10. 3 . I b i d . , 36. 4. I b i d . , 51 a n d 53. 5. I b i d . , 232 . 6. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , "When You L i s t e n t o t h e W i n d s o f C h i l d h o o d What Do Y o u H e a r ? , " u n p u b l i s h e d , 22. 7. F 1 0 1 3 - 4 / 5 . A s a n o n y m i t y was g u a r a n t e e d t o a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s I a s s i g n e d a 4 d i g i t c o d e number t o e a c h , p r e c e d e d b y F f o r f e m a l e a n d M f o r m a l e . The numbers f o l l o w i n g t h e d a s h r e f e r t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p a g e s o f my i n t e r v i e w n o t e s . 8. M1015-6 9. F1 0 0 5 - 1 / 2 10. M1015-5 11 . M1010-3 12. S u t h e r l a n d , "When You L i s t e n , " 5. 13. I b i d . , 4 2 . 14. I b i d . 15. J . L . G r a n a t s t e i n , C a n a d a ' s War The P o l i t i c s o f t h e M a c k e n z i e  K i n g G o v e r n m e n t , 1939-1945 ( T o r o n t o , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , 4 2 0 . 16. M1010-6 CHAPTER I CHILDREN AND THE MEDIA: PROPAGANDA I N WAR TIME To f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e war t h e c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d o n l y t o g l a n c e a t a n e w s p a p e r , w a l k i n t o a m o v i e t h e a t r e , o r t u r n o n t h e r a d i o . I n f o r m a t i o n was i n a b u n d a n c e , e v e n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . One i n t e r v i e w e e s t a t e d : " A l l t h e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w e r e f r o m t h e m e d i a . I t h i n k i n t e r m s o f i m p a c t t h e n e w s r e e l s w e r e b i g g e s t f o r me, b u t t h e n e w s p a p e r a n d r a d i o w e r e a l s o t h e r e . " 1 A s w a r t i m e i s a t i m e o f s e c r e c y , a t i m e o f c r i s i s , i n f o r m a t i o n must be c a r e f u l l y c e n s o r e d . D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t h e g o v e r n m e n t k e p t a w a t c h f u l e y e o v e r t h e m e d i a . News was c e n s o r e d t o p r o t e c t C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e i r a l l i e s a n d t o m a i n t a i n m o r a l e . T h i s was s e e n a s a n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e by some, o t h e r s f e l t i t was p u r e p r o p a g a n d a . "...The t r u t h a b o u t a n y t h i n g was a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e c r e t " , w r o t e o n c e w a r c o r r e s p o n d e n t J o h n S t e i n b e c k , "and t h a t t o t r i f l e w i t h i t was t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e w a r e f f o r t . . . t h e p u b l i c [was] c a r e f u l l y p r o t e c t e d f r o m c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c r a z y , h y s t e r i c a l m e s s . " 2 Sam K e e n , i n h i s b o ok a b o u t t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f e n m i t y , d e f i n e s p r o p a g a n d a a s t h e p r o d u c t o f h a t r e d . P r o p a g a n d a p r e s e n t s w a r i n s u c h a way a s t o c r e a t e t h e c o n c e p t o f " t h e enemy". The enemy i s t h e a g g r e s s o r , t h e s t r a n g e r , t h e b a r b a r i a n . P r o p a g a n d a i d e n t i f i e s t h e enemy a s one who c o m m i t s m u r d e r a n d e n j o y s i t , a n d a l l o w s t h e v i c t i m t o be j u s t i f i e d i n k i l l i n g b y s t r a t e g i c v i o l e n c e . 3 S i n c e H i t l e r was s u c h a " p e r f e c t d e v i l i n c a r n a t e , a p a r a g o n o f e v i l . . . " , i t was n o t h a r d t o u s e h i m a n d a l l he s t o o d f o r a s t h e enemy. 4 T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n amount o f d e h u m a n i z a t i o n t h a t m u s t o c c u r f o r p r o p a g a n d a t o w o r k s u c c e s s f u l l y . D e h u m a n i z a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e t h e enemy i s c h a n g e d f r o m a p e r s o n i n t o a n i d e a . P r o p a g a n d a must make o u r k i l l i n g seem g o o d , t h e i r s seem b a d , t o s u c c e e d i n d e h u m a n i z a t i o n . S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t i m e war h a s b e e n r e g a r d e d by many a a h e r o i c a n d n o b l e a c t , a c o n t e s t o r game. The C a n a d i a n m e d i a p r e s e n t e d t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t o t h e p e o p l e a s s u c h a n a c t . B o m b i n g s a n d b a t t l e s o f t h e A l l i e s w e r e d e p i c t e d a s f a n t a s t i c f e a t s o f b r a v e r y . E a c h enemy d e s t r o y e d was a n o t h e r s t e p t o w a r d s g l o r i o u s v i c t o r y . S c e n e s o f b o m b i n g s i n B r i t a i n w e r e s w i f t l y f o l l o w e d b y a p o r t r a y a l o f j u s t i f i e d A l l i e d r e t a l i a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e w a r P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g made i n f o r m a t i o n a p r i o r i t y . He w a n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o be more t h a n " w o r d s on w a r e v e n t s . . . t o h a v e p r o p a g a n d a a s a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m e d i a f o r t h e p u r p o s e . " 5 What t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e saw, h e a r d a n d r e a d was c a r e f u l l y c e n s o r e d a s m o r a l e h a d t o be m a i n t a i n e d f o r s i x l o n g y e a r s . One man r e c o u n t e d " T h e r e w a s n ' t much j o v i a l i t y i n i t . Y o u w e r e n ' t g o i n g o f f t o s e e t h e w o r l d , i t w a s n ' t t h e k i n d o f p r o p a g a n d a i t i s t o d a y , we w e r e j u s t s e r v i n g o u r c o u n t r y . I t was t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , b u t i t w a s n ' t d e p r e s s i n g e i t h e r . " 6 C i t i z e n s h a d t o b e i n s p i r e d t o w o r k h a r d f o r t h e war e f f o r t , t o r e a c h d e e p i n t o t h e i r p o c k e t s a n d , i f y o u n g a n d f i t e n o u g h , j o i n t h e f i g h t i n g f o r c e s o f g o o d . G o v e r n m e n t p r o p a g a n d a was c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d t o i n s p i r e , w a r n , g o a d , a n d e v e n shame C a n a d i a n s o n t h e home f r o n t . 12 C l e a r l y a s t h e war p r o g r e s s e d t h e s t r u g g l e t o b e a t f a s c i s m became e v e r y o n e ' s f i g h t . I n C a n a d a , p r o p a g a n d a s i m p l y became t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d y weapon, w h i c h was w i e l d e d , i n p a r t , by t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n d u s t r y . U n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f i t s W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , [ W I B ] , t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o n d u c t e d o p i n i o n p o l l s , d e v i s e d p o s t e r c a m p a i g n s , l a u n c h e d V i c t o r y Bond d r i v e s a n d t r i e d c e a s e l e s s l y t o c o n v i n c e p e o p l e o f t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f t h e w a r . Many c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e war b y r e a d i n g n e w s p a p e r s a t home o r i n s c h o o l . One f e l l o w r e c a l l e d " I d e l i v e r e d t h e p a p e r s o I c o u l d n ' t h e l p b u t r e a d t h e f r o n t p a g e e v e r y d a y . . . O n c e t h e war was o n we r e a d t h e p a p e r e v e r y d a y . " 7 The n e w s p a p e r h e a d l i n e s t o l d o f w a r , d e a t h a n d h a t e f o r t h e enemy. "Canada i s Now i n S t a t e o f War" s t a t e d t h e V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e o n 7 S e p t e m b e r 1939. O t h e r h e a d l i n e s r e a d "Ten G i r l s D i e a s N a z i s Bomb Warsaw Camp", a n d "1000 P a s s e n g e r s o f T o r p e d o e d A t h e n i a a r e R e s c u e d . Many P e r s o n s f r o m V a n c o u v e r F e a r e d A b o a r d S u n k e n V e s s e l . " 8 C r i e s f o r v i c t o r y a l s o came f r o m t h e n e w s p a p e r s . The N e w s - H e r a l d p r o c l a i m e d , o n 15 A u g u s t 1945, "WAR ENDS; TODAY I S V - J DAY", t o g e t h e r w i t h "Whole P r o v i n c e Goes W i l d O v e r F i n a l V i c t o r y . " 9 R o s s M u n r o , a famous c o r r e s p o n d e n t w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n P r e s s , commented on h i s j o b a s a j o u r n a l i s t : " I was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e war c o m p l e t e l y a n d u t t e r l y , r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t . Maybe i t was j i n g o i s m , c h a u v i n i s m , a n d s t u p i d i t y , b u t we f e l t t h a t t h e Germans w e r e g o i n g t o w r e c k t h i s w o r l d o f o u r s a n d t h a t we w o u l d h a v e t o s t o p t h e m . " 1 0 One woman s t a t e d : " I r e a d t h e n e w s p a p e r , r e a d t h e w a r n e w s . " 1 1 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e c l a r e d : " t h e war...was i n t h e n e w s p a p e r e v e r y d a y . " 1 2 She a l s o r e c a l l e d t h e s e n s e o f f o r e b o d i n g t h a t came w i t h e a c h h e a d l i n e : " B e f o r e t h e w a r s t a r t e d 13 I c a n remember t h e t e n s i o n t h a t came w i t h t h e h e a d l i n e s . . . T h e n i g h t t h a t w a r was d e c l a r e d , e v e r y o n e was t a l k i n g i n h u s h e d v o i c e s . " 1 3 N e w s p a p e r s w e r e s o k e e n on war r e p o r t i n g t h a t one i n t e r v i e w e e s t a t e d : " I remember w o n d e r i n g w h a t on e a r t h t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o p u t i n t h e n e w s p a p e r a f t e r t h e war was o v e r . T h e r e w e r e s o many p i c t u r e s a n d maps an d t h i n g s a b o u t t h e w a r e v e r y d a y . " 1 4 L a t e r o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e p i c t u r e s , maps a n d a r t i c l e s , w e r e t h e s o m b r e , d a i l y ' d e a t h l i s t s ' . One woman reme m b e r e d , w i t h s a d n e s s : "The w a r became r e a l f o r u s when we w o u l d come home e v e r y d a y a n d r e a d t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t s i n t h e p a p e r . We r e a d a b o u t p e o p l e b e i n g k i l l e d . " 1 5 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d " e v e r y n i g h t we c h e c k e d t h e n e w s p a p e r . I t l i s t e d t h o s e who w e r e m i s s i n g i n a c t i o n . We c h e c k e d t o s e e , a n d s u r e e n o u g h we knew a n a m e . " 1 6 One man e x p l a i n e d t h a t when he " s t a r t e d t o r e a d t h e p a p e r more i t was a l w a y s ; p l a n e s s h o t down, s h i p s s a n k , t w o h u n d r e d p e o p l e k i l l e d , a l w a y s v e r y s a d . " 1 7 " I t was u s u a l l y b a d news", r e f l e c t e d one woman, when t h e r e w e r e " p a p e r b o y s g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s s h o u t i n g ' E x t r a ! E x t r a ! ' " . 1 8 P i c t u r e s a n d c o p y w e r e c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n t o e l i c i t e m o t i o n i n r e a d e r s . One p a p e r a n n o u n c e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w a r b y p r i n t i n g a p i c t u r e o f Queen E l i z a b e t h c a r r y i n g a g a s mask o v e r h e r s h o u l d e r . 1 9 One man remembered h i s m o t h e r s e e i n g "a p i c t u r e o f a d e a d s o l d i e r l a y i n g i n t h e snow, my m o t h e r was c r y i n g a n d s a y i n g t h a t p o o r b o y i s d e a d . " 2 0 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " H i t l e r was s p o k e n o f . . . a s a mad man o r e v i l . We saw, i n t h e news, h i s a t r o c i t i e s a n d i t was t h e same w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e , t h e i r p r i s o n e r o f w a r camps w e r e h o r r i b l e and we saw t h i s t o o . " 2 1 The same i n t e r v i e w e e a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e d e h u m a n i z i n g e f f e c t t h e n e w s p a p e r s c o u l d h a v e on i t s r e a d e r s . "We b e g a n t o s e e t h e p i c t u r e s o f t h e wa r i n t h e news a n d . . . t h e a t r o c i t i e s o f Hong K o n g , a n d how o u r b o y s w e r e b e i n g t r e a t e d t h e r e . S e n t i m e n t t u r n e d a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e a t t h a t t i m e . " 2 2 " I do remember t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e Atom bomb a t t a c k s on H i r o s h i m a a n d N a g a s a k i " , d e c l a r e d o ne man, " t h a t was b i g news. I remember s i t t i n g w i t h a n e w s p a p e r a n d r e a d i n g t h e r e p o r t o f i t . " 2 3 Many c h i l d r e n saw t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e n e w s p a p e r a s v i v i d d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s . One man e x p l a i n e d t h a t when he saw " t h e p r o f o u n d p i c t u r e s o f t h e d a m a g e . . . t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s b e g a n t o a f f e c t me." 2 4 One woman e x p l a i n e d : " I was s o a f r a i d o f H i t l e r . I h a d s e e n h i s p i c t u r e . . . i n t h e n e w s . " 2 5 Remembering H i r o s h i m a a n i n t e r v i e w e e d e c l a r e d : "The h o r r o r o f wh a t t h e y a c t u a l l y h a d d o n e d i d n ' t h i t u s u n t i l we saw t h e p i c t u r e s . . . " 2 6 "The p a p e r s showed p i c t u r e s o f t h e K i n g a n d Queen b e i n g t h e r e a f t e r t h e bombs", r e c a l l e d one woman who was " v e r y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h a t . " 2 7 M o t i o n p i c t u r e s a n d n e w s r e e l s a l s o a f f e c t e d t h o s e who saw t h e m , a n d many d i d : " C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e y e a r s c l e a r l y v a l u e m o t i o n p i c t u r e s a b o v e a l l o t h e r f o r m s o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . " 2 8 "We l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e war i n t h e m o v i e s " , d e c l a r e d o n e i n t e r v i e w e e , " m o v i e s w e r e t h e m a i n s o u r c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . We w e n t t o t h e m o v i e s a l l t h e t i m e , S a t u r d a y m a t i n e e s . " 2 9 A n o t h e r f e l l o w r e c o u n t e d "My d a d g a v e me t e n c e n t s a week, w h i c h was e n o u g h t o go t o a m o v i e . I saw l o t s o f m o v i e s . . . T h e r e w e r e u s u a l l y t w o shows a n d i n b e t w e e n t h e y h a d t h e M o v i e Tone News, a n e w s r e e l . . . a n d e v e r y k i d knew t h e theme t o M o v i e Tone N e w s . " 3 0 A n o t h e r " u s u a l l y w e n t t o t h e m o v i e s t h r e e t i m e s a week, i f t h e r e was a new m o v i e , we we n t t o s e e i t . " One i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d a w e e k l y r i t u a l : " T h e r e w e r e two m o v i e s , f i r s t a c a r t o o n , t h e n t h e n e w s r e e l s . " 3 2 Y e t a n o t h e r r e c a l l e d : "When y o u w e n t t o s e e a f i l m y o u g o t a n e w s r e e l t h e n a c a r t o o n t h e n t h e m o v i e s . " 3 3 C h i l d r e n w a t c h e d a n d l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e war f r o m a w i d e v a r i e t y o f f i l m s . E v e n t h e more f r i v o l o u s w ar m o v i e s made t h e war seem a p p e a l i n g . One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d : "The m o v i e s w e r e v e r y p o s i t i v e , v e r y e x c i t i n g . . . O u r s i d e was a l w a y s v e r y p o s i t i v e , i t was p r o p a g a n d a . " 3 4 A n o t h e r woman r e c a l l e d " t h i n k i n g i t w o u l d be f u n t o b e o l d eno u g h t o w o r k i n t h e c a n t e e n s . I saw t h a t i n t h e m o v i e s . . . S t a g e D o o r C a n t e e n . " 3 5 Remembering t h e s u p e r f i c i a l w a r t i m e f i l m s , one man d e c l a r e d " r e a l l y t h e y w e r e : G i n g e r R o g e r s a n d A b b o t t a n d C o s t e l l o go t o w a r . " 3 6 A n o t h e r r emembered " A b b o t t a n d C o s t e l l o , e n t e r t a i n m e n t a l o n g t h e l i g h t e r v e i n . . . e s c a p i s t t y p e o n e s ; B i n g C r o s b y , Bob Hope. T h e y l e a n e d h e a v i l y on t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s i d e ; h a p p y , u p b e a t m o v i e s . " He r a t i o n a l i z e d t h i s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e t i m e p e r i o d : " I g u e s s t h e y f i g u r e d we h a d eno u g h war a l l d a y a n d we n e e d e d a l a u g h . 1 , 3 7 M o v i e s a l s o c o n v e y e d t h e i r message b y t u g g i n g a t t h e h e a r t s o f y o u n g a n d o l d a l i k e . F i l m h e r o e s d e a l t w i t h t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s w i t h i n s p i r a t i o n a l c o u r a g e . T h i s i s n o t o n l y a war o f s o l d i e r s i n u n i f o r m , i t i s a w a r o f t h e p e o p l e a n d i t must be f o u g h t , n o t o n l y o n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d , b u t i n t h e c i t i e s a n d i n t h e v i l l a g e s , i n t h e f a c t o r i e s a n d on t h e f a r m s , i n t h e home a n d i n t h e h e a r t o f e v e r y man, woman a n d c h i l d who l o v e s f r e e d o m . 3 8 T h i s d i a l o g u e was s p o k e n i n t h e famous m o t i o n p i c t u r e M r s . M i n i v e r . T h i s w ar t i m e f i l m f a v o u r i t e p o r t r a y e d a woman " c o p i n g s o c o u r a g e o u s l y i n h e r s u b u r b a n L o n d o n home d u r i n g t h e b l i t z . . . " 3 9 A u t h o r , M a r y P e a t e w r o t e a b o u t t h e m o v i e s d u r i n g t h e w a r : "[we] c o u l d n ' t h o l d b a c k t h e t e a r s . . . w e g i r l s u s u a l l y w a t c h e d w a r f i l m s i n s i l e n c e , t h e o n l y s o u n d s f r o m u s b e i n g o u r r a g g e d s o b s a n d d i s c r e e t n o s e - b l o w i n g . " 4 0 One i n t e r v i e w e e r e c a l l e d " c r y i n g b u c k e t s o f t e a r s o v e r M r s . M i n i v e r . " 4 1 One man h a d a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n o f t h e s e m o v i e s : "The m o v i e s w e r e a l l t e a r y m o v i e s , M r s . M i n i v e r . r e a l l y d r e a d f u l m o v i e s . " 4 2 R e m e m b e r i n g t h e m o v i e s o f t h e war and t h e i r m e s s a g e s o f p a t r i o t i s m a n d h e r o i s m one woman c o n c l u d e d : M o s t m o v i e s w e r e : boy m e e t s g i r l , t h e y g e t m a r r i e d , a n d he g o e s o f f t o w a r . . . Y o u n e v e r knew i f he came b a c k , y o u w e r e h a p p y t h a t t h e y g o t m a r r i e d a n d he went o f f t o w a r , t h a t was t h e h a p p y e n d i n g . I f someone was k i l l e d i n t h e w a r i t was n e v e r t h e h e r o , a l w a y s t h e l e s s e r c h a r a c t e r s . . . I g u e s s t h e y w e r e t r y i n g t o k e e p o u r s p i r i t s up s o o u r h e r o e s w e r e n e v e r k i l l e d . 4 3 M o r e f a n c i f u l f i l m s , s u c h a s The I n v a d e r s o r The 49th  P a r a l l e l s t i m u l a t e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f many c h i l d r e n . One woman r e c a l l e d "we u s e d t o p r e t e n d t h a t a p a r a c h u t e r [ p a r a t r o o p e r ] l a n d e d i n t h e woods...We w o u l d make up a l l k i n d s o f s t o r i e s a n d s c a r e o u r s e l v e s h a l f t o d e a t h . " 4 4 A n o t h e r r e membered "most v i v i d l y . . . T h e D i c t a t o r . C h a r l i e C h a p l i n was H i t l e r . " 4 5 / M o v i e a u d i e n c e s saw h e r o f i l m s l i k e C a p t a i n s o f t h e C l o u d s , The  F i g h t i n g ; S u l l i v a n s a n d t h e p o w e r f u l I n W h i c h we Ser v e . . The l a t t e r a b o u t men s e r v i n g on a B r i t i s h D e s t r o y e r , w h i c h was bombed a t s e a . 4 6 One i n t e r v i e w e e e s p e c i a l l y remembered: T h i r t y S e c o n d s  o v e r T o k y o , a l l t h e Van J o h n s o n m o v i e s . " 4 7 The n e w s r e e l s a l s o s t i m u l a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s i m a g i n a t i o n a b o u t t h e w a r . One man d e s c r i b e d d i s t i n c t m e m o r i e s o f t h e many s h o r t n e w s r e e l s h e w a t c h e d : . . . b l a c k a n d w h i t e s h o t s o f a i r p l a n e s , a n d t h e b o m b s . . . V i r t u a l l y a l l a c t u a l f o o t a g e , s c e n e s o f b a t t l e s , a i r r a i d s , p i c t u r e s o f w o r l d l e a d e r s . . . T h e l a t e s t b a t t l e w h e r e e v e r i t was, s e a r c h l i g h t s , bombs f a l l i n g . 4 8 One woman d e s c r i b e d t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f n e w s r e e l s on h e r i m a g i n a t i o n : " i t was p r o b a b l y t h e n e w s r e e l s t h a t c a u s e d my t e r r i f y i n g n i g h t m a r e t h a t t h e Germans w e r e g o i n g t o k i l l u s a l l . . . " 4 9 M o s t m o v i e s p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e war c o n t a i n e d p r o p a g a n d a . The m e s s a g e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f war m o v i e s a n d t h e n e w s r e e l s was c l e a r : t h e enemy, German o r J a p a n e s e , h a d t o be d e s t r o y e d . One man rem e m b e r e d " t h e n e w s r e e l s . . . t h e y showed t h e Germans g e t t i n g b e a t e n t o a p u l p . . . I c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e o u t why t h e w a r l a s t e d s o l o n g b e c a u s e we w e r e a l w a y s b e a t i n g t h e Germans, we w e r e n e v e r l o s i n g . " 5 0 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d "a f a i r s m a t t e r i n g o f p a t r i o t i c s t u f f . I'm s u r e t h e f i l m s w e r e h e a v i l y e d i t e d f o r p r o p a g a n d a p u r p o s e s , b u t we w o u l d n ' t h a v e known t h a t a t t h e t i m e . " 5 1 M o v i e s a n d n e w s r e e l s d e p i c t e d C a n a d i a n s a n d t h e i r a l l i e s a s h e r o e s f i g h t i n g o v e r s e a s a n d on t h e home f r o n t f o r v i c t o r y . R a c i s m was spawned b y f i l m p r o p a g a n d a a n d w i t h r a c i s m came h a t r e d . " I remember a n e w s r e e l " , s t a t e d one man, " E t h i o p i a n s w i t h t h e i r s p e a r s a n d s t i c k s a n d t h e I t a l i a n s w i t h t h e i r f u l l w a r m a c h i n e m a t e r i a l . " 5 2 One woman d e c l a r e d " t h e m o v i e s we saw w e r e s o r o m a n t i c i z e d , m a k i n g t h e Germans i n t o s u c h t e r r i b l e p e o p l e . " 5 3 A s c e n e f r o m one o f t h o s e m o v i e s r e m a i n e d c l e a r i n one i n t e r v i e w e e ' s memory: "German s o l d i e r s d r a i n i n g b l o o d f r o m c h i l d r e n . . . a n d g i v i n g i t t o t h e i r wounded s o l d i e r s . " 5 4 J o u r n a l i s t , Denny B o y d , w r o t e t h a t t h e war "was i n t h e m o v i e s , C a p t a i n M a r v e l a n d T e r r y a n d t h e P i r a t e s a n d Hop H a r r i g a n w e r e 18 f i g h t i n g t h e Huns a n d t h e N i p s . " 5 5 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d t h i s l a n g u a g e o f r a c i s m a n d h a t r e d : " D i r t y J a p , R o t t e n Hun...The m o v i e s w e r e f u l l o f r a c i s m , I t h i n k t h a t was w h e r e we l e a r n e d a l o t o f t h o s e v a l u e s . . . " 5 6 " I c e r t a i n l y g r e w up w i t h a d i s l i k e f o r Germans", s t a t e d one woman who d e c i d e d : " I maybe l e a r n e d t h a t f r o m t h e S a t u r d a y m o v i e s . " 5 7 "And o f c o u r s e we h a d t h e n e w s r e e l s " , c l a i m e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , "They w e r e p r o b a b l y q u i t e s l a n t e d , a l l p r o p a g a n d a , b u t we d i d n ' t know i t a t t h e t i m e . " 5 8 N e w s r e e l s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , b r o u g h t t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s a n d p r o p a g a n d a i n t o v i e w e r s l i v e s . " L o w e l l Thomas was t h e a n n o u n c e r " , r e c a l l e d o ne man, " t h e y k e p t y o u u p d a t e d on t h e w a r . " 5 9 One i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d a memorable n e w s r e e l o f " S t a l i n g r a d a n d t h e o b v i o u s d e s t r u c t i o n a n d h o r r o r o f i t a l l . " 6 0 A n o t h e r h a d v i v i d m e m o r i e s o f " t h e M o v i e Tone News, t h e y showed t h e K i n g a n d Q u e e n . . . v i s i t i n g bombed a r e a s i n B r i t a i n . I c a n remember s e e i n g w h a t t r a c e r b u l l e t s l o o k e d l i k e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , b r i g h t s t r e a k s o f l i g h t s a c r o s s t h e s k y . " 6 1 " I l o v e d t h e n e w s r e e l s " , d e c l a r e d o ne woman, " I saw p i c t u r e s o f t h e w a r , t h e t a n k s a n d t h e s o l d i e r s . I t was t h e one way o f f o l l o w i n g t h e w a r . . . T h e f i l m s w e r e a l l r i g h t b u t t h e n e w s r e e l s w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t . " 6 2 "As k i d s we'd go down t o t h e Orpheum", r e c o u n t e d o ne man, " t h e n e w s r e e l s w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t . . . I knew w h a t was f a n t a s y a n d wh a t was r e a l . T h e s e n e w s r e e l s w e r e r e a l . " 6 3 The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d [ N F B ] , o f C a n a d a p r o d u c e d d o c u m e n t a r i e s a n d n e w s r e e l s on t h e w a r . T h e s e f i l m s w e r e shown i n m o v i e t h e a t r e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y a n d i n m o b i l e t h e a t r e s t h a t t r a v e l l e d t h e r u r a l c i r c u i t o f s c h o o l s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s . The 19 C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n [ C B C ] , r e l a y e d a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p r o g r a m m i n g ; warj news, war drama, a n d i n s p i r a t i o n a l w a r t h e m e s . t 1 A u d i e n c e s o f b o t h mediums w e r e c a p t i v a t e d by t h e m o v i n g p i c t u r e s i a n d t h e r a d i o w aves a n d many w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e m f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . , . ^ D u r i n g t h e 1 930s t h e C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t M o t i o n P i c t u r e B u r e a u was p r o d u c i n g s i l e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f i l m s . A s t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e 1 9 3 0 * s a d v a n c e d , t h e B u r e a u ' s s i l e n t f i l m s w e r e no l o n g e r a s e f f e c t i v e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e C a n a d i a n i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s s u f f e r e d . To remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t l o o k e d t o t h e d i r e c t o r o f B r i t a i n ' s G e n e r a l P o s t O f f i c e , J o h n G r i e r s o n . I n G r i e r s o n ' s a d v i s o r y r e p o r t he: "recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new a g e n c y , t h e NFB, t o c o o r d i n a t e a n d d i r e c t a l l f i l m a c t i v i t i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s . " 6 4 I m p r e s s e d w i t h G r i e r s o n ' s i d e a s , t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t h i r e d h i m a s t h e i r f i r s t G o v e r n m e n t F i l m C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d t h e NFB was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 9 . W i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m A c t t h e NFB, was g i v e n t h e p o w e r t o a d v i s e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n e w s r e e l s a n d d o c u m e n t a r y f i l m s t h a t w o u l d " i n t e r p r e t C a n a d a t o C a n a d i a n s . *'65 "The f i r s t s i x y e a r s , t h e y e a r s o f W o r l d War I I , t h e y e a r s u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f J o h n G r i e r s o n , w e r e t h e f o r m a t i v e y e a r s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . " 6 6 The NFB was t o p l a y a p o w e r f u l r o l e " i n t h e C a n a d i a n and A l l i e d war i n f o r m a t i o n e f f o r t a n d , . . . i n e d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . " 6 7 G r i e r s o n r a p i d l y a c q u i r e d a s t a f f a n d s t a r t e d t h i n g s m o v i n g . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r t h e NFB p r o d u c e d t h i r t y f i l m s , n i n e o f t h e s e w e r e p a r t o f t h e s e r i e s e n t i t l e d C a n a d a  C a r r i e s On. T h i s was one o f t h e NFB's f i r s t a n d m o s t famous 20 s e r i e s . G r i e r s o n h i r e d B r i t a i n ' s S t u a r t L e g g t o p r o d u c e a n d d i r e c t t h i s s e r i e s o f s h o r t f i l m s on Canada a t w a r . G r i e r s o n a n d L e g g s e t o u t t o b o o s t C a n a d a ' s image w i t h C a n a d a C a r r i e s On. T h e y a c h i e v e d t h i s a n d a t t h e same t i m e made t h e NFB a f a m i l i a r name a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . 6 8 C a n a d a C a r r i e s On was t h e p r i n c i p a l a c h i e v e m e n t t o t h e war i n f o r m a t i o n f i e l d . The s e r i e s , f i n a n c e d b y t h e O f f i c e o f P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n , " f o r m [ e d ] a s o r t o f c a v a l c a d e o f C a n a d a a t w a r . " 6 9 A new C a n a d a C a r r i e s On n e w s r e e l was p r o d u c e d e v e r y m onth. The N C a n a d i a n M o t i o n P i c t u r e D i s t r i b u t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n was c o n f i d e n t t h e s e r i e s w o u l d do w e l l a n d g a v e d i s t r i b u t i o n a h e a l t h y s t a r t . T h e y a r r a n g e d f o r t h e f i l m s t o be d i s t r i b u t e d i n C a n a d a b y C o l u m b i a p i c t u r e s . O v e r 800 m o v i e s t h e a t r e s r e c e i v e d t h e s e r i e s N a n d s o i t was s e e n r e g u l a r l y b y some t w o a n d one q u a r t e r m i l l i o n C a n a d i a n s . 7 0 W h i l e c h i l d r e n w a i t e d f o r t h e m a i n f e a t u r e t h e y o f t e n h e a r d t h e b e a t o f t h e drums and knew i t was t i m e f o r " t h e ' S p e c i a l A d d e d A t t r a c t i o n ' . W i t h a b u r s t o f m u s i c . . . C a n a d a C a r r i e s On. P r e t t y s o o n y o u s t o p p e d f i d g e t i n g a n d f o u n d y o u r s e l f l e a n i n g f o r w a r d i n y o u r s e a t . " 7 1 R e v i e w e d i n M a c L e a n ' s m a g a z i n e a s " w o r t h a n o t h e r l o o k , t h e s e s w i f t d y n a m i c l i t t l e o n e - r e e l e r s : 1,000 f e e t o f drama a n d human i n t e r e s t p a c k e d o n c e l l u l o i d s t r i p b a r e l y a n i n c h a n d a h a l f w i d e . " 7 2 M a c L e a n ' s g a v e a f a v o u r a b l e r e v i e w a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f i l m s w e r e e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y r e l a t e d t h e i m p a c t o f war on p e o p l e n o t u n l i k e t h o s e i n t h e a u d i e n c e . "What y o u saw a r e t h e l i t t l e f e l l o w s , t h e men o n t h e s t r e e t a n d on t h e f a r m , t h e r a n k a n d f i l e o f d e m o c r a c y a n d i t s r e a l s t r e n g t h . " 7 3 One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered: " t h e C a n a d a C a r r i e s On s e r i e s , i t was l i k e a n e w s r e e l b u t i t showed t h e C a n a d i a n r e s e r v e s t r a i n i n g , a n d army b a s e s i n C a n a d a . . . " 7 4 A n o t h e r woman s t a t e d " I c a n remember t h e C a n a d a C a r r i e s On s e r i e s . " 7 5 A u d i e n c e s saw t h e l a d y down t h e s t r e e t who k n i t t e d s w e a t e r s f o r t h e b o y s o v e r s e a s , a f a m i l i a r y o u n g man was shown j o i n i n g u p a n d s p e a k i n g f r o m a t r a i n i n g camp, a f e l l o w a t h i s l a t h e , p r o d u c e d m u n i t i o n s f o r B r i t a i n . I n e s s e n c e i t was C a n a d i a n s a t w a r . 7 6 The f i r s t o f t h i s s e r i e s t h a t c a p t i v a t e d C a n a d i a n a u d i e n c e s came o u t i n A p r i l 1940. E n t i t l e d A t l a n t i c P a t r o l , t h i s f i l m s h owed C a n a d i a n d e s t r o y e r s a t s e a and " t h e h a r d s h i p s a n d t h r i l l s o f p a t r o l d u t y , o f t h e s e a r c h i n g f o r m i n e s a n d s u b m a r i n e s . 1 , 7 7 T h e r e was L e t t e r From Camp B o r d e n , a n d L e t t e r f r o m A l d e r s h o t , w h i c h w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s " p i c t u r e s t o t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h e p e o p l e . " 7 8 T h e s e two f i l m s w e r e n o t e d f o r t h e i r c l o s e u p s o f C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e men " s e n d i n g g r e e t i n g s t o t h e f o l k s b a c k h o m e . " 7 9 A l s o p r o d u c e d i n 1940 was t h e p o p u l a r Home F r o n t , w h i c h p o r t r a y e d t h e women o f Canada k e e p i n g m o r a l e up w h i l e " o r g a n i z e d i n u n i t e d a c t i o n t o s e r v e t h e t r o o p s . " 8 0 T h i s p a t r i o t i c p i e c e o f p r o p a g a n d a e n c o u r a g e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e w a r e f f o r t b y d e p i c t i n g women w o r k i n g w i t h t h e Red C r o s s a n d t h e Women's a u x i l i a r y t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e . I t p o r t r a y e d women t e a c h i n g i n t h e A i r T r a i n i n g P l a n , t e a c h i n g t y p i n g t o s o l d i e r s , s e w i n g w i n g f a b r i c a n d w o r k i n g i n A c t i v e S e r v i c e C a n t e e n . V i e w e r s w a t c h e d a v a r i e t y o f NFB f i l m s , w h i c h c o n v e y e d a m e s s a g e t h a t w ar i s e x c i t i n g , d r a m a t i c a n d o n l y f o r t h e c o u r a g e o u s . S h o w i n g " t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s i n d u s t r y a s a n a n s w e r t o H i t l e r ' s w ar m a c h i n e " was t h e f i l m F r o n t o f S t e e l . 8 1 W i n g s o f Y o u t h a f i l m o f t h e " t h r i l l i n g s t o r y o f C a n a d a ' s y o u n g A i r m e n l e a r n i n g t o f i g h t t h e b a t t l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l a n d d a r i n g . " 8 2 A l s o p a r t o f t h e C a n a d a  C a r r i e s On s e r i e s i n 194 0 w e r e t h e n e w s r e e l s B r i t a i n a t B a y a n d S q u a d r o n 99 2 . The l a t t e r was r e v i e w e d i n M a c L e a n ' s m a g a z i n e a n d a p p l a u d e d a s t h e f i l m t h a t showed " t h e drama i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e men who o p e r a t e t h e b a l l o o n b a r r a g e o v e r B r i t a i n . " 8 3 G r i e r s o n w a n t e d C a n a d i a n s t o f e e l o b l i g e d t o g i v e t o t h e war e f f o r t . He o n c e i n s t r u c t e d one o f h i s f i l m m a k e r s " y o u h a v e t o . . . a n a l y z e , t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f C a n a d a a n d make i t s o c o m p e l l i n g t h a t p e o p l e w i l l w ant t o p l u n g e t h e i r h a n d s i n t o t h e i r own p o c k e t s . T h e i r own p o c k e t s . You u n d e r s t a n d ? " 8 4 To a s s i s t t h e G o v e r n m e n t w i t h s p e c i a l a p p e a l s t h e NFB, i n 1 9 4 0 , made s h o r t f i l m s c a l l e d t r a i l e r s s u c h a s C a l l t o a N a t i o n , f o r t h e f i r s t War L o a n a n d A P e r s o n a l D u t y , f o r War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s . 8 5 Norman M a c L a r e n h a d j o i n e d t h e NFB a n d was p r o d u c i n g t h e f i r s t o f h i s s u c c e s s f u l a n i m a t e d f i l m s f o r G r i e r s o n . V f o r V i c t o r y , a s h o r t , m u s i c a l a p p e a l t o r a i s e money f o r t h e w a r e f f o r t came o u t i n 1 9 4 1 . 8 6 War n e w s r e e l s a n d d o c u m e n t a r i e s , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w e r e a l s o b e i n g r e l e a s e d i n 16mm f i l m s i z e t o t h e n o n -t h e a t r i c a l a u d i e n c e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . I n 194 0 t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n F i l m C o m m i t t e e . D o n a l d B u c h a n a n , t h e s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r , "became one p i v o t a l f i g u r e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w a r t i m e n o n - t h e a t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . 1 , 8 7 I n 1 9 4 1 , B u c h a n a n , p o o l e d r e s o u r c e s w i t h G r i e r s o n o f t h e NFB a n d H e r b e r t L a s h , t h e D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n . T h e y p l a n n e d , o n a t r i a l b a s i s , t o show f i l m s o n c e a month i n t w e n t y r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s a n d a n e q u a l number o f s c h o o l s a c r o s s C a n a d a . The p r o j e c t i o n i s t s r e p o r t e d t h a t "one h a l f o r more o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e a u d i e n c e w e r e s e e i n g a s o u n d f i l m f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . " 8 8 T h e s e f i l m ' c i r c u i t s * w e r e i n c r e d i b l y p o p u l a r . So p o p u l a r t h a t b y J a n u a r y 1942 t h e NFB s o u g h t c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m b o t h t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t s o f E d u c a t i o n . W i t h t h a t , t h i r t y t r a v e l l i n g t h e a t r e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d w h i c h r e a c h e d s i x h u n d r e d r u r a l s c h o o l s . The c i r c u i t s e n a b l e d a u d i e n c e s o f a l l a g e s t o v i e w f i l m s a b o u t C a n a d i a n a g r i c u l t u r e a n d i n d u s t r y a s w e l l a s f i l m s on t h e war a n d i t s r e l a t i o n t o d e m o c r a c y . One a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t t h e c i r c u i t r e a c h e d was T w e e d s m u i r P a r k , f i f t y m i l e s f r o m t h e n e a r e s t r a i l w a y . B u c h a n a n w r o t e t h a t shows i n t h i s a r e w e r e v e r y s u c c e s s f u l a n d r e s i d e n t s o f a l l a g e s t r a v e l l e d f o r m i l e s t o s e e t h e f i l m s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t " . . . a g r o u p t r a v e l l e d f o r t y m i l e s b y c a n o e , o t h e r s a n y w h e r e f r o m f i v e t o t w e n t y m i l e s , s o m e t i m e s e v e n o n f o o t . " 8 9 A u d i e n c e s w a t c h e d p r o g r a m s s e v e n t y t o n i n e t y m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h w h i c h a l w a y s c o n t a i n e d one o r t w o f i l m s a b o u t t h e w a r , o f t e n f r o m Canada C a r r i e s On s e r i e s no l o n g e r i n t h e a t r i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n . 9 0 One o f t h e f i r s t NFB f i l m s o n t h e n o n -t h e a t r i c a l c i r c u i t was On G u a r d f o r Thee a f i l m w h i c h s u m m a r i z e d C a n a d a ' s r o l e i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e w a r . I t u t i l i z e d t h e " h a r d d r i v i n g e d i t i n g s t y l e a n d f o r c e f u l c o m mentary... c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f much o f t h e B o a r d ' s p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . " 9 1 O t h e r f i l m s p r o d u c e d i n 1941 w e r e The F i g h t f o r L i b e r t y , w h i c h o u t l i n e d t h e c o u r s e o f t h e war a n d T o o l s o f War, w h i c h d e s c r i b e d C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e war e f f o r t . 9 2 The g o a l o f t h e f i l m c i r c u i t s was n e v e r i g n o r e d . The p r i m a r y 24 o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e programmes was t o g i v e p e o p l e a more c o m p l e t e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e war e f f o r t . T h e r e was a l a r g e demand f o r t h e s e f i l m s a s a u d i e n c e s w e r e most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f w a r a n d G r i e r s o n w o r k e d t o f i l l t h i s d e m a n d . 9 3 The w a r was shown i n t h e d o c u m e n t a r i e s a n d n e w s r e e l s w h i c h G r i e r s o n " r e f e r r e d t o a s • s h o t a n d s h e l l 1 f i l m s . " 9 4 One o f t h e b e s t o f t h e s e ' s h o t a n d s h e l l 1 f i l m s was C h u r c h i l l ' s I s l a n d p r o d u c e d i n 1941 a s p a r t o f t h e C a n a d a C a r r i e s On s e r i e s . I t d e p i c t e d t h e d e f e n c e o f B r i t a i n a n d was h o n o u r e d w i t h t h e f i r s t Academy A w a r d f o r b e s t d o c u m e n t a r y . The NFB p r o d u c e d t h e f i l m t o r e a s s u r e a u d i e n c e s t h a t B r i t a i n ' s s p i r i t was s t r o n g . P e o p l e saw t h e s c e n e s o f d e s t r u c t i o n a n d l i s t e n e d t o t h e n a r r a t o r , L o m e G r e e n e , who d e s c r i b e d t h e " i n n e r s t r e n g t h . . . [ a s ] a s t u b b o r n c a l m w h i c h i r o n a n d s t e e l bombs c a n n e v e r p i e r c e . " The f i l m c h a l l e n g e d t h e enemy t o "come i f y o u d a r e ! " 9 5 O t h e r n e w s r e e l s i n t h e s e r i e s t h a t y e a r w e r e : H e r o e s o f t h e  A t l a n t i c ; S o l d i e r s A l l ; W i n g s o f a C o n t i n e n t a n d B a t t l e o f  B r a i n s . 9 6 A f i l m w h i c h c a u s e d q u i t e a s t i r t o w a r d s t h e e n d o f 1941 was War C l o u d s i n t h e P a c i f i c , a l s o p a r t o f C a n a d a C a r r i e s  On. I t showed C a n a d a ' s e f f o r t s i n t h e war a n d p r e d i c t e d t h a t war w o u l d b r e a k o u t b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d J a p a n . I t was r e l e a s e d i n l a t e November 1 9 4 1 , a n d s o o n a f t e r J a p a n e s e s a i l o r s bombed P e a r l H a r b o u r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t was a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e a t r e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d e a r n e d t h e NFB a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f money and p r a i s e . From t h i s G r i e r s o n r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r i e s a n d i n A p r i l 1 9 4 2 , The W o r l d i n A c t i o n s e r i e s was i n t r o d u c e d . 9 7 One o f t h e f i r s t f i l m s p r o d u c e d was p r o p a g a n d a a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e . 25 The f i l m was The Mask o f N i p p o n , w h i c h " d e s c r i b e [ d ] t h e c r e e d b e h i n d t h e f a n a t i c b a r b a r i t y o f t h e J a p a n e s e m i l i t a r i s t s . " 9 8 J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e b e i n g r e l o c a t e d i n 1942 a n d t h e f e a r o f a n enemy i n v a s i o n was s t r o n g on t h e w e s t c o a s t o f C a n a d a . A l s o C a n a d i a n s w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e a n d t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t ' s one b i l l i o n d o l l a r g i f t t o B r i t a i n . The NFB a c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y a n d p r o m o t e d t h e i d e a l s o f d e m o c r a c y w h i l e c r i t i c i z i n g t o t a l i t a r i a n r e g i m e s . R e e l s o f t h e W o r l d i n A c t i o n  S e r i e s s u c h a s T h i s I s B l i t z showed t h e " t e r r o r a n d d e v a s t a t i o n w r o u g h t i n E u r o p e b y t h e N a z i B l i t z k r i e g . " 9 9 T i m e m a g a z i n e p r a i s e d t h e f i l m ' s p r i n c i p l e : " t o k i l l t h e f e a r o f B l i t z i s t o show p e o p l e j u s t w h a t B l i t z i s . " 1 0 0 A n o t h e r n e w s r e e l , G e o p o l i t i k - H i t l e r ' s P l a n f o r E m p i r e , p o r t r a y e d N a z i s t r a t e g y . The NFB was t r y i n g t o c h a n g e t h e c o u n t r y • s i m a g e d u r i n g t h e w a r . C a n a d a ' s image was one o f a " p r o d u c e r / b a n k e r , n o t a s f i g h t e r . . . t h e g o v e r n m e n t s u f f e r e d f r o m t h i s i m a g e . " 1 0 1 A g a i n t h e NFB r e s p o n d e d b y s h o w i n g C a n a d i a n s a s s o l d i e r s : i n 1 3 t h  P l a t o o n ; P a r a t r o o p s ; Women A r e W a r r i o r s a n d F o r w a r d Commandos. A l l , e x c e p t t h e l a t t e r , w e r e p a r t o f Canada C a r r i e s On. The W o r l d i n A c t i o n s e r i e s p r o d u c e d New S o l d i e r s a r e To u g h a n d s o o n a f t e r t h e im a g e o f C a n a d i a n s a s f i g h t e r s was f u l f i l l e d . T h i s f i l m came o u t one month b e f o r e t h e A u g u s t 1942 b a t t l e i n D i e p p e . Many o f t h e s e w ar f i l m s w e r e t h e f o c u s o f t e a c h i n g p r o j e c t s c r e a t e d t o r e l a t e t o t h e f i l m c i r c u i t s h o w i n g s . I n t h e O k a n a g a n , s t u d e n t s w r o t e e s s a y s a b o u t I n s i d e F i g h t i n g R u s s i a . A H e r i t a g e We  G u a r d . F o r w a r d Commandos a n d Women a r e W a r r i o r s . "The b e s t e s s a y s w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e s e c i t i z e n s h i p f i l m s . . . h a v e b e e n p r i n t e d b y t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e l o c a l w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s . " 1 0 2 A c h i l d o f 26 f o u r t e e n was a s k e d t o w r i t e a b o u t F o r w a r d Commandos. a f i l m o f t h e s p i r i t o f 'one f o r a l l a n d a l l f o r one' w h i c h showed a c t u a l f o o t a g e o f a C a n a d i a n commando r a i d on G e r m a n - o c c u p i e d N o r w a y . 1 0 3 She e x p r e s s e d h e r d e s i r e t o be a p a r t o f t h e w a r e f f o r t i n h e r e s s a y : I t o o c a n be a Commando... by k n i t t i n g , b y b u y i n g War S a v i n g s S t a m p s , b y m a k i n g s m a l l s a c r i f i c e s . . . b y n o t w a s t i n g p a p e r . . . l e t u s w o r k f o r v i c t o r y , t h a t v i c t o r y w h i c h we h a v e b e e n s e e k i n g f o r s o l o n g . O n l y n a v e c o n f i d e n c e a n d we s h a l l w i n t h i s w a r . " 1 0 4 C o m m u n i t i e s a l s o t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e f i l m c i r c u i t s t o p r o m o t e t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps. Some o r g a n i z e d d a n c e s a f t e r t h e sh o w s . O t h e r s s o l d l u n c h e s , g a v e d o o r p r i z e s , h e l d r a f f l e s , a l l i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e f i l m s h o w . 1 0 5 W i t h t h e g r o w i n g number o f s c h o o l s on t h e f i l m c i r c u i t s t h e NFB h a d t o k e e p t e a c h e r s i n f o r m e d o f t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s . A n n u a l NFB c a t a l o g u e s w e r e s e n t t o s c h o o l s a c r o s s C a n a d a . T h e s e n o t i f i e d s c h o o l t e a c h e r s o f t h e 16mm f i l m r e l e a s e s , t h e v o l u n t e e r p r o j e c t i o n s e r v i c e a n d a l i s t o f t h e r e g i o n a l NFB l i b r a r i e s . I f t e a c h e r s j o i n e d t h e NFB c i r c u i t t h e y r e c e i v e d a m o n t h l y p r o g r a m o f f i l m s a n d a p r o j e c t i o n i s t w i t h e q u i p m e n t . T h e y a l s o w e r e s e n t l e a f l e t s w h i c h d e s c r i b e d t h e f i l m , p r o v i d e d a t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e f o r p r e p a r i n g l e s s o n s on t h e f i l m s , a n d g a v e h i n t s o n d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s . I t was t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t ' s j o b t o q u i z t h e c h i l d r e n on t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l e a f l e t s p r i o r t o t h e s h o w . 1 0 6 B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e r e v i e w e d t h e NFB's 1942 c a t a l o g u e a n d recommended t h e f i l m s H e a l t h i n W a r t i m e a n d A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n s . T e a c h e r s w e r e a l s o a d v i s e d t o c o n s i d e r I n s i d e F i g h t i n g ; R u s s i a , p a r t o f t h e W o r l d i n A c t i o n s e r i e s . 1 0 7 T h i s f i l m , r e v i s e d w i t h a m o d i f i e d c o m m e n t a r y f o r c h i l d r e n , e x p l a i n e d how S o v i e t s t r a t e g y d i s r u p t e d H i t l e r ' s t i m e t a b l e a nd c h a n g e d t h e c o u r s e o f t h e w a r . I n t h i s f i l m c h i l d r e n c o u l d w a t c h "Red Army T r o o p s i n a c t i o n , women c u l t i v a t i n g t h e f i e l d s a n d w o r k e r s i n i n d u s t r y . " 1 0 8 The B.C. T e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e NFB's u s u a l p o l i c y was t o p r o d u c e e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s on g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l l i f e i n C a n a d a . The m a g a z i n e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e f i l m s i n t h e NFB c a t a l o g u e f e l l i n t o t h e war i n f o r m a t i o n c a t e g o r y . 1 0 9 P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g w r o t e i n h i s d i a r y h i s h o p e s f o r 1 9 4 3 : "To make t h e p o s t - w a r p r o g r a m o f s o c i a l r e f o r m a n d t h e p e a c e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e m a i n s u b j e c t o f a p p e a l . " 1 1 0 Many o f t h e NFB f i l m s t h a t y e a r r e f l e c t e d h i s w i s h . The W o r l d o f A c t i o n s e r i e s p r o d u c e d Tomorrow's W o r l d w h i c h a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n : "what w i l l be t h e s t a t e o f t h e p o s t w a r w o r l d ? " I t a l s o p r o d u c e d t h e a n s w e r : " L o o k a r o u n d y o u , i t i s t a k i n g p l a c e a l r e a d y . . . T o m o r r o w ' s w o r l d i s h e r e ! " 1 1 1 I n v a s i o n o f E u r o p e d e t a i l e d a r e a s w h e r e A l l i e s m i g h t i n v a d e E u r o p e , and Road t o T o k y o , showed C a n a d a ' s p l a c e i n P a c i f i c S t r a t e g y . Our N o r t h e r n N e i g h b o u r was p r o d u c e d , r e g a r d i n g R u s s i a ' s r o l e i n p o s t w a r y e a r s . R u s s i a was now a n a l l y a n d t h i s f i l m was a p r o p a g a n d a p i e c e a i m e d a t " r e e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c w h i c h h a d f e l t an a l m o s t p a t h o l o g i c a l d i s t r u s t o f R u s s i a n s . " 1 1 2 A l o n g w i t h t h e s e p o s t w a r f i l m s w e r e f i l m s p o r t r a y i n g d i s t u r b i n g , v i o l e n t w a r f a r e . The NFB d i d n o t w a n t C a n a d i a n s t o f o r g e t t h a t t h e y w e r e s t i l l p a r t o f a W o r l d War. P i n c e r on A x i s E u r o p e showed " ' s h o t a n d s h e l l ' v i s u a l s o n Rommel's r e t r e a t i n g f o r c e s " , w h i l e T r a i n B u s t e r s c h r o n i c l e d t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e ' s t a c t i c s a s t h e enemy was "bombed i n t o u s e l e s s r u i n s u n d e r t h e bombs o f o u r a i r f l e e t s . " 1 1 3 O t h e r ' s h o t a n d s h e l l ' f i l m s t h a t y e a r w e r e C o r v e t t e P o r t A r t h u r w h i c h 28 s howed t h e s i n k i n g o f a n enemy U - b o a t . L e t t e r From O v e r s e a s was a c a r e f u l l y e d i t e d v e r s i o n o f D i e p p e . G r i e r s o n h a d a l w a y s demanded t r u t h f u l d e p i c t i o n o f e v e n t s i n h i s f i l m s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e f i r s t c a s u a l t y o f war i s t r u t h , 1 1 4 t h e NFB f a i l e d t o c o v e r t h e D i e p p e r a i d o f 1942 u n t i l a y e a r h a d p a s s e d . I n L e t t e r From O v e r s e a s t h e n a r r a t o r c a r e f u l l y c o n c l u d e d : "and when we s a i l e d away we l e f t t h e l i t t e r e d b e a c h e s t o r e m i n d t h e Germans we h a d p u n c h e d one h o l e i n H i t l e r ' s f o r t r e s s . " 1 1 5 The o t h e r f i l m s p r o d u c e d w e r e p r o p a g a n d a e n c o u r a g i n g y o u t h t o j o i n u p . F i l m s s u c h a s So P r o u d l y She M a r c h e s . Up From t h e R a n k s a n d B a t t l e i s T h e i r B i r t h r i g h t r e m i n d e d y o u n g men a n d women t h a t "now y o u r t e a m i s w a i t i n g . " 1 1 6 T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e war f i l m s l i k e B r e a k t h r o u g h . a b o u t t h e A l l i e d l a n d i n g i n Normandy, b o a s t e d o f "an a r m y . . . e a g e r t o meet a n d b u i l d t h e f u t u r e o n c e t h e y h a d won t h e w a r . " 1 1 7 O t h e r NFB f i l m s w i t h t h i s c o n f i d e n t a i r w e r e T a r g e t B e r l i n a n d M o s g u i t o  S q u a d r o n w h i c h b o t h d e s c r i b e d how Canada was h e l p i n g t o w i n t h e wa r , a s t h e enemy f e l t t h e " s t i n g o f t h e m o s q u i t o ! " 1 1 8 T h r e e more f i l m s w e r e made i n 1944 t o b r i g h t e n t h e l i g h t a t t h e e n d o f t h e t u n n e l . The f i r s t , B a t t l e o f E u r o p e showed p r e c i s i o n b o m b i n g t e c h n i q u e s b y a l l i e s , Z e r o H o u r showed a l l i e d f o r c e s a t t a c k i n g E u r o p e a n d F o r t r e s s J a p a n l o o k e d a t p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a n a t t a c k on J a p a n . 1 1 9 I n Wounded i n A c t i o n , a u d i e n c e s w e r e a g a i n r e m i n d e d o f t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d l i n e s s . W h i l e UNRRA: I n t h e Wake o f t h e A r m i e s showed " R u s s i a n s e m e r g i n g f r o m t h e i r t e n t c i t y t o r e b u i l d S t a l i n g r a d . . . t h e f i l m e n d e d w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f a more c l o s e l y i n t e r l i n k e d p o s t w a r w o r l d . " 1 2 0 The NFB k e p t up t o d a t e w i t h t h e w a r s e v e n t s r i g h t t h r o u g h 1945. A u d i e n c e s c e l e b r a t e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e NFB, t h e e n d i n g o f t h e w a r . The t i t l e s o f t h e l a s t w ar f i l m s p r o d u c e d s p e a k f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y w e r e R o a d t o t h e R e i c h . G u i l t y Men. S a l u t e t o V i c t o r y . J o b s  F o r V e t s . Now - The P e a c e a n d The War i s O v e r . 1 2 1 I f t h e r e was a r a d i o i n t h e i r homes o r t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s , t h e c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o u l d l i s t e n a n d l e a r n a b o u t t h e wa r . One woman d e c l a r e d " t h e r a d i o was t h e m a i n f o r m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , h e a r i n g a b o u t t h e w a r . " 1 2 2 " L i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o was t h e k e y e v e n t o f t h e n i g h t . We h a d . . . t h e n i n e o ' c l o c k news e v e r y n i g h t " r e c a l l e d a n o t h e r . 1 2 3 When C a n a d a w e n t t o war many f a m i l i e s p u r c h a s e d r a d i o s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w h i l e o t h e r s w e r e t u n i n g i n more o f t e n t h a n u s u a l . One woman r e c o u n t e d a n i m p o r t a n t d a y : "My f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h r a d i o o c c u r r e d when a t t h e age o f f o u r I came i n f r o m p l a y i n g t o h e a r my w o r r i e d p a r e n t s t e l l me t h a t Germany h a d j u s t i n v a d e d B e l g i u m a n d H o l l a n d . My f a t h e r o p e n e d a c r a t e . . . a n d b r o u g h t f o r t h a b r a n d new r a d i o i n p e r f e c t c o n d i t i o n . " 1 2 4 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e WIB, d u r i n g t h e w a r y e a r s t h e r e w e r e r a d i o s i n 74% o f t h e n a t i o n ' s h o u s e h o l d s . 1 2 5 To m o s t C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s r a d i o h a d became a h a b i t a n d a n o b s e s s i o n . One woman remembered: "Our f a m i l y l i s t e n e d t o t h e news b r o a d c a s t s o n t h e r a d i o e v e r y n i g h t . . . " 1 2 6 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d "...we l i s t e n e d t o t h e r a d i o d a i l y . B e i n g on an i s l a n d we d i d n ' t h a v e e l e c t r i c i t y , t h e r a d i o r a n on b a t t e r i e s , s o we l i s t e n e d t o s p e c i f i c t h i n g s , i t was a l w a y s t h e news a b o u t t h e w a r . " 1 2 7 I t was f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l a r e a s who l a c k e d e l e c t r i c i t y a n d o t h e r a m e n i t i e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g p r o g r a m b e g a n . S c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s b e g a n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n o t 30 l o n g a f t e r 1 936, t h e y e a r t h e CBC was f o u n d e d . From 1940 t h r o u g h l a t e 1 944, d e c i d i n g w h a t s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e g o i n g t o h e a r was K e n n e t h C a p l e ' s j o b . C a p l e , o n c e a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , was made d i r e c t o r o f s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s f o r CBC. He r e c e i v e d a g r a n t f r o m t h e C a r n e g i e C o r p o r a t i o n o f New Y o r k t o p r o d u c e a r e p o r t on t h e b e n e f i t s o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s i n r u r a l e d u c a t i o n . He v i s i t e d c l a s s r o o m s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h w e r e u s i n g r a d i o . W i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m h i s r e p o r t h e s e t u p , u n d e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , a s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s y s t e m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a p l e r e c a l l s : "CBC g a v e u s h a l f a n h o u r o f r a d i o t i m e f r o m t w o t o two t h i r t y , Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y . O ur j o b was t o f i n d s o m e t h i n g t o f i l l t h a t t i m e . " 1 2 8 C a p l e i n t r o d u c e d two new s e r i e s : " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f t h e A i r " , w i t h s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s s u c h a s " T h i s L i v i n g W o r l d " . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c u r r e n t e v e n t s s e r i e s : "The R o a d t o D e m o c r a c y " . B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e d e s c r i b e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e l a t t e r " t o make c h i l d r e n r e a l i z e t h a t i f men a n d women a r e t o l i v e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y t h e y must g i v e up a g g r e s s i o n . 1 , 1 2 9 The s e r i e s was t o t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e m o c r a c y i n h i s t o r y . S c h o o l c h i l d r e n who l i s t e n e d t o "The Road t o D e m o c r a c y " s e r i e s e n j o y e d s u c h shows a s : "Gunpowder f o r t h e Queen" a n d " I t ' s Up t o U s " , b o t h o f w h i c h e x p l o r e d w a r t i m e i s s u e s . T h i s s e r i e s was i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by " N e w s c a s t t o S c h o o l s " . 1 3 0 One woman r e c a l l e d h e r t e a c h e r " u s e d t o b r i n g t h e r a d i o i n t o o u r c l a s s r o o m . . . w e w o u l d l i s t e n t o t h e news a n d t o H i t l e r . " 1 3 1 T e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s w e r e u r g e d b y t h e B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e " t o o r g a n i z e L i s t e n i n g C i r c l e s a n d D i s c u s s i o n G r o u p s t o h e a r . . . ' T h e C h i l d i n W a r t i m e . ' " 1 3 2 T h i s r a d i o p r o g r a m was c r e a t e d a s : "a s p e c i a l c h i l d g u i d a n c e s e r i e s . . . p r o d u c e d by t h e CBC i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1941. I t was b r o a d c a s t on T u e s d a y s a t one o ' c l o c k t o " a s s u r e t h e C a n a d i a n c h i l d o f a n o r m a l u p b r i n g i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d c r i s i s . " 1 3 3 P r o g r a m s h a d t i t l e s s u c h a s "The C h i l d a n d H i s F u t u r e " a n d "The C h i l d a n d H i s War S e r v i c e . " 1 3 4 T e a c h e r s who m i s s e d t h e s e r i e s w e r e r e q u e s t e d t o o r d e r t h e p u b l i s h e d t a l k s i n p a m p h l e t f o r m a n d u s e them a s l e s s o n a i d s . The CBC c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p and p r o d u c e d a s e r i e s f o r t h e s p r i n g o f 1942 c a l l e d "The B i r t h o f C a n a d i a n F r eedom." T h i s s e r i e s a i r e d o n W e d n e s d a y s a t 1:30 p.m. and was recommended t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o " c u l t i v a t e b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p t h r o u g h k n o w [ i n g ] s o m e t h i n g o f t h o s e men whose e f f o r t s h a v e made p o s s i b l e t h e f r e e d o m we now e n j o y . " 1 3 5 A l s o i n 1942, a s e c o n d s e r i e s on c i t i z e n s h i p e n t i t l e d "How F r eedom W o r k s " , was a i r e d . T h i s was a s e q u e n c e o f l e c t u r e s on t h e w o r k i n g s o f p o l i t i c s a n d d e m o c r a c y i n a c o u n t r y a t w a r . I n 1942 t h e CBC h e l d a c o n f e r e n c e i n O n t a r i o t o d i s c u s s s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n C a n a d a . The CBC a l s o d e c i d e d t o c o n t a c t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f e a c h p r o v i n c e f o r a p p r o v a l o f a n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d " H e r o e s o f C a n a d a " . P a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i d e d t h a t one w e e k l y b r o a d c a s t t o s c h o o l s a c r o s s C a n a d a was d e s i r a b l e a n d a s k e d e d u c a t o r s t o c o n t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s . 1 3 6 The shows w e r e b u i l t u p o n p o l i t i c a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l t h e m e s a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d m u s i c a l a n d d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . A f t e r e a c h p r o g r a m t h e r e was a t e n m i n u t e news b r o a d c a s t d e s i g n e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r a c h i l d a u d i e n c e . 1 3 7 I n t h e f i r s t y e a r s t h e CBC h a d , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , b e e n u t i l i z i n g a n d i m i t a t i n g A m e r i c a n p r o g r a m m i n g . I t w a s n ' t u n t i l C a n a d a j o i n e d t h e war i n 1939 t h a t t h e CBC b e g a n t o p r o d u c e i t s own news s e r v i c e t o s u i t i t s w a r t i m e n e e d s . 1 3 8 I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e w a r t h e CBC " c a r r i e d a t o t a l o f 931 s u s t a i n i n g p r o g r a m s on t h e s u b j e c t o f war t h a t t o o k up a t o t a l o f 199 b r o a d c a s t i n g h o u r s . " 1 3 9 What d i d most C a n a d i a n s l i s t e n t o d u r i n g t h e w a r ? One man r e c a l l e d a v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m s : "'Ma P e r k i n s ' . . . ' Y o u n g D r . M a l o n e ' . . . J a c k Benny, F r e d A l l e n , C h a r l i e M a c A r t h y , a n d Bob Hope. The s e r i a l s ; J a c k A r m s t r o n g , ' I L o v e a M y s t e r y ' . . . a n d t h e news b r o a d c a s t s . " 1 4 0 The m a j o r i t y o f a i r t i m e was d e v o t e d t o war t a l k s , f o l l o w e d by news b u l l e t i n s , news f l a s h e s a n d c o m m e n t a r i e s . N e x t w e r e f e a t u r e b r o a d c a s t s , m u s i c a l a n d v a r i e t y p r o g r a m s f o r t h e war e f f o r t , d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d s p o r t s b r o a d c a s t s . 1 4 1 F a m i l i e s c o u l d l i s t e n t o news b u l l e t i n s m o r n i n g , n o o n , s u p p e r t i m e a n d l a t e e v e n i n g . " I remember t h e r a d i o p l a y i n g a l l t h e t i m e " d e c l a r e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 1 4 2 C h i l d r e n s o o n r e c o g n i z e d CBC r a d i o news a n n o u n c e r L o m e G r e e n e a s ' t h e v o i c e o f doom'. A p t l y named a s most o f t h e news he r e p o r t e d d u r i n g t h e war was g r i m . One woman remembered: "we u s e d t o come home a t l u n c h a n d l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o , w h i c h was a l w a y s on. We w o u l d k e e p c o u n t o f how many p l a n e s w e r e s h o t down, how many w e r e B r i t i s h a n d how many w e r e G e r m a n . " 1 4 3 " R a d i o p r o g r a m s r e a l l y h e l d p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t " , e x p l a i n e d one man. "As t i m e w e n t by we h e a r d more a n d m ore a b o u t t h i s b a t t l e a n d t h a t b a t t l e , t h i s s h i p s u n k , i n t h e P a c i f i c , i n t h e A t l a n t i c , s h i p s b e i n g s u n k , men d y i n g , k a m i k a z e p i l o t s , S i n g a p o r e , t h e i n c r e d i b l e l o s s o f l i f e , 150Q /men l o s t o n e a c h s h i p was n o r m a l . " 1 4 4 F a m i l i e s c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e d a i l y news 33 c a s t s a n i m p o r t a n t l i n k t o t h e war a r e n a . One f e l l o w r emembered " a t home we l i s t e n e d t o t h e s e v e n o ' c l o c k news b r o a d c a s t e v e r y d a y . I t was t h e m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e . " 1 4 5 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t "we h e a r d t h e news a t s u p p e r t i m e a n d t h e n a n o t h e r b r o a d c a s t a r o u n d 8:00 p.m." She a l s o r e c a l l e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e news: "we c o u l d n ' t l i s t e n t o a n y t h i n g f r i v o l o u s , j u s t t h e n e w s . " 1 4 6 One woman d e s c r i b e d t h e r e s e r v e d a t m o s p h e r e when war news was on: "We l i s t e n e d t o t h e r a d i o e v e r y e v e n i n g . I c a n remember b e i n g s h u s h e d e v e r y n i g h t a t 7 o ' c l o c k . The news was t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y i n o u r h o u s e . " 1 4 7 I t was t h e same i n a n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e ' s home: "Dad w o u l d s a y ' d o n ' t s a y a w o r d , t h e news i s c o m i n g o n I ' . . . w e ' d h a v e t h e v o l u m e r i g h t up t o t h e t o p , i f we e v e n s n e e z e d we'd g e t y e l l e d a t ! " 1 4 8 The WIB p u b l i s h e d what i t c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e m o s t m e m o r a b l e w a r t i m e b r o a d c a s t s . The s p e e c h e s o f H i t l e r w i t h t r a n s l a t e d i n s e r t s a s w e l l a s t h e a d d r e s s e s o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r C h a m b e r l a i n r a n k e d f i r s t . A l s o c o n s i d e r e d m o s t m e m o r a b l e was t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e s e r i e s "Canada a t War", " i n w h i c h p r o m i n e n t C a n a d i a n s a n a l y z e d w a r a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s u n o f f i c i a l l y . " 1 4 9 A s w e l l , t h e f e a t u r e b r o a d c a s t t h e "Canada M a r c h e s " s e r i e s d e f i n e d t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e r e g i m e n t s a n d p r o m o t e d t h e g r o w t h o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Navy and t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e . T h i s p r o g r a m a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d t h e a r r i v a l o f C a n a d a 1 s s e r v i c e men o v e r s e a s . 1 5 0 A l s o r a t e d m o s t memorable was t h e o v e r s e a s b r o a d c a s t i n 1939 by t h e s u r v i v o r s o f t h e A t h e n i a . One man v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d t h e power o f t h i s b r o a d c a s t : "we s a t i n my p a r e n t s l i v i n g room and we l i s t e n e d t o t h e news, i t was p r o b a b l y a r o u n d n i n e o ' c l o c k . The a n n o u n c e r s a i d t h a t t h e s t e a m s h i p 34 A t h e n i a h a d b e e n s u n k by German s u b m a r i n e s o f f t h e c o a s t o f E n g l a n d . . . I was a y o u n g t e e n a g e r a n d I remember v e r y c l e a r l y t h e s e n s e o f f o r e b o d i n g o c c u p y i n g t h e a d u l t s f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e e v e n i n g . One o f them s a i d ' t h i s i s j u s t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a d r e a d f u l w a r . * " 1 5 1 W i n n i f r e d A r i e l W e i r w r o t e , i n h e r m e m o i r s , a b o u t h e r f e a r u p o n h e a r i n g t h e news. "We w e r e a p p a l l e d t o h e a r t h e d r e a d f u l news t h a t a l i n e r l o a d e d w i t h c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n s u n k . . . t h e t h o u g h t o f l i t t l e c h i l d r e n a f l o a t i n t h e c o l d A t l a n t i c . . . k e p t me awake f o r a g e s . " 1 5 2 A s t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s u n f o l d e d and w e r e t r a n s m i t t e d o v e r t h e r a d i o t h e y made s u c h a n i m p a c t on c h i l d r e n t h a t many d e t a i l s f r o m b r o a d c a s t s a r e remembered t o t h i s d a y . One man r e m e m b e r e d l i s t e n i n g t o t h e news a s a c h i l d a n d i t : "was f u l l o f w a r , e v e r y b r o a d c a s t was a b o u t t h e war. I remember... l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o f o r news on D i e p p e . . . I remember t h e a n n o u n c e r s a y i n g t h a t o v e r one t h o u s a n d C a n a d i a n s w e r e s h i p p e d o v e r u n d e r t h e c o v e r o f d a r k n e s s a n d t h a t , u n b e l i e v a b l y , a f i s h i n g t r a w l e r s p o t t e d t h e i r l a n d i n g c r a f t a n d s o t h e y w e r e met by g u n f i r e . I t was a g r e a t l o s s a n d we t a l k e d a b o u t i t a t home a n d a t s c h o o l f o r w eeks a f t e r w a r d s . " 1 5 3 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r . I remember h e a r i n g t h e news on t h e r a d i o . " 1 5 4 One i n t e r v i e w e e d e c l a r e d "we h e a r d a b o u t P e a r l H a r b o u r o n t h e r a d i o . . . " 1 5 5 A n o t h e r remembered " P e a r l H a r b o u r a n d P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t s p e a k i n g on t h e r a d i o . T h e r e was a k i n d o f d a r k n e s s i n t h e a i r . " 1 5 6 One woman h e a r d t h e r a d i o a n n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e d e a t h o f P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t : " e v e r y r a d i o p r o g r a m h a d i t . . . I f e l t some k i n d o f p e r s o n a l s e n s e o f awe t h a t t h i s man h a d d i e d , I p r o b a b l y p i c k e d i t up f r o m t h e n e w s c a s t e r . " 1 5 7 35 C h i l d r e n n o t o n l y h e a r d news o f w a r ' s e v e n t s b u t t h e i m m e d i a c y o f t h e war was b r o u g h t i n t o t h e i r homes b y w a r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s . A.E. P o w l e y , a f o r m e r CBC w a r c o r r e s p o n d e n t w r o t e : "CBC c o r r e s p o n d e n t s h a d b e e n b r i n g i n g t h e s o u n d s o f war i n t o C a n a d i a n ' s l i v i n g rooms f r o m December 1 9 3 9 . " 1 5 8 The CBC knew how t o a t t r a c t l i s t e n e r s . C o r r e s p o n d e n t s g a v e g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h c a p t i v a t e d a u d i e n c e s , y o u n g a n d o l d . Two C a n a d i a n w a r c o r r e s p o n d e n t s known f o r t h e i r s e n s a t i o n a l r e p o r t s w e r e M a t t h e w H a l t o n a n d M a r c e l O u i m e t . T h e y " r e c o r d e d b a r r a g e s g r e a t a n d s m a l l , t h e t a l k o f t a n k men o v e r t h e i r r a d i o s d u r i n g b a t t l e , a n d t h e s o u n d s o f b a t t l e o v e r h e a d " . 1 5 9 T h o s e who h e a r d t h e i r b r o a d c a s t o f t h e F i r s t C a n a d i a n D i v i s i o n ' s v i c t o r y i n b r e a k i n g t h e G u s t a v L i n e , w o u l d h a v e h e a r d t h e s e d r a m a t i c w o r d s . "The f i g h t i n g i n t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e c i t y r e s e m b l e d t h e a n t e c h a m b e r t o H e l l . The more m u r d e r o u s t h e b a t t l e t h e h a r d e r b o t h s i d e s f o u g h t . . i n a c a r n i v a l o f f u r y . T h e r e was s o m e t h i n g . . . h e r o i c and a l m o s t s u p erhuman a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , d a r k a s n i g h t " 1 6 0 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e CBC g r e a t c a r e was t a k e n t o a v o i d s e n s a t i o n a l i s m a n d f a l s e e m p h a s i s . Y e t t h e CBC a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t " s u g a r c o a t i n g b a d news a n d o v e r s t r e s s i n g enemy s u c c e s s e s [was] e q u a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . " 1 6 1 The war c o r r e s p o n d e n t s : " a l w a y s knew t h a t t h e i r w o r k w o u l d be c h e c k e d , c e n s o r e d a n d t r a n s m i t t e d a c c o r d i n g t o m i l i t a r y r u l e s a nd t i m e t a b l e s . . . t h e y w e r e s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e War M e a s u r e s A c t . " 1 6 2 One woman r e f l e c t e d o n : " t h e enormous amount o f p r o p a g a n d a . We w e r e b r a i n w a s h e d . . . W e d i d n ' t r e a l l y h e a r a b o u t w h a t was h a p p e n i n g t o t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e u n t i l l a t e r o n . . . I t w a s n ' t u n t i l l a t e r t h a t we 36 r e a l l y l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e h o r r i f i c t h i n g s t h a t w e r e g o i n g o n . " 1 6 3 War's e v e n t s w e r e e m b e l l i s h e d o r t h e y w e r e c e n s o r e d . T h i s c e n s o r s h i p made i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t r u t h f r o m p r o p a g a n d a . C h i l d r e n o f t e n b e l i e v e d w h a t t h e y h e a r d a n d m o s t knew n o t h i n g o f c e n s o r s h i p l a w s . War c o r r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d r e p o r t w h a t t h e y saw f i r s t h a n d a s t h e t r u t h b u t t h e i r r e p o r t s w e r e s u b j e c t t o c e n s o r s h i p . " A l l C a n a d i a n r e p o r t e r s a t t h e f r o n t w e r e s u b j e c t t o m i l i t a r y o r d e r s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s . A s s u c h , t h e y c o u l d n e i t h e r move f r e e l y i n a combat a r e a n o r r e p o r t a n y a c t i v i t y u n l e s s s a n c t i o n e d b y a u t h o r i t y . " 1 6 4 F a m i l i e s l i s t e n e d c a r e f u l l y t o t h e i r r a d i o s f o r news o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s on b r o a d c a s t s f r o m t h e CBC's o v e r s e a s news u n i t i n B r i t a i n . Two o f t h e p r o g r a m s w i t h s u c h news w e r e " W i t h t h e T r o o p s " a n d " E n g l i s h N e w s l e t t e r t o C a n a d a . " T h e s e a l s o i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e many C a n a d i a n men a n d women o v e r s e a s . The CBC s t a t e d t h a t t h i s o v e r s e a s u n i t p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l " d e s c r i b i n g e v e r y a s p e c t o f l i f e o f t h e C a n a d i a n f o r c e s i n B r i t a i n . " The CBC a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p o r t i o n o f t h e show was t h e p e r s o n a l g r e e t i n g s : " f r o m t h e b o y s t o t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d l o v e d o n e s a t home." The C o r p o r a t i o n r e a l i z e d t h a t t o s a f e g u a r d " c i v i l i a n m o r a l e . . . e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e m u s t be done t o m a i n t a i n a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e t r o o p s o v e r s e a s a n d t h e i r f o l k s a t h o m e . " 1 6 5 O v e r s e a s u n i t s i n c r e a s e d t h e CBC's number o f w a r p r o g r a m s i n 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 4 1 t o 1,809, and b r o a d c a s t h o u r s t o 595. T h e s e numbers t h e n d o u b l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . 1 6 6 C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s i n c r e a s e was t h e B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . I t b r o a d c a s t t h e R e d C r o s s m e r c y s h i p d e p a r t u r e s , t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n 37 R e d C r o s s H o s p i t a l i n E n g l a n d a n d two p o p u l a r s e r i e s w h i c h "were t y p i c a l o f t h e d r a m a t i c c o v e r a g e i n war r e p o r t i n g . . . ' W a t c h e r s o f t h e S k y ' a n d 'Bombers O v e r G e r m a n y ' " . 1 6 7 A n o t h e r v e r y p o p u l a r s e r v i c e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e CBC's p r o g r a m m i n g was " C h i l d r e n C a l l i n g Home." B r i t i s h c h i l d r e n s e n t t o C a n a d a f o r m o s t o f t h e war w e r e a b l e t o t a l k f r o m t h e CBC s t u d i o s i n C a n a d a w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s i n t h e B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n s t u d i o s i n L o n d o n a s p a r t o f t h i s w e e k l y b r o a d c a s t . 1 6 8 One woman d e s c r i b e d h e r s a d n e s s when: " I l i s t e n e d t o t h e s e p e r f e c t l i t t l e v o i c e s , w i t h t h e i r a c c e n t s , a n d t e a r s j u s t s t a r t e d t o p o u r f r o m my e y e s . " 1 6 9 R a d i o was a l s o a medium w i t h w h i c h t o e n t e r t a i n . "The CBC h a d made a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e number o f w a r b r o a d c a s t s a n d m a i n t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n e n t e r t a i n m e n t p r o g r a m s a n d t h e s t a r k b r u t a l f a c t s o f w a r b r o u g h t t o l i s t e n e r s . " 1 7 0 One man r e c a l l e d w h i l e g r o w i n g u p: " f o r u s , t h e o n l y e n j o y a b l e e s c a p e f r o m r e a l i t y a t t h e t i m e was t h e r a d i o . " 1 7 1 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d : " I u s e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . I remember " J u s t M a r y " w h i c h , I t h i n k , was o u t o f V a n c o u v e r a n d I l i s t e n e d t o "Sunday S c h o o l o f t h e A i r . " 1 7 2 The e n t e r t a i n m e n t on t h e r a d i o c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t i g n o r e t h e w a r . The WIB s t a t e d t h a t a l l p r o g r a m s "were c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n f o r m i n g t h e p u b l i c on r a t i o n i n g , f u e l s u p p l i e s , r e c r u i t i n g a n d p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l war m a t t e r s o f n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e . " 1 7 3 One f e l l o w remembered: " K a t e A i t k e n o n t h e r a d i o , M o t h e r was a g r e a t f a n o f h e r s s h e was a l w a y s a d v i s i n g on t h e r a d i o , o n how t o s u r v i v e t h e war i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f w a y s . " 1 7 4 P r o g r a m s w e r e p r o d u c e d t o p r o m o t e t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s 38 B o n d s a n d V i c t o r y B o n d s . To p i q u e a u d i e n c e i n t e r e s t many p o p u l a r A m e r i c a n a n d B r i t i s h s t a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d : P a u l W h i t e m a n ; Bob Hope; G r a c i e F i e l d s ; I r v i n g B e r l i n a n d R o n a l d C o l e m a n , w e r e among t h o s e who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n War Bond B r o a d c a s t s . 1 7 5 I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e w e r e a number o f r a d i o s e r i e s s u c h a s : " A r s e n a l o f D e m o c r a c y " w h i c h d e s c r i b e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new i n d u s t r i e s n e e d e d f o r t h e w a r . " T a l k s a b o u t T a n k s " , " S t e e l P r o d u c t i o n " a n d "Guns a n d A m m u n i t i o n " u r g e d C a n a d i a n s t o w i n t h e w a r by d o n a t i n g t h e i r money a n d t i m e t o h e l p i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . 1 7 6 The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e CBC was c l e a r l y s t a t e d : " i n t h e r a d i o f i e l d , a s e l s e w h e r e , t h e a l l a b s o r b i n g t a s k i s t o f u r t h e r t h e w a r e f f o r t . " 1 7 7 R a d i o ' s i n g a l o n g s * w e re an i m p o r t a n t a n d i n s p i r a t i o n a l way t o r a i s e money f o r t h e war e f f o r t . C a n a d i a n r a d i o p r o g r a m s c e n t r e d o n W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ' s m o t t o : ' G i v e u s t h e t o o l s a n d we w i l l f i n i s h t h e j o b ' , a s t h e theme. L i s t e n e r s , l e d b y f a m o us names s u c h a s c h i l d s t a r s t h e D i o n n e q u i n t u p l e t s , s a n g a l o n g t o " T h e r e ' s a L o n g L o n g T r a i l a W i n d i n g " a n d " T h e r e ' l l A l w a y s be a n E n g l a n d " a m o n g s t o t h e r p o p u l a r t u n e s . 1 7 8 P r i v a t e s e c t o r r a d i o a n d s p o n s o r s w e r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o r a l e - b u i l d i n g w a r t i m e s i n g s o n g s . A n o t a b l e c o m m e r c i a l s e r i e s was p r o d u c e d e n t i t l e d "Command P e r f o r m a n c e " a n d was n a r r a t e d by t h a t v o i c e s ynonymous w i t h w a r , L o m e G r e e n e . T h i s s e r i e s e n t e r t a i n e d l i s t e n e r s b y c o m b i n i n g m u s i c w i t h d r a m a t i c s k e t c h e s a b o u t war h e r o e s . 1 7 9 A l t h o u g h t h e s e p r o g r a m s w e r e meant t o i n s p i r e a n d l i f t s p i r i t s , one man r emembered t h a t a s t h e war d r a g g e d o n : "what was o n c e c h e e r s f o r v i c t o r y a nd s o n g s on t h e r a d i o t u r n e d t o v e r y v e r y s o b e r r e f l e c t i o n s a n d t h e h o p e , t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a n y g o o d news. , |- L B U T h e r e w e r e many d r a m a t i c p r o g r a m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e war t o y o u n g C a n a d i a n l i s t e n e r s . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e B r i t i s h B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n s e n t o v e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f p r o g r a m s w h i c h w e r e meant t o c l a r i f y t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s f o r C a n a d i a n s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d : " U n d e r t h e Shadow o f t h e S w a s t i k a " a n d "A H a l f - H o u r w i t h Mr. J o n e s " . A s e r i e s w h i c h w o u l d : "meet w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a p p r o v a l n o t o n l y f r o m t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h a n d m u s i c b u t a l s o f r o m t h e t e a c h i n g b o d y a s a w h o l e " was r e v i e w e d i n t h e B.C.  T e a c h e r . 1 8 1 T h i s v e r y p o p u l a r s e r i e s was " T h e a t r e o f F r e e d o m " a n d was b r o a d c a s t Sunday e v e n i n g s , b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 4 1 . T h i s p r o g r a m was made, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e CBC b l u r b : " f o r t h e c a u s e o f d e m o c r a c y w h i c h i s a t s t a k e i n t h e W o r l d War t o d a y . " 1 8 2 R a d i o l i s t e n e r s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d by t h e B.C. T e a c h e r t o t u n e i n t o shows s u c h a s : " T h i s P r e c i o u s F reedom"; "An Enemy o f t h e P e o p l e " ; a n d "A B r i t i s h S u b j e c t I Was B o r n " . 1 8 3 One o f t h e f o r e m o s t C a n a d i a n r a d i o s e r i e s was " C a r r y On, C a n a d a " a w e e k l y drama s e r i e s w h i c h b e g a n i n 1941 a n d f o c u s e d on t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f t h e t h r e e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s . One p r o g r a m e n t i t l e d "Comrade i n Arms" e n c o u r a g e d a u d i e n c e s t o become f a i t h f u l f a n s o f one o r more u n i t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n m i l i t a r y . One o f t h e s e , "The F i g h t i n g Navy", was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l a s l i s t e n e r s c o u l d f o l l o w t h e e s c a p a d e s o f t h e i r f i g h t i n g h e r o e s on t h e m y t h i c a l d e s t r o y e r HMCS M i s s i n a b i . 1 8 4 C h i l d r e n who w e r e f a n s N o f t h e A i r F o r c e l i s t e n e d t o "L f o r L a n k y " w h i c h t o l d w a r s t o r i e s s e t o n a f i c t i o n a l bomber. The s e r i e s a l s o i n c l u d e d "The M e r c h a n t N a v y Show" a n d Wayne a n d S h u s t e r w e r e s t a r s o f "The Army S h o w " . 1 8 5 S a t u r d a y N i g h t m a g a z i n e r e v i e w e d t h e " C a r r y On, 40 Canada" s e r i e s and r e p o r t e d t h a t "people t h r o u g h o u t Canada l o v e i t . And i t ' s v e r y p a t r i o t i c . " The magazine a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " t h o s e s i l l y b u r l e s q u e s o f H i t l e r and M u s s o l i n i a r e j u s t t o o t i r e s o m e and absu r d . . . b u t we must be v e r y wrong about t h i s , because t h e CBC says t h i s i s one of t h e most p o p u l a r p r o g r a m s . " 1 8 6 Even soap operas r e v o l v e d around t h e war. They were produced n o t o n l y t o e n t e r t a i n but w i t h t h e purpose o f t e l l i n g Canadians how t o l i v e t h e i r l i v e s d u r i n g war t i m e . A u d i e n c e s o f a l l ages f o l l o w e d t h e t r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n " S o l d i e r ' s W i f e " and "John and Judy". The f i r s t was about a woman whose husband was s t a t i o n e d o v e r s e a s as a s e r g e a n t i n t h e H u l l y v a l e R i f l e s , t h e l a t t e r about a c o u p l e and t h e i r problems w i t h war t i m e r e g u l a t i o n s . These programs, s p o n s o r e d by t h e Wartime P r i c e s and Trade Board, " c a r r i e d a l o t o f propaganda f o r t h e l i s t e n e r s , and t h e commercials s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s . " 1 8 7 To round o ut t h e 'on t h e a i r ' war e f f o r t t h e r e were a l s o many r e l i g i o u s programs and s e r v i c e s and i n s p i r a t i o n a l programs o f music and w r i t i n g . The show "The New Canadi a n s " was produced, a s e r i e s about r e f u g e e s who had f l e d Europe f o r Canada. A l s o a v e r s e program c a l l e d "Who's Johnny Canuck?" was a i r e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e , a s e r i e s o f f o u r t e e n programs e n t i t l e d " F l y f o r Freedom" w h i c h were r e c r u i t i n g propaganda f o r t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e . 1 8 8 To some c h i l d r e n t h e r a d i o was s i m p l y a t o o l f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . To most i t brought t h e war r i g h t i n t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s and l i v i n g rooms. Events o f war were c h a n g i n g d a i l y 41 a n d many c h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d a n d f o l l o w e d i n t e n t l y . One man r e m e m b e r e d : " b u y i n g maps t o f o l l o w t h e w a r " a n d l i s t e n i n g t o t h e " c u r r e n t e v e n t s , R u s s i a n e v e n t s g a v e me a n x i e t y b e c a u s e o f t h e names on t h e maps w e r e d i f f i c u l t t o r e a d a n d u n d e r s t a n d on r a d i o n e w s . " 1 8 9 T h e y l i s t e n e d a n d r a d i o s h a p e d t h e i r t h o u g h t s a n d t h e i r f e e l i n g s . Many i n t e r v i e w e e s remembered Mr. Good E v e n i n g , "he was a l o c a l o ne, I t h i n k he was on CJOR. He w o u l d s a y g o o d e v e n i n g t o a l l t h e s o l d i e r s . " 1 9 0 Two men h a d s i m i l a r m e m o r i e s o f Mr. Good E v e n i n g : "he u s e d t o s a y g o o d e v e n i n g t o a l l t h o s e on t h e s h i p s a t s e a a n d i n t h e l i g h t h o u s e s , a n d we w o u l d s a y 'and i n t h e o u t h o u s e s ! ' " 1 9 1 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d "Mr. Good E v e n i n g . . . H e h a d a n a w f u l v o i c e , i t t o o k h i m f o r e v e r t o r e a d t h e news, i f t h e w a r w a s n ' t on no one w o u l d h a v e l i s t e n e d t o h i m ! " 1 9 2 T h o s e who c r e a t e d p r o p a g a n d a knew e x a c t l y w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g . T h e y f e l t i t was f o r t h e g o o d o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d i t s c i t i z e n s . One o f J o h n G r i e r s o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s was e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h f i l m . He v i e w e d e d u c a t i o n a n d p r o p a g a n d a a s o n e , a n d e x p r e s s e d t h a t c o n c e p t w i t h t h e s e w o r d s . Go o u t a n d a s k men t o m o b i l i z e t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f g r e e d a n d s e l f i s h n e s s . A nd mean i t . A s k t h e m t o f o r g e t t h e i r p e r s o n a l d r eams a n d p l e a s u r e s a n d d e n y t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e o b l i t e r a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c a n a r c h y a n d d i s o r d e r a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d . And mean i t . Mean i t s o much t h a t men w i l l know t h a t no p o w e r on e a r t h w i l l s t o p y o u i n y o u r t r a c k s . . . T e l l them t h a t i n d e s p e r a t e u n i t y a n d b e f o r e God t h e y w i l l g i v e t h e w o r l d a g r e a t e r l e a d e r s h i p , a more h u m a n i t a r i a n new o r d e r t h a n t h e t h w a r t e d a n d v e n g e f u l p e o p l e o f Germany c a n be c a p a b l e o f . 1 9 3 One i n t e r v i e w e e r e f l e c t e d on b e i n g e x p o s e d t o w a r t i m e p r o p a g a n d a a s a y o u t h a n d he s t a t e d t h a t he saw: w h a t e v e r f i l m t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e d t o t h e p u b l i c . T h e y d i d n ' t want p e o p l e t o be d e m o r a l i z e d . You r e a l i z e w h a t t h a t d o e s t o a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who f r o m 1939 t o 1945, e i t h e r a r e n ' t a l l o w e d t o t h i n k , w h i c h was a p a t r i o t i c 42 m i l i t a r i s t i c l i e , and they don't have any d i r e c t corroborative evidence of what was going on. But you have l o t s of shots of H i t l e r ' s a t r o c i t i e s i n Russia, and l o t s of shots of Montgomery's desert t a c t i c s released i n theatres a l l over the world." 1 9* 1. M1016-10 2. P h i l l i p K n i g h t l y , The F i r s t C a s u a l t y From t h e C r i m e a t o  V i e t n a m : The War C o r r e s p o n d e n t a s H e r o , P r o p a g a n d i s t a n d M y t h  M a k e r (New Y o r k & L o n d o n : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h , 1975) , 276 3. Sam K e e n , R e f l e c t i o n s o f t h e H o s t i l e I m a g i n a t i o n : The  P s y c h o l o g y o f E n m i t y . ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : H a r p e r a n d Row, 1 9 8 6 ) , 57 4. I b i d . , 13. 5. G a r y E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d : The  P o l i t i c s o f W a r t i m e P r o p a g a n d a ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , 58. 6. M1009-6\7 7. M1012-3 8. H e a d l i n e s , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 4 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 9 , 1. 9. H e a d l i n e s , V a n c o u v e r N e w s - H e r a l d , 15 A u g u s t 1 9 4 5 , 1 a n d 9. 10. E r i c Thompson, " C a n a d i a n W a r c o s i n W o r l d War I I : P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , P a t r i o t i s m a n d P r o p a g a n d a , " M o s a i c 2 3 , no.3 (Summer 1 9 9 0 ) : 66. 1 1 . F 1 0 0 7 - 3 12 . F 1 0 0 1 - 1 3 13 . F10 0 1 - 3 14. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 1 15. F 1 0 0 5 - 1 16. M1010-7 17. M1009-5 18. F 6 5 6 3 - 6 19. " C a n a d a i s Now S e p t e m b e r 1939, 1. 20. M1897-10 2 1 . M1003-5 22. M1003-3 2 3 . M1016-5. 44 24. M1014-6 25. F 1 0 1 3 - 5 26. F1007-4 27. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 0 28. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , " ' E v e r y o n e Seemed Happy i n T h o s e D a y s ' : The C u l t u r e o f C h i l d h o o d i n V a n c o u v e r B e t w e e n t h e 1 9 2 0 s a n d t h e 1 9 6 0 s , " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n R e v i e w 15, no. 2 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 4 5. 29. M1014 -5/6 30. M1010 -4/5 3 1 . M1012 -4 32. M1012 -4 33 . F1013 -5 34. F1007 -9 35. F1007 -9 36. M1012 -4 37. M1009-5 38. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , " M r s . M i n i v e r , " C a n a d a a n d t h e P e o p l e ' s War ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 2. 39. M a r y P e a t e , G i r l i n t h e S l o p p y J o e S w e a t e r ( M o n t r e a l : Optimum P u b l i s h i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 8 9 ) , 148. 40. I b i d . , 147. 4 1 . F 1 0 1 1 - 3 42 . M1012-4 4 3 . F 1 0 0 7 - 9 44. F1007-4 4 5 . F 1 0 0 8 - 5 46. P e t e r M o r r i s , e d . , The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a : The  War Y e a r s . A C o l l e c t i o n o f C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t i c l e s a n d a S e l e c t e d  I n d e x o f P r o d u c t i o n s ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n F i l m I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 6 5 ) , 148. 47. M1010-4 45 48. M1015-9 49. F 1 0 1 3 - 6 50. M1014-6 5 1 . M1012-4 52. M1002-11 53 . F 1 0 0 4 - 1 54. F 1 0 0 1 - 6 55 . Denny B o y d , V a n c o u v e r Sun. 4 F e b r u a r y 1 9 9 1 , s e c . B, p . l . 56. M1010-8 57. F 1 0 0 8 - 5 58. M1009-5 59. M1010-6 60. M1015-5 6 1 . F 1 0 1 1 - 6 62. F 1 0 1 3 - 6 / 7 63. M1002-10/11 64. E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . 58. 65. I b i d . 66. I b i d . , 1. 67. I b i d . 68. I b i d . , 2. 69. D o n a l d B u c h a n a n , "Canada on t h e W o r l d ' s S c r e e n , " C a n a d i a n  G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l 22, no. 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 7 2 . 70. I b i d . , 72. 7 1 . Graham M c l n n e s , "Canada C a r r i e s On," M a c L e a n ' s M a g a z i n e :  C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l M a g a z i n e , 15 M a r c h 1 9 4 1 , 19. 72. I b i d . 7 3 . I b i d . , 27. 74. F 1 0 0 8 - 6 . 7 5 . F 1 0 0 1 - 6 76. M c l n n e s , "Canada C a r r i e s On," 19. 7 7 . B u c h a n a n , "Canada on t h e W o r l d ' s S c r e e n , " 72. 78. I b i d . 7 9 . M c l n n e s , "Canada C a r r i e s On," 26. 80. B u c h a n a n , "Canada on t h e W o r l d ' s S c r e e n , " 72. 8 1 . F r a n k l i n S m i t h , " C anada's War E f f o r t , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t : The  C a n a d i a n W e e k l y , 9 November 1940, 5. 8 2 . I b i d . 8 3 . M c l n n e s , "Canada C a r r i e s On," 26. 84. E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 68. 8 5 . B u c h a n a n , "Canada on t h e W o r l d ' s S c r e e n , " 7 3 . 86. M o r r i s , e d . , The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a , 26. 8 7 . E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 148. 88. I b i d . 8 9 . D o n a l d B u c h a n a n , " C a n a d i a n M o v i e s P r o m o t e C i t i z e n s h i p , " C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l 28, no. 3 ( M a r c h 1 9 4 4 ) : 125. 90. E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 149. 9 1 . M o r r i s , e d . , The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a . 3 1 . 9 2 . I b i d . , 3 1 - 3 2 . 9 3 . B u c h a n a n , " C a n a d i a n M o v i e s , " 1 2 0 - 1 2 1 . 94. E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a nd t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 138. 9 5 . I b i d . , 139. 96. M o r r i s , e d . , The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a , 2 7 - 2 8 . 9 7 . E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 1 6 4 - 1 6 7 . 98. M o r r i s , e d . , The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a , 22 . 99. I b i d . , 2 3 . 100. E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 140. 1 0 1 . J . L . G r a n a t s t e i n , C a n a d a ' s War: The P o l i t i c s o f t h e  M a c k e n z i e K i n g G o v e r n m e n t . 1939-1945 ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , 250. 102. B u c h a n a n , " C a n a d i a n M o v i e s , " 123. 1 0 3 . E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . 140. 104. B u c h a n a n , " C a n a d i a n M o v i e s , " 124. 105. I b i d . , 1 2 6-127. 106. I b i d . , 124. 107. C. D. O v a n s , e d . , " N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d 1942 C a t a l o g u e S u p p l e m e n t , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 6 ( M a r c h 1 9 4 3 ) : 240. 108. M o r r i s , e d . P The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a , 21 109. O v a n s , e d . , " N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , " 240. 110. G r a n a t s t e i n , C a n a d a ' s War. 249. 1 1 1 . E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , 136. 112 . I b i d . , 144 . 1 1 3 . I b i d . , 140. 114 . K n i g h t l y . The F i r s t C a s u a l t y , 1. 1 1 5 . E v a n s , J o h n G r i e r s o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d . 186. 116. I b i d . , 143. 117. I b i d . , 1 4 1. 118. I b i d . , 127. 119. I b i d . 1 20. I b i d . , 136. 1 2 1 . M o r r i s , e d . . The N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d o f C a n a d a , 20 -28 . 122 . F 1 0 1 3 - 5 123 . M1010- 7 124 . B i l l M c N e i l a n d M o r r i s W o l f e , The B i r t h o f R a d i o i n C a n a d a : S i g n i n g On ( T o r o n t o : D o u b l e d a y C a n a d a , 1 9 8 2 ) , 244. 125. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e ' s War. 14. 126. F 1 0 0 4 - 1 127. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 128. K e n n e t h C a p l e , i n t e r v i e w b y I r e n e Howard, 15 December 1982 T a p e r e c o r d i n g , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 129. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , " S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s E x t e n d e d " , B.C.  T e a c h e r 20, no. 5 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 246. 130. I b i d . 1 3 1 . F 1 0 1 1 - 1 132. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , "The C h i l d i n W a r t i m e S e r i e s " , B.C.  T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 3 (November 1 9 4 1 ) : 140. 13 3 . I b i d . 134. I b i d . 1 3 5. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , "The B i r t h o f C a n a d i a n F r e e d o m a n d How F r e e d o m W o r k s " , B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 4 (December 1 9 4 1 ) : 198 136. T e r r e n c e R. M o r r i s o n , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f N a t i o n a l R a d i o E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 4 9 " (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 7 ) , 101. 137. I b i d . , 104. 138. The C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n "The CBC a n d War News," ( 1 9 4 3 ) : 7. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-57. 139. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e 1 >s War, 12. 140. M1014-5 14 1 . W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e 1 's War, 12. 142. M1014-4 143 . F1001-4 144 . M1003-6. 145. M1009-5. 146. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 & 1 1 . 147. F 1 0 0 8 - 6 148. F 1 0 1 3 - 5 149. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e 1 s War, 9. 150. I b i d . 49 1 5 1 . M1003-1 152. W i n n i f r e d A r i e l W e i r , "Two Wars V i e w e d f r o m W i n d e r m e r e , B.C.," B.C. H i s t o r i c a l News 23, no. 4 ( F a l l 1 9 9 0 ) : 1 9 - 2 0 . 153. M1003-4 154. M1014-2 155. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 156. M1015-3 157. F 4 9 8 9 - 3 8 158. Thompson, " C a n a d i a n W a r c o s , " 60. 159. I b i d . 160. I b i d . 1 6 1 . C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , "The CBC a n d War News," 7. 162. Thompson, " C a n a d i a n W a r c o s , " 62. 163. F 1 0 0 4 - 2 / 3 164. Thompson, " C a n a d i a n W a r c o s , " 67. 16 5 . C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , "The CBC a n d War News," 7. 166. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e ' s War. 9. 167. I b i d . 168. W a r n e r T r o y e r , The Sound a n d t h e F u r y : An A n e c d o t a l H i s t o r y  o f C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g ( O n t a r i o : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) , 9. 169. F 1 0 0 6 - 1 17 0. S a n d y S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t : A P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y o f  R a d i o i n C a n a d a ( T o r o n t o : CBC E n t e r p r i s e s , 1 9 8 5 ) , 8 1 . 1 7 1 . M1003-6. 172. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 1 173. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , The P e o p l e ' s War. 10. 174. M1543-4 175. S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t . 7 1 . 50 176. I b i d . , 7 3 . 177. C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , "The CBC a n d War News," 7. 178. M c N e i l a n d W o l f e , The B i r t h o f R a d i o . 239. 179. S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t . 80. 180. M1003-6. 1 8 1 . Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , " T h e a t r e o f F r e e d o m " , B.C. T e a c h e r 2 0 , n o . 6 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 295. 182. S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t , 79. 183. B l a c k , e d . , " T h e a t r e o f Freedom", 295. 184. S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t . 78. 18 5 . I b i d . , 8 5 . 186. F r a n k C h a m b e r l a i n , "The Week i n R a d i o , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t : The  C a n a d i a n W e e k l y , 17 May 1941, 23. 187. S t e w a r t , From C o a s t t o C o a s t . 8 1 . 188. I b i d . , 80. 189. M2323-3 190. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 1 1 9 1 . M1010-7 a n d M1002-9 192. M1012-4 193. J o h n B e v e r i d g e , J o h n G r i e r s o n : F i l m M a s t e r (New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 8 ) , 123. 194. M1002-8. 51 CHAPTER I I THE WAR'S EFFECT ON THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SCHOOL CURRICULUM T e a c h e r s d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War h a d a m y r i a d o f c h a n g e s t o manage. T h e y w e r e t o e d u c a t e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o c r a c y a n d p r o m o t e a l l e g i a n c e t o C a nada a n d B r i t a i n . D r . S.R. L a y c o c k w r o t e i n h i s a r t i c l e on i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n t h e B.C.  T e a c h e r t h a t : "As a d e f i n i t e p a r t o f t h e i r w a r s e r v i c e a l l t e a c h e r s m u s t s t r i v e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r own e f f i c i e n c y a s b u i l d e r s o f d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l s and h a b i t s . " 1 P a r t o f G.M. W e i r ' s New Y e a r ' s m e s s a g e i n 1940 was t o a s k t e a c h e r s t o r e m a i n o b j e c t i v e when p r e s e n t i n g t h e war i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . W e i r , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , i n f o r m e d t e a c h e r s o f t h e i r r o l e t o "be v i g i l a n t t h a t no s p i r i t o f h a t r e d t o w a r d s t h e enemy i s f o s t e r e d . . . [ a n d ] m a i n t a i n m o r a l e . " 2 T e a c h e r s f a c e d f u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e s w i t h c h a n g e s i n t h e c u r r i c u l a . The S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m was a l t e r e d t o i n c l u d e , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e c a u s e s a n d e v e n t s o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e d c h a n g e s w i t h i t s P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n [ P r o R e c ] p r o g r a m a n d w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y c a d e t i n s t r u c t i o n . The w a r a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m i n t h a t t e a c h e r s w e r e t o t r a i n c h i l d r e n i n t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r e mployment i n t h e war i n d u s t r i e s a n d t h e s e r v i c e s . "The w a r h a d c a u s e d p e o p l e t o r e a l i z e t h e p l a c e o f e d u c a t i o n 52 a s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e w o r k i n g o f d e m o c r a c y . . . " 3 T h i s s t a t e m e n t was p a r t o f a r e p o r t b y H.B. K i n g , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f P r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s . I n 1940 K i n g a t t e n d e d a n a s s e m b l y i n O t t a w a t o c o n s i d e r t h e " e d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p i n C a n a d a . " 4 He r e p o r t e d t h a t a n o u t c o m e o f t h e m e e t i n g was t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n i n C i t i z e n s h i p . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f d e m o c r a t i c c i t i z e n s h i p was n e c e s s a r y i n C a n a d i a n c l a s s r o o m s . K i n g c l a i m e d t h a t no new c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s w o u l d n e e d t o be d e v e l o p e d , t h e t e a c h i n g w o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e d "by l i v i n g t h e d e m o c r a t i c l i f e . " 5 He s u g g e s t e d t e a c h e r s p r o m o t e d e m o c r a c y i n t h e s c h o o l s b y i n v o l v i n g p u p i l s i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d s h a r i n g o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e " r e c o g n i t i o n o f d u t i e s a n d a s s u m p t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " 6 E.F. M i l l e r e x p l a i n e d , i n B.C. T e a c h e r o f t e a c h i n g d e m o c r a c y , t h a t s t u d e n t s "may be a b l e t o g i v e t h e C h u r c h i l l - R o o s e v e l t C h a r t e r o f t h e A t l a n t i c b u t i f t h e r e » i s no a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t h i n g s i n t h e s c h o o l . . . i t h a s a l l b e e n i n v a i n . " 7 The r e a l i m p o r t a n c e o f d e m o c r a c y " l i e s i n t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e s c h o o l i s r u n , o r . . . r u n s i t s e l f . " 8 ''Marion C. K i n n a i r d , a t e a c h e r i n R o y a l Oak, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 4 1 , w r o t e t o t h e B.C. T e a c h e r . She w a n t e d t o s h a r e a s u c c e s s f u l l e s s o n i n d e m o c r a c y w h i c h i n v o l v e d g r a d e s s e v e n a n d e i g h t s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g down t h e i r i d e a s on w o r l d p r o b l e m s a n d d e m o c r a t i c a n d t o t a l i t a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t s . One s t u d e n t w r o t e o f d e m o c r a c y : "Two h e a d s a r e b e t t e r t h a n o n e . " 9 A n o t h e r w r o t e "we h a v e t h e r i g h t . . . w h e r e a s t o t a l i t a r i a n g o v e r n m e n t g i v e s no r i g h t s . " 1 0 K i n n a i r d c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e was a theme w h i c h a l l t h e s t u d e n t s t o u c h e d on: " N a z i c h i l d r e n c o u l d t u r n o n t h e i r own m o t h e r s a n d f a t h e r s - t h a t . . . t h e y s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o h a t e u s , t h e B r i t i s h , a n d t a u g h t t o l i e - a n d t h a t t h e Germans c o u l d n o t w o r s h i p a s t h e y p l e a s e d . " 1 1 K i n n a i r d b e l i e v e d t h a t i f c h i l d r e n c o u l d s e e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s t h e n t h e y h a d l e a r n e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o c r a c y . T h e y h a d l e a r n e d t h a t t h e d e m o c r a t i c way o f l i f e was one o f " h i g h v a l u e s , g r e a t p r i v i l e g e s o f t o l e r a t i o n , f r e e d o m a n d j u s t i c e . " 1 2 " T e a c h e r s w e r e t o r e m a i n o b j e c t i v e , t h e y w e r e n o t t o g i v e t h e i r p e r s o n a l j u d g e m e n t . " 1 3 T h i s was how one i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d h e r c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e . The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a s k e d t h e t e a c h e r t o " e x e r c i s e t h e h i g h e s t m e a s u r e o f o b j e c t i v i t y a n d i m p a r t i a l i t y , a n d . . . n o t i n d o c t r i n a t e h i s p u p i l s w i t h h i s own p r i v a t e v i e w s u p o n c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n s . 1 , 1 4 I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e r e m i n d e d t e a c h e r s t h a t " w h i l e p u p i l s s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o a p p r e c i a t e o u r d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s t h e t e a c h e r . . . s h o u l d n o t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f h i s / h e r p o s i t i o n t o " p r o p a g a n d i z e h i s own v i e w s - p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , r e l i g i o u s o r o t h e r . " 1 5 One woman remembered "we h a d o u r c u r r e n t e v e n t s . . . B u t e v e n t h e n I d o n ' t remember t e a c h e r s i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h w h a t we w e r e s a y i n g a b o u t t h e news c l i p p i n g s . No o p i n i o n s w e r e g i v e n . " 1 6 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t h e r g r a d e s e v e n t e a c h e r a l s o t a u g h t o b j e c t i v i t y : " d o n ' t b e l i e v e e v e r y t h i n g y o u h e a r , h a l f o f w h a t y o u r e a d o r a l l o f w h a t y o u s e e . . . S h e was t h e o n l y one who s a i d a n y t h i n g a b o u t news, o r t h e p r o p a g a n d a . . . " 1 7 N e i l S u t h e r l a n d w r o t e a b o u t " . . . t h o s e g e n e r a l l y r a r e o c c a s i o n s when t h e t e a c h e r w a n d e r e d o r was d r a w n f r o m t h e s u b j e c t u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . . . S o m e t o l d war s t o r i e s . . . " 1 8 T h e r e w e r e many t e a c h e r s who c o u l d n o t i g n o r e t h e war a n d some who c o u l d n o t r e m a i n o b j e c t i v e . T hey h a d r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s i n t h e s e r v i c e , o r t h e y h a d s e r v e d i n t h e F i r s t W o r l d War o r some h a d j u s t come b a c k f r o m s e r v i n g i n t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. M o s t i n t e r v i e w e e s r e m e m b e r e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s a n d t h e o p i n i o n s t h e y e x p r e s s e d a b o u t t h e w a r . One man c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d t h e s i t u a t i o n a t h i s s c h o o l : " I w o u l d n ' t s a y t h a t my s c h o o l r e a l l y p r o m o t e d t h e w a r , I w o u l d s a y t h a t a v e r y p o s i t i v e p i c t u r e was made o f t h e w a r . " 1 9 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e c o u n t e d h i s c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g war t i m e : " E v e r y t h i n g was f a i r l y w e l l o u t i n t h e o p e n . T h e r e was r e a l l y no a t t e m p t by my t e a c h e r s . . . t o s h i e l d a n y o f u s f r o m i t . " 2 0 T e a c h e r s a s s e r t e d v e r y s t r o n g o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e w a r a n d c h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d . "Our t e a c h e r s h a d o n l y one p o i n t o f v i e w " , r e c a l l e d one woman, " t h e y saw n o t h i n g e l s e . H i t l e r h a d t o be s t o p p e d . " 2 1 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d " M o s t o f t h e m a l e t e a c h e r s a t o u r s c h o o l w e r e l e f t w i n g . We w e r e l o v i n g R u s s i a a l l t h e t i m e . " 2 2 One man r e c a l l e d t h e J a p a n e s e i n t e r n m e n t a n d : "we t a l k e d a l o t a b o u t l o s i n g o u r c l a s s m a t e s a t s c h o o l . " 2 3 He a l s o r e m e m b e r e d l e a r n i n g r a c i s t v a l u e s " f r o m o u r . . . t e a c h e r s [who] w e r e a l l a f r a i d a n d f r i g h t e n e d o f t h e J a p a n e s e . " 2 4 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e remembered " h e a r i n g i n s c h o o l t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n Quebec w e r e r e f u s i n g t o f i g h t t h e war b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e F r e n c h a n d n o t B r i t i s h . . . T h e r e was g r e a t a n i m o s i t y a m o n g s t u s a b o u t t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , we r e a l l y t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e t r a i t o r s . " 2 5 One f e l l o w d e s c r i b e d t h e mood a t h i s s c h o o l : "We c o u l d n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a t a l l . . . [ t h e i r ] way o f t h i n k i n g was u n a c c e p t a b l e . " 2 6 55 T e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r war t i m e o p i n i o n s i n a v a r i e t y o f o v e r t w a y s . One man d e s c r i b e d "one o f t h e m a s t e r s c o n f i s c a t i n g a m a g a z i n e . . . I t h a d p i c t u r e s o f t h e w a r , t h e y w e r e q u i t e g r a p h i c p i c t u r e s o f w o u n d e d . " 2 7 A n o t h e r man remembered h i s " t e a c h e r t r i e d t o g e t u s t o r e a d t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f M i e n  K a m p f . 1 , 2 8 One i n t e r v i e w e e r e c o u n t e d a v i v i d memory; he was " d r a w i n g a s w a s t i k a on a n o t e book, my t e a c h e r saw i t a n d d r a m a t i c a l l y t o r e i t t o p i e c e s . " 2 9 A n o t h e r remembered a c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n , i n h i g h s c h o o l , a b o u t t h e w a r i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d a d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n . " I c a n remember a t e a c h e r o f m i n e d i s c u s s i n g t h e war w i t h u s . He s a i d : 'I'm s u r e y o u ' v e h e a r d t h e news a b o u t t h e s h i p s t h a t w e r e s u n k a n d t h e many l i v e s t h a t w e r e l o s t . ' . . . a n d one o f t h e s t u d e n t s s a i d : ' o f c o u r s e D i e p p e was a d i s a s t e r , t o l o s e a l l t h o s e s o l d i e r s f o r n o t h i n g . ' E v e r y t h i n g was s i l e n t t h e n . My t e a c h e r g a v e u s a l e c t u r e t h a t d a y . He s a i d : 'who s a i d i t was f o r n o t h i n g ? ' " 3 0 T e a c h e r s who h a d e x p e r i e n c e d war f i r s t h a n d h a d a d i f f i c u l t t i m e c o n c e a l i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l v i e w s a b o u t t h e w a r . One i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d h i s t e a c h e r : "He was i n t h e w a r a n d was more c o n s c i o u s o f w h a t h a d gone o n . " 3 1 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t h e r t e a c h e r " h a d b e e n g a s s e d i n W o r l d War I . . . a n d I s u p p o s e t h a t made h i m t a l k a b o u t t h e war a n d he was q u i t e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t i t . " 3 2 "He was q u i t e j u d g e m e n t a l a b o u t t h e w a r " , e x p l a i n e d one man o f h i s t e a c h e r , " b u t p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e he was a p r o d u c t o f W o r l d War I." 3 3^Some t e a c h e r s went b e y o n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e w a r o b j e c t i v e l y t o t h e p o i n t o f s c a r i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s . One woman r e c o u n t e d a v e r y m e m o r a b l e a n d f r i g h t e n i n g c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e : " i n g r a d e s i x a n d my t e a c h e r , who was a l s o t h e p r i n c i p a l o f o u r 56 school t e l l i n g us about the war that was coming...He t o l d us that H i t l e r ' s plan was to take everything, he said that i f H i t l e r was to bomb Vancouver he would use Quilchena school as a b u l l s e y e . . . i t was on top of a h i l l and therefore a f o c a l point; he r e a l l y scared the kids and we believed him about the bombing." 3 4 The curriculum r e f l e c t e d the emphasis on B r i t i s h patriotism i n the schools. When B r i t a i n went to war Canada's government was at B r i t a i n ' s side almost instantly. One woman remembered "thinking what audacity people had suggesting that Canada should not declare war immediately." 3 5 Devotion to B r i t a i n and her roya l t y was promoted and most Canadians f e l t proud to be supporting her. One interviewee explained "you have to r e a l i z e you were s t i l l a B r i t i s h colony with strong t i e s to Britain...A very very strong f e e l i n g towards the mother country." 3 6 When Canada went to war the Department of Education r e a l i z e d the need to promote Canada's allegiance, 'in February 1940, the Council of Public Instruction directed that public school teachers, students i n the P r o v i n c i a l Normal Schools and students i n teacher t r a i n i n g at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia "be required to take an Oath of Allegiance to His Majesty, King George VI., h i s h e i r s and successors. "I remember Empire Day," one interviewee pronounced. 3 8 Celebrated since 1898, Empire Day "was revived across a country again i n the midst of war." 3 9. ^The Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire [IODE], played a role i n promoting Empire Day i n the schools. Nancy Sheehan wrote of a booklet the IODE compiled i n 1941 f o r grades 1 through 8, "to inculcate into the minds of 57 c h i l d r e n t r u e p a t r i o t i s m a n d i d e a l s d e a r t o a l l C a n a d i a n s . " ^ 0 T h i s b o o k l e t i n c l u d e d c h a p t e r s e n t i t l e d "'The R o y a l F a m i l y * ; ' R o y a l R e s i d e n c e s . . . ' ; 'The M o n a r c h y ' a n d ' B r i t i s h D e m o c r a c y ' . " 4 1 * A l o n g w i t h E m p i r e Day t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d i n 194 0, b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t , t o a s s e m b l e t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n f r o n t o f t h e " s c h o o l f l a g , a t l e a s t one d a y a week...when p a t r i o t i c e x e r c i s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l A n t h e m s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t . " 4 2 One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered t h e f l a g i n h e r c l a s s r o o m , "we h a d a U n i o n J a c k i n o u r c l a s s r o o m . We u s e d t o s a y , one f l e e t , one f l a g , one t h r o n e , one e m p i r e . ^ ' 4 3 H e r memory m i g h t h a v e b e e n b a s e d u p o n a c o l o u r e d p i c t u r e o f t h e U n i o n J a c k " c o u r t e s y o f t h e K i w a n i s C l u b . . . b e n e a t h w h i c h a p p e a r e d t h e w o r d s : One L i f e One F l e e t One F l a g One T h r o n e T e n n y s o n " 4 4 An E n d e r b y s c h o o l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e U n i o n J a c k was n o t s a l u t e d b u t u s e d f o r a n o t h e r p u r p o s e . A s c h o o l b o y c r e a t e d q u i t e a s t i r when he t o o k down t h e U n i o n J a c k , w r a p p e d i t a b o u t h i m l i k e a s k i r t a n d p r o c e e d e d t o do t h e " H u l a " . The s c h o o l r e p o r t e d l a t e r t h a t , " H a r r y H i l l , t h e boy t h a t t r i e d t h e H u l a came home, s e v e r e l y wounded...War g a v e h i m r e a l k n o w l e d g e a b o u t o u r f l a g . " 4 5 C h i l d r e n s a n g f o r B r i t a i n when t h e y s a n g t h e C a n a d i a n a n t h e m . "We h a d d i f f e r e n t w o r d s t o 'O C a n a d a ' t h e n " d e c l a r e d one man, " i t w e n t : 'O C a n a d a 1 ... a n d e n d e d , ' a t B r i t a i n ' s s i d e we e v e r b e t i d e ' o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . " 4 6 The D e p a r t m e n t was f i r m i n i t s p a t r i o t i s m t o B r i t i s h i d e a l s a n d s t a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' d u t y was t o " e n d e a v o u r t o s e e t h a t p r o p e r i d e a l s o f l o y a l t y t o o u r K i n g a n d C o u n t r y a r e i n s t i l l e d i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e 58 pupils...and that due respect i s paid to the f l a g and B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . " 4 7 One woman explained "we sang '0 Canada* at the beginning and 'God Save the King' at the end of absolutely everything. 1 , 4 8 Children sang other p a t r i o t i c tunes, One woman re c a l l e d " a l l the songs: 'White C l i f f s of Dover'." 4 9 Another interviewee would "stand up and sing: 'There W i l l Always Be An England'." 5 0 Allegiance to the Empire was a topic that many teachers discussed i n t h e i r classrooms. At school, r e c a l l e d one interviewee, "war was presented as Rah Rah the Empire." 5 1 Another explained the p a t r i o t i c mood: "most of our teachers were of B r i t i s h extraction. Everything B r i t a i n did was wonderful...We f e l t i t was a wi l d l y wonderful opportunity to be one with the mother land. I f that meant being lemmings and a l l running o f f the c l i f f together then so be i t . " 5 2 One woman r e c a l l e d that the curriculum of her school i n Vancouver contained mostly B r i t i s h content. "We learned the history of Britain...from grade seven almost r i g h t through. We had very l i t t l e Canadian History... Canadian government or anything l i k e t h a t . " 5 3 She r e c a l l e d her teacher explaining "that one day the B r i t i s h empire would cease to e x i s t . " Her c h i l d l i k e perception of t h i s was: " A l l those red places on the map disappearing, impossible!" 5 4 The Department portrayed B r i t a i n i n the school curriculum as a nation with high ideals, struggling for freedom. As compared with the "moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l collapse of other c o u n t r i e s . . . " 5 5 The teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia were urged i n the Programme of Studies to foster l o y a l t i e s to B r i t a i n : "National unity and safety are preserved by the cherishing of the 59 a n c i e n t l o y a l t i e s t o t h e t h r o n e , t o o u r f e l l o w c o u n t r y m e n , a n d t o o u r d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . " B o o k s a n d m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e r e f l e c t e d s t r o n g p a t r i o t i s m . B.C. T e a c h e r recommended C a n a d a S p e a k s t o B r i t a i n b y S i r C h a r l e s R o b e r t s , a c o l l e c t i o n o f poems on t h e w a r a n d " C a n a d i a n l o y a l t y 'even t o t h e d e a t h ' . " 5 7 A l s o recommended was L i f t Up Y o u r H e a r t s by Canon F r e d e r i c k S c o t t , a h e r o o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, w h i c h c o n t a i n e d poems on t h e w a r i n c l u d i n g one e n t i t l e d "The C o l o u r s o f t h e F l a g . " 5 8 T e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o o r d e r War P l a y s by S a m u e l F r e n c h , p u b l i s h e d i n 1942 i n T o r o n t o , a n d i n c l u d e d s i x p l a y s f o r c h i l d r e n t o p e r f o r m w h i c h c e n t r e d a r o u n d B r i t i s h c h a r a c t e r s i n w a r t i m e . 5 9 One man d e s c r i b e d t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e i n s c h o o l : "We w e r e B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , y o u h a d t h a t m i n d s e t i n t h a t y o u w e r e p a r t o f E n g l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n . . . C a n a d i a n s . . . w e r e p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h army...we w e r e a l l h u d d l e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e c r o w n . " 6 0 C h i l d r e n came t o s c h o o l w i t h q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e w a r a n d t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s a f f o r d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k t h e m. War was a t o p i c i n t h e homes, t h e s t r e e t s , i n t h e news a n d o n t h e r a d i o a n d m o v i e s c r e e n s . C h i l d r e n became i n v o l v e d i n t h e w a r a t s c h o o l , m a r c h i n g i n t h e c a d e t c o r p s , r a i s i n g money, c o l l e c t i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i n g f o r t h e war e f f o r t . Many e x p e r i e n c e d A i r R a i d s i r e n s a n d d r i l l s , h e a r d a b o u t t h e s h e l l i n g o f P o i n t E s t e v a n o r f e l t t h e l o s s o f a l o v e d one k i l l e d o v e r s e a s . N o n e t h e l e s s t h e t o p i c o f w a r was n o t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o r m a l S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m u n t i l t h e c h i l d r e a c h e d g r a d e n i n e , a n d a f t e r 1 9 4 5 , g r a d e s e v e n . One man r e f l e c t e d : " I g u e s s w h a t r e a l l y s t r i k e s me i s h o w . . . t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e a t s c h o o l t h a t commented on i t , 60 e x p l a i n e d i t , s a i d a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t a t a l l . 1 1 6 1 The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r d e c i d e d w h e t h e r t o b r i n g t h e w a r i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s . C u r r i c u l a c a n be w r i t t e n a n d p r e s c r i b e d , c i r c u l a t e d t o s c h o o l s , r e a d a n d c o n s i d e r e d b u t t h e y a r e n o t a l w a y s i m p l e m e n t e d . One c o u l d assume t h a t i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h g r a d e s , s i n c e s t u d e n t s w r o t e p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s made s u r e t h e y t a u g h t t h e p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e e x a c t l y w h a t w e n t o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s d u r i n g t h e w a r . One woman, i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a t t h a t t i m e remembered " a t s c h o o l t h e r e was t a l k o f H i t l e r . . . w e w e re t o l d t h a t H i t l e r was s u c h a b a d man, we w e r e r e a l l y s c a r e d o f h i m , s c a r e d o f h i s a r m y . " 6 2 The Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t r o d u c e d e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s t o o t h e r n a t i o n s a n d c u r r e n t e v e n t s . A f t e r 1945 r e v i s i o n s g r a d e s e v e n c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War o n t h e i r c o m m u n i t y . S t u d e n t s i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a f t e r 1941 c o n s i d e r e d t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War a n d i t s e f f e c t o n " t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . 1 , 6 3 A f t e r t h e 1944 r e v i s i o n s , s e n i o r s s t u d i e d m o s t a s p e c t s o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. A c o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d i n 1942 by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t e w ar i n t o t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . I t was c a l l e d t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e a n d i t s a i m s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n 1943 i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e . The c o m m i t t e e c l a i m e d t h a t w ar c o u l d n o t be s h u t o u t o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a due t o an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n c u r r e n t a f f a i r s , e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e b o y s a nd g i r l s i n g r a d e s e l e v e n a n d t w e l v e . 6 4 The c o m m i t t e e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s " a r e t h i n k i n g more d e e p l y on t o p i c s o f H i s t o r y . . . B o o k s o n w o r l d a f f a i r s a r e b e i n g r e a d much m o r e . . . " 6 5 A s t h e news o f w a r s w e p t t h e h e a d l i n e s a n d o c c u p i e d r a d i o waves a n i n t e r e s t i n maps, e v e n t s a n d p l a c e names became e v i d e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . S t u d e n t s came t o s c h o o l w i t h t h e i r q u e s t i o n s a n d , t h e c o m m i t t e e c l a i m e d , a n " i g n o r a n c e o f t h e g e o g r a p h y o f t h e w o r l d a n d e s p e c i a l l y o f E u r o p e . " 6 6 C h i l d r e n h a d " t h e d e s i r e t o know more o f c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g t o w o r l d c o n f l i c t . " A l t h o u g h r e v i s e d i n 1941, w h i l e t h e war was r a g i n g i n E u r o p e , t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s made no m e n t i o n o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. The S o c i a l S t u d i e s p r o g r a m a l l o t t e d 50 m i n u t e s p e r week i n g r a d e s 1 a n d 2 a n d 80 m i n u t e s i n g r a d e 3. 120 m i n u t e s p e r week was a l l o t t e d t o S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n g r a d e 4 a n d 240 m i n u t e s p e r week i n g r a d e s f i v e a n d s i x . One o f t h e a i m s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m was t h a t " t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s c h o o l w e r e t o d e r i v e t h e i r m e a n i n g . . . f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e . " 6 8 The ' w o r l d o u t s i d e * i n c l u d e d t h e w a r , y e t t h e e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s d i d n o t t o u c h d i r e c t l y on t h e war a t a l l . F o r e x a m p l e , g r a d e t h r e e p u p i l s s t u d i e d a u n i t o n t h e E u r o p e a n s i n w h i c h t h e y l e a r n e d a b o u t h o u s i n g , f u r n i t u r e , t o y s , f o o d a n d c l o t h i n g y e t no m e n t i o n o f war a n d i t s e f f e c t o n E u r o p e a n s was m a d e . 6 9 T e a c h e r s a n d p u p i l s w e r e c a l l e d on b y t h e e l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e t o c e l e b r a t e " d a y s o f a p a t r i o t i c n a t u r e , s u c h a s E m p i r e Day, D o m i n i o n Day a n d D o u g l a s D a y . " 7 0 A b o o k f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , e n t i t l e d The U n i o n J a c k , was recommended i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e . T h i s b o ok i n c l u d e d a b r i e f h i s t o r y o n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n J a c k , i n s t r u c t i o n s o n how t o 62 c o n s t r u c t a f l a g a n d was s e e n a s u s e f u l f o r c e r t a i n p a t r i o t i c h o l i d a y s s u c h a s "...Remembrance D a y " . 7 1 One i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d a s c h o o l p r o j e c t : "we knew t h e U n i o n J a c k . We c o l o u r e d f l a g s , we knew w h i c h way was up a n d w h i c h was d o w n . " 7 2 R e c o g n i z i n g Remembrance Day, t h e e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m f o r m a l l y m e n t i o n e d w a r f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e ; t h e F i r s t W o r l d W a r . 7 3 T e a c h e r s w e r e a d v i s e d t h a t i n r e g a r d s t o war " l i t t l e n e e d o r s h o u l d be s a i d t o c h i l d r e n o f G r a d e s I . t o I I I . H a r r o w i n g d e t a i l s a r e u n n e c e s s a r y a n d i n a d v i s a b l e , a nd t h e s t o r y s h o u l d h i n g e r o u n d t h e P o p p y , t h e n e e d f o r money w h i c h war l e a v e s b e h i n d i t , a n d t h e i d e a o f g r a t e f u l r e m e m b r a n c e . 1 , 7 4 E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e t o a c q u i r e k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h "maps, p i c t u r e s , m a g a z i n e s , n e w s p a p e r s . . . " 7 5 The Programme o f  S t u d i e s s u g g e s t e d t o t e a c h e r s t h a t " m a g a z i n e s , S u n d a y e d i t i o n s o f n e w s p a p e r s . . . p r e s e n t a w e a l t h o f p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l . " 7 6 T h e s e m a t e r i a l s w e r e t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e H i g h r o a d s o f H i s t o r y s e r i e s a n d t h e C a n a d i a n S c h o o l A t l a s m o s t o f t e n u s e d i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s p r o g r a m . 7 7 M a g a z i n e s a n d n e w s p a p e r s i n e v i t a b l y s p o k e o f t h e war a n d i f t h e y w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l e s s o n p l a n s , t h e t o p i c o f war w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d . N e w s p a p e r c l i p p i n g s w e r e u s e d i n one S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m . A woman e x p l a i n e d "we w o u l d s p e n d t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o f o u r S o c i a l S t u d i e s p e r i o d o n t h e l a t e s t news, t h a t s t a r t e d i n g r a d e s i x . We w o u l d t a k e t u r n s b r i n g i n g i n news c l i p p i n g s f r o m t h e p a p e r t h a t i n t e r e s t e d u s . We w o u l d h a v e t o g i v e a t a l k a b o u t t h e c l i p p i n g a n d t h e n t h e y w e r e p u t up on t h e w a l l . " 7 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " A t s c h o o l . . . w e r e a l l y saw a l o t o f p i c t u r e s o f h i m [ H i t l e r ] a n d o f t h e w a r . . . " 7 9 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d a S o c i a l S t u d i e s 63 p r o j e c t w h i c h i n v o l v e d c l i p p i n g "a map f r o m t h e n e w s p a p e r w h i c h w o u l d show t h e b a t t l e p o s i t i o n s . . . " 8 0 H i s t o r y was b e i n g made, c h i l d r e n w e r e g r o w i n g up i n some o f t h e m o s t t u r b u l e n t y e a r s t h e w o r l d w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e . One i n t e r v i e w e e , i n g r a d e f i v e a t t h e t i m e , r e c a l l e d " o u r t e a c h e r a s k i n g u s f o r comments on t h e w a r , on a s p e c i f i c e v e n t . A n d we w o u l d h a v e t o g e t up a n d t a l k a b o u t i t , a b o u t w h a t we t h o u g h t . I remember t h e i n v a s i o n o f F r a n c e i n '44...we t a l k e d a b o u t t h a t i n c l a s s . " 8 1 One f e l l o w remembered a "map p r o j e c t a n d we m a r k e d t h e German a d v a n c e i n t o t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . " 8 2 One woman d e s c r i b e d t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t when h e r " g r a d e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l e m p h a s i z e d t h e g r o w i n g t h r e a t p o s e d by M u s s o l i n i a n d H i t l e r ; p u p i l s w o u l d e g g h i m on a n d t h e c u r r e n t e v e n t s l e s s o n w o u l d l a s t t h r o u g h t h e m a t h p e r i o d . " 8 3 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e c r i t i c i z e d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e g r a d e s f o u r a nd f i v e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m f o r i t s i r r e l e v a n c e : " . . . o u r t e a c h e r s n e v e r r e a l l y d e v i a t e d f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h a t we h a d , t h e y s t u c k t o w h a t t h e d a y ' s l e s s o n was. So t h e w h o l e w o r l d was g e t t i n g s h o t up a n d we w e r e s t u d y i n g t h e c a v e m a n ! " 8 4 ^ A v a r i e t y o f p e r t i n e n t b o o k s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s t o b r i n g t h e t o p i c o f war i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , ' i n 1 9 4 1 , f o r e x a m p l e a n A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n came o u t e n t i t l e d T r u e  P i c t u r e M a g a z i n e . A b i - m o n t h l y p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h was t o u t e d i n B.C T e a c h e r a s " t h e f i r s t e d u c a t i o n a l m a g a z i n e e v e r p u b l i s h e d i n t h e p o p u l a r c o m i c f o r m s o a t t r a c t i v e t o c h i l d r e n . " 8 5 The f i r s t i s s u e f e a t u r e d " W o r l d H e r o No. 1, t h e l i f e o f W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l " , a n d was recommended f o r y o u n g p u p i l s a s "a s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e i r h i s t o r y a n d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t u d i e s . " 8 6 Wonder Book o f t h e A i r was a b o o k a b o u t a i r p l a n e s 0 7 a n d We C o u l d n ' t L e a v e D i n a h , a s t o r y a b o u t " c h i l d r e n a n d a h o r s e who d e f y t h e N a z i s . . . " 8 8 / E x p l a i n i n g t h e p r i o r i t y o f h i g h s c h o o l S o c i a l S t u d i e s one man s t a t e d : "By t h e t i m e I g o t i n t o g r a d e n i n e , t h i n g s l i k e E n g l i s h a n d S o c i a l S t u d i e s w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t . " 8 9 S o c i a l S t u d i e s was c o m p u l s o r y , and J u n i o r h i g h c h i l d r e n h a d f i v e p e r i o d s o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s p e r week. S e n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e f i f t e e n c r e d i t s f o r g r a d u a t i o n . One o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m was t o " d e v e l o p i n t e l l i g e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e , a n d s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s c i t i z e n s . " 9 0 I n g e n e r a l t e r m s , s t u d e n t s w e r e t o be a b l e t o a n a l y z e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i n d o i n g s o , d e v e l o p a n i n t e r e s t i n a n d a r e s p e c t f o r t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g o v e r n e d t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth. The 1945 r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m b r o u g h t t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War i n t o t h e J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . G r a d e s e v e n c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d t o a n a l y z e t h e F i r s t W o r l d War a n d " t e l l o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e G r e a t War on y o u r c o m m u n i t y , a n d a l s o o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War." A l o n g w i t h "what p o s t - w a r p l a n s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r y o u r c o m m u n i t y t o f o l l o w t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r ? " 9 1 T h e s e two a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e " h a b i t o f r e a d i n g t h e b e s t b o o k s a n d m a g a z i n e s " , f o r m a l l y e x p o s e d s t u d e n t s t o c u r r e n t e v e n t s . 9 2 One f e l l o w remembered an e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e u s e d i n h i s g r a d e s e v e n c l a s s : " i n o u r S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s we t a l k e d a b o u t c u r r e n t e v e n t s . We u s e d t o h a v e a c o n t e s t e v e r y t w o w e e k s , a q u i z t o s e e who knew t h e most a b o u t c u r r e n t e v e n t s . T h a t g o t me r e a d i n g t h e n e w s p a p e r a t home, j u s t t o p a s s t h o s e t e s t s ! " 9 3 M a g a z i n e s a n d n e w s p a p e r s c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d i n t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s t o t e a c h c u r r e n t e v e n t s . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s w e r e u s e d 65 i n a v a r i e t y o f ways d u r i n g t h e w a r . P u b l i s h e d f r o m 1941 o n w a r d , i n T o r o n t o , W o r l d A f f a i r s was a m a g a z i n e recommended f o r u s e i n t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m . A p o s i t i v e r e v i e w i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s t a t e d : " P u p i l s w i l l e n j o y t h e c a r t o o n s a n d w i l l r e a d t h e s h o r t p i t h y p a r a g r a p h s w i t h u n t i r i n g i n t e r e s t . " 9 4 An e x a m p l e o f o n e p i t h y p a r a g r a p h was " t h e c o s t o f k i l l i n g o ne enemy s o l d i e r h a s r i s e n f r o m 75 c e n t s i n t h e t i m e o f J u l i u s C a e s a r t o o v e r $50,000 i n t h e p r e s e n t w a r ! " 9 5 One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d "we u s e d t o c l i p a r t i c l e s o u t o f L i b e r t y m a g a z i n e . . . o r L o o k m a g a z i n e . I n t h e b a c k o f L o o k w e r e p i c t u r e s o f p e o p l e w a n t e d f o r w a r c r i m e s . We u s e d t o c u t t h o s e o u t , t h e y w e r e f o r t h e b a c k w a l l . I s u p p o s e i t was a c u r r e n t e v e n t s p o r t i o n o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s . " 9 6 A n o t h e r man remembered an e l a b o r a t e c l a s s a c t i v i t y w h i c h o b v i o u s l y l a c k e d i n d e p t h a n d n e c e s s a r y d e t a i l : I n g r a d e e i g h t c l a s s r o o m we h a d a map o f E u r o p e a n d i t was a p r o j e c t f o r u s t o mark t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o r c e s . . . I t was m a r k e d w i t h p i n s . I t h i n k t h e r e w e r e f l a g s o n t h e p i n s a n d t h e s t u d e n t s d i d i t . I remember t h i n k i n g t h e Germans a r e a d v a n c i n g i n t o R u s s i a and I t h o u g h t w e l l i t ' s r e a l l y g o i n g t o g o ! I remember w o n d e r i n g how l o n g i t w o u l d be a n d t a k i n g t h e w i d t h o f t h e c o u n t r y t o s e e how l o n g i t w o u l d t a k e t h e Germans t o c r o s s . . . i t was s i l l y . T h e r e was no d i s c u s s i o n o f w h a t t h e w a r meant. N o t h i n g more t h a n t h i s map. Y o u k e p t t h e map up t o d a t e i f y o u w a n t e d t o . 9 7 I n g r a d e e i g h t , c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d t h e F i r s t W o r l d War i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t w a r . 9 8 One f e l l o w r e c o u n t e d t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y : " i t was a m a z i n g t h a t t h e r e was no a t t e m p t t o d i s c u s s W o r l d War I I i n t h e c o n t e x t o f W o r l d War I . " 9 9 The c a u s e s a n d e v e n t s o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War w e r e t o u c h e d u p o n a g a i n i n g r a d e n i n e . G r a d e n i n e c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i d e r e d t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s and t h e p o s t w a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s d e b t s and t h e b r e a k d o w n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e . 66 U n i t s Two t h r o u g h S i x f o r m e d t h e b a c k d r o p f o r t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. T h e s e i n c l u d e d : " I t a l y , h e r N e i g h b o u r s a n d t h e F a s c i s t D i c t a t o r s h i p ; Germany, h e r N e i g h b o u r s a n d t h e N a z i D i c t a t o r s h i p ; R u s s i a a n d t h e C ommunist D i c t a t o r s h i p ; F r a n c e a n d h e r C o l o n i a l E m p i r e ; a n d J a p a n a n d h e r N e i g h b o u r . " 1 0 0 C h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d how v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s w e r e a f f e c t e d b y I t a l y ' s a n d Germany's a m b i t i o n s a n d p o l i c i e s . T h e y s t u d i e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s Germany a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n , R u s s i a a n d J a p a n , I t a l y a n d F r a n c e a n d o t h e r s . 1 0 1 A s i f t o e x p l a i n t h e g l a r i n g o m i s s i o n s , t h e F o r e w o r d s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h p r i n t e d i n 1945, t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r was p r e p a r e d b e f o r e t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. I t r e a d : " S i n c e t h e n n a t i o n s h a v e c r u m b l e d . I n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s e a c h t e a c h e r w i l l h a v e t o u s e h i s b e s t j u d g e m e n t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s S o c i a l S t u d i e s m a t e r i a l . . . " 1 0 2 J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d t h e r e q u i r e d t e x t b o o k s : A H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n b y H.B. K i n g , A.L. B u r t ' s The Romance o f C a n a d a , D e n t o n a n d L o r d ' s A W o r l d G e o g r a p h y f o r C a n a d i a n S c h o o l s a n d J.M. D e n t ' s C a n a d i a n S c h o o l A t l a s . 1 0 3 C h i l d r e n c o u l d a l s o c h o o s e t o r e a d B r a v e S h i p s o f W o r l d War I I o r Up P e r i s c o p e , b o t h a b o u t t h e R o y a l N avy. A l s o p u b l i s h e d a t t h e t i m e was A n i m a l  R e v e i l l e a b o u t a n i m a l s i n war t i m e 1 0 4 a n d The N i n e D a y s o f  Wonder. a s t o r y a b o u t D u n k i r k . S a i n t s , D e v i l s a n d O r d i n a r y Seamen d e s c r i b e d l i f e i n t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n N a v y . 1 0 5 F i c t i o n a l b o o k s recommended f o r g r a d e s s e v e n t h r o u g h n i n e i n c l u d e d S t r u g g l e i s  Our B r o t h e r a s t o r y o f t h e R u s s i a n r e s i s t a n c e a n d S e a S n a k e a b o u t a b o y t r a p p e d on a N a z i s u b m a r i n e . The T a n g l e d S k e i n t o l d o f t h e N o r w e g i a n r e s i s t a n c e w h i l e Enemy B r o t h e r s was a s t o r y o f "a N a z i 67 t r a i n e d b o y [who] r e t u r n s t o h i s home i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . " 1 0 6 S t u d e n t s f u l l y e x p l o r e d t h e t o p i c o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War i n t h e s e n i o r g r a d e s . The i m p o r t a n c e , t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m , o f t h e t o p i c o f w a r was e v i d e n t i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e 1941 Programme o f S t u d i e s . I t was a n e d i t o r i a l f r o m t h e T i m e s e n t i t l e d " D u n k e r q u e " w h i c h s t a t e d , " i t was t h e common man o f t h e f r e e c o u n t r i e s , r i s i n g i n a l l h i s g l o r y . . . a p p l y i n g t o w a r t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d . . . T h i s s h i n i n g t h i n g i n t h e s o u l s o f f r e e men H i t l e r c a n n o t command, o r a t t a i n , o r c o n q u e r . I t i s t h e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n o f D e m o c r a c y . I t i s t h e f u t u r e . I t i s v i c t o r y . " 1 0 7 The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m was b a s e d on t h i s e d i t o r i a l : t o i n s p i r e s t u d e n t s "by t h e s p i r i t t o w h i c h t r i b u t e h a d b e e n p a i d i n t h e n o b l e w o r d s o f t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d a b o v e . " 1 0 8 S t u d e n t s w e r e , u pon g r a d u a t i o n , t o h a v e a f i r m u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o c r a c y . The o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t f o r t h e p r o g r a m i n c l u d e d s t r o n g a n t i - w a r s t a t e m e n t s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d come t o r e a l i z e t h a t "war h a s p r o v e d i t s e l f t o be a b a r b a r o u s a n d g e n e r a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e method o f s e t t l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . " 1 0 9 The 1944 r e v i s i o n d e f i n e d w a r a s " t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a c o m p l e x o f m a l a d j u s t m e n t s ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c ) w h i c h one o r more o f t h e n a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d i s u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e t o a d j u s t b y p e a c e f u l m e a n s . " 1 1 0 The t o p i c o f p r o p a g a n d a was a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e n i o r c u r r i c u l u m . S t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f p r o p a g a n d a i n a d v e r t i s i n g , i n p o l i t i c s a n d i n e d u c a t i o n . 1 1 1 The c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e e n t i t l e d S o c i a l S t u d i e s V. B u l l e t i n I . f u l l y o u t l i n e d "The Two W o r l d W a r s . " 1 1 2 T h i s b u l l e t i n was p r o d u c e d i n 1944 f o r t h e s e n i o r h i g h g r a d e s t o r e p l a c e U n i t s V I I an d V I I I o f t h e 1941 c u r r i c u l u m a n d was f a r more r e l e v a n t t o t h e t i m e s . 1 1 3 The o b j e c t i v e s w e r e t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e f o r c e s t h a t l e a d t o w a r ; w a r ' s d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s o n h u m a n i t y a n d p l a n s made t o a v e r t f u t u r e w a r s . The c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i d e r e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l s u c h a s a n i n f e r i o r i t y c o m p l e x , a t t i t u d e s o f e g o t i s m o r i n t o l e r a n c e , w h i c h c a n l e a d t o a b e l i e f i n " t h e m a s t e r r a c e . " 1 1 4 The d e s i r e f o r p o w e r a n d d i c t a t o r s h i p w h i c h c a n i n f l u e n c e one t o a s s e m b l e a r m e d f o r c e s f o r g a i n . The r e a c t i o n o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o t h i s , be i t s u b m i s s i o n o r a g g r e s s i o n , may r e s u l t i n w a r . O t h e r o r i g i n s t a u g h t w e r e ; t r a d e r i v a l r y , s e c r e t d i p l o m a c y , r i v a l a l l i a n c e s , t h e s t r u g g l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e b a l a n c e o f powe r a n d t h e " s c r a m b l e f o r b a c k w a r d s c o u n t r i e s . " 1 1 5 S t u d e n t s a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t p e a c e h a d a r o l e t o p l a y i n war. Wars s o m e t i m e s o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e " i n a b i l i t y o f p e o p l e s . . . t o make e f f e c t i v e t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p e a c e . " 1 1 6 A s w e l l a s t h e o b s e s s i o n f o r p e a c e i n a d e m o c r a c y e n c o u r a g i n g a g g r e s s i o n f r o m o t h e r s . W i t h t h i s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s p r o c e e d e d i n t o t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " W o r l d War I I " . 1 1 7 I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g was a n a l y z e d : s e c u r i t y , t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , a l l i a n c e s w i t h F r a n c e , B e l g i u m , P o l a n d a n d t o R u s s i a ' s n o n a g g r e s s i o n t r e a t i e s . I m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s w h i c h l e d t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War w e r e t a u g h t : The P a c t o f P a r i s , d i s a r m a m e n t a n d r e a r m a m e n t , t a r i f f s , e c o n o m i c d i s o r d e r , c u l t u r a l c l a s h e s a n d r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s made f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c u r r i c u l u m . A l s o i n c l u d e d w e r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s e s l e a d i n g t o c o n f l i c t a n d 69 t h e a t r e s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t s o f war. C a n a d a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e w a r e f f o r t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m e t h o d s a n d i n s t r u m e n t s o f w a r f a r e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f w a r . 1 1 8 The t o p i c : p e a c e , was s t u d i e d a s t h e c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e u n i t on t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. ' P l a n n i n g f o r P e a c e ' e n a b l e d s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n a b o u t " p r i n c i p l e s e n u n c i a t e d by l e a d i n g s t a t e s m e n [ a n d ] p l a n s o f f e r e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " 1 1 9 S t u d e n t s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r own s u g g e s t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g f o r p e a c e , a r e l e v a n t e x e r c i s e a n d t h e f i r s t i n t h e u n i t f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t i n g s t u d e n t i n p u t . V a r i o u s b o o k s w e r e s u g g e s t e d t o c o m p l e m e n t b o t h t o p i c s o f w a r a n d p e a c e . The l a t t e r t o p i c was s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h : Y o u n g  C a n a d a C o n f e r s a b o ok w h i c h d i s c u s s e d " p o s i t i v e , d y n a m i c p o s t war g o a l s . 1 2 0 The U n i t e d N a t i o n s P r i m e r was p u b l i s h e d i n 1945 a l o n g w i t h M i n i a t u r e H i s t o r y o f t h e War w h i c h i n c l u d e d e v e r y t h i n g "down t o t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f P a r i s . " 1 2 1 S e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s t a k i n g H i s t o r y 100 a l s o r e a d a b o u t t h e war i n t h e r e q u i r e d E u r o p e  S i n c e 1914 i n i t s W o r l d S e t t i n g by F. L e e B e n n s w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n 1945 a n d d e d i c a t e d f i v e c h a p t e r s t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. A l s o r e q u i r e d was S c h a p i r o , M o r r i s a n d S o w a r d ' s C i v i l i s a t i o n  i n E u r o p e a n d t h e W o r l d p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 8 . 1 2 2 R u l e r s o f t h e  W o r l d d e a l t w i t h f o u r t e e n w o r l d l e a d e r s a n d " s h o u l d f i n d a p l a c e i n . . . S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . " 1 2 3 Canada i n W o r l d A f f a i r s - The P r e War Y e a r s g a v e s t u d e n t s "a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d a a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t must be f a c e d . . . " 1 2 4 C l i f f o r d M a c F a d d e n ' s An A t l a s o f W o r l d R e v i e w " k e p t p a c e w i t h w o r l d e v e n t s a s up t o A u g u s t , 1 9 4 0 . . . " 1 2 5 Home F r o n t e d i t e d b y R i c h a r d S. L a m b e r t was r e v i e w e d i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r a s " C a n a d a ' s f i r s t b o o k 70 d e s c r i b i n g G r e a t B r i t a i n a t w a r . " 1 2 6 S t u d e n t s c o u l d r e a d t h i s a n t h o l o g y o f i n t i m a t e l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d b y C a n a d i a n s f r o m O l d C o u n t r y f r i e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s t e l l i n g o f how t h e y f a c e d t h e 127 w a r . " ' Numerous o t h e r m a t e r i a l s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l s t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s e n i o r h i g h c u r r i c u l u m . The S o c i a l S t u d i e s was a m a g a z i n e recommended b e c a u s e i t f e a t u r e d " f u l l l e n g t h a r t i c l e s on many t i m e l y t o p i c s . . . " 1 2 8 R . A . F . t h e S t o r y o f a B r i t i s h F i g h t e r  P i l o t . The R.C.A.F. O v e r s e a s , t h e F i r s t F o u r Y e a r s c o m p l e m e n t e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m . 1 2 9 I n t e r e s t e d y o u t h s c o u l d a l s o e n j o y t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s i n War P l a n e s o f A l l N a t i o n s a n d W a r s h i p s T o d a y . F i c t i o n a l b o o k s a b o u t t h e w a r w e r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e . Open F i r e t o l d o f B r i t i s h s u b m a r i n e a d v e n t u r e s a n d m y s t e r y w r i t e r , H e l e n M c l n n e s w r o t e A b o v e S u s p i c i o n . T h i s b o o k d e s c r i b e d a y o u n g E n g l i s h c o u p l e who go up a g a i n s t t h e N a z i g e s t a p o . 1 3 0 The r o l e t h a t t h e war h a d i n t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f h i g h s c h o o l e x a m i n a t i o n s . ' i n t h a t s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n s on p r e war e v e n t s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1940 a n d 1941 e x a m i n a t i o n s , w h i l e q u e s t i o n s on t h e war w e r e a s k e d i n f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . I n t h e 1940 S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n exam, s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o : "compare and c o n t r a s t H i n d e n b u r g , S t r e s e m a n n a n d H i t l e r a s l e a d e r s o f t h e German p e o p l e . " 1 3 1 The same exam a l s o a s k e d s t u d e n t s t o " t r a c e t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f J a p a n s i n c e 1 9 3 1 . . . , | 1 3 2 A U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n i n 1940 a s k e d s t u d e n t s f o r "one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c a u s e s o f t h e W o r l d War" a n d f o r " t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p l a n k i n t h e N a z i p l a t f o r m . . . " 1 3 3 L a t e r , i n 1 9 4 1 , S e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o g i v e t h e c o r r e c t d a t e t o " H i t l e r r e o c c u p i e s t h e R h i n e l a n d " 1 - ^ U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s t h a t y e a r a s k e d s t u d e n t s a b o u t t h e b a s i s o f t h e " s u c c e s s o f t h e N a z i p a r t y " . 1 3 5 The f o l l o w i n g y e a r ' s e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r s t a t e d : " I t a l y i s t o M u s s o l i n i a s Germany i s t o ? " 1 3 6 S t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d , i n 1 9 4 3 , t o d i s c u s s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : " H i t l e r ' s v i c t o r i e s w e r e n o t s o much due t o h i s own s t r e n g t h a s t h e y w e r e t o t h e w e a k n e s s a n d d i s s e n s i o n s o f h i s e n e m i e s . " 1 3 7 They w e r e a l s o a s k e d how t h e W a r t i m e P r i c e s a n d T r a d e B o a r d a nd wage c o n t r o l s e f f e c t e d t h e C a n a d i a n economy. A f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e S u p p l e m e n t a r y B u l l e t i n i n 1944, e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e war i n c r e a s e d i n number a n d s c o p e . S e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d a b o u t t h e F a s c i s t p a r t y , M u s s o l i n i , H i t l e r , N a z i o c c u p a t i o n , t h e p o l i t i c a l u n i f i c a t i o n o f Germany and t o compare t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t o t h e N a p o l e o n i c Wars. T h e r e was a l s o a v e r y d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n v a l u e d o u t o f t h i r t y m a r k s on t h e German i n v a s i o n o f P o l a n d a n d s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s . 1 3 8 An e s s a y q u e s t i o n a s k e d "what j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r c a l l i n g t h e war w h i c h b e g a n w i t h G e r m a n y ' s a t t a c k o n P o l a n d i n 1939 a W o r l d War? Why d i d i t become a W o r l d W a r ? " 1 3 9 The f o l l o w i n g y e a r s t u d e n t s w e r e t o i d e n t i f y q u o t a t i o n s s u c h a s " I d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n f r o n t F r a n c e w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f w a r . " 1 4 0 A s w e l l a s q u o t e s made by H i t l e r , C h u r c h i l l , D e G a u l l e , M u s s o l i n i , R o o s e v e l t a n d o t h e r s . S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n p a p e r s i n 1945 r e f l e c t e d t h e t o p i c o f p e a c e . S t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , p e a c e s e t t l e m e n t s , r e p a r a t i o n s , a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . 1 4 1 E s s a y q u e s t i o n s a l s o l o o k e d a h e a d : " i n a r e o r g a n i z e d p o s t - w a r E u r o p e w h a t p l a c e w i l l t h e r e b e , i f a n y , f o r s m a l l n a t i o n s ? " a n d " g i v e y o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f f u t u r e w a r s . " 1 4 2 S t u d e n t s d i d l e a r n a b o u t t h e war i n t h e i r S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s : e i t h e r f r o m t h e f o r m a l c u r r i c u l u m a n d a v a i l a b l e b o o k s , o t h e r s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s , o r i n f o r m a l c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s w e r e remembered by p a s t s t u d e n t s : one man d e s c r i b e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f war i n h i s s e n i o r y e a r S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s . " S o c i a l S t u d i e s was t h e o n l y t i m e we c o u l d t a l k a b o u t t h e w a r . The e n t i r e b a c k w a l l o f t h e c l a s s r o o m was c o v e r e d w i t h maps on t h e w a r . T h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s on t h e b a c k w a l l : P r o g r e s s o f War; D e v a s t a t i o n o f t h e War; R e a s o n s f o r t h e W a r . " 1 4 3 A n o t h e r f e l l o w r e c a l l e d "a t e a c h e r o f m i n e d i s c u s s i n g t h e w a r w i t h u s . . . I b e l i e v e he was my S o c i a l S t u d i e s t e a c h e r . " 1 4 4 W i t h t h e war P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s "now h a d a v e r y a n c i e n t a n d p r a g m a t i c o b j e c t i v e : t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f w a r r i o r s f o r t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e s t a t e . " 1 4 5 D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War s t u d e n t s a n s w e r e d t h e c a l l : " f i t n e s s f o r s e r v i c e " i n t h e i r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 1 4 6 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n was a c o m p u l s o r y s u b j e c t a t a l l g r a d e l e v e l s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p u b l i c s c h o o l s a n d t h e d e p a r t m e n t m o d i f i e d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m t o i n c o r p o r a t e w a r - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The m a j o r i t y o f c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e p o p u l a r P r o Rec p r o g r a m . A l s o t h e c a d e t c o r p s became c o m p u l s o r y a nd h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s b e g a n m a r c h i n g a r o u n d t h e p l a y i n g f i e l d s i n u n i f o r m . I n 1 934, G.M. W e i r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , c r e a t e d t h e 73 R e c r e a t i o n a l a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n b r a n c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He a l s o p u b l i s h e d p l a n s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f P r o R e c , a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n scheme. T h i s p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d f o r y o u t h s s i x t e e n y e a r s a n d o l d e r , i t was o p e r a t e d b y l o c a l a g e n c i e s a n d f u n d e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f P r o R e c w e r e : " t o p r o t e c t t h e y o u t h s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m t h e d e g e n e r a t i n g e f f e c t s c a u s e d b y e n f o r c e d i d l e n e s s , a n d t o b u i l d up t h e m o r a l e a n d c h a r a c t e r w h i c h r e s t on a g o o d p h y s i c a l b a s e . " 1 4 7 P r o R e c C e n t r e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n s c h o o l gymnasiums w h e r e p o s s i b l e . T h e y w e r e a l s o s e t up i n c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s , s w i m m i n g p o o l s , c h u r c h e s o r p l a y i n g f i e l d s . The p r o g r a m b e g a n a s a " p e r i o d o f o r g a n i z e d games [ t o ] be c o n d u c t e d a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . . . f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c h o s e n t e a c h e r s a t p r e s e n t u n e m p l o y e d . 1 , 1 4 8 The P r o Rec movement h a d w i d e a p p e a l a n d p o p u l a r i t y a s i t g a v e j o b s t o t h e u n e m p l o y e d a n d o f f e r e d y o u t h b e n e f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . I n f i v e y e a r s t i m e t h e P r o R e c a t t e n d a n c e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g r e w f r o m 26,513 i n 1934 t o 359,761 i n 1 9 3 9 . 1 4 9 S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s g y m n a s t i c s , d a n c i n g , s w i m m i n g , t e n n i s , h i k i n g a n d t r a c k a n d f i e l d . R a t h e r t h a n " h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t s a n d f o r m a l i z e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s . " 1 5 0 The w a r b r o u g h t c h a n g e s t o t h e P r o R e c p r o g r a m ' s o b j e c t i v e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . I n 1939-40, t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d : P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g i s one o f t h e g r e a t e s t a g e n c i e s o f p r e v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e , a n d t h e P r o R e c scheme, w h i c h h a s p r o v e d b e n e f i c i a l t o o u r p e o p l e i n p e a c e - t i m e w i l l be e v e n more i m p o r t a n t i n w a r - t i m e . The g y m n a s t o f y e s t e r d a y i s t h e s o l d i e r o f t o - d a y . The f o l k - d a n c i n g g i r l i s l e a r n i n g a m b u l a n c e - w o r k , h o m e - n u r s i n g , a n d many o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r w a r . 1 5 1 I n 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 " m i l i t a r y m a r c h i n g t a c t i c s " w e r e a d d e d t o t h e P r o R e c 74 c u r r i c u l u m . 1 5 2 I n t h e same y e a r "two t h i r d s o f t h e men's s t a f f a n d t h e a d d i t i o n o f h u n d r e d s o f P r o Rec members [who] e n l i s t e d i n t h e A c t i v e S e r v i c e . . . " g r e a t l y e f f e c t e d t h e p r o g r a m . 1 5 3 Y o u t h s e x e r c i s e d a l o n g s i d e "men i n u n i f o r m " 1 5 4 a n d w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p u t o n m u s c l e s o a s n o t t o be t u r n e d down b y r e c r u i t i n g o f f i c e r s when t h e t i m e came. I n t h e same y e a r t h e P r o Rec g i r l s p r o g r a m moved o u t o f t h e s c h o o l g y m n asium a nd i n t o l e c t u r e h a l l s a n d s e w i n g r o o m s . 1 5 5 P r o R e c members k n i t t e d warm w o o l l e n s f o r a i r - r a i d v i c t i m s o f L o n d o n . 1 5 6 O t h e r s o r g a n i z e d " d i s p l a y s a n d c o n c e r t p a r t i e s f o r t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s " 1 5 7 a n d v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o t h e V i c t o r y Bond D r i v e s , t h e A i r S u p r e m a c y D r i v e , t h e L o r d M a y o r ' s F u n d a n d t h e Queen's C a n a d i a n F u n d f o r a i r - r a i d v i c t i m s . " 1 5 8 A P r o R e c Red C r o s s U n i t was f o r m e d a n d F i r s t A i d a n d A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n c o u r s e s w e r e t a u g h t . S t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s o n " w a r - t i m e n u t r i t i o n " a n d "Home N u r s i n g " 1 5 9 M i l i t a r y m a r c h i n g was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e Keep F i t c l a s s e s a s w e l l a s "Women's I n d u s t r i a l L i f t i n g " 1 6 0 f o r women p l a n n i n g t o f i n d w o r k i n t h e war t i m e i n d u s t r i e s . The c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e P r o R e c p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e d t o e x p a n d t o meet t h e demands o f t h e war. By 1941-42, members w e r e a b l e t o p r a c t i c e a t a new r i f l e r a n g e i n V a n c o u v e r w h i c h p r o v e d p o p u l a r a n d was " i n c o n s t a n t u s e e v e r y e v e n i n g . " 1 6 1 F i r s t A i d t r a i n i n g was i n c o r p o r a t e d a n d c l a s s e s w e r e l e d by t h e S a i n t J o h n ' s A m b u l a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . 1 6 2 The c u r r i c u l u m f o r g i r l s e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e s q u a d d r i l l a n d r i f l e s h o o t i n g . W h i l e t h e b o y s c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d m i l i t a r y p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e d a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s h a n d - g r e n a d e t h r o w i n g , e l e m e n t a r y s q u a d d r i l l a n d r i f l e s h o o t i n g . 1 6 3 S o c i a l s a n d d a n c e s , a l o n g w i t h mass d i s p l a y s w e r e h e l d t o r a i s e money f o r v a r i o u s war c h a r i t i e s . Home n u r s i n g , R ed C r o s s , N u t r i t i o n , I n d u s t r i a l L i f t i n g , M a r c h i n g a n d A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n c o u r s e s w e r e c o n t i n u e d . I n t h e l a t t e r , s t u d e n t s c o u l d now e a r n s t a t u s a s s u b w a r d e n s . The t o p i c o f h e a l t h i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t o o k o n a n a d d e d i m p o r t a n c e w i t h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " h e a l t h a n d p h y s i q u e o f r e c r u i t s i n t h i s w a r " . P h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t " t h e r e i s s t i l l s u c h a l a r g e amount o f p h y s i c a l d e f i c i e n c y a s t o c a u s e c o n c e r n . " 1 6 4 The e x e c u t i v e b o a r d o f R e c r e a t i o n a l a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a r g u e d i n 1943 t h a t P r o R e c was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y d u e t o : an a l a r m i n g l y l o w s t a n d a r d o f f i t n e s s o f some a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h e a rmed f o r c e s , t h e a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s i n g n e e d f o r l e a d e r s h i p a n d g u i d a n c e o f y o u n g p e o p l e , t h e u r g e n c y f o r p h y s i c a l l y f i t man a n d woman po w e r , a n d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e o p l e i n war i n d u s t r i e s h a v e c r y s t a l l i z e d . . . t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h i s b r a n c h . 1 6 5 H.B. K i n g , C h i e f I n s p e c t o r o f s c h o o l s , a s k e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s t o h e e d t h e a d v i c e o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l who h a d a t t e n d e d a 1944 c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n . T hey recommended t h a t s c h o o l s p l a c e "more e m p h a s i s on d e v e l o p i n g e n d u r a n c e ; t h e a b i l i t y t o A t a k e i t ' ; t h e a b i l i t y t o d r i v e o n e s e l f i n s p i t e o f f a t i g u e , p a i n , o r d i s c o m f i t u r e . . . " 1 6 6 They a l s o s u g g e s t e d b o y s d e v e l o p s k i l l s i n f a l l i n g , d o d g i n g , c l e a r i n g o b s t a c l e s a n d w a r t i m e a q u a t i c s . G i r l s w e r e t o d e v e l o p s t r e n g t h f o r l i f t i n g , p u s h i n g a n d p u l l i n g h e a v y o b j e c t s . 1 6 7 C h i l d r e n c o u l d l e a r n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f g o o d h e a l t h f r o m b o o k s s u c h a s N u t r i t i o n a n d P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . F o o d . N u t r i t i o n a n d H e a l t h a n d V i t a m i n s a n d M i n e r a l s f o r 76 E v e r y o n e . 1 6 8 I n 1944 t h e p r o v i n c e c e l e b r a t e d t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e P r o R e c p r o g r a m on i t s t e n y e a r a n n i v e r s a r y . C o u r s e s c o n t i n u e d a s b e f o r e w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f c l a s s e s i n p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g a n d p o s t u r e t r a i n i n g f o r t h o s e c a d e t s w i s h i n g t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s k i l l s . 1 6 9 I n 1 9 4 5 , c o u r s e s t h a t h a d b e e n a d d e d b e c a u s e o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War w e r e d r o p p e d f r o m t h e p r o g r a m b u t P r o R e c c o n t i n u e d o n a f t e r t h e w a r t o p r o v i d e y o u t h s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h e 1939 s c h o o l y e a r , t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d e x p l a i n e d : " s e v e n y e a r s ago C a d e t T r a i n i n g was d r o p p e d a s a n o p t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s . . . i t was t h e r e s u l t o f a n a t u r a l r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t w ar a s a means o f s e t t l i n g n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s . " 1 7 0 W i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War, t h e B o a r d a c c e p t e d t h e c h a l l e n g e t o make C a d e t t r a i n i n g a c o m p u l s o r y p a r t o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m t o " i m p r e s s u p o n y o u t h t h a t c i t i z e n s h i p e n t a i l s o b l i g a t i o n s . . . " 1 7 1 The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l c a d e t s v a r i e d f r o m p r e p a r i n g b o y s f r o m t h e a g e o f f o u r t e e n " t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i m m e d i a t e l y i n t h e C a n a d i a n f o r c e s when t h e t i m e c o m e s " 1 7 2 t o a c q u i r i n g " a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l be a s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h i n t h e more p e r s o n a l b a t t l e t h a t i s l i f e . " 1 7 3 The B o a r d a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s i n p r o v i d i n g a r e s e r v o i r o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l o u t w e i g h e d t h e " m i l i t a r i s t i c n a t u r e o f some o f t h e t r a i n i n g . " 1 7 4 C a d e t t r a i n i n g w o u l d " p r o d u c e t h e h i g h e s t t y p e o f c i t i z e n s h i p a n d . . . p r o v e p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e c o u n t r y i n p e a c e o r w a r . " 1 7 5 On r e c o l l e c t i n g h i s c a d e t t r a i n i n g o ne man d e c l a r e d "we w e r e t o l d t h a t we may b e c a l l e d u p o n t o s e r v e o u r c o u n t r y . " 1 7 6 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o h i m was s i m p l y " i t g a v e me a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g a n d I e n j o y e d t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p . 1 , 1 7 7 The S e c o n d W o r l d War b e g a n a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n made c a d e t t r a i n i n g c o m p u l s o r y i n a l l p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . "Yes i t was c o m p u l s o r y " , s t a t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , " y o u h a d t o be a c a d e t w h e t h e r y o u w a n t e d t o o r n o t . " 1 7 8 " A t t e n d a n c e was c o m p u l s o r y " e c h o e d a n o t h e r . 1 7 9 "We a l l h a d t o be c a d e t s i n h i g h s c h o o l " , d e c l a r e d one f e l l o w , "we h a d no c h o i c e a b o u t i t . " 1 8 0 I n t h e 1939 s c h o o l y e a r t h e number o f c a d e t s j u m p e d t o 2,564 f r o m 9 1 2 . 1 8 1 I n 1940 t h i s number a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e d a n d by 1941 t h e p r o g r a m was f u l l y o p e r a t i v e w i t h 16,672 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n c a d e t c o r p s . 1 8 2 The C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r u l e d t h a t " i n a l l h i g h , s u p e r i o r , a n d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , t h e c o u r s e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r b o y s f r o m G r a d e I X t o S e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n i n c l u s i v e s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e e l e m e n t s o f i n f a n t r y s q u a d a n d p l a t o o n d r i l l w i t h o u t arms a s l a i d down by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e . " A s w e l l a s " i n a l l s c h o o l s w h e r e t h e r e a r e a s u f f i c i e n t number o f b o y s t o p e r m i t o f i t , s q u a d d r i l l w i t h o u t a rms s h a l l be t a u g h t i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n w o r k o f g r a d e s V I I a n d V I I I . " 1 8 3 E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c o u l d a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i f t h e y c h o s e t o do s o . How t o t r a i n s o many c a d e t s became a p r o b l e m s i n c e t h e D e p a r t m e n t r e q u i r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s be t r a i n e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r w h i c h meant a c a d e t i n s t r u c t o r w i t h m i l i t a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Many p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s d i d n o t h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y m i l i t a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d h a d t o s e e k t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h a t h r e e d a y a week c o u r s e h e l d o v e r t h r e e 78 m o n t h s . 1 8 4 T e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o t a k e a s i m i l a r c o u r s e a t summer s c h o o l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 8 5 Some t e a c h e r s , u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e w o u l d d e c i d e t o l e a v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s a n d t a k e t h e i r new s k i l l s t o t h e s e r v i c e . The D e p a r t m e n t f o u n d t h a t : "The s c a r c i t y o f m a l e t e a c h e r s . . . makes t h e c a r r y i n g o n o f t h e C a d e t C o r p s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . 1 , 1 8 6 To t e a c h t h e y o u n g c a d e t s many s c h o o l s f i l l e d n e w l y a v a i l a b l e t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s w i t h W o r l d War I v e t e r a n s . They a l s o e m p l o y e d non c o m m i s s i o n e d o f f i c e r s o r t e a c h e r s who h e l d a L i e u t e n a n t c e r t i f i c a t e . 1 8 7 A t f i r s t s c h o o l s h a d o n l y Army c a d e t c o r p s . D u r i n g t h e 1940 s c h o o l y e a r A i r C a d e t s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s a n d i n 1943 Sea C a d e t s . One e x - c a d e t e x p l a i n e d " I was i n t h e army c a d e t s a n d t h e n i n t h e a i r f o r c e c a d e t s . " 1 8 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d : "They h a d t h e army c a d e t s a n d I s u p p o s e t h e A i r F o r c e became p o p u l a r a n d s o t h e y s t a r t e d t h e A i r F o r c e C a d e t s , I t h i n k t h e y h a d t h e N a v y t o o . " 1 8 9 By t h e 1942 s c h o o l y e a r t h e r e w e r e 2,818 A i r C a d e t s a n d t h i s number i n c r e a s e d e a c h y e a r u n t i l 1 9 4 5 . 1 9 0 One o f t h e c h i e f o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e A i r C a d e t s y l l a b u s o f t r a i n i n g was " t o i n c r e a s e t h e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s a n d b e a r i n g o f t h e A i r C a d e t . " 1 9 1 A i r c a d e t t r a i n i n g was " e s s e n t i a l l y t h e g r o u n d t r a i n i n g g i v e n t o a i r c r e w o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e . " 1 9 2 ' s t u d e n t s who j o i n e d t h e A i r f o r c e c a d e t s l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e o r y o f f l i g h t , a i r m a n s h i p , k n o t s a n d s p l i c e s , s i g n a l l i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a i r c r a f t r e c o g n i t i o n , a i r n a v i g a t i o n a n d i n some c a s e s A i r f r a m e s a n d a e r o - e n g i n e s . 1 9 3 Once a i r c a d e t s h a d l e a r n e d t h e s e s u b j e c t s t h e y w o u l d c o m p l e t e a R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e e x a m i n a t i o n t o p a s s . . 79 I n 1942 more s u b j e c t s w e r e a d d e d : " a n t i - g a s , armament, f i r s t a i d , h y g i e n e a n d s a n i t a t i o n , m a t h e m a t i c s , m e t e o r o l o g y a n d S i g n a l s . " 1 9 4 " I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Armament, a l l s q u a d r o n s a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h .22 Cooey r i f l e s . R i f l e s h o o t i n g i s e n c o u r a g e d a n d c o n d u c t e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . ^ " 1 9 5 The A i r C a d e t L e a g u e o f C a n a d a a r r a n g e d r i f l e s h o o t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s f o r c a d e t s t o show o f f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s a n d w i n p r i z e s o f money f o r t h e i r c o r p s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e w e r e c a d e t s o f t h e A i r F o r c e t h e y r a r e l y e x p e r i e n c e d a i r p l a n e f l i g h t . / I n 1944, a f l i g h t was f i n a l l y a r r a n g e d f o r e a c h c a d e t i n a R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e a i r c r a f t . I n V a n c o u v e r , 488 A i r C a d e t s t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s a n d w e r e v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c . ^ 6 One e x - A i r C a d e t c o n f i d e d t h a t he h a d " j o i n e d / t h e A i r F o r c e c a d e t s . . . T h e A i r F o r c e c a d e t s w e r e a l i t t l e more g l a m o r o u s t h a n t h e Army o r t h e Navy c a d e t s . " 1 9 7 The s c h o o l y a r d became t h e t r a i n i n g g r o u n d f o r f u t u r e s o l d i e r s who w e r e , a s one man d e s c r i b e d " p l a y i n g a t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e w a r . " 1 9 8 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n , u s u a l l y b o y s , d e v o t e d one a n d one h a l f p e r i o d s o f f o r t y f i v e m i n u t e s e a c h p e r week t o c a d e t t r a i n i n g . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p e r i o d s , p a r a d e s w e r e h e l d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . 1 9 9 ' A l l c a d e t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d i n s u c h s k i l l s a s f i r s t a i d , map a n d compass r e a d i n g , t a k i n g b e a r i n g s , S e maphore a n d M o r s e , s m a l l arms t r a i n i n g , B r e n g u n p r a c t i c e , L e w i s g u n p r a c t i c e , a n t i g a s d r i l l , b a t t l e a n d c e r e m o n i a l d r i l l . 2 0 C U I n some s c h o o l s g i r l s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c a d e t s . The c o r p s w e r e s e g r e g a t e d and t h e g i r l s ' t r a i n i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on f i r s t a i d a n d d r i l l . One woman e x p l a i n e d : " I was a n a i r c a d e t . . . a t Magee. I t was p a r t o f o u r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , we h a d c a d e t s o n c e a week. I was a f l i g h t o f f i c e r , we w o u l d m a r c h a n d 80 p a r a d e a r o u n d t h e f i e l d s . . . I ' 1 1 n e v e r f o r g e t c a l l i n g ' h a l t ' a n d e v e r y o n e h a l t e d . I was s o s u r p r i s e d when t h e y d i d ! " 2 0 1 G i r l s * c a d e t c o r p s w e r e o f t e n l a b e l l e d w i t h u n u s u a l p h r a s e o l o g y . A t T r a p p T e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r t w o h u n d r e d g i r l s f o r m e d " t h e T e c h e t t e s . " 2 0 2 A t Magee i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e y w e r e known a s " C a d e t e t t e s " 2 0 3 P o i n t G r e y j u n i o r h i g h p r o v e d more p r o g r e s s i v e a s b o t h s e x e s w e r e d e s i g n a t e d c a d e t s a n d t h e s c h o o l was p r o u d t o r e p o r t t h a t " c a d e t s no l o n g e r s t a n d s f o r b o y s a l o n e . . . t h e g i r l s ' c o r p s h a s become f a i r l y p r o f i c i e n t i n e l e m e n t a r y s q u a d d r i l l , b o t h i n c o m p a n i e s and i n b a t t a l i o n . " 2 0 4 The k e y w o r d i n a l l c a d e t t r a i n i n g was e f f i c i e n c y . Y o u n g c a d e t s w o u l d " e a r n f i v e c r e d i t s f o r e f f i c i e n c y i n c a d e t w o r k . . . t o w a r d s t h e f i f t e e n c r e d i t s o f F r e e E l e c t i v e s r e q u i r e d f o r U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e o r H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n . " 2 0 5 E f f i c i e n c y i n c a d e t w o r k i n c l u d e d a number o f f a c t o r s . C a d e t s w e r e t o p a s s t h e a n n u a l i n s p e c t i o n , p a s s m u s k e t r y a n d s i g n a l l i n g t e s t s , a n d c o m p l e t e t h e s y l l a b u s o f t r a i n i n g . 2 0 6 C a l l e d t h e A d v a n c e d T r a i n i n g S y l l a b u s i t c o n t a i n e d , a l o n g w i t h s i g n a l l i n g a n d r i f l e u s e , s u c h s u b j e c t s a s " i n t e r n a l c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e s , m o d e l b u i l d i n g , f i e l d c r a f t , p a t r o l l i n g a n d s c o u t i n g , h y g i e n e a n d s a n i t a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d , w o o d c r a f t a n d a e r o p l a n e r e c o g n i t i o n . " 2 0 7 The s y l l a b u s a l s o r e g u e s t e d t h a t c a d e t s be s m a r t , a l e r t , p o l i t e a n d m a n n e r l y a t a l l t i m e s . T h e y w e r e t o a t t e n d a l l p a r a d e s a n d i n s p e c t i o n s , t a k e c a r e o f t h e i r c l o t h i n g , a n d u p h o l d a " good r e c o r d i n r e s p e c t o f h i s c o n d u c t a n d d i s c i p l i n e a s a c a d e t a n d i n h i s g e n e r a l s c h o o l c i t i z e n s h i p . " 2 0 8 E f f i c i e n c y was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h d i s c i p l i n e . D i s t r i c t c a d e t 81 o f f i c e r M a j o r W.R. C r i t c h l e y , who c a r r i e d o u t t h e s e i d e a l s i n h i s w o r k o f i n s p e c t i n g t h e c o r p s . "One t h o u s a n d b o y s f r o m K i t s i l a n o s t o o d s i l e n t l y a t a t t e n t i o n t o be r e v i e w e d b y . . . M a j o r W.R. C r i t c h l e y a t C o n n a u g h t p a r k . They m a r c h e d p a s t a n d p e r f o r m e d t h e g e n e r a l s a l u t e a n d c a l i s t h e n i c s . " 2 0 9 I n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C a d e t A s s o c i a t i o n M a j o r C r i t c h l e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n y o u t h must h o l d "a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o a s s i s t i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way i n t h e d e f e n c e o f h i s home a n d c o u n t r y . " 2 1 0 C r i t c h l e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s s e t o f t h e c a d e t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m was " i t s i m p r o v e m e n t o f mass a n d i n d i v i d u a l d i s c i p l i n e . 1 , 2 1 1 He d e f i n e d d i s c i p l i n e a s " c o r r e c t l i v i n g a n d t h i n k i n g , u n q u e s t i o n e d o b e d i e n c e t o t h e l a w s o f t h e c o u n t r y , a n d t h e p r o m p t c a r r y i n g o u t o f o r d e r s g i v e n by t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y . " C r i t c h l e y was q u i c k t o a d d t h a t h i s d e f i n i t i o n d i d n o t mean " s l a v i s h o b e d i e n c e s u c h a s we f i n d i n c o u n t r i e s g o v e r n e d by d i c t a t o r s . " 2 1 2 The h a b i t o f o b e d i e n c e was t o be c a r r i e d o u t o f f t h e t r a i n i n g f i e l d a n d i n s c h o o l a n d a t home. O t h e r a t t r i b u t e s C r i t c h l e y w i s h e d t o d e v e l o p t h r o u g h t h e C a d e t T r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w e r e t h o s e o f s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , l e a d e r s h i p a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o w o r k f o r t h e common g o o d . 2 1 3 One V a n c o u v e r c a d e t i n s t r u c t o r s t a t e d t h a t " o u r b a t t l e s a r e b e i n g won on t h e C a d e t P a r a d e g r o u n d s . " H i s o b j e c t i v e s f o r h i s c h a r g e s was t o e n a b l e t h e m " t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i m m e d i a t e l y i n t h e C a n a d i a n F o r c e s when t h a t t i m e c o m e s . " 2 1 4 To a c h i e v e t h i s he f e l t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o " i n s t i l l a s e n s e o f o r d e r , d i s c i p l i n e a n d p r o m p t n e s s . . . l o y a l t y a n d e a r n e s t e n d e a v o u r . " 2 1 5 Many c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d a c h a n g e i n t h e i r f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e d u r i n g t h e w a r . F a t h e r s h a d j o i n e d up w h i l e m o t h e r s w o r k e d i n t h e 82 e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . C h i l d r e n o f t e n came home t o a n empty h o u s e a n d t h e t e r m " d o o r - k e y k i d s " became common. 2 1 6 W i t h t h e l o s s o f p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e came an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . I t was no s u r p r i s e t h a t p u b l i c a p p r o v a l o f c o m p u l s o r y c a d e t t r a i n i n g "was a l l b u t u n i v e r s a l . " 2 1 7 P a r e n t s made p o s i t i v e "comments upon t h e i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . " 2 1 8 One c a d e t d e s c r i b e d e f f i c i e n c y i n " p l a t o o n i n g , y o u know, l o o k i n g s m a r t , w a l k i n g s m a r t l y , s m a r t l i n e s i n c o l u m n s a n d s o o n . S t a n d i n g e r e c t , s h o u l d e r s b a c k , h a i r s h o r t . . . " 2 1 9 D i s c i p l i n e a n d g o o d p o s t u r e w e r e e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e w e e k l y c a d e t d r i l l s . A s e a r l y a s 1940 i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e m a n n e r s o f t h e b o y s h a v e i m p r o v e d a n d a s l o u c h i n e s s o f b e a r i n g . . . i s d i s a p p e a r i n g , o r h a s d i s a p p e a r e d . " 2 2 0 T h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e r e g u l a r d r i l l s , i n s p e c t i o n s a n d t h e p a r a d e s c a d e t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n . One man e x p l a i n e d "what I remember m o s t l y was t h e m a r c h i n g . M a r c h i n g a l l t h e t i m e t o d e v e l o p d i s c i p l i n e I s u p p o s e . " 2 2 1 i n s t r u c t o r s o f t h e a i r c a d e t s w i t n e s s e d " u n r u l y b o y s come t o r e s p e c t d i s c i p l i n e , l i s t l e s s b o y s s t r a i g h t e n u p . . . a n d f i n d a new o u t l e t f o r t h e b e s t t h a t i s i n t h e m, a n d f i n d p r i d e i n t h e teamwork o f t h e s q u a d r o n . " 2 2 ^ 2 The c o n f o r m i t y o f a u n i f o r m h e l p e d t o p r o m o t e t h e s e i d e a l s o f d i s c i p l i n e a n d s e l f l e s s n e s s . The c a d e t u n i f o r m was a s y m b o l o f b e l o n g i n g . I t was a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e r i t u a l a n d p r o p r i e t y t h a t was t h e c a d e t c o r p s . "On c a d e t d a y we d r e s s e d up i n u n i f o r m . " 2 2 3 I t was a t h r i l l t o many a y o u n g b o y o r g i r l t o d o n a u n i f o r m r e s e m b l i n g t h o s e w o r n by t h e b r a v e members o f t h e C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e s . I n K i m b e r l e y , t e a c h e r s e n c o u r a g e d " t h e w e a r i n g o f t h e c a d e t u n i f o r m a s a method o f i n c r e a s i n g e s p r i t d e c o r p s . " 2 2 4 The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h a t t h e c a d e t s c o r p s h a v e u n i f o r m s . " L o c a l p r i d e , h o w e v e r , may r e q u i r e t h a t a u n i f o r m be o b t a i n e d . 1 , 2 2 5 Some s c h o o l s s u c h a s one i n N o r t h S a a n i c h f e l t u n i f o r m s w e r e i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h t o o r g a n i z e a d a n c e t o r a i s e $150.00 f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f u n i f o r m s " s o t h e b o y s c o u l d p a r a d e i n f u l l r e g a l i a . " 2 2 6 Of t h e m e m o r i e s o f p a s t c a d e t s , most w e r e o f t h e i r u n i f o r m . " D u r i n g t h e w a r y e a r s one o f t h e m a i n t h i n g s I remember was d r e s s i n g up i n w h i t e s h i r t s a n d b l u e s l a c k s . . . " 2 2 7 A n o t h e r man d e c l a r e d : " I n t h e a i r c a d e t s y o u w e r e g i v e n t h e f u l l u n i f o r m . I t was t h e same u n i f o r m a s t h e A i r F o r c e : p a n t s a n d a t u n i c , wedge c a p , i d e n t i c a l t o t h e A i r F o r c e , e x c e p t i t was a f a i r l y r o u g h m a t e r i a l . B l u e , b u t n o t a s d r e s s y a s t h e A i r F o r c e . " 2 2 8 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e c a l l e d "we wore b l u e s k i r t s a n d w h i t e b l o u s e s . " 2 2 9 One man e x p l a i n e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e u n i f o r m : " I d e c i d e d t o j o i n t h e A i r F o r c e c a d e t s . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g i t was l i k e a m i n i f o r m o f t h e c a d e t s , t h e n we w e r e i s s u e d u n i f o r m s . " 2 3 0 " J u s t a b o u t e v e r y b o y was a c a d e t " , r e c a l l e d o ne woman, " i t was v e r y p o p u l a r t o be o n e , t o h a v e a u n i f o r m . " 2 3 1 One c a d e t ' s memory o f h i s u n i f o r m was n o t a s f o n d . "The u n i f o r m s d i d n ' t f i t , t h e y w e r e t o o b i g o r t o o s m a l l , same w i t h t h e b o o t s . " 2 3 2 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e m u s t h a v e b e e n q u i t e a s i g h t . He r e c o u n t e d : " I was a member o f t h e S e a f o r t h c a d e t s . We u s e d t o r u n t o c a t c h t h e i n t e r u r b a n . . . W e w o u l d be r u n n i n g down t h e h i l l i n o u r k i l t s , h e l l b e n t f o r l e a t h e r . " 2 3 3 S m a l l d e t a i l s o f u n i f o r m s w e r e r e c a l l e d a s w e l l a s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h e y made. S u c h a s m a r k i n g s t h a t d i s p l a y e d o n e ' s r a n k " i f y o u w e r e a n N . C O . . . y o u w o u l d t u r n up f o r t h e d r i l l a n d y o u 84 c o u l d p i n o n t h e s e s t r i p e s , I t h i n k t h e y w e r e b l u e a n d mar o o n c h e v r o n s . " 2 3 4 One man r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e s e d e t a i l s h a d t o be a t t e n d e d t o r i g h t up t o t h e " c a p p r o p e r l y p e r c h e d o n y o u r h e a d . " 2 3 5 The u n i f o r m was a l s o u s e d a s a d e v i c e t o e n t i c e s t u d e n t s t o j o i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o r p s . "Some k i d s j o i n e d t h e S e a f o r t h c a d e t s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e i s s u e d g o o d u n i f o r m s . " 2 3 6 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d " t h e r e a l i m p r e s s i v e c a d e t s w e r e t h e g u y s who w e r e f o r m a l l y i n t h e S e a f o r t h c a d e t s . T hey w e r e v e r y s h a r p . K i d s w o u l d come f r o m a l l o v e r t h e c i t y t o j o i n t h e S e a f o r t h c a d e t c o r p s . " 2 3 7 An i n t e r v i e w e e o n c e l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o t h e p r e s t i g e o f d i s p l a y i n g " c h e v r o n s o r e p a u l e t t e s , t h a t w o u l d come l a t e r , when y o u j o i n e d u p . " 2 3 8 A V a n c o u v e r man s t a t e d : "As t h e war p r o g r e s s e d I became more i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a d e t s , t h e r e w e r e more a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e c o r p s . " 2 3 9 C a d e t s a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e b u s i e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a w i d e v a r i e t y o f c o r p s a c t i v i t i e s . I n S a l m o n Arm c a d e t s w e r e b u s y m a k i n g f l a g s f o r s i g n a l l i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r t h r e e p u b l i c p a r a d e s . I n P o r t C o q u i t l a m c a d e t s b u i l t a r i f l e r a n g e o f l o g s a n d e a r t h . T h e y a l s o r a i s e d f u n d s t o p u r c h a s e u n i f o r m s "by h o l d i n g a w h i s t d r i v e , a c o n c e r t a n d a t e a . " 2 4 0 B r e n t w o o d C o l l e g e c a d e t s l e a r n e d t h e p r a c t i c a l s i d e o f F i r s t A i d . T hey o b t a i n e d m a n u a l s a n d made b a n d a g e s a n d wooden s p l i n t s t o u s e on t h e i r mock w o u n d e d . 2 4 1 C a d e t s i n P r i n c e G e o r g e w e r e b u s y t h a t f i r s t y e a r m a k i n g c h e v r o n s f r o m r e d f l a n n e l a n d dummy r i f l e s i n t h e woodwork s h o p . Dummy r i f l e s w e r e a l s o made b y t h e c a d e t s i n N e l s o n h i g h s c h o o l , " m a p l e f o r s t o c k s a n d s o l i d i r o n r o d s f o r b a r r e l s " w e r e u s e d . 2 4 2 M o s t c a d e t s e x p e r i e n c e d arms d r i l l w i t h t h e s e dummy r i f l e s , a s one man e x p l a i n e d "we w e r e g i v e n wooden r i f l e s a n d we 85 p a r a d e d a r o u n d t w i c e a w e e k . " 2 4 3 A n o t h e r remembered "we a l s o d r i l l e d a n d we c a r r i e d t h e s e wooden r i f l e s . " 2 4 4 B o y s i n P r i n c e t o n p r a c t i c e d w i t h r e a l r i f l e s i n a c o n v e r t e d t h e b a s e m e n t o f t h e i r s c h o o l . The c a d e t s a t S m i t h e r s h i g h s c h o o l w e r e e x t r e m e l y b u s y . T h e y c a n v a s s e d t h e c o m m u n i t y t o o b t a i n r e a l r i f l e s a n d t h e n f o u n d t h a t w i t h t h o s e " i n t e r e s t m o u n t e d s k y h i g h . " 2 4 5 T h e y a l s o b u i l t b u t t s a n d a f i r i n g p l a t f o r m i n t h e E x h i b i t i o n G r o u n d s a n d e n t e r e d t h e R o y a l M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e I n t e r S c h o o l C o m p e t i t i o n . On F r i d a y n i g h t s t h e S m i t h e r s c a d e t s a l s o t o o k e x t r a c o u r s e s a n d made t h e i r own M o r s e b u z z e r s . A t P e n t i c t o n h i g h s c h o o l t h e c a d e t c o r p s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f "a f i e r c e b a t t l e w i t h a t t a c k s a n d c o u n t e r a t t a c k s , a n d g o r y c o m b a t s f o u g h t w i t h i m a g i n a r y b a y o n e t s o r c l u b b e d r i f l e s . " 2 4 6 The f o r m a t i o n a n d g r o w t h o f t h e s c h o o l c a d e t c o r p s was n o t w i t h o u t i t s p r o b l e m s . K i n g G e o r g e h i g h s c h o o l f o u n d t h a t c a d e t s w e r e d i s m a y e d w i t h t h e dummy r i f l e s a n d s o r e a l o n e s w e r e b r o u g h t i n . One c a d e t e x p l a i n e d " t h e t h i r d f l o o r o f t h e s c h o o l was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a s h o o t i n g g a l l e r y . We w e r e g i v e n o l d W o r l d War I g u n s , t h e r e c o i l was s o v i o l e n t we h a d t o s t u f f s w e a t e r s t o p a d o u r s h o u l d e r s . . . W e e n j o y e d t h e s h o o t i n g p r a c t i c e t h o u g h . " 2 4 7 M o r a l e was a p r o b l e m a t K i m b e r l e y h i g h s c h o o l a s w e l l . The s c h o o l b e g a n a c a d e t m u s i c a l b a n d and f o u n d t h a t "a h e i g h t e n e d i n t e r e s t [ was] c r e a t e d . " 2 4 8 D r i l l was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y t h a t o f t e n p r o d u c e d p r o b l e m s . Many s c h o o l s d i d n o t h a v e t h e f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o p e r d r i l l p r o c e d u r e s . The T r a i l - T a d a n a c c a d e t s c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e d i s t a n c e t h e y h a d t o t r a v e l t o t h e i r d r i l l s i t e . 2 4 9 Deep snow a n d c o l d w e a t h e r p o s e d a p r o b l e m f o r B a r o n B y n g H i g h s c h o o l i n P r i n c e G e o r g e w h e r e c a d e t s u s e d a s n o w - p l o w e d r o a d f o r 86 t h e i r d r i l l s and were kept "constantly on the move...in zero or sub-zero temperatures." 2 5 0 Cold weather was a factor to the cadets at Grand Forks where they f e l t the importance of d r i l l warranted the construction of a gymnasium on the school grounds. 2 5 1 Most interviewees remembered the d r i l l routines. "The o f f i c i a l cadets would d r i l l d i f f e r e n t l y from the res t of the school cadets. The rest of the school would be i n the white s h i r t and the multicolored chevrons, marching around being reviewed. 1 , 2 5 2 One man from Nelson explained, "we used to have parade d r i l l out i n the f i e l d . Twice a week on Tuesday and Thursdays, i t was part of our physical education. 1 , 2 5 3 With the seemingly endless d r i l l s and marching i n a l l types of weather the s p i r i t s of Cadets would undoubtedly lag. To maintain morale, v i s i t o r s often spoke to school Cadet Corps and praised them for t h e i r work. Colonel C. Greer, Director of Cadet Services i n Ottawa, addressed Vancouver schools and expressed his b e l i e f i n them for "giving the lead to a l l of Canada i n cadet t r a i n i n g . " 2 5 4 Squadron Leader Stuart C. Parker gave "an i n s p i r i n g address to the Boys' and G i r l s ' A i r Cadets" of King Edward high s c h o o l . 2 5 5 He encouraged the cadets i n t h e i r e f f o r t s and t o l d them that " i f i t were not for the A i r Force we would now be under the Nazi h e e l . " 2 5 6 The v a l e d i c t o r i a n of Vancouver College school applauded the Cadets as "useful members of the community and worthy c i t i z e n s of our Dominion." 2 5 7 I t was reported i n t h e i r school annual that they had witnessed the Cadet parade and that "we were proud of them that day." 2 5 8 Along with pep talks and praise were monetary rewards. On inspection, prizes were awarded to the cadet corps which 87 d i s p l a y e d a n e x c e l l e n t l e v e l o f e f f i c i e n c y i n t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . P r i z e money was a l s o a w a r d e d f o r m a r k s m a n s h i p a n d r i f l e s h o o t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s w e r e h e l d e a c h y e a r . A l o n g w i t h t h e R o y a l M i l i t a r y C o l l e g e i n t e r - s c h o o l s c o m p e t i t i o n , c a d e t s c o m p e t e d i n t h e Y o u t h a n d E m p i r e C o m p e t i t i o n . 2 5 9 I n 1 9 4 3 , t h e K i w a n i s c l u b p r e s e n t e d t h e V a n c o u v e r c a d e t r e g i m e n t w i t h a s i l k U n i o n J a c k . T h i s " f l a g was g i v e n a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e a t t h e E m p i r e R a l l y o f Y o u t h s e r v i c e o n May 1 6 t h . . . " 2 6 0 The G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l , H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e E a r l o f A t h l o n e was p r e s e n t a t t h e r a l l y a n d " t o o k t h e s a l u t e a t t h e M a r c h P a s t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4000 y o u t h . " 2 6 1 T h e s e p a r a d e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d , by most C a d e t i n s t r u c t o r s t o be a n e x c i t i n g e v e n t . A t i m e t o show o f f t h e d i s c i p l i n e d C a d e t s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . One K i n g G e o r g e h i g h s c h o o l c a d e t r e c a l l e d " t w i c e a y e a r we w e n t down t o B r o c k t o n O v a l f o r a p a r a d e . " 2 6 2 On 25 O c t o b e r 1945, s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t m e m b e r s h i p i n C a d e t C o r p s was c h a n g e d f r o m a c o m p u l s o r y t o a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . D J L o o k i n g b a c k o n t h e i r t r a i n i n g , m o s t i n t e r v i e w e e s h a d a d u b i o u s v i e w o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s c h o o l c a d e t c o r p s . One f e l l o w d e c l a r e d " c a d e t s w e r e r e a l l y l u d i c r o u s , we w e r e l i k e t o y s o l d i e r s , c h i l d r e n t r y i n g t o a c t l i k e g r o w n m e n " 2 6 4 Of m a r c h i n g a n d i n s p e c t i o n s a n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d " i t was l i k e p l a y i n g , p l a y i n g a t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e w a r . " 2 6 5 One man d e s c r i b e d t h e t r a i n i n g a s " p l a y i n g a t s o l d i e r s , p l a y i n g a t a i r men, p l a y i n g a t s e a men. I t was a n e x c i t i n g game, l i k e a n a d v e n t u r e f o r b o y s . " 2 6 6 A n o t h e r e x - c a d e t r e c a l l e d t h a t e v e n when t h e y w e r e i s s u e d u n i f o r m s " t h e g e n e r a l t o n e o f t h e c o r p s was n o t t o t a k e i t t o o s e r i o u s l y . " 2 6 7 P a r t o f t h e C a d e t c o r p s a g e n d a was t o 88 p r e p a r e b o y s f o r a c t i v e s e r v i c e . One man, a s e a c a d e t a t s c h o o l w a n t e d t o become a s e a c a d e t i n t h e Navy s i m p l y " b e c a u s e o f a r o m a n t i c n o t i o n . I a l w a y s h a d t h e dream o f g o i n g t o s e a . " 2 6 8 Once he j o i n e d up he f o u n d he was i l l p r e p a r e d , " i t t u r n e d o u t t o be a w h o l e o t h e r s t o r y . . . i t was on t h e j o b t r a i n i n g l i k e y o u w o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e . " 2 6 9 T h i s ' a d v e n t u r e ' f o r b o y s p e r v a d e d t h r o u g h many o f t h e m e m o r i e s a n d a s one man d e c i d e d "we n e v e r r e a l l y t h o u g h t w h a t we w e r e l e a r n i n g h a d a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e r e a l w a r . " 2 7 0 The n e e d f o r " w o r k e r s " w i t h s p e c i a l s k i l l s a n d t r a i n i n g c a u s e d s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l o r P r a c t i c a l A r t s c u r r i c u l u m . U n t i l 1940 y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s h a d c o n c e n t r a t e d o n b u i l d i n g i t e m s f o r home a n d s c h o o l . S u c h a s r h y t h m s t i c k s , y a r d s t i c k s , v a r i o u s f u r n i t u r e a n d e q u i p m e n t . 2 7 1 M o s t o f t h e s e n i o r I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s t u d e n t s t r a i n e d f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e m i n i n g , f a r m i n g o r f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . Then t h e war b e g a n a n d t h e n e e d f o r war m a c h i n e r y a n d s k i l l e d s e r v i c e men i n c r e a s e d . The s h i p b u i l d i n g a n d w a r m u n i t i o n s i n d u s t r i e s w e r e b o o m i n g a n d s t u d e n t s w e r e b e i n g l u r e d b y t h e numerous j o b s s u d d e n l y a v a i l a b l e a f t e r a l o n g e c o n o m i c s l u m p . W i t h t h e p r o p e r t r a i n i n g i n s c h o o l s t u d e n t s c o u l d l o o k f o r w a r d t o employment a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e . F.T. F a i r e y , O f f i c e r i n C h a r g e o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s d e p a r t m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a l t e r i n g t h e c u r r e n t i p r o g r a m a n d f e l t t h e p r o g r a m h a d t o a p p e a l s t u d e n t s b y b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o w a r t i m e . P r i o r t o t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War, I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s h o p s n u m b e r i n g 1 4 1 , h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 54 c i t i e s a n d d i s t r i c t s i n 89 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 7 2 The p o l i c y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n was t o e n c o u r a g e y o u n g p e o p l e t o become s k i l l e d i n a r e a s s u c h a s Woodwork, D r a u g h t i n g , M e t a l w o r k , a n d E l e c t r i c i t y . I t was " n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n s t h a t I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d j u n i o r g r a d e s o f h i g h s c h o o l s h a v e a n y v o c a t i o n a l i n t e n t , b u t t h a t i t s h a l l a s s i s t i n p r o m o t i n g g r o w t h a nd d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p u p i l . " 2 7 3 A t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s was known a s P r a c t i c a l A r t s . C h i l d r e n f r o m g r a d e s t h r e e a n d f o u r t o o k c o u r s e s f o r s i x t y m i n u t e s p e r week. S e v e n t y f i v e m i n u t e s p e r week was a l l o t t e d a t t h e g r a d e f i v e a n d s i x l e v e l . 2 7 4 P r a c t i c a l A r t s was a l s o c o m p u l s o r y i n a l l r e g u l a r l y o r g a n i z e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . G r a d e s e v e n a n d e i g h t c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d f o u r p e r i o d s p e r week w h i l e g r a d e n i n e s t u d e n t s c o u l d c h o o s e P r a c t i c a l A r t s a s a n o p t i o n a n d t a k e two t o t e n p e r i o d s p e r w e e k . 2 7 5 Once s t u d e n t s e n t e r e d g r a d e t e n t h e y c o u l d w o r k t o w a r d s t h e f i f t e e n c r e d i t s r e q u i r e d u n d e r o p t i o n a l c o u r s e s f o r U n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e . T h e y c o u l d c h o o s e f r o m t h r e e a r e a s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s : Home E c o n o m i c s , T e c h n i c a l C o u r s e s , a nd C o m m e r c i a l C o u r s e s . 2 7 6 ^ f t e r t h e war b e g a n t h e number o f I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s h o p s i n c r e a s e d a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e g a n t o c h a n g e . I n 1939-40 t h r e e more c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e s t a b l i s h e d 12 more I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s h o p s . 2 7 J ^ The I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m a t V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l " j u s t i f i e d i t s e x i s t e n c e , f o r many b r a n c h e s o f t h e f i g h t i n g f o r c e s , g r a d u a t i o n f r o m a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l h a s b e e n r e q u i r e d " 2 7 8 F a i r e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t s e n i o r h i g h s t u d e n t s " m i g h t be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o u n d e r t a k e s h o r t c o u r s e s w h i c h w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o t h e war e f f o r t . " 2 7 9 F a i r e y a l s o a d v i s e d t h a t s c h o o l s a d o p t s p e c i a l i z e d c l a s s e s f o r war i n d u s t r i e s a l o n g 90 w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e . 2 8 0 'These c l a s s e s w e r e a d o p t e d d u r i n g t h e 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 s c h o o l y e a r a n d t h e number o f c i t i e s / d i s t r i c t s w i t h I n d u s t r i a l a r t s s h o p s i n c r e a s e d a g a i n by 6 1 , t o a t o t a l o f 1 6 0 . 2 8 1 s I n t h e 1941-42 s c h o o l y e a r t h e demand f o r w a r m a c h i n e r y g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d a n d t h e P r o v i n c i a l w ar i n d u s t r i e s w e r e f o r c e d t o e x p a n d t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . 2 8 2 F a i r e y s t r e s s e d i n h i s a n n u a l r e p o r t t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s f r o m l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l e a r l y , w h i l e t h e y " s t i l l h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . 1 , 2 8 3 E v e n s o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w e r e l e a v i n g s c h o o l f o r t h e more l u c r a t i v e w o r k f o r c e a r e n a a n d a l s o t o j o i n t h e s e r v i c e s . V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l f e l t t h e l o s s when more t h a n h a l f t h e s t u d e n t s l e f t s c h o o l f o r t h e s e r v i c e s a n d t h e e x p a n d i n g w a r i n d u s t r i e s . E n r o l m e n t s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d f r o m 1,316 i n 1938 t o a mere 626 i n 1942. [ s e e T a b l e l . ] 2 8 4 One f e l l o w e x p l a i n e d " t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f j o b s t o be h a d down a t t h e s h i p y a r d s . " 2 8 5 F a i r e y a l s o r e p o r t e d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e l o s s o f t e a c h e r s who " f e l t i t t h e i r d u t y t o j o i n one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e f i g h t i n g f o r c e s o r t o g i v e t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o war i n d u s t r i e s . " 2 8 6 T h i s was t h e f i r s t y e a r s i n c e t h e w a r t h a t no new s h o p s w e r e o p e n e d due t o t h e " l a c k o f c o m p e t e n t t e a c h e r s . " 2 8 7 F a i r e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r o g r a m h a d b e e n s t r e a m l i n e d t o k e e p up w i t h t h e demands o f w a r , " c o u r s e s h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f s p e e d i n g up t h e t r a i n i n g , s o t h a t b o y s w o u l d be b e t t e r f i t t e d t o s e r v e t h e i r c o u n t r y i n many w a y s . 1 , 2 8 8 The new War Em e r g e n c y T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m h a d a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t o n t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m . D e s i g n e d f o r y o u n g a d u l t s , a g e d 91 18-30 y e a r s , t h e c l a s s e s o f t h e War E m e r g e n c y t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m v w e r e b e i n g h e l d i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s h o p s a n d e n c r o a c h e d on \ s t u d e n t s * w o r k s p a c e . V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l r e p o r t e d i n 1943', t h a t i t h a d t o s h a r e i t s f a c i l i t i e s w i t h 300 s o l d i e r s a n d 400 ' / a i r m e n o f t h e C a n a d i a n f o r c e s . H i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s h a r e d t h e i r ' b u i l d i n g s w i t h t h e s e s e r v i c e men a n d women an d w i t h R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e t r a d e s m e n p e r s o n n e l . 2 8 9 D e s p i t e t h e s h o r t a g e o f s p a c e , s t a f f a n d s t u d e n t s , t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m s u c c e e d e d i n m e e t i n g war t i m e n e e d s . F a i r e y e x p l a i n e d t h a t "The e m p h a s i s g i v e n t o m a s t e r y i n h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s i s a p p r e c i a t e d b y w a r i n d u s t r i e s . . . W e h a v e h a d g r e a t demands f r o m w a r i n d u s t r i e s f o r b o y s who h a v e h a d h i g h - s c h o o l I n d u s t r i a l A r t s t r a i n i n g . . . " 2 9 0 F a i r e y was p r o u d t o r e p o r t t h a t "we w e r e a b l e t o r e n d e r t h e g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e . " 2 9 1 To meet t h e w a r ' s demands: " C o u r s e s h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f s p e e d i n g up t h e t r a i n i n g , s o t h a t b o y s w o u l d be b e t t e r f i t t e d t o s e r v e t h e i r c o u n t r y i n many w a y s . " 2 9 2 The p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e d t o h a v e i t s war t i m e p r o b l e m s when i n t h e 1942-43 s c h o o l y e a r more t e a c h e r s l e f t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . F a i r e y d e c l a r e d t h a t n o t e nough i m p o r t a n c e was b e i n g p l a c e d o n t h e p r o g r a m by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n e v e n t h o u g h t h e " w o r l d c r i e s f o r p e o p l e a b l e t o do t h i n g s . . . " 2 9 3 The n u m bers o f c i t i e s a n d d i s t r i c t s i n t h e P r o v i n c e w i t h s h o p s d r o p p e d t o 56 a n d t h e number o f s t u d e n t s d r o p p e d t o 13,338 f r o m 14,252 i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . 2 9 4 F a i r e y a r g u e d t h a t " t h i s i s a war o f m a c h i n e s a n d s u p p l i e s , a n d t h a t v i c t o r y w i l l come t o t h e s i d e b e s t a b l e t o p r o d u c e a n d u s e e q u i p m e n t o f a t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e . " 2 9 5 He t h e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t " a l l we c a n do i s t o c a r r y on a s b e s t we may u n t i l t h i s c o n f l i c t i s o v e r . " ^ y b A n o t h e r p r o b l e m f o r t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s o f I n d u s t r i a l A r t s a r o s e . M e t a l , a m a t e r i a l n e e d e d f o r * c o u r s e w o r k , was b e c o m i n g a s c a r c e c o m m o d i t y . S a l v a g i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r a p r o j e c t became a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . S t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s w o r k e d w i t h d i s c a r d e d c a r p a r t s a n d " s c r a p t i n -p l a t e . . . " 2 9 7 I n some s c h o o l s " g r e a t i n g e n u i t y i n u t i l i z i n g s c r a p m e t a l " was s h o w n . 2 9 8 A s c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d on t h e war f r o n t , a n d e v e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e e n d o f t h e war was n e a r , t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m w o u l d o n c e a g a i n be a f f e c t e d . F a i r e y h a d r e p o r t e d i n 1942-43 t h a t " a l l b o y s who h a v e t a k e n s h o p c o u r s e s f o r H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n h a v e b e e n a b l e t o g e t j o b s i n war i n d u s t r y , a n d t h e demand h a s e x c e e d e d t h e s u p p l y . " 2 9 9 T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e n o t t o o l a s t . By 1 9 4 3 - 4 4 , t h e d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s a n d p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s f i n a l l y met t h e demands f o r war m a c h i n e r y . T h r o u g h t h e War E m e r g e n c y T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m t h e n e e d s o f t h e w a r i n d u s t r i e s h a d b e e n f u l f i l l e d . "Upwards o f 40,000 p e o p l e h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . a n d a s a r e s u l t , war p l a n t s a r e now a d e q u a t e l y s t a f f e d . . . " 3 0 0 T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c h a n g e i n a v a i l a b l e a c t i v i t i e s i n s h o p c l a s s , t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m h a d s e r v e d i t s war t i m e p u r p o s e . I n 1944 a c t i v i t i e s moved away f r o m t h e war i n d u s t r y and s t u d e n t s b e g a n a g a i n t o c o n s t r u c t i t e m s s u c h a s " t o o l k i t s . . . l i b r a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u n t e r s , g r e e n h o u s e s a n d c h a i r s f o r an a u d i t o r i u m . 1 , 3 0 1 By 1945 t h e c u r r i c u l u m was s i m i l a r t o i t s p r e w a r s t a t e , y e t t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e w a r . T h e r e was a n e x c e s s o f m a c h i n e r y , o r i g i n a l l y p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e w a r i n d u s t r i e s , s i t t i n g i d l e . The War A s s e t s C o r p o r a t i o n e n s u r e d t h a t " e d u c a t i o n 93 w i l l be g i v e n f i r s t c h a n c e a f t e r t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f " 3 0 2 f o r s e c u r i n g t h i s e q u i p m e n t f o r t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s s h o p s . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n c o u l d n o t i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t Canada was a t war. "War D u t i e s " w e r e p r e s c r i b e d t o t e a c h e r s by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r ' s F e d e r a t i o n w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d c h a n g e s t o w h a t was b e i n g t a u g h t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Two ' d u t i e s ' w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t h r o u g h t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t o p i c s s u c h a s d e m o c r a c y v e r s u s d i c t a t o r s h i p , p a t r i o t i s m t o t h e E m p i r e , and t h r o u g h t h e s i m p l e a c t s o f s a l u t i n g t h e f l a g a n d s i n g i n g 'God S a v e t h e K i n g ' : " I n t e l l i g e n t l o y a l t y t o C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a c y must be s t r e n g t h e n e d " a n d " t h e m o r a l e o f c h i l d r e n h a s t o be s u s t a i n e d " . 3 0 3 The c h a n g e s t o t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m e n d e a v o u r e d t o meet t h e demand t h a t : " t h e i s s u e s , a i m s a n d p r o g r e s s o f war must be t a u g h t " . T h r o u g h t h e P r o R e c c o u r s e s a n d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y c a d e t i n s t r u c t i o n a n a t t e m p t was made t o s u p p o r t t h e 'war d u t y ' t h a t " h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y must be m a i n t a i n e d " . A n o t h e r 'war d u t y ' was f u l f i l l e d when t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s p r o g r a m was a l t e r e d t o p r o d u c e , " w o r k e r s f o r war i n d u s t r i e s a n d s e r v i c e s " . 3 0 4 C h a n g e s p r e c i p i t a t e d b y t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War h a d a n e f f e c t o n t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e r e f o r e on t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 94 T a b l e 1 . — A t t e n d a n c e : V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l : 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 5 . 1939-40 1940-41 1941-42 1942-43 1943-44 1944-45 1,323 1,125 978 626 704 843 1. D r . S.R. L a y c o c k , "The I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 23, no. 4 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 4 ) : 141. 2. I b i d . 3. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 ) : D37. 4. I b i d . 5. I b i d . 6. I b i d . 7. E.F. M i l l e r , "The Q u e s t i o n B o x , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 ) : 85. 8. I b i d . 9. M a r i o n C. K i n n a i r d , " Y o u n g e s t Canada T h i n k s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 0 , n o . 9 (May 1 9 4 1 ) : 423-424. 10. I b i d . 1 1 . I b i d . 12. I b i d . 1 3 . F 1 0 0 8 - 6 14. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme o f  S t u d i e s F o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s G r a d e s I t o V I R e v i s e d 1941 ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 4 3 ) , 279. 15. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme o f  S t u d i e s : B u l l e t i n I f o r t h e S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 4 1 ) , 127. 16. F 1 0 0 8 - 6 / 7 17. F 1 0 0 8 - 5 18. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , "The T r i u m p h o f ' F o r m a l i s m ' : E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r f r o m t h e 1920s t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s , " B.C.  S t u d i e s A D o u b l e I s s u e no. 69-70 ( S p r i n g - S u m m e r 1 9 8 6 ) : 2 2 . 19. M1003 -5 20. M1014 -8 2 1 . F 1 0 0 1 -5/6 2 2 . M1012 -2 23. M1010-4 96 24. M1010 -8 25 . F 1 0 0 1 -4 26. M1012 -3 27. M1014 -8 28. M1010 -7 29. M1543 -2 30. M1003 -4 3 1 . M1014 -8 32. F 1 0 1 1 -1 33 . M1010 -7 34. F 1 0 1 1 -1 35. F 1 0 1 1 -5 36. M2560 -8/9 37. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B29. 38. F 1 0 1 1 - 3 39. N a n c y S h e e h a n , " P h i l o s o p h y , P e d a g o g y , a n d P r a c t i c e : The IODE a n d t h e S c h o o l s i n C a n a d a , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 4 5 , " H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n R e v u e D ' H i s t o i r e De L 1 E d u c a t i o n 2, no. 2 ( F a l l 1 9 9 0 ) : 314. 40. I b i d . 4 1 . I b i d . 42. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B29. 4 3 . F1011-3 44. S u t h e r l a n d , " T r i u m p h o f ' F o r m a l i s m 1 , 1 1 1 8 1 . 45 . E n d e r b y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , R e p o r t s o f t h e S c h o o l s o f E n d e r b y  a n d D i s t r i c t f r o m 1896-1965 ( E n d e r b y : E n d e r b y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , 1 9 6 6 ) . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 46. M1012-2 47. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B29. 48. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 0 49. F 5 7 0 2 - 1 0 50. M2323-3 5 1 . M1002-8 52. M1012-3 53. F1011-4 54. F1011-4 55. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 5. 56. I b i d . 57. L i l l i a n Cope, "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 4 (December 1 9 4 1 ) : 189. 58. I b i d . 5 9 . A d v e r t i s e m e n t , "War P l a y s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 7 ( M a r c h 1 9 4 2 ) : 338. 60. M1012-6 6 1 . M1015-11 62. F1013-7 63. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 169. 64. S o c i a l S t u d i e s R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e , "War a n d S o c i a l S t u d i e s , B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 8 (May-June 1 9 4 3 ) : 316. 65. I b i d . 66. I b i d . 67. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 2 3 9 . 68. I b i d . , 13. 69. I b i d . , 239. 7 0 . I b i d . , 244. 7 1 . Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , " F l a g P r o j e c t s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 1 ) : 4 1 . 98 7 2 . F 1 0 0 7 - 1 0 73. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 2 4 5. 74. I b i d . 7 5 . I b i d . , 2 7 2 . 76. I b i d . , 2 8 3 . 77. I b i d . , 2 3 3 - 2 9 9 . 78. F 1 0 0 8 - 5 79. F1013-7 80. M1015-2 8 1 . M1014-8 82. M1015-2 8 3 . F 2 5 8 4 - 1 0 84. F 1 0 0 8 - 6 8 5 . R o t h G. G o r d o n , e d . , "Our M a g a z i n e T a b l e , " B.C. T e a c h e r 20, no. 8 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 1 ) : 353. 86. I b i d . 8 7. P u b l i c L i b r a r y C o m m i s s i o n , Open S h e l f D i v i s i o n , C a t a l o g u e  o f C h i l d r e n ' s B o o k s ( V i c t o r i a : 1 9 4 5 ) , 49. 88. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , L i b r a r y B o o k s A u t h o r i z e d f o r Use i n t h e P u b l i c  S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : K i n d e r g a r t e n G r a d e s I - X I I ( V i c t o r i a : 1 9 4 8 ) , 64. 89. M1002-4 90. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme o f  S t u d i e s f o r t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 4 5 ) , 219. 9 1 . I b i d . , 2 29. 92. I b i d . , 2 19. 9 3 . M1009-4 94. R o t h G. G o r d o n , e d . , "The M a g a z i n e T a b l e , " B.C. T e a c h e r 20, no. 9 (May 1 9 4 1 ) : 4 0 1 . 9 5 . I b i d . 9 6. M1010-7 97. M1015-1/2 98. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme. ( 1 9 4 5 ) , 2 47. 99. M1015-7 100. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme. ( 1 9 4 5 ) , 2 4 9 - 2 5 0 . 1 0 1 . I b i d . 1 02. I b i d . , 224. 1 0 3 . I b i d . , 2 4 5. 104. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y B o o k s , 100. 105. I b i d . , 36. 106. I b i d . , 1 07-114. 107. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 128. 108. I b i d . 1 09. I b i d . , 129. 110. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme o f  S t u d i e s f o r J u n i o r a n d S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a :  S u p p l e m e n t a r y B u l l e t i n ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 4 4 ) : 5. 1 1 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 152. 1 1 2 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 5. 1 1 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 1 6 5 - 1 6 6 . 114. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 5. 115. I b i d . 116. I b i d . 117. I b i d . , 6. 118. I b i d . 1 19. I b i d . , 7. 12 0. L i l l i a n Cope, "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 2 , n o . 4 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 3 ) : 156. 1 2 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y B o o k s , 124 a n d 175. 122. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 1 3 3 . 123. E v e l y n T u f t s , "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 0, n o . 6 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 292. 124. L i l l i a n Cope, "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 1 ) : 4 2 - 4 3 . 1 2 5 . E v e l y n T u f t s , "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 0, no. 8 ( A p r i l 1 9 4 1 ) : 386. 12 6. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , "What We A r e R e a d i n g , " B.C T e a c h e r 19, no. 10 ( J u n e 1 9 4 0 ) : 535. 127. I b i d . 128. G o r d o n , e d . , "The M a g a z i n e T a b l e , " 4 0 1 . 129. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y B o o k s . 175. 130. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y B o o k s , 124, 142 a n d 182. 1 3 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , H i g h S c h o o l  E x a m i n a t i o n P a p e r s S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , J u n e a n d A u g u s t 1940 ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 4 0 ) , 70. 132. I b i d . 1 3 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n H i g h S c h o o l  E x a m i n a t i o n P a p e r s U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e ( J u n e a n d A u g u s t 1940) 18 5 . 134. I b i d . , 84. 135. I b i d . , 18. 13 6. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , E x a m i n a t i o n  P a p e r s U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e ( J u n e a n d A u g u s t 1 9 4 2 ) : 13. 101 137. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , E x a m i n a t i o n  P a p e r s S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ( J u n e a n d A u g u s t 1 9 4 4 ) : 16. 138. I b i d . , 12-14. 139. I b i d . , 96. 140. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , E x a m i n a t i o n P a p e r s S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ( J u n e a nd A u g u s t 1 9 4 5 ) : 10. 1 4 1 . I b i d . , 1 1 . 142. I b i d . , 2 0 - 2 1 . 1 4 3 . M1010-6/7 144. M1003-4 145. Edmund A r t h u r H u n t , "A H i s t o r y o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1918 t o 1 9 6 7 " (M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , 9 8 - 9 9 . 146. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B90. 147. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 4 -1 9 3 5 ) : S 7 5 . 148. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f  V a n c o u v e r C i t y S c h o o l s ( 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 3 3 ) : 37. 149. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 8 -1939) : H80. 150. I b i d . , H79. 1 5 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1940) : B90. 152. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 0 -1941) : D97. 153. I b i d . , D98. 154. I b i d . 1 5 5 . I b i d . , D99. 156. I b i d . 157. I b i d . 158. I b i d . 1 59. I b i d . 102 160. I b i d . 1 6 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 1 -1942) :B99. 162. I b i d . , B99. 163. I b i d . , B100. 164. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 ) : D37. 165. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 2 -1943) : B108. 166. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 3 -1944) : B 3 3 . 167. I b i d . , B33-34. 168. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y B o o k s . 136. 169. I b i d . , B i l l . 1 7 0. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 ) : 5 1 . 1 7 1 . I b i d . , 5 1 . 172. V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e , A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 4 1 ) : 33. 173. I b i d . 174. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 ) : 5 1 . 175. I b i d . , 7. 176. M1010-7 177. M2939-1 178. M1009-1 179. M1010-1 180. M1009-1 1 8 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B91 a n d ( 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ) : H 83. 182. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a C a d e t A n n u a l : D i g e s t o f C a d e t R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 2 ) : 1 1 . V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1942-55. 103 1 8 3 . I b i d . , 5. 184. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 ) : 8 2 . 1 8 5 . D.S. T y s o e , " M i l i t a r y T r a i n i n g D u r i n g Summer S c h o o l , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 10 ( J u n e 1 9 4 2 ) : 472. 186. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 3 -1 9 4 4 ) : B94. 187. I b i d . , B98. 188. M1009-1 189. M1009-1 190. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : B116 a n d ( 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 4 6 ) : MM147. 1 9 1 . I b i d . 1 9 2. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 2 -1943) : B116. 193. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 16. 194. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 2 -1943) : B116. 195. I b i d . 196. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 3 -1944) : B 1 3 3 . 197. M1010-1. 198. M1002-4. 199. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 47. 200. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : 1 1 5 - 1 1 6 . 2 0 1 . F 1 0 1 1 - 2 / 3 202 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B67. 20 3 . Magee S e c o n d a r y H i g h S c h o o l , A d v e n t u r e ( 1 9 4 3 ) . 204. P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , E x p l o r e r ( J u n e 1 9 4 2 ) . 2 0 5 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 1 9 4 2 ) : B29. 206. I b i d . 2 0 7 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t  A n n u a l . 1 1 . 208. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 1 1 9 4 2 ) : B29. 209. K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 4 1 ) . 210. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t  A n n u a l . 10. 2 1 1 . I b i d . 2 1 2 . I b i d . 2 1 3 . I b i d . 214. V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e , A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 33. 2 1 5 . I b i d . 2 16. H e l e n B a l l , "The Man B e h i n d t h e Man B e h i n d t h e Gun," C a n a d i a n J u n i o r R ed C r o s s 22, no. 3 ( M a r c h 1 9 4 3 ) : 19. 21 7 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . (1940 1 9 4 1 ) : D38. 21 8 . I b i d . 2 1 9 . M1003-2 220. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . (1940 1 9 4 1 ) : D38. 2 2 1 . M1003-2 2 2 2 . A r t h u r L. M e l l i n g , "The A i r C a d e t L e a g u e o f C a n a d a , " C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l 29, no. 4 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 4 ) : 2 0 1 . 22 3 . M1002-3. 224. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t  A n n u a l . 2 9 . 2 2 5 . H.B. K i n g , " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e : R e g a r d i n g C a d e t C o r p s , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 20, no. 2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 0 ) : 98. 226 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t  A n n u a l , 2 9 . 227. M6461-1. 228. M1009-1 229 . F1011-2 23 0 . M1003-1 2 3 1 . F 1 0 0 5 - 1 232 . M1010-7 233 . M6461-1 234. M1002-3 2 3 5 . M1003-2 236. M1010-7 237 . M1002-3 238 . M1009-1 239 . M1003-2 240. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A n n u a l . ( 1 9 4 2 ) : 28. 2 4 1 . I b i d . 242 . I b i d . , 30. 2 4 3 . M1010-1. 244. M1009-1. 24 5 . I b i d . 2 46. I b i d . , 3 1 . 24 7 . M1010-1. 24 8 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A n n u a l . 2 9 . 24 9 . I b i d . , 28. 250. I b i d . , 29. 2 5 1 . I b i d . 2 5 2 . M1002-3/4. 25 3 . M1009-1. 105 C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , C a d e t 106 254. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 50. 2 5 5 . K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l , " S q u a d r o n L e a d e r E x p l a i n e s A i r C a d e t P u r p o s e , " B l u e a n d W h i t e . 18 November 1 9 4 3 , 1. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-72. 256. I b i d . 2 5 7 . V a n c o u v e r C o l l e g e , A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 16. 25 8 . I b i d . , 32. 25 9 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : B116. 260. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 4 4 ) : 19. 2 6 1 . I b i d . , 44. 2 6 2 . M1010-1. 2 6 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 ) : MM147. 264 . M1002 -4 26 5 . M1002 -3/4 266. M1003 -2 26 7 . M1003 -1 268 . M1002 -5 269. M1002 -5/6 270. M1003 -2 2 7 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1940) : B41 a n d B61. 272. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 ) : H49. 2 7 3 . I b i d . , H48. 274. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n Programme. ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 2 3 . 2 7 5 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme o f  S t u d i e s f o r t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G r a d e s  V I I . . V I I I . . I X . ( V i c t o r i a : C h a r l e s F. B a n f i e l d , 1 9 3 9 ) , 2 2 - 2 3 . 276. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme, ( 1 9 4 1 ) : 30. 2 7 7 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . (1939 1940) : B47-B48. 27 8 . I b i d . , B48. 2 7 9 . I b i d . 2 8 0 . I b i d . 2 8 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . (1940 1941) : D57. 2 8 2 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 1 1942) : B56. 2 8 3 . I b i d . 2 8 4 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . (1938 1 9 3 9 ) : H50 a n d ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : B53. 2 8 5 . M1009-1/2 286. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 1942) : B56. 2 8 7 . I b i d . 2 8 8 . I b i d . 2 8 9 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s (1942' 1943) : B52-B53. 290. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 1 1942) : B57. 2 9 1 . I b i d . , B56. 2 9 2 . I b i d . 2 9 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , (1942 1943) : B50. 294. I b i d . , B52. 2 9 5 . I b i d . 2 9 6 . I b i d . , B50. 297. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , (1943 1944) : B52. 2 9 8 . I b i d . , B 5 1 . 108 2 9 9 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : B52. 300. I b i d . , B 5 1 . 3 0 1 . I b i d . , B52. 302. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 4 -1 9 4 5 ) : Y59. 3 0 3 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r ' s F e d e r a t i o n P u b l i c i t y C o m m i t t e e , " T o w a r d a S o u n d E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 22, no. 2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 ) : 59. 304. I b i d . 109 CHAPTER I I I EXTRA CURRICULAR A C T I V I T I E S : CHILDREN WORK FOR THE WAR EFFORT The s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p l a y e d a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n numerous war w o r k a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y r a i s e d h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s f o r t h e war e f f o r t i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . C h i l d r e n b o u g h t a n i n c r e d i b l e number o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . T h e y became i n d u s t r i o u s J u n i o r Red C r o s s members, s e w i n g a n d k n i t t i n g f o r t h e t r o o p s a n d war r e f u g e e s . T h e y combed c o m m u n i t i e s a c c u m u l a t i n g p a p e r , b u t t o n s , g r e a s e , a l u m i n u m , s t r i n g a n d c l o t h i n g . T hey w o r k e d t o r a i s e money f o r t h e many d i f f e r e n t w a r f u n d s . T h e y a l s o s e n t p a r c e l s o v e r s e a s a n d some became w a r d e n s i n t h e a i r r a i d p r e c a u t i o n d r i l l s . F i g h t i n g t h e war o n t h e home f r o n t became a way o f l i f e f o r m o s t c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x a m i n e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s * r o l e i n t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d war work. The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t r e l i e d on t w o s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War: t a x a t i o n a n d b o r r o w i n g . I n 1940 t h e C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e w a r w o u l d c o s t C a n a d i a n s $4 m i l l i o n p e r d a y . l By 1943 w a r e x p e n d i t u r e s r e a c h e d a p e a k o f $9 m i l l i o n p e r d a y . 2 G r e a t e r t a x a t i o n d u r i n g t h e F i r s t W o r l d War h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t o n t h e c o u n t r y ' s d e f i c i t . F e a r f u l t h a t h i g h t a x a t i o n m i g h t p r o v e r e g r e s s i v e t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e d t o r e l y h e a v i l y o n b o r r o w i n g . 110 The g o v e r n m e n t b o r r o w e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f i t s f i n a n c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e war.3 "One o f t h e means o f b o r r o w i n g i s by v o l u n t a r y s a v i n g s a n d p u r c h a s e o f war s a v i n g s c e r t i f i c a t e s . " 4 T h e r e was a l s o a v a l i d c o n c e r n t h a t C a n a d i a n s w o u l d h a v e t o e n d u r e d a n g e r o u s l e v e l s i n f l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e w a r . To a v o i d t h i s t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a r e f u l l y r e g u l a t e d c o n s u m p t i o n t h r o u g h r a t i o n i n g a n d a f i x e d a c e i l i n g on p r i c e s . They a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t h e p u b l i c , w i t h p r o p a g a n d a , t o i n v e s t i n War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s a n d V i c t o r y B o n d s . Due t o u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s o f e d u c a t o r s a n d t h e o m n i p r e s e n t w a r t i m e p r o p a g a n d a , c h i l d r e n w e r e s w e p t up i n t o t h e w h i r l w i n d o f s a v i n g f o r v i c t o r y . War S a v i n g s Stamps became one o f t h e m a i n m e t h o d s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e w a r e f f o r t . The N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e i n O t t a w a s o l d War S a v i n g s Stamps f o r t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s e a c h . The p r o g r a m was i n a u g u r a t e d o n May 27, 1940 a s a c o m p l e m e n t t o t h e V i c t o r y L o a n c a m p a i g n s . The War S a v i n g s c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d a s a n " e a s y way o f m a k i n g s m a l l a n d f r e q u e n t s a v i n g s . . . " 5 S a v i n g s S tamps w e r e more p o p u l a r w i t h c h i l d r e n a s t h e t w e n t y f i v e c e n t c o s t was more a f f o r d a b l e t h a n $50 f o r a V i c t o r y Bond. The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n s t o o d b e h i n d t h e p u s h t o buy War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . S c h o o l s c o u l d p u r c h a s e a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f Stamps a n d i n t u r n c h i l d r e n w o u l d b uy them f r o m t h e i r s c h o o l s . ' ' T h e o b j e c t i v e was t o f i l l c a r d s w i t h s i x t e e n Stamps, a v a l u e o f $4, t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f a War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e . C e r t i f i c a t e s w e r e i s s u e d i n amounts t h a t r a n g e d f r o m $5 up t o $500. They w e r e s o l d f o r f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e i r f a c e v a l u e . 6 Thus i f a c h i l d p u r c h a s e d a c e r t i f i c a t e f o r $4, i t w o u l d e a r n i n t e r e s t a n d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e n a n d one I l l h a l f y e a r s w o u l d be w o r t h $5^.7 By t h e e n d o f 1944, $317,643,124 i n War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s h a d b e e n p u r c h a s e d . J ^ One man rem e m b e r e d " t h e War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . . . y o u p u t i n s o much money a n d y o u g o t e n o u g h s t a m p s t o f i l l up a c e r t i f i c a t e . " 9 By 1 9 4 3 , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a d r a i s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f r o m t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . 1 0 The money r a i s e d t h r o u g h t h e s a l e o f Stamps w e n t t o w a r d s t h e p u r c h a s e o f war m a c h i n e r y a n d o t h e r n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t f o r C a n a d i a n s o l d i e r s . T e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s w e r e " c o n g r a t u l a t e d on t h e i r e f f o r t s a n d w e r e u r g e d t o 'Save a n d S e r v e ' f o r V i c t o r y . " 1 1 B u y i n g War S a v i n g s Stamps became a n o b l i g a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f e v e r y s c h o o l s ' w a r e f f o r t . The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e War S a v i n g s S e r v i c e , a b r a n c h o f t h e N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e , p r o m o t e d t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps i n s c h o o l s . The S e r v i c e d e v e l o p e d a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s t o h e l p t e a c h e r s k e e p t r a c k o f s a l e s a n d m o t i v a t e t h e i r s t u d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t e a c h e r s i n v e n t e d a v a r i e t y o f t h e i r own m e t h o d s . T h e y e n c o u r a g e d s t u d e n t s t o d e s i g n p o s t e r s , h o l d c a r n i v a l s a n d h o u s e c o m p e t i t i o n s , c o m p e t e f o r p r a i s e , s t a r s , p o i n t s a n d o t h e r r e w a r d s . M o s t t e a c h e r s f o u n d t h a t p e e r p r e s s u r e p r o v e d t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e m e t hod t h u s a s k i n g f o r a c o n t r i b u t i o n became a s r o u t i n e a s t a k i n g r o l l c a l l . T h r o u g h t h e War S a v i n g s Stamps p r o g r a m n o t o n l y was money r a i s e d b u t t h e t o p i c o f w a r was b r o u g h t i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . One woman r e f l e c t e d o n w h a t s h e l e a r n e d , " t h e y made u s a w a r e o f t h e w a r a t s c h o o l t h r o u g h War S a v i n g s Stamps..."12 A s t h e w a r i n E u r o p e p r o g r e s s e d t h e S a v i n g s Stamps p r o g r a m 112 w e n t i n t o f u l l s w i n g a n d t e a c h e r s w e r e r e q u e s t e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d t o i n t e r e s t t h e i r p u p i l s i n t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s . G.M. W e i r , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , " u r g e d [ t e a c h e r s ] t o g i v e t h e i r f u l l a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps t o t h e i r p u p i l s . " 1 3 One V a n c o u v e r p r i n c i p a l a s k e d h i s t e a c h e r s t o " s t r e s s t h e b u y i n g o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . T o u c h o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s m a t t e r many t i m e s d u r i n g t h e d a y . " 1 4 C h i l d r e n o f a l l a g e s w e r e i n v o l v e d , " t e l l e v e n t h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n a b o u t t h e war a n d a d o p t v a r i o u s m e t h o d s t o i n t e r e s t c h i l d r e n i n p u r c h a s i n g War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . " 1 5 A p r i n c i p a l recommended i n s p i r i n g s m a l l c h i l d r e n t o p u r c h a s e War S a v i n g s S tamps b y t e l l i n g " s u i t a b l e war s t o r i e s . " 1 6 C h i l d r e n w e r e q u i c k l y t a u g h t w h a t t h e i r j o b was a n d m o s t a c c e p t e d i t a s t h e i r d u t y t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . One woman d e c l a r e d " a t s c h o o l we b o u g h t War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s , t h e y w e r e t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s e a c h a n d we h a d t o buy one stamp a week, u n t i l we h a d a f i v e d o l l a r b o o k . " 1 7 A n o t h e r man e x p l a i n e d : "we p u t a l o t o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y i n t o t h e War D r i v e s . . . k i d s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o b u y War S a v i n g s S tamps a t t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s e a c h , a n d War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s . " 1 8 So s u c c e s s f u l w e r e t h e s c h o o l s i n r a i s i n g money t h r o u g h t h e p u r c h a s e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e f o r m e d a S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e S e c t i o n . One o f t h e a i m s o f t h e S e r v i c e was t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s a n d C e r t i f i c a t e s i n C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s d i r e c t o r o f t h e S e r v i c e , E l i z a b e t h W a l l e r p r o u d l y a n n o u n c e d t h a t : " t h e t e a m w o r k o f t h e S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e h a s t h u s p r o d u c e d e n o u g h money t o buy two P.B.Y. P a t r o l B o m b ers, l a r g e s t f l y i n g 113 s h i p s b u i l t i n Canada."19 She a d m i r e d t h e s t u d e n t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f s e l f r e l i a n c e a n d t h r i f t . She t h e n r e m i n d e d t e a c h e r s t h a t a l o n g w i t h e n c o u r a g i n g s a l e s , t h e i r m o s t i m p o r t a n t j o b was " h e l p i n g t o m o u l d t h e m i n d s o f o u r f u t u r e c i t i z e n s . " 2 0 The f u t u r e c i t i z e n s i n one j u n i o r h i g h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h r o u g h t h e s a l e s o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s s t u d e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r t i m e a n d money: " a s a t o k e n o f g r a t i t u d e t o C a n a d a , t h e i r b e l o v e d c o u n t r y . T h e y r e a l i z e t h e y a r e l u c k y t o be a b l e t o f i g h t t h e h a t e d N a z i s . . . " 2 1 The N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e a l s o p u b l i s h e d a m o n t h l y b u l l e t i n f o r s c h o o l s . T h i s b u l l e t i n r e p o r t e d t h e p r o g r e s s o f Stamp s a l e s a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a p t l y e n t i t l e d " F o r w a r d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . 2 2 I n i t s 1940 i s s u e , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s , H.N. M a c C o r k i n d a l e e n l i s t e d s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a N a t i o n a l S a v i n g s P l a n . He a n n o u n c e d t h a t " s a l e s c e n t r e s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d i n s c h o o l s . I t i s e x p e c t e d a t l e a s t 1 00,000 o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s 130,000 c h i l d r e n w i l l e n l i s t i n t h i s w a r e f f o r t . " 2 3 The t h r u s t o f t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was t h a t s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e t o h e l p f i g h t t h e war t h r o u g h t h e p u r c h a s e o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . T h e r e seemed t o be no b e t t e r p l a c e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e p r o g r a m t h a n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . E n t h u s i a s m was m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o n s t a n t m o t i v a t i o n a n d a s one woman e x p l a i n e d "we w e r e a l w a y s e n c o u r a g e d , a t s c h o o l , t o buy War S a v i n g s S t a m p s " . 2 4 A s c h i l d r e n became more i n v o l v e d i n b u y i n g S tamps t e a c h e r s w e r e f a c e d w i t h t h e awesome t a s k a n d p r e s s u r e s o f f u n d r a i s i n g . Many f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , a n d some i n a r e a s w h e r e money was s c a r c e . The S e r v i c e a s s i s t e d a n d s e n t e a c h t e a c h e r a l e d g e r b ook 114 t o r e c o r d f u n d s . T e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d t o k e e p c a r e f u l r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t a l l s a l e s t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e . T e a c h e r s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o u t i l i z e t h e many p o s t e r s , s t a m p f o l d e r s , b u l l e t i n s a n d b u t t o n s t h a t t h e S e r v i c e c r e a t e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l s . One m e t i c u l o u s t e a c h e r i n P r i n c e R u p e r t s h a r e d h i s t e c h n i q u e f o r u t i l i z i n g t h e S e r v i c e ' s m a t e r i a l s . He recommended k e e p i n g r e g u l a r a c c o u n t s a n d r e p o r t i n g b i m o n t h l y t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e . He made r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r s f e e l i m p o r t a n t b y r e w a r d i n g them w i t h t h e S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e b u t t o n s . T h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s names w o u l d a l s o be r e c o r d e d o n a n h o n o u r r o l l o f s a v e r s w h i c h he f e l t p r o m o t e d h e a l t h y c o m p e t i t i o n . 2 5 T e a c h e r s s h a r e d a v a r i e t y o f i d e a s a n d m e t h o d s w h i c h made e a c h S a v i n g s Stamp d r i v e a s u c c e s s . "Once a week t e a c h e r s c o l l e c t e d t h e m i l k money and d u r i n g t h e w a r , q u a r t e r s f o r War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . " 2 6 A Dawson C r e e k E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d " t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b u y i n g s t a m p s , f r o m b o t h t h e p a t r i o t i c a n d e c o n o m i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . "27 She'^recommended h e r r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e o f a s k i n g c h i l d r e n f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r c a l l i n g t h e i r name on t h e r o l l e a c h m o r n i n g a n d t h e n r e c o r d i n g t h e amount on t h e r o l l . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s t e a c h e r b o a s t e d a one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t s a v i n g s r e c o r d . 2 8 Money was c o l l e c t e d m o s t o f t e n on a d a i l y o r a w e e k l y b a s i s . One woman d e s c r i b e d : "Our t e a c h e r a t s c h o o l u s e d t o b e g i n e v e r y F r i d a y m o r n i n g b y g o i n g up a n d down t h e r o w s and e v e r y o n e made t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . " 2 9 A l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n w e r e n o t c o m p e l l e d t o buy S t a m p s , t h e d r i v e s w e r e o f t e n s o c o e r c i v e t h a t c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e d t h e y w e r e o b l i g a t e d . "We h a d t o buy one a week", e x p l a i n e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , " y o u a l w a y s d i d , u n t i l we h a d s o many t o make a b o o k . " 3 0 A n o t h e r s t a t e d : "We b r o u g h t t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s t o s c h o o l e v e r y week f o r a War S a v i n g s Stamp."31 Y e t a n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " t h e y w e r e t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s e a c h , we p a i d t h a t e v e r y week."32 The o b l i g a t i o n t o buy d i d n o t e n d w i t h t h e s c h o o l y e a r . " C h i l d r e n w e r e e x p e c t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s a s w e l l . " 3 3 T e a c h e r s i n one V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t o " g i v e o u t S a v i n g s Stamps b o o k l e t s f o r u s e d u r i n g t h e summer."34 M o s t t e a c h e r s f o u n d t h e d i r e c t m e t h o d o f a s k i n g c h i l d r e n f o r money was t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e e s p e c i a l l y i f d o n e o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s a n d i n f r o n t o f p e e r s . One woman d e s c r i b e d a s i m p l e b u t e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e : "Our t e a c h e r w o u l d make a n o t e o f t h e money a n d when y o u h a d en o u g h t o f i l l a c a r d y o u g o t a r e d s t a r b y y o u r name o n a c h a r t on t h e b o a r d . " 3 5 E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n P o u c e Coupe w e r e g i v e n " f r e q u e n t s h o r t t a l k s o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b u y i n g s t a m p s , f r o m b o t h a p a t r i o t i c a n d e c o n o m i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . " 3 6 E a c h m o r n i n g t h e y w e r e a s k e d f o r t h e i r money a n d i n one y e a r a v e r a g e d " o v e r two f i v e d o l l a r c e r t i f i c a t e s p e r p u p i l . " 3 7 T e a c h e r s i n a V a n c o u v e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w e r e a s k e d t o " u r g e t h a t e v e r y c h i l d buy a t l e a s t one s t a m p p e r month."38 A g r a d e t h r e e t e a c h e r i n h e r E n d e r b y c l a s s r o o m t u n e d i n t o t h e d a i l y r a d i o news r e p o r t a n d w o u l d w r i t e on t h e b o a r d : "What a r e y o u d o i n g t o d a y t o h e l p b r i n g t h i s war t o a s u c c e s s f u l e n d ? 1 1 3 9 T h i s t e a c h e r was p r o u d t o s t a t e t h a t e a c h c h i l d b r o u g h t i n one c e n t a week, a l o t f o r a "money s c a r c e d i s t r i c t " . 4 0 She a l s o d e s i g n e d a " h e l p t o w i n t h e war money b o x " t o c o l l e c t c h i l d r e n ' s money a n d s o h e r p u p i l s h e a r d t h e i r c o i n s d r o p a s i t was p a a s e d 116 a r o u n d t h e room.41 Some c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a poem e n t i t l e d "War S a v i n g s " t o i n s p i r e them: I h a d g o t t h e h a b i t , a n d I j u s t c o u l d n ' t s t o p , So e v e r y c e n t a n d n i c k e l w ent d r o p , d r o p , d r o p . A n d s o o n t h e y w e r e a l l s i n g i n g , c l i n k , c l a n k , c l e e , W e ' l l b u y a n o t h e r S a v i n g s Stamp, j u s t y o u s e e . . . 4 2 E v e r y p u p i l who c o n t r i b u t e d was " c a l l e d a w a r - s a v e r " 4 3 a n d t e a c h e r s u r g e d a l l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o r e c o g n i z e " s t r e n g t h i n a u n i t e d e f f o r t . " 4 4 T e a c h e r s w e r e w a r n e d n o t t o be " s q u e a m i s h " a b o u t t e l l i n g c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e money t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d was: " t o k i l l N a z i s , o r why N a z i s m u s t be k i l l e d . " 4 5 T e a c h e r , B r u c e M i c k e l b u r g h , j u s t i f i e d h i s w a r n i n g i n w r i t i n g t o t h e B.C. T e a c h e r : " I n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e p e o p l e . . . b u y i n g w a r s t a m p s i s one t a n g i b l e s e r v i c e t h e c h i l d r e n c a n p e r f o r m , a n d i n d o i n g s o . . . g u a r a n t e e h o p e f o r t h e f u t u r e . " 4 6 M o s t t e a c h e r s w e r e n o t s q u e a m i s h a n d t h i s was e v i d e n t i n some o f t h e l e s s t h a n d e l i c a t e a p p r o a c h e s u s e d t o p r o m o t e War S a v i n g S t a mps. One t e a c h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t h e r c h i l d r e n d o n a t e d t o a "bank" a n d r e c o r d e d e a c h d e p o s i t i n t h e i r p a s s book w h i c h t h e y h a d made i n a r t c l a s s . To k e e p t r a c k o f t h e amount s a v e d b y e a c h c l a s s , a l a r g e c h a r t was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e c e n t r a l h a l l o f t h e s c h o o l . • ' C h i l d r e n who b o u g h t War S a v i n g s Stamps knew t h e i r money we n t t o w a r d s w a r weapons. On t h i s c h a r t : "a N a z i p l a n e a t t h e t o p i s b e i n g a s s a u l t e d b y a row o f a n t i - a i r c r a f t g u n s a t t h e b o t t o m ; one f o r e a c h d i v i s i o n i n t h e s c h o o l . " 4 7 E a c h gun h a d a m o v a b l e s h e l l a n d f o r e v e r y $10 t h e s h e l l h i t t h e enemy p l a n e a n d e a c h h i t was r e p r e s e n t e d b y a c o l o u r e d s t i c k e r u n d e r e a c h gun.48^, A n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m u s e d a l a r g e p o s t e r o f a s e t t i n g s u n , b e i n g o b l i t e r a t e d b y a numb e r e d 117 d i a l . I t s c a p t i o n r e a d : " S e t t i n g J a p a n ' s R i s i n g Sun w i t h War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . " 4 9 S t a t i s t i c s p u b l i s h e d t o e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s d i d n o t m i n c e w o r d s : "$95,000 i n v e s t e d by t h e p u p i l s i n s t a m p s . . . w i l l k e e p a B r e n o r L e w i s gun o p e r a t i n g 102 h o u r s . . . p u m p i n g l e a d a t N a z i s . " 5 0 To m a i n t a i n e n t h u s i a s m c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a n d c h a n t e d s l o g a n s d i s p l a y e d o n War S a v i n g s P o s t e r s h u n g i n t h e i r s c h o o l ' s h a l l w a y s . I n N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r Stamp d r i v e s w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o A r t c l a s s e s a n d " t h e p u p i l s h a v e come t o r e a l i z e t h e many ways i n w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c a n a s s i s t i n w i n n i n g t h e w a r . " 5 1 T h e s e m e t h o d s i n c l u d e d " p o s t e r c o n t e s t s , d i s p l a y b a n n e r s " , f o l l o w e d by c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s . 5 2 T h e s e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a p p i l y a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e y h a d p u r c h a s e d o v e r 6,000 d o l l a r s w o r t h o f War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s i n 1941. O t h e r c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e d c u r r e n t s l o g a n s i n t h e i r p o s t e r s t o s e n d t h e s e m e s s a g e s : " G i v e T i l l I t H u r t s " , " S u p p o s e Nobody C a r e d " a n d "Be a Good N e i g h b o u r . " 5 3 E n t e r a c l a s s r o o m a n d one m i g h t h a v e w i t n e s s e d e n e r g e t i c c h i l d r e n e n g a g e d i n war w o r k p o s s i b l y r e c i t i n g p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n s f o r e n c o u r a g e m e n t : "More S a v e r s F o r V i c t o r y " ; " I f We L i c k E n o u g h War S a v i n g s Stamps W e ' l l L i c k H i t l e r " ' ; " L e t Y o u r War S a v i n g s Stamps be H i t l e r ' s S e a l o f Doom" a n d "Stamp O u t H i t l e r . " 5 4 A s a g r e a t e r number o f s c h o o l s became i n v o l v e d c o m p e t i t i o n became f i e r c e b e t w e e n d i s t r i c t s a n d w i t h i n s c h o o l s t o s e e who c o u l d a c h i e v e t h e i d e a l one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t s a v i n g s r e c o r d . The S e r v i c e i n t r o d u c e d a m e r i t a w a r d c e r t i f i c a t e a n d r e g u l a r r e p o r t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e , u n d e r s u c h h e a d i n g s a s : 'More S a v e r s f o r V i c t o r y ' a n d ' P e n n i e s f o r P B Y ' s . ' 5 5 118 S c h o o l s s u c h a s A r g e n t a a n d P a r k s v i l l e , l i s t e d w i t h one h u n d r e d p e r c e n t p u p i l s s a v i n g , w e r e p r a i s e d w i t h : " c h i l d r e n h o a r d t h e i r p e n n i e s f o r War Stamps a n d t h i n k o f t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s i n E u r o p e b e f o r e s p e n d i n g money on t h e m s e l v e s . " 5 6 C o m p e t i t i o n i n s p i r e d t e a c h e r s t o i n v e n t a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s t o m o t i v a t e c h i l d r e n , some s u c c e s s f u l , o t h e r s n o t s o . A s t u d e n t i n one c l a s s r e membered a t e d i o u s t a s k : " o n c e a week a d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t w o u l d be i n c h a r g e o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e money. You r e a l l y h a d t o s u p e r v i s e them b e c a u s e n o t a l l o f them w a n t e d t o g i v e y o u t h e i r t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s ! " 5 7 Many s c h o o l s made War S a v i n g s Stamp d r i v e s p a r t o f t h e i r h o u s e c o m p e t i t i o n s . K i n g E d w a r d h i g h s c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r h e l d " i n t e r h o u s e a n d i n t e r d i v i s i o n c o n t e s t s . " 5 8 "We h a d t o bu y t h e m " , d e c l a r e d one woman f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , "we c o m p e t e d w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s , t h e y g r a d e d s c h o o l s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f b u y e r s t h e y h a d , a n d t h e r e w e r e c o m p e t i t i o n s b e t w e e n c l a s s e s . " 5 9 S c h o o l s o c i a l e v e n t s , s u c h a s s c h o o l c a r n i v a l s , w e r e a l s o a p o p u l a r way t o r a i s e money f o r t h e war e f f o r t . C h i l d r e n i n N a n a i m o o r g a n i z e d a f u n - f i l l e d a f t e r n o o n a n d c h a r g e d a d m i s s i o n t o p l a y : "games o f s k i l l , t h r o w i n g d a r t s , h i t t i n g H i t l e r , e t c . " 6 0 P o r t A l b e r n i s c h o o l u t i l i z e d t h e t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e i r a n n u a l t r a c k meet. The meet f e a t u r e d t e a m s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h names s u c h a s : "'War S a v i n g s ' , 'Red C r o s s ' a n d 'Cheer F o r t h e S o l d i e r s ' " a n d p r o v e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . 6 1 O t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r r a n g e d w e r e l u n c h t i m e c a n d y s a l e s , m o n t h l y t e a s , a c a r t o o n m a g a z i n e c r e a t e d a n d s o l d b y t h e A r t C l u b , o r a: " w e e k l y p e p - t a l k was g i v e n b y one o f t h e s t u d e n t s , o v e r t h e P.A." a l l o f w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps.62 One V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l f o u n d t h e i r m o s t 119 s u c c e s s f u l Stamp D r i v e e v e n t s w e r e " t h e p e p shows, f i l m shows a n d q u i z c o n t e s t s . " 6 3 E x h a u s t i n g t h e i r own f u n d s , c h i l d r e n o f t e n i n v o l v e d o t h e r f a m i l y members i n t h e Stamp d r i v e s . An a r t i c l e i n B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n a s k t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r p e n n i e s e v e r y n i g h t b u t o n l y w i t h t h e p r o m i s e t h o s e p e n n i e s w o u l d be s p e n t o n w a r Stamps.64 C h i l d r e n w e r e r e g u l a r l y e n c o u r a g e d t o o r g a n i z e d a n c e s , c o n c e r t s a n d s c h o o l p l a y s a n d i n v i t e f a m i l y members t o a t t e n d . Of c o u r s e t h e p r i c e o f a d m i s s i o n f o r t h e s e s o c i a l e v e n t s was t h e p r i c e o f a War S a v i n g s Stamp.65 N o t e v e r y c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s e p r a c t i c e s . I m a g i n e t h e p r e s s u r e one woman must h a v e f e l t a s s h e s t r u g g l e d w i t h w h a t h e r p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d a n d wh a t h e r t e a c h e r w i s h e d . She r e c e i v e d : "no a l l o w a n c e , b u t t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s an h o u r t o p u l l w e eds. F a t h e r was a g a i n s t War S a v i n g s Stamps s o I c o u l d o n l y b u y a f e w o f t h o s e . " 6 6 T h e r e w e r e t h o s e t h a t s a v e d a s a f a m i l y u n i t . One woman g a v e f r o m "an a l l o w a n c e a n d we w e r e t o g i v e p a r t o f t h a t t o b u y War S a v i n g s S tamps."67 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e w o r k e d t o c o n t r i b u t e a s "war was a b i g t h i n g i n my f a m i l y . I was e n c o u r a g e d t o g i v e money, t o s h a r e w i t h t h e h o u s e h o l d t o g i v e t o t h e w a r e f f o r t , b u y w o o l f o r s t o c k i n g s . I w o u l d make a w e e k l y c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o m my a f t e r s c h o o l j o b s , a s a d e l i v e r y b oy f o r C u r r i e s a n d a meat m a r k e t , t o my f a m i l y . " 6 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d : " I h a d a r e g u l a r a l l o w a n c e . I n J u n i o r H i g h I g o t one d o l l a r a m o n t h , t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s o f t h i s h a d t o be p u t i n t o War S a v i n g s C e r t i f i c a t e s . " 6 9 O t h e r f a m i l i e s u s e d t h e War Stamps t o i n v e s t i n t h e i r f u t u r e . One f e l l o w e x p l a i n e d " I was e n c o u r a g e d t o buy War S a v i n g s Stamps a t 120 home. T h e y w e r e t w e n t y f i v e c e n t s e a c h a n d I p u t t h e m i n t o b o o k s u n t i l t h e r e w e r e e n o u g h f o r my d a d t o t u r n t h e m i n t o a b o n d . T h e s e b o n d s w e n t t o w a r d s my i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y . I h a d a $5000 i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y when I was 16."70 The e f f o r t s o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e o f t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s p i r i t i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . One woman f r o m W i n d e r m e r e p r o u d l y d e c l a r e d " w i t h e v e r y d r i v e . . . o u r d i s t r i c t t o p p e d i t s q u o t a . " 7 1 The V e r n o n News a n n o u n c e d t h a t l o c a l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e " c l o s e l y c o m p e t i n g w i t h A r m s t r o n g a n d E n d e r b y " a n d t h a t "Lumby was r e p o r t e d t o be t h e f i r s t d i s t r i c t . . . t o go o v e r t h e t o p . " 7 2 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f t e n went o u t i n t o t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s t o r a i s e f u n d s . One woman r e c a l l e d g o i n g " o u t o n S a t u r d a y s t o t h e s t o r e s , a n d s t a n d i n g a t t h e d o o r , a n d we s o l d War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . " 7 3 E v e n some m o v i e t h e a t r e s became i n v o l v e d , c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d e d a w e e k l y f i l m f o r f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e S a t u r d a y s w e r e a w a r d e d a t w e n t y f i v e c e n t S a v i n g s Stamp.74 The c h u r c h o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Stamp d r i v e s a s w e l l . The Y o u n g P e o p l e ' s U n i o n o f t h e Z i o n U n i t e d C h u r c h i n A r m s t r o n g h e l d a m a s q u e r a d e p a r t y f o r H a l l o w e e n . The w i n n e r o f t h e c o s t u m e c o n t e s t r e c e i v e d f o u r S a v i n g s S tamps.75 I n 1942, J.W. C o r n e t t , V a n c o u v e r ' s m a y o r , p r a i s e d t h e E l g a n J u n i o r C h o i r o f S t . A n d r e w s W e s l e y U n i t e d C h u r c h f o r t h e message o f t h e i r s o n g e n t i t l e d "Song o f t h e ' V ": FREEDOM i s m a r c h i n g - f a l l i n t o l i n e , "V" i s t h e s y m b o l - "V" i s t h e s i g n ; R a l l y t h e n a t i o n s - L i b e r t y c a l l s , L i b e r t y t r i u m p h s - T y r a n n y f a l l s . R o u n d t h e w o r l d f l a s h T h r e e d o t s a n d a d a s h ; B u i l d i n g a s t r o n g h o l d T h a t n o t h i n g c a n smash. W i n g i n g a n d s i n g i n g , t h e bound s h a l l be f r e e , 121 FREEDOM I S MARCHING TO VICTORY.76 T h i s p i e c e was p a r t o f a r e p e r t o i r e a r r a n g e d t o f u r t h e r t h e s a l e o f War S a v i n g s Stamps a n d i n c l u d e d " o t h e r p a t r i o t i c s o n g s f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun's V i c t o r y Song S h e e t . " 7 7 T h e s e e v e n t s a n d many o t h e r s p i q u e d c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n Stamp d r i v e s . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t no c o n t r i b u t i o n w o u l d go u n r e w a r d e d . The S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e S e c t i o n h e l d f o r m a l a w a r d c e r e m o n i e s w h i c h h o n o u r e d t o p s a v e r s . T h e s e r e w a r d s w e r e a v i t a l p a r t o f t h e S e r v i c e ' s p r o m o t i o n a l e f f o r t s . A g r o u p o f f i v e V a n c o u v e r s t u d e n t s w e n t t o Sea I s l a n d 7 J u n e 1 9 4 3 , f o r t h e h o n o u r o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e S e r v i c e . They c h r i s t e n e d f i v e f i g h t e r p l a n e s ' V a n c o u v e r I t h r o u g h V and w e r e g i v e n f i v e " b e a u t i f u l c o m m e m o r a t i v e p l a q u e s a s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e g o o d w o r k o f t h e p u p i l s . " 7 8 The A i r F o r c e c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e s e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n on r a i s i n g $ 1 3 0 , 332.15 t h r o u g h Stamp s a l e s i n 1943. The S e r v i c e e n c o u r a g e d f u r t h e r s a l e s o f War S a v i n g s S t a m p s , a n d s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d l o o k f o r w a r d t o c h r i s t e n i n g f i v e more p l a n e s , V a n c o u v e r V I t h r o u g h X.79 The S e r v i c e a l s o r e w a r d e d h a r d w o r k i n g t e a c h e r s a s w e l l . I n 1942, o r c h i d s f r o m t h e S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e w e r e s e n t t o t e a c h e r s "who h a v e r e a l i z e d t h e v a l u e o f War S a v i n g s , n o t o n l y a s a war e f f o r t , b u t a s a means o f i n s t i l l i n g i n s t u d e n t s t h e d e m o c r a t i c s p i r i t o f t e a m w o r k . " 8 0 C h i l d r e n ' s h a r d w o r k was r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s , b y p r i n c i p a l s i n s c h o o l a s s e m b l i e s , i n l o c a l n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s a n d s o m e t i m e s i n f i l m s . The Stamp s a v e r s o f J o h n N o r q u a y S c h o o l w e r e f i l m e d s h o w i n g how t h e y s a v e d e nough money t h r o u g h t h e p u r c h a s e o f S t a m p s t o buy a n o u t f i t f o r a C o r p o r a l . The f i l m was made by a V a n c o u v e r t e a c h e r a n d p r o d u c e d by t h e S c h o o l S a v i n g s S e r v i c e . I t 122 was d e s i g n e d f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s a n d was e n t i t l e d No  Q u a r t e r s f o r S q u a n d e r b u g . 8 1 C h i l d r e n w e r e i n s p i r e d b y t h e f i l m ' s t w o s l o g a n s " S t a r v e t h e S q u a n d e r b u g " 8 2 a n d "The S q u a n d e r B u g ' s a n A x i s P e s t ; He g u l p s y o u r money down w i t h z e s t . " 8 3 One s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l r e w a r d e d a m a p l e l e a f t o " e a c h p u p i l who b u y s a d o l l a r s w o r t h o f War S a v i n g s Stamps."84 A n o t h e r i n s t r u c t e d t h e t e a c h e r s o f one e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t o d i s p l a y a r e d , s i l v e r o r g o l d s t a r o n t h e c l a s s r o o m d o o r d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s who h a d p u r c h a s e d Stamps.85 "The P r i n c i p a l o r a v i s i t o r w o u l d h o n o u r t h e c l a s s e s w h i c h h a d s o l d t h e m o s t War S a v i n g s S t a m p s . " 8 6 One woman remembered t h a t o n " e v e r y Monday m o r n i n g o u r p r i n c i p a l g a v e u s a pep t a l k . He w o u l d a n n o u n c e t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r War S a v i n g s S t amps, a n d how much was t o be r a i s e d . He w o u l d c a l l up someone f r o m t h e c l a s s who h a d t h e most c o n t r i b u t i o n s e a c h week. When t h e r e was eno u g h t o b u y $25 o r $50 he w o u l d g i v e a p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h a t . " 8 7 I n one s c h o o l t h e p r i n c i p a l d e c i d e d t h a t " t h e c l a s s o b t a i n i n g t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e g i v i n g s w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o k e e p t h e p i c t u r e ' W a i t F o r Me Daddy' f o r o ne month."88 C a m p a i g n s w e r e m o n e t a r i l y s u c c e s s f u l a n d a s c h i l d r e n w o r k e d a n d s a v e d t h e y l e a r n e d t h e v a l u e o f s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , a n d b e i n g t h r i f t y . War w o r k i n s t i l l e d i n them a s e n s e o f : " s a c r i f i c e a n d d i s c i p l i n e . . . t o d e f e n d t h i s s o m e t h i n g c a l l e d f r e e d o m . " 8 9 I n e n c o u r a g i n g c h i l d r e n t o buy War S a v i n g s Stamps t e a c h e r s w e r e t r y i n g t o " c u l t i v a t e t h e s p i r i t o f h e l p i n g o t h e r s . " 9 0 T h r o u g h War S a v i n g s S t a m p s , one s c h o o l r e c o g n i z e d i t " h a s become e v e r more w a r c o n s c i o u s a s t h e months h a v e p a s s e d . . . e v e r y s t u d e n t h a d a s h a r e i n t h e w a r , e v e r y b o y a n d g i r l c a n r i g h t l y s a y ' I ' v e 123 h e l p e d t h e w a r e f f o r t ' . " 9 1 C h i l d r e n r a i s e d f u n d s f o r C a n a d a ' s " f i g h t i n g f o r c e s " who w e r e " s t i l l b r a v i n g c r u e l h a r d s h i p s , wounds a n d d e a t h . T h e i r f i g h t i n g n e e d s grow d a y by d a y . " 9 2 One man knew t h a t n o t a l l t h e War S a v i n g s f u n d s w e r e u t i l i z e d p r o p e r l y . He l e f t h i g h s c h o o l a t s i x t e e n t o j o i n t h e N avy: " A t my l a s t d a y s a t s e a , i n 1945, I c a n remember s t a n d i n g o n t h e d e c k o f t h e s h i p . We w e r e t o l d t o f i r e o f f a l l l i v e a m m u n i t i o n , I remember s a y i n g : ' w e l l t h e r e g o e s t e n d o l l a r s . ' T h i n k i n g o f t h e s h e l l s we w e r e f i r i n g a n d t h e c o s t , t h e r e was a p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a l l t h e q u a r t e r s y o u p u t i n a n d what was g o i n g o v e r t h e s i d e o f t h e s h i p . " 9 3 C h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s p e n t a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r s c h o o l t i m e w o r k i n g f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s . T h e s e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e c a l l e d J u n i o r s a n d w e r e i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e i r Red C r o s s p i n . A l o n g w i t h w a r w o r k , J u n i o r s m e m o r i z e d t h e i r b e l i e f a n d t h e i r m o t t o , met r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Red C r o s s and r e a d t h e C a n a d i a n Red  C r o s s J u n i o r m a g a z i n e . They w e r e p r o u d o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e members o f t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n a s P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h . A t y p i c a l J u n i o r ' s m e e t i n g was a b u s y t i m e o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e l a t e s t r e q u e s t f o r h e l p . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e d u r i n g war t i m e was t o w o r k t o m eet t h e demands f o r i t e m s s u c h a s warm c l o t h i n g , b l a n k e t s , wooden s p l i n t s , b a n d a g e s and o f c o u r s e , money. J u n i o r s l e a r n e d how t o k n i t a n d sew a n d d i d s o w i t h v i g o u r , p r o d u c i n g t h o u s a n d s o f g a r m e n t s . T h e y c o n d u c t e d a v a r i e t y o f e v e n t s t o r a i s e f u n d s f o r e q u i p m e n t f o r C a n a d i a n f o r c e s and f o r bombed a r e a s o f B r i t a i n . ^ One p r o j e c t o f t h e C a n a d i a n J u n i o r s was t o e s t a b l i s h a n d m a i n t a i n f o u r t e e n B r i t i s h n u r s e r i e s f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e w a r . J u n i o r s g a v e o f t h e i r t i m e a n d e n e r g i e s f r e e l y . One woman 124 r e c a l l e d " i t was a l w a y s f o r t h e r i g h t c a u s e , we w e r e d o i n g t h e r i g h t t h i n g . " 9 4 I t was i n t h e e a r l y 1 900's t h a t t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red C r o s s u n d e r s t o o d w h a t a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n w o u l d be t o t h e i r p r o g r a m . S c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e o r g a n i z e d f o r Red C r o s s w o r k i n O n t a r i o i n 1899 a n d i n Q uebec a n d S a s k a t c h e w a n i n 1914 a n d 1915 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e g r o u p s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l a s t h e c h i l d r e n w o r k e d t o h e l p s o l d i e r s i n t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n a n d t h e F i r s t W o r l d War.95 A c o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d t o s t u d y t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a J u n i o r R e d C r o s s a n d r e p o r t e d t o t h e C e n t r a l C o u n c i l i n F e b r u a r y o f 1920. I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e Red C r o s s c o u l d n o t e f f e c t i v e l y i m p l e m e n t i t s p u b l i c h e a l t h p r o g r a m " u n l e s s s c h o o l p u p i l s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n i t s m e m b e r s h i p . " 9 6 M i s s J e a n E. Browne was a p p o i n t e d , i n 1 9 2 2 , a s N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f J u n i o r Red C r o s s a n d e d i t o r o f t h e J u n i o r m a g a z i n e . The c o n c e p t o f a s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o r m e d a n d was c a l l e d t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s . I n 1922, t h e L e a g u e o f R e d C r o s s S o c i e t i e s ' M e e t i n g o f t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l r e s o l v e d t h a t t h e : J u n i o r Red C r o s s i s o r g a n i z e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i n c u l c a t i n g i n t h e c h i l d r e n . . . t h e i d e a l o f p e a c e a n d t h e p r a c t i c e o f s e r v i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c a r e o f t h e i r h e a l t h a n d t h a t o f o t h e r s , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f a s p i r i t o f f r i e n d l y h e l p f u l n e s s t o w a r d s o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n a l l c o u n t r i e s . 9 7 The c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s w e r e : t h e u s e o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a n d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r a s t h e l e a d e r o f Red C r o s s w o r k i n t h a t s y s t e m . 9 8 The m o t t o " I s e r v e " was c h o s e n a n d members w e r e s i m p l y c a l l e d J u n i o r s . W i t h t h e o n s e t o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t h e " J u n i o r ' s B e l i e f " 9 9 was p u b l i s h e d i n 1940: 125 . . . I b e l i e v e t h a t o u r b r a v e s o l d i e r s a r e f i g h t i n g i n f a r o f f l a n d s s o t h a t o t h e r c h i l d r e n may go t o b e d a t n i g h t w i t h o u t f e a r . And I b e l i e v e i n t h e h e l p f u l w o r k o f t h e R e d C r o s s . . . a n d i n t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s t o w h i c h I h o p e a l l t h e b o y s a n d g i r l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d w i l l s o o n b e l o n g a n d t h e n e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e w i l l be c l e a n l i n e s s , a n d h e a l t h a n d h a p p i n e s s . 1 0 0 Once t h e w a r b e g a n t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s : h e a l t h , s e r v i c e a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d l i n e s s t o o k on a n a d d e d d i m e n s i o n . "The Red C r o s s was t h e o n l y t i m e we t a l k e d a b o u t t h e w a r " r e c a l l e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 1 0 1 A B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t e r i o r s c h o o l s t a t e d t h a t " w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f 1940 came a n i n t e n s e d e s i r e t o be d o i n g d e f i n i t e war w o r k."102 The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s e n t b y t h e R e d C r o s s t o r e m i n d s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f t h e h e a l t h r u l e s now h a d a n a d d i t i o n a l m essage. "The l a d y w o u l d come i n f r o m t h e R e d C r o s s a n d g i v e u s a pep t a l k " , d e c l a r e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , " e v e r y week s h e w o u l d t e l l u s w hat was n e e d e d , w h a t we s h o u l d be k n i t t i n g . " 1 0 3 A s t h e demand f o r war w o r k i n c r e a s e d s o d i d t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t f o r more J u n i o r s . The M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , G.M. W e i r , a d d r e s s e d a l e t t e r t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n w h i c h he e n c o u r a g e d i n c r e a s e d m e m b e r s h i p s . 1 0 4 M e m b e r s h i p i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a grew f r o m 30,995 members i n 1940, t o 42,729 i n 1943.105 The C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r m e a t e d b o t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e l i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l c h i l d r e n d u r i n g w a r t i m e . J u n i o r s w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o w h a t w e r e c a l l e d u n i t s . I n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e a c h c l a s s r o o m was a u n i t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r a s d i r e c t o r . I n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s u n i t s w e r e f o r m e d o f c l u b members who a p p o i n t e d t h e i r own " o f f i c e r s a n d c o n v e n e r s , a n d c a r r [ i e d ] on a f o r m o f d e m o c r a t i c s e l f g o v e r n m e n t . " 1 0 6 W i t h t e a c h e r s f u n c t i o n i n g a s a d v i s o r s i t was 126 h o p e d a s e n s e o f s e l f c o n f i d e n c e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w o u l d be f o s t e r e d . L a t e r , w i t h " t h e o u t b r e a k o f war t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s . . . b e g a n i t s p e n e t r a t i o n o f S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . " 1 0 7 A t a l l g r a d e l e v e l s t h e i d e a l was t o h a v e e v e r y c h i l d i n t h e s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d a s a J u n i o r . T h e s e J u n i o r s , t h r o u g h t h e i r w a r w o r k , e x p e r i e n c e d " i n a p r a c t i c a l way t h e e x p r e s s i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o u n d p a t r i o t i s m . " 1 0 8 S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d a s f e r v e n t w ar w o r k e r s s e w i n g , k n i t t i n g , s a l v a g i n g a n d s e l l i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e s o l d i e r s who f o u g h t t h e " b a t t l e f o r f r e e d o m . " 1 0 9 The R e d C r o s s b u t t o n s e r v e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t s y m b o l o f m e m b e r s h i p . Once a t e a c h e r s e n t i n a n a p p l i c a t i o n h e r s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d R e d C r o s s p i n s a n d a s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e C a n a d i a n R e d  C r o s s J u n i o r m a g a z i n e . L i v i n g s t o n e s c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r r e p o r t e d t h a t "when t h e p i n s come t h e y w e a r them v e r y p r o u d l y . " 1 1 0 One woman e x p l a i n e d : "We a l l g o t a b u t t o n we w o r e , i t was a r e d c r o s s . " I l l One f e l l o w r e c a l l e d " y o u g o t a p i n w h i c h y o u w o r e , some k i d s who w o r e b e a n i e s , w o r e i t on t h e i r b e a n i e s . " 1 1 2 When m e t a l became a s c a r c e c o m m o d i t y a d h e r a n c e t o t h e w a r e f f o r t was d e m o n s t r a t e d a n d J u n i o r s w e r e a s k e d t o r e c y c l e t h e i r 1942-43 p i n s a n d t h o s e w e r e t h e l a s t o n e s p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War.113 One i n t e r v i e w e e who a t t e n d e d T r a i l C e n t r a l s c h o o l r e c a l l e d more e l a b o r a t e a t t i r e t h a n t h e p i n : "we h a d J u n i o r R ed C r o s s a n d when we went i n t o j u n i o r h i g h i n 1942 we w o r e a b i g r e d a p r o n t h a t s a i d ' M i s s C a n a d a ' a nd b l u e h a t s . " 1 1 4 E a c h s c h o o l w i t h a J u n i o r R ed C r o s s m e m b e r s h i p r e c e i v e d The  C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r , a m o n t h l y p u b l i c a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o i n f o r m J u n i o r s o f a l l a g e s o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d e v e n t s a n d i n s p i r e t h e m t o u p h o l d t h e J u n i o r ' s b e l i e f . T h i s l a r g e , w e l l d e s i g n e d 127 m a g a z i n e w i t h t h e c o l o u r f u l c o v e r , w h i c h u s u a l l y showed a R e d C r o s s N u r s e o r a member o f t h e C a n a d i a n armed s e r v i c e s was c o n s i d e r e d "one o f C a n a d a ' s most o u t s t a n d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s m a g a z i n e s . " 1 1 5 F e a t u r e a r t i c l e s t o l d o f war e f f o r t s o n t h e p a r t o f J u n i o r s n a t i o n w i d e . L e t t e r s o f t h a n k s f r o m r e c i p i e n t s o f c l o t h i n g a n d o t h e r i t e m s w e r e p u b l i s h e d . I t a l s o g a v e a d v i c e t o t e a c h e r s who w a n t e d t o m a i n t a i n J u n i o r R ed C r o s s u n i t s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . A l o n g w i t h v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i t p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s a n d p l a y s f o r c h i l d r e n t o r e a d a n d e n a c t i n c l a s s t i m e . P l a y s s u c h a s " C a n a d a ' s R e p l y " i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n s a l u t e d B r i t a n n i a a n d t h e R e d C r o s s : When t h e m i g h t y h a n d o f d e s t r u c t i o n s h o w e r s d e a t h o n h e l p l e s s t h o u s a n d s , t h e Red C r o s s t a k e s t h e f i e l d , a n d , t e n d e r o f h a n d a n d b r a v e o f h e a r t , w i t h i t s u n t o l d w o r k s o f m e r c y . ( E n t e r t h e Red C r o s s N u r s e s - S a l u t e . ) 1 1 6 E v e n t h e m a g a z i n e ' s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n w i t h s u c h s l o g a n s a s "See a n d r e a d t h e p i c t u r e s t o r y o f t h e D i e p p e R a i d i n t h e new c o m i c s t y l e m a g a z i n e . . . C a n a d i a n H e r o e s " 1 1 7 O r c h i l d r e n c o u l d o r d e r a "36 P i e c e Commando S e t f o r B o y s ! " 1 1 8 A s t h e d e v a s t a t i o n o f war i n c r e a s e d s o d i d t h e w o r k l o a d o f t h e R e d C r o s s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e J u n i o r s . The demand f o r c l o t h i n g , e q u i p m e n t a n d f u n d s f o r s e r v i c e m e n , p r i s o n e r s a n d v i c t i m s o f w a r was g r e a t . I n f r i n g i n g on c l a s s t i m e seemed a s m a l l s a c r i f i c e t o make. The r e s u l t was t h a t J u n i o r s w e r e i n v o l v e d w i t h a n a r r a y o f Red C r o s s war work u s u a l l y d u r i n g o ne c l a s s r o o m p e r i o d p e r week. S c h o o l s w o u l d u s u a l l y d e s i g n a t e t h e t i m e a l l o t m e n t f o r c l u b s f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s m e e t i n g . One woman e x p l a i n e d " b e l o n g i n g t o t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s , y o u h a d t o b e l o n g , 128 y o u h a d no c h o i c e . E v e r y F r i d a y we h a d J u n i o r Red C r o s s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s . . . i t was d u r i n g s c h o o l t i m e . " 1 1 9 A n o t h e r woman reme m b e r e d "...we h a d Red C r o s s m e e t i n g s on Wednesday a f t e r n o o n s i n t h e l a s t h o u r . We w o u l d k n i t m o s t o f t h e t i m e a n d s o m e t i m e s we made p o s t e r s f o r t h e Red C r o s s war e f f o r t . " 1 2 0 A t C e n t r a l J u n i o r H i g h i n V i c t o r i a s t a f f members s p o n s o r e d R e d C r o s s s e w i n g a n d k n i t t i n g c l u b s on T u e s d a y s f r o m 3:00 t o 3:45 p.m.121 The w e e k l y c l u b p e r i o d a t P o i n t G r e y j u n i o r h i g h became a t i m e t o k n i t f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s . 1 2 2 W h i l e one man r e c a l l e d t h a t when he w e n t t o c a d e t s e v e r y week " t h e g i r l s h a d R e d C r o s s i n s t e a d . T h e y w e r e a l w a y s k n i t t i n g a n d s e w i n g . " 1 2 3 I n m o s t s c h o o l s b o t h b o y s a s w e l l a s g i r l s became J u n i o r s a n d w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e Red C r o s s m e e t i n g s . B o y s w e r e more o f t e n s a l v a g i n g a l u m i n u m o r p a p e r w h i l e g i r l s w e r e k n i t t i n g o r s e w i n g , b u t some s c h o o l s w e r e more open m i n d e d . One s c h o o l i n B a m b e r t o n h a d o n l y t w o g i r l s a n d n i n e b o y s a n d t h e t e a c h e r f e l t " v e r y p r o u d o f t h e i r e f f o r t s i n k n i t t i n g . " 1 2 4 J e a n E. Browne s t a t e d t h a t "many b o y s l e a r n e d t o k n i t , a l t h o u g h t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s n e v e r made t h a t p r o p o s a l . " 1 2 5 One f e l l o w r e c o u n t e d h i s p e r s o n a l d i l e m m a : " f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s we d i d k n i t t i n g i n s c h o o l , l e a r n e d t o k n i t o n c e a week on F r i d a y s f r o m 11:00 t o 1 2 : 0 0 . My f a t h e r was r e a l l y u p t i g h t a b o u t k n i t t i n g i n s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y t e a c h i n g i t t o b o y s . I k n i t t e d g r e y w o o l l e n s o c k s f o r t h e b o y s o v e r s e a s . " 1 2 6 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n k n i t t e d e n d l e s s m i l e s o f w o o l . O f t e n f i r s t r a i s i n g money t o p u r c h a s e t h e w o o l , k n i t t i n g i t , t h e n s e n d i n g t h e a r t i c l e s t o t h e Red C r o s s . Wool was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e R e d C r o s s , t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e made f o r e x p e r i e n c e d k n i t t e r s t o t e a c h t h e n o v i c e s . 129 J u n i o r s f o u n d t h a t k n i t t i n g was one o f t h e m a i n a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g w a r t i m e . One woman remembered "...we k n i t t e d , we k n i t t e d c o n s t a n t l y . " 1 2 7 Of a l l t h e c l i c k i n g k n i t t i n g n e e d l e s , one f e l l o w p h i l o s o p h i z e d : e v e r y o n e was a l w a y s k n i t t i n g . One c o u l d assume t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t n e v e r g a v e a n y o n e an y s o c k s . P e o p l e k n i t t e d b a l a c l a v a s , m i t t s w i t h no f i n g e r s . Why e v e r y o n e h a d t o k n i t , I d o n ' t know. The g o v e r n m e n t g a v e o u t w o o l , y o u k n i t t e d a n d t u r n e d i t b a c k i n . Maybe b e c a u s e t h i n g s w e r e w o o l , one t r i p t h r o u g h t h e mud a n d y o u h a d t o t h r o w t h e m away!"128 K n i t t i n g p a m p h l e t s a n d m a g a z i n e s w e r e p u b l i s h e d b y s u c h c o m p a n i e s a s L u x L a u n d r y s o a p l 2 9 a n d M o n a r c h " t h e m a k e r s o f M o n a r c h Y a r n s " w h i c h l i s t e d " f o u r i d e a l y a r n s f o r M i l i t a r y k n i t t i n g . " 1 3 0 The Red C r o s s S o c i e t y p u b l i s h e d "Red C r o s s K n i t t i n g " a n i l l u s t r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n g u i d e t h a t l i s t e d "what was d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d e d . " 1 3 1 I t r e q u e s t e d members k n i t e v e r y t h i n g f r o m s o c k s t o r i f l e m i t t s , f r o m h e l m e t s t o a m p u t a t i o n c o v e r s . The R e d C r o s s a l s o p u b l i s h e d b o o k l e t s f o r " S e l e c t e d C i v i l i a n K n i t t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Women an d C h i l d r e n " 1 3 2 K n i t t e r s c o u l d make g a r m e n t s f o r n e e d y B r i t i s h c i v i l i a n s . K n i t t i n g was n o t o n l y c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s a r y s k i l l b u t a p a t r i o t i c one a s w e l l . J u n i o r s w e r e i n s p i r e d b y a f i l m t h e Red C r o s s made o f l i t t l e R i t a f r o m C r a n b r o o k who " w i t h o n l y one p e r f e c t a r m . . . i s k n i t t i n g f o r t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s . " 1 3 3 C h i l d r e n w e r e o f t e n f o u n d , i n s c h o o l o r a t home, k n i t t i n g s e r v i c e c a p s , b a l a c l a v a h e l m e t s , seaman's c a p s a n d s t o c k i n g s , s e r v i c e s o c k s , s c a r v e s , w r i s t l e t s , f i n g e r l e s s r i f l e g l o v e s a n d one f i n g e r r i f l e m i t t s . 1 3 4 One woman e x p l a i n e d t h a t d u t y o v e r c a m e d i s l i k e : " I was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t k n i t t i n g o r c r o c h e t i n g , t h o u g h d u r i n g t h e w a r I w o u l d k n i t s o c k s . " 1 3 5 J u n i o r s w e r e o f t e n r e w a r d e d f o r t h e i r k n i t t i n g 130 e f f o r t s . A C a n a d i a n s a i l o r w r o t e t h e C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r m a g a z i n e t o t h a n k t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e " m a g n i f i c e n t g i f t o f w i n t e r c o m f o r t s . " 1 3 6 A B r i t i s h c h i l d w r o t e i n t o t h a n k J u n i o r s f o r t h e g i f t s o f c l o t h i n g , " t h e y f i t me l o v e l y a n d I f e e l s o p r o u d t o w e a r c l o t h e s a l l t h e way f r o m Canada."137 Any c h i l d who c o u l d k n i t was a b l e t o a d d a s q u a r e t o t h e p o p u l a r a f g h a n s w h i c h w e r e a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d . U s u a l l y t h e s e w e r e s e n t t o f a m i l i e s i n t h e bombed a r e a s o f B r i t a i n . One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d "a l o t was done f o r t h e war e f f o r t i n E r r i n g t o n . T h e r e was a v e r y a c t i v e Red C r o s s . . . I remember k n i t t i n g a s q u a r e t h a t was g o i n g i n t o a n a f g h a n . I'm n o t s u r e w h e r e t h e a f g h a n was s e n t b u t my s q u a r e n e v e r made i t . I t d i d n ' t r e a l l y t u r n o u t t o be a s q u a r e ! " 1 3 8 K i t s i l a n o h i g h s c h o o l h a d n i n e t e e n J u n i o r R e d C r o s s c l u b s w h i c h met d u r i n g p e r i o d s i x on F r i d a y s . One c l u b , e n t i t l e d t h e " K a d e t K n i t t i n g K o r p s " made d o z e n s o f A i r F o r c e s o c k s , s c a r v e s a n d s w e a t e r s , w h i l e t h e i r "Keweva C l u b " k n i t t e d s q u a r e s f o r a f g h a n s . 1 3 9 S h i r l e y Wardhaugh, a g r a d e f i v e s t u d e n t i n V a n c o u v e r , was s o o v e r w h e l m e d w i t h a l l t h e k n i t t i n g s h e w r o t e a poem a b o u t i t e n t i t l e d " K n i t , K n i t , K n i t ( w i t h a p o l o g i e s t o L o r d T e n n y s o n ) . " 1 4 0 K n i t , k n i t , k n i t On t h y c o l d g r e y s t e e l , 0 S h i r ! A n d I w o u l d t h a t t h e s e s o c k s w e r e f i n i s h e d , A n d t h a t t h e y w i l l f i t y o u S i r ! O w e l l f o r t h e S e a f o r t h p l a i d . A s i t s w i n g s a l o n g i t s way! 0 w e l l f o r t h e s a i l o r l a d , A s he w a t c h e s f o r s h i p s on t h e b a y ! And t h e g r e y w o o l s o c k s go o n , A s I k n i t them row a f t e r row: F o r i t ' s a l l f o r t h e b o y s i n t h e A i r F o r c e b l u e T h a t I k n i t ; t u r n t h e h e e l , make t h e t o e . 131 K n i t , k n i t , k n i t . On t h y c o l d g r e y s t e e l , O S h i r ! A n d I w o u l d t h a t t h e s e s o c k s w e r e f i n i s h e d , A n d t h a t t h e y w i l l f i t y o u S i r ! T e a c h e r s s e a r c h e d f o r i d e a s on how b e s t t o c o n d u c t a n i n t e r e s t i n g J u n i o r Red C r o s s p e r i o d . The B.C. T e a c h e r m a g a z i n e s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s s t a r t w i t h a b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g . P r o j e c t s , f u n d s , m a t e r i a l s w o u l d be d i s c u s s e d . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m o t h e r R e d C r o s s g r o u p s o r f r o m h e a d q u a r t e r s w o u l d be r e a d . 1 4 1 T h e s e m e e t i n g s w e r e u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d b y t h e m a i n a c t i v i t y . A l o n g w i t h k n i t t i n g , a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d " p r o d u c i n g p l a y s s u c h a s t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e Red C r o s s m a g a z i n e . " 1 4 2 C h i l d r e n a l s o r e a d s t o r i e s o r s a n g s o n g s f r o m t h e m a g a z i n e . T h e y b r o a d c a s t R e d C r o s s news i n mock r a d i o programmes, and i n v i t e d v i s i t o r s s u c h a s "a m i l i t a r y p e r s o n t o t e l l how Red C r o s s a i d s s o l d i e r s . " 1 4 3 J u n i o r s a l s o d e s i g n e d p o s t e r s , w r o t e r e p o r t s , a n d h e l d d i s c u s s i o n s o r q u i z z e s on t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e w o r k o f t h e Red C r o s s . 1 4 4 A t e a c h e r f r o m Q u a l i c u m d e s c r i b e d h e r J u n i o r R e d C r o s s p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n t u r n e d t h e i r s a n d t a b l e i n t o a R e d C r o s s b o o t h t o r a i s e f u n d s f o r t h e war e f f o r t . She r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e " g i r l s made c a n d y a nd sewn p o t h o l d e r s w h i l e t h e b o y s ' h a n d w o r k [was] i n t h e f o r m o f t e a p o t s t a n d s a n d s c i s s o r h o l d e r s . " 1 4 5 J u n i o r s w e r e e m p l o y e d f o r a s e e m i n g l y e n d l e s s v a r i e t y o f war w o r k a c t i v i t i e s . One woman, a s t u d e n t i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r d i s t r i c t , r e c a l l e d " I b e l o n g e d t o t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s , we d i d ' A l i c e i n W o n d e r l a n d ' t o r a i s e money f o r t h e w a r . " 1 4 6 A n o t h e r r e m e m b e r e d " I w o r k e d f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s . . . w e u s e d t o s o r t r i v e t s . " 1 4 7 The V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d p r a i s e d b o y s who w e r e 132 i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g wooden t e s t t u b e r a c k s t o a i d t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s . 1 4 8 The J u n i o r Red C r o s s members o f a V i c t o r i a h i g h s c h o o l r a i s e d money f o r t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e n made o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d arm s p l i n t s . T h i s a c t i v i t y was r e q u e s t e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e . 1 4 9 O t h e r J u n i o r s a t T e m p l e t o n s c h o o l f o r m e d a t o y m a k i n g c l u b a n d s o l d t h e i r handmade t o y s . S t u d e n t s f r o m V e r n o n E l e m e n t a r y made and s o l d b i r d h o u s e s . 1 5 0 Many J u n i o r s r e m a i n e d a c t i v e on w eekends a n d o n summer h o l i d a y s t o o . One woman remembered w o r k i n g f o r t h e Red C r o s s : "we w o u l d g e t t o g e t h e r e a r l y on S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g s a n d p i l e i n t o a t r u c k a n d go a r o u n d t o c o l l e c t f o r t h e s a l v a g e d r i v e s . " 1 5 1 W h i l e a n o t h e r " j o i n e d t h e Red C r o s s i n t h e summer a s a v o l u n t e e r ' t o w i n t h e w a r ' a s t h e i r s l o g a n w e n t . I w o u l d go a b o u t i n a n army j e e p o r t r u c k . . . a n d we p i c k e d up t h e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e w o r k e r s . " 1 5 2 J u n i o r s e x p e r i e n c e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f c o o p e r a t i o n a n d t e a m work a s t h e y j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o a c c o m p l i s h v a r i o u s w a r w o r k t a s k s . V e r n o n h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z e d a V e r n o n J u n i o r Red C r o s s F a i r a n d J u n i o r s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r g r o w i n g , p i c k i n g , c a n n i n g a n d s e l l i n g f r u i t a n d v e g e t a b l e s . 1 5 3 S e v e n t e e n s c h o o l s i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r d i s t r i c t h e l d a J u n i o r Red C r o s s H e a l t h d a y a n d B a z a a r . J u n i o r s p r o v i d e d a r t i c l e s f o r s a l e a t t h e b a z a a r w h i l e " t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n A i r F o r c e b r o u g h t i n ' r e v e l s ' f r o m Edmonton f o r s a l e . " 1 5 4 C h i l d r e n f r o m S t u a r t Wood S c h o o l i n K a m l o o p s p u t o n a t e a f o r P a r e n t s ' Day a n d r a i s e d money f o r t h e R e d C r o s s . 1 5 5 W h i l e V i c t o r i a h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s h a d a "two n i g h t c i r c u s f r o m w h i c h t h e y c l e a r e d t h e huge sum o f $ 1,617.60."156 Members o f t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s a t N o r t h a n d West V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l s 133 w o r k e d t o g e t h e r i n q u i l t i n g b e e s t o c o n s t r u c t l a r g e q u i l t s w h i c h r e a d " g i f t o f t h e C a n a d i a n J u n i o r Red C r o s s . " 1 5 7 W h i l e one woman who a t t e n d e d Magee r e c a l l e d " o n c e a week we w o u l d meet a n d I remember we made a q u i l t , we sewed l e t t e r s o n i t t o r e a d 'a g i f t f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s . ' " 1 5 8 C h i l d r e n o f t e n met d u r i n g s c h o o l t i m e i n s e w i n g b e e s . Y o u n g J u n i o r s i n V i c t o r i a made o v e r t h r e e h u n d r e d h a n d k e r c h i e f s f o r s e r v i c e m e n . 1 5 9 J u n i o r s a t Q u a d r a s c h o o l "hemmed b y h a n d , h a n d k e r c h i e f s a n d t r i a n g u l a r b a n d a g e s . . . i n t h e d e s i r e t o s e r v e . " 1 6 0 C h i l d r e n i n t h e two J u n i o r Red C r o s s s e w i n g c l u b s a t K i t s i l a n o h i g h s c h o o l , c a l l e d t h e "Happy H e a l t h y H e l p e r s " a n d " F o r t h e C a u s e C l u b " t u r n e d i n a n enormous q u a n t i t y o f g a u z e a n d k h a k i h a n d k e r c h i e f s i n one y e a r " , a s w e l l a s " n e a r l y n i n e h u n d r e d f a c e c l o t h s , q u i l t s a n d many a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g . " 1 6 1 When, i n 1 9 4 2 , t h e Red C r o s s t o o k on t h e p r o j e c t o f h e l p i n g e i g h t War N u r s e r i e s i n B r i t a i n , J u n i o r s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e g a n s e w i n g . J u n i o r s made h u n d r e d s o f a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g when t h e y saw t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e J u n i o r m a g a z i n e a n d r e c e i v e d t h e l e t t e r s f r o m t h e s e n e e d y " O r p h a n s o f t h e B l i t z " . 1 6 2 The J u n i o r s h e l p e d t h o s e o v e r s e a s t o w i n t h e w a r a n d w e r e known, f i g u r a t i v e l y , a s " t h e man b e h i n d t h e man b e h i n d t h e g un."163 J u n i o r s p r o d u c e d an e n d l e s s s t r e a m o f g a r m e n t s a n d r a i s e d money t o p u r c h a s e n e c e s s a r y e q u i p m e n t f o r o v e r s e a s . One woman remembered " I r o l l e d b a n d a g e s f o r t h e R e d C r o s s a n d p a c k e d b o x e s t o go o v e r s e a s . " 1 6 4 O v e r 40,000 p a r c e l s w e r e s h i p p e d w e e k l y f r o m C a n a d a t o p r i s o n e r o f war camps w h i l e b l a n k e t s , m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s a n d g a r m e n t s w e r e n e e d e d f o r " t h o s e who h a v e l o s t e v e r y t h i n g t h r o u g h enemy bombing."165 The a p p e a l was 134 s t r o n g t o " o f f e r c o m f o r t a n d h e l p t o t h e wounded, t h e d y i n g a n d t h e h o m e l e s s . . . " 1 6 6 One woman f r o m O l i v e r r emembered "...we t o o k p e n n i e s t o s c h o o l a n d p u t them i n l i t t l e R ed C r o s s c o n t a i n e r s , a t s c h o o l a n d i n t h e s t o r e s . " 1 6 7 A g a i n l e t t e r s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n came f r o m B r i t a i n t h a n k i n g J u n i o r s " f o r t h e way i n w h i c h y o u a r e h e l p i n g u s t o f a c e t h i s o r d e a l , when t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e E m p i r e b e g i n t o h e l p one a n o t h e r we c a n f a c e a n y t h i n g w i t h i n o u r p o w e r . " 1 6 8 Famous members o f t h e Red C r o s s w e r e u s e d t o m o t i v a t e J u n i o r s . C a n a d i a n J u n i o r s w e r e o f t e n e x c i t e d t o r e a d l e t t e r s f r o m t h e i r P a t r o n e s s , P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h . One l e t t e r o f c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s , p r i n t e d on B u c k i n g h a m P a l a c e l e t t e r h e a d was p u b l i s h e d o n t h e c o v e r o f t h e M a r c h 1943 C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s  J u n i o r m a g a z i n e . J u n i o r s w e r e t h a n k e d by t h e P r i n c e s s f o r t h e i r g i f t s o f money a n d c l o t h i n g . The P r i n c e s s s t a t e d t h e C a n a d i a n J u n i o r s " h a v e s e t a f i n e e x a m p l e o f l i v i n g up t o t h e i r m o t t o " a n d s h e was "most p r o u d t o be t h e i r P a t r o n e s s . " 1 6 9 A n o t h e r " e v e n t o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " was t h e v i s i t o f H e r R o y a l H i g h n e s s P r i n c e s s A l i c e , t h e s i s t e r o f t h e K i n g a n d w i f e o f t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l . She a t t e n d e d a r a l l y a t P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n 1944 a n d when t h e P r i n c e s s a d d r e s s e d t h e J u n i o r s t h e r e "was b r e a t h l e s s s i l e n c e w h i l e t h e a u d i e n c e l i s t e n e d t o h e r , a n d a d m i r e d a n d l o v e d h e r . " 1 7 0 She e x p r e s s e d h e r a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e m a g n i f i c e n t w o r k t h a t t h e J u n i o r s h a d m a i n t a i n e d f o u r t e e n d a y n u r s e r i e s i n B r i t a i n . She t h e n r e a d an announcement f r o m P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h a n d " t h e a p p l a u s e t h a t f o l l o w e d t h i s . . . s h o w e d t h e d e e p a f f e c t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e f o r o u r r o y a l p a t r o n . " 1 7 1 135 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d t h r o u g h t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s t h a t t h e m o t t o ' I s e r v e 1 meant more t h a n j u s t k n i t t i n g a n d s e w i n g . T h e y l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e many c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d t h a t w e r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m t h e w a r ' s d e v a s t a t i o n . The C a n a d i a n J u n i o r Red C r o s s m a g a z i n e a s k e d J u n i o r s "do y o u e v e r f e e l , b o y s a n d g i r l s , a s i f y o u w e r e s i t t i n g i n a n i c e , s a f e , f r o n t s e a t w a t c h i n g t h i s c r u e l a n d d r e a d f u l c i r c u s c a l l e d 'WAR*?"172 The p r i c e t h e Red C r o s s a s k e d t h e J u n i o r s t o p a y f o r t h i s s e a t was "a war t a x " o f h a r d w o r k on t h e i r J u n i o r Red C r o s s p r o j e c t s . 1 7 3 J u n i o r s w e r e t o make a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r c o u n t r y by o b s e r v i n g t h e h e a l t h r u l e s a n d s e r v i n g o t h e r s . T h e r e was no q u e s t i o n i n t h e m i n d s o f R e d C r o s s o f f i c i a l s t h a t J u n i o r s h e l p e d d e f i n i t e l y i n N a t i o n a l d e f e n c e . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s D i r e c t o r f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s , M a r g a r e t P a l m e r , p r o u d l y t o l d t h e V e r n o n News t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t h e J u n i o r R e d C r o s s a r e " c i t i z e n s o f t h e f i n e s t p o s s i b l e c a l i b r e ; who a r e l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r t e n d e r y e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s w e l l a s t h e j o y o f s e l f s a c r i f i c e a n d g i v i n g . . . " 1 7 4 P a l m e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s was "a p o w e r f u l a n t i d o t e a g a i n s t t h e i n s i d i o u s p o i s o n s o f Communist a n d N a z i p r o p a g a n d a . " 1 7 5 When t h e u r g e n t c a l l was s e n t o u t , t h e c h i l d r e n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e a s k e d t o " a p p l y e v e r y l a s t o u n c e o f . . . e f f o r t t o g e t t i n g t h i n g s d o n e . I n t h e name o f God and y o u r f e l l o w man, t h a t i s y o u r j o b . " 1 7 6 " G i v e a c c o r d i n g t o y o u r c o n s c i e n c e . " 1 7 7 I t seemed t h a t i t was n o t e n o u g h f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o p u r c h a s e War S a v i n g s S t a m p s a n d w o r k t i r e l e s s l y f o r t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s , c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e p o u r i n g t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n t o 136 c o u n t l e s s d i f f e r e n t f u n d s a n d p r o j e c t s f o r t h e war e f f o r t . " T o t a l War a n d T o t a l E f f o r t " was t h e t i t l e o f M a c k e n z i e K i n g ' s r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n 1941.178 War t i m e was t o be a t i m e o f s a c r i f i c e . K i n g was e x p a n d i n g t h e Navy a n d t h e A i r F o r c e . He i m p l o r e d C a n a d i a n s : " t h e s a v i n g s o f a l l t h e c i t i z e n s o f C a n a d a , may w e l l w e i g h t t h e s c a l e s on t h e s i d e o f V i c t o r y . " 1 7 9 A l l o f K i n g ' s ' c i t i z e n s ' i n c l u d e d t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t h u s s c h o o l s o f t e n d e v e l o p e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o meet. One e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e t i t s " F o u r War A i m s : g o o d c o n d u c t , b u y i n g War S a v i n g s S t a m p s , h a v i n g a V i c t o r y g a r d e n a n d b r i n g i n g s a l v a g e . " 1 8 0 C h i l d r e n a l s o w o r k e d f o r t h e war e f f o r t b y b u y i n g V i c t o r y b o n d s , r a i s i n g money f o r numerous war f u n d s , a s s e m b l i n g f o o d p a c k a g e s a n d e v e n w o r k i n g a s A i r R a i d m e s s e n g e r s . D u r i n g a V i c t o r y L o a n c a m p a i g n i n 194 3 a bomber r o a r e d t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r s k i e s . Amazed c h i l d r e n g l a n c e d up a s t h o u s a n d s o f l e a f l e t s f l o a t e d f r o m t h e s k y . They g r a s p e d t h e n e a r e s t p a p e r a n d r e a d : "An a e r o p l a n e h a s d r o p p e d t h i s a n d c o u l d j u s t a s e a s i l y h a v e d r o p p e d a BOMB...What d o e s t h i s mean t o y o u ? T h i s i s YOUR wa r ! Buy V i c t o r y B onds a n d I n v e s t i n V i c t o r y ! " 1 8 1 S c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a v a r i e t y V i c t o r y L o a n d r i v e s . M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e " V i c t o r y L o a n C a m p a i g n s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i t y t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l s by means o f p o s t e r c o n t e s t s , d i s p l a y b a n n e r s on t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , a n d c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s . " 1 8 2 S c h o o l s and g o v e r n m e n t w e r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s a l e s o f V i c t o r y b o n d s . One man r emembered: " w a l k i n g home f r o m s c h o o l a n d t h e bombers f l y i n g o v e r h e a d a n d t h e d o o r s o p e n up a n d t o n s o f l i t e r a t u r e comes o u t a d v e r t i s i n g V i c t o r y B o n d s . " 1 8 3 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d t h e "war b o n d 137 shows d u r i n g t h e w a r . . . s e e i n g J a c k Benny a p p e a l i n g f o r money a n d P h i l H a r r i s . The w h o l e f a m i l y w o u l d go t o t h e s e t h i n g s . " 1 8 4 V i c t o r y b o n d s w e r e s o l d t o c o v e r " C a nada's o v e r a l l b o r r o w i n g n e e d s f o r w a r p u r p o s e s . " 1 8 5 C i t i z e n s w e r e a s k e d t o " s a l t away i n V i c t o r y B o n d s money t h a t i s now n e i t h e r p a t r i o t i c n o r p r o f i t a b l e t o s p e n d . " 1 8 6 The s t u d e n t s o f K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l a c t i v e l y r a i s e d f u n d s f o r V i c t o r y B onds a n d t h e i r s c h o o l n e w s p a p e r t o l d o f : "$3,150... p r e s e n t e d t o a V i c t o r y B o n d s a l e s m a n , d e s c r i b e d by one s e n i o r a s 'an a f f a b l e e m p l o y e e o f t h e g r e a t e s t f i r m i n t h e w o r l d . ' " 1 8 7 One man r e c o u n t e d a c a m p a i g n a t h i s h i g h s c h o o l , "a D u t c h r e s i s t a n c e f i g h t e r a d d r e s s i n g t h e w h o l e o f t h e s c h o o l , d e s c r i b i n g how he k i l l e d a German, t h i s was d u r i n g one o f t h e war b o n d d r i v e s . " 1 8 8 C a m p a i g n s w e r e e f f e c t i v e , s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $25,000 a y e a r i n V i c t o r y Bond s a l e s . 1 8 9 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e r e a d y a n d w i l l i n g t o h e l p o u t . The p r e s i d e n t o f s t u d e n t c o u n c i l a t P o i n t G r e y j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l d e c l a r e d " w h a t e v e r was r e q u i r e d o f u s we d i d c h e e r f u l l y , f o r we y o u n g p e o p l e o f C a nada a r e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t we w i l l n e v e r f a c e a l i f e o f s l a v e r y u n d e r f o r e i g n m a s t e r s . . . " 1 9 0 P o i n t G r e y j u n i o r h i g h h e l d a s u c c e s s f u l p a p e r d r i v e a n d c h i l d r e n h a d : " s t i f f m u s c l e s a f t e r t e n d a y s o f c a r r y i n g , w e i g h i n g a n d p a c k i n g o v e r 64,000 p o u n d s o f p a p e r . . . a n d t h e P o i n t G r e y War C h e s t was s w e l l e d b y one h u n d r e d d o l l a r s . " 1 9 1 T h e s e s t u d e n t s h e l p e d r a i s e t h e t o t a l amount o f p a p e r c o l l e c t e d f o r V a n c o u v e r t o a n e n o r m o u s 152,800 p o u n d s . 1 9 2 C h a r l e s D i c k e n s e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l d e c i d e d t o h o l d t h r e e p a p e r d r i v e s p e r y e a r t h r o u g h h o u s e c o m p e t i t i o n s w i t h " a l l money t o go t o t h e war e f f o r t . " 1 9 3 138 ^ S c h o o l c h i l d r e n w e r e f o u n d rummaging a r o u n d i n t h e b a s e m e n t s , g a r a g e s a n d a t t i c s o f homes a s t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s a l v a g e d r i v e s . "We t o o k a l l t h i s s t u f f t o s c h o o l " , r e c a l l e d a n i n t e r v i e w e e , " t h e r e was a l w a y s some d r i v e g o i n g o n a t o u r s c h o o l . We c o l l e c t e d , e v e r y o n e d i d i t . " 1 9 4 C h i l d r e n b e g a n t o c o l l e c t a l l k i n d s o f i t e m s . S c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n V a n c o u v e r a l o n e c o l l e c t e d , i n 1 9 4 2 , a n i n c r e d i b l e 21,700 p o u n d s o f r u b b e r , 152,800 p o u n d s o f p a p e r , a n d 60,300 p o u n d s o f m e t a l s c r a p . T h e y a l s o c o l l e c t e d s o c k s , b o o k s a n d m a g a z i n e s , b u t t o n s a n d s w e a t e r s a n d s e n t t h e m t o s o l d i e r s o v e r s e a s . 1 9 5 Y o u n g s t e r s m i g h t h a v e c h a n t e d : "a t i s k e t a t a s k e t , H i t l e r ' s i n h i s c a s k e t " 1 9 6 w h i l e t h e y s c o u r e d t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . One woman e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e o f t e n r e w a r d s f o r s a l v a g e m a t e r i a l s , " I remember c o l l e c t i n g e n o u g h a n d g o i n g t o s e e my f i r s t m o v i e w h i c h was F a n t a s i a . " 1 9 7 A w a r d s i n some s c h o o l s c o n s i s t e d o f " t h e p r i n c i p a l o r a v i s i t o r w o u l d h o n o u r t h e c l a s s e s w h i c h . . . c o l l e c t e d t h e mos t m e t a l p a p e r f o r t h e r e g u l a r s a l v a g e d r i v e s . " 1 9 8 C h i l d r e n s e t o u t t o c o l l e c t a s much m e t a l a s t h e y c o u l d l a y t h e i r h a n d s o n . S a l v a g e r s s o o n c o n s i d e r e d a l u m i n u m a n d t i n p r e c i o u s m e t a l s . One man remembered: " f o r t h e w a r e f f o r t I c o l l e c t e d a l u m i n u m t o o t h p a s t e t u b e s a n d c i g a r e t t e f o i l s . " 1 9 9 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d an o d d b e n e f i t o f s m o k i n g : " K i d s whose p a r e n t s smoked h a d an u n f a i r a d v a n t a g e b e c a u s e t h e r e was t i n f o i l o n t h e i n s i d e s o f c i g a r e t t e p a c k a g e s . " 2 0 0 The s t u d e n t s a t P o i n t G r e y j u n i o r h i g h h e l d a t i n c a n d r i v e i n 1942, t h e y c a l l e d i t t h e " S t u d e n t s 'Can' A x i s " d r i v e . 2 0 1 One man c o l l e c t e d a l u m i n u m f o r d u a l p u r p o s e s : " T h e r e was a b i g p o s t e r o f H i t l e r , we g a t h e r e d a l u m i n u m a n d we w o u l d a l l go up t o t h e p o s t e r a n d we w o u l d t h r o w i t a t H i t l e r . I d i d t h a t , s c r o u n g e d a p o t f r o m somewhere."2 02 A n o t h e r f e l l o w o b s e r v e d : " c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d r e c y c l i n g , i t ' s n o t h i n g new y o u know", he r e c a l l e d c o l l e c t i n g " a l l t h e t i n f o i l y o u c o u l d g e t . I t was a l l p a r t o f t h e w a r e f f o r t . " 2 0 3 A woman s i m p l y remembered " o u r c l a s s m a k i n g a g i a n t b a l l o f f o i l . " 2 04 Some c h i l d r e n c o l l e c t e d a l u m i n u m w i t h o u t k n o w i n g why: "We b r o u g h t o l d p o t s a n d p a n s t o s c h o o l . Maybe t h e y made b a t t l e s h i p s o u t o f i t . " 2 0 5 A u t h o r , W a l l a c e S t e g n e r w r o t e a b o u t t h i s r a c e f o r a l u m i n u m : i t stemmed f r o m t h e F i r s t W o r l d War s a l v a g e d r i v e s f o r " t e a l e a d " 2 0 6 , t h i n s h e e t s o f l e a d t h a t r e s e m b l e d s i l v e r p a p e r . A l l t h a t s a l v a g i n g may h a v e b e e n t o no a v a i l a s he d e s c r i b e d : p e o p l e t r i e d t o t u r n i n t h e i r s i l v e r p a p e r s a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t d i d n ' t w a n t i t . 2 0 7 C h i l d r e n o f t e n b r o u g h t f a t a n d b o n e s i n t o s c h o o l a s w e l l . One i n t e r v i e w e e s t a t e d : " I b r o u g h t j a r s o f f a t t o s c h o o l . . . " 2 0 8 P a m p h l e t s w e r e i s s u e d by t h e N a t i o n a l S a l v a g e O f f i c e . The s l o g a n : " Save F a t s a n d B o n e s " was e x p l a i n e d i n i l l u s t r a t e d d e t a i l . " E v e r y p o u n d o f f a t s a v e d e n a b l e s C a n a d a t o b u y more weapons o f war."209 C h i l d r e n r e a d t h a t f a t p r o d u c e d g l y c e r i n e , a n i n g r e d i e n t u s e d i n h i g h e x p l o s i v e bombs a n d t h a t b o n e s w e r e s o l d f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f m u n i t i o n s . 2 1 0 One woman was a w a r e o f h e r m o t h e r ' s e f f o r t s : " s h e k e p t a c a n o n t h e b a c k o f h e r s t o v e f o r g r e a s e , s h e s a v e d a l l t h e g r e a s e , w h i c h we c o l l e c t e d t o make m u n i t i o n s . " 2 1 1 J o u r n a l i s t Denny B o y d r e m e m b e r e d "we c o l l e c t e d . . . f a t f r o m t h e Sunday r o a s t s . " 2 1 2 C h i l d r e n a l s o d o n a t e d a n d c o l l e c t e d u s e d c l o t h i n g a n d f a b r i c . One s c h o o l a n n o u n c e d t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n w e r e t o h a v e " s p a r e m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d on t h e v e r a n d a h , t h a t i t may be 140 g a t h e r e d a n d s o l d t o t h e V a n c o u v e r War C h e s t . " 2 1 3 Many c o n t r i b u t i o n s came i n b u n d l e s and i t e m s s u c h a s a f g h a n s , r u g s , s c a r v e s , w a s h - c l o t h s , s w e a t e r s , a n d m i t t s w e r e made i n t o "V" B u n d l e s : V i c t o r y B u n d l e s f o r B r i t a i n . 2 1 4 "V" B u n d l e s w e r e v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h c h i l d r e n and i n V a n c o u v e r a n e x h i b i t i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n t h e G e o r g i a n room a t t h e H u d s o n ' s Bay . D i s p l a y e d w e r e t h e a r t i c l e s k n i t t e d , sewn o r woven by s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t h a t w e r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e "V" B u n d l e s f o r B r i t a i n p r o g r a m . The b o a r d a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s one t h r o u g h n i n e w e r e d e l i g h t e d t o m o d e l some o f t h e g a r m e n t s t h e y made f o r t h e "V" B u n d l e s i n a f a s h i o n show a t t h e e x h i b i t . 2 1 5 N o t a l l c h i l d r e n w e r e a s g e n e r o u s , one woman d e s c r i b e d t h a t when h e r " m o t h e r . . . t o l d u s : ' t h e r e a r e l i t t l e c h i l d r e n d y i n g i n L o n d o n ' . . . I remember g o i n g u p s t a i r s a n d s e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h a n d I f o u n d my w o r s t p a i r o f s o c k s I h a d , b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t w a n t t o g i v e t h e m my g o o d s o c k s ! " 2 1 6 A p l e t h o r a o f n e e d y c a u s e s e x i s t e d f o r t h e s e h a r d w o r k i n g c h i l d r e n . A l o n g w i t h s a l v a g i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c h i l d r e n w o r k e d t o r a i s e money f o r t h e Navy L e a g u e , L e a g u e o f E m p i r e , P o p p y F u n d a n d C h r i s t m a s Hampers t h e L o r d M a y o r ' s F u n d , t h e A i r S u p r e m a c y F u n d , t h e N a v y Week Fund t h e E v a c u a t e d C h i l d r e n ' s F u n d a n d t h e K i n g G e o r g e F u n d f o r S a i l o r s . 2 1 7 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n A r m s t r o n g p e r f o r m e d " s k i t s , d a n c e s , i n s t r u m e n t a l a n d v o c a l s o l o s . . . t h e c o n c e r t n e t t e d $150 f o r t h e m i l k f o r B r i t a i n F und."218 G i r l s i n a V e r n o n s c h o o l w o r k e d on a P e n n y P a r a d e t o r a i s e money f o r bombed s c h o o l s i n L o n d o n . A l e t t e r was p u b l i s h e d i n t h e V e r n o n  News t o t h a n k t h e g i r l s a s "we n e e d warm c l o t h e s a s o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d was b a d l y bombed and many w i n d o w s a r e 141 m i s s i n g . " 2 1 9 C h i l d r e n a l s o r a i s e d money f o r t h e p o p u l a r S p i t f i r e f u n d a n d t h e P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h Fund.220 C e r t a i n l y one o f t h e y o u n g e s t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l a t t e r , was a f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d . She s o l e m n l y w a l k e d i n t o a P o i n t G r e y s c h o o l c o u n c i l m e e t i n g w i t h a l l 137 o f h e r p e n n i e s t o do " h e r p a r t t o h e l p t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n t h e bombed a r e a s o f B r i t a i n . " 2 2 1 When t h e R u s s i a n s became a l l i e s t h e y a l s o became a n o t h e r c a u s e f o r c h i l d r e n t o w o r k f o r . One V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l " u r g e d p u p i l s t o b r i n g c l e a n w o o l l e n g a r m e n t s f o r t h e R u s s i a n s . " 2 2 2 A c o l o u r f u l p a m p h l e t s e e n i n some s c h o o l s w h i c h r e a d "a v a l i a n t a l l y i s c a l l i n g . R u s s i a n e e d s y o u r h e l p t o d a y . S u p p o r t t h e C a n a d i a n A i d t o R u s s i a F u nd f o r R u s s i a a n d H u m a n i t y . " 2 2 3 I t d e s c r i b e d t h e a l l i e d R u s s i a n s b a t t l i n g N a z i s f o r a f r e e w o r l d . I t u r g e d C a n a d i a n s t o h e l p f i g h t t h e b a t t l e w i t h c o n t r i b u t i o n s . C a n a d i a n s w e r e a s k e d t o d o n a t e "warm c l o t h i n g , b l a n k e t s , e x t r a f o o d s , s e e d s a n d m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s t o t h e n e e d y R u s s i a n p e o p l e . " 2 2 4 By F e b r u a r y 1943, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s r a i s e d $3,920 f o r t h e C a n a d i a n A i d t o R u s s i a Fund.225 S c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h g r e e n thumbs w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o g r o w v e g e t a b l e s t o s e l l a n d t u r n a p r o f i t f o r t h e w a r e f f o r t . One man r e m e m b e r e d p l a n n i n g h i s ' V i c t o r y G a r d e n ' c a r e f u l l y , a n d n o t o n l y f o r t h e v e g e t a b l e s : " I h a d a V i c t o r y G a r d e n i n a n o p e n f i e l d , I g o t o u t t h e r e a n d I g o t m a r k s f o r i t . I p l a n t e d t h i n g s t h a t g r e w q u i c k l y : r a d i s h e s a n d o n i o n s . " 2 2 6 One t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e c h a n g e s t o h e r s c h o o l a s " p a r t o f t h e s p o r t s f i e l d h a s b e e n t u r n e d i n t o a v e g e t a b l e p l o t , a nd s t u r d y c a b b a g e s r i s e o v e r i t s o n c e v e l v e t l a w n s . " 2 2 7 To p r o m o t e t h e s e V i c t o r y g a r d e n s , e x p l a i n e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , " i n m o s t p u b l i c p l a c e s t h e r e w e r e 142 p o s t e r s o n t h e w a l l s t h a t s a i d . . . ' h a v e y o u s t a r t e d y o u r V i c t o r y G a r d e n Y e t ? 1 The g o v e r n m e n t a l s o g a v e u s s e e d s t o e n c o u r a g e u s . " 2 2 8 S c h o o l s p r o m o t e d V i c t o r y g a r d e n s a s w e l l . One V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l d e v i s e d q u i t e a s y s t e m i n w h i c h a l i s t o f g r o w e r s names was k e p t on t h e b l a c k b o a r d a n d t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r s t u d e n t s w e r e u r g e d t o v i s i t t h e g a r d e n s a n d make g a r d e n b o o k l e t s . H o u s e c a p t a i n s w e r e t o s p o n s o r g a r d e n s a n d a w a r d h o u s e p o i n t s f o r s u c c e s s f u l g r o w t h a n d i n O c t o b e r a g a r d e n e x h i b i t was h e l d . 2 2 9 C h i l d r e n a l s o a s s e m b l e d f o o d p a c k a g e s t o s e n d t o s o l d i e r s o v e r s e a s . I t e m s w e r e c h o s e n t h o u g h t f u l l y a n d o f t e n l e t t e r s o r n o t e s w e r e i n c l u d e d . One woman e x p l a i n e d : "we p a c k e d C h r i s t m a s c a k e s , s u g a r a n d c h o c o l a t e . Canned s a l m o n was v e r y p o p u l a r . You n e v e r knew e x a c t l y w h e r e t h e f o o d was g o i n g , we w o u l d a d d r e s s i t t o a d e p o t . " 2 3 0 S t u d e n t s o f a h i g h s c h o o l G u i d a n c e c l a s s e s i n one I n t e r i o r s c h o o l h e l d t h r e e S a t u r d a y t e a s f o r m o t h e r s a n d f r i e n d s , t h e p r o c e e d s went t o p u r c h a s i n g : " c a n d y a n d smokes w h i c h w e r e s e n t w i t h n o t e s a n d o l d s c h o o l a n d c i t y p a p e r s . . . t o t h e men o v e r s e a s . " 2 31 A s p r o o f o f t h e s p i r i t o f t h e s e c l a s s e s , t h e s e s t u d e n t s a l s o o r g a n i z e d a d a n c e s o t h e y c o u l d r a i s e money t o s e n d C h r i s t m a s g i f t p a r c e l s o v e r s e a s . F u n d s t h a t c h i l d r e n r a i s e d c o u l d be u s e d t o o r d e r g o o d s f r o m t h e A g e n t G e n e r a l f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n L o n d o n . The A g e n t G e n e r a l p u b l i s h e d p a m p h l e t s e n t i t l e d : " C o m f o r t s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s S e r v i n g O v e r s e a s " . C h i l d r e n c o u l d o r d e r p a r c e l s c o n t a i n i n g c a k e s , c i g a r e t t e s , c h o c o l a t e s a n d e n c l o s e a p e r s o n a l message.232 C h i l d r e n h e l p e d p u t t o g e t h e r p a r c e l s a t home f o r n e e d y r e l a t i v e s o v e r s e a s . One woman r e c a l l e d : " I remember my p a r e n t s 143 s e n d i n g f o o d p a c k a g e s o v e r t o o u r r e l a t i v e s i n B r i t a i n , we w o u l d b a k e t h i n g s f o r them."233 A n o t h e r woman d e s c r i b e d how a p p r e c i a t i v e t h e i r r e c i p i e n t s w e r e : " I c a n remember we u s e d t o make up p a r c e l s t o s e n d t o f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y i n B r i t a i n , we w o u l d p u t t h i n g s l i k e c h o c o l a t e s o r s u g a r i n , t h i n g s t h a t w e r e h a r d t o g e t o v e r t h e r e . T h e y w o u l d w r i t e u s b a c k , t o t h a n k u s a n d t e l l u s t h e y w o u l d t h r o w a p a r t y a s s o o n a s t h e p a c k a g e a r r i v e d , t h a t ' s how b a d i t was o v e r t h e r e . " 2 3 4 T h o s e who l i v e d o v e r s e a s w e r e f o r t u n a t e t o h a v e C a n a d i a n r e l a t i v e s , one i n t e r v i e w e e remembered: " I h a d a n u n c l e i n E n g l a n d , d u r i n g t h e w a r . From 1939 o n , m o t h e r w o u l d s t a r t g a t h e r i n g t e a and s u g a r , c o c o a a n d e v e r y t h i n g a n d t h e r e was a l w a y s a b i g huge b o x s e n t t o h i m a n d t o h e r f r i e n d i n W a l e s . T h a t w e n t o n a l l t h r o u g h t h e w a r , m o t h e r s e n t p a c k a g e s . A l l t h e W e l s h p e o p l e d i d i t i f t h e y h a d r e l a t i o n s . " 2 3 5 One woman i n O l i v e r r e c a l l e d " I was v e r y t i n y b u t I remember h e l p i n g my m o t h e r p u t t o g e t h e r p a c k a g e s . L i k e w h a t we c a l l c a r e p a c k a g e s t o d a y . . . I remember we w o u l d h i d e money i n t h e c o c o a t i n . We s o m e t i m e s p u t warm c l o t h e s i n t h e p a c k a g e s . W o o l l e n s , w o o l s c a r v e s , g l o v e s , s o c k s , s t u f f t h a t y o u c o u l d p a c k t i g h t l y , t h e y n e e d e d warm t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . " 2 3 6 Some c h i l d r e n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e war e f f o r t b y b e c o m i n g m e s s e n g e r s i n a i r r a i d d r i l l s . I f c h i l d r e n h a d a b i k e t h e y g o t i n v o l v e d . One man remembered r i d i n g a r o u n d i n K e r r i s d a l e a n d "a f e l l o w . . . s t o p p e d me on t h e s t r e e t w h i l e I was r i d i n g my b i k e a n d a s k e d me t o j o i n t h e A.R.P. [ A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n ] . R u n n e r s h a d t o h a v e a b i k e . " 2 3 7 A f t e r t h e a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s c o o p e r a t e d f u l l y w i t h t h e C e n t r a l C i v i l i a n P r o t e c t i o n C o m m i t t e e f o r a i r r a i d p r e c a u t i o n w o r k . 2 3 8 S c h o o l b u i l d i n g s 144 w e r e s u r v e y e d f o r u s e a s e m e r g e n c y s h e l t e r s , e m e r g e n c y f e e d i n g s t a t i o n s , a n d e m e r g e n c y h o s p i t a l s i f t h e n e e d was t o a r i s e . 2 3 9 D i v i s i o n a l A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n S t a t i o n s w e r e s e t up o n s c h o o l g r o u n d s . ' S c h o o l c h i l d r e n became i n v o l v e d i n a i r r a i d d r i l l s a s w a r d e n s , r u n n e r s o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g f i r s t a i d . C h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n b a s i c t r a i n i n g l e a r n i n g w h a t t o do i n a n a i r r a i d . T r a i n i n g i n c l u d e d F i r s t A i d a n d g a s t r a i n i n g , w h i l e c a d e t s w e r e e m p l o y e d a s r u n n e r s f o r t h e A u x i l i a r y F i r e S e r v i c e s . 2 4 0 T h i s w a r t i m e a c t i v i t y was deemed i m p o r t a n t ^ " s h o u l d V a n c o u v e r e v e r be a t t a c k e d , t h e s e [ s t u d e n t s ] t h o u g h y o u n g , may be a b l e t o r e n d e r v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e . " 2 4 1 A l l s c h o o l s w e r e e q u i p p e d w i t h f i r e f i g h t i n g e q u i p m e n t " i n c a s e o f i n c e n d i a r y bombs; s a n d b a g s , w a t e r p a i l s , r a k e s a n d s h o v e l s . " 2 4 2 ^ D u r i n g t h e w a r , w r o t e j o u r n a l i s t Denny B o y d , " I was an A.R.P. m e s s e n g e r , me a n d my b i k e a n d my t i n h e l m e t . T h a t s t o o d f o r A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n . . . W e h a d t o go a r o u n d a n d make s u r e n o b ody h a d t h e i r p o r c h l i g h t s o n . E a c h t e a m h a d a b u c k e t o f s a n d and a b u c k e t o f w a t e r a n d a s t i r r u p pump. We w e r e s u p p o s e d t o t h r o w s a n d a n d pump t h e w a t e r o n t h e bombs."243 War w o r k was c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y i n a c h i l d ' s d a i l y l i f e . "An o u t l e t f o r t h a t y o u t h f u l e n e r g y w h i c h c a n , a l a s , b e s o e a s i l y w a s t e d . " 2 4 4 " W i t h t h e z e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C a n a d i a n y o u t h " , w r o t e W.O. B a n f i e l d , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h a i r m a n o f t h e J u n i o r Red C r o s s , " s t u d e n t s . . . h a v e b e e n r e a d y a n d a n x i o u s . . . t o a n s w e r t h e many c a l l s o f w a r t i m e t h r o u g h . . . s e r v i c e w o r k a n d g e n e r o u s d o n a t i o n s . . . " 2 4 5 C h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d , by t h e i r t e a c h e r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s , t o t h i n k o f t h o s e l i v i n g i n war t o r n E u r o p e b e f o r e t h i n k i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s . 145 They learned about the importance of the war e f f o r t " i n keeping those overseas supplied with food, weapons and munitions... saving the l i v e s of our men...that they may win t h i s war." They were busy workers during those s i x years: donating, constructing, s e l l i n g , growing, c o l l e c t i n g . They discovered a myriad of ways to r a i s e funds, and were rewarded for t h e i r e f f o r t s . One woman summed up her work for the war e f f o r t simply as "your duty to your country and as a c h i l d that meant you saved things and you did without and that was the s a c r i f i c e you made."246 146 1. J.H. A i t c h i s o n , C a nada a t War: R e p o r t o f t h e Two R o u nd T a b l e s o f  t h e A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A f f a i r s . L o n d o n , O n t a r i o , May 1940, ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 ) , 12. 2. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , " E x p e n d i t u r e f o r War S u p p l i e s , " C a n a d a a t War 44, ( 1 9 4 5 ) : 29. 3. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , " B o r r o w i n g , " C a n a d a a t War:  R e c a p i t u l a t i o n I s s u e 45, ( 1 9 4 5 ) : 138. 4. I b i d . , 137. 5. I b i d . 6. I b i d . 7. N a t i o n a l War S a v i n g s C o m m i t t e e , F o r w a r d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : War  S a v i n g s Stamps P r o g r e s s R e p o r t #7 ( V a n c o u v e r : N a t i o n a l War S a v i n g s C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 4 0 ) , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1940-101. 8. W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d , " B o r r o w i n g , " 138. 9. M1014-8. 10. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : B30. 1 1 . I b i d . 12. F 1 0 0 8 - 6 13. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s , ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B29. 14. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l M i n u t e s 16 F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 3 , 30. 15. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 4 May 1943, 34. 16. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 23 O c t o b e r 1942, 2 1 . 17. F 1 0 0 1 - 2 18. M1002-4 19. E l i z a b e t h W a l l e r , "Teamwork W i n s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 2 ) : 28. 20. I b i d . , 28. 2 1 . P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , "Can a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A i d t h e War E f f o r t ? " The E x p l o r e r 1 941, ( 1 9 4 1 ) . 2 2 . N a t i o n a l War S a v i n g s C o m m i t t e e , F o r w a r d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 6. 147 2 3 . I b i d . 24. F 1 0 0 7 - 5 25 . B r u c e M i c k l e b u r g h , " N i c k e l s a n d Dimes f o r V i c t o r y , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 22, no. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 2 ) : 30. 26. N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , " T r i u m p h o f ' F o r m a l i s m * : E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r f r o m t h e 1920s t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s " , B.C. S t u d i e s A D o u b l e  I s s u e n o s . 69-70 ( S p r i n g - S u m m e r 1 9 8 6 ) : 181. 27. J e a n V. G e t h i n g , "War S a v i n g s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 8 (May-J u n e 1 9 4 3 ) : 325. 28. I b i d . 2 9 . F 1 0 0 8 - 1 30. F 1 0 0 7 - 5 3 1 . M1015-1 32. M1012-1 33. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s M i n u t e s , 8 May 1944, 85. 34. I b i d . 3 5. F 1 0 0 8 - 1 . 36. G e t h i n g , "War S a v i n g s , " 325. 37. I b i d . 38. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 1 A p r i l 1943, 37. 39. M. W i l t o n , "Can Y o u r S c h o o l H e l p ? , " B.C. T e a c h e r 19, no. 6 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 0 ) : 3 2 1 . 40. I b i d . 4 1 . I b i d . 4 2 . M a r i e l J e n k i n s , "War S a v i n g s , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r 20, n o . 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 0 ) : 24. 4 3 . G e t h i n g , "War S a v i n g s , " 325. 44. I b i d . , 3 2 1 . 4 5 . M i c k l e b u r g h , " N i c k e l s and D i m e s , " 29. 46. I b i d . 4 7. I b i d . , 39. 148 48. I b i d . 4 9 . I b i d . , 29. 50. C D . O v a n s , e d . , "Pumping L e a d a t N a z i s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 6 ( M a r c h 1943) : 223. 5 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 1 -1 9 4 2 ) : D77. 5 2 . I b i d . 5 3 . N o r a L e a , " B a c k t o S c h o o l , " C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e 19, no. 5 (15 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 ) : 28. 54. C D . O v a n s , e d . , " E x p r e s s i o n s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 3 , no. 3 (December 1 9 4 3 ) : 115. 5 5 . E l i z a b e t h W a l l e r , "More S a v e r s f o r V i c t o r y - F e b r u a r y S c h o o l S l o g a n , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 5 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 3 ) : 172 a n d 184. a n d War S a v i n g s C o m m i t t e e , " P e n n i e s f o r P B Y ' s , " 22, no. 3 (December 1942) : 1 1 1 . 56. I b i d . , 184. 57. F 1 0 0 1 - 3 . 58. K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l , " S c h o o l S a l e s N e a r $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 , " B l u e a n d  W h i t e ( J u n e 1 9 4 3 ) : 1. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-72. 59. F 1 0 0 7 - 5 . 60. F.K., N a n a i m o , "Methods f o r R a i s i n g War F u n d s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 0 , no. 9 (May 1 9 4 1 ) : 430. 6 1 . O v a n s , e d . , "Pumping L e a d " , 223. 62. F.K., N a n a i m o , " M e t h o d s " , 430. 63. K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l , " S c h o o l S a l e s , " 1. 64. C D . O v a n s , e d . , "War Stamps a n d B o n d s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 22, no. 4 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 4 3 ) : 160. 65. I b i d . 66. F 2 0 1 1 - 2 0 . 67. F 1 0 0 8 - 1 . 68. M2323-3 69. F 2 5 8 4 - 8 70. M1010-8 149 7 1 . W i n n i f r e d A r i e l W e i r , "Two Wars V i e w e d f r o m W i n d e r m e r e , B.C.," B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l News 23, no. 4 ( F a l l 1 9 9 0 ) : 19. 7 2 . " T h r e e D i s t r i c t S u b - U n i t s O v e r 1 0 0 % ; C i t y A i m S e c o n d P e n n a n t , " V e r n o n News. 5 November 1942, 1. 7 3 . F 1 0 0 7 - 1 . 74. N a t i o n a l War S a v i n g s C o m m i t t e e , F o r w a r d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 7 5 . " A r m s t r o n g S c h o o l K i d d i e s ' A s s i s t K i n s m e n ' s F u n d , " V e r n o n News. 4 November 194 3 , 2. 76. B l a n c h e E. H o l t M u r i s o n , "Song o f t h e 'V'," R e p e r t o i r e o f t h e  S a i n t A n d r e w s W e s l e y U n i t e d C h u r c h , 5-6. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-68. 77 . I b i d . 7 8. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , A n n u a l R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 105. 7 9 . I b i d . 8 0 . N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e , " O r c h i d s t o t h e T e a c h e r s , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 22, no. 3 (November-December 1 9 4 2 ) : 85. 8 1 . E l i z a b e t h W a l l e r , "B.C. P u p p e t F i l m S e t s S t y l e i n C a n a d a , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 2 3 , no. 8 (May 1 9 4 4 ) : 315. 8 2 . I b i d . 8 3 . I b i d . , 3 1 5. 84. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 14 O c t o b e r 1943, 56. 8 5 . C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , A p r i l 1 943, 39. 86. S u t h e r l a n d , " T r i u m p h o f ' F o r m a l i s m ' , " 1 9 1 . 87. F 1 0 0 8 - 1 / 2 . 88. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 13 J a n u a r y 1944, 69. 89. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 25. 90. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 4 May 1943, 34. 9 1 . K i n g E d w a r d H i g h S c h o o l , " S c h o o l S a l e s , " 1. 9 2 . N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e , G e t R e a d y t o Buy V i c t o r y B o n d s . ( O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e ) V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s U n d a t e d #59. 9 3 . M1002-4 150 94. F 1008-7 9 5 . C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , The R o l e o f One V o l u n t a r y  O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C a n a d a ' s H e a l t h S e r v i c e s ( T o r o n t o : N a t i o n a l O f f i c e The C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s S o c i e t y , 1 9 6 2 ) , 56. 96. K a t h l e e n Herman, "The J u n i o r Red C r o s s , " C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n 1 1 , n o . 3 ( J u n e 1 9 5 5 ) : 3. 97. I b i d . , 4. 98. I b i d . 9 9 . G.D.H. H a t f i e l d , "The J u n i o r s ' B e l i e f , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s  J u n i o r . O c t o b e r 1940, 3. 100. I b i d . 1 0 1 . F 1 0 0 9 - 6 . 1 0 2 . M o l l i e E. C o t t i n g h a m , "Group G u i d a n c e , " B.C. T e a c h e r 20, no. 6 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 ) : 282. 1 0 3 . F 1 0 0 8 - 1 . 104. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) : B29. 105. I b i d . (1940) a n d W.O. B a n f i e l d , " J u n i o r R e d C r o s s , " B.C.  T e a c h e r 22, no. 6 ( M a r c h 1 9 4 3 ) : 237. 106. J e a n E. Browne, "The J u n i o r Red C r o s s - I n P e a c e a n d War," B.C.  T e a c h e r 2 0 , no. 1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 0 ) : 28-29. 107. I b i d . , 28. 108. I b i d . 1 09. I b i d . , 29. 110. V a n c o u v e r , L i v i n g s t o n e S c h o o l , " E x c e r p t s From A n n u a l R e p o r t s i n B.C.," C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r . O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 , 1 1 . 1 1 1 . F 1 0 0 7 - 6 112. M1002-10 113. "No M e m b e r s h i p B u t t o n s T h i s Y e a r , " C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . S e p t e m b e r 1942, 5. 114. F 1 0 0 8 - 1 115. J o a n W e l l e r , " C a n a d i a n E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e J u v e n i l e P e r i o d i c a l s : a n H i s t o r i c a l O v e r v i e w 1 8 4 7 - 1 9 9 0 , " C a n a d i a n C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e 5 9 , ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 5 2 . 151 116. A Member o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f t h e B.V.M. ( L o r e t t o ) S t . J o s e p h ' s S c h o o l , S t r a t f o r d , O n t a r i o , "Canada's R e p l y , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s  J u n i o r , May 1 9 4 1 , 4. 117. A d v e r t i s e m e n t , " C a n a d i a n H e r o e s , " C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . November 1942, 23. 118. A d v e r t i s e m e n t , " B o y s ! 36 P i e c e Commando S e t F o r Y o u ! , " C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . May 1943, 22. 119. F 1 0 0 7 - 6 120. F 1008-8 1 2 1 . D o r e e n C o l l i e , " J u n i o r Red C r o s s News," C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s  J u n i o r . O c t o b e r 1944, 19. 122. P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , " S e w i n g a n d K n i t t i n g C l u b s S u r p a s s P r e v i o u s R e c o r d , " E x p l o r e r 1942. J u n e 1942. 1 2 3 . M1010-7. 124. B a m b e r t o n , B a m b e r t o n S c h o o l , " A n n u a l R e p o r t s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r . A p r i l 1 9 4 1 , 6. 125. B r o w n e , "The J u n i o r Red C r o s s , " 29. 126. M2323-2. 127. F 1 0 0 1 - 4 . 128. M1012-5 129. L e v e r B r o t h e r s L t d . , L u x 1939 K n i t t i n g Book ( T o r o n t o : L e v e r B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 9 ) . 13 0. M o n a r c h K n i t t i n g Company, Hand K n i t G i f t s f o r Him ( D u n n v i l l e , O n t a r i o ) c o v e r . 1 3 1 . C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , Red C r o s s K n i t t i n g ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s S o c i e t y , 1 9 4 0 ) . 1 3 2 . C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , S e l e c t e d C i v i l i a n K n i t t i n g  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Women an d C h i l d r e n ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y ) . 1 3 3 . B e r t h a J e n k i n s , " J u n i o r s Use T h e i r T a l e n t s : A T r u e S t o r y From C r a n b r o o k , " C a n a d i a n J u n i o r Red C r o s s . J u n e 1 9 4 1 , 23. 134. M o n a r c h , Hand K n i t G i f t s . 1 3 5 . F 2 5 8 4 - 8 . 136. E.S. F o g a r t y F e g a n , C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 , 3. 152 134. M o n a r c h , Hand K n i t G i f t s . 1 3 5 . F 2 5 8 4 - 8 . 136. E.S. F o g a r t y F e g a n , C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 1 , 3. 137. L o u i s a P l u c k r o s e , " L e t t e r s o f T h a n k s f r o m B r i t a i n , " C a n a d i a n  R e d C r o s s J u n i o r , F e b r u a r y 1943, 23. 138. F 1 0 0 7 - 1 / 2 139. K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l , " G i r l s K n i t , Sew, Weave t o A i d t h e War E f f o r t : 32 C l u b s B u s i l y a t Work," A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 1 ) . 140. S h i r l e y W a r d h a u g h , C r o f t o n House S c h o o l , " K n i t , K n i t , K n i t , " C r o f t o n H o u s e S c h o o l A n n u a l ( 1 9 4 0 ) : 57. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1940-91. 1 4 1 . Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , "The Q u e s t i o n B o x , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , n o . 10 ( J u n e 1942) : 467. 1 4 2 . I b i d . , 4 6 7 . 1 4 3 . I b i d . 1 44. I b i d . 1 4 5. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , "The Q u e s t i o n B o x , " B.C. T e a c h e r 20, no. 4 ( D ecember 1 9 4 0 ) : 187. 146. F 2 0 1 1 - 6 . 147. F 1 0 1 1 - 2 . 148. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 58. 149. Norman F. B l a c k , e d . , " J u n i o r R e d C r o s s V o l u n t e e r s 300 S p l i n t s , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 4 (December 1 9 4 1 ) : 198. 150. " J u n i o r R e d C r o s s News," C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r . O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 , 24. 1 5 1 . F 1 0 0 1 - 2 . 152 . F 1 0 0 5 - 4 . 1 5 3 . " J u n i o r R e d C r o s s News," C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r . J u n e 1944, 12. 154. " P e a c e R i v e r D e m o n s t r a t i o n , " C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . N ovember 1944, 18. 155. S t u a r t Wood S c h o o l , K a m l o o p s , " E x c e r p t s From A n n u a l R e p o r t s i n B.C.," C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , O c t o b e r 1 9 4 1 , 1 1 . 153 159. " J u n i o r R e d C r o s s News," C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , O c t o b e r 1 9 4 4 , 19. 160. " J u n i o r Red C r o s s News: From B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " C a n a d i a n Red  C r o s s J u n i o r , M a r c h 194 2, 20. 1 6 1 . K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l , A n n a u l 1941. 162. "War Work o f C a n a d i a n J u n i o r s , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , S e p t e m b e r 1942, 2. 163. H e l e n B a l l , "The Man B e h i n d t h e Man B e h i n d t h e Gun," C a n a d i a n  R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . M a r c h 1943, 19. 164. F 1 0 0 1 - 4 . 165. J . B . L e y l a n d , "The C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 1 , no. 9 (May 1 9 4 2 ) : 436. 166. I b i d . 167. F 1 0 1 3 - 8 . 168. A. B. O ' D o n n e l l , " L e t t e r s o f T h a n k s f r o m B r i t a i n , " C a n a d i a n  R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . F e b r u a r y 1943, 23. 169. P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h , C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , M a r c h 1943, f r o n t c o v e r . 170. "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R a l l y , " C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s J u n i o r , S e p t e m b e r 1944, 17. 1 7 1 . I b i d . 172. B a l l , "The Man B e h i n d , " 19. 173. I b i d . 174. " A r d e n t A d v o c a t e o f J u n i o r Red C r o s s Work V i s i t s N o r t h O k a n a g a n , " V e r n o n News. 22 A p r i l 1 943, 8. 175. I b i d . 176. F rom N a t u r e M a g a z i n e , r e p r i n t e d i n C a n a d i a n R e d C r o s s J u n i o r . O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 , 17. 177. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 10 May 1940. 178. D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n , " T o t a l War a n d T o t a l E f f o r t , " R a d i o B r o a d c a s t b y M a c k e n z i e K i n g on 2 F e b r u a r y 1941 ( O t t a w a : Edmond C l o u t i e r , 1941) 5. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1941-14. 179. I b i d . , 1 1 . 180. C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 8 A p r i l 1943, 39. 154 1 8 1 . C o u r t e s y o f G i l b e r t A e r o S e r v i c e , Sea I s l a n d , " V i c t o r y B o n d s F l y e r , " V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-660. 182 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 0 -1 9 4 1 ) : D77. 1 8 3 . M1897-10. 184. F 2 8 9 7 - 1 1 185. N a t i o n a l War F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e , G e t R e a d y t o Buy. 186. I b i d . 187. K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l , "$3,150 f o r V i c t o r y , " K.H.S. L i f e . D ecember 194 3 , 1. V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1943-44. 188. M1002-4. 189. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s . (1939 t h r o u g h 1 9 4 5 ) . 190. P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h A n n u a l , E x p l o r e r 1942. 1942. 1 9 1 . P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A n n u a l , E x p l o r e r 1 9 4 1 . 1 9 4 1 . 192. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s . ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 52. 1 9 3 . C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 25 M a r c h 1943, 34. 194. F1008-2 195. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) 52. 19 6. M i c k l e b u r g h , " N i c k e l s and D i m e s , " 29. 197. F1007-4 198. S u t h e r l a n d , " T r i u m p h o f ' F o r m a l i s m ' , " 1 9 1 . 199. M1897-11. 200. F1007-4 2 0 1 . P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A n n u a l , E x p l o r e r 1942. 1942. 2 0 2 . M18971-11 20 3 . M1002-4 204. F1008-2 20 5 . Denny B o y d , V a n c o u v e r Sun, 4 F e b r u a r y 1 9 9 1 , s e c . B , p . l . 155 206. W a l l a c e S t e g n e r , W o l f W i l l o w : A H i s t o r y . A S t o r y , a n d a Memory  o f t h e L a s t P l a i n s F r o n t i e r (New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , 248. 207. I b i d . 2 0 8. M1002-4 20 9 . N a t i o n a l S a l v a g e O f f i c e , "Save F a t s a n d B o n e s , " S a l v a g e  C a m p a i g n . ( O t t a w a : N a t i o n a l S a l v a g e O f f i c e ) . V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s , U n d a t e d #660. 21 0 . I b i d . 2 1 1 . F 1 0 0 1 - 2 . 2 1 2 . B o y d , S u n, s e c . B, p . l . 2 1 3 . C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 25 M a r c h 1943, 34. 214. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 4 4 ) : 57. 2 1 5 . I b i d . , 4 7 - 4 8 . 216. F1013-9 217. V a n c o u v e r , B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) : 53. 218. " A r m s t r o n g S c h o o l , " V e r n o n News. 2. 2 1 9 . " C i t y G i r l s H e l p L i t t l e T o t s i n L o n d o n ' s E. E n d , " V e r n o n News, 7 O c t o b e r 1 9 4 3 , 11. 220. P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , E x p l o r e r 1941 ( 1 9 4 1 ) . 2 2 1 . I b i d . 2 2 2 . C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 9 December 1942, 66. 2 2 3 . D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l War S e r v i c e s , "A V a l i a n t A l l y i s C a l l i n g : R u s s i a N eeds Y o u r H e l p T o d a y , " C a n a d i a n A i d t o R u s s i a  F u n d , ( V a n c o u v e r : D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l War S e r v i c e s , 1944) . V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1944-97. 224. I b i d . 2 2 5 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 2 -1 9 4 3 ) : B68. 2 2 6 . M1317-8. 227. P e a r l e B i n d e r , "The V i l l a g e S c h o o l , " B.C. T e a c h e r 2 3 , no. 3 (December 1 9 4 3 ) : 105. 228. M1010-5. 156 2 2 9 . C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , 16 A p r i l 1943, 4 1 . 230. F 1 0 0 1 - 4 . 2 3 1 . C o t t i n g h a m , 282. 2 3 2 . A g e n t G e n e r a l f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " C o m f o r t s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s S e r v i n g O v e r s e a s , " T r o o p C o m f o r t s ( L o n d o n : A g e n t G e n e r a l f o r B.C., 1 9 3 9 ) . V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s #1939-37. 2 3 3 . F 1 0 0 1 - 4 . 234. F 1 0 0 5 - 3 . 2 3 5 . F 1 3 3 2 - 4 3 236. F1013-2 23 7 . M4336-5. 238. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 -1 9 4 2 ) : B68. 239. I b i d . , B70. 2 4 0 . I b i d . , B69. 2 4 1 . P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , E x p l o r e r 1942 ( 1 9 4 2 ) . 2 4 2 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t s ( 1 9 4 1 -1 9 4 2 ) : B70. 24 3. B o y d , s e c . B, p . l . 244. C o t t i n g h a m , "Group G u i d a n c e , " 282. 2 4 5 . B a n f i e l d , " J u n i o r Red C r o s s , " 237. 246. F 1 0 0 8 - 7 . 157 CHAPTER IV "OUR LIVES WERE TERRIBLY DISLOCATED": THE WAR AND THE LIVES OF CHILDREN G r a d u a l l y t h e war came t o permeate t h e l i v e s o f c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. C h i l d r e n were a f f e c t e d by t h e war's e v e n t s , by t h e changes, f e a r s and e x c i t e m e n t s t h a t war b r o u g h t . I n t e r v i e w e e s d i s t i n c t l y remembered t h e b e g i n n i n g and t h e end o f t h e Second W o r l d War. They l i s t e n e d t o and sometimes o v e r h e a r d t h e i r p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s t a l k o f war. Some c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d i n open d i s c u s s i o n s about t h e war's e v e n t s w h i l e o t h e r s were s h e l t e r e d from t h e f r i g h t e n i n g d e t a i l s . Many c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d war as a r o m a n t i c and e x c i t i n g t i m e , a t i m e f o r p a t r i o t i s m t o t h e Empire and s t r o n g n a t i o n a l s p i r i t . C h i l d r e n ' s t h o u g h t s were n o t always so o p t i m i s t i c as many l i s t e n e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s f e a r s and a n x i e t i e s about t h e war. C h i l d r e n had s t r o n g memories o f p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s such as P e a r l Harbour and Dieppe. They watched as i n t e r n e d Japanese f a m i l i e s were s p l i t up and seemed t o d i s a p p e a r and t h e y l e a r n e d t h a t war caused a d u l t s t o d i s p l a y e m otions such as f e a r , p r e j u d i c e and h a t r e d . C h i l d r e n would e x p r e s s t h e s e p r e j u d i c e s i n t h e i r words and a c t i o n s and even i n t h e i r games. C h i l d r e n a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a t i m e when l i f e ' s r e g u l a r r o u t i n e was i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e s i g h t o f war s h i p s and manned guns i n V a ncouver's h a r b o u r , a i r r a i d s h e l t e r s , s i r e n s and b l a c k o u t 158 c u r t a i n s . D a i l y l i f e was c h a n g e d b y t h e f o o d s h o r t a g e s a n d r a t i o n c o u p o n s a s w e l l . I n t e r v i e w e e s remembered t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s became e a g e r l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e war e f f o r t w h i l e some d i s c o v e r e d t h a t w ar a l s o meant employment a n d p r o s p e r i t y i n t h e v a r i o u s w a r i n d u s t r i e s o r t h e s e r v i c e . C h i l d r e n s a i d g o o d b y e t o r e l a t i v e s who j o i n e d up t o f i g h t t h e war a n d t h e y met s e r v i c e men a n d women a n d l i s t e n e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . Some c h i l d r e n t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e d a y t h e y w o u l d be o l d e n o u g h t o j o i n t h e f o r c e s , w h i l e o t h e r s d e c i d e d n o t t o w a i t t h a t l o n g . Some c h i l d r e n h a d t o mourn t h e d e a t h o f f a m i l y members a n d f r i e n d s who h a d f o u g h t a n d d i e d o v e r s e a s . W i t h i n a d a y o f B r i t a i n ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f w a r a g a i n s t Germany t h e way o f C a n a d i a n l i f e h a s b e e n a l t e r e d . The c o u n t r y was c a l m S u n d a y - b u t nobody s m i l e d . I t was L a b o u r Day week e n d . . . C h u r c h e s w e r e c r o w d e d . M i l l i o n s s a t b e s i d e r a d i o s f r o m e a r l y m o r n i n g u n t i l l a t e n i g h t , T hey h e a r d Mr. C h a m b e r l a i n , t h e K i n g , P r e m i e r D a l a d i e r , Mr. M a c k e n z i e K i n g , a n d h i s m i n i s t e r s e x p l a i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f E m p i r e a n d C a n a d a . 1 The w a r f o r Ca n a d a b e g a n 10 S e p t e m b e r 1939, a n d i n t e r v i e w e e s h a d a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l m e m o r i e s a b o u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w a r . One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered "we h a d a l l gone f i s h i n g t h a t w e e k e n d a n d my f a t h e r s a y i n g : ' t h e r e ' s a war o n . ' " 2 A n o t h e r woman d e s c r i b e d t h e a n x i e t y a t home: " I knew t h e a d u l t s w e r e t e n s e a n d I c o u l d f e e l t h a t . The n i g h t t h a t war was d e c l a r e d , e v e r y o n e was t a l k i n g i n h u s h e d v o i c e s . " 3 To o t h e r s i t was l e s s momentous. One man r e c a l l e d " h e a r i n g t h a t t h e war h a d s t a r t e d w h i l e I was e a t i n g my b r e a k f a s t . " 4 T h o s e who k e p t a b r e a s t w i t h c u r r e n t e v e n t s a n d w o r l d news w e r e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c o m i n g w a r . "When t h e w a r was g o i n g o n i n E u r o p e we knew i t was i m m i n e n t , C a n a d a w o u l d become i n v o l v e d " , e x p l a i n e d one man, " e v e r y o n e was p r e p a r e d when wa r b r o k e o u t , t h e r e was s o much r u m b l i n g g o i n g o n . " 5 F a m i l i e s 159 w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n Europe became i n c r e a s i n g l y a n x i o u s as t h e news grew worse. One woman e x p l a i n e d "Europeans f e l t t h a t t h e r e was g o i n g t o be a war. Germany was g e t t i n g s t r o n g e r and s t r o n g e r . They were r e a l l y f r i g h t e n e d o f t h e p o l i t i c s t h a t were g o i n g on and t h e y were t e r r i f i e d o f H i t l e r . The German war movement was t e r r i b l y s t r o n g and I suppose my p a r e n t s f e a r e d t h a t war was g o i n g t o break out a t any t i m e . " 6 As t h e German war machine r o l l e d t h r o u g h Europe t h e news of s u c c e s s i v e i n v a s i o n s made t h e t h r e a t o f a w o r l d war more e v i d e n t . I n v a s i o n s were r e c a l l e d by many as s i g n i f y i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g o f war. "We had r e l a t i v e s i n Budapest and C z e c h o s l o v a k i a and t h e r e was t e r r i b l e f e a r when Germany i n v a d e d P o l a n d . . . t h e Germans were so c l o s e our r e l a t i v e s were t e r r i f i e d " , r e c a l l e d one woman.7 One f e l l o w remembered t h e b e g i n n i n g "...when Germany i n v a d e d Norway." 8 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d "coming home a t l u n c h hour and h e a r i n g t h e news about t h e Japanese i n v a s i o n o f C h i n a . . . " 9 Now t h a t t h e Second World War had s t a r t e d i t became a dominant t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n many homes. O f t e n c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e f a m i l y ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s about t h e war's e v e n t s . One man r e c a l l e d , " t h e r e would be p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o v e r t h e d i n n e r t a b l e and I'd s i t and l i s t e n t o t h a t . " 1 0 A woman remembered t h a t a t h e r d i n n e r t i m e "the c h i l d r e n g o t i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e a d u l t s . There was none of t h i s c h i l d r e n e a t i n t h e k i t c h e n k i n d o f t h i n g . C h i l d r e n were p a r t o f t h e g a t h e r i n g , so we would h e a r p e o p l e t a l k i n g about t h e war, and about H i t l e r . " 1 1 I n a n o t h e r home a woman's " b r o t h e r was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e war. He and my mother used t o t a l k about i t a l l t h e t i m e . I can remember l i s t e n i n g i n . . . " 1 2 " I remember h a v i n g d i n n e r " , one 160 woman said when discussing her father, "he talked about the war..." 1 3 Another remembered growing up i n Oliver and attending "family picnics...Hundreds of people would go, and the men would a l l stand together and they would t a l k about the war. That was one way to learn about what was going on i n the world." 1 4 In some homes the war was discussed i n a less than straightforward manner. Parents f e l t i t was better to shelter t h e i r c h i l d r e n from any upsetting news. This attitude often led children to f e e l i n d i f f e r e n t about the war. When one c h i l d asked "would we lose the war, momma?" She r e p l i e d "Oh no, God wouldn't l e t that happen." 1 5 With his father stationed i n England, one man r e f l e c t e d "we were never worried that he would be k i l l e d . My mother never seemed to be concerned...we never thought of i t from the point of view that his plane might be attacked." 1 6 He concluded that he was " r e a l l y pretty sheltered...A l o t of my knowledge of the war came after the war." 1 7 Many parents, l i k e h i s , d id not want t h e i r children to worry. One woman described t h i s i d y l l i c view when on the night before her father l e f t to serve overseas "he talked about the war, he didn't f e e l i t was going to be a r e a l t h r e a t . " 1 8 Sharing her feelings about the war she said: "I was never r e a l l y interested i n i t . To me i t was more a problem for adults to solve...at home the war was something our parents would take care o f . " 1 9 Some parents simply d i d not f e e l children should be included i n t h e i r discussions. One interviewee remembered the general lack of t o p i c a l conversation: "Certainly people did not comment to me about the war's events that much."20 His impression was that "the war was talked about i f adults were t h e r e . . . i t was an adult 161 t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . " 2 1 He h a d d e c i d e d t h a t t h e w a r was "way * o f f t h e r e , a n d I c a n ' t s a y t h a t a n y o f i t a f f e c t e d o u r d a i l y l i f e t h a t much...The war seemed t o be much a p a r t o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d " 2 2 To a number o f c h i l d r e n t h e war i n E u r o p e a n d t h e O r i e n t seemed t o be t o o f a r away t o be r e a l . " I t was a r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g a b o u t t h e w a r , i t was s o d i s t a n t , s o f a r away" r e c o u n t e d one m a n . 2 3 " I t was a l l v e r y r o m a n t i c " c l a i m e d a n o t h e r , " I was t a k e n i n . " 2 4 One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e "war was s o f a r away, i t was o v e r i n E u r o p e . " 2 5 One f e l l o w remembered h i s f r i e n d s j o i n i n g up " t h e y w e r e s o e x c i t e d , i t was a v e r y r o m a n t i c v i e w o f t h e w a r . " 2 6 A n o t h e r man " w o u l d d e f i n e t h e w a r a s b e i n g r o m a n t i c , u n r e a l , f u l l o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , e v e r y o n e w i t h p o s i t i v e v i e w s . " 2 7 " I remember t h e war was v e r y r o m a n t i c i z e d " o ne woman commented, " i t was s o f a r a w a y . . . " 2 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " f o r a y o u n g g i r l i n t h o s e d a y s i t was a r o m a n t i c p e r i o d . B a n d s p l a y e d , a n d y o u n g men m a r c h e d . " 2 9 One i n t e r v i e w e e a t t r i b u t e d i t t o h e r a g e : " I t h i n k when y o u a r e t h a t y o u n g y o u c a n be f r i v o l o u s a b o u t t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s . " 3 0 Much o f t h e r o m a n t i c f e e l i n g stemmed f r o m t h e m e d i a ' s a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n p u b l i c m o r a l e . Upon r e f l e c t i o n one woman r e l a t e d " T h e r e was a p a t r i o t i s m t h a t was n e v e r g e n e r a t e d a g a i n , n o t i n C a n a d a . " 3 1 T h i s p a t r i o t i s m u p h e l d t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e wa r "was a l w a y s f o r t h e r i g h t c a u s e , we w e r e d o i n g t h e r i g h t t h i n g . " 3 2 One man d e s c r i b e d war " p r e s e n t e d t o u s a s R a h Rah t h e E m p i r e . . . " 3 3 Denny B o y d , a C a n a d i a n j o u r n a l i s t , r e c a l l e d t h a t " . . . e v e r y o n e was e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t The B i g One. T h e r e w e r e n ' t a n y p e a c e p r o t e s t e r s . E v e r y o n e t a l k e d a b o u t D o i n g T h e i r 162 B i t , a b o u t G e t t i n g B e h i n d The War E f f o r t . " 3 4 " I t was q u i t e a t i m e t o l i v e . . . " e x p l a i n e d one woman, " . . . e v e r y t h i n g y o u d i d was w a r . " 3 5 The p r o p a g a n d a p r o d u c e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t was f u l l o f o p t i m i s t i c p r o m i s e s o f v i c t o r y . One i n t e r v i e w e e r e c a l l e d t h a t " i t was a l w a y s assumed t h a t we w o u l d w i n t h e w a r . " 3 6 "On t h e w h o l e we w e r e a l w a y s f a i r l y o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e w a r " d e c l a r e d one woman. 3 7 W i t h p r o m i s e d v i c t o r y t h e w a r was, t o some, a n e x c i t i n g a n d f a s c i n a t i n g t i m e t o g r o w u p . One man r e m e m b e r e d t h e war a s " b e i n g a t e r r i b l y i n t e r e s t i n g t i m e t o l i v e . The t y p e s o f weapons a n d g u n s a n d a s a k i d b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l t h e s e s o r t s o f f a s c i n a t i n g t h i n g s , war w e a p o n s , a i r p l a n e s a n d a l l t h a t . " 3 8 He a l s o r e v e a l e d t h e f a c t t h a t "when t h e R u s s i a n s j o i n e d i n t h e war t h e y p r e s e n t e d a w h o l e new g e n e a l o g y o f w e a p o n s . . . " 3 9 " W h i l e t h e war was on a l l y o u r t h i n k i n g , e v e r y t h i n g y o u d i d was c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e w a r . . . " e x p l a i n e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 4 0 A n o t h e r d i s c l o s e d : " i t was a v e r y v i v i d p a r t o f my l i f e , t o me i t was t h e war t o e n d a l l w a r s , n o t W o r l d War I . " 4 1 A l a n Thomas e l o q u e n t l y e x p l a i n e d t h e a u r a o f e x c i t e m e n t d u r i n g t h e w a r y e a r s : "...some o f u s became i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i c t o r y a n d w i t h p e a c e , a n d w e r e s w e p t up e m o t i o n a l l y i n t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d t h e o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s whose p o t e n t i a l c a p t u r e d o u r i m a g i n a t i o n s . I | 4 2 A l o n g w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e p r o p a g a n d a a n d e x c i t e m e n t , t h e war a l s o c a u s e d t h e p o w e r f u l f e a r o f t h e unknown. D u r i n g f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n s many a d u l t s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f e a r s a b o u t t h e w a r a n d t h e s e f e a r s w e r e p a s s e d on t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . One man remembered 163 l i s t e n i n g i n a n d he " g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n f r o m o v e r h e a r i n g t h e a d u l t s c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t t h e y w e r e q u i t e s c a r e d . " 4 3 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d : "My p a r e n t s f e l t v e r y t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e w a r b e c a u s e t h e y h a d t h r e e b o y s . " 4 4 One f e l l o w s t a t e d t h a t h i s " m o t h e r h a d l o s t h e r b r o t h e r i n t h e F i r s t W o r l d War a n d s o s h e d i d n ' t w a n t u s t o s i g n u p . " 4 5 One woman's s t r o n g e s t memory was t h a t " t h e f e e l i n g i n t h e a r e a a b o u t t h e war was d i s g u s t . " 4 6 ' A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e remembered h i s "m o t h e r v e r y n e r v o u s , c o n c e r n e d a b o u t i t . . . A s a k i d I h a d t h i s g r e a t i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t a n y t h i n g m i g h t h a p p e n . A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " b e i n g i n t h e h o u s e a n d t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d t h e s e n s e o f g r a v i t y . . . " 4 8 F a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n s w o u l d o f t e n i m p a r t t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f w a r o n c h i l d r e n . One man e x p l a i n e d t h a t when "my p a r e n t s w a n t e d t o move t o K e l o w n a , I t h o u g h t : wow t h i s i s r e a l l y s e r i o u s ! " 4 9 A n o t h e r r e c o u n t e d : "The war was t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y i n my f a m i l y . T h e r e w a s n ' t much j o v i a l i t y i n i t . " 5 0 "My d a d j o i n e d up i n 1 9 4 0 " , s a i d o ne woman, a n d h i s f r i e n d s " w o u l d d r o p b y t h e h o u s e i n t h e e v e n i n g s f o r news...They a l l seemed s o s e r i o u s . . . " 5 1 / T h e w a r became a v e r y f r i g h t e n i n g t h i n g t o one woman who re m e m b e r e d l i s t e n i n g t o a d u l t s s a y t h a t " . . . H i t l e r was g o i n g t o i n v a d e t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d , t h a t H i t l e r a n d h i s war m a c h i n e was c o m i n g c l o s e r . T h e r e was t e r r i b l e f e a r i n t h e s e p e o p l e . " 5 2 She h a d a n i g h t m a r e t h a t n i g h t a n d went " r u n n i n g , s c r e a m i n g a n d s o b b i n g i n t o t h e l i v i n g room: 'I'm s o s c a r e d o f H i t l e r ' . . . I b e l i e v e d t h a t H i t l e r was g o i n g t o come and k i l l mommy a n d my s i s t e r s a n d G i n g e r a n d t h e c a t a n d t h e c h i c k e n s , e v e r y t h i n g . " 5 ^ J o u r n a l i s t , T r e v o r L a u t e n s , d e s c r i b e d t h e t o n e o f t h e t i m e a s : " U n d e r s t a n d i n g s o m e t h i n g b a d h a d h a p p e n e d , f e e l i n g g r o w n - u p s * f e a r . " 5 4 164 P a r t i c u l a r , s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s a l s o made t h e w a r a v e r y r e a l a n d f r i g h t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t o many c h i l d r e n . P e a r l H a r b o u r , t h e S h e l l i n g o f P o i n t E s t e v a n , t h e s i n k i n g o f t h e A t h e n i a a n d D i e p p e w e r e r e c a l l e d b y many o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s . One man r e m a r k e d " A l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s t o l d u s t h a t war was g o i n g o n . I n t e r m s o f v i v i d a w a r e n e s s . . . I remember P e a r l H a r b o u r . . . " 5 5 I t was a s e r i e s o f b i z a r r e e v e n t s t h a t l e d many t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f enemy i n v a s i o n . I n December 1 9 4 1 , t h e J a p a n e s e f o r c e s bombed P e a r l H a r b o u r . I n M a r c h 1942, J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e f o r c i b l y e v a c u a t e d f r o m t h e w e s t c o a s t . I n e a r l y J u n e 1 9 4 2 , t w o A l e u t i a n i s l a n d s w e r e s e i z e d a n d J a p a n e s e t r o o p s a p p e a r e d t o be a d v a n c i n g o n t h e A l a s k a n m a i n l a n d . 5 6 On 7 J u n e 1942, a n A m e r i c a n f r e i g h t e r was t o r p e d o e d a t t h e mouth o f J u a n de F u c a S t r a i t . On 20 J u n e a J a p a n e s e s u b m a r i n e s h e l l e d t h e l i g h t h o u s e a n d r a d i o s t a t i o n a t E s t e v a n P o i n t on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . 5 7 Many r e m e m b e r e d t h e s e e v e n t s and t h e e s c a l a t i n g f e a r o f i n v a s i o n t h a t t h e y c a u s e d . One man e x p l a i n e d " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e n t t o w a r a g a i n s t J a p a n S u nday a few m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e f i r s t bombs f e l l on H o n o l u l u a n d t h e P h i l l i p i n e s . . . 1 , 5 8 A woman r e c a l l e d t h a t " t h e b i g t h i n g i s t h e memory o f P e a r l H a r b o u r d a y . . . " 5 9 " I do remember t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r . . . a n d t h e p h o n e r i n g i n g o f f t h e h o o k . . . " t o l d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 6 0 He a l s o r e c a l l e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e : " I t w a s n ' t r e a l l y u n t i l t h e J a p a n e s e a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r . . . t h a t t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s b e g a n t o e f f e c t me." 6 1 A n o t h e r d e c l a r e d : " . . . P e a r l H a r b o u r I remember m o s t v i v i d l y . " Some c h i l d r e n remembered e x a c t l y w h e r e t h e y w e r e a t t h e t i m e . " I remember b e i n g on G r o u s e M o u n t a i n o n December 7 t h a n d 165 b e i n g s u r p r i s e d when I h e a r what h a d h a p p e n e d . " R e c o u n t e d one m a n . 6 2 A n o t h e r s t a t e d : " I remember w h e r e I was t h a t d a y . . . I was up Seymour M o u n t a i n . . . w e l o o k e d down a t t h e c i t y a n d t h e w h o l e c i t y was b l a c k . " 6 3 The b o m b i n g c a u s e d many f a m i l i e s t o w o r r y a n d t a l k a b o u t i n v a s i o n . " I remember t h e d a y P e a r l H a r b o u r was bombed q u i t e c l e a r l y , we l i s t e n e d t o t h e b r o a d c a s t on t h e r a d i o , a n d we t h o u g h t i t was a l l o v e r , t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d i n v a d e C a n a d a n e x t . " 6 4 A n o t h e r woman s a i d : " I remember P e a r l H a r b o u r . I n v a s i o n was t h e b i g t h i n g , a n d i n c e n d i a r y b o m b i n g . T h o s e w e r e t h e t h i n g s we w o r r i e d a b o u t . " One man r e c a l l e d t h a t " t h e y w e r e s c a r e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be an i n v a s i o n . . . t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e i n P e a r l H a r b o u r w h i c h d i d n ' t seem s o f a r away f r o m V a n c o u v e r o r V i c t o r i a . . . " 6 5 I t was t o a l t e r h i s l i f e c o n s i d e r a b l y : " I remember we moved t o B a n f f i n 1 9 4 2 . . . I was s u r e i t h a d s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e a t t a c k on P e a r l H a r b o u r . . . A l o t o f p e o p l e f r o m V a n c o u v e r a n d V i c t o r i a , some t h a t we knew, w e n t t o B a n f f b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r c e i v e d m i l i t a r y t h r e a t t o t h e c o a s t o f B . C . " 6 6 The s h e l l i n g o f t h e l i g h t h o u s e on P o i n t E s t e v a n was a s h o c k i n g e v e n t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c i t i z e n s . One woman, f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , d e s c r i b e d t h a t n i g h t t h e a i r r a i d s i r e n s w a i l e d : "The n i g h t t h e y s h e l l e d t h e l i g h t h o u s e t h e y s o u n d e d t h e s i r e n i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t . . . W e w e r e n ' t r e a l l y s u r e i f i t was a s e r i o u s d r i l l o r n o t . " 6 7 O t h e r s r e g a r d e d i t a s a c r i t i c a l e v e n t : " I remember when E s t e v a n was s h e l l e d . We t h o u g h t t h e w a r was g e t t i n g c l o s e r w i t h t h e s h e l l i n g . " 6 8 The s h e l l i n g a l s o a u g m e n t e d p e o p l e ' s f e a r o f i n v a s i o n "...when t h e J a p a n e s e s u b s h e l l e d E s t e v a n t h a t was a v e r y b i g t h i n g w h i c h j u s t a d d e d t o 166 t h i s f e a r " r e m a r k e d one m an. 6 9 A n o t h e r s t a t e d : "...we w e r e a l w a y s a f r a i d o f a J a p a n e s e i n v a s i o n . When P o i n t E s t e v a n was s h e l l e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e s u b , we t h o u g h t f o r s u r e we h a d b e e n i n v a d e d . " 7 0 The s i n k i n g o f t h e A t h e n i a was a n o t h e r momentous e v e n t t h a t was w e l l remembered. " I t was S e p t e m b e r 4 t h , 1939...we s a t i n my p a r e n t s l i v i n g room," e x p l a i n e d one man, " a n d we l i s t e n e d t o t h e news...The a n n o u n c e r s a i d t h a t t h e s t e a m s h i p A t h e n i a h a d b e e n s u n k b y German s u b m a r i n e s o f f t h e c o a s t o f E n g l a n d . " 7 1 A number o f p e o p l e f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e on b o a r d t h e A t h e n i a a n d t h e e v e n t was w e l l p u b l i c i z e d a n d t a l k e d a b o u t . One woman r e c a l l e d "when t h e A t h e n i a s a n k . T h a t was a more i m p o r t a n t e v e n t t h a n t h e w a r i t s e l f . One o f t h e g i r l s f r o m S t . M a r y ' s c h u r c h was on i t when i t w e n t d o w n . " 7 2 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e remembered t h e n u m e r o u s news r e l e a s e s a nd he s a i d : " T h e r e seemed t o be more o f a n u p r o a r o v e r t h e A t h e n i a t h a n o f Canada g o i n g t o w a r . " He a d m i t t e d i t was i m p o r t a n t t o h i m b e c a u s e "a t e a c h e r f r o m s c h o o l was o n t h e A t h e n i a . " 7 3 A n o t h e r f e l l o w n e a r l y l o s t h i s c l a s s m a t e s , t h e K i t s i l a n o B and, " t h a t r e a l l y b r o u g h t i t home t o u s a l l . T h a t t h i s w ar c o u l d e f f e c t u s i n C a n a d a , t h a t i t was r e a l . " 7 4 The b a t t l e a t D i e p p e , F r a n c e , was a l s o r e membered by some. " I remember... l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r a d i o f o r news o n D i e p p e . . . I t was a g r e a t l o s s a n d we t a l k e d a b o u t i t . . . f o r w e eks a f t e r w a r d s " e x p l a i n e d one man. 7 5 One woman remembered " I n e v e r t h o u g h t o f C a n a d i a n s b e i n g a t war u n t i l a l l t h e news o f D i e p p e . " 7 6 P e o p l e w e r e a f r a i d t h a t t h e war w o u l d s o o n come t o C a n a d a . " E v e r y o n e became v e r y f r i g h t e n e d t h a t we w e r e g o i n g t o be i n v a d e d 167 b y t h e J a p a n e s e " , s t a t e d one man. 7 7 He a l s o r e membered t h a t i n v a s i o n was t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y i n h i s home. " P e o p l e w e r e a l m o s t p a r a n o i d o f b e i n g i n v a d e d . . . m y p a r e n t s w a n t e d t o move t o K e l o w n a . . . " 7 8 One woman r e c a l l e d "we w e r e e x p e c t i n g t h e J a p a n e s e t o a t t a c k a n y t i m e . " 7 9 A n o t h e r b e l i e v e d " t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e v e r y c l o s e t o i n v a d i n g u s . " 8 0 "We w e r e h a v i n g J a p a n e s e s c a r e s . . . " r e c o u n t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . She s a i d t h a t t h e m i n i s t e r h a d v i s i t e d h e r f a m i l y a n d s h a r e d h i s s t r o n g f e a r o f i n v a s i o n : "...he s t a t e d t h a t i f t h e J a p a n e s e came o v e r h e r e he w o u l d k i l l h i m s e l f a n d h i s c h i l d r e n b e f o r e he l e t t h e i r f i l t h y h a n d s t o u c h t h e m . " 8 1 One woman c o n c l u d e d t h a t " u n l e s s y o u l i v e d t h e n , y o u c o u l d n ' t a p p r e c i a t e how i t f e l t n o t k n o w i n g i f someone was o u t t h e r e w a i t i n g t o bomb y o u . " 8 2 O t h e r c h i l d r e n w e r e n o t a s a f r a i d , some e v e n t h o u g h t i t was a n e x c i t i n g a d v e n t u r e . One f e l l o w commented: "...we c e r t a i n l y n e v e r s a t a r o u n d t h i n k i n g we w o u l d be b o m b e d . " 8 3 A woman r e m a r k e d "We d i d n ' t r e a l l y f e a r a n i n v a s i o n . . . " 8 4 A n o t h e r remembered t h a t t h e n e a r b y woods was t h e a g r e e d m e e t i n g p l a c e i n c a s e o f a n i n v a s i o n . " I s u p p o s e t h a t we w e r e t o h i d e t h e r e i n c a s e o f a n i n v a s i o n . . . e v e r y p l a n e t h a t f l e w o v e r , we w e n t r a n o u t t o t h e woods...We w e r e n ' t r e a l l y a f r a i d . I t was f u n f o r k i d s . . . I l e a r n e d t o smoke i n t h e a i r r a i d s h e l t e r . . . s m o k i n g i n t h e s e d r i e d o u t b u s h e s , we d i d n ' t n e e d t h e h e l p o f t h e J a p a n e s e t o s t a r t a f i r e ! " 8 5 "We f e l t d a n g e r f r o m J a p a n o n c e we'd s e e n t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e J a p a n e s e " , s t a t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e a s he r e c a l l e d t h e i n t e r n m e n t o f t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s , " t h e r e w e r e two J a p a n e s e f a m i l i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d b o t h o f them j u s t d i s a p p e a r e d . " 8 6 F o l l o w i n g t h e b o m b i n g o f P e a r l H a r b o u r , t h e i n t e r n m e n t a n d r e l o c a t i o n o f 168 t h e p e o p l e o f J a p a n e s e h e r i t a g e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was u n d e r way. The G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada c r e a t e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e c u r i t y C o m m i s s i o n whose d u t y i t was t o e v a c u a t e more t h a n 23,000 J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s f r o m t h e i r homes and means o f l i v e l i h o o d . The r e p o r t i s s u e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n i n 1942 s t a t e d t h a t " t h o s e J a p a n e s e known t o be d a n g e r o u s , o r t o h a v e t h e s l i g h t e s t s u b v e r s i v e t e n d e n c i e s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p o t e n t i a l menace, w e r e a t o n c e a r r e s t e d by t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n M o u n t e d P o l i c e , a n d p l a c e d i n i n t e r n m e n t c a m p s . " 8 7 Among t h o s e e v a c u a t e d w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,000 c h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a g e . 8 8 To some c h i l d r e n i t was a s i f t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s h a d s i m p l y v a n i s h e d , o t h e r s w e r e more a t t e n t i v e o f t h e i n t e r n m e n t . " I g u e s s i t was 1 9 4 2 , a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r " remembered one woman, "my f r i e n d ' s g r a n d p a r e n t s h a d a g r o c e r y s t o r e . . . T h e y w ere a l l r o u n d e d up, t h e y j u s t d i s a p p e a r e d . " 8 9 A n o t h e r woman remembered " t h e J a p a n e s e j u s t s o r t o f d i s a p p e a r i n g , b u t I n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d o r w o n d e r e d w h y . " 9 0 One f e l l o w d e s c r i b e d t h e i n t e r n m e n t a s " J a p a n e s e k i d s i n K i t s i l a n o j u s t d i s a p p e a r i n g . T hey w e r e b e i n g r e l o c a t e d . " 9 1 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d "...two J a p a n e s e f a m i l i e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d b o t h o f them j u s t d i s a p p e a r e d . " 9 2 " J a p a n e s e j u s t seemed t o e v a p o r a t e , t h e i r h o u s e s s t o o d empty" e x p l a i n e d one woman. 9 3 A n o t h e r remembered t h a t "...one d a y y o u j u s t d i d n ' t s e e them on t h e s t r e e t c a r s a n y m o r e . 9 4 Many c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y remembered t h e l o s s o f t h e i r J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s c h o o l f r i e n d s . One man r e c o u n t e d a m e m o r a b l e s c h o o l d a y : " . . . a n a s s e m b l y was c a l l e d a t s c h o o l . The R.C.M.P. came i n a n d t o o k o u t a l l t h e J a p a n e s e k i d s . " 9 5 He s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c a l l e d 169 "a J a p a n e s e f e l l o w i n o u r c l a s s . . . w a s t a k e n away...We t a l k e d a b o u t i t a m o n g s t o u r s e l v e s . We t h o u g h t i t was q u i t e c r u e l . " 9 6 A woman a l s o remembered one s c h o o l d a y " t h e p o l i c e came t o s c h o o l a n d t o o k t h e J a p a n e s e g i r l s o u t o f t h e s c h o o l . " 9 7 A n o t h e r f e l l o w i n K i t s i l a n o h i g h s c h o o l r e p o r t e d " I h a d a f r i e n d a t s c h o o l . . . h i s f a m i l y moved t o K a s l o . . . I , n o r my f a m i l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . W h y s h o u l d t h i s h a p p e n t o t h e m ? " 9 8 T h e r e w e r e some c h i l d r e n , a t t h a t t i m e , who s i m p l y a c c e p t e d t h e i n t e r n m e n t . One man d e c l a r e d : " p e o p l e a r e h a r d on t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t i n t e r n e d t h e J a p a n e s e , b u t p e o p l e w e r e v e r y n e r v o u s a t t h e t i m e , a n d f r o m a s e c u r i t y s t a n d p o i n t . . . i t seemed a s i f t h e r e was no c h o i c e . " 9 9 He commented on " t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g f o r m o v i n g t h e J a p a n e s e o u t was t h a t i t was a g o o d t h i n g . " 1 0 0 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e q u e s t e d " i n t r o d u c e me t o a V a n c o u v e r i t e i n 1942 who d i d n ' t a g r e e t h a t i t w a s n ' t t h e r i g h t t h i n g t o d o . " 1 0 1 One man f e l t t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g was due t o " t h e way t h e p r e s s h a n d l e d i t . I f t h e y h a d done i t d i f f e r e n t l y t h e r e c e r t a i n l y w o u l d h a v e b e e n more s y m p a t h y . I d o n ' t remember a n y t h i n g t h a t d e a l t w i t h a q u e s t i o n o f r i g h t s . . . " 1 0 2 One man r e c a l l e d , a s a t e e n , v i s i t i n g t h e i n t e r n m e n t camp a t H a s t i n g s P a r k . T h e y h a d s t r u n g b a r b w i r e up a r o u n d t h e t o p o f t h e w i r e f e n c e . . . t h e J a p a n e s e w o u l d come o v e r a n d s p i t on u s . We n e v e r u n d e r s t o o d . " 1 0 3 I t was a s e c o n d v i s i t t h a t h e l p e d h i m u n d e r s t a n d : "They w e r e a s f r i g h t e n e d a s we w e r e . . . I remember g o i n g i n a f t e r t h e y h a d g o n e . . . a n d I saw t h e mess, i t was p r e t t y b a d , y e s , l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s w e r e b a d , t h e y w e r e i n s t a l l s . . . " 1 0 4 Some c h i l d r e n knew t h a t c e r t a i n m e a s u r e s o f t h e i n t e r n m e n t w e r e v e r y h a r s h . An unknown n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s t a t e d t h a t : 170 " . . . t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e o p p o s e d t o b r e a k i n g up o f f a m i l i e s , b u t t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n a p p e a r e d t o be d e t e r m i n e d t o s e p a r a t e t h e men f r o m t h e i r w i v e s a n d c h i l d r e n . 1 1 1 0 5 One f e l l o w r e c a l l e d " I was f r i e n d s w i t h a J a p a n e s e f e l l o w a t K i n g Ed. He d i d n ' t go t o t h e i n t e r i o r b u t h i s f a t h e r d i d . They d i v i d e d a number o f f a m i l i e s . T h e r e w e r e m i x e d m a r r i a g e s . . . a n d t h e y w o u l d s p l i t t h o s e u p . " 1 0 6 F a m i l i e s w e r e s p l i t up and J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l o s t m o s t o f t h e i r r e a l e s t a t e a nd p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s . "You c a n i m a g i n e a l l t h e p e o p l e who t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e J a p a n e s e i n t e r n m e n t " , s t a t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , " t h e y ' d s a y : 'God d i d I g e t a g o o d d e a l , y o u s h o u l d s e e t h i s f i s h b o a t ' . . . I t was v e r y s a d . " 1 0 7 One man d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s "some o f t h e J a p a n e s e f a m i l i e s h a d t o s e l l e v e r y t h i n g . . . T h e i r f i s h i n g b o a t s w e r e c o n f i s c a t e d . P e o p l e b o u g h t h o u s e s f o r f i v e t o t e n c e n t s on t h e d o l l a r . " 1 0 8 One woman remembered a " J a p a n e s e man g a v e away h i s f u r n i t u r e b e c a u s e he knew t h e y w o u l d c o n f i s c a t e e v e r y t h i n g . . . " 1 0 9 A s t h e J a p a n e s e C a n a d i a n s w e r e i n t e r n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n v a s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o c a u s e a n x i e t y a n d t h i s f e a r p r o d u c e d h a t r e d a n d p r e j u d i c e . Many c h i l d r e n l i s t e n e d a s t h e m e d i a a n d a d u l t s r e f e r r e d t o t h e ' y e l l o w p e r i l ' a s t h e enemy a n d a s s p i e s . One man e x p l a i n e d " t h e r e w e r e t e r m s u s e d a b o u t them. I remember F i f t h C o l u m n a n d Q u i s l i n g . T h e s e w e r e names y o u c a l l e d someone who was a s p y o r a t r a i t o r o r a c o l l a b o r a t o r . T h a t ' s w h a t t h e y w e r e r e g a r d e d a s . " 1 1 0 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d t h e mood: "Some o f t h e J a p a n e s e h i d i n t h e i r h o u s e s . They w e r e j u s t a s f r i g h t e n e d a s we w e r e a n d t h e y w e r e c o n c e r n e d b e c a u s e s u d d e n l y t h e r e was a l o t o f r a c i a l t e n s i o n . . . w e l e a r n e d t h a t t h e y w e r e f i f t h 171 c o l u m n i s t s , t h a t t h e y w o u l d s a b o t a g e . " 1 1 1 " I remember t h e r e was a r u m o u r a b o u t t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e t h a t t h e y f o u n d a r a d i o " r e c o u n t e d one m a n . 1 1 2 A woman a s k e d a b o u t h e r f r i e n d s : " I remember a s k i n g w h a t h a p p e n e d . P e o p l e s a i d t h e y h a d a r a d i o . . . " 1 1 3 A n o t h e r r e c o u n t e d : " I remember g o i n g i n t o t h e J a p a n e s e m a r k e t a n d t h e y w e r e a l l l i s t e n i n g t o R a d i o T o k y o . We t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e s p i e s i n t h e J a p a n e s e m a r k e t , we a l l made t h e s e s w e e p i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t a n y o n e w i t h a t w o way r a d i o w e r e s p i e s . " 1 1 4 T h i s p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d s t h e enemy was e x p r e s s e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s w o r d s a n d i n t h e i r a c t i o n s . One man e x p l a i n e d " t h e r e was a l o t o f p r e j u d i c e i n V a n c o u v e r . . . t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e t h e s l a n t e y e d , y e l l o w p e r i l . T h e y w e r e r e a l l y d r e a d f u l , t h e y b u t c h e r e d b a b i e s a n d r a p e d p e o p l e . " 1 1 5 T h e s e r u m o u r s w e r e t a k e n s e r i o u s l y a s he e x p l a i n e d : " I c a n a l s o remember b e i n g f a s c i n a t e d a t how t o t e l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a J a p a n e s e a nd a C h i n e s e . " 1 1 6 " I remember t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e more o u r enemy t h a n t h e Germans" s t a t e d one w o m a n . 1 1 7 A n o t h e r remembered " b e i n g s c a r e d t o d e a t h b y t h e w a r t i m e a n t i - J a p a n e s e h y s t e r i a . " 1 1 8 One i n t e r v i e w e e r e c a l l e d " w h e n e v e r we saw J a p a n e s e on t h e s t r e e t c a r s we w o u l d l o o k a w a y . " 1 1 9 L a u t e n s remembered a n d w r o t e : " H a t r e d . P i c k i n g i t o u t o f t h e v e r y a i r , p u t t i n g a s i d e my p e a c e f u l w r i t i n g s . . . i n f a v o u r o f f u r i o u s , s l a s h i n g p i c t u r e s a n d f i s t d r a w n w o r d s a b o u t a t t a c k s o n G ermans, J a p s - m o n s t e r s . " 1 2 0 C h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e Germans a s w e l l a s t h e J a p a n e s e . " I c e r t a i n l y g rew up w i t h a d i s l i k e f o r Germans" one woman d i s c l o s e d . 1 2 1 A n o t h e r woman remembered t h e m e d i a made " t h e Germans i n t o s u c h t e r r i b l e p e o p l e . I g u e s s t h e y 172 w e r e t e r r i b l e t h e n . . . " 1 2 2 One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d h e r f a t h e r ' s j o b a s a p o l i c e m a n . " H i s j o b was t o l o o k up a l i e n s , a n y o n e who was German a n d h a d moved i n t o t h e a r e a i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s . He h a d t o v i s i t them a n d s e a r c h t h e i r homes f o r f i r e a r m s . " She a l s o remembered "He h a d t o t e l l t hem t h a t t h e y w e r e l a i d o f f w o r k . . . h e s e a r c h e d t h e i r h o u s e . " 1 2 3 One woman r e v e a l e d "my f a t h e r d r o p p e d h i s l a s t name b e c a u s e i t was o f German b a c k g r o u n d . " 1 2 4 R a c i s t a t t i t u d e s , c o m p r e h e n d e d o r n o t , w e r e o f t e n e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h p l a y . C h i l d r e n , m o s t l y b o y s , p l a y e d war i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d s . One man s t a t e d t h a t o n c e t h e war b e g a n "...we p l a y e d a l o t more games, war g a m e s . " 1 2 5 A n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e t r a n s i t i o n made o n c e t h e war s t a r t e d : "...we w e r e p l a y i n g 'Cowboys a n d I n d i a n s ' a t t h e t i m e a n d j u s t c h a n g e d t o ' S o l d i e r s a n d W a r 1 . 1 2 6 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e h a d a s i m i l a r memory: " I t was l i k e 'Cops a n d R o b b e r s ' b u t ' B r i t i s h a n d G e r m a n s ' . " 1 2 7 He d e s c r i b e d t h e games a s " p r e t t y e l a b o r a t e . . . W e w o u l d r o u n d up p r i s o n e r s a n d we p l a y e d i n a f i e l d t h a t was r i d d l e d w i t h t r e n c h e s . We d u g t r e n c h e s l i k e c r a z y , o r we'd u s e b r a n c h e s a n d boughs a n d b u i l d b o o b y t r a p s . " 1 2 8 One man remembered h i s games i n c l u d e d r a c i a l i n s u l t s "we u s e d t o p l a y ' K i l l t h e K r a u t s o r J a p s ' . . . Y o u w e r e t h e b a d g u y i f y o u w e r e t h e K r a u t o r J a p . " 1 2 9 A n o t h e r man p l a y e d "war games...The J a p a n e s e o r t h e Germans w e r e t h e enemy a n d someone a l w a y s h a d t o be t h e o t h e r s i d e . W i t h me i t was u s u a l l y t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e t h e b a d g u y s . " 1 3 0 " P l a y i n g war was a l w a y s w i t h t h e b o y s " c l a i m e d one f e l l o w . 1 3 1 'War' was a l s o a game f o r some g i r l s a s w e l l . One woman remembered " p l a y i n g B a t t l e s h i p s a t s c h o o l . " 1 3 2 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d : "We p l a y e d war a l o t o n t h e 173 i s l a n d . . . W e s p l i t i n t o t e a m s and w o u l d t r y t o g e t i n t o enemy t e r r i t o r y . . . W e w o u l d c r a w l on o u r s t o m a c h s . " 1 3 3 One man p o r t r a y e d t h e war games v e r y p e r c e p t i v e l y : " . . . i t was l i k e p l a y i n g a u t h o r i t y . What amazes me now w e r e t h e f a s c i s t o v e r t o n e s . . . w e u s e d t o c a l l t h e guy a t t h e t o p o f t h e h i e r a r c h y ' t h e f u h r e r ' . . . " 1 3 4 He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e games i n c l u d e d " f a s c i s t t e r m i n o l o g y . . . s y s t e m s o f c o n t r o l , n e a t n e s s , o r d e r , o b e d i e n c e . . . I t h i n k we u s e d t o g i v e t h e H i t l e r s a l u t e s . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f a n e l i t e g r o u p t h a t e n f o r c e d a u t h o r i t y o n o t h e r s , t h e w o r d s a n d a c t i o n s s i g n i f y i n g i t w e r e a r o u n d u s . " 1 3 5 S m a l l c h a n g e s i n t h e harmony o f d a i l y l i f e c r e a t e d a f e e l i n g o f u n c e r t a i n t y a n d n o v e l t y . D u r i n g t h e war y e a r s V a n c o u v e r ' s i n n e r h a r b o u r was b r i s t l i n g w i t h g u n s , a n d h uge w a r s h i p s s a i l e d i n a n d o u t . A i r r a i d s h e l t e r s w e r e b u i l t i n t h e c i t y a n d s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . A i r r a i d s i r e n s b l a r e d f o r t h e p r a c t i c e d r i l l s , p e o p l e p l a c e d b l a c k o u t c o v e r s o v e r t h e i r w i n d o w s a n d c a r h e a d l i g h t s . Some r u s h e d o u t t o t h e s t o r e s a n d b e g a n h o a r d i n g c e r t a i n f o o d s . Gas a n d l i q u o r w e r e a l s o r a t i o n e d a n d b a r t e r i n g w i t h r a t i o n c o u p o n s became common. T h e s e p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s b r o u g h t t h e w a r i n t o c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s a n d made i t a more d e f i n i t e a n d v i v i d e x p e r i e n c e . I n 1 9 3 9 , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e i n s t r u c t e d t h e m i l i t a r y t o i n s t a l l a n d man t h e g u n s a t t h r e e s i t e s i n V a n c o u v e r H a r b o u r , on Y o r k e I s l a n d , F e r g u s o n P o i n t , P o i n t G r e y a n d N a r r o w s N o r t h . 1 3 6 "The d e f e n c e s o f V a n c o u v e r h a d a p o l i t i c a l a s w e l l a s a p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n : t h e y w e r e t h e r e t o r e a s s u r e t h e p u b l i c . " 1 3 7 S e a r c h l i g h t s a r r i v e d i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1941-42 a l o n g w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n gun i n s t a l l e d a t P o i n t A t k i n s o n a n d t w o more 174 i n S t e v e s t o n . One man remembered " C e r t a i n a r e a s w e r e s u d d e n l y o u t o f b o u n d s . . . t h i s was when t h e y b u i l t t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s a t S t a n l e y P a r k a n d Wreck B e a c h . . . a n d t h e g u n s a t P o i n t A t k i n s o n . " 1 3 8 F o r y o u t h f u l e n t e r t a i n m e n t , he a l s o r e c a l l e d : "We u s e d t o go down t o E n g l i s h Bay and w a t c h them l o b s h e l l s i n t o t h e w a t e r . " 1 3 9 A n o t h e r man d e s c r i b e d "a g r e a t p l a c e t o p l a y . . . w h e r e t h e o l d E x p o s i t e i s . I t ' s h a r d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y w e r e l a u n c h i n g s h i p s down i n t h a t a r e a d u r i n g t h e w a r . " 1 4 0 One i n t e r v i e w e e " h a d a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h e l i n e r s t h a t h a d b e e n t u r n e d i n t o w a r s h i p s . . . " He a l s o remembered t h e s e c r e c y t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e s e v e s s e l s . "They w e r e n ' t a l l o w e d t o a n n o u n c e w h a t was i n t h e h a r b o u r , b u t y o u h e a r d a l l a b o u t i t . " 1 4 1 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d : "You w e r e n ' t a l l o w e d t o t a k e p i c t u r e s o f t h e a r e a o r o f t h e s h i p s , i f y o u d i d t h e y w o u l d n ' t d e v e l o p them. T h e y w e r e m a k i n g B a b y F l a t T o p s . . . " 1 4 2 I m a g i n e a y o u n g b o y s e x c i t e m e n t a s he "went down t o s e e . . . t h e Queen M a r y . . . t h i s g r e a t g r e y t h i n g , i t w o u l d n ' t f i t u n d e r t h e b r i d g e . " 1 4 3 A n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e same e v e n t : " I c a n remember i n 1942, on a S u n day m o r n i n g , t h e Queen M a r y was i n E n g l i s h Bay and e v e r y o n e w e n t down t o s e e i t . I t was p a i n t e d g r e y a n d I c o u l d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e s i z e o f i t . I t h a d come t o p i c k up a b o u t 10,000 t r o o p s . I t was t h i s t o t a l l y g r e y m o n s t r o u s t h i n g ! " 1 4 4 I n 1 9 4 2 , t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t " c o o p e r a t e d f u l l y w i t h t h e C e n t r a l C i v i l i a n P r o t e c t i o n C o m m i t t e e i n a i r r a i d p r e c a u t i o n s [A.R.P.] w o r k . " 1 4 5 An i n t e r v i e w e e , i n h i g h s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e w a r , r e c o u n t e d "we h a d a n a s s e m b l y a t s c h o o l t h a t m o r n i n g . Some man i n a u n i f o r m , I'm n o t s u r e i f he was m i l i t a r y o r p o l i c e , e x p l a i n e d t o u s a b o u t t h e b l a c k o u t s , 175 a b o u t b o m b e r s f l y i n g o v e r h e a d and a i r r a i d s , g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y . " 1 4 6 C h i l d r e n w a t c h e d f i l m s , p r e p a r e d b y t h e V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , on "ways a nd means o f p r o p e r l y h a n d l i n g i n c e n d i a r y b o m b s . " 1 4 7 C h i l d r e n t r a i n e d w i t h e q u i p m e n t f r o m f i r e d e p a r t m e n t s s u c h a s " p a i l s , s a n d b a g s , r a k e s a n d s h o v e l s . " One woman r e c a l l e d "we h a d s a n d b a g s i n t h e h o u s e , a l t h o u g h I d o n ' t know w h a t g o o d t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n , a nd a b u c k e t o f w a t e r . " 1 4 8 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d "We h a d o i l l a m p s , e x t r a f o o d a n d b l a n k e t s . . . i n c a s e o f a t t a c k . " 1 4 9 One man d e s c r i b e d t h e a i r r a i d d r i l l s a t h i s s c h o o l : "we w e n t t o t h e ba s e m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l , i t was s o r t o f f u n b u t s e r i o u s t o o . 1 5 0 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e membered " t h e r e w e r e a i r r a i d d r i l l s a t s c h o o l , we w o u l d g e t u n d e r o u r d e s k s . " 1 5 1 "The w h o l e c o m m u n i t y was i n v o l v e d i n t h e d r i l l s a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r " r e c a l l e d one woman f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . "We w e r e t o go t o t h e s c h o o l . . . w h e n t h e s i r e n s o u n d e d . " 1 5 2 An i n t e r v i e w e e f r o m T r a i l r e c a l l e d t h e " A i r R a i d P o l i c e [ A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n ] s h a c k s . . . They k e p t g a s masks a n d t h i n g s i n them. So i f s o m e t h i n g d i d h a p p e n y o u w e r e p r e p a r e d . " 1 5 3 Many c h i l d r e n p r a c t i s e d w i t h t h e u s e o f r e s p i r a t o r s . One man d e s c r i b e d h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a g a s mask: " I do remember b e i n g g i v e n a g a s mask a t s c h o o l . . . p u t t i n g them o n , a n d i t was v e r y h a r d t o b r e a t h e . We k e p t t h e m i n a k h a k i b o x w i t h a h a n d l e . " 1 5 4 T h r o u g h o u t t h e N o r t h S h o r e , r e p o r t e d W i l l i a m G r a y t h e M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r , " E v e r y c h i l d i n t h e a r e a was shown how t o p u t on a n d u s e a g a s r e s p i r a t o r . . . " 1 5 5 One woman remembered " c a r r y i n g my g a s mask d u r i n g t h e s e d r i l l s . " 1 5 6 A n o t h e r e n j o y e d " h a n d i n g o u t . . . g a s m a s k s , f o r p r a c t i c e d r i l l s i f we w e r e e v e r a t t a c k e d . . . F o r u s i t was f u n i n a way, s o m e t h i n g more s o c i a l t o do t h a n s c h o o l 176 w o r k . " 1 5 7 One f e l l o w , u n i m p r e s s e d by a l l p r e p a r a t o r y a c t i v i t y , s a i d " n o t h i n g much h a p p e n e d i n o u r s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e w a r , j u s t dumb t h i n g s l i k e t h e bomb d r i l l s a n d t h e A.R.P. d r i l l s . " 1 5 8 A n o t h e r s t u d e n t , q u i t e y o u n g a t t h e t i m e , r e g a r d e d t h e d r i l l s much more s e r i o u s l y : " S i r e n s s t i l l b o t h e r me, my s t o m a c h - t i g h t e n s e v e n now when I h e a r s i r e n s . The s c h o o l s i r e n e s p e c i a l l y made my s t o m a c h t u r n . " 1 5 9 A h a p p i e r o c c a s i o n was r e l a t e d b y a n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e : " I remember t h e a i r r a i d s i r e n s g o i n g o f f t o a n n o u n c e t h e e n d o f t h e w a r . " 1 6 0 A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s remembered t h e b l a c k o u t s , t o some i t was a n u n n e r v i n g e v e n t , w h i l e o t h e r c h i l d r e n a c c e p t e d i t a s a p a r t o f l i f e i n w a r t i m e . V a n c o u v e r h a d i t s f i r s t t r i a l b l a c k o u t o n 22 May 1 9 4 1 , f r o m 10:00 t o 10:15 p.m. 1 6 1 M o s t b l a c k o u t s t o o k p l a c e s o o n a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r . " I t was a f t e r P e a r l H a r b o u r t h a t t h e b l a c k o u t s c r e e n s went u p . . . " r e c o u n t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 1 6 2 " I c a n remember t h e b l a c k o u t s , t h a t was when we w e r e e x p e c t i n g t h e J a p a n e s e t o a t t a c k a n y t i m e . " 1 6 3 A i r R a i d W a r d e n s w o u l d p a t r o l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o e n f o r c e b l a c k o u t r e g u l a t i o n s . "The A i r R a i d P o l i c e [ A i r R a i d P r e c a u t i o n ] w o u l d come a r o u n d a n d c h e c k f o r any l i g h t s h o w i n g i n y o u r w i n d o w s " , e x p l a i n e d one m a n . 1 6 4 On 10 December 19 4 1 , The V a n c o u v e r News H e r a l d a s k e d c i t i z e n s t o G e t home a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e t o n i g h t - a n d s t a y t h e r e . . . T h e r e m u s t be no l i g h t e s c a p i n g f r o m y o u r home a n d i t i s y o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t e s t y o u r own b l a c k o u t p r e c a u t i o n s . Y o u r h e a d l i g h t s must be b l i n d e d e x c e p t f o r a v e r t i c a l s l i t . . . T a i l l i g h t s m u s t be b l i n d e d e x c e p t f o r a s m a l l d i s c i n t h e c e n t r e . 1 6 5 One i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d : "We w e r e h a v i n g J a p a n e s e s c a r e s . When t h e a l a r m w e n t o f f we h a d t o c o v e r o u r w i n d o w s . . . T h e l i g h t s o n 177 c a r s w e r e t o be b l a c k e d o u t , t h e s t r e e t l i g h t s w e n t o u t . " 1 6 6 A n o t h e r r e v e a l e d "...we h a d t o b l a c k o u t t h e w i n d o w s . E v e r y o n e became f r i g h t e n e d t h a t we w e r e g o i n g t o be i n v a d e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e . »1€>1^»x c a n remember two b l a c k o u t s . . . t h a t made u s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e v e r y c l o s e t o i n v a d i n g u s " r e m e m b e r e d one woman. 1 6 8 A n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e " w e i r d , s t r a n g e e n v i r o n m e n t " a n d t h e b e l i e f t h a t " i t was a r e a l t h r e a t . " 1 6 9 One i n t e r v i e w e e h a d a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n o f t h e b l a c k o u t s : "We d i d n ' t t a k e t h e m v e r y s e r i o u s l y , i t was k i n d o f a n a d v e n t u r e . 1 ^ ; 7 0 "We w e r e n ' t r e a l l y s c a r e d o f t h e a i r r a i d s i r e n s " d e c l a r e d one woman f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , " i t was e x c i t i n g . . . I t a d d e d a n e x t r a t h r i l l t o i t . " 1 7 ^ 1 A n o t h e r woman f r o m t h e I n t e r i o r r e g i o n " d i d n ' t r e a l l y f e a r a n i n v a s i o n a l t h o u g h . . . t h e s m e l t e r p r o d u c e d l e a d . T h e y p a i n t e d t h e windows o f t h e s m e l t e r b l a c k . " 1 7 2 An i n t e r v i e w e e f r o m t h e same a r e a c l a i m e d " i t was q u i t e e x c i t i n g , I d o n ' t t h i n k we w e r e e v e r v e r y c o n c e r n e d . 1 , 1 7 3 O t h e r c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d more p r a c t i c a l r e a c t i o n s . One f e l l o w r e c o u n t e d : "We s h u t o u r c u r t a i n s i n one room o f t h e h o u s e , t u r n e d o n t h e l i g h t s a n d s a t i n t h e r e ! " 1 7 4 A n o t h e r remembered "When t h e y d e c l a r e d a b l a c k o u t e v e r y o n e w o u l d r u s h o u t s i d e t o s e e w h a t i t was l i k e w i t h no l i g h t s o n . We w o u l d go up t o t h e b e n d on A l m a r o a d . . . t h e r e was a n i c e v i e w f r o m up t h e r e . " 1 7 5 M o b i l i z a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s r e s o u r c e s f o r w a r a n d t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t i n f l a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d p r i c e c o n t r o l , r a t i o n i n g a n d f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e c o n t r o l . The W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e " c o u p o n s y s t e m o f r a t i o n i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d i n C a n a d a i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e g o o d s w h i c h a r e s c a r c e w i l l be f a i r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . " 1 7 6 The f i r s t r a t i o n b o o k s came o u t i n S e p t e m b e r , 178 1942. D u r i n g v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e war s u g a r , m e a t , t e a a n d c o f f e e , g a s o l i n e a n d l i q u o r w e r e r a t i o n e d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n ' s b e g a n " f o o d h o a r d i n g " i n 1 9 3 9 . 1 7 7 S u g a r was a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n a n d "many woman w e r e s e e n w i t h h a n d y men i n t o w , l u g g i n g 100 p o u n d s a c k s . . . " 1 7 8 F o r e i g n e x c h a n g e c o n t r o l s h a d r e d u c e d t h e a m o u n t s o f C a l i f o r n i a i m p o r t s o f w i n t e r f r u i t s a n d v e g e t a b l e s a n d s o h o u s e h o l d s n e e d e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f s u g a r f o r c a n n i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l s . When t h e announcement was made t h a t s u g a r w o u l d be r a t i o n e d t h e r e was a ' r u n ' o n s u g a r . 1 7 9 The g o v e r n m e n t l a t e r made a n e x c e p t i o n o f " s p e c i a l s e a s o n a l a l l o w a n c e s t o h o u s e w i v e s f o r c a n n i n g . " 1 8 0 "My m o t h e r went o u t r i g h t away" c l a i m e d one i n t e r v i e w e e , "and b o u g h t 100 p o u n d s o f s u g a r , a g r e a t b i g b a g o f s u g a r . " 1 8 1 One woman e x p l a i n e d "come c a n n i n g s e a s o n we w o u l d n e e d l o t s o f s u g a r . " 1 8 2 A n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d h e r d u t y o f d i v i d i n g t h e p r e c i o u s c o m m o d i t y w i t h h e r s i b l i n g s . " I t o o k t h r e e g l a s s j a r s a n d p a i n t e d o u r names on them w i t h n a i l p o l i s h . We d i v i d e d t h e s u g a r i n t o t h r e e a n d t h a t was what we h a d f o r t h e w e e k . " 1 8 3 T h e r e was a c e r t a i n amount o f e x c i t e m e n t i f s o m e t h i n g was i n s t o c k . " T h e r e w e r e d a y s when we h e a r d t h e c a n d y was i n " r e c o u n t e d one man, " y o u r a n t o t h e s t o r e , b e c a u s e i t d i d n ' t l a s t l o n g . " 1 8 4 One woman r e l a t e d "...when we h e a r d a s h i p m e n t o f n y l o n s w e r e c o m i n g i n we'd s e n d someone down t o l i n e up f o r u s . " 1 8 5 One man b o a s t e d a b o u t h i s j o b p e r k s : " I w e n t t o w o r k f o r S a f e w a y on t h e w e e k e n d s . I t was a g o o d j o b , p a r t l y b e c a u s e I h a d a c c e s s t o t h i n g s l i k e meat a n d c o f f e e . " 1 8 6 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d h e r f a t h e r t r a d i n g h i s home made h o n e y f o r c h o c o l a t e b a r s a n d s a i d : " I t was a l l v e r y e x c i t i n g ! " 1 8 7 B a r t e r i n g was a n a c c e p t e d m e thod o f p r o c u r i n g c e r t a i n 179 r a t i o n e d g o o d s . One man r e c a l l e d " . . . a l l t h e women i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d w o u l d . . . b a r t e r o r e x c h a n g e . . . C o u p o n s w e r e v e r y much l i k e m o n e y . " 1 8 8 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d , "my p a r e n t s o f t e n t r a d e d t h e i r l i q u o r c o u p o n s f o r c h o c o l a t e . " 1 8 9 "We u s e d t o a l w a y s c h a n g e o u r s u g a r c o u p o n s f o r somebody's b u t t e r c o u p o n s " one woman r e c a l l e d . 1 9 0 A n o t h e r t o l d o f h e r p r e d i c a m e n t : "We r a n o u t o f l i q u o r a t my s i s t e r ' s w e d d i n g . I c a n remember g o i n g a r o u n d t o a l l t h e n e i g h b o u r ' s weeks b e f o r e h a n d and b o r r o w i n g t h e i r c o u p o n s t o b u y l i q u o r f o r t h e w e d d i n g . C e r t a i n f o o d s became p o w e r f u l b a r g a i n i n g t o o l s a s one woman r e c o u n t e d " t h e d o c t o r a n d t h e p h a r m a c i s t w o u l d come t o my d a d f o r h i s h o n e y . I n e x c h a n g e we g o t m e d i c a l c a r e a n d p r e s c r i p t i o n s . " 1 9 1 The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e w e r e h a r d t o f i n d d u r i n g t h e w a r y e a r s . "You c e r t a i n l y c o u l d n ' t b u y t o y s o r a n y o f t h o s e t h i n g s i n t h e s t o r e s " d e c l a r e d one man, " I t was h a r d t o buy a n y t h i n g . My b i k e was t h i r d h a n d . . . t h e y d i d away w i t h l e a d t o y s o l d i e r s . " 1 9 2 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e r e p o r t e d " I c o u l d n ' t g e t new i c e s k a t e s . My m o t h e r t r a d e d h e r l i g u o r c o u p o n s f o r my s k a t e s . " 1 9 3 One f e l l o w remembered s u c h A m e r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n s a s " t h e Bio: L i t t l e b o o k s . . .we c o u l d n ' t g e t a c c e s s t o t h e s e a n y m o r e . " 1 9 4 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d a B r i t i s h c h i l d r e n ' s m a g a z i n e : " C h i p s a n d C r a c k e r s , y o u c o u l d n ' t g e t i t a n y more o n c e t h e w a r s t a r t e d . " 1 9 5 M o s t c h i l d r e n d i d n ' t seem t o m i n d t h e s h o r t a g e s . One man d e c l a r e d " . . . y o u j u s t made do w i t h w h a t y o u h a d . " 1 9 6 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e s e r i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d " a s a c h i l d . . . y o u d i d w i t h o u t a n d t h a t was t h e s a c r i f i c e y o u m a d e . " 1 9 7 One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered t a k i n g f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e r a t i o n i n g , "a c o u p l e o f u s s o l d o u r r o l l e r s k a t e s t o o u r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l . . . ! 180 g u e s s h e h a d k i d s a n d y o u c o u l d n ' t g e t s k a t e s . . . S o my f r i e n d a n d I became w a r p r o f i t e e r s , we b r o u g h t i n o u r o l d s k a t e s w h i c h w e r e r u s t y a s a l l g e t o u t ! " 1 9 8 Much o f t h e a u r a o f e x c i t e m e n t t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e w a r y e a r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a came f r o m t h e g r o w i n g number o f p e o p l e v o l u n t e e r i n g t h e i r e n e r g i e s f o r t h e war e f f o r t . C h i l d r e n w a t c h e d a s t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r s became i n v o l v e d i n new a c t i v i t i e s t o w i n t h e w a r on t h e home f r o n t . Many i n t e r v i e w e e s r e m e m b e r e d b u s y p a r e n t s a n d t h e f l u r r y o f a c t i v i t y t h a t e n s u e d w i t h t h e w a r y e a r s . " M o s t p e o p l e h a d some r e l a t i v e ; f a t h e r , s o n , c o u s i n , e t c . , i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e war e f f o r t " t o l d o n e . 1 9 9 "My m o t h e r was i n v o l v e d , s h e u s e d t o d i s h o u t r a t i o n b o o k s " a n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d . 2 0 0 L i f e a t home was a l t e r e d f o r one woman b e c a u s e h e r " m o t h e r w o r k e d a t t h e U n i t e d S e r v i c e s c e n t r e , s h e was a l w a y s b r i n g i n g home s e r v i c e men, b o y s r e a l l y , f r o m A u s t r a l i a a n d Y o r k s h i r e . " 2 0 1 She remembered " W a l l y f r o m t h e A i r F o r c e , h e s t a y e d w i t h u s a n d t h e n he was k i l l e d o v e r Burma... S t a n l e y , who l o v e d m u s i c . . - T h e r e was q u i t e a s t e a d y f l o w o f p e o p l e , q u i t e a s o c i a l i z a t i o n , m e e t i n g p e o p l e f r o m a l l o v e r t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h . " 2 0 2 M o r e o f t e n t h e v o l u n t e e r w o r k was was a s s i m p l e a s one woman's m o t h e r who " d i d l o t s o f k n i t t i n g f o r t h e w a r e f f o r t . " 2 0 3 One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered "My f a t h e r s e r v e d i n a p a r a m i l i t a r y o u t f i t , a g r o u p c a l l e d t h e F r o n t i e r s m e n . . . [ h e ] a l s o j o i n e d t h e R e s e r v e s d u r i n g t h e w a r . . . I t ' s h a r d t o i m a g i n e h i m now p a c k i n g a r i f l e d r e s s e d i n h i s f u l l army g e a r . " 2 0 4 One woman r e c a l l e d w i t h p r i d e "My m o t h e r . . . t r a i n e d i n f i r s t a i d . . . a l s o d r i l l s a n d p a r a d e . She w o r e a b l u e o u t f i t w i t h s i l v e r 181 b u t t o n s . . . a n d s h e l e a r n e d how t o r e p a i r a c a r . " 2 0 5 O t h e r s r e m e m b e r e d t h e i r p a r e n t s w o r k i n g b u s i l y f o r t h e R e d C r o s s . "My m o t h e r w o r k e d f o r t h e Red C r o s s a n d I c a n remember h e l p i n g h e r r o l l b a n d a g e s . " 2 0 6 "My mom was i n t h e Red C r o s s , s h e d i d v o l u n t e e r w o r k f o r t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n , m a k i n g b a n d a g e s , t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g . " 2 0 7 One woman c l a i m e d t h a t s h e g r e w up w e a r i n g " . . . b i g b a n d a g e s t h a t my m o t h e r l e a r n e d how t o make f o r t h e Red C r o s s . " 2 0 8 To a n o t h e r " t h e war h a d a g r e a t e r i m p a c t o n me b e c a u s e my f a m i l y members w e r e a l l i n v o l v e d i n some way, f a t h e r was p l a y i n g s o l d i e r w i t h t h e r e s e r v e s , m o t h e r w o r k e d f o r t h e Red C r o s s . . . I remember f a t h e r s t a r t e d a V i c t o r y G a r d e n , t h a t ' s w h a t he c a l l e d i t . " 2 0 9 P a y i n g j o b s became more p l e n t i f u l a n d men, women a n d , l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , c h i l d r e n made money w o r k i n g f o r t h e w a r e f f o r t . P r o s p e r i t y became t h e norm f o r many i n t h e f i r s t t i m e i n y e a r s . P e o p l e who h a d w a n t e d f o r l a c k o f e mployment a n d money t h r o u g h t h e d e p r e s s i o n e m b r a c e d t h e war and t h e j o b s i t p r o v i d e d . One f e l l o w r e c a l l e d t h a t " a s a l i s t e n e r t o t h e a d u l t s I l e a r n e d t h a t t h e r e was g r e a t u n e m p l o y m e n t . The c o u n t r y was c o m i n g o u t o f a t e r r i b l e d e p r e s s i o n , a n d t h e y u s e d t o s a y t h a t : ' t h e one g o o d t h i n g a b o u t t h e war i s w e ' r e g e t t i n g j o b s ' . P e o p l e w e r e b u i l d i n g s h i p s r i g h t h e r e i n V a n c o u v e r . T h e r e w e r e d e f e n s e e f f o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e c o a s t . . . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n q u i t e a w h i l e t h e r e was p r o s p e r i t y . " 2 1 0 A woman r e c o u n t e d t h a t " t h e r e w e r e a l o t more j o b s . . . b e c a u s e o f t h e w a r . " 2 1 1 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t : " P e o p l e h a d money i n t h e i r p o c k e t s o n c e a g a i n . T h o s e n o t i n u n i f o r m s h a d j o b s . . . T h e war e f f o r t b r o u g h t a c r a z y k i n d o f p r o s p e r i t y . " 2 1 2 Y e t a n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e a t m o s p h e r e : " I t was a 182 p r o s p e r o u s t i m e b u t i t was v e r y t u r b u l e n t t o o . " 2 1 3 "The b a t t l e d r e s s o f C a n a d i a n women r a n g e s f r o m h o u s e d r e s s e s a n d b u s i n e s s s u i t s t o o v e r a l l s a n d s e r v i c e u n i f o r m s " , r e p o r t e d t h e W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d . 2 1 4 D u r i n g t h e w a r women e n t e r e d t h e w o r k f o r c e i n d r o v e s , many f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a n d t h e f e m a l e b r e a d w i n n e r became a more p r e v a l e n t r o l e m o d e l . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f e m a l e w o r k f o r c e , e n t i t l e d " I t ' s a Women's W o r l d T o o l " , was w r i t t e n i n a n i s s u e o f t h e W a l l a c e S h i p b u i l d e r : "The f i r s t women came i n t o N o r t h a n d S o u t h B u r r a r d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1942...[women] w e n t t o wo r k i n h a r d h a t s a n d c o v e r a l l s . . . B y S p r i n g , 1 944, some 1,000 women, i n a l l t h r e e Y a r d s , w e r e h e l p i n g t o b u i l d o u r s h i p s . " 2 1 5 The W a r t i m e I n f o r m a t i o n B o a r d r e p o r t e d t h a t b y 1943 t h e r e w e r e 1,152,000 women o v e r 14 y e a r s o f age e m p l o y e d i n C a n a d i a n i n d u s t r i e s , 255,000 o f t h e s e w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e w a r i n d u s t r i e s . The B o a r d a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t 58,710 women w e r e members o f t h e armed s e r v i c e s . 2 1 6 The movement o f women o u t o f t h e home a n d i n t o t h e w o r k f o r c e h a d many d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s , some m i n o r a n d some more s i g n i f i c a n t . " I c a n remember t h e women w o r k i n g i n t h e s h i p y a r d s , down w h e r e t h e B a y s h o r e h o t e l i s . We w e r e n ' t a l l o w e d t o r i d e t h e s t r e e t c a r s a t s h i f t c h a n g e s , t h e r e w e r e s o many o f them, t h e y a l l w o r e k e r c h i e f s i n t h e i r h a i r . " 2 1 7 An i n t e r v i e w e e r e m e m b e r e d h a v i n g a g i r l f r i e n d who "was a r i v e t e r , l i k e R o s i e t h e R i v e t e r , e x c e p t s h e was Eve t h e r i v e t e r . . . I a l s o h a d g i r l f r i e n d s who w o r k e d a t t h e B u r r a r d s h i p b u i l d i n g c o m p a n y . " 2 1 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d k n o w i n g " o f g i r l s who w o r k e d i n t h e m u n i t i o n s f a c t o r y , t h e y r e a l l y l i k e d h a v i n g t h e i r own money, t h e i r i n dependence...Women b u i l t t h e L i b e r t y s h i p s down i n F a l s e 183 C r e e k . 1 , 2 1 9 W h o l e c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e e f f e c t e d by t h e s e w o r k i n g men a n d women. One man r e c a l l e d " t h e war c r e a t e d j o b s a n d money b r o k e down t h e n e e d f o r c o m m u n i t y l i f e a n d m u t u a l s u p p o r t . " 2 2 0 I n t h e t o w n o f T r a i l , remembered a n o t h e r , " . . . t h r e e h u n d r e d women...had t a k e n o v e r t h e j o b s t h a t t h e men h a d l e f t when t h e y j o i n e d u p . " 2 2 1 Some c h i l d r e n w e r e a f f e c t e d i n a more p e r s o n a l manner. One man d e s c r i b e d t h e l a c k o f p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e o n c e h i s m o t h e r s t a r t e d w o r k i n g : " I w a s n ' t a l l o w e d t o go t o t h e s e m o v i e s b u t my m o t h e r h a d a j o b f o r t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . " 2 2 2 He a l s o e x p l a i n e d t h a t m o s t c h i l d r e n " a l w a y s w e n t home f o r l u n c h , c e r t a i n l y I d i d n ' t " a n d t h a t " m o t h e r was n e v e r t h e r e a f t e r s c h o o l , t o h e r i t was a g r e a t b oon a n d i t f r e e d me f r o m p a r e n t a l s u p e r v i s i o n . " 2 2 3 G o i n g home f o r l u n c h t o a n empty home was re m e m b e r e d b y o n e : "My m o t h e r w o r k e d i n a s m e l t e r . . . S o I was v i r t u a l l y o n my own o n c e t h e war s t a r t e d . I t h o u g h t I ' d n e v e r o p e n a n o t h e r c a n o f C a m p b e l l ' s s o u p . " 2 2 4 The w a r was n o t s e e n b y a l l a s a b l e s s i n g o f p r o s p e r i t y . One man d i s c l o s e d " t h e r e w e r e a l o t o f p e o p l e who, i f t h e r e h a d n ' t b e e n a war w o u l d n ' t h a v e g o t t e n t h e e d u c a t i o n t h e y d i d , o r g o t t e n t h e j o b s t h e y d i d . B u t j u s t a s many o f them s a i d : ' i f i t h a d n ' t b e e n f o r t h e w a r I w o u l d n ' t h a v e l o s t my b r o t h e r . ' " 2 2 5 C h i l d r e n j o i n e d t h e w o r k f o r c e a s w e l l . A s t h e l a b o u r s h o r t a g e i n t e n s i f i e d , g o v e r n m e n t s b e g a n t o e a s e l e g i s l a t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n o n c h i l d l a b o u r . 2 2 6 One man remembered "A l o t o f k i d s l e f t s c h o o l t o w o r k i n t h e s h i p y a r d s . . . " 2 2 7 Some t r i e d t o b a l a n c e b o t h s c h o o l a n d work. One man e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e l a t e s h i f t i n t h e s h i p y a r d was i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i s s c h o o l w o r k u n t i l 184 " I moved t o t h e m a c h i n e s h o p . . . a n d w o r k e d a f t e r s c h o o l f o u r h o u r s a d a y , w h i c h was b e t t e r , I s t o p p e d f a l l i n g a s l e e p i n c l a s s a l l t h e t i m e . " 2 2 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d h i s b r o t h e r " w o r k i n g one summer i n a m u n i t i o n s p l a n t , a t age s i x t e e n . " The c o a s t l i n e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d s u d d e n l y c h a n g e d . " I n B u r r a r d I n l e t t h e r e w e r e a l o t o f s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r i e s " , remembered one i n t e r v i e w e e . 2 2 9 " P e o p l e w e r e b u i l d i n g s h i p s r i g h t h e r e i n V a n c o u v e r " a n o t h e r d e c l a r e d . 2 3 0 " T h e r e was a B o e i n g p l a n t on Sea I s l a n d . . . a n a i r f o r c e b a s e w h e r e V a n i e r p a r k i s now, a l s o t h e a r m o r i e s a t B e a t t y s t r e e t " r e c a l l e d one woman. 2 3 1 W i l l i a m G r a y , M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r o f N o r t h S h o r e s c h o o l s , s t a t e d i n 1942: " D u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r s h i p b u i l d i n g h a s made a p h e n o m e n a l g r o w t h on t h e N o r t h S h o r e . " 2 3 2 One man d e s c r i b e d t h e a b u n d a n c e o f j o b s : " . . . k i d s c o u l d g e t j o b s e a s i l y . I t was n o t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a n a f t e r s c h o o l j o b , t h e war made i t e a s y i n t h a t s e n s e . " 2 3 3 The w a r became a r e a l i t y t o many c h i l d r e n t h e d a y t h e i r f a t h e r , t h e i r b r o t h e r o r someone t h e y knew s i g n e d up. F i g h t i n g t h e w a r i n t h e C a n a d i a n s e r v i c e s was p r e s e n t e d by g o v e r n m e n t p r o p a g a n d a a s a way t o e a r n money and a n e d u c a t i o n w h i l e h e l p i n g o u r a l l i e s t o v i c t o r y . One woman r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e w a r " d i d n ' t seem r e l e v a n t t h e n , u n t i l my b r o t h e r j o i n e d t h e a i r f o r c e . " 2 3 4 Some c h i l d r e n f e a r e d f o r t h e i r l o v e d o n e s . One woman d e s c r i b e d h e r " s t r o n g e s t memory o f t h e war was when my b r o t h e r j o i n e d t h e A i r F o r c e . . . w e w e r e e x c i t e d b u t a f r a i d f o r h i m . " 2 3 5 A n o t h e r r e m e m b e r e d t h e war a s b e i n g v e r y s t r e s s f u l a s s h e "knew h e r b r o t h e r w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y go t o war. I was t e r r i f i e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g w o u l d h a p p e n t o [ h i m ] . " 2 3 6 A n o t h e r r emembered h i s p a r e n t ' s f e a r a s he h a d one b r o t h e r " . . . i n t h e A i r F o r c e . My 185 o l d e s t b r o t h e r was i n t h e Navy...My p a r e n t s made me p r o m i s e I w o u l d n ' t j o i n u p . " 2 3 7 To some t h e s e r v i c e was re m e m b e r e d a s a b e n e f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . One woman d e c l a r e d t h a t f o r h e r b r o t h e r who " h a t e d s c h o o l , h e r e a l l y l o a t h e d i t . He p r o b a b l y w o u l d h a v e d r o p p e d o u t . . . i t r e a l l y was t h e war t h a t s a v e d h i m . " 2 3 8 One man s t a t e d : "my u n c l e s , who n e v e r d i d a damn t h i n g i n c i v i l i a n l i f e , became c o l o n e l s i n t h e s e r v i c e . " 2 3 9 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e h a d j o i n e d up a n d r e g a r d e d t h e s e r v i c e a s "a g r o w i n g up e x p e r i e n c e , a v e r y r i c h e x p e r i e n c e . " 2 4 0 F o r o t h e r s l i f e i n t h e s e r v i c e was n o t a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . One man's b r o t h e r "was a n A i r F o r c e p i l o t , a n i n s t r u c t o r . . . " h e e n d e d up a n e r v o u s w r e c k ; h e f l e w s i x t y m i s s i o n s on M o s q u i t o e s a n d he f l e w o n D - D a y . " 2 4 1 C h i l d r e n c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i v e s a n d l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e w a r a n d l i f e i n t h e s e r v i c e t h r o u g h t h e s e l e t t e r s . I t was n o t uncommon f o r c h i l d r e n t o e x c i t e d l y o p e n a l e t t e r o n l y t o f i n d t h a t i t " l o o k e d a s i f someone h a d b e e n p l a y i n g p a p e r d o l l s " , d e c l a r e d o ne m a n . 2 4 2 S e c r e c y was i m p o r t a n t a n d a n y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e w a r ' s e v e n t s was c a r e f u l l y c e n s o r e d f r o m , among o t h e r t h i n g s , f a m i l y l e t t e r s . One woman c l e a r l y r e c a l l e d h e r r e l a t i v e s i n E u r o p e w o u l d w r i t e " i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s a b o u t t h e w a r . T h e y w o u l d be r e p r i m a n d e d f o r g i v i n g a n y d e t a i l s . . . t h e y c e n s o r e d e v e r y t h i n g . " 2 4 3 A n o t h e r woman r e c e i v e d " q u i t e a f e w l e t t e r s " f r o m h e r b r o t h e r a n d " t h e y w e r e c e n s o r e d , t h e y w o u l d a c t u a l l y c u t b i t s o u t o f t h e l e t t e r b e f o r e we g o t i t . " 2 4 4 E v e n s o , c e n s o r e d l e t t e r s w e r e w e l l r e c e i v e d . One man e n j o y e d h i s f a t h e r ' s f r e q u e n t l e t t e r s : " I was a l w a y s i n t e r e s t e d i n w h a t he was d o i n g , w h a t was g o i n g o n " he r e c a l l e d . 2 4 5 "Happy B i r t h d a y " one s e r v i c e m a n w r o t e home. I t was a " s e c r e t s i g n a l , i t meant he was c o m i n g home" one 186 woman e x p l a i n e d . 2 4 6 A n o t h e r d e c l a r e d t h a t w h i l e t h e w a r was o n "...we w e r e a l w a y s a n x i o u s f o r a n y news f r o m t h e o l d c o u n t r y . " 2 4 7 L e t t e r s w e r e a l i f e l i n e b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r f a m i l y a t w a r . "My f a t h e r j o i n e d t h e army" one man r e c a l l e d . "He was s t a t i o n e d i n E n g l a n d a n d l a t e r , G i b r a l t a r . He w r o t e l e t t e r s home q u i t e o f t e n . " 2 4 8 One woman t a l k e d o f h e r b r o t h e r : "When he d i d go t o war I w r o t e h i m one a i r l e t t e r a d a y . . . " 2 4 9 V i s i t i n g on l e a v e , o r home f r o m t h e w a r , s e r v i c e men a n d women s h a r e d t h e i r war s t o r i e s w i t h y o u n g a n d c a p t i v a t e d l i s t e n e r s . C h i l d r e n l e a r n e d a b o u t s e r v i n g i n t h e f o r c e s when t h e y met a n d t a l k e d w i t h t h o s e i n u n i f o r m . One f e l l o w r e m e m b e r e d h i s " c o u s i n i n t h e U.S. M a r i n e s . . . w e w o u l d s e e h i m o c c a s i o n a l l y . H i s s t o r i e s w e r e a l w a y s v e r y g o o d . . . " 2 5 0 A woman's b r o t h e r i n l a w r e t u r n e d f r o m t h e war and t o l d h e r o f men i n a p r i s o n e r o f war camp who "were w a l k i n g s k e l e t o n s , i t was t h e most h o r r i b l e t h i n g h e h a d s e e n i n t h e w a r . " 2 5 1 One i n t e r v i e w e e d e s c r i b e d h i s m e e t i n g " w h o l e t r o o p s o f a i r m e n w i t h a c c e n t s y o u c o u l d c u t w i t h a k n i f e . " 2 5 2 C r o s s - c u l t u r a l m e e t i n g s w e r e remembered b y one who met "men f r o m New Z e a l a n d , A u s t r a l i a , E n g l i s h m e n , a l l o v e r r e a l l y . " 2 5 3 A n o t h e r t o l d o f "a ba b y s i t t e r , h e r b o y f r i e n d was a n A m e r i c a n s a i l o r who came t o v i s i t . He'd t e l l u s t h i n g s , h e ' d be b a c k o n l e a v e a n d s p i n y a r n s f o r u s , we k i d s l o v e d i t . " 2 5 4 C h i l d r e n a l s o met s e r v i c e m e n t h r o u g h t h e i r p a r e n t s . One re m e m b e r e d l i s t e n i n g t o h i s m o t h e r ' s f r i e n d " a m a j o r f r o m a p r i s o n camp...he w o u l d t e l l u s o f t h e Germans who h a d t r i e d t o e s c a p e . " 2 5 5 One woman met o f f i c e r s when h e r p a r e n t s e n t e r t a i n e d : "We a l w a y s h a d p e o p l e o v e r , o f f i c e r s o v e r t o t h e 187 h o u s e . " 2 5 6 I n t h e s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s p e o p l e r e l i e d o n w o r d o f mouth f o r news o f t h e war. An O l i v e r r e s i d e n t , r e c a l l e d h e a r i n g ^ " a b o u t w h a t was g o i n g on i n t h e w o r l d . O f t e n someone h a d h e a r d f r o m a r e l a t i v e a n d he w o u l d t a l k a b o u t t h a t , o r someone was c o m i n g b a c k , t h a t ' s how y o u f o u n d o u t . " 2 5 7 One man remembered a f i r s t - h a n d a c c o u n t f r o m a f r i e n d who "came b a c k e a r l y . . . a n d h e t o l d me he was g l a d t o be b a c k . " 2 5 8 Many c h i l d r e n l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o j o i n i n g t h e s e r v i c e . T h o s e who t h o u g h t o f j o i n i n g d i d s o f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . Some w e r e t i r e d o f s c h o o l , t h e y l i e d a b o u t t h e i r a g e a n d j o i n e d up e a r l y . Some d i d n ' t want t o be known a s " z o m b i e s " , t o o t h e r s i t was t h e i r d u t y t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . " I remember c o n s c r i p t i o n , a n d t h o s e who h a d n ' t s i g n e d up w e r e c a l l e d z o m b i e s " , e x p l a i n e d one w o m a n . 2 5 9 One i n t e r v i e w e e j o i n e d t h e n a v y b e c a u s e " o f a r o m a n t i c n o t i o n . I a l w a y s h a d t h e dream o f g o i n g t o s e a , I g u e s s b e i n g i n V a n c o u v e r a n d b e i n g on t h e s e a . " 2 6 0 "The b o y s w o u l d be i m p a t i e n t t o j o i n u p " e x p l a i n e d one woman. "They t h o u g h t i t w o u l d be q u i t e p r e s t i g i o u s t o j o i n . " 2 6 1 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d t h a t "one o f o u r n e i g h b o u r f r i e n d s b a s i c a l l y d r o p p e d o u t o f s c h o o l a n d j o i n e d t h e N a v y . " 2 6 2 One woman remembered h e r b o y f r i e n d : "..'.he h a d l e f t s c h o o l e a r l y a n d j o i n e d u p . " 2 6 3 M o s t i n t e r v i e w e e s w e r e t o o y o u n g t o j o i n u p , e v e n s o , some d i s r e g a r d e d a ge l i m i t a t i o n s . "They w o u l d l i e a b o u t t h e i r a g e . " One man d e s c r i b e d h i s s e n i o r h i g h c l a s s " d e c r e a s i n g i n numbers a s t h e b o y s s i g n e d u p . " 2 6 4 A n o t h e r s a i d h e r " b r o t h e r q u i t s c h o o l , g r a d e t w e l v e t o e n l i s t . . . " 2 6 5 T h e r e w e r e o t h e r s who l i e d f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s , a s one man remembered: " T h e r e was one b o y i n my s e n i o r m a t r i c c l a s s who i n t e n t i o n a l l y f l u n k e d o u t e v e r y y e a r 188 s o t h a t h e w o u l d n ' t h a v e t o s i g n u p . " 2 6 6 The s e r v i c e p r e s e n t e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e f o r t h o s e c h i l d r e n t o whom s c h o o l was d i f f i c u l t o r i r r e l e v a n t . One i n t e r v i e w e e l e f t s c h o o l a t s i x t e e n t o j o i n u p. He r e a s o n e d : " I g u e s s i t was a q u e s t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e , w h a t was r e l e v a n t a t t h e t i m e ? And t h e war was r e l e v a n t . " 2 6 7 A woman re m e m b e r e d t h e b o y s who " s i g n e d up b e f o r e t h e y f i n i s h e d s c h o o l , b u t t h e y w e r e n ' t v e r y g o o d s t u d e n t s t o b e g i n w i t h . " 2 6 8 Many i n t e r v i e w e e s h a d d e c i d e d , f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , t h a t when t h e y t u r n e d e i g h t e e n t h e y w o u l d e n l i s t o r v o l u n t e e r . One man s t a t e d : " D u r i n g t h e war I f e l t j e a l o u s b e c a u s e I was t o o y o u n g t o go t o war w i t h my f r i e n d s . . . A l l my f r i e n d s , a l l my b u d d i e s , e v e n t h e g i r l s h a d j o i n e d u p . " 2 6 9 He a l s o r e c a l l e d t h a t o n c e h e was o l d enough " i n '45 I j o i n e d up f o r t h e P a c i f i c w a r , i t was a g a i n s t my p a r e n t s w i s h e s a n d t h e y w e r e v e r y u p s e t . " 2 7 0 " I w a n t e d t o be i n t h e Navy, i t was a n a s s u m p t i o n , come e i g h t e e n y o u j o i n e d " remembered one m a n . 2 7 1 A n o t h e r d e c l a r e d "When y o u t u r n e d e i g h t e e n i t was a u t o m a t i c , y o u j o i n e d u p . . . T h a t was i t , i t was assumed t h a t was w h a t y o u w o u l d do when y o u w e r e e i g h t e e n . " 2 7 2 O t h e r s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o j o i n up. One man rem e m b e r e d " t h e t o n e o f d i s c u s s i n g t h e n e e d f o r s e r v i c e m e n was one o f e x c i t e m e n t : j o i n up a n d l e a r n a new t r a d e , h a v e new e x p e r i e n c e s , a l l v e r y p o s i t i v e . " 2 7 3 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d " t h e r e was no c o n s c r i p t i o n when w a r b r o k e o u t , b u t we were c e r t a i n l y e n c o u r a g e d t o j o i n . " 2 7 4 E n c o u r a g e m e n t came i n o t h e r f o r m s a s " . . . t h o s e who h a d n ' t s i g n e d u p " o ne woman r e m a r k e d , "were c a l l e d z o m b i e s . " 2 7 5 Some c h i l d r e n w e r e q u i t e t a k e n w i t h t h e image o f t h o s e i n t h e s e r v i c e . One woman " w a n t e d t o go i n t o t h e f o r c e s a n d w e a r t h e u n i f o r m . I 189 remember t h e women i n u n i f o r m , t h e y l o o k e d v e r y n i c e . I was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a r m y . . . " 2 7 6 A n o t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t h e r " b e s t f r i e n d a n d I b o t h w a n t e d t o be WRENs [Women's R o y a l C a n a d i a n N a v a l S e r v i c e ] . The u n i f o r m was b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . . . " 2 7 7 O t h e r s w e r e more p r a c t i c a l : " I was g o i n g t o g e t f o r t y e i g h t d o l l a r s a m onth a n d , o f c o u r s e , a l l t h e f o o d y o u c o u l d e a t . " 2 7 8 A n o t h e r man s t a t e d r e a l i s t i c a l l y : " y ou w e r e n ' t g o i n g o f f t o s e e t h e w o r l d . . .we w e r e j u s t s e r v i n g o u r c o u n t r y . " 2 7 9 A l a n M. Thomas w r o t e a b o u t a d o l e s c e n t s i n w a r t i m e : t h e y "were t h e c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n , f o r u n d e r s t a n d a b l e r e a s o n s . T h e y f a c e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g k i l l e d , o f n o t h a v i n g t h e c h a n c e o f g r o w i n g a n y o l d e r . " 2 8 0 W i t h t h e S e c o n d W o r l d war came t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e d e a t h s o f t h o s e f i g h t i n g o v e r s e a s . Many o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d t h e l o s s o f a f r i e n d o r a f a m i l y member b e c a u s e o f t h e w a r . To some t h e war became t a n g i b l e when p e o p l e t h a t t h e y knew w e r e k i l l e d . A woman e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t " g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d u s , t o know someone who h a d d i e d . " 2 8 1 A n o t h e r d e c l a r e d t h a t " i t w a s n ' t u n t i l a few o f t h e b o y s we knew w e r e k i l l e d t h a t we r e a l l y b e g a n t o t a k e i t s e r i o u s l y . " 2 8 2 "A f r i e n d ' s b r o t h e r was k i l l e d " e x p l a i n e d one woman, " I remember t a k i n g i t more s e r i o u s l y t h e n . " 2 8 3 One woman, i n g r a d e n i n e when t h e w a r b e g a n , r e c a l l e d " t h e f i r s t d e a t h , a boy f r o m s c h o o l who h a d b e e n a r e a r g u n n e r . " 2 8 4 Many c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d t h e d e a t h o f f r i e n d s o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s . One i n t e r v i e w e e "had a f r i e n d . . . a n e v a c u e e , when s h e was o l d enough s h e w e n t b a c k t o E n g l a n d t o e n l i s t , b u t a t o r p e d o h i t t h e s h i p a n d s h e n e v e r made i t . " 2 8 5 One woman remembered "a boy f r o m o u r s c h o o l was s h o t down i n h i s 190 p l a n e a n d we r e a l l y w e r e s h o c k e d a n d v e r y u p s e t a b o u t i t . " 2 8 6 R e m e m b e r i n g h i s s i s t e r ' s b o y f r i e n d , one i n t e r v i e w e e e x p l a i n e d , " M e l v i n was k i l l e d s o e a r l y i n t h e w a r , i t was a t e r r i b l e l o s s a n d I s u p p o s e i t r e a l l y s o b e r e d u s a l l u p . " 2 8 7 He a l s o t o l d a b o u t t h e o l d e r b o y s he w a t c h e d p l a y b a s k e t b a l l . T h e y w e n t t o war a n d one "was s h o t down o v e r S i n g a p o r e " a n d t h e o t h e r " d i e d i n a n army b a t t l e o v e r i n F r a n c e . T h a t r e a l l y h a d a n i m p a c t o n m y s e l f . . . " 2 8 8 So much o f a n i m p a c t t h a t he d e c i d e d " t o p u r s u e U n i v e r s i t y r a t h e r t h a n s i g n i n g u p . " 2 8 9 When t h e numbers o f d e a d b e g a n t o i n c r e a s e , s o d i d c o n c e r n f o r t h o s e o v e r s e a s . A woman r e c a l l e d t h e a n x i e t y a f t e r h e r b r o t h e r j o i n e d u p. "We u s e d t o w a t c h f o r t h e t e l e g r a p h b o y , when we saw h i m i t was u s u a l l y b a d n e w s . . . I remember b e i n g u p s e t t h a t my b r o t h e r was away... a l w a y s w a t c h i n g f o r t h e t e l e g r a p h b o y . " 2 9 0 The d e a t h s o f f a m i l y members w e r e t h e most d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n t o e n d u r e . A s one woman m a i n t a i n e d : " F o r t h e p e o p l e who l o s t s o n s , t h e y w e r e t h e o n e s r e a l l y a f f e c t e d . " 2 9 1 A n o t h e r woman r e c o u n t e d t h a t h e r b r o t h e r "was t a k e n p r i s o n e r i n H o l l a n d . He was s h o t t r y i n g t o e s c a p e . " 2 9 2 Remembering h i s c o m m u n i t y , one man s t a t e d : "The n e i g h b o u r h o o d was d r a s t i c a l l y t o u c h e d . A l o t o f f a m i l i e s l o s t t h e i r s o n s . " 2 9 3 C h i l d r e n who l o s t a s i b l i n g r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s w o u l d n e v e r r e c o v e r . One woman remembered t h a t when h e r b r o t h e r was " s h o t f o r t r y i n g t o e s c a p e . My m o t h e r t o o k t o h e r b e d a n d d i e d f o u r y e a r s l a t e r . " 2 9 4 R e c o u n t i n g h i s b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h , one i n t e r v i e w e e d e c l a r e d : " I n 1943 my b r o t h e r was k i l l e d . . . I t was v e r y s a d when my b r o t h e r d i e d . . . M y m o t h e r a n d f a t h e r w e r e n e v e r t h e same a f t e r t h a t . None o f u s w e r e . They n e v e r g o t o v e r i t , e s p e c i a l l y my m o t h e r . " 2 9 5 As more p e o p l e w e r e r e p o r t e d d e a d 191 w h a t was o n c e one man's j e a l o u s y " I f e l t l e f t o u t o f t h e p i c t u r e . . . A l l my f r i e n d s . . . h a d j o i n e d u p . " 2 9 6 T u r n e d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t : "We w e r e t h e p r i v i l e g e d o n e s who s t a y e d b e h i n d . " 2 9 7 The e n d o f t h e war f i n a l l y came a f t e r s i x l o n g y e a r s a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s y o u n g a nd o l d j o i n e d i n t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s . The E u r o p e a n w a r e n d e d on 8 May 194 5, V i c t o r y i n E u r o p e , [VE D a y ] . F o l l o w e d b y V i c t o r y o v e r J a p a n , [ V J D a y ] , 15 A u g u s t t h a t same y e a r . B o t h VE Day a n d V J Day w e r e v e r y d i s t i n c t d a y s i n m o s t i n t e r v i e w e e ' s m i n d s . The two d a y s w e r e f u l l o f e x c i t e m e n t a n d c e l e b r a t i o n . One man d e s c r i b e d VE Day: "we d r o p p e d e v e r y t h i n g a n d r u s h e d o u t o n t o t h e s t r e e t , i t was t o t a l m a s s i v e e x c i t e m e n t , arms w a v i n g , p e o p l e s c r e a m i n g a n d s h o u t i n g , s h a k i n g h a n d s , v e r y e x c i t i n g d a y a n d i t went on a l l n i g h t . 2 9 8 A n o t h e r man d e s c r i b e d " t h e mobs i n t h e s t r e e t . . . s h o u t i n g a n d h o l l e r i n g . . . " 2 9 9 One woman r e c a l l e d " V J Day i n t h e summer...the c a r s on t h e r o a d w e r e h o n k i n g , a n d t h e d r i v e r s w e r e s h o u t i n g . " Some c h i l d r e n w e r e t h r i l l e d , n o t b e c a u s e t h e war was e n d i n g , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e g i v e n a d a y o f f s c h o o l . One i n t e r v i e w e e remembered t h e e x c i t e m e n t a t h e r s c h o o l : " . . . e v e r y o n e was v e r y e x c i t e d . A l o t o f k i d s p l a y e d h o o k e y t h a t d a y . . . e v e r y o n e was c e l e b r a t i n g . " 3 0 0 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d "VE Day, we g o t t h e a f t e r n o o n o f f f r o m s c h o o l . " 3 0 1 One man c o n s i d e r e d : " I t h i n k t h e n e x t d a y t h e s c h o o l was c l o s e d . " 3 0 2 A n o t h e r d e c l a r e d : " I remember VE Day b e c a u s e t h e y g a v e u s t h e d a y o f f a t s c h o o l a n d a l l t h e k i d s w e r e e x c i t e d a b o u t t h a t . " 3 0 3 M o s t remembered t h e e n d o f t h e war a s a h a p p y t i m e . One man r e m a r k e d t h a t " i t seemed l i k e we w e r e e n t e r i n g a new a n d w o n d e r f u l w o r l d w h e r e a l l o u r p r o b l e m s w o u l d be s o l v e d . " 3 0 4 192 A n o t h e r i n t e r v i e w e e was r e l i e v e d t h a t " t h e w a r was o v e r . . . o n my e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y , t o t h e d a y . O t h e r w i s e I w o u l d h a v e j o i n e d u p . . . i t was o v e r , t h e p r e s s u r e was o f f . " 3 0 5 A n o t h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e " s e n s e o f r e l i e f a n d r e l e a s e " t h a t he f e l t . 3 0 6 "We w e r e j u s t a l l s o g l a d t h a t i t was o v e r " e x p l a i n e d one woman, "and t h e men w e r e c o m i n g h o m e . " 3 0 7 To o t h e r c h i l d r e n t h e e n d o f t h e w a r was n o t a v i c t o r y b u t a t i m e o f d e s t r u c t i o n . One i n t e r v i e w e e s t a t e d : " I do remember t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e a tom bomb a t t a c k s on H i r o s h i m a a n d N a g a s a k i . . . A n enormous amount o f d e s t r u c t i o n . . . s a y i n g t o m y s e l f : ' I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d h a v e d o n e i t . * " 3 0 8 A n o t h e r r e c a l l e d t h e d a y " t h e bomb was d r o p p e d . We knew i t w o u l d a l l be o v e r s o o n . . . " 3 0 9 " I remember t h e t w o bombs b e i n g d r o p p e d " r e c o u n t e d one i n t e r v i e w e e . 3 1 0 She d e s c r i b e d t h e r e a c t i o n : " E v e r y o n e t a l k e d a b o u t t h e s e bombs. Some p e o p l e s a i d i t was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e n d . T h e y w o u l d q u o t e p a s s a g e s f r o m t h e b i b l e a nd s a y i t was a l l o v e r , t h e e n d o f t h e w o r l d . " 3 1 1 C h i l d r e n i n e v i t a b l y m a t u r e d by t h e e n d o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. A l a n Thomas e x p l a i n e d : " t h e g e n e r a t i o n whose a d o l e s c e n c e e n d e d a t a l m o s t e x a c t l y t h e same moment a s t h e a d o l e s c e n c e o f t h e w o r l d . . . H i r o s h i m a . . . s e e m s a s g o o d a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e e n d o f a d o l e s c e n c e a s i t