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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Historical perspective of the British Columbia business education curriculum, 1875-1990 Olson, Natalie 1991

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HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA BUSINESS EDUCATION CURRICULUM, 1875 - 1990 .A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1991 By N a t a l i e O l s o n MASTER OF ARTS i n N a t a l i e O l s o n , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^ c ^ i J 6 /Bj/99/ DE-6 (2/88) i i Abstract This study describes the evolution of the B r i t i s h Columbia business education curriculum from 1875 to 1990. Since the ' o f f i c i a l ' curriculum document at any p a r t i c u l a r time represents the central focus of formal educational endeavours, i t and related ensuing s p e c i f i c business subject c u r r i c u l a were the central objects of analysis for th i s study. The primary or "parent" document of the general curriculum for each important revisi o n period was examined f i r s t for such clues as i t s language, purposes, aims, emphases and concerns gave to i t s philosophy and general orientation. Next, each of the commercial/business programmes that issued from that major rev i s i o n was examined i n order to determine i t s relationship to the "parent" document. Individual courses within the programmes were then analyzed. F i n a l l y , each curriculum was examined to ascertain i t s relationship with i t s s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l contexts. Some important themes have emerged: a s h i f t i n the c l i e n t e l e for business education, a series of changes i n the focus of the programme, and some related changes i n the status of the f i e l d . The evolution of commercial education from a course of study for 'gentlemen' into one for an almost exclusively female c l i e n t e l e by mid-century, into one for both genders by 1990 greatly affected the contents and emphases of prescribed programmes. The contents and emphases of those prescribed programmes were also determined by the broader s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic contexts i n which they operated. During certain periods, the programme presented an image of business as " o f f i c work", and thus u t i l i t a r i a n , functional, nonacademic, and of primary interest to female students. Emphasis on " e n t r y - l e v e l " s k i l l s for o f f i c e employment characterized the programme. At those times i t s prestige within the school subject hierarchy tended to be low. At other times business education was a more general course, t h e o r e t i c a l , and f a i r l y academic i n nature, presenting a broad conception of the business world. In those periods business education included theories and practices related to owning, di r e c t i n g and conducting business as well as o f f i c e s k i l l s and routines. During these times, business education enjoyed high status within the school subject hierarchy, and appealed to both male and female students. In addition, the status of business education depended on the attention i t received from such i n f l u e n t i a l e n t i t i e s as strong business inte r e s t groups, and the federal and pro v i n c i a l governments. While more tentative than some of the other considerations the thesis does examine the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst such elements as curriculum, academic and nonacademic streaming, gender roles, employment t r a i n i n g , and p o l i t i c a l and economic agendas of government. Although the exact impact that each had i n determining business education c u r r i c u l a i s not yet e n t i r e l y clear, t h e i r central role i n the process i s made amply clear i n t h i s d e scriptive study. i v Table of Contents Abstract i i Acknowledgements v Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Early Academic Roots; 1876-1906 8 Chapter 2 Expansion of Commercial Studies; 1907 - 1924 19 Chapter 3 Putman-Weir Survey and New Directions for Change; 1924 - 1937 30 Chapter 4 Consolidation, Entrenchment, S t a b i l i t y ; 1937 - 1960 40 Chapter 5 Neo-Conservative and Progressive Change; 1960 - 1975 65 Chapter 6 Centralization, Control and the P o l i t i c a l Agenda; 197 6 - 1990 78 Chapter 7 A New Vi s i o n and Revision -- Business Education; 1990 100 Chapter 8 Summary and Conclusions 115 A Note About Sources 121 Bibliography 126 V Acknowledgements I extend my sincere thanks to Dr. Shirley Wong, who generously made available her extensive c o l l e c t i o n of business education materials, and assisted i n c l a r i f y i n g my thinking on certai n issues. I appreciate the time she cheerfully gave for discussion, deliberation and careful reading of the drafts. I am especially grateful for the assistance and support of Dr. Neil Sutherland who, i n his inimitable and gentlemanly manner, guided my thinking and writing with patience and humour. I deeply appreciate his attentive supervision, guidance and generosity. I also wish to thank my family; my parents and brother Adrian for t h e i r kindness; and my husband John and daughters Sasha and Charlotte, for t h e i r encouragement, tolerance, and unquestioning support. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y examines t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m of t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s from 1875 when the f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l was opened i n the p r o v i n c e , t o t h e r e c e n t 1990 r e v i s i o n . I t s purpose i s t o r e c o r d the c u r r i c u l a r e v e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n , d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1875-1990, and t o i d e n t i f y some of t h e major re a s o n s f o r t h e s e changes. I n d o i n g s o , t h i s t h e s i s examines t h e c o n t e n t , o b j e c t i v e s and r a t i o n a l e s of each major r e v i s i o n of t h e c u r r i c u l u m between 1875 and 1990. I t a l s o s u r v e y s t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t i n which changes were made, g i v i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , economic i s s u e s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , changes i n l e a r n i n g p s y c h o l o g y and o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a s b o t h from w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e and i m p o r t e d i n t o i t from e l s e w h e r e . The s t u d y approaches c u r r i c u l u m a n a l y s i s from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l h i s t o r y . I v o r Goodson a s s e r t s t h a t s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s may a s s i s t i n c l a r i f y i n g c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n s and perhaps p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r contemporary i n q u i r y . 1 The p r o v i s i o n of c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s may a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks f o r v i e w i n g c u r r i c u l u m and * I v o r Goodson, " S u b j e c t s f o r Study: A s p e c t s of a S o c i a l H i s t o r y of C u r r i c u l u m , " J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s . 15, (1985): 391-408. 2 i n u n c o v e r i n g new a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y , m a i n t a i n s Goodson. H i s B r i t i s h r e s e a r c h on t h e way s u b j e c t s become p a r t of o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m and how s u b j e c t groups attempt t o g a i n s t a t u s and l e g i t i m a c y f o r t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e s p r o v i d e d one c o m p a r a t i v e framework f o r l o o k i n g a t t h e b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h i s s t u d y and a s s i s t e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c e r t a i n events.* Goodson's work, t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l case s t u d i e s , t r a c e s t h e manner i n which c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s became e n t r e n c h e d i n t o the B r i t i s h c u r r i c u l u m . In Goodson's view as w e l l as t h a t of most e d u c a t o r s , a s u b j e c t ' s " h i g h s t a t u s " w i t h i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y or becoming " e s t a b l i s h e d " as p a r t of c u r r i c u l u m , i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a good t h i n g , s i n c e i t becomes l e g i t i m a t e d and t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v i n g of a p o r t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . Goodson i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e system of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n w h i c h s u p p o r t s " h i g h s t a t u s " s u b j e c t s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n i s , i n f a c t , an e f f e c t i v e system f o r p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e dominance of c e r t a i n t y p e s of s u b j e c t e n t i t i e s over o t h e r s . T h i s dominance u l t i m a t e l y produces i n e q u i t i e s , i n s o c i a l s t a t u s and m a t e r i a l g a i n , t o s t u d e n t s of t h e low s t a t u s s u b j e c t s . Goodson's s t u d y appears t o p r ove t h a t a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o a ppeal t o p o w e r f u l p r o p o n e n t s , i n G r e a t B r i t a i n ' s case t h e u n i v e r s i t y , t o speak t o i t s " r i g o u r " or v a l u e g r a n t i t s t a t u s and l e g i t i m a c y w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y . H i g h s t a t u s and l e g i t i m a c y means 1 I v o r Goodson, School S u b j e c t s and C u r r i c u l u m Change (London: Falmer P r e s s , 1987). 3 o f f i c i a l a t t e n t i o n and an o f t e n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e of f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . The h i s t o r y of t h e development of the B r i t i s h Columbia b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i l l u s t r a t e s some of t h e c o n c l u s i o n s Goodson makes i n h i s s t u d y . P u b l i c s c h o o l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n as an e n t i t y c o m p r ised of a group of s u b j e c t s has r e c e i v e d i t s s h a r e of a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s c u s s i o n s of t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , methods of p l a n n i n g , q u e s t i o n s of emphasis and t h e l i k e . C o m p a r a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s , however, d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y , w i t h i t s h i s t o r y . There a r e a number of B r i t i s h ^ and American* g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n and many j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n r e l a t i v e t o s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of i t . I n t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s , f o r example, some Canadian c r i t i c i s m has been l e v e l l e d a t the n a t u r e of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n programmes and t h e i n e q u i t i e s t hey have g e n e r a t e d or p e r p e t u a t e d f o r s t u d e n t s over t i m e . H i s t o r i a n s w i t h f e m i n i s t and n e o - M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s have c r i t i c i z e d i t s s o c i a l i z a t i o n a s p e c t s and i t s mechanisms of " s o c i a l c o n t r o l " . 5 Graham Lowe's s t u d y examined t h e h i s t o r y of A l f r e d H. P i t m a n , A H a l f C e n t u r y of Commercial E d u c a t i o n  and P u b l i s h i n g ( B a t h : P i t m a n , 1932) and A. A b b o t t , E d u c a t i o n f o r  I n d u s t r y and Commerce i n England (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933). * Edwin G. Knepper, H i s t o r y of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n U n i t e d  S t a t e s (Ann A r b o r , M i c h : Edwards B r o t h e r s , 1941) and a l s o J a n i c e W e i s s , " E d u c a t i n g f o r C l e r i c a l Work: A H i s t o r y of Commercial E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1850" (Ph.D. d i s s . , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1978). 5 See, f o r example, Jane G a s k e l l , "Sex I n e q u a l i t i e s i n E d u c a t i o n f o r Work: The Case of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n , " Canadian  J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n 6 (1981): 54-72 and Jane G a s k e l l and M a r v i n L a z e r s o n , "Between School and Work: P e r s p e c t i v e s of Working C l a s s Y o u t h , " I n t e r c h a n g e , 11, no. 3 (1980-81): 80-99. 4 women i n t h e o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . 6 P a u l M o r e l a n d and John Hewson wrote b r i e f and v e r y g e n e r a l h i s t o r i e s of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n Canada 7 w h i l e E l e a n o r B u j e a t r a c e d t h e h i s t o r y of the t r a i n i n g of Canadian b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . Robert Heywood and H a r o l d L. Weeks e v a l u a t e d B r i t i s h Columbia commercial programmes i n t h e i r t ime.' The h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a has been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . There i s no one s i n g l e work i n which t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s examined o r a n a l y z e d over extended p e r i o d s of t i m e . Graham Bruce's M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s touches on c u r r i c u l u m among o t h e r i s s u e s between 1875 and 1935, and g i v e s a b r i e f o v e r v i e w of the " s t a t e " of commercial programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia.*" George H. Green, who wrote b o t h a M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s and D o c t o r of Paedagogy d i s s e r t a t i o n on the development of the e n t i r e Graham Lowe, "Women Work and t h e O f f i c e ; The F e m i n i z a t i o n of C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada, 1901-1931," Canadian J o u r n a l  of S o c i o l o g y 5, no. 4 (1980): 361-381. 7 P a u l A. M o r e l a n d , A H i s t o r y of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n ( T o r o n t o : P i t m a n , 1977) and John C. Hewson, "The H i s t o r y of Commercial E d u c a t i o n i n Canada" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1940). 8 E l e a n o r B u j e a , "The Development of B u s i n e s s Teacher E d u c a t i o n i n Canada" (Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of N o r t h Dakota, 1973). 5 R o b e r t H. Heywood, "An E v a l u a t i o n of t h e T r a i n i n g Programme f o r Commerce Teachers a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n " ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1960) and H a r o l d L. Weeks, " O r g a n i z a t i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " (Ph.D. d i s s . , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1943). 1 U Graham B r u c e , " B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1941). 5 elementary and secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o 1944, d e v o t e s a s h o r t c h a p t e r t o " t h e development of Manual T r a i n i n g , I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Home Economics, Commercial E d u c a t i o n , and N i g h t S c h o o l C o u r s e s " . 1 1 H i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a c u r s o r y l o o k a t commercial programmes, g i v i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o aims, o b j e c t i v e s or p h i l o s p h y of t h e c u r r i c u l a . Mhora Z e l t e r ' s r e s e a r c h examined t h e " s t a t u s " of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1978 1 2 and Ebenezer's 1981 s t u d y examined t h e " s t a t u s " of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s of the Okanagan and Kamioops/Cariboo r e g i o n s . 1 3 The word " s t a t u s " as employed i n t h e s e works r e f e r s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n or " s t a t e " of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n a t t h e time t h e works were w r i t t e n i n r e f e r e n c e t o b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r demographics, c o u r s e l o a d s , and b u s i n e s s equipment i n v e n t o r i e s . S c r u t i n y of c u r r i c u l u m and c o n t e n t , h i s t o r i c a l o r o t h e r w i s e , i s not the scope of e i t h e r of the " s t a t u s " s t u d i e s . F o r t h e purposes of c l a r i t y , t h i s s t u d y employs t h e term " c u r r i c u l u m " t o s i g n i f y " t h e o f f i c i a l c o u r s e of s t u d y , ... c o n s t i t u t i n g . . . a s e t of r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and p r i n c i p l e s t o u George H. Green, "The Development of t h e C u r r i c u l u m i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m bia" ( D o c t o r of Paedagogy d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1944), 224-269. 1 2 Mhora Z e l t e r , "The S t a t u s of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1977-1978" (M.A. t h e s i s , Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1979). 1 3 Luke Devairakkam Ebenezer, "The S t a t u s of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c Secondary S c h o o l s of t h e Okanagan and t h e Kamioops/Cariboo R e g i o n s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada" (D.Ed, d i s s . , Walden U n i v e r s i t y , 1981). 6 g u i d e what s h o u l d be t a u g h t " . 1 * I t t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e s g u i d e s , documents, m a t e r i a l s and t e x t s used f o r t e a c h i n g but e x c l u d e s o t h e r c o n c e p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m such as " t h e h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m " , t h e " c u r r i c u l u m - i n - p r a c t i c e " and so on. The term " b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n " i s an updated one f o r e x p r e s s i o n s used i n t h e p a s t , as f o r example, commerce or commercial e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s , or o c c u p a t i o n a l commerce. Those terms e s s e n t i a l l y r e f e r t o t h e same e n t i t y , t h a t i s , t h a t body of s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h consumer, c o m m e r c i a l , and/or b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y . The terms, "commercial programmes", "commerce c o u r s e s " , " b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s " a l l r e f e r t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . I n o r d e r t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e nomenclature of t h e time p e r i o d s under s t u d y , d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e e a r l y programmes w i l l use t h e term "commercial e d u c a t i o n " i n t h i s t h e s i s , w h i l e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l a t t e r - d a y programmes ( a f t e r 1978) w i l l employ the term " b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n " . T h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t s of e i g h t c h a p t e r s . F o l l o w i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , c h a p t e r one t r a c e s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r t h e e a r l y r o o t s of commerce e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a r e v e nts from 1876 t o 1906, and a n a l y z e s t h e i m p o r t a n t changes t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h o s e y e a r s . C hapter two c o n t i n u e s t r a c k i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n of the programme from 1907 t o the advent of t h e Putman-Weir Survey of 1925. A s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Putman-Weir Survey f i n d i n g s and ^ George S. Tomkins, A Common Countenance: S t a b i l i t y and  Change i n t h e Canadian C u r r i c u l u m ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1986), 1. 7 p o l i t i c a l and economic e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o a major r e v i s i o n i n 1937 make up t h e c o n t e n t s of c h a p t e r t h r e e . Chapter f o u r encompasses the y e a r s 1937 t o 1960. I t examines th e 1937 programme i n g r e a t d e t a i l , and d e s c r i b e s s e v e r a l f e e b l e a t t e m p t s t o r e v i s e i t between 1944 and 1960. I t was a time of entrenchment and s t a b i l i t y i n commercial c u r r i c u l a r a f f a i r s . The Chant Roya l Commission i n 1958 b e g i n s c h a p t e r f i v e , w h i l e the r e s t of t h e c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e s d e s c r i b i n g c u r r i c u l a r e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e modern y e a r s t o 1975. I t r e v i e w s t h e r o l e t e a c h e r s p l a y e d i n e f f e c t i n g c u r r i c u l u m change. Chapter s i x b e g i n s w i t h d e t a i l s s u r r o u n d i n g the i s s u i n g of the 1978 "Core C u r r i c u l u m " and r e c o u n t s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s e r t i v e r o l e of government and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c o u r s e of B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a r e v e n t s . The mandatory consumer e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1980's and t h e reasons b e h i n d t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n a r e examined. F u r t h e r e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o a R o y a l Commission on E d u c a t i o n i n 1987 round out t h e c h a p t e r . Chapter seven s u r v e y s t h e r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n and adopted b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m of 1990. T h i s c u r r i c u l u m ' s congruence w i t h i s s u e s , p h i l o s o p h i e s , and recommendations from t h e r e p o r t on t h e 1987 R o y a l Commission a r e e x p l o r e d . Chapter e i g h t summarizes th e s a l i e n t themes i n t h e e v o l u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y and c o n c l u d e s w i t h a few b r i e f g e n e r a l remarks. F o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r e i g h t , a "Note about S o u r c e s " and a b i b l i o g r a p h y completes t h e s t u d y . 8 C h a p t e r 1 E a r l y Academic R o o t s ; 1876-1906 As e a r l y as 1861 commercial e d u c a t i o n was a l r e a d y o c c u p y i n g a p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l programmes. I n a l e t t e r t o W.A. Young, ( A c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y ) , w h i c h accompanied h i s T h i r d Report on C o l o n i a l S c h o o l s , t h e Reverend Edward C r i d g e , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of C o l o n i a l s c h o o l s , r e f e r r e d t o f o u r ( e l e m e n t a r y ) p u p i l s making v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s i n bookkeeping e x e r c i s e s a t a V i c t o r i a s c h o o l . 1 The annual r e p o r t s i s s u e d by the Department of E d u c a t i o n of t h e p r o v i n c e a t t e s t t o t h e f a c t t h a t from 1871 t o 1897 the o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e d bookkeeping as an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n t h e elementary s c h o o l programme. A f t e r August 1876, when t h e f i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia H i g h School opened i n V i c t o r i a , t h e secondary s c h o o l programme a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e s u b j e c t . Indeed, u n t i l 1906 bookkeeping was an examinable s u b j e c t i n the e l e m e n t a r y programme, meaning t h a t i t was a mandatory c o u r s e f o r h i g h s c h o o l a d m i s s i o n . A f t e r 1907, i t was dropped from e l e m e n t a r y o f f e r i n g s , but became an examinable s u b j e c t i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l programme a l o n g w i t h t y p e w r i t i n g , s h o r t h a n d d i c t a t i o n , b u s i n e s s forms, laws of b u s i n e s s and s h o r t h a n d t h e o r y . B e i n g an " e x a m i n a b l e " s u b j e c t i n B r i t i s h C olumbia c u r r i c u l u m has always c o n f e r r e d p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s t o i t . 1 Edward C r i d g e , l e t t e r t o W.A. Young, 1861, A r c h i v e s C o l l e c t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. f o l d e r 395, no. 24. 9 The f a c t s u b j e c t s h e l d t h a t s t a t u s meant they c a r r i e d a c c e p t a n c e and l e g i t i m a c y from o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t o r s . T h i s s t a t u s ensured e d u c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e s u b j e c t s , which i n t u r n l e d t o t h e i r e x p a n s i o n and l o n g e v i t y t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y . I n t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s commercial e d u c a t i o n was h a r d l y a major i s s u e t h a t r e q u i r e d l e g i t i m a t i o n , j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r s t r u g g l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c secondary s c h o o l i n g as was the case of o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . N e i t h e r the g e n e r a l Canadian nor t h e s p e c i f i c B r i t i s h Columbia l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t any o c c a s i o n s of t h e need t o j u s t i f y o r lobby s t r e n u o u s l y f o r commercial s u b j e c t s t o be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m . I n comparison, o t h e r v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t groups s u p p o r t i n g f i e l d s s u c h as i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n and home economics have a f a i r l y l e n g t h y h i s t o r y of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c h i e v i n g some r e c o g n i t i o n o r l e g i t i m a c y f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t a r e a s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m . 2 I n f a c t , much of t h e f i n a l s u c c e s s of groups p r o m o t i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n of t h e i r s u b j e c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m 1 For compar i s o n , s e e , f o r example, Timothy Dunn, "Work, C l a s s and E d u c a t i o n : V o c a t i o n a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia's P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1900-1929" ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l umbia, 1978) and John K e i t h F o s t e r , " E d u c a t i o n and Work i n a Changing S o c i e t y : B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1870-1930" ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1970) f o r a p e r s p e c t i v e on i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n h i s t o r y . F o r a home economics p e r s p e c t i v e , see J . I r v i n e , " H i s t o r y of Home Economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia S c h o o l s 1896-1975 ( V i c t o r i a : Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1975) or C h r i s t i e Jane Thomas, " F o r c e s I n f l u e n c i n g Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m Change i n B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s , 1912-1985" ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986). can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e v o c a t i o n a l movement. 3 The r e a s o n f o r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of commercial e d u c a t i o n as a p u b l i c s c h o o l s u b j e c t a r e a p r o b a b l y l i e s i n i t s o b v i o u s l i n k s t o b u s i n e s s and economic m a t t e r s . The h i s t o r y of b u s i n e s s as a m i d d l e c l a s s endeavour has l i k e l y ensured i t s l e g i t i m a c y i n p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . S i n c e e a r l y t i m e s b u s i n e s s , t r a d e and commercial p u r s u i t s of a l l t y p e s have been th e p r o v i n c e of the m i d d l e c l a s s e s , w h i l e manual and d o m e s t i c o c c u p a t i o n s were c u s t o m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . M i d d l e c l a s s p u r s u i t s and e d u c a t i o n f o r them r e q u i r e d l e s s e n e r g e t i c p r o m o t i o n t h a n o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c f u n d i n g , s i n c e they were the p u r s u i t s and o c c u p a t i o n s of an i n c r e a s i n g l y d o m i n a t i n g c l a s s i n s o c i e t y . Commercial e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was not t h e o b j e c t of r e s i s t a n c e . Because of i t s somewhat l e n g t h y and a l r e a d y proven w o r t h i n t h e s c h o o l s of G r e a t B r i t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s , and E a s t e r n Canada, and i t s c l e a r c o n n e c t i o n t o economic m a t t e r s , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and g r a d u a l e x p a n s i o n of commercial e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia was almost n a t u r a l . I n f a c t , t h e commercial s u b j e c t s o f t e n had good " o f f i c i a l " s u p p o r t . * Moreover, u n t i l t h e advent of t h e c u r r i c u l u m of 3 Dunn, 6, a l s o Robert M. Stamp, " V o c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s i n Canadian E d u c a t i o n : An H i s t o r i c a l Overview," H i s t o r i c a l P a p e r s . (London, Ont.: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1972): 239-262. * B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n Annual R e p o r t of  t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1894-1895 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1895), 213, 217-281. I n s p e c t o r s D a v i d W i l s o n and W i l l i a m Burns e x t o l l e d t h e " p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y " of bookkeeping " i n e v e r y f i e l d of l i f e . " 1937, the commercial programme i n secondary s c h o o l s appeared t o e n j o y v i r t u a l l y t h e same h i g h s t a t u s as academic s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y . Even when the c h a r a c t e r of commercial e d u c a t i o n began t o change i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and emphasis s h i f t e d from a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r b u s i n e s s t o s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r o f f i c e work, newly e v o l v i n g commercial s u b j e c t s had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n b e i n g i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m . As e a r l y as 1885 an o f f i c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d o r s a n c t i o n e d b u s i n e s s programme was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h e r e were l e s s t h a n 200 r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d i n g h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e and few s t u d e n t s , i f any, were a c t u a l l y t a k i n g t h e f u l l ^ "Commercial" programme. 5 The annual r e p o r t s d e s c r i b e the B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m as a t h r e e - t r a c k programme from which s t u d e n t s c o u l d choose t h e " E n g l i s h Course", t h e "Commercial Course" or the " C l a s s i c s Course".^ These " C o u r s e s " were c u r r i c u l a r "packages" which r e q u i r e d c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t s , mandatory v a r i a b l e s , and f r e e e l e c t i v e s . These "packages" were o f t e n employed i n g r o u p i n g c o u r s e s f o r v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m h i s t o r y . To a l l appearances, t h e "Commercial Course" was a c h a l l e n g i n g 3 B r i t i s h C olumbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , Annual R e p o r t s  of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s from 1885 t o 1906 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , v a r i o u s ) . * B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , Annual R e p o r t  of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1886, 38. programme, l i s t i n g b o okkeeping, b a n k i n g , commercial c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , commercial law " t o g e t h e r w i t h a l 1 s u b j e c t s p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e E n g l i s h Course". The " E n g l i s h C o u r se" p r e s c r i b e d r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , d i c t a t i o n , mental a r i t h m e t i c , w r i t t e n a r i t h m e t i c , geometry, E n g l i s h grammar, E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , c o m p o s i t i o n and l e t t e r w r i t i n g . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, th e s u b j e c t s of anatomy ( p h y s i o l o g y and h y g i e n e ) , n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , m e n s u r a t i o n , a l g e b r a , and e u c l i d ( [ i a n ] geometry were r e q u i r e d . The " C l a s s i c s C o u r se" encompassed a l l t h e a b o v e - l i s t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of L a t i n , Greek and F r e n c h . C l e a r l y , the "Commercial Course" was as comprehensive, i f n o t more d i f f i c u l t t han t h e " C l a s s i c s Course". The " C l a s s i c s " Course d i s a p p e a r e d e a r l y i n the new c e n t u r y , but a commercial programme has c o n t i n u e d i n v a r i o u s forms and c a p a c i t i e s u n t i l the p r e s e n t day (1990). The p l a c e of the commercial programme i n t h e v e r y f i r s t o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m and i t s comprehensive n a t u r e s p e l l s out t h e v a l u e e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s a t t a c h e d t o commercial e d u c a t i o n . The i n i t i a l programme, d e s c r i b e d above, c o r r e s p o n d e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e o f f e r i n g s i n b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g of the e a r l i e s t p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e of American e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s on t h e Canadian scene have been c o n s i d e r a b l e . ' I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o emphasize, however, t h a t Edwin G. Knepper, H i s t o r y of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : Edwards B r o t h e r s , 1941). 8 Tomkins, 253 throughout most of t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia commercial c u r r i c u l u m , t h e academic ( " E n g l i s h " ) programme was a t i t s c o r e , t o which was added t h e commercial s u b j e c t s . The a d d i t i o n of s u b j e c t s t o an a l r e a d y e x i s i t i n g academic programme t o produce commercial c u r r i c u l a , r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of e n t i r e l y new b u s i n e s s - f o c u s s e d programmes i s a p r a c t i c e t h a t d e v e l o p e d e a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and c o n t i n u e d t o be s u p p o r t e d t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree u n t i l m i d c e n t u r y . The tendency t o add t o an a l r e a d y academic f o c u s was c l e a r l y r e f l e c t i v e of a d o m i n a t i n g and r e c u r r i n g r e v e r e n c e f o r the academic d i s c i p l i n e s , a t r a i t l i k e l y i n h e r i t e d from t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n w hich has been t h e o r i g i n of many of our programmes. The c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n of t h e commercial programme w i t h the academic p r o b a b l y gave i t much of i t s l e g i t i m a c y and s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m i n t h o s e e a r l y y e a r s . I n l a t e r y e a r s , as t h e B r i t i s h Columbia commercial c u r r i c u l u m g r a d u a l l y reduced i t s academic emphasis, and became more u t i l i t a r i a n , i t l o s t c o n s i d e r a b l e " s t a t u s " among e d u c a t o r s and s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia commercial programme r e t a i n e d i t s h i g h s t a t u s o v er a l l of t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s , i t d i d not remain unchanged. Between 1885 and about 1900 many i n f l u e n c e s , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , began t o t r a n s f o r m t h e s e s u b j e c t s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l B r i t i s h Columbia commercial c u r r i c u l u m . A number of i n v e n t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e t y p e w r i t e r , as w e l l as a s h o r t h a n d system u s e a b l e f o r commercial o f f i c e purposes a f f e c t e d o f f i c e p r a c t i c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , enormous i n c r e a s e s i n commercial a c t i v i t y and the concomitant need for trained o f f i c e personnel demanded change i n commercial education. While public schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia were offering only bookkeeping and business correspondence i n t h e i r early commercial programmes, the private business colleges, already serving an important educational and economic function i n the United States and eastern Canada, were quickly becoming tra i n i n g s i t e s for many business-oriented students. There was an increasing "market demand" for certain kinds of tr a i n i n g , and the private colleges were attempting to f i l l i t . The demand for bookkeeping, typewriting and other commercially-related s k i l l s became so great private schools could not accommodate a l l students. Moreover, many potential students could not afford the fees private schools were exacting. At the same time, changes i n employment patterns of increasingly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c i t i e s were resu l t i n g i n the demand for other work-related t r a i n i n g . 5 The notion that certain kinds of schooling could be of economic value to the student and the society, and furthermore should be accessible within the public school to a l l students who wished i t , was rapidly becoming part of a movement for vocational education. 1' At the same time that public demand for work-related see Dunn, "Work, Class and Education," and Foster, "Education and Work i n a Changing Society". Both authors provide d i f f e r i n g reasons for the demand for i n d u s t r i a l and occupational t r a i n i n g , emanating from increasing mechanization and i n d u s t r i a l development. 1(1 Robert M. Stamp, The Schools of Ontario. 1876-1976 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982), 51-81. 15 education i n secondary schools became more assertive, the nature of business and o f f i c e occupations were changing. Up to about the late 1880's business and o f f i c e occupations were almost exclusively male occupations and preparation for business "trade" a c t i v i t y , l i k e many other trades, was accomplished predominantly through the apprentice system. 1 1 This system was rapidly breaking down for a number of reasons, one of them being i t could not f i l l the constantly increasing demand for trained o f f i c e personnel. U n t i l then, business a c t i v i t y and o f f i c e a c t i v i t y was synonymous and was usually performed by men who owned businesses. Following the increase of commercial a c t i v i t y accompanying i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n (after 1860), business a c t i v i t y was increasingly divided into those tasks associated with "owning and doing business" and those connected with " o f f i c e work".1* This d i v i s i o n of business labour occurred for a number of reasons along gender lines--the "owning and doing" of business becoming the male role, and the tasks of recording, organizing, and reproducing business documentation that of women. Chapter four explores t h i s phenomenon i n more d e t a i l . The influence of these events became evident i n the f i r s t " s e m i - o f f i c i a l " document discussing a B r i t i s h Columbia business education curriculum i n 1905-06. The Department of Education's 1 1 Anne Scott Daughtrey, Methods of Teaching Basic Business  and Economics education. 2nd ed (Cinncinati: South-Western Publishing Company, 1974), 4-7. 1 2 Graham S. Lowe, "Women, Work and the O f f i c e ; The Feminization of C l e r i c a l Occupations i n Canada, 1901-1930," Canadian Journal Of Sociology 5. no.4 (1980): 361-381. 16 Manual of School Law f o r 1906^ d e s c r i b e s i n great d e t a i l the r e v i s e d commercial course. In the s u b j e c t s of reading and orthoepy ( p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) , E n g l i s h grammar, E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , Canadian h i s t o r y , a l g e b r a and geometry, the commercial course was the same as the pre v i o u s one. In the s u b j e c t s of w r i t i n g and s p e l l i n g , composition, geography, and a r i t h m e t i c , the course was s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d to a l l y i t more c l o s e l y with business p r a c t i c e . The s u b j e c t s of bookkeeping, business forms and business law were r e t a i n e d from the o r i g i n a l programme. At i t s core, i t remained more or l e s s the same as the o r i g i n a l l y conceived, very academic programme of 1885, with one important d i f f e r e n c e - - t h e a d d i t i o n of two more s u b j e c t s , t y p e w r i t i n g and stenography. The a d d i t i o n of stenography and t y p e w r i t i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a number of reasons. F i r s t , i t was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of s i l e n t approval by the department of education, f o r t r u l y p r a c t i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d business or commercial knowledge to enter the p u b l i c s c h o o l . T h i s " a p p r o v a l " became c l e a r l y apparent l a t e r when the government e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l e x c l u s i v e l y commercial h i g h s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e . Second, i t was a h i n t of admission by the government, that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r employment t r a i n i n g might be one of the r o l e s of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , even though i t appeared r e l u c t a n t to accept t h i s n o t i o n p r i o r to t h i s time. T h i r d , was that i t o c c u r r e d as r e s u l t l i B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Ed u c a t i o n , Manual of  School Law ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1906): 69-72 . of p u b l i c p r e s s u r e and "market" demand, because of t h e p u b l i c ' s growing p e r c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l i n g and t h e i r economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 1 * I t was t h e f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s on commercial c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . A d o p t i n g t y p e w r i t i n g and s h o r t h a n d c o u r s e s had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e of commercial e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r " p r a c t i c a l " s c h o o l i n g . The a d d i t i o n of t y p e w r i t i n g and s t e n o g r a p h y had a number of a p p a r e n t l y unexpected e f f e c t s on t h e s t u d e n t s of t h e commercial programme and the development of t h e f u t u r e b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a . I t was p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s who "must l e a v e s c h o o l " w i t h e n t r y s k i l l s t o t h e work of t h e o f f i c e . 1 * I t , however, o v e r l o a d e d t h e "Commercial C o u r s e " t o t h e p o i n t where s t u d e n t s were u n l i k e l y t o complete t h e f u l l programme. 1* Moreover, i n t h i s " o v e r l o a d e d " b u s i n e s s c u r r i c u l u m of 1905-06 l a y t h e r o o t s of a g r a d u a l d i v i s i o n of commercial e d u c a t i o n i n t o " b u s i n e s s " e d u c a t i o n where th e emphasis r e s t e d i n b u s i n e s s and f i n a n c i a l management t h e o r i e s , and t h e i r a t t e n d a n t See, f o r example, "Would r e o r g a n i z e s c h o o l system h e r e " , C o l o n i s t , 7 J u l y , 1917, p.6. Board of Trade c a l l s f o r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s — p l a n n e d t o meet w i t h J.D. MacLean, M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n t o d i s c u s s changes; "Vancouver wants t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , " C o l o n i s t , 20 August, 1919, p. 1. E n g i n e e r i n g and T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e of B.C., r e p r e s e n t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l businessmen, s u p p o r t e d moves t o g a i n a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l f o r Vancouver; and " C o u n t r y ' s Youth Needs t r a i n i n g , " C o l o n i s t , 10 June, 1920, p. 5. M a n u f a c t u r e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n a d d r e s s e d on t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 1 5 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , Manual of  S c h o o l Law. 1906 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1906), 69-72. 1 8 Annual R e p o r t of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 1911-1912. 21. decision-making f u n c t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s ; and " o f f i c e " e ducation, i n which emphasis was p l a c e d on p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n r o u t i n e tasks and procedures a s s o c i a t e d with o f f i c e work. In t h i s gradual d i v i s i o n , the " o f f i c e " branch would become l e s s and l e s s academic over time, while the " b u s i n e s s " branch maintained i t s more academic emphasis. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n academic emphases had much to do, i n l a t e r years, with determining the s t a t u s of not only the o f f e r e d s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the school s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y , but of those who e l e c t e d to take them. The l i n e s between the two branches became more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as time passed. Chapter 2 Expansion of Commercial S t u d i e s ; 1907-1924 The f i r s t decades of the t w e n t i e t h century were a p e r i o d of unprecedented economic growth f o r the Canadian n a t i o n . As Canada became more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d toward the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century, f a c t o r i e s r e p l a c e d cottage i n d u s t r y and p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t e d from r u r a l to urban c e n t r e s . I n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n and r a p i d economic development changed the c h a r a c t e r of many s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . An i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n o c c u r r e d and p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d were r o l e d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . Some s o c i a l problems became acute, and many people looked to the s c h o o l s as a way of working towards r e s o l u t i o n of them. Schools g r a d u a l l y came to be viewed as the agent which c o u l d shape the homes [and l i v e s ] of the next g e n e r a t i o n . 1 Economic growth, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n manufacturing and other business a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t e d i n the need by business and i n d u s t r y f o r more and b e t t e r t r a i n e d employees. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s need was f i l l e d by immigrants, mostly from Great B r i t a i n . Indeed, one of the major reasons v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s was delayed was because of Canada's immigration p o l i c y — i t seemed to be more cost e f f i c i e n t t o * N e i l S u therland, C h i l d r e n i n the E n g l i s h Canadian S o c i e t y :  Framing the Twentieth Century Consensus (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1976), 172-181. * See f o r example, J.K. F o s t e r , "Education and Work i n a Changing S o c i e t y , " 46. 20 "import" s k i l l e d workers rather than t r a i n the existing u n s k i l l e d and displaced populations of workers. With the increase i n a l l commercial enterprises, o f f i c e organization became more complex, and the need for employees with more commercial tr a i n i n g than the apprentice system or immigration could offer became more pressing. Entrepreneurs recognized the demand and attempted to f i l l i t with the establishment of private commercial schools. The educational importance of private commercial colleges had already been realized by Great B r i t a i n , United States and eastern Canada i n the late 1880's and 1890's. These colleges produced graduates who f i l l e d positions i n the business o f f i c e s of t h e i r respective nations and many of them became teachers of the next generations of Canadian and American business graduates i n both private and public schools. In Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Miss Eveline Richards, an immigrant from Great B r i t a i n and recent graduate of Isaac Pitman's College i n that country, opened Pitman's Business School i n 1898. Shortly aft e r that, many more private business schools were opened i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to take advantage of the ever-increasing "market demand" for " o f f i c e education". The curriculum offerings i n the early public school commercial programmes were said to be influenced by these schools.^ In the area of educational philosophy, a dichotomous view of the relationship between the academic and u t i l i t a r i a n J Graham Bruce, "Business Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (M.A. Thesis, University of B.C., 1941) , 28 o r i e n t a t i o n s toward c u r r i c u l u m became evident i n w r i t i n g s about p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l reformers of the time proposed two approaches to changing the s c h o o l s . One group supported a p r a c t i c a l focus i n s c h o o l i n g , i n order to prepare c h i l d r e n f o r a v o c a t i o n i n the new i n d u s t r i a l workplace. Some of these reformers were p a r t of an i n f l u e n t i a l movement advocating ' e f f i c i e n c y ' i n a l l aspects of l i f e . * Another group, with academic i n c l i n a t i o n s , promoted a more c h i l d - and f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d o r i e n t a t i o n to s c h o o l i n g through which c h i l d h o o d was p r o t e c t e d and the f a m i l y strengthened.^ These two groups g r a d u a l l y came together i n what Canadians c a l l e d at f i r s t , the "New Education", then l a t e r P r o g r e s s i v i s m . T h i s "New E d u c a t i o n " was p a r t l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of American and European p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s , promoting the i d e a that p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s and v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n through s c h o o l i n g c o u l d a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g a prosperous and contented s o c i e t y . 8 Those n o t i o n s of education f o r work l i f e , as well as education of the whole c h i l d i n c l u d i n g body, mind and s p i r i t , embodied the hopes f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r a l standards at t h i s time of enormous s o c i a l upheaval c r e a t e d by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . A l e a d i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the spread of the "New E d u c a t i o n " ' See, f o r example, F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t , The C u r r i c u l u m (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1918) or by the same author, How to  Make a C u r r i c u l u m (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1924) . * Many of these educators worked out of a context suggested by F r o e b e l and Rousseau r e g a r d i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . 6 Sutherland, 216. 22 d u r i n g the e a r l y years i n Canada and p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, was the 1910 f e d e r a l Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l Education c h a i r e d by J.W. Robertson. The Commission's recommendations r e f l e c t e d the philosophy of the New Education and supported the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s u b j e c t s with a p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t r e p o r t e d that education "should be p r o v i d e d . . . t o meet the needs a r i s i n g from the changes i n the nature and methods of o c c u p a t i o n s . . . " and c r i t i c i z e d h i g h s c h o o l s f o r t h e i r academic emphasis: ...The secondary school has been organized and conducted c h i e f l y to prepare f o r c o l l e g e and the l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s and does not g i v e good p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g f o r the l i f e and occupation of those who have had to leave school at about 16 or 18 years of age. Although they d i d not mention i t s p e c i f i c a l l y , the Commissioners would have c o n s i d e r e d the 1906 B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m as one t h a t produced immature young people i l l - e q u i p p e d f o r employment i n b u s i n e s s . J.S. Gordon, High School Inspector, i n h i s r e p o r t f o r 1910-1911 a l l u d e d to that f a c t i n a statement about the n e g a t i v e aspects of the two-year high school programme that purported to prepare students as s p e c i a l i s t s . ' Graham Bruce, who researched that era suggests t h a t p a r t of Canada, Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g and T e c h n i c a l E ducation, Report of the Commissioners. P a r t s I-IV (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1913), 364 a J.S. Gordon, " I n s p e c t o r s ' R e p o r t s — H i g h Schools", B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report of the P u b l i c  Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1910-1911 ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1911), 28. the problem lay i n the length, two years, of the overloaded programme.9 It was not long enough for the students to grow up or complete i t with any depth or p r o f i c i e n c y . 1 0 As i t stood, students as young as fourteen years of age could complete the programme, i f successful, and then join the labour force. 1 1 Rate of success was another source of concern about the programme to inspector J.S. Gordon who remarked i n 1911 that, of one hundred one students registered i n i t , only forty seven completed the work, and of those, only twenty-nine successfully passed the examinations.^ As result of those conditions and concerns, i n 1914 the Department of Education revised the commercial curriculum. The time required to complete the "Commercial" programme was extended to three years. This addition of another year's work allowed students more time to mature and to work through the programme. The new curriculum addressed the objections to an overly academic emphasis by the addition of c i v i c s and economics-type courses, along with accounting theory, accounting practice, statute law and penmanship. Geometry as a required course was dropped ' Bruce, 32-34. 1 0 Bruce, 33. 1 1 Sheila Cameron, telephone interview with author, 17 March 1991. Ms Cameron, an eminent Vancouver business education teacher, entered the work force as a secretary i n the o f f i c e s of the Vancouver superintendent of schools after completing the commercial programme at King Edward School. She was f i f t e e n years old. u J. S. Gordon, "Inspectors Reports", 28. altogether, and business correspondence replaced composition i n .attempts to provide a more "useful" writing course. In addition, subject matter pertaining to business forms was separated from business law and grouped with bookkeeping instead. The introduction i n 1914 of accounting theory and practice and statute law as separate e n t i t i e s from bookkeeping and business law was the genesis of the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of business courses into an academic and a nonacademic stream. The new subjects, together with those already i n the programme, seemed to provide a far more comprehensive vocational t r a i n i n g i n the needs for e f f e c t i v e business service than did the content of the previous programme. Moreover, the incl u s i o n of economics gave recognition for the f i r s t time to the need for a subject which would supply general business knowledge and p r i n c i p l e s rather than s t r i c t l y vocational or academic knowledge and s k i l l s . By the 1914 revi s i o n , a d i s t i n c t tension i n the balance of academic.disciplines with those of a vocational nature c l e a r l y appeared i n a l l the high school programmes. One upshot of the growing inter e s t i n commercial education was that i n 1918 Vancouver opened Ce c i l Rhodes Commercial High School i n a few rooms attached to C e c i l Rhodes Elementary School. Soon Cecil Rhodes became the Vancouver School of Commerce, and l a t e r other commercial schools l i k e Grandview and Fairview were opened. The Technical Education Act, introduced i n 1919 by the federal government as a response to the Royal Commission of 1910, heightened acceptance of p r a c t i c a l education across the nation. 25 Ten m i l l i o n d o l l a r s was designated for a joint p r o v i n c i a l - f e d e r a l plan to build and maintain technical schools for the next ten years. 1 3 Although only three m i l l i o n was actually spent, the commercial schools, t r a i l i n g on the c o a t t a i l s of trades and i n d u s t r i a l subjects, benefitted from t h i s plan. Not only did they receive funding for th e i r programmes, commercial education programmes were now also being offered i n technical and vocational schools as well as a few public schools as result of t h i s funding. Vancouver Technical School and King Edward High School were examples of such schools. By 1920, B r i t i s h Columbia adolescents interested i n taking the commercial course had a f a i r range of options. They could attend one of the private business colleges i n Vancouver, New Westminster, V i c t o r i a or T r a i l , B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , they could enroll i n the Vancouver High School of Commerce, or one of the public high schools that offered f u l l or p a r t i a l programmes i n commercial studies. Between 1914 and 1923 only minor revis i o n i n the commercial curriculum accompanied the substantial expansion of services. In 1918 the department eliminated algebra and grammar from the f i r s t and second-year requirements and they were substituted with Canadian history and c i v i c s . 1 * The attention paid to Canadian, history and c i v i c s r e f l e c t e d a renewed sense of nationalism which 1 3 Tomkins, 111, 128. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Annual Report  of the Public Schools, 1918-1919 ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1919), 42-46. 26 had developed over the war years, and also indicated the inte r e s t f o r education of the "whole c h i l d " . Removing algebra and grammar requirements continued the gradual s h i f t away from purely academic offerings which had begun with the i n c l u s i o n of typewriting and shorthand early i n the century. In the 1923-1924 school year the department made important changes to the commercial curriculum. The course of study was continued as a three-year programme but required of the students concentrated study i n one of two c l e a r l y separated areas: a s e c r e t a r i a l option or an accounting option. These two separate commercial streams were established i n an attempt to meet public and business demands for " s p e c i a l i z e d " employees. Students choosing the s e c r e t a r i a l option were given special t r a i n i n g i n shorthand, typewriting and stenographic practice; while those choosing the accounting option were obliged to learn the theories of accounting, higher arithmetic functions, and commercial law. The d i v i s i o n of commercial knowledge into two d i s t i n c t i streams or "strands", which began with the separation of accounting and bookkeeping i n 1914, exemplified an era of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and increasing compartmentalization of knowledge i n a l l B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a . 1 5 During the early 20's, content and subject matter was organized following " s c i e n t i f i c " methods i n education. Curriculum development was guided by t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions that knowledge or organized bodies of subject matter, c a r e f u l l y prescribed and d i l i g e n t l y acquired, 1 5 Green, 180-181. 27 w o u l d a c h i e v e p l a n n e d p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l e n d s . I t r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e b r o a d a r e a s o f d i s c i p l i n e s i n t o s m a l l e r a n d s m a l l e r u n i t s . "Thus t h e r e was e n g e n d e r e d a k i n d o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s t h a t was common i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s " . 1 * The d i v i s i o n o f b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e i n t o two d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e g r o u p s h a d i m p o r t a n t ^ e f f e c t s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l programmes a n d t h e c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n f u t u r e y e a r s . I t b e g a n d i v i d i n g s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n t o d i f f e r i n g s t a t u s g r o u p s i n t h e s c h o o l c o m m u n i t y . The a c a d e m i c , t h e o r y - l a d e n i n f o r m a t i o n - u s i n g a c c o u n t i n g a n d s t a t u t e l a w c o u r s e s became a t t r a c t i v e t o a b l e s t u d e n t s p u r s u i n g f u r t h e r p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and management c a r e e r s . T h e s e c o u r s e s e n j o y e d a h i g h e r s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y b o t h b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a c a d e m i c c o n t e n t a n d t h e c a l i b r e o f s t u d e n t s t h e y a t t r a c t e d . The more p r a c t i c a l b o o k k e e p i n g and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n - m a n i p u l a t i v e c o u r s e s drew t h e i n t e r e s t o f s t u d e n t s l e s s a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e , a n d / o r i n n e e d o f r a p i d e n t r y s k i l l s f o r employment b e c a u s e o f e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e s e l e s s a c a d e m i c , more p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s r a n k e d l o w e r i n t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t h i e r a r c h y . S t u d e n t s who e l e c t e d t o t a k e t h e j o b - e n t r y p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s , w e re p r e p a r i n g f o r o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s . They were p r e d o m i n a n t l y g i r l s , a n d t h e y w e r e b e i n g o f f e r e d k n o w l e d g e l i m i t e d t o l e a r n i n g t h e A H.L. C a s w e l l and D.S. C a m p b e l l , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t (New Y o r k , A m e r i c a n Book Company, 1935) x v , 600. 28 s k i l l s and duties associated with routine o f f i c e tasks. The students of the accounting and law s p e c i a l t i e s , mostly boys, were being offered knowledge that would prepare them for careers i n business, rather than o f f i c e work. In the time periods considered here, the gender composition of the school population, including teachers i s important. Overall average enrollment figures between 1900-1930 indicate that almost 55% of the student population i n the secondary schools were female. 1' Of the students who took the commercial course, well over 75% were female. 1 8 At the same time, more than 90% of a l l secondary teachers were male including those of the Commercial courses. 1' Interviews with students and teachers of that time indicate that of the r e l a t i v e l y few female teachers in the high schools during that time, most of them were home economics or s e c r e t a r i a l i n structors. These demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which remained substantially unchanged u n t i l well into the 1970's, most cert a i n l y had the effect of promoting and perhaps i n t e n s i f y i n g the p a r t i t i o n i n g of business knowledge Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada Year  Book, 1932 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1932), 842. 1 0 Male-female breakdown of students enrolled i n s p e c i f i c courses i s unavailable, but evidence provided by teachers and students of the times through interviews indicates that t h i s i s a f a i r approximation. x Canada Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada  Yearbook. 1920-1931 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1920-31) and B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Reports of the Public Schools. 1923-1931. i n t o gender d i v i s i o n s by example and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e d i v i s i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e s t u d e n t s who took the c o u r s e s . 1 The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of knowledge was a l r e a d y apparent i n t h e academic vs v o c a t i o n a l i s m d ebates e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , but i t became c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t i n e n s u i n g commercial e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a of B r i t i s h Columbia. Mhora Z e l t e r , "The S t a t u s of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1977-1978" (M.A. T h e s i s , Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1979). T h i s s t u d y , u s i n g M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s b r e a k s down t h e b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r p o p u l a t i o n as 60% male and 40% female by 1978. ^ F o r a c o n v i n c i n g account of t h e " s t a t u s " of c e r t a i n k i n d s of knowledge and i t s s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , see M.A.B. Degenhardt's E d u c a t i o n and t h e V a l u e of Knowledge (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1982); t h e works of P i e r r e B o u r d i e u , e s p e c i a l l y " C u l t u r a l R e p r o d u c t i o n and S o c i a l R e p r o d u c t i o n " i n Power and I d e o l o g y i n  E d u c a t i o n , e d i t e d by Jerome K a r a b e l and A.H. H a l s e y (New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) 4 8 7 f f , I v o r Goodson's Sc h o o l  S u b j e c t s and C u r r i c u l u m Change (London, Falmer P r e s s , 1987) 197-198, t h e works of M i c h a e l A p p l e , e s p e c i a l l y E d u c a t i o n and Power. ( B o s t o n and London: R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1982) and a c l u s t e r of a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t of "What Knowledge i s of Most Worth?" PHI DELTA KAPPAN. March 1990. 30 C h apter 3 The Putman-Weir Survey and New D i r e c t i o n s f o r Change; 1924-1937 The twenty y e a r s of t h e i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e p r e c e d i n g decade i n terms of economic development and t h e reasons advanced f o r an i n c r e a s e d economic o r i e n t a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . U n l i k e t h e 1900-1914 y e a r s of s u s t a i n e d economic growth, th e Canadian economy d u r i n g t h e 1920's and 1930's w i t n e s s e d p e r i o d s of b o t h d e p r e s s i o n and growth. From the postwar r e c e s s i o n of 1919-1923, the Canadian economy e n t e r e d a p e r i o d of growth f o r t h e r e s t of t h e decade u n t i l t h e c r a s h i n 1929 h e r a l d e d the p r o t r a c t e d d e p r e s s i o n of t h e 1930's. On t h e s u r f a c e , t h e new j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a g r e a t e r v o c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e 1920*s and 1930's appeared t o be i n t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t would a c c r u e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . 1 T h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n was i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e New E d u c a t i o n ' s p h i l o s o p h y of c h i l d - c e n t e r e d l e a r n i n g . Stamp s u g g e s t s t h a t u n d e r l y i n g t h e c o n c e r n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l was a s t r o n g c o n c e r n f o r p r e s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n s o c i e t y , a f t e r a time of s o c i a l , economic and moral upheaval i n t h e post-war y e a r s , and l i k e S u t h e r l a n d , argues t h a t " e d u c a t o r s and p o l i t i c i a n s sought t o use s c h o o l s i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a r e t u r n t o 'normalcy'".* E d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e " r i g h t " k i n d of e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s u i t a b l e moral and 1 Stamp, R o b e r t M, " V o c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s i n C anadian E d u c a t i o n : An H i s t o r i c a l Overview," Canadian H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n  t h e 70's ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 253. * Stamp, " V o c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s " , 254. 31 v o c a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s , would p r o v i d e t h e growing number of a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and an u p r i g h t moral a t t i t u d e , t h e r e b y d e t e r r i n g them from engaging i n r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The demands of b o t h t h e l a b o u r and women's s u f f e r a g e movements were becoming p a r t i c u l a r l y l o u d d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s and i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e t o r e b e l l i o u s y o u t h . I n May 1925, a r e p o r t of t h e most e x t e n s i v e Canadian s c h o o l s u r v e y s ever attempted t o t h i s t ime was i s s u e d by Dr. J . H. Putman, S e n i o r I n s p e c t o r of S c h o o l s , Ottawa, and Dr. G. M. W e i r , P r o f e s s o r of E d u c a t i o n , t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a t the r e q u e s t of t h e L i b e r a l government of John O l i v e r . I t s many recommendations a f f e c t e d B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l u m c o n s t r u c t i o n and c o n t e n t u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e s i x t i e s . The Commissioners recommended t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m i d d l e s c h o o l s , o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , f o r s t u d e n t s between t h e ages of t w e l v e and f i f t e e n y e a r s of age, encompassing t h e grades seven and e i g h t of t h e elem e n t a r y programme, and grade n i n e of t h e h i g h s c h o o l . They a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t a more f l e x i b l e programme of s t u d i e s needed t o be p r o v i d e d f o r t h o s e grades as w e l l as f o r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s . Putman and Weir found t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e on f o r m i n g h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a t o t h a t t i m e was t h e Canadian u n i v e r s i t y . S i n c e t h e h i g h s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d t h e u n i v e r s i t y w i t h s t u d e n t s , t h e u n i v e r s i t y a t t e m p t e d t o f a s h i o n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s i n t o p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s . H i g h i d e a l s of s c h o l a r s h i p and a wholesome r e s p e c t f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t s r e s u l t e d from t h i s p r a c t i c e , c l a i m e d t h e Commissioners, but they a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i d e d l y u n d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n w hich s e r v e d t h e needs of o n l y a l i m i t e d group of s t u d e n t s . The Commissioners q u e s t i o n e d t h e l e g i t i m a c y of t h e h i g h s c h o o l ' s c u r r i c u l u m " b e i n g dominated by t h e r e a l o r f a n c i e d needs of the u n i v e r s i t y " s i n c e t h e h i g h s c h o o l was s u p p o s e d l y an agent of p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m , they found, was narrow and r i g i d i n i t s p r a c t i c a l outcome, s i n c e i t p r e p a r e d s t u d e n t s f o r one of two st r e a m s ; t h o s e who e x p e c t e d t o e n t e r u n i v e r s i t y , and th o s e who i n t e n d e d t o t e a c h . To a l l e v i a t e t h e s e problems t h e y recommended a c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h would s u i t t h e needs of s t u d e n t s of d i f f e r i n g n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s . Putman and Weir were opposed t o t r a d i t i o n as t h e d e t e r m i n a n t of s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n f o r c u r r i c u l a and d e c r i e d t h e f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n e t h e o r y g u i d i n g t h e c u r r e n t h i g h s c h o o l programmes: "So l o n g as t h e p r e s e n t w i d e s p r e a d a l l e g i a n c e i s . . . p a i d t o t h e f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n a r y t h e o r y of s t u d i e s , t h e r e can be l i t t l e p r o s p e c t of s u b s t a n t i a l improvement, academic o r p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t h e s c h o o l system of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . 5 A major s u r v e y recommendation was t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of a "common" or c o r e c u r r i c u l u m made of E n g l i s h , h i s t o r y and c i v i c s , s c i e n c e and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n which was i n t e n d e d t o occupy t h e s t u d e n t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t of s c h o o l t i m e . The o t h e r h a l f of s c h o o l time was t o be composed of s u b j e c t s r e l a t e d * J.H. Putman and G.M. W e i r , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o lumbia:  Survey of t h e S c h o o l System ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1925), 111. t o a c o u r s e of s t u d y or " s t r e a m " of t h e s t u d e n t s ' c h o o s i n g . F o r example, i f a commercial c o u r s e was chosen, t h e s t u d e n t would of n e c e s s i t y t a k e commercial s u b j e c t s ; i f t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e was e l e c t e d , then s u b j e c t s a t t a c h e d t o t h a t c o u r s e were r e q u i r e d . The commissioners a l s o recommended t h a t the h i g h s c h o o l programme be based on a system of p r o m o t i o n by s u b j e c t s , and s u g g e s t e d h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a s be g r a n t e d when the n e c e s s a r y c r e d i t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e had been earned. They b e l i e v e d t h a t each p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f might s a f e l y be l e f t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of g r a n t i n g s u c h h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a s and encouraged t h e r e d u c t i o n of t h e number of mandatory f o r m a l e x a m i n a t i o n s demanded of e x i t i n g s t u d e n t s . An immediate e f f e c t of Putman-Weir's Survey on B r i t i s h C olumbia commercial e d u c a t i o n was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1927 of t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and t h e o f f e r i n g of a g e n e r a l " J u n i o r B u s i n e s s " course.* T h i s s u b j e c t had a number of aims and purposes r e f l e c t i v e of t h e Putman-Weir c o n c e r n f o r t h e need f o r e d u c a t i o n of a l l k i n d s of s t u d e n t s . The s u b j e c t was t o " g i v e some d e f i n i t e b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g t o t h e boys and g i r l s who must l e a v e s c h o o l and seek j u n i o r p o s i t i o n s " , s u p p l y t h e s t u d e n t w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a g e n e r a l knowledge of b u s i n e s s p r i n c i p l e s , and o f f e r a c o n v e n i e n t t r y - o u t c o u r s e f o r purposes of v o c a t i o n a l 4 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , Programme of  S t u d i e s f o r t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1927-1928 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1927), 5-6. 34 guidance. 5 In commercial education for B r i t i s h Columbia, these three objectives appeared to be the f i r s t concrete manifestations of an increasingly child-centered ideology, i n which the needs of the c h i l d became at least as important as those of society or the demands of business and industry. Jean Mann and others take a somewhat opposing view, and suggest these courses were less a resul t of child-centred motives and perhaps more of so c i a l engineering Changes were made to other subject groups i n the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum. They presaged a trend for a l l courses of study except commercial education. For example, a course i n general science was offered for grade nine students i n the newly organized junior secondary programme i n 1927. This was the beginning of the trend toward the u n i f i c a t i o n or integration of subjects into general courses designed to give the student a view of a whole f i e l d of knowledge and an understanding of important p r i n c i p l e s rather than a somewhat narrow knowledge of one or more of the spe c i a l i z e d subjects. Thorndike's "atomistic theory" which for a time influenced B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a seemed to have lost ground except i n commercial education. An overall " u n i f i c a t i o n " of many of the subjects didn't actually occur u n t i l 5 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for the Junior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1927- 1928, 87. ' Jean Mann, "G.M. Weir and H.B. King: Progressive Education or Education for the Progressive State?" J. Donald Wilson and David C. Jones, eds., Schooling and Society i n 20th Century  B r i t i s h Columbia (Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises, 1980), 91-118. the comprehensive c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n of 1935-39; however, t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e Putman-Weir r e p o r t saw a g r a d u a l development toward i t i n a l l a r e a s except commercial e d u c a t i o n . The y e a r s between 1930-1937 were d i f f i c u l t y e a r s f o r governments i n p o s s e s s i o n of a " b l u e p r i n t " f o r renewing and r e v i s i n g e d u c a t i o n i n t h e form of t h e Putman-Weir r e p o r t , but a l s o f a c i n g a deepening d e p r e s s i o n . Many of t h e recommendations of t h e Putman-Weir Report i n v o l v e d e x t r a f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s at a time when " i t was contended i n many q u a r t e r s t h a t e d u c a t i o n c o s t s were t o o h i g h as t h e r e s u l t of i n e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e i n c l u s i o n of too many " f a d s and f r i l l s " i n the c u r r i c u l u m and too h i g h a l e v e l of t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s ' 1 . 7 The " f a d s and f r i l l s " r e f e r r e d t o manual t r a i n i n g , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e , and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n but not b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n ! In 1932 t h e government of t h e day, b e w i l d e r e d by a huge p r o v i n c i a l debt and m a s s i v e unemployment, s a n c t i o n e d the appointment of a committee of b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s t o l o o k i n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s of t h e p r o v i n c e . George K i d d , a prominant businessman, was chairman of t h a t committee and a u t h o r e d t h e e n s u i n g r e p o r t , termed t h e K i d d R e p o r t . The r e p o r t was c r i t i c i z e d by l a r g e numbers of t h e p u b l i c , as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s as a r e a c t i o n a r y , a n t i -d e m o c r a t i c , u n e n l i g h t e n e d document t h a t promoted an e l i t i s t , c o n s e r v a t i v e , n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e view of e d u c a t i o n . I t s 7 Jean Mann, 103. * George K i d d , R e p o r t of t h e Committee A p p o i n t e d by t h e  Government t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e F i n a n c e s of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1932). recommendations i n respect to education were, for the most part, rejected outright. In 1933, when the Liberal government of T. Dufferin Patullo was elected, Weir (of the Putman-Weir Report) was appointed Minister of Education. One of the Liberal e l e c t i o n promises was to make changes to the educational system, the most important of which was to raise the age l i m i t of free education from 15 to 18 years of age, or u n t i l the student had completed grade 12. Another was the frequently promised revis i o n of the entire curriculum. Stymied by the depression and recurring problem of financing public schools, Weir f i r s t set up a Commission on School Finance headed by H.B. King as technical advisor. King not only made recommendations regarding the f i n a n c i a l aspects of reorganizing public education, he also brought to his report an educational philosophy much i n agreement with that currently espoused i n the United States. The conviction that s o c i a l problems could be a l l e v i a t e d by "modern business methods and e f f i c i e n c y " had grown among reformers i n the United States for quite some time. The ideals embodied i n the concept of s c i e n t i f i c management had gained such prestige that they were applied by some to schools. 1' Franklin Bobbitt, an educational administrator at the University of Chicago fathered the * H.B. King, School Finance i n the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1935). *' See, for example, Raymond E. Callahan, Education and the Cult of E f f i c i e n c y (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962) for d e t a i l about the importance of " s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y " . 37 s c i e n t i f i c administration movement i n the United States. Many of Bobbitt's ideas were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y approved and supported i n King's report. U n t i l the 1937 revision the formal process of curriculum change appeared to be somewhat sporadic, and determined largely by o f f i c i a l s at the Department of Education upon recommendations from school administrators. Weir i n s t i t u t e d a formal process which was followed more or less f a i t h f u l l y u n t i l well into the 1970's.11 A Central Committee, headed by an "Advisor" of Curriculum was appointed from the ranks of eminent administrators of large elementary and high schools i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Under the Central Committee a number of General Committees encompassing elementary, junior high and senior high school interests were selected. Beneath those, subject committees to formulate the courses of study for each subject were chosen. Although Weir a c t i v e l y i n v i t e d the co-operation of a l l teachers, school trustees, parent-teacher associations, i n d u s t r i a l leaders, service clubs, local councils of women and s i m i l a r organizations ...[only] teachers who have had extended teaching experience and advanced professional t r a i n i n g , as well as a l l other persons who have made a serious study of curriculum problems are urged to forward t h e i r suggestions for the careful scrutiny and sympathetic consideration of the Department. * It appears that "experts" rather than the practices of "ordinary" classroom teachers carried the most influence for curriculum 1 1 G.M. Weir, "The Revision of the Curriculum," B.C. Teacher 14, no. 8 ( A p r i l , 1935): 21-23. 1 2 G.M. Weir, "The Revision of the Curriculum," 21-23. 38 change during those times. The central re v i s i o n committee for a new curriculum included H.B. King and i t s d i r e c t i o n was c l e a r l y charted by Weir. He emphasized the s o c i a l role of the school and i n s i s t e d that the curriculum teach cooperation rather than competition. The material used i n curriculum planning had to be selected "primarily for i t s functional value with s o c i a l u t i l i t y i n mind". 1 3 The new curriculum was released i n a number of b u l l e t i n s issued from 1936 to f a l l 1937. The course outlines were very lengthy and detailed, and each was accompanied by a preface of "Aims and Philosophy of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia" which i d e n t i f i e d the functions of the new programme. The s o c i a l aspects of education was very c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d : From the point of view of society, the schools i n any state exist to develop c i t i z e n s , or subjects, according to the p r e v a i l i n g or dominating ideals of the state or society. Any society desires to transmit i t s culture. A l l states seek to ensure t h e i r safety, s t a b i l i t y , and perpetuity... The people...wish to have c i t i z e n s able to play t h e i r part i n a democratic state, but able also to make new adjustments i n an evolving progressive s o c i a l order, so that s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y may be united with s o c i a l progress... 1* The influence of the depressed economic times; the reports of Putman-Weir, Kidd, and King; the philosophies of American reformers such as Dewey and Bobbitt; and the personal b e l i e f s of 1 1 The B.C. Teacher. 15, no. 2 (February 1936): 11. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. B u l l e t i n I ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1937), 11. 39 George M. Weir, Minister of Education at the time, had v i s i b l e effects on the new general high school curriculum released i n 1937.13 The newly revised commercial studies curriculum c l e a r l y and i n great d e t a i l a r t i c u l a t e d the d i r e c t i o n i n which business education would take u n t i l well into the 1970's. 1 3 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Commercial  Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n V. ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1937). 40 Chapter 4 Consolidation, Entrenchment, S t a b i l i t y ; 1937-1960 The o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h Columbia secondary school curriculum, i n a state of continuing theoretical and rhe t o r i c a l r e v i s i o n since the public release of the Putman-Weir report i n 1925, became a physical r e a l i t y i n the years between 1936 and 1939. During those years, the Department of Education issued lengthy and large numbers of programme and course philosophies, ration-ales and outlines describing every aspect of the long-promised revised curriculum. The body of o f f i c i a l l i t e r a t u r e pertaining to t h i s new r e v i s i o n was immense, since each course and programme l i s t e d within the main document was described and outlined i n minute d e t a i l i n separately printed documents. The twenty-five year period following the release of t h i s curriculum was a time of many l o c a l l y , nationally and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y important h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i o l o g i c a l events; however, thi s new curriculum remained stable and remarkably unchanged throughout the years. The p r i n c i p a l curriculum document repre-sented the learning psychology, philosophy, and p o l i t i c a l and economic p o l i c i e s of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia with regard to the education of children, u n t i l the early 1960's.1 1 See p a r t i c u l a r l y , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Educa-ti o n , Programme of Studies for the Junior High Schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1936 and B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia, B u l l e t i n I., 1937. 41 As well as the general curriculum, the revised 1937 commercial curriculum endured, r e l a t i v e l y unchanged except for a four-year interruption between 1944-1948, throughout the major revisions of 1950-1951, 1960-1965 u n t i l 1978-1982. The B r i t i s h Columbia "Commercial Studies" curriculum of 1937, with i t s over 162 pages of d e t a i l , offered a programme on which major emphasis, for the f i r s t time, was placed on the teaching of o f f i c e s k i l l s rather than business theory and "generic" commerce-related knowledge.* The academic base of the previous programmes, gradually eroding since 1906, was reduced to two academic subject constants: English through to grade twelve, and s o c i a l studies to grade eleven, along with health and physical education. Apart from those constants, students were to choose courses i n a concentration of their choice. The notion of the commercial programme as being a "package" or separate programme from others, originating i n 1875, became a t i g h t l y prescribed entity i n 1937. This "package" however, was far less academic than ever before. The available "concentration" choices leading toward high school graduation were: University Entrance, Home Economics, Art, Technical, Commercial, and Music. Including the constants, the course objective (high school graduation) was to accumulate 112 credits from grades nine through twelve. A cred i t was defined as an hour per week of i n s t r u c t i o n , with most L B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Commercial  Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia B u l l e t i n V ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1937). 42 c o u r s e s c a r r y i n g a v a l u e of f i v e c r e d i t s . So, f o r a s t u d e n t of the commercial programme, the " c o n s t a n t " l o a d r e p r e s e n t e d 47 c r e d i t s . The r e m a i n i n g 65 c r e d i t s were t o be chosen from the a v a i l a b l e c o u r s e s i n the commercial programme. The commercial programme l i s t e d 14 c o u r s e s . At l e a s t 11 of t h o s e c o u r s e s can be d e s c r i b e d as e n t i r e l y and e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h the l e a r n i n g , p r a c t i c i n g and p e r f e c t i n g of o f f i c e -p r o c e s s s k i l l s — t h a t i s , t h o s e s k i l l s a t t e n d i n g t o the r e c o r d i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e p r o d u c t i o n and/or s t o r a g e of b u s i n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n . Those c o u r s e s were: Shorthand I and I I , T y p e w r i t i n g I and I I , S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e I and I I , B u s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c , O f f i c e A p p l i a n c e s , Bookkeeping I , I I and I I I . The d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e s of t h o s e c o u r s e s show t h a t l i t t l e was o f f e r e d i n t h e way of g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s t h e o r y and knowledge w i t h i n them. The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t y p e w r i t i n g , which i n c l u d e s t h e s t atement t h a t " t y p e w r i t i n g i s no l o n g e r c l a s s i f i e d as a s p e c i a l i z e d s u b j e c t , but i s r a p i d l y t a k i n g i t s p l a c e as a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t i n t h e secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m " , a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e t y p e w r i t i n g as a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t , but t h e n , i n the same p a r a g r a p h j u s t i f i e s i t s p r i m a r i l y v o c a t i o n a l approach and o b j e c t i v e s : 43 The approach to T y p e w r i t i n g I, as w e l l as i t s o b j e c t i v e s , i s p r i m a r i l y v o c a t i o n a l . Thus the t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d w i l l be fundamentally sound f o r any group whose aim i s the personal use of t y p e w r i t i n g . One the other hand, i t i s a l s o designed to p r o v i d e a p r e v o c a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r students who w i l l proceed with the more advanced courses intended to f i t them to meet the demands of b u s i n e s s . Only two courses which may have taught students how to a c q u i r e , manipulate, and make d e c i s i o n s based on general business knowledge and p r i n c i p l e s were o f f e r e d . They were General Business and Law,* and J u n i o r Business and I n t r o d u c t o r y Bookkeeping.* When comparing the p r o p o r t i o n of c o n s t a n t s , mandatory " v a r i a b l e s " , c o n c e n t r a t i o n courses and f r e e c h o i c e courses, between the d i f f e r i n g programme c o n c e n t r a t i o n s or "packages", the commercial, home economics and t e c h n i c a l courses demanded a f a r g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of mandatory courses than any of the other programmes. E s s e n t i a l l y , a g r e a t e r degree of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was r e q u i r e d of students f o r h i g h school g r a d u a t i o n i n those programmes than f o r any other. The o p p o r t u n i t y to take any general i n t e r e s t , or academic courses was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d because of these requirements. As an example, f o r the home economics, t e c h n i c a l and commercial programmes, the constant l o a d Commercial S t u d i e s , 1937, 11. In a c t u a l f a c t , i t appears that t y p e w r i t i n g , known as keyboarding i n 1991, never d i d become a " g e n e r a l " s u b j e c t u n t i l the computer became a permanent f i x t u r e i n most secondary school classrooms a f t e r 1985. * Commercial S t u d i e s , 76. * Commercial S t u d i e s , i l l . 44 was f o r t y - s e v e n u n i t s , the " v a r i a b l e " and mandatory c o n c e n t r a t i o n load was 50 u n i t s , f o r a t o t a l of 97 out of the necessary 112. T h i s t o t a l allowed the students only 15 " f r e e " u n i t s ( f r e e e l e c t i v e s ) , over four years to choose other courses t o f i l l i n t h e i r programme. In the music programme, however, a f t e r i n c l u d i n g the constants and mandatory v a r i a b l e s , students c o u l d choose 47 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s of ("free e l e c t i v e s " ) from other areas. In the a r t programme, the f r e e e l e c t i v e s amounted to 45 c r e d i t s . * The emphasis on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t a s k - s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g w i t h i n the commercial and t e c h n i c a l programmes was meant to produce employable students ready f o r " e n t r y " p o s i t i o n s i n b usiness and i n d u s t r y . Judging from the testimony of former students, t e a c h e r s , and p r i n c i p a l s , and the l o n g e v i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m , the programmes were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s . The 1937 commercial c u r r i c u l u m was undoubtedly a product of i t s time. Two major i n f l u e n c e s on i t were the depressed economic c o n d i t i o n s , and the demographic composition of most business o f f i c e s of the years between 1930 and 1937. The government budgets of a l l the p r o v i n c e s i n the n a t i o n were n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by the d e p r e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g that of B r i t i s h Columbia. An e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r the s t a t e of the economy and the e m p l o y a b i l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n was a B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  S t u d i e s f o r the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia B u l l e t i n I. ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1937) f i g u r e s c a l c u l a t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n o f f e r e d page 29 and f o l l o w i n g . 45 dominant i s s u e of the times and as noted p r e v i o u s l y , s c h o o l i n g was thought to ho l d the s o l u t i o n to many s o c i a l problems, i n c l u d i n g those r e l a t e d to the economy. During the 1930's newspapers and p e r i o d i c a l s were f i l l e d w ith a r t i c l e s about labour, employment and the education of the p o p u l a t i o n f o r work. Perhaps more important than the de p r e s s i o n i n c r a f t i n g the 1937 c u r r i c u l u m , were the profound changes i n business and o f f i c e work which had developed between 1870 and 1930. By 1930 the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that the business o f f i c e holds today had been e s t a b l i s h e d ' . O f f i c e s i n 1870 were small e n t i t i e s g e n e r a l l y employing only a few male c l e r k s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l the tasks and d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the bus i n e s s . Consequently, the employee was aware of a l l the workings of the business from the f i r s t t r a n s a c t i o n to the l a s t . In t h i s way the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the employee and the employer, ( u s u a l l y the owner) was, g e n e r a l l y , a personal one. By 1930, with c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e s expanding and c o n s o l i d a t i n g i n t o l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s , the need f o r more recordkeeping and correspondence r e s u l t e d i n dramatic i n c r e a s e s i n volume of o f f i c e work. As r e s u l t , the demand f o r o f f i c e workers rose r a p i d l y , and t h i s need, f i l l e d by l i t e r a t e women, was one of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f e m i n i z a t i o n of c l e r i c a l o f f i c e work: Margery Davies, Woman's Pla c e i s at the Typewriter ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Temple U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982), 163. 46 The primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of that r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was an e l a b o r a t i o n of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , with the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of fi r m s i n t o f u n c t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d departments being b a s i c . The e f f e c t on c l e r i c a l jobs was immediate. Confined to working i n a s i n g l e department, a c l e r i c a l employee was now at best a b l e to understand only how th i n g s were done i n that one department. No longer was he or she doing a job whose vantage p o i n t a f f o r d e d a p i c t u r e of the e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n s of a f i r m . Departments were o f t e n d i v i d e d and s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i r component p a r t s , a process that served only to f u r t h e r the i s o l a t i o n of any s i n g l e o f f i c e job. The d e p r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d the number of women a v a i l a b l e f o r work. T h e i r incomes became important to f a m i l y earnings, and c l e r i c a l work was more d e s i r a b l e than other working-class employment, both because of the high e r wages i t o f f e r e d and the comparatively h i g h s t a t u s i t enjoyed i n a s o c i e t y which o f f e r e d very few o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women.5 Between the years 1891 and 1931, i n Canada, the number of women i n the job c a t e g o r i e s of bookkeepers, c a s h i e r s , stenographers and t y p i s t s i n c r e a s e d from 8,530 to 162,774. 1 0 C l e a r l y , the r o l e of women as o f f i c e workers had become a c c e p t a b l e by the 1930's and indeed became dominant i n the many f u n c t i o n s of the o f f i c e . However, the r o l e women assumed i n the o f f i c e r a r e l y , i f ever, c a r r i e d s u p e r v i s o r y or management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s simply because of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order. Since p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i a l p a t t e r n s d i c t a t e d t h a t men were dominant and women sub o r d i n a t e , i t seemed Margery Davies, 163. Margery Davies, 169. 1 F.H. Leacy, ed., H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, 2nd ed (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1983), D86-106. 47 n a t u r a l that men occupy the h i g h e r - l e v e l o f f i c e jobs. Women rea r e d i n a male-dominated s o c i e t y and shaped by p a t t e r n s of male dominance i n a v a r i e t y of ways, both s u b t l e and d i r e c t , were t r a i n e d to submit to male a u t h o r i t y . Thus the f e m i n i z a t i o n of c l e r i c a l l a b or meant a d o c i l e workforce and helped to s t a b i l i z e the power r e l a t i o n s between o f f i c e workers and management. *•! Education and t r a i n i n g f o r the o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s open to women was i n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demand by those young women who a s p i r e d to work as c l e r k s , s e c r e t a r i e s , t y p i s t s , and stenographers. Moreover, the p r o v i s i o n of t h i s k i n d of t r a i n i n g f u l f i l l e d a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g business and i n d u s t r y with a supply of q u a l i f i e d employees. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not d i f f i c u l t t o understand why the new commercial c u r r i c u l u m of 1937 became so p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f i c e - s k i l l s centered. Some memories of two students who attended commercial programmes d u r i n g the years 1938-1942 c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e the cho i c e s many students made and why they made them: A l l the students i n my s e c r e t a r i a l o p t i o n c l a s s e s were g i r l s . I t was co n s i d e r e d "femish' f o r boys to take them. I f any boys were i n t e r e s t e d i n commerce c l a s s e s at a l l , and there were h a r d l y any I ' l l say, they were i n the bookeeping and business law c l a s s e s . A l l the g i r l s i n my c l a s s e s went on or planned to become s e c r e t a r i e s and c l e r k s u n t i l we married. We imagined marrying the boss, never becoming one.1* Ll Margery Davies, 171 1 2 P a t r i c i a Ruth O'Connor, i n t e r v i e w May 17 1990 i n d i s c u s s i n g commercial programming at John O l i v e r High School. The commercial students i n that s c h o o l , a c c o r d i n g to Ms O'Connor, had c l a s s e s i n a completely d i f f e r e n t area of the school than the " r e g u l a r " s t u d e n t s . " I t was a l r e a d y c l e a r to us commercial students that we were of a lower c l a s s than the " r e g u l a r ' s t u -dents. We were termed 'nonacs', and the p r i n c i p a l t r e a t e d us with f a r l e s s r e s p e c t than he t r e a t e d the " r e g u l a r s ' . The p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between the " r e g u l a r s ' and "commercial' students only u n d e r l i n e d the supposed d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups." 48 When asked why they took the commercial programme r a t h e r than the ' r e g u l a r ' , they both a s s e r t e d that i t was an economic d e c i s i o n . We g i r l s i n the commercial programme knew that we would never ever go to u n i v e r s i t y because our f a m i l i e s were not well o f f , we c o u l d never a f f o r d i t , and so i t was never encouraged i n our home. We needed to l e a r n something that we c o u l d do as a job and b r i n g i n some income to our f a m i l i e s u n t i l we got married. None of us ever wanted to become w a i t r e s s e s , which seemed to be the only other o p t i o n b e s i d e s being s a l e s g i r l s i n s t o r e s or f a c t o r y workers. Anyway, being a p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y was c o n s i d e r e d to be r a t h e r glamourous. So that was why most of us took commercial programmes. Besides, i t was f r e e t r a i n i n g and that was important d u r i n g those days. 3 The n o t i o n that the female o f f i c e employee was a temporary appointee w a i t i n g f o r marriage, was very s t r o n g then. I t gave employers many seemingly l e g i t i m a t e reasons to o f f e r low pay and few prospects f o r upward m o b i l i t y to those employees. T h i s a t t i t u d e was f a i r l y common u n t i l w e ll i n t o the 1970's and perhaps s t i l l operates to some extent i n c e r t a i n q u a r t e r s . Former students were a l s o asked i f they remembered any classmates who c o u l d have a c t u a l l y a f f o r d e d to go to u n i v e r s i t y but c o n s c i o u s l y chose the s e c r e t a r i a l o p t i o n because of genuine i n t e r e s t . Both i n t e r v i e w e e s suggested that f r e q u e n t l y , those who chose to take those courses out of supposedly "pure i n t e r e s t " , happened to be daughters of merchants or businessmen who owned small e n t e r p r i s e s such as jewelry s t o r e s , plumbing f i r m s or small f a c t o r i e s , who, i n f a c t c o u l d send t h e i r daughters to u n i v e r s i t y . l i P a t r i c i a Ruth O'Connor, i n t e r v i e w 17 May 1990. Ms Anna McGowan, i n t e r v i e w with author, 23 June 1990 made a s i m i l a r p o i n t . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n , claimed the i n t e r v i e w e e s , was a wish "bide t h e i r time" h e l p i n g out i n the f a m i l y business u n t i l marriage, r a t h e r than go to u n i v e r s i t y to take more s c h o o l i n g . The i d e a that daughters c o u l d be t r a i n e d to f i l l o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s i n the f a m i l y business seemed to be a c c e p t a b l e . The view, however, that daughters might manage the business was r a r e l y , i f ever, e n t e r t a i n e d . C l e a r l y , young women were very well ' t r a i n e d ' i n t h e i r h i g h school programmes f o r o f f i c e jobs. Whether i t was 'commercial education', however, i s indeed q u e s t i o n a b l e . An important aspect of the 1937 "Commercial S t u d i e s " r e v i s i o n was the r e t e n t i o n of the 1923 requirement, that students choose one of two " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s " w i t h i n t h e i r commercial programme. Bound alr e a d y to take a r a t h e r l i m i t i n g sequence of o f f i c e - s k i l l s courses, commercial students had a l s o to choose to s p e c i a l i z e between s e c r e t a r i a l or accountancy d i v i s i o n s of those courses. T h i s f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n had the e f f e c t of s o r t i n g the a l r e a d y ' s o r t e d ' commercial students i n t o two f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n s . The accounting-bookkeeping s p e c i a l i s t s t a k i n g a more academic course load with the requirements of general business and law, h e l d more " s t a t u s " w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y than the s p e c i a l i s t s i n the s e c r e t a r i a l o p t i o n . The d i v i s i o n of students i n t o academic and w o r k - r e l a t e d streams, f o l l o w e d by the f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n of those streams i n t o a h i e r a r c h y based on the supposed academic r i g o u r of s e l e c t e d courses, had the e f f e c t of s t r a t i f y i n g students i n t o s o c i a l l e v e l s at s c h o o l , and l a t e r on, i n the o f f i c e and general work world. At the top of the 50 h i e r a r c h y was the s t r i c t l y academic student, d e s t i n e d f o r u n i v e r s i t y and a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . F u r t h e r down, was the " p r a c t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d " , o c c u p a t i o n a l l y - p r e p a r e d student, d e s t i n e d f o r working c l a s s occupations i n f a c t o r i e s , s t o r e s and o f f i c e s . At the lower end of t h i s d i v i s i o n were women, o f t e n c a l l e d "business g i r l s " , w a i t i n g to marry. Below them, were manual l a b o u r e r s , w a i t r e s s e s , housemaids and domestics. F o l l o w i n g the r e l e a s e of the commercial c u r r i c u l u m i n 1937, teachers s e t about implementing i t a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r v i s i o n of what i t should be. When war was d e c l a r e d and many male teachers and o f f i c e workers e n l i s t e d i n the m i l i t a r y , employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women i n sch o o l s and o f f i c e s i n c r e a s e d . In both areas, t h e r e was a shortage of q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t many women were presented with o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o improve t h e i r working l i f e p r o s p e c t s . I t was du r i n g t h i s time that many o f f i c e - e x p e r i e n c e d women, and women graduates from p r i v a t e commercial c o l l e g e s were r e c r u i t e d to teach the commer-c i a l courses i n hig h schools. 1* N a t u r a l l y , they brought the a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge of s t r u c t u r e s , p o l i t i c s , power r e l a t i o n s and h i e r a r c h i e s of the business o f f i c e , as well as f i r s t - h a n d experience of the needed o f f i c e s k i l l s to t h e i r t e a c h i n g . In the years 1937-1946 the "Commercial s t u d i e s " programme was g r a d u a l l y r e d e f i n e d i n t o an " o f f i c e s k i l l s " programme. The B r i t i s h Columbia commercial "package" c u r r i c u l u m of 1937, and the 1 4 " S t a f f Changes" B.C.Teacher. 14, no. 2 (October 1934) 21, notes t h a t a Miss G. Savage from Pitman's Business C o l l e g e was h i r e d to Templeton High School's Commercial Department. 51 e f f e c t i v e l y s o c i a l i z e d business teachers of the day, both male and female, perpetuated a certain kind of high school commercial tra i n i n g and business o f f i c e environment which "kept women i n their place"... now that they had found a new one! The commercial studies curriculum of 1937, part of an educational game-plan resulting from a declining economy, was a paradox. On the one hand i t was a "freeing" and "progressive" curriculum, e f f i c i e n t l y t r a i n i n g aspiring young women for much-coveted o f f i c e jobs. At the same time i t was a binding one, l i m i t i n g , by the nature of the knowledge obtained, those same young women to subordinate o f f i c e positions and, by extension, i n many instances, i n f e r i o r s o c i a l status. The largely academic, theoretical curriculum i n the early years of the century, gradually s h i f t i n g to one of intensely p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y by 1940 was no doubt partly a result of the d i f f i c u l t economic times. Regardless, of the reasons, i t seemed to p a r a l l e l a general trend, nationally and in t e r n a t i o n a l l y , favouring a more u t i l i t a r i a n philosophy toward a l l education and business education i n particular. 1* Some attr i b u t e i t to the result of a b e l i e f i n a more "democratic" curriculum, which was to serve children of a l l a b i l i t i e s and ta l e n t s ; 1 5 to others i t 1 5 See, for example, J. Marshall Hanna, " C o n f l i c t i n g Viewpoints i n the F i e l d of Secondary School Business Education" (D.Ed, d i s s . , New York University, 1939). 1 8 George H.E. Green, i n his thesis, "The Development of the Curriculum i n the Secondary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia" c l e a r l y states that the u t i l i t a r i a n quality of the 1937 curriculum was due to an attempt to produce a more "democratic" curriculum. Green apparently sat on one of the revisio n committees and was privy to much of the discussions surrounding decisions regarding the "new" curriculum. was the manifestation of a b e l i e f i n the education of the "whole c h i l d " , including learning for work l i f e . S t i l l others, argued i t was a part of a plan to serve and s t a b i l i z e the current economic and p o l i t i c a l agendas. Notwithstanding the motivations and thinking of i t s supporters, the u t i l i t a r i a n , p r a c t i c a l v i s i o n of education came to the forefront i n the B r i t i s h Columbia commercial curriculum of the late 1930's. Along with t h i s v i s i o n however, came the notion that commercial education, l i k e many other p r a c t i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s , was somehow i n f e r i o r to the " c u l t u r a l " subjects. As re s u l t , the students, mostly young women, of those perceived to be i n f e r i o r subjects and programmes were conferred with the same i n f e r i o r status. The general trend i n the late 1920's of the r e u n i f i c a t i o n of d i s c i p l i n e s , became c l e a r l y apparent i n the general high school curriculum of 1937. The separate topics of l i t e r a t u r e , poetry, composition, s p e l l i n g , writing, reading were u n i f i e d into the constant subject of English. S i m i l a r l y , d i v i s i o n s of the s o c i a l sciences such as geography and history became s o c i a l studies, the laboratory sciences were u n i f i e d into general science u n t i l the grade eleven and twelve years, and algebra and geometry were un i f i e d into general mathematics courses. It was only i n the commercial programme that an increasing d i v i s i o n and subdivision between bodies of knowledge occurred. In ensuing years, as o f f i c e technology and information management techniques became more "systemized", an ever-increasing d i v i s i o n and subdivision of 17 A' Jean Mann, 105. 53 commercial knowledge would continue. These d i v i s i o n s would, i n turn, sort students into roles that, on the surface, appeared to serve t h e i r needs for commercial education but perhaps worked to the i r d i s t i n c t disadvantage. The Department of Education noted a disquieting trend i n the enrolment patterns of high school programmes i n i t s 1944 supplement to the "Programme of Studies for Junior and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia". Despite the fact that there was an " i n s i s t e n t demand from the public i n a l l parts of the province that the high schools have a less academic bias", i t noted that enrolment i n the subjects of i n d u s t r i a l arts, home economics and the commercial subjects had for some years been i g f a l l i n g o f f . 1 0 The reasons, according to the ministry were partly because of faulty educational guidance (including parental guidance) and partly because p r i o r i t y i n time-table [ s i c ] construction has been given to the more academic subjects associated with University studies. Since the war had shown the importance of the i n d u s t r i a l arts, home economics and commercial subjects, the continued existence of them needed to be reaffirmed, claimed the department. 2 0 To remedy the s i t u a t i o n , the Department issued a l i s t of subjects i n which a l l students had to earn at least ten credits i n grades 18 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for Junior and Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Supplementary B u l l e t i n , 1944, 13-14. 1 5 Programme of Studies, 1944, 13-14. Programme of Studies, 1944, 13-14 54 nine and ten c r i t e r i a never before required. The l i s t of courses included: i n d u s t r i a l arts or technical subjects, home economics, art, music, commercial studies (including business English and business arithmetic), agriculture, geography and p r a c t i c a l mathematics. The foremost objective for mandating these credits was to increase the enrolment of students into these subjects to safeguard t h e i r place within school programmes. Another objective that may have been underlying these requirements was to increase the "status" of the p r a c t i c a l courses within the school subject hierarchy. In i t s own introduction to the typewriting course of the 1937 "Commercial Studies" document, the Department acknowledges the general public's perception of p r a c t i c a l subjects as being i n f e r i o r . It refers to the cloud which tends to hover over " p r a c t i c a l " subjects. They have been designated p r a c t i c a l and therefore " i n f e r i o r " to the " c u l t u r a l " subjects. 1 Increasing the number of students, including academic ones i n these courses might have served to confer greater "status" to p r a c t i c a l subjects within the school subject hierarchy. The perceived difference i n value of one kind of high school graduation c e r t i f i c a t e over another also became an issue during th i s time and one which the Department deemed i t necessary to address: Programme of Studies, 1944, 11 55 In the case of any two students holding the High School Graduation c e r t i f i c a t e , one with University Entrance standing and the other without i t , the r e l a t i v e value of th e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s w i l l depend upon the grades which they respectively have earned [not the subjects taken]. It i s important that high school p r i n c i p a l s preserve the prestige of th e i r schools and of the c e r t i f i c a t e by exercising the most scrupulous care i n the maintenance of standards and the determination of grades. 2 By 1946 the Department of Education's Central Curriculum Committee, i n keeping with the 10-year "renewal" plan established i n 1937, contemplated another revision of the commercial programme. It released an "experimental e d i t i o n " which was to be gradually implemented grade by grade between 1946 and 1948. Perhaps recognizing the l i m i t i n g effects of the 1937 " o f f i c e s k i l l s " programme, the new one promised to address the value business people were currently placing on basic business knowledge. The programme was planned to provide for three groups of courses: the constant requirements of the secondary school programme, a number of business courses intended to provide general business knowledge, and a group of vocational courses. It promised "A greater degree of . . . s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " but u Programme of Studies. 1944, 14. 2 3 There i s a f a i r quantity of l i t e r a t u r e dealing with the "basic business" philosophy, the most eminent and p r o l i f i c advocate being Gladys Bahr. See for example her "From S p e c i f i c Business Training to General Education—That's the Basic Business Story" Business Education Forum (May 1957) 11: 27-29 and Two  Decades of Partnership i n Economic Education (Washington, D.C.: National Business Education Association, 1969). In B r i t i s h Columbia the notion of "basic business knowledge" has often been referred to as a desireable goal i n the curriculum documents, but was sometimes ignored i n the s p e c i f i c courses of study. also an opportunity for students to "acquire a broad background of general business knowledge".** It was intended to release students from the limited and s t r i c t l y prescribed "package" of the 1937 programme, and allow for a broader one which could include more free e l e c t i v e s i n such courses as home economics, general science, i n d u s t r i a l arts and music." A review of the objectives of the programme show that a new emphasis was developing i n general business knowledge and s k i l l s . In addition, consumer knowledge or education was, for the f i r s t time i n B.C. curriculum documents, considered as being part of a commercial programme. The following i s a l i s t of the objectives of the general business courses of that programme. They were to be "of such a nature as to give pupils: — (a) Consumer education, or business knowledge of value i n personal dealings. (b) Understandings of the place of the individual and of business i n the so c i a l organization, and of how each functions i n the s a t i s f y i n g of human wants. (c) A knowledge of the working of government and of the part played by government i n the economic system. (d) Information about business occupations-information intended to aid pupils i n the selection of vocations. (e) A background of business knowledge that w i l l make spec i a l i z e d vocational t r a i n i n g more meaningful. l h B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia—The  Commercial Studies 1946 ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1946), 3. 2 5 Ibid. , 3. 57 (f) Understandings of commoner business procedures and th e i r significance—understandings useful to the indivual who, though without vocational t r a i n i n g , enters.a business occupation as a general clerk or even as owner or manager of a small concern. In addition to the new recognition for the value of general business knowledge and consumerism, the role of the individual i n business and a concern for necessary commercial knowledge for personal business use was, for the f i r s t time, a r t i c u l a t e d i n a commercial curriculum document. These new concerns resulted i n an array of e n t i r e l y new courses, and the revival of some that had been dropped i n the 1923 and 1937 revisions. The chart on page following shows the courses offered i n the commercial programme of 1946 as compared to those i n the programme of 1937. Using the Department's own d e f i n i t i o n of "General Business Knowledge Courses", ten courses of that nature were offered i n 1946 as compared to f i v e i n 1937. The number of "sp e c i a l i z e d vocational courses" were also increased with the addition of two more " s p e c i a l i t i e s " , namely " c l e r i c a l p ractice" and " r e t a i l s e l l i n g " . The Commercial Studies, 1946, 3. 58 A Comparison Between Courses Offered i n 1937 and 1946 1946 "General Knowledge Courses" Junior Business Typewriting Record-keeping Business Arithmetic Business English Fundamentals of Business Business Law Business Organization (or Rural Economics) Economic Geography General Business and Applied Economics "Specialized Vocational Courses" Shorthand I & II Secretarial Practice I & II Bookkeeping I & II C l e r i c a l Practice I & II Retail S e l l i n g I & II Off i c e Practice With the adoption of the new programme, students were able to " s p e c i a l i z e " even more than those students of the 1923 and 1937 programmes, and yet also gain the general knowledge and business p r i n c i p l e s that were becoming necessary to work i n the post-war business o f f i c e . At the same time, the increasing " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n opportunities", seemed to serve as channels for students of varying a b i l i t i e s to be divided into homogeneous groups. Close reading of the "Note to Administrators and Counsellors", and introductory preambles to many of the courses and programmes reveal a bias, by the writers of the document, of 1937 Typewriting I Typewriting II Shorthand I Shorthand II Secre t a r i a l P r a c t i c e I Secretarial Practice II Business Arithmetic Business English O f f i c e Appliances Bookkeeping I Bookkeeping II Bookkeeping III General Business & Law Junior Business & Intro-ductory Bookkeeping 59 a preference for p a r t i c u l a r students for certain s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . Note for example, the Secretarial Option: For some reason or other the private secretary has become invested with an aura of glamour, and many g i r l s who lack the means or a b i l i t y for university t r a i n i n g seek solace i n the thought that they w i l l become private secretaries. A moment's thought concerning the kind of g i r l to whom he would entrust his correspondence and confidential a f f a i r s , or better s t i l l , a few minutes' conversation with a business executive concerning the q u a l i t i e s he expects of his secretary, w i l l convince the p r i n c i p a l that the o f f i c e -worker [ s i c ] at the high level requires a l i v e l y i n t e l l i g e n c e , good appearance and voice, tact, c u l t u r a l background, and a reasonable command of the English language. The Secretarial Option, therefore should be offered only to students who possess the q u a l i t i e s enumerated above. If counsellors and administrators load the advanced commercial classes with people of mediocre a b i l i t y , three unfortunate results w i l l ensue. . . or the Stenographic Course: Pr i n c i p a l s and teachers must r e a l i z e that shorthand i s not an easy subject to master. It i s quite as d i f f i c u l t as a foreign language and, therefore, quite as demanding i n i t s c a l l for i n t e l l i g e n t study and properly planned drill-work [ s i c ] . Recognition of thi s fact w i l l put an end to a practice once widely favoured, that of guiding weaker pupils into the stenographic f i e l d . 8 even the Retail S e l l i n g Option: Although r e t a i l i n g c a l l s for a high level of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n some of i t s phases, many students of poor academic a b i l i t y possess the necessary personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for success i n thi s f i e l d . . . 2 5 27 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Programme of  Studies for the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia; The  Commercial Studies ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1946), 9. " The Commercial Studies. 1946, 99. " The Commercial Studies. 1946, 144. 60 and It i s not suggested that students of mediocre a b i l i t y be kept out of a l l commercial classes, but rather that they be kept out of those classes designed to t r a i n people for the more responsible o f f i c e positions. These statements suggest that the Department at the very least was attempting to increase the number of " i n t e l l i g e n t " (academic?) students into the commercial education f o l d . At most, i t may have been an attempt at streaming students of varying a b i l i t i e s , into "suitable" courses. This streaming l i k e l y resulted i n dividing students of d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s into the various subject "status" groups—the lowest a b i l i t y students going into the subjects of least status, but the most p r a c t i c a l . For the f i r s t time i n commercial c u r r i c u l a a concern for "integration" of business knowledge was a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h i s document." The notion that "the treatment of many of the topics i s far from complete unless such related work such as business arithmetic, vocabulary studies and ... commercial law are incorporated into the lessons" indicated a growing awareness by the curriculum builders that far more than t a s k - s p e c i f i c s k i l l s were required for successful commercial students. During the years 1948-1952, the general secondary school curriculum came under review, and by the f a l l of 1952 a major restructuring of a l l the programmes was i n place. This restructuring allowed for much more freedom i n course s e l e c t i o n The Commercial Studies, 1946, 14. The Commercial Studies. 1946, 7. 61 for students of both the university entrance and the p r a c t i c a l programmes. During the "governance" of the 1937 curriculum and even prior to i t , students of high school programmes were divided into an "either/or" dichotomy between academic university entrance subjects or nonacademic p r a c t i c a l subjects. Students who chose any of the p r a c t i c a l f i e l d s , the commercial "package" for example, were excluded from university entrance because of the r e s t r i c t i v e nature of the "package", as described e a r l i e r i n this chapter. S i m i l a r l y , the academic university entrance students could choose few i f any p r a c t i c a l courses because the rigourous nature of the academic programme allowed for few p r a c t i c a l subject e l e c t i v e s . The 1944 mandatory requirement that a l l students i n grades nine and ten must take at least ten credits of p r a c t i c a l courses attempted to address the problem. It appeared, however, that none of the offered programmes served the needs of the student who, for example, wished to pursue university entrance, but also wished to gain some work s k i l l s ; or, the student who wished to graduate with p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , but also desired some academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The c u r r i c u l a r re-organization of 1950-1952 attempted to remedy t h i s deficiency. The new 1950-1952 curriculum now offered two programmes: High School Graduation General Programme and High School Graduation University Programme; both o f f i c i a l l y carrying the 62 same "stature" within the school community. The minimum 112 credits formerly required, were increased to a minimum of 120 cre d i t s . The core constants for both programmes were si m i l a r , except the university programme required more science and foreign language constants i n the two senior years. For the General Programme the "constants" took up 55 cre d i t s , leaving the student to choose 65 for free major concentrations and free e l e c t i v e s ; the University Programme constants took up 85 cr e d i t s , leaving the student 35 for to choosing majors and free e l e c t i v e s . To graduate on the General Programme, a student had to MAJOR i n at least one subject; for the University Programme the student required three. A major was generally defined as a minimum of three years of study i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d , for example, s o c i a l studies; for some courses i t required four (mathematics, English). The permissible f i e l d s of study included both academic and p r a c t i c a l subjects. Accordingly, the new system of credi t accumulations allowed students to choose graduation with university entrance requirements including a major i n a p r a c t i c a l f i e l d such as commerce, home economics, or agriculture. This new "status" conferred upon commercial subjects was noted i n the "General Objectives and Plan of the Curriculum i n Commerce" for i l B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, Administrative B u l l e t i n 1952-1953; Curriculum  Organization for the Secondary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1952), 16. In thi s b u l l e t i n the Department cautions "Pr i n c i p a l s and Teachers should studiously  avoid (emphasis i n the o r i g i n a l ) giving the impression that the General Programme i s i n f e r i o r to the University Programme. The two programmes meet d i f f e r e n t needs." 63 1951: The c u r r i c u l a r changes introduced into the secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia with the school-year 1950-51 gave new status to the Commerce courses and should enable Commercial teachers to work with greater s a t i s f a c t i o n than ever before. The new programme w i l l now bring to the Commercial Departments of our schools students who formerly took no Commerce, and who require a related series of courses to meet University Entrance requirements. 3 The core requirements of the "experimental" Commercial  Studies curriculum of 1946, refined and implemented during the years 1946--1950 became permanent i n the 1950-1951 curriculum document e n t i t l e d Commerce. 1951. The contents, however, of t h i s "experimental" edition were considerably changed i n terms of courses offered. The apparent 1946 movement toward a balance between general business knowledge and vocational o f f i c e s k i l l s , was abandoned i n 1951. Six of the ten general business courses were dropped. Another difference between the 1946 and the 1951 documents, was a major reorganization of the courses to take into account the recognition of a new kind of student (alluded i n the quotation above) apparently appearing within the commerce programmes. This document, for the f i r s t time i n the history of the commercial curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia, dropped the r e s t r i c t i v e , exclusive, all-or-none "package" v i s i o n of programme planning. The university entrance student could now include a commerce major as part of her/his programme. S i m i l a r l y , the general programme student could incorporate many academic courses 3 3 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, Commerce 1951 ( V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1951), 11. 64 in her/his programme. The majority of the courses now offered were again o f f i c e s k i l l s courses very si m i l a r to those of the 1937 curriculum, but at least students had some choice i n combining them with other courses. The alleged importance of and references to consumer awareness and personal business knowledge made in 1946, were a l l but deleted i n 1951. The four s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s offered i n 1946, namely Ret a i l i n g , Bookkeeping, S e c r e t a r i a l , and C l e r i c a l were retained within the commerce major i n t h i s curriculum and the student could choose any one of them. A l l , however, were geared to task- or o f f i c e -s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . The 1951 commercial curriculum, with i t s emphasis on " o f f i c e s k i l l s " rather than business knowledge remarkably resembled the 1937 curriculum i n course content and offerings. However, i t did enable students to enjoy a much broader programme than the 1937 programme because i t allowed both academic and nonacademic students access to either or both d i v i s i o n s of knowledge within t h e i r programmes—something that had been denied them since 1937. O f f i c i a l l y , t h i s curriculum remained unchanged throughout the decade. A Royal Commission on Education i n 1958, and a major revisi o n of the general secondary school curriculum between 1960 and 1965, resulted i n l i t t l e change for the commercial curriculum. The emerging "new" commerce programme i n 1965 was remarkably si m i l a r i n character, philosophy and content to the 1937 programme. It would remain that way u n t i l 1972. 65 Chapter 5 Neo-Conservative and Progressive Changes; 1960 - 1975 The post-war years and the decade of the 1950's remained r e l a t i v e l y free of c o n f l i c t and radical or rapid change. The early 1960's however, heralded a fifteen-year period of extraordinary and rapid s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , technological and economic change. Between 1946 and 1955 the "baby boom" resulted i n greatly increased secondary school enrolments for the 1960's. The general population became increasingly urbanized, and rural occupations dwindled. Finance, r e t a i l i n g , personal service and government occupations took the place of many of the t r a d i t i o n a l "working c l a s s " and manual labour positions. Women l e f t t r a d i t i o n a l home roles i n increasing numbers and entered the work world—the " o f f i c e " welcomed them. The women's movement from home to wage-earner markedly changed the way women viewed t h e i r l i v e s . The development of "the p i l l " , as well as the decline of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s authority released them from formerly preordained b i o l o g i c a l , home and family-related roles. C u l t u r a l l y , Canadians benefitted from numerous federal and provincial i n i t i a t i v e s . Following a Royal Commission on Arts, Letters and Sciences i n 1951 "a major cu l t u r a l explosion became evident with the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of theatres and concert h a l l s . . . " during the 1960's.1 School c u r r i c u l a as well as t e l e v i s i o n 1 Tomkins, A Common Countenance. 269. programming became targets of a movement for "Canadian content." With the Royal Commission of Bilingualism and Biculturalism i n 1963, came new and s h r i l l demands from many groups for French language i n s t r u c t i o n . Parental groups mobilized for immersion and core French programmes for t h e i r schools. At the same time new overseas immigrants, Native peoples and other ethnic minorities, as well as "alienated" western Canadians placed stress on Canadian unity. The p r i n c i p l e s of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , regional d i s p a r i t y , and equality were much discussed. Throughout the 1960's and early 1970's North American economies boomed. Society became exceedingly involved i n the earning of high incomes and acquiring the abundant and ever-expanding array of consumer goods, machines and appliances. A continuous stream of new i n d u s t r i a l , manufacturing, and o f f i c e technologies changed the character of many occupations and professions. The " o f f i c e " was altered by electronic communications, f i l i n g , recording, c a l c u l a t i n g , and accounting equipment. Education enjoyed a new interest from the entire population a rapidly increasing school population and i t s parents continued to place f a i t h i n schooling as the major means of improving opportunities for economic gain and so c i a l mobility. Education became just one more "product" to acquire i n society's rapidly expanding catalogue of "new and improved" items. With the increased attention to education the quality of school systems began to be questioned across Canada. 67 Hilda Neatby, a Canadian professor from Saskatchewan, attracted a considerable degree of attention with a savage attack against the lax and undisciplined teaching that supposedly prevailed i n Canadian schools. Educators' u n c r i t i c a l adoption of American "progressive" and Deweyian doctrines resulted i n schooling that neglected the primary i n t e l l e c t u a l function of the school, claimed Neatby i n her book.2 She exhorted Canadian educators to return academic rigour, challenging subject matter, and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s to education. Other eminent Canadian educators also c r i t i c i z e d the system, and while they perhaps were less v i t r i o l i c than Neatby, the to t a l effect of the c r i t i c i s m forced the nation and i t s provinces to take stock. In 1957, with the launching of the Russian Sputnik, the shortcomings of the system, with i t s "alleged soft pedagogy"3 forced governments to take action. H i s t o r i c a l l y , i n Canada, a common government reaction toward any p a r t i c u l a r l y thorny problem resulted i n the establishment of a formal investigative commission. True to form, between the late 1950's and early 1960's, f i v e provinces i n i t i a t e d commissions on education. In 1958 B r i t i s h Columbia announced the appointment of a Royal Commission to inquire into "the various phases of the provin c i a l educational system with p a r t i c u l a r attention to 1 Hilda Neatby, So L i t t l e for the Mind: An Indictment of  Canadian Education (Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1953). 3 Tomkins, A Common Countenance, 290. 68 programmes of study and pupil achievement". 4 The Chairman was S.N.F. Chant, and his fellow appointees were John E. Liersch, and Riley Paul Walrod. The commission's mandate was an exceedingly broad one; i t s work entailed the commissioning of research reports, attending public hearings, v i s i t i n g schools, meeting with various interest groups and c a l l i n g for and reading over 350 b r i e f s . The resu l t i n g report, termed the Chant Report, concluded that the major emphasis of schooling should be returned to i n t e l l e c t u a l development. In so saying, the report proposed a reorganization of school subjects into a hierarchy i n terms of the time that should be a l l o t t e d to each within school programming. In so doing, of course, i t conferred certain status to each group of subjects. C l a s s i f y i n g the subjects into three categories, i t placed language arts and mathematics into the rank of "central importance" while relegating the c u l t u r a l and p r a c t i c a l subjects of art, music, drama, commerce, physical education, agriculture, home economics, i n d u s t r i a l a rts, health and personal development into a t e r t i a r y p o s i tion. They were termed "outer subjects", which could be taught elsewhere than i n the public schools, i f necessary. The sciences, s o c i a l studies, and languages took a secondary position as "inner subjects" having almost equal importance to the language arts and mathematics but not quite. One would think, with t h i s quasi-o f f i c i a l declaration of the subordinate position of p r a c t i c a l ' B r i t i s h Columbia Report of the Royal Commission of  Education: The Chant Report ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1960), 1. subjects, that those subjects would immediately suffer neglect i n terms of public f i n a n c i a l support and i n c u r r i c u l u r attention. The cul t u r a l subjects did, i n fact lose much ground i n ensuing years, but the vocational subjects, of which commerce was one, received f i n a n c i a l and public support from quite another quarter --the federal government. Its i n i t i a t i v e s seemed to cancel out any p o t e n t i a l l y negative effects the Chant Report may have had on commercial programmes.5 At about the same time the Chant Report was released, a federally-launched Technical and Vocational Assistance Act was passed i n 1960 to combat youth unemployment and to address the occupational realignment which had gradually developed since the war years. Throughout the duration of the agreement 1961-1967, which was signed by the provinces and Ottawa, the federal government poured nearly 1.5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s into f a c i l i t i e s which would prepare students for entry into employment, or provide students with courses and programmes which furnished the basics for further t r a i n i n g after leaving secondary schools. As result of t h i s funding, over 500 vocational wings and buildings, including commercial training f a c i l i t i e s were constructed i n Canada, many of them attached to secondary schools.* In the 1960's, just as i t did i n the 1920's, commercial education i n B r i t i s h Columbia benefitted both f i n a n c i a l l y and i n programme 5 B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Royal Commission of  Education; The Chant Report ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1960). * Tomkins, A Common Countenance, 298-299. 70 attention somewhat on the c o a t t a i l s of a renewed inter e s t i n vocational ism. A major influence i n the educational climate of North America during the early 1960's was the theories of Jerome Bruner, an American psychologist. Bruner believed that the d i s c i p l i n e s had a basic structure that could be taught at any student l e v e l . Knowing the structure of the d i s c i p l i n e s would, he claimed, assure the mastery of i t s content. Along with the " s t r u c t u r a l " learning philosophy, the advance guard of the educational world adopted a child-centered "discovery" methodology i n problem-solving. The re s u l t i n g curriculum reform, more academic, and subject-centered combined with a "discovery" process approach, took root i n a l l provinces during the 1960's. It was e s p e c i a l l y v i s i b l e i n the "new math" c u r r i c u l a and science programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Teacher tr a i n i n g i n t h i s new philosophy and methodology was p a r t i c u l a r l y assertive during the late 1960's and early 1970's at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s o c i a l and educational climate, the Chant Report, and the Technical and Vocational Act resulted i n c u r r i c u l a r revisions i n many provinces, including B r i t i s h Columbia. Beginning i n 1962 at the junior secondary l e v e l , and continuing incrementally for the next f i v e years over the grades, a newly revised, restructured general curriculum emerged i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It ' Jerome S. Bruner, The Process of Education (New York: Vintage Books, 1960). 71 would remain i n place u n t i l 1978, r e l a t i v e l y unchanged. The Administrative B u l l e t i n of 1965 a r t i c u l a t e d the di r e c t i o n of the new programmes. Secondary education was divided into two stages—the junior secondary and the senior secondary. The primary purpose of the junior secondary was for students to "explore various f i e l d s of learning and progressively prepare themselves for s p e c i f i c programmes i n later years." 8 The senior secondary stage was to allow students to select and follow programmes i n one of f i v e special f i e l d s of study chosen by the student. The f i e l d s of study offered were: Academic-Technical, Commercial, Indu s t r i a l , Community Services, Visual and Performing Arts, and Agriculture. In examining the prescribed requirements of the programmes, i t appears that they took on a somewhat more academic emphasis ( i n keeping with the Chant Report's recommendations) than the former. The general education constants for a l l the programmes were the same as i n a l l the previous years since the 1937 revi s i o n : English 11 and 12, Social Studies 11, Guidance and Physical and Health Education 11. In addition, the constants for a l l programmes except the Academic-Technical prescribed mandatory General Business 12, and, moreover, for three of them, General Business 11 was also made compulsory. Examination of the General Business 11 and 12 course syllabuses show them to be f a i r l y academic, content-based studies of geographic and regional economics. The fact that they were 0 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, Administrative B u l l e t i n for Secondary Schools, 1965 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, 1965), 17. 72 required for graduation showed the emphasis curriculum-makers were currently placing on a more academic programme, and a hint perhaps of a new awareness of the need for "basic business" knowledge for students. A paradoxical aspect of the 1965 general curriculum was the opportunity i t provided for s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and the increasingly r e s t r i c t i v e nature of the specia l i z e d programmes as the students progressed toward graduation. A l l the programmes except Agriculture were divided into further s p e c i a l i t i e s . The Academic-Technical offered arts-humanities, sciences, or technical s p e c i a l t i e s . The Industrial Programme provided construction, mechanics or e l e c t r i c i t y and electronics while the Community Services d i v i s i o n offered s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n foods, t e x t i l e s or home and i n d u s t r i a l services. The Visual and Performing Arts Programme was divided into a r t , music and theatre as s p e c i a l i z a t i o n options, while the Commercial Programme offered s e c r e t a r i a l , accountancy, and c l e r i c a l . By grades eleven and twelve, students were compelled to choose a specialty and the pre s c r i p t i o n of the required courses within each specialty, once more, as i n the pre-1951 revis i o n , precluded the opportunity for students to take any courses outside i t . So, as an example, the Academic-Technical student s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the arts-humanities d i v i s i o n was required to take so many "required" courses i n that f i e l d , there was no opportunity to take any courses either from the other s p e c i a l t i e s within that programme, such as science or math courses or courses i n other programmes, such as home 73 economics or typewriting. A general education within any of the programmes was hindered—the student was compelled to become a s p e c i a l i s t . The integrative presence of academic students i n nonacademic classes as well as that of nonacademic students i n academic subjects was once again prevented. Like the general curriculum of 1937, the curriculum of 1967 for both academic and nonacademic students became more r e s t r i c t i v e i n terms of general educational opportunities. Once more, the "either-or" dichotomy of academic and p r a c t i c a l programming returned, and once more i t c l e a r l y sorted students into d i f f e r i n g programmes which i n turn carried d i f f e r e n t status positions within the school subject hierarchy. The commercial programme of 1967 which emanated from the revised 1965 programme bears close examination, since i t s purpose was to "provide the basic preparation necessary for employment or further t r a i n i n g i n business and commerce", i d e n t i f y i n g two goals. Its s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s were reduced to t h r e e — s e c r e t a r i a l , accountancy and c l e r i c a l from the 1951-52 curriculum's four, having dropped the r e t a i l s e l l i n g option. Within a l l three s p e c i a l t i e s , four courses were constants: Typing 11, O f f i c e Orientation 12, General Business 11 and General Business 12. Examination of the course outlines shows that with the exception of General Business 11 and 12, Accounting 12 and Bookkeeping 11 and 12, the nature and content of a l l the other mandated courses ' B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, Administrative B u l l e t i n for Secondary Schools ( V i c t o r i a , Queen's Printer, 1967), 32. were exactly the same as that of the preceding curriculum. In fact, most of the course descriptions seemed to have been d i r e c t l y copied from the former schedule. With i t s added "academic" courses of General Business 11 and 12, and increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , i t would seem that a more rounded academic programme was being offered to commercial students than ever before, and perhaps, i n many ways i t was. Its greatest imperfection however, was also the greatest f a u l t of the general c u r r i c u l u m — i t s f a i l u r e to provide for the needs of the student who did not wish to be compartmentalized into the "either-or" dichotomy of academic vs nonacademic. The curriculum's tendency to catalogue and stream students into one of two options that were mutually exclusive did not s i t well with the general population's current perception of education as being an enabling enterprise. I r o n i c a l l y , the programmes of 1967, designed to provide the best educational opportunities i n terms of int e l 1 e c t u r a l development, employment and social mobility for a l l , including those of least a b i l i t y and means were, on close examination, the most l i m i t i n g of a l l . By the late 1960's, subject-centered and vocationally-oriented curriculum reforms were being superseded by a neo-progressive child-centred and teacher-centred thrust that r e f l e c t e d a new era of decentralization. 0 The early 1970's were halcyon years for teachers and other educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia. It was a time when professional educators took the lead i n attempting educational change. It Tomkins, A Common Countenance. 302. 75 began i n 1968 with the commissioning of a new survey of education i n the province by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation 1 1. This commission, composed e n t i r e l y of professional educators, examined school programmes and issued a report that would place the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of curriculum s e l e c t i o n and implementation primarily i n the hands of teachers--hence Tomkins' reference to "teacher-centered" thrust. During the late 1960's and early 1970's, the neo-progressive quality of education was manifested i n the dropping of province-wide examinations, the relaxation of standards, and a "wider, more humane curriculum". 1 2 Education became decentralized, and, i n the perception of some, lacking i n rigour and far too permissive. The B r i t i s h Columbia senior secondary general curriculum as well as i t s commercial programmes became "more humane" during the years 1972-1974. In a so-called "interim" Administrative B u l l e t i n released i n 1972 and reprinted i n 1974, i t was reorganized and i t s "general intent" was restated. The f i v e "Programmes" offered i n 1967 were cancelled, and replaced with 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Teacher's Federation, (B.C.T.F.), Involvement: The Key to Better Schools, Report of the Commission  on Education (Vancouver: B.C.T.F., 1968). 1 2 Jean Barman and Neil Sutherland, " B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commissions on Education i n the Twentieth Century," Pol icy  Explorations 3, no. 1 (Winter 1988) (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988), 13. The reference to a "humane curriculum" i s also made by J.S. Church i n an a r t i c l e t i t l e d "Locally Developed Courses - Why?" i n a pamphlet compiled by Patsy Hinton, Business Education i n B.C. 1973; Locally Developed  Courses i n Schools 1973-1974 (Vancouver, n.p., 1973). 76 two: a "Selected Studies Programme" and a "Combined Studies Programme".13 The former was intended to provide opportunity for "study i n depth" (emphasis i n i t s o r i g i n a l ) i n a major f i e l d of learning, while the l a t t e r would provide a "study i n breadth" i n related f i e l d s . Maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n pupil programming of "personal relevance" within broadened general requirements established by the Department of Education was the overarching goal. It presented a much more relaxed schedule of prescribed courses than the former, and i n v i t e d the student to choose courses "even though the pupil [has] not formally met a l l admission requirements." 1* Both programmes allowed for a much greater choice of courses from f i v e broad subject groups (remarkably s i m i l a r to the f i v e "Programmes" of the former curriculum). Course t i t l e s and content appeared to be exactly the same as i n the 1967 document (which i n turn were similar to the 1951-1952 documents), but the omission of General Business 11 and 12 as required courses for graduation on any programme was notable. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n s t i l l occurred within the "Selected Studies" programme but the number of required courses was reduced. The overall tone of the document was written i n a s t y l e less formal and o f f i c i o u s than previous ones. As result of the "humane curriculum" the academic student 1 J B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of Educational Programmes - Schools, Curriculum Development Branch, Administrative B u l l e t i n for Secondary Schools 1974 "Reprinted from 1972 E d i t i o n " - With Amendments) ( V i c t o r i a : Ministry of Education, 1974), 34. 1 4 Administrative B u l l e t i n . 1974, 38. could select some el e c t i v e courses of a nonacademic nature; s i m i l a r l y , the nonacademic student could choose academic courses i f desired. For example, a senior "Selected Studies" student interested i n mathematics might choose the following programme: The required "general education constants" of English 11 and 12, Social Studies 11 and Physical, Health and Guidance Education 11 would form the base of the programme. The student could then choose Algebra 11, Algebra 12, and Geometry 12 as courses i n the preferred specialty, as well as three more courses from the same grouping. One course numbered 12 could them be selected from any other grouping, such as O f f i c e Procedures 12 or Accounting 12. To complete requirements for graduation, the student would then choose three more courses from any of the other specialty groups; for example Band 11, Typewriting 11 and Community Recreation 12. A senior student i n a "Combined Studies" programme might take a programme as follows: the "general education constants" as above, and any eight courses from any of the specialty areas i n any combination as long as three of them were numbered 12. An inter e s t i n foreign languages might well be combined with two courses i n theatre i n a programme for commercial s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Clearly, opportunities for a broader-based education were once again restored to secondary students i n 1974. Chapter 6 78 Centralization, Control and the P o l i t i c a l Agenda; 1976-1990 As the 1970's advanced, i n f l a t i o n and unemployment became serious public issues i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The cost of education i n the province came under attack, and as re s u l t , a new vocabulary was developing regarding education. The notion that a l l educational matters were "accountable" to a host of constituents became a much supported idea. The "taxpayer", business, industry, special interest groups, as well as the provin c i a l government began to exact accountability procedures from those i n the educational community. Surveys of businessmen disparaged the lack of competence i n English grammar, s p e l l i n g and writing by graduating business students. 1 Curriculum d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and teacher autonomy, together with a d i v e r s i t y of teaching methods, had led, i n the eyes of many observers, to a minimal degree of consistency and continuity i n learning. In addition, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d vocational programmes came under attack because of th e i r narrowness and presentist focus, at a time when orientation towards the future was encouraged. The "golden" days 1 H.M. Overley, "Business Education and the Three R's" a survey published by A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company (Philadelpha: A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d , n.d) and R.B. Florendine, "Business Education" a survey commissioned by Dome Petroleum Limited (Calgary: Dome Petroleum, 1967) provide two perspectives of business people's views of how wel1-prepared high school business education graduates were for work i n business. The B r i t i s h Columbia program i s examined i n the Dome survey. 79 of c u r r i c u l a r and programme freedom were being loudly denounced and demands for going "back to basics", returning to "basic s k i l l s " 2 or "minimum competencies" became p a r t i c u l a r l y s h r i l l . In the view of many the educational community had much to answer for. In consequence, the general B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum was about to change again and along with i t , the commercial course of studies. In 1976, Dr. Patrick D. McGeer, the province's Minister of Education, claimed that c i t i z e n s were demanding that the government "take a more posit i v e role i n defining what should be taught i n our schools and i n assessing the results of that teaching" 3. In 1977 the Ministry issued a policy guide mandating three levels of curriculum and what should be taught*. "The goals and learning outcomes i n t h i s booklet, revised on the basis of public and professional reaction received, are those which must be taught." 5 Appearing to "get tough" with the school programmes and the teachers who taught them, McGeer issued Unfortunately, the issues were complicated by demands of countless special i n t e r e s t advocacy groups who redefined "basic s k i l l s " to mean p r a c t i c a l l y anything within t h e i r areas of i n t e r e s t . 3 Quoted i n Andrew S. Hughes, "Curriculum 1980: The C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of Authority," Curriculum Canada II: Curriculum  Policy and Curriculum Development ed J.J. Bernier and G.S. Tomkins (Vancouver:Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980), 21-30. * B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education, What Should Our  Children Be Learninq?--Goals of the Core Curriculum ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1976). 5 What Should Our Children Be Learning?, 4. 80 the "Guide to the Core Curriculum" i n September of 1977—with implementation to be immediate.* To most teachers, the "core" was hardly news, nor hardly new to what they already had been doing i n the classroom. The "guide" a r t i c u l a t e d very broad general goals and some "learning outcomes" for language, mathematics (measurement and computation), science, s o c i a l studies and physical education and health. There were no new requirements nor prerequisites for courses. The guide's purpose was to be a model for the development of new programmes i n s p e c i f i c subject areas i n ensuing years and i t provided some guidelines for those future revisions. O f f i c i a l l y , and to a l l outward appearances, central control of curriculum appeared to have returned to the Ministry, "wrested" so to speak from the hands of " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " educators. By i t s own admission however, i n the very document that supposedly "took control", the Ministry acknowledged that teachers would "use th e i r experience and professional expertise to develop appropriate teaching p r o g r a m m e s t o meet student needs..."'--in essence freeing teachers to do whatever they had been doing a l l along. Clearly, the document was designed to please those c a l l i n g for accountability without al i e n a t i n g those working i n the f i e l d . 9 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education Science and Technology, Guide to the Core Curriculum ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1977. T B.C. Ministry of Education, Guide to the Core Curriculum. 4. 81 The new "guide" had some eff e c t s on some subjects--"new math" was abandoned, and the return of d r i l l s and emphasis on Q computational s k i l l s was effected. The process of "sciencing" 0 was forsaken for a return to d e l i v e r i n g basic factual material i n biology, chemistry, and physics. The greatest ef f e c t the new "core" programme had was i n the subsequent planning and the writing of new c u r r i c u l a for each programme or subject which followed. The business education programme of 1978/1979 was a prime example of the type and timbre of new programmes and c u r r i c u l a issued after the release of the Guide to the Core  Curriculum. Since the 1978/79 curriculum represented both a transformed role for business teachers i n i t s development and r e f l e c t e d t h e i r increasing anxiety about defining t h e i r f i e l d , at t h i s point some consideration must be given to both these topics. In a 1979 a r t i c l e , L. Cuban advances a theory of c u r r i c u l a r determinants which i d e n t i f i e s four forces as determinants of c u r r i c u l a r change: a) i n f l u e n t i a l s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, b) p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions, c) i n f l u e n t i a l groups and d) i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s . 9 This study has touched on the The notion of "sciencing" or "messing about i n science" allowed children to explore and manipulate various kinds of equipment and phenomena to allow for "discovery" of p r i n c i p l e s . The only "structure" or "formality" imposed was the provision of a limited variety of equipment. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the elementary grades, students experimented with soap bubbles, colour dyes, mirrors, and so on i n the name of science. 5 Larry Cuban, "Determinants of Curriculum Change and S t a b i l i t y 1870-1970," J. Schaffarzick and G. Sykes, eds., Value  C o n f l i c t s and Curriculum Issues (Berkeley: McCutcheon, 1979), 141-198. 82 s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, and p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions which have affected both the general and the commercial c u r r i c u l a over time. Some mention has been made of i n f l u e n t i a l i ndividuals or groups within the larger contexts. The role of teachers however, c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y , has not been discussed because documentation about th e i r d i r e c t role i n c u r r i c u l a r deliberations and contruction, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to commercial programmes i n the early years i s not extensive. One reason advanced for t h i s i s that membership on committees was rarely made public. What i s known i s that the Department of Education had a very d e f i n i t e organizational structure for curriculum development from 1935. A Central Curriculum Committee of leading educators, named by the Minister of Education, advised the Department of Education i n respect to the need for curriculum revis i o n i n the various subject f i e l d s , and i t helped plan the general pattern of education to be followed i n the schools. The Director of Curriculum chaired the committee and wide representation was sought from teacher and lay groups. Subject revis i o n committees were named through the Department by the Director of Curriculum who worked with them. These committees were composed of "experts", a few of them pr a c t i c i n g teachers who were s p e c i a l i s t s i n s p e c i f i c subject f i e l d s . According to interviews with teachers of that time, press releases i n the B.C. Teacher, and "acknowledgement" pages i n course guides, most of the members representing Commercial programmes were p r i n c i p a l s of schools of 83 commerce in B r i t i s h Columbia, or commercial department heads within those schools. Almost a l l of them were male. In the revision of secondary school subjects, representatives of university departments were also included. The Assistant Director of Curriculum was responsible for providing materials, programmes of study, professional l i t e r a t u r e , and textbooks for use by the committees during their work. The findings and recommendations of subject r e v i s i o n committees, supervised by the Director of Curriculum were, i n turn, referred to the Central Curriculum Committee. Final authorization for the adoption, p r i n t i n g , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of various courses of study rested with the Minister of Education and other members of the Provincial Cabinet. A l l courses of study outlines were subsequently published as tentative editions and remained subject to continuing r e v i s i o n when deemed necessary. For the most part, t h i s process had been followed for most of the major c u r r i c u l a r events since Minister of Education Weir i n s t i t u t e d i t i n 1935.10 It needs to be said that, presumably, for groups or indiv i d u a l s to be i n f l u e n t i a l , they must be perceived by others as having some power or capacity for influence, or i t must be proven that they did indeed influence the curriculum to change. The proof must come from documented evidence, and t h i s evidence has been very d i f f i c u l t to obtain u n t i l the 1970's. It appears that throughout the time from 1900 to approximately the early 1 U G.M. Weir, "The Revision of the Curriculum," The B.C  Teacher, no. 14 (1935): 20-23. 84 1970's, pr a c t i c i n g commercial teachers did not have much say or influence over the content and philosophy of commercial programmes. Teachers participated i n deliberations during annual general meetings of the "Commercial Section" of the B.C. Teachers' Federation but not, i n t h e i r estimation, to any degree of importance 1 1. By 1972, however, a core of strong commerce teachers were beginning to make themselves known on the curriculum scene. Through t h e i r association with the B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Association (B.C.B.E.A.), these individuals began to make the concerns of business teachers known to curriculum makers. In 1976, for example, some of them sent b r i e f s to the B r i t i s h Columbia Commission on Vocational, Technical and Trades Training o u t l i n i n g t h e i r personal positions and also that of the B.C.B.E.A. . S i m i l a r l y , curriculum-related a r t i c l e s written by commerce teachers i n support of various positions, orientations and methodologies became more and more p r o l i f i c during the 1970's. In the B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter, the major communicating 1 1 Sheila Cameron, telephone interview with author, 17 March 1991. Mrs. Cameron, a former long time teacher of business education i n Vancouver indicated that teachers on school and d i s t r i c t curriculum committees were indeed consulted, but seemed to have l i t t l e influence on programs unless the suggestions were in keeping with an already established focus. 1 2 Stan Dunster, Bob Peacock, and Patsy Hinton "A Brief to the Commission on Technical, Vocational and Trades Training," B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Association Newletter, 17, No. 2 (December, 1976): 9-11 and Berne J. Neufeld "A Brief to the Commission on Technical, Vocational and Trades Training on Behalf of the Business Educators' Assocation of the B.C. Teachers' Federation," B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Association  Newletter, 17, No.2 (December, 1976): 12. 85 instrument of the organization, the names of the authors became fami l i a r to teachers of business--Stan Dunster, Patsy Hinton, Bob Lindsay, Bob Peacock, Sheila Cameron, Mhora Zelter, Berne Neufeld, Streb C o l l i n s and la t e r Adriana Zylmans, Judy Dallas and Diane Good. At about the same time, 1972, Dr. Shirley Wong, an experienced business educator at the secondary l e v e l , was appointed lecturer of business education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Dr. Wong worked under the directorship of Robert Heywood, a former long-time commercial subject teacher i n the Vancouver schools, and la t e r professor i n the Faculty of Commerce at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Mr. Heywood r e t i r e d from the Faculty of Commerce i n 1975, and Dr. Wong was then designated co-ordinator of business education at the University's Faculty of Education. Mr. Heywood's and Dr. Wong's influence i n maintaining relevant programmes for business teachers served to increase the importance of business education at the university level and i n the f i e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The B.C.B.E.A. organization, an adjunct association of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, as well as the above-named ind i v i d u a l s , became dominant players i n commercial curriculum change from the early 1970's to the present. Many of the above-named in d i v i d u a l s , who were indeed p r a c t i c i n g teachers, were named to the revisi o n committee of the business education curriculum i n spring 1975. This committee worked u n t i l December 31, 1975 at producing the f i r s t draft of the "goals and outcomes" which were to become the core and 86 foundation of the new business education curriculum. The name "Business Education", although already employed throughout the professional l i t e r a t u r e of the 1970's both i n B.C. and abroad, was not used i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education o f f i c i a l curriculum publications u n t i l the release of i t s "Interim" edition of the new curriculum i n 1977. Evidence from the B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter a l l through the 1970's, indicates teachers involved i n teaching any business education courses were in v i t e d to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the revisi o n procedures by writing position papers, or c a l l i n g any of the members of the revision panel with suggestions, cautions and counsel. It appears that much of the rev i s i o n process was t i g h t l y controlled by the Ministry's "core" guidelines with respect to philosophy, format and presentation. 1 3 The "goals and learning outcomes" of the courses within the programme, however, were deliberated and defined s o l e l y by the business education revis i o n panel. A review of a few of the major issues concerning business educators during the time of the revisi o n process need mention. Many of the a r t i c l e s i n the B.C.B.E.A. Newletter r e f l e c t the same concerns as those which appeared i n national and international professional journals during the 1970s.1* Teachers were 1 3 "Revision Committee Program," Business Educators'  Association of B r i t i s h Columbia Newsletter, 16, no.l (November 1975) 3. One of the panelists, Mhora Zelter makes a comment to that effect i n thi s report. 1 4 For American concerns see National Business Education  Quarterly. Business Education Forum, C a l i f o r n i a Business  Education Journal. and Journal of Education for Business. For the Canadian perspective the Alberta business teachers' journal Synoptic, i s a good example. For an international perspective, see SIEC; International Review for Business  Education. 87 lamenting the decline of shorthand use i n business o f f i c e s . Changing o f f i c e technology was a matter of great concern because business teachers were discovering that t h e i r machine s k i l l s were becoming obsolete. An increasing use of computers and many other electronic o f f i c e machines including photocopiers and sophisicated telephone technology changed o f f i c e employment roles. Sex-role stereotyping i n the business world became an important topic for discussion i n university and business classrooms. The notion of business education as more than "teaching typing" was much explored during those years as was the concern expressed for "defining our d i s c i p l i n e " and " f a l l i n g enrolments and poor performance". The greatest "buzzwords" of a l l i n business education i n the 1970's were, however, "career awareness and personal development". These topics were recurrent ones i n that era, and they became the guiding themes of the new B r i t i s h Columbia business curriculum of 1978/1979. This curriculum was a f a i r l y extensive project and by the time i t was completed, i t included seven separate booklets describing i n d e t a i l teaching resources and evaluation c r i t e r i a to be used with the offered courses. 1 5 Some of the courses remained the same i n terms of content as those i n the preceding curriculum, but i n philosophy, goals, and emphasis, the new programme took a new 1 5 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Curriculum Development Branch, Business Education  Resources Manual, [a separate publication for each of the following subjects]: Marketing (1979), Of f i c e Procedures/Business Communications (1979), Shorthand (1979), Typewriting (1979), General Business (1979), Accounting/Data Processing/Machines (1979), Media Resources (1981). 88 d i r e c t i o n . The business education programme was one of the f i r s t of many issued which embodied the new d i r e c t i o n and philosophy of the "core curriculum". The most immediately noticeable aspect of i t was i t s length and the long l i s t s of "learning outcomes" a r t i c u l a t e d for each course. The p r i n c i p l e document encompassed 154 pages; the individual resource booklets on the average 125-175 pages. The primary document i d e n t i f i e d the purpose, goals, and content of each subject, and provided four hundred f i f t y learning outcomes categorized into fourteen broad areas of knowledge. The purpose of the programme was the provision of a curriculum which allowed students to pursue: a general (economic) education and s k i l l acquaintanceship [or] a general career awareness with an introduction to vocational tr a i n i n g i n a business s e t t i n g . These p a r t i c u l a r purposes d i f f e r e d very l i t t l e from those of e a r l i e r y e a r s — s k i l l t r a i n i n g or "acquaintanceship" coupled with general business knowledge. They had been goals of the commercial programmes i n one proportion or another since the f i r s t document was printed. What set t h i s curriculum apart from a l l i t s predecessors was i t s eight "goals"; seven of which emphasized the development of personal and s o c i a l growth within a very broadly defined concept of business and the "world of work". Up to the 197 9 r e v i s i o n , the " s k i l l s and general business 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Curriculum Development Branch, Business Education  Curriculum Guide ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1979), 1. 89 knowledge" provided were those.which served a very narrow v i s i o n of what business and work l i f e was for commercial students. Business meant "the o f f i c e " , "the bank" or "the store", and commercial education for that conception of business meant es s e n t i a l l y shorthand, typing, and f i l i n g for women, and perhaps bookkeeping and accounting for men. Education for personal development emphasized the s u p e r f i c i a l : to look good, to present a good impression, to act appropriately i n the o f f i c e — t o make the company or the employer look good. With the new curriculum a vastly expanded view of what business l i f e could mean was presented. Students were offered knowledge about marketing, for example, not only from the r e t a i l clerk's point of view, but also from that of an owner, or a manager's perspective. Students could study consumerism, applied business law, labour law, resource analysis, the structure of organizations and p r i n c i p l e s of management. The personal and so c i a l growth goals encouraged within t h i s document attempted to develop the student from w i t h i n — i n attitudes; to develop a sense of individual self-worth and value, to not only look good, and behave with "proper o f f i c e deportment", but to actually "be good" and do good work because of i t . Sheila Cameron, a highly-respected business teacher i n Vancouver schools between the years 1932 and 1973 suggests that the active involvement of many female business teachers i n thi s curriculum, many of them models of e f f i c i e n c y and business sense, had much to do with producing t h i s enlightened and broadly 90 17 encompassing programme. This new curriculum offered the largest number of suggested courses of any business or commercial curriculum to that time. In a l l , 22 courses were offered. Ten of them were s k i l 1 - s p e c i f i c subjects: four typewriting, two shorthand, two o f f i c e procedures and one machine calculations course. The rest were concerned with personal and business knowledge, consumerism, marketing, business communications and so on. The learning outcomes of the courses showed a clear emphasis on a broad notion of what business, commercial and work l i f e could be i n students' futures. The document prevailed as the o f f i c i a l business programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l 1990. Throughout the 1980's certain events, trends and p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia brought new v i s i b i l i t y and stature to economic education and to those who delivered i t . By the end of the decade, business education and business educators enjoyed o f f i c i a l stature and recognition such as they never had before. Their " d i s c i p l i n e " , seemingly ignored for so long, had a new and exceedingly powerful champion--the prov i n c i a l government and i t s mighty Ministry of Education. How business education managed to secure such prominence and o f f i c i a l support arose from increasingly d i f f i c u l t economic times, the establishment of a province-wide compulsory consumer education course, and the gradual adoption of computers i n the work world and the schools. 1 1 Sheila Cameron, telephone interview with author, 17 March 1991. 91 In a widely-read a r t i c l e Michael Apple argued that In times of economic d i f f i c u l t y , when tax revenues are lower and jobs are hard to f i n d , i t i s not unusual for school programs to become more closely aligned to the needs of business. 8 Apple's observation c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s an attitude soon to become very prevalent i n B r i t i s h Columbia's school programming agendas. A growing neo-conservative p o l i t i c a l ideology and a strong p o l i t i c a l role assumed by economic interest groups such as the Fraser Institute, for example, had much to do with creating the B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c a l and economic climate of the 1980's. An international recession developed during the early 1980's and the prevalent conservative p o l i t i c a l and economic values were exemplified by "Thatcherism" i n Great B r i t a i n and "Reaganomics" i n the United States. B r i t i s h Columbia remained r e l a t i v e l y unaffected for a time by the international recession, although i t did produce hardship across much of Canada. Nevertheless, with the control of the B r i t i s h Columbia economy rapidly eroded by outside j u r i s d i c t i o n s , B r i t i s h Columbia's resource-based economy eventually experienced a near overnight IB recession. A s i g n i f i c a n t drop i n provincial revenues, coupled with st e a d i l y increasing expenditures on educational and s o c i a l programmes demanded attention. At the same time, dramatic increases i n personal and business bankruptcies, default rates on 1 8 Michael Apple, "Curriculum i n the the Year 2000: Tensions and P o s s i b i l i t i e s , " Phi Delta Kappan, 64, No.5, 1983: 321-336. " Magnusson, W., W. C a r r o l l , C. Doyle, M. Langer and R. Walker, The New Reality: The P o l i t i c s of Restraint i n B r i t i s h  Columbia (Vancouver, New Star Books, 1984.) 92 personal and business loans, and an "overwhelming number of cases appearing i n Small Claims Court", suggested a need for economic education. 2 0 The Minister of Education of the time, Brian Smith, noted i n his Education: A Report from the Minister, that during his travels about the province for his F a l l Forum, he was made aware that "our students lack an understanding of many of the p r a c t i c a l consumer s k i l l s we a l l need to function i n our society". 2 1 He supported his notion by r e f e r r i n g to a presentation made by a parent group. On March 16, 1981 the Ministry of Education issued Ministry  Policy C i r c u l a r #144. a document that foreshadowed sweeping changes i n the governance of education within the province. Introduced among the several controversial topics, was the announcement that a mandatory consumer fundamentals course at the grade 9/10 level would be developed, written, and implemented within eighteen months. This announcement set off c u r r i c u l a r debate and c o n f l i c t within and between many educational j u r i s d i c t i o n s and constituencies i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Despite the loud and b i t t e r disputes which followed related to the nature Geoffrey William Horn, "Consumer Education—A C r i t i c i s m from the P o l i t i c a l Perspective" (Major essay submitted for M.Ed degree, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987), 33. 2 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Education: A  Report from the Minister. ( V i c t o r i a , The Ministry, 1981), 16-17. 2 2 For a p o l i t i c a l perspective of the events and developments leading to the establishment of Consumer Education 9/10 see Geoffrey Horn, "Consumer Education—A C r i t i c i s m from the P o l i t i c a l Perspective" (M.Ed Major essay, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987). and implementation of the course, consumer education became a compulsory requirement for a l l secondary school graduating 23 students i n B r i t i s h Columbia and remained so u n t i l 1991. It became clear to many that the content of the course, and i t s compulsory nature, would bring new recognition to i t s supporters and teachers. Consequently, i n a move interpreted by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers'Federation as p o l i t i c a l and s e l f -serving, the B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Association (B.C.B.E.A.) ,2* the Teachers of Home Economics Association (T.H.E.S.A. ) 2 5 and the B r i t i s h Columbia Industrial Education Association (B.C.I.E.A.) 2* made congratulatory overtures to the Ministry. These posit i v e encouragements also contained arguments for each subject group's supposed t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over the course. A l l three organizations' favourable responses to the course were i n di r e c t opposition to the stance taken by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation (B.C.T.F.), and caused considerable debate and c o n f l i c t between and among a l l the organizations. After receiving l e t t e r s of reprimand, the Home 23 Clear documentation of the c o n f l i c t between the B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Association and i t s parent organization, the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation (B.C.T.F.) with respect to the establishment of Consumer Education 9/10 i s provided i n the B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter, 22, no. 3 (Spring 1982): 4-7. 24 M. A l l i s o n , Letter to the Minister of Education, 4 May, 1981 i n BCTF Records Divis i o n , p . l 2 5 F r i e d r i c h , J, Letter to the Minister of Education, 6 A p r i l , 1981, i n BCTF Records Di v i s i o n , p . l . 2 6 G. Sofko, Letter to Larry Kuehn 26 May, 1981 i n BCTF Records D i v i s i o n p . l . Economics and Industrial Educators' Associations quickly f e l l into l i n e with the o f f i c i a l B.C. Teachers' Federation p o s i t i o n , but the B.C.B.E.A., against B.C.T.F. o f f i c i a l p o l i c y , continued to offer support and lobbied for j u r i s d i c t i o n over the course. As re s u l t , a number of members of the B.C.B.E.A. were appointed by the Ministry of Education to a s s i s t i n the construction and i n i t i a l implementation of the course. Through the e f f o r t s of those members, the B.C.B.E.A. and business teachers i n general achieved a good measure of approval from i n f l u e n t i a l members of Ministry s t a f f . Consumer education became known, almost province-wide, as a "business education" subject. Having a required course for graduation under the domain of business education, and having i t strongly supported f i n a n c i a l l y by the Ministry of Education ( p a r t i c u l a r l y during a period of r e s t r a i n t ) , immeasurably elevated the importance of business education within the school subject hierarchy. Within s i x years, i t s rank would r i s e even further when the Ministry f i n a l l y recognized the importance of computers i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the advent of computers i n classrooms was a slow and gradual process. The notion that the computer was an important tool to be reckoned with was raised i n the early 1970's but i t s price prohibited i t s use i n the average classroom. During the late 1970's a few business educators i n B r i t i s h Columbia were e x t o l l i n g the virtues of the TRS 80--a Radio Shack 16 K computer that could be used i n accounting and calculations applications. For the most part, however, computers did not became an important part of school furniture/equipment u n t i l after 1984. One reason was that the provincial government, i n the deepest wells of economic recession, could not j u s t i f y , nor even afford, to supply schools with the expensive hardware. The attitude the Ministry of education adopted toward computers appeared to be one of indifference: i f schools wished to buy and use them, they could, but funding for them had to come from th e i r own school budgets—special or s p e c i f i c funding for them from the Ministry would not be forthcoming. This attitude prevailed u n t i l 1988. Between 1982 and 1987 however, the computer technology exploded, and advances within the technology were rapid—computers were quickly becoming affordable, available and moreover, used by more and more businesses, industries, and government departments. During those tight economic years 1982-1987, schools went about buying th e i r own computers and software. Those schools and d i s t r i c t s who placed computers as top p r i o r i t y items gathered funds from many sources—parental support, fund-raising and so on—and became leading schools i n terms of teaching computer use. In many schools, business educators took the lead, teaching keyboarding and computer-based accounting. Others, however, could not or did not and f e l l far behind those leading schools both i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of the hardware and software, and i n the 1 1 W. Tennant, "Micros i n the Schools TRS-80," BCBEA  Newsletter, 20, no. 2 (Spring, 1980): 8-9. 96 sophistication of the computer knowledge they were teaching. Predictably, and naturally, unequal and uneven levels of computer hardware, software, and i n s t r u c t i o n resulted throughout the province. Moreover, since schools were electing to buy whatever technology was available, they gave l i t t l e thought to i t s compatibility with that already i n the f i e l d , or i t s consistency between one d i s t r i c t and the next, or even one school with another within the same d i s t r i c t ! The consequent overall provincial disarray regarding computers and computer-related i n s t r u c t i o n was immense, and the Ministry began considering some remedy.2" At the same time that computer ac q u i s i t i o n and teaching was occurring within the public schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia without o f f i c i a l sanction or assistance, business educators began to c a l l for changes i n the business education curriculum. 2' The curriculum of 1978-1979, while enlightened i n philosophy, content and approach, v i r t u a l l y ignored the existence of the computer. Many teachers, including business educators, were already employing the computer at rather sophisticated levels i n many secondary schools but on rather an ad hoc basis since there were no guidelines nor standards emanating from the Ministry. 78 " Numerous Administrative Information C i r c u l a r s issued by the Ministry of Education during the mid to late 1980's record i t s i n t e r e s t i n improving the current s i t u a t i o n . 2 9 B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter. 26, no. 2 (November 1985): 16. The f i r s t o f f i c i a l i n d i c a t i o n that business educators were seeking r e v i s i o n to the curriculum was i n an a r t i c l e by B. Peacock t i t l e d , "Do We Need to Revise the Business Education Curriculum?" 97 Business education subjects, as well as other courses were taking on new c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n some schools, but not i n others. Computer studies and computer science c u r r i c u l a had already been drafted up and sanctioned by the Ministry, but, they were being implemented i n some schools but not i n others. The entire school system required some major policy guidelines regarding computer funding, a c q u i s i t i o n , use and teaching. The c a l l for a revised business curriculum by business teachers occurring at the same time as the overwhelming need for a un i f i e d approach to computer technology i n education, drew Ministry attention to the demands of business educators over those of other subject groups who were c a l l i n g for e s s e n t i a l l y the same order. Business educators were somehow f i n a l l y able to convince the Ministry that funding, consistency, and p o l i c i e s were required to regulate the acq u i s i t i o n and use of hardware and software i n schools. Fresh from a happy association with business educators i n the implementation of Consumer Education 9/10, and 12, the Ministry looked upon the business educators as leaders i n the use of the technology. In so doing, they seconded from the ranks of business educators, teachers who would serve on not only the new business education revision committees, but also on committees designed to draft computer c u r r i c u l a and prov i n c i a l p o l i c y proposals regarding the computer technology. As Becky Matthews, the Assistant Director of Curriculum at the Ministry stated at 98 the time, "Business education i s on a r o l l ! " 3 0 As result of the i r major role i n establishing computer technology guidelines, and as result of the revised aspects of their own curriculum (which depended on computer technology for i t s implementation), business educators were able to convince the Ministry of Education to fund a l l d i s t r i c t s , on a "one-time only" basis, the a c q u i s i t i o n of computer hardware. Never before i n B r i t i s h Columbia history had any subject group wielded such influence with the Ministry of Education and with such tangible r e s u l t s . 3 1 The Ministry released t h i r t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n 1988 and 1989 to business education departments i n d i s t r i c t s a l l over the province, and enabled a l l d i s t r i c t s to a t t a i n at least a minimum level of computer a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l junior and senior secondary schools. The status of business education subjects and the professional standing of business education teachers rose considerably within the school subject hierarchy as result of t h i s action. At the same time the above events were occurring within the computer and business education realms, the issue of underfunding education as a government r e s t r a i n t policy came to the forefront during the years 1982-1986. The Ministry of education attempted 3 0 B.C.B.E.A. Journal. 27, no. 2 (January 1987), 9 quoted by Berne Neufeld, President of the B.C.B.E.A. i n "Curriculum Report". 3 1 Statement made by Judy Dallas, Past President of the B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educator's Assocation (B.C.B.E.A.) and Business Education Curriculum Revision Coordinator with the Ministry of Education i n a speech delivered at the BCBEA Spring conference i n May, 1988. to prove that schools had not lost any ground i n the delivery of quality education during the underfunded recession years. In attempts to placate the increasing c a l l s for a Royal Commission on education, the Ministry i n s t i t u t e d a "Let's Talk About Schools" Survey i n 1985 and made v i s i t s to each school d i s t r i c t i n the province to hear the views of interested stakeholders. The published results of that survey were inconclusive but they led to a r e a l i z a t i o n by the government that i t s treatment of educational matters was becoming a major provincial issue. In addition to the education underfunding issue, revis i o n and reordering of graduation requirements came under attack. Some of the requirements, i n s t i t u t e d p r a c t i c a l l y overnight without notice by the Ministry, were hotly debated while others were accepted with l i t t l e comment. The combined effect of the graduation requirement controversies, the perceived underfunding of education and other s o c i a l programmes, as well as the results of the "Let's Talk About Schools Survey" i n addition to an overall disquiet about schooling i n general by an overtaxed public, led, f i n a l l y , to a Royal Commission on Education. On March 14, 1987 by Order-in-Council number 446, the provincial government appointed Barry Sul l i v a n to lead the Commission i n a thorough examination and survey of the B r i t i s h Columbia educational system. 3 i B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Let's Talk About  Schools; A Report to the Minister of Education and the People of B r i t i s h Columbia, volumes 1-5 ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1985). 100 Chapter 7 A New V i s i o n and Revision -- Business Education, 1990 "Our challenge i s to have a balanced curriculum that w i l l teach concepts that can be transferred to the workplace and that w i l l provide a base for l i f e - l o n g learning...we must overcome the temptation to teach 'button-pushing' on computers...we must reinforce basic s k i l l s . . . " Authorized by Order-in-Council March 14, 1987 and headed by Barry S u l l i v a n , another Royal Commission on Education conducted hearings and commissioned research reports between March 1987 and July 1988. It presented i t s report, A Legacy for Learners, i n August 1988. The eighty-three recommendations of the Commission resulted i n Mandate and Policy Directions publications as well as a primary document, Year 2000: Framework for Learning, upon which a l l ensuing subject and programme c u r r i c u l a would be based. Major aspects of the "Year 2000" document rel a t e to a recognition of a rapidly changing world, and a new v i s i o n of what 1 "This we Believe About Business Education," Business Ed  Forum, 45, no. 1 (October, 1990): 10. * Barry Sul l i v a n , A Legacy for Learners, Report of the Royal Commission on Education, B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry of Education, 1988). B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Mandate and Policy  Directions, ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, January 1989). also B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Year 2000: A  Curriculum and Assessment Framework for the Future (Draft), ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, August 1989) and i t s f i n a l , Year 2000: A  Framework for Learning, A p r i l 1990. 101 "the educated" c i t i z e n should or could be. The focus for learning turned to the individual learner with programme emphases to be placed on what the learner could do rather than what the learner could not do. Programmes for the learner were to involve "active" learning methods, recognizing that learning occurred i n cooperative as well as individual modes. The document emphasized the notion that learning for the "educated c i t i z e n " had now to be a l i f e - l o n g enterprise, since the world was changing so rapidly. This learning had to involve attitudes and practices that promoted f l e x i b i l i t y and v e r s a t i l i t y i n the thinking and problem-solving practices of students. Literacy i n technology, as well as the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s had also to be developed. The importance of separate d i s c i p l i n e s and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s , so long a feature of secondary programming was minimized, and emphasized was an integrative i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to studies. The development of programmes based on broadly grouped subjects i n "strands" was promoted. The interconnectedness of global s o c i e t i e s , i n a l l ways, including p o l i t i c a l , economic, environmental, peace and other endeavours was stressed. For that reason, great s i g n i f i c a n c e was placed upon educating students well i n written, oral and technological communications. The multicultural nature of Canadian society, as well as gender and aboriginal issues needed to be addressed within programmes. F i n a l l y , the importance of preparation for work, career plans and matters related to the world of work was a major theme i n the "Framework" documents. 102 Long before the Sul l i v a n Royal Commission began i t s task and f i l e d i t s report and recommendations on the state of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the B r i t i s h Columbia business education curriculum was under review. Since January 1985, encouraged by o f f i c i a l Ministry approval and funding, curriculum workers began to investigate major issues they knew had to be addressed i n a new curriculum. The dominant issues business educators had to contend with were both p o l i t i c a l and educational. An important 1986 B r i t i s h Columbia Business Education Association survey conducted by Dr. Shirley Wong and Judy Dallas, underwritten by the Ministry of Education, had important results for curriculum workers. The survey investigated the b e l i e f s of employers i n both large companies and small businesses, regarding the s k i l l s and concepts required by business education graduates for employment i n entry-level positions. 3 Of the top ten basic s k i l l s required, "communication and interpersonal s k i l l s by far outnumbered] any other essential s k i l l s needed by entry-level employees...".4 Moreover, the employers indicated that the telephone and photocopier were the only "business machine" s k i l l s considered essential i n the education of entry-level business employees. These results were remarkably s i m i l a r to those obtained by Kelly Services, Inc., who conducted p o l l s of o f f i c e Shirley Wong and Judy Dallas, C r i t e r i a for Hiring B.C.  Secondary Business Graduates ( V i c t o r i a , Ministry of Education, 1986) . * Judy Dallas, " C r i t e r i a for Hiring B.C. Secondary Business Graduates: A Summary," BCBEA Newsletter. 27, no. 2 (January, 1987) 6. 103 workers i n both the United States and Canada i n 1984.* Kelly Services' results indicated o f f i c e workers perceived seven of the top ten "essential s k i l l s " to be communication and personal development s k i l l s . Clearly, both surveys underlined a decided preference for interpersonal and communication s k i l l s over those t r a d i t i o n a l l y perceived to be important—the t a s k - s p e c i f i c and machine-related s k i l l s such as typewriting and shorthand, i n th e i r new business r e c r u i t s . Before new c u r r i c u l a were planned, results from such studies needed to be considered. Judy Dallas, Ministry curriculum coordinator for the business education curriculum revis i o n committee, as well as many teachers from the f i e l d , i d e n t i f i e d a number of other important issues i n the B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter which required debate and delibe r a t i o n p r i o r to developing new programmes.* Elementary keyboarding was considered a new f i e l d i n which business educators could expand t h e i r teaching " t e r r i t o r y " . The adoption of the computer i n elementary classrooms opened an enormous market for teaching e f f i c i e n t "keyboarding" s k i l l s . There was a very real need for competent i n s t r u c t i o n at the elementary level and secondary business teachers were the most q u a l i f i e d to do so. Teaching typewriting to young children 5 Kelly Services, "A New Breed of Secretary," Synoptic. 28, no. 1 ( F a l l , 1987): 23-28. The f u l l report t i t l e d The Kelly  Report on People i n the Electronic O f f i c e . I l l , The Secretary's  Role i s obtainable from Kelly Services, Inc., 999 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084, U.S.A. * Judy Dallas, "Curriculum Revision Session Report Presented at the B.C.B.E.A. Spring Conference," B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter. 27, no. 4 (June, 1987): 2-3. 104 p r e s e n t e d some d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and r e q u i r e d s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n . 7 I n e f f i c i e n t o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e k e y b o a r d i n g h a b i t s a c q u i r e d i n e a r l y e l e m e n t a r y y e a r s c o u l d make f o r v e r y d i f f i c u l t r e t e a c h i n g i n l a t e r y e a r s . A r e l a t e d but l e s s p r e s s i n g i s s u e was the p o s s i b l y d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t of e l e m e n t a r y k e y b o a r d i n g on s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l b u s i n e s s c o u r s e r e g i s t r a t i o n s . F o r many y e a r s t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s e s had e n j o y e d the h i g h e s t number of r e g i s t r a n t s of a l l b u s i n e s s c l a s s e s i n p r o v i n c i a l s e condary s c h o o l s , and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of n o n - b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l t e a c h i n g e l e m e n t a r y t y p e w r i t i n g , ( o r " k e y b o a r d i n g " as i t was now c a l l e d ) , c o u l d have s e r i o u s e f f e c t s on the f u t u r e employment of b u s i n e s s t e a c h e r s . E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e d u c a t i o n , an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e American j o u r n a l s was a l s o a n o t a b l e B r i t i s h Columbia c o n c e r n . P r e m i e r B i l l B e nnett of B r i t i s h Columbia had gone on r e c o r d i n 1981 as s u p p o r t i v e of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e d u c a t i o n i n h i s " L e t ' s Teach C a p i t a l i s m i n our S c h o o l s " address t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. 8 The B r i t i s h Columbia economy by 1987 was dominated by t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h P a c i f i c Rim n a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h had demonstrated t o t h e government t h a t s m a l l and medium b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s had t h e p o t e n t i a l of employing t h e l a r g e s t Dorothea S c h r a d e r , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Motor P r o f i c i e n c y , Sex and Age t o K e y b o a r d i n g Achievement of E l e m e n t a r y School S t u d e n t s , " Canadian J o u r n a l of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n 1, (1988): 18-23 and Sandra U b e l a c k e r , "Elementary K e y b o a r d i n g i s Today's R e a l i t y , " Canadian J o u r n a l of B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n 1, (1988): 24-29. 8 C i t e d by Gary Lauk, i n e x c e r p t s from l e g i s l a t i v e d e b a t e , Hansard 10, ( V i c t o r i a , 1981): 5601. 105 percentage of the population. With government programmes already encouraging and supporting entrepreneurship i n B r i t i s h Columbia, implications of the cu l t u r a l differences i n business relations between and among P a c i f i c Rim countries seemed to be an important component for entrepreneurial courses both within schools and programmes i n the business domain. Another economic-political issue was the recognition that business a c t i v i t y had sh i f t e d from local or national economies to multinational and/or global ones. Teaching for and about business within them was necessary i f the government agenda for maintaining economic buoyancy was important. The importance of the government business agenda had already been underlined by i t s f i n a n c i a l and o f f i c i a l support for business and consumer education i n the early 1980's. A perhaps related p o l i t i c a l issue, the compulsory nature of consumer education, had also to be addressed. The changing roles of women i n business was an important concern. Women's previously limited roles as " o f f i c e workers" had expanded to include junior, middle- and upper-management and executive p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Over-arching a l l other concerns for business educators, during the 1980's, however, was technology and i t s impact on business practices, the curriculum and the classroom. The advent of the o f f i c e computer r a d i c a l l y altered many t r a d i t i o n a l o f f i c e practices and employee roles. Correspondence and typing, formatting, presentation and reproduction of documents, f i l i n g , 106 r e c o r d s t o rage, accounting and other o f f i c e t a s k - s p e c i f i c s k i l l s were now dependent upon the e f f e c t i v e use of the computer and matching software. Moreover, the v a r i e t y of the a v a i l a b l e hardware and software was e x t e n s i v e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n were enormous. Another study by Wong and her a s s o c i a t e s surveyed the B r i t i s h Columbia business communities' use of microcomputers and software to determine what, i f any, hardware and software was i n dominant use i n the business Q world. The r e s u l t s needed to be co n s i d e r e d by the programme review committee p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s recommendations f o r the purchase of hardware, software and other resources f o r the f u t u r e t e a c h i n g of computer-related business education courses. During the years 1985 to 1988, the B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' A s s o c i a t i o n was ins t r u m e n t a l i n promoting the c u r r i c u l a r p e r c e p t i o n s of business teachers i n the f i e l d through i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s , the B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter. Every i s s u e of the p u b l i c a t i o n c a l l e d f o r o p i n i o n s , p o s i t i o n s , and experiences from teachers which c o u l d be a p p l i e d to the r e v i s i o n process i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the new c u r r i c u l u m . I t appeared the r e v i s i o n committee members d e f i n i t e l y wanted and valued any c o n t r i b u t i o n s those i n the f i e l d c o u l d o f f e r . One other important aspect of the making of the new c u r r i c u l u m had to be addressed b e f o r e the r e v i s i o n procedures c o u l d conclude. As d i s c u s s e d i n a pre v i o u s s S h i r l e y Wong, Ed Coleman and Drew Murphy, "A Survey of Microcomputers and Software Used by the Business Community i n B r i t i s h Columbia - May 1985," B.C.B.E.A. Newsletter, 27, no. 2 (January, 1987): 8. 107 chapter, public pressure for a formal review of the school system had become p a r t i c u l a r l y strong and i t ended i n the appointment of a Royal Commission. A new business curriculum could have become obsolete very quickly i f i t didn't consider the findings and recommendations of this survey and incorporate the philosophy and language of the "Framework" documents. Consequently, f i n a l revisions were delayed u n t i l the Commission completed i t s work and issued i t s report. The Business Education Curriculum Guide, issued March 1990, c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s thematically and t o p i c a l l y the philosophy, focus and d i r e c t i o n of i t s "parent" document, Year 2000; Framework for  Learning, as well as the other issues of the day concerning business educators. Considering f i r s t i t s philosophy, which i s reproduced below, i t i s very much r e f l e c t i v e i n language and intent of the learner-focused, i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches recommended for student a c q u i s i t i o n of communicative, personal l i f e , employment, and future l e a r n i n g - s k i l l s . Its frequent references to " s k i l l s " , "preparation", and " p r a c t i c a l applications", however, tend to manifest a somewhat u t i l i t a r i a n b i a s . 1 0 PHILOSOPHY Business Education i s a program for a l l students and provides: o personal l i f e s k i l l s , employment s k i l l s , and post-secondary preparation 1 U B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Business  Education Curriculum Guide, March 1990. ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1990), 2. 108 o p r a c t i c a l application of concepts and processes learned i n other d i s c i p l i n e s o a r t i c u l a t i o n with elementary and post-secondary programs o application of current business technologies o opportunities to explore related careers o i n t e r a c t i o n between the school and the community o an awareness of the effect of technological, economic and cul t u r a l changes on our values, soc i a l structures, and employment opportunities o an awareness of individual r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s of a global economy The rationale of the programme appears to be consistent with the language and philosophy of the primary document.11 It re i t e r a t e s the mandate as established by the Ministry of education, and underlines the important role of business education i n i t s contribution to "a prosperous and sustainable economy. " 1 2 The goals of the 1990 business education curriculum r e f l e c t many of the themes advanced i n the "Year 2000" document. They also afford a broader v i s i o n of business education than that offered i n the previous curriculum. The concept of business as a local or perhaps a national enterprise i n 1979, i s expanded i n 1 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, Business Education Curriculum Guide,  1990, 3. 1 2 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Year 2000: A  Curriculum and Assessment Framework for the Future ( V i c t o r i a : The Ministry, 1989), 7. Words in quotation marks are a p a r t i a l c i t a t i o n of the government-established "mission" statement for the B r i t i s h Columbia school system: "The purpose of the B r i t i s h Columbia school system i s to enable learners to develop th e i r i n dividual potential and to acquire the knowledge, s k i l l s , and attitudes needed to contribute to a healthy society and a prosperous and sustainable economy". 109 1990 to a global enterprise for which very sophisticated communicative, technological and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s are required. The theme of personal development i s carried over from 1978, i n the goals' references to the development and growth i n po s i t i v e self-concept and excellence. The document also promotes r e f l e c t i v e understanding, the development of p o s i t i v e personal attitudes toward entrepreneurial and cooperative enterprises, as well as an awareness of ethical business practices i n d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l groups. In terms of career development, the goals of the programme profess to prepare students for the p r o b a b i l i t y that they would l i k e l y be making numerous career changes i n t h e i r l i v e s . In i t s preamble to the course descriptions, the curriculum provides exemplars of programmes students may put together employing the f l e x i b i l i t y and variety of courses offered i n the new curriculum. Cooperative ventures between the workplace, the school and the community are encouraged and supported. In approach and methods, the goals stress f l e x i b i l i t y , accommodation and integration. The course offerings of the 1990 curriculum require some scrutiny. Under the business education designation there are presently l i s t e d f i f t e e n courses. Three of the course names have been brought forward from the previous curriculum. Marketing 11 retains the contents of the 1979 course almost i n t a c t , and Marketing 12, an e n t i r e l y new marketing course, emphasizes national and international marketing with a P a c i f i c Rim focus. Consumer Education 12, the senior level consumer course f i r s t 110 offered i n 1982, remains i n t a c t . Accounting 11, the introductory course to accounting methods and procedures, closely resembles the former "Introduction to Accounting 11" course. The remaining eleven of the f i f t e e n courses of the new curriculum are new i n name and content. The former typewriting courses have been superceded by a f u l l Keyboarding 9/11 course and a Keyboarding 8 "module". The Keyboarding 8 module i s designed to be an introduction to alphabetic keyboard s k i l l s for students who have had no prior access to computer or typewriter keyboarding. It represents approximately twenty-five hours of "hands-on" i n s t r u c t i o n . The Keyboard 9/11 course attempts to develop keyboarding proficiency as a personal l i f e s k i l l and as a foundation for career development. Both keyboarding courses require access to a typewriter or computer keyboard. Two courses t i t l e d Information Management (IM) 11 and 12 have been developed. The IM 11 grounds much of i t s content on computer-related s k i l l s ; 40 of the 75 core hours of the course are designated for s k i l l development, word processing and ele c t r o n i c mail transfer. The other 30 hours are taken up by telephone, and other forms of business and workplace communications s k i l l s . The IM 12 course attempts to provide applications opportunities for the s k i l l s learned i n IM 11. F i f t y - f i v e of 75 hours are designated for work on the computer. Speedwriting 11 i s a newly developed course replacing the obsolete Shorthand courses. Sixty of 75 hours are set aside for speedwriting theory and practice. The remaining 15 hours attempt I l l to develop general n o t e - t a k i n g and study techniques. Business Management 12, another new course i n t r o d u c e s students to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and management s k i l l s . "Management s t y l e s and i s s u e s r e l e v e n t to a g l o b a l economy are i n t r o d u c e d " . Composition and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s are to be i n c o r p o r a t e d throughout a l l assignments w i t h i n the course. Data P r o c e s s i n g (DP) 11 and 12 are e n t i r e l y computer-driven courses. DP 11 p r o v i d e s i n t r o d u c t i o n to and p r a c t i c e with m i n i s t r y - a p p r o v e d " i n d u s t r y - s t a n d a r d " software. M a n i p u l a t i o n of data to produce useable f i n a l r e p o r t s i s i t s main i n t e n t i o n . DP 12 i s an ex t e n s i o n of DP 11, r e q u i r i n g students to analyse and organize business i n f o r m a t i o n t o s o l v e problems and produce and present, by computer, and i n person, both o r a l l y and v i s u a l l y , p r o f e s s i o n a l - q u a l i t y business r e p o r t s . F i n a n c i a l Accounting 12 i s intended f o r students wishing to pursue p r o f e s s i o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n s i n the f i e l d s of f i n a n c e , t r a d e , commerce and business management. I t presents advanced concepts of f i n a n c i a l accounting of a f a i r l y h i g h academic q u a l i t y . A p p l i e d Accounting 12 allows students to apply the theory and p r a c t i c e s of Accounting 11, u s i n g i n d u s t r y standard accounting software i n the s o l v i n g of problems. Business E d u c a t i o n 10 i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e ( j u n i o r secondary) l e v e l course, s l a t e d to become a compulsory course/module f o r gr a d u a t i o n , and r e p l a c i n g the for m e r l y mandatory Consumer 112 Education 9/10.13 Its purpose i s to introduce a l l students to basic business theory with communications, marketing and finance as major topics and claims to provide students with "economic s u r v i v a l " s k i l l s . The courses offered i n the new business programme have been arranged into modules. The core modules and optional modules have been i d e n t i f i e d , and teachers may select to expand or reduce each module to s u i t local conditions, or the needs of the students. Some modules may form the basis for cooperative education ventures. The modular format i s designed to allow for maximum f l e x i b i l i t y for each school. Of the 15 courses offered i n the new business education curriculum, at least seven require access to the computer for part or a l l of the modules. Pour of those seven courses are completely computer-driven. The eight other courses are theory-laden, business knowledge courses; the accounting courses o f f e r i n g more spe c i a l i z e d information than the others. In many instances, the theory courses are f a i r l y academic. The communications theme figures largely i n a l l f i f t e e n courses. In some i t takes up one or more modules, i n others i t demands pr a c t i c a l applications of communication s k i l l s (other than electronic) throughout. The concept of communication advanced i n t h i s document includes not only technological communications s k i l l s , but also written, o r a l , and non verbal (body language). 1 3 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, Deputy Minister's  Newsletter. (February 1991) affirms the compulsory nature of the course. 113 A l l of the described courses encourage the student to integrate business knowledge, information and communications s k i l l s into problem-solving processes. On paper, to a l l appearances, the new 1990 curriculum i s the most "enabling" i n B r i t i s h Columbia business curriculum history. It provides a broad v i s i o n of what business-related a c t i v i t i e s could mean i n students' future plans and i t does not appear to sort students into narrow occupational routes. The business education programme f i t s appropriately into the Graduation Programme and affords a l l students the opportunity to take one, some, or a l l courses from i t s offerings. It r e f l e c t s a view of business education which would be equally a t t r a c t i v e to students of varying a b i l i t i e s and both sexes. Academic and nonacademic students are free to choose business subjects along with other courses i n v i r t u a l l y l i m i t l e s s combinations. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s possible, but i t i s not compulsory. The business courses contain enough academic material and "rigour" to secure moderate i f not elevated status for i t s students within the school subject hierarchy. It seems to r e f l e c t a l l the major themes of the primary curriculum document, which purports to embody the b e l i e f s , opinions and needs of modern-day "new age" society. Development of important communicative and interpersonal s k i l l s are seriously considered as well as a good knowledge of technological processes. Current issues i n business education, as well those of general education are considered. 114 What the new curriculum-as-written w i l l become i n actual classroom practice i s an important issue which only the passage of time and careful study can answer. The curriculum's greatest strength, i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability, could well be i t s greatest weakness. The potential for off e r i n g a narrow, machine-specif ic--even software-specific programme i s very evident i n the freedom the programme allows for implementing teachers. Emphases placed by teachers on some areas to the exclusion of others, could well result i n business programmes less "enabling" than the ty p i c a l typing/shorthand-dominated ones of the 1940's and 1950's. Indeed a very narrow, even more limited programme could result — with students becoming l i t t l e else but data-input agents by t h e i r well-meaning, but misguided software c o a c h e s — t h e i r teachers. As for the important interpersonal and communication s k i l l s , there i s a very real potential for marginalizing them. As long as students are "attached" to a computer, the opportunity for real human colloquy, real communication, that i s , the exchange and inte r p r e t a t i o n of verbal and physical signals between humans, not data, are precluded. The computer can at best respond, manipulate, and/or rearrange data, but i t cannot communicate on a human l e v e l . The graduates of a programme heavily dependent on computers and software could well be far less prepared for future communications, " s u r v i v a l " and business work l i f e i n the "new age" than t h e i r counterparts i n the "olden days", i f teachers are not v i g i l a n t about th e i r implementation strategies. 115 Chapter 8 Summary and Conclusions The secondary school business curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia originating i n a highly academic programme suitable for "gentlemen" i n i t s early days, evolved into a balanced programme of p r a c t i c a l and academic q u a l i t i e s equally a t t r a c t i v e to students of both genders by 1991. During the intervening years, i t experienced long periods of s t a b i l i t y , low prestige within the school subject hierarchy, and name changes and i d e n t i t y problems. In certain periods i t enjoyed o f f i c i a l approval of the federal and B r i t i s h Columbia provincial governments. It benefitted enormously both i n terms of f i n a n c i a l support and o f f i c i a l recognition with the Ministry of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia through i t s recent relationship with the Social Credit government and i t s economic agendas during the 1980's. During i t s early years the "Commercial Programme" was a very academic "package" programme, and appeared to enjoy the same stature as the "English" and " C l a s s i c s " Programmes within the school subject hierarchy. It did not engender any resistance from school o f f i c i a l s towards i t s i n i t i a l i n c l u s i o n i n the o f f i c i a l high school curriculum nor did i t ever, throughout i t s lengthy history i n the B r i t i s h Columbia public schools, endure the d i f f i c u l t struggles for acceptance that some other subjects did. Its academic nature, useful as i t was i n giving i t 116 legitimacy, was c r i t i c i z e d at the turn of the century because i t served no p r a c t i c a l purpose at a time when q u a l i f i e d workers for businesses and o f f i c e s were i n short supply. With the adoption of typewriting and shorthand i n 1905-1906, the curriculum took on a s l i g h t l y more functional emphasis and appeared to pay adequate attention to the needs of both industry and the rapidly increasing high school population. A revision i n 1914, was the beginning of a series of minor revisions which i n sum produced an d e f i n i t e s h i f t toward a more u t i l i t a r i a n , s p e c i a l i z e d commercial programme. The vocational movement became strong between the years 1910 and 1920, having f i n a l l y attracted attention from both federal and provincial governments. Commercial education began to emphasize i t s vocational aspects, and thereby benefitted materially from i t s a f f i l i a t i o n with the vocational movement. Its vocational emphasis gradually supplanted the academic quality of the commercial programme by 1937. Because of i t s association with vocational ism and the loss of i t s academic "rigour", the curriculum lost much of the prestige i t previously enjoyed within the school subject hierarchy. Indeed, from about 1937 u n t i l well into the 1970's, despite the work of curriculum r e v i s i o n i s t s at the Ministry level to enhance the status of the f i e l d among school populations, the commercial subjects became known i n many quarters as the easy-way-out for graduating students or, worse yet, the dumping ground of nonacademic students ( p a r t i c u l a r l y female), u n f i t or unwilling to take academic studies. With the 1937 revis i o n , the commercial programme took on a 117 decidedly d i f f e r e n t emphasis from i t s o r i g i n s — i t was no longer a somewhat academic programme which taught general business and entrepreneural p r i n c i p l e s as well as some o f f i c e procedural s k i l l s . Instead, i t became a vocational t r a i n i n g "package" for o f f i c e work, and much of the tr a i n i n g involved students' manual operation of an ever-present, but ever-changing array of " o f f i c e appliances". For the next forty years, i t remained a female-dominated t r a i n i n g program which v i r t u a l l y guaranteed business a continuing supply of entry-level employees. The program also p r a c t i c a l l y assured a l l i t s students work at the entry level i n business o f f i c e s , but made no promises of upward mobility i n business. During the 1950's and 1960's, attempts to increase i t s rigour and appeal to more academic students f a i l e d miserably --students, teachers, parents—everybody knew the commercial program was for those who could not "cut i t " on the academic program or could not afford to go to university. Apparently, few students actually "chose" to take the commercial program—they took i t because i t was the only free vocational t r a i n i n g available to them which would p r a c t i c a l l y ensure a job after leaving school—no other school program then, or since, has offered that. Federal government interest i n increasing vocational opportunities for youth during the 1960's improved the f i n a n c i a l status of commercial education subjects, just as i t did i n the 1920's. At the same time, however, because of i t s "vocational" i n c l i n a t i o n s , the status of the commercial programme remained low. 118 During the 1970's, greatly increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n of pra c t i c i n g commerce teachers i n curriculum a f f a i r s , and rapid advances i n o f f i c e technology began to change the long-held general v i s i o n of what commercial education entailed. Commercial education took on a new name, "business education". With the new name, business teachers attempted to revise the image of commercial education from tr a i n i n g for o f f i c e work, to^'education for and about business". The curriculum became less a "package" and more of a process. A serious recession i n the early 1980's turned government attention to schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y their programs, and th e i r costs. A new relationship developed between the Social Credit government and business educators i n the form of a mandatory consumer education program. Business educators were delighted to f i n d themselves the deliverers of a course compulsory for a l l students i n preparation for graduation, and gained great attention for themselves and t h e i r courses. They apparently did a good job of writing, implementing and teaching the courses i n the Ministry's view, because when the time came for rev i s i o n of the business curriculum, business educators and t h e i r representatives had the attentive ear of Ministry of Education o f f i c i a l s . An updated, viable business education curriculum required the inc l u s i o n of the computer into i t s courses. Business education departments needed funds to purchase computers and software so that the curriculum could be implemented. In a feat never before accomplished by any subject group, business education curriculum workers managed to convince 119 the Ministry of Education to make f i n a n c i a l grants to a l l d i s t r i c t s i n 1988 and 1989 for the s p e c i f i c purpose of updating computer and software holdings i n a l l business departments i n the province's secondary schools. Prior to t h i s , many teachers and subject groups had been lobbying since 1982 to have the Ministry of Education set down p o l i c i e s and alloc a t e funds for computer purposes, but were not successful. Business education was successful because the economic times were right , and more probably because business teachers had shown, through the consumer education controversy, that they could carry well the government's economic agenda i n the early 1980's. By 1990 business education subjects gained new respect from and approval of the Ministry of Education, and th e i r rank rose to new heights within the school subject hierarchy. At l a s t , business education departments were teaching something the government c l e a r l y and p u b l i c l y approved of--business, and moreover, they were using--thanks to the Ministry, the most glamourous and univ e r s a l l y respected equipment avai1able--the micro-computer! Whether business education's new prestige and relationship with the Ministry of Education w i l l be of actual benefit to students and t h e i r career plans i s a central question, but i t s answer i s yet unknown. Whether the current status and relationship w i l l indeed last i s also i n question. Business education's occupation of a place within the o f f i c i a l curriculum has never been challenged. Its changing position within the ranks of the B r i t i s h Columbia school subject hierarchy has, 120 however, r a i s e d a number of t r o u b l i n g p o i n t s . I t appears that s t a t u s i n the h i e r a r c h y i s l a r g e l y determined by t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r s — t h e regard with which students and the p u b l i c view a d i s c i p l i n e , how "peer" s u b j e c t groups view a p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e , and how powerful f o r c e s or o f f i c i a l s view i t . As Goodson has shown i n Great B r i t a i n s t u d i e s , i t appears that o f f i c i a l a t t e n t i o n and resource a l l o c a t i o n by power groups i s the g r e a t e r determinant of s u b j e c t s t a t u s and l e g i t i m a c y . Indeed, oftentimes the views of the other groups are l a r g e l y determined by i t . In Great B r i t a i n , and i n B.C. u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y , the most powerful determinant of s u b j e c t s t a t u s and c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o l has been, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the u n i v e r s i t y and/or e d u c a t i o n a l " e x p e r t s " promoting academic d i s c i p l i n e s . They have been much c r i t i c i z e d f o r " e l i t i s t " b i a s and the p e r p e t r a t i o n of i n e q u a l i t y among student programmes. In the l a s t f i f t e e n years i n B r i t i s h Columbia, however, the government economic agendas through the agency of i t s powerful M i n i s t r y of Education seem to have taken c o n t r o l i n the a l l o c a t i o n of resources and d e f i n i n g s u b j e c t importance w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s . In p a r t , the h i s t o r i c a l development of the b u s i n e s s education c u r r i c u l u m has shown how the s h i f t s i n power and i n f l u e n c e have developed. The i m p l i c a t i o n s are s e r i o u s . A Note About Sources 121 Data for t h i s study were obtained from numerous sources. An extensive array of primary sources were available. The most important of them were documents issued by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department ( l a t e r changed to Ministry, 1958) of Education, including annual school reports, manuals of school law, curriculum b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r s , memos, newsletters, administrative b u l l e t i n s and other publications issued or sanctioned by the Ministry, including course textbooks. The early annual reports between 1876-1895 were very detailed including within them correspondence, entrance examinations questions, subject and course attendance s t a t i s t i c s for every school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Much information was obtained from these s t a t i s t i c a l data, as for example, the popularity or need for certain types of courses. The reports also included l i s t s of authorized textbooks, admission regulations for high schools and yearly reports and remarks of the Superintendent of Education, p r i n c i p a l s , school inspectors, boards of school trustees and directors of special subjects. As the school system expanded and the amount of reportable information increased, the annual reports were abridged to include only general s t a t i s t i c a l and demographic information of t a l l B.C. school d i s t r i c t s , thus reducing the value of t h i s material for the l a t e r years of t h i s study. However, the manuals of school law, issued from 1893-1918 122 and the precursors of the now well-known curriculum guides, were very useful for t h i s study, l i s t i n g courses of study and authorized texts. After 1918 the Department of Education issued separate c u r r i c u l a r guides and b u l l e t i n s . These curriculum guides became very useful documents for teachers i n planning the i r work, but also provided very detailed and illuminating records of the dominant b e l i e f s of their time. Interviews with a number of individuals have been conducted for t h i s study. Students of B r i t i s h Columbia public high school commercial programmes from each of the following time-periods were interviewed for the purpose of acquiring th e i r impressions of what they f e l t were the aims and rationales for the commercial classes they elected to attend and how they f e l t about the business education they received: 1938-1942, 1945-48, 1955-57, 1961-1964, 1967-1971, 1975-1978, 1982-1987. In addition, several interviews were conducted with former Vancouver commerce/business teachers between the years 1924 and 1973. Those interviews helped to corroborate, counter-point or otherwise round out much of the information gathered from other primary and secondary sources. A number of separate interviews were conducted with members of the family that has operated Pitman Commercial College since 1898. Those interviews provided insight into the influences of the private college commercial c u r r i c u l a on public high school business c u r r i c u l a , e s p e c i a l l y during the early years, as well as gave some notion of the thinking and motivations of i t s founders. 123 Archives of the school were examined for relevant information and included l e t t e r s , advertisements, scrapbooks, c e r t i f i c a t e s and newspaper clippings from 1903 to present. Documents from the curriculum correspondence f i l e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation as well as publications by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation were examined for relevant information and provided insight into the educational philosophies held by local educators. Information about the controversial emergence of the formal Consumer Education course mandated for secondary school graduation during the 1980's, was recorded i n these f i l e s . Records of the provincial business educators' associations, the Commerce Teachers' Assocation and B r i t i s h Columbia Business Educators' Assocation were readily available. They included minutes of annual general meetings, l e t t e r s , reports and the associations' professional publications. These documents furnished much information concerning the viewpoints of teachers, t h e i r curriculum recommendations and the i r role i n creating and implementing business education c u r r i c u l a from the early 1970's. Reports of major educational reviews i n the province such as the Putman-Weir Report issued 1925, the Chant Report of 1960, the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation's Involvement: The Key to  Better Schools i n 1968, as well as B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education's 1978 Analysis of and Public Response to the Core  Curriculum, the 1985 Let's Talk About Schools survey r e s u l t s , Barry Sullivan's Legacy for Learners released i n 1988, and the 124 recently issued (1990) Public Response to the Year 2000, were consulted for information regarding educational trends and philosophies of the times. Views of local educators and of the general public concerning education were re f l e c t e d i n these documents. The report of the Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education (1913, Vol. I-IV) provided information concerning the philosophy underlying the introduction of p r a c t i c a l education into Canadian schools during the early part of the twentieth century. Business education curriculum documents, such as course outlines, programmes of study and curriculum guides (1918-1990) provided a record of o f f i c i a l l y adopted philosophies and s p e c i f i c curriculum changes made at various points i n time. Some textbooks were examined to ascertain whether and/or how they r e f l e c t e d the philosophies and objectives of the written c u r r i c u l a of the i r time. Several h i s t o r i c a l accounts of the development of education i n North American were used to understand the educational contexts i n which business education c u r r i c u l a were functioning. Writings concerning the history of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia and/or the development of education i n the province were consulted to provide the provincial context. Many secondary sources, including theses and disser t a t i o n s dealing with the c u r r i c u l a r history of other subject areas as well as business education both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n other provinces provided d i f f e r e n t perspectives. They also assisted i n 125 i d e n t i f y i n g broad s o c i a l and economic movements which appeared to i n f l u e n c e change i n the general c u r r i c u l u m , and to business education c u r r i c u l a s p e c i f i c to those j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y has l i m i t e d h o l d i n g s i n business education h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , so most secondary sources of t h a t nature were a c q u i r e d through the i n t e r l i b r a r y loan s e r v i c e of the u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y . 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY Government Publications B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Annual Reports of the  Public Schools for the years 1871--1971. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Kings's Printer. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Commercial Studies for  the Senior High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, B u l l e t i n V. V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1937. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Courses of Study for  the Elementary. High, Technical, and Normal Schools of  B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1922. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Courses of Study for  the Public, High and Normal Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1920. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Courses of Study for  the Public, High, Technical, and Normal Schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1921. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Curricula of Public Schools for General Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : King's Printer, 1914. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Curriculum Development Branch. Junior Secondary School Commerce. V i c t o r i a : Department of Education, 1971. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Divi s i o n of Curriculum. Administrative B u l l e t i n , 1952-1953; Curriculum Organization  for the Secondary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : Department of Education, 1952. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Divi s i o n of Curriculum. 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