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Conceptions of curriculum and classroom practice : an ethnographic study of family life education teachers Thomas, Christie Jane 1990

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CONCEPTIONS  OF CURRICULUM AND CLASSROOM  AN ETHNOGRAPHIC  PRACTICE:  STUDY OF F A M I L Y L I F E EDUCATION  TEACHERS  By CHRISTIE JANE THOMAS B.H.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum  We accept  and I n s t r u c t i o n )  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1990  o C h r i s t i e Jane Thomas, 1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  University  of  British Columbia, I agree  for reference  this or  thesis  thesis by  his  for or  fulfilment  and study.  I further  her  representatives.  tufdRfC<jL.uhf g fMST&ucnOfij  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements that the  agree be  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  J  of  the  scholarly purposes may  permission.  Department  of  is  for  an  Library shall make  that permission for granted  by the  understood  be allowed  advanced  that  it  extensive  head  of  copying  my or  without my written  ABSTRACT  T h i s ethnographic teachers' conceptions  field  study examined s i x female home economics  of F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t i o n  i n f l u e n c e s on these c o n c e p t i o n s classroom  practice.  (FLE) c u r r i c u l u m , t h e p e r c e i v e d  and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the c o n c e p t i o n s t o  Data from c l a s s r o o m  observations,  documents were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a framework o f c o n c e p t u a l  i n t e r v i e w s and s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s from the  l i t e r a t u r e of c u r r i c u l u m and of FLE, and two emergent a n a l y t i c ("tensions Six  and c o n s t r a i n t s " and "images o f FLE c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e " ) . curriculum conceptions  were l a b e l l e d a c c o r d i n g t o the t e a c h e r s '  b e l i e f s about the aims and purposes of FLE. nature  categories  S i m i l a r i t i e s were r e l a t e d t o the  o f FLE s u b j e c t matter, w h i l e d i f f e r e n c e s suggested  the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e .  Although  the t e a c h e r s  d i f f e r i n g views o f  indicated that multiple  f a c t o r s had i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r b e l i e f s about FLE c u r r i c u l u m , a l l c o n s i d e r e d experiences  t o have had the g r e a t e s t impact, s u g g e s t i n g  conceptions  were p e r s o n a l l y d e r i v e d and r e p r e s e n t the t e a c h e r s '  life  t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m personal  v i s i o n s o f FLE c u r r i c u l u m . The and  c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s i s t e n c y between the t e a c h e r s ' a r t i c u l a t e d  t h e i r classroom  were s i g n i f i c a n t the f i e l d the  p r a c t i c e i n t h i s study  implies that curriculum  i n f l u e n c e s on c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e and c o n f i r m s  t h a t the t e a c h e r  i n s t i t u t i o n a l nature  i s the FLE c u r r i c u l u m .  Contextual  beliefs  conceptions  the b e l i e f i n  f a c t o r s (such as  o f s c h o o l i n g ) appeared t o mediate some b e l i e f s and  may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e and to  the emergence o f some u n a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f s .  F o r the most p a r t ,  f a c t o r s were r e l a t e d t o the s u b j e c t matter i t s e l f t e a c h e r s may e x p e r i e n c e The beliefs  insight  practice. i n t o the r o l e o f  i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of FLE c u r r i c u l u m i n the c l a s s r o o m .  s i g n i f i c a n c e was the extent t o which these personal  and i n d i c a t e t h a t FLE  some unique i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r  images o f c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e  life  experience.  these  Of p a r t i c u l a r  images r e f l e c t e d the i n f l u e n c e o f  These images a l s o s i t u a t e t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s  FLE c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t w i t h both the students  and i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s '  about  beliefs  and the s u b j e c t matter o f the c u r r i c u l u m .  T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the c h a r a c t e r of the c u r r i c u l u m i n use and suggests  t h a t w h i l e t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s do p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e  i n the  t r a n s l a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m , o t h e r f a c t o r s may a l s o e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I  v i i  INTRODUCTION  1  I n t r o d u c t i o n and Background  1  Statement o f the Problem E v o l u t i o n o f the Study Purpose and Research Q u e s t i o n s S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Limitations O u t l i n e o f the T h e s i s  2 4 4 5 6 7 8  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  9  FLE as a F i e l d o f Study and P r a c t i c e The Nature o f F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of FLE i n S c h o o l s F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t o r s i n School S e t t i n g s S t u d i e s o f FLE  9 9 10 12 13  Research on T e a c h e r s ' Thought P r o c e s s e s T e a c h e r s ' I m p l i c i t T h e o r i e s and B e l i e f s  18 20  C u r r i c u l u m Theory and P r a c t i c e Three P e r s p e c t i v e s on C u r r i c u l u m Theory  26 27  Conceptual F o u n d a t i o n s o f C u r r i c u l u m Theory T h e o r e t i c a l Framework Summary  31 34 37  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  39  E t h n o g r a p h i c F i e l d Research D e f i n i t i o n and F e a t u r e s o f E t h n o g r a p h i c F i e l d Research M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Assumptions Research Purpose and Design S e l e c t i o n o f Cases Gaining Entry to Settings  . . .  39 39 40 44 44 47  iii  T a b l e o f Contents  Contd. Page  D e s c r i p t i o n of S e t t i n g s The School D i s t r i c t The Schools  51 51 52  Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s Methods Analysis  54 54 60  Research R o l e s and G a i n i n g Access i n t o t h e T e a c h e r s ' S o c i a l Worlds G a i n i n g Access i n t o the Teachers' Research Roles  62 62 64  S o c i a l Worlds  Dealing with S u b j e c t i v i t y V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y Summary  68 69 73  CHAPTER IV THE FINDINGS: TEACHER CONCEPTIONS OF FAMILY LIFE  74  Teacher Conceptions o f Case P o r t r a y a l : Case P o r t r a y a l : Case P o r t r a y a l : Case P o r t r a y a l : Case P o r t r a y a l : Case P o r t r a y a l :  FLE C u r r i c u l u m : Case P o r t r a y a l s Julie Candace Karen Paula Allison Susan  74 75 82 91 100 108 117  Summary  127  CHAPTER V THE FINDINGS: CURRICULUM CONCEPTIONS IN CLASSROOM PRACTICE  129  R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions and Classroom P r a c t i c e Case P o r t r a y a l s J u l i e : " A u t h o r i t y o f F a c t s and I n f o r m a t i o n " Candace: " S k i l l s f o r L i v i n g " Karen: "Guidance and A d v i c e " P a u l a : " S e l f R e f l e c t i o n and P e r s o n a l I n s i g h t " A l l i s o n : " P e r s o n a l Autonomy and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n " Susan: " P e r s o n a l Growth and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " Summary  . . .  129 130 130 138 146 154 164 173 187  iv  T a b l e o f Contents  Contd. Page  CHAPTER VI THE FINDINGS: THE CONTEXT OF TEACHING AND IMAGES OF CURRICULUM PRACTICE  . . .  190  Tensions and C o n s t r a i n t s C o n t e x t u a l T e n s i o n s and C o n s t r a i n t s T e n s i o n s and C o n s t r a i n t s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Subject M a t t e r  200  Images o f FLE C u r r i c u l u m P r a c t i c e S t o r i e s and S t o r y t e l l i n g Personal L i f e Experience A Female O r i e n t a t i o n Prescription  207 208 214 220 228  Summary  232  CHAPTER VII  DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS  T e a c h e r s ' Conceptions of FLE C u r r i c u l u m I n f l u e n c e s on t h e Development o f C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions i n Classroom P r a c t i c e The Role o f C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions i n P r a c t i c e C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions and Tensions and C o n s t r a i n t s C u r r i c u l u m Conceptions and Images o f FLE C u r r i c u l u m P r a c t i c e Summary  CHAPTER V I I I  190 191  234  . . . .  234 239 246 246 250 256 261  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  263  Summary Conclusions Recommendations  263 267 270  REFERENCES  273  APPENDICES A. The P r o v i n c i a l FLE Program i n Home Economics  287  B. C. D. E. F. G. H.  289 290 291 294 295 296 297  Consent L e t t e r S u b j e c t Consent Form P r e - O b s e r v a t i o n a l I n t e r v i e w Guide Post-Observational Interview Sample I n t e r v i e w Sample P r o t o c o l Guided W r i t i n g A c t i v i t i e s  v  LIST OF TABLES  Page  T a b l e 1.  Data C o l l e c t i o n :  I n t e r v i e w and O b s e r v a t i o n  Schedule  55  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This t h e s i s i s dedicated p l a c e , and t o the s i x t e a c h e r s make t h i s r e s e a r c h p o s s i b l e .  t o Margaret, who i n s p i r e d me i n the f i r s t who opened t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r classrooms t o  My s i n c e r e thanks t o Dr. Margaret A r c u s , who has taught me t o c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t on my work and t o w r i t e and t o t h i n k more c a r e f u l l y . Her generous c o n t r i b u t i o n o f time, h e r encouragement and h e r many i n s i g h t f u l comments were truly invaluable. Thank you a l s o t o Dr. LeRoi D a n i e l s , Dr. Donald F i s h e r and Dr. L i n d a P e t e r a t f o r t h e i r many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s , and t o Mary Lou M o r r i s , f o r h e r f i n e s e c r e t a r i a l work and f o r c a r i n g beyond the c a l l o f duty. F i n a l l y , thank you t o my f a m i l y . never have been r e a l i z e d .  Without your support,  vii  my dream might  1 CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I n t r o d u c t i o n and Family  life  education  (FLE)—the  i n t e r a c t i o n — i s a r e l a t i v e l y new  Background  study of f a m i l y development  area of study  and  i n Canadian s c h o o l s .  Although  some FLE courses were o f f e r e d as e a r l y as the 1920's (Thomas, 1986), f o r the most p a r t , these courses were not o f f e r e d w i d e l y throughout a v a i l a b l e o n l y to l i m i t e d numbers of s t u d e n t s . I n s t i t u t e of the F a m i l y noted  in  s c h o o l s and were  Indeed, as the  Vanier  1971:  A few g e n e r a t i o n s ago, few people i n Canada looked upon FLE as a f i t subject f o r a school c u r r i c u l a . F o r many t h e r e was no need f o r FLE of any k i n d to be taught to s t u d e n t s — b o y s and g i r l s l e a r n e d what they had to know i n the course of t h e i r f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r everyday l i v e s (The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the Family, 1971, p . l ) .  However, the V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the Family a l s o noted  that:  The s i t u a t i o n i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t now. FLE of one k i n d o r another i s taught i n hundreds of s c h o o l s i n Canada and has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n hundreds of o t h e r s . That the s c h o o l s might l e g i t i m a t e l y t e a c h FLE today, i n one form or another, i s seldom q u e s t i o n e d (The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the F a m i l y , 1971, p . l ) .  In the f i r s t  n a t i o n a l survey of FLE  I n s t i t u t e of the Family to  (1971) found  s c h o o l s , the  t h a t 29% of the 4,475 s c h o o l s  Vanier  responding  t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d FLE as p a r t of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  recent p r o v i n c i a l secondary  survey  s c h o o l s was  (Arcus, 1983)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r , and  As more s c h o o l s and of  i n Canadian secondary  school d i s t r i c t s  i n c i d e n c e of FLE i n  these programs become mandatory, i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g who  adequately  FLE  prepared  as some  should t e a c h them  While numerous surveys  t h a t p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s and p u b l i c support  50%.  c o u l d r e a c h as h i g h as  implement FLE programs and  have become the f o c u s of c o n s i d e r a b l e debate.  A more  the  i n the s c h o o l s , q u e s t i o n s about whether t e a c h e r s  indicate general  are  to t e a c h FLE c o n t i n u e to be the c e n t e r of some c o n t r o v e r s y  2 (Arcus,  1986).  Indeed, i n the surveys noted  above, s e v e r a l concerns  s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the FLE t e a c h e r were i d e n t i f i e d . reported that l i m i t e d  formal t r a i n i n g  the d e f i c i e n c y of adequately  F o r example, i t was  i n FLE p h i l o s o p h y and methodology and  t e s t e d t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s g e n e r a l l y  c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e among t e a c h e r s i n t e a c h i n g FLE. concerns  have r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about how t o s e l e c t FLE t e a c h e r s .  administrators staff  These  Some  i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s o f t e n u n c l e a r which t e a c h e r s on a s c h o o l  should t e a c h FLE courses and c r i t e r i a  such as p e r s o n a l  interest,  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r e l a t e d course and ease of t i m e t a b l i n g f r e q u e n t l y appeared to  be employed i n t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n f o r FLE.  Statement of the Problem In  s p i t e of these concerns  nature of t e a c h e r p r a c t i c e implementing  1984).  Because they not o n l y develop  and implement  i n t e r a c t d i r e c t l y w i t h program p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  c o n s i d e r e d t o be c r i t i c a l Relations,  i s known about the  i n FLE o r about the r o l e of the t e a c h e r i n  FLE programs.  programs but a l s o  about FLE t e a c h e r s , l i t t l e  t o the s u c c e s s of FLE ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y  T h i s importance  t h a t the aims and purposes  t e a c h e r s are  of the t e a c h e r i s based  of the f i e l d  are r e f l e c t e d  on the assumption  i n and r e a l i z e d  through  practice. Most w r i t e r s i n the f i e l d  acknowledge t h i s c e n t r a l i t y o f the t e a c h e r but  d i s a g r e e about the adequacy o f t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n t o assume t h i s r o l e . (1981),  f o r example, suggests  t h a t many f a m i l y l i f e  Gaylin  educators are f r e q u e n t l y  " v o l u n t e e r s " r a t h e r than t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s and are o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e l y prepared  t o " d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h . . . s e n s i t i v e and important  F i s h e r and K e r c k h o f f  (1981),  intuition and.lessons  issues"  (p.515).  however, a s s e r t t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s  "wisdom,  of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " deserve  the t e a c h i n g of FLE (p. 508).  Little  greater recognition i n  r e s e a r c h has been conducted  which  3 substantiates life  e i t h e r of these views o r which c l a r i f i e s  e d u c a t o r i n implementing FLE programs. This ethnographic f i e l d  FLE  the r o l e of the f a m i l y  study addresses some of the concerns about the  p r a c t i t i o n e r by examining f a m i l y l i f e  curriculum  (i.e.,  curriculum  Presumably t e a c h e r s '  e d u c a t o r s ' b e l i e f s about FLE  c o n c e p t i o n s ) w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l  b e l i e f s about the f i e l d  i n general  be r e f l e c t e d i n  t h e i r b e l i e f s about FLE c u r r i c u l u m  and w i l l  the aims and purposes of the f i e l d  are i n t e r p r e t e d i n p r a c t i c e .  was adopted f o r s e v e r a l reasons. educator i s c o n s i d e r e d  First,  yield  will  i n s i g h t i n t o ways i n which This  knowledge about the f a m i l y  t o be c e n t r a l t o theory  goals family  In p a r t i c u l a r , she suggests t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s  i n p r a c t i c e and the p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e  educator must be examined before  Second, most w r i t e r s family l i f e curriculum  i n the f i e l d  e d u c a t o r i s the c u r r i c u l u m implementor, the t e a c h e r  of FLE (Arcus,  (i.e.,  notion of curriculum  provides  b e l i e f s about the f i e l d Finally,  required  by the  can be developed. i n many ways the  1984).  As the  i s c r u c i a l t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of the  Because the c u r r i c u l u m may be c o n s i d e r e d content associated with a f i e l d  FLE t h e o r y  acknowledge t h a t  c e n t r a l c o n c e p t s , aims and purposes embodied  i n a curriculum  o r program.  the v e h i c l e by which the body of  of study i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c e , the  a context  f o r examining f a m i l y  life  educators'  and how these are r e l a t e d t o p r a c t i c e .  the nature of FLE s u b j e c t matter i s somewhat unique i n t h a t  much of i t may be l i v e d p e r s o n a l l y  (e.g.,  experiences i n that family that profoundly the  concerning  a u t h o r i t y , f r i e n d , model, c o n f i d a n t ) , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  o f the f i e l d life  Fisher  e d u c a t o r i s a key v a r i a b l e  the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the educator t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s facilitator,  focus  life  development i n FLE.  (1986), f o r example, proposes t h a t the f a m i l y l i f e i n FLE t h e o r y .  setting.  one l i v e s  i n a f a m i l y and has  shape one's l i f e ) .  B e l i e f s about  s u b j e c t m a t t e r (as w e l l as about the f i e l d ) may be r e l a t e d t o one's  personal  b e l i e f s and e x p e r i e n c e s .  Indeed, M i l l e r ,  Schvaneveldt and Jenson  4 (1981) suggest  t h a t "the c l o s e p e r s o n a l involvement  matter...may c o l o r . . . t h e p e r c e p t i o n s of those who  E v o l u t i o n of the  about f a m i l y l i f e  educators  f i e l d w o r k p r o j e c t s conducted i n v e s t i g a t e such  issues.  t e a c h i t " (p.625).  Study  While the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h was concerns  w i t h the s u b j e c t  reflected  guided  apparent of  The  first  p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d an e x p l o r a t o r y study  the f i e l d w o r k e r .  t h a t the t e a c h e r s had  The  In doing  the p r o j e c t s seemed to view FLE  was  several teachers in  these p r o j e c t s , i t became  For example, a t e a c h e r  i n terms of n u r t u r i n g , another  another  of  second p r o j e c t  d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of the f i e l d  the FLE c u r r i c u l u m they were t e a c h i n g .  i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n and  two  by the r e s e a r c h e r p r o v i d e d the impetus t o  e v a l u a t i o n of a FLE c u r r i c u l u m i n v o l v i n g  which the r e s e a r c h e r was  i s s u e s and  i n the l i t e r a t u r e of FLE,  t e a c h e r p r a c t i c e w i t h a FLE t e a c h e r i n her classroom. an e t h n o g r a p h i c  by the  of FLE  and  i n one  of  i n terms of  i n terms of c o u n s e l l i n g and  therapy.  Moreover, i n i n t e r v i e w s s e v e r a l of these t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they p e r c e i v e d that t h e i r personal l i f e Classroom life  experiences  them to t e a c h t h i s s u b j e c t .  o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g these p r o j e c t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t e a c h e r s used  experiences  e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g of FLE.  r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s not o n l y about how FLE  qualified  c u r r i c u l u m they t e a c h and  These  occurrences  FLE t e a c h e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e the f i e l d ,  i n FLE p r a c t i c e .  the  the extent to which these c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s  i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e but a l s o about the r o l e of p e r s o n a l experience  their  life  Such q u e s t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to the g e n e s i s of  this  study.  Purpose and Research The  purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h was  c u r r i c u l u m and  Questions  to i d e n t i f y t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s  to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m  of  FLE  5 conception and t h e i r curriculum practice.  The s p e c i f i c  research  questions  were: 1)  What conceptions of FLE curriculum do FLE teachers  2)  What factors do they perceive to have influenced these e.g.,  conceptions,  professional education, the contexts of teaching,  experiences, 3)  express?  personal  etc.?  What is the relationship between teacher conceptions of FLE curriculum and classroom p r a c t i c e , i . e . ,  how do t h e i r  conceptions  shape or influence t h e i r classroom practice?  Significance of the Study This study of teacher conceptions of FLE curriculum may make several potential contributions to the f i e l d of FLE.  First,  the nature of FLE practice in educational settings. little  i t may help to c l a r i f y As noted e a r l i e r , very  is presently known about what family l i f e educators actually do.  study may provide some insight into the extent to which p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' guide t h e i r p r a c t i c e .  From a broader perspective,  This beliefs  this research may y i e l d  understanding of p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' interpretation of the f i e l d . Second, the findings of this study may have implications for the preparation of family l i f e educators.  If more is known about how  p r a c t i t i o n e r s interpret the f i e l d and the extent to which t h e i r personal b e l i e f s and l i f e experiences  guide t h e i r curriculum p r a c t i c e , then preparation  programs might be designed to include such issues. T h i r d , t h i s study may also have implications for curriculum development in FLE.  If teachers'  b e l i e f s do play a role in the way in which FLE  curriculum is implemented, then consideration of how such b e l i e f s might p o t e n t i a l l y interact with the goals and assumptions of curriculum materials may be important in FLE program development.  6 Finally, i n FLE  because the t e a c h e r has  (Fisher,  been i d e n t i f i e d as a c e n t r a l v a r i a b l e  1986), t h i s r e s e a r c h may  have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e o r y  development i n FLE as c l a r i f i c a t i o n of major v a r i a b l e s i s an important s t e p i n any  t h e o r y development ( B u r r , H i l l ,  examination  of t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s  to c l a r i f y and  the nature  understanding  and R e i s s , 1979).  of e d u c a t i o n , t h i s study may  of the r o l e of t e a c h e r b e l i e f s  (i.e.,  beliefs reflected  field.  i n c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e and  in practice).  have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r  FLE  contribute to increased of the  their contextualized  Such f i n d i n g s may  body of knowledge a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u r r i c u l u m development and and may  begin  i n the p r o c e s s of  stage of t h e o r y development i n the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' a b s t r a c t b e l i e f s and beliefs  Through the  of FLE c u r r i c u l u m , t h i s r e s e a r c h may  of the r o l e assumed by an educator  c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s f i r s t In the f i e l d  Nye  first  extend  the  implementation  education.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms S e v e r a l terms which are c e n t r a l to t h i s r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n . "Family  life  concerned and  education"  w i t h s t r e n g t h e n i n g f a m i l i e s and  family l i f e  term may  is a multidisciplinary  the two  (Arcus,  terms.  In t h i s study,  t h a t FLE  "FLE"  i s broader  i n scope than  with  "sex that  sex  to make c l e a r a d i s t i n c t i o n between  r e f e r s to the broad  d e f i n i t i o n of  i s not l i m i t e d t o , sex e d u c a t i o n .  e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n  and  individual  However, the  i n t h a t i t i s f r e q u e n t l y confused  1986), i t i s important  f i e l d which i n c l u d e s , but  The  the q u a l i t y of  practice  While t h e r e appears to be some agreement w i t h i n the f i e l d  the terms are not e q u i v a l e n t and education  improving  of study and  ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s , 1984).  be somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c  education".  field  i s provided  i n Chapter  the  (Further  II)  term " c u r r i c u l u m " i s used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h the term "program"  r e f e r s t o the c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s s e t out  i s t o be taught,  i n documents and  the m a t e r i a l s used to t e a c h and  i n c l u d e s what  the c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s  actually taught in the classroom.  Thus the term encompasses both the formal  or o f f i c i a l curriculum in documentary form and the informal curriculum as i t is translated in classroom practice. "Classroom practice" is used interchangeably with "curriculum practice" It includes classroom instruction (including the selection materials),  classroom discourse and a c t i v i t i e s  of methods and  related to curriculum  development and implementation (such as the organization and selection of content and the preparation of course materials). This research is concerned with examining teacher b e l i e f s about a f i e l d of study and the relationship of those b e l i e f s to p r a c t i c e .  The notion of  "conception" is used to identify and isolate these b e l i e f s .  Thus "conception  w i l l refer to the b e l i e f s which teachers have with respect to FLE curriculum.  Limitations Several limitations of the study should be noted: 1)  This research is limited to school-based FLE and does not include FLE in other settings.  2)  The cases studied are limited to female home economics  teachers  whose background in home economics may have shaped t h e i r view of FLE.  As w e l l , the study is limited to classroom teachers.  Family  l i f e educators in other settings (such as in community agencies or in churches) are not included.  The professional  education  background of school-based family l i f e educators may have influenced t h e i r views of FLE. 3)  The teachers studied in this research are a l l Caucasians with s i m i l a r ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.  These variables may  have influenced their views of FLE. 4)  This study is limited to a large metropolitan school d i s t r i c t in a province in western Canada.  8 5)  It is d i f f i c u l t to gather information about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s thinking without in some way disturbing i t .  The findings of  this  study represent the thinking documented at the time in which the researcher intervened in the teachers' thinking.  Outline of the Thesis Chapter II of this thesis reviews three areas of l i t e r a t u r e relevant to t h i s study:  1) FLE as a f i e l d of study and practice and family l i f e  in public school settings; 2) research on teachers' 3) curriculum theory and practice.  thought processes; and  The theoretical framework which guides the  research is also outlined in Chapter II.  Chapter III describes the  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ethnographic research and delineates the methods used in gathering data . VI.  educators  features  specific  Findings are reported in Chapters I V , V and  In Chapter IV the findings concerning the conceptions of FLE curriculum  expressed by teachers and the perceived influences s i x i n d i v i d u a l case studies.  on these are presented in  Chapter V reports the findings of these case  studies concerning the relationship of curriculum conceptions to classroom practice..  Chapter VI i d e n t i f i e s  some tensions and constraints associated with  the context of teaching and describes four images of curriculum practice which were evident discussed.  in a l l six classroom settings.  In Chapter VII, the findings are  Chapter VIII summarizes the study and offers  recommendations.  some conclusions and  9 CHAPTER I I In  t h i s chapter, l i t e r a t u r e  reviewed. a field  REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK r e l e v a n t t o the q u e s t i o n s o f the study i s  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review f o c u s e s on t h r e e a r e a s : 1) FLE (both FLE as  of study and p r a c t i c e and f a m i l y l i f e  settings);  2) r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s ' thought  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  educators  i n public school  p r o c e s s e s ; and 3) c u r r i c u l u m  In a d d i t i o n , the t h e o r e t i c a l framework which guides the  research i s delineated.  FLE as a F i e l d of Study and P r a c t i c e The Nature FLE  of Family L i f e  i s a multidisciplinary field  s t r e n g t h e n i n g f a m i l i e s and improving  Education  of study and p r a c t i c e concerned  the q u a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y l i f e  ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s , 1984).  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s evidence of  some u n c e r t a i n t y and i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e g a r d i n g the use of the term 1986), t h e r e appears purpose  t o be g e n e r a l agreement w i t h i n the f i e l d  o f FLE i s t o a s s i s t  (Arcus,  t h a t the c e n t r a l  i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o " l e a r n what i s known  about human growth, development and b e h a v i o r i n the f a m i l y s e t t i n g the l i f e  c y c l e " so t h a t they may "develop s a t i s f y i n g  Commission on FLE, 1968, pp.211-212).  interpersonal relationships, family  f a m i l y r e s o u r c e management, e d u c a t i o n about  f a m i l y and s o c i e t y  (National  The s p e c i a l i z e d content areas of FLE  i n c l u d e human development and s e x u a l i t y ,  and  throughout  i n t e r a c t i o n s and achieve  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r e n r i c h i n g the q u a l i t y of human l i v i n g "  interaction,  with  parenthood,  ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s , 1986).  d e s i g n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs u s i n g these concepts, FLE i n t e g r a t e s  ethics, In findings  from d i s c i p l i n e s such as anthropology, b i o l o g y , economics, e d u c a t i o n , home economics, law, p h i l o s o p h y , psychology, (i.e.,  s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l work and t h e o l o g y  family ministry). FLE  i n N o r t h America  was f i r s t  i n evidence a t l e a s t one hundred years  ago w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of parent groups t o f a c i l i t a t e  what was c a l l e d  10 " c h i l d management" ( K e r c k h o f f ,  1964).  The need f o r such e d u c a t i o n  i n t e n s i f i e d by s o c i a l changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urbanization.  was  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  These movements r e s u l t e d i n a l t e r a t i o n s t o t r a d i t i o n a l  p a t t e r n s , the r o l e o f the f a m i l y as the primary s o c i a l i z i n g r o l e o f women i n f a m i l i e s .  During  family  agency and the  t h i s time, developments i n p s y c h o l o g y ,  s o c i o l o g y , home economics and the p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n movement c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e v o l u t i o n of FLE programs i n a v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l s (Darling,  1988; K e r c k h o f f ,  1964).  Since t h a t time, the f i e l d has expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h i s expansion i s evident  i n the development of FLE programs i n a wide v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s , i n  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n FLE i n c o l l e g e s and  u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n the f o r m a t i o n well-being  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which promote the  of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s through e d u c a t i o n  C o u n c i l on F a m i l y the F a m i l y  Relations  i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and the V a n i e r  I n s t i t u t e of  i n Canada).  FLE programs may be o f f e r e d i n both formal (Darling,  (e.g., t h e N a t i o n a l  1988).  and nonformal s e t t i n g s  Formal s e t t i n g s i n c l u d e i n s t i t u t i o n s such as s c h o o l s ,  c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , w h i l e nonformal s e t t i n g s i n c l u d e community s e r v i c e , adult education  and r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t s .  s e t t i n g s may be g e n e r a l or s p e c i f i c education  FLE programs o f f e r e d i n any of these  ( c o v e r i n g m u l t i p l e content  areas  as d e s c r i b e d  above)  ( i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l t o p i c s such as marriage p r e p a r a t i o n ,  parent  o r r e l a t i o n s h i p enrichment).  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of FLE i n Schools A l t h o u g h i t i s not u n i v e r s a l , FLE i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s i s well-established. provided  F o l l o w i n g World War I, the p r o g r e s s i v e  the impetus t o develop h i g h s c h o o l programs f o r t e a c h i n g  development and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ( K e r c k h o f f , evident  education  today i n many s c h o o l s  1964).  movement  child  While such programs are  i n N o r t h America, the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r  11 i n c l u s i o n i n the for  FLE was  school  curriculum  has  the p r e v a l e n c e of s o c i a l  varied.  For some, the p r i m a r y reason  problems:  In p a r t the argument f o r FLE d e r i v e s from the demands of a r a p i d l y changing world and the u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems which c o n f r o n t modern f a m i l i e s . . . s o c i a l problems and new p a t t e r n s of l i f e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n and the f a m i l y have become more t h r e a t e n i n g to our t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e and more... c o s t l y t o the s t a t e (The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the F a m i l y , 1971, p . l ) .  For o t h e r s , provide  the  r a t i o n a l e was  knowledge which w i l l  not  t o s o l v e or to prevent problems but  enhance the  future well-being  to  of i n d i v i d u a l s and  families:  To promote i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y w e l l - b e i n g by p r o v i d i n g sound knowledge t h a t w i l l enable i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s to make t h e i r own r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s [about f a m i l y l i f e ] (Rodman, 1970, p. 4, 5 ) .  While these c o n f l i c t i n g views of the purpose of FLE  i n schools  1984), i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed by s c h o l a r s  i n the  p r i m a r i l y on s t r e n g t h e n i n g  family l i f e  of knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and and  i n d i v i d u a l and skills  field  p e r s i s t (Sheek,  t h a t FLE  focuses  through the  ( i n c l u d i n g communication,  development  decision-making  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ) which enhance the p o t e n t i a l s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r  present  and  f u t u r e f a m i l y r o l e s (Arcus,  1987;  National  Commission on  FLE,  1968). Formal FLE  school  v a r i e s among c o u r s e s , Koblinsky, included  some s t u d i e s  Weeks & Cooke, 1985) i n FLE  s e x u a l i t y and preparation l e v e l s may  c u r r i c u l a i n c l u d e a range of c o n t e n t .  programs.  reproduction,  ( A l l e n & K i n g , 1970;  FLE  ( A l l e n & K i n g , 1970;  commonly  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , human  male-female r o l e s , marriage and c h i l d development.  c o v e r a l l t o p i c s (Arcus,  this  1983;  suggest t h a t s e v e r a l t o p i c s are  These i n c l u d e  f o r parenthood and  In s c h o o l s ,  Arcus,  While  family  However, not  dynamics,  a l l grade  1983).  i s most o f t e n o f f e r e d by home economics departments Arcus, 1983;  Koblinsky,  Weeks & Cooke, 1985;  The  Vanier  12 I n s t i t u t e of the Family, o f f e r FLE  content  education,  c l a s s e s may  a l s o be  1986;  males e n r o l l  many s c h o o l s  courses ( i . e . ,  (Baker & Darcy, 1970;  Sheek, 1984)  studies  comparison of f a m i l i e s , w h i l e  districts  A l t h o u g h FLE  are now  is  mandating i t  Bayer & Nye,  i n d i c a t e t h a t most FLE g i r l s ) and  1964), but more  c o u r s e s are  t h a t male and  recent  coeducational  female e n r o l l m e n t  is  equal. and  administrators  concerns most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d  i n the  s e l e c t i o n of FLE  m a t e r i a l s and  teachers  and  on the a v a i l a b i l i t y and  i s becoming an  S u l l i v a n , G r y z l o & Schwartz, 1978;  Family  i s s u e and  1979;  adequacy of life  i n FLE  (e.g.,  1980).  Settings  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r f a m i l y  F o h l i n , 1971;  National  C o u n c i l on F a m i l y  In a l l s u b j e c t areas of the  i s such t h a t the p e r s o n a l a l s o become s i g n i f i c a n t .  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of these p e r s o n a l  and  school  adequate  f o r teaching i t  However, the n a t u r e of the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  life  Relations,  curriculum  the methods a p p r o p r i a t e  are e s s e n t i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  of the t e a c h e r  certification  Womble & Yeakley,  knowledge about the s u b j e c t matter and  matter i n FLE  preparation  s e v e r a l s t a t e s have adopted  L i f e E d u c a t o r s i n School  Some l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s e s  Whatley, 1973).  and  I n c r e a s i n g l y the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of f a m i l y  procedures r e l a t e d to t e a c h e r  e d u c a t o r s (Arcus,  by t e a c h e r s  surveys c i t e d above c e n t e r on the academic  resources.  educators i n schools p o l i c i e s and  social  separate  Some e a r l y s t u d i e s suggest t h a t more females than  open t o both boys and  Issues  and  physical  o n l y o f f e r e d as a  i n c l u d e a u n i t on human r e p r o d u c t i o n ) .  i n FLE  approximately  1984;  I t i s not  integrated with other  Sheek, 1984).  surveys (e.g.,  and  c o u n s e l l i n g , h e a l t h and  social studies.  u s u a l l y an e l e c t i v e course,  (i.e.,  Other departments which a l s o  i n c l u d e t o p i c s such as the c u l t u r a l  s c i e n c e c l a s s e s may  (Arcus,  Sheek, 1984).  i n c l u d e guidance and  s c i e n c e and  course but may  1970;  life  Most w r i t e r s acknowledge  subject  experiences the  professional qualifications.  It is  13 g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are n e c e s s a r y f o r f a m i l y life  educators: 1)  Sound knowledge i n the many content areas of FLE, p l u s the a b i l i t y to  b r i n g t o g e t h e r f i n d i n g s from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s and a p p l y  these t o concepts and i s s u e s i n the classroom; 2) Knowledge of and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the broad p h i l o s o p h y and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of FLE; 3)  Skill and  4)  i n u s i n g a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g methods a p p r o p r i a t e t o FLE;  The a b i l i t y t o work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h young people, both and  5)  i n u s i n g and e v a l u a t i n g f a m i l y l i f e m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s  individually  i n groups;  Insight  i n t o one's own f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g f a m i l y l i f e  t o p i c s and acceptance  of one's own  life  experiences  (see Arcus,  1979). A l t h o u g h these g e n e r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been  proposed,  they are based p r i m a r i l y on the p e r c e p t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d  (e.g., see F o h l i n ,  1974) and not on e m p i r i c a l  investigation.  Indeed, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the study of f a m i l y l i f e  educators.  S t u d i e s of FLE Few s t u d i e s have focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on the FLE t e a c h e r o r on the p r a c t i c e of FLE i n s c h o o l s , i n those s t u d i e s which have been done, two g e n e r a l themes are apparent: developed  1) the content and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of FLE programs  o r implemented by f a m i l y l i f e  and a t t i t u d e s of f a m i l y l i f e The f i r s t educators  e d u c a t o r s and 2) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  educators.  group of s t u d i e s examine FLE programs taught by f a m i l y l i f e  i n s c h o o l s and focus p r i m a r i l y on the t e a c h e r as a c u r r i c u l u m  implementor.  A l l e n and King  (1970) and Sheek (1984) surveyed  s c h o o l s i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s t o i d e n t i f y the major content areas t h a t t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d l y  t e a c h i n FLE c o u r s e s and t o determine delivery.  the i n c i d e n c e and methods of program  Both s t u d i e s found t h a t FLE was o f f e r e d  i n most secondary  and t h a t t h e FLE content was most f r e q u e n t l y taught and  i n c l u d e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , marriage  i n home economics c o u r s e s and f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n ,  c h i l d development, human r e p r o d u c t i o n and parenthood  education.  The V a n i e r I n s t i t u t e of the F a m i l y (1971) and the Canadian Association  ( D e i s e a c h , 1978) surveyed Canadian  and e x t e n t o f FLE. offered  schools  Similarly,  Education  s c h o o l s t o i d e n t i f y the nature  The f i n d i n g s of both s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t FLE content i s  i n s e v e r a l s u b j e c t areas and i s i n c l u d e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of  schools. School-based been examined.  FLE programs i n i n d i v i d u a l  F o r example, K o b l i n s k y , Weeks & Cooke (1985) s t u d i e d the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f FLE courses i n C a l i f o r n i a levels.  (1983) surveyed  of FLE t o p i c s i n t h e i r c o u r s e s , home economics  and f a m i l y i s s u e s than the o t h e r s u b j e c t areas.  s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia  t h a t FLE was w i d e l y o f f e r e d was  9 and 10  l o n g e r c o u r s e s and were more l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e communication,  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and marriage Arcus  s c h o o l s a t the grade  They found t h a t w h i l e t e a c h e r s i n h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and home  economics p r o v i d e d coverage offered  s t a t e s o r p r o v i n c e s have a l s o  i n secondary  schools.  In these s c h o o l s , most FLE  e l e c t i v e and o f f e r e d as a u n i t w i t h i n another course.  and guidance  Both home economics  and c o u n s e l l i n g were r e p o r t e d t o p r o v i d e FLE c o n t e n t ,  considerable v a r i a t i o n  and found  i n the t o p i c s and course o r g a n i z a t i o n were  although indicated.  These s t u d i e s echo the f i n d i n g s of e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on FLE programs i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f N o r t h America & Whitehurst,  (Baker & Darcy,  1962; Kenkel,  1970; Bayer & Nye, 1964; Dager,  Harper  1957; Mason, 1974; Ready, 1973; R o s e n t i e l & Smith,  1963). In a more r e c e n t study, Harriman (1986) examined the e x t e n t t o which FLE t e a c h e r s adapted abortion,  t h e i r c o u r s e s t o i n c l u d e new, "emerging c o n c e p t s " such as  s e x u a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d d i s e a s e s , death, c h i l d  abuse and r e m a r r i a g e .  15 The  t e a c h e r s surveyed  relationship s k i l l s , guidance  reported that t r a d i t i o n a l  f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n , choosing  were more important  The  concepts  a marriage  "sex e d u c a t i o n " and defined e a r l i e r  p a r t n e r and  i n school  because t h e r e are few  i n t h i s c h a p t e r , both those  s t u d i e s which have looked at  and  r e p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h t o p i c s .  educators  toward s p e c i f i c  content areas  school administrators.  He  i n sex e d u c a t i o n , areas  concluded  program w i t h n a t i o n a l norms and conservative attitudes.  found  i n a human s e x u a l i t y  training  were not p l a n n i n g t o t e a c h i n t h i s  s e x u a l i t y was  topic  importance and may  Yarber  (1979) a s s e s s e d  They found  who  less permissive a t t i t u d e s area.  topic  the c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s i n i n s t r u c t i o n .  the  that teachers' a t t i t u d e s  the most s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l t r a i t  relating  to  i n f l u e n c e whether a t o p i c i s i n c l u d e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n .  and  compared the o p i n i o n s of s t u d e n t s ,  t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s c o n c e r n i n g and  support  Smith, F l a h e r t y and  and McCabe (1984) s t u d i e d s c h o o l sex e d u c a t o r s ' views of  toward t h e i r own  teachers  Rubin and Adams (1972) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t e a c h e r s  toward s e x u a l i t y than d i d those who  sex  t h a t these t e a c h e r s h e l d more  were p l a n n i n g t o t e a c h sex e d u c a t i o n expressed  life  from  t h a t these f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d  Webb (1981) compared the a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s  importance and  specific  Schuck (1972) found  r e c e i v e d support  i n g e n e r a l f o r the sex e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h a t s t a t e .  Yarber  FLE  For example, i n a study of the a t t i t u d e s of A r i z o n a  t h a t most of the sex e d u c a t i o n content and  as  These s t u d i e s are d i v e r s e  Some of these s t u d i e s have looked at t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s toward i n FLE.  with  s t u d i e s which have looked at FLE  at sex e d u c a t i o n are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s review.  areas  settings.  i n these s t u d i e s i s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y  and  con t e n t  child  to teach.  second group of s t u d i e s examine the FLE t e a c h e r  Because the term "FLE"  such as i n t e r p e r s o n a l  parents,  the emphasis t h a t should be g i v e n to f a m i l y  sex e d u c a t i o n at grades t h r e e , seven and n i n e .  He  reported that  16 t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y supported  the  i n c l u s i o n of these  s u b j e c t s i n the  school  curriculum. Some r e s e a r c h e r s have looked at the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g on a t t i t u d e s and  characteristics.  C a r t e r and  teachers'  F r a n k e l (1983) s t u d i e d t e a c h e r s  a t t e n d i n g a t r a i n i n g program i n f a m i l y l i f e  and human s e x u a l i t y t o determine  the e x t e n t t o which t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be used to p r e d i c t s e x - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s . in  family l i f e  They found  that while  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the content  and human s e x u a l i t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y  knowledge, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s remained unchanged. a t t r i b u t e d t o both the s u b j e c t s ' ages and  Bain,  1970)  insight  and  sex e d u c a t i o n  teachers'  This l a t t e r finding  t o the l a c k of time  program e x p l o r i n g f e e l i n g s about s e x u a l i t y . programs i n f a m i l y l i f e  i n c r e a s e d the  spent  S e v e r a l s t u d i e s of  (Arcus,  1979;  was i n the  inservice  Luckey, 1968;  have found  t h a t , through  i n s e r v i c e education,  i n t o t h e i r own  a t t i t u d e s and  behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t to FLE,  Luckey &  teachers gain  i n c r e a s e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h the s u b j e c t matter and p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g  areas  develop  improve  both  FLE.  P r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of FLE t e a c h e r s have a l s o been the s u b j e c t of  r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g .  F o r example, Womble and Yeakley  e x t e n t of academic p r e p a r a t i o n of FLE t e a c h e r s s u b s t a n t i a l number of FLE t e a c h e r s requirements  t o become c e r t i f i e d  C a l i f o r n i a study of f a m i l y l i f e found  i n Indiana.  (1980) s t u d i e d the They found  i n t h a t s t a t e do not meet the academic  as f a m i l y l i f e  educators.  However, i n a  t e a c h e r s , K o b l i n s k y , Weeks and Cooke (1985)  t h a t home economics t e a c h e r s are more l i k e l y than t e a c h e r s  areas except attended  n u r s i n g t o have o b t a i n e d p r e s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g  conferences  and  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n courses  In a U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l survey, courses were most o f t e n t r a i n e d economics and  social  studies.  that a  i n a l l other  i n FLE  and  to have  i n t h i s subject area.  Orr (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s of  FLE  i n the areas of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , home According  t o Sheek's (1984) survey  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the " t y p i c a l f a m i l y l i f e  educator  e n t e r s the  of FLE i n  teaching  17 p r o f e s s i o n w i t h a b a c c a l a u r e a t e degree... having been through  an a c c r e d i t e d  program i n Home Economics, H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and/or S o c i a l S t u d i e s " (p.50). Sheek notes t h a t such f a m i l y l i f e  educators g e n e r a l l y have demonstrated  competencies i n core courses such as f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and  child  development.  Some l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e s on the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e d by family l i f e  educators.  Much of t h i s w r i t i n g  e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f i e l d R e l a t i o n s FLE p a n e l  i s based  on the p e r c e p t i o n s of  such as the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on  ( K e r k c h o f f & Hancock, 1971), graduate  1973), d i r e c t o r s of f a m i l y l i f e e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d  and  (Whatley,  sex e d u c a t i o n programs (Juhasz,  of t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r sex e d u c a t o r s  A l t h o u g h many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were i d e n t i f i e d some commonalities.  students  Family  1970)  and  ( C a r r e r a , 1972).  i n these s t u d i e s , t h e r e were  These i n c l u d e d s e l f acceptance  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  a high  degree of empathy, sound knowledge of the content of FLE and methods f o r teaching  i t , good communication s k i l l s  d i v e r s i t y and Teacher investigated.  individual comfort  and acceptance  and  awareness of  differences.  i n t e a c h i n g FLE and  sex e d u c a t i o n has a l s o been  R e i d & Munson (1976) and Graham & Smith (1984) suggest  t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g t o p i c s such as s e x u a l i t y r e f l e c t of  comfort w i t h i t .  themselves  The  f i n d i n g s of two  p e r c e i v e comfort  sex e d u c a t i o n .  t o be a c e n t r a l  issue i n teaching family l i f e  and  F o r example, i n t h e i r survey of sex e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , H e r o l d  d i s c u s s i n g human s e x u a l i t y  i n the c l a s s r o o m and  t o be more c o m f o r t a b l e when they f e l t  nervous o r embarrassed.  p o t e n t i a l l y embarrassing  indicated that students t h a t the t e a c h e r was  seemed t o f e e l most uncomfortable  not  about d e a l i n g w i t h  student q u e s t i o n s .  s t u d i e s have looked at t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n  I n s t i t u t e of the Family  d i s c o m f o r t when  S i m i l a r l y , Ryan & Dunn (1979) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  p r o s p e c t i v e sex e d u c a t o r s  A few  t h e i r degree  other studies i n d i c a t e that teachers  and Benson (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t some t e a c h e r s expressed  appeared  that  (1970) and Arcus  (1979) found  i n FLE.  The  Vanier  t h a t many f a m i l y l i f e  18 educators assessed  are a s s i g n e d to the course by s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . the r e l a t i v e  importance of p r i o r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e  i n the s e l e c t i o n of f a m i l y l i f e adequacy and  competency i n h a n d l i n g FLE  non-experienced I t was  family l i f e  concluded  Although  as a c r i t e r i o n  When the sex knowledge, c o u n s e l l i n g  i s s u e s between e x p e r i e n c e d  and  t e a c h e r s were compared, no d i f f e r e n c e s were  t h a t adequate academic p r e p a r a t i o n i s more important  teaching experience  concerned  teachers.  Adams (1970)  i n the s e l e c t i o n of FLE  the s t u d i e s reviewed  found.  than  teachers.  focus on FLE  i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s , most were  w i t h FLE c u r r i c u l u m or w i t h t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  attitudes.  Moreover, a l l of these s t u d i e s have used survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and have s o l e l y on s e l f - r e p o r t i n g . at  FLE.  Although  be h e l p f u l  Many have looked o n l y at sex e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r than  i n f o r m a t i o n about t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s and  i n understanding  some of the f a c t o r s which may  s u c c e s s f u l FLE programs, such s t u d i e s r e v e a l v e r y happens i n c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e .  Similarly,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of FLE programs may  little  yield  important  Pomfret, 1977;  Goodlad,  t h a t t h i s may  i n documentary form ( F u l l a n ,  Research i n the f i e l d  Thought  of  be  an  differ  1982;  from  Fullan &  Processes  of e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the past two  i n c r e a s i n g l y focused on the t e a c h e r ' s r o l e and  (or  1979).  Research on Teachers'  implementation  and  is translated in  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r the c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s p r a c t i c e d may  the c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s intended  teacher  about what a c t u a l l y  about the nature  of e d u c a t i o n suggest  may  c o n t r i b u t e to  i n f o r m a t i o n about the formal  p r a c t i c e or about the ways i n which c u r r i c u l u m content S t u d i e s i n the f i e l d  characteristics  s t u d i e s of the content  o f f i c i a l ) FLE c u r r i c u l u m , but they d i s c l o s e l i t t l e  practice.  relied  decades  has  i n c u r r i c u l u m development  and  a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e a f f i r m s the c e n t r a l i t y of the  i n these p r o c e s s e s .  For example, r e s e a r c h e r s acknowledge the  as the key c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i t i o n e r who  uses, makes d e c i s i o n s about  and  teacher  19 develops c u r r i c u l u m w i t h i n the c o n t e x t Connelly  of the c l a s s r o o m  & Dienes, 1982; C o n n e l l y & E l b a z ,  ( C o n n e l l y , 1972;  1980; Reid & Walker, 1975).  a l s o well-documented t h a t the i n t e n t i o n s o f e x t e r n a l l y - d e v e l o p e d rarely fully  realized  (Goodlad & K l e i n , Sarason, 1982).  i n classroom  c u r r i c u l a are  p r a c t i c e , but a r e changed and adapted  1970; F u l l a n , 1982; Olson, According  1981; Ponder & Doyle, 1978;  t o s e v e r a l w r i t e r s , such m o d i f i c a t i o n s are r e l a t e d  not o n l y t o t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s  o f s i t u a t i o n a l elements i n h e r e n t  in their  classrooms but a l s o t o t h e i r b e l i e f s about the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . some m a i n t a i n classroom  t h a t the f r e q u e n t mismatch between what i s p r e s e n t e d  and what was intended  between the d e v e l o p e r s ' perceptions.  by c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s  b e l i e f s and p e r c e p t i o n s  Teachers may not share  (Connelly,  Thus, the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n the  i s due t o the g u l f  the p o i n t s o f view and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s  1972; Roberts,  image o f the t e a c h e r  the i n t e n t s through  and m o d i f i e r o f c u r r i c u l u m .  r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n the areas decision-making  as a p a s s i v e  i s examined (Shavelson  & Stern,  Consequently  of t e a c h e r  as the l i n k between t e a c h e r  adopter of  p l a n n i n g and  i n t e n t i o n s and t e a c h e r  1981; C l a r k & P e t e r s o n ,  and has been c l a s s i f i e d  teacher planning; and  3) r e s e a r c h about t e a c h e r s '  Peterson,  1986).  into three general  2) r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s '  According  implicit  areas:  thought  1) r e s e a r c h on  i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts and d e c i s i o n s ;  t h e o r i e s and b e l i e f s  t o C l a r k and P e t e r s o n ,  p o s t - a c t i v e phases of t e a c h i n g .  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between t e a c h e r a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n , while  The f i r s t  these  (Clark &  categories are  two c a t e g o r i e s  c o g n i t i o n during  the t h i r d c a t e g o r y  behaviour  1986).  d e r i v e d from Jackson's (1968) d i s t i n c t i o n s among the p r e - a c t i v e , and  as an  considerable  T h i s r e s e a r c h has been d e s c r i b e d as r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s * processes  their  1980; Werner, 1980).  c u r r i c u l u m has g r a d u a l l y been r e p l a c e d w i t h an image of the t e a c h e r a c t i v e developer  Indeed,  and the t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s and  embedded i n c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and i n s t e a d f i l t e r own unique p e r s p e c t i v e s  It i s  interactive  represent  i n s t r u c t i o n or before or  r e f l e c t s the apparent  influences  20 on the f i r s t  two c a t e g o r i e s .  i s t o understand  The c e n t r a l aim of t h i s t h i r d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g and t e a c h e r  behaviour w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e Halkes,  body o f r e s e a r c h  1986; Halkes  & Olson,  1984).  (Ben-Peretz,  Because t h i s study  Bromme &  i s concerned  with  t e a c h e r b e l i e f s about FLE c u r r i c u l u m and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l a s s r o o m practice, this third  aspect o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l  context  f o r the study.  Teachers' C l a r k and Y i n g e r and  I m p l i c i t T h e o r i e s and B e l i e f s  (1979) d e s c r i b e r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s  b e l i e f s as "the study of how t e a c h e r s make sense of t h e i r w o r l d . "  They  a s s e r t t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h i s based on the assumption t h a t t e a c h e r s r e f e r t o a " p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . . . an i m p l i c i t belief  theory...a conceptual  system about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g " (p.251).  system...or t o a  The aim o f such s t u d i e s  i s t o "get ' i n s i d e t e a c h e r s ' heads' t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s " (Feiman-Nemser & F l o d i n ,  1986, p.506).  Munby (1986)  c o n s i d e r s t h i s study of t e a c h e r b e l i e f s t o be an important t e a c h e r c o g n i t i o n because i t i n c r e a s e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n t e x t " i n which t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Peterson  (1986) suggest  occurs.  attitudes,  dimension of  of "the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  S i m i l a r l y , C l a r k and  t h a t the v a l u e of such r e s e a r c h r e s t s i n the  e x p l i c a t i o n o f the "frames of r e f e r e n c e through which t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e and process  i n f o r m a t i o n " (p.287).  According  t o Aoki  (1977),  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f o r the "fundamental p e r s p e c t i v e s found world  these a r e important i n the l i v e d  practical  o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s . . . are t y p i c a l l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y h e l d and  unavoidably  used"  (p.52).  A number o f s t u d i e s concerned b e l i e f s have been conducted  with teachers' i m p l i c i t  d u r i n g the past two decades.  t h e o r i e s and  These s t u d i e s appear  t o r e f l e c t v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f the n o t i o n of "implicit  t h e o r i e s and b e l i e f s " and a range of terms have been employed i n  such s t u d i e s t o r e f e r t o these. perspectives 1983;  (e.g., A d l e r , 1984; Hammersley, 1977; J a n e s i c k ,  a t t i t u d e s and  (e.g., Bauch, 1982; Harvey, White, P r a t h e r , A l t e r & H o f f m e i s t e r ,  Marland, 1977; Munby, 1983; Nespor, 1985, 1987; Wahlstrom, Regan &  Jones,  1982); some have s t u d i e d t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t u a l  Duffy,  1978; Bawden & D u f f y ,  1984,  1978; P e t e r a t ,  Sharp & Green, 1975); some have s t u d i e d t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s ,  principles 1966;  F o r example, some have s t u d i e d t e a c h e r s '  systems (e.g., B a r r &  1979; B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n & Amarel, 1976; L a r s s e n ,  1987; Lederman & Z e i d l e r ,  1987); and some have s t u d i e d t e a c h e r s '  p r a c t i c a l knowledge (e.g., C l a n d i n i n , 1985; E l b a z ,  1981).  As w e l l , the f o c u s o r problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n these s t u d i e s has v a r i e d . F o r example, i n an e f f o r t t o understand p e r c e i v e d , handled  how c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s are  and i n t e r p r e t e d by t e a c h e r s , some r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d  t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g about c u r r i c u l u m implementation,  (e.g., B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n &  Amarel, 1976; Crowther, 1983; McKee, 1986; Olson,  1981, 1982; P e t e r a t , 1983;  Theissen,  1989; T o r n v a l l ,  1987).  Others  have examined t e a c h e r b e l i e f s and  p r i n c i p l e s which guide o r g i v e r i s e t o c e r t a i n c l a s s r o o m Bauch, 1982; Bogess, 1985; Halkes A l t e r & Hoffmeister,  p r a c t i c e s (e.g.,  & D e i j k e r s , 1984; Harvey, White, P r a t h e r ,  1982; Hornak & L u n e t t a ,  1979; Marland, 1977; Munby, 1983;  Nespor, 1985, 1987; Rose, 1973; S c h e i n f e l d & Messerschmidt, 1979; Schmidt & Buchmann, 1983; Tabachnick has  & Zeichner,  1986).  Another group of r e s e a r c h e r s  looked a t the ways i n which t e a c h e r s t h i n k about t e a c h i n g and t h e i r  t e a c h i n g r o l e s and the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f these c o n c e p t i o n s c l a s s r o o m behaviour  (e.g., B e r l a k & B e r l a k ,  to their  1981; Carew & L i g h t f o o t , 1979;  Hammersley, 1977; J a n e s i c k , 1978; Kimes, 1984; Krueger, 1985; L a r s s o n , 1984, 1987;  Sharp & Green, 1975).  Some s t u d i e s have focused on u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  k i n d o f knowledge t e a c h e r s have and use and how i t guides t h e i r practice  classroom  (e.g., C l a n d i n i n , 1985; C o n n e l l y & C l a n d i n i n , 1984; E l b a z , 1981;  Lampert, 1985,1986), w h i l e o t h e r s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g about the s u b j e c t matter o r the content  of c u r r i c u l u m (e.g., A d l e r , 1984; B a r r  22 & Duffy,  1978; Bawden & Duffy,  Zeidler,  1982).  1979; D u f f y & Anderson, 1982; Lederman &  The methods employed i n these s t u d i e s a r e a l s o d i v e r s e . paper and p e n c i l  instruments  For example, Halkes  to e l i c i t  Some have used  t e a c h e r s ' a b s t r a c t i d e a s and b e l i e f s .  and D e i j k e r s (1984) d e v i s e d a L i k e r t s c a l e based on  r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e t o i d e n t i f y t h e c r i t e r i a t e a c h e r s use t o d e a l w i t h disturbances.  class  Other r e s e a r c h e r s have used some form o f i n t e r v i e w f o r  g a t h e r i n g data about t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g .  Munby (1983) and T h e i s s e n  example, used K e l l y ' s r e p e r t o r y g r i d technique  (which  (1989), f o r  i n c l u d e s both a  c o n s t r u c t - g e n e r a t i n g a c t i v i t y and i n t e r v i e w s ) t o e l i c i t  teachers' personal  c o n s t r u c t s o r p e r s o n a l " t h e o r i e s " about c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of p r a c t i c e .  Marland  (1977) used s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l  their  i n t e r v i e w s , i n which t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n e d  t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s as they viewed them on v i d e o t a p e .  Some r e s e a r c h e r s have  used s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and open-ended i n t e r v i e w s i n which t e a c h e r s a r e encouraged t o t a l k about t h e i r thought words and concepts Larssen,  1984).  processes  and b e l i e f s u s i n g t h e i r own  (e.g., B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n & Amarel, 1976; E l b a z , 1981;  Others  have employed m u l t i p l e methods ( i n c l u d i n g  i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s ) t o g a i n access t o t e a c h e r s ' thoughts processes  and t o understand  Clandinin,  how thoughts  and thought  and a c t i o n s might be r e l a t e d  1985; C o n n e l l y & C l a n d i n i n , 1984; J a n e s i c k ,  A c c o r d i n g t o C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n (1987), the c h o i c e o f methods a l s o d i f f e r .  both  1978).  the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g  They p o i n t out t h a t those  employing o n l y v e r b a l r e p o r t i n g by t e a c h e r s  (e.g.,  studies  (such as i n i n t e r v i e w methods)  embody the assumption t h a t what t e a c h e r s say does i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p r a c t i c e and that there i s a p o s i t i v e c o n t r a s t , those combination  r e l a t i o n s h i p between thought  w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s ) i n v e s t i g a t e the nature  understand  In  s t u d i e s u s i n g m u l t i p l e methods (such as i n t e r v i e w s i n  D e s p i t e these d i v e r s i t i e s , to  and a c t i o n .  of t h i s  relationship.  a l l o f the above s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t  attempts  the ways i n which t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r  professional practice. t e a c h e r s ' thoughts  The f i n d i n g s of some of these  thoughts  F o r example, both J a n e s i c k (1978) and C l a n d i n i n  s t u d i e s t o examine t e a c h e r s ' e x p r e s s i o n s o f b e l i e f s and  about t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e .  t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s r o l e  J a n e s i c k ' s study  r e v e a l e d t h a t one  i n the c l a s s r o o m was based on c e r t a i n  e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s t h a t he espoused.  In p a r t i c u l a r , he viewed r e s p e c t and  c o o p e r a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m as c e n t r a l t o s t u d e n t s ' development. considered  i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s t o be "important  g o a l s o f r e s p e c t and c o o p e r a t i o n " (p.16). "teacher  images" suggested  "classroom  He  i n r e l a t i o n t o the major c l a s  S i m i l a r l y , C l a n d i n i n ' s study o f  t h a t w h i l e t e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e i r  images tend t o f u n c t i o n m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . . . and a l l o w t e a c h e r s t o  g e n e r a l i z e on t h e i r  [classroom]  of what they do", these  experience  and t o o f f e r t h e o r e t i c a l  images are e s s e n t i a l l y  C l a n d i n i n a s s e r t s t h a t these embodied  that  and b e l i e f s p o t e n t i a l l y e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on  t h e i r educational practice. (1985) used f i e l d  s t u d i e s suggest  "images o f p r a c t i c e "  accounts (p.382).  images "are not merely mental c o n s t r u c t s " but a r  i n and t h e r e f o r e guide c l a s s r o o m  Other s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r thought r e p o r t i n g methods have a l s o found t h i n k i n g and t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s .  practice.  p r o c e s s e s which have employed  self-  a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r F o r example, Bauch (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t  t e a c h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e f s appeared t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the development of the c l a s s r o o m occurs.  C e r t a i n t e a c h i n g behaviours  seemed t o be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r i n g regarding educational processes"  context  i d e n t i f i e d by t e a c h e r s  i n which l e a r n i n g i n her study  " p h i l o s o p h i c a l systems" o r " s e t s of b e l i e f s (p.27).  E l b a z ' (1981) study o f one t e a c h e r '  p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n terms of "images" which embody "the t e a c h e r ' s v a l u e s , needs and b e l i e f s " and which "serve t o guide  the t e a c h e r ' s  t h i n k i n g . . . and t o o r g a n i z e knowledge... and guide...the of the t e a c h e r ' s purposes" c e n t r a l i t y of b e l i e f s  feelings  intuitive  realization  (p.61) emphasized t h i s t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the  i n her t e a c h i n g  practice.  Other  s t u d i e s have demonstrated t h a t t e a c h e r b e l i e f s may  negatively with curriculum innovations.  interact  F o r example, one o f the f i n d i n g s i n  B u s s i s , C h i t t e n d e n and Amarel's (1976) study of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g s working i n open classrooms  suggested  of teacher  t h a t s e v e r a l o f the t e a c h e r s h e l d  p h i l o s o p h i e s t h a t were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the open c l a s s r o o m approach. study o f the implementation Olson  In h i s  of the E n g l i s h C o u n c i l I n t e g r a t e d S c i e n c e P r o j e c t  (1981, 1982) found t h a t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s a c t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t  i n f l u e n c e s on the t r a n s l a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of new c u r r i c u l a  negative  i n the  classroom. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s suggest  t h a t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s may i n t e r a c t w i t h the  c o n t e x t s i n which they t e a c h .  F o r example, i n an ongoing  study of t e a c h e r s '  c o n c e p t i o n s o f r e a d i n g ( D u f f y & Anderson, 1982), r e s e a r c h e r s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s ' expressed  b e l i e f s about r e a d i n g d i d seem t o a f f e c t some  a s p e c t s of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e , o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s such as i n s t i t u t i o n a l mandates and c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n these f a c t o r s were taken  appeared  i n t o account  t o mediate t h e i r  impact.  d i d the t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l  Only  after  conceptions  of r e a d i n g come i n t o p l a y . In t h e i r study o f the i n f l u e n c e of s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n s of the nature o f s c i e n c e on t e a c h i n g behaviour,  Lederman and Z e i d l e r  (1987) found  t h a t the t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m behaviour was not i n f l u e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by t h e i r conceptions. constraints, more d i r e c t (1984) found  They suggested  that other f a c t o r s ,  such as c u r r i c u l u m  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u p p l i e s had a i n f l u e n c e on the t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m behaviour. t h a t a l t h o u g h student t e a c h e r s expressed  i d e a s about s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n the elementary not always e v i d e n t i n p r a c t i c e .  Similarly,  a b s t r a c t b e l i e f s and  c u r r i c u l u m , these b e l i e f s were  She concluded  t h a t a broad  range of f a c t o r s  r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n "dilemmas of t e a c h i n g " l i m i t e d the i n f l u e n c e o f these beliefs  in practice.  Adler  Nespor's (1985, 1987) r e s e a r c h e x p l o r e d the o r i g i n of t e a c h e r about t e a c h i n g and noted  beliefs  the i n f l u e n c e o f both years of t e a c h i n g and the  q u a l i t y of past teaching experiences t h a t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s develop  on these b e l i e f s .  The f i n d i n g s suggested  " c o n t e x t u a l l y " i n the course  experiences.  In t h i s study,  domain'...[in  which]... t e a c h e r s r e l y on loosely-bounded  of t h e i r  t e a c h i n g was d e p i c t e d as "'an e n t a n g l e d  ( b e l i e f s ) which h e l p them d e f i n e t a s k s . . . generate  conceptual  systems  g o a l s and make sense of  t h e i r a c t i o n s " (p.171, 172). Nespor c l a i m s t h a t , because of t h e nature of t h e i r apparent  origin,  these b e l i e f s tend t o e v o l v e and change over time.  f i n d i n g s of Nespor's s t u d i e s may i n p a r t account previous studies j u s t c i t e d . t a l k about t h e i r p r a c t i c e  Indeed, Olson  understand  (1988) suggests  Thus, t o  t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g and b e l i e f systems, Olson argues t h a t (see a l s o Ben-Peretz,  Bromme &  1986).  The  f i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s suggest  that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p  between what t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e and what they do. studies  that teachers'  i n which they t e a c h .  both c o g n i t i o n and c o n t e x t must be c o n s i d e r e d Halkes,  f o r t h e f i n d i n g s of the t h r e e  ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i r b e l i e f s and t h i n k i n g about what  they do) r e f l e c t s the c u l t u r e o r context adequately  The  Although  s e v e r a l of these  indicate that teachers' b e l i e f s give r i s e d i r e c t l y to p a r t i c u l a r  c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s , o t h e r s d e p i c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e l i e f s and practices less clearly.  Mayer (1985) a s s e r t s t h a t these d i v e r g e n t f i n d i n g s  imply t h a t r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r b e l i e f s and c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e l i e f s and practice.  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the extent t o which t e a c h e r s adopt a b e l i e f  as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  system  f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c e as an " a d a p t i v e " measure o r whether  t e a c h e r s use t h e i r " p e r s o n a l v i s i o n t o shape i n s t r u c t i o n . . . [ s u g g e s t i n g ] a belief  system t h a t r e f l e c t s environmental  them" (p.18) may be an important  research  demands but i s not c o n t r o l l e d by concern.  26 Other w r i t e r s suggest understanding belief  t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n needs to be devoted  the nature of s u b j e c t matter and  systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the secondary  s e t t i n g emphasizes...subject out,  matter"  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to teachers' l e v e l where "the t e a c h e r ' s work  (Nespor, 1985,  p.151).  " j u n i o r h i g h and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s are u n a v o i d a b l y  d e a l i n g w i t h a body of knowledge, day school year"  (p.151).  i n and day  committed  Indeed, i n Nespor's study, E n g l i s h , h i s t o r y  the " b e l i e f s and  t h a t t e a c h e r s use t o generate  s u b j e c t matter"  r e q u i r i n g more a t t e n t i o n . teachers' conceptions  and  l e a r n and  (p.49), t h i s  of a  and  experiences  the nature  [ i n these  of  areas]  g o a l s and make sense of t h e i r a c t i o n s " (p. 172).  Moreover, a c c o r d i n g t o Shavelson on "what s t u d e n t s  to  i n d i f f e r e n t ways,  the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a need t o understand  the s u b j e c t matter areas and  impact  As Nespor p o i n t s  out, f o r the course  mathematics t e a c h e r s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h e i r s u b j e c t areas emphasizing  to  S t e r n (1981),  because of i t s p o t e n t i a l  t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g and  the  i s an area of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g  Such i s s u e s suggest  t h a t an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  of FLE c u r r i c u l u m , the p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e s on these  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to classroom p r a c t i c e  and  i s warranted.  C u r r i c u l u m Theory and P r a c t i c e T h i s study  i s based on the assumption t h a t t e a c h e r s have b e l i e f  which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and  their practice.  t h e r e f o r e viewed as an "agent" o r one who compelling...[and]...convincing" t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s guide  The  systems  teacher i s  " a c t s because of reasons...which  (Boyd, 1979,  p.115).  their curriculum practice.  are  Thus i t i s assumed t h a t  Because t h i s  research  examines t e a c h e r b e l i e f s about c u r r i c u l u m , the l i t e r a t u r e of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y i s reviewed.  T h i s review  serves t h r e e purposes.  overview  of t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s of the c e n t r a l  theory.  Second, i t a s s i s t s  c o n t e x t of c u r r i c u l u m .  in situating  Finally,  First,  i t provides  issues concerning  an  curriculum  t h i s study w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l  i t c l a r i f i e s the c o n c e p t u a l  foundations  of  27 c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y which are then employed i d e n t i f y i n g t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s about FLE  i n developing  a framework f o r  curriculum.  Three P e r s p e c t i v e s on C u r r i c u l u m  Theory  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e debate i n the c u r r i c u l u m l i t e r a t u r e about meaning, the purpose and (Kliebard,  1977;  t h i s debate has  the development of " t h e o r y "  Macdonald, 1975; focused  McCutcheon, 1982;  on the extent  can adequately  account f o r a l l c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  1978)  (based  Vallance,  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e o r y  c u r r i c u l u m and  curriculum theory  i n the c u r r i c u l u m  debate.  1981,  p.13)  Penna & P i n a r ,  These p e r s p e c t i v e s r e p r e s e n t  and  of  1981  "three  on  and  Pinar,  (Giroux, of  i s s u e s (e.g.,  this see  Schubert, 1986), the t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s j u s t noted attempt  p l a c e the t h e o r y - p r a c t i c e i s s u e s w i t h i n a s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t u n d e r s c o r e the somewhat " e v o l u t i o n a r y " nature i n the N o r t h American c u r r i c u l u m  The  curriculum  theoretical  issues"  i l l u s t r a t e the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s  While o t h e r w r i t e r s have a l s o examined these  Grundy, 1987;  Much of  Three p e r s p e c t i v e s  frameworks t h a t govern s p e c i f i c approaches to c u r r i c u l u m Penna & P i n a r ,  field  practice in  to which a s i n g l e or u n i f i e d t h e o r y  on the work of Giroux,  are b r i e f l y reviewed.  and  1982).  t o Giroux,  of t h i s s t i l l  Penna and  and  unresolved  debate  Pinar  Theory  (1981), the  traditionalist  p e r s p e c t i v e r e f l e c t s the e a r l y h e r i t a g e of the N o r t h American c u r r i c u l u m i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience.  As the f i e l d  emerged d u r i n g  p.2). and  The  t o sound b u s i n e s s  principles"  (Giroux,  field  the e a r l y 1900's,  c u r r i c u l u m came t o be viewed as "the o r g a n i z a t i o n of time and managed a c c o r d i n g  to  field.  T r a d i t i o n a l i s t P e r s p e c t i v e on C u r r i c u l u m According  the  a c t i v i t i e s to  Penna & P i n a r ,  be  1981,  p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c management ( i n c l u d i n g e f f i c i e n c y , c o n t r o l  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ) were a p p l i e d to c u r r i c u l u m  o b j e c t i v e s and  i n the measurement of student  i n the  outcomes.  s t a t i n g of  curricular  T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or  28 m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d nature  of the c u r r i c u l u m v e n t u r e "  evident  s t r e s s e d the  ( P i n a r & Grumet, 1981,  "problem-solving p.22)  and  today i n c u r r i c u l u m work which emphasizes the p r e p a r a t i o n  c u r r i c u l u m workers (such as t e a c h e r s )  to r e s o l v e and  t o prevent  is  still  of  practical  c u r r i c u l u m problems. In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , theory a s s i s t a n c e t o those curriculum", Tyler  and  i s p r e s c r i p t i v e and  i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s who  r e f l e c t s the  ( P i n a r , 1978,  p. 207).  p r a c t i c e , both at the  used "to guide,  are concerned  to be  with  i n f l u e n c e of the work of B o b b i t t , C h a r t e r s Theory i s intended  to improve  l e v e l of c u r r i c u l u m development and  of  and  curriculum in  classroom  implementat i o n .  The  Conceptual-Empiricist  P e r s p e c t i v e on C u r r i c u l u m  Theory  A l t h o u g h the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t view of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y the e a r l y 1960's marked a p e r i o d of u n r e s t  p e r s i s t s today,  i n the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d  and  s i g n a l l e d the emergence of a second p e r s p e c t i v e of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y which labelled unrest  "conceptual-empiricist".  stemmed p r i m a r i l y from the  In response t o the curricula  launching  f o r s c h o o l s and  the d e v e l o p e r s  of these  d i s c i p l i n e s " and  not  The  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s p e r i o d of  " c u r r i c u l u m reform movement" of the  of Sputnik,  "new to  from s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d . f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and lost c r e d i b i l i t y .  " t r a d i t i o n a l , p r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the  j u s t i f i c a t i o n s " more c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l  predominate  first  new However, i n "the  Coupled evaluation  According  field"  1960's.  to P i n a r  diminished  and  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h came  (p.208).  In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , two The  S t a t e s developed  programs were r e c r u i t e d from among s p e c i a l i s t s  s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d (1978), the  the U n i t e d  i n i t i a t e d a p e r i o d of c u r r i c u l u m reform.  w i t h a r e d u c t i o n i n f e d e r a l funding  was  groups of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s are  group viewed the c u r r i c u l u m as an area to be  described.  s t u d i e d e m p i r i c a l l y (as  29 i n other s o c i a l  s c i e n c e s ) and was  p r i m a r i l y concerned  hypotheses to be t e s t e d i n "methodological s o c i a l s c i e n c e " ( P i n a r , 1978,  p.208).  with  developing  ways c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mainstream  C u r r i c u l u m work i n v o l v e d the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r phenomena w i t h a view to develop  t h e o r y which  c o u l d e x p l a i n , p r e d i c t and  work of  control curriculum practice.  The  c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s such as Beauchamp (1968) and Johnson (1967) r e f l e c t s  this  view. However, toward the end  of the s i x t i e s ,  a second group of c u r r i c u l u m  t h e o r i s t s w i t h a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e emerged. work of Schwab (1969, 1971  and  1973)  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r some c u r r i c u l u m  t h e o r i s t s t o look a t c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e  i n another way.  Schwab  argued t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c mode of i n q u i r y was  not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the  of the p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of c u r r i c u l u m .  emphasized t h a t the study  the p r a c t i c a l  should r e s t  curriculum practice.  He  i n the s i t u a t i o n a l and p a r t i c u l a r events  He proposed t h a t t h e o r y alone cannot d i r e c t  p r a c t i c a l work of c u r r i c u l u m because " q u e s t i o n s of what and  how  and  circumstance"  (Schwab, 1971,  p.494).  view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t h e o r y p r o v i d e s guidance  but not  He  advocated  study  an  of  of the  to teach  i n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s loaded w i t h c o n c r e t e p a r t i c u l a r s of time, person,  the  arise  place, alternative  i n c u r r i c u l u m work, i n which  direction:  I f . . . t h e o r y i s to be used w e l l i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r p r a c t i c e , i t r e q u i r e s a supplement. I t r e q u i r e s a r t s which b r i n g a t h e o r y t o i t s a p p l i c a t i o n : f i r s t , a r t s which i d e n t i f y the d i s p a r i t i e s between r e a l t h i n g and t h e o r e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; second, a r t s which modify the t h e o r y i n the course of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , i n the l i g h t of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s ; and, t h i r d , a r t s which d e v i s e ways of t a k i n g account of the many a s p e c t s of the r e a l t h i n g which the t h e o r y does not take i n t o account (Schwab, 1969, p.12).  Thus i n Schwab's view, c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and interrelated time,  as t h e o r y  practice  is tailored  i t s e l f may  "generate  curriculum practice  to s p e c i f i c  are  s i t u a t i o n s , w h i l e at the same  a d d i t i o n a l courses  of a c t i o n f o r  a p p l i c a t i o n i n the p l e t h o r a of c i r c u m s t a n c e s not a p p l y "  (Schubert,  1984,  where t h e o r e t i c knowledge might  p.241).  Schwab's f o c u s on the p r a c t i c a l aspect "movement away somewhat from s t r i c t  of c u r r i c u l u m encouraged a  s o c i a l s c i e n c e " ( P i n a r , 1978,  p. 209)  and  t h i s second group of t h e o r i s t s argued t h a t p r e s c r i p t i v e c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i e s are not p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l because they do not c u r r i c u l u m making and Walker and Clandinin  Reid  c u r r i c u l u m change.  (1975) and  and E l b a z  (1984) have extended Schwab's work and  (1980) and  have focused  b e l i e f s and  Reconceptualist According  1980,  P e r s p e c t i v e on C u r r i c u l u m  t o Schubert  (1984), Schwab's work c o n t r i b u t e d t o  the  1970's.  d i v e r s e and  has  psychoanalytic  hermeneutical  r o o t s (Schubert,  1984).  Several  e x i s t e n t i a l , Marxist "thematic  reconceptualist perspective.  strands"  existential  power r e l a t i o n s . . . and  focus s t r e s s e s " c l a s s c o n f l i c t , the  knowledge" (Giroux,  inherently p o l i t i c a l  Penna & P i n a r ,  purpose of t h e o r y  1981,  the  Pinar  and  of  c h a r a c t e r of c u l t u r e , meaning  p.14).  in this perspective  its social, political  human  reproduction  i s not to guide,  p r e d i c t the work of p r a c t i t i o n e r s but t o understand the nature and  is a  experience,  the c e n t r a l i t y of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y to u n d e r s t a n d i n g  A political  and  are  For example, t h e r e  focus which emphasizes " s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  theory  T h i s group of " r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t " c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s i s  phenomenological, h e r m e n e u t i c a l ,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  experience  with  Theory  d u r i n g the  The  as  p.104).  f o r the emergence of a t h i r d p e r s p e c t i v e on c u r r i c u l u m  and  and  on t e a c h e r s  foundation  action".  (1972),  Connelly  assumptions and  of  n o t i o n s of what i s worth d o i n g " w i t h i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s  (Connelly & Elbaz,  The  the a c t u a l p r o c e s s  T h e o r i s t s such as C o n n e l l y  l a t e r Connelly  c u r r i c u l u m d e l i b e r a t o r s , "with t h e i r own t h e i r own  reflect  of  i n t e r p r e t i v e dimensions.  c o n t r o l or educational Indeed,  (1978) a s s e r t s t h a t " a . . . r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of what c u r r i c u l u m  i s , how  31 it  f u n c t i o n s , and  how  i t might f u n c t i o n i n emancipatory ways" (p.211) are  aims of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . perspective] theory  and  P i n a r and  and  t e n s i o n i n the r e l a t i o n of these are t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d between t h e o r y  and  Grumet (1981) note t h a t " [ i n t h i s  p r a c t i c e are allowed  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between theory  to i n t e r s e c t . . . [ a n d ] . . .  p r a c t i c e compel us to acknowledge two  terms" (p.33, 34).  to be d i a l e c t i c a l ,  The  The  teacher  conflict  as a  i s assumed to r e f l e c t upon the e x p e r i e n t i a l meaning of  c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s as they u n f o l d w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m curriculum  the  Theory and p r a c t i c e  i n t h a t r e s o l u t i o n s to  p r a c t i c e are of c e n t r a l concern.  curriculum p r a c t i t i o n e r  the  i s "transformed  i n t o a pedagogic s i t u a t i o n "  and  as  the  ( A o k i , 1988,  p.411).  work of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s such as Apple, Huebner, Macdonald and  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s  Pinar  perspective.  These t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s embody d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y the  and  c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e and  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t e a c h e r  on the t e a c h e r  to the c u r r i c u l u m .  as an a c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s used and  imply d i f f e r i n g views of  Because t h i s study  and  on the  teacher's  developed i n p r a c t i c e , i t i s  best s i t u a t e d g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the second p e r s p e c t i v e of c u r r i c u l u m (and and  theory  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Schwab) i n which the the problems of p r a c t i c e are viewed as the c e n t r a l concerns of  theory.  In t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y  interrelated. according  P r a c t i c e i s regarded  as t h e o r y  and  teacher  curriculum  c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e are  i n a c t i o n and  theory  i s modified  t o the e x i g e n c i e s of p r a c t i c e .  Conceptual Foundations of C u r r i c u l u m Diversity  i s not o n l y apparent i n c o n c e p t i o n s  curriculum theory, theory  focuses  itself  Theory  of the r o l e and  but a l s o i n the ways i n which the n o t i o n of  i s conceptualized.  the concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  purpose of  curriculum  Most c u r r i c u l u m w r i t e r s agree, however, t h a t  " c u r r i c u l a r phenomena" (McCutcheon, 1982)  are  32 e s s e n t i a l components i n such c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s ( C o n n e l l y , Elbaz,  1980;  K l i e b a r d , 1977;  O r n s t e i n & Hunkins, 1989).  w r i t e r s suggest t h a t c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y a c t i v i t i e s t h a t the f i e l d  represents  commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these 1982;  Schwab, 1973).  nature  the e x p e r i e n c e s , & Elbaz,  the  1980;  c h a r a c t e r s ) , and  and  practical the subject  ( t h e i r knowledge, itself.  P e t e r a t and McClean (1982) propose another view.  They suggest t h a t i f  curriculum  a c t i o n w i t h people",  the c e n t r a l i s s u e s and focused  activities  on the aims and  that  purposes of e d u c a t i o n ,  i f "the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s  t h a t they taught,  "educative  and  the nature  of e d u c a t i o n .  be  of knowledge and  the  K l i e b a r d (1977) a s s e r t s  of c u r r i c u l u m are normative ones, i n the  i n v o l v e c h o i c e s among competing v a l u e  when, how  then  r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e would  r e l a t i o n s h i p of persons t o the p r o c e s s  1977,  t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the m i l i e u (or  the curriculum-making p r o c e s s  i s g e n e r a l l y concerned w i t h  the  issues  Kliebard,  These f i v e commonplaces i n c l u d e the  i n which l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e ) , the t e a c h e r s  p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  questions  be accounted f o r by c o n s i d e r i n g  l e a r n e r s and  &  i n terms of  F o r example, Schwab (1973) suggests t h a t the  "commonplaces" of c u r r i c u l u m .  contexts  and  Connelly  Indeed, a number of  i s best c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  (e.g., C o n n e l l y  of the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d may  matter of c u r r i c u l u m ,  1972;  sense  o p t i o n s " about what should  be  t o whom (p.263), then b e l i e f s about such i s s u e s would  a l s o appear t o be a c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of curriculum The  theory. t h r e e views j u s t d e s c r i b e d r e p r e s e n t ways of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g  dimensions of c u r r i c u l u m theory which account f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n and a c t i v i t i e s of c u r r i c u l u m and which i n a sense a c t to "bound the f i e l d curriculum"  (Connelly & Elbaz,  1980,  curriculum)  are a l s o r e f l e c t e d  i n w r i t i n g about what has  of  p.103). Such views (or dimensions of  t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , o r i e n t a t i o n s or c o n c e p t i o n s  v a r i o u s l y been c a l l e d  of c u r r i c u l u m .  These  terms r e f e r t o the ways i n which c u r r i c u l u m i s viewed or d e f i n e d by those develop,  implement or e v a l u a t e  i t and  the  include underlying  who  b e l i e f s about what i s  real,  t r u e and  1977).  v a l u a b l e where c u r r i c u l u m m a t t e r s are concerned  E i s n e r (1979) f o r example, d e s c r i b e s f i v e c o n c e p t i o n s  (van Manen, of c u r r i c u l u m  ways i n which people c o n c e p t u a l i z e the c u r r i c u l u m f o r purposes of development. personal  These i n c l u d e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s ,  relevance,  technology.  He  s o c i a l adaptation  and  social  of major a s p e c t s  a p a r t i c u l a r view of e d u c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s curriculum,  the t e a c h e r ' s  Similarly, Miller  r o l e and  subject/disciplines,  the  f o r how  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and  He  we  of p r a c t i c e " (p.70) and r e l a t e d to the content  the purpose of  c a l l s these  "world  perceptions  [curriculum]" ( p . l ) .  encompass s e v e r a l " t h e o r e t i c a l and l e a r n e r , the  of  the  humanistic  views" about c u r r i c u l u m which  According  to M i l l e r , and  l e a r n i n g process,  the t e a c h e r ' s  r o l e and  the  curriculum  learning  p r a c t i c a l dimensions" such as  and  represent  [which]... p r o v i d e s  o r i e n t a t i o n s r e f l e c t p a r t i c u l a r approaches to t e a c h i n g  of the  to d e f i n e  behavioral,  s o c i a l , developmental, c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s ,  see  "values  education.  curriculum p r a c t i c e :  "mixture o f . . . v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and  context  academic r a t i o n a l i s m ,  (1983) o u t l i n e s seven o r i e n t a t i o n s t o c u r r i c u l u m which  p o s s i b l y u n d e r l i e educators'  transpersonal.  curriculum  c o n s i d e r s each of these views of c u r r i c u l u m to embody  t h a t shape one's c o n c e p t i o n  or  and  conceptions  the purpose of  education. Both E i s n e r and M i l l e r , however, acknowledge t h a t these curriculum conceptions  or o r i e n t a t i o n s do not take  contexts  i n which c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e occurs  probable  t h a t more than one  account f o r t h i s , M i l l e r and or " c u r r i c u l u m p o s i t i o n s " : inquiry/decision-making  conception Seller  may  and  i n t o account the v a r i e t y of  that, i n r e a l i t y ,  i t is  guide c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  (1985) propose t h r e e  the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t  To  "meta-orientations"  or t r a n s m i s s i o n p o s i t i o n , the  or t r a n s a c t i o n p o s i t i o n and  to M i l l e r and  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  position.  According  represents  a range of b e l i e f s about what s c h o o l s  the  S e l l e r , each of these should  transformation meta-orientations do and  how  students  34 l e a r n and  i n c l u d e s c l u s t e r s or groups of s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c  o r i e n t a t i o n s to  curriculum. Other w r i t e r s (e.g., A o k i , 1975; and  van Manen, 1977)  1977;  have focused  have c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  Apple,  identified:  r e f l e c t i o n and  critical  Using  organized  i n the c u r r i c u l u m  the work of Habermas, t h r e e  i n t e r p r e t i v e (a concern w i t h  transformation).  According  to  curriculum of  interpersonal  (a concern w i t h the development of  r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n t views of the nature used and may  curriculum,  t e c h n i c a l (a concern w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n  technical control),  u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) and  Macdonald,  c u r r i c u l u m p e r s p e c t i v e s or o r i e n t a t i o n s i n terms of  serve c e r t a i n human i n t e r e s t s .  f a c t s and  Grundy, 1987;  on the knowledge dimension of  the ways i n which knowledge i s s e l e c t e d and  p e r s p e c t i v e s are  1975;  critical  to these w r i t e r s , each p e r s p e c t i v e  of knowledge and  of how  i t should  be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y shape c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  T h e o r e t i c a l Framework The  " t h e o r e t i c a l and  of c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t i o n s framework f o r t h i s study framework was  p r a c t i c a l dimensions" a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the or o r i e n t a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d the  of t e a c h e r  developed from the  l i t e r a t u r e of FLE.  conceptions  of FLE  theoretical  curriculum.  l i t e r a t u r e of c u r r i c u l u m and  With r e s p e c t t o c u r r i c u l a r concerns,  educative 1)  are c e n t e r e d  b e l i e f s about the  the c a t e g o r i e s  i n t e r a c t i o n of c e r t a i n key  l e a r n e r , i . e . , how  or  curriculum  f a c t o r s i n the  education  the  learner i s characterized in  situation;  b e l i e f s about s o c i e t y , i . e . , how and  3)  the  process:  the t e a c h i n g 2)  on the  This  from  dimensions of such a framework embody the b e l i e f s t h a t u n d e r l i e p r a c t i c e and  notions  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t y  i s conceptualized;  b e l i e f s about knowledge, i . e . , how developed, t r a n s m i t t e d and  used;  knowledge i s seen to and  be  35 4)  b e l i e f s about the purpose and p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n , i . e . , what education f u l f i l l s  and how  role  i t i s effected.  The dimensions of t h i s framework were then c o n s i d e r e d concerns from the l i t e r a t u r e of FLE.  i n view of r e l e v a n t  These were based on D a i l ' s  (1984) work  i n which she proposes f o u r c a t e g o r i e s which she c l a i m s might be used i n d e v e l o p i n g o r examining p e r s o n a l b e l i e f 1)  systems about FLE:  b e l i e f s about the f a m i l y and the q u a l i t y and n a t u r e of f a m i l y i.e.,  life,  what the f a m i l y i s , what c o n s t i t u t e s a f a m i l y and what a  f a m i l y c o u l d or should be; 2)  b e l i e f s about the purpose of FLE, i . e . , what t h i s e d u c a t i o n i s t r y i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h and  3)  why;  b e l i e f s about the c o n t e n t of FLE, i . e . , what FLE s h o u l d t e a c h , what sources c o n t e n t should be d e r i v e d from and what r o l e c o n t e n t has i n FLE; and  4)  b e l i e f s about the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g f o r f a m i l i e s and within  individuals  families.  These two s e t s of c a t e g o r i e s were i n t e g r a t e d t o d e v e l o p the t h e o r e t i c a l framework w i t h i n which t h i s study was following  conducted.  T h i s framework i n c l u d e d the  categories:  1)  b e l i e f s about the purpose and p r o c e s s of FLE;  2)  b e l i e f s about the r o l e of the t e a c h e r i n FLE;  3)  b e l i e f s about the l e a r n e r and t e a c h i n g  4)  b e l i e f s about knowledge and c o n t e n t i n FLE; and  5)  b e l i e f s about f a m i l i e s i n FLE.  i n FLE;  S e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s guided the development it  of t h i s framework.  i s based on the assumption t h a t b e l i e f s u n d e r l i e c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  First, Such  b e l i e f s encompass s e v e r a l fundamental f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s and r e f l e c t practice.  the c e n t r a l  i s s u e s and concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u r r i c u l u m  However, because the r e s e a r c h was  s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h  36 b e l i e f s about FLE modified  c u r r i c u l u m , the g e n e r a l  t o encompass the p a r t i c u l a r  curriculum practice. not  c a t e g o r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h FLE were  i s s u e s and  FLE  Second, the c a t e g o r i e s of the framework are g e n e r a l  and  i d i o s y n c r a t i c , t h a t i s , presumably they are meaningful t o a l l t e a c h e r s  engaged i n FLE  curriculum practice.  are q u i t e g e n e r a l  and  not  Finally,  r i g i d l y defined.  the dimensions of t h i s  This inherent  f o r the accommodation of a d d i t i o n a l i s s u e s and about FLE  and  FLE  questions  c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e d u r i n g data  Thus t h i s framework not o n l y p r o v i d e d it  concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  a way  framework  flexibility r e l a t e d to  allowed  beliefs  c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s .  of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h i s study,  but  a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . A p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s framework i s noteworthy.  field  research,  in formulating  t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks i d e a l l y a c t as research questions  and  In  ethnographic  "sensitizing  concepts"  i n g u i d i n g data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s .  However, a common d i f f i c u l t y w i t h such frameworks concerns "exampling", where the completed r e s e a r c h p r i m a r i l y p r o v i d e s  " i l l u s t r a t i o n s of somebody e l s e ' s  concepts or t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s " i n s t e a d of those which are r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g and p.187).  n a t u r a l l y employed by  and  perhaps m i s c o n c e p t i o n s "  (Bogdan & T a y l o r , 1975, p o i n t out  "there  [may  the way  on the s e t t i n g being  Indeed, as Feiman-Nemser and  1986,  and  impose  studied  Floden  (1986)  r e s e a r c h ] . . . concepts from the academic d i s c i p l i n e s may  teachers  not] provide  (p.506).  p.25).  c o n s t r a i n the data  any  themselves t h i n k about t h e i r work...[and] the  d i r e c t statement of what t e a c h e r s  Thus a l t h o u g h  t h i n k or  t o the  data  the c a t e g o r i e s of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework employed  i n d i v i d u a l s and  s e t t i n g s being  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the framework may findings.  not  feel"  i n t h i s study were s e l e c t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s relevance  i n the  i s no easy s o l u t i o n to the problem of s e l e c t i n g g u i d i n g  concepts i n [ f i e l d capture  i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s (Woods,  S i m i l a r l y , t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks may  "preconceptions  inherent  studied, there  have c o n s t r a i n e d the data  and  i s always  and  shaped  the the  37 Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h r e e areas of l i t e r a t u r e were reviewed. area of l i t e r a t u r e concerned school s e t t i n g s .  FLE as a f i e l d  T h i s review  well-established f i e l d  of study and  educators.  i n s c h o o l s e t t i n g s , most conducted  little  translated The  about the nature  is  While some s t u d i e s have  surveys  t o determine  of FLE p r a c t i c e or about how  teacher  Such s t u d i e s  the c u r r i c u l u m i s  in practice.  T h i s review  role  concerned  teachers'  thought  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r  t h i n k i n g and t e a c h e r behaviour, important  is a  of FLE c u r r i c u l u m .  second area of l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  processes.  FLE i n  i s commonly o f f e r e d i n s c h o o l s , l i t t l e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or a t t i t u d e s o r the content reveal  first  p r a c t i c e and  r e v e a l e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h FLE  known about the p r a c t i c e of f a m i l y l i f e examined FLE  of study and  The  and  t h a t t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s do p l a y  i n t h e i r classroom p r a c t i c e .  However, the nature  an  of  this  r e l a t i o n s h i p remains u n c l e a r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d which l o o k at t e a c h e r s ' expressed  b e l i e f s and  their contextualized beliefs  not o n l y c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them, but t o a l s o i d e n t i f y possible  the  i n f l u e n c e s on them.  The  t h i r d area of l i t e r a t u r e was  practice.  An overview  r e l a t e d to c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y  of t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y  t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e debate i n the c u r r i c u l u m f i e l d purpose and meaning of " t h e o r y " and concerns  that a c e n t r a l  suggested  about the  i s s u e of t h i s  and  nature,  debate  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y t o c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  Because of i t s f o c u s on the t e a c h e r as an a c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r , study was (and  to  this  s i t u a t e d g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the " c o n c e p t u a l - e m p i r i c i s t " p e r s p e c t i v e  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Schwab) i n which c u r r i c u l u m  t h e o r y and The  c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e are conceptual  interrelated.  f o u n d a t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and D a i l ' s  (1984)  c a t e g o r i e s f o r examining b e l i e f systems about FLE were used to develop  the  framework which o r i e n t e d data c o l l e c t i o n  and f a c i l i t a t e d  data a n a l y s i s .  The  dimensions of t h i s framework were: 1) b e l i e f s about the purpose and p r o c e s s o FLE; 2) b e l i e f s  about the r o l e  of the t e a c h e r i n FLE; 3) b e l i e f s  about the  l e a r n e r and t e a c h i n g i n FLE; 4) b e l i e f s about knowledge and c o n t e n t and 5) b e l i e f s  about f a m i l i e s  i n FLE.  i n FLE;  39 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY This chapter  o u t l i n e s the method o f the study.  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e s e a r c h method a r e examined and i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o s u b j e c t i v i t y , v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y research design  are discussed.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e  i s e x p l i c a t e d and data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s a r e d e s c r i b e d .  Ethnographic D e f i n i t i o n and F e a t u r e s  Field  Research  of E t h n o g r a p h i c  Field  T h i s study employed t h e methods o f ethnographic (1984) d e s c r i b e s f i e l d  Research  field  research.  Burgess  r e s e a r c h as a g e n e r i c term which r e p r e s e n t s "an  o b s e r v a t i o n a l approach...[which i s ] . . . p r i n c i p a l l y conducted by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and  sociologists"  ethnography, case  (p.2).  T h i s approach t o r e s e a r c h has been v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d  study methodology, q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h and n a t u r a l i s t i c  s t u d i e s , and i s o f t e n used t o r e f e r t o a l l r e s e a r c h approaches which employ f i e l d methods (e.g., R i s t , In r e a l i t y , these  reflect  1982; see a l s o Jacob,  however, t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f such approaches.  differing  t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  o r i e n t and shape the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s , necessarily reflect  field  field  Although it  there  In t h i s study,  i n the conduct of f i e l d  i s no u n i f i e d  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  human a c t i v i t y  r e s e a r c h as a term does not  conception  intent of f i e l d  (Hymes, 1982).  field  According  research,  t o Denzin  research i s "to confront empirical r e a l i t y (p.33).  The major f e a t u r e s of t h i s r e s e a r c h approach r e f l e c t field  (such  research.  of e t h n o g r a p h i c  from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f those who a r e being s t u d i e d "  As j u s t noted,  techniques  t h a t t h i s approach t o r e s e a r c h concerns t h e study of  i n i t s natural setting  (1978), t h e g e n e r a l  (Atkinson,  t h e term  r e s e a r c h r e f e r s t o the use o f ethnographic  as p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n )  Because  p e r s p e c t i v e s which  any one p e r s p e c t i v e o r r e s e a r c h methodology  Delamont & Hammersley, 1988; Jacob, 1987). ethnographic  1987).  r e s e a r c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a concern  t h i s c e n t r a l aim. w i t h the human  40 context  or n a t u r a l s e t t i n g  i n which the r e s e a r c h i s conducted.  such as p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  (including  i n t e r v i e w s ) are t y p i c a l l y  i n the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g over an extended p e r i o d of time, importance of f i r s t h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s participates  i n the s e t t i n g and  of o c c u r r e n c e s .  behaviour  i s constructed.  quantified  and  In f i e l d  Indeed, G l a s e r and  analyzed  Strauss  verified  as the data  the  researcher  through which  the  social  r e s e a r c h , v a r i a b l e s are g e n e r a l l y not  (e.g., Smith, 1982;  (1967) suggest  that f i e l d  s y s t e m a t i c g e n e r a t i o n of t h e o r y from data, developed  reflect  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by  of the p r o c e s s e s  any p r i o r hypotheses are t e n t a t i v e and  data are c o l l e c t e d and  conducted  range from complete  Such o b s e r v a t i o n and  r e s e a r c h e r f a c i l i t a t e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  The  assumes r o l e s which may  p a r t i c i p a n t to complete o b s e r v e r .  F i e l d methods  van Maanen, 1983). research f a c i l i t a t e s  i . e . , theory  i t s e l f y i e l d s concepts  and  through subsequent data c o l l e c t i o n and  s u b j e c t t o change as  the  is inductively  hypotheses which are  then  a n a l y s i s (see a l s o S t r a u s s ,  1987). The  research process  monitoring. to  The  itself  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e f l e x i v i t y and  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h e r are  be p a r t of the s e t t i n g being s t u d i e d , the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n  and developed  as the p r o j e c t e v o l v e s and  interdependent  and  i n t e g r a t e d (Burgess,  Methodological The important  examination  the v a r i o u s stages 1984;  Rist,  considered  i s often modified of r e s e a r c h  Assumptions  of assumptions u n d e r l y i n g a r e s e a r c h approach i s an  Schatzman & Strauss,1973; Wilson,  the  t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s or p e r s p e c t i v e s which frame the r e s e a r c h ,  and  s p e c i f i c c l a i m s about the nature  the s o c i a l world  and  1977), they  1978;  reflect  represent  are  1982).  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r , a c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l w r i t e r s (Denzin,  Jacob, 1987;  constant  of human behaviour,  the nature  the k i n d s of methods a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s t u d y i n g these.  assumptions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e s e a r c h methodology t h e r e f o r e i n f l u e n c e not  of The  41 o n l y what r e s e a r c h e r s  look f o r i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h but  themselves i n a r e s e a r c h  s e t t i n g and  f i n d i n g s (Bogdan & T a y l o r ,  practice). the  i n t e r a c t i o n s and  of symbolic  emergence of symbolic  i s that teachers  h o l d and  These assumptions are r e f l e c t e d  s o c i o l o g y and  research  are a c t i v e  I t i s presumed t h a t such a c t i o n i s based  b e l i e f s that teachers  s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective The  they i n t e r p r e t t h e i r  t h i s research  agents c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r worlds.  assign to t h e i r classroom  they conduct  1975).  A major assumption g u i d i n g  the d e f i n i t i o n s and  how  a l s o how  the meanings t h a t  they  practices (including curriculum i n the u n d e r l y i n g  assumptions of  interaction.  i n t e r a c t i o n as a d i s t i n c t p e r s p e c t i v e  in  s o c i a l psychology o r i g i n a t e d i n the work of Dewey, Cooley,  James, Mead and  Thomas (Manis & M e l t z e r ,  of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i s m  1972).  In p a r t i c u l a r , Mead's  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the development of t h i s  Mead p o s i t e d t h a t human beings i n t e r p r e t or d e f i n e each o t h e r ' s respond t o one actions.  on  theory  perspective. actions  and  another on the b a s i s of the meanings they a t t a c h to such  T h i s c a p a c i t y t o i n t e r p r e t r e s t s i n the  a b l e t o take the  s e l f , where i n d i v i d u a l s are  r o l e of another, to engage i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  to make i n d i c a t i o n s t o themselves.  According  themselves  and  to Mead, t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r  s e l f - i n d i c a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the mind. C e n t r a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g Mead's c o n c e p t i o n of the  " I " , the  "Me"  and  the  "generalized other".  which i s an a c t i n g organism who c i r c u m s t a n c e s and and  represents  problems".  and  The  "Me"  one's a b i l i t y t o see  others' behaviors  of p a r t i c u l a r o t h e r s , and  but  The  " I " i s the b i o l o g i c " I "  i s one's view of o n e s e l f  may  as an  object  o n e s e l f from the p o i n t of view of another. become g e n e r a l i z e d  be seen not  and  consequently  o n l y from the p o i n t of view  i n terras of g e n e r a l i z e d and  b e l i e f s of groups of o t h e r s "  concepts  " i n i t i a t e s s o l u t i o n s to e n v i r o n m e n t a l  However, these o t h e r p o i n t s of view may "one's own  of the mind are the  (Berlak & Berlak,  abstracted  1981,  p.115).  norms, The  values  42 g e n e r a l i z e d o t h e r , then, r e p r e s e n t s the i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r e and s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e on human behaviour. In Mead's p e r s p e c t i v e , human behaviour encompasses not o n l y o v e r t activity mental  (i.e.,  the o b s e r v a b l e a c t i o n s ) but a l s o c o v e r t a c t i v i t y  a c t i o n s o r s e l f - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s noted above).  ( i . e . , the  H i s concept of "the a c t "  ( o r human b e h a v i o u r ) embodies both forms o f a c t i v i t y and thus i n c l u d e s the s u b j e c t i v e f o r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mind and the o b j e c t i v e f o r c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s o c i a l c o n t e x t i n which the a c t takes p l a c e ( B e r l a k & B e r l a k , 1981; M e l t z e r , 1972; see a l s o Blumer,  1969).  A c c o r d i n g t o Blumer (1969), symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n r e s t s on t h r e e b a s i c premises:  1) meaning i s c e n t r a l t o s o c i a l a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n ;  meaning i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s produce of s i t u a t i o n s ; and  and  t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s  and 3) the use o f meaning i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s  i n t e r a c t i o n ) o c c u r s through a p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  s u p p o s i t i o n s a r e based on c e r t a i n " r o o t i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l  (i.e.,  images" of human b e i n g s , human a c t i o n  reality.  who a c t on the b a s i s of what they take i n t o account.  organisms,  This capacity f o r action  r e f l e c t s the a b i l i t y o f humans t o take a p e r s p e c t i v e on themselves  "minded, s e l f  action  These  In symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n , human beings are d e p i c t e d as a c t i n g  & S t r a u s s , 1973).  2) such  In so doing, humans engage i n what Denzin  (Schatzman  (1978) c a l l s  r e f l e x i v e " behaviour, which enables them t o shape both t h e i r own  b e h a v i o u r and the behaviour of o t h e r s .  As human beings take t h e i r own  p e r s p e c t i v e and f i t i t t o the behaviour of o t h e r s , s o c i a l A c c o r d i n g t o Denzin, such i n t e r a c t i o n i s viewed  i n t e r a c t i o n occurs.  as sometimes u n p r e d i c t a b l e ,  "emergent" and " n e g o t i a t e d " . As social  individuals  reality.  i n t e r a c t , they c o n s t r u c t o r d e f i n e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  O b j e c t s i n the s o c i a l world t h e r e f o r e have no i n t r i n s i c o r  i n h e r e n t meaning, but are meaningful toward  i n terms of the a c t i o n s t h a t humans take  them and "meaning" i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and open t o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  43 and  r e d e f i n i t i o n (see a l s o B e r g e r & Luckmann, 1966).  be d e s c r i b e d  as s e l f - d i r e c t e d and p u r p o s i v e .  Thus, human a c t i o n may  The " ' f o r c e s ' which impel [a  person] t o a c t are s u b s t a n t i a l l y o f h i s own making" as "man p r e s e n t s with perspectives own a c t i o n s "  and d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t become some o f the c o n d i t i o n s  (Schatzman & S t r a u s s ,  1973, p.5)  Hence, symbolic  emphasizes "the d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o c e s s , the meaning t h a t  himself for his  interaction  something has t o  i n d i v i d u a l s " because i t i s "the m e n t a l i s t i c meanings and v a l u e s t h a t  occur i n  the minds of p e o p l e . . . [ a n d ] . . . the m e n t a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n s people make i n t h e i r unique s i t u a t i o n s t h a t  are the most u s e f u l e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e s i n  u n d e r s t a n d i n g human [ a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n ] " (Burr, 1979,  Day & C o n s t a n t i n e ,  p.49). In the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t o r i e n t a t i o n t o f i e l d  research  human b e h a v i o u r i s not caused by i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l are  Leigh,  not p a s s i v e ,  are developed, i n t e r p r e t e d  are not o n l y  forces.  responding organisms but a c t i v e , c r e a t i n g  who behave on the b a s i s o f meanings t h a t t h i n g s  a s o c i a l context.  i t i s assumed  This  created  and r e i n t e r p r e t e d  and c o n s t r u c t e d  but which a l s o have s o c i a l f o r c e  Human beings  p u r p o s i v e organisms  have f o r them.  Such meanings  through s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  s o c i a l context i n c l u d e s  that  the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s  within  which  by i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r worlds  i n t h a t they are i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the s e l f  through the c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r a c t i o n of the " I " and the "Me".  Thus i n symbolic  i n t e r a c t i o n , o b j e c t i v i t y and s u b j e c t i v i t y are not s e p a r a t e d , but a r e viewed as interdependent The  (Denzin, 1978; Douglas, 1976; Johnson,  methodological implications  1975).  of these assumptions a r e  considerable.  I f human a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n are i n t e r p r e t i v e , then i n o r d e r t o understand such a c t i o n , actor  the r e s e a r c h e r must g a i n  (Blumer, 1969).  actors'  points  suggests t h a t  o f view and t h i s r e q u i r e s  social settings. the  This  a c c e s s t o "the d e f i n i n g  p r o c e s s " o f the  s i t u a t i o n s must be s t u d i e d  from the  participation in their particular  S i m i l a r l y , i f human behaviour i s shaped and i n f l u e n c e d by  s e t t i n g i n which i t o c c u r s , then study of human b e h a v i o u r i n i t s n a t u r a l  44 setting  seems t o be most a p p r o p r i a t e .  through a s o c i a l p r o c e s s ,  Moreover, i f meaning i s c o n s t r u c t e d  then human a c t i o n cannot be adequately  understood  u n l e s s t h e framework i n which t h e a c t o r s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r thoughts, f e e l i n g s and  a c t i o n s i s comprehended (Wilson,  1977).  Thus methods a r e r e q u i r e d which  enable i l l u m i n a t i o n and p e n e t r a t i o n o f the a c t o r s ' p o i n t s o f view and o f the s u b j e c t i v e meanings they a t t a c h t o the o b j e c t s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e i r w o r l d . In t h i s r e g a r d ,  the methods o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n  engages i n the a c t o r s ' s o c i a l questions  s e t t i n g observing,  (where t h e r e s e a r c h e r  l i s t e n i n g and a s k i n g  over an extended p e r i o d of time) a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  Through assuming the r o l e ( s ) o f those  being  appropriate.  studied, the researcher  i s better  a b l e t o document and understand t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s and uncover the meaning embedded i n t h e i r a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n  (Wilson,  1977).  Research Purpose and Design The FLE  purpose o f t h i s study was t o understand how t e a c h e r s  c u r r i c u l u m and t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r  conception study  and t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e .  of s i x f a m i l y l i f e  District  taught  curriculum  T h i s r e s e a r c h was a m u l t i p l e case  l o c a t e d i n the C e n t r a l V a l l e y  (a pseudonym), a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n  Western Canada. process  educators  conceptualize  school d i s t r i c t  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s e l e c t i o n o f these  School  i n a province i n  s i x cases  and o f the  of g a i n i n g e n t r y i n t o the s c h o o l s and the c l a s s r o o m s i n which will  clarify  the development of t h e r e s e a r c h  they  design.  S e l e c t i o n of Cases In t h i s r e s e a r c h , home economics f a m i l y l i f e those who t e a c h f a m i l y l i f e  education  guidance, b i o l o g y , h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n f a c t o r s guided was  i n place  this decision.  educators  concepts i n o t h e r  (as opposed t o  s u b j e c t areas  o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s ) were s t u d i e d .  First,  an o f f i c i a l  such as Two  c u r r i c u l u m document f o r FLE  i n t h e secondary s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e  as p a r t o f t h e home  45 economics program and c o n s t i t u t e d t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE program.  This  document r e f l e c t s t h e broad d e f i n i t i o n of FLE as o u t l i n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on F a m i l y is  R e l a t i o n s (see Chapter I I ) .  i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A.)  in this d i s t r i c t  areas  of the broader f i e l d , was  Although o t h e r s u b j e c t areas  i n c l u d e FLE concepts,  s p e c i a l i z e d content  (An o u t l i n e o f t h i s  or are c a l l e d  i n t h e p r o v i n c e and  "FLE", they  represent  of FLE (such as human s e x u a l i t y ) which a r e subsets  but a r e not synonymous w i t h  concerned w i t h understanding  teacher  it.  Because t h i s  and f a c i l i t a t e d  research  b e l i e f s about FLE c u r r i c u l u m which  i n f o r m c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e , the c u r r i c u l u m document enabled the c a s e s ,  curriculum  the examination of t e a c h e r  comparisons among  b e l i e f s r e l a t e d t o FLE  curriculum. Second, a c c o r d i n g (e.g., Arcus,  t o surveys  1983; K o b l i n s k y ,  I n s t i t u t e o f t h e Family,  of FLE programs i n N o r t h American  Weeks & Cooke, 1985; Sheek, 1984; The V a n i e r  1971), home economics appears t o o f f e r the g r e a t e s t  p r o p o r t i o n o f FLE programs i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s e t t i n g s . teachers  schools  i s most l i k e l y t o t e a c h FLE w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t  Thus, t h i s group of of s c h o o l s .  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r C e n t r a l V a l l e y District.  First,  this district  represented  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y of student  p o p u l a t i o n based on socioeconomic s t a t u s and e t h n i c i t y . differing  f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and f a m i l y v a l u e s  a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s dimension was c o n s i d e r e d s e l e c t i o n of cases  t o be s t u d i e d .  t o be an important  i n FLE,  f a c t o r i n the  Second, the home economics FLE program has District  since the e a r l y  The c u r r e n t FLE c u r r i c u l u m i n home economics i s a r e v i s i o n of t h i s  e a r l i e r program and many of t h e home economics t e a c h e r s been i n v o l v e d i n i t s e v o l u t i o n . has  Because r e s p e c t f o r  i s a central principle  been w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d i n the C e n t r a l V a l l e y School 1970's.  School  received considerable  the d i s t r i c t .  Finally,  support  During  i n the d i s t r i c t  the past f i f t e e n y e a r s  this  have  program  through p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs i n  because of my e x p e r i e n c e s  as a t e a c h e r  economics and as a s u p e r v i s o r of home economics student  o f home  teachers  in this  district  f o r a number o f years and because of my p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s  w i t h t e a c h e r s and d i s t r i c t p r o p o s a l was accepted  p e r s o n n e l , i t seemed l i k e l y  t h a t once the r e s e a r c h  by the School Board, access t o the s c h o o l s and  classrooms would be e x p e d i t e d . The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i s t r i c t  number o f cases t o be s t u d i e d . diversity six  i n socioeconomic  As noted  determined  the s e l e c t i o n o f the  above, t h i s d i s t r i c t  and e t h n i c groups.  The d i s t r i c t  reflected  i s divided  into  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas which roughly approximate a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f both  socioeconomic sampling  and e t h n i c groups i n the c i t y .  from a c r o s s the d i s t r i c t ,  I t was d e c i d e d t h a t p u r p o s i v e  i . e . , s e l e c t i n g one case from  each  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a , would p r o v i d e the range of t e a c h i n g c o n t e x t s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f program s e t t i n g on t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE c u r r i c u l u m . The  s e l e c t i o n of the s i x cases was based  selection criteria criteria  developed  on judgement sampling,  by the r e s e a r c h e r (Burgess,  i n c l u d e d the socioeconomic  1984).  that i s ,  These  s t a t u s and e t h n i c i t y of the s c h o o l  (i.e.,  the c o n t e x t o f t e a c h i n g ) and the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e  i n t e a c h i n g the C e n t r a l  V a l l e y FLE program ( i . e . ,  As noted above, the  first  criterion  a minimum of t h r e e y e a r s ) .  (the c o n t e x t o f t e a c h i n g ) was i d e n t i f i e d as a p o s s i b l e  i n f l u e n c e on t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE c u r r i c u l u m .  The second  criterion  ( e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g FLE) was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the minimum l e n g t h of time d u r i n g which t e a c h e r s would have r e s o l v e d i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e g i n n i n g t o teach a subject.  Because i t was deemed d e s i r a b l e t o h o l d the c u r r i c u l u m  content c o n s t a n t f o r the purpose of comparison among cases, i t was  expected  t h a t a l l would be t e a c h i n g the same grade l e v e l of the C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE program ( i . e . ,  e i t h e r 11 o r 12).  Although  i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s t h e r e was a male  home economics FLE t e a c h e r i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , when t h i s r e s e a r c h was undertaken. While  these  initial  he was not t e a c h i n g t h i s s u b j e c t  Thus, o n l y female  t e a c h e r s were s t u d i e d .  d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the number of cases and t h e i r  47 selection c r i t e r i a  c o n s t i t u t e d the proposed r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ,  u l t i m a t e l y depended upon g a i n i n g access  their  realization  or entry i n t o the classrooms.  Gaining Entry to Settings As p r e p a r a t i o n s were made t o g a i n e n t r y i n t o the d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s themselves,  i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t , i n a t l e a s t one s c h o o l  the s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas  of the d i s t r i c t ,  t e a c h e r w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e experience FLE program.  r e q u i r e s n e g o t i a t i o n (Schatzman & S t r a u s s ,  act",  research,  My e x p e r i e n c e s  i s engaged i n making a s e r i e s o f judgments which  i n g a i n i n g access  both n e g o t i a t i o n and compromise.  Following  approval  Research Committee and the C e n t r a l V a l l e y  Research Department, the D i s t r i c t  Principal  Economics programs i n C e n t r a l V a l l e y Schools o f secondary s c h o o l s  r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s i n those was  taught.  teacher's  The D i s t r i c t  experience  participation.  i n the d i s t r i c t ,  This  individual  and i d e n t i f i e d p o t e n t i a l  s c h o o l s where the C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE c u r r i c u l u m i n f o r m a t i o n about each  t h i s program i n the d i s t r i c t  and p o i n t e d out  c o n s t r a i n t s i n s e v e r a l s e t t i n g s which might i n f l u e n c e  F o r a v a r i e t y of reasons,  that c e r t a i n teachers  School  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Home  was c o n t a c t e d .  P r i n c i p a l also provided  teaching  s i t u a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l  s e l e c t i n g the s i x  of the a p p l i c a t i o n t o conduct t h i s r e s e a r c h by both  the U n i v e r s i t y Human S u b j e c t s  supplied a l i s t  1984; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  and i n subsequently  reflected  District  e n t r y i n t o the s e t t i n g  1973; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983;  may encompass r e c i p r o c i t y o r compromise (Burgess,  cases  the C e n t r a l V a l l e y  Moreover, such n e g o t i a t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d as a " b a l a n c i n g  where t h e r e s e a r c h e r  1983).  i n each of  t h e r e would be a home economics  c u r r e n t l y teaching  However, as i s common i n f i e l d  Woods, 1986).  and t o t h e  the D i s t r i c t  Principal  recommended  not be approached and t h i s recommendation was f o l l o w e d .  These a d d i t i o n a l " c o n d i t i o n s " meant t h a t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l selection criteria and  the context  (i.e.,  experience  teaching  t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE program  o f t e a c h i n g ) , the c h o i c e of s e t t i n g s was l i m i t e d b e f o r e any  48 t e a c h e r s were even c o n t a c t e d .  Based on the D i s t r i c t  Principal's  recommendations, f i v e s c h o o l s and f i v e t e a c h e r s were e l i m i n a t e d from p o s s i b l e participation  i n the study, l e a v i n g e i g h t t e a c h e r s t o be approached  participation  i n the r e s e a r c h .  The  D i s t r i c t P r i n c i p a l o u t l i n e d a p r o t o c o l f o r making i n i t i a l  with potential research participants. be made by telephone t h i s consent  concerning  contacts  I t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t i n i t i a l  contact  and t h a t once consent was g i v e n , a l e t t e r documenting  be d e l i v e r e d t o the c o n s e n t i n g t e a c h e r and t o the s e n i o r  a d m i n i s t r a t o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s c h o o l . (A copy of t h i s l e t t e r  i s included  i n Appendix B.) In  an i n f o r m a l telephone  i n t r o d u c e d myself,  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h each p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t , I  p r o v i d e d a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the proposed  i n d i c a t e d t h a t I wanted t o d i s c u s s t h e i r p o t e n t i a l These telephone  calls elicited  involvement  a v a r i e t y of responses.  r e s e a r c h and i n the p r o j e c t .  They ranged  from  immediate and u n c o n d i t i o n a l agreement:  T h i s sounds i n t e r e s t i n g and e x c i t i n g . . . s u r e I'd love t o do i t .  to  hesitation  Can I c a l l i t over.  and,  you back and l e t you know i n a few d a y s ? . . . I ' d  l i k e to think  i n one case, s c e p t i c i s m  W e l l , I'm not s u r e . . . I ' d have t o have a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s answered b e f o r e I s a i d OK.  Two t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were w o r r i e d about being e v a l u a t e d . asked:  What i f I'm not doing  Another  said:  i t [ t e a c h i n g the FLE program] r i g h t ?  One  49 I t sounds l i k e y o u ' l l be e v a l u a t i n g me.  E v e n t u a l l y each o f these e i g h t t e a c h e r s agreed  t o meet w i t h me i n d i v i d u a l l y t o  f u r t h e r d i s c u s s the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and the e x t e n t of t h e i r s h o u l d they agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e  involvement  in i t .  I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s meeting would serve s e v e r a l First,  purposes.  i t would c l a r i f y the nature and purpose of the r e s e a r c h , the t e a c h e r s '  involvement  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  f o r t h e i r classrooms.  i n the p r o j e c t and the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these  Second, the meeting would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  encourage the t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n address  the expressed  concerns  i n the p r o j e c t .  about e v a l u a t i o n and t o suggest p o s s i b l e  p r o f e s s i o n a l b e n e f i t s which might accrue project.  T h i s a l l o w e d me t o  from involvement  These i n c l u d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t  i n the r e s e a r c h  on t h e i r p r a c t i c e , which  t e a c h e r s may not always do c o n s c i o u s l y , and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f i e l d Finally,  o f FLE i n the development of knowledge about the p r a c t i t i o n e r . t h i s meeting i n i t i a t e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  teacher.  of r a p p o r t w i t h  F o r example, I made a p o i n t of i d e n t i f y i n g  had  i n common.  one  time,  Indeed, the f a c t t h a t I had taught  each  some e x p e r i e n c e s  t h a t we  FLE i n C e n t r a l V a l l e y a t  and was known p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t o s e v e r a l o f the t e a c h e r s may have  facilitated  a c c e s s a t t h i s stage and c o n t r i b u t e d t o some i n i t i a l  development  of r a p p o r t . F o l l o w i n g these meetings, two t e a c h e r s d e c l i n e d , two t e a c h e r s u n c e r t a i n and f o u r t e a c h e r s agreed these f o u r t e a c h e r s expressed classroom.  These concerns  to p a r t i c i p a t e  some concerns  visit  about having  However,  an o b s e r v e r  appeared t o be a l l e v i a t e d when I suggested  they would be f r e e t o s t i p u l a t e times planned  i n the r e s e a r c h .  remained  that  f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s and t h a t whenever a  became i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n c o n v e n i e n t  a l t e r n a t e time c o u l d be arranged.  in their  ( f o r whatever r e a s o n ) , an  50 D e s p i t e such assurances, i n v o l v e d were s t i l l  the two  reluctant.  One  w o r r i e s about "being e v a l u a t e d " . agreed  to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  t e a c h e r s who  of these t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e d  over the p a s t week...and I d e c i d e d  o t h e r t e a c h e r had j u s t been a s s i g n e d to a new  due  t o the new  workload and  very stressed o u t . . . i f so i n t e r e s t i n g .  time problems, she  i t was  s c h o o l and  g e t " , I asked  her  she  s c h o o l , and  I'm  not  indicated that,  felt:  next year,  When t h i s t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e d to express  to  express  saying:  The  i n a new  to  being  However, a f t e r t h i n k i n g t h i n g s through,  I've been e v a l u a t i n g myself t h a t bad.  being  were u n c e r t a i n about  I'd do  concerns  i t for sure...it  sounds  about both the p r e s s u r e s of  the f e a r t h a t she might not  " g i v e you what you  i f I c o u l d make i t e a s i e r f o r her to be  involved.  need She  indicated:  I j u s t need time  to a d j u s t , I guess.  A f t e r some f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , she agreed g i v e her time  to a d j u s t t o the new  to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  s c h o o l and  term was  w e l l under way.  criteria  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the study.  selection criteria,  met  one  until  of  the  t e a c h i n g the C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE U n f o r t u n a t e l y these Although  teachers this  fell  the f i v e areas r e p r e s e n t e d d i d  p r o v i d e a range of c o n t e x t s of t e a c h i n g , making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the study proceed.  to  C.)  r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y f i v e of the s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s . s h o r t of the o r i g i n a l  i n the r e s e a r c h )  i n t e r a c t i o n s , s i x t e a c h e r s who  (a minimum of t h r e e years e x p e r i e n c e  program) agreed  not  (A copy of the Informed Consent document  which t e a c h e r s s i g n e d i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix As a consequence of these  i n o r d e r to  i t s r o u t i n e s , I agreed  make c o n t a c t w i t h her a g a i n ( t h i s time as a p a r t i c i p a n t the f i r s t  and,  A f u r t h e r compromise i n the d e s i g n was  r e q u i r e d as f o u r of the  to  t e a c h e r s were c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g the grade 11 C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE c o u r s e , two were t e a c h i n g the grade 12 course. two  However, the g e n e r a l purposes of the  l e v e l s are the same and d i f f e r e n c e s are e v i d e n t p r i m a r i l y  emphases.  While t h i s d i d not meet the s p e c i f i e d or " i d e a l "  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the study,  t h i s new  while  circumstance  i n the  content  proposed  would a l l o w f o r the  additional  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of whether t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by the l e v e l curriculum.  Although  t h i s represents a departure  r e f l e c t s the r e a l i t y of f i e l d  of  from the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n , i t  r e s e a r c h i n which n e g o t i a t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o the  development of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n .  D e s c r i p t i o n of S e t t i n g s The The  School  C e n t r a l V a l l e y School D i s t r i c t  District i s a large metropolitan d i s t r i c t  a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of about 50,000 s t u d e n t s . t w o - f i f t h s are e n r o l l e d  i n secondary  schools.  Of t h e s e , As noted  approximately earlier,  i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas which encompass the e i g h t e e n secondary  with  the  district  district's  s c h o o l s and which are d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a c r o s s  the  c i t y from west t o e a s t . According socioeconomic  to data p r o v i d e d by the C e n t r a l V a l l e y School D i s t r i c t ,  and  e t h n i c composition  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas  low  income.  and  generally l i t t l e  i n c i d e n c e of unemployment  While r e s i d e n t s i n these areas are predominantly  t h e r e are a l s o groups of O r i e n t a l s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas reflect  some N a t i v e  l o c a t e d i n the east and  Indians.  southeast  a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of blue c o l l a r workers and  unemployment and  F o r example, i n  l o c a t e d i n the west, t h e r e i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of  p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the workforce and  of the s i x areas d i f f e r .  low  the  income.  Caucasian,  In c o n t r a s t , the  p a r t s of the  district  a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e of  These areas are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e  p o p u l a t i o n s of m u l t i - e t h n i c groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y O r i e n t a l and  Indo-Canadian.  52 The  use of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas as a measure of socioeconomic  e t h n i c i t y i s somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c .  For example, the p a t t e r n s of  s t a t u s and  socioeconomic  s t a t u s i n each of the s i x areas are not n e c e s s a r i l y d i s c r e t e and w i t h i n each of the areas t h e r e i s c o n c e i v a b l y a range of l e v e l s of socioeconomic  status.  Indeed, the C e n t r a l V a l l e y School D i s t r i c t p r o v i d e d o n l y l i m i t e d o f f i c i a l c o n c e r n i n g socioeconomic on average  s t a t u s i n each of the s i x a r e a s .  f a m i l y income, e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ,  i n c i d e n c e of unemployment.  While  income and  i t i s recognized that s o c i a l c l a s s  1981), these were the c r i t e r i a used socioeconomic  T h i s d a t a i s based  i n c i d e n c e of low  s o l e l y d e f i n e d by f a c t o r s such as o c c u p a t i o n and  1  i s not  l e v e l of income (Anyon,  by the d i s t r i c t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each a r e a .  i n d e s c r i b i n g the  Similarly,  only l i m i t e d  c o n c e r n i n g the e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of the s i x areas were a v a i l a b l e .  data  However,  because the s i x areas do p r o v i d e both a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of socioeconomic i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t  and a range of e t h n i c groups,  them as an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  i t was  of d i f f e r e n c e s i n socioeconomic  The  be s e l e c t e d  While  i t was  levels  d e c i d e d t o use  s t a t u s and  ethnicity.  Schools  Each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area i n c l u d e s up t o f o u r of the e i g h t e e n s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t .  data  o r i g i n a l l y proposed  secondary  t h a t one  case would  from each area, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of home economics t e a c h e r s w i t h a  minimum of t h r e e y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g the C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE  program  Anyon d e s c r i b e s s o c i a l c l a s s as "a s e r i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of the p r o c e s s i n s o c i e t y by which goods, s e r v i c e s , and c u l t u r e are produced." She i n d i c a t e s t h a t one's s o c i a l c l a s s i s thus determined by "one's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the system of ownership of p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l , t o the s t r u c t u r e of a u t h o r i t y at work and i n s o c i e t y , and t o the c o n t e n t and p r o c e s s of one's own work a c t i v i t y . " A c c o r d i n g t o Anyon, " a l l t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are n e c e s s a r y and no s i n g l e one i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a r e l a t i o n t o the p r o c e s s of p r o d u c t i o n i n s o c i e t y " ( p . 4 ) . A l t h o u g h the n o t i o n of s o c i a l c l a s s i s r e f e r r e d t o by the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study, i t must not be i n f e r r e d t h a t these complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s i d e n t i f i e d by Anyon are n e c e s s a r i l y embodied i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , the socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e area are d e s c r i b e d i n v e r y g e n e r a l terms, and do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s Anyon notes. 1  precluded t h i s .  A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of each s c h o o l and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n d i c a t e s the c o n t e x t s w i t h i n which the r e s e a r c h was conducted.  Information  c o n c e r n i n g the socioeconomic and e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of each s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n is the  d e s c r i b e d u s i n g both the o f f i c i a l language  d a t a p r o v i d e d by the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and  o f the t e a c h e r s as they t a l k e d about the e t h n i c and socioeconomic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s (e.g., "upper middle "working  class",  "blue c o l l a r " ) .  class",  To p r o t e c t the i d e n t i t y of the t e a c h e r s ,  each o f the s c h o o l s i s i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g a pseudonym, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e are  not named and d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a i s g e n e r a l .  areas  The s c h o o l s a r e p r e s e n t e d  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by pseudonym. 1)  Cornerbrook High School i s s i t u a t e d  i n an area which  by " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " and "white c o l l a r workers",  i s populated  who were f r e q u e n t l y  r e f e r r e d t o as "a combination o f upper middle c l a s s and middle class families".  A l t h o u g h some s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h i s s c h o o l come  from low income f a m i l i e s , the i n c i d e n c e i s g e n e r a l l y low. enrollment  Student  i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000, and s t u d e n t s are p r e d o m i n a n t l y  Caucasian. 2)  Forest H i l l s  Secondary  School i s l o c a t e d  i n a neighbourhood  i n h a b i t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , and was r e f e r r e d t o as "upper middle c l a s s " . There t h i s area.  is little  i n c i d e n c e o f low income i n  Approximately 1200 s t u d e n t s , p r e d o m i n a n t l y C a u c a s i a n  and O r i e n t a l , are e n r o l l e d . 3)  Mountainview  High School i s l o c a t e d  upper middle c l a s s " neighbourhood. g e n e r a l l y h i g h and t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h i s area.  I t houses  i n what was d e s c r i b e d as "an Average  f a m i l y incomes a r e  i n c i d e n c e of unemployment i n  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 800 s t u d e n t s who a r e  p r e d o m i n a n t l y Caucasian and O r i e n t a l . 4)  Oakland  Secondary  School i s l o c a t e d  encompasses both "working  i n a neighbourhood  c l a s s " and " p r o f e s s i o n a l "  which  families.  Average f a m i l y income i n t h i s area v a r i e s , as does the i n c i d e n c e of unemployment.  The student p o p u l a t i o n numbers almost  c u l t u r a l l y diverse.  The predominant e t h n i c groups r e p r e s e n t e d i n  the s c h o o l a r e Caucasian, 5)  1500 and i s  R i v e r s i d e High School  O r i e n t a l and Indo-Canadian.  i s situated  c o l l a r " area of the d i s t r i c t .  i n what was d e s c r i b e d as a "blue  The average  f a m i l y income i n t h i s  area i s g e n e r a l l y low and t h e r e i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of unemployment. The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s predominantly  Oriental  ( i n c l u d i n g Chinese, Vietnamese and some Japanese) and numbers about 800. 6)  Seaview Secondary i s l o c a t e d i n what was r e f e r r e d t o as a " g e n e r a l l y blue c o l l a r " neighbourhood.  There i s a h i g h i n c i d e n c e  of unemployment and low income i n t h i s a r e a . s t u d e n t s are e n r o l l e d . Oriental  Approximately  1200  The student p o p u l a t i o n i s predominantly  (Chinese and Vietnamese) and Indo-Canadian.  Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s Data c o l l e c t i o n extended June) and corresponded stages o f f i e l d  t o the d u r a t i o n of the s c h o o l year.  r e s e a r c h are interdependent  represent a c y c l i c a l throughout  over a p e r i o d of e i g h t months (October  sequence of events  the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  A l t h o u g h the  and i n t e g r a t e d ( R i s t ,  1982) and  i n which the p r o c e s s e s a r e repeated  ( S p r a d l e y , 1980), they a r e d e s c r i b e d  s e p a r a t e l y f o r ease o f d i s c u s s i o n . and  through  However, where a p p r o p r i a t e , the ongoing  r e f l e x i v e nature of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s e l u c i d a t e d .  Methods T h i s study employed m u l t i p l e data c o l l e c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and document a n a l y s i s . triangulation"  (Denzin,  This  including  "methodological  1978) p r o v i d e d a means of checking the v a l i d i t y of the  TABLE 1 DATA COLLECTION: Subj ect  Pre-Observational Interview  INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION SCHEDULE  Classroom O b s e r v a t i o n s  Post-Observational Interview  November 1, 1988  Nov. 8/88;Dec.2/88;Dec.13/88;Jan. 4/89; Jan. 6/89;Jan.10/89; Jan.11/89;Jan.18/89;Jan.20/89; Jan. 27/89;Jan.31/89; Feb.15/89;Feb.23/89;Feb.24/89;Mar.8/89  June 7, 1989  November 24, 1988  Dec.5/88;Jan.6/89;Jan.10/89;Jan.30/89;Feb.8/89;Feb.20/89; Mar.1/89;Mar.22/89;Apr.10/89;Apr.19/89;Apr.21/89; Apr.26/89;May 3/89;May 8/89;May 15/89  June 6, 1989  Karen  October 26, 1988  Nov.3/88;Dec.l/88;Jan.12/89;Feb.9/89;Feb.16/89; Feb.21/89;Mar.2/89;Mar.9/89;Apr.4/89;Apr.20/89; May 2/89;May 4/89;May 16/89;May 18/89;May 25/89  June 12, 1989  Paula  October 19, 1988  Oct.27/88;Oct.31/88;Nov.28/88; Jan.26/89;Jan.30/89; Feb.7/89;Feb.23/89;Mar.20/89;Mar.21/89;Apr.11/89; Apr.25/89;Apr.27/89;May 13/89;May 25/89;June 5/89  June 14, 1989  Allison  October 13, 1988  Dec.1/88;Dec.8/88;Jan.12/89;Jan.24/89;Jan.27/89; Jan.31/89;Feb.9/89;Feb.21/89;Mar.3/89;Mar.7/89; Mar.14/89;Apr.28/89;May 4/89;May ll/89;May 18/89  June 1, 1989  Susan  November 3, 1988  Nov.10/88;Dec.12/88;Jan.10/89;Jan. 19/89;Jan.23/89; Jan.31/89;Feb.14/89;Feb.20/89;Feb.28/89;Mar.13/89; Apr.6/89;Apr.10/89;Apr.13/89;Apr.25/89;May 11/89  June 15, 1989  Julie  Candace  56 findings.  Each method i n r e l a t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s of the study  (The data c o l l e c t i o n schedule  i s o u t l i n e d i n Table  i s described.  1.)  Interviews I n t e r v i e w s were used t o gather b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t o e l i c i t t e a c h e r s ' a b s t r a c t b e l i e f s about FLE and FLE c u r r i c u l u m , t o g a i n i n s i g h t possible  i n f l u e n c e s on t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s  observer understandings minute formal  of FLE c u r r i c u l u m and t o c l a r i f y  o f a c t i o n s and events  i n t e r v i e w s (one a t the b e g i n n i n g  end) were conducted  w i t h each t e a c h e r .  into  i n classrooms.  Two n i n e t y  o f the r e s e a r c h and one a t the  The f i r s t  i n t e r v i e w schedule  was  p i l o t - t e s t e d w i t h two FLE t e a c h e r s o u t s i d e o f the C e n t r a l V a l l e y School District  and was subsequently  revised.  p r e - o b s e r v a t i o n a l ) and the f i n a l and  then t r a n s c r i b e d .  f o l l o w i n g classroom recorded The  in field formal  Burgess (1984), (p. 102).  Both the i n i t i a l ( o r  ( o r p o s t - o b s e r v a t i o n a l ) i n t e r v i e w s were  Informal o r impromptu c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h  o b s e r v a t i o n s o r d u r i n g telephone  taped  teachers  c o n v e r s a t i o n s were  notes. i n t e r v i e w s i n t h i s study were s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d .  such  i n t e r v i e w s are r e a l l y  According to  " c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h a purpose"  N o n - d i r e c t i v e o r open-ended q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o " t r i g g e r " o r  s t i m u l a t e the i n t e r v i e w e e t o t a l k about a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c .  Occasionally,  however, d i r e c t i v e o r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r t o e x p l o r e emergent i d e a s o r concepts Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  are a l s o used ( C i c o u r e l ,  1983).  In t h i s study,  both open-ended and d i r e c t i v e  q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s . q u e s t i o n s focused on f o u r g e n e r a l a r e a s : b e l i e f s about the f i e l d  1964; Denzin, 1978;  In the i n i t i a l  1) b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; 2)  o f FLE; 3) b e l i e f s about c u r r i c u l u m content and  p r a c t i c e i n FLE; and 4) b e l i e f s about t e a c h i n g and about e d u c a t i o n . final  interview,  i n t e r v i e w , q u e s t i o n s were based p r i m a r i l y on c l a s s r o o m  In the  observations.  While some of the s p e c i f i c o r d i r e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s v a r i e d among t h e t e a c h e r s  57 due  t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s e t t i n g s ,  why were c e r t a i n approaches used  s e v e r a l g e n e r a l areas were addressed:  1)  i n t e a c h i n g ? 2) how were t o p i c s and content  s e l e c t e d ? 3) what i n f l u e n c e s were p e r c e i v e d t o have shaped t h e i r t h i n k i n g about FLE c u r r i c u l u m ?  In a d d i t i o n , each t e a c h e r was asked  to b r i e f l y  r e i t e r a t e her g e n e r a l b e l i e f s about FLE and some p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s were p r e s e n t e d f o r v a l i d a t i o n by the t e a c h e r s . included  (Copies of i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s a r e  i n Appendices D and E.)  An  important  i s s u e i n conducting  i n t e r v i e w s i s the development of  r a p p o r t and t r u s t w i t h those being i n t e r v i e w e d (e.g., see Schatzman & S t r a u s s , 1973;  Woods, 1986).  A c c o r d i n g t o Woods (1986),  r e s e a r c h e r and the i n t e r v i e w e e i d e a l l y  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  " t r a n s c e n d s " the r e s e a r c h and promotes  a "bond of f r i e n d s h i p , a f e e l i n g of t o g e t h e r n e s s and j o i n t p u r s u i t o f a common m i s s i o n " (p. 63).  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p r e f l e c t s a r a p p o r t t h a t a l l o w s the  interviewee t o f e e l comfortable d i v u l g i n g  information.  Moreover,  throughout  the i n t e r v i e w the r e s e a r c h e r must m a i n t a i n r a p p o r t , w h i l e a t the same time c o n t r o l l i n g and m o n i t o r i n g the speech manipulating  through  l i s t e n i n g and i n a sense  the i n t e r v i e w e e u n o b t r u s i v e l y t o g a i n access t o t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e  (Schatzman & S t r a u s s , 1973).  During the two i n t e r v i e w s i n t h i s study, I  endeavored t o c r e a t e a c o m f o r t a b l e  atmosphere and t o develop  was o f p a r t i c u l a r concern d u r i n g the f i r s t relatively  active  little  responses  This  i n t e r v i e w , when I had spent  time w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s r o o m s .  M a i n t a i n i n g eye c o n t a c t , e x p r e s s i n g empathy, encouraging f r e e l y without  rapport.  the t e a c h e r s t o t a l k  i n t e r r u p t i o n and s t r e s s i n g the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of t h e i r  helped t o put the t e a c h e r s a t ease and seemed t o f a c i l i t a t e the  interviews.  As might be expected,  the f i n a l  i n t e r v i e w s were l o n g e r and the  t e a c h e r s spoke w i t h l e s s h e s i t a t i o n and w i t h fewer q u e s t i o n s from me. the development of r a p p o r t i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r  i n t h i s c h a p t e r under the  heading  t o the T e a c h e r s '  of "Research  Roles and G a i n i n g Access  Because  S o c i a l Worlds",  58 it  i s not e l a b o r a t e d here.  included  (An example o f an i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s  i n Appendix F.)  Observations Observations  i n each t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m were conducted  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r a b s t r a c t b e l i e f s about  t o determine the  FLE c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e i r  classroom  p r a c t i c e and t o p r o v i d e a c r o s s - c h e c k t o v a l i d a t e d a t a from i n t e r v i e w s . the e x c e p t i o n o f i n i t i a l n o t a t i o n s were made about were f o r m a l , t h a t  classroom v i s i t s  With  ( i n which v e r y g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e  the s e t t i n g and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s ) , most o b s e r v a t i o n s  i s , focused and d e t a i l e d , and c o n c r e t e v e r b a t i m accounts of  what the t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y s a i d and d i d i n t h e i r classrooms were r e c o r d e d i n field  notes and t r a n s c r i b e d  Appendix G.)  into protocols.  (An example i s i n c l u d e d i n  These then p r o v i d e d what Burgess  (1984) c a l l s a "continuous  r e c o r d o f the s i t u a t i o n s , events and c o n v e r s a t i o n s [which were o b s e r v e d ] " (p.167).  Because i t i s c l e a r l y  i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o r d e v e r y t h i n g i n the  setting,  some s e l e c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r r e d .  provided  initial  s e n s i t i z i n g concepts  While  (see Denzin,  the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework  1978) f o r c l a s s r o o m  o b s e r v a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n a l concepts emerged and helped t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y subsequent  focus  observations.  During the course o f the r e s e a r c h , f i f t e e n c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r each t e a c h e r were conducted.  A schedule o f these v i s i t s was developed i n  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h each o f the t e a c h e r s .  Because the C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE  c u r r i c u l u m document i n c l u d e d f o u r t o p i c s a t the grade the grade  12 l e v e l ,  11 l e v e l and t h r e e a t  i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t f i f t e e n o b s e r v a t i o n s s t a g g e r e d  over the course of e i g h t months of the s c h o o l year would p r o v i d e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s s e c t i o n of the major components of the program as i t was being taught. of  A l t h o u g h an attempt was made t o sample a c r o s s these major areas  the c u r r i c u l u m , the o r d e r i n which t e a c h e r s chose  t o t e a c h these  particular  t o p i c s and t h e i r d e c i s i o n s about what content t o i n c l u d e o r t o exclude  from  t h e i r program p r o h i b i t e d such d i s c r e t e sampling. at  d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n the temporal  O b s e r v a t i o n s were  c y c l e s of each s e t t i n g .  conducted  To f a c i l i t a t e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s e t t i n g s , o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h each t e a c h e r were u s u a l l y s t a g g e r e d  (i.e.,  some  time e l a p s e d between c l a s s r o o m v i s i t s and these were p u r p o s e l y extended  over  the course o f the s c h o o l y e a r ) . Once i n the s e t t i n g s , planned  i t became apparent  that n e g o t i a t i o n concerning  c l a s s r o o m v i s i t s was c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n  research project.  F o r example, unscheduled  n e c e s s i t a t e d adjustments illness,  t o the planned  s c h o o l events  (such as a s s e m b l i e s )  observation schedules.  Similarly,  u n a n t i c i p a t e d p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l commitments and t e a c h e r  perceptions that "this just  i s n ' t a good time f o r you t o come", c o n t r i b u t e d t o  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e - s c h e d u l i n g of c l a s s r o o m v i s i t s throughout research.  of the  Periodically  I sensed  the need t o observe  the course o f the  some l e s s o n s i n  s u c c e s s i o n ( u s u a l l y t r i g g e r e d by an " u n f i n i s h e d " d i s c u s s i o n ) o r was requested by the t e a c h e r t o v i s i t the next c l a s s " t o see what happens next". the r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e d ,  the o r i g i n a l p l a n t o space  Thus, as  observations evenly  over  the s c h o o l y e a r was r e p e a t e d l y r e v i s e d .  Documents Documents a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n the s e t t i n g s ,  such as the o f f i c i a l C e n t r a l  V a l l e y FLE c u r r i c u l u m document, course o u t l i n e s and handouts used by the t e a c h e r s , and some guided w r i t i n g completed  by the t e a c h e r s a t my  r e q u e s t were a l s o c o l l e c t e d t o complement and extend were used from  o r developed  other data.  The former  t o i d e n t i f y b e l i e f s about FLE c u r r i c u l u m i n use and t o v e r i f y  i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n s .  The l a t t e r were intended t o e l i c i t a b s t r a c t  b e l i e f s r e l a t e d t o the f i e l d of FLE and t o FLE c u r r i c u l u m , and t o v e r i f y from o t h e r s o u r c e s . of  These a c t i v i t i e s  FLE, r e c o r d i n g thoughts  data  data  included providing a written d e f i n i t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some FLE concepts  and r a n k - o r d e r i n g  60 d i f f e r e n t ways i n which s t u d e n t s may be i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g i n FLE.  In  a d d i t i o n , each t e a c h e r was g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o keep a r e f l e c t i v e d i a r y f o r r e c o r d i n g h e r thoughts and impressions research.  T h i s was presented  about FLE d u r i n g the course  of the  as an o p t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and, due t o what most  t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d as time p r e s s u r e s , o n l y two a c t u a l l y engaged i n t h i s activity.  However, as the r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e d ,  a l l of the t e a c h e r s  on t h e i r b e l i e f s about FLE and on t h e i r c l a s s r o o m  p r a c t i c e i n casual  c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h me f o l l o w i n g most classroom  observations.  conversations  and the f i e l d  were then included  r e p l a c e d the r e f l e c t i v e d i a r i e s ,  i n c l u d e d as d a t a . i n Appendix  reflected  In a sense notes  from  these these  (A copy of the Guided W r i t i n g A c t i v i t i e s i s  H.)  Analysis In f i e l d w o r k , a n a l y s i s i s not a d i s t i n c t phase of the r e s e a r c h but  i s ongoing, beginning  and  c o n t i n u i n g throughout data c o l l e c t i o n  1984; S t r a u s s ,  1987).  w i t h problem f o r m u l a t i o n and i n i t i a l data  In t h i s study,  (Burgess,  gathering,  1984; M i l e s & Huberman,  the g e n e r a l s t r a t e g i e s of s p e c u l a t i v e  analysis  ( i n c l u d i n g the use of s e n s i t i z i n g  checking  f o r the frequency  concepts),  coding  and d i s t r i b u t i o n of concepts  appear i n the d a t a , and v a l i d a t i o n  process  of these  concepts  and c a t e g o r i z i n g ,  and c a t e g o r i e s which  and c a t e g o r i e s through  the use of t r i a n g u l a t i o n were employed. The  sensitizing  several conceptual c u r r i c u l u m theory.  concepts  which i n i t i a l l y  data c o l l e c t i o n were  c a t e g o r i e s drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e of FLE and of g e n e r a l These i n c l u d e d b e l i e f s about the purpose and p r o c e s s of  FLE,  b e l i e f s about the r o l e of the t e a c h e r  FLE,  b e l i e f s about knowledge and content  FLE.  guided  i n FLE; b e l i e f s about t e a c h i n g i n  i n FLE, and b e l i e f s about f a m i l i e s i n  These c a t e g o r i e s o r i e n t e d data c o l l e c t i o n d u r i n g  i n t e r v i e w s and  o b s e r v a t i o n s , and were used i n a n a l y s i s t o d e l i n e a t e t e a c h e r c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE  curriculum.  61 At t h e same time, however, c e r t a i n r e c u r r i n g words, themes and images emerged d u r i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .  These became a d d i t i o n a l s e n s i t i z i n g  which guided the c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a and which were employed d u r i n g data a n a l y s i s . evident  concepts subsequent  F o r example, the word " s t o r y " r e c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y and was  i n some t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s and i n the d i s c o u r s e o f t e a c h e r s and  students i n classrooms.  The r e c u r r e n c e o f t h i s word e a r l y  i n data  collection  prompted me t o l o o k f u r t h e r f o r evidence of s t o r i e s as t h e d a t a were gathered. Once d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was completed,  the s e n s i t i z i n g  concepts and  c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s were used t o code f i e l d notes, i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s and s e l e c t e d documents f o r evidence o r i n d i c a t o r s of t h e concept Such evidence observed  or category.  i n c l u d e d a c t i o n s , events o r words and phrases which were  o r i n c l u d e d i n documents and i n d i a l o g u e .  S i m i l a r l y , the c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t i o n s were d e l i n e a t e d u s i n g the f i v e c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d above. of these c a t e g o r i e s .  I n t e r v i e w d a t a was coded  f o r evidence  When c o n c e p t i o n s were compared w i t h c l a s s r o o m  practice,  the same c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s were used t o code the d a t a o f c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and documents used  i n the s e t t i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s .  Methodological t r i a n g u l a t i o n  (i.e.,  the use of m u l t i p l e methods f o r data  c o l l e c t i o n ) v a l i d a t e d the concepts and c a t e g o r i e s as they were i d e n t i f i e d and delineated.  This triangulation  i n v o l v e d s c r u t i n i z i n g the data  from  i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and documents f o r evidence of t h e predominant c a t e g o r i e s and c o n c e p t s .  When these appeared  i n d a t a c o l l e c t e d by a l l t h r e e  methods, t h e i r v a l i d i t y was strengthened. As the c a t e g o r i e s and concepts were f i r m l y  i d e n t i f i e d and d e l i n e a t e d ,  they were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of t h e i r frequency and d i s t r i b u t i o n data.  The g r e a t e r the frequency and the more widespread  throughout  i n the  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  m u l t i p l e data s o u r c e s , the s t r o n g e r the v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s  (Denzin, 1978).  A t the same time, the data was s c r u t i n i z e d  f o r negative  62  evidence  which might r e f u t e the c l a i m t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y was indeed a  substantive  finding.  As t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t i o n s  were d e l i n e a t e d , they were  a c c o r d i n g t o the c e n t r a l theme which c h a r a c t e r i z e d each. p r i m a r i l y t o the t e a c h e r s ' understandings Emergent concepts  labelled  These themes r e l a t e d  o f the aims and purposes of FLE.  and themes c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two a d d i t i o n a l  a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s ("tensions  and c o n s t r a i n t s " and "images of FLE c u r r i c u l u m  practice").  Research Roles and G a i n i n g Access i n t o the Teachers' S o c i a l Worlds G a i n i n g Access t o the Teachers' Gaining  access  S o c i a l Worlds  i n t o the t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l worlds d i f f e r s  entry into the research s e t t i n g .  Such access  i n v o l v e s g a i n i n g t h e t r u s t of  p a r t i c i p a n t s and assuming o r n e g o t i a t i n g a r o l e & T a y l o r , 1975; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  i n the s e t t i n g  s o c i a l e n t r y t o what Goffman (1959) c a l l s forgo h i s l i n e s ,  t h i s l e v e l has been accessed,  itself  1983; Schatzman & S t r a u s s ,  i n t h e s e t t i n g , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s aim i s t o p e n e t r a t e  drop h i s f r o n t ,  from g a i n i n g  1973).  beyond the f i r s t  "the backstage"  (Bogdan Once  l e v e l of  where t h e " a c t o r can  and s t e p out o f c h a r a c t e r " (p. 112). When  t h e r e s e a r c h e r has begun t o e n t e r the s o c i a l  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s e t t i n g . In t h i s study,  t h e development of r a p p o r t and t r u s t began d u r i n g the  f i r s t meeting w i t h t e a c h e r s concerning research project. Atkinson  I was c o n s c i o u s  their potential  from t h e beginning  involvement  i n the  o f what Hammersley and  (1983) r e f e r t o as the development o f a "working i d e n t i t y " .  example, making a p o i n t of i d e n t i f y i n g our common e x p e r i e n c e s  For  related to  t e a c h i n g FLE a s s i s t e d the t e a c h e r s t o p l a c e me w i t h i n t h e i r realm o f experience  and t o r e l a t e t o me as a person  researcher  (see Hammersley & A t k i n s o n ,  and as a t e a c h e r as w e l l as a  1983 f o r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s  point).  Indeed, Goffman (1955) r e f e r s t o the importance o f one's  f r o n t " o r the i m p r e s s i o n made upon e n t e r i n g the s e t t i n g . expressed  concerns about my p o t e n t i a l  "personal  Because of the  " e v a l u a t i o n " of t h e i r t e a c h i n g ,  every o p p o r t u n i t y t o be s e n s i t i v e t o and t o empathize w i t h t h e i r  I took  experiences  as FLE t e a c h e r s and t o o c c a s i o n a l l y r e v e a l some of my own t e a c h i n g experiences. their lives there. for  Such a c t i o n s helped i n the FLE c l a s s r o o m  t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t I had an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and of the k i n d s of events  that often  I a l s o gave the t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l over d e t e r m i n i n g  classrooms  v i s i t s and attempted t o accommodate t h e i r expressed  of  occur times  needs and  wishes whenever p o s s i b l e . According  t o Hammersley and A t k i n s o n  (1983), c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the r e s e a r c h e r , such as age, gender and e t h n i c h e r i t a g e may shape r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g and c o n t r i b u t e t o o r i n t e r f e r e the development of r a p p o r t and t r u s t . gender may have f a c i l i t a t e d  with  In t h i s r e s e a r c h , both my age and my  e n t r y i n t o the s o c i a l worlds o f the t e a c h e r s .  With one e x c e p t i o n , my age was w i t h i n f i v e o r s i x y e a r s of the ages o f the teachers.  Because of our c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i f e  were e x p e r i e n c i n g common concerns and events.  stage,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t we  In f a c t ,  issues related to  c a r e e r development and the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f b a l a n c i n g r o l e s as p r o f e s s i o n a l s and wives o r mothers were p e r i o d i c a l l y t o p i c s o f c a s u a l  conversation.  S i m i l a r l y , the f a c t t h a t we were a l l the same gender may have access  t o the s o c i a l  facilitated  l i v e s of the t e a c h e r s .  As the r e s e a r c h progressed,  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence  development of r a p p o r t and t r u s t . made u n s o l i c i t e d telephone  On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s ,  c a l l s t o me a f t e r a c l a s s  little  time t o chat.  social  f u n c t i o n s u n r e l a t e d t o the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  some o f the t e a c h e r s  i n which t h e r e had been  I also received invitations to participate  the t e a c h e r s about my p e r s o n a l  life  a l s o suggested  i n t o t h e i r worlds and wanted t o know me as a person  o f the  Questions  i n several  from many of  t h a t they had accepted  me  as w e l l as a r e s e a r c h e r .  One  t e a c h e r o f f e r e d t o l e n d me some tapes about parenthood,  me a book i n which she thought of the r e s e a r c h , I developed  I might be i n t e r e s t e d .  and another  lent  Indeed, over the course  a " p r o f e s s i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p " w i t h these s i x  t e a c h e r s which was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by warmth and c a r i n g beyond the concerns of the r e s e a r c h  itself.  Research R e l a t e d t o r a p p o r t and t r u s t will  facilitate  i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s e a r c h r o l e s t h a t  the c o l l e c t i o n o f data.  f o r those engaging  in field  Roles  Four  "theoretically possible roles"  r e s e a r c h have been i d e n t i f i e d  (Junker,  1960).  These i n c l u d e complete p a r t i c i p a n t , p a r t i c i p a n t as o b s e r v e r , o b s e r v e r as p a r t i c i p a n t and complete o b s e r v e r .  These r o l e s v a r y i n the e x t e n t t o which  the r e s e a r c h e r a c t u a l l y engages i n the s e t t i n g and p a r t i c i p a t e s as a member of the group.  The f i r s t  and l a s t o f these r o l e s  (i.e.,  complete p a r t i c i p a n t and  complete o b s e r v e r ) are g e n e r a l l y " c o v e r t " i n t h a t the r e s e a r c h r o l e i s concealed roles  from the p a r t i c i p a n t s  (i.e.,  i n the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g .  In the o t h e r two  p a r t i c i p a n t as o b s e r v e r o r o b s e r v e r as p a r t i c i p a n t ) the  r e s e a r c h e r ' s r e s e a r c h i n t e n t i o n s are made e x p l i c i t . I t has been suggested  t h a t both the r o l e assumed by the r e s e a r c h e r  (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983) and the stage o f r e s e a r c h (Oelsen & Whittaker, 1967)  will  i n f l u e n c e the data t h a t becomes a v a i l a b l e .  participant,  f o r example, the r e s e a r c h e r r i s k s  As complete  "going n a t i v e " o r  o v e r - i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the group and t a k i n g the s e t t i n g and i t s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s f o r granted  (Woods, 1986).  In c o n t r a s t , complete o b s e r v a t i o n  i n h i b i t s p e n e t r a t i o n beyond s u r f a c e l e v e l s .  During  the e a r l y phases o f  r e s e a r c h , r o l e s are s t i l l  emerging and t y p i c a l l y g e n e r a l o r s u r f a c e  information i s obtained.  As r o l e s s t a b i l i z e over time, however, more  detailed,  specific  information i s yielded  (Oelsen & W h i t t a k e r ,  1967).  In t h i s study, I assumed the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t I p r i n c i p a l l y f u n c t i o n e d i n my involvement  s o l i c i t e d my  a d v i c e or my  or when they asked me sense,  my  T h i s r o l e was  degree  (Bogdan & T a y l o r ,  o p i n i o n (both d u r i n g the c l a s s and o u t s i d e of c l a s s )  a "classroom guest speaker".  Whittaker,1967),  1975;  the  e v i d e n t when t e a c h e r s a c t i v e l y  t o comment or t o add t o c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s .  of involvement  actual  m i n i m a l ) , o c c a s i o n a l l y I adopted  I became a k i n d of " r e s i d e n t r e s o u r c e person".  t e a c h e r s c a l l e d me  Although  d e c l a r e d r o l e as r e s e a r c h e r ( i n which my  i n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s was  r o l e of " t e a c h e r h e l p e r " .  as o b s e r v e r .  i n the s e t t i n g v a r i e d .  i n involvement  one of the  Thus, throughout  the study,  According to s e v e r a l  Hammersley & A t k i n s o n 1983;  such v a r i a t i o n  Indeed,  In t h i s  Merriam, 1988;  i s usual i n f i e l d  writers  Oelsen &  r e s e a r c h , and  p r o v i d e s a c c e s s t o d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of d a t a . R e l a t e d t o t h i s degree setting  of involvement  i n the a c t i v i t i e s  of the r e s e a r c h  i s m a i n t a i n i n g a balance between being an " i n s i d e r " and an  "outsider".  Merriam (1988) d e s c r i b e s t h i s maintenance of m a r g i n a l i t y as "a s c h i z o p h r e n i c activity  i n t h a t one u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e s but not t o the e x t e n t of becoming  t o t a l l y absorbed  i n the a c t i v i t y . . . [ a s ] one  is participating,  s t a y s u f f i c i e n t l y detached t o observe and a n a l y z e " (p.94). experience.  In two  of the classrooms, I encountered  These c l a s s e s and the t e a c h e r s were so " i n v i t i n g " , difficult  one  Such was  the urge t o "go  to  my native".  t h a t I f r e q u e n t l y found i t  t o a c h i e v e the balance between involvement and d i s t a n c e .  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from my  is trying  f i e l d diary i l l u s t r a t e s this  The  point:  They were d i s c u s s i n g the r e a l i t i e s of marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h a t a f t e r g e t t i n g m a r r i e d t h e r e i s u s u a l l y a l e t down. The d i s c u s s i o n was l i v e l y ; a l l the s t u d e n t s had something t o c o n t r i b u t e , and not a l l agreed w i t h her. She shared some of her own e x p e r i e n c e s , then asked me t o do the same. Because I l i k e t h i s c l a s s so much, I almost s t a r t e d t o do i t , then found myself i n s t a n t l y backing o f f . . . a n unconscious " h o l d i t . . . t h i s i s n ' t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r me t o do". I t was a s t r u g g l e t o r e t r e a t . . . I d i d n ' t want her t o t h i n k t h a t I wasn't i n t e r e s t e d o r t h a t I d i d n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h i s was important, so I j u s t agreed w i t h her and l e f t i t at t h a t . She does seem t o want me t o be more i n v o l v e d , and sometimes i t ' s a s t r u g g l e not t o be.  66 While  g a i n i n g access t o the t e a c h e r s ' s o c i a l worlds was  concern a t the b e g i n n i n g of the r e s e a r c h , withdrawing disengaging  from the s e t t i n g s  from the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s became a c e n t r a l  c o l l e c t i o n neared  completion.  of paramount and  i s s u e as d a t a  Because the p r o j e c t would cease  and  the  setting  i t s e l f would change w i t h the end of the s c h o o l year, everyone knew t h a t our r e s e a r c h r e l a t i o n s h i p was However, because we d i s c o n t i n u i n g our prepare  for this  had  what A d l e r and A d l e r (1987) c a l l  a l l grown q u i t e c l o s e ,  i n t e r a c t i o n and inevitability,  r o u t i n e s was  view of the concerns  expressed  b e g i n n i n g of the r e s e a r c h , I f e l t s e t t i n g s w i t h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g the study.  Thus as my  teacher to r e f l e c t  time  bound".  l e a v i n g the s e t t i n g  and  bound t o be d i f f i c u l t .  To  I began t o t a l k about the impending c l o s u r e t o  our work d u r i n g the l a s t month of data In  "time  collection. by s e v e r a l of the t e a c h e r s at the  t h a t i t was  also  important  t o l e a v e the  of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r  i n the s e t t i n g s came t o an end,  involvement  I asked  in  each  on her e x p e r i e n c e s over the course of the r e s e a r c h .  As might be expected,  s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s t a l k e d about t h e i r  initial  discomfort during classroom observations:  I was nervous the f i r s t time you were here...I'm not sure why...I guess... having a peer observe you i s d i s c o n c e r t i n g .  However, as I remained i n the s e t t i n g ,  such d i s c o m f o r t seemed t o d i s a p p e a r :  As the y e a r p r o g r e s s e d , as you came back more o f t e n , I was l e s s by your presence i n the c l a s s , and you were never o b t r u s i v e .  Most seemed t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e were some b e n e f i t s t o having i n the classroom.  One  t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t another  affected  another a d u l t  adult provides  support:  I r e a l l y enjoyed the presence of another a d u l t i n the c l a s s . . . somebody w i t h the same background...somebody t o t a l k t o , t o g i v e some p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k . . . t h a t *s a r e a l l y p o s i t i v e f o c u s .  Another suggested teaching  t h a t my  presence  s t i m u l a t e d her t o t h i n k about  alternative  arrangements:  One of the t h i n g s I thought about was...in a c l a s s such as t h i s , i t might be b e n e f i c i a l . . . t o have two p e o p l e . . . t o c o - l e a d a c l a s s . . . y o u c o u l d work t o g e t h e r .  Every t e a c h e r expressed  the view t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n the r e s e a r c h  encouraged them t o t h i n k about t h e i r FLE t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s .  Indeed, most  t a l k e d about the o p p o r t u n i t y t o be r e f l e c t i v e about what they do.  One  teacher  said:  I t h i n k [the e x p e r i e n c e ] has helped me as a t e a c h e r c l a r i f y my f e e l i n g s about F a m i l y L i f e . . . I t h i n k I s i t down and r e f l e c t a l o t . . . b u t you get caught up i n the t e a c h i n g and j u s t t o s i t back and say 'now what do I r e a l l y believe'...was g r e a t . . . i t helped me a l o t .  S i m i l a r l y , another  revealed:  I p r o b a b l y thought more about what I was doing and why I was doing i t . . . I was r e f l e c t i n g on what I was doing a l i t t l e b i t more than I would've been.  These comments suggest to  that there i s considerable p o t e n t i a l f o r teachers  b e n e f i t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y through t h e i r involvement  research.  Such b e n e f i t s may  p r a c t i c e s and  i n c l u d e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t  the importance  of r a p p o r t development  a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t of t h i s n a t u r e , and emphasize the  g a i n i n g access t o the r e s e a r c h p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s o c i a l worlds  levels.  Had  the t e a c h e r s c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l uncomfortable  t h e i r classrooms,  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t both t h e i r involvement  thus the d a t a i t s e l f would have been l i m i t e d . during  their  At the same time, the t e a c h e r s ' e x p r e s s i o n s of t e n s i o n s at  the b e g i n n i n g of the study underscore  of  on  field  t o i n t e r a c t and c o n f e r w i t h another p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h i n the  classroom s e t t i n g .  throughout  i n ethnographic  i n t e r v i e w s and  significance  beyond s u r f a c e  w i t h my  presence  i n the r e s e a r c h and  However, the t e a c h e r s '  c o n v e r s a t i o n s , t h e i r demonstrations  in  candor  of commitment t o the  68 study and t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s of eagerness t o read t h e f i n a l  report  indicated  t h a t they had developed a stake i n the p r o j e c t and t h a t a c c e s s beyond s u r f a c e l e v e l s had indeed been a c h i e v e d . A f t e r l e a v i n g the s e t t i n g s , final  interview.  I called  each t e a c h e r t o arrange f o r the  In t h i s way, I prolonged our i n t e r a c t i o n .  f o l l o w i n g the l a s t  Similarly,  i n t e r v i e w , I sent each t e a c h e r a note t h a n k i n g her f o r her  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n d i c a t i n g my d e s i r e t o keep i n touch.  Each t e a c h e r was  c o n t a c t e d by telephone s e v e r a l months l a t e r and some o f the d a t a a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was shared w i t h them f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n .  Because these t e a c h e r s  had w i l l i n g l y opened t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r classrooms t o me and because  of my  e t h i c a l commitment t o them as p a r t i c i p a n t s  i t was  c r u c i a l t h a t I disengaged  that  gradually.  D e a l i n g With The  i n the r e s e a r c h , I f e l t  Subjectivity  r e s e a r c h e r ' s maintenance of m a r g i n a l i t y i n the s e t t i n g  is critical  f o r assuming the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the person being observed on the one hand, and f o r v i e w i n g a c t i o n from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the o u t s i d e r on the o t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n (1977),  i t i s the a b i l i t y t o view b e h a v i o u r from m u l t i p l e  p e r s p e c t i v e s and the " t e n s i o n s [ i n h e r e n t ] i n [ t h e d i f f e r e n t ] p o i n t s o f view" t h a t p r e v e n t s the r e s e a r c h e r from engaging facilitate diary,  this  "disciplined  i n biased s u b j e c t i v i t y  (p.259).  To  s u b j e c t i v i t y " , the r e s e a r c h e r keeps a f i e l d  i n which t o r e c o r d " i n t e r p r e t i v e a s i d e s " o r notes about p e r s o n a l  r e a c t i o n s t o what has been seen o r heard  ( P e s h k i n , 1988; Smith,  1982).  In  t h i s study, the f i e l d d i a r y was the p r i n c i p l e means of r e f l e c t i n g upon my s u b j e c t i v i t y , o f r a i s i n g q u e s t i o n s about why I responded  e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or  n e g a t i v e l y t o events i n the classrooms and o f i d e n t i f y i n g areas o f p o t e n t i a l bias.  While  space p r e c l u d e s r e p o r t i n g on a l l of t h e s e , some examples  i l l u s t r a t e how I d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o r e s e a r c h e r s u b j e c t i v i t y .  69 At the b e g i n n i n g of the r e s e a r c h , I was concerned  about the p o s s i b l e  i n f l u e n c e of my p r e v i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e as a s u p e r v i s o r o f student teachers.  I t h e r e f o r e made a p o i n t of being c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s p a s t r o l e and  avoided making o b s e r v a t i o n s which were i n any way c r i t i c a l t e a c h e r s were d o i n g .  When e v a l u a t i v e o r judgmental  comments d i d come t o mind,  however, I was c a r e f u l t o r e c o r d them and t o r e f l e c t i n the f i r s t  place.  When I o c c a s i o n a l l y found myself  t h i n k i n g "what a  i d e a " o r " t h a t ' s not the way I would do i t " , I a g a i n r e c o r d e d  i n s t a n c e s i n the f i e l d of  on why they had emerged  S i m i l a r l y , my past e x p e r i e n c e s as a FLE t e a c h e r were a  p o t e n t i a l source of b i a s . wonderful  o f what the  d i a r y and t r i e d t o r e c o n s i d e r the o c c u r r e n c e  what i t meant t o the t e a c h e r w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of h e r s e t t i n g .  c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t my past e x p e r i e n c e s difficult used  d i a r y t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about the events  s e t t i n g s and about the behaviour  of the t e a c h e r s .  i n terms I also  i n s c h o o l s would make i t  f o r me t o "make the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e " (Wolcott,  the f i e l d  these  1985).  Again, I  and a c t i v i t i e s  i n the  T h i s r e f l e x i v i t y (see  Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983) enabled me t o monitor my s u b j e c t i v e b i a s e s and t o f o c u s i n s t e a d on u n c o v e r i n g events  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the meanings of a c t i o n s and  i n the s e t t i n g s .  V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y A c e n t r a l methodological concerned  issue associated with f i e l d  w i t h problems o f v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y ,  research i s  i . e . , the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  and c r e d i b i l i t y o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s (e.g., see LeCompte & Goetz, 1982; Merriam, 1988).  C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s  p r o c e s s may c o n t r i b u t e t o s t r e n g t h e n i n g both. will  c l a r i f y how v a l i d i t y Validity  collected  and r e l i a b i l i t y  i s concerned  i n the r e s e a r c h  A d i s c u s s i o n o f these i s s u e s  were enhanced i n t h i s  study.  w i t h the a c c u r a c y o r soundness of the d a t a  ( i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y ) and the e x t e n t t o which f i n d i n g s may be  generalizable t o other s e t t i n g s  (external v a l i d i t y ) .  S e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of  70 field  r e s e a r c h c o n t r i b u t e to i t s g e n e r a l l y h i g h degree of i n t e r n a l  For example, data are c o l l e c t e d  validity.  i n the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g t h a t r e f l e c t s  r e a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s being s t u d i e d (LeCompte & Goetz, 1982). the r e s e a r c h e r of  i s the r e s e a r c h instrument  the phenomena under study,  what was  intended  who  the Because  collects detailed descriptions  f i r s t h a n d judgments can be made about whether  t o be measured was  indeed measured (Burgess,  1984).  Moreover, the r e s e a r c h e r ' s extended presence i n the s e t t i n g means t h a t can be v a l i d a t e d and  re-checked  constantly.  I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y may  enhanced by u s i n g what Denzin (1978) c a l l s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l m u l t i p l e methods of data c o l l e c t i o n . c o l l e c t i o n were used: methodological  observation,  of "member checks",  back to the  i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d and  strengthens  internal validity  teachers  conceptions  i n t e r v i e w and  t r i a n g u l a t i o n strengthens  S i m i l a r l y , the use  six  In t h i s study,  data  be f u r t h e r  triangulation,  t h r e e methods of  or  data  document a n a l y s i s .  Such  the soundness of the f i n d i n g s .  or t a k i n g the data and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  a s k i n g whether the r e s u l t s are p l a u s i b l e  (Merriam, 1988).  F o l l o w i n g data a n a l y s i s , the  i n t h i s study were g i v e n the p o r t r a y a l s of t h e i r f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n and d u r i n g the f i n a l  curriculum  i n t e r v i e w , some p r e l i m i n a r y  f i n d i n g s based on ongoing a n a l y s i s were a l s o shared w i t h the t e a c h e r s f o r validation.  Finally,  a c c o r d i n g to Merriam (1988), the c l e a r e x p l i c a t i o n of  r e s e a r c h e r b i a s e s ( i n c l u d i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n g u i d i n g the also increases internal v a l i d i t y . assumptions and  In t h i s study,  not o n l y are the  p e r s p e c t i v e s g u i d i n g the r e s e a r c h e x p l a i n e d , but  research)  theoretical  the  r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l b i a s e s were a l s o made e x p l i c i t the use  of a f i e l d  diary.  E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y or g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r o b l e m a t i c 1986).  According  in field  (LeCompte & Goetz, 1982;  t o Merriam (1988), the  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from n a t u r a l i s t i c ways.  through  field  research i s often Merriam, 1988;  Woods,  i s s u e c e n t e r s on whether  s t u d i e s i s p o s s i b l e , and  i f so,  There appear to be s e v e r a l approaches to d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s  i n what  issue.  For  71 some, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  i s viewed  i n terms of t r a d i t i o n a l  research designs,  it  i s e i t h e r assumed t h a t f i n d i n g s are not g e n e r a l i z a b l e or attempts  to  strengthen i t .  among cases and the use of sampling  enhance g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  (e.g., Y i n , 1984).  t h i s i s s u e suggests t h a t  in field  groups not s t u d i e d , but t o s t r i v e  that  are made  In t h i s l a t t e r view, the use of m u l t i p l e cases t o study the  same phenomena, comparisons  transferability  Another  r e s e a r c h the aim  approach  procedures  to dealing with  i s not t o g e n e r a l i z e t o  i n s t e a d f o r c o m p a r a b i l i t y and  (e.g., LeCompte & Goetz,  "the g e n e r a l i s m a n i f e s t e d  1982).  S i m i l a r l y , others  i n the p a r t i c u l a r " ,  and t h a t  suggest  "the s e a r c h  i s . . . f o r c o n c r e t e u n i v e r s a l s . . . b y s t u d y i n g a s p e c i f i c case i n d e t a i l and comparing p.130).  i t w i t h o t h e r cases s t u d i e d i n e q u a l l y g r e a t d e t a i l " Still  appropriate.  and  o t h e r s propose In t h i s  that  (Erikson,  "reader or u s e r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y "  i n s t a n c e , the r e a d e r determines  f i n d i n g s are r e l e v a n t or a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r own  whether the  situation  then 1986,  i s most  study's  (e.g., Merriam,  1988). In  t h i s study, the s e l e c t i o n of m u l t i p l e cases a c c o r d i n g t o some  s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a was  intended t o i n c r e a s e the p o t e n t i a l g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  the f i n d i n g s and corresponds field  research.  generalizability of  t o Wood's (1986) d e p i c t i o n of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i n  A c c o r d i n g t o Woods, t h e r e are two in field  research:  the i d e o g r a p h i c (depth of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  a p a r t i c u l a r case) and the nomothetic  development).  He  suggests t h a t  in field  e x c l u s i v e but e x i s t along a continuum. r e s e a r c h may understanding  approach  opposing views of  (generalizing f o r theory r e s e a r c h these are not m u t u a l l y Thus, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  v a r i a t i o n s of these and combine elements  and e x p l a n a t i o n .  In t h i s study the primary aim  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e v e r a l cases which r e p r e s e n t a range generalizability  i s not presumed, an e f f o r t was  b a s i s of c r i t e r i a p e r c e i v e d t o be  important.  in field of d e s c r i p t i o n , i s f o r increased  of v a r i a b l e s .  Although  made t o s e l e c t cases on the  While  these cases are not  n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l - b a s e d f a m i l y  life  educators  ( i n t h a t not a l l t e a c h i n urban areas or have s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g  the content  and methodology of F L E ) , t h e r e  experiences  might be s i m i l a r to o t h e r s  Reliability If  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  i n comparable  their  situations.  r e f e r s to the extent t o which r e s e a r c h can be  the r e l i a b i l i t y  replicated.  of a p i e c e of r e s e a r c h i s s t r o n g , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s  the same methods s h o u l d o b t a i n s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . research i s g e n e r a l l y considered  to be weak.  r e s e a r c h i s t o understand  as they o c c u r  events  v a r i a b l e s are u s u a l l y not manipulated.  In t h i s r e g a r d ,  Because the aim  of  using  field field  in their natural setting,  Whereas i n e x p e r i m e n t a l  research  v a r i a b l e s are manipulated  to c o n t r o l o r e x p l a i n v a r i a n c e among r e s e a r c h  subjects,  field  i n ethnographic  r e s e a r c h , d i f f e r e n c e s among s u b j e c t s become  p a r t of the f o c u s of study and no attempt i s made to c o n t r o l f o r them. a d d i t i o n , w r i t t e n r e p o r t s of f i e l d comprehensiveness of the accounts and make i t d i f f i c u l t  to perform  r e s e a r c h r e p o r t alone. r e s e a r c h e r s reduces  Finally,  r e s e a r c h v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the of methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s  r e p l i c a t i v e s t u d i e s on the b a s i s of a l a c k of d e s i g n s p e c i f i c i t y among many f i e l d  may  be strengthened  through the use  appropriate  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  For example, the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and  g i v e n t o these.  c o l l e c t i o n procedures The  were c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d and r o l e of the r e s e a r c h e r and  r e s e a r c h e r w i t h those  i n t h i s study,  of s e v e r a l  s t r a t e g i e s , and where p o s s i b l e and  And,  In  reliability.  However, r e l i a b i l i t y  were e x p l a i n e d .  in  being  may  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  i n f l u e n c e the  data  the methods of a n a l y s i s  s t u d i e d were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d  because s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s  careful  the  (see V i d i c h , 1970).  information  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  " p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and  data were g a t h e r e d "  were documented (LeCompte & Goetz, 1982,  revealed,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t s w i t h i n which p.39).  Summary T h i s study  employed the methods of ethnographic  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an emphasis on understanding settings.  The  aim  being  (that teachers  studied.  The  interaction.  s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective  c u r r i c u l u m and practice.  i n western Canada.  The  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was  teachers  participant observation,  identified.  and  or  conceptions  a m u l t i p l e case study  teaching  t h i s program.  i n t e r v i e w s and  of FLE.  Two  i s o f f e r e d and The  on  methods used  document a n a l y s i s .  The  of  school  They were s e l e c t e d u s i n g judgment sampling  u s i n g a framework of c o n c e p t u a l  of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y  conceptualize  i n a large metropolitan  i n which the FLE program they t e a c h  l e n g t h of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e  analyzed  social  orientation within  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m  s i x female secondary s c h o o l FLE  on the c o n t e x t  of  conducted.  T h i s r e s e a r c h examined the ways i n which t e a c h e r s  district  the  this  Thus t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , which emphasizes the  which the r e s e a r c h was  to t h e i r classroom  r e a l i t y from  are a c t i v e agents c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r w o r l d s )  c o n s t r u c t i o n of meaning, c o n s t i t u t e d the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  i n t e r p r e t FLE  in natural  major assumption g u i d i n g  corresponds t o the assumptions t h a t u n d e r l i e the symbolic  r e s e a r c h which i s  s o c i a l processes  of t h i s r e s e a r c h approach i s to c o n f r o n t  p e r s p e c t i v e s of those research  field  based  the included  data were  c a t e g o r i e s drawn from the  literature  emergent a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s were a l s o  74 CHAPTER IV  THE  FINDINGS:  TEACHER CONCEPTIONS OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION CURRICULUM In  t h i s c h a p t e r , the f i n d i n g s of the study r e l a t e d t o the f i r s t  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d .  The  two  c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE c u r r i c u l u m expressed  by t e a c h e r s are i n d i v i d u a l l y p o r t r a y e d , and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n f l u e n c e s on these c o n c e p t i o n s are  Teacher  The  first  Conceptions of F a m i l y L i f e E d u c a t i o n Curriculum: Case P o r t r a y a l s  q u e s t i o n of t h i s study f o c u s e d on i d e n t i f y i n g  c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE c u r r i c u l u m . a b s t r a c t b e l i e f s and in  formal  identified.  These c o n c e p t i o n s r e f l e c t  the t e a c h e r s '  assumptions about FLE c u r r i c u l u m as they were  i n t e r v i e w s , i n c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and  i n guided w r i t i n g  i n which they wrote about t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of FLE and  responded  statements  about FLE.  dimensions  of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework d e l i n e a t e d i n Chapter  expressed activities  t o some  These c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t i o n s are d e s c r i b e d u s i n g the  about the purpose and p r o c e s s of FLE; i n FLE;  teacher  content  1)  2) b e l i e f s about the r o l e of the  3) b e l i e f s about the l e a r n e r and  b e l i e f s about knowledge and  II:  the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s  i n FLE;  and  i n FLE;  beliefs teacher 4)  5) b e l i e f s about the f a m i l y .  As the d a t a were a n a l y z e d , c e n t r a l themes which c h a r a c t e r i z e d each t e a c h e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n of FLE c u r r i c u l u m became apparent. p r i m a r i l y t o the t e a c h e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s were used  of the aims and purposes  the c o n c e p t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d a l o n g a continuum from  emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l ) t o "macro" ( i . e . ,  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the broader The  of FLE,  t o l a b e l and d e s c r i b e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t i o n s .  convenience, (i.e.,  These themes r e l a t e d  second  context of f a m i l y and  q u e s t i o n of the study concerned  emphasis on  and For  "micro" the  society).  the i n f l u e n c e s which were  p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s t o have shaped t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of FLE c u r r i c u l u m . These i n f l u e n c e s were d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s of i n t e r v i e w d a t a and i n c l u d e d  75 the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s which t e a c h e r s  identified:  personal  life  experiences,  p r o f e s s i o n a l development a c t i v i t i e s and c o n t a c t s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the field,  c u r r i c u l u m documents, academic p r e p a r a t i o n and mentors. Each s u b j e c t p o r t r a y a l begins w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s  p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l background and i s f o l l o w e d by a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of her c o n c e p t i o n  o f FLE c u r r i c u l u m and an account of h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f  i n f l u e n c e s on i t s development. these  conceptions  and accounts  In keeping  with ethnographic  field  research,  of i n f l u e n c e s a r e both d e s c r i p t i v e and  a n a l y t i c , and r e p r e s e n t the i n t e g r a t i o n of data and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which o c c u r r e d throughout data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s .  To p r o t e c t anonymity,  pseudonyms have been used, and o n l y g e n e r a l b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s reported.  Case P o r t r a y a l : Biographical Julie completing  Julie  Information i s i n her l a t e t h i r t i e s ,  c h i l d l e s s , d i v o r c e d and r e m a r r i e d .  a degree i n home economics and a one-year t e a c h e r  Since  certification  program, J u l i e has been t e a c h i n g home economics ( i n c l u d i n g t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y FLE program) f o r approximately briefly  ten years.  During  t h i s time,  she has taught  i n a s m a l l r u r a l community and f o r an extended p e r i o d i n s e v e r a l  secondary s c h o o l s According her f i r s t  i n t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y School  to J u l i e ,  District.  she became i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g FLE content  years of teaching  during  i n a small r u r a l high school:  The f i r s t year I was t h e r e [ i n t h i s s c h o o l ] t h e r e was no [FLE program o f f e r e d ] . . . s o I got i t s t a r t e d .  She  indicated that her i n t e r e s t  factor:  i n the s u b j e c t was i n p a r t a m o t i v a t i n g  76 I r e a l l y enjoyed the t o p i c s . . . I l i k e d the t o p i c s . . . a n d my Methods course [ i n u n i v e r s i t y ] had g i v e n me a g u i d e l i n e o f what t o t e a c h and how t o teach...and so I i n t r o d u c e d i t .  Since moving s e v e r a l y e a r s FLE  ago t o t h i s d i s t r i c t ,  J u l i e has c o n t i n u e d  t o teach  as p a r t o f the home economics program.  Curriculum  Conception:  " A u t h o r i t y of F a c t s and I n f o r m a t i o n "  J u l i e ' s curriculum conception on f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by an emphasis  This o r i e n t a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d  of the purpose o f FLE and i n h e r s t a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s information  i n accomplishing  secondary emphasis on a d v i c e  i t s aims.  o f the importance of  Her c o n c e p t i o n  also reflects a  and a d v i c e - g i v i n g , which i s r e l a t e d t o h e r  b e l i e f s about how knowledge ( i . e . , her r o l e as a t e a c h e r  i n h e r understanding  f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n )  i s used and about  i n FLE.  B e l i e f s About the Purpose o f FLE J u l i e ' s view o f FLE appears t o be based on the assumption t h a t , throughout the l i f e  c y c l e , i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s w i l l  problems and d i f f i c u l t i e s .  In these  situations,  used t o determine what t o do and how t o cope.  inevitably  encounter  f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n can be  T h i s focus on problems i s  apparent i n J u l i e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the purpose of FLE:  I t h i n k the purpose of [FLE] i s t o make l i f e a l i t t l e b i t e a s i e r f o r k i d s , t o prepare them and g i v e them an i d e a t h a t t h i n g s happen out t h e r e . . . t h e t o p i c s t h a t we cover a r e t h i n g s t h a t w i l l happen t o them throughout t h e i r l i f e . . . e v e r y t h i n g we do i n [FLE] you run i n t o a t some p o i n t i n time i n your l i f e . . . a n d [FLE] r e a l l y s o f t e n s the blow almost.  J u l i e c o n s i d e r s f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n t o be c e n t r a l i n FLE:  I t h i n k f a c t s are important... the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you g e t [ i n FLE] you w i l l use...every day of your l i f e .  T h i s c e n t r a l i t y of f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n how i t can a s s i s t i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  i s evident  the purposes of FLE.  b e l i e v e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n can h e l p students certain  inevitable  occurrences  i n J u l i e ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of  to anticipate  F o r example, she and t o cope  with  in life:  I t e a c h them about l i f e . . . [ a n d ] some t h i n g s t o e x p e c t . . . o r t h i n g s t h a t t h e y ' l l be d e a l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e . . . . and the i n f o r m a t i o n [ i n the c o u r s e ] h e l p s them t o cope w i t h what i s ahead.  At the same time, i n f o r m a t i o n can d i r e c t students be h e l p f u l  i n solving  toward r e s o u r c e s which might  o r coping w i t h a problem:  You [as a t e a c h e r ] can g i v e them a l o t of i n f o r m a t i o n and t e l l them what [ h e l p ] i s available...make them aware t h a t t h e r e are p l a c e s t o go f o r help.  Finally, students  i n f o r m a t i o n can a l s o be used t o encourage o r t o convince  t o f o l l o w a p a r t i c u l a r course  of a c t i o n :  I w i l l t r y and persuade them...show them, g i v e them f a c t s . . . t o t h a t i t ' s not the best way t o do t h i n g s .  Indeed, t h i s l a t t e r view of the r o l e of f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n reflected  i n J u l i e ' s perceptions  show them  i n FLE i s  of her r o l e s as a FLE t e a c h e r .  B e l i e f s About the Role of the Teacher i n FLE Julie  sees a d u a l r o l e as a FLE t e a c h e r :  advice-giver. her comments  Her r o l e as imparter concerning  about what she c a l l s  iraparter of i n f o r m a t i o n and  of i n f o r m a t i o n  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c t u a l  "family l i f e  topics".  information.  Of h e r a d v i c e - g i v i n g r o l e she says:  i n f o r m a t i o n t o students  Indeed, she d e s c r i b e s t h i s  as:  To g i v e them [the s t u d e n t s ]  i s reflected primarily in  role  78 I tend t o g i v e them [ t h e s t u d e n t s ] a d v i c e . . . b u t I'm not judgmental, I don't say 'no, don't do i t ' . . . I t r y t o persuade them by g i v i n g them f a c t s . . . I t r y t o have them see the problems and...the r e s u l t s .  It  appears  t h a t J u l i e a l s o c o n s i d e r s i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from h e r p e r s o n a l  experience to j u s t i f y  some a d v i c e - g i v i n g :  I know some o f the t h i n g s I've gone through, and I t h i n k 'God, i f I'd o n l y known'...I'm almost l i k e a parent I guess who knows t h a t t h i s and t h i s s h o u l d be done...part o f i t i s my own e x p e r i e n c e .  The  r o l e s J u l i e d e s c r i b e s imply an a u t h o r i t a r i a n view o f the  student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  i n which the t e a c h e r s e l e c t s c o n t e n t and  p r e s e n t s f a c t s as c o m p e l l i n g evidence f o r p u r s u i n g a p a r t i c u l a r course of action.  B e l i e f s About the L e a r n e r and the Teaching P r o c e s s i n FLE J u l i e e n v i s i o n s two dimensions  of the l e a r n e r i n FLE:  consumer o f knowledge and 2) an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t dimension  i s reflected  which, based  1) a r e c i p i e n t o r  i n learning.  The  first  i n h e r concern w i t h d e l i v e r i n g c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n  on h e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s , she presumes s t u d e n t s need t o know:  I d e c i d e what I f e e l i s important [ f o r them t o know]... based t h i n k t h a t the k i d s need...to h e l p them through l i f e .  T h i s view o f s t u d e n t s as consumers of knowledge i s apparent  on what I  in Julie's  d e s c r i p t i o n of h e r use of worksheets and e x e r c i s e s t o r e i n f o r c e the c o n t e n t she  teaches:  I t h i n k the e x e r c i s e s are [ u s e f u l ] because.... i t ' 1 1 s i n k i n m o r e . . . i t h e l p s t o i n g r a i n i t i n t h e i r minds.  Similarly,  she t a l k s about  students r e c a l l i n g  information at a l a t e r  date:  You never know whether they remember t h a t much...[but] t h i n g s w i l l p r o b a b l y c l i c k i n when they come t o i t [ i n t h e i r own l i v e s ] .  J u l i e ' s s t a t e d use o f t e s t s as evidence t h a t l e a r n i n g has taken p l a c e  also  d e p i c t s the l e a r n e r as a consumer o f knowledge:  I w i l l g i v e t e s t s on the b a s i c t h e o r y . . . . and I t h i n k t h a t ' s one of the ways you determine t h e i r l e a r n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  At the same time, J u l i e appears t o c o n s i d e r learners, that  the s t u d e n t s t o be a c t i v e  i s , s t u d e n t s must t r a n s l a t e new m a t e r i a l  frame of r e f e r e n c e . that are introduced  into their  Her comments about how s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e i n FLE seem t o r e f l e c t  this  personal  certain topics  notion:  I f t h e y ' r e not e x p e r i e n c i n g i t themselves, they can empathize t o a p o i n t , but they r e a l l y don't know anything about i t .  T h i s view of s t u d e n t s as a c t i v e l e a r n e r s a l s o appears t o be r e l a t e d t o her  s t a t e d use o f d i s c u s s i o n s  i n her FLE c l a s s e s .  F o r example, she a s s e r t s :  In FLE I t h i n k k i d s l e a r n by l i s t e n i n g and t a l k i n g and s h a r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s [ i n d i s c u s s i o n s ] . . . w i t h d i s c u s s i o n people can o f f e r a l l t h e i r p o i n t s of view...[so t h a t ] they can see t h a t t h e r e a r e a l o t of d i f f e r e n c e s [ i n p e o p l e ] . . . n o t everybody i s the same.  J u l i e ' s view o f the s t u d e n t s as a c t i v e l e a r n e r s  i s a l s o apparent i n h e r  comments about the use of student j o u r n a l s and d i s c u s s i o n t o determine how information  i s being  personally  processed:  I use the j o u r n a l s t o see how much they have taken in...how much they've understood...and i n d i s c u s s i o n s t o a c e r t a i n extent t h a t happens t o o .  Thus J u l i e appears t o p e r c e i v e of d i r e c t i v e t e a c h i n g personal  and r e c e p t i v e  the p r o c e s s e s i n FLE t o embody elements l e a r n i n g as w e l l as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  meaning through e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r a c t i o n .  B e l i e f s About Knowledge i n FLE The  preceding  suggests t h a t J u l i e  p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant  i n FLE.  considers  f a c t u a l knowledge t o be  At the same time, however, she appears t o  80 recognize  t h a t such knowledge i s p e r s o n a l l y processed  students.  The former i s r e f l e c t e d  i n her concern f o r the d e l i v e r y and  a c q u i s i t i o n o f f a c t s and the a p p l i c a t i o n of these l i v i n g , while and  o r r e c o n s t r u c t e d by  f a c t s i n personal  the l a t t e r i s apparent i n h e r concern f o r student  the s h a r i n g of p e r s o n a l  experiences.  of knowledge.  interaction  J u l i e also believes that  experience  i s a source  experience  seems t o p l a y i n the s e l e c t i o n o f some c o n t e n t  for J u l i e ,  f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n  and f a m i l y  personal  T h i s i s apparent i n the r o l e her own  i n t e r a c t with  t o be l e a r n e d .  And,  emotion:  In FLE we d e a l w i t h facts...some f a c t s , and then...we t a l k about gut f e e l i n g s and emotions.  From J u l i e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , however, t h e r e p r o c e s s i n g , where i n f o r m a t i o n convince  students  J u l i e provides  She  i s o s t e n s i b l y used t o s o l v e problems and t o  t o f o l l o w a p a r t i c u l a r course  the students  B e l i e f s About the Family According  i s a primary emphasis on i n f o r m a t i o n  w i t h the n e c e s s a r y  of a c t i o n .  As the t e a c h e r ,  concepts and i n f o r m a t i o n .  i n FLE  to J u l i e ,  f a m i l i e s are an i n f l u e n c e on i n d i v i d u a l  development.  s t a t e s , f o r example, t h a t  they a f f e c t a person's p e r s o n a l i t y .  She  a l s o c o n s i d e r s t h a t they perform q u i t e s p e c i f i c  [The f a m i l y i s ] a u n i t t h a t should security.  She  fill  functions:  b a s i c needs, i n c l u d i n g l o v e and  d e s c r i b e s f a m i l i e s as p o t e n t i a l l y assuming many forms:  [A f a m i l y ] can be s i n g l e parent, i n c l u d e grandparents.  However, a l t h o u g h  two p a r e n t s  she appears t o r e c o g n i z e  and k i d s , a c o u p l e ,  and can  the impact of f a m i l i e s on  81 human development, she makes s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e t a l k i n g about FLE.  Indeed, she  reference  t o them when  comments:  A c t u a l l y I don't t a l k t h a t much about f a m i l i e s as such [ i n the She  t a l k s i n s t e a d about "the  f a m i l y s e c t i o n " t h a t she  teaches i n  course].  her grade  12  course:  I do f a m i l i e s i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s so t h a t they can see how...other f a m i l i e s l i v e and the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e systems... and we t a l k about roles.  Thus, her  s t a t e d emphasis appears t o be more on r e l a t i o n s h i