UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assessing implementation of a Kodály music program Randall, Nancy Elisabeth 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 R36.pdf [ 10.12MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055219.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055219-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055219-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055219-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055219-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055219-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055219-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055219-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055219.ris

Full Text

C. !  ASSESSING  IMPLEMENTATION.  OF A KODA'LY MUSIC PROGRAM by NANCY ELISABETH RANDALL B.A.,  The  University  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of  IN PARTIAL  Victoria,  1977  FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  tn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of  C u r r i c u l u m and  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  required  The  University  Nancy  as  conforming  standard  of B r i t i s h  July, c  Instructional  Columbia  1982  E. R a n d a l l ,  1982  Studies)  to  the  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  that  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  g r a n t e d by  University  of  1956 Main M a l l  publication  s h a l l not  Vancouver,  V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  Canada  British  the  be  of  further this  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Columbia  thesis  head o f  representatives.  permission.  The  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  i i  ABSTRACT  The p u r p o s e was t o which  shaped p r o g r a m - i n - u s e  The c a s e Koda'ly those  assess  studied  program.  was t h e  practice  -  to  1.  What  the  2.  What f a c i l i t a t e d  District  perspective  who t r a n s l a t e d  the  Primary  was s e l e c t e d  intended  following  influences  improvements.  Kamloops S c h o o l  r e s e a r c h the is  and p o t e n t i a l  The t e a c h e r s '  individuals  program-in-use,  program  -  into  questions:  program-in-use? s h a p i n g of  this  program-in-  use? What c o u l d f u r t h e r  3.  this Three  ducted with indicated the  the  s e l e c t e d to  program- i n v o l v e m e n t . eleven  limited  Kodaly t e a c h e r s , or  non-use, three  represent Interviews three school  K a m l o o p s Koda'ly P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r  District ments  Music C o - o r d i n a t o r .  and t e a c h e r m a t e r i a l s Study  'diverse  implementation  of  program-in-use?  s c h o o l s were  and s i x y e a r  improve  findings  were  teachers  four,  conwho  administrators,  and t h e  Kamloops  Program development  docu-  were a l s o a n a l y z e d .  indicated  programs-in-use  a two,  differing  and c h a n g e s i n  teacher  perceptions,  concerns over  time.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I  PAGE  Research O u t l i n e  1  P r o b l em  II  .  Terms  2  Method I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e and P i l o t  3 4  Interview Procedure  6  Assumptions  9  and L i m i t a t i o n s  Program D e s c r i p t i o n . .  1Q  Kodaly Program  10  Kamloops  Kodaly Program Development  18  District  Implementation  19  G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s  20  Administrative  23  and R e s o u r c e S u p p o r t  Program Documentation III  1  -  A s s e s s i n g P r o g r a m - i n-Use Student  Effects  27  as P e r c e i v e d by T e a c h e r s  30  Teaching B e l i e f s  34  S e l e c t e d M u s i c and K o d a l y 1. Kamloops K o d a l y 2.  Specified  3.  Kodaly  4.  Student  curriculum  37  materials.... skills..  songs.  45 47 53  assessment  I m p l e m e n t e d Compared t o Summary  Elements  s e q u e n c e and s c o p e o f  program  25  55 Intended O b j e c t i v e s . . •••  56 57  iv  CHAPTER IV  .  PAGE Changes Over T i m e . . Two Y e a r Four Six  Involvement:  Six  Year Year  Facilitating  Involvement:  62  Individual  64  School  66  School  68  School  68  Involvement: Involvement: Implementation  ,  70  Attitudes  and V a l u e s  70  Knowledge  and U n d e r s t a n d i n g  78  Roles  and B e h a v i o r s  81  Structure  and O r g a n i z a t i o n  82  Materials  and R e s o u r c e s  83  1.  District  S e a s o n a l and Summer  2.  District  Kodaly  3.  Interpersonal  4.  University  Teacher  Initial  Workshops..84  Resource Teacher  Support...  Music Courses  Recommendations  Improving  Vii  60  Individual  Year Involvement:  Four  VI  Individual  Year I n v o l v e m e n t :  Two Y e a r  V  59  for  Improvement  Implementation  87 88 91 95 95  Implementation  97  Summary  99  Bibliography  107  A p p e n d i ces Appendix  A  Kamloops Koda'ly P r o g r a m : O u t l i n e of G o a l s , C o n t e n t , M a t e r i a l s and A c t i v i t i es  112 113  Appendix  B  Teacher  Consent  Form......  Appendix  C  Teacher  Questionnaire  Appendix  D  Interview Schedules  114 117  V  PAGE Appendix  Appendix  E  F-  Sample T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w s  123  Interview Transcript  #60  124  Interview Transcript  #2A  153  Interview Transcript  #6P  178  Program O u t l i n e  199  vi  LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table  1  Teacher  Information  Table  2  Glossary of  Table  3  Yearly Outline:  5  Koda'ly Terms Skill  Acquisition  13 22  vii  L I S T OF FIGURES  ?  PAGE Figure  1  Interview  Question:  Music Elements  38  Figure  2  Interview  Question:  Kodaly Techniques  38  Figure  3  Music Elements:  Figure  4  Koda'ly T e c h n i q u e s :  Teacher  Importance  T e a c h e r Use  pp.39-41 pp.39-41  viii  LIST OF PICTURES PAGE Picture  1  Rhythm S t a m p i n g  14  Picture  2  Rhythm C l a p p i n g  15  Picture  3  Pitch:  15  Picture  4  Rhythm R e a d i n g  16  Picture  5  Rhythm  16  Curwen Hand S i g n s  Reading  i x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  thank  Anastasiou during  D r . W, W e r n e r , D r .  for  their  preparation I  a l s o thank  who p a r t i c i p a t e d administrative  in  C. T r o w s d a l e and D r . C .  c o n t i n u e d a s s i s t a n c e and g u i d a n c e  of the  this  thesis.  Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t  this  study,  Kamloops S c h o o l  teachers District  p e r s o n n e l , M r s . M a r i o n Owens ( K a m l o o p s  Kodaly  Program D e v e l o p e r ]  School  District  Music  and M r . J o h n W h i t e  Co-ordinator).  (Kamloops  1  CHAPTER Research  To u n d e r s t a n d  I  Outline  how an i n n o v a t i v e  music  "works",  one c o u l d r e a d t h e m u s i c s c o r e ,  poser  to  or  the  performers,  such as m u s i c c r i t i c s , agents  or  formers freely ever, is  critical  or a s s e s s  enthusiastic  musicians.  may i n t e r p r e t  is  the  a s s e s s e d or  evaluated.  the  music c u r r i c u l u m  curriculum  materials  program  teachers,  tudinous  the  various  funding  or  the  per-  composition  variations.  "works", to  students,  How-  p e r s o n s who a c t as t h e  finally  understand  one c o u l d  the or  to  com-  audiences,  t h e mus i c-.i n - u s e , t h a t  and t a l k  the  to  original  Similarly,  innovative  the  The c o n d u c t o r  or a r r a n g e  performace,  talk  listeners,  and t h e r e may be p e r f o r m a n c e it  composition  how an  read  the  program d e v e l o p e r ,  to  any one o f  audiences of  the  the  multi-  educational  programs. P r o b 1 em This  study  centered  on a s s e s s i n g  how an  intended  K o d a l y m u s i c program was t r a n s l a t e d  into  ticular  were made, and i n  ways t h e  arrangements  or a d a p t a t i o n s  program-in-use  c o u l d be i m p r o v e d .  of  t e a c h e r s was s e l e c t e d - t h o s e  in  structuring  the  a c t i o n , why  actual  program  individuals - for  The  parwhat  perspective  influential  examining  the  2  following  research questions:  1.  What i s  the  program-in-use?  2.  What f a c i l i t a t e d  the s h a p i n g of  this  program-  in - u s e ? 3.  What c o u l d f u r t h e r this  improve  the  implementation  of  program-in-use?  Terms Three terms "assessment", This  is  "evaluation."  in  the  ment of  of  student  of  used i n  how, and w h y ,  program  context  the  of  point  of  in time  use i m p l i e s  to  the  an  state  of  the  program.  a description  t a u g h t p r o g r a m , as i n d i c a t e d program.  of  in  implied  use, is  of  ( F u l l a n , 1980:2 ).  as i n t e n d e d  the  sense  of  performance, Assess-  understanding  no s e n s e  of  interactions,  the  use a t  "State" Portrayal  the  improve  a parimplies of  actual  by t h e  the  elements not  those  The p r o g r a m - i n - u s e , as  state  t o be s t a t i c  t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e s the p r o g r a m , or i s  diverse  in  an  or c o n t i n u i t y .  providing  that e x i s t  the  teacher  than  program o p e r a t e s , to f u r t h e r  an image o r p o r t r a y a l  the  used t h r o u g h o u t  program t e r m i n a t i o n  the  study;  implementation.  ticular  of  this  "implementation".  outcomes o r  Program-in-use refers  state  understanding  t e r m e d an " a s s e s s m e n t " r a t h e r  Evaluation is  context  is  to  " p r o g r a m - i n - u s e " , and  study  determination  are c e n t r a l  teacher,  or f i x e d . influenced  p r o g r a m - i n - u s e would  As by  a l s o change.  3  The p o s s i b i l i t y implicit,  of  an i n f i n i t e  Implementation "process  of  is  use  is  that  of  the  practice  t h a t was shaped o v e r  is  states  matic  certain.  nor  the  of  prog-  as a g e n e r a l  a "dynamic o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t i m e by t h e  interaction  g o a l s and m e t h o d s , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l that  the  (Full an,  Rand C o r p o r a t i o n s t u d y  McLaughlin (1975:340)  implementation  concludes  the  v i e w e d as p r o c e s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y  In a r e v i e w  ram i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  project  of  time.  p u t t i n g a new p r o g r a m i n t o  1979, n . p . ) .  cess  states  as i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g , o r b e i n g a c t e d upon by  t e a c h e r , change over  finding  number o f  implementation  between  settings."  process i s  pro-  neither  He  auto-  Method The c a s e  s t u d i e d was t h e  P r i m a r y Koda'ly m u s i c p r o g r a m . ram r e c e i v e d d i s t r i c t t a t i o n began i n elementary degree. the  Kamloops S c h o o l This  authorization  1976.  By 1982 a l l  of  the  in  developed prog-  1975 and i m p l e m e n -  the f o r t y - f o u r  s c h o o l s had i m p l e m e n t e d  (Descriptions  locally  the  K o d a l y p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l  The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o l l o w e d  foci.  appraisal  of  the  district  program t o some  Kamloops p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t a r e p r o v i d e d  general  District  three  program to  in Chapter  stages.  First, a  e s t a b l i s h assessment  C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s , Program D e v e l o p e r ,  Music C o - o r d i n a t o r ,  Koda'ly s u b j e c t  thorough  t h e a v a i l a b l e p r o g r a m documents were  r e a d i n g of  experts  as  as w e l l  as  II.)  4  included.  Second,  conducted.  interviewing  The t h i r d  of  t h e s a m p l e t e a c h e r s was  s t a g e was a n a l y s i s o f  the  d a t a and  its  validation. Interview  S c h e d u l e and  The i n t e r v i e w with  Pilot  s c h e d u l e ( A p p e n d i x JD) was  pilot-tested  two Kamloops K o d a l y t e a c h e r s who were not  s a m p l e , and r e v i s e d .  Subsequent c o n s u l t a t i o n  Kodaly s u b j e c t  and a r e v i e w w i t h  Co-ordinator  expert  and t h e  the  Kamloops M u s i c that  the  The Kamloops K o d a l y p r o g r a m has been m a i n t a i n e d  for  years.  The v o l u n t e e r  and i n d i v i d u a l  of  the  program.  implementation  teacher adoption  o c c u r r e d a t any t i m e  during  of  meant  this  these past s i x y e a r s .  were s p e c i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d t o  three  S e l e c t i o n of  population  44 s c h o o l s was on t h e f o l l o w i n g  illingness  wi  of  w i t h the  no p r e v i o u s  participation  that  the  these three  school administrator  involvement  Following  study  schools  s c h o o l s from a t o t a l  and s t a f f  Koda'ly p r o g r a m f o r in  school  r e p r e s e n t a 2 , 4 , and 6 y e a r  involvement. of  that  p r o g r a m may have  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Music C o - o r d i n a t o r  and,  of  with a U.B.C.  Program Developer v e r i f i e d  q u e s t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  six  the  part  2, 4,  criterion: to  participate;  or 6 y e a r s ;  any a s s e s s m e n t o f m u s i c  r e s e a r c h e r had n o t  been e m p l o y e d i n  programs;  any of  these  schools. The p o p u l a t i o n at  the  three  internal  (n=ll)  of  primary  s c h o o l s were i n t e r v i e w e d .  changes meant,  however,  that  teachers using Kodaly Staff the  transfers  teachers  and  interviewed  SCHOOL CODE  i TOTAL YEARS TOTAL TEACHING YEARS TEACHING K0DA1Y  GRADES TAUGHT  TEACHER CODE  KAMLOOPS DISTRICT KODALY TRAINING SEASONAL WKSHP. 4-DAY SUMMER WKSHP.  MUSIC COURSES: UNIVERSITY  MUSIC: PERSONAL  A  2  05  04  02 y r s .  none  01  none  2  B  1. 2  14  03  02 y r s .  none  01  01 y r .  2  C  3  30  non-use  01 y r .  none  00  none  2  D  3  32  non-use  01 y r .  none  on  none  2  E  1  06  1imited  04 y r s .  none  00  none  4  I  1  20  05  05 y r s .  01  01  01 year p i a n o ;  4  J  2, 3  07  06  05 y r s .  01'  00  none  4  K  .1  22  05  05 y r s .  01  01  02 y e a r s  4  L  K  07  02  01  yr.  none  01  Gr.  7 p i a n o ; Gr. 2 theory  4  M  3  29  03  01 y r .  none  01  Gr.  8 p i a n o ; band; c h o i r  6  N  4  06  03  01 y r .  none  Many  Gr.  10 p i a n o ;  6  0  3  04  02  02 y r s .  none  02  Piano by ear  6  P  1  12  06  05 y r s .  01  00  Piano - 04 years  6  Q  2  13  04  01  none  several  Piano - accompanist  2  :  TABLE 1: TEACHER  .  INFORMATION  yr.  v o i c e ; 03 y r s .  piano  choir  piano  choir  6  had been t e a c h i n g t h e  K o d a l y program f o r  of  to  time.  In  addition  primary  full-time  limited  or non-use of  participate Table  in  1 provides  lengths  these eleven Kodaly t e a c h e r s ,  teachers at  this  varying  the  S c h o o l " 2 " , who had  three  indicated  p r o g r a m , and who were w i l l i n g  study,  were s e l e c t e d f o r  a summary o f  teacher  to  interview.  information.  Interview Procedure A questionnaire  d a t a was c o m p l e t e d by the information teacher the  meeting  the  eleven teachers  at each of  purposes, that information  to  ninety  interviews  interview included  schools.  clarify  at  twice,  their  coded,  specified  was v o l u n t a r y ,  for  and  approximately  schools.  During  provide  in Appendix  to  experience with  year  Each  Three sample i n t e r v i e w s  illustrate  represent  the  specific  a r e s p o n s e where n e c e s s a r y .  was t a p e - r e c o r d e d .  6 P, s i x t h  Each  B_) , w h i c h  the  the v a r y i n g  questioning concerns of  Kodaly i n c r e a s e d :  second y e a r K o d a l y , Teacher 2A, f o u r t h year Teacher  initial  w o u l d be anonymous.  minutes  t o o k p l a c e and t o  biographical  a t an  three  t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o  examples to  as t h e i r  the  participation  T e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d sixty  requesting  s i g n e d a C o n s e n t Form ( A p p e n d i x  study  that  C)  (Appendix  Kodaly.  " T " f o r t e a c h e r and " R " f o r  are that teachers  Teacher 6 0, K o d a l y , and  These t r a n s c r i p t s researcher, for  were example:  7  R:  Urn, when you f i r s t s t a r t e d w o r k i n g w i t h p r o g r a m , what were y o u r r e a c t i o n s ?  T:  I was s o r t o f o v e r w h e l m e d by i t a l l , you know. I t seemed so d i f f i c u l t , i t seemed so c o n t r i v e d , i t seemed , . .  R:  What do you mean by  T:  The hand s i g n s and t h e r h y t h m p a t t e r n s , c o u l d n ' t see t h e c o n n e c t i o n between a l l ( 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6K) .  The code o f J,  at  this  the  dicate  silence.  of  study.  the  cific  the  interviews,  further  present,  the  if  years,  having  six years.  Dots  the  clarification.  c o n c e r n s had not  At the the  in-  completion  r e s e a r c h e r probed  K o d a l y t e a c h e r s were g i v e n  comments,  spe-  conclusion  opportunity  been v o i c e d  for  during  interview. The t h r e e  limited for  at  four  t a p e s were e r a s e d a t  second i n t e r v i e w  concerns for  additional  program f o r  Grade 2&3 s t u d e n t s  Interview  I this  ( 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6K) means T e a c h e r  Kamloops K o d a l y p r o g r a m f o r  During  the  sample q u o t e ,  K o d a l y to  taught  of  "contrived"?  a s c h o o l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  teaching  the  or  non-use of  additional  April  14,  primary  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who had the  information.  transcripts,  expressed concerns about placed  on c a r d s .  search for  p r o g r a m were i n t e r v i e w e d  1982 and May 1 0 ,  From t h e  indicated  All  interviews  took  once,'  place  between  1982. those teacher responses  implementation  were  These c a r d s f a c i l i t a t e d  c o m m o n a l i t i e s , s u c h as t h e  the  that  individually researcher's  themes o f  "time"  and  8  "continuity". A summary o f ticipating  the  Kodaly teachers for  where n e c e s s a r y . study of  their  reactions  ticipating The s t u d y trict  the  findings  the  varying  4 years  of  had t h e  associated with teaching of  involvement  (n=l),  2 years  and w h e t h e r  this the  with  The  to  to  Dis-  study,  selected  fol-  s t u d y ; and this  willing  representing  program: 6 years  All the  these  teachers  study  findings.  sample K o d a l y l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s  participating  t e a c h e r s and an E d u c a t i o n a l  approach to music e d u c a t i o n ! , p r o v i d e d program u s e .  parcritique.  Kodaly program;  (n=2).  these  Kamloops  I n v e n t o r y Exchange ( E P I E ) a n a l y s i s of  to  all  four  the  d e v e l o p e d P r i m a r y M u s i c R e s o u r c e B o o k ( b a s e d on the  pertinent  the  responded  opportunity  this  agreement w i t h  Document a n a l y s i s o f  Products  par-  correction  eleven Kodaly teachers  were a l s o s u b m i t t e d  r e s p o n d e d and i n d i c a t e d  p r o v i d e d by t h e  the  p r o g r a m were a d d r e s s e d d u r i n g  in a c r i t i q u e  lengths  and  r e s e a r c h e r ' s data a n a l y s i s .  these c r i t e r i o n :  participate  (n=l),  this  and c o m p l e t e ,  teachers therefore  t e a c h e r s not  lowing  to  Seven o f  and c o r r o b o r a t e d  verification  to  T h e s e t e a c h e r s were q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r  summary was r e a l i s i t t c  interviews.  to  d a t a a n a l y s i s was s u b m i t t e d  further  locally Kodaly  information  9  Assumptions Prior District taught  and to  Limitations  this  teacher,  study,  had t a u g h t  intermediate  instruction workshop  in  music  the  searcher  had p l a n n e d  students'  the  teachers trative  with  concerns.  improvement  selected a total  of  of  represent  the  validation  results program.  problem.  teacher,  program  of  this  group  procedure  not  Kodaly  As a re-  program  extending  was t h e r e f o r e  the  a peer  p r o g r a m were Therefore  of  and  were  selected  results  participating  focus,  schools  number  teachers.  An  study  have p o s s i b l e g e n e r a 1 i z a b i 1 i t y  findings  indicated to  of  of the  interviews this  the  that  therefore  of  s u b m i s s i o n of  associated with this  for  adminis-  A specific  (three  and-a small  twenty  and  limitations.  sample  the  included  pedagogical  implementation, A limited  Kodaly  The s c o p e  and a s p e c i f i c  forty-four)  of  Kamloops  one h u n d r e d  necessitated  the  on s e l f - r e p o r t .  teachers  of  philosophical,  This  population using  in  team t h e  music  The r e s e a r c h e r  a complex  as p a r a m e t e r s .  teachers  years  personnel.  development  implementation  numerous  that  program,  and p a r t i c i p a t e d  s c h o o l s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y  perspective,  rely  3 Kodaly  teachers.  represented  forty-four  as a Kamloops  who had s e v e r a l  an i n t e r m e d i a t e  Kodaly s k i l l s .  Assessing  of  level  students  curriculum  participating  program  the  s e s s i o n s o r g a n i z e d by p r o g r a m a teacher  the  researcher  K o d a l y program  member o f  of  the  others  that  study additional to  Kodaly  that  the  using  this  10  II  CHAPTER Program  Kodaly  Program*  Zolta'n K o d a l y was national music of and  Description  stature  and  education.  a Hungarian  a major  figure  at a l l l e v e l s  became p a r t i c u l a r l y  concerned  i g n o r a n c e of s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r lived  i n the small  t h e r e became i n t e r e s t e d of  Hungarian  perhaps  folk  music.  t h e most p r o m i n e n t  publish  From t h i s  the r i c h  1  inadequacy  of Hungarian e d u c a t i o n about  the  musical  prevailing heritage.  Hungarian  villages  and  and  analysis  With h i s c o l l e a g u e , Bela B a r t o k , Hungarian  composer o f  this  to c o l l e c t , a n a l y z e , c l a s s i f y  t r e a s u r e s of Hungarian  folk  music.  work came t h e m u s i c a l c o n t e n t f o r what became  known as t h e K o d a l y a p p r o a c h t o Hungarian  i n the  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  c e n t u r y , Koda'ly began i n 1905 and  own  inter-  in twentieth century  He became i n t e r e s t e d  musical l i t e r a c y  Koda'ly had  composer o f  musically  educating a l l  children.  M a t e r i a 1 b a s e d on C h o k s y , 1974; pages 7-11, 18-23 and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t K o d a l y Program D e v e l o p e r , November 2 1 , 1981 and May 6, 1982.  11  Major  philosophical  components o f  the  Koda'ly a p p r o a c h  may be s u m m a r i z e d a s : cultural  and n a t i o n a l i s t i c :  important tongue  and a p p r o p r i a t e  to  the  belief  learn  that  it  the m u s i c a l  was  mother  first.  p e d a g o g i c a l : that t h e the  in  pentatonic  used i n  folk  short  simple  s c a l e and the  folk  song  simplicity  s o n g s were e f f e c t i v e  of  forms, the  language  music e d u c a t i o n  tech-  niques. developmental : that folk  song to  mental  to  in  cally  think words" Major  Hungary  of  the  literate  sense of  objectives  adult  being  (Choksy,  in A u s t r i a  look  at  ram m a t e r i a l s :  1974:8).  a living  this  approach  and  in  the  art.  are:  artistic  produce  the  musi-  fullest  a musical  s c o r e and  r e a d and w r i t e m u s i c as e a s i l y  as  1974:15).  in music e d u c a t i o n , working (Orff),  Switzerland  w h i c h were used t o children's  indepen-  (Willems)  ( K o d a l y ) a g r e e d on c e r t a i n c h i l d  characteristics  (Choksy,  American  social  and t o  develop-  North  of  - literate  a b l e to  s o u n d , to  figures  child,  primitive  the  music r e p r e s e n t e d  the w e l l - b a l a n c e d  development  from  to  to a d u l t "  Choksy, a prominent  on K o d a l y , t h e  "To a i d  dently  infant  that folk  According  development  m u s i c was l i k e n e d  s t a g e s from  aesthetic:  authority  art  "the  and  development  select  the  v o i c e s are i n i t i a l l y  Kodaly proglimited  to  12  a range of tones, for  five  or s i x  are e a s i e r to  the  child  A program voice,  to  tones;  sing.  whole  Descending i n t e r v a l s  reproduce  accurately  initial  and m a j o r  progressively  through  children's  chants  songs.  A Kodaly curriculum  built  ression,  in  a specified  particularly  structured context  builds  activities  of  the  internalize  system,  "known";  introduce  tools  that for  includes  pitch  the  A glossary vided  to  more o b v i o u s (Table  clarify  2)  sequential  prog-  literacy  in  development  concepts.  so t h a t  the  co-workers  the  Repe-  through  Italian  The use o f  The  an  and  inter-  moveable  'doh'  E n g l i s h Curwen  hand s i g n s ,  accompanying s y m b o l i c  K o d a l y terms  will  s e l e c t e d as  represent  of  a  student  use t h e m .  characteristics  the  skills,  S p e c i f i c songs and  and e x a m p l e s ( P i c t u r e s  use o f  mastering  r h y t h m names and t h e  presentation.  ethnic  which  cumulative  concept presentation that  works  always presented  functionally  names, r h y t h m names and t h e i r some of  is  the  skills  understandings,  intended  F r e n c h system of  hand s i g n s f o r  This  specific  K o d a l y and h i s  collection the  is  and be a b l e t o  most e f f e c t i v e national  "unknown"  understandings.  techniques,  student  of musical  these newly a c q u i r e d  of  teaching  order.  use of  and s o n g s ,  on t h e  easier  and t h e n  and p e r f o r m a n c e  terms  already  a r e used to  of  variety  in  so t h a t t h e  on p r e v i o u s  tition  is  music understandings  are presented  the  are  semi-  those a s c e n d i n g .  instrument,  songs and s e l e c t e d a r t  specific  "is  than  than  b a s e d on K o d a l y c o n c e p t s e m p h a s i z e s , t h e  as t h e  folk  steps, rather  a Kodaly 1 to  5)  pitch  systems  are  program. are  techniques.  pro-  13  TABLE 2: GLOSSARY OF KODALY TERMS SOURCE: KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC RESOURCE BOOK  DOH  d'  TI.  LAH. CONVENTIONAL NOTATION  SOH  s  J  I  quarter  ta  >  n  eighth FAH.  f  d  half  ME  m  d  DOH, PITCH NAMES  ABBREVIATED FORM  ti ti  A too  o  o  whole  toe  /  sixteenth  RAY.  RHYTHM SYMBOL AND NAME  f f f l  ticka ticka  14  PICTURE 1: RHYTHM STAMPING  15  «> PICTURES 4 & 5 RHYTHM READING  (PICTURES INCLUDED WITH PERMISSION OF MRS, M, TEACHER: KAMLOOPS SCHOOL DISTRICT)  WILSON,  17  In  the  end o f ties  reconstruction  W o r l d War I I ,  involved  themselves 34).  in  are  it  Hungarian education  was c l e a r  upgrading  that  trained  The s e l e c t i o n o f m u s i c a l l y  particularly fluential music  during  position  teachers  Singing prior  for  The r e s u l t s national  North  effort  by t h e  national  the  began t o  1960's.  development  that  culture  songs r a t h e r  program m a t e r i a l s . patterns  attract  Since then,  well  in-  the training  s u c h program  through  than  were r e f l e c t e d  the  adaptations  successfully  in  skills.  6/8 meter  Japan,  adaptations  selection  of  t h e H u n g a r i a n s o n g s as  the  in  child  develop-  sequences used f o r  the  For example, d i f f e r e n c e s  H u n g a r i a n and E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e r h y t h m s use of  inter-  Iceland.  Regional d i f f e r e n c e s  of m u s i c a l  more f r e q u e n t  1974:  priority  school,  e x t e n s i v e music  and S o u t h A m e r i c a and  national  folk  who  Hungarian  E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n E u r o p e ,  K o d a l y was i n s i s t e n t reflect  (Choksy,  Education.  elementary  , required  this  systems of  Australia,  ment  of  of  Koda'ly a p p r o a c h have been i n t r o d u c e d  in school  teachers  students.  of  attention  in music"  "difficul-  c o u r s e s , became a  Ministry  a new t y p e  instructing  were  the  p e r i o d when Koda'ly o c c u p i e d an  the  Primary School  to  the  in  after  a b l e new t e a c h e r s , as  and s h o r t  the  there  music e d u c a t i o n w i t h  inadequately  as i n - s e r v i c e m e e t i n g s  of  of  in  are mirrored  English folk  in  by  the  songs.  In  18  adapting  the  program  made i n  several  rhythms  were  and t h e s e  of  for  the  hand s i g n s .  modiffed  t o match  changes are  Canadian Kodaly  now  were  of  the  adopted  changes  Vocalizations  of  Canadian language  o f t e n found  were the  sounds,  i n many o f  the  programs.  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l techniques  Canadian u s e , minor  in  b a s e s and many o f  Hungarian  the  the  pedagogical  and C a n a d i a n K o d a l y  organization  of  the  programs  Kamloops  Kodaly  program. t  Kamloops  Kodaly Program  Prior existed  to  in  materials district  1 9 7 5 , no s e q u e n t i a l  for  music  music  instruction  teacher  Co-ordinator,  bility. mary  During  teachers,  program were n o t program  the  school  hiring  personnel  available.  experience  at  new p o s i t i o n  of  to  visitations  and i n i t i a t e d  and  for  research  administrative  elementary  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Program D e v e l o p e r , C o - o r d i n a t o r , Nov. 1 5 , 1981.  music  A all  pri-  workshops, a into officers  an e x p e n s i v e e l e m e n t a r y of  and  Grade 12 r e s p o n s i -  d e c i d e d a need e x i s t e d  The d i s t r i c t of  program  discussions with d i s t r i c t  program  supportive  not  with Kindergarten  through  music  the  music  support  were  1975 t o  informal  options.  or  primary  with extensive  in  the Music C o - o r d i n a t o r sequential  p  Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ;  l e v e l s was a p p o i n t e d Music  Development  instrumental  specialists.  Nov. 2 2 ,  1981 and M u s i c  19  A committee Music  of  p r i m a r y m u s i c t e a c h e r s , c h a i r e d by  Co-ordinator,  prepared a b r i e f  p r o g r a m as most s u i t e d major  arguments 1.  to  district  ii)  the  education,  deserves a music  p r o g r a m uses  basic iii)  Kodaly  The  were:  every c h i l d the  the  requirements.  The K o d a l y p h i l o s o p h y o f i)  supporting  the  the  instrument,  that:  education,  child's  v o i c e as  the  and  program p r o v i d e s  sequential  skill  development. 2.  Materials required  3.  to  teach the  inexpensive  and c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  The p r i m a r y  classroom teacher  program, given District  sufficient  in-district.  could i n s t r u c t  support  the  and r e s o u r c e s .  Implementation  The b r i e f ceived d i s t r i c t  was a c c e p t e d i n  1976 and t h e  program  authorization,  as a l o c a l l y  developed  course,  by s p e c i a l r e s o l u t i o n  of  Board.  School a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  were t h e n  adoption  of  the  were e v e n t u a l l y However, the based"  p r o g r a m w o u l d be  and s t a f f .  p r o g r a m , and a l l  Kamloops S c h o o l required  district  to  the  implementation  individual  School a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  and n e c e s s a r y d i s t r i c t  school  to  primary  e x p e c t e d to r e c e i v e K o d a l y music  t i m e and means f o r  and l e f t  the  re-  ensure  students instruction.  were  "school  administration  were s t r o n g l y  r e s o u r c e s were p r o v i d e d ,  encouraged, to  facilitate  20  teacher  implementation.  Implementation Kindergarten  initially  and Grade 1 o f  zone ( t h e r e  the  are seven d i s t r i c t  t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e six  ( S e p t e m b e r 1976)  s c h o o l s c o u l d be t e r m e d p i l o t  the  first  remaining year  with  r e v i s i o n of  1977,  basis.  initial  All  forty-four in  school y e a r ,  the  and e x t e n s i o n  be d e p e n d e n t on  resulting.  basis.  the  program to  1981-1982.  t h e number o f  the  district  its out"  In  September  level  of  mentation;  implementation  students  potential  a concern in  terms  elementary  s c h o o l s were  some d e g r e e d u r i n g is  not  now i n  The e f f e c t  effect of  concern.  the the  on the  the  available  the  sixth  district.  year  of  program i n  imple-  1976  intermediate  grades  on h i g h s c h o o l m u s i c p r o g r a m s  continuity. in  Difficulties  implementing  operation  is  presented  s u c h a program  No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n  K o d a l y - b a s e d programs are i n  to  participating,  throughout  beginning with  school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  are a l s o of  s c h o o l s on a v o l u n t e e r  t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s  a r e now i n G r a d e 6 . and t h e  By S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 9 ,  Information  The Kodcily p r o g r a m i s  to  These  y e a r was a " t r y  program m a t e r i a l s  s c h o o l on a v o l u n t e e r  participating  nor  authorization,  was e x t e n d e d t o Grade 3 and a l l  state  was e v i d e n t .  t h e p r o g r a m was e x t e n d e d t o G r a d e 2 and any e l e -  mentary it  This  a central  s c h o o l s , although  s c h o o l s would n o t  success.  s c h o o l s of  in  z o n e s ) , chosen because  support  p r o g r a m a l r e a d y had d i s t r i c t to  six  centered  in at  was a v a i l a b l e . least  seven  21  school  districts  t r i c t s a r e now loops  Koda'ly  in B r i t i s h Columbia.  implementing  consultant.  Goals  Objectives  Goals  and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e K a m l o o p s K o d a l y  operate  at three l e v e l s ; general  student  o b j e c t i v e s and  General  student  documents (Appendix plementation  dis-  v e r s i o n s o f t h e Kam-  program, with the Kamloops Program  a c t i n g as and  adapted  Three of these  student  i m p l i c i t teacher  goals,  program specific  goals.  g o a l s as s t a t e d i n t h e 1976 A ) , were m o d i f i e d  Developer  program  during program  im-  to i n c l u d e :  -To d e v e l o p  i n c h i l d r e n a love of music  supported  by k n o w l e d g e a b o u t m u s i c , -To d e v e l o p  a m u s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e c h i l d who  p a r t o f an a p p r e c i a t i v e  -To  elements to encourage musical  i d e n t i f y those  be  audience,  -To g i v e t h e c h i l d a w o r k i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g musical  will  g i f t e d i n m u s i c and  of  creativity, g i v e them  and the  3  t o o l s of music. S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d student skill  a c q u i s i t i o n a r e b a s e d on t h e o r i g i n a l  of s k i l l s .  The  sequence of s k i l l  the " Y e a r l y O u t l i n e " (Table  objectives for Kodaly  a c q u i s i t i o n ts stated in  3).  I n t e r v i e w with Program Developer,  progressi  May  6,  1982.  Level 2  Level 1 Preparation  Presentation REVIEW:  n  Prarfirp  BEAT  RHYTHM PITCH  ['reparation  Level 3 Preparation  [Presentation I Practice  I  REVIEW  [Presentation |Practice  i rix * A nn in m  REVIEW  S>4 dr»,  *  i  ol'  n  sm  REVIEW AND REINFORCE  REVIEW AND REINFORCE  REVIEW AND REINFORCE  n  s m  Sho  +•  m  7  M  j' i , f i n  mm REVIEW  REINFORCE  ASSESS  Pitch  i n *  z  1  REINFORCE  Rhythm Pitch  ASSESS  REINFORCE  «=j ffn m m d r  1^  Y  d'J.*.  Year End Goals  Year End Goals Rhythm  REVIEW  1^  h  d'J.s.  REVIEW  ASSESS  Year End Goals Rhythm  i- ^ rr  M\  j.  Pitch  TABLE 3: YEARLY OUTLINE; SKILL ACQUISITION SOURCE: KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC RESOURCE BOOK ( 1980, n.p.)  IS3  23  A crucial the  underlying  a s s u m p t i o n of  classroom teacher's m u s i c a l i t y  sufficiently  to  program g o a l .  instruct  the  The o r i g i n a l  this  program -  c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  program -  is  an  i n t e n t was t h a t  implicit all  primary  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s would  receive in-service  teach  i n t e n t was m e d i a t e d d u r i n g  the  program.  implementation  This  p r o c e s s , as some t e a c h e r s  be i m p o s s i b l e .  Now, v a r i o u s  employed w i t h i n  s c h o o l s to  subject  It  that  by t h e  provide  instruction,  various  district  the  out-set  support to  by the  facilitate  p e r s o n n e l , and i n c l u d e  seasonal  and summer w o r k s h o p s e s s i o n s , support,  Developer  and o n - g o i n g  and o t h e r  district  were e n c o u r a g e d t o  designating  a staff  initial  to  of  the  Program  personnel.  support  proThese by  materials,  i n - c l a s s resource  consultation  member as t h e  be  be p r o v i d e d  resource teaching  from the  Program  School a d m i n i s -  t e a c h e r s , as w e l l Kodaly contact  as  person  implementation.  The P r i m a r y M u s i c R e s o u r c e Book i s  locally  are  implementation.  district  cation  to  including  s e r v i c e s needed t o  were d e v e l o p e d and c o n t i n u e  during  the this  teaching arrangements  services  trators  indicated  and  and R e s o u r c e S u p p o r t  was r e c o g n i z e d a t  Developer  teacher  training  e x c h a n g e s and K o d a l y m u s i c s p e c i a l i s t s .  Administrative  vided  that  s c o p e and s e q u e n c e o f  developed m a t e r i a l s  the  the major  communi-  program.  These  were p r e p a r e d by t h e M u s i c  24  C o - o r d i n a t o r / P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r , the and g r o u p s extensive  of  interested  revisions  primary  Koda'ly R e s o u r c e t e a c h e r ,  Kodaly t e a c h e r s .  and a d d i t i o n s  to  the  R e s o u r c e Book  have been c o m p l e t e d  i n r e s p o n s e to  teacher  program a d d i t i o n s .  An E d u c a t i o n a l  Products  Exchange Book  (EPIE) a n a l y s i s  (third 1.  revision,  5.  revealed  content  included  in  extensively  detailed  and w i t h e x i s t i n g  s e l e c t i o n or  because of  test  Kodaly  philosophy  and m e t h o d o l o g y  are  cumulative.  student  not  achievement  an i n d e p e n d e n t  its  is  organizational  and r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s u p p o r t workshops  to  present  teacher musicianship  although  e m p h a s i s and f r e q u e n c y  were made.  as a f t e r - s c h o o l  administrators  source  somewhat  difficult  format.  Workshop  are n e c e s s a r y .  lesson materials  have been m a i n t a i n e d  program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  school  1982  included.  The R e s o u r c e Book i s  workshops  with  materials.  and a r e  and a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  develop  are congruent  acquisition  E v a l u a t i o n d e v i c e s to  District  Inventory  that:  teacher  skill  not  and  curriculum.  Sequence of  are  comments  pesource  rationale  music  Rationale for are not  4.  1980)  developer's  provincial  3.  this  L e a r n e r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s the  2.  of  Three  variations  functions  in  and  during  grade  Teachers attended o r on r e l e a s e  made d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t  to  level the  time; to  25  release  t i m e and w o r k s h o p  Four-day district  attendance.  summer s e s s i o n s were i n i t i a t e d  program p e r s o n n e l  to  provide  t e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p development of  the  maintained support  role  of  during  limited of  a district  program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  over-view  to  specific  grade  music s p e c i a l i s t i n role  l e v e l s or  the  was e x p a n d e d t o  manner, the  and c r i t i q u e  l e a d i n g to  of  and t h e  these r o l e s .  of In  initially, teacher In  at  sustained after-school  of music  model  instruction. Program  K o d a l y R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r upon to  aid  The f o r m a t v a r i e s  cluded presentations  initial  or  continuing  by n e e d , and has  professional  in-  development days or  in-service.  Documentation  Documentation of this  that  instruction:  was a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e  request from a school s t a f f  Program  The  recently,  instruct  improvement  or the D i s t r i c t  implementation.  zones.  at  Resource Teacher provided a p o s i t i v e  On-going c o n s u l t a t i o n Developer  in-class  Kodaly approach.  include  Kodaly Resource Teacher would  This  request although  observe with a subsequent r e v e r s a l  of  in-  K o d a l y R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r was  the Resource Teacher was, u n t i l  1981, the  this  teachers with  and a s e q u e n t i a l  was a v a i l a b l e upon t e a c t i e r  a visiting  the  1978 by  K i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 3 p r o g r e s s i o n .  Provision  times  in  program i s  the  d e v e l o p m e n t and  sketchy.  implementation  The 1976 b r i e f  c a n n o t be  26  l o c a t e d and i t costs  of  student  is  not  p o s s i b l e to  implementation. attitudes  or d u r i n g consists  No e v a l u a t i o n  the  of  teacher  Program  shops and t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t s o f  program.  a s s e s s e d the  in March, 1981. assessment.  and components o f following  before  Kamloops P r i m a r y M u s i c R e s o u r c e Book material  this  and  documentation  ( t h r e e r e v i s i o n s ) , program r a t i o n a l e  Co-ordinator  financial  and m u s i c i a n s h i p was c o n d u c t e d  program i n i t i a t i o n . of  assess d i r e c t  the  program of  used i n  work-  The M u s i c  an e l e m e n t a r y  school  The r e p o r t was r e v i e w e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n An o u t l i n e the  consultation  (Appendix  implementation w i t h the  F_) o f m a j o r  p r o c e s s was  of  decision  prepared  Program D e v e l o p e r .  27  CHAPTER Assessing "From the in-use?"  is  learning;  the  teacher's  p e r s p e c t i v e , what i s  the  program.  P r i o r , to  there  and i n what a d a p t a t i o n s , this  in  is  the  the  two w a y s .  perspective  perspective will  intended  c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e the  perspective the  as t h e  that  interaction  ( 1 9 7 5 : 341)  notes  a p a t t e r n of  program i s  ignored  c h a n g e s a r e made i n  student  understand  the  whether,  being to  the  used.  the  in-  program  o r f r o m an  1979:58).  intended  has an e x p e c t a t i o n  adaptations:  instruction  program i s  The  fidelity  program-in-use  p r o g r a m , and any  a r e s e e n as d e v i a t i o n s .  program t h r o u g h  McLaughlin  program  E x p e c t a t i o n s of  has an e x p e c t a t i o n  transformations  student  investigating  a need t o  (Fullan,  used,  actual  i m p l e m e n t e d may be v i e w e d f r p m a f i d e l i t y adaptation  of  p r o g r a m - i n - u s e may be r e l a t e d  tended program i n  program-  actually  an e v a l u a t i o n  necessarily results  therefore,  However,  the  a s s u m p t i o n c a n n o t be made t h a t  intended  learnings,  how a p r o g r a m i s  necessary before  authorization of  Program-In-Use  Assessment of  and w h y ,  III  that  the  The  teacher w i l l  with a given  various  patterns  no change o r  adaptation adapt  situation. of  program  non-implementation  or b r e a k s down; c o - o p t a t i o n  p r o g r a m d e s i g n or m a t e r i a l s ,  with  as  28  little or  change i n  institutional  a r e made i n in  teaching ethos;  teaching  program m a t e r i a l s  t h a t more mutual  activities,  or,  mutual  interaction  of  particularly sequential  and  or d e s i g n .  McLaughlin further  notes  Fidelity  through  The c u r r i c u l a r  resembles the  fidelity  adapted  the  mirrored intended  teaching  What t y p e  Some  of  adaptation  is  the  essential  factor  in  an a c t u a l  program.  instruction  best  and w h i c h took  that  program-in-use How does a  look  o r have  required  solver"  (Clark  ception  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and Y i n g e r ,  in  teachers selective teachers  place? perspective the  is  used,  teacher  an i n t e n d e d  "decision-maker" 1979:232), of  practice?  standardization?  Characterized variously  1975:77),  a  flexible  In what a s p e c t s d i d  translating  (Lortie,  or  Kodaly suggests a  program.  premise t h a t  keeper"  through  s e q u e n c e s and made  W h e t h e r one o r a n o t h e r implementation  of  expectations,  latitude  an  curriculum,  skill  implementation  techniques?  use i n d i v i d u a l  not  views.  intended  skill  through  may o c c u r t h r o u g h  an e x p e c t a t i o n  or p r e s c r i p t i v e  Has p r a c t i c e  use o f  both  are  may be seen as  organization  perspective,  closely  others  occurs  and a d a p t a t i o n  dealing with s p e c i f i c  expectation;  fidelity  often  these p e r s p e c t i v e s .  or  as c h a n g e s ,  classroom context,  p r o g r a m s may be u n d e r s t o o d  adaptation,  context,  activities,  o p p o s i n g v i e w s , as i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  fidelity  adaptation,  successful implementation  adaptation.  classroom  the  the  intended  central  is  an  innovation as and  to  into  "gate"problem-  teacher's innovation  per-  29  is  critical  Clark  in  shaping p r a c t i c e  and Y i n g e r ,  teacher's  1979:231).  influence  gained  through  direct  interaction  Philip  Jackson in  Life  reveal  tional  attitudes,  and of  disappointment  what we want the  to  does  know.  feelings  of  not  Occupasatisfaction  that  lies  a s p e c t s of  except  behind a craft  through  action  o n l y what  the  conversations  practitioner  H i s way o f  saying  it  he l e a v e s u n s a i d o f t e n  nature  talk  the  is  of  his  life  and even  it is  the  clues  to  Consequently,  necessary, particularly  p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p e c t s of  And  says t h a t  contain  experience.  -  are  w i t h a p e r s o n who has e x p e r i e n c e d t h e m .  things  Such  a c c o m p a n y i n g s u c c e s s and  reasoning  visible  revealing.  maybe  teacher.  classroom behavior  t h e s e and many o t h e r  not  the  in Classrooms:  always  is  1980:44;  was e n c o u r a g e d many y e a r s ago by  teacher's  scarcely  upon a p r o g r a m  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the  the  Keith,  Hence, understanding  and e f f e c t  ...the  failure,  (Hughes,  in  talk the  about  the  classroom  ( 1968:115) . Because the assessing use of  interview  program-in-use,  the  Kodaly  The f o l l o w i n g teachers limited  process is  using or  it  an e f f e c t i v e  was s e l e c t e d t o  means portray  of the  program. a n a l y s e s a r e b a s e d on r e s p o n s e s  the  non-use.  Kodaly program,  and t h o s e who  of indicated  30  Assessment of areas:  first,  teacher  students;. .second, third,  program-in-use  teacher  is  perceptions  teaching  of  beliefs  perceptions  of  reported  use o f  limitations;  in  p a r e d t o what was Student  importance  student  objective  of  Therefore,  interviews.  teacher's  v a l u e s and and g o a l s  student  c o n f i d e n c e or  enjoyment? self  w i t h program a c t i v i t i e s ? have c o - o r d i n a t i o n  as e n j o y i n g  com-  image t h r o u g h Working w i t h  "What  effect  investigated  there  singing  students  who may  any c h a n g e s  students  were  to  the  teachers' The f i r s t  in  perceived  a b o u t m u s i c , and i m p r o v e m e n t s  skills.  in  involvement  were i n d e e d c h a n g e s  were a t t r i b u t e d  musical  stu-  program?  Two comments b e s t s u m m a r i z e t h e students'  question  improve  Have you s e e n any c h a n g e s  abilities:  learning  musicality  to  D e v e l o p m e n t of  w i t h the  The c o n s e n s u s was t h a t musical  the  is  p r o b l e m s , have you n o t i c e d  involvement  students'  program  s t u d e n t ? " was  of m u s i c ?  Student  the  fourth,  of  Have you n o t i c e d any c h a n g e s i n  voices?  student  and use  objectives  this  p r o g r a m had on t h e  understanding  through  to m u s i c ;  intended.  musicality.  has t h i s  dent  implemented  on  E f f e c t s as P e r c e i v e d by T e a c h e r s  The s t a t e d  during  relation  program c o m p o n e n t s , t h e i r  fifth,  five  program e f f e c t s  s e l e c t e d m u s i c and K o d a l y t e c h n i q u e s ; reported  here i n  in  Kodaly program. perceptions comment i s  of  that  of  a s e i f - d e s c n * bed " g e n e r a l i s t " c l a s s r o o m  second  an e l e m e n t a r y  secondary  t e a c h e r , the  t e a c h e r who p r e v i o u s l y w o r k e d w i t h  band s t u d e n t s .  Number o n e , t h e y do s i n g more a c c u r a t e l y on pitch.  You have t h e l i t t l e  Grade twos  i n t o Grade t h r e e and y o u s t a r t song,  i t on t u n e  w i t h . . u h , on t h e w h o l e , w i t h  u m m . . . p r e t t y good r h y t h m . what i t i s when you t a l k you  t o t e a c h them a  and by j i n g o , t h e y do s i n g  ... and t h e y s i n g  You know, t h e y  trying  on a p a r t o f a song t h a t ' s g i v i n g  t o work  difficulty,  I do t i e i n what t h e y do know f r o m t h e  Kodaly, basis  t o t r y and e x p l a i n . . . Y o u ' v e  t o t a l k m u s i c t o them.  wasn't t h e r e b e f o r e The  know  about a " r e s t " . . a n d  c a n , you know, when y o u ' r e  then  coming  second  (#4M,  teacher, responding  got a I  That,  Gr.3,  think,  3K).  t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Do  seem t o have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of music?",  stated:  T:  Oh, d e f i n i t e l y . .  R:  And i n w h a t . .?  T:  B e t t e r , t h e y have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  music.  They've got a b e t t e r f e e l i n g  they l i k e  i t b e t t e r , urn, and t h e y  they  f o r i t , urn,  like  i t better  b e c a u s e t h e y do i t , urn, more p r o f i c i e n t l y .  They  have been b r o u g h t  pro-  through  i n such  a gradual  g r e s s i o n , and i t ' s been so much, a l o t o f f u n f o r  32  them, y e t  the  skill  development  mendous . . urn . . t h a t . . i t Vs j u s t child  likes  doing  a h , you c a n ' t t o work This  ask f o r  from  with  the  school  high  and does i t  long  time,  plex  rhythm,  that,  in  and w e ' l l  have i t  I  see t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l  say,  okay,  let's  those  and a c o u p l e of  ..."1,2,3,4",  in  more  a rhythm..if breakdown I'll  at  say  this 'titi's'  language.,  you c o u n t  "ta ,ta , t a , t a , " . . . w h o  of  just  it  know t h e  urn, m u s i c i s n ' t  they  something  cares,  he can  numbers..music  is  Gr.4, 3K).  particular,  students'  or  rhythmically  Those a r e two  whether  comFor  pattern,  'ta's'...They  music,  (#6N,  taught  no t i m e .  have a l o o k  notes.  doesn't matter  improvement  teaching  up a f a i r l y  logical  note ..eighth note  Look a t  in  simply..if  a sixteenth  In  of  have had t o work a  a t G r a d e 1 1 . . I can put  things,  music  attitude  Grade 6 b a n d , a h ,  a h , I would  difficult  read the  base o f  the  e s p e c i a l l y , who g e t  and i t  a  well,~then,  possibilities  drummers,  way.  if  level . uh, students  "Well,  tre-  3K).  compared t h e  we do r h y t h m s  can't  anything,  a Koda'ly b a c k g r o u n d w i t h s t u d e n t s  We've g o t ,  of  like  a better  (#6N,Gr.4,  same t e a c h e r  students  something  has been j u s t  all  of  students'  singing  the  teachers  musicality  v o i c e s , that  is  perceived  and i n the  the  ability  an  quality to  at  33  accurately  h e a r and r e p r o d u c e p i t c h ,  z a t i o n of music  rhythm  skills.  S e c o n d was t h e  language which a i d s student  internali-  development  learning  c a t e d m u s i c s k i l l s , and p r o v i d e s that  and t h e  o f more  of a  sophisti-  a common e x p e r i e n c e so  t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ' c a n c o n v e r s e more e a s i l y .  Third,  b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s were s e e n t o have a s t r o n g e r m u s i c a l standing,  they  had a g r e a t e r  appreciation  The t e a c h e r q u o t e d above makes t h e may be t a u g h t concern  is  many d i f f e r e n t  that  the  student  of  music.  point  w a y s ; the most  under-  that  music  important  d e v e l o p the m u s i c a l  under-  standing. When q u e s t i o n e d r e g a r d i n g confidence, activities  teacher  be o f  student.  This  involvement  solo parts  value for  involving  with  correlated  there might  less  sharing  in  does  it..")  confident  was t a k e n f o r  that  co-ordination  comment was t h a t one c o u l d not  although  the  self-  granted:  confidence-building.  T e a c h e r s were l e s s c e r t a i n  activities  ("Everybody  " s o c i a l development"  would a i d  helped students  student  c o n s e n s u s was t h a t b o t h  and t a k i n g  seemed t o  changes i n  to  program  problems.  judge whether  changes i n  be a l i m i t e d  student effect.  activities The g e n e r a l rhythm co-ordination,  34  Teaching  Beliefs  Participating out  beliefs  about  teachers both the  were a s k e d q u e s t i o n s  teaching  of music  to  draw  and t h e  Kodaly  program: -What  does t e a c h i n g  m u s i c mean to  -What  does  Koda'ly  -What  is  teaching  and " t e a c h i n g  "participation"  and t e a c h e r  (n=10).  It's  for  a way t o  a part  of  of  First,  the  to  music  had somewhat  C#2A, G r . for  years  level and i t  (#4L,  to  in  terms  student  appreciation kids  relax  2,  of  Important appreciate carry 2K).  of  start  music  en-  as  and  enjoy  and  them  and e n -  on t h r o u g h  student  music:  children... to  primarily  both  4K),  little  different  musical  to music  r h y t h m and b e a t  the  will  Kinder.,  of  a way t o  identify  moving . . . h a p p i n e s s  music  the  lives:  enjoyment  a young  life  introduce  their  themselves, ties  you?  and " r e l a x a t i o n " f o r  Establishment  j o y m e n t was a b a s i s  joy  Kodaly"  " T e a c h i n g m u s i c " was d e f i n e d  "enjoyment",  at  mean f o r  Kodaly?  "Teaching music" meanings.  you?  the  quali-  35  It's  enjoyment  day.  t h a t adds t o  I use i t  constantly  was p l a c e d on s t u d e n t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  skills  by one  Teaching music i s put  together  Gr.4,  program  in  Emphasis  contrast  to  enjoyment  -  teacher:  by i t s  a very  nature  a group  intricate  on s k i l l  of  fashion  in  skills (#6N,  narrower  acquisition  "Sequential", "structured",  establishing  "the  teachers  in  five  teaching  Kodaly in  defined  structure  to  or  representing  their  terms  and  were  the of  personal  personal  "specific"  basic s k i l l s "  used by f o u r  viding  the  G r . l , 6K).  direct  K o d a l y " was d e f i n e d  and c e n t r e d  concerns.  (#6P,  of  3K).  "Teaching terms,  in  e v e r y moment  teaching  music  definitions  program, the  whereas  program  pro-  teaching:  T e a c h i n g Koda'ly means t h a t J_ c a n t e a c h m u s i c ! (#2A, It  G r . 2 , 4K)  gives d e f i n i t e  g u i d e l i n e s ; you know what  expectations  are  In  organization  one w o r d :  Two t e a c h e r s  (#4K,  defined  program.  The f o l l o w i n g  using  program,  the It's  the  1,  5K).  (#6P,  G r . l , 6K).  complex n a t u r e  teacher  of  had c o m p l e t e d  and had l i t t l e  music  the  two  its  1 eve 1s . . . S o m e t i m e s , I f e e l  even know what I'm don't  know i f  I'm  doing...I doing,  really  Kodaly  years  background:  much more c h a l l e n g i n g , more d e m a n d i n g ,  cause of  I  Gr.  the  enjoy  a h , you know,  I  bedon't  it  but  an a d e -  36  quate j o b . . s o m e t i m e s Importantly,  the  don't  Gr.4,  hand,  think  I think  "teaching  enjoyment  And y e t ,  the  or  it  (#6N,  of  " T e a c h i n g m u s i c " was  a complex, (n = 8) o f  on c h i l d r e n  p r o g r a m , what  K o d a l y i s a music program f o r  starts  when t h e  them t h e  children  experience with  m u s i c , making t h e a lot  r a m , the  of  in  structured  learning  a very  b e i n g a b l e to  children  listening,  think  are b u i l t  it's  learning  It  the  gives the  music.  a sequential  one upon a n o t h e r ; (#4J,  notation, to  that  feeling  pitch  around leading  read m u s i c ,  p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t  prog-  and  it  G r . 2&3, 6 K ) .  s p e c i f i c program b u i l t  rhythms,  the c h i l d r e n  is "Koda'ly"?  music, interpreting  fun...I  skills  t e a c h i n g of  terms,  "Koda'ly"  are very young.  c o v e r s many a r e a s o f m u s i c It's  other  i n more s t r u c t u r e d  teaching  impact  On t h e  music.  R: To d e s c r i b e t h i s  T:  Koda'ly"  teach  participation.  descriptions  program's  and e n j o y i n g  It's  I  more t o  K o d a l y " was d e f i n e d  c e n t r e d on t h e  T:  a lot  was e v i d e n t .  dealing with perceptions  about  "teaching  techniques:  can say t h a t  there's  beliefs  as b a s i c  program.  I  that  3K).  A range of defined  adherence to  really  Koda'ly,  G r . 3 , 2K).  second t e a c h e r noted  i m p l i e d more t h a n I  (#60,  (#4M,  the to  therefore G r . 3 , 3K).  37  T:  Oh, e n j o y i n g  for  the  skills  m u s i c , and g i v i n g  of  a basic  m u s i c ; ah i n t r o d u c t i o n  a young age ( # 6 P ,  G r . 1,  foundation  to  that  at  6K).  S e l e c t e d M u s i c and K o d a l y E l e m e n t s To compare p r o g r a m - i n - u s e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o of  s e l e c t e d music  The f i v e  assess  (Figure  music elements  representative  content  increases of  a "strong  earlier  primary  literacy" assessed  is  for  ordered  tional  or  notation  2).  rhythm"  programs, Kamloops materials  development  i s most e m p h a s i z e d  later  primary  of  grades.  music program,  and  at "musical  Teachers their  by g r a d e l e v e l , a r e p l o t t e d on F i g u r e use o f  of  the  program.  Emphasis  (harmony),  ostinato  (repeated  and t h e  i n c r e a s e d by g r a d e  level  T e a c h e r use o f In  addition,  of  or  non-use of  these  reading in  techniques  the is  of  conven-  curriculum plotted  t e a c h e r s were q u e s t i o n e d these  3.  s e l e c t e d Kamloops K o d a l y  accompaniment),  Figure 4. limited  For example, the  s u c h as p a r t work  rhythmic  materials.  music  the c u r r i c u l u m  t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  on t e c h n i q u e s pitch  primary  a d d r e s s e d by t h e  their  Teachers also rated techniques  is  emphasized at in  and use  (Figure  g r a d e s , whereas the development  importance  responses,  perceived importance  areas of  level.  feeling  teachers,  F i g u r e 1 were s e l e c t e d as  emphasis i n  by g r a d e  sample of  1) and K o d a l y e l e m e n t s  in  and b e c a u s e e a c h c o n t e n t Kodaly m a t e r i a l s ;  a c r o s s the  t e c h n i q u e s , where  for  on  reasons  applicable.  38  Figure  1:  Interview  0 not important  Question: Music Elements;  1  2  Importance  4 very important  3  average  A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop student's» 1.  In-tune singing  2.  Strong f e e l i n g f o r  3.  Musical l i t e r a c y i n terms of w r i t i n g and/or reading s k i l l s .  4.  Creative e x p r e s s i o n / i m p r o v i s a t i o n .  5.  Listening/music a p p r e c i a t i o n .  F i g u r e 2: I n t e r v i e w  0  rhythm  Q u e s t i o n : K o d a l y T e c h n i q u e s ; Use  1  not used at a l l  2  3  used i n a l l lessons  average use  A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop students' understanding 1.  Hand s i g n s  2.  Sol fa pitch names  3.  Development of inner hearing  4.  Echo techniques  5.  Part work  6.  Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s  7.  Time (rhythm) names  8.  Use of rhythm instruments  9.  Ostinato techniques  10.  Stick  11.  Reading of conventional  4  notation notation. •  of:  Teacher: Grades taught: Years teaching Kodaly: FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS.  Tn-tune Rhythm Music  #4L  #4K  #41  #6P  Kindergarten  Grade 1  Grade 1  Grade 1  2 years  5 years  5 years  6 years  singing literacy  Creative Expression Music Appreciation 0  i  t  3  o  4  t  i  3  V  4  3  i  IMPORTANCE. FIGURE 4: KODALY TECHNIQUES.  Hand signs Pitch names Inner hearing Echo techniques Part work  1  Games & Movement Rhythm names  3  Rhythm instruments Ostinato Stick notation Conventional Notation  0  r  1  13  4  0  USE.  i  Z  3  A  0  I  t  S f  2,  3  4  (Page 1 of 3 pages)  CO UD  Teacher: Grades taught: Years teaching  FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS.  #2B  #2A  #6Q  #4J  Grades 1&2  Grade 2  Grade 2  Grade 2&3  3 years  4 years  4 years  6 years  In-tune sinqing  1  Rhvthm Music L i t e r a c y Creative Expression Music Appreciation  X. 3 1  FIGURE 4:  Hand sians  KODALY  Pitch names  TECHNIQUES,  Inner hearinq  0  4  1 1 3  1 1 5  IMPORTANCE.  0  I  2  5 4  0  I  I  3  j  1  Echo Techniques Part work  1  1  Games & Movement Rhvthm names Rhvthm  instrumpnts  Ostinato Stick notation Conventional Notation  1  > i t 3 i  <?  / Z 3  4  10  1 I  i  A  4-  (Page 2 of 3 pages.)  Teacher: Grades  #6 0 taught:  Years teaching Kodaly: FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS.  Grade 3 2 years  In-tune singing  #4M  #6N  Grade 3  Grade 4  3 years  3 years  Rhvthm  Music L i t e r a c y  l  Creative Expression Music Appreciation i  0  I  3  4  0 l  1 3  IMPORTANCE. FIGURE 4 :  Hand signs  KODALY TECHNIQUES.  Pitch names  4  O  I  1  I  S A  Z  3 4  Inner hearing Echo techniques Part work Games & Movement  a  Rhythm names Rhythm  instruments  Ostinato Stick notation Conventional Notation  1 *i  /  h S  4  0  I  USE.  L  3 A  0  I  (Page 3 of 3 pages.)  42  Comparison of ceived  importance  with actual in  these  is  little  F i g u r e s 3 and 4 shows d i v e r s i t y and u s e .  u s e , then' u n i q u e  similarity  in  literacy  does not  increasing  lack  of  at  the  to  increasing complexity  upper of  use o f  number o f y e a r s  of  substantiated  of  in  in-tune  in  the  by t h e  teaching  using  of  feeling  program, to  and t h a t  and m a i n t a i n i n g  B e c a u s e so many o f the y e a r s  a r e not  this  be s l i g h t l y  skill  accurate  able  due  appears  leads  after  to That a  the  program  rhythm i s a development less  important.  two w a y s .  have  First,  difficulty  s h o u l d not  personal  be  forced,  difficulties  pitch:  children to  the  responded in  indicated  the  for  whereas  t h a t young c h i l d r e n  hearing  perhaps  and i n s t r u c t i n g  a strong  the  some (n=5)  an  importance  It  techniques  they  and s e c o n d ,  is  Kodaly t e c h n i q u e s .  teachers  s i n g i n g on p i t c h ,  musical  interviews.  s i n g i n g w-as j u d g e d  indicated  tech-  use and  levels,  When q u e s t i o n e d why, (n=5)  there  There  K o d a l y program  both t r a i n i n g  The d e v e l o p m e n t priority  the  some o f  teachers gained confidence  of  level.  primary  operation  these  importance  reported  in  levels,  program m a t e r i a l s .  time t e a c h i n g  somewhat h i g h e r  are  o r use o f  perceived  consistency in  these elements  of  grade  i n c r e a s e w i t h grade  of  length  Across  per-  use m a t c h e s  p r o g r a m s - i n-use  importance  For example, the  is  self-reported  teachers'classrooms.  niques.  that  If  of  sing  I have t a u g h t in  tune,  over  and I am  with  43  in  no p o s i t i o n m y s e l f ,  and I do as b e s t as I  to  try  and g e t  them t o  sing in  cannot  follow,  if  tune,  but  if  can they  t h e y a r e o c t a v e s b e l o w me,  or  octaves  above me, as l o n g as t h e y a r e t r y i n g  to  sing  the  in  same r a n g e ,  as b e i n g a b l e t o Establishing  pitch  "non-music" Pitch  to  get  going  out  of  T h a t ' s why  (#4K,  their  The w h o l e t h i n g  Both i n d i c a t e d  can't  carry  c e a s i n g to is  and c a n ' t  I'm  not m u s i c a l l y i n c l i n e d ,  but  I'm  not  students' when t h e  trained.  that  students  skills  was r a t e d  other  a s p e c t s of  l e a d the  they d o n ' t  a combination  students.  tell  when  you m i g h t  Gr.  6K).  (n=9)  detect  (#2D, of  the  Gr.3).  rhythm  as t h e  and  rhythm  as w e l l  and t h e  forget  the  pitch  rest  pitch  basis for  program:  have t h e  first,  I  I appreciate music,  a r e n o t on t u n e  of  the  it:  I couldn't  by t h e m a j o r i t y the  working  and was  s i n g i n g was g o i n g f l a t . . c a n ' t  The d e v e l o p m e n t  1,  use  who  b a s e d on t u n e - - s i n g i n g .  a tune,  I  G r . l , 5K).  by two t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d  program.  for  (n=3):  p o s e d an u n r e s o l v e a b l e d i f f i c u l t y ,  main r e a s o n f o r  skill  g r a d e o'ne . . 'Soh . .me . . . 1 ah '  any f a r t h e r  used t h e  with pitch  G r . 2 , 4K).  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a d i f f i c u l t  T h i s was c o r r o b o r a t e d no l o n g e r  as much v a l u e  (#2A,  i s my weak a r e a . . v e r y w e a k .  not  If  that  sing in.tune,  t e a c h e r s to master  was a f r a i d I'm  I give  (#6P,  all  44  Lesser  importance  visation) ever,  was a t t a c h e d  and t h e  a lack  trated  importance  of  felt  by two  creative I  of  expertise  need ( n = l ) .  e x p r e s s i o n or  Gr.1,  teachers  that's  kids  level.  as b e i n g  these  a lack in  of  views  areas time  is  (n=4),  illus-  importance  love  your  gifted  might  try  that  (#4M,  Figure 4 indicates  to  important  of  improvise  (#6P,  the  program  who  who  G r . 3 , 3K).  high  names; t h e s e  characteristics  of  use o f  use o f  and d i s c o m f o r t  in  The l i m i t e d  or  non-use of  development  of  inner  hand s i g n s ,  techniques  K o d a l y program  limited  at  odd c h i l d  and t a l e n t e d  names and p i t c h  to  all  You m i g h t have t h e  fit  w o u l d be  (n=2),  to  how-  improvisation:  would  of  attached  Contrast  terrific,  see t h a t  primary  lack  (impro-  6K).  can't  admitted  expression  There are e x c e p t i o n s ,  t e a c h e r s who d i s c u s s e d the  think  I  creative  and m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n .  was p e r s o n a l : a l a c k or  to  use.  hand s i g n s  part work,  obvious  Those t e a c h e r s  lack  of  ostinato,  by t e a c h e r s  c o n f i d e n c e and a need f o r  the  indicated  c l a s s r o o m use due to  hearing  are  rhythm  (n=6)  practice  who  confusion expertise. and  the  indicated  before  use  attempted.  Program Components:Use Teacher i nvesti gated:  use o f  the  following  p r o g r a m components  was  45  1.  Kamloops Koda'ly c u r r i c u l u m the  1.  materials,  Primary Music Resource Book;  2.  S p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e and s c o p e o f  3.  Koda'ly p r o g r a m  4.  Student  songs;  and  materials  The M u s i c R e s o u r c e Book p r o v i d e s scope o u t l i n e s ,  skill  and g e n e r a l i z e d  lesson plans,  ment  to  activities  correlate  Participating  sections Three  types  for  teachers  of  of  tend  to  I  haven't  A second group selective  to  songs, plus  this  teacher  innovated (n=3)  impro-  activities. questions  r e s o u r c e , most for  use e m e r g e d .  too  "the  valuable improvement.  One g r o u p  (n=6)  book":  much ( # 6 P ,  adopted  provided  was t o o  therefore  a "working  specific  some  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  R e s o u r c e Book c o n t a i n e d  down",  suggestions,  charts,  have my m u s i c book open (#4K, G r . l , 5 K ) .  use o f  information  sequence  song s c o r e s , games and move-  use c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g  I  skill  were a s k e d t h r e e  use o f  teaching,  categories  reported  presentation  and m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n  concerning  skills;  assessment.  Kamloops Koda'ly c u r r i c u l u m  visational  chiefly  the  A t h i r d group program m a t e r i a l s ,  1,6K).  format but  One t e a c h e r  t o o much i n f o r m a t i o n ,  difficult  and t h e  had c o l l e c t e d  file".  program  materials.  far  Gr.  book  frequently  made  felt  the  accessing  needed t o  be  "pared  used m a t e r i a l s  in  The R e s o u r c e B o o k a c t e d more as a g u i d e . (n=2)  made v e r y  and used t h e  selective  use o f  the  R e s o u r c e Book as a s o u r c e  46  for  song s c o r e s and some t e a c h i n g  structure  of  the music program.  One o f  w i t h e x t e n s i v e music background the  Koda'ly p r o g r a m w i t h o t h e r I've  program,  the m a t e r i a l s ,  the  kind  it,  my own way o f Teachers with use of  the  of  and I ' v e  teaching  these  ideas  tents,  be more s e l e c t i v e .  teaching just  (#6N,  tools  adapted i t  to  G r . 4 , 3K).  as p r e s e n t e d  in  Familiarity  h o w e v e r , was p r e r e q u i s i t e  I  think  do,  that's  hunt  prescriptive the R e s o u r c e  they are going be f a m i l i a r material.  to  with If  for  the  book t o  the  with  never  parts  gether.  Everything  is  t h a t you  you j u s t  have t o  (#2A,  of  go  find  toneed, it  G r . 2 , 4K).  The r e s p o n s e s t o aspects  to  as  flipping  out what  through  of  get  a r o u n d and f i g u r i n g  thumb  the  set  to  as t h e y w o u l d from  there  to  they'll  t h e y a r e g i v e n a whole  it  has  where  book a n y w a y . . . a n d  con-  use:  out  l e s s o n p l a n s , they are never going familiar  its  effective  figure  go, otherwise  backgrounds  with  something every teacher  through  from  I know b a s i c a l l y  B o o k , w h e r e a s t h o s e w i t h more e x t e n s i v e m u s i c tended to  the  teachers  n o n - m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d s made more  Koda'ly c u r r i c u l u m  as  music t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s :  the  in  not  incorporated  looked at  available  i d e a s , but  the  the second q u e s t i o n resource materials  - most -  valuable  are d i f f i c u l t  to  47  categorize,  as a l l  visational by a t  one t e a c h e r .  ning  Kodaly teacher it  of  indicates  the  various  teachers  t h a t worked  I  order  of  skill  best way"),  and t h e  I  do i t  *lah  example a b e g i n -  between  essentials,  "the  basics"  skills  presentation typified  (as  teacher  during  the  response  in  !  in  anything way t h e  at  all.  I do t t  same o r d e r .  the  Program  says,  that's  exact-  w i t h the  same s o n g .  I've  my book  got  o f me, so I d o n ' t  the way.  miss  out  You know, e x a c t l y  the  program p r e s c r i b e s  (#2A,  Gr.2, 4K).  go a l o n g w i t h how she ( P r o g r a m D e -  has i t  set  up ( # 4 1 ,  G r . l , 5K).  (n=ll)  imple-  When i t  s u c h and s u c h a w a y , "  tn f r o n t  along  I just  veloper)  the  with tt  to  structure  initial  teachers expressed f a i t h  way I do i t ,  open r i g h t  Oh,  Some  a c c e p t a n c e and f i d e l i t y  pilot-testing  experiment  "Present the  teachers.  expertise.  don't  ly  of  elaborated.  "the  Developer's  diversity  needs o f  for  to d i s t i n g u i s h  R e f e r e n c e was made t o mentation,  impro-  recommended no c h a n g e s ;  S p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e and scope of  specified  the  the  mentioned  recommended a book w i t h j u s t  C o m p l e t e and u n q u e s t i o n i n g the  except  s e c t i o n s , were  simplification;  confusing  and i d e a s w h i c h  book,  be c o m p r e h e n s i v e and u s e f u l .  saw a need f o r  and f o u n d  2.  (n=9)  book was seen t o  (n=2)  This  n e c e s s a r y t o meet  The m a j o r i t y the  the  and m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n  least  materials  components of  48  One t e a c h e r  indicated  what  b a s i s of  on t h e  changing the  t e a c h a b l e moments, b u t  years experience with  the  tunities Gr.2,  it  a c o u p l e of  a h e a d , sometimes the  skill  acquisition  oppor-  then  (#6Q,  T e a c h e r s (n=4)  c l e a r l y was n o t  e x p r e s s e d the  down! , as more t i m e was needed f o r and m a n i p u l a t e  learnings  W e l l . , even t o d a y , one l i t t l e there  girl  to  internalize  I was d o i n g  couldn't  hear  was any d i f f e r e n c e ,  this  time,  she's s t i l l  she w a s n ' t  then  hearing  we c o u l d maybe c u t do more o f Changes i n  the  just  This year  them:  1  soh..1 ah'...that  tuning it  "After  i n . " And differently But  it.  that  So I r e a l l y  feel  back on t h e w r i t t e n  scope of  ear-training skills  (#6P,  taught  part  and  G r . l , 6K).  were i n  s p e c i f i c groups of  I haven't  it  repeat  she s a i d . . . " O h y e s ! "  the  p e r c e i v e d needs o f  "slow  to  and I t h o u g h t , not  ac-  a m u s i c l e s s o n and  when she c o u l d see I was p l a y i n g on t h e b e l l s ,  need t o  children  1  T:  rarest  and  4K).  cepted.  to  several  times,  come u p , and you can t e a c h t h a t  The s c o p e o f  all  after  program:  Once y o u ' v e been t h r o u g h you know w h a t ' s  t e a c h i n g s e q u e n c e some-  response  children  done any w r i t t e n  type  (n=4): of  thing... R:  And why i s  T:  I'm  that?  having a hard time  getting  through...It  takes  49  us a l o n g t i m e w o u l d be j u s t so b e t t e r  to get too  they  through  frustrating,  e n j o y what  they  don't  enjoy music, t h e n . . i f  trate  them,  pose  q u e s t i o n e d the  not  these s k i l l s  mental  performance: think  that  of  it,  but  in  getting  rhythms, playing at  you're  third  graders  need t o  I wonder  how much t h e y  into  sixteenths  the  a musical  instrument,  g r a d e , they w o u l d n ' t  if  pur-  i n a way t h e y ' v e  program  in  many t h i n g s  to  instru-  know some need t o  know  even  they  third  in  started into  grade..  t o o much  into  (#4f1, G r . 3 , 3 K ) .  Concerns about for  that  understanding  be g e t t i n g  put  I find  frus-  and s y n c o p a t e d  So I t h i n k  T:  to  they  and s t a t e d  were a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y  at  frustrations  that,  the whole  scope,  t h o s e s o p h i s t i c a t e d rhythms  the  try If  going  and so o n , b e c a u s e t h a t ' s ,  first  it  are d o i n g .  need s o p h i s t i c a t e d m u s i c a l  unless  I  to  and  G r . l , 5K).  (#4K,  did  I think,  then y o u ' v e d e f e a t e d  One t e a c h e r students  many t h i n g s ,  extensive  teachers the to,  scope e x p e c t a t i o n s  posed  (n=5).  Grade 2 p r o g r a m t h e r e  are  ah, cover adequately a l l  too  the  way  through.  R:  And s o , how have you c h o s e n what y o u want  t e a c h and what  not  to  teach?  to  50  T:  W e l l , I'm  included,  pretty  as f a r  well  as I can g e t  Most t e a c h e r s r e s o l v e d t h i s quence o f  teaching everything  conflict  s k i l l s , completing  indicating  to  concepts not  the  Teachers  (n=6)  who w o r k e d w i t h  teachers, particularly  ground,  had many d i f f i c u l t i e s  T:  s c o p e of  I still  'ticka  skills  haven't  ticka'  difficulty  Kindergarten  with s k i l l with  (n=3).  taught  I'm  experiencing concern with i t ,  it  outlined  difficulties  or  deal  of  in  between  t h o s e n o t e s , and so when  are going  I  know  to e x p e r i e n c e  it's  con-  as we 1 1 .  R:  And so y o u ' r e  T:  Y e a . . v e r y si owly.  R:  Okay, t e a c h i n g Grade 2 ; are t h e r e  skills  back-  'ray'  having a great  distinguishing, myself, intervals  skills  my c l a s s  small  cern with  the  taught.  and I'm  to..they  then  and  music  These  the  going  se-  instruction,  little  presenting  t h e G r a d e 2 and 3 p r o g r a m s the  the  or mastered.  whereas  limited  by f o l l o w i n g  subsequent Kodaly teachers  Grade 1 v o i c e d few d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  G r . 2&3, 6 K ) .  as much as p o s s i b l e , and  students'  introduced  (#4J,  that's  just  t h a t you f i n d  T:  Uhhum, ' t i c k a  R:  What i s  T:  I don't  taking  it  very  more d i f f i c u l t  slowly?  any o f  to  those  present?  ticka'.  it..the..? know how t o do i t !  I don't  know how  51  to  present  just  it!  It's  a rhythmic  have a heck o f  barely R:  clap  it  let  a time  to  No, I h a v e n ' t ,  it  can't  but  ones, i t ' s  I  just  h o l d me back h e r e !  teachers  (n=3)  required  to  the  it  to  anybody a b o u t  can  the  how  kids..  to  s h o u l d b e c a u s e I'm  be any more d i f f i c u l t  Even w i t h  mean I  I  that?  T:  other  to...I  alone e x p l a i n  Have you t a l k e d  work...teaching  element...and  that  t h a t the  instruct  mastered adequately  t h a n any o f letting  the  something  (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) .  provision  felt  I'm  sure  of  support  s e r v i c e s , some  expertise  and  understanding  these advanced s k i l l s by t h e  teacher with  c o u l d not  little  be  music  background: T:  I feel  level, I  fairly  I found  wasn't  up t o  comfortable  the  w i t h the  Grade 3 l e v e l  But a f a n t a s t i c  T:  Y e a h , as you g r o w .  but  G r a d e 3 was a b o u t my l i m i t ,  I  think  they  was a c h a l l e n g e . . .  it!  R:  me...after  basis for. .. I've  grasped i t  once you g e t  done G r a d e 1, G r a d e 2,  (#6P,  the  order  to  rather  kids  got  beyond  G r . l , 6K).  p a s t G r a d e 2, e v e n , you have  have a much b r o a d e r m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d skills,  Grade 1  and have  t h a n what  I'm  coming i n w i t h ,  do an e f f i c i e n t  job  at  maybe a t G r a d e 3, c e r t a i n l y  in  it. the  So I  the in  think  intermediate...  to  52  you need some s p e c i a l i s t s job.  It's  just  teacher  (#4J,  I  it's  think  teacher,  t o o much t o  an a w f u l  lot  e s p e c i a l l y the  start  teaching  t o do an  ask f r o m  the  classroom  to  ask t h e  classroom teacher  have a m u s i c a l  from  classroom  scratch.  background,  You m i g h t  k n o w i n g y o u have t o  who  go  be much o f  t h a t when you g e t  an a r e a l i k e  is  to  that,  wonder  that  t h i n k you o u g h t  that  specialists  jackinto  so. s p e c i a l i z e d . . . I  they...I  think  they  t o be t h a t much o f  such a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d .  to  into  a  o f - a l l - t r a d e s . . . I think  really  adequate  G r . 2&3, 6 K ) .  hasn ' t . . . d o e s n ' t have t o  in order  I think  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  to  have a n e r v e an e x p e r t  that  really  do i t  (#4M,  in  Gr.3,  3K). Advantages  and l i m i t a t i o n s  teacher  role  issue.  Besides f i n a n c i a l  vision the  of  lack  centive  arose during  specialists of  to  control learn  T h e r e a r e two aren't  interviews, cost,  obviously  disadvantages  music a debated  of  the  classroom events  and l i m i t e d  proto in-  teach music: sides.  learning  specialist  a specialist  were p e r c e i v e d by one t e a c h e r  of  to  of  I m e a n , maybe my  as w e l l  coming i n ,  urn, you can do i t  as f r o m  but  someone l i k e  t h e n on t h e  when you w a n t ,  children  and I  other know  they a r e d o i n g . . . because you j u s t w o u l d n ' t  a hand, what  do  be  53  any o t h e r does 3.  it  music,  (#41,  if  that  p e r s o n a l w a y s comes i n  G r . l , 5K).  K o d a l y songs - v a l u e s , l i m i t a t i o n s  and  adaptations  The Koda'ly p r o g r a m s o n g s were r e c o g n i z e d as teaching  tools  (n=9)  matched c h i l d r e n ' s tunes,  and t h e  because of  v o i c e s , the  sequential  concept p r e s e n t a t i o n activities without  the  limited  through  the  songs.  "too  short,  students I  the  learning  it"  don't  ...the but  were p o t e n t i a l l y  subject matter  and l o t s  of  (#6Q,  to  start  Teachers  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d At  tine  order  with only (n=3)  point  boring;  students  program m a t e r i a l s  stand t h i s . . . I n  traditional  pitch the  really  same, b u t teach i t ,  two n o t e s  thought  rhythm  that  Gr.2, 4K). enjoy  variety, I  under-  you've  got  (41, G r . l , 5K). students  preferred  songs: I thought,  you know,  some of  these  songs a r e p r e t t y  Mickey M o u s e . . t h e y ' r e j u s t  to  pretty  think  this  range  songs were  (#2B,  have a good  the to  of  d o e s n ' t a p p e a l t o Grade 2  the  songs are a l l  is  that  G r . 2 , 4K) .  limited  t h e words a r e s i l l y "  know w h e t h e r  the  range  T h r o u g h t h e game  " r e p e a t i n g m e l o d y and  they're  repetitions  note  s i m p l e words and  Songs a l s o had some l i m i t a t i o n s : and t h e  excellent  p r o g r e s s i o n and c o n t i n u i t y  s t u d e n t s were  thinking  and  dumb...They j u s t  going  couldn't  54  wait  to  have t h e i r  so t h e y  turn  can have t h e i r  . They'll t u r n to  sing  do i t  forever  (2A,  Gr.2,  4K). Although value  of  teachers  these  expressed various  s o n g s as t e a c h i n g  The P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r  reservations,  materials  encouraged  was  affirmed.  teachers  to  non-Koda'ly songs s e p a r a t e l y  f r o m Koda'ly l e s s o n s .  teachers  singing  scheduled separate  "outside"  songs, with sources  Guide s o n g s , p a t r i o t i c temporary student  action  r e a c t i o n to t h e s e  Because (#60,  I  like  for  Koda'ly c u r r i c u l u m addition mentioned  cific  teacher-selected  of  songs to  were n o t  contemporary  affected  songs:  kids  like  teachers  was t h e  be added f o r m a l l y  forthcoming,  songs w i t h  by one t e a c h e r .  them  Lack of  reason f o r  to  although  "action,  the the  life"  was  songs t h a t would  appeal  not  spe-  recommending  changes. What s u i t s body e l s e  me w o u l d n ' t (#4M,  Gr.3,  T e a c h e r s were a d a p t i n g as needed i n needs o f for  Girl  songs and c o n -  involvement  them so m u c h , t h e  these  G r . 3 , 2K).  Recommendations  across  Personal  Three  camp s o n g s ,  Canadian songs, f o l k  songs.  use  sessions for  including  the  response to  students;  formalizing  suit  some-  3K). the  program  personal  however,  these  necessarily  various  c o n c e r n s or  teachers  changes.  in  did  not  ways  perceived see t h e  need  55  4.  Student assessment Formal  testing  was n o t  preferred  to  Diversity  was shown i n  written lied  d e v i s e methods  these teachers don't  (#4K, I  teachers  suitable  classes.  types of  G r . 1, kids  tested Arts  of  student  reacted  like  think  all  testing  do n o t  that  excel  t o make i t  -  need t o  I  more f o r m a l , of  the  afraid  promise or  Grade ones  and  interest.  get  Language the  apologize  core  for...I  each  (#2A,  of  indi-  Gr. 2,  have 4K).  w r i t t e n a s s e s s m e n t s , s u c h as  rhythms of  student  or  p i t c h e s , was u s e d  a s s e s s m e n t e m p l o y e d was memorization  of  songs,  or  rhythm.  comment  and t o  in  that's  situation  was  not  comments were l i m i t e d  "enjoyment",  re-  enjoyment;  own way and we do n o t  (n=3)  including  Reporting priority;  out  type  time  t h a t we can l e t  in t h e i r  write  pitch  and  be t e s t e d . . . t h e y  shouldn't  a testing  The t h i r d  t e a c h e r s who  not w i t h the  O b s e r v a t i o n and i n f o r m a l student  No  5K).  i n music time  vidual  testing  assessment employed.  adamantly.  and M a t h , and I'm  think  (n=5).  specific  participation  day l o n g , a l l  my p r o g r a m ,  having  for  a s s e s s m e n t was e m p l o y e d by t h r e e  on o b s e r v a t i o n  I  s e e n as a n e e d ; t h e s e  note  generally to  students  seen to  "participation" who showed  be a or  exceptional  56  Though f o r m a l  e v a l u a t i o n of  priority,  need t o d e t e r m i n e  of  the  some c o n c e r n  Have y o u g o t  How do t h e y  the o t h e r  any t i p s  for  are d e f i c i e n t  with that  I'd  know i f ,  doing  like  to  to  Implemented  it  Compared t o  I s h o u l d work  urn, I d o n ' t  know i f . . . W h a t  in teaching  (#60,  k i n d of  for  music.  Intended  All  know,  I'd  a job  I'm  G r . 3 , 2K) . Objectives  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o p r o v i d e t h e i r objectives  current  r e s p o n s e s were i n  l e a r n i n g , and showed c o n g r u e n c e between  beliefs  and t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s .  was w i t h s k i l l s year's  program.  jectives  G e n e r a l l y the  goal  development of  struct  the  secondary  the program.  of  this  for  first  objective following  implemented student  ob-  intended ones.  p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was  teacher musicality  sufficient  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d i f  fair  a s s u m p t i o n , and w h e t h e r  sufficient  it.  This intended objective  is  working with  the  of  teaching  Most t e a c h e r s '  that prepared students  are c o n g r u e n t w i t h the  An i m p l i c i t the  enjoyment;  teaching  terms  student  o b j e c t i v e was s t u d e n t  see?  me? What do you see  Gr.2&3, 6K).  like  stack  ones t h a t y o u  w i t h more? ( # 4 J ,  really  l e v e l was n o t a  t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s was  o f my k i d s ?  up i n c o m p a r i s o n t o  just  skill  (n=2).  What do y o u t h i n k  t h a t they  student  this  to  in-  was a  s u p p o r t was g i v e n  partially  the e a r l i e r grades i n d i c a t e d  met:  all  teachers  c o n f i d e n c e and  57  mastery cerns,  of  the  required  however,  demanding f o r Specialist  that  the  musical  late  T h e r e were  con-  G r a d e 2 and 3 p r o g r a m s were  classroom teacher  m u s i c t e a c h e r s were  advanced music  skills.  to  seen to  instruct  too  adequately.  be n e c e s s a r y  for  instruction.  Summary The c o l l e c t i v e fidelity  programs-in-use  and a d a p t a t i o n  from p r e s c r i b e d  skill  t u r e was p e r c e i v e d perience. ponents  presented  perspectives.  Little  be l o g i c a l  were n o t e d ,  response to  teacher  preferences,  and t h e  to  programs-in-use  perceptions  previous musical  as t h i s  struc-  and b a s e d on p r o v e n  H o w e v e r , numerous a d a p t a t i o n s  of  student  of  deviation  s e q u e n c e was r e p o r t e d ,  to  a meld  ex-  program were  unique  needs,  e x p e r i e n c e s , and  comin  personal  teaching  priorities. What t y p e s place? that  of  implementation  Non-implementation  the  teaching  skills  sufficient  Co-optation selective already  of  the  use o f  to  support  carry  program  not  used.  implement  Mutual this  of  on an i n d e p e n d e n t  to  this  adaptations,  program,  decided  this  and i n  adding  teaching  program valuable,  program.  o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s  e s t a b l i s h e d approach  essential structure  instruct  taken  s e r v i c e s , though  program components,  the  have  o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s  n e c e s s a r y to  were i m p o s s i b l e t o m a s t e r ; were n o t  adaptations  these  music;  made to  an  however,  s k i l l - b a s e d p r o g r a m was where  the  teacher  began  t u r n had made c h a n g e s  in  to  58  approaches specific  to  changes r e q u i r e d  investigation discussed  i  t e a c h i n g m u s i c , were a l s o e v i d e n t .  in  of the  the next  to  nature two  implement of  this  chapters.  this  The  p r o g r a m and an  change o v e r t i m e ,  are  59  CHAPTER  IV  Changes Oyer Time H a l l and R u t h e r f o r d (1980),  and t h e  " L e v e l s of  and L o u c k s ( 1 9 7 5 ) ,  Pratt,  M e l l e and M e t z d o r f  Use" framework  stress that  t e r m p r o c e s s and t h a t The l o n g - t e r m  (1976),  d e v e l o p e d by H a l l  implementation  is  a long-  t e a c h e r c o n c e r n s change o v e r  implementation  of  this  time.  Koda'ly p r o g r a m  reflected  such changes. Two s t r a t e g i e s over  time.  concerns  were used t o  and t o  compare w i t h p r e s e n t  c a t e g o r i z e d as a t w o , of  the f o u r t e e n  to  represent  four  interview  initial  - W o u l d you sum up y o u r worked w i t h the  music next addition,  Changes  (Appendix extend  E), this  Three selected sum-  questions:  reactions? reactions  now, a f t e r  having  ' x'• y e a r s ?  -How have y o u r m u s i c a b i l i t i e s to  initial  were s u m m a r i z e d and  involvement,  program f o r  -What w o u l d you l i k e  concerns.  transcripts  these y e a r s of  -What were y o u r  on t h e i r  and s i x y e a r i n v o l v e m e n t .  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d t h e s e  In  these changes  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o r e f l e c t  o v e r t i m e e x p r e s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s  mary.  assess  changed?  accomplish in  teaching  year? the  collective  teacher response at  each  60  of  the  three  patterns  of  s c h o o l s was a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y t o concern r e l a t e d  had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Two Y e a r  Involvement;  to  t h e Koda'ly  of  of  time  the  staff  implementation.  Individual  " O v e r w h e l m i n g " was t h e particularly  length  determine  characteristic  teachers with  little  initial  music background  Confusion,  overwhelming , the  everything  seemed t o be so much t o d e a l w i t h  first The f e a r  p r o g r a m were remembered  of  initiation  just at  can remember some of  I  had t a k e n , and we d i d  nation)  ...and  together  almost  guilt,  that  (#4J,  perplexing  workshops  (pitch  discrimi-  was j u s t  lost.  of  indicated how t h e  little  program  p e d a g o g i c a l l y , and a s e n s e of  at  inability  I  Gr.2&3, 6K).  Kodaly teachers  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  fitted  the e a r l i e r  I didn't..I  so f r u s t r a t e d  These b e g i n n i n g  to a  vividly:  I  direction  hand s i g n s and  (n=6):  (#6P , G r . l , 6 K ) .  and f r u s t r a t i o n  felt  reaction,  to master t h i s  sense  of  components inadequacy,  p r o g r a m was e x -  pressed : I  feel  that  has a l o t that...I by n o t  of  it's  offer..but  don't  feel  practicing  and urn, I'm  a good p r o g r a m . . . i t I don't  that  all  certainly  I'm  feel  doing  it  certainly like  justice...  the elements t h a t not  that  I am  are i n  it,  consistent.,.it's,  61  it's  s o , the  whelming  i n a way.  everything workshop  program f o r  that  me i s ,  I, I c a n ' t  is  know,  it  I've learned  When a s k e d t o a need t o sense of  in  project  sharpen focus control  R:  of  as t o  to  like  format going  that  through  lesson.  to  like  every  When I f i r s t  of  indicated  some " o w n e r s h i p " o r a these  next y e a r ,  that  cull  (#60,  materials: as a  what  have a c l e a r  idea  b a s e d on  introduced  not  they  what  the  have i n a  I would  think  G r . 3 , 2K). to  the  Kodaly approach  prospect  was n o t  through  threatening.  p r o v e d more c o m p l e x t h a n  their  indicated: began, I j u s t  t e a c h what was i n t h e  considered i t  G r . 3 , 2K).  a l e s s o n t o g o , and have  skill  instruction  impressions  ah,  for  music c o u r s e s , the  However, a c t u a l initial  establish  a l r e a d y g i v e n , but  w o u l d be i m p o r t a n t  university  executing  aims, teachers  be a b l e t o  I would j u s t  For t e a c h e r s  in  (#60,  drawn u p , p r o b a b l y  is  the  accomplish?  how I w o u l d  my own f o r m a t  from a  Kodaly next y e a r ,  Kodaly  t e a c h e r of  I would  and t o  teaching  w o u l d you l i k e T:  future  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  Uhhum, f o r  music  a workshop  over-  grasp  back t o  c l a s s r o o m and be a l l that c o m f o r t a b l e what  of  seem t o  I'm s u p p o s e d t o  and be a b l e t o b r i n g  sort  thought  that  guidebook,  I would,  and I n e v e r  b e i n g , y o u know, d i f f i c u l t ,  or  62  anything, through  and  it,  couldn't feel  now, I mean  after  the f i r s t  do a l o t  of  frustrated,  I feel  that  that  I-would l i k e and the  of  sum, f r u s t r a t i o n this  sense of  Four Year  to  goal  the  music  teacher,  p o s s i b l e to  (#60,  offer  G r . 3 , 2K).  overwhelming  reactions, particularly  establishing  complexity  of  inadequacy  teachers selecting  some o w n e r s h i p ,  Individual  expertise  sequences.  expressed con-  and s e l e c t i n g more  T h e r e was a s e n s e o f  i n p r o g r a m u s e , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  the  program  comfort struc-  ture: R:  What a r e y o u r  w o r k i n g w i t h the T:  reactions  they've  after  four  years  of  program?  Urn, some s e n s e o f  ...where  and  teaching process.  on i m p r o v i n g  teaching  But  i m p r o v e my e x p e r t i s e ,  f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , t e a c h e r s ' (n=2)  centred  effective  guide-  program c o u p l e d w i t h a sense of  Involvement:  After cerns  the  d a t e s and e v e r y t h i n g .  w i t h the  structures,  I  o f made me  m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d . C o n c e r n s c e n t r e d on  important  making  gone  I knew t h a t sort  become a. B e t t e r  In  I've  I wasn't meeting  like  h e l p me r e a c h t h a t  little  It  c o u r s e has e v e r y t h i n g  represented i n i t i a l  the  I'd  to  learning  with  to  year,  things.  b o o k ' s , you know, t h e i r also  now t h a t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , where i t  come f r o m and where y o u ' d  all  want  63  them t o what  g o , and I have a b e t t e r  has t o  be c o v e r e d t o o ,  sense of  I think  timing  (#6Q,  with  Gr.2,  4K). Specific music  teaching strategies  c o n c e p t s were o f  t o more e f f e c t i v e l y  importance:  C h i l d r e n need more a c t i v e the w r i t i n g they  of  put  still tice  it  (#6Q,  every day. time  on what  in  I find,  not  just...  I'm  having They can  too b a d l y ,  somehow, I d o n ' t to  doing  They  w i t h my c l a s s .  beat p h r a s e s ,  on a s t a f f ,  working  involvement  note..notation.  difficult  do t h e s e f o u r to  the  s h o u l d do i t  a really  present  do t o  but  know,  g i v e more  prac-  Gr.2, 4K).  S t u d e n t s were p e r c e i v e d as r e c e i v i n g much instruction  as t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e  As t h e  I'm  improved  increased:  t e a c h e r w o r k s more w i t h  it,  more t h a t  she can work w i t h f o r  therefore  they  have a b e t t e r  the  then  she has  students,  p r o g r a m (#6Q,  Gr.2,  4K). However,  these teachers judged  that  they  m a s t e r e d use o f t h i s p r o g r a m : R: Do you t h i n k y o u r t e a c h i n g  still  abilities  had  in  not  music  have c h a n g e d ? T:  Probably s o . . . n o t  knowledgeable at  all.  my k i d s a r e w i t h t h e  a lot.  I am s t i l l  not  I am k n o w l e d g e a b l e as f a r program  (#2A,  G r . 2 , 4K).  as  64  In  sum, g r e a t e r  expressed, Six  Year  sense of  although  c o n f i d e n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s was  further  Involvement:  i m p r o v e m e n t was a c o n c e r n .  Individual  Two t e a c h e r s had t a u g h t both  had i n i t i a t e d  this  s p e c i a l involvement  tained  involvement  the  program f o r  at  pilot  s c h o o l s , and  may have c o n t r i b u t e d  to  their  sus-  commitment. Both t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d  little  p r e v i o u s music  ex-  while mastering  the  perience,  and numerous f r u s t r a t i o n s  program.  B o t h had i n v e s t e d much t i m e  to  six years:  attending R:  w o r k s h o p s and i n  1  about f i v e  you c o n t i n u e T:  I felt  that  order  to  job.  To j u s t And i t  T:  Yup! (#4J,  at  use o f  tained  all  in order  in  t o do a good  attend?  Gr.2&3, 6K). rewards  in teaching  performance  c e r t a i n when t h e s e t e a c h e r s had  this  did  i m p r o v e my p e r f o r m a n c e .  p r o g r a m , the major  factors  a p p e a r e d t o be a t t i t u d e  p r o g r a m and a d e s i r e t o  faction  skills  potential  commitment  Now b o t h  a l l , why  do t h e s e t h i n g s ,  was y o u r c h o i c e t o  Though t h e  attended  them?  I needed t o  l e a r n the  R:  were not  y e a r s . . . F i r s t of  attending  commitment  practice:  Okay, i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s . . .you ve  them f o r  their  solo  and g i v e n  improve  teaching  teachers expressed comfort, i n program u s e .  in  initiated their  towards  sus-  the  effectiveness.  c o n f i d e n c e and s a t i s -  The f o l l o w i n g  excerpt  illustrates  65  the  nature  of  R:  this  change o v e r  time:  C o u l d you sum up y o u r  reactions  now,  working with i t  for  about s i x y e a r s ?  T:  the  program i s f a n t a s t i c  I  Oh, I t h i n k really  R:  do, r e a l l y  that  for  of y o u r s e l f  in your  as a t e a c h e r  I'd  say, particularly I've  more of  the  during  p a s t two t o  three  been a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h m o r e , t o  cover  curriculum  in  for  e a c h g r a d e , as  in  more o f m y s e l f ,  be a b l e t o come t h r o u g h  and f e e l R:  to  it,  the  g a i n e d more s k i l l s  and been a b l e t o  A h , have y o u r  abilities  R:  In what ways?  T:  I was a n o n - s i n g e r , a n o n - e v e r y t h i n g .  see t h e d i f f e r e n c e .  It's  it,  "before"  I  can  l i k e , you know, when you  a magazine w i t h the  used t o be t h e  (#4J,  with  have c h a n g e d ?  Oh, immensely.  at  expect  w i t h m u s i c . . . d o you  T:  look  I've  comfortable.  f e e l that t h e y  "before"  and t h e  and now I'm  the  "after".  "after"  Gr.2&3, 6K).  Though t h e aims f o r  teaching?  time?  years,  I  me.  it.  What c h a n g e s have you n o t i c e d  Your e x p e c t a t i o n s  T:  enjoy  after  future  nature  of  c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e were  implementation  cated p r e s c r i p t i v e  were n o t .  similar,  One t e a c h e r  p r o g r a m u s e , and saw l i t t l e  need t o  indiadapt  66  the  p r o g r a m as i t  other  was p e r c e i v e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t .  t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d a "need to grow"  as " m a k i n g more use o f  the  the  aim:  musical  students'  work,  to d i s c o v e r musical  this  day"(#6P,  s u b j e c t s was  teacher's  syllable  and d e f i n e d  program w i t h i n  I n t e g r a t i o n of music w i t h o t h e r  The  Gr.l,  this  l e a r n i n g s were u s e d t o  complement  s e q u e n c e s i n math  and  patterns:  As a m a t t e r  of  fact,  the o t h e r  was w o r k i n g  in  h e r workbook  t h e a n s w e r s and t h e y and she s a i d , lah,  and she had  "Oh, this  is just  really  in  the  like  integrating  it"  up,  down,  music,  'soh,  through  book and I t h o u g h t ,  her -  "Well,  (#6P, G r . l ,  girl  circled  had g o n e . . . m i d d l e ,  s o h , m e , ' " she was s i n g i n g  answers  day, a l i t t l e  it's  6K).  Changes O v e r T i m e : S c h o o l Study four to  s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d a l s o t o  and s i x y e a r  the  involvement  Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t  mentation  p l a n , the p r i n c i p a l  ensure program a d o p t i o n . were a s k e d how t h e i r the  program.  school  w i t h the  To a s s e s s  The c o l l e c t i v e  Involvement:  What was n o t  According  responsibiity  this  r e a c t e d to  role, or  teacher response  was a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e  Two Y e a r  program.  a two,  "school-based" imple-  has t h e  principal  represent  to  teachers supported from each  similarities.  School  s a i d was o f  interest  in  analyzing  the  6K).  67  collective  teachers'  comments.  situation,  C o n c e r n s c e n t e r e d on  immediate  teaching  students'  c o n t i n u a n c e w i t h music or  mediate music programs. had h i g h v i s i b i l i t y .  and no r e f e r e n c e was made the p r o v i s i o n  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ,  For example, the  a p p r o a c h e d by t e a c h e r s who no l o n g e r who w i s h e d t o make b o t h t h e i r the  program  the  of  to  inter-  however,  still  r e s e a r c h e r was  used the  program,  but  c o n c e r n s and h i g h r e g a r d  for  known.  The p r i n c i p a l  was s e e n as p r o v i d i n g  incentive  for  implementation: Well,  he i s  school, says,  insistent  as f a r  that  it  be u s e d i n  as i n s i s t e n c e c a n g o .  "Koda'ly i s  the  program f o r  the  L i k e he  our.primary"  (#2A, Gr.2, 4K).  To e n c o u r a g e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , sustained i n - s e r v i c e for da'ly t e a c h e r s u p p o r t , materials. this  Aware o f  program, the also  some s w i t c h i n g  teacher d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  i n - c l a s s Koof  in  required mastering  was:  the  sense t h a t h e ' l l  comfortable  with  a r o u n d so t h a t t h e  kids  had a r r a n g e d  as p r o v i s i o n  care, really,  as l o n g as t h e  principal  development,  as w e l l  p e o p l e who a r e n ' t  He d o e s n ' t  staff  principal  supportive  the  get  it  to  allow do  k i d s get  it.  w h e t h e r you t e a c h  it,  it  ( # 2 A , G r . 2 , 4K).  68  Four Year  Involvement:  School  Teacher concerns dwelt returned student  to  this  on p r o g r a m c o n t i n u i t y .  issue repeatedly:  the  and t e a c h e r w o u l d come t o  plementation I  just  go o u t  i s not  time  nought  it  enormous amount  of  all  effort,  this not  with her,  y o u know, a l a r g e  but, the  the  only  and a l l  district,  and a l l  would  waste i f  be a r e a l  lowed to d r i f t  lines  very  to  invested  It in  closely.  just  Prog-  the  of  back-  I  think  sort  of  6r.2&3,  teachers follow  learning the  the  the  p r o g r a m use f o r more t i m e  the program stronger  p r o g r a m c o m p u l s o r y and f o r  cess of  (the  al-  6K). or  at  program  the  that  at the  (attending call  guide-  five  t e a c h e r had  workshops  m a i n t e n a n c e and c o n t i n u i t y  structured  and t o do so had h i r e d  least  issues  t o make use of  The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r  introducing  it  T h e s e t e a c h e r s who r a i s e d t h e s e  appears that  program s u p p o r t .  im-  and an  c o m p u l s o r y p r a c t i c e was r a i s e d ,  request that  and p r a c t i c i n g ) ,  it's  an end ( # 4 J ,  had been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e years.  program  of  number  k i d s have g a i n e d .  the  of  p e o p l e who work  ground t h a t the  least,  the  work  ram D e v e l o p e r )  The q u e s t i o n o f  if  doesn't, ah, sort  t h e window a f t e r  in  investment  continued:  hope t h a t  teachers  Teachers  a music  intermediate specialist.  was i n music  the  the to pro-  programs  69  Six  Year  Involvement:  School  The K o d a l y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n in  the p o s i t i v e  sense.  as a c o n t r i b u t i n g  Initiation  factor  to  all  other  sense of  music programs  The p r i n c i p a l  heartedly"  mances, d i s t r i c t strong  experiences felt  that I  in  the  with provision  and v i s i b l e for  their  feel  principal) tioned  students  of  (#6N,  commitment  the  s c h o o l , and a  to  to  strong  various the  program  implementation  "money, t i m e , 3K).  basis  perfor-  T h e r e was a  kinds of  music  s c h o o l , and t e a c h e r s  p r o g r a m use was a p p r e c i a t e d .  general  comments t h a t  (the  1s v e r y p l e a s e d and he has men-  many t i m e s  program.  assessments of  Gr. 4,  throught  commitment  from j u s t  s c h o o l was s e e n  was s e e n as s u p p o r t i n g  support"  "entrenched",  v i e w e d t h e p r o g r a m as t h e  s a t i s f a c t i o n marked t e a c h e r  support. "whole  as a p i l o t  the a c c e p t a n c e of  B o t h t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l for  was d e s c r i b e d as  t h a t the the  Kodaly is  t a b l i s h e d as m u s i c  in  school,  c h i l d r e n move i n t o  band ( # 6 P ,  es-  helping  G r . l , 6K),  70  CHAPTER V Facilitating "From the  teacher's  program-in-use?" in  any o f  . -knowledge -roles  and  perspective,  and and  understanding,  behaviors,  -materials  and r e s o u r c e s  The change p r o c e s s  is  a r e a s may p r o v e or m i n u t e ,  facilitate  the  of  role  T e a c h e r use o f perceived  process,  and c h a n g e s i n any one  this  to of  the all  teacher. teachers  skill-based  attitudinal  resource  implementation  of  Changes, to  approach.  c h a n g e , and  types  changes which  the  implementation  available  for  teaching 1979:61).  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l during  the  values  of  the  (Fullan,  required  need f o r  reported  of  threatening  were  A c c e p t a n c e of  teachers  complex  implementation  knowledge,  changes  values,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  radical  may i m p l y  the  areas:  -structure  these  what f a c i l i t a t e d  Program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  these  -attitudes  Implementation  were support  investigated. services  facilitation  were  and also  exami n e d . Attitudes  and V a l u e s  An i m p l i c i t need f o r  attitude  change r e q u i r e d  a s k i l l - b a s e d program;  was a c c e p t a n c e o1  a change f r o m m u s i c  viewed  71  with peripheral I  e m p h a s i s t o m u s i c v i e w e d as a  never f e l t  m u s i c was r e a l l y  was more o f Two f a c t o r s  to  novation; tiative  thing  which committed  change w e r e : judged  a fun  whether  the  and t h e  the  to  the  taught  need f o r  v a l u e a s c r i b e d to  the  teacher  accept w i l l i n g l y  a p p r o a c h and j u d g e d  the  felt  included:  c o n s i s t e n c y and l a c k o f  taught  inadequate quality  in  iniTeachers  ineffective.  progress;  individually-chosen  rams : The s t u d e n t s  were,  illiterate,  I think  seems t o  for  t h e most p a r t ,  the  fill  i n what  skills  (#6N,  I  musically  K o d a l y program saw as an  of  It's  good t h a t we now do have a m u s i c  i n s t e a d of podge o f  everyone  songs (#41,  "Slap-dash" (#2B, If  Gr.  they  there  if  left  just  incredible  lack  Gr.4, 3K).  doing  their  little  program hodge-  G r . l , 5K). for  individuals  to  choose  1&2, 3K) .  were a b l e  might  to  choose t h e i r  own  be some t e a c h e r s who m i g h t  t e a c h m u s i c ; you know, where  they  in-  skill-based  program  student  the  some  a district  previously  this  p r o g r a m was  "school-based" implementation,  (n=8) a p p e a r e d t o  Reasons g i v e n  it  G r . l , 5K).  teachers  and s e c o n d , w h e t h e r  within  learning,  (#41,  previously  be i n e f f e c t i v e  "subject".  program, never  should  teach  inprog-  72  it,  and j u s t  slot  tn  or j u s t , you know, mainly  maybe.  It  any t y p e o f  s o n g s on  r e c o r d s , and t h a t ' s wouldn't  have t h e  records,  their  quality  music, (#60,  Gr.3,  2K). When a s k e d t o  d e s c r i b e the  previously  teachers  (n=5)  considered these to  parently  had few a l t e r n a t i v e s  What e l s e was I g o i n g play  records  but  not  Before songs. laid  out  Teachers learned  It  I'm  (n=2)  (#4J, afraid,  (#4K,  ceptions;  use f o r  actually all  I  was j u s t m a i n l y  well  vividly  structured  teaching  or  well  K o d a l y program  to  remembered o f  influenced  can hang my h a t  teach music i n s t e a d  music  childhood  teacher's  per-  one t e a c h e r  of  school  on t t just  on by b e i n g  afraid  I'm  could  which  was m u s i c  class  G r . 2 , 4K).  taught  t h a t b u s i n e s s when I was i n  g r a d e and now I'm  and I  sing,  a t i m e when we sang (#2A,  n e v e r was t u r n e d  and a l l  thing  G r . l , 5K).  I grew up w i t h i n is  than  another :  To have K o d a l y I  which  music, other  t h e s e e n c o u r a g e d p r o g r a m use f o r  and h i n d e r e d  is  it  Impressions  music experiences s t i l l  ap-  instruction.  an a p p r e c i a t i o n  a l s o compared t h i s  as a s t u d e n t .  but  Gr.2&3, 6K).  was no r e a l l y  program  improve  of  programs,  be i n a d e q u a t e ,  t o do f o r  and urn, s o r t  much more that,  to  taught  'doh-ray-me'  the  teaching  fourth  Kodaly  73  because  I'm  supposed to  doesn't  e n c h a n t me (#4M,  L e a d e r s h i p by t h e innovation,  teachers  the  it  G r . 3 , 3K).  factor  in creating  p r o g r a m was c h o s e n f o r  indicated  no q u e s t i o n o f  respect  for  for  advocate appeared to  the  as a b a s i c b u t  P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r , as a d v o c a t e f o r  was a m a j o r  a s k e d why t h i s  cover i t  acceptance.  the d i s t r i c t ,  the  this  choice  to  six  through  Program D e v e l o p e r ' s e x p e r t i s e . be e s s e n t i a l  The  respect  teacher  com-  mitment. I  think  probably  looked at  it,  just  be what I  as a good t h i n g ,  g u e s s i n g h e r e , but I've  s e e n (#6N,  have no i d e a why i t  the  people that  along that  I  don't  it I  b a s i c program know...I  and g o t  it  appears  and  lot  to  introduced amount  I sort  that (#6P,  think  going  do w i t h  it  of  trusted  had t h e  it,  into  it.  in  her.  components  for  G r . l , 6K). (Program Developer)  (#41,  the program.  o f work  than  particularly  wanted  G r . l , 5K).  t h i n k because (Program Developer)  ful  to  3K).  was c h o s e n , o t h e r it,  know,  has been so i n t e r e s t e d  She must have f e l t the  Gr.4,  background  I don't  that  introduced  (Program Developer) music a l l  Developer)  and she had e x t e n s i v e  and she saw i t I'm  because (Program  had an aw-  a h , she was t h e She p u t They d i d  a  one who  tremendous pilot  When  programs  74  on i t ,  and, ah, there  has had t h e program Other trict  in  in-depth the  hasn't  involvement  district  (#4J,  this  was c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g  program,  that  cipal,  intended  to  meant,  b e g i n program  authorization  parent  that  teachers  and  effective  district  the  elsewhere.  to  "school-based"  the  ensuring  adoption,  and s e c o n d , how t h e  use.  this  markedly,  imple-  affected what  prin-  program  district  d e c i s i o n was made .  dependent  "school-based" approach.  no c o n s i s t e n t  of  on t h e It  district teacher's  was a p -  message had been r e c e i v e d ; some  p e r c e i v e d much more l a t i t u d e  in  program use  than  others: . R:  The p r o g r a m  is  does t h a t mean t o T:  It  T: 3K).  district  authorized.  District  What  you?  means t h a t we c a n , i f  . . . b u t we do n o t  change  authorized  Teacher i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  differed  of  for  teachers  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d , f i r s t ,  authorization  dis-  The a p p r o a c h s e l e c t e d by t h e  responsible for  perception  the  translate  practice.  acceptance.  innovative  good p r o g r a m s  which committed  was t h e a p p r o a c h s e l e c t e d f o r  into  Koda'ly  had been s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d  The s e c o n d f a c t o r  program  the  K o d a l y was a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d  and i t  mentation  like  that  Gr.2&3, 6K),  r e a s o n s g i v e n were t h a t  students;,  to  been a n y t h i n g  have t o  we w i s h , use K o d a ' l y ,  (#2A,  e x p e c t s us t o  G r . 2 , 4K).  teach i t  (#2B,  Gr.l&2,  75  T:  It  to  (#41,  T:  T:  looks favorably  have i t  in  their  on t h e  schools  Urn, t h a t we s h o u l d be h a v i n g  That  that  it  don't  T:  it  it  shouldn't,  (#6P,  Gr.2&3, 6K).  it  our  I feel  that  district,  there  T:  means t h a t you s h o u l d do i t  positively  (#6Q,  control  teachers'  that's  school, if  possible.  whether that,  a lot  of  they  "Well,  fault  all  (#6N, to  through  personal  acceptance of  (n=7)  the  best  program;  use had been a p e r s o n a l  initiative  this  of  influenced  change.  p e r c e i v e d no p r e s s u r e t o  How was t h e  G r . 4 , 3K).  Gr.2, 4K).  teachers  R:  schools.  is a consistency  the  Some s e n s e o f  in  and p e o p l e f e e l i n g  across  ability  would  G r . l , 6K).  I guess, simply  your  want  p r o g r a m and  be so much a c h o i c e o f  c a r e t o do i t . . . o r  It  you  (#4J,  s h o u l d be i n e v e r y  shouldn't  s h o u l d or  with  if  G r . l , 5K).  to  feel  I  c o m p u l s o r y , y o u can do i t  District  like  I  isn't  Most  implement  the  choice.  d e c i s i o n made f o r  you to  begin to  teach  Koda'ly? T:  U h , we were a s k e d i f  R:  By whom?  T:  A h , the  the  pilot  in  it.  principal  program,  we w o u l d  like  suggested there  t o do  it.  was g o i n g  and t h a t w e ' d maybe be  to  be  interested  76  R:  Do you remember what y o u r  initial  reactions  to  b e i n g asked were? T:  Very i n t e r e s t e d .  at  all,  but  Didn't  know a n y t h i n g  liked  to  know more a b o u t  it  I was w o r k i n g  at  S c h o o l X when t h e  about  (#6P,  it  Gr.l,  6K). T:  ram was i n t r o d u c e d , and t h a t ' s R:  how I became i n t r o d u c e d  Now, d i d you c h o o s e t o  principal T:  to  the  sessions?  started  with Kindergarten  p i c k e d up t h e  a l o n g from t h a t ,  and i t  program. Did  quite  the  a  and G r a d e 1,  and I was t e a c h i n g G r a d e 2 and I  them and t h e n  schools  How...?  I can r e m e m b e r , and t h a t ' s  ago, i t  think,  the p i l o t  become i n v o l v e d ?  s u g g e s t you a t t e n d  From what  while I  t h a t was one o f  Koda'ly p r o g -  watched  n e x t y e a r and t h e n  was a p e r s o n a l c h o i c e  went (#4J,  Gr 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . Teachers  (n=2)  who  transferred  i n t o a s c h o o l w i t h an a l -  ready e s t a b l i s h e d program p e r c e i v e d c o n t i n u i t y  expec-  t a t i o n s which shaped t h e i r d e c i s i o n to implement. T: The p r o g r a m i s e n t r e n c h e d i n the s c h o o l , and o n l y made s e n s e t o c a r r y R:  So i t  suggest T: what  was y o u r  it  it  on.  c h o i c e or d i d  the  principal  t h a t you use K o d a l y ?  No, i t they'd  was my c h o i c e . . u r n . . . I  just  looked  had and d e c i d e d t h a t  they  had a l l  at the  77  tools,  would  be f o o l i s h  not  to  was j u s t  taught, me t o  something  t h a t was a l r e a d y  and I b e l i e v e  just  naturally  carry  that  on t h e  it  teach Teachers  program...So  assumed t h a t i t  (#60,  (n=2)  initial  I  The p r i n c i p a l  s c h o o l was " o n t h e  I  And  I'd  thing  to  at  a school  tn  perceived various  "set  the  process  pressures  the e x p e c t a t i o n "  that  p r o g r a m , and i n d i c a t e d  list"  to  put  the  program  to  pri-  that  into  G r . 2 , 3K).  felt  this  p r e s s u r e to  t e a c h K o d a l y when -I  school because t h a t ' s  wanted when we were h i r e d . is  of  just  was K o d a l y .  who were i n v o l v e d  mary t e a c h e r s w o u l d use t h e  use ( # 2 B ,  being  G r . 3 , 2K).  program a d o p t i o n  implement.  the  them  was e x p e c t e d  h e a r d t h a t K o d a l y w a s , you know, t h e  of  use  G r . 4 , 3K).  (#6N,  It  and i t  the  p r o g r a m we t e a c h  what  the  came  to  principal  He s a y s . . . " K o d a l y  in our  s c h o o l " (#2A,  Gr.2,  4K). One t e a c h e r e m p h a s i z e d t h a t ceptance,  or,  at  r a m , were m a j o r T:  I  least, willingness factors  in  in  to  it  to  successful  t h i n k , you know,  how you l o o k e d a t went  an i n i t i a l  it  attitude try  out  the  when you s t a r t e d .  c r i t i c i z e . . . M a y b e because I to  acprog-  implementation.  depends how you  have t h a t much m u s i c , I w a n t e d  of  have  If  went... you  don't something.  78  R:  You saw t h a t as a n e e d . . .  T:  I had t h a t n e e d , t h a t I was p l e a s e d t o g o , I  was p l e a s e d joyed In  t o go i n t h e summer and l e a r n .  i t (#6P, G r . l , 6K).  sum, t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h  for  this  Major  judged  t e a c h e r s t o t h e need  facilitated  implementation  need b e c a u s e t h e p r e v i o u s l y  inadequate;  the approach and,  committed  i n n o v a t i o n were many, and i n t r i c a t e l y  f a c t o r s which  perceived  acceptance  adopted  some c o n t r o l  Knowledge and  taught  to the "school-based"  of the d e c i s i o n  p r o g r a m was  implementation;  Understanding and use o f m u s i c  and t e r m i n o l o g y , had t o be a c q u i r e d by t h e "non-  teacher.  before  t h e t e a c h e r was a b l e t o i n s t r u c t  This  'music l a n g u a g e '  was  necessary  or guide the  Changes r e q u i r e d were complex f o r t h e  teacher with l i t t l e  music background;  needed t o u n d e r s t a n d , specific  were:  t o implement.  music"  students.  inter-1inked.  of the i n n o v a t i o n ' s v a l u e ;  Knowledge, i n terms o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g concepts  I en-  Kodaly  internalize  techniques.  however a l l t e a c h e r s  and c o n f i d e n t l y  Teachers  were a s k e d  use t h e how  their  p r e v i o u s m u s i c e x p e r i e n c e had a c t e d on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Lack  o f p r e v i o u s m u s i c e x p e r i e n c e made  much more d i f f i c u l t ; teachers  two s e l f - d e s c r i b e d  struggled with i n i t i a l  I found  I ' v e had t o l e a r n .  skill  implementation  "non-music"  acquisition:.  I ' v e been j u s t  like  79  one o f  the  students  and l e a r n of  it  at  I  all,  never took  had t o  did.  what  those  those  of  all  learning  a voice  into  I had t o the  other  it  ground  (#2A,  These d i f f i c u l t i e s  than  (#2D,  Fear musically petence,  of  understood  how you  and m e a s u r e s  two b a r  lines  teach that  were c o r r o b o r a t e d  "many s k i l l s  ground"  people  with  and the  to m y s e l f ,  I  on  the  had t o  games,  work  G r . 2 , 4K).  Gr.l)  beat  meant  someone who had a mu'sic b a c k -  used the  patterns,  it  than o t h e r  And I t h i n k  who no l o n g e r and the  bars  musical  or a p i a n o ,  concepts; learning  the words.  at  ahead  not  think  people a l r e a d y  things  I'm  lesson,  more t i m e  s y m b o l s , the  harder  practice  one s t e p  about m u s i c ,  spend a l o t  dots meant, top  of  l e s s o n i n my l i f e . . . I  When o t h e r  divided  sort  to  Gr.2&3, 6K).  knew n o t h i n g  instrument I  alone, just  them ( # 4 J ,  Well  on my own, h a v i n g  by the  program; a " f o r e i g n involved  two  teachers  language"  - hand s i g n s ,  - were so c o n f u s i n g w i t h no m u s i c  (#2E, rhythm  back-  Gr.3). performing  knowledgeable, initially  before  those  p o s s i b l y to  hindered  teacher  That's  when I r e a l l y  didn't  myself  b e c a u s e so many o f  thought  to  demonstrate  be incom-  learning:  have c o n f i d e n c e  them t h e r e  really  in had  80  a lot  of music b a c k g r o u n d .  wasn't  doing  be p u t  on t h e s p o t , you know.  the'group solo, that  -  a good j o b ,  I really  had t o  got  that  I  I didn't  like  to  Each i n d i v i d u a l  in  and u h ,  do w h a t e v e r  and I r e a l l y  felt  - c l a p the  k i n d of  rhythm,  nervous  about  - b e c a u s e t h e y were p e o p l e I d i d n ' t  begin w i t h ,  know  and t h e y were my p e e r g r o u p  (#41,  to Gr.l,  5K) . This  s e n s e of  insecurity  h i n d e r e d use o f  available  in-class  support. T:  I would r e a l l y  Because  she w o u l d  R:  unskilled  be s h o c k e d t o  Yes, I don't  No, i t  I am w i t h  find  out  think  it.  it  and  it,  and  how f a r  that  behind  t h a t would bother  I would f e e l  come and I p r o b a b l y  supposed t o ,  (Kodaly  really.  probably wouldn't,  how I f e e l . to  with  were.  Resource T e a c h e r ) , T:  uncomfortable  I know how s k i l l e d she i s w i t h  how c o m p a r a t i v e l y  my k i d s  feel  y o u know,  but  that  is  defensive, she's  haven't that  done i t  k i n d of  sort  going  t h e way  thing  of  I'm  (#2A,  Gr.2 , 4K). Teachers  (n=9)  facilitated  felt  initial  increased through  t h a t any p r e v i o u s m u s i c  knowledge  u s e ; and t e a c h e r s ' m u s i c a l program u s e .  understanding  Those t e a c h e r s w i t h  ex-  81  t e n s i v e m u s i c e x p e r i e n c e Cn=2] n o t e d  that their  a s s u m p t i o n s may have h i n d e r e d s t u d e n t  own  understanding :  S o m e t h i n g t h a t was so b a s i c t o me w o u l d - b e thing  I found very  children.  Because I'd  and I j u s t . . . a n d I  would  difficult  think  had i t  I might  that  they  sumed t h a t . I w a s n ' t  to get for  a c r o s s to  something because  c o u l d do i t , (#6Q,  so I j u s t  I  wonder  it  seems e a s y enough f o r  if  understand  it's (#6N,  as-  G r . 2 , 4K).  What seems r e a s o n a b l e and l o g i c a l , a t an a d u l t ;  the  y e a r s and y e a r s  overlook  right  some-  e a s y and l o g i c a l  least  me.  to  Sometimes  for  them  program i s  that  to  G r . 4 , 3K).  R o l e s and B e h a v i o r s The t e a c h e r ' s leading  the  students  Emphasis  is  from  students.  the I  role  not  to  them and you l e t  I it.  guess i t  but  Two d e a l t  f o u n d w i t h the  do t h a t  this  understanding  on t e l l i n g  t h a t you d i d n ' t  to  in  in drawing with this  K o d a l y program have t o the  l e a d the  children  o v e r the y e a r s  across  understanding  role  that  (#6P,  change:  they  class.  stressed You  as f a r  as I'm  put  started  learning  G r . l , 6K).  depends on what you w o u l d c a l l  easy to  a guide,  internalization.  s i n g , so I'm  I sometimes, ah, in a very  manner i t ' s  and  of  teaching  straightforward  them ( m u s i c  c o n c e r n e d , but  concepts) I think  it's  82  a m a t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r G r a d e 4 k i d s , and t o o , t o t r y and telling One  teacher  role  (6N,  ( t h i s concern  draw i t o u t o f t h e m , r a t h e r  Gr.4,  defined  t h i s p r o g r a m as r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i a l i s t is presented  a l l these  in Chapter I i i ) :  and  i f they want a l l  v a r i a t i o n s on t h e  t h a t ' s when I r e a l l y f e e l doing  the person  who  theme, should  t h a t i s some k i n d o f r o t a t i n g m u s i c  t h e k i d s g e t one  o r two  d a l y s p e c i a l i s t . To me t i c a t e d than teacher  the general  maybe s h o u l d  S t r u c t u r e and  than  3K).  When i t g e t s a l l t h a t d i f f i c u l t , t h e games and  younger  lessons  teacher  from the  i t ' s a l i t t l e more run of the m i l l  h a v e t o do (#4M,  be  Kosophis-  classroom  Gr.3,  3K).  Organization  Implementation shaped change  in teachers'  t o i n s t r u c t i o n as a s t r u c t u r e d , o r g a n i z e d  approaches  a p p r o a c h was  re-  quired: I've  had  music.  t o be more s t r u c t u r e d w i t h  myself,  with  I t i s n ' t j u s t s o m e t h i n g you  walk to  the  b a c k o f t h e room and  say,"Let's  sing a song",  l i k e they used to do...(#41, G r . l ,  5K).  A w a r e n e s s o f m u s i c i n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t l y c a u s e d by t h e b i l i t y of the d i s t r i c t program, r e s u l t e d i n music as a  subject:  visi-  status  83  I want to  them to  realize  Science All  it's  (#41,  teachers  attempted  enjoy  the music but  a lesson, just  reported  adherence to  be p a r t  Arts  of  the  them  as w i t h Math  or  G r . 1 , 5K). scheduled music i n s t r u c t i o n  suggested time  m u s i c was a c c o r d e d s u b j e c t to  I want  "core"  status,  subjects,  it  allotment. was not  and  Though  considered  w h i c h were L a n g u a g e  and M a t h . You s o r t  of  let  you can do i n arithmetic The p r i o r i t y Music take  of is  it  slide  any s u b j e c t ,  (#41,  reading  or  m u s i c i n - s e r v i c e was n o t e d  important, off  except  which  G r . l , 5K).  attending  time  a w a y , you know,  but  from  not  teaching  important  enough  c l a s s (#2B,  by one  teacher:  to  G r . 1&2,  3K) . Materials  and R e s o u r c e S u p p o r t  Teacher values asked f o r  these  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  resource  improvement  District  s e a s o n a l and summer w o r k s h o p s ,  2.  District  Kodaly Resource Teacher,  3.  Interpersonal  4.  University  provided  in  were,  supports:  1.  support,  Music Courses.  T e a c h e r assessment of is  for  Chapter  the III:  c o m p r e h e n s i v e M u s i c R e s o u r c e Book Assessing Program-in-Use.  84  1.  District  s e a s o n a l and summer w o r k s h o p s  Teachers  (n=8),particularly  background, emphasized t h a t occurred without The  chief  function  Book m a t e r i a l s The,  provision  into  is  implementation of  the  in  shops t o  go w i t h  strongly  familiar  wouldn't  make t h a t m u c h ' s e n s e .  you w o u l d . . . I  the  other.  the  g u i d e book  w i t h the  if  I didn't  said,  couldn't  Book, or little job Actual (n=7)  practice, of  I  the  I don't  it  these  think  at  all  "the  at  think  you  Gr.2&3, 6K).  t h a t Resource pick  up a  have done a good  t h e most v a l u a b l e  aspect  .  forced  us t o  and a c t u a l l y  do t h e  things,  come i n  to  G r . l , 5K).  they  children  (#4J,  J u s t to  doing",was  sessions.  think  reaction  I c o u l d not  (#41,  it  Resource Book,  without  in-services.  could  not  because  I don't  other  work-  work-  have any b a c k g r o u n d  book on K o d a ' l y ;  on t h a t  you're  program,  "Teach t h i s . "  have t a u g h t  the  if  w o u l d have a n e g a t i v e  can have one w i t h o u t I  support.  t h i n k you  You need the  and somebody handed me t h e  and t h e y  have  Resource  w i t h the  I don't  one f r o m  all,  c o u l d not  translating  conjunction  t h e most v a l u a b l e .  program  music  practice.  separate  the  little  s e a s o n a l workshop  was a means o f  ah, guide book,  shops,  those with  and t h e y  get  up and p l a y games  and i t ' s  just  a r e shy a b o u t  like  singing  the to  85  each o t h e r , the  but  children  who'd ever front  of  really  think  that  that  I'd  too,  through  and t h e  and I t h i n k  worth  while.  one ( # 4 1 ,  other  to  kids  in,  find  think  that you're  the approach to  out  what  that's not  always  the  t e a c h i n g the  and I t h i n k  of  only  then  how t h e y  that's  use t h e  really  t e a c h e r s , they j u s t into  m u s i c (#6N,  present the  important,  Kodaly in  order  to  use t h a t  To s1ow down. two o r t h r e e  service  do  G r . 4 , 3K). improve  (n=2):  Y e a . . t h e y w o u l d go t h r o u g h or f o u r  and  program  saw some c h a n g e s n e c e s s a r y t o f u r t h e r  valuable support  class.  (Program  They show you how t o draw  I think  t o draw k i d s  this  F i n d out  I  to  months w o r t h  compare  teaching model.  and ( M u s i c R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) ,  lessons.  that...as  you  functions: opportunities  somebody e l s e ,  people t h e r e ,  Developer)  Teachers  participation,  G r . 1 , 5K).  guess j u s t  How t h e  ex-  G r . l , 6K).  p r o b l e m s t h e y were h a v i n g .  the  the  in  e v e r y s o n g . . . y o u need t h a t ,  do (#6P,  and t a l k  sing  children  and p r o b l e m s and t o o b s e r v e t h e  Yes,  I  program. Heavens,  stand u p a n d  teachers,  These s e s s i o n s f i l l e d progress  e n d , you e x p e r i e n c e d what  are f e e l i n g w i t h the  fifty  perience working  by t h e  of  about  lessons  in  86  one and a h a l f flipping  h o u r s , , and my g o s h , y o u ' r e  papers l e f t ,  t i m e you g o t  out  of  your  really Provision teachers  tell of  basic  instruction  for  beginning  Koda'ly  was n e e d e d :  we know e v e r y t h i n g we're  all  we're  getting  they down.  But  all just  these  (#60,  I think  got  the  But  at  u s , and them  basics.  really  the  kind  of...when  I want  all Urn, the  they  I think  and  it.  that  give  you  I go  more...more these  things  G r . 3 , 2K). p r o v i d e d an o v e r - v i e w o f  p r o g r a m , and were p e r c e i v e d to instruction  or a f t e r  gave an o v e r v i e w o f  you saw where i t going  with  b e i n g a b l e t o do some o f  The summer s e s s i o n s  initiating  K o d a l y program  i d e a s thrown  haven't  these workshops, in  assumes t h a t  f a b u l o u s , and I w r i t e  I still  good i d e a s , b u t  practice  the  b a s i c a l l y comfortable  are a l l ;  about  workshops are good, in  It  can't  G r . 2 , 4K).  You know, maybe ( P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r )  to  part  o n e ; and  and you  up or down (#2A,  the  spinning  that  or w i t h another  in a j a r b l e ,  what's  and by  y o u r mind was  remember w h e t h e r  lesson,  n o t e s were a l l  and c e n t r e ,  there,  b e c a u s e you c o u l d n ' t came w i t h t h i s  right  just  (#6P,  be v a l u a b l e  prior  entire to  several years experience.  kindergarten  had come f r o m  G r . l , 6K).  the  to Grade 3 ,  and where  it  was  so  2.  District  Kodaly Resource Teacher  The d i s t r i c t unanimous  K o d a l y R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r was a c c o r d e d  and o v e r w h e l m i n g  support  (n=ll).  e m p h a s i z e d were c o m p e t e n c e , a v a i l a b i l i t y give  precise help,  standing  of  (The  the  problems  the  while.  I'd  regular  that!"  the  it  really,  but  think,  then  working  to  disciplining  really  with  being  be a b l e  and  take  the  expand  thought  of  it, doing  importance.  Program D e v e l o p e r model  had.  and c r i t i q u e  to  threatening.  You n e v e r f e l t  They n e v e r made you f e e l , to  out  (Kodaly Resource Teacher)  and ( P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r ) .  never going  worth-  l e a r n e r s was o f  a positive  without  always d e a l t  it.  be  K).  with adult  provide  know, x  she w o u l d  "Oh, I never  Gr. 1,5  instruction  with  teachers.  as j u s t one  notebook  R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r and t h e  I've  to  under-  in  down, b e c a u s e she w o u l d  (#41,  ability  improve  and you  have to  have my l i t t l e  lesson,  and y o u ' d  Sensitivity  didn't  and I f o u n d  things  the  and  f a c e d by i n e x p e r i e n c e d  and so I c o u l d j o i n  kids...I  anybody,  Both  teacher",  and she had c o n t r o l  discipline  jot  and a b i l i t y  K o d a l y R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) was a r e a l  teacher  of  being a " r e a l  Qualities  to  do t h i s ! "  threatened  "You are (6P, Gr.  just 1,  6K) . The D i s t r i c t  Kodaly Resource Teacher provided  the  most  88  tangible  support  T:  during  initial  teacher  implementation:  What h e l p e d me t h e most was h a v i n g  (Koda'ly  Resource T e a c h e r ) coming here o v e r a p e r i o d two y e a r s , t h r e e  months a t  her  (#2B,  R:  Do y o u , have you t a l k e d  district T:  music  Well,  I did  T:  I just  You know, posed t o  wanted t o  (#60,  Interpersonal Interactions  schools teachers  the  a  I sought out  (Kodaly  bit.  c o n c e r n s d i d you have? know how t o  I came i n t o it,  t o anyone on  last year,  And what k i n d s o f  No f o r m a l  watching  staff?  R:  taught  and  G r . 2 , 3K).  Resource Teacher) q u i t e  3.  a time,  of  it,  teach  Kodaly.  n e v e r h a v i n g been e x -  and urn, I wanted  to  know how i t  was  G r . 3 , 2K). support with others  provided  a r r a n g e m e n t s were i n  designating  valuable  place at  a Kodaly contact  r e c o g n i z e d as c o m p e t e n t  any of  person.  support. the  study  Those  and n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g  were  a p p r o a c h e d w t t h numerous c o n c e r n s : r e a s s u r a n c e and commiseration, musical saw t h i s T:  practical  teaching advice, explanation  c o n c e p t s , and p r o g r a m c o n t i n u i t y  concerns.  as a v a l u a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e s u p p o r t : Mostly  going too  I talk  about  fast...and  the f a c t  she s o r t  of  that we're says,  not  "Well,  of  Teachers  you know,  it's  not  l o o k i n g more f o r really  (#2A,  that  important."  Gr. 2,  the grade 3 l e v e l  I found,  didn't  before  when t e a c h i n g  at  urn, when you g e t  and a h , we w o u l d maybe work it  else,  4K).  'tickaticka'...it  and e s t a b l i s h  I'm  r e a s s u r a n c e than a n y t h i n g  Rhythm p a t t e r n s . . . p a r t i c u 1 a r 1 y  the  Well,  come t h a t through  teaching  it  into  naturally,  a song (#6P,  together Gr.  1,  6K) . Well,  I've  talked  about d i f f i c u l t i e s all  the m a t e r i a l  Such c o n t a c t  to  some o f  I'm  the o t h e r  teachers  having about g e t t i n g  (#6Q,  Gr. 2,  ceased or d i d  through  4K).  not o c c u r f o r  reasons  such a s :  h a v i n g been r e b u f f e d  p r e v i o u s l y or  feeling  insecure,  l o s s of  the  momentum,  the  sense of  and an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l very  staff  program's  Kodaly teachers  were  competent: I  tried  but  to  a p p r o a c h somebody i n my f i r s t  I never got  didn't  feel  any h e l p ,  like  I wanted  so f r o m to  let  it  are a l o t there's like  of  go a t  that,  I  but...I  music people w i t h i n  no r e a l  shouldn't  this  of  school, this  here on  I  else.  have  don't...like  resource person w i t h i n  everybody... a lot  point  a p p r o a c h anybody  Maybe I s h o u l d h a v e , you know, just  that  year  there but, school,  p e o p l e do t h e i r own music, and  90  don't  feel  that comfortable  g o i n g to anybody  ask them a b o u t my m u s i c , you know, f o r Gr.3,  And we d i d  the  l a s t y e a r or  R:  Why do you t h i n k  stopped  slipped Gr.l,  talk  about  it  more t h a n we have  two. that's  know...whether  into  happened?  doing your  it's  just  own t h i n g  sort  ready.  talk  about  It's  s p e c i f i c things  a very  students,other  than  through  you've it  (#41,  v e r y much b e -  staff  strengths  t h a t way  al-  (#6N,  of  report  with parents  of  cards, three  teachers  Kodaly  s p e c i f i c Koda'ly i n f o r m a t i o n  T h e s e p a r e n t s were p e r c e i v e d t o  and i m p r e s s e d by t h e  teachers reported  parents.  strong  interactions  presentation  Parent Nights.  with this  of  3K).  When q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t  Other  of  and t h a t ' s  c a u s e p e o p l e t e a c h i n g m u s i c have t h e  preciative  Sort  5K).  We d o n ' t  mentioned  in  talking?  I don't  Gr.4,  (#60,  2K).  T:  T:  help  to  level  of  instruction.  t h a t few c o n t a c t s w h i c h  m u s i c a p p r o a c h were i n i t i a t e d  be a p -  dealt  by t e a c h e r  or  at  91  4.  University  Music Courses  Teachers mentioned sources  of  training,  paration.  Eight  Calgary, were to  offered  general  reaction  c o u r s e s was I  know,  R:  all  UBC ( n = 3 ) ;  courses  district,  for  to  Non-  U.  of  Teachers compared  why t h e y  could  imagine  differed,  be i m p r o v e d .  the  university  some o f  it  thinking...but  anything..that  The music  (university I  can't  I can remember  (#6Q,  4K). that  ( u n i v e r s i t y music  w i t h the  training  Was t h a t  of  t h a t was g i v e n  training)  tie  in  this  in  one c o u r s e ,  in  district?  value?  T:  It  R:  It  T:  Ah, except  course  The  SFU, (n=2).  music  teachers  helps..I'm  relate  How d i d  which  interviewed  Music Methods,  courses  I would  courses)  directly Gr.2,  music of  teachers  pre-  null:  don't  music  by the  Kodaly  Music Education  university  as  preparation.  and M u s i c M e t h o d s ,  and how u n i v e r s i t y  courses  Music A p p r e c i a t i o n ,  UVIC ( n = l ) ;  a s k e d how t h e s e  in-services  Kodaly  music  UBC ( n = l ) ;  (Kodaly), (n=l);  eleven  were:  Conducting,  musicians  the  music  than i n - d i s t r i c t  university  courses mentioned Choral  other  of  had some t y p e o f  university  didn't. didn't...why?  actually, that  for  Simon F r a s e r ,  yes,  looking  back,  had K o d a l y b a c k g r o u n d  t h e r e was in  it,  ah,  one the  urn,  92  same i d e a s and some O r f f , all"  course, trying  some i d e a s out R:  T:  of  l a c k of  hit  everything,  the  u s e f u l n e s s of  a "catch-  urn, and I  got  the  uni-  c o u r s e s , those general music c o u r s e s ?  Fairly  Limitations  was k i n d o f  that.  How w o u l d you r a t e  versity  were  of  to  so i t  low  the  time  (#6N,  G r . 4 , 3K).  introductory to  university  intensively  practice  m u s i c cou-rses and l a c k o f  music  s tructure: They a r e s i m p l y trying  to  seems i n trying  such a s h o t - g u n hit  t e a c h i n g the  structure,  they're  how t h e y  getting  and t h e y  A h , the  structure  3K).  Well,  maybe t h r o u g h  to  the  are  nothing...The  problem  getting  their  is  quite  that  inner  their  structure  They a r e  student  not  teachers  some o f my c l a s s e s ,  that  I  in music e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , they b r i e f l y  o v e r some K o d a l y , some O r f f , nothing (#60,  they  hit  are  it  courses are a c t u a l l y  not  Gr.4,  like  that  deal w i t h music a c r o s s .  that  They  know,  effect,  everything  good m u s i c t e a c h e r s .  of  a grab-bag.  approach music, I d o n ' t  to  teachers  t o o much o f  in  depth,  like,  things  a h , the  set  like of  (#6N,  took, go  that,  but  workshops  G r . 3 , 2K).  The i n - s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d were s e e n t o  by Kamloops D i s t r i c t  be more e f f e c t i v e  by a l l  teachers,  personnel (n=8).  93  T:  I found  trict  the  training  much s u p e r i o r  versity,  much  T:  Because there  we had m o n t h l y in  book,  was more t i m e t o  meetings  when the  to  develop i t  uni-  first  and t h e y  first  year  I  whole-day  a l s o had a g u i d e  a p r o g r a m t o go by a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d . . a n d we  been i n t r o d u c e d about  it,  how t o  teach i t  be r e a d y t o  completing  the  was a s k e d i f  to  it  university.  We had  as " a t e c h n i q u e "  and you j u s t  The s t u d e n t  (#2A,  try  and w r i t e  simply  and  told  notes  about  G r . 2 , 4K).  teacher with l i t t l e  m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d may  a s s i m i l a t e i n t e n s e music p r e p a r a t i o n teaching preparation  demonstration  music u n i v e r s i t y of  in  K o d a l y was  h e r e , we were a l s o g i v e n  had no s u c h r e s o u r c e a t  not  dis-  spend, because  Kamloops w h i c h was t h e  teaching  in-services  this  superior.  And i n what ways?  started  through  t o what w e ' d been g i v e n  R:  introduced  offered  course  year.  This  music c l a s s e s ,  given  while  teacher during-a  (UVIC, Kodaly emphasis)  were  value: T:  Well, I don't  really  think  setting,  b e c a u s e we were a l l  anyway.  We had no i d e a a b o u t  t e c h n i q u e s , you know, nique with music. interesting a great  deal  let  out  of  it.  was, in  student regular  us i t  I don't  that  teachers teaching  alone a s p e c i a l  F o r most o f  to w a t c h , but  it  was  know i f  techcertainly we g a i n e d  94  R:  You d i d n ' t  T:  No, I d o n ' t  when I  think  did?  know what think  we d i d ,  back now, do I  No, I d o n ' t  really  showed u s , so o b v i o u s l y right  things  on i n c r e a s i n g t i m e  more s t r u c t u r e d not  see g r e a t  had i m p a c t . in  terms  those  gained  those  value  in  know, she  anything.she looking  improving  at  the  these courses  (n=l),  bases or  these  teachers with of  by t h e  prospect  introduced  attributed  ground r e c e i v e d at  of  clear  structure  they  were  those courses.  m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d who had  university teaching  being employed to university,  felt  the  much  less  program  than  One t e a c h e r the  Kodaly back-  and a l s o i n d i c a t e d even i f  not  the  that  district  program: It  was t h e  what  only  I was g o i n g  p r o g r a m was i n signed to, Gr.2,  training  4K).  to  the  wasn't  that  teach. school  did  Koda'ly a p p r o a c h  in-district.  K o d a l y w o u l d have been t a u g h t  teachers  is  cen-  selecting  ideas in u n i v e r s i t y  little  Koda'ly a t  and  Although  these c o u r s e s , i t  philosophical  initially  directly  I wasn't  approaches (n=3).  knowledge  threatened  remember  T e a c h e r s who d i s c u s s e d t h e  of  you  remember a n y t h i n g  allotments  who had been e x p o s e d t o Also,  I don't,  (#2A, G r . 2 , 4K).  The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r tered  to observe?  I h a d , so  Whether or that  a concern at  I  that's not  the  had been a s -  that  point  (#2A,  95  CHAPTER VI T e a c h e r Recommendations f o r  "From t h e improve  teacher's  mentation this  w h i c h would  because d i s t r i c t  K o d a l y program f o r  variations for  p e r s p e c t i v e , what c o u l d  program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? "  recommendations  of  facilitate personnel  at  least  in various  further  T e a c h e r s were a s k e d improvement of plan  another  K o d a l y - b a s e d programs  implementation  Improvement  to  imple-  maintain  three y e a r s ,  are being  school  for  and  considered  districts  in  British  Columbia. Improving  Implementation  Teachers  tations,  satisfaction  d e s i g n used i n  c h a n g e s were not  were made f o r  Kamloops S c h o o l  (n=10) i n d i c a t e d  implementation Radical  in  with  Kamloops S c h o o l  suggested, however,  assessment in support  aid for  District  inexperienced  the  general  District. recommendations  s e r v i c e s , content  Koda'ly t e a c h e r s ,  and  expecprogram  continuity. Support  i n terms  and t o a l l o w stration provision  for  of  exchange of  l e s s o n s (n=l) of  in-service  teaching  to extend  teaching materials  t h e b a s i c s were r e q u e s t e d .  to  reinforce ideas  teaching (n=l)  Kodaly Resource Teacher p o s i t i o n  ( n = 3 ) , demon-  practice,  which  Support for  practice  and  elaborated  maintenance  (n=3) was g i v e n ;  of this  the  96  service  was seen as a n e c e s s i t y .  Assessment particularly  of  in  content  terms  of  expectations skill  acquisition  grade  2 and g r a d e 3 p r o g r a m s .  (n=l)  were s e e n as n e c e s s a r y i f  not  the  S p e c i a l i s t music  late  teachers  content, expectations  Koda'ly t e a c h e r s  required  support  (n=3): workshops o u t l i n i n g  tations  and p r o v i d i n g  experienced  tives.  If  were  advanced t h i r d of  to  of  extend  the  background  in  o f work t h a t be j u s t on  total  practice,  pairing  with  alterna-  Koda'ly t e a c h e r s  skills,  for  should the  reinforce  was s e e n ( n = 2 ) .  student  intermediate the work,  teachers  in  has gone i n t o deal,  it  the  and t o make  inter-  have no  immense  this.  It  amount  shouldn't  s h o u l d be  by t h e  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t  school  as n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n  administrator  p r o g r a m momentum  visi-  Provision  carried  Gr.2, 6K).  Continued monitoring implementation  as p o s s i b l e  The need t o  an  a school  aware was a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n :  a one-shot  (#4J,  of  responsibility  grade program.  teachers  A lot  expec-  or d e s i g n a t i n g  program c o n t i n u i t y  programs  mediate  take  and  program  possible, inexperienced to  monitoring  basic  p e r s o n were o f f e r e d  be r e q u e s t e d  bility  teaching  Koda'ly t e a c h e r ,  Koda'ly c o n t a c t  of  in  (n=3),  lowered. Inexperienced  not  was r e q u e s t e d  of  teacher  was seen (n=4).  97  M a i n t e n a n c e as a d i s t r i c t mended  (n=9).  The need f o r  Time was needed t o time  to  the  "time"  to  tations,  and t h o r o u g h l y  and t i m e  background  to  think  it's  c a n be  a very  way o f  ...  to  it,  it  district  other  that  I  in  Other  recommendations  where,  however,  teachers  through limi-  this  Kodaly  experiences. It's  times.  It's  and i t  would  should  stay  long  3K).  be  enough.  '  assumed t h e  need f o r  a  throughout  the  used i n  Kamloops  was recommended f o r  strongly  emphasized  else-  certain  actions.  implementation  did  with  isn't  organization  implementation  over-load  the  program  District  awareness of  work  'Districts  School  Gradual  to  grow  can be a d a p t e d ,  they  Ten y e a r s  The same b a s i c  administrative  it  C#6N, G r . 4 ,  be  really  ah, stays.  teaching  p l a n and c o n s i s t e n t  district.  it,  think  it  musical  teaching,  way o f  you know.  teacher  students  theme.  properly,  a d v a n t a g e s and  can move w i t h  Implementation  All  in  change.  Twenty m i g h t Initial  the  important  effective  foolish with  allow  "let  teachers  assess  participate  an e f f e c t i v e it  to  program  p r o g r a m and t o allow  recom-  was a c o n t i n u i n g  t e a c h the  Time was needed t o  program  I  learn  e s t a b l i s h the  roots".  p r o g r a m was s t r o n g l y  other not  summer s e s s i o n s  (n=4) was recommended  curriculum occur.  change  Prior  or workshops  to  to  ensure  in teacher  implementation,  should acquaint  teachers  with  98  program e x p e c t a t i o n s , implement, the  in a small  evident  (n=2).  Without  group  commitment  Initial  of  pilot  and i n t e r e s t s  resource support  p e o p l e who know how t o work 3K) were s e e n as e s s e n t i a l teachers,  and p r e p a r a t i o n  the  (n=10). of  Initial  presentation  workshops  2K).  of  this  should concentrate  overwhelming  and n o t  Teacher i n - p u t  p l e m e n t a t i on (n = 1) .  competent  beginning with  to should  staff  Kinder-  (n=l). d e f i n e d as  "competent  c l a s s r o o m " (#6N, Workshops to  Gr.  educate  a comprehensive resource  book s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d by t h i s  too  of  staff,  in  adjust  implementation  and G r a d e 1 was recommended  District  to  immediately  s c h o o l s chosen because  Sequential development,  garten  p r e s s u r e to  s h o u l d be g i v e n t i m e  p l a n n e d change (n = l ) .  centre of  teachers  (n=2).  resource staff  (n=l).  r e s o u r c e book t h r o u g h on the  everything  essentials, at  "nothing  o n c e " (#60,  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o  the  Gr.3,  improve  im-  4,  99  CHAPTER  VII  Summary  The i n t e n t o f p e r s p e c t i v e of factors  that  mendations of  the  this  s t u d y was t o  for  represent  Kodaly p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ,  shaped the  program-in-use  improvement.  reported  process,  the  program,  the  the  to  teacher's  document  and t o  the  provide  recom-  This chapter  p r e s e n t s a summary  strengths  its  and some i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of  implementation  concerns that  need to  be  addres s e d . Assessment of that  teachers  .attributed perceived  the  Kamloops Koda'ly M u s i c  p e r c e i v e d improved  the  improvement  to  this  i m p r o v e m e n t may be t h e  e m p h a s i s u p o n , and a w a r e n e s s o f ^ t i o n and n o t specific  totally  skills  subject', with teachers.  from  teacher  and t h e  the  of  to  perception  allotments  It  that  music  instruc-  the  this  prescribed  was r e p o r t e d  implementation  ranged  from c o - o p t a t i o n  as s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s  were u s e d b u t  in  t h e manner o f  the  to  of  the  intended  adaptation structure tation  program s t r u c t u r e  o c c u r r e d when the with  program,  teaching  style,  integrated  adapting  o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s d i d  not  not  prescriptive  and t e c h n i q u e s .  teacher  by  varied  t e a c h e r , and u n i q u e p r o g r a m s - i n - u s e  intended  the  o f m u s i c as a  scheduled time  to  However,  a d h e r e n c e to to  and  an i n c r e a s e d  need f o r  fidelity  was e v i d e n t  musicality,  program.  result  attributable  p r o g r a m , even t h o u g h  sequence of  all  student  P r o g r a m showed  both;  use t h e  use  Mutual  program  non-imp!emenprogram,  and  100  reported were  that  the  impossible  program,  skills  n e c e s s a r y to  to m a s t e r .  p e r c e i v e d needs o f  and t e a c h i n g in-use.  situations  perceptions  children,  teaching  resulted  in  u s e , whereas  s i v e music backgrounds  tended  other  Teachers if  they  fective,  the  l e a d e r s h i p of another little  give  in  to  to  incorporate  this  for  status  in  teacher  of  the  to  the  to  exten-  musical  the  innovation be  skill-based  student  inef-  approach  learning.  Respected  compulsory p r a c t i c e .  factor  in in  the  There was,  perceptions  program;  "school  for  based"  support  for  ranged  from  adopted  personnel  implementation;  in  with  the  the  of  Kodaly  experienced,  initiating  com-  seasonal  translation  The D i s t r i c t  individual,  those  "district  implementation  by d i s t r i c t  into classroom p r a c t i c e .  however,  definitions.  as most v a l u a b l e  Resource Teacher provided  the  The a p p r o a c h  p r e h e n s i v e R e s o u r c e Book i n c o n j u n c t i o n w o r k s h o p s were r a t e d  of  definitions  shaping these  were d e s c r i b e d as e s s e n t i a l  threatening  tended  t a u g h t program to  Resource s e r v i c e s provided  learnings  programs-  t h o s e w i t h more  teacher acceptance.  administrator  was a m a j o r  the  P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r , as a d v o c a t e , was  consistency  voluntary  these varying  commitment  previously  foundation  the  factor  authorized"  by the  to  and a s c r i b e d v a l u e  as an e f f e c t i v e  of  programs.  tended  judged  to  program  priorities  music background  make more p r e s c r i p t i v e  of  the  Different  Teachers with l i t t l e  strengths  instruct  practice.  non-  101  Teacher and  interactions  also provided  a s s i s t a n c e , reassurance  Kindergarten,  G r a d e 1 and e a r l y  motivation. Teachers of  2 programs  indicated  instruction.  satisfaction  Resource m a t e r i a l s  adequate f o r ever,  the  these  teachers  teachers with  t h a t aspects of  little  the  difficult,  if  particular  a s p e c t s of  elements  not  late  (the  rhythms),  this  and s u p p o r t  instruct  skill  services  the  were  program.  music background v o i c e d  impossible,  to  adequately  c o n c e r n were t h e  sixteenth  scope of  How-  concerns  G r a d e 2 and Grade 3 p r o g r a m s  note  and a need f o r  understand  to  w i t h the  Grade  instruct.  teaching  p a t t e r n and  of  The  rhythmic  syncopated  e x t e n s i v e music background  program's  structure  were  to  and e f f e c t i v e l y  present  more a d v a n c e d c o n c e p t s . Concerns changed over the  program.  clarity the  Some t e a c h e r s  after  s i x years of  t i m e as t e a c h e r s only  expressed confidence  actual  use.  p r o g r a m was a s l o w p r o c e s s , r e q u i r e d  commitment,  experienced  and p o s e d many f r u s t r a t i o n s  Learning  commitment  to  o c c u r r e d as t h e  professional  because  T h e r e was a need f o r let  the  time to master  program d e v e l o p ,  and f u r t h e r  involvement  teacher  and p e r s o n a l  time to  c o n c e r n s o v e r program c o n t i n u i t y  initial  Changes  in  invested  development.  the program,  see s t u d e n t  with music.  use  sustained  c h a n g e s were c o m p l e x and o f t e n o v e r w h e l m i n g . teacher m u s i c a l i t y  to  and  time  to  outcomes  Collective  staff  a l s o emerged o v e r  time:  102  the music f o u n d a t i o n come t o  nought  intermediate  if  of  planning,  tation,  this  primary  are not  implementation  resource support,  a basis for  c l u d e d the where  these l e a r n i n g s  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  provided  by t h e  student  extended  would to  schooling.  Strengths prior  acquired  the  s e l e c t i o n of  teacher  commitment  extension  of  the program  Extensive  district  process  " s c h o o l - b a s e d " implemen-  development.  Prior  implementation a small  on a s c h o o l supports  planning  p r o c e s s , and  number o f  was e v i d e n t ,  resource  included  pilot  and the  in-  schools  gradual  volunteer  basis.  included  a compre-  h e n s i v e R e s o u r c e B o o k , s e a s o n a l and summer w o r k s h o p s , an i n - c l a s s R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r w h i c h were m a i n t a i n e d the  implementation  necessary. school  "School-based" implementation  administrator  implement, This  p r o c e s s and r e v i s e d o r  and f l e x i b i l i t y  implementation  teacher  development,  musicality  control  of in  the  how t o  process provided both p e r s o n a l l y  and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  in  allowed  assist  in  during  s u p p l e m e n t e d as  d e c i s i o n when  the  and  the to  teachers.  possibility development  extension of  of of  instruction  experti se. A number o f  implementation  be a d d r e s s e d on t h e yet  assumption  c o n c e r n s may now need that  implementation  is  complete. F o r e x a m p l e , some c o n f u s i o n e x i s t e d o v e r  whether  to not  103  teacher  use was to  be l a t i t u d e that  in adapting  teachers did  individual  be p r e s c r i p t i v e  adapt  the  program.  the  intended  relevance, interest,  encouragement of strengths,  of  to  needs o f  teachers  is  experience continues; the  the  implementation I've  in  for  As t h e  found  that your  use t h e  findings of  (#4J,  and  program p e r s o n n e l  individ-  program of  have g i v e n me  the development five  Gr.  required  program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  close contact  all  during  F o r some t e a c h e r s  y e a r s of  2 and 3 ,  for  is  forty-four  of its  6K).  those  teachers  extended district  (now elementary  e x p e r i e n c e d between t e a c h e r s initial this  implementation  resulted  in a loss  e n t h u s i a s m , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  s u m m a r i z e d a number o f  critique:  musical  program.  schools),  teacher  other  changing  as t h e i r  p r o g r a m f r o m two to  teachers at  involvement,  Therefore,  p r o c e s s may be u s e f u l :  including  lost.  reflect  e x a m p l e , some c l a r i f i c a t i o n  Very s p e c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e i s to  strength.  to  showed  p r o g r a m to  r e s p o n s e to  required  implementation  beginning  study  was  t e a c h i n g of m u s i c ,  a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  there  r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t may be n e e d e d .  Continued i n - s e r v i c e ual  or  This  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and use o f  more l a t i t u d e  strengthening  or whether  and  has been of  momentum.  A  these concerns in a study  104  My main c o n c e r n grade  levels,  contact  to  share problems  (#4L,  of  such c o n t a c t  considered c a r e f u l l y standing  of  teacher  in-service  could  fically  aid  also  to  need t o  maintaining  be d e v e l o p e d  such c o n t a c t  be s e e n to  and G r a d e 3 p r o g r a m s reported  that  internalize  these  levels  the is  students  new m u s i c a l  music background  would  would  of  provide a Kodaly  provide help;  need t o  by d i s t r i c t  persons.  teachers selection be  and an  under-  Perhaps  personnel  School of  the  speci-  administrators program  for  implementation.  skill  level  necessary for  of  the  two  late  Grade 2  reasons.  Teachers  needed more t i m e t o m a n i p u l a t e learnings,  indicated  was d i f f i c u l t ,  are  teacher  prerequisites.  be s u p p o r t i v e  t h e momentum o f  Reassessment of  in-service  because both e x p e r t i s e , c o n c e r n s , are  and  would  source of  p e r s o n s , however,  Kodaly  2K).  Designation  each s c h o o l  the  ongoing  zone b a s e d  and s u c c e s s e s  support.  person w i t h i n  interested  or  Koda'ly  be an  continued  school  change  teaching  Kinder.,  provide  to  further  needs to  keep us a l l  ways t o  and l o c a l  it  w i t h a r e c o g n i z e d and a v a i l a b l e of  like  I feel  Encouragement  immediate  I were  program.  A number o f  to  I would  if  and a s s i s t a n c e i n  enthusiastic  groups  that  workshops  process  possible.  is  and t e a c h e r s  t h a t adequate if  not  with  instruction  impossible.  and little at  Because of  105  these d i f f i c u l t i e s , s p e c i a l i s t music instruction. critique  the  teachers  One o f  the  c o n c e r n was v o i c e d are  the  findings  necessary for  non-sample  enjoyment,  teachers  of  good t h i n g s  taking  voices et  a l , but  singing  No m a t t e r  how many c o u r s e s  seem t o  get  I  because there  into  the  takes  get myself  a great  practice it  to  specialist's be t h e  3,  4K).  Implementation musical  preparations t i o n at schools,  the but  are  of  the  job.  best  learnings  to  is  is  all  be made f o r  need f o r  couldn't -  mainly  to  do i t  intermediate  have  measures  it's I  a  think  seen  the  grades  has begun a t  it  (Grade  extend  changes i n music  a greater  it  and  enough t o  I've  the  and  - no h a l f w a y  program  subjects  find  reason I f e e l  This  -  can't  t o o many o t h e r  n e c e s s a r y to  the  secondary l e v e l s . there  at  Most d e f i n i t e l y  school  I  or w o u l d n ' t  kids  I  place  I  organization  - the  planning  need to  took  become p r o f i c i e n t  a r e good enough  student  to  it.  organized  deal  go o v e r w i t h  to  I  program  t e a c h and I c o u l d n ' t  time to  asked  came i n  s a y t h a t when I was t e a c h i n g  to  advanced  Resource Teacher)  see l o t s  think  perhaps  commented:  When ( K o d a l y could  that  and  instrucsome  emphasis.  Numerous i m p l i c a t i o n s evident.  R e p l i c a t i o n of  generalizabi1ity vation  to  needed. rather of  of  this  than other  further study  these f i n d i n g s ,  c h e c k and c l a r i f y This study  other  for  the  provided  participant  to d e t e r m i n e and o n - s i t e  self-report  the  the obser-  data,  are  teacher  perspective  reactions.  Assessment  p e r s p e c t i v e s s u c h as t h e  administrator,  research are  student,  parent,  and p r o g r a m p e r s o n n e l w o u l d p r o v i d e a  broader p o r t r a y a l  of  this  music  program-in-use.  107  BIBLIOGRAPHY Kodaly Choksy, tice  Approach: Lois. Hall ,  Choksy, L o i s . tice-Hall,  The K o d a l y 1981.  Context.  Englewood C l i f f s :  Pren-  The K o d a l y M e t h o d . 1974.  Englewood C l i f f s :  Pren-  Choksy, L o i s . "The K o d a l y P h i l o s o p h y and C a n a d i a n S c h o o l s " . B . C . Music E d u c a t o r , 2 5 : 2 , 1982, 17-20. Dickason, School Highet, B.C.  L . , T r o w s d a l e , G . , W o r d e n , M. Music Programs D i s t r i c t N o . 6 8 , November 1 9 7 8 .  Alastair. "The S p e c i a l i s t i n E l e m e n t a r y M u s i c E d u c a t o r , 2 5 : 2 , 1982 , 5 7 - 6 1 .  in  Music".  Owens, M a r i o n , S m i t h , I r e n e . P r i m a r y M u s i c R e s o u r c e Book ( t h i r d r e v i s i o n ) , Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 2 4 , M a r c h 1980. Perron, Pierre. " T o w a r d New Rhythm N a m e s " . E d u c a t o r , 2 5 : 2 , 1982, 23-26.  B . C . Music  P o z o s , R a n d o l f o R. E v a l u a t i o n Report Kodaly Music Education P r o g r a m : H o l y Names C o l l e g e and the San J o s e U n i f i e d School D i s t r i c t , J u l y 1980. White, John. Music Assessment: Elementary S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 2 4 , M a r c h 1 9 8 1 .  School.  Kamloops  Interview Process: B e c k e r , H. "A Note on I n t e r v i e w i n g T a c t i c s " . z a t i o n , v. 12, n . 4 , 1954. C i c o r e l , A. Method and M e a s u r e m e n t C o l l i e r - M a c m i l 1 a n , 1964.  in  Human O r g a n i -  Sociology.  C o n v e r s e , J. and Schumann H. C o n v e r s a t i o n s a t R e s e a r c h as I n t e r v i e w e r s See I t . New Y o r k : S o n s , 1974.  Toronto:  Random: S u r v e y John W i l e y &  108  Hyman, H e r b e r t e t a l , Chicago: University  I n t e r v i e w i n g as S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1954,  Kahn, R . , C a n n e l l , C. Dynamics J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 5 7 .  of  Interviewing.  New Y o r k :  Parlett, M., . H a m i l t o n , D. " E v a l u a t i o n as I l l u m i n a t i o n : A New A p p r o a c h t o t h e S t u d y o f I n n o v a t o r y P r o g r a m m e s " . Beyond t h e Numbers Game, D. H a m i l t o n , e t a l . t e d s . ) . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan, 1977. Payne, S . L . The A r t P r e s s , 1951. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n and  of  Asking Questions.  Princeton  University  Evaluation:  Benham, B. " T h o u g h t s on t h e F a i l u r e E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , December  of C u r r i c u l u m 1978.  B e r m a n , P . , M c L a u g h l i n , M. An E x p l o r a t o r y District Adaptation. R a n d , May 1979.  Study  Reform". /  of  School  B e n - P e r e t z , M. " T e a c h e r s ' Role in C u r r i c u l u m Development: An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h " . Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 5 : 2 , 1980. B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Guidelines P l a n n i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . June 1982.  for  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Services. P l a n n i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , (Interim Edition) W. W e r n e r , (ed . ) , December 1980. Churchman, D a v i d . "A New A p p r o a c h i n E v a l u a t i n g t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of I n n o v a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r a m s " . Educational T e c h n o l o g y , v . 1 9 , n. 5 , 1979 , 2 5 - 2 8 . C l a r k , C , Y i n g e r , R. " T e a c h e r s ' T h i n k i n g " . R e s e a r c h on Tea c h i n g , P . P e t e r s o n and H. W a l b e r g (eds*), B e r k e l e y : McCutchan, 1979. C o n n e l l y , M . , B e n - P e r e t z , M. " T e a c h e r s ' R o l e s i n the Using and D o i n g o f R e s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t " . Journal of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , v . 1 2 , n . 2 , 1980, 9 5 - 1 0 7 . D a n i e l s , M. and W r i g h t , I. ( e d s . ) . p o i n t s . V a n c o u v e r : C e n t r e f o r the I n s t r u c t i o n , U . B . C . , June 1980.  Implementation ViewS t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and  D o y l e , W. , P o n d e r , G. "The P r a c t i c a l i t y E t h i c i n D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g " . Interchange, 8 : 3 , 1977-78.  Teacher  109  ERIC, Research A c t i o n B r i e f : April 1980.  How S c h o o l s C h a n g e , n .  11,  f  E v a n s , W . , S h e f f 1 er, J . W. " A s s e s s i n g t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a-n Innovative Instructional S y s t e m . " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , v . X I V , n . 1, 1 9 7 6 , 1 0 7 - 1 1 8 . E v a n s , W . , Berman, E. "Strategy for Evaluating Curriculum Implementation." C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , v . 9 , n. 1, 1 9 7 7 , 75-80. F u l l a n , M. " C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g Problems of C u r r i c u l u m Implementation". C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a , W. Werner ( e d . ) . Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s and C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1979. F u l l a n , M. The M e a n i n g o f 0ISE P r e s s , 1982.  Educational  F u l l a n , M. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p mentation in C u r r i c u l u m " . P u b l i c a t i o n , A.Lewy ( e d . ) ,  Change.  Toronto:  Between E v a l u a t i o n and I m p l e E v a l u a t i o n R o l e s , Gordon B r e a c h 1980.  F u l l a n , M . , P a r k , P. Curriculum E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1981.  Implementation.  Ministry  of  F u l l a n , M. P o m f r e t , A . " R e s e a r c h on C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n Implementation". Review of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , v. 4 7 , n. 1, 1 9 7 7 , 3 3 5 - 3 9 7 . G r o s s , N . , G i a c q u i n t a , J . , B e r n s t e i n , M. " F a i l u r e to Implement a M a j o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n " . Learning i n S o c i a l S e t t i n g s : New R e a d i n g s i n t h e S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n , M. M i l e s , W. C h a r t e r s , ( e d s . ) , B o s t o n : A l 1 y n and B a c o n , 1 9 7 0 , 4 0 9 - 4 2 6 . H a l l , G . , L o u c k s , S. "A D e v e l o p m e n t a l Model f o r D e t e r m i n i n g Whether t h e T r e a t m e n t i s A c t u a l l y I m p l e m e n t e d " . AER J o u r n a l , v . 1 4 , n . 3 , 1977 , 2 6 3 - 2 7 6 . H a l l , G. L o u c k s , S . " T e a c h e r C o n c e r n s as a B a s i s f o r F a c i l i t a t i n g and P e r s o n a l i z i n g S t a f f D e v e l o p m e n t . " Teacher C o l l e g e R e c o r d , v . 8 0 , n. 1, 1 9 7 8 . H a l l , G . , L o u c k s , S . , R u t h e r f o r d , W . L . and N e w l o v e , B.W. " L e v e l s o f Use o f t h e I n n o v a t i o n : A Framework f o r Analyzing Innovation Adoption". J o u r n a l of Teacher E d u c a t i o n , v . 2 6 , n. 1, S p r i n g 1 9 7 5 , 5 2 - 5 6 . H a l l , G . , R u t h e r f o r d , W. " C o n c e r n s of T e a c h e r s about Implem e n t i n g Team T e a c h i n g , " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , v , 3 4 , n. 1976, 226-233.  3,  no  Hamilton, D., M. ( e d s . ) . 1977 .  MacDonald, B . , K i n g , C , J e n k i n s , D., P a r l e t t , Beyond t h e Numbers Game. B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n ,  House, E.R. " T h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s on I n n o v a t i o n : The T e c h n o l o g i c a l , P o l i t i c a l and C u l t u r a l " . N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of E d u c a t i o n Knowledge S y n t h e s i s P r o j e c t , 1 9 7 9 . Hughes, A . , K e i t h , J . " T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s of an I n n o v a t i o n and Degree o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , v. 5 , n . 2 , 1980. Jackson, P h i l i p . -Life and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 8 .  in Classrooms. Chicago: H o l t ,  Rinehart  Leithwood, K.A, "A C o m p r e h e n s i v e Study o f C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n M a k i n g i n O n t a r i o : Summary and H i g h l i g h t s . " Paper presented a t t h e L a v a l C u r r i c u l u m Symposiurn,Quebec C i t y , 1 9 8 0 . L e i t h w o o d , K . A , , Montgomery, D . J . " A s s u m p t i o n s and Use o f a P r o c e d u r e f o r A s s e s s i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . Paper p r e s e n t e d at the American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g , B o s t o n , 1980. L o r t i e , D. School Teacher: A S o c i o l o g i c a l U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1975.  Study.  Chicago:  L o u c k s , S . M e l l e , M. " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a D i s t r i c t - w i d e S c i e n t i f i c C u r r i c u l u m : The E f f e c t s o f a T h r e e Y e a r Effort". Paper p r e s e n t e d at the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g , B o s t o n , 1980. M c L a u g h l i n , M. " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n as M u t u a l Adaptation". T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , v . 7 7 , n. 3 , 1 9 7 6 , 3 3 9 - 3 5 1 . Pratt, H., Melle, M., Metzdortf, J . "The D e s i g n and U t i l i z a t i o n of a Concerns Based S t a f f Development P r o g r a m . " A E R A, 1 9 8 0 . S a n d e r s , D . , S c h w a b , M. "A S c h o o l C o n t e x t f o r T e a c h e r Development" Theory I n t o P r a c t i c e , v. 14, 1980. S t a k e , R. E v a l u a t i n g t h e E . M e r r i l 1 , 1975 .  Arts  in  Education.  Ohio:  Charles  Stufflebeam, Daniel. "An A n a l y s i s o f A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h e s to E v a l u a t i o n " . Studies in Educational E v a l u a t i o n , y . 2, 1976. Rutman, L. " F o r m a t i v e R e s e a r c h and P r o g r a m E v a l u a b i l i t y " . E v a l u a t i o n Research Methods: A B a s i c Guide. L. Rutman, ( e d . ) . B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage, 1977.  Ill  T o m k i n s , G. C o n n e l l y , M . , B e r n i e r , J . S t a t e o f the A r t R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h i n C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , (.Draft s u b m i s s i o n ) , f o r C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y f o r S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , August. 1981. W e r n e r , W. "An I n t e r p r e t i v e A p p r o a c h t o C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e mentation". C u r r i c u l u m Canada I I I , K. L e i t h w o o d , A . H u g h e s , ( e d s . ) , C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U . B . C . , 1981.  JL  Enjoyment liotli i n play and i n understand I ng Acquaintance with a great number o f s i n g i n g games, rhymes and other musical a c t i v i t i e s Clear In tune singing - group o r s o i o S o c i a l development through p l a y i n g with others, taking turns, leading, e t c . Development of c r e a t i v e I n s t i n c t s p r i m a r i l y through body movement — lliil.meed t r a i n i n g through hoad-hoart-hand and hearing ( i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge, a e s t h e t i c [enjoyment, p h y s i c a l s k i l l and a u r a l s k i l l ) . T i l l s development should be f o s t e r e d through singing, l i s t e n i n g , reading, w r i t i n g , c r e a t i n g , p l a y i n g Instruments, e t c . tempo: f a s t vs slow, beat vs rhythm PE?z5D*:55_S l? I« Q p r a c t i s e d together volume: loud vs s o f t , accent Rhythm e  aratel  t n e  J WfTn in rn  p i t c h : high vs low, to minor 3rd  Songs which conform t o standards of "Choosing Songs f o r the E a r l y Years", mostly found In D i s t r i c t Resource BookSongs with text appealing to p a r t i c u l a r primary l e v e l Songs that prepare s p e c i f i c concepts to be presented i n the following year-  4—  Recordings (instrumental) or l i v e music for l i s t e n i n g o r i n t e r p r e t i v e movement Instruments - rhythm band instruments and resonator b e l l s to a i d i n developing rhythm and p i t c h concepts[Melody B e l l s Huslc Boards and SymbolsSinging i n p i t c h A b i l i t y t o sing both i n a group and c l a s s A b i l i t y t o sing ' n i c e l y ' S t a r t i n g the name song i n d i f f e r e n t pitchesBreath c o n t r o l Vocabulary s k i l l s Movement - a e s t h e t i c , rhythmic movements, c i t h e r d i r e c t l y s i i e c l f l r d or the c h i l d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the musicConducti ng L i s t e n i n g - recognition of timbre, i n n a t u r a l sounds, i n each others v o i c e s and i n simple instruments to songs o r pieces performed by teacher, other c h i l d r e n , good recordings - develop inner hearingL i s t e n and c o r r e c t each other's mistakes and e v a l u a t e performance I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of specific orchestral Abstractions - r e c o g n i t i o n o f songs from l o o loo, hum or clapped rhythm p a t t e r n (Recognition o f songs from hand signs o r n o t a t i o n - simple o s t i n a t o , e.g. 'clap r e s t ' -jtnore advanced o s t i n a t o 'Reading rhythms o f e n t i r e songs Development of reading, hearing, w r i t i n g and c r e a t i v e Writing concepts learned j —  APPENDIX A: OUTLINE OF GOALS, SOURCE:  instruments-  skills-  CONCEPTS, MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES  KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC PROGRAM RESOURCE BOOK (1976,  n.p.)  Zl ro  113  APPENDIX B CONSENT FORM ELEMENTARY KODALY TEACHERS PROJECT:  ASSESSING IMPLEMENTATION AS PROGRAM-IN-USE  PROGRAM:  ELEMENTARY KODALY MUSIC PROGRAM  SITE:  KAMLOOPS SCHOOL DISTRICT  RESEARCHER:  NANCY RANDALL  PURPOSE:  T h e s e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s w i l l f o c u s on y o u r p e r c e p t i o n and use o f the K o d a l y m u s i c p r o g r a m . A d a p t a t i o n s y o u may have made i n y o u r t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s or i n program m a t e r i a l s or program a c t i v i t i e s are of c e n t r a l c o n c e r n . The two i n t e r v i e w s w i l l e a c h be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m i n u t e s l o n g and w i l l be t a p e r e c o r d e d .  STUDY RESULTS  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t o f the K o d a l y p r o g r a m implementation. The f i n d i n g s may a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l i n p l a n n i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of new c u r r i c u l u m .  DATE:  PARTICIPATION IN THIS STUDY IS  VOLUNTARY.  YOU MAY WITHDRAW AND/OR REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS AT ANY T I M E . YOU WILL NOT BE IDENTIFIED AND RECORDINGS OF INTERVIEWS WILL BE ERASED AT COMPLETION OF STUDY. PARTICIPATION IN THIS STUDY WILL NOT PREJUDICE YOUR EMPLOYMENT NOW OR AT ANY TIME IN THE FUTURE. THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION WILL RECEIVE A COPY OF THE FINAL REPORT. S i g n a t u r e of  Teacher  S i g n a t u r e of Researcher  114  APPENDIX C Kamloops K o d a l y P r o g r a m T e a c h e r  Questionnaire  T h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l p r o v i d e some p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w ( s ) we w i l l be a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e teaching Kodaly. You may d e c l i n e t o answer any o f t h e s e A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l remain anonymous. School code: Teacher code:  questions.  2 4 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S  BACKGROUND INFORMATION  1  To what g r a d e s  a r e you  2  Number o f  3  Approximate  4  How many y e a r s  5  Were you t e a c h i n g  students  in  teaching  this  P r o g r a m was i n t r o d u c e d Kodaly Program  of  of  2  3  years  s c h o o l when t h e  to  this  experience  school?  total  Kodaly  Yes  No  do you have t e a c h i n g  a)  in  Kamloops D i s t r i c t  b)  at  this  c)  in  any o t h e r  the years  school  years  school  districts?  where? 7.  Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d in-service  and/or  4  instruction....  have you t a u g h t ? at  1  class(es)  Kodaly l e v e l  How many y e a r s  Koda'ly?.... K  in  Kamloops K o d a l y  summer w o r k s h o p s ?  Yes  program No  yrs  115  Appendix 7.  C, Continued  (Kodaly Teacher  (continued) If  y e s , please c i r c l e  Kodaly  in-service  at  applicable L.R.C.:  K o d a l y Summer W o r k s h o p s : 8.  Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d appreciation  in  If  yes, please indicate  the  name o f  Type o f  the  1976-77  '77-78  '78-79  1979-80  '80-81  '81-82  than  than  types  of  (for  10.  the  the  type or  Koda'ly p r o g r a m ,  training?  of  recorder,  example,  choir,  and/or  provided  by  c o u r s e and  no note  location. Institution/Location S.F.U.  or  Nanaimo)  have you t a u g h t Orff).  any t i m e p a r t i c i p a t e d  (for  1981  yes  or e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r  example, g u i t a r ,  Have you a t  those  Name o f  in-class  1980  personnel?  (eg.  Other  1979  any m u s i c e d c a t i o n  institution  Course  years:  1978  courses, other  Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t  9.  Questionnaire)  music  other  programs?  Please  in personal  voice lessons,  elaborate.  musi c piano).  116  Appendix C, Continued  11.  (Kodaly Music  Questionnaire)  Do you p a r t i c i p a t e  in music a c t i v i t i e s  community?  comment.  Please  12. Do you p a r t i c i p a t e community Please  in  activities?  comment.  other (for  in  professional  this  and/or  example, K . D . T . A . ,  sports).  117  APPENDIX D Interviews  A.  Nature  of  #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s , Kamloops K o d a l y P r o g r a m  Innovation  1.  What does " t e a c h i n g  2.  What c o n s t i t u t e s  3.  What t y p e  o f m u s i c program was t a u g h t  to  program?  Kodaly  a good m u s i c  4.  What does " t e a c h i n g  5.  How does t h e former  B.  m u s i c " mean f o r  T e a c h e r Use o f  or a " g o o d " m u s i c Elements of Card  Elements  of your  0 not important  total  1  program?  K o d a l y " mean f o r  K o d a l y program  you?  prior  you?  compare t o  the  program?  Kodaly  Program/Intended  #1  music program:  2  importance  3 average  4 very important  A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop student's* 1.  In-tune singing  2.  Strong f e e l i n g f o r rhythm  3.  Musical l i t e r a c y i n terms of w r i t i n g and/or reading s k i l l s .  4.  Creative e x p r e s s i o n / i m p r o v i s a t i o n .  5.  Listening/music a p p r e c i a t i o n .  118  Appendix D (continued)  Interviews  Card Specific  0  techniques  1  of  #2 Kodaly  program-.use  3  2  not used at a l l  #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s  4 used i n a l l lessons  average use  A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop students' understanding of: 1.  Hand s i g n s  2.  Sol f a p i t c h names  3.  Development of inner hearing  4.  Echo techniques  5.  Part work  6.  Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s  7.  Time (rhythm) names  8.  Use of rhythm instruments  9.  Ostinato techniques  10.  Stick  11.  Reading of conventional  C.  notation  S p e c i f i c Bases of  notation.  Teaching  Material  Song s : 1.  What a r e  the  2.  p r o g r a m as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l ? What a r e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u s e ? s p e c i f i c a l l y ? e x a m p l e s ?  3.  What t y p e s  4.  Recommendations?  of  v a l u e s of  the  songs i n c l u d e d  s o n g s have been a d d e d ?  in  the  examples?  Koda'ly  why?  119  Appendix  D (Continued),  Games and  Interviews  and #2 S c h e d u l e s  Activities  5.  Uses?  Class  D.  Teacher Perception of  1.  Have y o u s e e n c h a n g e s i n  arrangements?  -understanding -music  #1  of  Difficulties?  Student  Why?  Response to  Program  students':-  music?  skills?  -enjoyment? -singing 2.  What a r e  voices?  students'  reactions  to  the  s o n g s , games and  activities? 3.  Have you seen any c h a n g e s self-image  4. 5.  through  in  student  involvement  with  Are there  difficulties  involving  program?  What t y p e s ?  How r e s o l v e d ?  Working w i t h students lems,  program?  If  resolved,  T e a c h e r P l a n n i n g and Time  1.  Music c l a s s e s : in  activities?  students  new  any c h a n g e s t h r o u g h  E.  ations  or to  who may have c o - o r d i n a t i o n  have y o u n o t i c e d  w i t h the  confidence  how?  length?  teacher  2.  M u s i c s c h e d u l e d as an i n t e g r a t e d  3.  Use o f  4.  activities? How do you d e c i d e w h i c h o f  5.  What a r e y o u r  F.  Teacher-student  1.  Kinds of  2. 3.  Reporting? How? Parent feedback?  Kodaly a c t i v i t i e s  varying?  the  in  consider-  preparation? or a separate  as r e l a x a t i o n  objectives  involvement  Priorities  p e r week?  scheduling?  prob-  or  activities  teaching  activity?  change to  use?  music t h i s  Evaluation  assessment or  testing?  Types?  Why?  Involvement?  Needs? Demands?  year?  120  Appendix  D (continued), of  Interviews  #1  G.  Description  1.  Would you d e s c r i b e a " g o o d " m u s i c  and #2  Schedules  a "Good" Music Lesson lesson?  I n t e r v i e w #2 S c h e d u l e A.  Motivation  1.  How was t h e By s e l f ?  and Changes d e c i s i o n made f o r  By whom?  Initial  2.  C o u l d you sum up y o u r  3.  Have you n o t i c e d -your  teach  Kodaly?  reactions?  reactions  any c h a n g e s  teaching  -teaching  you t o  now?  in:  expectations?  skills?  -such as? 4.  P r i o r experiences with music: your  teaching  of  the  acted  on  program?  B.  District  1.  What does t h a t mean t o  2.  Why do you t h i n k this  How has t h i s  Authorization  the  you?  K o d a l y p r o g r a m was c h o s e n  for  district?  3.  What a r e y o u r  4.  Stability  reactions  to  and m a i n t e n a n c e  a s p e c i f i e d music of  program f o r  six  program? years:  R e a c t i ons? C.  Specific Sequential  Program  1.  The K o d a l y p r o g r a m  specifies  acquisition:  Does t h i s  an o r d e r  sequential  for  student  structure  work  skill with  121  - Appendix your D.  1.  D (continued) class?  Why?  Available  In-schOOl  resources  Do you d i s c u s s t h i s What k i n d s  How does y o u r  #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s  Changes?  Resources  staff? 2.  Interviews  program w i t h o t h e r of  concerns?  administrator  people  on y o u r  Share?  react  to  or  support  the  program? 3.  If  y o u have a p r o b l e m o r  do you t a l k 4.  5.  teaching  the  Music  or  other  people  to  help  in  What was t h e  any s t a f f  nature  of  Koda'ly  in-service  these s e s s i o n s ?  resources  R e s o u r c e Book  What p a r t s use t h e Access  of  the  book do you f i n d  lesson outlines to  as p r o v i d e d ?  Do you  Changes?  Why?  Recommendations?  s e s s i o n s : L. R.C./Summer Workshops  7.  Attend?  8.  Which a s p e c t s a r e most  9.  Recommendations? In-class  useful?  information/organization?  In-service  10.  whom  program?  District-provided  6.  parents  Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d session?  program,  to?  Do y o u use s t u d e n t s , in  concern w i t h the  Frequently/Rarely?  resource  Have you r e q u e s t e d  valuable?  teacher that  Why?  the  Needs?  support resource  t e a c h e r work  in  122  Appendix your  D (continued), . Interviews class?  What s o r t s  resource teacher 11.  activities?  i n v o l v e you?  Have y o u i n v o l v e d  any o t h e r  h e l p i n g you t e a c h the Locally  of  developed  district  a number  of  times  during  13.  This  14.  personnel  in  In what ways?  this  In what ways c o u l d you see t h e  for  the  program  12.  Koda'ly p r o g r a m  districts  How d i d  Valuable aspects?  program?  The p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d i n been m o d i f i e d  #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s  in B.C.  is  being  district the  and has  development.  program b e i n g  a d o p t e d by o t h e r  What r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  improved? school  w o u l d you  such di s t r i c t s ?  To d e s c r i b e  'what  Koda'ly i s ' , what w o u l d y o u  say?  have  123  APPENDIX E Interview (*These  transcripts  Transcripts  are only  three  of  a total  of  fourteen  i n t e r v i ews ) .  Teacher 60:  -Grade 3 -2 y e a r s  Teacher 2A:  experience  Kodaly teaching  experience.  Kodaly teaching  experience.  -Grade 2 -4 y e a r s  Teacher 6P:  Koda'ly t e a c h i n g  -Grade  1  -6 y e a r s  124  (*Only  one o f  a total  Interview  #60:  of  fourteen  interview  Thursday A p r i l to  transcripts).  29, 4:00  R:  F i r s t of a l l , I'd l i k e m u s i c mean f o r y o u ?  T:  Ah, well I think i t ' s very important. I t h i n k , urn, t h a t c h i l d r e n l o v e m u s i c n a t u r a l l y , and t h a t i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , and i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , you k n o w . . .  R:  Yes.  T:  . . . a n d l i k e t o l e a r n , a h , to s i n g songs and t o have f u n and a c t i o n g a m e s , a n d , a c t i o n s o n g s as w e l l as l e a r n i n g m a y b e , a h , t h e more t e c h n i c a l p a r t s .  R:  Uhhum, uhhum, o k a y . . . a n d y o u ' v e one y e a r . . . n o ?  T:  I've taught Koda'ly.  R:  O k a y , d i d you t e a c h any k i n d o f you began t o use t h e K o d a ' l y ?  T:  I d i d n ' t t e a c h any p r o g r a m as a s p e c i f i c , used some of " M a r y H e l e n R i c h a r d " s o n g s .  R:  Y e s , so t h e E T M . . . a n d d i d you use the s o n g s o r t h e games o r t h e s k i l l t e a c h i n g t h i n g s t h a t went w i t h it?  T:  No...just  R:  O k a y , how does t h e ETM p r o g r a m ?  T:  W e l l , t h e K o d a l y i s , I t h i n k , much more s o p h i s t i cated. They d o n ' t b o t h e r d o i n g , w e l l , hand s i g n a l s a l s o , b u t , w r i t i n g n o t e s on s t a f f s , and r e a d i n g it...  Koda'ly, f o r ,  the  a s k you what  p.m.  this  s o n g s and t h e teaching  does  teaching  been t e a c h i n g  for  i s my s e c o n d y e a r  m u s i c program but  with  before I  games. Koda'ly compare t o  the  Y e a h , i t does t a k e t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g much...to a higher level than...sometimes with t h e ETM, t h e games s o r t o f t a k e o v e r t h e l e a r n i n g , I think, Yeah,  right.  Urn, so what does t e a c h i n g , what does t e a c h i n g mean f o r y o u ?  Kodaly  W e l l , i t ' s much more c h a l 1 e n g i n g . . . . a n d i t , urn, c e r t a i n l y i s more d e m a n d i n g b e c a u s e o f i t s l e v e l s , w e l l you know, how i t g o e s . . . Now, what do you f i n d , f i n d demanding? I  find  it...well  Now, y o u ' r e  s p e c i f i c a l l y , what do you  being a b l e to  teach those  t e a c h i n g g r a d e 3, a l s o , w h i c h  things. is...  W e l l , you know, I f i n d t h a t , s o m e t i m e s I f e e l I d o n ' t even know what I'm d o i n g .  like  . . . U H H u m , ah . . . . I r e a l l y e n j o y i t . . . b u t I d o n ' t know i f I'm d o i n g , a h , you know, an a d e q u a t e j o b . . . s o m e t i m e s . . . Uhhum, and do y o u , had you any p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h K o d a l y , b e f o r e you s t a r t e d t h e i n - s e r v i c e s the d i s t r i c t ? Uh, no. W e l l , maybe that I took, l i k e in b r i e f l y go o v e r some t h a t , but nothing i n workshops.  in  t h r o u g h some o f my c l a s s e s , music e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , they K o d a l y , some O r f f , t h i n g s l i k e d e p t h , l i k e , a h , the s e t of  So you d i d n ' t f i n d t h e m u s i c e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y o f much v a l u e ? Is t h a t a f a i r s t a t e m e n t , i n t e a c h i n g the K o d a l y i n y o u r grade 3 c l a s s r o o m ? Right,  they  just  e x p o s e d you t o  it.  Y u h . . . s o r t o f , i t ' s a g e n e r a l comment t h a t , t h e education ,the u n i v e r s i t y courses i n music d o n ' t r e a l l y . . . t h e y p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g and some of the p h i l o s o p h y of the p r o g r a m , but n o t h i n g t h a t , y o u know t h a t t r a n s f e r s i n t o u s e , and a g a i n , t h e r e ' s a d i f f i c u l t y , how do t h e y p r o v i d e . . . i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l o f them? Yeah. Urn, and t h e . . a h , t h e l a s t q u e s t i o n I ' d l i k e t o ask i s f o r y o u , what w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a good m u s i c p r o gram? Teaching your grade 3 students? W e l l , I would l i k e to h a v e , u r n . . . . I t h i n k i t j u s t d e p e n d s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , and what t h e y ' r e comfortable with. Not j u s t y o u , I d o n ' t s a y t h a t I'm c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t e a c h i n g games and s o n g s , and I d o n ' t j u s t want t o have t o a l w a y s use t h a t , b u t , p e r h a p s , u s i n g what t h e y know, and a r e comf o r t a b l e w i t h , and u s i n g o t h e r methods and t e a c h i n g o t h e r s k i l l s , and s o r t o f t r y i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h a t k i n d of t h i n g t o g e t h e r . 'Cause I t h i n k i f I d i d n ' t have t o t e a c h K o d a ' l y , I w o u l d j u s t be t e a c h i n g games and s o n g s , and I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t i s r e a l l y , you know, that b e n e f i c i a l . I t w o u l d be f u n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n b u t t h e y w o u l d n ' t be r e a l l y l e a r n i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d , you know, c a r r y them on t o t h e n e x t g r a d e , and so o n . Y e a h , y e a h . . . i t ' s d i f f i c u l t , you know, I can u n d e r s t a n d . . . t a k i ng on t h e g r a d e 3 p r o g r a m , and f o r the f i r s t t i m e , y o u ' r e w o r k i n g on a l l t h e s k i l l s , f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t o 1, t o 2 , t o 3 , t h a t you have t o u n d e r s t a n d and e x t e n d , and l e a r n i n g t h a t a l l i n one go i s . . . d i f f i c u l t . F i r s t of a l l , l o o k i n g , I'd l i k e to look at t h i s c a r d , urn, I ' d l i k e you t o r a t e e a c h o f t h o s e e l e m e n t s , i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e i n your music p r o g r a m , z e r o b e i n g n o t i m p o r t a n t a t a l l , two o f s o r t o f a v e r a g e i m p o r t a n c e , and f o u r , t h a t you w o u l d r a t e as b e i n g v e r y i m p o r t a n t . . . i n your music program t e a c h i n g grade 3 s t u d e n t s . Hmm, i n  tune  singing...  Would you l i k e a s e c o n d t o l o o k t h r o u g h we c a r r y o n . . ? Would t h a t be f a i r ?  them,  before  Yes,  p l e a s e , (tape  stopped)  To t e l l you t h e t r u t h , I d o n ' t r e a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e k i d s t o o much on i t , i n t h e i r m u s i c , i t ' s s o m e t h i n g that I d o n ' t . . . . Urn, w o u l d , 1 i k e . . . i n - t u n e s i n g i n g . . . t a k i n g in-tune s i n g i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d t h a t be s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u w o u l d go back t o t r y t o g e t t h e s t u d e n t s on p i t c h , o r w o u l d t h a t be s o m e t h i n g , w e l l , i f t h e y d o n ' t do i t , t h e y d o n ' t do i t and y o u ' l l c a r r y on and go on t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e i n m u s i c ? S o , how w o u l d you r a t e t h a t ? I w o u l d r a t e i t as . . . w e l 1 . . 1 . . strong f e e l i n g for r h y t h m . . . . 2 to 3 . . . m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y i n terms of w r i t i n g a n d / o r r e a d i n g s k i l l s . . . 2 to 3 . . . c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , i m p r o v i s a t i o n . . . 3 . . . 1 i s t e n i n g , music a p p r e c i a t i o n . . . 2 to 3 . . . O k a y , and urn, t h e s e c o n d o n e . . . a n d a g a i n w o r k i n g w i t h the f a c t t h a t y o u ' r e working w i t h the Kodaly p r o g r a m f o r t h e s e c o n d y e a r , and w o r k i n g w i t h g r a d e 3 s t u d e n t s , urn, w h i c h o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s o f t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m do you n o t use a t a l l , r a t i n g t h a t as z e r o , 2 . . . a v e r a g e u s e , and 4 , used i n a l l or v e r y n e a r l y a l l of the 1 e s s o n s . . . O k a y ? Uhhm...hand signs . . . 2 . . . ; s o l - f a p i t c h n a m e s , . . . 2 . . ; development of i n n e r h e a r i n g . . . 0 . . . ; echo t e c h n i q u e s . .. 2 . . ; part work..? A h . . . b e g i n n i n g w i t h r o u n d s and t h e n w o r k i n g i n t o a n y t h i n g t h a t has h a r m o n i e s . . . o r g r o u p s i n g i n g . . . one g r o u p s i n g i n g one l i n e and t h e o t h e r g r o u p s i n g i n g a n o t h e r melody l i n e . . . . Z e r o . . . g a m e s and movement a c t i v i t i e s rhythm n a m e s . . . ? •Ta'  and  'titi'  and  2 to  3...tim  ' ti ckati cka' . . .  O h . . . u r n . 2 to 3 . . . u s e of rhythm i n s t r u m e n t s . . a h . . 1 to 2 ; O s t i n a t o t e c h n i q u e s . . a h h , I'd say zero t o one . . .  128 R:  I t ' s a g a i n , s o m e t h i n g t h a t comes i n of the grade 3 program.  towards  the  end  T:  ...and stick n o t a t i o n . . . y e s , well i t ' s j u s t 1 ; and r e a d i n g o f c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t a t i o n .  R:  ...the  T:  . . . ah . . .  R:  O k a y , a r e t h e r e any o f t h o s e ones t h e r e , you know, as a b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e K o d a l y p r o g r a m , t h a t you f e e l l e s s c o n f i d e n t w i t h o r pose g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s ?  T:  Y e s , I d o n ' t . . . I ' m n o t v e r y c o n f i d e n t , I'm n o t c o n f i d e n t a t a l l w i t h p a r t w o r k . . . a n d I . . . I ' m not too sure about the development of i n n e r h e a r i n g . . .  R:  Uh h u h , you mean t h e t e c h n i q u e s , o r o r when t o use i t . . . ?  T:  Y e s , when to  R:  Uh h u h .  T:  A n d , o s t i n a t o t e c h n i q u e s . . . p i us t h e conventional notation.  R:  C o u l d y o u k i n d o f sum up y o u r r e a c t i o n s t o t e a c h i n g o f K o d a l y , now, you know, how you a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m now?  T:  I f e e l t h a t i t ' s a good p r o g r a m . . . i t c e r t a i n l y has a l o t to o f f e r . . . b u t I d o n ' t f e e l l i k e I am t h a t . . . I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t I'm d o i n g i t j u s t i c e . . . b y n o t p r a c t i s i n g a l l t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e i n i t , and urn, I'm c e r t a i n l y n o t t h a t c o n s i s t e n t . . . i t , i t ' s s o , t h e p r o g r a m f o r me i s , i s s o r t o f o v e r w h e l m i n g i n a way.  starting,  r e a d i n g o f m u s i c . . . o r . . . a s we u s u a l l y s e e  it.  zero.  use  how t o  teach  it,  it.  reading  of the feel  129  I, I c a n ' t seem t o g r a s p e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I'm s u p p o s e d t o know, f r o m a w o r k s h o p and be a b l e t o b r i n g i t back t o t h e c l a s s r o o m and be a l l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e i n e x e c u t i n g what I ' v e l e a r n e d i n a w o r k s h o p , and I, urn, I t r y and a t t e n d a l l t h e w o r k s h o p s b e c a u s e I t h i n k t h e y ' d be r e a l l y h e l p f u l , T mean i t ' s a l s o a b o o s t t o go t o t h e s e t h i n g s , and s o r t o f g e t , urn, r e j u v e n a t e d . . . urn, j u s t , urn, know t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d o , and y e t , I t h i n k i t ' s a r e a l l y good p r o g r a m , i t ' s j u s t t h a t I c a n ' t teach everything t h a t ' s in i t . I f e e l l i k e t h e r e ' s so much i n i t . . . I d o n ' t even g e t . . . m a y b e I ' l l g e t h a l f done . . . i n one l e s s o n p l a n t h a t ' s s u g g e s t e d . . . and t h e p a c i n g i s , i s n o t . . . n o t what I ' v e been a b l e t o keep up w i t h . Yeah..urn c e r t a i n l y t a l k i n g t o , f o r example t e a c h e r s who have w o r k e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m f o r s i x y e a r s , t h e common theme i s t h a t t h e f i r s t y e a r , t h e f i r s t y e a r w i t h t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m , t h e y f e l t c o n f u s e d . . . t h a t i t was j u s t a b s o l u t e l y f a r t o o m u c h , and i t ' s t a k e n them s i x y e a r s , w o r k i n g s t e a d i l y w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , t o g e t any s e n s e o f what i t ' s a l l a b o u t . And t h e n f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t e a c h i n g one e l e m e n t , and k n o w i n g i t t i e s i n some p l a c e e l s e . It's taken y e a r s , and so I can c e r t a i n l y a p p r e c i a t e , l o o k i n g a t the whole p r o g r a m ; from the grade t h r e e p o i n t , which i s q u i t e , you know, a s k s a l o t o f t h e t e a c h e r h o w you're feeling. Well...if it's only one.  a general  thing,  I'm  glad  I'm  not  the  Y u h , n o , and i t ' s c e r t a i n l y . . . ! d o n ' t know what can be done a b o u t i t , maybe a b e t t e r s e n s e o f what t h e whole p r o g r a m i s a b o u t , when y o u ' r e b e g i n n i n g i t , b u t even t h e n , t h a t m i g h t be so o v e r w h e l m i n g , t h a t , u h , y o u ' d t h i n k , " T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e " , I d o n ' t know. But i t i s a general f e e l i n g . . . s o . . . . It d o e s n ' t help at a l l ! Those w o r k . . . l i k e I r e a l l y would l i k e to a t t e n d the summer c o u r s e s t h e y o f f e r , b u t i t ' s a t t h e v e r y end of t h e summer, and I c o u l d n ' t a t t e n d i t l a s t y e a r b e c a u s e I was g o i n g a w a y , and t h i s y e a r I h e a r t h a t i t ' s a t t h e end o f t h e summer a g a i n . . . And so you w o n ' t  be a b l e  Urn, I p r o b a b l y w i l l  to...?  make an e f f o r t  to  go.  130  Yup,  yup...  . . . b e c a u s e you know I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , d o n ' t have any o t h e r s p e c i f i c p l a c e t o g o .  I  Y u h . . . t h e y ' r e w o r t h i t i n the s e n s e t h e y a r e i n t e n s i v e l i k e the w o r k s h o p s . . . y o u a l m o s t , i t ' s almost o v e r - k i l l i n some w a y s , o r s a t u r a t i o n , but you do see a l a r g e r p a r t o f how t h e program i s o p e r a t i n g . . . a n d t h e y o f f e r s e s s i o n s a t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e g r a d e 3 l e v e l , so you can l o o k a t what t h e whole program can b e , i n f o u r d a y s , w h i c h a g a i n i s so c o n c e n t r a t e d , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t ' s sort of, they're really valuable...They a r e . . . . Yuh,...I'm  sure they  are.  Urn, can we l o o k a t some o f t h e s p e c i f i c p a r t s o f t h e program? Urn, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s o n g s . . . f i r s t o f a l l , what w o u l d you see as b e i n g t h e i r v a l u e s as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l , and s e c o n d l y , what a r e t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s as t e a c h i ng m a t e r i a l ? . . . .The s o n g s i n t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m . . . Urn, I t h i n k t h e s o n g s a r e a p p e a l i n g t o t h e k i d s , t h e y ' r e e a s y t o l e a r n , t h e i r l y r i c s a r e s i m p l e , and t h e y ' v e , urn, a l o t o f them have c a t c h y t u n e s , p l u s , t h e y , I t h i n k some o f them have been a d a p t e d . . . f r o m t h e m u s i c t h a t ' s s o r t o f , I d o n ' t know, t h e y ' v e c h a n g e d t h e l y r i c s t o m u s i c t h a t ' s f a m i 1 i a r . . . s o m e o f t h a t has happened and I t h i n k t h a t ' s g o o d , t o o . The games t h a t accompany some o f t h e s e s o n g s a r e l o t s o f f u n f o r t h e c h i 1 d r e n . . A n d the l i m i t a t i o n s , w e l l , sometimes I t h i n k some o f t h e s o n g s a r e a l i t t l e b i t , urn, w e l l , n o t r e a l l y g e a r e d t o t h e l e v e l t h a t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t I'm t e a c h i n g F o r e x a m p l e , "Hop o l d S q u i r r e l " . . I t h i n k , I d o n ' t t h i n k the g r a d e 3 ' s w o u l d l i k e "Hop o l d S q u i r r e l " . . . . m a y b e g r a d e I ' s and k i n d e r g a r t e n s w o u l d l i k e "Hop o l d S q u i r rel." So you w h a t . . h a v e t o s e l e c t c a r e f u l l y w i l l work w i t h y o u r g r a d e 3 ' s t h e n ?  the  songs  that  Uhhum... ...or  not  use s o m e t h i n g  R i g h t , l i k e "Shoot the t i t l e i t s e l f , is very, of a . . . .  t h a t you c a n  see...  R o o s t e r " . , , I f i n d t h a t the i t s o r t o f has a v i o l e n t k i n d  131  . .Overtones...or  whatever.  R i g h t . . . s o I g u e s s . . . b u t t h e y have s u c h a s e l e c t i o n you c a n c h o o s e f r o m i t , and you can e l i m i n a t e w h a t e v e r you d o n ' t want t o u s e . A n d , um, have you added any s o n g s t o Have you u s e d o t h e r s o n g s ?  the grade 3 program  Yes And,  such as?  W e l l , I use s o n g s f r o m S h a r o n , L o i s and B r a m , a c t i o n s o n g s , l i k e " W a d d l y ah c h a " ( ? ) T h i ngs I f i n d r e a l l y f u n , and I l i k e t o do t h e m , and songs l i k e , um " V i s t a " , b e c a u s e I l i k e them so t h e k i d s l i k e t h e m , you k n o w . . .  the that camp much,  And s o , i t ' s j u s t s o n g s y o u ' v e c o l l e c t e d from v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i n y o u r p a s t , o r t h i n g s t h a t you ve been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h a t you f e e l t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d e n j o y ? Yes And a c t i o n  songs . . . ?  Yes. A r e t h e r e any songs t h a t you c o u l d s e e w o u l d ne be added t o t h e K o d a l y p r o g r a m , t o i m p r o v e i t ? Um, w e l l n o t i f i f you use t h e s o n g s t h e y d o , t h e y use i t t o w r i t e . . . ...the  teaching  of  for...like  a s p e c i f 1c. s k i l l .  B u t some o f t h o s e s o n g s , um, a r e j u s t f o r f u n , and they d o n ' t r e q u i r e t h a t the s t u d e n t s l e a r n to w r i t e i t o r w h a t e v e r . . . I t h i n k , um, t h e a c t i o n songs f r o m s h a r n n . L o i s and Bram w o u l d be r e a l l y f u n .  132  R:  Uhhum, j u s t t o s o r t o f s p a r k i n t e r e s t ? A h , games and a c t i v i t i e s . . . y o u use t h e m , you s a i d you use them an a v e r a g e t o a b i t above a v e r a g e , f i r s t o f a l l , how do you s e l e c t w h i c h games you a r e g o i n g t o use ?  T:  I, f r o m t h e K o d a ' l y ? . . . I g u e s s . Well I t r y s e l e c t a song t h a t I can use l a t e r o n , f o r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g .  R:  And t h e n you use t h e  T:  Yes.  R:  O k a y , any d i f f i c u l t i e s u s i n g t h e games? W i t h y o u r grade 3 ' s , or i n your c l a s s r o o m , because of s p a c i n g or anything l i k e that?  T:  U h , maybe j u s t a l i t t l e , I , . . . w h a t ' s one o f t h e g a m e s . . . some o f t h e c i r c l e games t h a t you d o , t h e r e ' s not enough room h e r e , even w i t h t h e t a b l e s pushed a s i d e , u n l e s s I have t h e w h o l e room c l e a r e d , i t w o u l d b e , i t ' s not v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e .  R:  O k a y , so s o r t o f mass r e a r r a n g e m e n t s i n o r d e r to use some o f t h e games t h e n . . . H o w do y o u r , the g r a d e 3 s t u d e n t s r e a c t t o t h e games?  T:  They f i n d  R:  Yuh.  T:  A n d , urn, y e a h , I t h i n k t h a t , t h e y e n j o y t h e m , and t h e y ' r e p o s i t i v e , and t h e y r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y t o t h e m .  R:  O k a y , w e l l how do you t h i n k , a h , or have you seen any c h a n g e s i n t h e t i m e t h a t y o u ' v e been t e a c h i n g a t t h e s c h o o l , which i s 2 y e a r s . . . t h i s i s your second y e a r now?  T:  Yes.  R:  Urn, i n s t u d e n t s ' e n j o y m e n t o f s i n g i n g , o r i n - t u n e s i n g i n g , o r . . . o r music a b i l i t y ? L i k e , ah, working with these g r a d e 3 s t u d e n t s , do t h e y , a r e t h e y s t r o n g e r o r w e a k e r o r ? How do t h e y compare?  them  game t h a t  it  goes  and c h o o s e , t h e same,  with...  enjoyable.  From when t h e y  came t o  me ?  E i t h e r f r o m . . . w e l l f i r s t f r o m when t h e y came t o y o u i n S e p t e m b e r , or t h i s grade 3 c l a s s i n c o m p a r i s o n to y o u r l a s t y e a r ' s grade 3 c l a s s . Y e a h . . . l a s t y e a r , w e l l t h e g r a d e 2 t e a c h e r who t a u g h t them m u s i c , l i k e s h e ' s t a u g h t b o t h c l a s s e s t h a t I've had, I t h i n k s h e ' s a good t e a c h e r , I d o n ' t know i f I ' v e done a n y t h i n g i n t h e i r . . . y o u know, a n y t h i n g i n t h e i r musical growth. A g a i n , i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o j u d g e s o m e t i m e s , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o t a p e them a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r , and t h e n t a p e them a t t h e e n d , or s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . . I t h i n k t h e o n l y way I c o u l d f i n d t h a t o u t . . . i s by g e t t i n g ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) t o come i n , and e v a l u a t e them.  urn,  W e l l , j u s t s o r t o f i n f o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e them t o f i n d them o u t , f i n d o u t what p o i n t , s o r t o f , t h a t t h e y a r e a t . . . t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f s k i l l s , o r somet h i n g . . . S h e w i l l come i n and do t h a t , s h e ' l l q u i t e h a p p i l y come i n . . . a s l o n g as she has t i m e , s h e ' s usually over-booked. Yes, I realize that. I had h e r i n q u i t e a few t i m e s l a s t y e a r , and she was v e r y h e l p f u l . I d o n ' t know why t h i s y e a r I d i d n ' t c o n t a c t h e r a g a i n . I thought I w o u l d t r y and do i t on my o w n , a n d , n o t depend on h e r so m u c h , y o u k n o w . . . I r e a l l y want t o . . . t o do i t , and urn, and I d o n ' t know how l o n g i t ' s g o i n g t o t a k e , b e f o r e , you know, I r e a l l y do more o f it. R e a l l y begin to program.  feel  confident,  and...in  using  the  B u t I'm f i n d i n g t h a t I'm n o t d e p e n d i n g so much on d o i n g t h e games and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t I know, I'm s o r t o f t r y i n g t o g e t away f r o m t h a t and do more o f t h e t h i n g s l i k e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  Yea  .. and  I think a l o t of i t i s that w e l l , on  y o u r p a r t , on t h e t e a c h e r ' s p a r t , t h a t you a r e g o i n g t o use t h o s e , t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m , even i f you  134  f i n d them d i f f i c u l t , y o u ' r e g o i n g t o t r y t o u s e them and e v e n t u a l l y , as I s a i d , f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s . . . . T h i s we c a n l o o k f o r w a r d t o ! . . . . U r n , I was j u s t g o i n g t o ask v e r y q u i c k l y a b o u t s t u d e n t s , s t u d e n t s who a r e s h y o r who l a c k i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , do y o u s e e t h a t c h a n g i n g as t h e y work w i t h t h e games and s o n g s i n t h e p r o g r a m ? . . . as t h e y , f o r e x a m p l e , t a k e t h i s p a r t , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p a r t . . .does that he!p? Some o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e y l i k e t o d o , urn, w e l l they'll p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t , u h , f o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e r e i s someone who w a n t s . . . I ' l l a s k someone t o go up t o s i n g a m e l o d y , or to s i n g a . . . a h . . . t o to s a y , read the rhythm, they w i l l g l a d l y go u p , w h e r e a s i f i t ' s inhere t h e y need t o do t h e a c t i o n s and t h e y f e e l i n h i b i t e d a b o u t i t . It's k i n d o f w e i r d t h a t t h e y w o u l d want t o go up t o t h e f r o n t and do t h a t , and y e t t h e y ' r e n o t w i l l i n g t o s o r t o f l e t go o f t h e i r own s e l v e s and e n j o y t h e movement o f t h e i r bod i e s . They f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h one s o r t o f a c t i v i t y , a n d , not a n o t h e r . Maybe i f t h i n g s . , . b e c a u s e o f t h i n g s t h a t have happened i n t h e i r p a s t s . . . s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t o o , I d o n ' t k n o w . . . u r n , What a b o u t s t u d e n t s w i t h c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s ; do you s e e t h a t as b e i n g a p r o b l e m w i t h g e t t i n g them t o c l a p r h y t h m s , o r any o f t h o s e t y p e s o f t h i n g s ? Does t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the grade 3 s t u d e n t s . . . i s t h a t a problem? F o r me, i t ' s n o t a p r o b l e m , I d o n ' t r e a l l y , urn, I d o n ' t make t o o much o f a h . . . I d o n ' t r e a l l y n o t e t h o s e k i n d s of t h i n g s . . . t o o much, l i k e I d o n ' t e v a l u a t e the s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r , urn, when t h e y ' r e d o i n g m u s i c . The o n l y t h i n g t h a t I w o u l d hope t h e y w o u l d do i s , t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s , b u t I'm n o t , l i k e i f t h e y c a n ' t c l a p t h e r h y t h m p r o p e r l y , I d o n ' t s t o p and g e t them t o do i t , b e c a u s e t h e y p r o b a b l y c a n ' t f e e l i t , and t h e y c a n ' t h e a r i t maybe s o , urn, I j u s t do i t and hope t h e y fol1ow a 1ong. And t h e n w r i t i n g r e p o r t c a r d c o m m e n t s , what k i n d s o f comments w o u l d y o u make o n . . . r e p o r t i n g t o t h e p a r e n t s ? I u s u a l l y j u s t s a y , y o u know, i f t h e s t u d e n t i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m u s i c , or not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m u s i c , b u t I d o n ' t , I d o n ' t r e a l l y m e n t i o n t o o much a b o u t m u s i c i n my r e p o r t s .  135  Would you see f o r m a l m u s i c a s s e s s m e n t b e i n g a need? F o r y o u r s e l f w i t h the grade 3 ' s ? A h , w e l l , I d o n ' t see i t as t h a t i m p o r t a n t , b u t maybe i t i s i m p o r t a n t , and maybe I s h o u l d l o o k a t i t a s , a h , a need. W e l l , n o , I t h i n k a g a i n , i t ' s how d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s a p p r o a c h t h e t e a c h i n g o f m u s i c , and u h , a c t u a l l y most t e a c h e r s have s a i d t h a t , t h e y p r e f e r t o e v a l u a t e i n t h e i r own w a y , t h a t t h e y p r e f e r t o o b s e r v e t h e s t u dents or w h a t e v e r . . . f o r m a l music assessment i s not what t h e y w o u l d see t o be a n e e d , b u t n o , . . . a g a i n I want t o a s k . . . U m , p a r e n t s , have any p a r e n t s come a s k i n g you f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m . . . w h a t i s i t a l l a b o u t , o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what t h e i r s t u d e n t s a r e doing? No p a r e n t s . No p a r e n t s . Have you t a l k e d program at a l l ? No, No.  I  to  the p a r e n t s  about  the  haven't. No, I  just...  Right. And um, t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s I wanted t o know, m u s i c c l a s s e s , do you have a s c h e d u l e d m u s i c c l a s s t i m e ? Yes. And how much t i m e  p e r week?  I t ' s o n l y t w i c e a w e e k , and i t ' s h a l f an h o u r , w h i c h I know i s not a d e q u a t e , b u t I d o n ' t know how e l s e I can g e t i t i n , I r e a l l y d o n ' t know. Yes, i t ' s that, p l u s , everything get i n t o the d a y . Right.  e l s e t h a t you have  to  136  I c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h a t , um, do y o u use t h e m u s i c a c t i v i t i e s , o r t h e K o d a l y a c t i v i t i e s a t any o t h e r t i m e d u r i n g t h e day? O h , w e l l I was t h i n k i n g , . . w e l 1 , how c o u l d I do i t so t h a t t h e y g e t more e x p o s u r e t o I t ? , . . a n d I was t h i n k i n g t o do i t i n o u r o p e n i n g , j u s t some r h y t h m c l a p p i n g , echo c l a p p i n g , and p r a c t i c e i t i n t h e m o r n i n g s , make i t , a h , a more r e g u l a r t h i n g . And t h a t ' s when I f i t t e d i t in. Y a h , t h a t * s s o r t o f t a k i n g a l i t t l e b i t more t i m e f o r m u s i c , b u t , w i t h o u t t a k i n g t o o much t i m e away anything e l s e ,  from  Yeah. It i s d i f f i c u l t to get a l l of those m u s i c , t h a t music t e a c h i n g w i t h i n , um, l a n g u g a g e a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , m a t h , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t has t o be d o n e . . . U h , what w o u l d you s e e as b e i n g y o u r o b j e c t i v e , o r o b j e c t i v e s , f o r t e a c h i n g music t h i s year? Um...specific  or  general?  General o b j e c t i v e s this year.  for  y o u r Grade 3 c l a s s  in music,  for  W e l l . . . t o l e a r n t h e s k i l l s t h a t w o u l d , um, t h a t w o u l d p r e p a r e them f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . . . h o w e v e r , i t j u s t depends on what t h e g r a d e 4 t e a c h e r does a 1 s o . . . . Somet i m e s t h e c o n t i n u i t y i s B r o k e n , l i k e I can a d m i t t h a t f o r m y s e l f , I h a v e n ' t Been a b l e t o keep up i n t h e Grade 3 p r o g r a m , so I ' v e B r o k e n t h e c o n t i n u i t y . If in f a c t t h e G r a d e 2 t e a c h e r was a b l e t o c o v e r t h e w h o l e Grade 2 p r o g r a m , t h o u g h , i n h e r y e a r , and t h e n t h e y come t o me, and t h e y ' v e g o t me, and you know, I c a n ' t c a r r y them as f a r . . . T h e n t h e y ' r e n o t , t h e y h a v e n ' t completed the G r a d e 3 p r o g r a m , and t h e y go t o G r a d e 4 .  137  R:  Y e s . . . okay, l a s t question I'd d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o g r a m . . . what  T:  U h , what i s K o d a l y ? . . . . I t ' s a music p r o g r a m . . . It's a m u s i c p r o g r a m , um, . . . t h a t ' s t a u g h t , um, t o c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r l e v e l , and i t i n v o l v e s many f a c e t s ; r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s i n g i n g , and l o t s o f f u n . If the t e a c h e r gets t o t h e p o i n t where she can f e e l i t ' s f u n . . . and f e e l s comfortable with i t .  R:  Okay, thank y o u . T h o s e a r e my q u e s t i o n s . Is a n y t h i n g e l s e y o u ' d l i k e t o s a y , o r any o t h e r y o u ' d l i k e t o add?  there comments  T:  No, I d o n ' t now.  right  R:  Okay,  think  thanks.  l i k e to a s k , t h e n , i s Koda'ly?  s o , no I c a n ' t  think  of  any  is  to  138  Interview  #60 #2:  Monday May 1 0 , 3 : 3 0  p.m.  R:  O k a y , t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n I was g o i n g how was t h e d e c i s i o n made f o r you to  T:  W e l l , when I came t o t h e s c h o o l , i t was j u s t s o m e t h i n g t h a t was a l r e a d y b e i n g t a u g h t , and I b e l i e v e t h a t i t was e x p e c t e d o f me t o j u s t c a r r y on t h e p r o g r a m .  R:  Did the  T:  O h , um, no I was n e v e r a s k e d t h a t . . . b u t , um, i n my i n t e r v i e w w i t h ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r ) he a s k e d , o r he saw on my a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t I t a u g h t m u s i c , and t h a t I was f a m i l i a r w i t h d o i n g m u s i c .  R:  ....and  T:  B u t he d i d n ' t a s k me, I d o n ' t t h i n k I r e c a l l him a s k i n g me i f I t a u g h t K o d a l y , b e c a u s e I n e v e r had t a u g h t it anyway.  R:  O k a y , and you s a i d t h a t t h e r e was a s o r t e x p e c t a t i o n " t h a t you t e a c h t h e p r o g r a m . more a b o u t t h a t ?  principal  ask you i f  t o a s k you w a s ; t e a c h Koda'ly?  you t a u g h t  Koda'ly?  had a m u s i c b a c k g r o u n d , y e s ,  of "an C o u l d you  say  T:  W e l l , Kodaly i s a l r e a d y being taught here i n t h i s s c h o o l , and the t e a c h e r who, um, I r e p l a c e d was e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h m u s i c , and K o d a l y , b u t b e c a u s e she d i d n ' t t e a c h i t , she j u s t t r a d e d h e r s u b j e c t w i t h a n o t h e r t e a c h e r who d i d , so I j u s t n a t u r a l l y assumed t h a t i t was K o d a ' l y . And I ' d h e a r d t h a t K o d a l y w a s , you know, the t h i n g t o t e a c h .  R:  The p r o g r a m , um, c o u l d you sum up y o u r i n i t i a l reactions when you f i r s t knew t h a t you were g o i n g t o t e a c h t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m ?  T:  U h . . . . I had no r e a l r e a c t i o n , I j u s t knew i t was somet h i n g e x p e c t e d o f me t o t e a c h . The s i t u a t i o n t h a t I came i n t o i n r e c e i v i n g t h i s j o b , was a u n i q u e o n e . Like  139  I g o t i t towards t h e end o f S e p t e m b e r , and t h e f a c t t h a t I g o t t h e j o b made me, you know, v e r y h a p p y , and I was w i l l i n g j u s t t o t a k e w h a t e v e r I was s u p p o s e d t o t e a c h . S o , t h a t was p a r t o f i t so I w a s , I j u s t a c c e p t e d i t . I was a f r a i d o f i t and a l i t t l e b i t w a r y o f i t b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t know how t o do i t , and t h e n there was t h i s w o r k s h o p , e a r l y i n O c t o b e r , I b e l i e v e , and I a t t e n d e d t h a t , and I a t t e n d e d as many f o l l o w i n g , . . . s u b s e q u e n t w o r k shops . R:  O k a y , and c o u l d you s o r t o f when y o u a t t e n d e d t h e f i r s t t h e K o d a l y p r o g r a m was?  T:  I was v e r y . . . ah . . . I was q u i t e m o t i v a t e d by them . . . b e c a u s e i t has so much i n i t , a n d , urn, i t ' s t h e k i n d o f m u s i c t h a t has a l o t o f c o n t e n t , and I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t , I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h e way i t was b e i n g t a u g h t by ( P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r ) , y o u know, and by (Resource Teacher), too.  R:  Now, y o u ' v e w o r k e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m f o r a b o u t two years. Have y o u , o r what w o u l d be y o u r r e a c t i o n t o i t now; how do y o u f e e l a b o u t i t now? Have t h e r e been c h a n g e s , or not?  T:  U h , I w o u l d l i k e t o do e v e r y t h i n g t h e p r o g r a m has o f f e r but I d o n ' t r e a l i s t i c a l l y I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t can f o l l o w i t i n e v e r y s t e p .  R:  And what a g a i n , o r what that are d i f f i c u l t ?  T:  The a r e a s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t a r e t h e h i g h e r s k i l l s , l i k e , urn, w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g , n o t p a t t e r n s , but r e a d i n g the s o l f a n o t e s .  R:  Yes . . .  T-  T h o s e a r e h i g h e r l e v e l , a h , s k i l l s , i n my o p i n i o n , and I f e e l , urn, t h o s e o n e s , I'm h a v i n g p r o b l e m s w i t h them.  R-  Now w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p r o g r a m f o r two y e a r s and a t t e n d i n g t h e , a h , i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s , have . . . w o u l d you s a y y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n o f y o u r s e l f , as a m u s i c t e a c h e r ,  on t h e  in  . . . what were y o u r r e a c t i o n s s e s s i o n s , when y o u saw what  particular  are the  to I  areas  level the rhythm  staff.  140  a t g r a d e 3, has t h a t y o u r s e l f t o do?  changed?  Of what you  expect  T:  Uh...  R:  In  T:  W e l l , I t h i n k t h a t I . . . l i k e when I f i r s t b e g a n , I j u s t t h o u g h t t h a t I w o u l d , a h , t e a c h , what was i n the g u i d e b o o k , and I n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d i t b e i n g , you know, d i f f i c u l t , o r a n y t h i n g , and now, I mean now t h a t I've gone t h r o u g h i t , a f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r , I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t do a l o t o f t h i n g s . I t s o r t o f made me f e e l f r u s t r a t e d t h a t I w a s n ' t meeting the g u i d e b o o k ' s , you know, t h e i r d a t e s and e v e r y t h i n g . But a l s o I f e e l t h a t I ' d l i k e t o i m p r o v e my e x p e r t i s e , I w o u l d l i k e t o become a b e t t e r m u s i c t e a c h e r , and t h e c o u r s e has e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e to o f f e r t o h e l p me r e a c h t h a t goal .  R:  Uhhum, f o r t e a c h i n g K o d a l y n e x t y e a r , as a m u s i c t e a c h e r o f K o d a l y f o r n e x t y e a r , what w o u l d you l i k e t o a c c o m plish? What w o u l d you l i k e t o be a b l e t o do?  T:  I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o have a c l e a r i d e a as t o how I w o u l d l i k e a l e s s o n t o g o , and have my own f o r m a t drawn u p , p r o b a b l y b a s e d on t h e f o r m a t t h a t i s a l r e a d y g i v e n , b u t n o t g o i n g t h r o u g h e v e r y s k i l l t h a t t h e y have i n a l e s s o n . " I w o u l d j u s t c u l l what I w o u l d t h i n k w o u l d be i m p o r t a n t , b u t I w o u l d have t h a t , um, l e s s o n f o r m a t a l l figured out. I w o u l d l i k e t o be r e a l l y a b l e t o do t h a t , and t h e n when I do a l e s s o n , I know e x a c t l y how t o do i t , and I w o u l d f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n f o l l o w i n g my own f o r m a t .  R:  Y e a h , so you w o r k e d o u t t h e s t a g e s o f t h e l e s s o n , i t ' s n o t t r y i n g t o f o l l o w what somebody e l s e has s e t o u t as the s t e p s i n t h a t l e s s o n ?  T:  R i g h t , and t h e n u s i n g t h e K o d a l y b o o k , as s o r t o f , even a g u i d e book a n y m o r e , j u s t s o m e t h i n g t o go t o p i e c e s o f m u s i c , f o r game s o n g s and i d e a s .  R:  So n o t  c o m p a r i s o n t o when y o u began w i t h t h e  as t h e  key t e a c h i n g  book b u t  just  program?  not for  as a r e s o u r c e . . .  141  T h a t ' s good. Now you had had e x p e r i e n c e i n m u s i c i n v a r i o u s f o r m s , b e f o r e y o u began u s i n g t h e Koda'ly p r o g ram. How d i d t h a t a c t on y o u r l e a r n i n g t h e s k i l l s i n t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m ? T:  Uh...  R: . F o r e x a m p l e w o r k i n g w i t h p i a n o b e f o r e , and h a v i n g , and ah y o u ' d h a d . . . h a d some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h m u s i c b e f o r e hand. T:  W e l l , a c t u a l l y , you know, when I p l a y e d t h e p i a n o , never d i d l e a r n to read m u s i c , i n terms of s o l f a .  R:  Or t h e m o v e a b l e ' d o h ' . . .  T:  Yeah . . . s o t h a t a c t u a l l y was new t o me. Urn . . . b u t j u s t h a v i n g t h e m u s i c , I t h i n k maybe i t s o r t o f , urn, b e i n g a b l e t o , w e l l I j u s t e n j o y e d m u s i c , as s u c h and uh . . . .  R:  So you had t h a t  T:  I d o n ' t e v e n use an i n s t r u m e n t r e a l l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , urn, I t h i n k I can h o l d a n o t e f a i r l y w e l l . So I d o n ' t even t h i n k a b o u t i t , I g u e s s . . . I'm s o r t o f l e a r n i n g j u s t f r o m s c r a t c h t o d , and t h a t ' s g o o d , b e c a u s e I d o n ' t have a n y t h i n g t o s o r t o f h o l d me back .  as a s t r e n g t h  I  .  R:  Yuh...  T:  ...  R:  That's true authorized,  T:  Urn, i t means t h a t i t ' s been p r o b a b l y l o o k e d a t by t h e v a r i o u s members o f a , you know, c o m m i t t e e , o r somet h i n g and t h e y p r o b a b l y t r i e d i t o u t and e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h i t and t h e y ' v e g o t f e e d b a c k f r o m p e o p l e who have t r i e d i t o u t , a n d , I d o n ' t know i t i t ' s been a l o n g term t h i n g t h a t t h e y ' v e e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h i t , but, I g u e s s i t has p r o v e n t o be e f f e c t i v e a n d , i t ' s p r o v e n t o be u s e f u l and a good t o o l so i t ' s an a p p r o v e d , i t ' s an a p p r o v e d c o u r s e o r p r o g r a m .  from o l d  habits.... . . . y e s . . . The p r o g r a m i s d i s t r i c t what does t h a t mean t o you?  142  O k a y , um, t h e p r o g r a m has been m a i n t a i n e d now f o r s i x y e a r s and t h e r e i s a commitment t o keep i t g o i n g f o r a b o u t a n o t h e r t h r e e , a t l e a s t , a commitment f o r a n o t h e r t h r e e i f n o t l o n g e r ; what a r e y o u r r e a c t i o n s to t h a t ? I t h i n k t h a t ' s good b e c a u s e i t t a k e s a l o n g t i m e f o r s o m e t h i n g t o r e a l l y grow r o o t s , and . . . l i k e , even f o r m y s e l f i t w i l l t a k e me a t l e a s t ' t i l n e x t y e a r 'til I can s t a r t r e a l l y f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . Yeah . . . a n d t h a t w o u l d be a f t e r , w e l l t h r e e y e a r s o f u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m , t h a t . . . y o u ' r e s a y i n g i n the f o u r t h y e a r you w o u l d t h i n k t h e n t h e r e w o u l d be an ease w i t h i t . And t h e n I t h i n k feeling better. Yea  ...  yuh  I'm s t a r t i n g want. And y o u the s k i ram, at ferent. program  my t h i r d y e a r  I think  start  ... to  get  a  clear picture  o f what  I  d o n ' t g e t t h a t f r o m a page . . . an o v e r v i e w o f l l s , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e , do y o u , n o t i n t h i s p r o g any r a t e , w i t h a n o t h e r p r o g r a m maybe i t ' s d i f O k a y , a n d , a h , why do you t h i n k t h e K o d a l y was c h o s e n f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t ?  — Ah (pause) I r e a l l y d o n ' t . . . o r do I g u e s s i f I d o n ' t know? N o , n o , ah I  I would  Why do I  think...  ....  r e a l 1y d o n ' t  ....  No, I j u s t wondered i f . . . you know, i t was t h e K o d a l y p r o g r a m n o t t h e O r f f p r o g r a m , n o t any o t h e r p r o g r a m and I w o n d e r e d i f , you know, y o u ' d . . . . ?  143 I ' d um, a l l I can t h i n k i s i t ' s g o t . . . w e l l I t h i n k K o d a l y t a u g h t f o r c h i l d r e n , and i t ' s e f f e c t i v e f o r c h i l d r e n l i k e i t ' s l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d . He t a u g h t way back and he u s e d i t f o r many, many, many y e a r s , and t h a t ' s a l l . I was g o i n g t o a s k t o do w i t h b e i n g a d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m i s t h a t i t ' s a s p e c i f i e d music program, i t ' s to b e , at l e a s t u s i n g e l e m e n t s o f t h e Koda'ly p r o g r a m , um, do y o u t h i n k t h a t ' s good t o h a v e , a s p e c i f i e d m u s i c p r o g r a m , o r s h o u l d t e a c h e r s have c h o i c e o f t h e t y p e o f m u s i c t h a t t h e y a r e teaching in primary grades? I  Um  don't  know,  I  think  a s p e c i f i e d program i s  good  And why? Ah . . . b e c a u s e i f t h e y s p e c i f y a c e r t a i n m u s i c p r o g r a m t h e n c e r t a i n l y t h e y must p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r w i t h , w i t h m a t e r i a l s o r r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , t o whom t h e y c a n go t o i f t h e y need more h e l p , i f t h e y need some s o r t o f g u i d a n c e , a n d , b u t i f t h e y were a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e i r own p r o g r a m , t h e r e m i g h t be some t e a c h e r s who m i g h t n e v e r t e a c h m u s i c , you know, where t h e y s h o u l d t e a c h i t , and j u s t s l o t i n any t y p e o f songs on r e c o r d s , o r j u s t , you know, r e c o r d s and t h a t ' s their m u s i c , m a i n l y maybe. I t w o u l d n ' t have t h e q u a l i t y , I don't think. and now, t a l k i n g a b o u t c o n c e r n s , i f you do have Okay have q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how t o t e a c h a s k i l l c o n c e r n s , or i n g e n e r a l , do you t a l k o r , q u e s t i o n s about the program t o anybody on t h e s t a f f ? no, a c t u a l l y , I h a v e n ' t . l e t ' s see Uhm Do y o u , have you t a l k e d  to  anyone on t h e d i s t r i c t  music  staff? Well, quite  I did last year, a bit.  Y u h , and what I  kinds of  j u s t wanted to  I sought out  (Resource Teacher)  c o n c e r n s d i d you have?  know how t o  teach.  144  — you know, Koda'ly. You k n o w , I came i n t o i t , n e v e r h a v i n g been e x p o s e d t o i t , and um, I w a n t e d t o know how i t was t a u g h t . . . . I t seemed l i k e a v e r y f a s t , f a s t m o v i n g l e s s o n , one t h i n g g o e s t o a n o t h e r , a n d , I d o n ' t , I was h a v i n g p r o b l e m s i n j u s t t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h a t kind of pace. Yup, ...  yup.... but  um  ...  . . . . a n d as you s a i d h a v i n g i t v e r y c l e a r l y head what y o u ' r e g o i n g o n t o n e x t .  in  your  And ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) was a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e w h e n e v e r needed h e r ,  so t h a t was r e a l l y  I  appreciated.  O k a y , um, how do you f e e l t h a t y o u r a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h i s y e a r , r e a c t s t o , or s u p p o r t s the program? Hmm . . . I t h i n k h e , a h , he s u p p o r t s any . . . m u s i c p r o gram t h a t . . . I have n e v e r . . . l i k e I have n e v e r r e a l l y t a l k e d t o him a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f . . . b u t um, h e ' s i n f a v o r o f a n y t h i n g t h a t has t o do w i t h m u s i c , and . . . And c o u l d you g i v e e x a m p l e s o f what ways he does s u p p o r t , um, m u s i c ? W e l l , he e n c o u r a g e s a l o t o f . . . o r a p p r o v e s o f a l o t o f t h e s e o t h e r g r o u p s c o m i n g i n t o t h e s c h o o l , and s h a r i n g t h e i r m u s i c w i t h u s , and he e n c o u r a g e s a l o t o f t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e t e a c h i n g m u s i c t o t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s , more t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s , i n y o u know, s h a r i n g t h e i r m u s i c w i t h o t h e r s , and t h e y a r e a l w a y s g o i n g i n t o the d i s t r i c t , doing the d i s t r i c t c h o i r , t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g , and h e , he a t t e n d s t h o s e c o n c e r t s t h a t a r e out of school t i m e . I know h e ' s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t . Uhhm, so i t ' s v i s i b l e s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g i n g , um, perf o r m i n g g r o u p s , and as you s a i d t h a t s h a r i n g between c l a s s e s , which i s r e a l l y n i c e t o o . Y e s , and he a l s o , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r , he wanted t o make s u r e t h a t t h e p r i m a r i e s were g e t t i n g t h e i r j u n i o r c h o i r u n d e r w a y , you know, he was making s u r e t h a t i t was g o i n g t o h a p p e n .  145  Yup the like any  ... um ... r e s o u r c e s t h a t y o u need f o r t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m ; do y o u h a v e t h o s e ? In-class resources, you d o n ' t use the f l a n n e l b o a r d s , I d o n ' t t h i n k , m o r e i n g r a d e 3, o r do y o u u s e t h e m ?  Those l i t t l e ones? them.  I have them but I h a v e n ' t  used  Any s u p p l i e s t h a t y o u n e e d i n t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m , you g e t t h o s e ones i f you need them?  do  ... Um, ... t h e s u p p l i e s , l i k e i n s t r u m e n t s ? ... W e l l , um, ... some s c h o o l s p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e b o o k s f o r t h e i r t e a c h e r s , some s c h o o l s make s u r e t h e y g e t t h e u p - d a t e d r e s o u r c e b o o k s a s new t h i n g s come o u t , w h e r e a s some s c h o o l s l e a v e t h a t up t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , t h o s e s u p p l i e s , and o h , r h y t h m i n s t r u m e n t s , a n y o f t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s , t h a t y o u m i g h t , may need in t e a c h i n g the program, p a r t i c u l a r l y those kinds of t h i n g s , plus the f l a n n e l boards p a r t i c u l a r l y at the g r a d e 1 and e a r l y g r a d e 2 l e v e l s . T h o s e t h i n g s , i f y o u n e e d t h o s e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m . Can y o u g e t them? Y e s , um, a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r when a l l t h e c o m m i t t e e s get together to s t a r t o r d e r i n g things f o r next year, e v e r y o n e , y o u know, has i n p u t i n t o w h a t t h e y w a n t , o r , and we o r d e r f o r m u s i c ... O k a y , so ...  as f a r as t h e b u d g e t  goes i t s a v a i l a b l e .  Uhhum. O k a y , and h a v e y o u u s e d a n y s t u d e n t s o r p a r e n t s o r o t h e r p e o p l e i n your c l a s s i n h e l p i n g to teach the program? No. O k a y , and h a v e y o u s e e n v i d e o t a p e s o f t h e Koda'ly ram? No,  I d i d n ' t know t h e r e w e r e  prog-  any.  T h e r e w e r e one o r two i n t h e d i s t r i c t , I understand one i s b e i n g t a k e n b a c k t o u p d a t e i t . Um, t h e y ' r e a v a i l a b l e , o r w e r e a v a i l a b l e , t h r o u g h t h e L.R.C,  146  R:  ( P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r ) b r o u g h t i n some f o r i n - s e r v i c e from o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . Have you seen any K o d a l y s e s s i o n s where a c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s were b e i n g t a u g h t ? Or where t h e a c t u a l c l a s s was b e i n g t a u g h t K o d a ' l y ?  T:  I did during only time.  R:  t h e m u s i c c o n f e r e n c e , but  Uhhum, was t h a t o f ...  yes  ...  t h a t was  the  value?  T:  I  I w o u l d say i t  is  .  R:  In what w a y s ?  T-  S e e i n g how t h e s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d t o t h e t e a c h e r , you know, u s u a l l y when I'm i n a w o r k s h o p , or s o m e t h i n g , we are the s t u d e n t s s u p p o s e d l y . . .  R:  Yes .  T:  And we can r e s p o n d much more . . . w e l l not s p o n t a n e o u s l y , b u t we a r e s o r t o f . . . our r e s p o n s e s a r e a l i t t l e b i t more g e a r e d t o the c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e .  R:  Yes . . . and a few o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n odd t w e n t y y e a r s . . . y o u ' v e g o t on t h e I guess!  T:  Yeah.  R:  O k a y , w o u l d , w o u l d you see t h a t as b e i n g s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e , o r n e c e s s a r y , or not? . . . to see the c l a s s e s or v i d e o t a p e s of c l a s s e s ?  T:  I t h i n k I w o u l d l i k e t o s e e , um, I w o u l d n ' t mind g o i n g t o v i s i t t e a c h e r s who t e a c h K o d a ' l y , and I w o u l d n ' t mind s e e i n g v i d e o t a p e s , p r o b a b l y v i d e o t a p e s w o u l d be b e t t e r b e c a u s e o f t h e t i m i n g and a l l t h a t .  R:  Yeah . . . o k a y , um, I'm g o i n g t o a s k some q u e s t i o n s about the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e . First of a l l , the music r e s o u r c e book. What p a r t s o f t h a t do you f i n d most u s e f u l , now?  T:  Now . . . uh . . . W e l l , a c t u a l l y beginning s e c t i o n , before a l l  I the  t h e r e , i n the students . . .  (pause) levels ...  I  ...  the  147  Where i t ?  lists  the  s o n g s and s o r t  of  their  approximate  Yeah . . . t h e r e ' s a l l t h e , um, i t s a y s , um, i t has a l l t h e s e o t h e r pages t h a t d e s c r i b e what c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e , and a l s o i t g i v e s y o u some i d e a s on what y o u can t e a c h . A n d , and t h a t ' s useful? W e l l , in a lot.  the  directing  s e c t i o n t h a t you f i n d , ...  but  I a l s o use t h e  find  most  rhythm  Yuh . . . and p r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o u t t h a t book? Or f i n d i n g t h i n g s i n t h a t book? It's Yes Yeah  quite ...  straightforward,  figuring  out  the  once you know how t o  coding  cards  of do  it!  .  .  Um, any r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c h a n g i n g t h a t , i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e r e s o u r c e book?  or  making  Ummm . . . maybe a s i m p l e r f o r m a t f o r the l e s s o n p l a n , each l e s s o n p l a n . W e l l i t i s r a t h e r , i t i s q u i t e b a s i c a c t u a l l y , I d o n ' t know, maybe i t ' s j u s t my p e r s o n a l thing. L i k e I'm g o i n g t o have t o make i t s i m p l e r , b u t , i f I had p r o b a b l y s t a r t e d o u t , a h , w i t h a K o d a l y , a c o u r s e . . . s t a r t i n g r i g h t at the b e g i n n i n g b e f o r e I had t o t e a c h i t , maybe I w o u l d n ' t have had t h a t p r o b 1 em. J u s t as an o f f - n o t e , o r t o t i e i n w i t h t h a t , a t e a c h e r t h a t I t a l k e d t o who had some K o d a l y a t u n i v e r s i t y , and t h e n had t a u g h t Koda'ly f o r t h r e e y e a r s , was d o i n g what y o u ' r e s u g g e s t i n g , um, a few m i n u t e s a g o , and t h a t s h e ' d gone t h r o u g h i t and d e v e l o p e d h e r own l e s s o n p l a n . . . A f t e r s h e ' d t a u g h t i t t w i c e she went t h r o u g h i t and w o r k e d up h e r own s e t o f l e s s o n f o r m a t , and what she p l a n n e d t o t e a c h i n e a c h o f t h e l e s s o n s , um, she d i d t h a t a f t e r h e r s e c o n d y e a r , I t h i n k , o r t h i r d y e a r , and t h e n i n h e r f o u r t h y e a r , she s a i d , she w r o t e . . . she used t h e same f o r m a t , b u t she r e w r o t e a l l o f t h e l e s s o n p l a n s  148 w i t h a much c l e a r e r s e n s e , and f e e l s , she s a y s she f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h them now. B u t s h e ' s gone ahead and done t h a t and used t h e r e s o u r c e b o o k , as a resource. She s a i d she has t h r o w n o u t t h e ones t h a t she t a u g h t p r e v i o u s l y , and she has r e w r i t t e n them c o m p l e t e l y b u t s o r t o f w o r k i n g on a k n o w l e d g e now, o f where s h e ' s g o i n g , b u t um, t h a t . . . s o r t o f . . . you know what y o u ' r e s a y i n g t h a t you m i g h t f i n d i t v a l u a b l f o r y o u r s e l f in a couple of y e a r s . Um, t h e i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s a t t h e L . R . C , o r a t any o f t h e o t h e r p l a c e s t h a t t h e y were h e l d , b e c a u s e t h e y were i n v a r i o u s p i a c e s . . . W h a t p a r t s o f t h o s e were v a l u a b l e f o r y o u ? Um . . . you mean when I a t t e n d e d I enjoy?  them, which p a r t  did  Y e a h , what p a r t d i d you f i n d most v a l u a b l e ? F o r y o u r s e l f i n t e a c h i n g t h e program? Well . . . I d o n ' t know i f I . . . I came away w i t h a l o t o f i d e a s t h a t were g i v e n t o me, b u t I s t i l l didn't f e e l t h a t I was any b e t t e r ... Uhhum  ...  You know, maybe ( P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r ) assumes t h a t we know e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t t h e Koda'ly program and w e ' r e a l l b a s i c a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t , b u t I, you know, when I'm a t t e n d i n g an O c t o b e r w o r k s h o p o r a November w o r k s h o p , I w a s n ' t t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e at t h a t time . . . e i t h e r , l i k e maybe e v e n t h i s p a s t y e a r . But w e ' r e g e t t i n g a l l t h e s e i d e a s t h r o w n a t u s , and t h e y a r e a l l j u s t f a b u l o u s , and I w r i t e them a l l down. But I s t i l l h a v e n ' t got the basics. Um, t h e w o r k s h o p s a r e g o o d , i n t h a t t h e y r e a l l y g i v e you good i d e a s , b u t I t h i n k k i n d o f . . . when I go t o t h e s e w o r k s h o p s , I t h i n k I want more . . . more p r a c t i c e i n b e i n g a b l e t o do some o f t h e s e t h i n g s . And w o u l d you f i n d i t v a l u a b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e p e o p l e who were j u s t b e g i n n i n g t h e p r o g r a m were q a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r and went t h r o u g h what w o u l d be s o r t S f t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m and p r a c t i c e t h e m , r a t h e r t h a n s o r t o f i d e a s t o e l a b o r a t e upon the p r o g r a m ?  149  Yeah . . . I t h i n k I w o u l d l i k e t h a t , b e c a u s e I h a v e n ' t e v e n , I h a v e n ' t had t h a t , I ' v e s o r t o f had t o t a k e . . . w e l l I ' d s o r t o f had t o go i n t o i t when i t was a l r e a d y i n t h e . . . you know, a l r e a d y s t a r t e d u p . I n e v e r d i d get to s t a r t at the b e g i n n i n g . I d o n ' t know how many o t h e r t e a c h e r s a r e i n t h e same p o s i t i o n . There are a number. I c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t know how many t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t , b u t p e o p l e who were h i r e d , a h , a number o f y e a r s a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m was p u t i n t o m o t i o n , b u t a r e s t i l l t e a c h i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , as i t were . Yea . . . n o w o k a y , two q u e s t i o n s t o do w i t h t h a t . The p r o g r a m was l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d , and s o r t o f b a s e d upon koda'ly but w i t h o t h e r a d a p t a t i o n s to s u i t t h i s a r e a , a n d , um, c h a n g e s made w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e b o o k , m o d i f i cations etcetera . . . . A r e t h e r e any r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t you w o u l d make i n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e p r o g r a m w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . . . w i t h i n s a y , f o r the next t h r e e y e a r s , or something . . . w i t h i n . . . f o r the f u t u r e ? Ummm . . . ( p a u s e ) . . . f o r p e o p l e who a r e coming i n t o the program or s t a r t i n g w i t h the p r o g r a m , they s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t e n d , um, a c o u r s e , o r , p r o b a b l y not a w o r k s h o p , b u t a c o u r s e where t h e y w o u l d be g i v e n t h e b a s i c s , you know, t a u g h t how t o go t h r o u g h t h e b a s i c s . . . I d o n ' t know i f i t w o u l d be good t o make i t , w e l l i f you made i t c o m p u l s o r y i t p r o b a b l y w o u l d be b e t t e r , b u t you know, you c a n ' t . I d o n ' t know i f you can f o r c e t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s . It's  difficult...you're  quite  right.  Anything  else?  Um . . . p r o b a b l y h a v e , um, I d o n ' t . . . l i k e t h e r e a r e a l o t of music p e o p l e w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l . . . but . . . t h e r e ' s no r e a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l . . . l i k e e v e r y b o d y . . . a l o t o f p e o p l e do t h e i r own m u s i c , and I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e g o i n g t o a n y b o d y t o ask them a b o u t my m u s i c , you know, f o r h e l p . And you w o u l d l i k e t o have someone s o r t o f d e s i g n a t e d as t h e p e r s o n t o t a l k t o , o r a c o n t a c t p e r s o n , o r somet h i n g of t h a t n a t u r e , would t h a t h e l p , or . . . ? Yes . . . I t h i n k i t w o u l d . Ah . . . l i k e I d i d t h a t b e f o r e , I t r i e d t o a p p r o a c h somebody i n my v e r y f i r s t y e a r h e r e , t o a s k them s o m e t h i n g b u t I n e v e r g o t any h e l p , so f r o m t h a t p o i n t on I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e I w a n t e d t o a p p r o a c h  150  anybody e l s e . Maybe I s h o u l d h a v e , you know, I s h o u l d n ' t have j u s t l e t i t go a t t h a t , b u t . . . B u t . . . I, I u n d e r s t a n d , . . . I t ' s , i t ' s d i f f i c u l t , t i c u l a r l y i f y o u ' v e g o t a good number o f c o n c e r n s t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m , and t h e n , t o go t o somebody s a y , "How do I do t h i s ? How do I do t h a t ? " , and and y e t l e a r n i n g f r o m o t h e r t e a c h e r s i s o f t e n t h e s o r t o f v a l u a b l e way o f l e a r n i n g , I t h i n k . Or maybe we s h o u l d have more m u s i c r e s o u r c e too.  parabout and yet, most  people  Y e a h , i t w o u l d be n i c e . . . The l a t e s t b u d g e t has r e a l l y n o t h e l p e d t h a t , b u t . . . . Second q u e s t i o n t o do w i t h t h a t um, some d i s t r i c t s , P r i n c e G e o r g e b e i n g o n e , and a number o f d i s t r i c t s i n t h e m a i n l a n d a r e c o n s i d e r i n g u s i n g some a d a p t a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m , and are j u s t beginning i t . Now, what r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w o u l d you make f o r a d i s t r i c t t h a t i s j u s t p u t t i n g t h i s t y p e of a program i n t o motion? What w o u l d be e s s e n t i a l ? Um . . . ah . . . e s s e n t i a l . . . W e l l , good r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , and a g o o d , a v e r y um I t h i n k . . . a s t r o n g commitment f o r t e a c h e r s who a r e g o i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g , a commitment t h a t t h e y you know, a r e r e a l l y d e v o t e d t o c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s p r o g r a m and t h a t t h e y t r y and keep up w i t h a l l t h e i n c o m i n g new t h i n g s t h a t have t o do w i t h the program. Um, I a l s o t h i n k t h a t . . . t h e r e s h o u l d b e , i f t h e r e i s a g u i d e b o o k , i t s h o u l d be a v e r y s i m p l e o n e , w i t h n o t t o o many, j u s t a r e a l s i m p l e guide book, n o t h i n g too o v e r w h e l m i n g , something r e a l l y basic. So maybe t h e e s s e n t i a l . . . what w o u l d be t h e n e c e s s a r y p a r t s and any a d d i t i o n a l p a r t s i n a s e p a r a t e b o o k , o r , y o u know, n o t i n t h e r e s o u r c e b o o k , o r w h a t e v e r . Uhhum, i t w o u l d be good i f t h e y c o u l d have a p i l o t p r o g r a m where a l l the t e a c h e r s w o u l d be a b l e t o a t t e n d t h a t , and t h e n a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g o n e s , and y o u know h o p e f u l l y t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o a t t e n d e a c h o n e , b u t t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e , be a b l e t o p r o v i d e i n p u t i n t o how t h e p r o g r a m ' s g o i n g , and g e t some f e e d b a c k on how t h e y a r e d o i n g , p l u s , um maybe g e t i d e a s a l o n g t h e w a y , but n o t t o g e t e v e r y t h i n g t h r o w n a t them a t o n c e .  151  A h , y e a h , and I ' v e g o t o b j e c t i v e s , l i k e f o r m y s e l f , it's j u s t t o become more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g i t , and um, but m a i n l y , and a l s o f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , I w o u l d l i k e them t o e n j o y m u s i c as s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d l o o k forward to. C o u l d y o u , l o o k i n g back o r r e f l e c t i n g on t e a c h i n g m u s i c i n g r a d e 3 t h i s y e a r , i s t h e r e one l e s s o n t h a t you f e l t was . . . s o m e l e s s o n s t h a t you f e l t were more s u c c e s s f u l , o r t h a t y o u r e a l l y f e l t good a b o u t , o r t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e a l l y responded to? A h . . . I t h i n k one l e s s o n t h a t I d i d , had t o do w i t h t h e song t h a t I i n t r o d u c e d , " B o i l them Cabbage D o w n " , and I r e a l l y g o t i n t o t h e s w i n g o f t h e w h o l e s o n g , and w e ' d s i n g t h e n u r s e r y r h y m e , t h e n w e ' d go back t o t h e t h e m e , t h e n w e ' d s i n g t h e n u r s e r y rhyme and go back t o t h e t h e m e . . . I e n j o y e d t h a t and t h e n we g o t i n t o w r i t i n g the rhythm of i t . I t k i n d o f went r e a l l y s m o o t h l y . A k i n d of  flow  to  the whole  lesson...  Y e s , and i t ' s been a more r e c e n t thing f o r m e . . . s o maybe I'm s o r t o f g e t t i n g i t , a l i t t l e b i t now. Yes...yup. Those are the q u e s t i o n s t h a t I'd l i k e to ask. Is t h e r e a n y t h i ng e l se t h a t y o u ' d l i k e t o say a b o u t how y o u ' r e u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m , o r comments a b o u t the program? I t h i n k , I t h i n k I ' v e s a i d b a s i c a l l y , a l r e a d y what I've mentioned. I ' d j u s t l i k e t o know i f , um, I d o n ' t know, I ' d r e a l l y l i k e t o know i f . . . w h a t k i n d o f a j o b I'm d o i n g i n t e a c h i n g i t . W e l l , you know, ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) w i l l come i n t o y o u r room and o b s e r v e you and i f you wanted t h a t , and t h e n t a l k t o you a f t e r w a r d s a b o u t what y o u ' r e d o i n g and what c o u l d you c h a n g e . T h a t ' s one o f t h e t h i n g s s h e ' l l come i n and d o , and t h a t m i g h t be a p o s s i b i l i t y . Right,  but  on t h e w h o l e  too.  You mean i n t e r m s o f how much y o u ' r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g of the grade 3 program w i t h your c l a s s ? R i g h t , but t h e n you s a i d I c o u l d do an i n f o r m a l o f e v a l u a t i o n , and s e e how f a r t h e y a r e . Yeah You're  okay, welcome.  thanks  ever  so much.  ki  1 53  (*0n1y one of a t o t a l of fourteen interview Interview #2A:  transcripts.)  Tuesday, A p r i l 27, 1982.  Okay, could you t e l l me what teaching music means for you? Oh, dear, well I guess, f o r me, i t ' s a way to introduce the kids to music as a part of t h e i r l i v e s , a way to relax and enjoy themselves, to i d e n t i f y rhythm and beat and q u a l i t i e s of music. Good. ..But b a s i c a l l y t h a t ' s what i t i s , i s to introduce i t to t h e i r l i v e s , because f o r some of them, they don't take music lessons or anything l i k e t h a t . Maybe they don't have stereos i n the home., u s u a l l y i t ' s the T.V. t h a t ' s b l a r i n g on, so i t ' s a way to enjoy themselves and r e l a x , and to hopefully introduce i t through t h e i r 1ives. Super , and you've been teaching the Koda'ly program f o r about three years and teaching f o r about seven, what kind of music program were you using before the Kodaly program? Uh, I...Koda'ly i s a l l I've ever taught. Okay. . . Now, I d i d n ' t s t a r t teaching u n t i l I came to t h i s d i s t r i c t , and when I was i n u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , we took Kodaly as w e l l , so t h a t ' s the only music t r a i n i n g I've had i s i n Kodaly, and t h a t ' s a l l I've taught. Okay, t h a t ' s good. You're the f i r s t teacher that I've talked to who has had Kodaly t r a i n i n g at u n i v e r s i t y . Oh, U v i c , does i t . That's been t h e i r program s i n c e , well when did I g r a d u a t e . . ' 7 2 , something l i k e t h a t . Uhhum, now how did you f i n d the u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n Kodaly, and t h i s d i s t r i c t t r a i n i n g i n Kodaly, how d i d that work; did that work together; how did that help you? Yes, and I found the t r a i n i n g offered through t h i s d i s t r i c t much superior to what we'd been given i n u n i v e r s i t y , much s u p e r i o r . And i n what ways? Because there was more time to spend, because we had monthly meetings when the Koda'ly was f i r s t introduced i n Kamloops which was the f i r s t year I started teaching here, we had monthly meetings, we were also  154 Interview #2A given whole day i n - s e r v i c e s to develop i t and they also had a guide book, a program to go by already developed..and we had no such resource at u n i v e r s i t y . We had simply been introduced to i t as "a technique" and t o l d about i t , and you j u s t t r y and w r i t e notes about how to teach i t . And so there i s no understanding of the program? W e l l , we understood the basic p r i n c i p l e s o f i t , and we applied a l o t of the s k i l l s , but when y o u ' r e taking a one u n i t course, which means i t ' s one hour a week, f o r , a h , eight months, you c e r t a i n l y don't get very much. Okay, that i s very i n t e r e s t i n g , a g a i n , to hear, because one of the questions i s : How can the u n i v e r s i t i e s , you know, improve t h e i r music i n s t r u c t i o n courses? W e l l , I c e r t a i n l y think i t ' s to increase the time a l l o t m e n t . . I mean I understand the problem..Uvic, I understand has now gone to a two year professional year program, and i f t h a t ' s the case, then Music should be i n both of those y e a r s , g i v i n g you a chance to deal with those programs more. Now, when you came to t h i s d i s t r i c t , were you asked i f you had Kodaly background? Yes, I was. You were.. That's why I was h i r e d . I see. I n t e r e s t i n g , t h a t ' s good. So, what does teaching Kodaly mean to you? Oh..Teaching Koda'ly means that I can teach music. That's what i t means to me, because u n t i l I had Kodaly, well I knew nothing about music, I'm not musical at a l l , never took a voice l e s s o n , or a piano, instrument lesson i n my l i f e . And to have Kodaly I can hang my hat on i t and I could a c t u a l l y teach music instead of j u s t s i n g , which is a l l I grew up with i n school was music c l a s s which i s a time when we sang. Okay, so t h i s , the Kodaly program i s the enjoyment and the singing plus the s k i l l . . Right. . . b a s i s as w e l l . Okay, good. I would l i k e to look a t ; perhaps we could look at t h i s one. Looking at your t o t a l music program, um,  155 Interview #2A these a c t i v i t i e s , which are not important at a l l . . r a t i n g that as a 1 . . o f average importance, r a t i n g that as a 2, s o r r y , z e r o ; two; and very,important, r a t i n g that as a f o u r . And t h a t ' s i n the Kodaly ..music program that y o u ' r e teaching t h i s y e a r . W e l l , in-tune s i n g i n g , I'd say t h a t ' s about a 2 . . I ' m not a l l that concerned..I t r y and work on i t a b i t , but I don't worry i f t h e y ' r e not singing i n tune. Feelings f o r rhythm, I'd say t h a t ' s a 3..I think t h a t ' s a 3; and music a p p r e c i a t i o n , I'd give that a 3. Okay, now you said that in-tune singing was not as important. Why do you say that? Because so many of the c h i l d r e n I have taught over the years are not able to sing i n tune, and I am i n no p o s i t i o n myself, and I do as best as I can to t r y and get them so sing i n tune, but i f they cannot f o l l o w , i f they are octaves below me, or octaves above me, as long as they are t r y i n g to sing i n the same range, I give that as much value as being able to sing i n tune. . . R i g h t on p i t c h . . a n d I guess they are developing the ear to hear the d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s . ..See I don't have perfect p i t c h when I sing with them e i t h e r , so I can hardly expect them to have perfect pitch..what I a c t u a l l y need i n here i s a piano, or something, so I can get myself more i n p i t c h . Or a set of melody b e l l s , or something.. R i g h t , and I understand we have some melody b e l l s ' ; I should d i g them out. Okay, then the second one I'd l i k e you to look at are elements or techniques used i n the Kodaly program..and I'd l i k e you to rate them..zero as not used at a l l ; two, about average use, and f o u r , used i n a l l or very nearly a l l l e s s o n s . Okay, handsigns, i s 4.. I use them almost a l l the time; p i t c h names ..I use them a l l the t i m e . . i n n e r hearing, I use that about i ; not very o f t e n , j u s t r e a l l y at the beginning of the y e a r , and t h a t ' s a l l I've done with i t ; echoing, we've j u s t started t h a t , but i t ' s going to be the r e s t o f my program, f o r a w h i l e , so I'd give that about a 3; part work, now what do you mean by part work? R: T:  T h a t ' s . . s u c h as beginning with rounds and into harmonies.. Okay, a l l r i g h t , I'd say t h a t ' s a z e r o . . 1 don't do any harmonies; games and movement, 4, i n every l e s s o n , rhythm names, i n every l e s s o n , rhythm instruments, about a two, we don't use them a l l the time; o s t i n a t o , we did t h a t , we've j u s t started doing t h a t , I'd say t h a t ' s about a 2 ; s t i c k notation about a 3, and conventional notation, I haven't done i t y e t .  1 56 Interview #2A R:  Okay, again t h i s l i s t i s from kindergarten to grade 3, so some of the s k i l l s are ones you wouldn't be working w i t h , um , the rhythm instruments, you d o n ' t use them much..why?  T:  No, you see I used to use them a l o t when they were i n the classroom. We don't have them i n the classroom anymore and i t ' s hard to f i n d them. Then at one p o i n t , we had a music room, where everything was located and a l l you'd have to do i s j u s t go and get i t , well now., i t ' s p a r t l y i n C.'s room, and and p a r t l y i n J.'s room, p a r t l y i n R's room, and I have to run around and t r y and f i n d them; well i t ' s j u s t not worth i t , I j u s t do i t once i n a w h i l e .  R:  So, j u s t getting hold of them.  T:  That's the  R:  Okay, t h a t ' s super, um, looking at some of the s p e c i f i c teaching materials of the program, f i r s t of a l l the songs what do you see as the values i n the songs i n the Koda'ly program?  T:  Yeah, what I l i k e best about them i s the l i m i t e d note, range..so most c h i l d r e n can sing them. The other thing I l i k e about them i s the simple words to deal w i t h . They are often t r a d i t i o n a l tunes that the c h i l d r e n are already f a m i l i a r w i t h , and then you can introduce s k i l l s , that are a v a i l a b l e as a r e s u l t of the Kodaly program to go with them.  R:  Do you f i n d any d i f f i c u l t y  T:  No.  R:  Do you, f o r example, i f the c h i l d r e n know a d i f f e r e n t melody l i n e than the Koda'ly melody l i n e that they have used, to introduce a s p e c i f i c s k i l l , i s that a d i f f i c u l t y i n teaching?  T:  No, I haven't noticed i t to be.  R:  Okay, um, have you introduced any other songs to the Kodaly program? to your music program?  T:  To my music program?...Many.  R: T:  What types? Oh..mostly j u s t , um, things l i k e out of the radio program, l i k e , " I ' v e been Working on the R a i l r o a d " . Just songs that the kids enjoy s i n g i n g , they are c e r t a i n l y not Koda'ly songs i n the sense that they have a l i m i t e d note range.  R:  Yes, y e s . .  difficulty.  teaching any o f the songs?  No.  157  Interview #2A T:  . . t h a t they are a l l up and down, and they are not very good, some of them f o r s i n g i n g , but the c h i l d r e n enjoy the story behind them, or the game a c t i v i t y that you might do with them.  R:  And  T:  Mostly my own background, because I was i n G i r l Guides, and I have old song books from t h a t , and I also have a r e a l l y good teaching resource book, Music for fun and music for l e a r n i n g , that has e x c e l l e n t , um, m a t e r i a l , and I have also used that to get i d e a s .  R:  Okay, but y o u ' r e using those songs at other times for enjoyment ?  T:  T h a t ' s r i g h t , to supplement the program; i t doesn't go along with my Kodaly.  R:  Now, how do you f i n d your students react to the Kodaly songs?  T:  They r e a l l y enjoy them, I've never had one c h i l d say, "Oh, t h a t ' s a dumb song" or " I d o n ' t want to play that game". They are a l l r e a l l y , r e a l l y keen.  the sources for those songs, what would that be?  R: " That's super. T: Yeah, i t i s nice because I, at one point I thought you know, some of these songs are pretty Mickey Mouse, l i k e the one where they have to go around and bop everybody on the head with the l i t t l e "Twinkle, t w i n k l e , star t h i n g " and they had to t e l l t h e i r wish, and I thought, "Oh, t h e y ' r e j u s t going to think t h i s i s dumb" .They j u s t c o u l d n ' t wait to have t h e i r t u r n . T h e y ' l l sing forever so they can have t h e i r turn to do i t . R:  I think part of i t i s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n . . i f the teacher introduces t h i s as something that i s r e a l l y neat, or enjoyable to do. ..Yeah, anything that i s l a b e l l e d f u n , they think great. L i t t l e do they know what they are doing. Right.  They're going to learn something out of t h i s !  Okay, games and a c t i v i t i e s , you mentioned that you used those a l o t . R i g h t , every l e s s o n . R:  And, how do you s e l e c t the games?  T:  Just sort of give and by g o l l y , well I go by that o u t l i n e i n terms o f what songs should be introduced at what month..although I'm about s i x months behind, e a s i l y but I ' l l look at those songs and I ' l l say: " W e l l , today, w e ' l l t r y t h i s one and next week w e ' l l t r y the other one"..and w e ' l l get through a l l the song that way,  Interview #2A but I ' l l use the guide at the f r o n t . . . f o r the song names and then I ' l l go through i t to see what games can be played..and I choose them that way..we have some favourites that we always p l a y . Uhhum, okay, how about for choosing s k i l l s or whatever that you're planning to teach...how do you go about that? I use the f r o n t of the .guide the same way. Okay. when i t says, t h i s i s a preparation f o r a so and s o , then I do i t , then when i t says to present so-and-so, then I do i t . , and so on. Okay, so you're following f a i r l y s p e c i f i c a l l y the sequence. That i s r i g h t . Okay, good, have you seen, teaching the Koda'ly program, f o r the three y e a r s , any changes i n , um, student a b i l i t i e s with music, or enjoyment, or in-tune singing? I t ' s quite an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t , because out at School X, I was the only teacher that taught Kodaly, and so when the kids came to me they had nothing, and then coming here where they had some Koda'ly, i n grade 1, there was a big d i f f e r e n c e , a r e a l l y big difference. Exactly what? There was more in-tune s i n g i n g , there was more enjoyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In a l l events, you know, almost always, there are c h i l d r e n who do not want to do i t , but end up j o i n i n g the o t h e r s , but d o n ' t . . b u t don't seem to enjoy i t to the a b i l i t y o f . . t h e extent the others do, but, a h , t h i s y e a r , that I've taught here, and the l a s t y e a r , both groups have been so keen, j u s t because they've had i t i n Kindergarten and grade 1. So, not n e c e s s a r i l y the Kodaly songs, but j u s t the f a c t that they'v participated. . . . T h e y ' v e been keen..they've been r e a l l y keen, and when I ' l l go to do a song l i k e " B l u e b i r d " , they say.."Oh I remember when we did that i n kindergarten, t h a t ' s a neat game!" and they remember what, the things they did with i t in kindergarten, .and they don't mind doing i t because they have always enjoyed i t .  1 59 Interview #2A Okay, and t a l k i n g about students p a r t i c i p a t i n g , f o r example, students who are quite shy or lack s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; have you noticed any changes over the y e a r , with those s o r t o f people? Umm. I think there are small changes i n those c h i l d r e n , I don't think that we can say that the Koda'ly program has created great changes i n these c h i l d r e n , i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to be able to speak out more e a s i l y , and so o n , but c e r t a i n l y , an opportunity, i t gives them an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an acceptable way, and they can s o r t o f , they can p a r t i c i p a t e and at the same time be part o f a group, as opposed to being an i n d i v i d u a l set o u t , which I never do with those type of c h i l d r e n . So, i t ' s j u s t p a r t i c i p a t i n g as t h e i r turn comes up. . . r i g h t , not being singled o u t . . I very rare~\y have my c h i l d r e n s o l o , f o r any reason...because I j u s t f i n d that c h i l d r e n don't want to do i t . . I ' d say to two or three of them; " F i n e , i f you want to do i t together, t h a t ' s g r e a t " . But when they don't want to do i t by themselves; "Fine, don't." Okay, um, c o - o r d i n a t i o n problems, do any o f your students have d i f f i c u l t y clapping the rhythms, or? Y e s , . . y e s I've noticed that..um..probably l e s s t h i s year than other years because they've had the other two years of i t , but I s t i l l do notice that some c h i l d r e n have d i f f i c u l t y , very r a r e l y with beat, but often with rhythm. Okay, s o , and j u s t working with..how do you..how do you work with that? W e l l , we j u s t do a l o t . I think we j u s t b a s i c a l l y p r a c t i c e i t i n many, many d i f f e r e n t ways...we get down on our knees and we pound i t on the f l o o r , . . w e get down and we pound i t on the chalkboard, we pat i t on desks, and we use fingers and we use ears we j u s t do i t a m i l l i o n d i f f e r e n t ways, t r y i n g to get i t and i f u s u a l l y i f we've worked with one song f o r the whole week, by the end o f the week they've got that rhythm down p a t . . b u t the next week when you introduce something a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t , they have some d i f f i c u l t i e s , at some point. Uhhum, and c e r t a i n l y t h a t ' s one of the aspects of the Kodaly program that they've t r i e d these s k i l l s o u t , i n a l l sorts of d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s , as i t were, so that i f one c h i l d doesn't pick i t up one way, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f p i c k i n g . . ..another way . . y e a h . . Um, students new to the program, f i r s t of a l l , students coming from outside the d i s t r i c t , where they have no Koda'ly background, have you any s t u d e n t s . . ? One or two, l i k e t h a t . . y e a h . And how do you involve those students?  Interview #2A W e l l , b a s i c a l l y , we , I j u s t l e t them j o i n i n with u s , as they feel ready t o , and most of them catch on very q u i c k l y to the elements that we're t a l k i n g about, and at the grade two l e v e l we haven't introduced a l l that many s k i l l s that they c a n ' t pick up on..they may not know the names as beat and rhythm and ' t a ' and ' t i t i ' , but they've had those elements, i n terms of maybe c a l l i n g them other names, l i k e with some other music programs, and I j u s t , I c a n ' t even t e l l you because I've never worked with them..But they understand what a s i n g l e note, versus a double note, (claps the rhythms) but they give i t a d i f f e r e n t name, and i t doesn't take them very l o n g . The c h i l d r e n do a t r a n s f e r r i n g . . . u m , how about students coming i n from other schools i n the d i s t r i c t , have you had any students? Yes, I have had some..and most of them are ahead of u s ! . . s o they know more than my kids do. So. they are " r e v i e w i n g " . Yes, they are reviewing. or a s s i s t i n g . , r whatever..but they have had the background then? 0  Yes. at l e a s t some of them? at l e a s t some of them..yeah.. I have one from Winnipeg t h i s y e a r , and of course she has no idea of what i s happening..but she i s getting the hang of i t . Good..and um, m u s i c , time for teaching music, perweek, i s i t a scheduled c l a s s , o r . . . . ? B a s i c a l l y I schedule two-twenty minute blocks per week, t h a t ' s a l l my schedule allows f o r me, f o r music, and i t ' s not what I should be doing with Kodaly, and t h a t ' s why I'm so f a r behind...because, I t h i n k , they want i t four times a week, i n a twenty or a t h i r t y minute block, I d o n ' t do i t that o f t e n . Now, why? Because I'm a part-time teacher, I have a teaching partner who i s i n for the other times, and I am responsible for teaching m u s i c . o my days, and I j u s t don't have time to do i t on those other days. Okay, um, and you keep more or l e s s to the same time schedule, or does t h a t . . ? Y e s , . . . I keep to t h e . . . b e i n g a part-time teacher, i t ' s r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t to be f l e x i b l e , i n t i m e - t a b l i n g , you pretty well have to stay..  161 Interview #2A I've been i n the same s i t u a t i o n , and y o u . . When i t ' s time for music, you drop math and you do music, because otherwise you haven't met your commitment f o r that time . Do you use any of the Koda'ly a c t i v i t i e s at any other time during the day? Not u s u a l l y , no. Um..okay, ah, what would be, what would you say would be your objective for teaching music f o r t h i s y e a r . . . o r o b j e c t i v e s ? Oh..dear..my objectives for teaching music t h i s year well..my f i r s t would be a f f e c t i v e . . i n the sense that I want the kids to s t a r t to enjoy music. My other objectives would be s k i l l r e l a t e d , i n terms of recognizing melodic elements, and the s t a r t of in-tune s i n g i n g , a b i l i t y to c l a p and sing o s t i n a t o e s , e t c , e t c , l i k e t h a t . . u m . . T h a t ' s about i t , I guess..I do..I r e a l l y l i k e teaching music, because the kids have a l o t of fun with i t , and I'm a f r a i d that my a f f e c t i v e end of i t , as f a r as I'm concerned i s much, much more important than anything e l s e . I'm r e a l l y not t o o . . . So the enjoyment i s f i r s t , and underlies everything. That's r i g h t , and the s k i l l s come second. Uhhum. . . . i f they are introduced to the s k i l l s over several y e a r s , because the Koda'ly program i s meant to go that way, they, by the end of t h e i r three years i n the primary end, t h e y ' l l know a l l those rhythmic elements. i f the program i s m a i n t a i n e d . . y e a h . . . okay, and, um..what about i n comparison to other c l a s s e s . . s u b j e c t s , that you are teaching, f o r example, math. How does your preparation time compare? Preparation t i m e . . . w e l l I use, I have been using the same set of lesson plans f o r about three years with Koda'ly, my prep time with Kodaly i s much l e s s than i t i s with other s u b j e c t s , l i k e . . I can j u s t pull out a lesson plan and say, "That's the one for today," and then i t ' s simply a matter of c o l l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s , and have them ready on my desk. That's one, another thing I l i k e about i t i s , I'm f a m i l i a r with the program, I know my lessons..where they are taking me..and I don't have to spend a l o t of time preparing. But i t took, how l o n g . . ? W e l l , i t took at l e a s t three years to get up to that l e v e l , l i k e I'd make lesson plans as I went along the f i r s t year I taught. The second year I taught, I rewrote every lesson p l a n , I never used another one a g a i n . By my t h i r d year I'd refined them..a l i t t l e b i t more..added  162 Interview #2A T:  some d i f f e r e n t things to them, and then of course l a s t year I d i d n ' t teach i t at a l l , because music wasn't my part of the teaching arrangement, and then t h i s y e a r . . I ' m p u l l i n g out o l d lesson plans. I guess I'm having to spend a b i t of time, because I haven't done i t f o r a y e a r , I'm having to review i t . . . s i n g i t over.  R:  When you f i r s t started teaching, how much time were you spending i n preparation, approximately?  T:  I probably was spending between f i f t e e n and t h i r t y minutes for each l e s s o n , preparing .  R:  Uhhum, which i s quite a b i t of time.  T:  . . T h a t ' s r i g h t , i t i s quite a b i t of time, but i t was also very new to me, and not knowing a l o t about music, and every time I kept going to a workshop, you know, I was learning something new as opposed t o , you know, not j u s t the c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g , I was l e a r n i n g .  R:  Yes.  T:  as we went a l o n g .  R:  Yeah..taking j u s t a quick look at evaluation or a s s e s s i n g , student t e s t i n g , do you do that?  T:  No, I don't do any t e s t i n g .  R:  On report c a r d s , or report card comments, do you comment on music?  T:  I do comment on the odd report c a r d , now, I haven't a l o t since I went part-time .  R: T:  Why? Because we haven't a l o t , I teach the language arts segment and the math segment, which tends to be what parents want to hear about, and so when I f i n i s h w r i t i n g a l l that p a r t , my partner wants to have some space to add anything t o o . . s o I don't comment too often on music. I u s u a l l y comment on c h i l d r e n who r e a l l y enjoy i t , who are r e a l l y i n v o l v e d , who are always a s k i n g , you know, " M u s i c ' s next,can I do t h i s ? " o r , "Can we do t h a t ? " . . u m . .and c h i l d r e n who t h a t ? " . . u m . . and c h i l d r e n who have, or seem to have, a natural a b i l i t y , that are catching on r e a l l y q u i c k l y , and, a h , doing r e a l l y e x c e p t i o n a l l y well with the s k i l l s . Okay, super, you mentioned that you do not do any t e s t i n g i n the classroom. Why?  163 Interview #2A Oh b a s i c a l l y , because I think kids do not need to be t e s t e d . . t h e y get tested a l l day l o n g , a l l the time i n Language Arts and Math, and I'm a f r a i d t h a t ' s the core of my program..that I shouldn t apologi ze f o r . . . No. That's . . I think t h a t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y important, and they know that there are c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a that they have to meet, i n those other b l o c k s , and I think i n music time that we can l e t each i n d i v i d u a l excel i n t h e i r own way and we do not have to make i t a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . We can make i t j u s t an enjoyable one. Have you had any parent comments, questions, or asking f o r about the program?  information  No. Never? Never. Okay, the l a s t question, i f you were could you look back over teaching Kodaly, over the l a s t y e a r , for example, and describe one l e s s o n , that you f e l t was r e a l l y g o o d . . . t h a t r e a l l y worked? Humm They a l l go reasonably w e l l . I c a n ' t think of one that i s r e a l l y outstanding . . l e t me think a b i t , maybe I can come up with o n e . . . I t ' s um, i t ' s r e a l l y nice to hear t h a t , that reaction to that question that most, or a l l of them are working. Yeah,..they a l l work, are b a s i c a l l y working r e a l l y w e l l , I have a very keen bunch t h i s y e a r , and so they get involved i n every l e s s o n , that we are involved in..hmm. I guess, I guess, maybe the one where I introduced ' t o o ' , i t went r e a l l y , r e a l l y w e l l , I was pleased that they caught on to i t so q u i c k l y . And why, why did you feel t h a t , that was..what elements of the lesson made i t so successful? R e a l l y well organized. I think I spent at l e a s t a h a l f an hour before f i g u r i n g out e x a c t l y what I was going to do with i t . I wasn't going to l e t i t f a l l to chance that we would...and so I went over the songs, and wrote them o u t , and, uh, checked my own rhythmic symbols on each l i n e , and made sure that that they were exactly the way I wanted them, and thought about at what point I would introduce the new element, and I r e a l l y thought about i t a l o t . I think t h a t ' s probably why i t went r e a l l y w e l l .  164 Interview #2A R: T:  Okay. ..and a l l the equipment was ready to go..none of t h i s uh, "Casey, can you go f i n d i t on the back s h e l f ? " , i t was a l l s i t t i n g there ready to go.  R:  Uhhum, super..um, those are my questions about how you use the program, ..Do you have any other comments that you'd l i k e to make?  T:  I don't think s o .  R:  Okay, thank you. .  T:  Wel1, thank you.  165  Interview 2:  #2A, Thursday, May 6, 3:30 P.M.  F i r s t o f a l l , how was the d e c i s i o n made for you to teach Koda'ly? W e l l , f o r me i t wasn't r e a l l y a d e c i s i o n that could be made because i t was the only t r a i n i n g that I had, so t h a t ' s what I was going to teach. Whether or not the program was i n the school that I had been assigned t o , wasn't a concern at that p o i n t . I t wasn't u n t i l I went to the d i s t r i c t , a h , Orientation Day, that I even r e a l i z e d that they did Koda'ly i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , and t h a t ' s when I met the Program Developer, and she was quite t h r i l l e d that I had even taken i t at university. And I think you are one of the few people that does have some t r a i n i n g . What were your i n i t i a l reactions when you went to those f i r s t sessions? Oh, I thought they were e x c e l l e n t , a b s o l u t e l y , you know. Uhhum good, i n what ways?..you know, s p e c i f i c a l l y ? W e l l , they would go through and they'd say ,"Here are a set of l e s s o n s , to get through September, or September or October". And they go through each l e s s o n , and how i t was presented, and so on and so f o r t h . Now I sat i n the grade 1 meeting, because I was teaching a grade 2 c l a s s but they hadn't had Kodaly, so I was going to be doing it. It was r e a l l y simple, and i t was easy to understand and f i g u r e out and do with the kids afterwards. Yuh..and so you started with the program and worked through  it.  That's r i g h t . ..which i s super. I think t h a t ' s the way to do i t , i f i t could be arranged. Yes. I think s o , I d o n ' t think you'd understand the grade 2 and 3 program i f you hadn't gone through the grade 1 s t u f f . Yuh, I j u s t , you're fortunate because there are a l o t of teachers that haven't had that opportunity. Um, could you sum up your reactions now, a f t e r having worked with i t for what, about four years? Yeah, about four years um, I s t i l l am r e a l l y , r e a l l y happy with i t . I use i t a l o t . The things that I am unhappy with are the time allotments that they expect us to use for i t . I t ' s very u n r e a l i s t i c , e s p e c i a l l y considering the f a c t that they've j u s t increased our P . E . times and so o n , and reduced our c u l t u r a l times, which means music and so on, have been reduced. So we d o n ' t have the time to do i t three or four times a week, um. The other thing I'm unhappy  166  Interview 2: #2A T:  with about, and i t ' s not anyone's f a u l t but my own, r e a l l y , i s that I d o n ' t have the grade 2 t r a i n i n g . The years I spent going to Kodaly workshops, I spent going to the year 1 program, and so I'm having to semi-teach myself the year 2 m a t e r i a l . Now, being f a m i l i a r with the year 1 material and how t h a t ' s presented and so on i s a big h e l p , but s t i l l I spend a l o t of time going through the book. Like I s t i l l haven't taught my c l a s s "ray' or ' t i c k a t i c k a ' and I'm having a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g , myself between the small i n t e r v a l s i n those notes, and so when I'm experiencing concern with i t , I know i t ' s going to , they are going to experience concern with i t as w e l l .  R:  And so you're j u s t taking i t very s l o w l y ?  T:  Yea..very s l o w l y .  R:  Okay, um, have you n o t i c e d , i n that time, any changes i n your expectations of y o u r s e l f as a teacher of music?  T:  Uhhum...  R: . T:  In what ways? I think I spend f a r l e s s time i n preparation and planning of music than I did at the beginning. I think a l o t of that i s not because I'm getting m o r e . . w e l l , part o f i t i s because I am more f a m i l i a r with the program, but a l o t of i t i s because when y o u ' r e f i r s t . . . t h o s e f i r s t few years you teach, you put your " a l l " into everything you do.  R: T:  Yes. And, a f t e r a while you don't do t h a t . certain areas.  You know, you concentrate on  R:  ..Do you think your teaching a b i l i t i e s i n music have changed?  T:  Probably s o . . . n o t a l o t . . . I s t i l l am not knowledgeable at a l l . I am knowledgeable as f a r as my kids are with the program. But t h a t ' s about as f a r as I could say I am. 'Cause I had no music t r a i n i n g at all.  R:  S o . . i t w i l l be with working through the program a couple of times.  T:  That's r i g h t .  R:  Varying i t each time, or adding each time.  T:  Yeah..  R:  Now, as you say, you d i d n ' t h a v e . . . o r have very l i t t l e music background. How did that act on your l e a r n i n g the teaching of t h i s program?  167 Interview 2 : #2A I think i t meant I had to spend a l o t more time than other people d i d . Where other people already understood how you divided things into bars and measures and what those symbols, the two bar l i n e s with the dots meant , I had to teach that to myself, on top of a l l the other concepts; learning the games, l e a r n i n g the words. And so I think I had to work harder at i t than someone who had a music background. But I . . . o n the other hand, I also think that t h i s i s a program that can be done f o r someone t h a t , ah, that doesn't have any music background. That at l e a s t you can l e a r n . Whereas i f somebody had stuck me into a conservatory program, my gosh, you know, I would have been j u s t fumbling from the s t a r t , and n e v e r . . . I ' d quit a f t e r two t r i e s , because you c o u l d n ' t get anywhere with i t . At l e a s t with t h i s , i f you p e r s i s t with i t , you can at l e a s t understand what t h e y ' r e t r y i n g to get a t . And as you say, the teacher learns along with the c l a s s . That's r i g h t . . . w i t h the students, and s o . . a h , and i f t h e y ' r e capable of learning i t , eventually.. Yeah..the teacher ought to be able to learn i t i f the kids can. Yuh.. There's no reason not to l e a r n . y o u r s e l f to l e a r n , I t h i n k .  It's  j u s t i f you don't want to commit  Uhhuh, t h e r e ' s a l o t to that one. Um..the program i s d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d . What does that mean to you? D i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d . . . i t means that we can, i f we w i s h , use K o d a l y . . . but we do not have t o . Okay, i t ' s interpreted i n grand and g l o r i o u s forms a l l over. It's most i n t e r e s t i n g . Now, why do you think the Kodaly program was chosen f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t ? I think probably because i t was a new program that had been recently introduced. That i t had shown a great many...a great deal of success i n Hungary and places i n the U . S . , where i t had been implemented and used, and so based on those successes they t r i e d i t and because they ended up having some teachers that had gone back E a s t , I t h i n k , to do the t r a i n i n g , and so they had expertise i n the district. So better to go with something that someone has expertise i n , than something that someone d o e s n ' t . What are your reactions to having a s p e c i f i e d music program, that i t be Koda'ly music, not Orff music, or anything e l s e . I think t h a t ' s not good, I don't think t h a t ' s quite r i g h t . Now, why?  168 Interview 2 : #2A I t ' s j u s t l i k e i n the language a r t s program, that we have authorized material and we have prescribed m a t e r i a l . That i f you take a l l the choice away from i t , then t h e r e ' s bound to be bad f e e l i n g s somewhere along the l i n e . That some t e a c h e r ' s going to s a y . . " I d o n ' t care wha they say, I'm going to do i t " . And you know those kinds of f e e l i n g s can be avoided i f you at l e a s t give at l e a s t two c h o i c e s , you can do this..or this... Do you feel you have lee-way, or l a t i t u d e , in what you teach along with the Kodaly program? I think s o . Okay. I don't think anyone i s s a y i n g , "You have to use only Kodaly", or something l i k e t h a t . Again, i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g . Some people haven't got that message, and i t ' s not what was intended, I t h i n k . No.  But i t a f f e c t s t h e i r program and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s . But you see, i f you're going to the workshops and t h e y ' r e dealing e x c l u s i v e l y with Kodaly, i f you d o n ' t , i f t h e r e ' s n o . . . i f someone doesn't say d i r e c t l y to you, "Well of course, you would supplement i t with your own m a t e r i a l . " What t h e y ' r e concentrating on i s the Kodaly program, and so I can see how that f e e l i n g would be conveyed. But I don't think i t was ever stated that you j u s t had to use that material. No, I d o n ' t think i t was.  It's  j u s t one o f those t h i n g s .  That's what people assume, yeah. Now, and the l a s t one, i t ' s been i n the d i s t r i c t f o r s i x y e a r s , and t h e r e ' s a commitment to maintain i t for a t l e a s t another three y e a r s . What are your reactions to that? Oh, I think i t should s t a y . I t ' s been established now. I think i t should stay for a good long time, give i t a chance to work, and when we can see some r e s u l t s coming out at the other end. I f we only use i t f o r , say another y e a r , w e ' l l never know because those kids that s t a r t e d with i t i n grade 1 won't have the opportunity to l e t us know u n t i l they get to say band, or whatever, that they have some musical a b i l i t y based on the f a c t that they went through t h i s program. You've got to give i t a f a i r shake. Do you feel any pressure to teach Koda'ly, j u s t because you have students coming into your classroom, that have Kodaly background?  169 Interview 2: #2A No, I don't think s o . I f e l t pressure to teach Koda'ly when I came to t h i s s c h o o l , because t h a t ' s what the p r i n c i p a l wanted when we were h i r e d . He s a y s . . . " K o d a l y i s the program we teach i n our s c h o o l " . "We are on the l i s t of schools that w i l l be aided t h i s y e a r , i n terms of implementing Kodaly". And of course that wasn't a scary thing f o r me because I had already done some Kodaly, but I know f o r other teachers at t h i s s c h o o l , i t was a scary t h i n g , because they had done none. They f e l t that i t would be too d i f f i c u l t for them to do. Um, looking a t , okay, f i r s t , s p e c i f i c sequence o f s k i l l s f o r the program..do you vary that sequence that i s suggested i n the program? Yes, I slow i t down..I spend f a r more time working on the game a n g l e . , and the having fun angle than I worry about the s k i l l angle. For instance, my group, we are only up to 'lah* and ' t o o ' . We've done two/four time, but j u s t sort o f , as a side l i n e , we haven't gotten to ' r a y ' . Well we've gotten a l i t t l e b i t to ' d o h ' . . . a n d not having done ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . I ' l l be lucky i f I get two-thirds of the way through the program, because I slow i t down so much, I don't worry too much about the s k i l l s . I ' l l introduce one s k i l l , say every couple of months, and then w e ' l l work on that through a l l the games and a c t i v i t i e s , but I don't do a l o t of flashcard d r i l l s or w r i t i n g things i n t h e i r desks with the music. I'd sooner spend the time singing and playing around with the games. Okay, teaching grade 2 ; are there any of those s k i l l s that you f i n d more d i f f i c u l t to present? Uhhum, ' t i c k - t i c k a ! ' What i s i t . . t h e . . ? I don't know how to do i t ! I d o n ' t know how to present i t ! It's a rhythmic element. I t ' s a . . t h e ' t a - t a ' i s with the ' t o o ' , and the ' t i c k a t i c k a ' (claps) i s c l o s e r together than that and I j u s t have a heck of a time t o . . . I mean I can barely clap i t l e t alone explain to the k i d s . Or lead them to hearing t h a t . T h a t ' s r i g h t . You have to hear i t . I mean the f a c t that it's four., .(teacher claps) so close together., .you have to be able t o , you have to be able to a s s i m i l a t e those four together and r e a l i z e i t ' s four separate i n d i v i d u a l . . .1 have a heck of a time. Have you talked to anybody about how to work, teaching that? No, I haven't. But, I should because I'm sure i t c a n ' t be any more d i f f i c u l t than any of the other ones, i t ' s j u s t that I'm l e t t i n g something hold me back here!  170 Interv i ew 2: #2A I know, I appreciate t h a t ! Um, and, and do, i f you've got problems teaching the program, do you t a l k to anybody i n the school? Yeah I u s u a l l y t a l k to L. across the way, she teaches the grade 2's for G. and the grade I's and she's been doing i t f o r a couple of years What kinds of concerns do you discuss? Mostly I t a l k about the f a c t that we're not going too f a s t . . . a n d she sort o f says, " W e l l , you know, i t ' s not that important." Well, I'm looking more f o r reassurance than anything e l s e , r e a l l y . And the intent i s to do what you can do? That's r i g h t . To do as much as I c a n , and I am a f r a i d that when i t gets to the end of the grade 2 program, I'm going to be r e a l l y uncomfortable, because I'm not as f a m i l i a r with i t as I should be, and I think t h a t ' s the reason, I avoid i t more than the f a c t that I c a n ' t do i t . I t ' s j u s t that I'm not as happy with myself doing i t . I feel a l i t t l e on edge, a l i t t l e uneasy, s o r t of when y o u ' r e student teaching, you know? Yes. You're not quite sure i t , i t ' s going to work, or not? What i s the next step going to be. I t ' s , the teachers who have worked with the program for s i x y e a r s , teaching i t f o r s i x y e a r s , now are beginning to say, "I feel comfortable with the program, I'm beginning to experiment a b i t with i t , " but i t ' s taken s i x y e a r s . That's r i g h t . I d o n ' t experiment with i t at a l l . When i t says, "Present ' l a h ' such and such a way," t h a t ' s e x a c t l y the way I do i t , I do i t with the same song. I do i t i n the same o r d e r . I've got my book open r i g h t i n f r o n t of me, so I d o n ' t miss out anything along the way. You know, do i t e x a c t l y the way the program describes Okay, have f a i t h , i t takes time! Um, does your, how does your administrator react to or support the program? W e l l , he i s i n s i s t e n t that i t be u s e d , i n the s c h o o l , as f a r as i n s i s t e n c e can go. L i k e he says, "Kodaly i s the program f o r our primary." As f a r as coming into my c l a s s to make sure I'm doing i t , no he doesn't do t h a t . He knows I'm doing i t , cause I t e l l him I'm doing i t but he doesn't come down to check i t . How does he support the program, or your teaching of the program?  171 Interview 2: #2A Um, well he ' s got a l l the supplies that are required to be able to do i t , l i k e the f e l t boards and the b e l l s , melody b e l l s , and the rhythm instruments and the rhythm records, the Bowmar s e r i e s that we need to go with i t , or that can supplement i t , and anything we've asked for we've got to aid the program. So, he's supportive i n terms of providing the materials that are needed. He's also supportive i n the sense that h e ' l l allow people who a r e n ' t comfortable with i t to do some switching around so that the kids get i t . He doesn't c a r e , r e a l l y , whether you teach i t , as long as the kids get i t , because t h a t ' s supposedly the program we're u s i n g . Yes, and that i s the i n t e n t , that the school adopt the program, and how i t ' s taught i s up to that s t a f f . Right. Um, when you were attending workshops, were you given release time? Yes. How did you f i n d out about workshops? Ah, I got l e t t e r s from (Program Developer) a l l the time, because, I guess because when I f i r s t started i n the d i s t r i c t , and I was at that O r i e n t a t i o n Day, and I had spent some time t a l k i n g with her about being on the Koda'ly program, and so on, I used to get the l e t t e r s j u s t sent to me at the s c h o o l . Um, the other teachers found out about them when I t o l d them about i t , or when the M u s i c . . . I think I found out about a couple of them because of the Music Coo r d i n a t o r , I may have gotten a n o t i c e , to know about possible i n s e r v i c e s , and posting them. So, word of mouth plus  that d i r e c t contact.  Yeah, the d i r e c t c o n t a c t , y e s . Because, t h a t ' s another concern, how do people f i n d out about things? Yea, r i g h t . Um, have you used students, parents or anyone e l s e i n teaching the Kodaly program i n your classroom? > Oh, no I've never used students or parents. I always do i t myself. Were there s t a f f i n - s e r v i c e s at t h i s school? Yes, there were. Did you attend them?  172 Interview 2: #2A No. Last year there were two, I t h i n k , half-day i n - s e r v i c e s , but, see, I teach p a r t - t i m e . Last y e a r , my teaching partner was W. She taught the music segment because she was trained i n music, and had already worked with Kodaly program and she r e a l l y wanted to do i t . While I could do i t , I chose not t o . I s a i d , " F i n e , i f you want to do i t , t h a t ' s f i n e with me., because you have more background, y o u ' r e more comfortable, with i t probably, than I am." So i t wasn't that I wasn't prepared to teach i t , she chose to do that segment of the program. So I wasn't involved with the i n - s e r v i c e s , but there were i n - s e r v i c e s at t h i s s c h o o l . I know that (Music Resource Teacher) was out at the school about s i x d i f f e r e n t time, observing W.'s c l a s s , and taking our c l a s s to show her how to do a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l or present a concept, or whatever. Now, have you used (Music Resource Teacher) at a l l , y o u r s e l f ? No. Why? W e l l , I think because mostly, I would feel r e a l l y uncomfortable with it. Because I know how s k i l l e d she i s with i t , and how comparatively u n s k i l l e d I am with i t , and.that she would be shocked to f i n d out how f a r behind my kids were. Yes, I don't think that would bother her, r e a l l y . No, i t probably wouldn't, but t h a t ' s sort of how I f e e l . I would feel d e f e n s i v e , s h e ' s going to come and I probably haven't done i t the way I'm supposed t o , you know, that kind of t h i n g . Next year! Yea, r i g h t ! Ah, videotapes, have you seen any videotapes of classes in action? No. No , and have you observed any Kodaly c l a s s e s i n a c t i o n ? I guess I have. At u n i v e r s i t y I d i d , because she brought i n her c l a s s of kids that she taught the year previously and showed a couple of techniques that she did with them, at the u n i v e r s i t y . Was that approach of value to you, or? W e l l , I don't think i t r e a l l y was, i n that s e t t i n g , because we were a l l student teachers anyway. We had no idea about regular teaching, techniques, you know, l e t along a special technique with music.  173 Interview 2:  #2A  For most of us i t was c e r t a i n l y i n t e r e s t i n g to watch, but I don't know i f we gained a great deal out of i t . You d i d n ' t know what to observe? No, I don't think we d i d , I d o n ' t , you know, when I think back now, do I remember anything she did? No, I d o n ' t r e a l l y remember anything she showed u s , so obviously I wasn't looking at the r i g h t t h i n g s . Would you f i n d . . . t h i n k that would be of value for you, now? I t h i n k , y e s , i t probably would be, to watch another teacher...Someone l i k e (Music Resource Teacher) or (Program Developer) or someone who's been working with the program for s i x years and f e e l pretty comfortable with i t , that wouldn't be bothered by someone s i t t i n g and watching. Yea, i t i s a g o o d . . . i t ' s a good way to see the sense of what can be done, or what i s being done. R i g h t . As a matter o f f a c t t h a t ' s a r e a l l y good i d e a . I should approach the p r i n c i p a l about t h a t , about going to see someone. Uhhum, I'm sure he'd support that t o o . Yes, he does, and t h a t ' s r e a l l y . . . h e ' s musical himself, and he l i k e s to see the music program going places i n t h i s s c h o o l . But I think being aware of how d i f f i c u l t to m a s t e r . . .  i t i s , to get teachers  That's r i g h t . . . . a l l those s k i l l s . Okay, taking a quick look at d i s t r i c t provided resources. The music resource book, could you sort of b r i e f l y outl i n e what parts of that you f i n d u s e f u l , or you use? I use a l l of the material at the back, where i t shows how to present, p r a c t i c e or j u s t r e i n f o r c e a s k i l l . Ah, I use the index pages, where a l l the songs are indexed so I can check back and see what games go with i t , or what the words are i f I don't know that song. And I use the f r o n t segment-the f i r s t l i s t , you know, where they show what date you should be on a c e r t a i n song, and I use that as a guidel i n e to go through. So, y o u ' r e making use of a good p a r t . . . P r e t t y well every part of the program. I don't use a l o t of the worksheets. I have used them once or t w i c e , but I don't use much of that kind o f t h i n g .  174 Interview 2 : #2A Okay. Oh, and I a l s o use a l l t h e i r f l a s h c a r d s , and everything that was provided with the b o o k . . . I use those. Any d i f f i c u l t i e s accessing any information i n that resource book? No. No. Um, any recommendations for changing i t ? Are there any things that you could see being added? or deleted? That would make i t more val uabl e? Umm, no, I c a n ' t . I r e a l l y c a n ' t think of any. L i k e what I've taken i t and r e w r i t t e n i t into lesson p l a n s , and j u s t whenever I'm going to use i t verbatim out of the book, I j u s t say, "See Kodaly Manual." But I f i n d i t more useful to have them w r i t t e n up i n that format, than hunting through t h i s . But I think t h a t ' s something every teacher has to do,hunt through the book to f i g u r e out where they are going to go, otherwise t h e y ' l l never be f a m i l i a r with the book anyway...and the m a t e r i a l . I f they are given a whole set of lesson p l a n s , they are never going to get as f a m i l i a r with as they would from f l i p p i n g around and f i g u r i n g out what parts go together. Everything i s there that you need, you j u s t have to thumb through to f i n d i t .  :  R:  The i n - s e r v i c e sessions at the L . R . C , what parts of those were valuable? What aspect? I think probably the parts where we a c t u a l l y did the rhythms o r , i f we were working on beat at that p a r t i c u l a r time, we a c t u a l l y got involved i n a c t i v i t i e s , moving around and so on and so f o r t h . And played the games, we knew how they went besides j u s t reading the w r i t t e n part t h e r e , because sometimes i t doesn't make very much sense. When y o u ' r e j u s t reading the words on how the game i s played, So we played the games, we clapped the rhythms, we tapped the rhythms, you know, we practiced with the f l a s h c a r d s , and used the modulators and so on. So we were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t so we would remember how those techniques were applied to t e a c h i n g , and I think t h a t ' s the part I enjoyed the most. Okay, and ah, any recommendations f o r those workshops to improve them?  T:  To slow down.  R:  Okay Yea..they would go through about two or three or four months worth o f lessons i n one and a h a l f hours, and my gosh, you're j u s t f l i p p i n g papers l e f t , r i g h t and c e n t e r , and by the time you got out of t h e r e , your mind was spinning because you c o u l d n ' t remember whether that part came with t h i s l e s s o n , or with another one, and your notes were a l l i n a j a r b l e , and you c a n ' t r e a l l y t e l l what's up or down.  T:  175 Interview 2: #2A Okay, so j u s t take one or two l e s s o n s , and r e a l l y concentrate on them or more i n - s e r v i c e , or l e s s at each time? I think s o . . . o r give a broader overview as opposed to wanting s i x t e e i n d i v i d u a l lessons i n a row, and s a y i n g , "Okay, now we're onto lesso 4. Now we're onto lesson 5 " , and f l i p p i n g through papers. You know, you s t a r t to get l o s t . You d o n ' t even know where y o u ' r e a t . Sort of past the saturation  point!  That's r i g h t . Um, and the i n - c l a s s resource teacher, you said that you hadn' requested her. No. And that you wouldn't feel comfortable with t h a t , at t h i s time. Is that f a i r ? That's f a i r . Okay, have you involved any other d i s t r i c t personnel i n concerns with the program? No, not that I can think  of.  Okay, then j u s t two general questions. A h , the program was developed^ l o c a l l y , i t ' s being changed and modified. Are there any recommendations that you could make, or would make, to help the classroom teacher teach that program, i n the f u t u r e , as i t ' s continued to be implemented? (pause) I think that t h e . . . I think that the best way to l e a r n i t , w e l l , would be to go to i n - s e r v i c e s , 'cause I don't think that you can get i t by j u s t reading the manual. And I think t h a t ' s what scares o f f a l o t of teachers who haven't been to the i n - s e r v i c e s , who think the program i s some horrendous thing because a l l they do i s look at the book. There are a l l these foreign looking symbols, and, these funny names, l i k e ' t a ' and ' t i t i ' and, "What i n the world does that mean?" and, I t h i n k , by going to the i n - s e r v i c e s you soon f i g u r e out that i t ' s not as t e r r i b l e as you thought i t was to begin with. So, an absolute necessity i s that those i n - s e r v i c e s be continued? I think s o , y e s . And that support be given? Yes, I think s o , y e s .  176 Interview 2: #2A Now, other d i s t r i c t s , Prince George f o r example i s adopting somewhat o f a s i m i l a r program. Are there any recommendations that you would make when t h i s kind of a program i s implemented? (pause) What would you see as being e s s e n t i a l ? W e l l , I think that they would have to go through, ah, a s e r i e s of i n - s e r v i c e s , i n the f i r s t y e a r , without making a recommendation that teachers be required to implement i t , at l e a s t that f i r s t year so that they have a chance to go to i n - s e r v i c e s and not feel pressured, running back to the room and t r y i n g to teach i t madly and then go back for another i n - s e r v i c e , before they could teach more, and have a manual l i k e we do. But I think t h a t ' s the only reason I got turned on to i t , and stuck with i t , i s because I went to the i n - s e r v i c e s . And you're a l s o saying a gradual, a very gradual  introduction?  I think s o , y e s , cause I hear what other people say about the Kodaly program i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . "My God, I have to teach i t ! " and they are scared to death. And, t h a t ' s not f a i r , you know. Teachers are stabbed with curriculum changes, every subject l e v e l , at every l e v e l . Over seven years we can have f i v e curriculum changes. It's not f a i r to expect teachers to be able to keep up with a l l those t h i n g s , and then on top of i t , throw i n a new program and say, " W e l l , here i t i s . You've got to s t a r t teaching i t tomorrow!" That's not f a i r . I think they should do the kind of implementation they took with the Language P a t t e r n s , and the Ginn 720. That was a process over four y e a r s . I think now, we're s t i l l i n the midst of that process. There's one more year before schools have to s t a r t using those-two programs, as opposed to t h e i r o l d s e r i e s , so i t gives people l o t s of chance f o r adjustment. There's been l o t s of i n - s e r v i c e s offered a f t e r s c h o o l , during school days, and release time o f f , for every school so they could go to a Ginn 720 workshop, a Language Patterns workshop and so o n . That was a very gradual implementation. I think i t worked r e a l l y w e l l . l  Lots o f support a g a i n . That's r i g h t . Yuh.. You know, a l o t of release time, a l o t of people coming into the s c h o o l s , a l o t of sending out memos that have b i t s and pieces of things that you can use the program to help you get s t a r t e d , and so o n . That kind of thing i s what you need, when you're s t a r t i n g a new program. Okay, thanks. The very l a s t question I'd l i k e to ask you i s ; you were going to describe t h i s program, what i s Kodaly?  if  177 Interview 2: #2A I t h i n k , Kodaly i s a program designed to get c h i l d r e n aware of music, the function o f music that music plays i n t h e i r l i v e s . That i s has, um, elements that they should know about l i k e beat and rhythm and p i t c h and speed and so o n . That i t can be useful i n t h e i r own l i v e s , that they can play with i t , that they can have fun with i t , that they can learn something from i t , that i t can have c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the sense that you can learn there are songs from such and such a country t h a t , um, describe the t r a d i t i o n s and so on and so f o r t h . Okay, thank you very much. Thank you.  178  (*Only one of a t o t a l of fourteen interview Interview  #6.P  transcripts.)  Thursday, A p r i l 29, 2:40 P.N.  Okay, for the f i r s t question I'd music" mean for you?  l i k e to ask  you, what does "teaching  Um.. at t h i s l e v e l I think i t ' s enjoyment that adds to every moment of the day, not j u s t in music p e r i o d . I use i t constantly to assemble c h i l d r e n , or to put over an idea i n Language A r t s , a song, or whatever. I t ' s j u s t part of every minute of the day. F a n t a s t i c , so part of t h e i r l i f e , not a separate event. No. Good.  What would then, for you, c o n s t i t u t e a good music program?  Uh, I think a l o t o f songs that appeal to the c h i l d r e n . , they f i n d easy to s i n g , r e l a t e t o , some of these chanting type songs, they r e a l l y seem to enjoy. They l i k e playing games to the songs, except they have to l e a r n the song well f i r s t . I f i n d the games overshadows the singing unless they learn the song well enough..um. I think the technical part of the program that we're using now, with the worksheet end of i t , boards notes, that part of i t , that i s good, but not to the l a t t e r part of the primary. I f e e l , I think that at times i t i s overwhelming f o r the young c h i l d r e n . And s o , s e t t i n g a basis of enjoyment, and music i s e s s e n t i a l , or a part of l i f e . That's r i g h t . Is the basic and underlies the s k i l l Right., right..  part.  That's how I feel for the e a r l y part of primary, y e s .  Good. Okay, now you've been teaching Koda'ly for about s i x years and teaching for about twelve y e a r s , what type of music program were you using before you began to use the Kodaly? Um, b a s i c a l l y j u s t the This i s Music, and various music books, S a l l y go Round the Sun as a source, um, j u s t l i t t l e j i n g l e s that I've picked up over the years through Prime Areas, or shared with other teachers, um, done a l i t t l e b i t of operetta work, not too much, we have h a d . . I have been involved in a couple of primary operettas. I found that they were very enjoyable, but i t got to the point t h a t , uh, i t r e a l l y l i m i t e d what you did i n music, at the time you were doing the performance s o . .  179 Interview #6 P Okay, then, a h , how would the Kodaly program compare with what you were doing previously? I think i t ' s helped me organize my music a l o t more. Um.. I've p a r t i c u l a r l y found, t h i s y e a r , I've started the "Math t h e i r Way" program, and a key thing in t h e i r program i s developing patterns, recognizing p a t t e r n s , and i t ' s gone together b e a u t i f u l l y with ' t a t i t i t a ' and the r e s t . And we've done rhythm clapping the Math program, and i t j u s t a l l flows into one another, and they've been s a y i n g , "Oh, look t h e r e ' s a pattern here and a pattern t h e r e , " and they don't know whether i t ' s music or math that t h e y ' r e doing now. Musical m a t h . . o r . . That's r i g h t , and as a matter of f a c t , the other day, a l i t t l e g i r l was working i n her workbook, and she had c i r c l e d the answers and they had g o n e . . . m i d d l e , up, down, and she said "Oh, t h i s i s j u s t l i k e music, soh, l a h , soh, me' (sung on t a p e ) , and she was singing through her answers in the book and I thought, " W e l l , i t ' s r e a l l y i n t e g r a t i n g i t . " . . . But they are looking f o r the pattern i d e a , and that i s what happened with i t , so I'm r e a l l y excited about that part t h i s year. Super., and then to sort of sum up t h i s , what would "teaching Kodaly" mean for you, now? Um.. i n one word:  "organization".  Okay, great, now I'd l i k e you to take a look at some elements of music, of your t o t a l music program r a t i n g these as being o f importance; zero being not important; two, of average importance; and f o u r , very important. Could you look at each one of these elements and then rate them? Would you l i k e to look at them f i r s t of a l l ? Yeah, w e ' l l j u s t have a l o o k . In-tune, I f e e l i t ' s r e a l l y important., but t h a t ' s one area I've r e a l l y had trouble w i t h . . I'm not strong i n v o i c e , I do play the piano, and have used that as a c r u t c h , you might say, in e s t a b l i s h i n g pitch..Yes. . . a s a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g p i t c h , or whatever.. Yes, or melody b e l l . . b u t I found with the Koda'ly program that they stressed that you d i d n ' t have to lead the c l a s s , you started them and you l e t the c h i l d r e n s i n g , so I'm learning to do that over the y e a r s . So I would r a t e , i f I were looking at t h i s from the c h i l d r e n ' s point of view, that i t i s very important. And strong f e e l i n g for rhythm, I think t h a t ' s very important as w e l l , and we develop that i t needs that developing. L i t e r a c y i n terms of w r i t i n g or reading, I would put that at an a v e r a g e . . .  180 Interview #6 P Use of rhythm instruments, a h , 2 to 3, I think i t ' s important and I have used i t , but not as much as I should. Ah, o s t i n a t o techniques, yes I've done t h a t , I'd say 2; for that though; um, the s t i c k n o t a t i o n , you mean the w r i t i n g of t h e . . Yes. a h . , y e s , 3 I'd s a y . . a t t h i s time of the year..ahm, reading conventional n o t a t i o n , other than j u s t the notes, we haven't put the s t i c k s to them or anything, but we are at that p o i n t , s o r t o f , um, putting i t on the s t a f f , at t h i s point i n grade one, yes . . So that would b e . . ? Ah, 2 to 3, at that p o i n t . Thank you very much, that was great. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the d i f f e r e n t uses at d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s , as w e l l , because I've been working with people from kindergarten to grade 3 . . um.. V a r i e s . . . U m , looking at some of the s p e c i f i c elements of the teaching m a t e r i a l s ; f i r s t of a l l the songs, do you see values of the songs i n the Kodaly program, as teaching material? Um.. t h e r e ' s that c o n t i n u i t y . . t h a t I f i n d , you know i t ' s very s e q u e n t i a l l y developed, s t a r t i n g from point 1 and going through, and I've worked with i t up to grade 3 and I have worked through. Um, sometimes the r e p e t i t i o n , of l i k e the ' s o h ' , 'mi' in the beginning appears to be boring and I feel the c h i l d r e n s t i l l need, ah, time to have nonsense songs, a h , hand play songs..and things t o , and you can work that into the Kodaly as w e l l , but they encourage you to use that as w e l l , t h a t ' s r i g h t . I was going to ask what songs you've answered t h a t . Are there any other Kodaly program? Ahm..not many that I can think of o f f I use a few things out of t h e r e , and you know,.. offhand.  added, but you've already songs that you've added to the hand, other than This i s Music 1, ah, I c a n ' t say s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  Some j u s t for enjoyment, not to do with the Koda'ly program, and some that you s o r t of adapt to use with Kodaly techniques, i s that correct? Ah, yes and clapping rhythm,^that sort of t h i n g , f i t t i n g i t i n with other songs.  181 Interview #6 p Working with the grade one students. At t h i s l e v e l , at t h i s l e v e l I l i k e to get involved with i t , but i t i s n ' t a p r i o r i t y , I feel the other development, i f they d o n ' t have the rhythm and the p i t c h f i r s t you might as well forget the r e s t ; ah, c r e a t i v e expression and i m p r o v i s a t i o n , I think t h a t ' s t e r r i f i c , kids love to improvise, and i t should be a l l part of i t , so I'd rate that h i g h ; and l i s t e n i n g . . t h a t ' s part of i t too i f they have a model to hear..and emulate, then they need that t o o . . s o I think t h a t ' s a very important one as w e l l . Super, and as you were s a y i n g , the in-tune singing and the rhythm are sort of the basics of the Kodaly t o . . . to f u r t h e r the o t h e r s , y e s . Now the other c a r d , card two, are elements of the Koda'ly program and I'd l i k e you to rate them in use i n your program. Zero being used not at a l l , two of average use, and four being used in a l l or very nearly a l l l e s s o n s . Uhhuh.. okay. Would you l i k e to look at them f i r s t of a l l , or? Umm I think I can go. Hand s i g n s , y e s , I use that a l o t ; f o u r , I f i n d the c h i l d r e n r e a l l y enjoy t h a t , i t helps with t h e i r f e e l i n g the pitch. Yes, that sense of i n t e r v a l . That's r i g h t , sol fa p i t c h names: They've come along with that very w e l l , and I do use that a l l the time. Development of inner h e a r i n g . . . um.. t h a t ' s very important, but I have to say how I use i t , i t should be about a 3, yes 2 to 3, probably. I use a puppet a l o t and we're hiding i t , or whatever, . . sometimes I t h i n k : "Oh yeah, I better go back and do a l i t t l e b i t more i n that a r e a " ; echo techniques, y e s , with the rhythm clapping and the s i n g i n g . I f i n d the p i t c h i s a l i t t l e b i t more d i f f i c u l t to work with then the rhythm p a r t ; doesn't come quite as n a t u r a l l y . Part work..singing i n parts? Singing i n p a r t s , beginning with rounds, but then into harmonies. Um, I'd  have to say one, on t h a t .  I should have said at the beginning, the elements are working from kindergarten up to grade 3. Yea, I'd s t i l l say 1. We're only doing a l i t t l e b i t o f t h a t . Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s . I would say 4 for t h a t . Rhythm names, 4.  182 Interview #6 P Super, d o . . , are there any d i f f i c u l t i e s with teaching any of the Kodaly songs, that you f i n d ? Ahm, not at t h i s l e v e l , I feel f a i r l y comfortable with the grade 1 level , I found the grade 3 was a challenge . . . I wasn't up to i t ! But a f a n t a s t i c basis f o r . . Yeah, as you grow, I've done Grade 1, Grade 2 , but Grade 3 was about my l i m i t , the kids got beyond me., a f t e r they grasped i t . Are there any recommendations that you'd make about...adding new songs to the program? that you could see would improve i t ? A h . . g o s h , I don't know more f o l k songs, I think and I think they have stressed that at workshops, t h a t , you know, to use those t h i n g s , but you know...I think at the grade 1 l e v e l that " M i c h a e l , Row the Boat Ashore" or other things l i k e that that c h i l d r e n enjoy t h a t , and then i f they hear older choirs or groups s i n g i n g , they, ah, have that f e e l i n g f o r the music as w e l l , and some of the Walt Disney songs, and t h i n g s , o r , we've had f i l m s on Winnie the Pooh, and s t o r i e s to go along with that as w e l l , not h e a v i l y , because a l o t of the range, I f i n d , i s j u s t too d i f f i c u l t for them to s i n g . . b u t i t shouldn't mean they should be excluded, I don't f e e l , at times. And s o , the a d d i t i o n of songs..but ah, y o u ' r e quite r i g h t , that f i v e or s i x note range for c h i l d r e n ' s voices at the l e v e l . That's r i g h t . That l i m i t s the kinds of songs that you can use for teaching. Um, games and a c t i v i t i e s , you indicated that you used them i n almost a l l l e s s o n s . What...how do you decide what games to use? Ah, well u s u a l l y with the songs that I'm using at that l e s s o n , a h , I use the games as a break, sometimes at other times during the week, not j u s t only at the l e s s o n , um, j u s t improvise on them as I need them. So you use some of the suggestions i n the book, plus v a r i a t i o n s , or have you changed.. Ahm, mainly from the book, I've followed along with t h a t . Uhhum, okay, have y o u . , working with the students f o r s i x y e a r s , have you noticed changes i n students' understanding o f music, or in-tune singing v o i c e s , over that time, as you've begun to use the Kodaly . program and the students have begun to work with those s k i l l s ?  183 Interview #6 P Have I noticed any improvment? Yes, and I f i n d even, as I s a i d , in pitch my weak a r e a , but I f i n d that t h i s time of the year even t h e i r p i t c h i s r e a l l y very good. And you can j u s t s t a r t them o f f , and e s p e c i a l l y i f , even three c h i l d r e n who are very s t r o n g , they c a r r y i t themselves, and that i t ' s quite pleasing t h a t , a l l of a sudden, you notice that there i s that growth. That you can notice and the t u n i n g . You can notice that nice r i n g i n the a i r , when t h e y ' r e s t a r t i n g to sing. That's r i g h t . That's e x c e l l e n t , um, what do you f i n d the students' reactions are to the songs? to the Kodaly songs? Urn..not as keen as to fun songs or nonsense type s i n g i n g . And why, do you t h i n k , why do you see that? You know i t ' s hard to explain..maybe i t ' s because the nonsense songs have a greater range..and sometimes i t tends to be a l i t t l e boring when they notice that i t ' s always the same three notes that they are working w i t h . Ah, they did "Hush, L i t t l e M i n n i e " , the other day, though, and they s a i d , "Oh, I've got a record of that at home and there are other verses to t h a t ! " . That developed an i n t e r e s t but j u s t the ones they are not f a m i l i a r w i t h , I think at times, I think they do at times f i n d them a l i t t l e l i m i t i n g . As you've s a i d , you've added other songs, too, as a spark. Or changed the wording, and add t h e i r names and other colors and you know that s o r t of t h i n g , i t sort of helps i t along to change i t . Okay, and, um, have you noticed any changes i n , um, f o r example students who are perhaps shy and lack i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , as they've been involved with the games or the songs. Have you noticed that that has helped them? Yes, and I think you know, singing with puppets and things has drawn a t t e n t i o n away from them and they've joined i n and even the quietest c h i l d , by t h i s time of the year w i l l sing along s o l o , or whatever.. I ' l l often s t a r t the singing i n the morning with the attendance, and t h i n g s , where they sing to the c h i l d next to them. There's not the self-consciousness there had been on other programs, you know. I think i t works along throughout the year that they f e e l q u i t confident singing. Just as a natural part of the game or a c t i v i t y . Uhum, r i g h t , . , i f , we do i t often enough.  184 Interview #6 p Yah, t h a t ' s good, any d i f f i c u l t i e s with c h i l d r e n who have, um, perhaps c o - o r d i n a t i o n problems and clapping the rhythms? Yes, I always have some! And how do you deal with them? Um, sometimes they are r e l u c t a n t to c l a p , they recognize themselves that they have t h a t . . a h , but they t r y and instruments h e l p , rhythm, using a s t i c k , or having a maraca or something, I f i n d that t h e y ' l l j o i n i n a l o t more r e a d i l y . Sometimes sort of the honor of having t h a t . That's r i g h t ! . . i s reason f o r . . . Just persevere Okay, music c l a s s e s , do you have scheduled music classes per week, or.. Yes, I do. I ( I V-  h. f i n _ „  .  The times? Ah, now when do I have i t ? I ' l l have a l o o k , a h , two i n the afternoon, and one before l u n c h . I've t r i e d to not have them at the end of the day, because I've found i f they are t i r e d ; i t ' s not the program to be doing when they are t i r e d . But with our P . E . programs being every day as w e l l , we had to juggle them around a b i t t h i s year. But I have three d e f i n i t e classes when I f o l l o w lesson p l a n s , and a l l i n the program. And, a h , you're sort of extending the time by using the a c t i v i t i e s as change a c t i v i t i e s , or a t t e n t i o n . . . Yes, every day w e ' l l do a b i t , but i t ' s not a d e f i n i t e , " W e l l , we're going to t h i s today." Is that enough time for you to work through the grade 1 program? Ah.. More or l e s s . .  but not to the best..you know I More or l e s s . . I do get through i t don't feel that good about i t . I f i n d that I lag behind when we have a concert and I miss some, I get behind, and I feel l i k e I'm running about h a l f a month behind r i g h t now.  185 Interview  #6p  And i t depends on your group, t o o . Like sometimes you have a group t h a t ' s j u s t super. L i k e a few years ago I had a grade three group that were r e a l l y with i t , uhm, and we moved a l o t more q u i c k l y than o t h e r s . And as you say, t h e r e ' s other c h i l d r e n that even the clapping part of i t needs twice as much, whatever, and i f you haven't established t h a t , w e l l , you might as well forget i t . That basic understanding of the beat, u n d e r l y i n g . . Yes. Um, How...what would you say would be your o b j e c t i v e , or o b j e c t i v e s , f o r teaching music t h i s year? with your grade 1 c l a s s ? Um..I think an appreciation of the music, to have the sense of rhythm, and recognize the p i t c h , f e e l the p i t c h . The working with i t i n the w r i t t e n form, um, i s not as important to me I don't feel in grade 1 I think sometimes we push too much, and t h a t ' s when they feel i t i s a chore to do rather t h a n , ahm, f u n , but although, i t shouldn't be j u s t a fun thing e i t h e r , where there i s n ' t a purpose i n v o l v e d . That they don't see what's happening with t h e i r music. Uh, I feel that the worksheet part of i t c a n ' t be pushed. Uh, they enjoy recording the rhythm with the 'ta t i t i , on a piece of paper, to clap i t back and w r i t e i t down, that part of i t , but I f i n d the s t a f f work takes a l o t of work. But, through the game approach, i t works quite w e l l . . . "Who can f i n d t h i s or t h a t ? " and "What would you do?" I t ' s that type of a c t i v i t y ; but you s t i l l have the c h i l d who's h a l f , you know, h a l f a year behind. And you t r y to have them a l l worki at once to f i n d i t , but the ones who don't have the p i t c h , don't have the rhythm, those are the ones who s i t t h e r e , you s t i l l have, l i k e i n any, any c l a s s Reading, Math or whatever. 1  But you're saying that you approach each of the concepts or s k i l l s in a number of d i f f e r e n t ways to t h a t . . Yes, t r y t o . . y e a h . . b u t I would feel that the w r i t t e n part of i t i s the most d i f f i c u l t , and I was t a l k i n g to the Grade 2 teachers and even with work we'd done l a s t year i n grade 1 , she f e e l s that even i n grade 2, at the t h i s p o i n t , t h a t ' s the most d i f f i c u l t for her. that they can c l a p i t , they can say i t , but when i t comes to recording it. Putting i t down. . . . t h a t ' s where i t ,  yeah..  I t ' s g e t t i n g those parts together. with enough p r a c t i c e , b u t . . .  Eventually i t w i l l probably come,  186 Interview  #6p  That's i t . . i s g i v i n g the p r a c t i c e . . a n d , sometimes the time j u s t runs out, l i k e h a l f an hour j u s t i s n ' t long enough to get i t a l l i n , and I t h i n k , maybe taking the time to set up a c e n t r e , where they can go and p r a c t i c e , and whatever, i s very v a l u a b l e . S e t t i n g out that time to do t h a t . . . I haven't got that together y e t . . . I was experimenting today, I had taken the the s o l - f a c a r d s , and on the back, put a s t a f f , with what i t should look l i k e , and they are able to play i t on the b e l l s , put i t on the board, and then mark t h e i r own, and they thought that was r e a l l y neat, and they were even i n a lunch today, t r y i n g to do t h a t , so I thought, at the point where t h e y ' r e getting f a i r l y sure of i t , and a l i t t l e added p r a c t i c e , a l i t t l e something added, rather than the i n d i v i d u a l boards, I feel that sometimes t h a t ' s a chore, getting them a l l out. Uhhum, and keeping i t organized. .and making sure that they put things back. Yuh. Can I j u s t stop f o r a s e c o n d . . . ? Yes. The other questions I'd l i k e to a s k . . w e r e , how much preparation time do you f i n d you have to spend? Now and compared to when you f i r s t s t a r t e d the program? I t ' s a l o t l e s s because the songs, you know them, and you have the f e e l i n g for them and a h , and I f i n d p a r t i c u l a r l y at the grade 1 l e v e l , i t ' s a l o t e a s i e r but I have found too that the lesson plans that they have set out i n the program are j u s t super, and I don't d i v e r t from them. I'm not experienced i n music myself, I've had a very l i m i t e d music background, and I f i n d i t ' s j u s t b e a u t i f u l l y l a i d out. And then the reinforcement l e s s o n s , taking your d i f f e r e n t songs, and then j u s t changing but with the d i f f e r e n t songs using the same format has worked very w e l l . I have to admit that I haven't sat down and w r i t t e n out my own lesson plans d a i l y , f o r I've used what has been provided. I haven't innovated too much. But what you are d o i n g , i s a g a i n , the b a s i c s , that are set there and t h e n . . . Yes.  You go o f f on your own on other t h i n g s .  Following the g u i d e l i n e s . But the guidelines are there and I have followed those, y e s . Uhhum, okay, working with your grade 1 students do you do any t e s t i n g or assessing?  Interview #6 P  1  8  7  Ah, through the worksheets, y e s , but through o b s e r v a t i o n , I have a very small c l a s s , t h i s y e a r , and I f i n d that that has helped a n d . . . It makes i t e a s i e r . . . . a n d j u s t had a l i t t l e booklet where I have done clapping o f rhythm patterns, and they w r i t e them down, and they mark them, and the pitches w e l l , j u s t l i t t l e spot checks l i k e t h a t . Now, f o r w r i t i n g report c a r d s , or reporting to parents, what kinds o f comments would you make on the report card? W e l l , with the new report c a r d , I d i d n ' t put any unless there was an outstanding one way or the o t h e r . Um, when parents come to parent i n t e r v i e w s , we have discussed the comments though, and i f t h e r e ' s been an outstanding comment I might explain what's happening, or t h e i r c h i l d has a keen i n t e r e s t i n music, and should maybe pursue i t , and sort of that way. And, uh, you mentioned that you've talked to the parents. Have parents come to you asking f o r information about the program o r . . No, they've not. Expectations? No, and perhaps you know, i f I took the time to do a Parents Night, where you could do t h a t . Perhaps next y e a r , with the new math program implementing i t , i t might be a good place to s t a r t with the parents, that way. Okay, the l a s t question I was going to ask y o u . . . l o o k i n g back over your teaching of grade 1 Kodaly t h i s y e a r , could you describe one l e s s o n , or some l e s s o n s , that you f e l t were very s u c c e s s f u l , or that the students r e a l l y responded to? That you f e l t r e a l l y good about? Oh. That's a tough o n e . . . One.. I t doesn't have to be o n e . . Um.... Or j u s t i n g e n e r a l , that you f e e l I think j u s t i n general the idea of them having board, the large board, check. "Are they doing  that...  i t ' s gone f a i r l y smoothly., um.. I l i k e t h e i r own boards, but having someone up at to model what they are doing, and to doublethe same?...No, t h a t ' s not what I've got!"  188 Interview #6p You know, and you check i t that way, I think t h a t ' s . . . t h e y are a l l i n v o l v e d , you d o n ' t have them squirming, wondering, waiting for my t u r n . I think that i s r e a l l y e s s e n t i a l t h e r e . Learning f o r a l l of them, and you can check each one. That's r i g h t , and i t i s very c e r t a i n . The flashcard part of i t , um I t h i n k , t h e rhythm i s e a s i e r than the p i t c h , um, as f l a s h cards per s e , they enjoy i t , though, when you put some up and you sing some and they have to i d e n t i f y which one you're s i n g i n g . And they enjoyed the, a h , making a sentence with the rhythm and then the taking one away u n t i l I took them a l l away, and they had to r e c a l l . Yes, that memory. ..and even at t h i s l e v e l , they enjoying doing that game idea again, and uh, "Name that Tune", they l i k e t h a t . So there are a l l kinds of things that you're doing. L i t t l e t r i c k s , yeah, put i n , y e s . Uhhum, t h a t ' s super. Those are my questions I'd l i k e to ask you. Are there any other comments you'd l i k e to make about how you're using the program? W e ' l l look at resources, and things l i k e t h a t , i n the second i n t e r v i e w . Oh, f i n e , okay. Um I don't think s o , j u s t , um, the part of i t with the w r i t t e n part of i t i s , I t h i n k , the biggest hangup. And I know there are a l o t of grade 1 teachers that feel that i t shouldn't be part of i t , at a l l , at t h i s l e v e l . But I don't think that t h a t ' s t o t a l l y so e i t h e r , you have c h i l d r e n , j u s t l i k e i n reading, that are two years ahead, you know, whatever, and they are ready for i t and so they should be exposed to i t . But I don't feel too badly i f they don't a l l get i t , b u t they've been exposed, and they do as much as they can. So when the grade 2 teacher, or the next teacher s t a r t s to work on t h a t , some b e l l s r i n g or whatever. Yes, hopefully,you know. Okay, thanks ever so much. Okay, good.  189  Interview 2: #6P, Monday, May 10, 2:40 P.M. Okay, the f i r s t questions I'd l i k e to ask you i n the second i n t e r v i e w , is,how was the d e c i s i o n made f o r you to begin to teach Kodaly? Uh, we were asked i f we would l i k e to do  it.  By whom? Ah, the p r i n c i p a l suggested there was going to be the p i l o t program, and that we'd maybe be interested i n i t . Do you remember what your i n i t i a l reactions to being asked were? Very i n t e r e s t e d . D i d n ' t know anything about i t at a l l , but l i k e d to know more about i t . Okay, and what were your reactions when you f i r s t attended the workshops? Confusion, overwhelming, the hand signs and j u s t everything seemed to be so much to deal with at f i r s t . Uhhum... I think probably the general f e e l i n g of the meeting seemed to be that way t o o , that the f i r s t thing was, "Oh, how w i l l we ever feel comfortable using i t i n the classroom?" Do you remember who...which people were at that f i r s t meeting? Uhhum, i t was headed by (Program Developer) at the beginning. And i t was teachers from t h i s s c h o o l . Oh..yes i t was. The teachers that went, have a l l gone, though, the pr-imary end of i t are a l l changed. Can you kind of sum up your reactions now, a f t e r having worked with i t for about s i x years? I feel quite comfortable with i t now, but s t i l l need to grow in i t , and s t i l l feel that I need r e f r e s h e r courses i n i t , and, to keep in touch, a h , not as often as we did have i t , but I think i t ' s necessary to have a r e f r e s h e r , even a summer course or whatever. Mainly because I don't f e e l , a h , you know, r e a l l y s k i l l e d i n the music a r e a . I f i n d that that can be a d i f f i c u l t y .  190  Interview 2: #6P Yeah, and you would feel refresher courses w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t would be the answer, n o t . . . ? Yes. Okay, what would you say, planning on teaching Koda'ly for next y e a r , what would you l i k e to accomplish as a teacher? What would you aim for? Um. What a r e a s , you said you would l i k e to grow...what areas would be of concern? I think I have de-emphasized more of the w r i t t e n part of i t . More of the every day, working i t i n throughout the day, i n t e g r a t i n g i t as much as you can, rather than the set c l a s s . Having the set c l a s s where you a c t u a l l y do the lesson plans that are set out for you and you are formally following t h a t , but to be aware of using i t every day, and I think i t ' s the d a i l y morning opening exercise and f i t t i n g i t i n , and from that the c h i l d r e n can see that growth come. You get a l i t t l e l a z y or forget or have i n t e r r u p t i o n s and t h i n k , " O h , I haven't got time to f i t i t i n , " then they do s u f f e r and you do see a d i f f e r e n c e . Oh, and so making more use o f . . . Making more use of the program w i t h i n the day. Being more aware of doing s o , I t r y to do t h a t , but not c o n s c i o u s l y . Um, have you, or what kind of changes have you noticed i n your expectations of y o u r s e l f , as a teacher of music, during the time that you have been teaching the Kodaly program? Yes, I think i t makes you a l o t more aware of what you are doing, more aware of p i t c h and rhythm and j u s t the basic s k i l l s , that are expected, that I r e a l l y wasn't aware o f . I've even noticed that I sing more in-tune now than I used t o . Yes. You know, I have f e l t that my own voice has become stronger and more on p i t c h , than i t used to be. Uhhum, and what about d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p i t c h , when the students are singing? Can you hear now, without using the piano, f o r example, can you hear i f they are s i n g i n g ; . . Yes. ..on t h e ' s o h ' or the ' d o h ' . . Y e s , I guess t h a t ' s something we b u i l d up.  Interview 2: #6P  191  And i t j u s t b u i l d s . I d i d n ' t have i t before. But I often f i n d i f I'm d r i v i n g back from Vancouver, singing i n the c a r , I t h i n k . . " G e e , you know, I think I do s i n g . " . . . n o t t e r r i f i c , but I've noticed a d i f f e r e n c e , that i t did grow, and even i n the workshops with other teachers, when we would sing together with (Program Developer), that having other voices around and matching that p i t c h was a help, too. And a l o t of them i n the beginning, t h a t ' s where i t seemed to be f r u s t r a t i n g . You'd sound so good i n a group, and you'd come back to c l a s s , and you'd t h i n k , "That's not the way the song sounded when we sang i t together!" But i t grows. But i t gradually started to come. And the mistakes one can make i n a group are much more evident when you're w o r k i n g . . . Yes. by y o u r s e l f . And the unfortunate thing i s at t h i s grade l e v e l the kids r e a l l y mimic you, so i f you make a mistake, they do t o p . You had some piano background and some music background; how did that act on l e a r n i n g the Koda'ly program? It was a big help with reading of the music, I would think that i f you hadn't any i t would be very c o n f u s i n g , at f i r s t . Just the idea o f the s t a f f and whatever r e a l l y helped. That part of i t , I f e e l , r e a l l y made me comfortable. I t ' s the voice part I've had to work on. What about, working w i t h , f o r example, the moveable 'doh'? I mean t h a t ' s something that you don't r e a l l y consciously use i n playing the piano. Was that a problem i n learning the Koda'ly program, or not? Not at t h i s  level.  Okay, t h a t ' s something that I know, I had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h . Um, the program i s d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d . What does that mean to you? Um, that we should be having i t i n our s c h o o l s . I feel t h a t i s should be i n every s c h o o l , i f p o s s i b l e . That i t shouldn't be so much a choice of whether they should or s h o u l d n ' t , and people f e e l i n g t h a t , " W e l l , I don't care to do i t . . . o r I feel a l o t of f a u l t with i t . " That I would l i k e to see people t r y because, even I went i n t o the program e n t h u s i a t i c , but was f r u s t r a t e d . I think as you work with i t , you can see valuable t h i n g s . And there are things that are problem areas s t i l l , that bother you, but I think that b a s i c a l l y i t ' s a good grounding to begin w i t h . Yea, i t sort of does provide a common background for the students, that t h e r e ' s a language t h e r e .  1 92 Interview 2 : #6P Yea, and you can t e l l when c h i l d r e n come from another d i s t r i c t , or from another school that haven't had i t . Just the rhythm, the clapping and t h a t , i t r e a l l y does develop. And even i f you do the minimum, I think that i t h e l p s . It even helps when you work w i t h , ah, l i s t e n i n g for s y l l a b l e sounds and that where i t a l l s o r t of flows together. So I think i t enhances the program i n primary. Can I ask, a h , you've mentioned using i t with s y l l a b l e s or Language A r t s , and also t h a t , a h , the students i n the Math program. The p a t t e r n i n g . Followed the p a t t e r n s . When did you f i n d that you were beginning to integrate i t with other subjects? How long had you been teaching the program? Or was that something that started r i g h t from the beginning? No, i t d i d n ' t s t a r t r i g h t from the beginning. The s y l l a b l e s s o r t of f e l l into p l a c e , but the math has been t h i s y e a r , that has f a l l e n into looking for patterns, and ah, with poetry, rhythm, I guess, you c a n ' t r e a l l y say, I guess the l a s t four or f i v e y e a r s . Not at the very beginning, I wasn't doing that then. Yes, the  initial...  Yes, the i n i t i a l  shock, r i g h t .  Um, why do you think the Koda'ly program was chosen for t h i s d i s t r i c t ? I have no idea why i t was chosen, other than the people that i n t r o duced i t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y (Program Developer) has been so interested i n music a l l along that I sort of trusted her. She must have f e l t that i t had the components f o r the basic program. I think you know, i t depends how you went...how you looked at i t when you s t a r t e d . If you went i n to c r i t i c i z e i t . . . Maybe because I don't have that much music, I wanted to have something. You saw that as a n e e d . . . I had that need, that I was pleased to go, I was pleased to go i n the summer and l e a r n . I enjoyed i t . Yea, t h a t ' s good. Um, s p e c i f i e d . . . o r rather the program has been maintained f o r s i x y e a r s , and w i l l b e . . . t h e r e ' s to maintain i t for another three y e a r s ; how do you react I would approve of t h a t , I would enjoy going along with  i s , or a commitment to that? it.  Um, the program s p e c i f i e s a s p e c i f i c o r d e r , an order f o r learning the music s k i l l s . How does that work with your grade 1 students? Do you make changes, or?  193 Interview 2 : #6P No.  I follow i t  specifically.  Uhhum, and do you f i n d that kind of flows? Yes. Because I f i n d that maybe by the end I don't get through the l a s t part of i t , but the beginning part of i t , I feel they've established. Okay, t h a t ' s good. I f you have concerns or a question about how to teach a p a r t i c u l a r part of the program, do you t a l k to anyone on the s t a f f ? Um, I used to but I'm the one t h a t ' s used i t the longest now, except C. i n grade 2, who i s quite experienced i n music, and we've discussed t h i n g s . Um, there are others on s t a f f that have maybe grade 10 music i n piano, or whatever. But we r e a l l y don't t a l k to each other that much, we j u s t haven't and t h i s i s r e a l l y the f i r s t year that I haven't been involved i n going to workshops, or have had (Music Resource Teacher) come i n or whatever, I think maybe for a change for the c h i l d r e n i t would be nice to have someone come i n and do a demonstration l e s s o n , but I feel that there are a l o t of people who have never had them and I feel that i t i s t h e i r t u r n , t h i s y e a r . And you feel more confident with the program and not needing t o . . . No, I feel that I know the b a s i c s , i t ' s elaborating and adding to that I need to work on. Now, when you did use to discuss i t or had concerns, what kinds of things would you discuss with another teacher? Rhythm p a t t e r n s . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y when teaching at the grade 3 l e v e l I found, um, when you get into the ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . . i t d i d n ' t come that n a t u r a l l y and a h , we would maybe work through a song together and e s t a b l i s h i t before teaching i t . Uhhum, so working on s p e c i f i c s k i l l sequence. Yes. Okay, how do you think the administrator at the school now, reacts to or supports t h i s program? I feel from j u s t general comments that he's very pleased and he has mentioned many times that the Kodaly i s established as music i n the s c h o o l , helping the c h i l d r e n to move into the band or whatever. And I think he's quite p o s i t i v e . . . I get that f e e l i n g , whether he i s or not. Yea, so y o u ' r e sort of getting support i n terms of what y o u ' r e doing as a b a s i s .  194 Interview 2: #6P Yes. Um, resources or materials that you need for the classroom. Do you get those? P r e t t y w e l l , y e s . Our budget has been cut back l a s t year but we did get a few things and each year we add a l i t t l e more and he makes a point o f s a y i n g , you know, "Budget i s o u t . . . G e t your l i s t s i n . " So we have a chance at i t , and i t depends on the cutbacks. And I think the music program i n the whole school i s very well supported by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Yes, and i t does make a d i f f e r e n c e . D e f i n i t e l y . . . And I think i t ' s nice to know you have that f e e l i n g . I don't know what i t would be l i k e to work for someone who d i d n ' t care whether you were doing i t or not. Um, I would do i t anyway but i t ' s nice to know you're appreciated, that you are taking the time to do that. Um, has the p r i n c i p a l ever sat down and talked to you s p e c i f i c a l l y about the Koda'ly program? No. Um, okay, have you used any students or parents or anyone e l s e i n teaching the program i n the classroom, f o r example, t h i s year? No, I haven't, not t h i s y e a r . Um, I was going t o s a y you were asking before about other s t a f f members taking courses and t h a t . The kindergarten teachers, both teachers have, and we've worked together and w e ' v e . . . t h e y r e a l l y f o l l o w through, and so I enjoy having them r i g h t nex door, so I can see what they've done. And then we j u s t b u i l d , on i t from t h e r e . And another question, to t i e i n with t h a t , um, f o r example beginning i n s t r u c t i o n i n grade 1, how do you decide where to begin? Or do you j u s t sort of begin at the beginning of the grade 1 program? I begin at the beginning to assess where t h e y ' r e a t , but I've found that t h e i r rhythm has r e a l l y been e s t a b l i s h e d , a l i t t l e b i t more work needed on the p i t c h part of i t , but they do a l o t of rhythm, and have f e l t very good about that part of i t . Yea, and as you say, working that c l o s e l y with the other teachers you can get a good i d e a . . . That's r i g h t , and you can hear what they do, and so I t h i n k , "Oh, yeah, they've done t h a t ! " So now we know! seen any?  Um, videotapes of a c l a s s i n s e s s i o n , have you  195 Interview 2: #6P I had a student teacher t h i s spring and we booked one and we got a notice back saying that i t had been, become o b s o l e t e , that i t was no longer any use. It was on p i t c h and rhythm, sounded e x a c t l y what I wanted, and that was my only attempt, and i t f a i l e d . Maybe i t ' s been withdrawn, with an intent of having another one made. Could be, but t h i s was j u s t i n March that we did t h i s . disappointed.  I was so  Because that i s one way of s e e i n g , you know, what happened i n other classrooms, and t h i n g s . Have you seen any Kodaly classrooms, or any classes being taught Koda'ly, actual classes? Um, when I was teaching grade 3, the next classroom had grade 4 and S. was teaching t h a t , and I, j u s t from maybe having a spare, or something, had watched what S . had done, or heard i t . Not d e f i n i t e l y gone i n and sat down, and said "May I watch?" . . . N o . Um, are those kinds of things of value? As a t e a c h e r . . . ? I think s o . I must say though, I haven't watched C. but our walls are paper t h i n , and I can hear e x a c t l y what she's doing and she sings every s i n g l e day, and I can hear her doing the ' d o h ' , ' r a y ' and whatever, so I know how she's f o l l o w i n g through with the c h i l d r e n that I had, and we have compared notes you know. S h e ' l l say, "Gee, I hear you doing t h i s , but t h e y ' r e weak i n t h i s s t i l l . A f t e r a l l t h i s year I worked, they are s t i l l weak i n t h i s a r e a . " And so we do, even though we don't see each o t h e r , we have that comparison. And C. a l s o mentioned, she was very much concerned with combining the p i t c h and rhythm and the w r i t i n g s k i l l s , which i s a big step. R i g h t , we were d i s c u s s i n g t h a t , ourselves t o o , that we f e l t the w r i t i n g was maybe rushed a l i t t l e at t h i s l e v e l . The problem of what t o , you know, not do. W e l l , even today, I was doing a music lesson and one l i t t l e g i r l c o u l d n ' t hear ' s o h . . l a ' . . . t h a t there was any d i f f e r e n c e , and I thought, " A f t e r a l l t h i s time she's s t i l l not tuning i n . " And when she could see I was playing d i f f e r e n t l y on the b e l l s , then she s a i d . . "Oh y e s ! " But she wasn't hearing i t . So I r e a l l y feel that we could maybe cut back on the w r i t t e n p a r t , and more of j u s t the eartraining. And emphasize, repeat those learnings i n d i f f e r e n t forms. Just t a l k i n g about some of the d i s t r i c t provided r e s o u r c e s , ; f i r s t o f a l l , the music book, what parts of that do you use now? What parts o f that  196 Interview 2: #6P do you f i n d most valuable now? I use the lesson p l a n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y . And I t r y to cover a l l the songs that are l i s t e d for the y e a r , and then those that are not j u s t f o r f u n , and game a c t i v i t i e s . Um, I use i t a l o t . I t ' s always on my desk, and I think I r e l y on i t a l o t . > Any recommendations? Any things that you could see that could be changed? Not r e a l l y , I've been very happy with i t , and I think i t ' s been very well set out for my purposes, anyway, not knowing that much. great, i t ' s a real tool f o r me i n the classroom.  It's  Okay, the i n - s e r v i c e at the L . R . C , you attended those for a number of years? Yes. Um, what aspects of those were most useful for you? I think they forced us to get up and play games and a c t u a l l y do the t h i n g s , and i t ' s j u s t l i k e the c h i l d r e n come i n and they are shy about singing to each o t h e r , but by the end, you experienced what the c h i l d r e n are f e e l i n g with the program. Heavens, who'd ever think that I'd stand up and sing i n f r o n t of f i f t y teachers, and the c h i l d r e n experience that t o o , and I think the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , working through every song...You need t h a t , you r e a l l y do. Just as the c h i l d r e n do, they have i t repeated. That's r i g h t . So t h a t ' s i t ' s almost an unconscious part o f . That's r i g h t , and uh, i n the beginning there was a b i t of complaint o f , "Gee, i t ' s j u s t three notes f o r the f i r s t y e a r , " but i t takes that long to r e a l l y e s t a b l i s h t h a t , and learn t h a t , and even the l i t t l e g i r l today s t i l l c o u l d n ' t hear. I think that i s necessary, to r e a l l y r e i n f o r c e i t , and feel comfortable. But I see now when we sing songs, the kids are putting t h e i r hands i n without being asked, or j u s t s i t t i n g on the f l o o r w e ' l l do that too, they are f e e l i n g that now, and i t takes that time. Yes, okay, now the summer s e s s i o n , a h , you attended once? No, I've Sorry.  been to two summer... Now, what parts of those did you f i n d valuable?  In what ways?  I think the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and a l s o , i t gave an overview of from kindergarten to grade 3, so you saw where i t had come from and where i t was going, and at the time that I took i t I was doing grade 3 music, which I said before was almost at my l i m i t , and i t was nice to have that reinforcement o f . . . t h e s e were the years before, t h i s i s what the c h i l d r e n should have done, but when I got to teach them, I  197 Interview 2: #6P found they weren't t h e r e , u s u a l l y . came before.  So then you needed to know what  And, needed to r e a l i z e what hadn't been taught. That's r i g h t . Now, any recommendations that you would make f o r e i t h e r the sessions at L . R . C . , or the summer s e s s i o n s , that you could see would improve that? I don't t h i n k , I c a n ' t r e a l l y think of any, I thought they were r e a l l y a f u l l week, j u s t mind-boggling a l l the s t u f f at the end of it. But, um, I don't know how they could change i t to get i t a l l i n and get through i t a l l , r e a l l y exposed to i t . Yea, uhhum, given we have l i t t l e time and so many other t h i n g s . That's r i g h t . When we were going to the monthly ones, a h , they were a f u l l two hours, or whatever they were, I f e l t you went i n , and you j u s t . . . t h e r e wasn't a minute when you were day dreaming. It was very well organized, but you needed, I f e l t I needed, I could never have taught the program without t h a t . I f you were going to rate those resources, the music resource book, the sessions held during the y e a r , and the summer s e s s i o n s ; which of those would be most necessary? I think the ones throughout the year because you f o r g e t . "Oh, y e s , now I remember d o i n g . . . now how did we do t h a t ? " I think monthly or every other month, or even when they were doing them seasonly, up to Christmas and then s p r i n g , and they gave songs that you f i t t e d i n with i t . That reinforcement at the time you were doing i t was more v a l u a b l e . The summer was f i n e , but you do forget and then maybe give up, because of not being able to remember. . . O r , "I  can not f i g u r e t h i s  out!..."  That's r i g h t . Okay, a h , two questions, to do with sort of extending the program. The program was developed i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , i t ' s been modified a number o f times, and there i s a commitment to maintain i t for another three or four y e a r s . Are there any ways that you can see tha the program could be improved, w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t ? I think maybe the expectations could be lowered. A l s o , I think that i t ' s necessary that someone on the s t a f f i s very f a m i l i a r with i t , for new teachers, beginning, or those that that are not sure of i t ; that i t ' s nice to have someone to go to i n every s c h o o l . Ah,  198 Interview 2: #6P and I think the monthly meetings or every other month are absolutely necessary, with the change of s t a f f s , or whatever from other d i s t r i c t s . There i s always someone that needs that reinforcement. That i s e s s e n t i a l for i t to be s u c c e s s f u l . Someone they can go to without f e e l i n g threatened about anything. Yes, and t h a t ' s another t h i n g . I'm glad you brought that up, because I've always d e a l t with (Music Resource Teacher) and (Program Developer). You never f e l t threatened with i t . They never made you f e e l , "You are j u s t never going to be able to do t h i s ! " Yes, "Why d i d n ' t you know t h i s l a s t week?" Other than t h a t , sometimes, (Program Developer) makes i t very easy, and i t ' s not!  feel  The other one to do with t h a t , the program i s being considered for adoption i n a number of d i s t r i c t s i n B . C . , or they are s t a r t i n g on adopting i t . Now, are there any ways that you would see t h i s program, or any resources that t h i s program should have, to be used i n a d i s t r i c t j u s t beginning i t ? W e l l , the book, and, um, j u s t having resource people trained or make sure they have a summer session before i t begins, I think t h a t ' s r e a l l y important. Okay, now the l a s t question. Koda'ly?  To describe t h i s program, what i s  Oh, enjoying music, and giving a basic foundation for the s k i l l s of music; an i n t r o d u c t i o n to that at a young age. Very good, thank you, a h , those are my questions. thing e l s e that you'd l i k e to say? I don't think s o . . . v e r y thorough.  Is there any-  MODEL : KAMLOOPS KODALY PRIMARY MUSIC PROGRAM SCHOOL DISTRICT #24 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT  TIME 1975  & 1976  I n i t i a l stages: Needs r e v i e w e d ; Research of Program O p t i o n s Program Parameters s e t by D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Deci s i o n : -Kodaly approach s e l e c t e d . D e s i g n a t e d D i s t r i c t A u t h o r i z e d Program^  Summer 1976  Format of  District  Implementation E s t a b l i s h e d :  Sept.  Spring  1976  1977  SCHOOL-BASED IMPLEMENTATION  SUPPORT SERVICES  RESOURCE MATERIALS Resource Book D r a f t #1: Kinder. & Gr. 1 Informal  District Workshops assessment:  i  D i s t r i c t Music Coordi nator/ Program Developer  6 pilot central Kinder.  schools, zone & Gr. 1  Teacher and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Input  Decision:  -Program E x t e n s i o n • A d d i t i o n a l D i s t r i c t Support • R e v i s i o n of Resource M a t e r i a l s  Sept.  1977  Resource Book D r a f t #2: K., G r . l , Gr.2 J APPENDIX 7: SOURCE:  Monthly Workshops  District Resource  Al 1 s c h o o l s volunteer basis K. , G r . l & G r . 2  Kodaly Teacher  1  _ J OUTLINE OF KAMLOOPS KODALY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT  INTERVIEWS WITH PROGRAM DEVELOPER AND PRESENT MUSIC COORDINATOR. (Page 1 of 2 pages)  PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT  TIME Spring  1978  Informal  assessment: Decision:  T  Summer  1978  Summer Workshops I  Sept.  1978  Seasronal Workshops  Spring  1979  Informal  assessment: Decision:  Summer  and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  input.  -Program Maintenance •Seasonal Workshops •Summer: 4-da.y Workshops District Resource  Kodaly Teacher  and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  input.  D i s t r i c t Music Coordinator/ Program Developer  Teacher -Program  Extension  Summer Workshops  1979  Sept.  Teacher  A l l schools Volunteer basis K, 1, 2 and 3  1979  Spring  1980  Summer 1980 Sept.  1980  Informal  assessment:  Teacher  and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  input  Resource book D r a f t #3 K,l,2,3  I  Spring  1981  Summer  1981  Sept. June  1981 1982  o o  Informal  Summer Workshops Seasonal Workshops  (Page 2 of 2 pages  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055219/manifest

Comment

Related Items