UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assessing implementation of a Kodály music program Randall, Nancy Elisabeth 1982

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C. ! ASSESSING IMPLEMENTATION. OF A KODA'LY MUSIC PROGRAM by NANCY ELISABETH RANDALL B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS tn THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tmen t o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y o f J u l y , c Nancy E. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1982 R a n d a l l , 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The pu rpose was to a s s e s s p r o g r a m - i n - u s e , i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h shaped p r o g r a m - i n - u s e and p o t e n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t s . The case s t u d i e d was the Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t P r i m a r y Koda' ly p r o g r a m . The t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e was s e l e c t e d -t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who t r a n s l a t e d the i n t e n d e d program i n t o p r a c t i c e - to r e s e a r c h the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ? 2. What f a c i l i t a t e d s h a p i n g o f t h i s p r o g r a m - i n -use? 3. What c o u l d f u r t h e r improve the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ? Three s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d to r e p r e s e n t a two , f o u r , and s i x y e a r program- i n v o l v e m e n t . I n t e r v i e w s were c o n -d u c t e d w i t h e l e v e n K o d a l y t e a c h e r s , t h r e e t e a c h e r s who i n d i c a t e d l i m i t e d or n o n - u s e , t h r e e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , the Kamloops Koda' ly Program D e v e l o p e r and the Kamloops D i s t r i c t M u s i c C o - o r d i n a t o r . Program deve lopmen t d o c u -ments and t e a c h e r m a t e r i a l s were a l s o a n a l y z e d . S tudy f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r i n g t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s , ' d i v e r s e p r o g r a m s - i n - u s e and changes i n c o n c e r n s ove r t i m e . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I R e s e a r c h O u t l i n e 1 P r o b l em . 1 Terms 2 Method 3 I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e and P i l o t 4 I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e 6 A s s u m p t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s 9 II Program D e s c r i p t i o n . . 1 Q K o d a l y Program 10 Kamloops Koda l y Program Development 18 D i s t r i c t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 19 G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s 20 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and Resource S u p p o r t 23 Program Documenta t ion - 25 I I I A s s e s s i n g P r o g r a m - i n-Use 27 S t u d e n t E f f e c t s as P e r c e i v e d by T e a c h e r s 30 T e a c h i n g B e l i e f s 34 S e l e c t e d M u s i c and Koda l y E lements 37 1. Kamloops Koda l y c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . . . . 45 2 . S p e c i f i e d sequence and scope of s k i l l s . . 47 3 . Koda ly program s o n g s . 53 4 . S t u d e n t assessmen t 55 Implemented Compared to In tended O b j e c t i v e s . . 56 Summary • • • 57 iv CHAPTER PAGE IV . Changes Over T i m e . . 59 Two Year I n v o l v e m e n t : I n d i v i d u a l 60 Four Year I n v o l v e m e n t : I n d i v i d u a l 62 S i x Year I n v o l v e m e n t : I n d i v i d u a l 64 Two Year I n v o l v e m e n t : S c h o o l 66 Four Year I n v o l v e m e n t : S c h o o l 68 S i x Year I n v o l v e m e n t : Schoo l 68 V F a c i l i t a t i n g I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , 70 A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s 70 Knowledge and U n d e r s t a n d i n g 78 R o l e s and B e h a v i o r s 81 S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n 82 M a t e r i a l s and R e s o u r c e s 83 1 . D i s t r i c t S e a s o n a l and Summer W o r k s h o p s . . 8 4 2 . D i s t r i c t K o d a l y Resou rce T e a c h e r 87 3 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l S u p p o r t . . . 88 4 . U n i v e r s i t y Mus i c Courses 91 VI T e a c h e r Recommendat ions f o r Improvement 95 Improv ing I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 95 I n i t i a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 97 V i i Summary 99 B i b l i o g r a p h y 107 Appendi ces Append ix A Kamloops Koda' ly P rog ram: O u t l i n e of G o a l s , C o n t e n t , M a t e r i a l s and A c t i v i t i es 112 Append ix B Teacher Consen t F o r m . . . . . . 113 Append i x C Teache r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 114 Append ix D I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s 117 V PAGE Append ix E Sample T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w s 123 I n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t #60 124 I n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t #2A 153 I n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t #6P 178 Append ix F- Program O u t l i n e 199 vi LIST OF TABLES PAGE T a b l e 1 Teache r I n f o r m a t i o n 5 Tab le 2 G l o s s a r y o f Koda' ly Terms 13 T a b l e 3 Y e a r l y O u t l i n e : S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n 22 v i i L IST OF FIGURES ? PAGE F i g u r e 1 I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n : M u s i c E lemen ts 38 F i g u r e 2 I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n : Koda l y T e c h n i q u e s 38 F i g u r e 3 M u s i c E l e m e n t s : Teache r Impor tance p p . 3 9 - 4 1 F i g u r e 4 Koda' ly T e c h n i q u e s : T e a c h e r Use pp .39-41 v i i i LIST OF PICTURES PAGE P i c t u r e 1 Rhythm Stamping 14 P i c t u r e 2 Rhythm C l a p p i n g 15 P i c t u r e 3 P i t c h : Curwen Hand S i g n s 15 P i c t u r e 4 Rhythm Read ing 16 P i c t u r e 5 Rhythm Read ing 16 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank D r . W, Werne r , D r . C. T r o w s d a l e and D r . C. A n a s t a s i o u f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d a s s i s t a n c e and g u i d a n c e d u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o thank the Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , M r s . M a r i o n Owens (Kamloops Koda l y Program D e v e l o p e r ] and Mr . John Whi te (Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t Mus i c C o - o r d i n a t o r ) . 1 CHAPTER I Resea rch O u t l i n e To u n d e r s t a n d how an i n n o v a t i v e mus ic c o m p o s i t i o n " w o r k s " , one c o u l d read the mus ic s c o r e , t a l k to the com-pose r or to the p e r f o r m e r s , or a s s e s s the v a r i o u s a u d i e n c e s , such as mus ic c r i t i c s , e n t h u s i a s t i c l i s t e n e r s , f u n d i n g agen ts or c r i t i c a l m u s i c i a n s . The c o n d u c t o r o r the p e r -fo rmers may i n t e r p r e t or a r r a n g e the o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n f r e e l y and t h e r e may be pe r fo rmance v a r i a t i o n s . How-e v e r , i t i s the p e r f o r m a c e , the mus i c-.i n -use , t h a t f i n a l l y i s a s s e s s e d or e v a l u a t e d . S i m i l a r l y , to u n d e r s t a n d how an i n n o v a t i v e mus ic c u r r i c u l u m " w o r k s " , one c o u l d read the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and t a l k to the program d e v e l o p e r , the program t e a c h e r s , the s t u d e n t s , or to any one of the m u l t i -t u d i n o u s pe rsons who a c t as the a u d i e n c e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p rog rams . Prob1 em T h i s s t udy c e n t e r e d on a s s e s s i n g how an i n t e n d e d Koda l y mus ic program was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n , why p a r -t i c u l a r a r rangements or a d a p t a t i o n s were made, and i n what ways the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . The p e r s p e c t i v e of t e a c h e r s was s e l e c t e d - t hose i n d i v i d u a l s i n f l u e n t i a l i n s t r u c t u r i n g the a c t u a l program - f o r exam in ing the 2 f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ? 2 . What f a c i l i t a t e d the s h a p i n g o f t h i s p rog ram-i n - u s e ? 3 . What c o u l d f u r t h e r improve the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ? Terms Three terms are c e n t r a l to u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i s s t u d y ; " a s s e s s m e n t " , " p rog r a m - i n - u s e " , and " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . T h i s s t u d y i s termed an " a s s e s s m e n t " r a t h e r than an " e v a l u a t i o n . " E v a l u a t i o n i s used t h r o u g h o u t i n the sense of d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t outcomes or t e a c h e r p e r f o r m a n c e , i n the c o n t e x t of program t e r m i n a t i o n or c o n t i n u i t y . A s s e s s -ment i s used i n the c o n t e x t of p r o v i d i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how, and why, the program o p e r a t e s , to f u r t h e r improve program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . P r o g r a m - i n - u s e r e f e r s to the s t a t e of use a t a p a r -t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t ime ( F u l l a n , 1980:2 ) . " S t a t e " i m p l i e s an image or p o r t r a y a l of the p rog ram. P o r t r a y a l o f the s t a t e o f use i m p l i e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t u a l e lements o f the t a u g h t p r o g r a m , as i n d i c a t e d by the t e a c h e r , not those t h a t e x i s t as i n t e n d e d p rog ram. The p r o g r a m - i n - u s e , as s t a t e of u s e , i s i n no sense i m p l i e d to be s t a t i c o r f i x e d . As the t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e s the p r o g r a m , or i s i n f l u e n c e d by d i v e r s e i n t e r a c t i o n s , the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e would a l s o change . 3 The p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i n f i n i t e number o f s t a t e s o f use i s i m p l i c i t , as i n f l u e n c e s a c t i n g , o r b e i n g a c t e d upon by the t e a c h e r , change ove r t i m e . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s v iewed as p r o c e s s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the " p r o c e s s o f p u t t i n g a new program i n t o p r a c t i c e ( F u l l a n , 1979, n .p . ) . In a r e v i e w of the Rand C o r p o r a t i o n s tudy o f p r o g -ram i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , M c L a u g h l i n ( 1975 :340 ) s t a t e s as a g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a "dynamic o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o -cess t h a t was shaped over t ime by the i n t e r a c t i o n between p r o j e c t g o a l s and methods , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . " He c o n c l u d e s t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s n e i t h e r a u t o -m a t i c nor c e r t a i n . Method The case s t u d i e d was the Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t P r i m a r y Koda' ly mus ic p rog ram. T h i s l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d p r o g -ram r e c e i v e d d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n i n 1975 and imp lemen-t a t i o n began i n 1976 . By 1982 a l l the f o r t y - f o u r d i s t r i c t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s had implemented the program to some d e g r e e . ( D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the K o d a l y p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l as the Kamloops program deve lopment a re p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r I I . ) The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o l l o w e d t h r e e s t a g e s . F i r s t , a g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f the program to e s t a b l i s h assessmen t f o c i . C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s , Program D e v e l o p e r , M u s i c C o - o r d i n a t o r , Koda' ly s u b j e c t e x p e r t s as w e l l as tho rough r e a d i n g o f the a v a i l a b l e program documents were 4 i n c l u d e d . S e c o n d , i n t e r v i e w i n g o f the sample t e a c h e r s was c o n d u c t e d . The t h i r d s t a g e was a n a l y s i s o f the da ta and i t s v a l i d a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e and P i l o t The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e (Append ix JD) was p i l o t - t e s t e d w i t h two Kamloops K o d a l y t e a c h e r s who were not p a r t of the s a m p l e , and r e v i s e d . Subsequent c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a U . B . C . K o d a l y s u b j e c t e x p e r t and a r e v i e w w i t h the Kamloops M u s i c C o - o r d i n a t o r and the Program D e v e l o p e r v e r i f i e d t h a t the q u e s t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p rog ram. The Kamloops K o d a l y program has been m a i n t a i n e d f o r s i x y e a r s . The v o l u n t e e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n meant t h a t s c h o o l and i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r a d o p t i o n o f t h i s program may have o c c u r r e d a t any t ime d u r i n g t hese p a s t s i x y e a r s . F o l l o w i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the M u s i c C o - o r d i n a t o r t h r e e s t u d y s c h o o l s were s p e c i f i c a l l y s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a 2 , 4 , and 6 y e a r i n v o l v e m e n t . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e s c h o o l s f rom a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 44 s c h o o l s was on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n : i l l i n g n e s s of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and s t a f f to p a r t i c i p a t e ; i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the Koda'ly program f o r 2 , 4 , or 6 y e a r s ; no p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any assessmen t o f mus ic p rog rams ; a n d , t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r had not been employed i n any of t hese s c h o o l s . The p o p u l a t i o n ( n = l l ) of p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s u s i n g Koda l y a t the t h r e e s c h o o l s were i n t e r v i e w e d . S t a f f t r a n s f e r s and i n t e r n a l changes mean t , however , t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d wi SCHOOL CODE TEACHER CODE GRADES TAUGHT TOTAL YEARS TEACHING i TOTAL YEARS TEACHING K0DA1Y KAMLOOPS DISTRICT KODALY TRAINING MUSIC COURSES: UNIVERSITY MUSIC: PERSONAL SEASONAL WKSHP. 4-DAY SUMMER WKSHP. 2 : A 2 05 04 02 y r s . none 01 none 2 B 1. 2 14 03 02 y r s . none 01 01 y r . v o i c e ; 03 y r s . piano 2 C 3 30 non-use 01 yr. none 00 none 2 D 3 32 non-use 01 yr. none on none 2 E 1 . 06 1imited 04 y r s . none 00 none 4 I 1 20 05 05 y r s . 01 01 01 year p iano; cho i r 4 J 2, 3 07 06 05 y r s . 01' 00 none 4 K .1 22 05 05 y r s . 01 01 02 years piano 4 L K 07 02 01 y r . none 01 Gr. 7 p iano; Gr. 2 theory 4 M 3 29 03 01 y r . none 01 Gr. 8 p iano; band; cho i r 6 N 4 06 03 01 y r . none Many Gr. 10 piano; cho i r 6 0 3 04 02 02 y r s . none 02 Piano by ear 6 P 1 12 06 05 y r s . 01 00 Piano - 04 years 6 Q 2 13 04 01 y r . none several Piano - accompanist TABLE 1: TEACHER INFORMATION 6 had been t e a c h i n g the K o d a l y program f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s of t i m e . In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e e l e v e n Koda ly t e a c h e r s , t h r e e p r i m a r y f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s a t Schoo l " 2 " , who had i n d i c a t e d l i m i t e d or non-use of the p r o g r a m , and who were w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , were s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w . T a b l e 1 p r o v i d e s a summary of t e a c h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e A q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Append ix C) r e q u e s t i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l da ta was comp le ted by the e l e v e n t e a c h e r s a t an i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n meet ing a t each o f the t h r e e s c h o o l s . Each t e a c h e r s i g n e d a Consen t Form (Append ix B_) , wh ich s p e c i f i e d the s t udy p u r p o s e s , t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y , and t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n would be anonymous. T e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d t w i c e , f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y to n i n e t y m inu tes a t t h e i r s c h o o l s . Du r i ng the i n t e r v i e w s t e a c h e r s were r e q u e s t e d to p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c examples to c l a r i f y a r e s p o n s e where n e c e s s a r y . Each i n t e r v i e w was t a p e - r e c o r d e d . Three sample i n t e r v i e w s a re i n c l u d e d i n Append ix to i l l u s t r a t e the q u e s t i o n i n g t h a t took p l a c e and to r e p r e s e n t the v a r y i n g c o n c e r n s o f t e a c h e r s as t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Koda l y i n c r e a s e d : Teache r 6 0 , second y e a r K o d a l y , T e a c h e r 2A , f o u r t h y e a r K o d a l y , and Teache r 6 P , s i x t h y e a r K o d a l y . These t r a n s c r i p t s were c o d e d , "T " for t e a c h e r and " R " f o r r e s e a r c h e r , f o r examp le : 7 R: Urn, when you f i r s t s t a r t e d w o r k i n g w i t h the p r o g r a m , what were you r r e a c t i o n s ? T: I was s o r t of overwhelmed by i t a l l , you know. I t seemed so d i f f i c u l t , i t seemed so c o n t r i v e d , i t seemed , . . R: What do you mean by " c o n t r i v e d " ? T: The hand s i g n s and the rhythm p a t t e r n s , I c o u l d n ' t see the c o n n e c t i o n between a l l t h i s ( 4 J , G r . 2&3, 6K) . The code o f t h i s sample q u o t e , ( 4 J , G r . 2&3, 6K) means Teache r J , a t a s c h o o l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the program f o r f o u r y e a r s , t e a c h i n g Koda l y to Grade 2&3 s t u d e n t s a t p r e s e n t , hav ing t augh t the Kamloops Koda l y program f o r s i x y e a r s . Dots i n -d i c a t e s i l e n c e . I n t e r v i e w tapes were e r a s e d a t the c o m p l e t i o n of the s t u d y . Du r i ng the second i n t e r v i e w the r e s e a r c h e r probed s p e -c i f i c c o n c e r n s f o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . At the c o n c l u s i o n of i n t e r v i e w s , Koda l y t e a c h e r s were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments, i f c o n c e r n s had not been v o i c e d d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . The t h r e e p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who had i n d i c a t e d l i m i t e d or non-use o f the program were i n t e r v i e w e d once , ' f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A l l i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e between A p r i l 14 , 1982 and May 1 0 , 1982. From the t r a n s c r i p t s , t hose t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e s t h a t e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s about i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were i n d i v i d u a l l y p l a c e d on c a r d s . These c a r d s f a c i l i t a t e d the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s e a r c h f o r c o m m o n a l i t i e s , such as the themes o f " t i m e " and 8 " c o n t i n u i t y " . A summary of the da ta a n a l y s i s was s u b m i t t e d to the p a r -t i c i p a t i n g Koda l y t e a c h e r s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n where n e c e s s a r y . These t e a c h e r s were q u e s t i o n e d whether the s tudy summary was r e a l i s i t t c and c o m p l e t e , and whether a l l o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to t h i s program were a d d r e s s e d d u r i n g t hese i n t e r v i e w s . Seven o f the e l e v e n Koda l y t e a c h e r s responded and c o r r o b o r a t e d the r e s e a r c h e r ' s da ta a n a l y s i s . The p a r -t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s t h e r e f o r e had the o p p o r t u n i t y to c r i t i q u e . The s t u d y f i n d i n g s were a l s o s u b m i t t e d to f o u r Kamloops D i s -t r i c t t e a c h e r s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t u d y , s e l e c t e d f o l -l o w i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i o n : t e a c h i n g t h i s Koda l y p rog ram; w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c r i t i q u e o f the s t u d y ; and r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h i s p rog ram: 6 y e a r s ( n = l ) , 4 y e a r s ( n = l ) , 2 y e a r s (n=2) . A l l t h e s e t e a c h e r s responded and i n d i c a t e d agreement w i t h the s t u d y f i n d i n g s . Document a n a l y s i s of sample Koda l y l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s and an E d u c a t i o n a l P r o d u c t s I n v e n t o r y Exchange ( E P I E ) a n a l y s i s o f the l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d P r i m a r y Mus i c ResourceBook (based on the Koda l y  app roach to mus ic e d u c a t i o n ! , p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to program u s e . 9 A s s u m p t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s P r i o r to t h i s s t u d y , the r e s e a r c h e r as a Kamloops D i s t r i c t t e a c h e r , had t augh t the l e v e l 3 Koda l y p rog ram, t augh t i n t e r m e d i a t e mus ic s t u d e n t s who had s e v e r a l y e a r s i n s t r u c t i o n i n the K o d a l y program and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Koda l y workshop s e s s i o n s o r g a n i z e d by program p e r s o n n e l . As a member o f a t e a c h e r c u r r i c u l u m deve lopment team the r e -s e a r c h e r had p lanned an i n t e r m e d i a t e mus ic program e x t e n d i n g s t u d e n t s ' Koda l y s k i l l s . The r e s e a r c h e r was t h e r e f o r e a peer of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . A s s e s s i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Kamloops Koda l y program r e p r e s e n t e d a complex p r o b l e m . The scope i n c l u d e d f o r t y - f o u r s c h o o l s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred and twenty t e a c h e r s w i t h numerous p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p e d a g o g i c a l and a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e c o n c e r n s . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d l i m i t a t i o n s . A s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t o f the t e a c h e r , and a s p e c i f i c f o c u s , t h a t o f improvement of program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , were t h e r e f o r e s e l e c t e d as p a r a m e t e r s . A l i m i t e d sample ( t h r e e s c h o o l s o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of f o r t y - f o u r ) and -a s m a l l number of the t e a c h e r s u s i n g t h i s program were s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s t h a t r e l y on s e l f - r e p o r t . T h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy r e p r e s e n t the group o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s . An a d d i t i o n a l v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e of s u b m i s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s to Koda l y t e a c h e r s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s t udy i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s have p o s s i b l e genera 1 i z a b i 1 i t y to o t h e r s u s i n g t h i s p rog ram. 10 CHAPTER I I  Program D e s c r i p t i o n Kodaly Program* Zolta'n Kodaly was a Hungarian composer of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e and a major f i g u r e i n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y music e d u c a t i o n . He became i n t e r e s t e d i n the inadequacy of m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y a t a l l l e v e l s of Hungarian e d u c a t i o n and became p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned about the p r e v a i l i n g i g n o r a n c e of s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r own m u s i c a l h e r i t a g e . Koda'ly had l i v e d i n the s m a l l Hungarian v i l l a g e s and t h e r e became i n t e r e s t e d i n the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of Hungarian f o l k music. With h i s c o l l e a g u e , B e l a B a r t o k , perhaps the most prominent Hungarian composer of t h i s c e n t u r y , Koda'ly began i n 1905 to c o l l e c t , a n a l y z e , c l a s s i f y and p u b l i s h the r i c h t r e a s u r e s of Hungarian f o l k music. From t h i s work came the m u s i c a l c o n t e n t f o r what became known as the Kodaly approach to m u s i c a l l y e d u c a t i n g a l l Hungarian c h i l d r e n . 1 M a t e r i a 1 based on Choksy, 1974; pages 7-11, 18-23 and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Kamloops School D i s t r i c t Kodaly Program D e v e l o p e r , November 21, 1981 and May 6, 1982. 11 Majo r p h i l o s o p h i c a l components o f the Koda' ly approach may be summar ized a s : c u l t u r a l and n a t i o n a l i s t i c : i n the b e l i e f t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t and a p p r o p r i a t e to l e a r n the m u s i c a l mother tongue f i r s t . pedagog i c a l : that the s h o r t s i m p l e f o l k song f o r m s , the p e n t a t o n i c s c a l e and the s i m p l i c i t y o f the language used i n f o l k songs were e f f e c t i v e mus ic e d u c a t i o n t e c h -n i q u e s . d e v e l o p m e n t a l : t h a t " t h e deve lopment f rom p r i m i t i v e f o l k song to a r t mus ic was l i k e n e d to the d e v e l o p -menta l s t a g e s f rom i n f a n t to a d u l t " ( C h o k s y , 1 9 7 4 : 8 ) . a e s t h e t i c : t h a t f o l k mus ic r e p r e s e n t e d a l i v i n g a r t . A c c o r d i n g to C h o k s y , a p rominen t N o r t h Amer i can a u t h o r i t y on K o d a l y , the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s approach a r e : "To a i d i n the w e l l - b a l a n c e d s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c deve lopment of the c h i l d , and to produce the m u s i -c a l l y l i t e r a t e a d u l t - l i t e r a t e i n the f u l l e s t sense of be ing a b l e to l o o k a t a m u s i c a l s c o r e and t h i n k s o u n d , to read and w r i t e mus ic as e a s i l y as w o r d s " ( C h o k s y , 1 9 7 4 : 1 5 ) . Ma jo r f i g u r e s i n mus ic e d u c a t i o n , w o r k i n g i n d e p e n -d e n t l y i n A u s t r i a ( O r f f ) , S w i t z e r l a n d ( W i l l e m s ) and Hungary ( K o d a l y ) agreed on c e r t a i n c h i l d deve lopment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s wh ich were used to s e l e c t the Koda l y p r o g -ram m a t e r i a l s : c h i l d r e n ' s v o i c e s a re i n i t i a l l y l i m i t e d to 12 a range o f f i v e o r s i x t o n e s ; whole s t e p s , r a t h e r than s e m i -t o n e s , a re e a s i e r to s i n g . Descend ing i n t e r v a l s a re e a s i e r f o r the c h i l d to r e p r o d u c e a c c u r a t e l y than t hose a s c e n d i n g . A program based on K o d a l y c o n c e p t s e m p h a s i z e s , the use o f the v o i c e , as the i n i t i a l and ma jor i n s t r u m e n t , and then works p r o g r e s s i v e l y t h rough c h i l d r e n ' s chan ts and s o n g s , e t h n i c f o l k songs and s e l e c t e d a r t s o n g s . A K o d a l y c u r r i c u l u m i s b u i l t on the s t u d e n t m a s t e r i n g s p e c i f i c mus ic u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and pe r fo rmance s k i l l s wh ich a re p r e s e n t e d i n a s p e c i f i e d o r d e r . T h i s s e q u e n t i a l p r o g -r e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , " i s s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t the "unknown" i s a lways p r e s e n t e d i n the c o n t e x t of the a l r e a d y " k n o w n " ; c u m u l a t i v e deve lopment b u i l d s on p r e v i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . S p e c i f i c songs and a c t i v i t i e s a re used to i n t r o d u c e s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s . Repe-t i t i o n of t hese newly a c q u i r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s , i s i n t e n d e d so t h a t the s t u d e n t w i l l i n t e r n a l i z e and be a b l e to f u n c t i o n a l l y use them. The t e a c h i n g t o o l s t h a t Koda l y and h i s c o - w o r k e r s s e l e c t e d as most e f f e c t i v e f o r c o n c e p t p r e s e n t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s the I t a l i a n moveable ' d o h ' s y s t e m , the F rench sys tem of rhythm names and the E n g l i s h Curwen hand s i g n s f o r p i t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n . The use o f hand s i g n s , p i t c h names, rhythm names and t h e i r accompany ing s y m b o l i c systems are some of the more o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a Koda l y p rog ram. A g l o s s a r y ( T a b l e 2) and examples ( P i c t u r e s 1 to 5) a re p r o -v i d e d to c l a r i f y use o f the K o d a l y terms and t e c h n i q u e s . 13 TABLE 2: GLOSSARY OF KODALY TERMS SOURCE: KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC RESOURCE BOOK DOH d' TI. LAH. CONVENTIONAL RHYTHM SYMBOL NOTATION AND NAME J I SOH s quarter ta > n FAH. eighth t i t i f d A hal f too o o whole toe ME m / f f f l sixteenth t i cka t icka RAY. d DOH, PITCH ABBREVIATED NAMES FORM 14 PICTURE 1: RHYTHM STAMPING 15 «> PICTURES 4 & 5 RHYTHM READING (PICTURES INCLUDED WITH PERMISSION OF MRS, M, WILSON, TEACHER: KAMLOOPS SCHOOL DISTRICT) 17 In the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of H u n g a r i a n e d u c a t i o n a f t e r the end o f Wor ld War I I , i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e r e were " d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n v o l v e d i n u p g r a d i n g mus ic e d u c a t i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s who t h e m s e l v e s are i n a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d i n m u s i c " ( C h o k s y , 1974: 3 4 ) . The s e l e c t i o n o f m u s i c a l l y a b l e new t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as i n - s e r v i c e mee t i ngs and s h o r t c o u r s e s , became a p r i o r i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d when Koda' ly o c c u p i e d an i n -f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Hungar ian mus ic t e a c h e r s f o r a new type of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , the S i n g i n g P r i m a r y Schoo l , r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e mus ic t r a i n i n g p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s e f f o r t began to a t t r a c t i n t e r -n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n by the 1 9 6 0 ' s . S i n c e t h e n , a d a p t a t i o n s o f the Koda'ly approach have been i n t r o d u c e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s c h o o l sys tems o f E a s t e r n and Weste rn E u r o p e , J a p a n , A u s t r a l i a , No r th and South Amer i ca and I c e l a n d . Koda l y was i n s i s t e n t t h a t such program a d a p t a t i o n s r e f l e c t the n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e th rough the s e l e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l f o l k songs r a t h e r than the H u n g a r i a n songs as program m a t e r i a l s . R e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p -ment p a t t e r n s were r e f l e c t e d i n the sequences used f o r the deve lopment of m u s i c a l s k i l l s . F o r e x a m p l e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n H u n g a r i a n and E n g l i s h language rhythms a re m i r r o r e d by the more f r e q u e n t use of 6 /8 meter i n E n g l i s h f o l k s o n g s . In 18 a d a p t i n g the program f o r Canad ian u s e , m inor changes were made i n s e v e r a l of the hand s i g n s . V o c a l i z a t i o n s of the rhythms were m o d i f f e d to match Canad ian language s o u n d s , and t h e s e changes are now o f t e n found i n many o f the Canad ian K o d a l y p rog rams . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases and many o f the p e d a g o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s of the Hunga r i an and Canad ian Koda l y programs were adop ted i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Kamloops Koda l y p rog ram. t p Kamloops Koda l y Program Development P r i o r to 1975 , no s e q u e n t i a l p r i m a r y mus ic program e x i s t e d i n Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t ; s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l and m a t e r i a l s f o r mus ic i n s t r u c t i o n were not a v a i l a b l e . A d i s t r i c t mus ic t e a c h e r w i t h e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e a t a l l l e v e l s was a p p o i n t e d i n 1975 to the new p o s i t i o n of Mus i c C o - o r d i n a t o r , w i t h K i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 12 r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . Du r i ng i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h d i s t r i c t p r i -mary t e a c h e r s , t h rough s c h o o l v i s i t a t i o n s and w o r k s h o p s , the Mus i c C o - o r d i n a t o r d e c i d e d a need e x i s t e d f o r a s e q u e n t i a l mus ic program and i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h i n t o program o p t i o n s . The d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s were not s u p p o r t i v e of an e x p e n s i v e e l e m e n t a r y i n s t r u m e n t a l program or the h i r i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y mus ic s p e c i a l i s t s . i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Program D e v e l o p e r , Nov. 2 2 , 1981 and Mus i c C o - o r d i n a t o r , Nov. 1 5 , 1981. 19 A commi t tee o f p r i m a r y mus ic t e a c h e r s , c h a i r e d by the M u s i c C o - o r d i n a t o r , p r e p a r e d a b r i e f s u p p o r t i n g the Koda ly program as most s u i t e d to d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e m e n t s . The major arguments we re : 1. The Koda l y p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n , t h a t : i ) e v e r y c h i l d d e s e r v e s a mus ic e d u c a t i o n , i i ) the program uses the c h i l d ' s v o i c e as the b a s i c i n s t r u m e n t , and i i i ) the program p r o v i d e s s e q u e n t i a l s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . M a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d to t e a c h the program would be i n e x p e n s i v e and c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n - d i s t r i c t . 3 . The p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r c o u l d i n s t r u c t the p r o g r a m , g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t and r e s o u r c e s . D i s t r i c t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n The b r i e f was a c c e p t e d i n 1976 and the program r e -c e i v e d d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n , as a l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d c o u r s e , by s p e c i a l r e s o l u t i o n o f the Kamloops Schoo l B o a r d . Schoo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were then r e q u i r e d to ensure a d o p t i o n of the p rog ram, and a l l d i s t r i c t p r i m a r y s t u d e n t s were e v e n t u a l l y e x p e c t e d to r e c e i v e Koda l y mus ic i n s t r u c t i o n . However , the t ime and means f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were " s c h o o l b a s e d " and l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s t a f f . Schoo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were s t r o n g l y e n c o u r a g e d , and n e c e s s a r y d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s were p r o v i d e d , to f a c i l i t a t e 20 t e a c h e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n i t i a l l y (September 1976) c e n t e r e d i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 of the s i x s c h o o l s o f a c e n t r a l zone ( t h e r e a re seven d i s t r i c t z o n e s ) , chosen because t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t was e v i d e n t . These s i x s c h o o l s c o u l d be termed p i l o t s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h the program a l r e a d y had d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n , and e x t e n s i o n to the r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l s would not be dependent on i t s f i r s t y e a r s u c c e s s . T h i s i n i t i a l y e a r was a " t r y ou t " w i t h r e v i s i o n o f program m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t i n g . In September 1977, the program was ex tended to Grade 2 and any e l e -mentary s c h o o l on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s . By September 1979, i t was ex tended to Grade 3 and a l l s c h o o l s on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s . A l l f o r t y - f o u r d i s t r i c t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the program to some degree d u r i n g the s c h o o l y e a r , 1 9 8 1 - 1 9 8 2 . I n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e to s t a t e the number of t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g , nor the l e v e l of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h roughou t the d i s t r i c t . The Kodci ly program i s now i n the s i x t h y e a r of i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n ; s t u d e n t s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the program i n 1976 a re now i n Grade 6 . The e f f e c t on the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades and the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t on h i g h s c h o o l mus ic programs i s a c o n c e r n i n terms of c o n t i n u i t y . D i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d to s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n imp lemen t i ng such a program are a l s o o f c o n c e r n . No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . K o d a l y - b a s e d programs a re i n o p e r a t i o n i n a t l e a s t seven 21 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h r e e o f t h e s e d i s -t r i c t s a r e now i m p l e m e n t i n g a d a p t e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e Kam-l o o p s Koda'ly p r o g r a m , w i t h t h e Kamloops P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r a c t i n g as c o n s u l t a n t . G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s G o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Kamloops K o d a l y p r o g r a m o p e r a t e a t t h r e e l e v e l s ; g e n e r a l s t u d e n t g o a l s , s p e c i f i c s t u d e n t o b j e c t i v e s and i m p l i c i t t e a c h e r g o a l s . G e n e r a l s t u d e n t g o a l s as s t a t e d i n t h e 1976 p r o g r a m d o c u m e n t s ( A p p e n d i x A ) , were m o d i f i e d d u r i n g p r o g r a m im-p l e m e n t a t i o n t o i n c l u d e : -To d e v e l o p i n c h i l d r e n a l o v e o f m u s i c s u p p o r t e d by k n o w l e d g e a b o u t m u s i c , -To d e v e l o p a m u s i c a l l y l i t e r a t e c h i l d who w i l l be p a r t o f an a p p r e c i a t i v e a u d i e n c e , -To g i v e t h e c h i l d a w o r k i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m u s i c a l e l e m e n t s t o e n c o u r a g e m u s i c a l c r e a t i v i t y , and -To i d e n t i f y t h o s e g i f t e d i n m u s i c and g i v e them t h e 3 t o o l s o f m u s i c . S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d s t u d e n t o b j e c t i v e s f o r s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n a r e b a s e d on t h e o r i g i n a l K o d a l y p r o g r e s s i o f s k i l l s . The s e q u e n c e o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n t s s t a t e d i n t h e " Y e a r l y O u t l i n e " ( T a b l e 3 ) . I n t e r v i e w w i t h P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r , May 6, 1982. Level 1 Preparation Presentation P r a r f i r p Level 2 ['reparation [Presentation I Practice Level 3 Preparation [Presentation |Practice REVIEW: BEAT RHYTHM PITCH REVIEW I REVIEW i rix * A nn in m S>4 dr», * i o l ' n sm n REVIEW AND REINFORCE REVIEW AND REINFORCE REVIEW AND REINFORCE s m n +• Sho m 7 h 1^ j ' i , f i n M Y m m d 'J .* . 1^ REVIEW REINFORCE ASSESS REVIEW REINFORCE ASSESS REINFORCE REVIEW ASSESS Year End Goals Year End Goals Year End Goals Rhythm i n * z 1 Rhythm «=j ffn m m Rhythm i- ^ rr M \ j . P i t c h Pitch d r d'J.s. P i t c h TABLE 3: YEARLY OUTLINE; SKILL ACQUISITION SOURCE: KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC RESOURCE BOOK ( 1980, n.p.) IS3 23 A c r u c i a l u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n of t h i s program - t h a t the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s m u s i c a l i t y c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d s u f f i c i e n t l y to i n s t r u c t the program - i s an i m p l i c i t program g o a l . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t was t h a t a l l p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s would r e c e i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and t each the p rog ram. T h i s i n t e n t was med ia ted d u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , as some t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h i s to be i m p o s s i b l e . Now, v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g a r rangemen ts are employed w i t h i n s c h o o l s to p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s u b j e c t exchanges and Koda l y mus ic s p e c i a l i s t s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and Resource S u p p o r t I t was r e c o g n i z e d a t the o u t - s e t by the Program D e v e l o p e r t h a t v a r i o u s s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s needed to be p r o -v i d e d by the d i s t r i c t to f a c i l i t a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . These s e r v i c e s were d e v e l o p e d and c o n t i n u e to be p r o v i d e d by d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l , and i n c l u d e r e s o u r c e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , s e a s o n a l and summer workshop s e s s i o n s , i n - c l a s s r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t , and o n - g o i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n from the Program D e v e l o p e r and o t h e r d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . Schoo l a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s were encouraged to s u p p o r t t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as d e s i g n a t i n g a s t a f f member as the Koda l y c o n t a c t pe rson d u r i n g i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The P r i m a r y Mus i c Resou rce Book i s the major communi-c a t i o n o f the scope and sequence o f the p rog ram. These l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l s were p r e p a r e d by the M u s i c 24 C o - o r d i n a t o r / P r o g r a m D e v e l o p e r , the Koda' ly Resou rce t e a c h e r , and g roups o f i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r y K o d a l y t e a c h e r s . Three e x t e n s i v e r e v i s i o n s and a d d i t i o n s to the Resource Book have been comp le ted i n r e s p o n s e to t e a c h e r comments and program a d d i t i o n s . An E d u c a t i o n a l P r o d u c t s I n v e n t o r y Exchange ( E P I E ) a n a l y s i s o f t h i s pesource  Book ( t h i r d r e v i s i o n , 1980) r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1. L e a r n e r g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s are c o n g r u e n t w i t h the d e v e l o p e r ' s r a t i o n a l e and w i t h e x i s t i n g 1982 p r o v i n c i a l mus ic c u r r i c u l u m . 2. R a t i o n a l e f o r c o n t e n t s e l e c t i o n o r Koda l y p h i l o s o p h y a re not i n c l u d e d i n t e a c h e r m a t e r i a l s . 3 . Sequence o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n and methodo logy are e x t e n s i v e l y d e t a i l e d and are c u m u l a t i v e . 4 . E v a l u a t i o n d e v i c e s to t e s t s t u d e n t ach ievement a re not i n c l u d e d . 5 . The Resou rce Book i s not an i ndependen t s o u r c e and a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t because o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m a t . Workshop and r e s o u r c e pe rson s u p p o r t a re n e c e s s a r y . D i s t r i c t workshops to p r e s e n t l e s s o n m a t e r i a l s and to d e v e l o p t e a c h e r m u s i c i a n s h i p have been m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h v a r i a t i o n s i n g rade l e v e l emphas is and f r e q u e n c y were made. T e a c h e r s a t t e n d e d the workshops as a f t e r - s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s or on r e l e a s e t i m e ; s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s made d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to 25 r e l e a s e t ime and workshop a t t e n d a n c e . F o u r - d a y summer s e s s i o n s were i n i t i a t e d i n 1978 by d i s t r i c t program p e r s o n n e l to p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h i n -t e n s i v e m u s i c i a n s h i p deve lopment and a s e q u e n t i a l o v e r - v i e w of the K i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 3 p r o g r e s s i o n . P r o v i s i o n o f a d i s t r i c t Koda l y Resou rce Teache r was m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h i s i n - c l a s s s u p p o r t was a v a i l a b l e upon t eac t i e r r e q u e s t a l t h o u g h a t t imes l i m i t e d to s p e c i f i c g rade l e v e l s or z o n e s . The r o l e o f the Resou rce Teache r was , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h a t o f a v i s i t i n g mus ic s p e c i a l i s t i n the Koda l y a p p r o a c h . In 1 9 8 1 , the r o l e was expanded to i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n : i n i t i a l l y , the Koda ly Resou rce Teache r would i n s t r u c t and the t e a c h e r obse rve w i t h a subsequen t r e v e r s a l o f t h e s e r o l e s . In t h i s manner , the Resource Teache r p r o v i d e d a p o s i t i v e model and c r i t i q u e l e a d i n g to improvement of mus ic i n s t r u c t i o n . O n - g o i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e from the Program D e v e l o p e r o r the D i s t r i c t Koda l y Resou rce T e a c h e r upon r e q u e s t f rom a s c h o o l s t a f f to a i d i n i t i a l or c o n t i n u i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f o rma t v a r i e s by n e e d , and has i n -c l u d e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t p r o f e s s i o n a l deve lopment days or s u s t a i n e d a f t e r - s c h o o l i n - s e r v i c e . Program Documenta t ion Documen ta t i on of the deve lopment and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h i s program i s s k e t c h y . The 1976 b r i e f canno t be 26 l o c a t e d and i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s s e s s d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l c o s t s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . No e v a l u a t i o n of t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s and m u s i c i a n s h i p was conduc ted b e f o r e or d u r i n g program i n i t i a t i o n . Program d o c u m e n t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f the Kamloops P r i m a r y Mus i c Resou rce Book ( t h r e e r e v i s i o n s ) , program r a t i o n a l e m a t e r i a l used i n work-shops and t e a c h e r assessmen ts of the p rog ram. The Mus i c C o - o r d i n a t o r a s s e s s e d the program of an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n M a r c h , 1981 . The r e p o r t was r e v i e w e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s a s s e s s m e n t . An o u t l i n e (Append ix F_) of major d e c i s i o n and components o f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s was p r e p a r e d f o l l o w i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Program D e v e l o p e r . 27 CHAPTER I I I  A s s e s s i n g P r o g r a m - I n - U s e "From the t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , what i s the p rog ram-i n - u s e ? " Assessmen t of how a program i s a c t u a l l y u s e d , and why, i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e an e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ; the a s s u m p t i o n canno t be made t h a t program a u t h o r i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t s i n the a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n o f the i n t e n d e d p rog ram. P r i o r , to i n v e s t i g a t i n g s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s a need to u n d e r s t a n d w h e t h e r , and i n what a d a p t a t i o n s , the i n t e n d e d program i s be ing u s e d . However , t h i s p r o g r a m - i n - u s e may be r e l a t e d to the i n -tended program i n two ways . E x p e c t a t i o n s of the program imp lemented may be v iewed f rpm a f i d e l i t y o r f rom an a d a p t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e ( F u l l a n , 1 9 7 9 : 5 8 ) . The f i d e l i t y p e r s p e c t i v e has an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e w i l l c l o s e l y r esemb le the i n t e n d e d p rog ram, and any t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a re seen as d e v i a t i o n s . The a d a p t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e has an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the t e a c h e r w i l l adapt the program th rough i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . M c L a u g h l i n ( 1 9 7 5 : 341) no tes v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f program a d a p t a t i o n s : a p a t t e r n o f no change or n o n - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as the program i s i g n o r e d or b r e a k s down; c o - o p t a t i o n as changes a re made i n program d e s i g n or m a t e r i a l s , w i t h 28 l i t t l e change i n t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t , or i n s t i t u t i o n a l e t h o s ; o r , mutua l a d a p t a t i o n , as c h a n g e s , a re made i n t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s , c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t , and i n program m a t e r i a l s o r d e s i g n . M c L a u g h l i n f u r t h e r no tes t h a t more s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t e n o c c u r s th rough mutua l a d a p t a t i o n . F i d e l i t y and a d a p t a t i o n a re not o p p o s i n g v i e w s , as i m p l e m e n t a t i o n may o c c u r t h rough an i n t e r a c t i o n of t hese p e r s p e c t i v e s . Some c u r r i c u l u m , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c s k i l l i n s t r u c t i o n or s e q u e n t i a l programs may be u n d e r s t o o d b e s t t h rough a f i d e l i t y e x p e c t a t i o n ; o t h e r s may be seen as f l e x i b l e a d a p t a t i o n , or t h rough both v i e w s . The c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Koda l y s u g g e s t s a f i d e l i t y p e r s p e c t i v e , an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t p r o g r a m - i n - u s e c l o s e l y r esemb les the i n t e n d e d p rog ram. How does a f i d e l i t y o r p r e s c r i p t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l o o k i n p r a c t i c e ? Has p r a c t i c e m i r r o r e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , o r have t e a c h e r s adap ted the i n t e n d e d s k i l l sequences and made s e l e c t i v e use of t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ? In what a s p e c t s d i d t e a c h e r s use i n d i v i d u a l l a t i t u d e and wh ich r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ? What t ype of a d a p t a t i o n took p l a c e ? Whether one or a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e i s u s e d , c e n t r a l to i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s the p remise t h a t the t e a c h e r i s an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t r a n s l a t i n g an i n t e n d e d i n n o v a t i o n i n t o an a c t u a l p rog ram. C h a r a c t e r i z e d v a r i o u s l y as " g a t e -k e e p e r " ( L o r t i e , 1 9 7 5 : 7 7 ) , " d e c i s i o n - m a k e r " and " p r o b l e m -s o l v e r " ( C l a r k and Y i n g e r , 1 9 7 9 : 2 3 2 ) , the t e a c h e r ' s p e r -c e p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n t e n d e d i n n o v a t i o n 29 i s c r i t i c a l i n s h a p i n g p r a c t i c e (Hughes , K e i t h , 1 9 8 0 : 4 4 ; C l a r k and Y i n g e r , 1 9 7 9 : 2 3 1 ) . Hence , u n d e r s t a n d i n g the t e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e and e f f e c t upon a program m a y b e g a i n e d th rough c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r . Such d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n was encouraged many y e a r s ago by P h i l i p J a c k s o n i n L i f e i n C l a s s r o o m s : . . . t h e t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r does not a lways r e v e a l what we want to know. Occupa -t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , the f e e l i n g s of s a t i s f a c t i o n and of d i s a p p o i n t m e n t accompany ing s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e , the r e a s o n i n g t h a t l i e s beh ind a c t i o n -t hese and many o t h e r a s p e c t s of a c r a f t a re s c a r c e l y v i s i b l e e x c e p t t h rough c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h a pe rson who has e x p e r i e n c e d them. And i t i s not o n l y what the p r a c t i t i o n e r says t h a t i s r e v e a l i n g . H i s way of s a y i n g i t and even the t h i n g s he l e a v e s u n s a i d o f t e n c o n t a i n c l u e s to the n a t u r e of h i s e x p e r i e n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t a l k i s n e c e s s a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t a l k about the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p e c t s of l i f e i n the c l a s s r o o m ( 1968 :115) . Because the i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s i s an e f f e c t i v e means of a s s e s s i n g p r o g r a m - i n - u s e , i t was s e l e c t e d to p o r t r a y the use of the Koda l y p rog ram. The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s a re based on r e s p o n s e s of t e a c h e r s u s i n g the Koda l y p rog ram, and those who i n d i c a t e d l i m i t e d or n o n - u s e . 30 Assessment of p r o g r a m - i n - u s e i s r e p o r t e d here i n f i v e a r e a s : f i r s t , t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of program e f f e c t s on s t u d e n t s ; . . s e c o n d , t e a c h i n g b e l i e f s i n r e l a t i o n to m u s i c ; t h i r d , t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s of impo r t ance and use of s e l e c t e d mus ic and Koda l y t e c h n i q u e s ; f o u r t h , t e a c h e r ' s r e p o r t e d use of program componen ts , t h e i r v a l u e s and l i m i t a t i o n s ; f i f t h , imp lemented o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s com-pared to what was i n t e n d e d . S tuden t E f f e c t s as P e r c e i v e d by T e a c h e r s The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program i s to improve s t u d e n t m u s i c a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , the q u e s t i o n "What e f f e c t has t h i s program had on the s t u d e n t ? " was i n v e s t i g a t e d d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s . Have you n o t i c e d any changes i n s t u -dent u n d e r s t a n d i n g of mus ic? Development of s i n g i n g v o i c e s ? S t u d e n t en joyment? Have you seen any changes i n s t u d e n t c o n f i d e n c e or s e l f image th rough i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h program a c t i v i t i e s ? Work ing w i t h s t u d e n t s who may have c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s , have you n o t i c e d any changes th rough i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the program? The consensus was t h a t t h e r e were i ndeed changes i n s t u d e n t s ' m u s i c a l a b i l i t i e s : s t u d e n t s were p e r c e i v e d as e n j o y i n g l e a r n i n g about m u s i c , and improvements i n s t u d e n t m u s i c a l i t y were a t t r i b u t e d to the Koda l y p rog ram. Two comments b e s t summarize the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s ' m u s i c a l s k i l l s . The f i r s t comment i s t h a t of a s e i f - d e s c n * bed " g e n e r a l i s t " c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , the second an elementary t e a c h e r who p r e v i o u s l y worked w i t h secondary band s t u d e n t s . Number one, they do s i n g more a c c u r a t e l y on p i t c h . You have the l i t t l e Grade twos coming i n t o Grade t h r e e and you s t a r t to teach them a song, and by j i n g o , they do s i n g i t on tune ... and they s i n g w i t h . . u h , on the whole, w i t h umm...pretty good rhythm. You know, they know what i t i s when you t a l k about a " r e s t " . . a n d you can, you know, when you're t r y i n g to work on a p a r t of a song t h a t ' s g i v i n g d i f f i c u l t y , then I do t i e i n what they do know from the Koda l y , to t r y and e x p l a i n . . . Y o u ' v e got a b a s i s to t a l k music to them. That, I t h i n k , wasn't t h e r e b e f o r e (#4M, G r . 3 , 3K). The second t e a c h e r , r e s p o n d i n g to the q u e s t i o n "Do they seem to have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m u s i c ? " , s t a t e d : T: Oh, d e f i n i t e l y . . R: And i n what. .? T: B e t t e r , they have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of music. They've got a b e t t e r f e e l i n g f o r i t , urn, they l i k e i t b e t t e r , urn, and they l i k e i t b e t t e r because they do i t , urn, more p r o f i c i e n t l y . They have been brought through i n such a g r a d u a l pro-g r e s s i o n , and i t ' s been so much, a l o t of fun f o r 32 them, y e t the s k i l l deve lopment has been j u s t t r e -mendous . . urn . . t h a t . . i t Vs j u s t l i k e a n y t h i n g , i f a c h i l d l i k e s d o i n g someth ing and does i t w e l l , ~ t h e n , a h , you c a n ' t ask f o r a b e t t e r base of a t t i t u d e to work f rom ( # 6 N , G r . 4 , 3 K ) . T h i s same t e a c h e r compared the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h a Koda' ly background w i t h s t u d e n t s t a u g h t a t the h igh s c h o o l l e v e l . We've g o t , u h , s t u d e n t s i n the Grade 6 b a n d , a h , we do rhythms t h a t , a h , I would have had to work a long t i m e , a t Grade 1 1 . . I can put up a f a i r l y com-p l e x r h y t h m , and w e ' l l have i t i n no t i m e . For drummers, e s p e c i a l l y , who get r h y t h m i c a l l y more d i f f i c u l t t h i n g s , I s i m p l y . . i f a r h y t h m . . i f they c a n ' t see the m a t h e m a t i c a l l o g i c a l breakdown of say a s i x t e e n t h no te . .e ighth note p a t t e r n , I ' l l j u s t s a y , " W e l l , o k a y , l e t ' s have a l ook a t i t t h i s way. Look a t t hose n o t e s . Those are two ' t i t i ' s ' and a c o u p l e of ' t a ' s ' . . . T h e y know the l a n g u a g e . , and i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r whether you coun t someth ing . . . " 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 " , or " t a , t a , t a , t a , " . . . w h o c a r e s , he can read the m u s i c , urn, mus ic i s n ' t n u m b e r s . . m u s i c i s mus ic (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . In p a r t i c u l a r , a l l o f the t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d an improvement i n s t u d e n t s ' m u s i c a l i t y and i n the q u a l i t y of s t u d e n t s ' s i n g i n g v o i c e s , t h a t i s the a b i l i t y to 33 a c c u r a t e l y hear and r e p r o d u c e p i t c h , and the i n t e r n a l i -z a t i o n of rhythm s k i l l s . Second was the deve lopment of a mus ic l anguage wh ich a i d s s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o f more s o p h i s t i -c a t e d mus ic s k i l l s , and p r o v i d e s a common e x p e r i e n c e so t h a t t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ' c a n c o n v e r s e more e a s i l y . T h i r d , because s t u d e n t s were seen to have a s t r o n g e r m u s i c a l unde r -s t a n d i n g , they had a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of m u s i c . The t e a c h e r quoted above makes the p o i n t t h a t mus ic may be t a u g h t many d i f f e r e n t w a y s ; the most i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n i s t h a t the s t u d e n t d e v e l o p the m u s i c a l u n d e r -s t a n d i n g . When q u e s t i o n e d r e g a r d i n g changes i n s t u d e n t s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e , t e a c h e r consensus was t h a t bo th s h a r i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s and t a k i n g s o l o p a r t s ( " E v e r y b o d y does i t . . " ) seemed to be of v a l u e f o r i n v o l v i n g the l e s s c o n f i d e n t s t u d e n t . T h i s " s o c i a l deve lopmen t " was taken f o r g r a n t e d : i n v o l v e m e n t would a i d c o n f i d e n c e - b u i l d i n g . T e a c h e r s were l e s s c e r t a i n t h a t program a c t i v i t i e s he lped s t u d e n t s w i t h c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s . The g e n e r a l comment was t h a t one c o u l d not j udge whether rhythm a c t i v i t i e s c o r r e l a t e d to changes i n s t u d e n t c o - o r d i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e m igh t be a l i m i t e d e f f e c t . 34 T e a c h i n g B e l i e f s P a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s were asked q u e s t i o n s to draw out b e l i e f s about both the t e a c h i n g of mus ic and the Koda l y p rog ram: -What does t e a c h i n g mus i c mean to you? -What does t e a c h i n g Koda' ly mean f o r you? -What i s K o d a l y ? " T e a c h i n g m u s i c " and " t e a c h i n g K o d a l y " had somewhat d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s . " T e a c h i n g m u s i c " was d e f i n e d i n terms o f p r i m a r i l y " e n j o y m e n t " , " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " and " r e l a x a t i o n " f o r bo th s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r (n=10) . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t u d e n t m u s i c a l e n -joyment was a b a s i s f o r the l i f e a p p r e c i a t i o n of m u s i c : I t ' s a way to i n t r o d u c e the k i d s to mus ic as a p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s : a way to r e l a x and e n j o y t h e m s e l v e s , to i d e n t i f y rhythm and beat and q u a l i -t i e s o f mus ic C#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) , F i r s t , en joyment f o r the l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . . . moving . . . h a p p i n e s s Impor tan t to s t a r t them a t a young l e v e l to a p p r e c i a t e mus ic and e n -j o y mus ic and i t w i l l c a r r y on th rough the y e a r s (#4L, K i n d e r . , 2 K ) . 35 I t ' s en joyment t h a t adds to e v e r y moment of the d a y . I use i t c o n s t a n t l y (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . Emphasis was p l a c e d on s t u d e n t s k i l l s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to - en joyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by one t e a c h e r : T e a c h i n g mus ic i s by i t s n a t u r e a group of s k i l l s put t o g e t h e r i n a v e r y i n t r i c a t e f a s h i o n (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . " T e a c h i n g K o d a l y " was d e f i n e d i n na r rower and p e r s o n a l t e r m s , and c e n t r e d on s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n or p e r s o n a l t e a c h i n g c o n c e r n s . " S e q u e n t i a l " , " s t r u c t u r e d " , " s p e c i f i c " mus ic program e s t a b l i s h i n g " t h e b a s i c s k i l l s " were d e f i n i t i o n s used by f o u r t e a c h e r s i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o g r a m , whereas f i v e d e f i n e d t e a c h i n g K o d a l y i n terms o f the program p r o -v i d i n g s t r u c t u r e to t h e i r t e a c h i n g : T e a c h i n g Koda' ly means t h a t J_ can t e a c h m u s i c ! (#2A, G r . 2 , 4K) I t g i v e s d e f i n i t e g u i d e l i n e s ; you know what the e x p e c t a t i o n s a re (#4K, G r . 1, 5 K ) . In one word : o r g a n i z a t i o n (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . Two t e a c h e r s d e f i n e d the complex n a t u r e of the Koda ly p rog ram. The f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r had comp le ted two y e a r s u s i n g the p r o g r a m , and had l i t t l e mus ic b a c k g r o u n d : I t ' s much more c h a l l e n g i n g , more demand ing , be -cause o f i t s 1 eve 1s . . . Somet imes , I f e e l I d o n ' t even know what I'm d o i n g . . . I r e a l l y en joy i t but I d o n ' t know i f I'm d o i n g , a h , you know, an ade -36 qua te j o b . . s o m e t i m e s (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . I m p o r t a n t l y , the second t e a c h e r no ted t h a t " t e a c h i n g Koda' ly" i m p l i e d more than adherence to t e c h n i q u e s : I d o n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k I can say t h a t I t e a c h Koda ' l y , I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a l o t more to i t (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . A range of b e l i e f s was e v i d e n t . " T e a c h i n g m u s i c " was d e f i n e d as b a s i c en joyment or p a r t i c i p a t i o n . On the o t h e r h a n d , " t e a c h i n g K o d a l y " was d e f i n e d i n more s t r u c t u r e d t e r m s , d e a l i n g w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s of t e a c h i n g a comp lex , s t r u c t u r e d p rog ram. And y e t , the d e s c r i p t i o n s (n = 8) o f "Koda ' l y " c e n t r e d on the p r o g r a m ' s impac t on c h i l d r e n i n l e a r n i n g about and e n j o y i n g m u s i c . R: To d e s c r i b e t h i s p r o g r a m , what i s " K o d a ' l y " ? T: Koda l y i s a mus ic program f o r c h i l d r e n t h a t s t a r t s when the c h i l d r e n a re v e r y y o u n g . I t g i v e s them the e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l i s t e n i n g , f e e l i n g the m u s i c , making the m u s i c , i n t e r p r e t i n g the m u s i c . I t ' s a l o t of f u n . . . I t h i n k i t ' s a s e q u e n t i a l p r o g -ram, the s k i l l s a re b u i l t one upon a n o t h e r ; and i t c o v e r s many a reas of mus ic ( # 4 J , G r . 2&3, 6 K ) . T: I t ' s a v e r y s p e c i f i c program b u i l t a round the t e a c h i n g o f r h y t h m s , n o t a t i o n , p i t c h l e a d i n g to the c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g to read m u s i c , t h e r e f o r e b e i n g a b l e to p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t (#4M, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . 37 T: Oh, e n j o y i n g m u s i c , and g i v i n g a b a s i c f o u n d a t i o n f o r the s k i l l s o f m u s i c ; ah i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h a t a t a young age (#6P, G r . 1, 6 K ) . S e l e c t e d Mus i c and K o d a l y E lemen ts To compare p r o g r a m - i n - u s e a c r o s s the sample o f t e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r s were asked to a s s e s s p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e and use o f s e l e c t e d mus i c ( F i g u r e 1) and K o d a l y e lemen ts ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The f i v e mus i c e l emen ts i n F i g u r e 1 were s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n t e n t a r e a s o f p r i m a r y mus ic p r o g r a m s , and because each c o n t e n t i s a d d r e s s e d by the Kamloops K o d a l y m a t e r i a l s ; emphas is i n the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n c r e a s e s by g rade l e v e l . For e x a m p l e , the deve lopment o f a " s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r r hy thm" i s most emphas ized a t e a r l i e r p r i m a r y g r a d e s , whereas the deve lopment o f " m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y " i s emphas ized a t l a t e r p r i m a r y g r a d e s . T e a c h e r s a s s e s s e d i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e i r mus ic p rog ram, and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s , o r d e r e d by g rade l e v e l , a re p l o t t e d on F i g u r e 3 . T e a c h e r s a l s o r a t e d use o f s e l e c t e d Kamloops K o d a l y t e c h n i q u e s t h a t were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p rog ram. Emphas is on t e c h n i q u e s such as p a r t work ( h a r m o n y ) , o s t i n a t o ( r e p e a t e d p i t c h or r h y t h m i c a c c o m p a n i m e n t ) , and the r e a d i n g o f c o n v e n -t i o n a l n o t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by grade l e v e l i n the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . Teache r use o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i s p l o t t e d on F i g u r e 4 . In a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s were q u e s t i o n e d f o r r e a s o n s o f l i m i t e d or non -use o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s , where a p p l i c a b l e . 38 F i g u r e 1: I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n : Mus i c E l e m e n t s ; Impor tance 0 1 2 3 4 not very important average important A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop student's» 1. In-tune singing 2. Strong fee l ing for rhythm 3. Musical l i t e r a c y in terms of wr i t ing and/or reading s k i l l s . 4. Creative expression/ improvisat ion. 5. Listening/music appreciat ion. F i g u r e 2: I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n : Koda l y T e c h n i q u e s ; Use 0 1 2 3 4 not used average at a l l use used in a l l lessons A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop students' understanding of: 1. Hand s igns 2. Sol fa pi tch names 3. Development of inner hearing 4. Echo techniques 5. Part work 6. Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s 7. Time (rhythm) names 8. Use of rhythm instruments 9. Ostinato techniques 10. St ick notation 11. Reading of conventional notat ion. • FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS. FIGURE 4: KODALY TECHNIQUES. Teacher: Grades taught: Years teaching Kodaly: #4L Kindergarten 2 years Tn-tune singing Rhythm Music l i t e racy Creative Expression Music Appreciation 0 i t 3 4 Hand signs Pi tch names Inner hearing Echo techniques Part work Games & Movement 1 Rhythm names Rhythm instruments Ostinato St ick notation Conventional Notation 0 1 r 13 4 #4K Grade 1 5 years #41 Grade 1 5 years o t i 3 4 IMPORTANCE. 0 i USE. V 3 i #6P Grade 1 6 years Z 3 A 0 I t S f 3 2, 3 4 (Page 1 of 3 pages) CO UD FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS. FIGURE 4: KODALY TECHNIQUES, Teacher: Grades taught: Years teaching #2B Grades 1&2 3 years #2A Grade 2 4 years #6Q Grade 2 4 years In-tune sinqing Rhvthm 1 Music L i teracy Creative Expression Music Appreciation X. 3 1 0 1 1 5 IMPORTANCE. #4J Grade 2&3 6 years Hand sians j Pitch names Inner hearinq 1 Echo Techniques 1 1 Part work Games & Movement Rhvthm names Rhvthm instrumpnts Ostinato St ick notation Conventional Notation 1 > i t 3 i < ? / Z 3 4 1 0 1 I i A 1 1 3 4 0 I 2 5 4 0 I I 3 4-(Page 2 of 3 pages.) FIGURE 3: MUSIC ELEMENTS. FIGURE 4: KODALY TECHNIQUES. Teacher: Grades taught: Years teaching Kodaly: #6 0 Grade 3 2 years #4M Grade 3 3 years #6N Grade 4 3 years In-tune singing Rhvthm Music L i teracy Creative Expression l Music Appreciat ion 1 0 i I 3 4 0 l 1 3 4 IMPORTANCE. Hand signs Pitch names Inner hearing Echo techniques Part work Games & Movement Rhythm names Rhythm instruments Ostinato 1 Stick notation Conventional Notation * i / h S 4 a O I I S A 0 I USE. L 3 A 0 I Z 3 4 (Page 3 of 3 pages.) 42 Compar ison of F i g u r e s 3 and 4 shows d i v e r s i t y o f p e r -c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e and u s e . I f s e l f - r e p o r t e d use matches w i t h a c t u a l u s e , then' un ique p r o g r a m s - i n -use a re i n o p e r a t i o n i n t hese t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m s . A c r o s s grade l e v e l s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e s i m i l a r i t y i n i m p o r t a n c e o r use o f t h e s e t e c h -n i q u e s . For e x a m p l e , the p e r c e i v e d i m p o r t a n c e o f m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y does not i n c r e a s e w i t h grade l e v e l . There i s an i n c r e a s i n g l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n r e p o r t e d use and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e e l emen ts a t the upper p r i m a r y l e v e l s , perhaps due to i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y of program m a t e r i a l s . I t appears t h a t l e n g t h o f t ime t e a c h i n g the Koda l y program l e a d s to somewhat h i g h e r use of some of the Koda l y t e c h n i q u e s . That t e a c h e r s g a i n e d c o n f i d e n c e i n u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s a f t e r a number of y e a r s of bo th t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i n g the program i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the i n t e r v i e w s . The deve lopment of a s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r rhythm i s a p r i o r i t y i n t e a c h i n g the p r o g r a m , whereas the deve lopment of i n - t u n e s i n g i n g w-as judged to be s l i g h t l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t . When q u e s t i o n e d why, t e a c h e r s responded i n two ways . F i r s t , they (n=5) i n d i c a t e d t h a t young c h i l d r e n have d i f f i c u l t y s i n g i n g on p i t c h , and t h a t t h i s s k i l l s h o u l d not be f o r c e d , and s e c o n d , some (n=5) i n d i c a t e d p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h h e a r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e p i t c h : Because so many of the c h i l d r e n I have t a u g h t over the y e a r s are not a b l e to s i n g i n t u n e , and I am 43 i n no p o s i t i o n m y s e l f , and I do as b e s t as I can to t r y and ge t them to s i n g i n t u n e , but i f t hey canno t f o l l o w , i f t hey a re o c t a v e s be low me, o r o c t a v e s above me, as l ong as they a re t r y i n g to s i n g i n the same r a n g e , I g i v e t h a t as much v a l u e as b e i n g a b l e to s i n g i n . t u n e , (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . E s t a b l i s h i n g p i t c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a d i f f i c u l t s k i l l f o r " n o n - m u s i c " t e a c h e r s to mas te r (n=3) : P i t c h i s my weak a r e a . . v e r y weak. T h a t ' s why I was a f r a i d to get out of g rade o'ne . . 'Soh . .me . . . 1 ah ' I'm not go ing any f a r t h e r (#4K, G r . l , 5 K ) . T h i s was c o r r o b o r a t e d by two t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d who no l o n g e r used the p rog ram. Both i n d i c a t e d t h a t w o r k i n g w i t h p i t c h posed an u n r e s o l v e a b l e d i f f i c u l t y , and was the main r e a s o n f o r t h e i r c e a s i n g to use i t : The whole t h i n g i s based on t u n e - - s i n g i n g . I c a n ' t c a r r y a t u n e , and c a n ' t l e a d the s t u d e n t s . I'm not m u s i c a l l y i n c l i n e d , I a p p r e c i a t e m u s i c , but I'm not t r a i n e d . I c o u l d n ' t t e l l when the s t u d e n t s ' s i n g i n g was g o i n g f l a t . . c a n ' t d e t e c t when the s t u d e n t s a re not on tune (#2D, G r . 3 ) . The deve lopment of a c o m b i n a t i o n of rhythm and p i t c h s k i l l s was r a t e d by the m a j o r i t y (n=9) as the b a s i s f o r a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the p rog ram: I f t hey d o n ' t have the rhythm and the p i t c h f i r s t , you m igh t as w e l l f o r g e t the r e s t (#6P, G r . 1, 6 K ) . 44 L e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e was a t t a c h e d to c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ( i m p r o -v i s a t i o n ) and mus ic a p p r e c i a t i o n . There a re e x c e p t i o n s , how-e v e r , and the i m p o r t a n c e t e a c h e r s a t t a c h e d to t h e s e a r e a s was p e r s o n a l : a l a c k o f e x p e r t i s e ( n = 2 ) , a l a c k o f t ime ( n = 4 ) , or a l a c k of f e l t need ( n = l ) . C o n t r a s t i n v iews i s i l l u s -t r a t e d by two t e a c h e r s who d i s c u s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o r i m p r o v i s a t i o n : I t h i n k t h a t ' s t e r r i f i c , k i d s l o v e to i m p r o v i s e (#6P, G r . 1 , 6 K ) . I c a n ' t see t h a t as be ing a l l i m p o r t a n t a t the p r i m a r y l e v e l . You m igh t have the odd c h i l d who would f i t y o u r g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d program who migh t t r y t h a t ( # 4 M , G r . 3 , 3 K ) . F i g u r e 4 i n d i c a t e s h igh use of hand s i g n s , rhythm names and p i t c h names; t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a re the o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f K o d a l y program u s e . Those t e a c h e r s who a d m i t t e d to l i m i t e d use o f hand s i g n s i n d i c a t e d c o n f u s i o n and d i s c o m f o r t i n c l a s s r o o m use due to l a c k of e x p e r t i s e . The l i m i t e d or non -use of p a r t wo rk , o s t i n a t o , and the deve lopment of i n n e r h e a r i n g by t e a c h e r s (n=6) i n d i c a t e d l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e and a need f o r p r a c t i c e b e f o r e use would be a t t e m p t e d . Program Components :Use Teache r use o f the f o l l o w i n g program components was i n v e s t i g a t e d : 45 1. Kamloops Koda' ly c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , c h i e f l y the P r i m a r y M u s i c Resource Book ; 2 . S p e c i f i e d sequence and scope o f s k i l l s ; 3 . Koda' ly program s o n g s ; and 4 . S t u d e n t a s s e s s m e n t . 1. Kamloops Koda'ly c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s The M u s i c Resource Book p r o v i d e s s k i l l sequence c h a r t s , scope o u t l i n e s , s k i l l p r e s e n t a t i o n s u g g e s t i o n s , s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l i z e d l e s s o n p l a n s , song s c o r e s , games and move-ment a c t i v i t i e s to c o r r e l a t e to s o n g s , p l u s some i m p r o -v i s a t i o n a l and mus ic a p p r e c i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s were asked t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t ypes o f use o f t h i s r e s o u r c e , most v a l u a b l e s e c t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g , and recommendat ions f o r improvement . Three c a t e g o r i e s o f t e a c h e r use emerged. One group (n=6) r e p o r t e d use c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g " t h e book": I t end to have my mus ic book open (#4K, G r . l , 5 K ) . I h a v e n ' t i n n o v a t e d too much (#6P, Gr . 1 , 6 K ) . A second group (n=3) adopted the program fo rma t but made s e l e c t i v e use o f p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l s . One t e a c h e r f e l t the R e s o u r c e Book c o n t a i n e d f a r too much i n f o r m a t i o n , a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was too d i f f i c u l t and the book needed to be " p a r e d d o w n " , t h e r e f o r e had c o l l e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y used m a t e r i a l s i n a " w o r k i n g f i l e " . The R e s o u r c e Book a c t e d more as a g u i d e . A t h i r d group (n=2) made v e r y s e l e c t i v e use o f the program m a t e r i a l s , and used the Resou rce Book as a s o u r c e 46 f o r song s c o r e s and some t e a c h i n g i d e a s , but not as the s t r u c t u r e o f the mus ic p rog ram. One o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s w i t h e x t e n s i v e mus ic background i n c o r p o r a t e d i d e a s f rom the Koda' ly program w i t h o t h e r mus ic t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s : I ' v e l o o k e d a t the p r o g r a m , I know b a s i c a l l y the m a t e r i a l s , the k i n d of t e a c h i n g t o o l s a v a i l a b l e i n i t , and I ' v e j u s t adap ted i t to my own way of t e a c h i n g (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . T e a c h e r s w i t h non -mus i c backgrounds made more p r e s c r i p t i v e use of the Koda' ly c u r r i c u l u m as p r e s e n t e d i n the Resou rce  Book , whereas those w i t h more e x t e n s i v e mus ic backgrounds tended to be more s e l e c t i v e . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t s c o n -t e n t s , however , was p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r e f f e c t i v e u s e : I t h i n k t h a t ' s someth ing e v e r y t e a c h e r has to d o , hunt t h rough the book to f i g u r e out where they a re go ing to g o , o t h e r w i s e t h e y ' l l never be f a m i l i a r w i t h the book a n y w a y . . . a n d the m a t e r i a l . I f t hey a re g i v e n a whole s e t of l e s s o n p l a n s , t hey a re never go ing to get as f a m i l i a r w i t h i t as t hey would from f l i p p i n g around and f i g u r i n g out what p a r t s go t o -g e t h e r . E v e r y t h i n g i s t h e r e t h a t you n e e d , you j u s t have to thumb th rough to f i n d i t (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . The r e s p o n s e s to the second q u e s t i o n - most v a l u a b l e a s p e c t s o f the r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s - a re d i f f i c u l t to 47 c a t e g o r i z e , as a l l components o f the book , e x c e p t the imp ro -v i s a t i o n a l and mus ic a p p r e c i a t i o n s e c t i o n s , were ment ioned by a t l e a s t one t e a c h e r . T h i s i n d i c a t e s the d i v e r s i t y of m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y to meet the v a r i o u s needs o f t e a c h e r s . The m a j o r i t y (n=9) o f t e a c h e r s recommended no c h a n g e s ; the book was seen to be comprehens i ve and u s e f u l . Some (n=2) saw a need f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ; f o r example a b e g i n -n ing K o d a l y t e a c h e r recommended a book w i t h j u s t e s s e n t i a l s , and found i t c o n f u s i n g to d i s t i n g u i s h between " t h e b a s i c s " and i d e a s wh ich e l a b o r a t e d . 2 . S p e c i f i e d sequence and scope of s k i l l s Comple te and u n q u e s t i o n i n g a c c e p t a n c e and f i d e l i t y to the s p e c i f i e d o r d e r of s k i l l p r e s e n t a t i o n (as the s t r u c t u r e t h a t worked " t h e b e s t w a y " ) , t y p i f i e d t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e ( n = l l ) R e f e r e n c e was made to p i l o t - t e s t i n g d u r i n g i n i t i a l i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n , and the t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d f a i t h i n the Program D e v e l o p e r ' s e x p e r t i s e . I d o n ' t e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t t a t a l l . When i t s a y s , " P r e s e n t * l a h ! such and such a w a y , " t h a t ' s e x a c t -l y the way I do i t , I do t t w i t h the same s o n g . I do i t i n the same o r d e r . I ' v e got my book open r i g h t tn f r o n t o f me, so I d o n ' t m iss out a n y t h i n g a l o n g the way. You know, e x a c t l y the way the program p r e s c r i b e s (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . Oh, I j u s t go a l o n g w i t h how she (Program De-v e l o p e r ) has i t s e t up (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . 48 One t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d chang ing the t e a c h i n g sequence some-what on the b a s i s o f t e a c h a b l e moments, but a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p rog ram: Once y o u ' v e been th rough i t a c o u p l e o f t i m e s , and you know w h a t ' s a h e a d , somet imes the r a r e s t o p p o r -t u n i t i e s come up , and you can t e a c h t h a t then (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . The scope of s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n c l e a r l y was not a c -c e p t e d . T e a c h e r s (n=4) e x p r e s s e d the need to " s l o w i t down! 1 , as more t ime was needed f o r c h i l d r e n to r e p e a t and m a n i p u l a t e l e a r n i n g s to i n t e r n a l i z e them: We l l . , even t o d a y , I was do ing a mus ic l e s s o n and one l i t t l e g i r l c o u l d n ' t hear 1 s o h . . 1 a h ' . . . t h a t t h e r e was any d i f f e r e n c e , and I t h o u g h t , " A f t e r a l l t h i s t i m e , s h e ' s s t i l l not t u n i n g i n . " And when she c o u l d see I was p l a y i n g i t d i f f e r e n t l y on the b e l l s , then she s a i d . . . " O h y e s ! " But she w a s n ' t h e a r i n g i t . So I r e a l l y f e e l t h a t we c o u l d maybe cu t back on the w r i t t e n p a r t and do more o f j u s t the e a r - t r a i n i n g (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . Changes i n the scope o f s k i l l s t augh t were i n r esponse to p e r c e i v e d needs o f s p e c i f i c g roups o f c h i l d r e n (n=4) : T: T h i s y e a r I h a v e n ' t done any w r i t t e n t ype of t h i n g . . . R: And why i s t h a t ? T: I'm h a v i n g a hard t ime g e t t i n g t h r o u g h . . . I t t a k e s 49 us a l o n g t ime to ge t t h rough many t h i n g s , and i t would be j u s t too f r u s t r a t i n g , I t h i n k , to t r y t h a t , so b e t t e r they en joy what they a re d o i n g . I f t hey d o n ' t e n j o y m u s i c , t h e n . . i f y o u ' r e g o i n g to f r u s -t r a t e them, then y o u ' v e d e f e a t e d the whole p u r -pose (#4K, G r . l , 5 K ) . One t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n e d the s c o p e , and s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d no t need s o p h i s t i c a t e d m u s i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g u n l e s s t h e s e s k i l l s were a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y to i n s t r u -menta l p e r f o r m a n c e : I t h i n k t h a t t h i r d g r a d e r s need to know some of i t , but I wonder how much they need to know i n g e t t i n g i n t o the s i x t e e n t h s and s y n c o p a t e d r h y t h m s , and so o n , because t h a t ' s , even i n p l a y i n g a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t , i f t hey s t a r t e d a t f i r s t g r a d e , t hey w o u l d n ' t be g e t t i n g i n t o t h o s e s o p h i s t i c a t e d rhythms a t t h i r d g r a d e . . So I t h i n k i n a way t h e y ' v e put too much i n t o the program (#4f1, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . Concerns about e x t e n s i v e scope e x p e c t a t i o n s posed f r u s t r a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s (n=5). T: I f i n d i n the Grade 2 program t h e r e a re too many t h i n g s t o , a h , c o v e r a d e q u a t e l y a l l the way t h r o u g h . R: And s o , how have you chosen what you want to t e a c h and what not to t e a c h ? 50 T: W e l l , I'm p r e t t y w e l l t e a c h i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s i n c l u d e d , as f a r as I can ge t ( # 4 J , G r . 2&3, 6 K ) . Most t e a c h e r s r e s o l v e d t h i s c o n f l i c t by f o l l o w i n g the s e -quence o f s k i l l s , c o m p l e t i n g as much as p o s s i b l e , and then i n d i c a t i n g to the s t u d e n t s ' subsequen t K o d a l y t e a c h e r s the c o n c e p t s not i n t r o d u c e d o r m a s t e r e d . T e a c h e r s (n=6) who worked w i t h K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 v o i c e d few d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s k i l l i n s t r u c t i o n , whereas t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h l i t t l e mus ic b a c k -g r o u n d , had many d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t i n g s k i l l s o u t l i n e d i n the Grade 2 and 3 programs (n=3) . These d i f f i c u l t i e s l i m i t e d the scope of s k i l l s t a u g h t . T : I s t i l l h a v e n ' t t a u g h t my c l a s s ' r a y ' or ' t i c k a t i c k a ' and I'm h a v i n g a g r e a t dea l of d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g , m y s e l f , between the s m a l l i n t e r v a l s i n t hose n o t e s , and so when I'm e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n c e r n w i t h i t , I know i t ' s go ing t o . . t h e y a re go ing to e x p e r i e n c e c o n -c e r n w i t h i t as we 1 1 . R: And so y o u ' r e j u s t t a k i n g i t v e r y s l o w l y ? T: Y e a . . v e r y s i o w l y . R: Okay , t e a c h i n g Grade 2 ; a re t h e r e any o f t hose s k i l l s t h a t you f i n d more d i f f i c u l t to p r e s e n t ? T: Uhhum, ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . R: What i s i t . . t h e . . ? T: I d o n ' t know how to do i t ! I d o n ' t know how 51 to p r e s e n t i t ! I t ' s a r h y t h m i c e l e m e n t . . . a n d I j u s t have a heck o f a t ime t o . . . I mean I can b a r e l y c l a p i t l e t a l o n e e x p l a i n i t to the k i d s . . R: Have you t a l k e d to anybody about how to w o r k . . . t e a c h i n g t h a t ? T: No , I h a v e n ' t , but I s h o u l d because I'm su re i t c a n ' t be any more d i f f i c u l t than any o f the o t h e r o n e s , i t ' s j u s t t h a t I'm l e t t i n g someth ing h o l d me back h e r e ! (#2A, Gr.2, 4 K ) . Even w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , some t e a c h e r s (n=3) f e l t t h a t the e x p e r t i s e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e d to i n s t r u c t t h e s e advanced s k i l l s c o u l d not be mas te red a d e q u a t e l y by the t e a c h e r w i t h l i t t l e mus ic b a c k g r o u n d : T : I f e e l f a i r l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the Grade 1 l e v e l , I found the Grade 3 l e v e l was a c h a l l e n g e . . . I w a s n ' t up to i t ! R: But a f a n t a s t i c b a s i s f o r . . . T: Y e a h , as you g row. I ' v e done Grade 1, Grade 2, but Grade 3 was about my l i m i t , the k i d s got beyond m e . . . a f t e r t hey g rasped i t (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . I t h i n k once you get p a s t Grade 2, e v e n , you have to have a much b r o a d e r mus i c background and have the s k i l l s , r a t h e r than what I'm coming i n w i t h , i n o r d e r to do an e f f i c i e n t j o b a t i t . So I t h i n k maybe a t Grade 3, c e r t a i n l y i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e . . . 52 you need some s p e c i a l i s t s i n o r d e r to do an adequa te j o b . I t ' s j u s t too much to ask f rom the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ( # 4 J , G r . 2&3, 6 K ) . I t h i n k i t ' s an awfu l l o t to ask the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , e s p e c i a l l y the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r who hasn ' t . . . d o e s n ' t have a m u s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , to have to s t a r t f rom s c r a t c h . You migh t go i n t o t e a c h i n g knowing you have to be much o f a j a c k -o f - a l l - t r a d e s . . . I t h i n k t h a t when you get i n t o an a r e a l i k e t h a t , t h a t i s so. s p e c i a l i z e d . . . I r e a l l y wonder t h a t t h e y . . . I t h i n k they have a nerve to t h i n k you ought to be t h a t much o f an e x p e r t i n such a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d . I t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y s p e c i a l i s t s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d to do i t (#4M, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . Advan tages and l i m i t a t i o n s of a s p e c i a l i s t mus ic t e a c h e r r o l e a r o s e d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s , o b v i o u s l y a deba ted i s s u e . B e s i d e s f i n a n c i a l c o s t , d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the p r o -v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l i s t s were p e r c e i v e d by one t e a c h e r to be the l a c k of c o n t r o l o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s and l i m i t e d i n -c e n t i v e t o l e a r n to t e a c h m u s i c : There a re two s i d e s . I mean, maybe my c h i l d r e n a r e n ' t l e a r n i n g as w e l l as f rom someone l i k e a s p e c i a l i s t coming i n , but then on the o t h e r hand , urn, you can do i t when you wan t , and I know what t hey a r e d o i n g . . . because you j u s t w o u l d n ' t do 53 any o t h e r m u s i c , i f t h a t pe rson a lways comes i n and does i t (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . 3 . K o d a l y songs - v a l u e s , l i m i t a t i o n s and a d a p t a t i o n s The Koda' ly program songs were r e c o g n i z e d as e x c e l l e n t t e a c h i n g t o o l s (n=9) because o f the l i m i t e d note range t h a t matched c h i l d r e n ' s v o i c e s , the s i m p l e words and t r a d i t i o n a l t u n e s , and the s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n and c o n t i n u i t y o f c o n c e p t p r e s e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h the s o n g s . Through the game a c t i v i t i e s s t u d e n t s were " r e p e a t i n g melody and rhythm w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g t h e y ' r e l e a r n i n g i t " (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4K) . Songs a l s o had some l i m i t a t i o n s : l i m i t e d p i t c h range and the r e p e t i t i o n s were p o t e n t i a l l y b o r i n g ; the songs were " t o o s h o r t , the s u b j e c t m a t t e r d o e s n ' t appea l to Grade 2 s t u d e n t s and l o t s o f the words a r e s i l l y " (#2B, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . I d o n ' t know whether the s t u d e n t s r e a l l y e n j o y . . . t h e program m a t e r i a l s have a good v a r i e t y , but the songs a re a l l the same, but I u n d e r -s t a n d t h i s . . . I n o r d e r to t e a c h i t , y o u ' v e got to s t a r t w i t h o n l y two no tes ( 4 1 , G r . l , 5 K ) . T e a c h e r s (n=3) t hough t t h a t s t u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o n g s : At tine p o i n t I t h o u g h t , you know, some of t hese songs a re p r e t t y M i c k e y M o u s e . . t h e y ' r e j u s t go ing to t h i n k t h i s i s p r e t t y d u m b . . . T h e y j u s t c o u l d n ' t 54 w a i t t o have t h e i r t u r n . T h e y ' l l s i n g f o r e v e r so they can have t h e i r t u r n to do i t ( 2 A , G r . 2 , 4 K ) . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d v a r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s , the v a l u e of t h e s e songs as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s was a f f i r m e d . The Program D e v e l o p e r encouraged t e a c h e r s to use non-Koda ' l y songs s e p a r a t e l y f rom Koda' ly l e s s o n s . Three t e a c h e r s s c h e d u l e d s e p a r a t e s i n g i n g s e s s i o n s f o r t hese " o u t s i d e " s o n g s , w i t h s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g camp s o n g s , G i r l Gu ide s o n g s , p a t r i o t i c Canad ian s o n g s , f o l k songs and c o n -tempora ry a c t i o n s o n g s . P e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t a f f e c t e d s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n to t h e s e t e a c h e r - s e l e c t e d s o n g s : Because I l i k e them so much, the k i d s l i k e them (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . Recommendat ions f o r songs to be added f o r m a l l y to the Koda' ly c u r r i c u l u m were not f o r t h c o m i n g , a l t h o u g h the a d d i t i o n of con tempora ry songs w i t h " a c t i o n , l i f e " was ment ioned by one t e a c h e r . Lack o f songs t h a t would appea l a c r o s s t e a c h e r s was the reason f o r not recommending s p e -c i f i c c h a n g e s . What s u i t s me w o u l d n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y s u i t some-body e l s e (#4M, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . T e a c h e r s were a d a p t i n g the program i n v a r i o u s ways as needed i n r e s p o n s e to p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n s or p e r c e i v e d needs o f s t u d e n t s ; howeve r , t e a c h e r s d i d not see the need f o r f o r m a l i z i n g t h e s e c h a n g e s . 55 4 . S t u d e n t assessmen t Formal t e s t i n g was not seen as a n e e d ; t h e s e t e a c h e r s p r e f e r r e d to d e v i s e methods s u i t a b l e f o r s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s . D i v e r s i t y was shown i n t y p e s o f assessmen t e m p l o y e d . No w r i t t e n assessmen t was employed by t h r e e t e a c h e r s who r e -l i e d on o b s e r v a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e n j o y m e n t ; t h e s e t e a c h e r s r e a c t e d a d a m a n t l y . I d o n ' t l i k e t e s t i n g - not w i t h the Grade ones (#4K, G r . 1 , 5 K ) . I t h i n k k i d s do not need to be t e s t e d . . . t hey ge t t e s t e d a l l day l o n g , a l l the t ime i n Language A r t s and M a t h , and I'm a f r a i d t h a t ' s the c o r e o f my p rog ram, t h a t I s h o u l d n ' t a p o l o g i z e f o r . . . I t h i n k i n mus i c t ime t h a t we can l e t each i n d i -v i d u a l e x c e l i n t h e i r own way and we do not have to make i t a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . O b s e r v a t i o n and i n f o r m a l w r i t t e n a s s e s s m e n t s , such as hav ing s t u d e n t w r i t e ou t rhythms or p i t c h e s , was used (n=5) . The t h i r d t ype (n=3) o f assessmen t employed was more f o r m a l , i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t m e m o r i z a t i o n o f s o n g s , o r t e s t i n g o f p i t c h and rhy thm. R e p o r t i n g comment was not g e n e r a l l y seen to be a p r i o r i t y ; comments were l i m i t e d to " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " o r " e n j o y m e n t " , and to no te s t u d e n t s who showed e x c e p t i o n a l p rom ise o r i n t e r e s t . 56 Though f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s k i l l l e v e l was not a p r i o r i t y , the need to d e t e r m i n e t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s was o f some c o n c e r n (n=2) . What do you t h i n k o f my k i d s ? How do they s t a c k up i n c o m p a r i s o n to the o t h e r ones t h a t you see? Have you got any t i p s f o r me? What do you see t h a t t hey a re d e f i c i e n t w i t h t h a t I s h o u l d work w i t h more? ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . I ' d j u s t l i k e to know i f , urn, I d o n ' t know, I 'd r e a l l y l i k e to know i f . . . W h a t k i n d of a j ob I'm do ing i n t e a c h i n g i t (#60, G r . 3 , 2K) . Implemented Compared to In tended O b j e c t i v e s T e a c h e r s were asked to p r o v i d e t h e i r c u r r e n t t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r m u s i c . A l l r e s p o n s e s were i n terms o f s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g , and showed cong ruence between t e a c h i n g b e l i e f s and t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Most t e a c h e r s ' f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was s t u d e n t e n j o y m e n t ; the s e c o n d a r y o b j e c t i v e was w i t h s k i l l s t h a t p r e p a r e d s t u d e n t s f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r ' s p rog ram. G e n e r a l l y the imp lemented s t u d e n t ob -j e c t i v e s a re cong ruen t w i t h the i n t e n d e d o n e s . An i m p l i c i t goa l of t h i s program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was the deve lopment of t e a c h e r m u s i c a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t to i n -s t r u c t the p rog ram. T e a c h e r s were asked i f t h i s was a f a i r a s s u m p t i o n , and whe the r s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t was g i v e n i t . T h i s i n t e n d e d o b j e c t i v e i s p a r t i a l l y met : a l l t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g w i t h the e a r l i e r g rades i n d i c a t e d c o n f i d e n c e and 57 mas te ry of the r e q u i r e d m u s i c a l s k i l l s . There were c o n -c e r n s , howeve r , t h a t l a t e Grade 2 and 3 programs were too demanding f o r the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r to i n s t r u c t a d e q u a t e l y . S p e c i a l i s t mus ic t e a c h e r s were seen to be n e c e s s a r y f o r advanced mus i c i n s t r u c t i o n . Summary The c o l l e c t i v e p r o g r a m s - i n - u s e p r e s e n t e d a meld o f f i d e l i t y and a d a p t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e s . L i t t l e d e v i a t i o n f rom p r e s c r i b e d s k i l l sequence was r e p o r t e d , as t h i s s t r u c -t u r e was p e r c e i v e d to be l o g i c a l and based on proven e x -p e r i e n c e . However , numerous a d a p t a t i o n s to program com-ponents were n o t e d , and the p r o g r a m s - i n - u s e were un ique i n r e s p o n s e to t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t n e e d s , p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s , p r e v i o u s m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s , and t e a c h i n g p r i o r i t i e s . What t ypes o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a d a p t a t i o n s have taken p l a c e ? N o n - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y to i n s t r u c t t h i s program were i m p o s s i b l e to m a s t e r ; s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , though v a l u a b l e , were not s u f f i c i e n t to c a r r y on an i ndependen t p rog ram. C o - o p t a t i o n o f the program o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s made s e l e c t i v e use of program componen ts , add ing t h e s e to an a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d approach to t e a c h i n g m u s i c ; however , the e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s s k i l l - b a s e d program was not u s e d . Mutua l a d a p t a t i o n s , where the t e a c h e r began to implement t h i s p r o g r a m , and i n t u r n had made changes i n 58 app roaches to t e a c h i n g m u s i c , were a l s o e v i d e n t . The s p e c i f i c changes r e q u i r e d to implement t h i s program and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the n a t u r e o f t h i s change ove r t i m e , are d i s c u s s e d i n the nex t two c h a p t e r s . i 59 CHAPTER IV  Changes Oyer Time H a l l and R u t h e r f o r d ( 1 9 7 6 ) , P r a t t , M e l l e and M e t z d o r f ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and the " L e v e l s of Use" f ramework d e v e l o p e d by H a l l and Loucks ( 1 9 7 5 ) , s t r e s s t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a l o n g -term p r o c e s s and t h a t t e a c h e r c o n c e r n s change over t i m e . The l o n g - t e r m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s Koda' ly program r e f l e c t e d such c h a n g e s . Two s t r a t e g i e s were used to a s s e s s t hese changes over t i m e . T e a c h e r s were asked to r e f l e c t on t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n c e r n s and to compare w i t h p r e s e n t c o n c e r n s . Changes ove r t ime e x p r e s e d by i n d i v i d u a l s were summar ized and c a t e g o r i z e d as a two , f o u r and s i x y e a r i n v o l v e m e n t . Three of the f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s (Append ix E), s e l e c t e d to r e p r e s e n t t hese y e a r s o f i n v o l v e m e n t , ex tend t h i s sum-mary . T e a c h e r s were asked t hese q u e s t i o n s : -What were your i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s ? -Would you sum up you r r e a c t i o n s now, a f t e r h a v i n g worked w i t h the program f o r ' x'• y e a r s ? -How have your mus ic a b i l i t i e s changed? -What would you l i k e to a c c o m p l i s h i n t e a c h i n g mus ic nex t y e a r ? In a d d i t i o n , the c o l l e c t i v e t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e a t each 60 o f the t h r e e s c h o o l s was a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y to d e t e r m i n e p a t t e r n s o f c o n c e r n r e l a t e d to l e n g t h o f t ime the s t a f f had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Koda' ly i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Two Year I n v o l v e m e n t ; I n d i v i d u a l " O v e r w h e l m i n g " was the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus ic background (n=6) : C o n f u s i o n , ove rwhe lm ing , the hand s i g n s and j u s t e v e r y t h i n g seemed to be so much to d e a l w i t h a t f i r s t (#6P , G r . l , 6 K ) . The f e a r and f r u s t r a t i o n o f i n i t i a t i o n to a p e r p l e x i n g program were remembered v i v i d l y : I can remember some of the e a r l i e r workshops I had t a k e n , and we d i d t h a t ( p i t c h d i s c r i m i -n a t i o n ) . . . a n d I d i d n ' t . . I was j u s t l o s t . I f e l t so f r u s t r a t e d ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . These b e g i n n i n g Koda l y t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e sense of d i r e c t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the program components f i t t e d t o g e t h e r p e d a g o g i c a l l y , and a sense of i n a d e q u a c y , a l m o s t g u i l t , a t i n a b i l i t y to mas te r t h i s program was e x -p r e s s e d : I f e e l t h a t i t ' s a good p r o g r a m . . . i t c e r t a i n l y has a l o t o f o f f e r . . b u t I d o n ' t f e e l l i k e I am t h a t . . . I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t I'm d o i n g i t j u s t i c e . . . by not p r a c t i c i n g a l l the e lemen ts t h a t a re i n i t , and urn, I'm c e r t a i n l y not t h a t c o n s i s t e n t . , . i t ' s , 61 i t ' s s o , the program f o r me i s , i s s o r t o f o v e r -whe lming i n a way. I, I c a n ' t seem to g rasp e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I 'm supposed to know, f rom a workshop and be a b l e t o b r i n g i t back to the c l a s s r o o m and be a l l that c o m f o r t a b l e i n e x e c u t i n g what I ' v e l e a r n e d i n a workshop (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . When asked to p r o j e c t f u t u r e a i m s , t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d a need to sha rpen f o c u s and to e s t a b l i s h some " o w n e r s h i p " o r a sense o f c o n t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s : R: Uhhum, f o r t e a c h i n g Koda l y nex t y e a r , as a mus ic t e a c h e r of Kodaly f o r nex t y e a r , what wou ld you l i k e to a c c o m p l i s h ? T: I wou ld l i k e to be a b l e to have a c l e a r i d e a as t o how I wou ld l i k e a l e s s o n to g o , and have my own f o r m a t drawn u p , p r o b a b l y based on the f o rma t t h a t i s a l r e a d y g i v e n , bu t no t g o i n g t h rough e v e r y s k i l l t h a t they have i n a l e s s o n . I wou ld j u s t c u l l what I wou ld t h i n k wou ld be i m p o r t a n t (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . Fo r t e a c h e r s i n t r o d u c e d to the Koda l y app roach th rough u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s , the p r o s p e c t was not t h r e a t e n i n g . However , a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n p roved more complex than t h e i r i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n s i n d i c a t e d : When I f i r s t b e g a n , I j u s t t hough t t h a t I w o u l d , a h , t e a c h what was i n t he g u i d e b o o k , and I neve r c o n s i d e r e d i t b e i n g , you know, d i f f i c u l t , o r 62 a n y t h i n g , and now, I mean now t h a t I ' v e gone t h rough i t , a f t e r the f i r s t y e a r , I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t do a l o t of t h i n g s . I t s o r t o f made me f e e l f r u s t r a t e d , t h a t I w a s n ' t mee t ing the g u i d e -b o o k ' s , you know, t h e i r d a t e s and e v e r y t h i n g . But a l s o I f e e l t h a t I ' d l i k e to improve my e x p e r t i s e , I -wou ld l i k e to become a. B e t t e r mus ic t e a c h e r , and the c o u r s e has e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e to o f f e r to h e l p me reach t h a t goa l (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . In sum, f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the ove rwhe lm ing c o m p l e x i t y o f l e a r n i n g t h i s program c o u p l e d w i t h a sense o f i n a d e q u a c y r e p r e s e n t e d i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus i c b a c k g r o u n d . Concerns c e n t r e d on s e l e c t i n g the i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g some o w n e r s h i p , and making sense of the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . Four Year I n v o l v e m e n t : I n d i v i d u a l A f t e r f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , t e a c h e r s ' (n=2) e x p r e s s e d c o n -c e r n s c e n t r e d on i m p r o v i n g e x p e r t i s e and s e l e c t i n g more e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s e q u e n c e s . There was a sense o f comfo r t i n program u s e , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the program s t r u c -t u r e : R: What a re y o u r r e a c t i o n s a f t e r f o u r y e a r s of w o r k i n g w i t h the program? T: Urn, some sense of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , where i t a l l . . . w h e r e t h e y ' v e come f rom and where y o u ' d want 63 them to g o , and I have a b e t t e r sense o f t i m i n g w i t h what has to be c o v e r e d t o o , I t h i n k (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . S p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s to more e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t mus ic c o n c e p t s were of i m p o r t a n c e : C h i l d r e n need more a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n d o i n g the w r i t i n g o f the n o t e . . n o t a t i o n . They j u s t . . . they s h o u l d do i t e v e r y d a y . I f i n d , I'm h a v i n g a r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t t ime w i t h my c l a s s . They can do t h e s e f o u r bea t p h r a s e s , not too b a d l y , but to put i t on a s t a f f , somehow, I d o n ' t know, I'm s t i l l w o r k i n g on what to do t o g i v e more p r a c -t i c e (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . S t u d e n t s were p e r c e i v e d as r e c e i v i n g much improved i n s t r u c t i o n as t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e d : As the t e a c h e r works more w i t h i t , then she has more t h a t she can work w i t h f o r the s t u d e n t s , t h e r e f o r e they have a b e t t e r program (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . However , t h e s e t e a c h e r s j udged t h a t they s t i l l had not mas te red use of t h i s p rog ram: R: Do you t h i n k y o u r t e a c h i n g a b i l i t i e s i n mus ic have changed? T : P r o b a b l y s o . . . n o t a l o t . I am s t i l l no t k n o w l e d g e a b l e a t a l l . I am know ledgeab le as f a r as my k i d s a re w i t h the program (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . 64 In sum, g r e a t e r sense o f c o n f i d e n c e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s was e x p r e s s e d , a l t h o u g h f u r t h e r improvement was a c o n c e r n . S i x Year I n v o l v e m e n t : I n d i v i d u a l Two t e a c h e r s had t a u g h t the program f o r s i x y e a r s : both had i n i t i a t e d i n v o l v e m e n t a t p i l o t s c h o o l s , and t h i s s p e c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t may have c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r s u s -t a i n e d commitment . Bo th t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e p r e v i o u s mus ic e x -p e r i e n c e , and numerous f r u s t r a t i o n s w h i l e m a s t e r i n g the p rog ram. Bo th had i n v e s t e d much t ime and g i v e n commitment t o a t t e n d i n g workshops and i n s o l o p r a c t i c e : R: Okay , i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s . . . you 1 v e a t t e n d e d them f o r about f i v e y e a r s . . . F i r s t o f a l l , why d i d you c o n t i n u e a t t e n d i n g them? T: I f e l t t h a t I needed to do t hese t h i n g s , i n o r d e r to l e a r n the s k i l l s i n o r d e r to do a good j o b . To j u s t improve my p e r f o r m a n c e . R: And i t was y o u r c h o i c e to a t t e n d ? T: Yup ! ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . Though the p o t e n t i a l rewards i n t e a c h i n g per fo rmance were not a t a l l c e r t a i n when t h e s e t e a c h e r s had i n i t i a t e d t h e i r use of t h i s p r o g r a m , the ma jor f a c t o r s i n t h e i r s u s -t a i n e d commitment appeared to be a t t i t u d e towards the program and a d e s i r e to improve t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Now bo th t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d c o m f o r t , c o n f i d e n c e and s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n program u s e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i l l u s t r a t e s 65 the n a t u r e o f t h i s change ove r t i m e : R: Cou ld you sum up y o u r r e a c t i o n s now, a f t e r w o r k i n g w i t h i t f o r abou t s i x y e a r s ? T: Oh, I t h i n k the program i s f a n t a s t i c f o r me. I r e a l l y d o , r e a l l y en joy i t . R: What changes have you n o t i c e d i n y o u r t e a c h i n g ? Your e x p e c t a t i o n s o f y o u r s e l f as a t e a c h e r d u r i n g t h a t t ime? T: I ' d s a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the pas t two to t h r e e y e a r s , I ' v e been a b l e to a c c o m p l i s h more , to c o v e r more of the c u r r i c u l u m f o r each g r a d e , as I ' v e g a i n e d more s k i l l s i n i t , and been a b l e to e x p e c t more o f m y s e l f , to be a b l e to come th rough w i t h i t , and f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . R: A h , have your a b i l i t i e s w i t h m u s i c . . . d o you f e e l that t hey have changed? T: Oh, immense l y . R: In what ways? T: I was a n o n - s i n g e r , a n o n - e v e r y t h i n g . I can see the d i f f e r e n c e . I t ' s l i k e , you know, when you l ook a t a magaz ine w i t h the " b e f o r e " and the " a f t e r " . I used to be the " b e f o r e " and now I'm the " a f t e r " ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . Though the n a t u r e of changes over t ime were s i m i l a r , a ims f o r f u t u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were n o t . One t e a c h e r i n d i -c a t e d p r e s c r i p t i v e program u s e , and saw l i t t l e need to adapt 66 the program as i t was p e r c e i v e d to be s u f f i c i e n t . The o t h e r t e a c h e r i n d i c a t e d a "need to grow" and d e f i n e d t h i s as "mak ing more use of the program w i t h i n the d a y " ( # 6 P , G r . l , 6K). I n t e g r a t i o n o f mus ic w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s was t h i s t e a c h e r ' s a i m : m u s i c a l l e a r n i n g s were used to complement s t u d e n t s ' wo rk , to d i s c o v e r m u s i c a l sequences i n math and s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n s : As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , the o t h e r d a y , a l i t t l e g i r l was w o r k i n g i n her workbook and she had c i r c l e d the answers and they had g o n e . . . m i d d l e , u p , down, and she s a i d , " O h , t h i s i s j u s t l i k e m u s i c , ' s o h , l a h , s o h , me , ' " she was s i n g i n g t h rough her -answers i n the book and I t h o u g h t , " W e l l , i t ' s r e a l l y i n t e g r a t i n g i t " ( # 6 P , G r . l , 6 K ) . Changes Over T ime : S c h o o l S tudy s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d a l s o t o r e p r e s e n t a two , f o u r and s i x y e a r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the p rog ram. A c c o r d i n g t o the Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t " s c h o o l - b a s e d " i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n p l a n , the p r i n c i p a l has the r e s p o n s i b i i t y to ensu re program a d o p t i o n . To a s s e s s t h i s r o l e , t e a c h e r s were asked how t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r e a c t e d to o r s u p p o r t e d the p rog ram. The c o l l e c t i v e t e a c h e r r e s p o n s e f rom each s c h o o l was a n a l y z e d to d e t e r m i n e s i m i l a r i t i e s . Two Year I n v o l v e m e n t : S c h o o l What was not s a i d was o f i n t e r e s t i n a n a l y z i n g the 67 c o l l e c t i v e t e a c h e r s ' comments. Concerns c e n t e r e d on the immedia te t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , and no r e f e r e n c e was made t o s t u d e n t s ' c o n t i n u a n c e w i t h mus i c or the p r o v i s i o n o f i n t e r -m e d i a t e mus i c p r o g r a m s . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , however , s t i l l had h i g h v i s i b i l i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , the r e s e a r c h e r was app roached by t e a c h e r s who no l o n g e r used the p r o g r a m , but who w i shed to make both t h e i r c o n c e r n s and h i g h r e g a r d f o r the program known. The p r i n c i p a l was seen as p r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : W e l l , he i s i n s i s t e n t t h a t i t be used i n the s c h o o l , as f a r as i n s i s t e n c e can go . L i k e he s a y s , "Koda ' l y i s the program f o r o u r . p r i m a r y " (#2A, G r.2, 4K). To encourage i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the p r i n c i p a l had a r r a n g e d s u s t a i n e d i n - s e r v i c e f o r s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t , i n - c l a s s Ko-da' ly t e a c h e r s u p p o r t , as w e l l as p r o v i s i o n of r e q u i r e d m a t e r i a l s . Aware o f t e a c h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m a s t e r i n g t h i s p r o g r a m , the p r i n c i p a l was : a l s o s u p p o r t i v e i n the sense t h a t h e ' l l a l l o w p e o p l e who a r e n ' t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t to do some s w i t c h i n g around so t h a t the k i d s ge t i t . He d o e s n ' t c a r e , r e a l l y , whe ther you t e a c h i t , as l o n g as the k i d s ge t i t (#2A, G r . 2 , 4K). 68 Four Year I n v o l v e m e n t : S c h o o l T e a c h e r c o n c e r n s d w e l t on program c o n t i n u i t y . T e a c h e r s r e t u r n e d to t h i s i s s u e r e p e a t e d l y : the t ime i n v e s t m e n t of s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r would come to nought i f the program i m -p l e m e n t a t i o n i s no t c o n t i n u e d : I j u s t hope t h a t i t d o e s n ' t , a h , s o r t o f go out the window a f t e r a l l t h i s work and an enormous amount of e f f o r t , not o n l y ( the P r o g -ram D e v e l o p e r ) and a l l the p e o p l e who work w i t h h e r , b u t , you know, a l a r g e number o f t e a c h e r s i n the d i s t r i c t , and a l l the b a c k -ground t h a t the k i d s have g a i n e d . I t h i n k i t wou ld be a r e a l was te i f i t ' s j u s t s o r t of a l -lowed to d r i f t to an end ( # 4 J , 6 r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . The q u e s t i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y p r a c t i c e was r a i s e d , o r a t l e a s t , the r e q u e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s f o l l o w the program g u i d e -l i n e s v e r y c l o s e l y . These t e a c h e r s who r a i s e d t h e s e i s s u e s had been i n v o l v e d w i t h the program use f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s . I t appea rs t h a t the more t ime t h a t the t e a c h e r had i n v e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g the program ( a t t e n d i n g workshops and p r a c t i c i n g ) , the s t r o n g e r the c a l l to make use of the program c o m p u l s o r y and f o r ma in tenance and c o n t i n u i t y to program s u p p o r t . The s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r was i n the p r o -c e s s o f i n t r o d u c i n g s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r m e d i a t e mus i c programs and to do so had h i r e d a mus i c s p e c i a l i s t . 69 S i x Year I n v o l v e m e n t : S c h o o l The K o d a l y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d as " e n t r e n c h e d " , i n the p o s i t i v e s e n s e . I n i t i a t i o n as a p i l o t s c h o o l was seen as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the a c c e p t a n c e of the p rog ram. Both t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l v iewed the program as the b a s i s f o r a l l o t h e r mus ic programs i n the s c h o o l , and a s t r o n g sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n marked t e a c h e r a s s e s s m e n t s o f program s u p p o r t . The p r i n c i p a l was seen as s u p p o r t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n "who le h e a r t e d l y " w i t h p r o v i s i o n of "money, t i m e , p e r f o r -mances , d i s t r i c t s u p p o r t " (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . There was a s t r o n g and v i s i b l e commitment to v a r i o u s k i n d s o f mus ic e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h t the s c h o o l , and t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e i r commitment to program use was a p p r e c i a t e d . I f e e l f rom j u s t g e n e r a l comments t h a t ( t he p r i n c i p a l ) 1s v e r y p l e a s e d and he has men-t i o n e d many t imes t h a t the K o d a l y i s e s -t a b l i s h e d as mus ic i n the s c h o o l , h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n move i n t o band (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) , 70 CHAPTER V  F a c i l i t a t i n g I m p l e m e n t a t i o n "From the t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , what f a c i l i t a t e d the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e ? " Program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n may i m p l y changes i n any o f t h e s e a r e a s : - a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , . - know ledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , - r o l e s and b e h a v i o r s , - s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s , - m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s ( F u l l a n , 1 9 7 9 : 6 1 ) . The change p r o c e s s i s complex and changes i n any one of t h e s e a r e a s may p rove t h r e a t e n i n g t o the t e a c h e r . C h a n g e s , r a d i c a l or m i n u t e , were r e q u i r e d o f a l l t e a c h e r s to f a c i l i t a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s k i l l - b a s e d a p p r o a c h . A c c e p t a n c e of the need f o r a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e , and t ypes o f k n o w l e d g e , r o l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes wh ich the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were i n v e s t i g a t e d . T e a c h e r use o f the a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s and p e r c e i v e d v a l u e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f a c i l i t a t i o n were a l s o exami n e d . A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s An i m p l i c i t a t t i t u d e change r e q u i r e d was a c c e p t a n c e o1 need f o r a s k i l l - b a s e d p r o g r a m ; a change f rom mus ic v iewed 71 w i t h p e r i p h e r a l emphas is to mus ic v iewed as a " s u b j e c t " . I neve r f e l t mus ic was r e a l l y l e a r n i n g , i t was more o f a fun t h i n g (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . Two f a c t o r s wh ich commi t ted t e a c h e r s to the need f o r t h i s change we re : whether the p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t program was judged to be i n e f f e c t i v e and the v a l u e a s c r i b e d to the i n -n o v a t i o n ; and s e c o n d , whether the t e a c h e r f e l t some i n i -t i a t i v e w i t h i n the " s c h o o l - b a s e d " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , T e a c h e r s (n=8) appeared to a c c e p t w i l l i n g l y a d i s t r i c t s k i l l - b a s e d app roach and j udged the p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t program i n e f f e c t i v e . Reasons g i v e n i n c l u d e d : i n a d e q u a t e s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s ; i n -c o n s i s t e n c y and l a c k o f q u a l i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l l y - c h o s e n p r o g -rams : The s t u d e n t s w e r e , f o r the most p a r t , m u s i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e , I t h i n k the K o d a l y program j u s t seems to f i l l i n what I saw as an i n c r e d i b l e l a c k o f s k i l l s (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . I t ' s good t h a t we now do have a mus ic program i n s t e a d of eve ryone do ing t h e i r l i t t l e hodge-podge of songs (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . " S l a p - d a s h " i f l e f t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to choose (#2B, G r . 1&2, 3K) . I f they were a b l e to choose t h e i r own p rog ram, t h e r e might be some t e a c h e r s who migh t never t e a c h m u s i c ; you know, where they s h o u l d t e a c h 72 i t , and j u s t s l o t tn any t ype o f songs on r e c o r d s , o r j u s t , you know, r e c o r d s , and t h a t ' s t h e i r m u s i c , m a i n l y maybe. I t w o u l d n ' t have the q u a l i t y (#60, G r . 3 , 2K). When asked to d e s c r i b e the p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t p rog rams , t e a c h e r s (n=5) c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e to be i n a d e q u a t e , but a p -p a r e n t l y had few a l t e r n a t i v e s t o improve i n s t r u c t i o n . What e l s e was I go ing t o do f o r m u s i c , o t h e r than p l a y r e c o r d s and urn, s o r t o f an a p p r e c i a t i o n t h i n g but not much more ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . B e f o r e t h a t , I'm a f r a i d , i t was j u s t m a i n l y t e a c h i n g s o n g s . I t was no r e a l l y w e l l s t r u c t u r e d or w e l l l a i d out program (#4K, G r . l , 5 K ) . T e a c h e r s (n=2) a l s o compared t h i s Koda l y program to mus ic l e a r n e d as a s t u d e n t . I m p r e s s i o n s remembered of c h i l d h o o d mus i c e x p e r i e n c e s s t i l l v i v i d l y i n f l u e n c e d t e a c h e r ' s p e r -c e p t i o n s ; t h e s e encouraged program use f o r one t e a c h e r and h i n d e r e d use f o r a n o t h e r : To have K o d a l y I can hang my ha t on t t and I c o u l d a c t u a l l y t e a c h mus ic i n s t e a d o f j u s t s i n g , wh ich i s a l l I grew up w i t h i n s c h o o l was mus i c c l a s s wh ich i s a t ime when we sang (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . I neve r was t u r n e d on by b e i n g t a u g h t ' d o h - r a y - m e ' and a l l t h a t b u s i n e s s when I was i n the f o u r t h g rade and now I'm a f r a i d I'm t e a c h i n g K o d a l y 73 because I'm supposed to c o v e r i t as a b a s i c but i t d o e s n ' t enchan t me (#4M, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . L e a d e r s h i p by the Program D e v e l o p e r , as a d v o c a t e f o r t h i s i n n o v a t i o n , was a ma jo r f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g a c c e p t a n c e . When asked why t h i s program was chosen f o r the d i s t r i c t , s i x t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d no q u e s t i o n o f the c h o i c e t h rough r e s p e c t f o r the Program D e v e l o p e r ' s e x p e r t i s e . The r e s p e c t f o r the a d v o c a t e appeared to be e s s e n t i a l to t e a c h e r com-m i t m e n t . I t h i n k p r o b a b l y because (Program D e v e l o p e r ) l o o k e d a t i t , and she had e x t e n s i v e background and she saw i t as a good t h i n g , I d o n ' t know, I'm j u s t g u e s s i n g h e r e , but t h a t appears t o be what I ' v e seen (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . I have no i d e a why i t was c h o s e n , o t h e r than the p e o p l e t h a t i n t r o d u c e d i t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y (Program D e v e l o p e r ) has been so i n t e r e s t e d i n mus i c a l l a l o n g t h a t I s o r t o f t r u s t e d h e r . She must have f e l t t h a t i t had the components f o r the b a s i c program (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . I d o n ' t k n o w . . . I t h i n k (Program D e v e l o p e r ) wanted i t and got i t g o i n g (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . I t h i n k because (Program D e v e l o p e r ) had an aw-f u l l o t to do w i t h i t , a h , she was the one who i n t r o d u c e d the p rog ram. She put a t remendous amount o f work i n t o i t . They d i d p i l o t programs 74 on i t , a n d , a h , t h e r e h a s n ' t been a n y t h i n g t h a t has had the i n - d e p t h i n v o l v e m e n t l i k e the Koda' ly program i n the d i s t r i c t ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) , O the r r e a s o n s g i v e n were t h a t t h i s i n n o v a t i v e d i s -t r i c t was c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g good programs f o r s t u d e n t s ; , t h a t Koda l y was a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d and e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m , and i t had been s u c c e s s f u l l y imp lemented e l s e w h e r e . The second f a c t o r wh ich commi t ted t e a c h e r s to t h i s change was the a p p r o a c h s e l e c t e d f o r the " s c h o o l - b a s e d " i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n i n t e n d e d to t r a n s l a t e the d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d program i n t o p r a c t i c e . The app roach s e l e c t e d by the p r i n -c i p a l , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g a d o p t i o n , a f f e c t e d program a c c e p t a n c e . T e a c h e r s were a s k e d , f i r s t , what d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n mean t , and s e c o n d , how the d e c i s i o n was made . to b e g i n program u s e . Teacher i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z a t i o n d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y , dependent on the t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the " s c h o o l - b a s e d " a p p r o a c h . I t was a p -p a r e n t t h a t no c o n s i s t e n t message had been r e c e i v e d ; some t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d much more l a t i t u d e i n program use than o t h e r s : . R: The program i s d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d . What does t h a t mean to you? T: I t means t h a t we c a n , i f we w i s h , use Koda ' l y , . . . b u t we do not have to (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . T : D i s t r i c t e x p e c t s us to t e a c h i t (#2B, G r . l & 2 , 3 K ) . 75 T: I t i s n ' t c o m p u l s o r y , you can do i t i f you want to (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . T : D i s t r i c t l o o k s f a v o r a b l y on the program and would l i k e to have i t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s (#4J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . T: Urn, t h a t we s h o u l d be h a v i n g i t i n ou r s c h o o l s . I f e e l t h a t i t s h o u l d be i n e v e r y s c h o o l , i f p o s s i b l e . That i t s h o u l d n ' t be so much a c h o i c e o f whe ther they s h o u l d or s h o u l d n ' t , and p e o p l e f e e l i n g t h a t , " W e l l , I d o n ' t c a r e to do i t . . . o r I f e e l a l o t o f f a u l t w i t h i t (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . T: I g u e s s , s i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s the d i s t r i c t , t h a t ' s a l l (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . T : I t means t h a t you s h o u l d do i t to the b e s t o f you r a b i l i t y (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . Some sense o f c o n t r o l t h rough p e r s o n a l i n i t i a t i v e i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y t e a c h e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s c h a n g e . Most t e a c h e r s (n=7) p e r c e i v e d no p r e s s u r e to imp lement the p r o g r a m ; use had been a p e r s o n a l c h o i c e . R: How was the d e c i s i o n made f o r you to b e g i n to t e a c h Koda' ly? T: U h , we were asked i f we wou ld l i k e to do i t . R: By whom? T : A h , the p r i n c i p a l s u g g e s t e d t h e r e was g o i n g t o be the p i l o t p r o g r a m , and t h a t we 'd maybe be i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . 76 R: Do you remember what you r i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to b e i n g asked were? T: Ve ry i n t e r e s t e d . D i d n ' t know a n y t h i n g abou t i t a t a l l , bu t l i k e d t o know more about i t (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . T: I was w o r k i n g a t Schoo l X when the Koda'ly p r o g -ram was i n t r o d u c e d , t h a t was one o f the p i l o t s c h o o l s and t h a t ' s how I became i n t r o d u c e d to the p rog ram. R: Now, d i d you choose to become i n v o l v e d ? D id the p r i n c i p a l s u g g e s t you a t t e n d s e s s i o n s ? H o w . . . ? T: From what I can remember, and t h a t ' s q u i t e a w h i l e a g o , i t s t a r t e d w i t h K i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1, I t h i n k , and I was t e a c h i n g Grade 2 and I watched them and then p i c k e d up the nex t y e a r and then went a l o n g f rom t h a t , and i t was a p e r s o n a l c h o i c e ( # 4 J , Gr 2&3, 6 K ) . T e a c h e r s (n=2) who t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o a s c h o o l w i t h an a l -ready e s t a b l i s h e d program p e r c e i v e d c o n t i n u i t y e x p e c -t a t i o n s wh ich shaped t h e i r d e c i s i o n to imp lemen t . T : The program i s e n t r e n c h e d i n the s c h o o l , and i t o n l y made sense to c a r r y i t o n . R: So i t was y o u r c h o i c e or d i d the p r i n c i p a l s u g g e s t t h a t you use K o d a l y ? T : N o , i t was my c h o i c e . . u r n . . . I j u s t l o o k e d a t what t h e y ' d had and d e c i d e d t h a t t hey had a l l the 77 t o o l s , and i t wou ld be f o o l i s h not to use them (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . I t was j u s t someth ing t h a t was a l r e a d y b e i n g t a u g h t , and I b e l i e v e t h a t i t was e x p e c t e d o f me to j u s t c a r r y on the p r o g r a m . . . S o I j u s t n a t u r a l l y assumed t h a t i t was K o d a l y . And I 'd hea rd t h a t K o d a l y w a s , you know, the t h i n g to t e a c h (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . T e a c h e r s (n=2) who were i n v o l v e d a t a s c h o o l tn the p r o c e s s o f i n i t i a l program a d o p t i o n p e r c e i v e d v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s to imp lemen t . The p r i n c i p a l " s e t the e x p e c t a t i o n " t h a t p r i -mary t e a c h e r s would use the p r o g r a m , and i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s c h o o l was "on the l i s t " to put the program i n t o use (#2B, G r . 2 , 3 K ) . I f e l t p r e s s u r e to t e a c h K o d a l y when -I came to t h i s s c h o o l because t h a t ' s what the p r i n c i p a l wanted when we were h i r e d . He s a y s . . . " K o d a l y i s the program we t e a c h i n ou r s c h o o l " (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . One t e a c h e r emphas ized t h a t an i n i t i a l a t t i t u d e o f a c -c e p t a n c e , o r , a t l e a s t , w i l l i n g n e s s to t r y ou t the p r o g -ram, were ma jor f a c t o r s i n s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T : I t h i n k , you know, i t depends how you w e n t . . . how you l o o k e d a t i t when you s t a r t e d . I f you went i n to c r i t i c i z e . . . M a y b e because I d o n ' t have t h a t much m u s i c , I wanted to have s o m e t h i n g . 78 R: You saw t h a t as a need... T: I had t h a t need, t h a t I was p l e a s e d to go, I was p l e a s e d to go i n the summer and l e a r n . I en-joyed i t ( # 6 P , G r . l , 6 K ) . In sum, the f a c t o r s which committed t e a c h e r s to the need f o r t h i s i n n o v a t i o n were many, and i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r - 1 i n k e d . Major f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were: p e r c e i v e d need because the p r e v i o u s l y taught program was judged i n a d e q u a t e ; acceptance of the i n n o v a t i o n ' s v a l u e ; the approach adopted to the " s c h o o l - b a s e d " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; and, some c o n t r o l of the d e c i s i o n to implement. Knowledge and Unde r s t a n d i n g Knowledge, i n terms of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and use of music concepts and t e r m i n o l o g y , had to be a c q u i r e d by the "non-music" t e a c h e r . T h i s 'music language' was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e the t e a c h e r was a b l e to i n s t r u c t or guide the s t u d e n t s . Changes r e q u i r e d were complex f o r the t e a c h e r w i t h l i t t l e music background; however a l l t e a c h e r s needed to u n d e r s t a n d , i n t e r n a l i z e and c o n f i d e n t l y use the s p e c i f i c Kodaly t e c h n i q u e s . Teachers were asked how t h e i r p r e v i o u s music e x p e r i e n c e had acted on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Lack of p r e v i o u s music e x p e r i e n c e made i m p l e m e n t a t i o n much more d i f f i c u l t ; two s e l f - d e s c r i b e d "non-music" t e a c h e r s s t r u g g l e d w i t h i n i t i a l s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n : . I found I've had to l e a r n . I've been j u s t l i k e 79 one o f the s t u d e n t s on my own, hav ing to p r a c t i c e and l e a r n i t a l o n e , j u s t s o r t of one s t e p ahead of them (#4J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . We l l I knew n o t h i n g about m u s i c , I'm not m u s i c a l a t a l l , neve r took a v o i c e l e s s o n , or a p i a n o , i n s t r u m e n t l e s s o n i n my l i f e . . . I t h i n k i t meant I had to spend a l o t more t ime than o t h e r p e o p l e d i d . When o t h e r peop le a l r e a d y u n d e r s t o o d how you d i v i d e d those t h i n g s i n t o ba rs and measures and what t hose s y m b o l s , the two bar l i n e s w i t h the do ts mean t , I had to t e a c h t h a t to m y s e l f , on top of a l l the o t h e r c o n c e p t s ; l e a r n i n g the games, l e a r n i n g the w o r d s . And I t h i n k I had to work h a r d e r a t i t than someone who had a mu'sic b a c k -ground (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . These d i f f i c u l t i e s were c o r r o b o r a t e d by the two t e a c h e r s who no l o n g e r used the p rog ram; a " f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e " (#2E, G r . l ) and the "many s k i l l s i n v o l v e d - hand s i g n s , rhythm p a t t e r n s , bea t - were so c o n f u s i n g w i t h no mus ic b a c k -g r o u n d " (#2D, G r . 3 ) . Fea r of p e r f o r m i n g b e f o r e those though t to be m u s i c a l l y k n o w l e d g e a b l e , p o s s i b l y to demons t ra te i n c o m -p e t e n c e , i n i t i a l l y h i n d e r e d t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g : T h a t ' s when I r e a l l y d i d n ' t have c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f because so many o f them t h e r e r e a l l y had 80 a l o t o f mus ic b a c k g r o u n d . I r e a l l y f e l t t h a t I w a s n ' t do ing a good j o b , and u h , I d i d n ' t l i k e to be put on the s p o t , you know. Each i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e ' g r o u p had to do wha teve r - c l a p the r h y t h m , s o l o , - and I r e a l l y got k i n d o f ne rvous about t h a t - because they were peop le I d i d n ' t know to beg in w i t h , and they were my peer group (#41 , G r . l , 5K) . T h i s sense of i n s e c u r i t y h i n d e r e d use of a v a i l a b l e i n - c l a s s s u p p o r t . T : I wou ld r e a l l y f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . Because I know how s k i l l e d she i s w i t h i t and how c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n s k i l l e d I am w i t h i t , and t h a t she would be shocked to f i n d out how f a r b e h i n d my k i d s we re . R: Y e s , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t would b o t h e r ( K o d a l y Resou rce T e a c h e r ) , r e a l l y . T : No , i t p r o b a b l y w o u l d n ' t , but t h a t i s s o r t of how I f e e l . I would f e e l d e f e n s i v e , s h e ' s go ing t o come and I p r o b a b l y h a v e n ' t done i t the way I'm supposed t o , you know, t h a t k i n d of t h i n g (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . T e a c h e r s (n=9) f e l t t h a t any p r e v i o u s mus i c knowledge f a c i l i t a t e d i n i t i a l u s e ; and t e a c h e r s ' m u s i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n c r e a s e d t h rough program u s e . Those t e a c h e r s w i t h e x -81 t e n s i v e mus ic e x p e r i e n c e Cn=2] noted t h a t t h e i r own a s s u m p t i o n s may have h i n d e r e d s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g : Someth ing t h a t was so b a s i c to me wou ld -be some-t h i n g I found ve ry d i f f i c u l t to ge t a c r o s s to the c h i l d r e n . Because I 'd had i t f o r y e a r s and y e a r s and I j u s t . . . a n d I might o v e r l o o k someth ing because I would t h i n k t h a t they c o u l d do i t , so I j u s t a s -sumed t h a t . I w a s n ' t r i g h t (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . What seems r e a s o n a b l e and l o g i c a l , a t l e a s t to an a d u l t ; i t seems easy enough f o r me. Sometimes I wonder i f i t ' s easy and l o g i c a l f o r them to u n d e r s t a n d (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . R o l e s and B e h a v i o r s The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i n t h i s program i s t h a t o f a g u i d e , l e a d i n g the s t u d e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . Emphasis i s not on t e l l i n g but i n d raw ing u n d e r s t a n d i n g f rom the s t u d e n t s . Two d e a l t w i t h t h i s r o l e change : I found w i t h the Koda l y program t h a t they s t r e s s e d t h a t you d i d n ' t have to l e a d the c l a s s . You s t a r t e d them and you l e t the c h i l d r e n s i n g , so I'm l e a r n i n g to do t h a t ove r the y e a r s (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . I guess i t depends on what you would c a l l t e a c h i n g i t . I s o m e t i m e s , a h , i n a v e r y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner i t ' s easy to put them (mus ic c o n c e p t s ) a c r o s s as f a r as I'm c o n c e r n e d , but I t h i n k i t ' s 82 a m a t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r G r a d e 4 k i d s , and y o u n g e r t o o , t o t r y and draw i t o u t o f them, r a t h e r t h a n t e l l i n g ( 6 N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . One t e a c h e r d e f i n e d t h i s p r o g r a m as r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i a l i s t r o l e ( t h i s c o n c e r n i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I i i ) : When i t g e t s a l l t h a t d i f f i c u l t , i f t h e y want a l l t h e games and a l l t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s on t h e theme, t h a t ' s when I r e a l l y f e e l t h e p e r s o n who s h o u l d be d o i n g t h a t i s some k i n d o f r o t a t i n g m u s i c t e a c h e r and t h e k i d s g e t one o r two l e s s o n s f r o m t h e Ko-d a l y s p e c i a l i s t . To me i t ' s a l i t t l e more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d t h a n t h e g e n e r a l r u n o f t h e m i l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r maybe s h o u l d have t o do (#4M, G r . 3 , 3 K ) . S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n s h a p e d c h a n g e i n t e a c h e r s ' a p p r o a c h e s t o i n s t r u c t i o n as a s t r u c t u r e d , o r g a n i z e d a p p r o a c h was r e -q u i r e d : I've had t o be more s t r u c t u r e d w i t h m y s e l f , w i t h m u s i c . I t i s n ' t j u s t s o m e t h i n g y o u w a l k t o t h e b a c k o f t h e room and s a y , " L e t ' s s i n g a s o n g " , l i k e t h e y u s e d t o d o . . . ( # 4 1 , G r . l , 5 K ) . A w a r e n e s s o f m u s i c i n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t l y c a u s e d by t h e v i s i -b i l i t y o f t h e d i s t r i c t p r o g r a m , r e s u l t e d i n m u s i c s t a t u s as a s u b j e c t : 83 I want them to e n j o y the mus ic but I want them to r e a l i z e i t ' s a l e s s o n , j u s t as w i t h Math or S c i e n c e (#41 , G r . 1 , 5 K ) . A l l t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d s c h e d u l e d mus ic i n s t r u c t i o n and a t t emp ted adherence to s u g g e s t e d t ime a l l o t m e n t . Though mus ic was a c c o r d e d s u b j e c t s t a t u s , i t was not c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t o f the " c o r e " s u b j e c t s , wh ich were Language A r t s and Ma th . You s o r t o f l e t i t s l i d e away, you know, wh ich you can do i n any s u b j e c t , e x c e p t r e a d i n g or a r i t h m e t i c (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . The p r i o r i t y of a t t e n d i n g mus ic i n - s e r v i c e was noted by one t e a c h e r : M u s i c i s i m p o r t a n t , but not i m p o r t a n t enough to take t ime o f f f rom t e a c h i n g c l a s s (#2B, G r . 1&2, 3K) . M a t e r i a l s and Resource S u p p o r t Teache r v a l u e s and recommendat ions f o r improvement w e r e , asked f o r these r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t s : 1. D i s t r i c t s e a s o n a l and summer w o r k s h o p s , 2 . D i s t r i c t Koda l y Resou rce T e a c h e r , 3 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t , 4 . U n i v e r s i t y M u s i c C o u r s e s . T e a c h e r assessmen t of the comprehens i ve Mus i c Resou rce Book i s p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r I I I : A s s e s s i n g P r o g r a m - i n - U s e . 84 1. D i s t r i c t s e a s o n a l and summer workshops T e a c h e r s ( n = 8 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y t hose w i t h l i t t l e mus ic b a c k g r o u n d , emphas ized t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o u l d not have o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t p r o v i s i o n of the s e a s o n a l workshop s u p p o r t . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n was a means o f t r a n s l a t i n g Resource Book m a t e r i a l s i n t o p r a c t i c e . T h e , a h , gu ide book , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the work-s h o p s , i s the most v a l u a b l e . I d o n ' t t h i n k you c o u l d s e p a r a t e one f rom the o t h e r . You need the work -shops to go w i t h the g u i d e book i f y o u ' r e not s t r o n g l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the p rog ram, because i t w o u l d n ' t make t h a t m u c h ' s e n s e . I d o n ' t t h i n k you w o u l d . . . I would have a n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n to the program i f I d i d n ' t have any background a t a l l , and somebody handed me the Resou rce Book , and they s a i d , "Teach t h i s . " I d o n ' t t h i n k you can have one w i t h o u t the o t h e r ( # 4 J , G r . 2 & 3 , 6 K ) . I c o u l d n ' t have t augh t i t w i t h o u t t h a t Resource  Book , or the i n - s e r v i c e s . J u s t to p i c k up a l i t t l e book on Koda ' l y ; I c o u l d not have done a good job on t h a t a t a l l (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . A c t u a l p r a c t i c e , " t h e d o i n g " , w a s the most v a l u a b l e a s p e c t (n=7) o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s . . I t h i n k they f o r c e d us t o get up and p l a y games and a c t u a l l y do the t h i n g s , and i t ' s j u s t l i k e the c h i l d r e n come i n and they are shy about s i n g i n g to 85 each o t h e r , but by the e n d , you e x p e r i e n c e d what the c h i l d r e n a re f e e l i n g w i t h the p rog ram. H e a v e n s , who 'd eve r t h i n k t h a t I 'd s tand u p a n d s i n g i n f r o n t o f f i f t y t e a c h e r s , and the c h i l d r e n e x -p e r i e n c e t h a t t o o , and I t h i n k the p a r t i c i p a t i o n , wo rk i ng t h rough e v e r y s o n g . . . y o u need t h a t , you r e a l l y do (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . These s e s s i o n s f i l l e d o t h e r f u n c t i o n s : o p p o r t u n i t i e s to compare p r o g r e s s and p rob lems and to o b s e r v e the t e a c h i n g m o d e l . Y e s , and t a l k to somebody e l s e , f i n d out what p rob lems they were h a v i n g . I t h i n k t h a t ' s a lways wor th w h i l e . F i n d out t h a t y o u ' r e not the o n l y one (#41, G r . 1 , 5 K ) . I guess j u s t the app roach to t e a c h i n g the c l a s s . How the p e o p l e t h e r e , and I t h i n k o f (P rogram D e v e l o p e r ) and ( M u s i c Resou rce T e a c h e r ) , p r e s e n t the l e s s o n s . They show you how to draw the k i d s i n , I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , and then how they use the Koda l y i n o r d e r to do t h a t . . . a s t e a c h e r s , t hey j u s t use t h a t program to draw k i d s i n t o mus ic (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . T e a c h e r s saw some changes n e c e s s a r y to f u r t h e r improve t h i s v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e (n=2) : To s1ow down. Y e a . . t h e y would go t h rough about two or t h r e e or f o u r months wor th o f l e s s o n s i n 86 one and a h a l f hou rs , , and my g o s h , y o u ' r e j u s t f l i p p i n g papers l e f t , r i g h t and c e n t r e , and by the t ime you got out of t h e r e , you r mind was s p i n n i n g because you c o u l d n ' t remember whether t h a t p a r t came w i t h t h i s l e s s o n , o r w i t h a n o t h e r o n e ; and y o u r no tes were a l l i n a j a r b l e , and you c a n ' t r e a l l y t e l l w h a t ' s up or down (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . P r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n f o r b e g i n n i n g Koda' ly t e a c h e r s was needed : You know, maybe (Program D e v e l o p e r ) assumes t h a t we know e v e r y t h i n g about the Koda l y program and w e ' r e a l l b a s i c a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . But w e ' r e g e t t i n g a l l t hese i d e a s thrown at u s , and they a re a l l j u s t f a b u l o u s , and I w r i t e them a l l down. ; But I s t i l l h a v e n ' t go t the b a s i c s . Urn, the workshops a re good , i n t h a t they r e a l l y g i v e you good i d e a s , but I t h i n k the k i n d o f . . . w h e n I go to t h e s e w o r k s h o p s , I t h i n k I want m o r e . . . m o r e p r a c t i c e i n b e i n g a b l e to do some of t hese t h i n g s (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . The summer s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d an o v e r - v i e w o f the e n t i r e p r o g r a m , and were p e r c e i v e d to be v a l u a b l e p r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n or a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . I t gave an o v e r v i e w of k i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 3 , so you saw where i t had come f rom and where i t was go ing (#6P, G r . l , 6 K ) . 2 . D i s t r i c t Koda l y Resou rce Teache r The d i s t r i c t K o d a l y Resou rce T e a c h e r was a c c o r d e d unanimous and ove rwhe lm ing s u p p o r t ( n = l l ) . Q u a l i t i e s emphas ized were compe tence , a v a i l a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y to g i v e p r e c i s e h e l p , b e i n g a " r e a l t e a c h e r " , and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f the p rob lems f a c e d by i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . (The Koda l y Resou rce T e a c h e r ) was a r e a l t e a c h e r and she had c o n t r o l and you know, d i s c i p l i n e and so I c o u l d j o i n i n as j u sxt one o f the k i d s . . . I d i d n ' t have to be d i s c i p l i n i n g anybody , and I found i t r e a l l y , r e a l l y w o r t h -w h i l e . I ' d have my l i t t l e notebook ou t and j o t t h i n g s down, because she would take the r e g u l a r l e s s o n , but then she would expand i t , and y o u ' d t h i n k , " O h , I neve r t hough t o f do i ng t h a t ! " (#41, G r . 1 ,5 K ) . S e n s i t i v i t y w o r k i n g w i t h a d u l t l e a r n e r s was o f i m p o r t a n c e . Both the Resou rce Teache r and the Program D e v e l o p e r had. the a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e model and c r i t i q u e to improve i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t b e i n g t h r e a t e n i n g . I ' v e a lways d e a l t w i t h ( K o d a l y R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) and (Program D e v e l o p e r ) . You never f e l t t h r e a t e n e d w i t h i t . They never made you f e e l , "You a r e j u s t never g o i n g to be a b l e to do t h i s ! " ( 6 P , G r . 1 , 6K) . The D i s t r i c t Koda l y Resou rce T e a c h e r p r o v i d e d the most 88 t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t d u r i n g i n i t i a l t e a c h e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : T: What h e l p e d me the most was hav ing (Koda' ly Resou rce T e a c h e r ) coming here ove r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s , t h r e e months a t a t i m e , and w a t c h i n g her (#2B, G r . 2 , 3 K ) . R: Do y o u , have you t a l k e d to anyone on the d i s t r i c t mus ic s t a f f ? T: W e l l , I d i d l a s t y e a r , I sought out ( K o d a l y Resou rce T e a c h e r ) q u i t e a b i t . R: And what k i n d s o f c o n c e r n s d i d you have? T: I j u s t wanted to know how to t e a c h K o d a l y . You know, I came i n t o i t , never hav ing been e x -posed to i t , and urn, I wanted to know how i t was t a u g h t (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . 3 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t . No f o r m a l a r rangements were i n p l a c e a t any of the s tudy s c h o o l s d e s i g n a t i n g a Koda l y c o n t a c t p e r s o n . Those t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d as competent and n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g were app roached w t t h numerous c o n c e r n s : r e a s s u r a n c e and c o m m i s e r a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l t e a c h i n g a d v i c e , e x p l a n a t i o n o f m u s i c a l c o n c e p t s , and program c o n t i n u i t y c o n c e r n s . T e a c h e r s saw t h i s as a v a l u a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e s u p p o r t : T : M o s t l y I t a l k about the f a c t t h a t w e ' r e not go ing too f a s t . . . a n d she s o r t of s a y s , " W e l l , you know, i t ' s not t h a t i m p o r t a n t . " W e l l , I'm l o o k i n g more f o r r e a s s u r a n c e than a n y t h i n g e l s e , r e a l l y (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . Rhythm p a t t e r n s . . . p a r t i c u 1 a r 1 y when t e a c h i n g a t the g rade 3 l e v e l I f o u n d , urn, when you ge t i n t o the ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . . . i t d i d n ' t come t h a t n a t u r a l l y , and a h , we would maybe work th rough a song t o g e t h e r and e s t a b l i s h i t b e f o r e t e a c h i n g i t (#6P, G r . 1, 6K) . W e l l , I ' v e t a l k e d to some of the o t h e r t e a c h e r s about d i f f i c u l t i e s I'm h a v i n g about g e t t i n g th rough a l l the m a t e r i a l (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . Such c o n t a c t ceased o r d i d no t o c c u r f o r r e a s o n s such a s : h a v i n g been r e b u f f e d p r e v i o u s l y o r f e e l i n g i n s e c u r e , l o s s o f the sense o f the p r o g r a m ' s momentum, and an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l s t a f f Koda l y t e a c h e r s were v e r y compe ten t : I t r i e d to app roach somebody i n my f i r s t y e a r here but I never got any h e l p , so f rom t h a t p o i n t on I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e I wanted to app roach anybody e l s e . Maybe I s h o u l d h a v e , you know, I s h o u l d n ' t have j u s t l e t i t go a t t h a t , b u t . . . I d o n ' t . . . l i k e t h e r e a re a l o t o f mus ic p e o p l e w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l , b u t , t h e r e ' s no r e a l r e s o u r c e pe rson w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l , l i k e e v e r y b o d y . . . a l o t o f peop le do the i r own music, and 90 d o n ' t f e e l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e g o i n g to anybody to ask them about my m u s i c , you know, f o r h e l p (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . T: And we d i d t a l k about i t more than we have i n the l a s t y e a r or two. R: Why do you t h i n k t h a t ' s happened? S o r t of s t opped t a l k i n g ? T: I d o n ' t k n o w . . . w h e t h e r i t ' s j u s t s o r t o f y o u ' v e s l i p p e d i n t o do ing y o u r own t h i n g and t h a t ' s i t (#41, G r . l , 5 K ) . We d o n ' t t a l k about s p e c i f i c t h i n g s v e r y much be -cause p e o p l e t e a c h i n g mus ic have the s t r e n g t h s a l -r e a d y . I t ' s a ve ry s t r o n g s t a f f t h a t way (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . When q u e s t i o n e d about i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s o f Koda l y s t u d e n t s , o t h e r than th rough r e p o r t c a r d s , t h r e e t e a c h e r s men t ioned p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c Koda' ly i n f o r m a t i o n a t P a r e n t N i g h t s . These p a r e n t s were p e r c e i v e d to be ap -p r e c i a t i v e and i m p r e s s e d by the l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n . O the r t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t few c o n t a c t s wh ich d e a l t w i t h t h i s mus ic app roach were i n i t i a t e d by t e a c h e r o r p a r e n t s . 91 4 . U n i v e r s i t y Mus i c Courses T e a c h e r s ment ioned u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s as s o u r c e s o f t r a i n i n g , o t h e r than i n - d i s t r i c t Koda l y p r e -p a r a t i o n . E i g h t of the e l e v e n K o d a l y t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d had some t ype o f u n i v e r s i t y mus ic p r e p a r a t i o n . The c o u r s e s men t ioned we re : Mus i c A p p r e c i a t i o n , UBC (n=3) ; Cho ra l C o n d u c t i n g , UBC ( n = l ) ; Mus i c E d u c a t i o n f o r Non-m u s i c i a n s ( K o d a l y ) , UVIC ( n = l ) ; M u s i c M e t h o d s , U. of C a l g a r y , ( n = l ) ; and M u s i c M e t h o d s , S F U , (n=2) . T e a c h e r s were asked how these u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s compared to i n - s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the d i s t r i c t , why they d i f f e r e d , and how u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . The g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n of a l l t e a c h e r s to the u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s was n u l l : I d o n ' t know, I would imag ine some o f i t ( u n i v e r s i t y mus ic c o u r s e s ) h e l p s . . I ' m t h i n k i n g . . . b u t I c a n ' t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e a n y t h i n g . . t h a t I can remember (#6Q, G r . 2 , 4K). R: How d i d t h a t ( u n i v e r s i t y mus ic t r a i n i n g ) t i e i n w i t h the t r a i n i n g t h a t was g i v e n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t ? Was t h a t of v a l u e ? T: I t d i d n ' t . R: I t d i d n ' t . . . w h y ? T: A h , e x c e p t f o r Simon F r a s e r , i n one c o u r s e , urn, wh ich a c t u a l l y , y e s , l o o k i n g b a c k , t h e r e was one c o u r s e t h a t had K o d a l y background i n i t , a h , the 92 same i d e a s and some O r f f , so i t was k i n d o f a " c a t c h -a l l " c o u r s e , t r y i n g to h i t e v e r y t h i n g , urn, and I got some i d e a s out o f t h a t . R: How would you r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f the u n i -v e r s i t y c o u r s e s , t hose g e n e r a l mus ic c o u r s e s ? T: F a i r l y low (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . L i m i t a t i o n s o f the i n t r o d u c t o r y u n i v e r s i t y mus ic cou-rses were l a c k o f t ime to i n t e n s i v e l y p r a c t i c e and l a c k o f mus ic s t r u c t u r e : They a re s i m p l y too much of a g r a b - b a g . They are t r y i n g to app roach m u s i c , I d o n ' t know, i t seems i n such a s h o t - g u n e f f e c t , t h a t they a re t r y i n g to h i t e v e r y t h i n g and they h i t n o t h i n g . . . T h e t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g the c o u r s e s a re a c t u a l l y q u i t e good mus ic t e a c h e r s . A h , the prob lem i s t h a t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e , t h e y ' r e not g e t t i n g t h e i r i n n e r s t r u c t u r e of how they dea l w i t h mus ic a c r o s s . They a re not g e t t i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r e to the s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s (#6N, G r . 4 , 3 K ) . W e l l , maybe th rough some of my c l a s s e s , t h a t I t o o k , l i k e i n mus ic e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , t hey b r i e f l y go ove r some K o d a l y , some O r f f , t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , but n o t h i n g i n d e p t h , l i k e , a h , the s e t of workshops (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . The i n - s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by Kamloops D i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l were seen to be more e f f e c t i v e by a l l t e a c h e r s , (n=8) . 93 T: I found the t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d t h rough t h i s d i s -t r i c t much s u p e r i o r to what we 'd been g i v e n i n u n i -v e r s i t y , much s u p e r i o r . R: And i n what ways? T: Because t h e r e was more t ime to s p e n d , because we had mon th l y mee t i ngs when the Koda l y was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n Kamloops wh ich was the f i r s t y e a r I s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g h e r e , we were a l s o g i v e n w h o l e - d a y i n - s e r v i c e s to d e v e l o p i t and they a l s o had a gu ide book , a program to go by a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d . . a n d we had no such r e s o u r c e a t u n i v e r s i t y . We had s i m p l y been i n t r o d u c e d to i t as " a t e c h n i q u e " and t o l d about i t , and you j u s t t r y and w r i t e no tes about how to t e a c h i t (#2A, G r . 2 , 4 K ) . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i t h l i t t l e mus i c background may not be ready to a s s i m i l a t e i n t e n s e mus ic p r e p a r a t i o n w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g the t e a c h i n g p r e p a r a t i o n y e a r . T h i s t e a c h e r was asked i f d e m o n s t r a t i o n mus ic c l a s s e s , g i v e n d u r i n g - a mus ic u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e ( U V I C , Koda l y emphas i s ) were o f v a l u e : T : W e l l , I d o n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k i t w a s , i n t h a t s e t t i n g , because we were a l l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s anyway. We had no i d e a about r e g u l a r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s , you know, l e t a l o n e a s p e c i a l t e c h -n ique w i t h m u s i c . For most o f us i t was c e r t a i n l y i n t e r e s t i n g to w a t c h , bu t I d o n ' t know i f we ga ined a g r e a t d e a l ou t o f i t . 94 R: You d i d n ' t know what to o b s e r v e ? T: No , I d o n ' t t h i n k we d i d , I d o n ' t , you know, when I t h i n k back now, do I remember a n y t h i n g she d i d ? No, I d o n ' t r e a l l y remember a n y t h i n g . s h e showed u s , so o b v i o u s l y I w a s n ' t l o o k i n g a t the r i g h t t h i n g s ( # 2 A , G r . 2 , 4 K ) . The recommendat ions f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s c e n -t e r e d on i n c r e a s i n g t ime a l l o t m e n t s ( n = l ) , and s e l e c t i n g more s t r u c t u r e d app roaches ( n = 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s d i d no t see g r e a t v a l u e i n t hese c o u r s e s , i t i s c l e a r they had i m p a c t . T e a c h e r s who d i s c u s s e d the Koda' ly approach i n terms o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l bases or s t r u c t u r e were those who had been exposed to t hese i d e a s i n u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s . A l s o , t h o s e t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus ic background who had g a i n e d knowledge of Koda'ly a t u n i v e r s i t y f e l t much l e s s t h r e a t e n e d by the p r o s p e c t of t e a c h i n g the program than t hose i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n - d i s t r i c t . One t e a c h e r d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d be ing employed to the Koda l y b a c k -ground r e c e i v e d a t u n i v e r s i t y , and a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t Koda l y would have been t augh t even i f not the d i s t r i c t p rog ram: I t was the o n l y t r a i n i n g t h a t I h a d , so t h a t ' s what I was go ing to t e a c h . Whether or not the program was i n the s c h o o l t h a t I had been a s -s i g n e d t o , w a s n ' t a c o n c e r n a t t h a t p o i n t ( # 2 A , G r . 2 , 4 K ) . 95 CHAPTER VI Teache r Recommendat ions f o r Improvement "From the t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , what c o u l d f u r t h e r improve program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ? " T e a c h e r s were asked f o r recommendat ions wh ich would f a c i l i t a t e improvement of i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n because d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l p l a n to m a i n t a i n t h i s K o d a l y program f o r a t l e a s t a n o t h e r t h r e e y e a r s , and v a r i a t i o n s o f K o d a l y - b a s e d programs are b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Improv ing I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t T e a c h e r s (n=10) i n d i c a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the g e n e r a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e s i g n used i n Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . R a d i c a l changes were not s u g g e s t e d , however , recommendat ions were made f o r assessmen t i n s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , c o n t e n t e x p e c -t a t i o n s , a i d f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d Koda' ly t e a c h e r s , and program c o n t i n u i t y . Suppo r t i n terms of i n - s e r v i c e to r e i n f o r c e p r a c t i c e and to a l l o w f o r exchange o f t e a c h i n g i d e a s (n=3), demon-s t r a t i o n l e s s o n s (n= l ) to ex tend t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , and p r o v i s i o n of t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s (n= l ) wh ich e l a b o r a t e d the b a s i c s were r e q u e s t e d . S u p p o r t f o r ma in tenance of the Koda ly Resou rce Teache r p o s i t i o n (n=3) was g i v e n ; t h i s 96 s e r v i c e was seen as a n e c e s s i t y . Assessment of c o n t e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s was r e q u e s t e d (n=3) , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n i n the l a t e grade 2 and grade 3 p rog rams . S p e c i a l i s t mus ic t e a c h e r s (n= l ) were seen as n e c e s s a r y i f c o n t e n t , e x p e c t a t i o n s were not l o w e r e d . I n e x p e r i e n c e d Koda' ly t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d m o n i t o r i n g and s u p p o r t (n=3) : workshops o u t l i n i n g b a s i c program e x p e c -t a t i o n s and p r o v i d i n g t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , p a i r i n g w i t h an e x p e r i e n c e d Koda'ly t e a c h e r , or d e s i g n a t i n g o f a s c h o o l Koda' ly c o n t a c t pe rson were o f f e r e d as p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a -t i v e s . I f p o s s i b l e , i n e x p e r i e n c e d Koda' ly t e a c h e r s s h o u l d not be r e q u e s t e d to take t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the advanced t h i r d grade p rog ram. The need to r e i n f o r c e v i s i -b i l i t y o f program c o n t i n u i t y was seen (n=2) . P r o v i s i o n o f programs to ex tend s t u d e n t s k i l l s , and to make i n t e r -med ia te t e a c h e r s aware was a r ecommenda t i on : A l o t of the i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s have no background i n the w o r k , i n the immense amount of work t h a t has gone i n t o t h i s . I t s h o u l d n ' t be j u s t a o n e - s h o t d e a l , i t s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on ( # 4 J , G r . 2 , 6 K ) . C o n t i n u e d m o n i t o r i n g and encouragement of t e a c h e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r was seen as n e c e s s a r y to m a i n t a i n program momentum (n=4) . 97 M a i n t e n a n c e as a d i s t r i c t program was s t r o n g l y recom-mended (n=9). The need f o r " t i m e " was a c o n t i n u i n g theme. Time was needed to l e a r n to t e a c h the program p r o p e r l y , t ime to e s t a b l i s h the program and to " l e t i t r e a l l y grow r o o t s " . Time was needed to a l l o w t e a c h e r s to work th rough the program and t h o r o u g h l y a s s e s s advan tages and l i m i -t a t i o n s , and t ime to a l l o w the s t u d e n t s w i t h t h i s Koda l y background to p a r t i c i p a t e i n o t h e r m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t , a h , s t a y s . I t ' s an e f f e c t i v e way o f t e a c h i n g , i t can be a d a p t e d , i t can be . . . i t can move w i t h the t i m e s . I t ' s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e way of t e a c h i n g and i t would be f o o l i s h to change . I t h i n k they s h o u l d s t a y w i t h i t , you know. Ten y e a r s i s n ' t l ong enough . Twenty m igh t be C#6N, G r . 4 , 3K). ' I n i t i a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n O the r ' D i s t r i c t s A l l t e a c h e r recommendat ions assumed the need f o r a d i s t r i c t p l a n and c o n s i s t e n t program t h r o u g h o u t the d i s t r i c t . The same b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n used i n Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was recommended f o r e l s e -w h e r e , however , t e a c h e r s s t r o n g l y emphas ized c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s . G radua l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (n=4) was recommended i n awareness o f o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m change to e n s u r e t e a c h e r o v e r - l o a d d i d not o c c u r . P r i o r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , summer s e s s i o n s or workshops s h o u l d a c q u a i n t t e a c h e r s w i t h 98 program e x p e c t a t i o n s , (n=2) . W i t h o u t p r e s s u r e to i m m e d i a t e l y i m p l e m e n t , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n t ime to a d j u s t to the p l anned change (n = l ) . I n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s h o u l d c e n t r e i n a s m a l l group of p i l o t s c h o o l s chosen because of e v i d e n t commitment and i n t e r e s t s o f competent s t a f f (n=2) . S e q u e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h K i n d e r -g a r t e n and Grade 1 was recommended ( n = l ) . D i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t s t a f f , d e f i n e d as " compe ten t peop le who know how to work i n the c l a s s r o o m " (#6N, G r . 4 , 3K) were seen as e s s e n t i a l (n=10) . Workshops to educa te t e a c h e r s , and p r e p a r a t i o n of a comprehens i ve r e s o u r c e book s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d by t h i s r e s o u r c e s t a f f ( n = l ) . I n i t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s r e s o u r c e book t h rough the workshops s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on the e s s e n t i a l s , " n o t h i n g too ove rwhe lm ing and not e v e r y t h i n g at once " (#60, G r . 3 , 2 K ) . Teache r i n - p u t s h o u l d be encouraged to improve i m -p l e m e n t a t i on (n = 1) . 99 CHAPTER VI I  Summary The i n t e n t o f the s t udy was to r e p r e s e n t the t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s Koda l y p r o g r a m - i n - u s e , to document the f a c t o r s t h a t shaped the p r o g r a m - i n - u s e and to p r o v i d e recom-menda t ions f o r improvement . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a summary o f the r e p o r t e d p rog ram, the s t r e n g t h s o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , and some i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h a t need to be add res s e d . Assessmen t o f the Kamloops Koda'ly Mus i c Program showed t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d improved s t u d e n t m u s i c a l i t y , and . a t t r i b u t e d the improvement to t h i s p rog ram. However , the p e r c e i v e d improvement may be the r e s u l t o f an i n c r e a s e d emphas is upon , and awareness o f the need f o r mus ic i n s t r u c -^ t i o n and not t o t a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to adherence to t h i s s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m , even though f i d e l i t y to the p r e s c r i b e d sequence of s k i l l s and the p e r c e p t i o n of mus ic as a s u b j e c t ' , w i t h s c h e d u l e d t ime a l l o t m e n t s was r e p o r t e d by a l l t e a c h e r s . I t was e v i d e n t t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v a r i e d f rom t e a c h e r to t e a c h e r , and un ique p r o g r a m s - i n - u s e ranged f rom c o - o p t a t i o n as s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s were used but not i n the manner o f the i n t e n d e d p rog ram, to p r e s c r i p t i v e use o f the i n t e n d e d program s t r u c t u r e and t e c h n i q u e s . Mutua l a d a p t a t i o n o c c u r r e d when the t e a c h e r i n t e g r a t e d program s t r u c t u r e w i t h t e a c h i n g s t y l e , a d a p t i n g b o t h ; non - imp !emen-t a t i o n o c c u r r e d when t e a c h e r s d i d not use the p r o g r a m , and 100 r e p o r t e d t h a t the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y to i n s t r u c t the program were i m p o s s i b l e to m a s t e r . D i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o g r a m , p e r c e i v e d needs o f c h i l d r e n , t e a c h i n g p r i o r i t i e s and t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n t hese v a r y i n g p rog rams-i n - u s e . T e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus ic background tended to make more p r e s c r i p t i v e u s e , whereas those w i t h more e x t e n -s i v e mus ic backg rounds tended to i n c o r p o r a t e the m u s i c a l s t r e n g t h s o f o t h e r p rog rams . T e a c h e r s tended to g i v e commitment to the i n n o v a t i o n i f t hey j udged the p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t program to be i n e f -f e c t i v e , and a s c r i b e d v a l u e to t h i s s k i l l - b a s e d app roach as an e f f e c t i v e f o u n d a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g . R e s p e c t e d l e a d e r s h i p o f the Program D e v e l o p e r , as a d v o c a t e , was a n o t h e r f a c t o r i n t e a c h e r a c c e p t a n c e . There was , however , l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the " d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d " s t a t u s o f the p r o g r a m ; d e f i n i t i o n s ranged f rom v o l u n t a r y to c o m p u l s o r y p r a c t i c e . The app roach adop ted by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n the " s c h o o l b a s e d " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was a major f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g t hese d e f i n i t i o n s . Resou rce s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l were d e s c r i b e d as e s s e n t i a l f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; the com-p r e h e n s i v e Resou rce Book i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s e a s o n a l workshops were r a t e d as most v a l u a b l e i n t r a n s l a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g s i n t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . The D i s t r i c t K o d a l y Resou rce Teache r p r o v i d e d i n d i v i d u a l , e x p e r i e n c e d , non-t h r e a t e n i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h o s e i n i t i a t i n g p r a c t i c e . 101 T e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s a l s o p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e , r e a s s u r a n c e and m o t i v a t i o n . T e a c h e r s o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n , Grade 1 and e a r l y Grade 2 programs i n d i c a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the scope o f s k i l l i n s t r u c t i o n . Resou rce m a t e r i a l s and s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s were adequa te f o r t h e s e t e a c h e r s to i n s t r u c t the p rog ram. How-e v e r , t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus ic background v o i c e d c o n c e r n s t h a t a s p e c t s o f the l a t e Grade 2 and Grade 3 programs were d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to a d e q u a t e l y i n s t r u c t . The p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f c o n c e r n were the t e a c h i n g o f r h y t h m i c e lemen ts ( the s i x t e e n t h note p a t t e r n and s y n c o p a t e d r h y t h m s ) , and a need f o r e x t e n s i v e mus ic background to u n d e r s t a n d t h i s p r o g r a m ' s s t r u c t u r e and e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t more advanced c o n c e p t s . Conce rns changed over t ime as t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d the p rog ram. Some t e a c h e r s o n l y e x p r e s s e d c o n f i d e n c e and c l a r i t y a f t e r s i x y e a r s o f a c t u a l u s e . L e a r n i n g to use the program was a s low p r o c e s s , r e q u i r e d s u s t a i n e d commitment , and posed many f r u s t r a t i o n s because i n i t i a l changes were complex and o f t e n o v e r w h e l m i n g . Changes i n t e a c h e r m u s i c a l i t y o c c u r r e d as the t e a c h e r i n v e s t e d commitment to p r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . There was a need f o r t ime to m a s t e r t h e p r o g r a m , t ime to l e t the program d e v e l o p , t ime to see s t u d e n t outcomes and f u r t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h m u s i c . C o l l e c t i v e s t a f f c o n c e r n s o v e r program c o n t i n u i t y a l s o emerged o v e r t i m e : 102 the mus ic f o u n d a t i o n a c q u i r e d by the p r i m a r y s t u d e n t would come to nought i f t hese l e a r n i n g s a re not ex tended to i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l i n g . S t r e n g t h s o f t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d p r i o r p l a n n i n g , r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t , " s c h o o l - b a s e d " imp lemen-t a t i o n , and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P r i o r p l a n n i n g p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , and i n -c l u d e d the s e l e c t i o n o f a s m a l l number o f p i l o t s c h o o l s where t e a c h e r commitment was e v i d e n t , and the g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f the program on a s c h o o l v o l u n t e e r b a s i s . E x t e n s i v e d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e supports i n c l u d e d a compre-h e n s i v e Resou rce Book , s e a s o n a l and summer w o r k s h o p s , and an i n - c l a s s R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r wh ich were m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s and r e v i s e d o r supp lemented as n e c e s s a r y . " S c h o o l - b a s e d " i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a l l o w e d the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r c o n t r o l o f the d e c i s i o n when to i m p l e m e n t , and f l e x i b i l i t y i n how to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s . T h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r d e v e l o p m e n t , both p e r s o n a l l y i n deve lopment o f m u s i c a l i t y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n e x t e n s i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n e x p e r t i s e . A number o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n s may now need to be a d d r e s s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s not y e t c o m p l e t e . For e x a m p l e , some c o n f u s i o n e x i s t e d ove r whether 103 t e a c h e r use was to be p r e s c r i p t i v e or whether t h e r e was to be l a t i t u d e i n a d a p t i n g the p rog ram. T h i s s tudy showed t h a t t e a c h e r s d i d adapt the i n t e n d e d program to r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l r e l e v a n c e , i n t e r e s t , o r s t r e n g t h . T h e r e f o r e , encouragement o f the deve lopment and use o f o t h e r m u s i c a l s t r e n g t h s , more l a t i t u d e to the t e a c h i n g o f m u s i c , and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f r e s o u r c e s u p p o r t may be needed . C o n t i n u e d i n - s e r v i c e i n r e s p o n s e to chang ing i n d i v i d -ua l needs o f t e a c h e r s i s r e q u i r e d as t h e i r program e x p e r i e n c e c o n t i n u e s ; f o r e x a m p l e , some c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s may be u s e f u l : I ' v e found t h a t y o u r f i n d i n g s have g i v e n me a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the deve lopment o f the program f rom two to f i v e y e a r s o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (#4J , G r . 2 and 3 , 6 K ) . Very s p e c i f i c a s s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d f o r t hose t e a c h e r s b e g i n n i n g to use the p rog ram. As the program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s ex tended (now i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s a t a l l f o r t y - f o u r d i s t r i c t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ) , c l o s e c o n t a c t e x p e r i e n c e d between t e a c h e r s and program p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n has been l o s t . For some t e a c h e r s t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s o f i n v o l v e m e n t , e n t h u s i a s m , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n momentum. A t e a c h e r summar ized a number o f t hese c o n c e r n s i n a s tudy c r i t i q u e : 104 My main c o n c e r n i s t h a t i f I were to change grade l e v e l s , I wou ld l i k e f u r t h e r Koda' ly workshops and a s s i s t a n c e i n t e a c h i n g the Koda l y p rog ram. I f e e l i t needs to be an ongo ing p r o c e s s to keep us a l l i n t e r e s t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c (#4L, K i n d e r . , 2 K ) . A number o f ways to p r o v i d e c o n t i n u e d i n - s e r v i c e a re p o s s i b l e . Encouragement o f s c h o o l o r zone based t e a c h e r g roups to s h a r e p rob lems and s u c c e s s e s would p r o v i d e immedia te and l o c a l s u p p o r t . D e s i g n a t i o n o f a Koda l y c o n t a c t pe rson w i t h i n each s c h o o l wou ld p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h a r e c o g n i z e d and a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e o f h e l p ; s e l e c t i o n o f such c o n t a c t p e r s o n s , however , wou ld need to be c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y because both e x p e r t i s e , and an unde r -s t a n d i n g o f t e a c h e r c o n c e r n s , a re p r e r e q u i s i t e s . Perhaps i n - s e r v i c e c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d by d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l s p e c i -f i c a l l y to a i d such c o n t a c t p e r s o n s . Schoo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l s o need to be seen to be s u p p o r t i v e o f the program f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the momentum of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Reassessment o f the s k i l l l e v e l o f the l a t e Grade 2 and Grade 3 programs i s n e c e s s a r y f o r two r e a s o n s . T e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s needed more t ime to m a n i p u l a t e and i n t e r n a l i z e new m u s i c a l l e a r n i n g s , and t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e mus i c background i n d i c a t e d t h a t adequa te i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e s e l e v e l s was d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . Because o f 105 t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , the c o n c e r n was v o i c e d t h a t perhaps s p e c i a l i s t mus ic t e a c h e r s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r advanced i n s t r u c t i o n . One o f the non-samp le t e a c h e r s asked to c r i t i q u e the f i n d i n g s commented: When ( K o d a l y Resou rce T e a c h e r ) came i n I c o u l d see l o t s o f good t h i n g s t a k i n g p l a c e -e n j o y m e n t , s i n g i n g v o i c e s e t a l , bu t I c a n ' t say t h a t when I was t e a c h i n g i t . No m a t t e r how many c o u r s e s I took I c o u l d n ' t seem to ge t i n t o the program a t a l l - m a i n l y I t h i n k because t h e r e a re too many o t h e r s u b j e c t s to t e a c h and I c o u l d n ' t o r w o u l d n ' t f i n d the t ime to ge t m y s e l f o r g a n i z e d to do i t and i t t a k e s a g r e a t d e a l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r a c t i c e to become p r o f i c i e n t enough to have i t go over w i t h the k i d s - no h a l f w a y measures a re good enough - the r e a s o n I f e e l i t ' s a s p e c i a l i s t ' s j o b . Most d e f i n i t e l y I t h i n k i t to be the b e s t s c h o o l program I ' v e seen (Grade 3 , 4 K ) . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y to ex tend the s t u d e n t m u s i c a l l e a r n i n g s to the i n t e r m e d i a t e g rades and p r e p a r a t i o n s need to be made f o r changes i n mus ic i n s t r u c -t i o n a t the s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . T h i s has begun a t some s c h o o l s , but t h e r e i s need f o r a g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s . Numerous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a re e v i d e n t . R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t udy to d e t e r m i n e the g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y o f t hese f i n d i n g s , and o n - s i t e o b s e r -v a t i o n to check and c l a r i f y the s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a , a re needed . T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e d the t e a c h e r p e r s p e c t i v e r a t h e r than o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t r e a c t i o n s . Assessmen t o f o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s such as the s t u d e n t , p a r e n t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and program p e r s o n n e l would p r o v i d e a b r o a d e r p o r t r a y a l o f t h i s mus ic p r o g r a m - i n - u s e . 107 BIBLIOGRAPHY Koda l y A p p r o a c h : C h o k s y , L o i s . The Koda l y C o n t e x t . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n -t i c e H a l l , 1981 . C h o k s y , L o i s . The K o d a l y Me thod . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n -t i c e - H a l l , 1974. C h o k s y , L o i s . "The Koda l y P h i l o s o p h y and Canad ian S c h o o l s " . B . C . M u s i c E d u c a t o r , 2 5 : 2 , 1982 , 1 7 - 2 0 . D i c k a s o n , L . , T r o w s d a l e , G . , Worden, M. Mus i c Programs i n  S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 6 8 , November 1978. H i g h e t , A l a s t a i r . "The S p e c i a l i s t i n E l e m e n t a r y M u s i c " . B . C . Mus i c Educa to r , 25 :2 , 1982 , 5 7 - 6 1 . Owens, M a r i o n , S m i t h , I r e n e . P r i m a r y Mus i c Resou rce Book ( t h i r d r e v i s i o n ) , Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t No. 2 4 , March 1980. P e r r o n , P i e r r e . "Toward New Rhythm Names" . B . C . Mus i c  E d u c a t o r , 2 5 : 2 , 1982 , 2 3 - 2 6 . P o z o s , R a n d o l f o R. E v a l u a t i o n Repo r t Koda l y M u s i c E d u c a t i o n  P rog ram: Ho ly Names C o l l e g e and the San J o s e U n i f i e d  Schoo l D i s t r i c t , J u l y 1980. W h i t e , J o h n . M u s i c A s s e s s m e n t : E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 2 4 , March 1981 . I n t e r v i e w P r o c e s s : B e c k e r , H. "A Note on I n t e r v i e w i n g T a c t i c s " . Human O r g a n i -z a t i o n , v . 1 2 , n . 4 , 1954. C i c o r e l , A . Method and Measurement i n S o c i o l o g y . T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l 1 a n , 1964. C o n v e r s e , J. and Schumann H. C o n v e r s a t i o n s a t Random: Su rvey  R e s e a r c h as I n t e r v i e w e r s See I t . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & S o n s , 1974. 108 Hyman, H e r b e r t e t a l , I n t e r v i e w i n g as S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Ch i cago P r e s s , 1954, Kahn , R . , C a n n e l l , C. Dynamics o f I n t e r v i e w i n g . New Y o r k : John W i l e y and S o n s , 1957. P a r l e t t , M . , . H a m i l t o n , D. " E v a l u a t i o n as I l l u m i n a t i o n : A New Approach to the S tudy o f I n n o v a t o r y P rog rammes" . Beyond the Numbers Game, D. H a m i l t o n , e t a l . t e d s . ) . B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n , 1977. P a y n e , S . L . The A r t of A s k i n g Q u e s t i o n s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951 . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n : Benham, B. "Though ts on the F a i l u r e o f C u r r i c u l u m R e f o r m " . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , December 1978. / Berman, P . , M c L a u g h l i n , M. An E x p l o r a t o r y S tudy o f Schoo l  D i s t r i c t A d a p t a t i o n . Rand , May 1979. B e n - P e r e t z , M. " T e a c h e r s ' Ro le i n C u r r i c u l u m Deve lopment : An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h " . Canad ian J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 5 : 2 , 1980. B r i t i s h Co lumb ia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s f o r  P l a n n i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . June 1982. B r i t i s h Co lumb ia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . P l a n n i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , ( I n t e r i m E d i t i o n ) W. Werne r , (ed . ) , December 1980. Churchman, D a v i d . "A New Approach i n E v a l u a t i n g the I m p l e -m e n t a t i o n of I n n o v a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r a m s " . E d u c a t i o n a l  T e c h n o l o g y , v . 19 , n. 5 , 1979 , 2 5 - 2 8 . C l a r k , C , Y i n g e r , R. " T e a c h e r s ' T h i n k i n g " . R e s e a r c h on  Tea c h i n g , P. P e t e r s o n and H. Wa lberg (eds*), B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n , 1979. C o n n e l l y , M . , B e n - P e r e t z , M. " T e a c h e r s ' R o l e s i n the Us ing and Doing o f R e s e a r c h and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t " . J o u r n a l  of C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , v . 1 2 , n . 2 , 1980 , 9 5 - 1 0 7 . D a n i e l s , M. and W r i g h t , I. ( e d s . ) . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n V i e w -p o i n t s . V a n c o u v e r : C e n t r e f o r the S tudy o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U . B . C . , June 1980. D o y l e , W. , P o n d e r , G. "The P r a c t i c a l i t y E t h i c i n Teache r D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g " . I n t e r c h a n g e , 8 : 3 , 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 . 109 E R I C , R e s e a r c h A c t i o n B r i e f : How S c h o o l s Change , n . 1 1 , A p r i l 1980. f E v a n s , W . , She f f 1 er, J . W. " A s s e s s i n g the I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a-n I n n o v a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n a l S y s t e m . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , v . X I V , n . 1, 1976, 1 0 7 - 1 1 8 . E v a n s , W . , Berman, E. " S t r a t e g y f o r E v a l u a t i n g C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . " C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s , v . 9 , n. 1, 1977 , 7 5 - 8 0 . F u l l a n , M. " C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g Prob lems of C u r r i c u l u m Imp le -m e n t a t i o n " . C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a , W. Werner ( e d . ) . Canad ian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s and C e n t r e f o r the S tudy o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1979. F u l l a n , M. The Meaning of E d u c a t i o n a l Change. T o r o n t o : 0 ISE P r e s s , 1982. F u l l a n , M. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between E v a l u a t i o n and Imp le -m e n t a t i o n i n C u r r i c u l u m " . E v a l u a t i o n R o l e s , Gordon B r e a c h P u b l i c a t i o n , A .Lewy ( e d . ) , 1980. F u l l a n , M . , P a r k , P. C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1981 . F u l l a n , M. P o m f r e t , A . " R e s e a r c h on C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . Rev iew of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , v . 4 7 , n. 1, 1977 , 3 3 5 - 3 9 7 . G r o s s , N . , G i a c q u i n t a , J . , B e r n s t e i n , M. " F a i l u r e to Implement a Ma jo r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n " . L e a r n i n g  i n S o c i a l S e t t i n g s : New Read ings i n the S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y  of E d u c a t i o n , M. M i l e s , W. C h a r t e r s , (eds . ) , B o s t o n : A l 1 y n and B a c o n , 1970 , 4 0 9 - 4 2 6 . H a l l , G . , L o u c k s , S . "A Deve lopmen ta l Model f o r D e t e r m i n i n g Whether the T rea tmen t i s A c t u a l l y I m p l e m e n t e d " . AER  J o u r n a l , v . 14 , n . 3 , 1977 , 2 6 3 - 2 7 6 . H a l l , G. L o u c k s , S . " T e a c h e r Concerns as a B a s i s f o r F a c i l i -t a t i n g and P e r s o n a l i z i n g S t a f f D e v e l o p m e n t . " Teache r  C o l l e g e R e c o r d , v . 8 0 , n. 1, 1978. H a l l , G . , L o u c k s , S . , R u t h e r f o r d , W.L . and N e w l o v e , B.W. " L e v e l s of Use o f the I n n o v a t i o n : A Framework f o r A n a l y z i n g I n n o v a t i o n A d o p t i o n " . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h e r  E d u c a t i o n , v . 2 6 , n. 1, S p r i n g 1975 , 5 2 - 5 6 . H a l l , G . , R u t h e r f o r d , W. " C o n c e r n s of T e a c h e r s about Imp le -ment ing Team T e a c h i n g , " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , v , 34 , n. 3 , 1976 , 2 2 6 - 2 3 3 . n o H a m i l t o n , D . , M a c D o n a l d , B . , K i n g , C , J e n k i n s , D . , P a r l e t t , M. ( e d s . ) . Beyond the Numbers Game. B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n , 1977 . House , E . R . "Th ree P e r s p e c t i v e s on I n n o v a t i o n : The Techno -l o g i c a l , P o l i t i c a l and C u l t u r a l " . N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n Knowledge S y n t h e s i s P r o j e c t , 1979. Hughes , A . , K e i t h , J . " T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n s of an I n n o v a t i o n and Degree o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . Canad ian J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n , v . 5 , n . 2 , 1980. J a c k s o n , P h i l i p . - L i f e i n C l a s s r o o m s . C h i c a g o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1968. L e i t h w o o d , K . A , "A Comprehens ive Study of C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n -Making i n O n t a r i o : Summary and H i g h l i g h t s . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the L a v a l C u r r i c u l u m Symposiurn,Quebec C i t y , 1980. L e i t h w o o d , K . A , , Montgomery , D . J . " A s s u m p t i o n s and Use of a P r o c e d u r e f o r A s s e s s i n g Program I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Amer i can E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g , B o s t o n , 1980 . L o r t i e , D. S c h o o l T e a c h e r : A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975. L o u c k s , S . M e l l e , M. " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a D i s t r i c t - w i d e S c i e n t i f i c C u r r i c u l u m : The E f f e c t s o f a Three Year E f f o r t " . Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Amer i can E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g , B o s t o n , 1980. M c L a u g h l i n , M. " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n as Mutua l A d a p t a t i o n " . T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , v . 7 7 , n. 3 , 1976, 3 3 9 - 3 5 1 . P r a t t , H . , M e l l e , M . , M e t z d o r t f , J . "The D e s i g n and U t i l i -z a t i o n of a Concerns Based S t a f f Development P r o g r a m . " AERA, 1980. S a n d e r s , D . , Schwab, M. "A Schoo l C o n t e x t f o r T e a c h e r Deve lopment " Theory I n t o P r a c t i c e , v . 14 , 1980. S t a k e , R. E v a l u a t i n g the A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n . O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l 1 , 1975 . S t u f f l e b e a m , D a n i e l . "An A n a l y s i s o f A l t e r n a t i v e Approaches to E v a l u a t i o n " . S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n , y . 2 , 1976. Rutman, L. " F o r m a t i v e R e s e a r c h and Program E v a l u a b i l i t y " . E v a l u a t i o n R e s e a r c h Me thods : A B a s i c G u i d e . L. Rutman, ( e d . ) . B e v e r l y H i l l s : S a g e , 1977. I l l T o m k i n s , G. C o n n e l l y , M . , B e r n i e r , J . S t a t e of the A r t  Rev iew of R e s e a r c h i n C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , ( .Draft s u b m i s s i o n ) , f o r Canad ian S o c i e t y f o r S tudy o f E d u c a t i o n , A u g u s t . 1981 . Werne r , W. "An I n t e r p r e t i v e Approach to C u r r i c u l u m Imp le -m e n t a t i o n " . C u r r i c u l u m Canada I I I , K. L e i t h w o o d , A . Hughes , ( e d s . ) , Cen t re f o r the S tudy of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U . B . C . , 1981 . JL Enjoyment liotli in play and in understand I ng Acquaintance with a great number of singing games, rhymes and other musical a c t i v i t i e s Clear In tune singing - group or soio Social development through playing with others, taking turns, leading, etc. Development of creative Instincts primarily through body movement — lliil.meed training through hoad-hoart-hand and hearing ( i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge, aesthetic [enjoyment, physical s k i l l and aural s k i l l ) . Tills development should be fostered through singing, listening, reading, writing, creating, playing Instruments, etc. tempo: fast vs slow, beat vs rhythm volume: loud vs soft, accent PE?z5D*:55_Sel?aratelI« t n eQ practised together Rhythm J WfTn in rn pitch: high vs low, to minor 3rd Songs which conform to standards of "Choosing Songs for the Early Years", mostly found In D i s t r i c t Resource Book-Songs with text appealing to particular primary level Songs that prepare s p e c i f i c concepts to be presented in the following year-4— Recordings (instrumental) or l i v e music for listening or interpretive movement Instruments - rhythm band instruments and resonator b e l l s to aid in developing rhythm and pitch concepts-[Melody B e l l s -Singing in pitch A b i l i t y to sing both in a group and class A b i l i t y to sing 'nicely' Starting the name song in different pitches-Huslc Boards and Symbols-Breath control-Vocabulary s k i l l s -Movement - aesthetic, rhythmic movements, cither d i r e c t l y s i i e c l f l r d or the child's interpretation of the music-Conducti ng Listening - recognition of timbre, in natural sounds, in each others voices and in simple instruments to songs or pieces performed by teacher, other children, good recordings Listen and correct each other's mistakes and evaluate performance I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c orchestral instruments-- develop inner hearing-Abstractions - recognition of songs from loo loo, hum or clapped rhythm pattern (Recognition of songs from hand signs or notation - simple ostinato, e.g. 'clap rest' -jtnore advanced ostinato 'Reading rhythms of entire songs Development of reading, hearing, writing and creative s k i l l s -Writing concepts learned j — APPENDIX A: OUTLINE OF GOALS, CONCEPTS, MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES Zl ro SOURCE: KAMLOOPS PRIMARY MUSIC PROGRAM RESOURCE BOOK (1976, n .p. ) 113 APPENDIX B CONSENT FORM ELEMENTARY KODALY TEACHERS PROJECT: PROGRAM: S I T E : RESEARCHER: ASSESSING IMPLEMENTATION AS PROGRAM-IN-USE  ELEMENTARY KODALY MUSIC PROGRAM  KAMLOOPS SCHOOL DISTRICT NANCY RANDALL DATE: PURPOSE: STUDY RESULTS These i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s w i l l f o c u s on you r p e r c e p t i o n and use o f the Koda l y mus i c p rog ram. A d a p t a t i o n s you may have made i n y o u r t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s or i n program m a t e r i a l s o r program a c t i v i t i e s a re o f c e n t r a l c o n c e r n . The two i n t e r v i e w s w i l l each be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m inu tes l ong and w i l l be tape r e c o r d e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r improvement of the Koda l y program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s may a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l i n p l a n n i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new c u r r i c u l u m . PARTICIPATION IN THIS STUDY IS VOLUNTARY. YOU MAY WITHDRAW AND/OR REFUSE TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS AT ANY TIME. YOU WILL NOT BE IDENTIFIED AND RECORDINGS OF INTERVIEWS WILL BE ERASED AT COMPLETION OF STUDY. PARTICIPATION IN THIS STUDY WILL NOT PREJUDICE YOUR EMPLOYMENT NOW OR AT ANY TIME IN THE FUTURE. THE DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION WILL RECEIVE A COPY OF THE FINAL REPORT. S i g n a t u r e of T e a c h e r S i g n a t u r e o f R e s e a r c h e r 114 APPENDIX C Kamloops Koda l y Program T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e These q u e s t i o n s w i l l p r o v i d e some p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w ( s ) we w i l l be a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e on you r e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g K o d a l y . You may d e c l i n e to answer any of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l rema in anonymous. Schoo l c o d e : 2 4 6 Teache r c o d e : A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1 2 3 4 5 To what g rades a re you t e a c h i n g K o d a ' l y ? . . . . Number of s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s ( e s ) A p p r o x i m a t e Koda l y l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n . . . . How many y e a r s have you t a u g h t ? K 1 2 3 4 y e a r s t o t a l Were you t e a c h i n g a t t h i s s c h o o l when the Koda l y Program was i n t r o d u c e d to t h i s s c h o o l ? Yes No How many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e do you have t e a c h i n g the K o d a l y Program a) i n Kamloops D i s t r i c t y e a r s b) a t t h i s s c h o o l y e a r s c) i n any o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ? where? 7 . Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Kamloops Koda l y program i n - s e r v i c e a n d / o r summer workshops? Yes No y r s 115 Append ix C, C o n t i n u e d ( K o d a l y T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) 7. ( c o n t i n u e d ) I f y e s , p l e a s e c i r c l e a p p l i c a b l e y e a r s : Koda l y i n - s e r v i c e a t L . R . C . : 1976-77 ' 7 7 - 7 8 ' 7 8 - 7 9 1979-80 ' 8 0 - 8 1 ' 8 1 - 8 2 K o d a l y Summer Workshops : 1978 1979 1980 1981 8 . Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any mus ic e d c a t i o n a n d / o r a p p r e c i a t i o n c o u r s e s , o t h e r than t hose p r o v i d e d by Kamloops Schoo l D i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l ? yes no I f y e s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e the t ype of c o u r s e and note the name of the i n s t i t u t i o n o r l o c a t i o n . Type o f Course Name of I n s t i t u t i o n / L o c a t i o n ( e g . S . F . U . o r Nanaimo) 9 . O the r than the Koda'ly p r o g r a m , have you t a u g h t o t h e r t ypes o f i n - c l a s s or e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r mus i c p rograms? ( f o r e x a m p l e , g u i t a r , r e c o r d e r , O r f f ) . P l e a s e e l a b o r a t e . 10 . Have you a t any t ime p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t r a i n i n g ? ( f o r e x a m p l e , c h o i r , v o i c e p e r s o n a l l e s s o n s , musi c p i a n o ) . 116 Append ix C , C o n t i n u e d ( K o d a l y M u s i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) 11. Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n mus ic a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s communi ty? P l e a s e comment. 12. Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d / o r community a c t i v i t i e s ? ( f o r e x a m p l e , K . D . T . A . , s p o r t s ) . P l e a s e comment. 117 APPENDIX D I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s , Kamloops K o d a l y Program A . N a t u r e o f I n n o v a t i o n 1. What does " t e a c h i n g m u s i c " mean f o r you? 2 . What c o n s t i t u t e s a good mus ic program? 3 . What t ype of mus ic program was t a u g h t p r i o r to Koda l y program? 4 . What does " t e a c h i n g K o d a l y " mean f o r you? 5 . How does the K o d a l y program compare to the fo rmer or a " g o o d " mus ic program? B. Teache r Use of E lements o f Koda l y P r o g r a m / I n t e n d e d Card #1 E lemen ts of you r t o t a l mus ic p rog ram: i m p o r t a n c e 0 1 2 3 4 not very important average important A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop student's* 1. In-tune singing 2. Strong fee l ing for rhythm 3. Musical l i t e r a c y in terms of wr i t ing and/or reading s k i l l s . 4. Creative expression/ improvisat ion. 5. L istening/music apprec ia t ion. 118 Append ix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s Card #2 S p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s o f Koda l y program-.use 0 1 2 3 4 not used average at a l l use used in a l l lessons A c t i v i t i e s intended to develop students' understanding of: 1. Hand s igns 2. Sol fa p i tch names 3. Development of inner hearing 4. Echo techniques 5. Part work 6. Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s 7. Time (rhythm) names 8. Use of rhythm instruments 9. Ostinato techniques 10. St ick notat ion 11. Reading of conventional notat ion. C. S p e c i f i c Bases o f T e a c h i n g M a t e r i a l  Song s : 1. What a re the v a l u e s o f the songs i n c l u d e d i n the Koda' ly program as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l ? 2. What a re the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n use? s p e c i f i c a l l y ? examp les? 3. What t y p e s o f songs have been added? examp les? why? 4. Recommendat ions? 119 Append i x D ( C o n t i n u e d ) , I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s Games and A c t i v i t i e s 5 . Uses? C l a s s a r r a n g e m e n t s ? D i f f i c u l t i e s ? Why? D. T e a c h e r P e r c e p t i o n o f S t u d e n t Response to Program 1. Have you seen changes i n s t u d e n t s ' : -- u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m u s i c ? - m u s i c s k i l l s ? - e n j o y m e n t ? - s i n g i n g v o i c e s ? 2. What a r e s t u d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s to the s o n g s , games and a c t i v i t i e s ? 3 . Have you seen any changes i n s t u d e n t c o n f i d e n c e o r s e l f - i m a g e th rough i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h a c t i v i t i e s ? 4 . Are t h e r e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v i n g s t u d e n t s new to program? What t y p e s ? How r e s o l v e d ? 5 . Work ing w i t h s t u d e n t s who may have c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o b -l e m s , have you n o t i c e d any changes t h rough i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the program? I f r e s o l v e d , how? E. Teache r P l a n n i n g and Time P r i o r i t i e s 1. M u s i c c l a s s e s : per week? l e n g t h ? v a r y i n g ? c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s i n s c h e d u l i n g ? t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n ? 2. M u s i c s c h e d u l e d as an i n t e g r a t e d o r a s e p a r a t e a c t i v i t y ? 3 . Use o f K o d a l y a c t i v i t i e s as r e l a x a t i o n o r change a c t i v i t i e s ? 4 . How do you d e c i d e w h i c h o f the a c t i v i t i e s to use? 5 . What a r e y o u r o b j e c t i v e s i n t e a c h i n g mus ic t h i s y e a r ? F . T e a c h e r - s t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n 1. K i n d s o f assessmen t o r t e s t i n g ? Why? Needs? 2. R e p o r t i n g ? How? 3 . P a r e n t f e e d b a c k ? Types? I n v o l v e m e n t ? Demands? 120 Append i x D ( c o n t i n u e d ) , I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s G. D e s c r i p t i o n o f a " G o o d " M u s i c L e s s o n 1. Would you d e s c r i b e a " g o o d " mus i c l e s s o n ? I n t e r v i e w #2 S c h e d u l e A. M o t i v a t i o n and Changes 1. How was the d e c i s i o n made f o r you to t e a c h K o d a l y ? By s e l f ? By whom? I n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s ? 2 . C o u l d you sum up y o u r r e a c t i o n s now? 3. Have you n o t i c e d any changes i n : - y o u r t e a c h i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s ? - t e a c h i n g s k i l l s ? - s u c h as? 4. P r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h m u s i c : How has t h i s a c t e d on y o u r t e a c h i n g o f the program? B. D i s t r i c t A u t h o r i z a t i o n 1. What does t h a t mean to you? 2 . Why do you t h i n k the Koda l y program was chosen f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t ? 3. What a re y o u r r e a c t i o n s to a s p e c i f i e d mus ic program? 4. S t a b i l i t y and ma in tenance o f program f o r s i x y e a r s : R e a c t i ons? C. S p e c i f i c S e q u e n t i a l Program 1. The K o d a l y program s p e c i f i e s an o r d e r f o r s t u d e n t s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n : Does t h i s s e q u e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e work w i t h 121 - Append ix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s y o u r c l a s s ? Why? Changes? D. R e s o u r c e s A v a i l a b l e  I n - s c h O O l r e s o u r c e s 1. Do you d i s c u s s t h i s program w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e on your s t a f f ? What k i n d s o f c o n c e r n s ? Share? 2 . How does y o u r a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e a c t to or s u p p o r t the program? 3. I f you have a p rob lem o r c o n c e r n w i t h the p r o g r a m , whom do you t a l k to? 4. Do you use s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s or o t h e r peop le to he lp i n t e a c h i n g the program? 5. Have you p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any s t a f f Koda'ly i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n ? What was the n a t u r e o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s ? D i s t r i c t - p r o v i d e d r e s o u r c e s M u s i c Resou rce Book 6. What p a r t s o f the book do you f i n d u s e f u l ? Do you use the l e s s o n o u t l i n e s as p r o v i d e d ? Changes? Why? A c c e s s to i n f o r m a t i o n / o r g a n i z a t i o n ? Recommendat ions? I n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s : L. R .C . /Summer Workshops 7. A t t e n d ? F r e q u e n t l y / R a r e l y ? Why? 8. Which a s p e c t s a re most v a l u a b l e ? Needs? 9. Recommendat ions? I n - c l a s s r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t 10. Have you r e q u e s t e d t h a t the r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r work i n 122 Append ix D ( c o n t i n u e d ) , . I n t e r v i e w s #1 and #2 S c h e d u l e s y o u r c l a s s ? What s o r t s o f a c t i v i t i e s ? How d i d the r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e you? V a l u a b l e a s p e c t s ? 1 1 . Have you i n v o l v e d any o t h e r d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l i n h e l p i n g you t e a c h the program? In what ways? L o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d program The program was d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and has been m o d i f i e d a number of t imes d u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t . 12 . In what ways c o u l d you see the program b e i n g improved? 13 . T h i s Koda' ly program i s b e i n g adop ted by o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B . C . What recommendat ions would you have f o r such d i s t r i c t s ? 14 . To d e s c r i b e 'wha t Koda' ly i s ' , what wou ld you say? 123 APPENDIX E  I n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t s ( *These t r a n s c r i p t s a r e o n l y t h r e e o f a t o t a l o f f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i ews ) . Teache r 60 : - G r a d e 3 -2 y e a r s Koda' ly t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e T e a c h e r 2A: - G r a d e 2 -4 y e a r s Koda l y t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T e a c h e r 6 P : -G rade 1 -6 y e a r s Koda l y t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 124 ( *On l y one o f a t o t a l o f f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s ) . I n t e r v i e w #60: Thu rsday A p r i l 2 9 , 4 : 0 0 p.m. R: F i r s t o f a l l , I ' d l i k e to ask you what does t e a c h i n g mus ic mean f o r you? T: A h , w e l l I t h i n k i t ' s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . I t h i n k , urn, t h a t c h i l d r e n l o v e mus ic n a t u r a l l y , and t h a t i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n the c l a s s r o o m , and i t s h o u l d be t augh t i n a v a r i e t y of w a y s , you k n o w . . . R: Y e s . T : . . . a n d l i k e to l e a r n , a h , to s i n g songs and to have fun and a c t i o n games, a n d , a c t i o n songs as w e l l as l e a r n i n g maybe, a h , the more t e c h n i c a l p a r t s . R: Uhhum, uhhum, o k a y . . . a n d y o u ' v e been t e a c h i n g f o r one y e a r . . . n o ? T: I ' v e t a u g h t Koda ' l y , f o r , t h i s i s my second y e a r w i t h Koda ' l y . R: Okay , d i d you t e a c h any k i n d o f mus i c program b e f o r e you began to use the Koda' ly? T: I d i d n ' t t e a c h any program as a s p e c i f i c , but I used some of "Mary He len R i c h a r d " s o n g s . R: Y e s , so the E T M . . . a n d d i d you use the songs or the games o r the s k i l l t e a c h i n g t h i n g s t h a t went w i t h i t ? T: N o . . . j u s t the songs and the games. R: Okay , how does the t e a c h i n g Koda' ly compare t o the ETM program? T : W e l l , the K o d a l y i s , I t h i n k , much more s o p h i s t i -c a t e d . They d o n ' t b o t h e r d o i n g , w e l l , hand s i g n a l s a l s o , b u t , w r i t i n g no tes on s t a f f s , and r e a d i n g i t . . . Y e a h , i t does take the s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g m u c h . . . t o a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n . . . s o m e t i m e s w i t h the ETM, the games s o r t o f t ake over the l e a r n i n g , I t h i n k , Y e a h , r i g h t . Urn, so what does t e a c h i n g , what does t e a c h i n g K o d a l y mean f o r you? W e l l , i t ' s much more c h a l 1 e n g i n g . . . . a n d i t , urn, c e r t a i n l y i s more demanding because o f i t s l e v e l s , w e l l you know, how i t g o e s . . . Now, what do you f i n d , s p e c i f i c a l l y , what do you f i n d demanding? I f i n d i t . . . w e l l be ing a b l e to t e a c h t hose t h i n g s . Now, y o u ' r e t e a c h i n g g rade 3, a l s o , wh ich i s . . . W e l l , you know, I f i n d t h a t , somet imes I f e e l l i k e I d o n ' t even know what I'm d o i n g . . . .UHHum , ah . . . . I r e a l l y e n j o y i t . . . b u t I d o n ' t know i f I'm d o i n g , a h , you know, an adequa te j o b . . . s o m e t i m e s . . . Uhhum, and do y o u , had you any p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h K o d a l y , b e f o r e you s t a r t e d the i n - s e r v i c e s i n the d i s t r i c t ? Uh , no . W e l l , maybe t h rough some of my c l a s s e s , t h a t I t o o k , l i k e i n mus ic e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , t hey b r i e f l y go ove r some K o d a l y , some O r f f , t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , bu t n o t h i n g i n d e p t h , l i k e , a h , the s e t of w o r k s h o p s . So you d i d n ' t f i n d the mus ic e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y o f much v a l u e ? Is t h a t a f a i r s t a t e m e n t , i n t e a c h i n g the K o d a l y i n y o u r g rade 3 c l a s s r o o m ? R i g h t , they j u s t exposed you to i t . Yuh . . . s o r t o f , i t ' s a g e n e r a l comment t h a t , the educa t i on , t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s i n mus ic d o n ' t r e a l l y . . . t h e y p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g and some of the p h i l o s o p h y o f the p r o g r a m , but n o t h i n g t h a t , you know t h a t t r a n s f e r s i n t o u s e , and a g a i n , t h e r e ' s a d i f f i c u l t y , how do they p r o v i d e . . . i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l o f them? Y e a h . Urn, and t h e . . a h , the l a s t q u e s t i o n I ' d l i k e to ask i s f o r y o u , what would c o n s t i t u t e a good mus ic p r o -gram? T e a c h i n g y o u r g rade 3 s t u d e n t s ? W e l l , I wou ld l i k e to h a v e , u r n . . . . I t h i n k i t j u s t depends on the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , and what t h e y ' r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . Not j u s t y o u , I d o n ' t say t h a t I'm c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t e a c h i n g games and s o n g s , and I d o n ' t j u s t want to have to a lways use t h a t , b u t , p e r h a p s , u s i n g what they know, and a re com-f o r t a b l e w i t h , and u s i n g o t h e r methods and t e a c h i n g o t h e r s k i l l s , and s o r t o f t r y i n g to i n t e g r a t e t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g t o g e t h e r . ' C a u s e I t h i n k i f I d i d n ' t have to t e a c h Koda ' l y , I would j u s t be t e a c h i n g games and s o n g s , and I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t i s r e a l l y , you know, t h a t b e n e f i c i a l . I t wou ld be fun f o r the c h i l d r e n but they w o u l d n ' t be r e a l l y l e a r n i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d , you know, c a r r y them on to the nex t g r a d e , and so o n . Y e a h , y e a h . . . i t ' s d i f f i c u l t , you know, I can u n d e r -s t a n d . . . t a k i ng on the g rade 3 p r o g r a m , and f o r the f i r s t t i m e , y o u ' r e w o r k i n g on a l l the s k i l l s , f rom k i n d e r g a r t e n to 1, to 2 , to 3 , t h a t you have to u n d e r s t a n d and e x t e n d , and l e a r n i n g t h a t a l l i n one go i s . . . d i f f i c u l t . F i r s t o f a l l , l o o k i n g , I ' d l i k e to l ook a t t h i s c a r d , urn, I 'd l i k e you to r a t e each o f t hose e l e m e n t s , i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e i n you r mus ic p r o g r a m , z e r o b e i n g not i m p o r t a n t a t a l l , two o f s o r t o f a v e r a g e i m p o r t a n c e , and f o u r , t h a t you would r a t e as b e i n g v e r y i m p o r t a n t . . . i n you r mus ic program t e a c h i n g g rade 3 s t u d e n t s . Hmm, i n tune s i n g i n g . . . Would you l i k e a second to l o o k t h r o u g h them, b e f o r e we c a r r y o n . . ? Would t h a t be f a i r ? Y e s , p l e a s e , (tape stopped) To t e l l you the t r u t h , I d o n ' t r e a l l y e v a l u a t e the k i d s too much on i t , i n t h e i r m u s i c , i t ' s someth ing t h a t I d o n ' t . . . . Urn, w o u l d , 1 i k e . . . i n - t u n e s i n g i n g . . . t a k i n g i n - t u n e s i n g i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , wou ld t h a t be some th ing t h a t you would go back to t r y to ge t the s t u d e n t s on p i t c h , o r would t h a t be s o m e t h i n g , w e l l , i f t hey d o n ' t do i t , t hey d o n ' t do i t and y o u ' l l c a r r y on and go on to someth ing e l s e i n mus i c? S o , how wou ld you r a t e t h a t ? I wou ld r a t e i t as . . .we l 1 . . 1 . . s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r r h y t h m . . . . 2 to 3 . . . m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y i n terms o f w r i t i n g a n d / o r r e a d i n g s k i l l s . . . 2 to 3 . . . c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , i m p r o v i s a t i o n . . . 3 . . . 1 i s t e n i n g , mus ic a p p r e c i a t i o n . . . 2 to 3 . . . Okay , and urn, the second o n e . . . a n d a g a i n w o r k i n g w i t h the f a c t t h a t y o u ' r e w o r k i n g w i t h the K o d a l y program f o r the second y e a r , and w o r k i n g w i t h g rade 3 s t u d e n t s , urn, wh ich o f t h e s e e l emen ts o f the Koda' ly program do you not use a t a l l , r a t i n g t h a t as z e r o , 2 . . . a v e r a g e u s e , and 4 , used i n a l l or v e r y n e a r l y a l l o f the 1 e s s o n s . . . O k a y ? U h h m . . . h a n d s i g n s . . . 2 . . . ; s o l - f a p i t c h n a m e s , . . . 2 . . ; deve lopment o f i n n e r h e a r i n g . . . 0 . . . ; echo t e c h n i q u e s . . . 2 . . ; p a r t w o r k . . ? A h . . . b e g i n n i n g w i t h rounds and then w o r k i n g i n t o a n y t h i n g t h a t has h a r m o n i e s . . . o r group s i n g i n g . . . one group s i n g i n g one l i n e and the o t h e r group s i n g i n g a n o t h e r melody l i n e . . . . Z e r o . . . g a m e s and movement a c t i v i t i e s 2 to 3 . . . t i m rhythm n a m e s . . . ? •Ta ' and ' t i t i ' and ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . . . O h . . . u r n . 2 to 3 . . . u s e o f rhythm i n s t r u m e n t s . . a h . . 1 to 2 ; O s t i n a t o t e c h n i q u e s . . a h h , I ' d say ze ro to one . . . 128 R: I t ' s a g a i n , someth ing t h a t comes i n towards the end o f the g rade 3 p rog ram. T: . . . a n d s t i c k n o t a t i o n . . . y e s , w e l l i t ' s j u s t s t a r t i n g , 1 ; and r e a d i n g o f c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t a t i o n . R: . . . t h e r e a d i n g o f m u s i c . . . o r . . . a s we u s u a l l y see i t . T : . . . ah . . . z e r o . R: Okay , a re t h e r e any o f t hose ones t h e r e , you know, as a b e g i n n i n g w i t h the K o d a l y p r o g r a m , t h a t you f e e l l e s s c o n f i d e n t w i t h o r pose g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s ? T: Y e s , I d o n ' t . . . I ' m not v e r y c o n f i d e n t , I'm not c o n f i d e n t a t a l l w i t h p a r t w o r k . . . a n d I . . . I ' m not too su re about the deve lopment o f i n n e r h e a r i n g . . . R: Uh huh , you mean the t e c h n i q u e s , o r how to t each i t , o r when to use i t . . . ? T : Y e s , when to use i t . R: Uh huh. T : A n d , o s t i n a t o t e c h n i q u e s . . . p i us the r e a d i n g o f c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t a t i o n . R: Cou ld you k i n d o f sum up y o u r r e a c t i o n s to the t e a c h i n g o f K o d a l y , now, you know, how you f e e l about the program now? T: I f e e l t h a t i t ' s a good p r o g r a m . . . i t c e r t a i n l y has a l o t to o f f e r . . . b u t I d o n ' t f e e l l i k e I am t h a t . . . I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t I 'm d o i n g i t j u s t i c e . . . b y no t p r a c t i s i n g a l l the e l emen ts t h a t a re i n i t , and urn, I'm c e r t a i n l y not t h a t c o n s i s t e n t . . . i t , i t ' s s o , the program f o r me i s , i s s o r t o f ove rwhe lm ing i n a way. 129 I, I c a n ' t seem to g rasp e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I'm supposed to know, f rom a workshop and be a b l e to b r i n g i t back to the c l a s s r o o m and be a l l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e i n e x e c u -t i n g what I ' v e l e a r n e d i n a w o r k s h o p , and I, urn, I t r y and a t t e n d a l l the workshops because I t h i n k t h e y ' d be r e a l l y h e l p f u l , T mean i t ' s a l s o a b o o s t to go to t h e s e t h i n g s , and s o r t o f g e t , urn, r e j u v e n a t e d . . . urn, j u s t , urn, know t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d o , and y e t , I t h i n k i t ' s a r e a l l y good p rog ram, i t ' s j u s t t h a t I c a n ' t t e a c h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s i n i t . I f e e l l i k e t h e r e ' s so much i n i t . . . I d o n ' t even g e t . . . m a y b e I ' l l ge t h a l f done . . . i n one l e s s o n p l a n t h a t ' s s u g g e s t e d . . . and the p a c i n g i s , i s n o t . . . not what I ' v e been a b l e to keep up w i t h . Yeah. .urn c e r t a i n l y t a l k i n g t o , f o r example t e a c h e r s who have worked w i t h the program f o r s i x y e a r s , the common theme i s t h a t the f i r s t y e a r , the f i r s t y e a r w i t h the Koda' ly p r o g r a m , they f e l t c o n f u s e d . . . t h a t i t was j u s t a b s o l u t e l y f a r too much, and i t ' s t a k e n them s i x y e a r s , w o r k i n g s t e a d i l y w i t h the p r o g -ram, to ge t any sense of what i t ' s a l l a b o u t . And then f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t about t e a c h i n g one e l e m e n t , and knowing i t t i e s i n some p l a c e e l s e . I t ' s t aken y e a r s , and so I can c e r t a i n l y a p p r e c i a t e , l o o k i n g a t the whole p r o g r a m ; f rom the g rade t h r e e p o i n t , wh ich i s q u i t e , you know, a s k s a l o t of the t e a c h e r h o w y o u ' r e f e e l i n g . W e l l . . . i f i t ' s a g e n e r a l t h i n g , I'm g l a d I'm not the o n l y o n e . Y u h , n o , and i t ' s c e r t a i n l y . . . ! d o n ' t know what can be done about i t , maybe a b e t t e r sense o f what the whole program i s a b o u t , when y o u ' r e b e g i n n i n g i t , but even t h e n , t h a t m igh t be so o v e r w h e l m i n g , t h a t , u h , y o u ' d t h i n k , " T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e " , I d o n ' t know. Bu t i t i s a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g . . . s o . . . . I t d o e s n ' t h e l p a t a l l ! Those w o r k . . . l i k e I r e a l l y would l i k e to a t t e n d the summer c o u r s e s they o f f e r , bu t i t ' s a t the v e r y end of the summer, and I c o u l d n ' t a t t e n d i t l a s t y e a r b e -cause I was g o i n g away, and t h i s y e a r I hear t h a t i t ' s a t the end o f the summer a g a i n . . . And so you w o n ' t be a b l e t o . . . ? Urn, I p r o b a b l y w i l l make an e f f o r t to g o . 130 Yup , y u p . . . . . . b e c a u s e you know I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t , I d o n ' t have any o t h e r s p e c i f i c p l a c e to g o . Y u h . . . t h e y ' r e wor th i t i n the sense they a re i n t e n s i v e l i k e the w o r k s h o p s . . . y o u a l m o s t , i t ' s a l m o s t o v e r - k i l l i n some ways , o r s a t u r a t i o n , but you do see a l a r g e r p a r t o f how the program i s o p e r a t i n g . . . a n d they o f f e r s e s s i o n s a t , f o r e x a m p l e , the g rade 3 l e v e l , so you can l o o k a t what the whole program can b e , i n f o u r d a y s , wh ich a g a i n i s so c o n c e n t r a t e d , but n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t ' s s o r t o f , t h e y ' r e r e a l l y v a l u a b l e . . . T h e y a r e . . . . Y u h , . . . I ' m su re they a r e . Urn, can we l ook a t some of the s p e c i f i c p a r t s o f the program? Urn, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s o n g s . . . f i r s t o f a l l , what would you see as b e i n g t h e i r v a l u e s as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l , and s e c o n d l y , what a r e t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s as t e a c h i ng mater i a l ? . . . .The songs i n the Koda' ly p r o g r a m . . . Urn, I t h i n k the songs a re a p p e a l i n g to the k i d s , t h e y ' r e easy to l e a r n , t h e i r l y r i c s a re s i m p l e , and t h e y ' v e , urn, a l o t o f them have c a t c h y t u n e s , p l u s , t h e y , I t h i n k some of them have been a d a p t e d . . . f rom the mus ic t h a t ' s s o r t o f , I d o n ' t know, t h e y ' v e changed the l y r i c s to mus ic t h a t ' s f a m i 1 i a r . . . s o m e of t h a t has happened and I t h i n k t h a t ' s g o o d , t o o . The games t h a t accompany some of t h e s e songs a r e l o t s o f fun f o r the c h i 1 d r e n . . A n d the l i m i t a t i o n s , w e l l , somet imes I t h i n k some o f the songs a re a l i t t l e b i t , urn, w e l l , not r e a l l y geared to the l e v e l t h a t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t I'm t e a c h i n g For e x a m p l e , "Hop o l d S q u i r r e l " . . I t h i n k , I d o n ' t t h i n k the g rade 3 ' s would l i k e "Hop o l d S q u i r r e l " . . . . m a y b e grade I ' s and k i n d e r g a r t e n s would l i k e "Hop o l d S q u i r -r e l . " So you w h a t . . h a v e to s e l e c t c a r e f u l l y the songs t h a t w i l l work w i t h y o u r grade 3 ' s then? U h h u m . . . . . . o r not use someth ing t h a t you can s e e . . . R i g h t , l i k e " S h o o t the R o o s t e r " . , , I f i n d t h a t the t i t l e i t s e l f , i s v e r y , i t s o r t of has a v i o l e n t k i n d o f a . . . . 131 . . O v e r t o n e s . . . o r w h a t e v e r . R i g h t . . . s o I g u e s s . . . b u t t hey have such a s e l e c t i o n you can choose f rom i t , and you can e l i m i n a t e wha t -eve r you d o n ' t want to u s e . A n d , um, have you added any songs to the g rade 3 program Have you used o t h e r songs? Yes A n d , such as? W e l l , I use songs f rom S h a r o n , L o i s and B r a m , the a c t i o n s o n g s , l i k e "Waddly ah c h a " ( ? ) Th i ngs t h a t I f i n d r e a l l y f u n , and I l i k e to do them, and camp songs l i k e , um " V i s t a " , because I l i k e them so much, the k i d s l i k e them, you k n o w . . . And s o , i t ' s j u s t songs y o u ' v e c o l l e c t e d from v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i n y o u r p a s t , or t h i n g s t h a t you ve been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h a t you f e e l the s t u d e n t s would e n j o y ? Yes And a c t i o n songs . . . ? Y e s . Are t h e r e any songs t h a t you c o u l d see would ne be added to the Koda l y p r o g r a m , to improve i t ? Um, w e l l not i f i f you use the songs f o r . . . l i k e they d o , they use i t to w r i t e . . . . . . t h e t e a c h i n g o f a s p e c i f 1c. s k i l l . But some o f t hose s o n g s , um, a re j u s t f o r f u n , and they d o n ' t r e q u i r e t h a t the s t u d e n t s l e a r n to w r i t e i t or w h a t e v e r . . . I t h i n k , um, the a c t i o n songs f rom s h a r n n . L o i s and Bram would be r e a l l y f u n . 132 R: Uhhum, j u s t to s o r t o f s p a r k i n t e r e s t ? A h , games and a c t i v i t i e s . . . y o u use them, you s a i d you use them an ave rage to a b i t above a v e r a g e , f i r s t o f a l l , how do you s e l e c t wh i ch games you a re g o i n g to use ? T: I, f rom the K o d a ' l y ? . . . I g u e s s . We l l I t r y and c h o o s e , s e l e c t a song t h a t I can use l a t e r o n , f o r the same, f o r the purpose of w r i t i n g and r e a d i n g . R: And then you use the game t h a t i t goes w i t h . . . T: Y e s . R: Okay , any d i f f i c u l t i e s u s i n g the games? Wi th y o u r g rade 3 ' s , o r i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m , because o f s p a c i n g o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t ? T: U h , maybe j u s t a l i t t l e , I , . . . w h a t ' s one of the g a m e s . . . some of the c i r c l e games t h a t you d o , t h e r e ' s not enough room h e r e , even w i t h the t a b l e s pushed a s i d e , u n l e s s I have the whole room c l e a r e d , i t wou ld b e , i t ' s not v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e . R: Okay , so s o r t o f mass r e a r r a n g e m e n t s i n o r d e r to use some of the games t h e n . . . H o w do y o u r , the grade 3 s t u d e n t s r e a c t to the games? T: They f i n d them e n j o y a b l e . R: Yuh . T: A n d , urn, y e a h , I t h i n k t h a t , t hey e n j o y them, and t h e y ' r e p o s i t i v e , and they r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y to them. R: Okay , w e l l how do you t h i n k , a h , or have you seen any changes i n the t ime t h a t y o u ' v e been t e a c h i n g a t the s c h o o l , wh ich i s 2 y e a r s . . . t h i s i s y o u r second y e a r now? T: Y e s . R: Urn, i n s t u d e n t s ' en joyment o f s i n g i n g , o r i n - t u n e s i n g i n g , o r . . . o r mus ic a b i l i t y ? L i k e , a h , wo rk i ng w i t h t h e s e g rade 3 s t u d e n t s , do t h e y , a re they s t r o n g e r or weaker o r ? How do t hey compare? From when they came to me ? E i t h e r f r o m . . . w e l l f i r s t f rom when they came to you i n S e p t e m b e r , or t h i s g rade 3 c l a s s i n c o m p a r i s o n to y o u r l a s t y e a r ' s g rade 3 c l a s s . Y e a h . . . l a s t y e a r , w e l l the g rade 2 t e a c h e r who t a u g h t them m u s i c , l i k e s h e ' s t a u g h t bo th c l a s s e s t h a t I ' v e h a d , I t h i n k s h e ' s a good t e a c h e r , I d o n ' t know i f I ' v e done a n y t h i n g i n t h e i r . . . y o u know, a n y t h i n g i n t h e i r m u s i c a l g r o w t h . A g a i n , i t ' s d i f f i c u l t to j udge s o m e t i m e s , i t wou ld be i n t e r e s t i n g to t ape them a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r , and then tape them a t the e n d , or someth ing l i k e t h a t . . I t h i n k the o n l y way I c o u l d f i n d t h a t o u t . . . i s urn, by g e t t i n g ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) to come i n , and e v a l u a t e them. W e l l , j u s t s o r t o f i n f o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e them to f i n d them o u t , f i n d ou t what p o i n t , s o r t o f , t h a t they a re a t . . . t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f s k i l l s , o r some-t h i n g . . . S h e w i l l come i n and do t h a t , s h e ' l l q u i t e h a p p i l y come i n . . . a s l o n g as she has t i m e , s h e ' s u s u a l l y o v e r - b o o k e d . Y e s , I r e a l i z e t h a t . I had her i n q u i t e a few t imes l a s t y e a r , and she was v e r y h e l p f u l . I d o n ' t know why t h i s y e a r I d i d n ' t c o n t a c t her a g a i n . I t hough t I would t r y and do i t on my own, a n d , not depend on her so much, you k n o w . . . I r e a l l y want t o . . . t o do i t , and urn, and I d o n ' t know how l o n g i t ' s go i ng to t a k e , b e f o r e , you know, I r e a l l y do more o f i t . R e a l l y b e g i n to f e e l c o n f i d e n t , a n d . . . i n u s i n g the p rog ram. But I'm f i n d i n g t h a t I'm not depend ing so much on d o i n g the games and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t I know, I'm s o r t o f t r y i n g to ge t away f rom t h a t and do more o f the t h i n g s l i k e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Yea . . a n d I t h i n k a l o t o f i t i s t h a t w e l l , o n y o u r p a r t , on the t e a c h e r ' s p a r t , t h a t you a re go ing to use t h o s e , t h o s e p a r t s o f the p r o g r a m , even i f you 134 f i n d them d i f f i c u l t , y o u ' r e g o i n g to t r y to use them and e v e n t u a l l y , as I s a i d , f o u r or f i v e y e a r s . . . . T h i s we can l o o k f o r w a r d t o ! . . . . U r n , I was j u s t g o i n g to ask v e r y q u i c k l y about s t u d e n t s , s t u d e n t s who a r e shy o r who l a c k i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , do you see t h a t chang ing as t hey work w i t h the games and songs i n the p r o g r a m ? . . . as t h e y , f o r e x a m p l e , t a k e t h i s p a r t , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p a r t . . . does t h a t h e ! p ? Some o f the a c t i v i t i e s they l i k e to d o , urn, w e l l t h e y ' l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t , u h , f o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e r e i s someone who w a n t s . . . I ' l l ask someone to go up to s i n g a m e l o d y , o r to s i n g a . . . a h . . . t o to s a y , read the r h y t h m , they w i l l g l a d l y go u p , whereas i f i t ' s inhere they need to do the a c t i o n s and they f e e l i n h i b i t e d about i t . I t ' s k i n d o f w e i r d t h a t they would want to go up t o the f r o n t and do t h a t , and y e t t h e y ' r e not w i l l i n g to s o r t o f l e t go of t h e i r own s e l v e s and e n j o y the movement o f t h e i r bod i e s . They f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h one s o r t o f a c t i v i t y , a n d , not a n o t h e r . Maybe i f t h i n g s . , . b e c a u s e o f t h i n g s t h a t have happened i n t h e i r p a s t s . . . s o m e t h i n g t h a t t hey f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t o o , I d o n ' t k n o w . . . u r n , What abou t s t u d e n t s w i t h c o - o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s ; do you see t h a t as b e i n g a p rob lem w i t h g e t t i n g them to c l a p r h y t h m s , o r any o f t h o s e t y p e s o f t h i n g s ? Does t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the g rade 3 s t u d e n t s . . . i s t h a t a p rob lem? For me, i t ' s no t a p r o b l e m , I d o n ' t r e a l l y , urn, I d o n ' t make too much o f a h . . . I d o n ' t r e a l l y no te t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s . . . t o o much, l i k e I d o n ' t e v a l u a t e the s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r , urn, when t h e y ' r e d o i n g m u s i c . The o n l y t h i n g t h a t I wou ld hope t h e y wou ld do i s , to p a r t i c i p a t e , and c o o p e r a t e w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s , but I'm n o t , l i k e i f t hey c a n ' t c l a p the rhythm p r o p e r l y , I d o n ' t s t op and ge t them to do i t , because t hey p r o b a b l y c a n ' t f e e l i t , and they c a n ' t hear i t maybe s o , urn, I j u s t do i t and hope they f o l 1 o w a 1ong . And then w r i t i n g r e p o r t c a r d comments, what k i n d s o f comments would you make o n . . . r e p o r t i n g to the p a r e n t s ? I u s u a l l y j u s t s a y , you know, i f the s t u d e n t i s p a r -t i c i p a t i n g i n m u s i c , o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n m u s i c , bu t I d o n ' t , I d o n ' t r e a l l y men t ion too much abou t mus i c i n my r e p o r t s . 135 Would you see f o rma l mus ic assessmen t b e i n g a need? For y o u r s e l f w i t h the grade 3 ' s ? A h , w e l l , I d o n ' t see i t as t h a t i m p o r t a n t , bu t maybe i t i s i m p o r t a n t , and maybe I s h o u l d l ook a t i t a s , a h , a n e e d . W e l l , n o , I t h i n k a g a i n , i t ' s how d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s a p p r o a c h the t e a c h i n g o f m u s i c , and u h , a c t u a l l y most t e a c h e r s have s a i d t h a t , t h e y p r e f e r to e v a l u a t e i n t h e i r own way, t h a t t h e y p r e f e r to o b s e r v e the s t u -den t s or w h a t e v e r . . . f o r m a l mus ic assessmen t i s not what they would see to be a n e e d , but n o , . . . a g a i n I want to a s k . . . U m , p a r e n t s , have any p a r e n t s come a s k i n g you f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o g r a m . . . w h a t i s i t a l l a b o u t , o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what t h e i r s t u d e n t s a re d o i n g ? No p a r e n t s . No p a r e n t s . Have you t a l k e d to the p a r e n t s about the program a t a l l ? No, I h a v e n ' t . No. No , I j u s t . . . R i g h t . And um, the o t h e r q u e s t i o n s I wanted to know, mus ic c l a s s e s , do you have a s c h e d u l e d mus ic c l a s s t ime? Y e s . And how much t ime per week? I t ' s o n l y t w i c e a week, and i t ' s h a l f an h o u r , wh ich I know i s not a d e q u a t e , but I d o n ' t know how e l s e I can ge t i t i n , I r e a l l y d o n ' t know. Y e s , i t ' s t h a t , p l u s , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t you have to ge t i n t o the d a y . R i g h t . 136 I can a p p r e c i a t e t h a t , um, do you use the mus i c a c t i v i t i e s , o r the K o d a l y a c t i v i t i e s a t any o t h e r t ime d u r i n g the day? Oh , w e l l I was t h i n k i n g , . . w e l 1 , how c o u l d I do i t so t h a t t hey ge t more e x p o s u r e to I t ? , . . a n d I was t h i n k i n g to do i t i n our o p e n i n g , j u s t some rhythm c l a p p i n g , echo c l a p p i n g , and p r a c t i c e i t i n the m o r n i n g s , make i t , a h , a more r e g u l a r t h i n g . And t h a t ' s when I f i t t e d i t i n . Y a h , t h a t * s s o r t o f t a k i n g a l i t t l e b i t more t ime f o r m u s i c , b u t , w i t h o u t t a k i n g too much t ime away f rom a n y t h i n g e l s e , Y e a h . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to ge t a l l o f t h o s e m u s i c , t h a t mus ic t e a c h i n g w i t h i n , um, langugage a r t s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , ma th , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t has to be d o n e . . . U h , what would you see as b e i n g y o u r o b j e c t i v e , o r o b j e c t i v e s , f o r t e a c h i n g mus ic t h i s y e a r ? U m . . . s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l ? G e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r y o u r Grade 3 c l a s s i n m u s i c , f o r t h i s y e a r . W e l l . . . t o l e a r n the s k i l l s t h a t w o u l d , um, t h a t would p r e p a r e them f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . . . howeve r , i t j u s t depends on what the grade 4 t e a c h e r does a 1 s o . . . . Some-t imes the c o n t i n u i t y i s B r o k e n , l i k e I can admi t t h a t f o r m y s e l f , I h a v e n ' t Been a b l e to keep up i n the Grade 3 p r o g r a m , so I ' v e B roken the c o n t i n u i t y . I f i n f a c t the Grade 2 t e a c h e r was a b l e to c o v e r the whole Grade 2 p rog ram, t h o u g h , i n her y e a r , and then they come to me, and t h e y ' v e got me, and you know, I c a n ' t c a r r y them as f a r . . . T h e n t h e y ' r e n o t , t h e y h a v e n ' t comp le ted the Grade 3 p r o g r a m , and t hey go to Grade 4 . 1 3 7 R: Y e s . . . o k a y , l a s t q u e s t i o n I ' d l i k e to a s k , t h e n , i s to d e s c r i b e t h i s program . . . what i s Koda' ly? T: Uh , what i s K o d a l y ? . . . . I t ' s a mus ic p r o g r a m . . . I t ' s a mus ic p r o g r a m , um, . . . t h a t ' s t a u g h t , um, to c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r l e v e l , and i t i n v o l v e s many f a c e t s ; r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s i n g i n g , and l o t s o f f u n . I f the t e a c h e r ge t s to the p o i n t where she can f e e l i t ' s fun . . . and f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . R: Okay , thank y o u . Those a re my q u e s t i o n s . Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e y o u ' d l i k e to s a y , o r any o t h e r comments y o u ' d l i k e to add? T : No , I d o n ' t t h i n k s o , no I c a n ' t t h i n k o f any r i g h t now. R: Okay , t h a n k s . 138 I n t e r v i e w #60 #2: Monday May 1 0 , 3 :30 p.m. R: Okay , the f i r s t q u e s t i o n I was go ing to ask you was ; how was the d e c i s i o n made f o r you to t e a c h Koda' ly? T: W e l l , when I came to the s c h o o l , i t was j u s t someth ing t h a t was a l r e a d y b e i n g t a u g h t , and I b e l i e v e t h a t i t was e x p e c t e d o f me to j u s t c a r r y on the p rog ram. R: D id the p r i n c i p a l ask you i f you t a u g h t Koda' ly? T: Oh , um, no I was never asked t h a t . . . b u t , um, i n my i n t e r v i e w w i t h ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r ) he a s k e d , o r he saw on my a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t I t a u g h t m u s i c , and t h a t I was f a m i l i a r w i t h do ing m u s i c . R: . . . . a n d had a mus ic b a c k g r o u n d , y e s , T : But he d i d n ' t ask me, I d o n ' t t h i n k I r e c a l l him a s k i n g me i f I t a u g h t K o d a l y , because I never had t augh t i t anyway. R: Okay , and you s a i d t h a t t h e r e was a s o r t of "an e x p e c t a t i o n " t h a t you t e a c h the p rog ram. Cou ld you say more about t h a t ? T: W e l l , Koda l y i s a l r e a d y b e i n g t a u g h t here i n t h i s s c h o o l , and the t e a c h e r who, um, I r e p l a c e d was e x p e c t e d to t each m u s i c , and K o d a l y , but because she d i d n ' t t e a c h i t , she j u s t t r a d e d her s u b j e c t w i t h a n o t h e r t e a c h e r who d i d , so I j u s t n a t u r a l l y assumed t h a t i t was Koda ' l y . And I 'd heard t h a t K o d a l y w a s , you know, the t h i n g to t e a c h . R: The p r o g r a m , um, c o u l d you sum up you r i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s when you f i r s t knew t h a t you were g o i n g to t e a c h the Koda' ly program? T: U h . . . . I had no r e a l r e a c t i o n , I j u s t knew i t was some-t h i n g e x p e c t e d o f me to t e a c h . The s i t u a t i o n t h a t I came i n t o i n r e c e i v i n g t h i s j o b , was a un ique one . L i k e 139 I go t i t towards the end o f Sep tembe r , and the f a c t t h a t I go t the j ob made me, you know, v e r y happy , and I was w i l l i n g j u s t to t ake wha teve r I was supposed to t e a c h . S o , t h a t was p a r t o f i t so I w a s , I j u s t a c c e p t e d i t . I was a f r a i d o f i t and a l i t t l e b i t wary o f i t because I d i d n ' t know how to do i t , and then there was t h i s work -s h o p , e a r l y i n O c t o b e r , I b e l i e v e , and I a t t e n d e d t h a t , and I a t t e n d e d as many f o l l o w i n g , . . . subsequen t work -shops . R: O k a y , and c o u l d you s o r t o f . . . what were y o u r r e a c t i o n s when you a t t e n d e d the f i r s t s e s s i o n s , when you saw what the K o d a l y program was? T: I was v e r y . . . ah . . . I was q u i t e m o t i v a t e d by them . . . because i t has so much i n i t , a n d , urn, i t ' s the k i n d o f mus ic t h a t has a l o t o f c o n t e n t , and I r e a l l y a p -p r e c i a t e d t h a t , I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d the way i t was b e i n g t a u g h t by (Program D e v e l o p e r ) , you know, and by ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) , t o o . R: Now, y o u ' v e worked w i t h the program f o r about two y e a r s . Have y o u , o r what would be you r r e a c t i o n to i t now; how do you f e e l about i t now? Have t h e r e been c h a n g e s , or no t? T: Uh , I wou ld l i k e to do e v e r y t h i n g the program has to o f f e r bu t I d o n ' t r e a l i s t i c a l l y I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t I can f o l l o w i t i n e v e r y s t e p . R: And what a g a i n , o r what i n p a r t i c u l a r a re the a r e a s t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t ? T: The a r e a s t h a t a re d i f f i c u l t a re the h i g h e r l e v e l s k i l l s , l i k e , urn, w r i t i n g , and r e a d i n g , not the rhy thm p a t t e r n s , bu t r e a d i n g the s o l f a n o t e s . R: Yes . . . on the s t a f f . T- Those are h i g h e r l e v e l , a h , s k i l l s , i n my o p i n i o n , and I f e e l , urn, t h o s e o n e s , I'm h a v i n g p rob lems w i t h them. R- Now w o r k i n g w i t h the program f o r two y e a r s and a t t e n -d i n g t h e , a h , i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s , have . . . would you say y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n o f y o u r s e l f , as a mus ic t e a c h e r , 140 a t g rade 3, has t h a t changed? Of what you e x p e c t y o u r s e l f to do? T: U h . . . R: In c o m p a r i s o n to when you began w i t h the program? T: W e l l , I t h i n k t h a t I . . . l i k e when I f i r s t b e g a n , I j u s t t hough t t h a t I w o u l d , a h , t e a c h , what was i n the g u i d e b o o k , and I neve r c o n s i d e r e d i t b e i n g , you know, d i f f i c u l t , or a n y t h i n g , and now, I mean now t h a t I ' v e gone th rough i t , a f t e r the f i r s t y e a r , I knew t h a t I c o u l d n ' t do a l o t o f t h i n g s . I t s o r t o f made me f e e l f r u s t r a t e d t h a t I w a s n ' t mee t i ng the g u i d e b o o k ' s , you know, t h e i r d a t e s and e v e r y t h i n g . But a l s o I f e e l t h a t I ' d l i k e to improve my e x p e r t i s e , I wou ld l i k e to become a b e t t e r mus ic t e a c h e r , and the c o u r s e has e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e to o f f e r to h e l p me r e a c h t h a t goa l . R: Uhhum, f o r t e a c h i n g K o d a l y nex t y e a r , as a mus ic t e a c h e r o f K o d a l y f o r nex t y e a r , what wou ld you l i k e to accom-p l i s h ? What wou ld you l i k e to be a b l e to do? T: I wou ld l i k e to be a b l e to have a c l e a r i d e a as to how I wou ld l i k e a l e s s o n to g o , and have my own f o rma t drawn up , p r o b a b l y based on the f o rma t t h a t i s a l r e a d y g i v e n , but not g o i n g th rough e v e r y s k i l l t h a t t hey have i n a l e s s o n . " I wou ld j u s t c u l l what I would t h i n k would be i m p o r t a n t , but I wou ld have t h a t , um, l e s s o n fo rma t a l l f i g u r e d o u t . I wou ld l i k e to be r e a l l y a b l e to do t h a t , and then when I do a l e s s o n , I know e x a c t l y how to do i t , and I would f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e i n f o l l o w i n g my own f o r m a t . R: Y e a h , so you worked ou t the s t a g e s o f the l e s s o n , i t ' s not t r y i n g to f o l l o w what somebody e l s e has s e t ou t as the s t e p s i n t h a t l e s s o n ? T: R i g h t , and then u s i n g the K o d a l y book , as s o r t o f , not even a g u i d e book anymore , j u s t someth ing to go to f o r p i e c e s o f m u s i c , f o r game songs and i d e a s . R: So not as the key t e a c h i n g book but j u s t as a r e s o u r c e . . . 141 T h a t ' s g o o d . Now you had had e x p e r i e n c e i n mus ic i n v a r i o u s f o r m s , b e f o r e you began u s i n g the Koda' ly p r o g -ram. How d i d t h a t a c t on y o u r l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s i n the Koda' ly program? T: U h . . . R: . For example w o r k i n g w i t h p i ano b e f o r e , and h a v i n g , and ah y o u ' d h a d . . . h a d some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h mus i c b e f o r e -hand . T : W e l l , a c t u a l l y , you know, when I p l a y e d the p i a n o , I neve r d i d l e a r n to read m u s i c , i n terms o f s o l f a . R: Or the m o v e a b l e ' d o h ' . . . T : Yeah . . . s o t h a t a c t u a l l y was new to me. Urn . . . but j u s t h a v i n g the m u s i c , I t h i n k maybe i t s o r t o f , urn, b e i n g a b l e t o , w e l l I j u s t e n j o y e d m u s i c , as such and uh . . . . R: So you had t h a t as a s t r e n g t h . T : I d o n ' t even use an i n s t r u m e n t r e a l l y i n the c l a s s -room, urn, I t h i n k I can h o l d a no te f a i r l y w e l l . So I d o n ' t even t h i n k about i t , I guess . . . I'm s o r t o f l e a r n i n g j u s t f rom s c r a t c h t o d , and t h a t ' s good , because I d o n ' t have a n y t h i n g to s o r t o f ho ld me back . R: Y u h . . . T: . . . f rom o l d h a b i t s . . . . R: T h a t ' s t r u e . . . yes . . . The program i s d i s t r i c t -a u t h o r i z e d , what does t h a t mean to you? T: Urn, i t means t h a t i t ' s been p r o b a b l y l o o k e d a t by the v a r i o u s members o f a , you know, c o m m i t t e e , o r some-t h i n g and they p r o b a b l y t r i e d i t out and e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h i t and t h e y ' v e got f eedback f rom p e o p l e who have t r i e d i t o u t , a n d , I d o n ' t know i t i t ' s been a l ong term t h i n g t h a t t h e y ' v e e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h i t , b u t , I guess i t has p roven to be e f f e c t i v e a n d , i t ' s p roven to be u s e f u l and a good t o o l so i t ' s an a p p r o v e d , i t ' s an app roved c o u r s e o r p rog ram. 142 Okay , um, the program has been m a i n t a i n e d now f o r s i x y e a r s and t h e r e i s a commitment to keep i t g o i n g f o r about a n o t h e r t h r e e , a t l e a s t , a commitment f o r a n o t h e r t h r e e i f not l o n g e r ; what a re y o u r r e a c t i o n s to t h a t ? I t h i n k t h a t ' s good because i t t a k e s a l o n g t ime f o r someth ing to r e a l l y grow r o o t s , and . . . l i k e , even f o r m y s e l f i t w i l l t a k e me a t l e a s t ' t i l nex t y e a r ' t i l I can s t a r t r e a l l y f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . Yeah . . . a n d t h a t wou ld be a f t e r , w e l l t h r e e y e a r s o f u s i n g the p r o g r a m , t h a t . . . y o u ' r e s a y i n g i n the f o u r t h y e a r you would t h i n k then t h e r e would be an ease w i t h i t . And then I t h i n k my t h i r d y e a r I t h i n k I wou ld s t a r t f e e l i n g b e t t e r . Yea . . . yuh . . . I'm s t a r t i n g to ge t a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what I wan t . And you d o n ' t ge t t h a t f rom a page . . . an o v e r v i e w o f the s k i l l s , o r a n y t h i n g e l s e , do y o u , not i n t h i s p r o g -ram, a t any r a t e , w i t h a n o t h e r program maybe i t ' s d i f -f e r e n t . Okay , a n d , a h , why do you t h i n k the Koda l y program was chosen f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t ? — Ah (pause ) I r e a l l y d o n ' t . . . Why do I t h i n k . . . o r do I guess i f I d o n ' t know? No , n o , ah . . . . I r e a l 1y d o n ' t . . . . No , I j u s t wondered i f . . . you know, i t was the K o d a l y program not the O r f f p r o g r a m , not any o t h e r program and I wondered i f , you know, y o u ' d . . . . ? 143 I ' d um, a l l I can t h i n k i s i t ' s go t . . . w e l l I t h i n k Koda l y t a u g h t f o r c h i l d r e n , and i t ' s e f f e c t i v e f o r c h i l d r e n l i k e i t ' s l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d . He t a u g h t way back and he used i t f o r many, many, many y e a r s , and t h a t ' s a l l . I was g o i n g to ask to do w i t h b e i n g a d i s t r i c t program i s t h a t i t ' s a s p e c i f i e d mus i c p r o g r a m , i t ' s to b e , a t l e a s t u s i n g e lemen ts o f the Koda' ly p r o g r a m , um, do you t h i n k t h a t ' s good to h a v e , a s p e c i f i e d mus ic p rog ram, o r s h o u l d t e a c h e r s have c h o i c e o f the t ype o f mus ic t h a t they a re t e a c h i n g i n p r i m a r y g r a d e s ? Um I d o n ' t know, I t h i n k a s p e c i f i e d program i s good And why? Ah . . . because i f t hey s p e c i f y a c e r t a i n mus ic program then c e r t a i n l y t hey must p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r w i t h , w i t h m a t e r i a l s o r r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , to whom they can go to i f t hey need more h e l p , i f t hey need some s o r t o f g u i d a n c e , a n d , but i f t hey were a b l e to choose t h e i r own p r o g r a m , t h e r e m igh t be some t e a c h e r s who migh t never t e a c h m u s i c , you know, where they s h o u l d t e a c h i t , and j u s t s l o t i n any type o f songs on r e c o r d s , o r j u s t , you know, r e c o r d s and t h a t ' s t h e i r m u s i c , m a i n l y maybe. I t w o u l d n ' t have the q u a l i t y , I d o n ' t t h i n k . and now, t a l k i n g abou t c o n c e r n s , i f you do have q u e s t i o n s about how to t e a c h a i n g e n e r a l , do you t a l k Okay c o n c e r n s , o r o r , q u e s t i o n s about the program to anybody on the s t a f f ? have s k i l l Uhm l e t ' s see n o , a c t u a l l y , I h a v e n ' t . Do y o u , have you t a l k e d to anyone on the d i s t r i c t mus ic s t a f f ? W e l l , I d i d l a s t y e a r , I sough t ou t ( R e s o u r c e Teache r ) q u i t e a b i t . Y u h , and what k i n d s o f c o n c e r n s d i d you have? I j u s t wanted to know how to t e a c h . 144 — you know, Koda ' l y . You know, I came i n t o i t , never h a v i n g been exposed to i t , and um, I wanted to know how i t was t a u g h t . . . . I t seemed l i k e a v e r y f a s t , f a s t moving l e s s o n , one t h i n g goes to a n o t h e r , a n d , I d o n ' t , I was h a v i n g p rob lems i n j u s t t r y i n g to m a i n t a i n t h a t k i n d o f p a c e . Y u p , y u p . . . . . . . bu t um . . . . . . . a n d as you s a i d h a v i n g i t v e r y c l e a r l y i n you r head what y o u ' r e g o i n g on to n e x t . And ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) was a lways a v a i l a b l e whenever I needed h e r , so t h a t was r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Okay , um, how do you f e e l t h a t y o u r a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h i s y e a r , r e a c t s t o , o r s u p p o r t s the program? Hmm . . . I t h i n k h e , a h , he s u p p o r t s any . . . mus ic p r o -gram t h a t . . . I have neve r . . . l i k e I have never r e a l l y t a l k e d t o him about the program i t s e l f . . . but um, h e ' s i n f a v o r o f a n y t h i n g t h a t has to do w i t h m u s i c , and . . . And c o u l d you g i v e examples o f what ways he does s u p p o r t , um, mus ic? W e l l , he e n c o u r a g e s a l o t o f . . . o r app roves of a l o t o f t h e s e o t h e r g roups coming i n t o the s c h o o l , and s h a -r i n g t h e i r mus ic w i t h u s , and he encou rages a l o t o f the t e a c h e r s who a re t e a c h i n g mus ic to the i n t e r -m e d i a t e s , more the i n t e r m e d i a t e s , i n you know, s h a r i n g t h e i r mus i c w i t h o t h e r s , and they a r e a lways g o i n g i n t o the d i s t r i c t , d o i n g the d i s t r i c t c h o i r , t h a t k i n d of t h i n g , and h e , he a t t e n d s t h o s e c o n c e r t s t h a t a re ou t o f s c h o o l t i m e . I know h e ' s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t . Uhhm, so i t ' s v i s i b l e s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g i n g , um, per-f o r m i n g g r o u p s , and as you s a i d t h a t s h a r i n g between c l a s s e s , wh ich i s r e a l l y n i c e t o o . Y e s , and he a l s o , a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the y e a r , he wanted to make s u r e t h a t the p r i m a r i e s were g e t t i n g t h e i r j u n i o r c h o i r underway , you know, he was making s u r e t h a t i t was g o i n g t o happen . 145 Yup ... um ... r e s o u r c e s t h a t y o u need f o r t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m ; do y o u h a v e t h o s e ? I n - c l a s s r e s o u r c e s , l i k e y o u d o n ' t u s e t h e f l a n n e l b o a r d s , I d o n ' t t h i n k , any more i n g r a d e 3, o r do y o u u s e them? T h o s e l i t t l e o n e s ? I h a v e them b u t I h a v e n ' t u s e d them. Any s u p p l i e s t h a t y o u need i n t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m , do y o u g e t t h o s e ones i f you need them? ... Um, ... t h e s u p p l i e s , l i k e i n s t r u m e n t s ? ... W e l l , um, ... some s c h o o l s p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e b o o k s f o r t h e i r t e a c h e r s , some s c h o o l s make s u r e t h e y g e t t h e u p - d a t e d r e s o u r c e b o o k s as new t h i n g s come o u t , w h e r e a s some s c h o o l s l e a v e t h a t up t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , f o r e x a m p l e , t h o s e s u p p l i e s , and o h , r h y t h m i n s t r u m e n t s , any o f t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s , t h a t y o u m i g h t , may need i n t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s , p l u s t h e f l a n n e l b o a r d s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e g r a d e 1 and e a r l y g r a d e 2 l e v e l s . T h o s e t h i n g s , i f y o u need t h o s e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m . Can y o u g e t them? Y e s , um, a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r when a l l t h e c o m m i t t e e s g e t t o g e t h e r t o s t a r t o r d e r i n g t h i n g s f o r n e x t y e a r , e v e r y o n e , y o u know, has i n p u t i n t o what t h e y w a n t , o r , and we o r d e r f o r m u s i c ... O kay, so ... as f a r as t h e b u d g e t g o e s i t s a v a i l a b l e . Uhhum. Okay, and have y o u u s e d any s t u d e n t s o r p a r e n t s o r o t h e r p e o p l e i n y o u r c l a s s i n h e l p i n g t o t e a c h t h e p r o g r a m ? No. Okay, and have you s e e n v i d e o t a p e s o f t h e Koda'ly p r o g -ram? No, I d i d n ' t know t h e r e were a n y . T h e r e w ere one o r two i n t h e d i s t r i c t , I u n d e r s t a n d one i s b e i n g t a k e n b a c k t o u p d a t e i t . Um, t h e y ' r e a v a i l a b l e , o r were a v a i l a b l e , t h r o u g h t h e L.R.C, 146 R: (Program D e v e l o p e r ) b rough t i n some f o r i n - s e r v i c e f rom o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . Have you seen any K o d a l y s e s s i o n s where a c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s were b e i n g t a u g h t ? Or where the a c t u a l c l a s s was b e i n g t a u g h t Koda' ly? T: I d i d d u r i n g the mus ic c o n f e r e n c e , but t h a t was the o n l y t i m e . R: Uhhum, was t h a t o f v a l u e ? T: I . . . yes . . . I would say i t i s . R: In what ways? T- S e e i n g how the s t u d e n t s respond to the t e a c h e r , you know, u s u a l l y when I'm i n a w o r k s h o p , or s o m e t h i n g , we are the s t u d e n t s s u p p o s e d l y . . . R: Yes . T: And we can respond much more . . . w e l l not s p o n t a n e o u s l y , but we are s o r t o f . . . our r e s p o n s e s a re a l i t t l e b i t more gea red to the c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . R: Yes . . . and a few o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e r e , i n the odd twenty y e a r s . . . y o u ' v e got on the s t u d e n t s . . . I g u e s s ! T: Y e a h . R: Okay , w o u l d , would you see t h a t as b e i n g someth ing o f v a l u e , o r n e c e s s a r y , o r no t? . . . t o see the c l a s s e s or v i d e o t a p e s o f c l a s s e s ? T : I t h i n k I would l i k e to s e e , um, I w o u l d n ' t mind go ing t o v i s i t t e a c h e r s who t e a c h Koda ' l y , and I w o u l d n ' t mind s e e i n g v i d e o t a p e s , p r o b a b l y v i d e o t a p e s would be b e t t e r because o f the t i m i n g and a l l t h a t . R: Yeah . . . o k a y , um, I'm g o i n g to ask some q u e s t i o n s about the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e s t h a t a re a v a i l a b l e . F i r s t o f a l l , the mus i c r e s o u r c e book . What p a r t s o f t h a t do you f i n d most u s e f u l , now? T: Now . . . uh . . . W e l l , a c t u a l l y I ( pause ) I . . . the b e g i n n i n g s e c t i o n , b e f o r e a l l the l e v e l s . . . 147 Where i t l i s t s the songs and s o r t o f t h e i r a p p r o x i m a t e ? Yeah . . . t h e r e ' s a l l t h e , um, i t s a y s , um, i t has a l l t h e s e o t h e r pages t h a t d e s c r i b e what c e r t a i n t h i n g s a r e , and a l s o i t g i v e s you some i d e a s on what you can t e a c h . A n d , and t h a t ' s the s e c t i o n t h a t you f i n d , f i n d most u s e f u l ? W e l l , i n d i r e c t i n g . . . but I a l s o use the rhythm c a r d s a l o t . Yuh . . . and p rob lems i n g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n out o f t h a t book? Or f i n d i n g t h i n g s i n t h a t book? I t ' s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , once you know how to do i t ! Yes . . . f i g u r i n g out the c o d i n g . Yeah . Um, any recommendat ions f o r c h a n g i n g t h a t , or making improvements to the r e s o u r c e book? Ummm . . . maybe a s i m p l e r f o rma t f o r the l e s s o n p l a n , each l e s s o n p l a n . W e l l i t i s r a t h e r , i t i s q u i t e b a s i c a c t u a l l y , I d o n ' t know, maybe i t ' s j u s t my p e r s o n a l t h i n g . L i k e I 'm g o i n g to have to make i t s i m p l e r , b u t , i f I had p r o b a b l y s t a r t e d o u t , a h , w i t h a K o d a l y , a c o u r s e . . . s t a r t i n g r i g h t a t the b e g i n n i n g b e f o r e I had to t e a c h i t , maybe I w o u l d n ' t have had t h a t p r o b -1 em. J u s t as an o f f - n o t e , o r t o t i e i n w i t h t h a t , a t e a c h e r t h a t I t a l k e d to who had some Koda l y a t u n i v e r s i t y , and then had t a u g h t Koda' ly f o r t h r e e y e a r s , was do ing what y o u ' r e s u g g e s t i n g , um, a few m inu tes a g o , and t h a t s h e ' d gone t h r o u g h i t and d e v e l o p e d her own l e s s o n p l a n . . . A f t e r s h e ' d t augh t i t t w i c e she went t h r o u g h i t and worked up her own s e t o f l e s s o n f o r m a t , and what she p l a n n e d to t e a c h i n each o f the l e s s o n s , um, she d i d t h a t a f t e r her second y e a r , I t h i n k , or t h i r d y e a r , and then i n her f o u r t h y e a r , she s a i d , she wro te . . . she used the same f o r m a t , but she r e w r o t e a l l o f the l e s s o n p l a n s 148 w i t h a much c l e a r e r s e n s e , and f e e l s , she says she f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h them now. But s h e ' s gone ahead and done t h a t and used the r e s o u r c e book , as a r e s o u r c e . She s a i d she has thrown ou t the ones t h a t she t augh t p r e v i o u s l y , and she has r e w r i t t e n them c o m p l e t e l y but s o r t o f w o r k i n g on a knowledge now, o f where s h e ' s g o i n g , but um, t h a t . . . s o r t o f . . . you know what y o u ' r e s a y i n g t h a t you m igh t f i n d i t v a l u a b l f o r y o u r s e l f i n a c o u p l e o f y e a r s . Um, the i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s a t the L . R . C , o r a t any o f the o t h e r p l a c e s t h a t they were h e l d , because they were i n v a r i o u s p i a c e s . . . W h a t p a r t s o f t hose were v a l u a b l e f o r you? Um . . . you mean when I a t t e n d e d them, wh ich p a r t d i d I e n j o y ? Y e a h , what p a r t d i d you f i n d most v a l u a b l e ? For y o u r s e l f i n t e a c h i n g the program? Well . . . I d o n ' t know i f I . . . I came away w i t h a l o t o f i d e a s t h a t were g i v e n to me, but I s t i l l d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was any b e t t e r . . . Uhhum . . . You know, maybe (Program D e v e l o p e r ) assumes t h a t we know e v e r y t h i n g about the Koda' ly program and w e ' r e a l l b a s i c -a l l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t , but I, you know, when I'm a t t e n d i n g an O c t o b e r workshop o r a November w o r k s h o p , I w a s n ' t t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e a t t h a t t ime . . . e i t h e r , l i k e maybe even t h i s p a s t y e a r . But w e ' r e g e t t i n g a l l t h e s e i d e a s thrown a t u s , and they a re a l l j u s t f a b u l o u s , and I w r i t e them a l l down. But I s t i l l h a v e n ' t go t the bas ics . Um, the workshops a re g o o d , i n t h a t they r e a l l y g i v e you good i d e a s , but I t h i n k k i n d o f . . . when I go to t h e s e w o r k s h o p s , I t h i n k I want more . . . more p r a c t i c e i n b e i n g a b l e to do some o f t h e s e t h i n g s . And would you f i n d i t v a l u a b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , i f the p e o p l e who were j u s t b e g i n n i n g the program were q a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r and went th rough what would be s o r t S f the e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f the program and p r a c t i c e them, r a t h e r than s o r t o f i d e a s to e l a b o r a t e upon the program? 149 Yeah . . . I t h i n k I wou ld l i k e t h a t , because I h a v e n ' t e v e n , I h a v e n ' t had t h a t , I ' v e s o r t o f had to t a k e . . . w e l l I 'd s o r t o f had to go i n t o i t when i t was a l r e a d y i n the . . . you know, a l r e a d y s t a r t e d up . I neve r d i d ge t to s t a r t a t t he b e g i n n i n g . I d o n ' t know how many o t h e r t e a c h e r s a re i n the same p o s i t i o n . There a re a number. I c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t know how many t h r o u g h o u t the d i s t r i c t , but p e o p l e who were h i r e d , a h , a number of y e a r s a f t e r the program was put i n t o m o t i o n , bu t a re s t i l l t e a c h i n g a t the b e g i n n i n g , as i t were . Yea . . . n o w o k a y , two q u e s t i o n s to do w i t h t h a t . The program was l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d , and s o r t o f based upon koda' ly but w i t h o t h e r a d a p t a t i o n s to s u i t t h i s a r e a , a n d , um, changes made w i t h the r e s o u r c e book , m o d i f i -c a t i o n s e t c e t e r a . . . . Are t h e r e any recommendat ions t h a t you would make i n o r d e r to improve the program w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . . . w i t h i n s a y , f o r the nex t t h r e e y e a r s , or someth ing . . . w i t h i n . . . f o r the f u t u r e ? Ummm . . . (pause) . . . f o r p e o p l e who a re coming i n t o the program or s t a r t i n g w i t h the p r o g r a m , they s h o u l d be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to a t t e n d , um, a c o u r s e , o r , p r o b a b l y not a w o r k s h o p , but a c o u r s e where they would be g i v e n the b a s i c s , you know, t a u g h t how to go th rough the b a s i c s . . . I d o n ' t know i f i t wou ld be good to make i t , w e l l i f you made i t compu l so r y i t p r o b a b l y would be b e t t e r , but you know, you c a n ' t . I d o n ' t know i f you can f o r c e t hose k i n d s o f t h i n g s . I t ' s d i f f i c u l t . . . y o u ' r e q u i t e r i g h t . A n y t h i n g e l s e ? Um . . . p r o b a b l y h a v e , um, I d o n ' t . . . l i k e t h e r e are a l o t o f mus ic p e o p l e w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l . . . but . . . t h e r e ' s no r e a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n w i t h i n t h i s s c h o o l . . . l i k e eve rybody . . . a l o t o f p e o p l e do t h e i r own m u s i c , and I d o n ' t f e e l t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e g o i n g to anybody to ask them about my m u s i c , you know, f o r h e l p . And you would l i k e to have someone s o r t of d e s i g n a t e d as the p e r s o n to t a l k t o , o r a c o n t a c t p e r s o n , or some-t h i n g o f t h a t n a t u r e , would t h a t h e l p , or . . . ? Yes . . . I t h i n k i t w o u l d . Ah . . . l i k e I d i d t h a t b e f o r e , I t r i e d to app roach somebody i n my v e r y f i r s t y e a r h e r e , to ask them someth ing but I never got any h e l p , so f rom t h a t p o i n t on I d i d n ' t f e e l l i k e I wanted t o approach 150 anybody e l s e . Maybe I s h o u l d h a v e , you know, I s h o u l d n ' t have j u s t l e t i t go a t t h a t , bu t . . . But . . . I, I u n d e r s t a n d , . . . I t ' s , i t ' s d i f f i c u l t , p a r -t i c u l a r l y i f y o u ' v e got a good number o f c o n c e r n s about t e a c h i n g the p r o g r a m , and t h e n , to go t o somebody and s a y , "How do I do t h i s ? How do I do t h a t ? " , and y e t , and y e t l e a r n i n g f rom o t h e r t e a c h e r s i s o f t e n the most s o r t o f v a l u a b l e way o f l e a r n i n g , I t h i n k . Or maybe we s h o u l d have more mus ic r e s o u r c e p e o p l e t o o . Y e a h , i t wou ld be n i c e . . . The l a t e s t budget has r e a l l y not h e l p e d t h a t , but . . . . Second q u e s t i o n to do w i t h t h a t um, some d i s t r i c t s , P r i n c e George b e i n g o n e , and a number o f d i s t r i c t s i n the m a i n l a n d are c o n s i d e r i n g u s i n g some a d a p t a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m , and a re j u s t b e g i n n i n g i t . Now, what recommendat ions would you make f o r a d i s t r i c t t h a t i s j u s t p u t t i n g t h i s t ype o f a program i n t o mo t i on? What would be e s s e n t i a l ? Um . . . ah . . . e s s e n t i a l . . . W e l l , good r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , and a g o o d , a v e r y um I t h i n k . . . a s t r o n g commitment f o r t e a c h e r s who a re g o i n g to be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g , a commitment t h a t t hey you know, a re r e a l l y devo ted to c a r r y i n g ou t t h i s p r o g r a m and t h a t t hey t r y and keep up w i t h a l l the i ncom ing new t h i n g s t h a t have to do w i t h the p rog ram. Um, I a l s o t h i n k t h a t . . . t h e r e s h o u l d b e , i f t h e r e i s a gu ide book , i t s h o u l d be a v e r y s i m p l e o n e , w i t h not too many, j u s t a r e a l s i m p l e g u i d e book , n o t h i n g too o v e r w h e l m i n g , someth ing r e a l l y b a s i c . So maybe the e s s e n t i a l . . . what would be the n e c e s s a r y p a r t s and any a d d i t i o n a l p a r t s i n a s e p a r a t e book , o r , you know, not i n the r e s o u r c e b o o k , o r w h a t e v e r . Uhhum, i t would be good i f they c o u l d have a p i l o t program where a l l the t e a c h e r s would be a b l e to a t t e n d t h a t , and then a l l the f o l l o w i n g o n e s , and you know h o p e f u l l y t hey would be a b l e to a t t e n d each o n e , but t h a t t hey would b e , be a b l e to p r o v i d e i n p u t i n t o how the p r o g r a m ' s g o i n g , and ge t some f eedback on how they a re d o i n g , p l u s , um maybe ge t i d e a s a l o n g the way, but not to ge t e v e r y t h i n g thrown a t them a t o n c e . 151 A h , y e a h , and I ' v e got o b j e c t i v e s , l i k e f o r m y s e l f , i t ' s j u s t to become more e f f e c t i v e i n t e a c h i n g i t , and um, but m a i n l y , and a l s o f o r the s t u d e n t s , I would l i k e them to en joy mus ic as someth ing t h a t they would l ook f o r w a r d t o . Cou ld y o u , l o o k i n g back or r e f l e c t i n g on t e a c h i n g mus ic i n g rade 3 t h i s y e a r , i s t h e r e one l e s s o n t h a t you f e l t was . . . s o m e l e s s o n s t h a t you f e l t were more s u c c e s s f u l , o r t h a t you r e a l l y f e l t good a b o u t , or t h a t the s t u d e n t s r e a l l y responded to? A h . . . I t h i n k one l e s s o n t h a t I d i d , had to do w i t h the song t h a t I i n t r o d u c e d , " B o i l them Cabbage Down", and I r e a l l y got i n t o the swing o f the whole s o n g , and we 'd s i n g the n u r s e r y rhyme, then we 'd go back t o the theme, then we 'd s i n g the n u r s e r y rhyme and go back to the t h e m e . . . I en j oyed t h a t and then we got i n t o w r i t i n g the rhythm of i t . I t k i n d o f went r e a l l y s m o o t h l y . A k i n d o f f l o w to the whole l e s s o n . . . Y e s , and i t ' s been a more r e c e n t thing f o r m e . . . s o maybe I'm s o r t o f g e t t i n g i t , a l i t t l e b i t now. Y e s . . . y u p . Those a re the q u e s t i o n s t h a t I ' d l i k e to a s k . Is t h e r e a n y t h i ng e l se t h a t y o u ' d l i k e to say about how y o u ' r e u s i n g the p r o g r a m , or comments about the program? I t h i n k , I t h i n k I ' v e s a i d b a s i c a l l y , a l r e a d y what I ' v e m e n t i o n e d . I ' d j u s t l i k e to know i f , um, I d o n ' t know, I ' d r e a l l y l i k e to know i f . . . w h a t k i n d o f a j ob I'm d o i n g i n t e a c h i n g i t . W e l l , you know, ( R e s o u r c e T e a c h e r ) w i l l come i n t o you r room and o b s e r v e you and i f you wanted t h a t , and then t a l k to you a f t e r w a r d s about what y o u ' r e d o i n g and what c o u l d you c h a n g e . T h a t ' s one of the t h i n g s s h e ' l l come i n and d o , and t h a t m igh t be a p o s s i b i l i t y . R i g h t , but on the who le t o o . You mean i n terms o f how much y o u ' r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g o f the g rade 3 program w i t h y o u r c l a s s ? R i g h t , but then you s a i d I c o u l d do an i n f o r m a l k i o f e v a l u a t i o n , and see how f a r they a r e . Yeah o k a y , t hanks eve r so much. Y o u ' r e we lcome. 1 53 (*0n1y one of a to ta l of fourteen interview t ransc r i p t s . ) Interview #2A: Tuesday, Apr i l 27, 1982. Okay, could you t e l l me what teaching music means for you? Oh, dear, well I guess, for me, i t ' s a way to introduce the kids to music as a part of t he i r l i v e s , a way to relax and enjoy themselves, to iden t i f y rhythm and beat and qua l i t i es of music. Good. . .But bas i ca l l y tha t ' s what i t i s , i s to introduce i t to the i r l i v e s , because for some of them, they don't take music lessons or anything l i k e that . Maybe they don't have stereos in the home., usual ly i t ' s the T.V. tha t ' s b lar ing on, so i t ' s a way to enjoy themselves and re l ax , and to hopeful ly introduce i t through the i r 1 ives . Super , and you've been teaching the Koda'ly program for about three years and teaching for about seven, what kind of music program were you using before the Kodaly program? Uh, I.. .Koda'ly i s a l l I 've ever taught. Okay. . . Now, I d idn ' t s ta r t teaching un t i l I came to th is d i s t r i c t , and when I was in un ivers i t y t r a i n i ng , we took Kodaly as w e l l , so tha t ' s the only music t ra in ing I've had i s in Kodaly, and tha t ' s a l l I 've taught. Okay, tha t ' s good. You're the f i r s t teacher that I 've talked to who has had Kodaly t ra in ing at un ive rs i t y . Oh, Uv ic , does i t . That 's been the i r program s ince , well when did I g raduate . . '72 , something l i k e that . Uhhum, now how did you f ind the un ivers i ty t ra in ing in Kodaly, and th is d i s t r i c t t ra in ing in Kodaly, how did that work; d id that work together; how did that help you? Yes, and I found the t ra in ing offered through th is d i s t r i c t much superior to what we'd been given in un i ve rs i t y , much super ior . And in what ways? Because there was more time to spend, because we had monthly meetings when the Koda'ly was f i r s t introduced in Kamloops which was the f i r s t year I started teaching here, we had monthly meetings, we were also 154 Interview #2A given whole day in -serv ices to develop i t and they also had a guide book, a program to go by already developed..and we had no such resource at un i ve rs i t y . We had simply been introduced to i t as "a technique" and to ld about i t , and you jus t t ry and wri te notes about how to teach i t . And so there i s no understanding of the program? We l l , we understood the basic p r inc ip les of i t , and we appl ied a l o t of the s k i l l s , but when you're taking a one uni t course, which means i t ' s one hour a week, f o r , ah, eight months, you ce r ta in l y don't get very much. Okay, that i s very i n te res t i ng , again, to hear, because one of the questions i s : How can the u n i v e r s i t i e s , you know, improve the i r music ins t ruc t ion courses? We l l , I ce r ta in l y think i t ' s to increase the time a l lo tment . . I mean I understand the problem..Uvic, I understand has now gone to a two year professional year program, and i f t ha t ' s the case, then Music should be in both of those years , g iv ing you a chance to deal with those programs more. Now, when you came to th is d i s t r i c t , were you asked i f you had Kodaly background? Yes, I was. You were.. That 's why I was h i red . I see. In te res t ing , tha t ' s good. So, what does teaching Kodaly mean to you? Oh..Teaching Koda'ly means that I can teach music. That 's what i t means to me, because un t i l I had Kodaly, well I knew nothing about music, I'm not musical at a l l , never took a voice lesson, or a piano, instrument lesson in my l i f e . And to have Kodaly I can hang my hat on i t and I could ac tua l l y teach music instead of jus t s ing , which i s a l l I grew up with in school was music c lass which i s a time when we sang. Okay, so t h i s , the Kodaly program i s the enjoyment and the singing plus the s k i l l . . R ight . . . bas is as w e l l . Okay, good. I would l i k e to look a t ; perhaps we could look at th is one. Looking at your to ta l music program, um, 155 R: T: Interview #2A these a c t i v i t i e s , which are not important at a l l . . r a t i n g that as a 1 . . of average importance, ra t ing that as a 2, sor ry , zero; two; and very, important, ra t ing that as a four . And tha t ' s in the Kodaly ..music program that you ' re teaching th is year . We l l , in-tune s ing ing , I'd say tha t ' s about a 2. . I 'm not a l l that concerned..I t ry and work on i t a b i t , but I don' t worry i f they ' re not singing in tune. Feelings for rhythm, I'd say tha t ' s a 3..I think t ha t ' s a 3; and music apprec ia t ion, I 'd give that a 3. Okay, now you said that in-tune singing was not as important. Why do you say that? Because so many of the ch i ld ren I have taught over the years are not able to sing in tune, and I am in no pos i t ion myself , and I do as best as I can to t ry and get them so sing in tune, but i f they cannot fo l low, i f they are octaves below me, or octaves above me, as long as they are t ry ing to sing in the same range, I give that as much value as being able to sing in tune. . .R ight on p i tch. .and I guess they are developing the ear to hear the d i f fe ren t p i tches. ..See I don' t have perfect p i tch when I s ing with them e i the r , so I can hardly expect them to have perfect pi tch..what I ac tua l l y need in here i s a piano, or something, so I can get myself more in p i tch . Or a set of melody b e l l s , or something.. R igh t , and I understand we have some melody be l ls ' ; I should d ig them out . Okay, then the second one I'd l i k e you to look at are elements or techniques used in the Kodaly program..and I'd l i k e you to rate them..zero as not used at a l l ; two, about average use, and four , used in a l l or very nearly a l l lessons. Okay, handsigns, i s 4.. I use them almost a l l the t ime; p i tch names ..I use them a l l the t ime. . inner hear ing, I use that about i ; not very o f ten , jus t r e a l l y at the beginning of the year , and tha t ' s a l l I 've done with i t ; echoing, we've jus t started that , but i t ' s going to be the rest of my program, for a wh i le , so I'd give that about a 3; part work, now what do you mean by part work? That ' s . . such as beginning with rounds and into harmonies.. Okay, a l l r i g h t , I'd say tha t ' s a zero. .1 don't do any harmonies; games and movement, 4, i n every lesson, rhythm names, in every lesson, rhythm instruments, about a two, we don' t use them a l l the t ime; os t ina to , we did tha t , we've jus t started doing that , I'd say tha t ' s about a 2; s t i ck notation about a 3, and conventional notat ion, I haven't done i t ye t . 1 56 Interview #2A R: Okay, again th is l i s t i s from kindergarten to grade 3, so some of the s k i l l s are ones you wouldn't be working wi th , um , the rhythm instruments, you don' t use them much..why? T: No, you see I used to use them a l o t when they were in the classroom. We don't have them in the classroom anymore and i t ' s hard to f ind them. Then at one po in t , we had a music room, where everything was located and a l l you'd have to do i s jus t go and get i t , well now., i t ' s par t ly in C.'s room, and and par t l y in J.'s room, par t l y in R's room, and I have to run around and t ry and f ind them; well i t ' s just not worth i t , I j us t do i t once in a whi le . R: So, jus t gett ing hold of them. T: That 's the d i f f i c u l t y . R: Okay, tha t ' s super, um, looking at some of the spec i f i c teaching mater ia ls of the program, f i r s t of a l l the songs what do you see as the values in the songs in the Koda'ly program? T: Yeah, what I l i k e best about them i s the l imi ted note, range..so most ch i ldren can sing them. The other thing I l i k e about them is the simple words to deal w i th . They are often t rad i t i ona l tunes that the ch i ld ren are already fam i l i a r w i th , and then you can introduce s k i l l s , that are ava i lab le as a resu l t of the Kodaly program to go with them. R: Do you f ind any d i f f i c u l t y teaching any of the songs? T: No. R: Do you, for example, i f the ch i ldren know a d i f fe ren t melody l i n e than the Koda'ly melody l i ne that they have used, to introduce a spec i f i c s k i l l , i s that a d i f f i c u l t y in teaching? T: No, I haven't noticed i t to be. No. R: Okay, um, have you introduced any other songs to the Kodaly program? to your music program? T: To my music program?...Many. R: What types? T: Oh..mostly j u s t , um, things l i k e out of the radio program, l i k e , " I ' ve been Working on the Ra i l road" . Just songs that the kids enjoy s ing ing , they are ce r ta in l y not Koda'ly songs in the sense that they have a l im i ted note range. R: Yes, y e s . . 157 Interview #2A T: . . that they are a l l up and down, and they are not very good, some of them for s ing ing , but the ch i ld ren enjoy the story behind them, or the game a c t i v i t y that you might do with them. R: And the sources for those songs, what would that be? T: Mostly my own background, because I was in Gi r l Guides, and I have old song books from that , and I a lso have a r e a l l y good teaching resource book, Music for fun and music for learn ing , that has exce l len t , um, mate r ia l , and I have also used that to get ideas. R: Okay, but you' re using those songs at other times for enjoyment ? T: That 's r i g h t , to supplement the program; i t doesn't go along with my Kodaly. R: Now, how do you f ind your students react to the Kodaly songs? T: They r e a l l y enjoy them, I 've never had one ch i l d say, "Oh, tha t ' s a dumb song" or " I don' t want to play that game". They are a l l r e a l l y , r e a l l y keen. R: " That 's super. T: Yeah, i t i s nice because I, at one point I thought you know, some of these songs are pretty Mickey Mouse, l i k e the one where they have to go around and bop everybody on the head with the l i t t l e "Twinkle, tw ink le , star th ing" and they had to t e l l t he i r wish, and I thought, "Oh, they ' re jus t going to think th is i s dumb" .They just couldn' t wait to have the i r tu rn . They ' l l sing forever so they can have the i r turn to do i t . R: I think part of i t i s in the p resen ta t ion . . i f the teacher introduces th is as something that i s r e a l l y neat, or enjoyable to do. . .Yeah, anything that i s labe l led fun, they think great. L i t t l e do they know what they are doing. Right. They're going to learn something out of t h i s ! Okay, games and a c t i v i t i e s , you mentioned that you used those a l o t . Right , every lesson. R: And, how do you se lect the games? T: Just sort of give and by g o l l y , well I go by that out l ine in terms of what songs should be introduced at what month..although I'm about s ix months behind, eas i l y but I ' l l look at those songs and I ' l l say: "We l l , today, we ' l l t ry th is one and next week we ' l l t ry the other one"..and we ' l l get through a l l the song that way, Interview #2A but I ' l l use the guide at the f r o n t . . . f o r the song names and then I ' l l go through i t to see what games can be played..and I choose them that way..we have some favour i tes that we always p lay. Uhhum, okay, how about for choosing s k i l l s or whatever that you're planning to teach...how do you go about that? I use the front of the .guide the same way. Okay. when i t says, th is i s a preparation for a so and so, then I do i t , then when i t says to present so-and-so, then I do i t . , and so on. Okay, so you're fol lowing f a i r l y s p e c i f i c a l l y the sequence. That is r i gh t . Okay, good, have you seen, teaching the Koda'ly program, for the three years , any changes i n , um, student a b i l i t i e s with music, or enjoyment, or in-tune singing? I t ' s quite an in teres t ing cont rast , because out at School X, I was the only teacher that taught Kodaly, and so when the kids came to me they had nothing, and then coming here where they had some Koda'ly, in grade 1, there was a big d i f fe rence, a r ea l l y big d i f fe rence. Exact ly what? There was more in-tune s ing ing, there was more enjoyment and pa r t i c i pa t i on . In a l l events, you know, almost always, there are ch i ldren who do not want to do i t , but end up jo in ing the others, but don ' t . .but don't seem to enjoy i t to the a b i l i t y o f . . t he extent the others do, but, ah, th is year , that I 've taught here, and the l as t year, both groups have been so keen, jus t because they've had i t in Kindergarten and grade 1. So, not necessar i ly the Kodaly songs, but jus t the fact that they'v par t i c ipa ted . . . .They 've been keen.. they've been r e a l l y keen, and when I ' l l go to do a song l i k e "B lueb i rd " , they say.."Oh I remember when we did that in kindergarten, t ha t ' s a neat game!" and they remember what, the things they did with i t in kindergarten, .and they don' t mind doing i t because they have always enjoyed i t . 1 59 Interview #2A Okay, and ta lk ing about students pa r t i c i pa t i ng , for example, students who are quite shy or lack se l f -conf idence; have you noticed any changes over the year , with those sort of people? Umm. I think there are small changes in those ch i l d ren , I don' t think that we can say that the Koda'ly program has created great changes in these ch i l d ren , in the i r a b i l i t y to be able to speak out more e a s i l y , and so on, but c e r t a i n l y , an opportunity, i t gives them an opportunity to par t i c ipa te in an acceptable way, and they can sort o f , they can par t i c ipa te and at the same time be part of a group, as opposed to being an indiv idual set out, which I never do with those type of ch i l d ren . So, i t ' s jus t pa r t i c ipa t ing as the i r turn comes up. . . r i g h t , not being singled out . . I very rare~\y have my ch i ld ren so lo , for any reason...because I jus t f ind that ch i ldren don't want to do i t . . I ' d say to two or three of them; "F ine , i f you want to do i t together, t ha t ' s great " . But when they don' t want to do i t by them-se lves ; "F ine , don ' t . " Okay, um, co-ordinat ion problems, do any of your students have d i f f i c u l t y clapping the rhythms, or? Yes , . . yes I 've noticed that. .um..probably less th is year than other years because they've had the other two years of i t , but I s t i l l do notice that some chi ldren have d i f f i c u l t y , very ra re ly with beat, but of ten with rhythm. Okay, so, and jus t working with..how do you..how do you work with that? We l l , we jus t do a l o t . I think we jus t bas i ca l l y pract ice i t in many, many d i f fe ren t ways...we get down on our knees and we pound i t on the f loo r , . .we get down and we pound i t on the chalkboard, we pat i t on desks, and we use f ingers and we use ears we just do i t a m i l l i o n d i f fe rent ways, t ry ing to get i t and i f usual ly i f we've worked with one song for the whole week, by the end of the week they've got that rhythm down pat . .but the next week when you introduce something a l i t t l e d i f f e ren t , they have some d i f f i c u l t i e s , at some point . Uhhum, and ce r ta in l y tha t ' s one of the aspects of the Kodaly program that they've t r i ed these s k i l l s out, in a l l sorts of d i f fe rent se t t i ngs , as i t were, so that i f one ch i l d doesn't pick i t up one way, the p o s s i b i l i t y of p i c k i n g . . ..another way . . yeah . . Um, students new to the program, f i r s t of a l l , students coming from outside the d i s t r i c t , where they have no Koda'ly background, have you any s tudents . .? One or two, l i k e tha t . . yeah . And how do you involve those students? Interview #2A Wel l , b a s i c a l l y , we , I j us t l e t them j o i n in with us , as they feel ready t o , and most of them catch on very quickly to the elements that we're ta l k ing about, and at the grade two leve l we haven't introduced a l l that many s k i l l s that they can ' t pick up on.. they may not know the names as beat and rhythm and ' ta ' and ' t i t i ' , but they've had those elements, in terms of maybe c a l l i n g them other names, l i k e with some other music programs, and I j us t , I can ' t even t e l l you because I've never worked with them..But they understand what a s ing le note, versus a double note, (claps the rhythms) but they give i t a d i f fe ren t name, and i t doesn't take them very long. The ch i ldren do a t rans fe r r ing . . .um, how about students coming in from other schools in the d i s t r i c t , have you had any students? Yes, I have had some..and most of them are ahead of u s ! . . s o they know more than my kids do. So. they are " rev iewing" . Yes, they are reviewing. or ass i s t i ng . , 0 r whatever..but they have had the background then? Yes. at leas t some of them? at leas t some of them..yeah.. I have one from Winnipeg th is year, and of course she has no idea of what i s happening..but she i s gett ing the hang of i t . Good..and um, m u s i c , time for teaching music, perweek, i s i t a scheduled c l a s s , o r . . . . ? Bas i ca l l y I schedule two-twenty minute blocks per week, tha t ' s a l l my schedule al lows for me, for music, and i t ' s not what I should be doing with Kodaly, and tha t ' s why I'm so far behind.. .because, I th ink , they want i t four times a week, in a twenty or a t h i r t y minute block, I don' t do i t that o f ten . Now, why? Because I'm a part-t ime teacher, I have a teaching partner who i s in for the other t imes, and I am responsible for teaching m u s i c . o my days, and I j us t don' t have time to do i t on those other days. Okay, um, and you keep more or less to the same time schedule, or does t h a t . . ? Y e s , . . . I keep to the . . .be ing a part-t ime teacher, i t ' s r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t to be f l e x i b l e , in t ime- tab l ing , you pretty well have to s t a y . . 161 Interview #2A I 've been in the same s i t u a t i o n , and you . . When i t ' s time for music, you drop math and you do music, because otherwise you haven't met your commitment for that time . Do you use any of the Koda'ly a c t i v i t i e s at any other time during the day? Not usua l l y , no. Um..okay, ah, what would be, what would you say would be your object ive for teaching music for th is y e a r . . . o r object ives? Oh..dear..my object ives for teaching music th is year well . .my f i r s t would be a f f e c t i v e . . i n the sense that I want the kids to s ta r t to enjoy music. My other object ives would be s k i l l re la ted , in terms of recognizing melodic elements, and the s tar t of in-tune s ing ing, a b i l i t y to c lap and sing os t inatoes, e t c , e t c , l i k e that . .um..That 's about i t , I guess.. I do.. I r e a l l y l i k e teaching music, because the kids have a l o t of fun with i t , and I'm a f ra id that my a f fec t i ve end of i t , as far as I'm concerned i s much, much more important than anything e l s e . I'm rea l l y not t o o . . . So the enjoyment i s f i r s t , and underl ies everything. That 's r i gh t , and the s k i l l s come second. Uhhum. . . . i f they are introduced to the s k i l l s over several years, because the Koda'ly program i s meant to go that way, they, by the end of the i r three years in the primary end, t h e y ' l l know a l l those rhythmic elements. i f the program i s mainta ined. .yeah. . . okay, and, um..what about in comparison to other c l asses . . sub jec t s , that you are teaching, for example, math. How does your preparation time compare? Preparation t ime. . .we l l I use, I have been using the same set of lesson plans for about three years with Koda'ly, my prep time with Kodaly i s much less than i t i s with other subjects, l i k e . . I can just pul l out a lesson plan and say, "That 's the one for today," and then i t ' s simply a matter of co l l ec t i ng mater ia ls , and have them ready on my desk. That 's one, another thing I l i k e about i t i s , I'm fam i l i a r with the program, I know my lessons..where they are taking me..and I don't have to spend a l o t of time preparing. But i t took, how long . .? We l l , i t took at leas t three years to get up to that l e v e l , l i k e I'd make lesson plans as I went along the f i r s t year I taught. The second year I taught, I rewrote every lesson p lan, I never used another one again. By my th i rd year I'd ref ined them..a l i t t l e b i t more..added 162 Interview #2A T: some d i f fe rent things to them, and then of course l a s t year I d idn ' t teach i t at a l l , because music wasn't my part of the teaching arrangement, and then th i s year . . I 'm pu l l i ng out o ld lesson plans. I guess I'm having to spend a b i t of t ime, because I haven't done i t fo r a year , I'm having to review i t . . . s i n g i t over. R: When you f i r s t started teaching, how much time were you spending in preparat ion, approximately? T: I probably was spending between f i f t een and t h i r t y minutes for each lesson, preparing . R: Uhhum, which i s quite a b i t of t ime. T: . .Tha t ' s r i g h t , i t i s quite a b i t of t ime, but i t was also very new to me, and not knowing a l o t about music, and every time I kept going to a workshop, you know, I was learning something new as opposed t o , you know, not jus t the ch i ldren learn ing , I was learn ing . R: Yes. T: as we went a long. R: Yeah.. taking jus t a quick look at evaluat ion or assess ing, student t es t i ng , do you do that? T: No, I don't do any t es t i ng . R: On report cards, or report card comments, do you comment on music? T: I do comment on the odd report card, now, I haven't a l o t since I went part-t ime . R: Why? T: Because we haven't a l o t , I teach the language arts segment and the math segment, which tends to be what parents want to hear about, and so when I f i n i s h wr i t ing a l l that par t , my partner wants to have some space to add anything too. .so I don't comment too often on music. I usua l ly comment on ch i ld ren who r e a l l y enjoy i t , who are r e a l l y involved, who are always ask ing, you know, "Music 's next,can I do t h i s ? " o r , "Can we do that?" . .um. .and chi ldren who that?" . .um. . and ch i ldren who have, or seem to have, a natural a b i l i t y , that are catching on r e a l l y qu ick ly , and, ah, doing r e a l l y except ional ly well with the s k i l l s . Okay, super, you mentioned that you do not do any test ing in the classroom. Why? 163 Interview #2A Oh b a s i c a l l y , because I think kids do not need to be tested. . they get tested a l l day long, a l l the time in Language Arts and Math, and I'm a f ra id tha t ' s the core of my program..that I shouldn t apologi ze f o r . . . No. That 's . . I think tha t ' s r e a l l y , r e a l l y important, and they know that there are cer ta in c r i t e r i a that they have to meet, in those other b locks, and I think in music time that we can l e t each ind iv idual excel in the i r own way and we do not have to make i t a tes t ing s i t u a t i o n . We can make i t j us t an enjoyable one. Have you had any parent comments, quest ions, or asking for information about the program? No. Never? Never. Okay, the l a s t quest ion, i f you were could you look back over teaching Kodaly, over the l a s t year , for example, and describe one lesson, that you f e l t was r e a l l y good. . . that r e a l l y worked? Humm They a l l go reasonably w e l l . I can ' t think of one that i s r e a l l y outstanding . . l e t me think a b i t , maybe I can come up with o n e . . . I t ' s um, i t ' s r e a l l y nice to hear tha t , that react ion to that question that most, or a l l of them are working. Yeah,. . they a l l work, are bas i ca l l y working r e a l l y w e l l , I have a very keen bunch th i s year, and so they get involved in every lesson, that we are involved in..hmm. I guess, I guess, maybe the one where I introduced ' t o o ' , i t went r e a l l y , r e a l l y w e l l , I was pleased that they caught on to i t so qu ick ly . And why, why did you feel that , that was..what elements of the lesson made i t so successful? Real ly well organized. I think I spent at leas t a ha l f an hour before f igur ing out exact ly what I was going to do with i t . I wasn't going to l e t i t f a l l to chance that we would...and so I went over the songs, and wrote them out, and, uh, checked my own rhythmic symbols on each l i n e , and made sure that that they were exact ly the way I wanted them, and thought about at what point I would introduce the new element, and I r e a l l y thought about i t a l o t . I think tha t ' s probably why i t went r e a l l y w e l l . 164 Interview #2A R: Okay. T: ..and a l l the equipment was ready to go..none of th is uh, "Casey, can you go f ind i t on the back s h e l f ? " , i t was a l l s i t t i n g there ready to go. R: Uhhum, super..um, those are my questions about how you use the program, ..Do you have any other comments that you'd l i k e to make? T: I don' t think so. R: Okay, thank you. . T: Wel1, thank you. 165 Interview 2: #2A, Thursday, May 6, 3:30 P.M. F i r s t of a l l , how was the dec is ion made for you to teach Koda'ly? We l l , for me i t wasn't r e a l l y a dec is ion that could be made because i t was the only t ra in ing that I had, so tha t ' s what I was going to teach. Whether or not the program was in the school that I had been assigned t o , wasn't a concern at that point . I t wasn't un t i l I went to the d i s t r i c t , ah, Or ientat ion Day, that I even rea l i zed that they did Koda'ly in th is d i s t r i c t , and tha t ' s when I met the Program Developer, and she was quite t h r i l l e d that I had even taken i t at un i ve rs i t y . And I think you are one of the few people that does have some t ra i n i ng . What were your i n i t i a l react ions when you went to those f i r s t sessions? Oh, I thought they were exce l len t , abso lu te ly , you know. Uhhum good, in what ways?..you know, s p e c i f i c a l l y ? We l l , they would go through and they'd say ,"Here are a set of lessons, to get through September, or September or October". And they go through each lesson, and how i t was presented, and so on and so f o r t h . Now I sat in the grade 1 meeting, because I was teaching a grade 2 c lass but they hadn't had Kodaly, so I was going to be doing i t . I t was r e a l l y simple, and i t was easy to understand and f igure out and do with the kids afterwards. Yuh..and so you started with the program and worked through i t . That 's r i g h t . ..which i s super. I think tha t ' s the way to do i t , i f i t could be arranged. Yes. I think so, I don' t think you'd understand the grade 2 and 3 program i f you hadn't gone through the grade 1 s tu f f . Yuh, I j u s t , you're fortunate because there are a l o t of teachers that haven't had that opportunity. Um, could you sum up your reactions now, a f te r having worked with i t for what, about four years? Yeah, about four years um, I s t i l l am r e a l l y , r e a l l y happy with i t . I use i t a l o t . The things that I am unhappy with are the time allotments that they expect us to use for i t . I t ' s very u n r e a l i s t i c , espec ia l l y considering the fact that they've jus t increased our P .E. times and so on, and reduced our cu l tu ra l t imes, which means music and so on, have been reduced. So we don' t have the time to do i t three or four times a week, um. The other thing I'm unhappy 166 Interview 2: #2A T: with about, and i t ' s not anyone's fau l t but my own, r e a l l y , i s that I don' t have the grade 2 t r a i n i n g . The years I spent going to Kodaly workshops, I spent going to the year 1 program, and so I'm having to semi-teach myself the year 2 ma te r ia l . Now, being fam i l i a r with the year 1 material and how tha t ' s presented and so on i s a big help, but s t i l l I spend a l o t of time going through the book. Like I s t i l l haven't taught my c lass "ray' or ' t i c k a t i c k a ' and I'm having a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i ngu i sh ing , myself between the small in te rva ls in those notes, and so when I'm experiencing concern with i t , I know i t ' s going to , they are going to experience concern with i t as w e l l . R: And so you're jus t taking i t very s lowly? T: Yea..very s lowly. R: Okay, um, have you not iced, in that t ime, any changes in your expectations of yoursel f as a teacher of music? T: Uhhum... R: . In what ways? T: I think I spend far less time in preparation and planning of music than I d id at the beginning. I think a l o t of that i s not because I'm gett ing more . .we l l , part of i t i s because I am more fam i l i a r with the program, but a l o t of i t i s because when you're f i r s t . . . t h o s e f i r s t few years you teach, you put your " a l l " into everything you do. R: Yes. T: And, a f te r a while you don' t do that . You know, you concentrate on cer ta in areas. R: ..Do you think your teaching a b i l i t i e s in music have changed? T: Probably so . . .no t a l o t . . . I s t i l l am not knowledgeable at a l l . I am knowledgeable as far as my kids are with the program. But tha t ' s about as far as I could say I am. 'Cause I had no music t ra in ing at a l l . R: S o . . i t w i l l be with working through the program a couple of t imes. T: That 's r i g h t . R: Varying i t each t ime, or adding each t ime. T: Yeah. . R: Now, as you say, you d idn ' t have. . .o r have very l i t t l e music back-ground. How did that act on your learning the teaching of th is program? 167 Interview 2: #2A I think i t meant I had to spend a l o t more time than other people d id . Where other people already understood how you div ided things into bars and measures and what those symbols, the two bar l i nes with the dots meant , I had to teach that to myself, on top of a l l the other concepts; learning the games, learning the words. And so I think I had to work harder at i t than someone who had a music back-ground. But I . . .on the other hand, I a lso think that th is i s a program that can be done for someone that , ah, that doesn't have any music background. That at leas t you can l ea rn . Whereas i f some-body had stuck me into a conservatory program, my gosh, you know, I would have been jus t fumbling from the s t a r t , and neve r . . . I ' d quit a f ter two t r i e s , because you couldn ' t get anywhere with i t . At least with t h i s , i f you pers is t with i t , you can at leas t understand what they ' re t ry ing to get a t . And as you say, the teacher learns along with the c l a s s . That 's r i gh t . . .w i th the students, and s o . . a h , and i f they ' re capable of learning i t , eventua l l y . . Yeah..the teacher ought to be able to learn i t i f the kids can. Yuh.. There's no reason not to l ea rn . I t ' s jus t i f you don't want to commit yoursel f to l ea rn , I th ink . Uhhuh, there 's a l o t to that one. Um..the program i s d i s t r i c t author ized. What does that mean to you? D i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d . . . i t means that we can, i f we wish, use Koda ly . . . but we do not have to . Okay, i t ' s interpreted in grand and glor ious forms a l l over. I t ' s most i n te res t i ng . Now, why do you think the Kodaly program was chosen for th is d i s t r i c t ? I think probably because i t was a new program that had been recent ly introduced. That i t had shown a great many...a great deal of success in Hungary and places in the U .S . , where i t had been implemented and used, and so based on those successes they t r i ed i t and because they ended up having some teachers that had gone back East , I th ink , to do the t r a i n i ng , and so they had expert ise in the d i s t r i c t . So better to go with something that someone has expert ise i n , than something that someone doesn ' t . What are your react ions to having a spec i f ied music program, that i t be Koda'ly music, not Orf f music, or anything e l s e . I think tha t ' s not good, I don' t think tha t ' s quite r i gh t . Now, why? 168 Interview 2 : #2A I t ' s jus t l i k e in the language ar ts program, that we have authorized material and we have prescribed mate r ia l . That i f you take a l l the choice away from i t , then there 's bound to be bad fee l ings somewhere along the l i n e . That some teacher 's going to say . . " I don' t care wha they say, I'm going to do i t " . And you know those kinds of fee l ings can be avoided i f you at leas t give at leas t two choices, you can do t h i s . . o r t h i s . . . Do you feel you have lee-way, or l a t i t ude , in what you teach along with the Kodaly program? I think so . Okay. I don' t think anyone i s say ing , "You have to use only Kodaly", or something l i k e that . Again, i t ' s i n te res t i ng . Some people haven't got that message, and i t ' s not what was intended, I th ink . No. But i t a f fects the i r program and the i r react ions. But you see, i f you're going to the workshops and they ' re deal ing exc lus ive ly with Kodaly, i f you don ' t , i f there 's n o . . . i f someone doesn't say d i r e c t l y to you, "Well of course, you would supplement i t with your own ma te r ia l . " What they ' re concentrating on i s the Kodaly program, and so I can see how that fee l ing would be conveyed. But I don't think i t was ever stated that you jus t had to use that mate r ia l . No, I don' t think i t was. I t ' s jus t one of those th ings. That 's what people assume, yeah. Now, and the l a s t one, i t ' s been in the d i s t r i c t for s ix years, and there 's a commitment to maintain i t for at leas t another three years. What are your react ions to that? Oh, I think i t should s tay. I t ' s been establ ished now. I think i t should stay for a good long t ime, give i t a chance to work, and when we can see some resu l ts coming out at the other end. I f we only use i t f o r , say another year, we ' l l never know because those kids that star ted with i t in grade 1 won't have the opportunity to l e t us know un t i l they get to say band, or whatever, that they have some musical a b i l i t y based on the fact that they went through th i s program. You've got to give i t a f a i r shake. Do you feel any pressure to teach Koda'ly, jus t because you have students coming into your classroom, that have Kodaly background? 169 Interview 2: #2A No, I don' t think so. I f e l t pressure to teach Koda'ly when I came to t h i s school , because tha t ' s what the pr inc ipa l wanted when we were h i red . He says . . . "Koda ly i s the program we teach in our schoo l " . "We are on the l i s t of schools that w i l l be aided th i s year , i n terms of implementing Kodaly". And of course that wasn't a scary thing for me because I had already done some Kodaly, but I know for other teachers at th is school , i t was a scary th ing , because they had done none. They f e l t that i t would be too d i f f i c u l t for them to do. Um, looking a t , okay, f i r s t , spec i f i c sequence of s k i l l s for the program..do you vary that sequence that i s suggested in the program? Yes, I slow i t down..I spend fa r more time working on the game angle . , and the having fun angle than I worry about the s k i l l angle. For instance, my group, we are only up to ' lah* and ' t o o ' . We've done two/four t ime, but jus t sort o f , as a side l i n e , we haven't gotten to ' r a y ' . Well we've gotten a l i t t l e b i t to 'doh ' . . .and not having done ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . I ' l l be lucky i f I get two-thirds of the way through the program, because I slow i t down so much, I don' t worry too much about the s k i l l s . I ' l l introduce one s k i l l , say every couple of months, and then we ' l l work on that through a l l the games and a c t i v i t i e s , but I don' t do a l o t of f lashcard d r i l l s or wr i t ing things in the i r desks with the music. I'd sooner spend the time singing and playing around with the games. Okay, teaching grade 2 ; are there any of those s k i l l s that you f ind more d i f f i c u l t to present? Uhhum, ' t i c k - t i c k a ! ' What i s i t . . t h e . . ? I don' t know how to do i t ! I don' t know how to present i t ! I t ' s a rhythmic element. I t ' s a . . the ' t a - ta ' i s with the ' t o o ' , and the ' t i c k a t i c k a ' (claps) i s c loser together than that and I jus t have a heck of a time t o . . . I mean I can barely clap i t l e t alone explain to the k i ds . Or lead them to hearing tha t . That 's r i g h t . You have to hear i t . I mean the fact that i t ' s four., .(teacher claps) so close together., .you have to be able to , you have to be able to ass imi la te those four together and rea l i ze i t ' s four separate i n d i v i d u a l . . .1 have a heck of a t ime. Have you talked to anybody about how to work, teaching that? No, I haven' t . But, I should because I'm sure i t can ' t be any more d i f f i c u l t than any of the other ones, i t ' s j us t that I'm l e t t i n g something hold me back here! 170 Interv i ew 2: #2A I know, I appreciate that ! Um, and, and do, i f you've got problems teaching the program, do you ta l k to anybody in the school? Yeah I usual ly ta lk to L. across the way, she teaches the grade 2 's for G. and the grade I 's and she's been doing i t for a couple of years What kinds of concerns do you discuss? Mostly I ta lk about the fact that we're not going too f as t . . . and she sort of says, "We l l , you know, i t ' s not that important." We l l , I'm looking more for reassurance than anything e l s e , r e a l l y . And the intent i s to do what you can do? That 's r i gh t . To do as much as I can, and I am a f ra id that when i t gets to the end of the grade 2 program, I'm going to be r e a l l y un-comfortable, because I'm not as fam i l i a r with i t as I should be, and I think tha t ' s the reason, I avoid i t more than the fact that I can ' t do i t . I t ' s j us t that I'm not as happy with myself doing i t . I feel a l i t t l e on edge, a l i t t l e uneasy, sort of when you're student teaching, you know? Yes. You're not quite sure i t , i t ' s going to work, or not? What i s the next step going to be. I t ' s , the teachers who have worked with the program for s i x years , teaching i t for s ix years, now are beginning to say, "I feel comfortable with the program, I'm beginning to experiment a b i t with i t , " but i t ' s taken s ix years. That 's r i gh t . I don' t experiment with i t at a l l . When i t says, "Present ' l a h ' such and such a way," t ha t ' s exact ly the way I do i t , I do i t with the same song. I do i t in the same order. I 've got my book open r igh t in front of me, so I don' t miss out anything along the way. You know, do i t exact ly the way the program describes Okay, have f a i t h , i t takes t ime! Um, does your, how does your administrator react to or support the program? We l l , he i s i ns i s ten t that i t be u s e d , i n the school , as far as ins is tence can go. L ike he says, "Kodaly i s the program for our primary." As far as coming into my c lass to make sure I'm doing i t , no he doesn't do tha t . He knows I'm doing i t , cause I t e l l him I'm doing i t but he doesn't come down to check i t . How does he support the program, or your teaching of the program? 171 Interview 2: #2A Um, well he ' s got a l l the suppl ies that are required to be able to do i t , l i k e the f e l t boards and the b e l l s , melody b e l l s , and the rhythm instruments and the rhythm records, the Bowmar ser ies that we need to go with i t , or that can supplement i t , and anything we've asked for we've got to aid the program. So, he's supportive in terms of providing the mater ia ls that are needed. He's also supportive in the sense that h e ' l l al low people who aren ' t comfortable with i t to do some switching around so that the kids get i t . He doesn't care , r e a l l y , whether you teach i t , as long as the kids get i t , because t ha t ' s supposedly the program we're us ing. Yes, and that i s the in ten t , that the school adopt the program, and how i t ' s taught i s up to that s t a f f . Right . Um, when you were attending workshops, were you given release time? Yes. How did you f ind out about workshops? Ah, I got l e t t e r s from (Program Developer) a l l the t ime, because, I guess because when I f i r s t started in the d i s t r i c t , and I was at that Or ientat ion Day, and I had spent some time ta lk ing with her about being on the Koda'ly program, and so on, I used to get the l e t t e r s jus t sent to me at the school . Um, the other teachers found out about them when I to ld them about i t , or when the Mus ic . . . I think I found out about a couple of them because of the Music Co-ord inator , I may have gotten a not ice , to know about possible i n -se rv i ces , and posting them. So, word of mouth plus that d i rec t contact. Yeah, the d i rec t contact , yes . Because, tha t ' s another concern, how do people f ind out about things? Yea, r i gh t . Um, have you used students, parents or anyone else in teaching the Kodaly program in your classroom? > Oh, no I've never used students or parents. I always do i t myself. Were there s ta f f in - s e r v i c e s at t h i s school? Yes, there were. Did you attend them? 172 Interview 2: #2A No. Last year there were two, I th ink , half-day i n - s e r v i c e s , but, see, I teach par t - t ime. Last year , my teaching partner was W. She taught the music segment because she was trained in music, and had already worked with Kodaly program and she r e a l l y wanted to do i t . While I could do i t , I chose not t o . I s a i d , "F i ne , i f you want to do i t , t ha t ' s f i ne with me., because you have more background, you' re more comfortable, with i t probably, than I am." So i t wasn't that I wasn't prepared to teach i t , she chose to do that segment of the program. So I wasn't involved with the i n -se rv i ces , but there were in -serv ices at th i s school . I know that (Music Resource Teacher) was out at the school about s ix d i f fe ren t t ime, observing W.'s c l a s s , and taking our c lass to show her how to do a par t i cu la r s k i l l or present a concept, or whatever. Now, have you used (Music Resource Teacher) at a l l , yoursel f? No. Why? We l l , I think because mostly, I would feel r e a l l y uncomfortable with i t . Because I know how s k i l l e d she i s with i t , and how comparatively unsk i l led I am with i t , and.that she would be shocked to f ind out how far behind my kids were. Yes, I don' t think that would bother her, r e a l l y . No, i t probably wouldn' t , but tha t ' s sort of how I f e e l . I would feel defensive, she's going to come and I probably haven't done i t the way I'm supposed to , you know, that kind of th ing . Next year! Yea, r i gh t ! Ah, videotapes, have you seen any videotapes of c lasses in act ion? No. No , and have you observed any Kodaly c lasses in ac t ion? I guess I have. At un ivers i t y I d i d , because she brought in her c lass of kids that she taught the year previously and showed a couple of techniques that she did with them, at the un ive rs i t y . Was that approach of value to you, or? Wel l , I don't think i t r e a l l y was, in that se t t i ng , because we were a l l student teachers anyway. We had no idea about regular teaching, techniques, you know, l e t along a special technique with music. 173 Interview 2: #2A For most of us i t was ce r ta in l y in te res t ing to watch, but I don' t know i f we gained a great deal out of i t . You d idn ' t know what to observe? No, I don't think we d i d , I don ' t , you know, when I think back now, do I remember anything she did? No, I don' t r e a l l y remember anything she showed us , so obviously I wasn't looking at the r igh t th ings. Would you f i n d . . . t h i n k that would be of value for you, now? I th ink , yes , i t probably would be, to watch another teacher...Someone l i k e (Music Resource Teacher) or (Program Developer) or someone who's been working with the program for s ix years and fee l pret ty comfortable with i t , that wouldn't be bothered by someone s i t t i n g and watching. Yea, i t i s a g o o d . . . i t ' s a good way to see the sense of what can be done, or what i s being done. Right . As a matter of fact t ha t ' s a r e a l l y good idea. I should approach the pr inc ipa l about tha t , about going to see someone. Uhhum, I'm sure he'd support that too. Yes, he does, and tha t ' s r e a l l y . . . h e ' s musical h imself , and he l i k e s to see the music program going places in th i s school . But I think being aware of how d i f f i c u l t i t i s , to get teachers to master . . . That 's r i g h t . . . . a l l those s k i l l s . Okay, taking a quick look at d i s t r i c t provided resources. The music resource book, could you sort of b r i e f l y out-l i n e what parts of that you f ind use fu l , or you use? I use a l l of the material at the back, where i t shows how to present, pract ice or jus t re in force a s k i l l . Ah, I use the index pages, where a l l the songs are indexed so I can check back and see what games go with i t , or what the words are i f I don' t know that song. And I use the front segment-the f i r s t l i s t , you know, where they show what date you should be on a cer ta in song, and I use that as a guide-l i n e to go through. So, you' re making use of a good p a r t . . . Pret ty well every part of the program. I don't use a l o t of the work-sheets. I have used them once or tw ice, but I don't use much of that kind of th ing . 174 Interview 2: #2A Okay. Oh, and I a lso use a l l t he i r f lashcards , and everything that was provided with the book. . . I use those. Any d i f f i c u l t i e s accessing any information in that resource book? No. No. Um, any recommendations for changing i t ? Are there any things that you could see being added? or deleted? That would make i t more val uabl e? Umm, no, I c a n ' t . I r e a l l y can ' t think of any. L ike what I 've taken i t and rewr i t ten i t into lesson p lans, and jus t whenever I'm going to use i t verbatim out of the book, I jus t say, "See Kodaly Manual." But I f ind i t more useful to have them wr i t ten up in that format, than hunting through t h i s . But I think tha t ' s something every teacher has to do,hunt through the book to f igure out where they are going to go, otherwise t h e y ' l l never be fami l i a r with the book anyway...and the mate r ia l . I f they are given a whole set of lesson p lans, they are never going to get as fami l i a r with as they would from f l i pp i ng around and f igur ing out what parts go together. Everything i s there that you need, you jus t have to thumb through to f ind i t . : The in -se rv i ce sessions at the L . R . C , what parts of those were valuable? What aspect? I think probably the parts where we ac tua l l y did the rhythms o r , i f we were working on beat at that pa r t i cu la r t ime, we ac tua l l y got involved in a c t i v i t i e s , moving around and so on and so fo r th . And played the games, we knew how they went besides jus t reading the wr i t ten part there, because sometimes i t doesn't make very much sense. When you' re jus t reading the words on how the game i s played, So we played the games, we clapped the rhythms, we tapped the rhythms, you know, we pract iced with the f lashcards , and used the modulators and so on. So we were par t i c ipa t ing in i t so we would remember how those techniques were appl ied to teaching, and I think tha t ' s the part I enjoyed the most. R: Okay, and ah, any recommendations for those workshops to improve them? T: To slow down. R: Okay T: Yea.. they would go through about two or three or four months worth of lessons in one and a ha l f hours, and my gosh, you're jus t f l i pp i ng papers l e f t , r i gh t and center , and by the time you got out of there, your mind was spinning because you couldn ' t remember whether that part came with th i s lesson , or with another one, and your notes were a l l in a j a r b l e , and you can ' t r e a l l y t e l l what's up or down. 175 Interview 2: #2A Okay, so jus t take one or two lessons, and r e a l l y concentrate on them or more i n - s e r v i c e , or less at each time? I think s o . . . o r give a broader overview as opposed to wanting s ix tee ind iv idual lessons in a row, and saying, "Okay, now we're onto lesso 4. Now we're onto lesson 5 " , and f l i pp ing through papers. You know, you s ta r t to get l o s t . You don' t even know where you're a t . Sort of past the saturat ion point ! That 's r i g h t . Um, and the i n -c lass resource teacher, you said that you hadn' requested her. No. And that you wouldn't feel comfortable with that , at th is t ime. Is that f a i r ? That 's f a i r . Okay, have you involved any other d i s t r i c t personnel in concerns with the program? No, not that I can think o f . Okay, then jus t two general quest ions. Ah, the program was developed^ l o c a l l y , i t ' s being changed and modif ied. Are there any recommendations that you could make, or would make, to help the classroom teacher teach that program, in the fu ture , as i t ' s continued to be imple-mented? (pause) I think that t he . . . I think that the best way to learn i t , w e l l , would be to go to i n - se r v i ces , 'cause I don't think that you can get i t by jus t reading the manual. And I think tha t ' s what scares o f f a l o t of teachers who haven't been to the i n - se r v i ces , who think the program i s some horrendous thing because a l l they do i s look at the book. There are a l l these foreign looking symbols, and, these funny names, l i k e ' t a ' and ' t i t i ' and, "What in the world does that mean?" and, I th ink , by going to the in -serv ices you soon f igure out that i t ' s not as t e r r i b l e as you thought i t was to begin w i th . So, an absolute necessi ty i s that those in -serv ices be continued? I think so, yes . And that support be given? Yes, I think so, yes . 176 Interview 2: #2A Now, other d i s t r i c t s , Prince George for example i s adopting somewhat o f a s im i l a r program. Are there any recommendations that you would make when th is kind of a program i s implemented? (pause) What would you see as being essent ia l? We l l , I think that they would have to go through, ah, a ser ies of i n - s e r v i c e s , in the f i r s t year, without making a recommendation that teachers be required to implement i t , at leas t that f i r s t year so that they have a chance to go to in -serv ices and not feel pressured, running back to the room and t ry ing to teach i t madly and then go back for another i n - s e r v i c e , before they could teach more, and have a manual l i k e we do. But I think tha t ' s the only reason I got turned on to i t , and stuck with i t , i s because I went to the i n - se rv i ces . And you're a lso saying a gradual, a very gradual introduct ion? I think so, yes, lcause I hear what other people say about the Kodaly program in t h i s d i s t r i c t . "My God, I have to teach i t ! " and they are scared to death. And, tha t ' s not f a i r , you know. Teachers are stabbed with curriculum changes, every subject l e v e l , at every l e v e l . Over seven years we can have f i ve curriculum changes. I t ' s not f a i r to expect teachers to be able to keep up with a l l those th ings, and then on top of i t , throw in a new program and say, "We l l , here i t i s . You've got to s ta r t teaching i t tomorrow!" That 's not f a i r . I think they should do the kind of implementation they took with the Language Pat terns, and the Ginn 720. That was a process over four years. I think now, we're s t i l l in the midst of that process. There's one more year before schools have to s ta r t using those-two programs, as opposed to the i r o ld se r i es , so i t gives people l o t s of chance for adjustment. There's been lo ts of in -serv ices of fered a f te r school , during school days, and release time o f f , for every school so they could go to a Ginn 720 workshop, a Language Patterns workshop and so on. That was a very gradual implementation. I think i t worked r e a l l y w e l l . Lots of support again. That 's r i g h t . Yuh. . You know, a l o t of release t ime, a l o t of people coming into the schools, a l o t of sending out memos that have b i ts and pieces of things that you can use the program to help you get s ta r ted , and so on. That kind of thing i s what you need, when you're s tar t ing a new program. Okay, thanks. The very l a s t question I'd l i k e to ask you i s ; i f you were going to describe th i s program, what i s Kodaly? 177 Interview 2: #2A I th ink , Kodaly i s a program designed to get ch i ldren aware of music, the funct ion of music that music plays in the i r l i v e s . That i s has, um, elements that they should know about l i k e beat and rhythm and p i tch and speed and so on. That i t can be useful in the i r own l i v e s , that they can play with i t , that they can have fun with i t , that they can learn something from i t , that i t can have cu l tu ra l impl icat ions in the sense that you can learn there are songs from such and such a country that , um, describe the t rad i t ions and so on and so fo r th . Okay, thank you very much. Thank you. 178 (*Only one of a tota l of fourteen interview t ransc r ip t s . ) Interview #6.P Thursday, Apr i l 29, 2:40 P.N. Okay, for the f i r s t question I'd l i k e to ask you, what does "teaching music" mean for you? Um.. at th is level I think i t ' s enjoyment that adds to every moment of the day, not just in music per iod. I use i t constant ly to assemble ch i l d ren , or to put over an idea in Language A r t s , a song, or whatever. I t ' s jus t part of every minute of the day. F a n t a s t i c , so part of the i r l i f e , not a separate event. No. Good. What would then, for you, const i tu te a good music program? Uh, I think a l o t of songs that appeal to the c h i l d r e n . , they f ind easy to s i n g , re la te to , some of these chanting type songs, they r e a l l y seem to enjoy. They l i k e playing games to the songs, except they have to learn the song well f i r s t . I f ind the games overshadows the singing unless they learn the song well enough..um. I think the technical part of the program that we're using now, with the worksheet end of i t , boards notes, that part of i t , that i s good, but not to the l a t t e r part of the primary. I f e e l , I think that at times i t i s overwhelming for the young ch i l d ren . And so, set t ing a basis of enjoyment, and music i s e s s e n t i a l , or a part of l i f e . That 's r i gh t . Is the basic and underl ies the s k i l l par t . R igh t . , r i g h t . . That 's how I feel for the ear ly part of primary, yes. Good. Okay, now you've been teaching Koda'ly for about s ix years and teaching for about twelve years , what type of music program were you using before you began to use the Kodaly? Um, bas i ca l l y jus t the This i s Music, and various music books, Sa l l y  go Round the Sun as a source, um, jus t l i t t l e j i ng les that I've picked up over the years through Prime Areas, or shared with other teachers, um, done a l i t t l e b i t of operetta work, not too much, we have had.. I have been involved in a couple of primary operettas. I found that they were very enjoyable, but i t got to the point that , uh, i t r e a l l y l im i ted what you did in music, at the time you were doing the performance s o . . 179 Interview #6 P Okay, then, ah, how would the Kodaly program compare with what you were doing previously? I think i t ' s helped me organize my music a l o t more. Um.. I 've pa r t i cu l a r l y found, th is year , I 've started the "Math the i r Way" program, and a key thing in the i r program i s developing patterns, recognizing pat terns, and i t ' s gone together beau t i fu l l y with ' t a t i t i ta ' and the res t . And we've done rhythm clapping the Math program, and i t jus t a l l flows into one another, and they've been saying, "Oh, look there 's a pattern here and a pattern there, " and they don' t know whether i t ' s music or math that they ' re doing now. Musical math . .o r . . That 's r i g h t , and as a matter of f ac t , the other day, a l i t t l e g i r l was working in her workbook, and she had c i r c l e d the answers and they had gone. . .middle, up, down, and she said "Oh, th is i s just l i k e music, soh, l a h , soh, me' (sung on tape) , and she was singing through her answers in the book and I thought, "We l l , i t ' s r ea l l y in tegrat ing i t . " . . . But they are looking for the pattern idea, and that i s what happened with i t , so I'm r e a l l y exci ted about that part th is year. Super. , and then to sort of sum up t h i s , what would "teaching Kodaly" mean for you, now? Um.. in one word: "o rgan iza t ion" . Okay, great, now I'd l i k e you to take a look at some elements of music, of your to ta l music program rat ing these as being of importance; zero being not important; two, of average importance; and four , very important. Could you look at each one of these elements and then rate them? Would you l i k e to look at them f i r s t of a l l ? Yeah, w e ' l l j us t have a look. In-tune, I feel i t ' s r e a l l y important. , but tha t ' s one area I've r e a l l y had trouble w i t h . . I'm not strong in vo ice , I do play the piano, and have used that as a c ru tch , you might say, in estab l ish ing p i t ch . .Yes . . .as a means of es tab l ish ing p i t c h , or whatever.. Yes, or melody b e l l . . b u t I found with the Koda'ly program that they stressed that you d idn ' t have to lead the c l a s s , you started them and you l e t the ch i ldren s ing , so I'm learning to do that over the years. So I would ra te , i f I were looking at th i s from the ch i l d ren ' s point of view, that i t i s very important. And strong fee l ing for rhythm, I think tha t ' s very important as w e l l , and we develop that i t needs that developing. L i te racy in terms of wr i t ing or reading, I would put that at an average. . . 180 Interview #6 P Use of rhythm instruments, ah, 2 to 3, I think i t ' s important and I have used i t , but not as much as I should. Ah, ost inato techniques, yes I've done that , I'd say 2; for that though; um, the s t i ck notat ion, you mean the wr i t ing of t he . . Yes. a h . , yes , 3 I'd say . .a t th is time of the year..ahm, reading conventional notat ion, other than jus t the notes, we haven't put the s t i cks to them or anything, but we are at that po in t , sort o f , um, putt ing i t on the s t a f f , at th is point in grade one, yes . . So that would be . .? Ah, 2 to 3, at that point . Thank you very much, that was great. I t i s in teres t ing to compare the d i f fe ren t uses at d i f fe ren t grade l e v e l s , as w e l l , because I've been working with people from kindergarten to grade 3 . . um.. Var ies . . .Um, looking at some of the spec i f i c elements of the teaching mater ia ls ; f i r s t of a l l the songs, do you see values of the songs in the Kodaly program, as teaching mater ia l? Um.. there 's that con t inu i t y . . t ha t I f i n d , you know i t ' s very sequent ia l ly developed, s ta r t i ng from point 1 and going through, and I 've worked with i t up to grade 3 and I have worked through. Um, sometimes the r epe t i t i on , of l i k e the ' s o h ' , 'mi' in the beginning appears to be boring and I feel the ch i ldren s t i l l need, ah, time to have nonsense songs, ah, hand play songs..and things t o , and you can work that into the Kodaly as w e l l , but they encourage you to use that as w e l l , t ha t ' s r i g h t . I was going to ask what songs you've added, but you've already answered that . Are there any other songs that you've added to the Kodaly program? Ahm..not many that I can think of o f f hand, other than This i s Music 1, I use a few things out of there, and ah, I can ' t say s p e c i f i c a l l y , you know,.. offhand. Some jus t for enjoyment, not to do with the Koda'ly program, and some that you sort of adapt to use with Kodaly techniques, i s that correct? Ah, yes and clapping rhythm,^that sort of th ing , f i t t i n g i t in with other songs. 181 Interview #6 p Working with the grade one students. At th is l e v e l , at th is level I l i k e to get involved with i t , but i t i s n ' t a p r i o r i t y , I feel the other development, i f they don' t have the rhythm and the p i tch f i r s t you might as well forget the r e s t ; ah, creat ive expression and improvisat ion, I think tha t ' s t e r r i f i c , kids love to improvise, and i t should be a l l part of i t , so I'd rate that h igh; and l i s t e n i n g . . t h a t ' s part of i t too i f they have a model to hear..and emulate, then they need that too. .so I think tha t ' s a very important one as w e l l . Super, and as you were saying, the in-tune singing and the rhythm are sort of the basics of the Kodaly t o . . . to fur ther the others, yes . Now the other card , card two, are elements of the Koda'ly program and I'd l i k e you to rate them in use in your program. Zero being used not at a l l , two of average use, and four being used in a l l or very nearly a l l lessons. Uhhuh.. okay. Would you l i k e to look at them f i r s t of a l l , or? Umm I think I can go. Hand s igns , yes, I use that a l o t ; four , I f ind the ch i ld ren r e a l l y enjoy that , i t helps with the i r fee l ing the p i t ch . Yes, that sense of i n t e r v a l . That 's r i gh t , sol fa p i tch names: They've come along with that very w e l l , and I do use that a l l the t ime. Development of inner hea r ing . . . um.. tha t ' s very important, but I have to say how I use i t , i t should be about a 3, yes 2 to 3, probably. I use a puppet a l o t and we're hiding i t , or whatever, . . sometimes I th ink : "Oh yeah, I better go back and do a l i t t l e b i t more in that a rea " ; echo techniques, yes, with the rhythm clapping and the s ing ing . I f ind the p i tch i s a l i t t l e b i t more d i f f i c u l t to work with then the rhythm par t ; doesn't come quite as na tu ra l l y . Part work. .s inging in parts? Singing in par ts , beginning with rounds, but then into harmonies. Um, I'd have to say one, on that . I should have said at the beginning, the elements are working from kindergarten up to grade 3. Yea, I'd s t i l l say 1. We're only doing a l i t t l e b i t of that . Games and movement a c t i v i t i e s . I would say 4 for that . Rhythm names, 4. 182 Interview #6 P Super, d o . . , are there any d i f f i c u l t i e s with teaching any of the Kodaly songs, that you f ind? Ahm, not at th is l e v e l , I feel f a i r l y comfortable with the grade 1 leve l , I found the grade 3 was a challenge . . . I wasn't up to i t ! But a fan tas t i c basis f o r . . Yeah, as you grow, I 've done Grade 1, Grade 2, but Grade 3 was about my l i m i t , the kids got beyond me., a f ter they grasped i t . Are there any recommendations that you'd make about. . .adding new songs to the program? that you could see would improve i t ? Ah. .gosh, I don't know more fo lk songs, I think and I think they have stressed that at workshops, that , you know, to use those th ings, but you know...I think at the grade 1 leve l that "Michael , Row the Boat Ashore" or other things l i k e that that ch i ldren enjoy that , and then i f they hear older choirs or groups s ing ing , they, ah, have that fee l ing for the music as w e l l , and some of the Walt Disney songs, and th ings , o r , we've had f i lms on Winnie the Pooh, and s tor ies to go along with that as w e l l , not heav i ly , because a l o t of the range, I f i n d , i s jus t too d i f f i c u l t for them to s ing. .but i t shouldn' t mean they should be excluded, I don' t f e e l , at t imes. And so, the addi t ion of songs..but ah, you' re quite r i gh t , that f i ve or s ix note range for ch i l d ren ' s voices at the l e v e l . That 's r i gh t . That l i m i t s the kinds of songs that you can use for teaching. Um, games and a c t i v i t i e s , you indicated that you used them in almost a l l lessons. What...how do you decide what games to use? Ah, well usual ly with the songs that I'm using at that lesson, ah, I use the games as a break, sometimes at other times during the week, not jus t only at the lesson, um, jus t improvise on them as I need them. So you use some of the suggestions in the book, plus va r i a t i ons , or have you changed.. Ahm, mainly from the book, I 've followed along with that . Uhhum, okay, have you . , working with the students for s i x years, have you noticed changes in students' understanding of music, or in-tune singing vo ices , over that t ime, as you've begun to use the Kodaly . program and the students have begun to work with those s k i l l s ? 183 Interview #6 P Have I noticed any improvment? Yes, and I f ind even, as I sa id , in pi tch my weak area, but I f ind that th is time of the year even the i r p i tch i s r e a l l y very good. And you can jus t s ta r t them o f f , and espec ia l l y i f , even three ch i ld ren who are very strong, they carry i t themselves, and that i t ' s quite pleasing that , a l l of a sudden, you not ice that there i s that growth. That you can not ice and the tuning. You can not ice that nice r ing in the a i r , when they ' re s ta r t ing to s i ng . That 's r i g h t . That 's exce l len t , um, what do you f ind the students' react ions are to the songs? to the Kodaly songs? Urn..not as keen as to fun songs or nonsense type s ing ing. And why, do you th ink , why do you see that? You know i t ' s hard to explain..maybe i t ' s because the nonsense songs have a greater range..and sometimes i t tends to be a l i t t l e boring when they not ice that i t ' s always the same three notes that they are working w i th . Ah, they did "Hush, L i t t l e Minn ie" , the other day, though, and they s a i d , "Oh, I 've got a record of that at home and there are other verses to t ha t ! " . That developed an in terest but jus t the ones they are not f am i l i a r w i th , I think at t imes, I think they do at times f ind them a l i t t l e l i m i t i n g . As you've s a i d , you've added other songs, too, as a spark. Or changed the wording, and add the i r names and other colors and you know that sort of th ing , i t sort of helps i t along to change i t . Okay, and, um, have you noticed any changes i n , um, for example students who are perhaps shy and lack in se l f -conf idence, as they've been involved with the games or the songs. Have you noticed that that has helped them? Yes, and I think you know, singing with puppets and things has drawn at tent ion away from them and they've joined in and even the quietest c h i l d , by th i s time of the year w i l l sing along so lo , or whatever.. I ' l l often s ta r t the singing in the morning with the attendance, and th ings , where they sing to the ch i l d next to them. There's not the sel f -consciousness there had been on other programs, you know. I think i t works along throughout the year that they feel qu i t confident s ing ing . Just as a natural part of the game or a c t i v i t y . Uhum, r i g h t , . , i f , we do i t often enough. 184 Interview #6 p Yah, tha t ' s good, any d i f f i c u l t i e s with ch i ld ren who have, um, perhaps co-ordinat ion problems and clapping the rhythms? Yes, I always have some! And how do you deal with them? Um, sometimes they are re luctant to c l ap , they recognize themselves that they have t ha t . . ah , but they t r y and instruments help, rhythm, using a s t i c k , or having a maraca or something, I f ind that t h e y ' l l j o i n in a l o t more read i l y . Sometimes sort of the honor of having that . That 's r i gh t ! . . i s reason f o r . . . Just persevere Okay, music c l asses , do you have scheduled music c lasses per week, o r . . Yes, I do. The times? I ( I V- h. f i n _ „ . Ah, now when do I have i t ? I ' l l have a look, ah, two in the afternoon, and one before lunch. I 've t r i ed to not have them at the end of the day, because I've found i f they are t i r e d ; i t ' s not the program to be doing when they are t i r e d . But with our P .E. programs being every day as w e l l , we had to juggle them around a b i t th i s year. But I have three de f i n i t e c lasses when I fo l low lesson p lans, and a l l in the program. And, ah, you're sort of extending the time by using the a c t i v i t i e s as change a c t i v i t i e s , or a t t e n t i o n . . . Yes, every day we ' l l do a b i t , but i t ' s not a d e f i n i t e , "We l l , we're going to th is today." Is that enough time for you to work through the grade 1 program? A h . . More or l e s s . . More or l e s s . . I do get through i t don' t feel that good about i t . I have a concert and I miss some, I running about ha l f a month behind but not to the best..you know I f ind that I lag behind when we get behind, and I feel l i k e I'm r igh t now. 185 Interview #6p And i t depends on your group, t o o . Like sometimes you have a group tha t ' s jus t super. L ike a few years ago I had a grade three group that were r e a l l y with i t , uhm, and we moved a l o t more qu ick ly than others. And as you say, there 's other ch i ldren that even the clapping part of i t needs twice as much, whatever, and i f you haven't establ ished that , w e l l , you might as well forget i t . That basic understanding of the beat, under ly ing. . Yes. Um, How...what would you say would be your ob jec t i ve , or ob jec t ives , for teaching music th i s year? with your grade 1 c lass? Um..I think an appreciat ion of the music, to have the sense of rhythm, and recognize the p i t c h , fee l the p i t ch . The working with i t in the wr i t ten form, um, i s not as important to me I don't feel in grade 1 I th ink sometimes we push too much, and tha t ' s when they feel i t i s a chore to do rather than, ahm, fun, but although, i t shouldn' t be just a fun thing e i t he r , where there i s n ' t a purpose involved. That they don' t see what's happening with the i r music. Uh, I feel that the worksheet part of i t can ' t be pushed. Uh, they enjoy recording the rhythm with the ' ta t i t i 1 , on a piece of paper, to clap i t back and wr i te i t down, that part of i t , but I f ind the s ta f f work takes a l o t of work. But, through the game approach, i t works quite w e l l . . . "Who can f ind th is or that?" and "What would you do?" I t ' s that type of a c t i v i t y ; but you s t i l l have the ch i l d who's ha l f , you know, ha l f a year behind. And you t ry to have them a l l worki at once to f ind i t , but the ones who don't have the p i t ch , don't have the rhythm, those are the ones who s i t there, you s t i l l have, l i k e in any, any c lass Reading, Math or whatever. But you're saying that you approach each of the concepts or s k i l l s i n a number of d i f fe ren t ways to t ha t . . Yes, t ry to . .yeah. .but I would feel that the wr i t ten part of i t i s the most d i f f i c u l t , and I was ta l k ing to the Grade 2 teachers and even with work we'd done l a s t year in grade 1 , she fee ls that even in grade 2, at the th i s point , t ha t ' s the most d i f f i c u l t for her. that they can c lap i t , they can say i t , but when i t comes to recording i t . Putt ing i t down. . . . t h a t ' s where i t , yeah. . I t ' s get t ing those parts together. Eventual ly i t w i l l probably come, with enough p rac t i ce , bu t . . . 186 Interview #6p That 's i t . . i s g iv ing the p rac t i ce . .and , sometimes the time just runs out, l i k e hal f an hour jus t i s n ' t long enough to get i t a l l i n , and I th ink, maybe taking the time to set up a centre, where they can go and p rac t i ce , and whatever, i s very va luable. Set t ing out that time to do t ha t . . . I haven't got that together y e t . . . I was experimenting today, I had taken the the so l - f a cards, and on the back, put a s ta f f , with what i t should look l i k e , and they are able to play i t on the b e l l s , put i t on the board, and then mark the i r own, and they thought that was rea l l y neat, and they were even in a lunch today, t ry ing to do tha t , so I thought, at the point where they ' re gett ing f a i r l y sure of i t , and a l i t t l e added p rac t i ce , a l i t t l e something added, rather than the ind iv idual boards, I feel that sometimes tha t ' s a chore, gett ing them a l l out. Uhhum, and keeping i t organized. .and making sure that they put things back. Yuh. Can I jus t stop for a second. . .? Yes. The other questions I'd l i k e to ask. .were, how much preparation time do you f ind you have to spend? Now and compared to when you f i r s t star ted the program? I t ' s a l o t less because the songs, you know them, and you have the fee l ing for them and ah, and I f ind pa r t i cu l a r l y at the grade 1 l e v e l , i t ' s a l o t easier but I have found too that the lesson plans that they have set out in the program are jus t super, and I don't d iver t from them. I'm not experienced in music myself, I 've had a very l im i ted music background, and I f ind i t ' s jus t beau t i fu l l y l a i d out. And then the reinforcement lessons, taking your d i f fe ren t songs, and then jus t changing but with the d i f fe ren t songs using the same format has worked very w e l l . I have to admit that I haven't sat down and wr i t ten out my own lesson plans d a i l y , for I've used what has been provided. I haven't innovated too much. But what you are doing, i s again, the bas ics , that are set there and t h e n . . . Yes. You go o f f on your own on other th ings. Following the gu ide l ines . But the guidel ines are there and I have followed those, yes . Uhhum, okay, working with your grade 1 students do you do any test ing or assessing? Interview #6 P 1 8 7 Ah, through the worksheets, yes , but through observat ion, I have a very small c l a s s , t h i s year , and I f ind that that has helped a n d . . . I t makes i t eas ie r . . . .and jus t had a l i t t l e booklet where I have done clapping o f rhythm patterns, and they wri te them down, and they mark them, and the pitches w e l l , j us t l i t t l e spot checks l i k e that . Now, for wr i t ing report cards, or report ing to parents, what kinds of comments would you make on the report card? We l l , with the new report ca rd , I d i dn ' t put any unless there was an outstanding one way or the other. Um, when parents come to parent in terv iews, we have discussed the comments though, and i f there 's been an outstanding comment I might explain what's happening, or the i r ch i l d has a keen in te res t in music, and should maybe pursue i t , and sort of that way. And, uh, you mentioned that you've talked to the parents. Have parents come to you asking for information about the program o r . . No, they've not. Expectations? No, and perhaps you know, i f I took the time to do a Parents Night, where you could do that . Perhaps next year, with the new math program implementing i t , i t might be a good place to s ta r t with the parents, that way. Okay, the l a s t question I was going to ask you . . . look ing back over your teaching of grade 1 Kodaly th is year, could you describe one lesson , or some lessons, that you f e l t were very success fu l , or that the students r e a l l y responded to? That you f e l t r e a l l y good about? Oh. That 's a tough o n e . . . One.. I t doesn't have to be one. . Um. . . . Or jus t in general , that you feel t h a t . . . I think jus t in general i t ' s gone f a i r l y smoothly., um.. I l i k e the idea of them having the i r own boards, but having someone up at board, the large board, to model what they are doing, and to double-check. "Are they doing the same?...No, tha t ' s not what I 've got!" 188 Interview #6p You know, and you check i t that way, I think t h a t ' s . . . t h e y are a l l invo lved, you don' t have them squirming, wondering, wait ing for my tu rn . I think that i s r e a l l y essent ia l there. Learning for a l l of them, and you can check each one. That 's r i gh t , and i t i s very c e r t a i n . The f lashcard part of i t , um I th ink, the rhythm i s eas ier than the p i t c h , um, as f l ash cards per se , they enjoy i t , though, when you put some up and you sing some and they have to iden t i f y which one you're s ing ing. And they enjoyed the, ah, making a sentence with the rhythm and then the taking one away un t i l I took them a l l away, and they had to r e c a l l . Yes, that memory. ..and even at th is l e v e l , they enjoying doing that game idea again, and uh, "Name that Tune", they l i k e that . So there are a l l kinds of things that you're doing. L i t t l e t r i c k s , yeah, put i n , yes . Uhhum, tha t ' s super. Those are my questions I'd l i k e to ask you. Are there any other comments you'd l i k e to make about how you're using the program? We' l l look at resources, and things l i k e that , in the second interv iew. Oh, f i n e , okay. Um I don't think so, j u s t , um, the part of i t with the wr i t ten part of i t i s , I th ink , the biggest hangup. And I know there are a l o t of grade 1 teachers that feel that i t shouldn't be part of i t , at a l l , at th is l e v e l . But I don't think that tha t ' s t o t a l l y so e i t he r , you have ch i l d ren , jus t l i k e in reading, that are two years ahead, you know, whatever, and they are ready for i t and so they should be exposed to i t . But I don't feel too badly i f they don't a l l get i t , bu t they've been exposed, and they do as much as they can. So when the grade 2 teacher, or the next teacher s tar ts to work on that , some be l l s r ing or whatever. Yes, hopeful ly,you know. Okay, thanks ever so much. Okay, good. 189 Interview 2: #6P, Monday, May 10, 2:40 P.M. Okay, the f i r s t questions I'd l i k e to ask you in the second interv iew, is,how was the decis ion made for you to begin to teach Kodaly? Uh, we were asked i f we would l i k e to do i t . By whom? Ah, the pr inc ipa l suggested there was going to be the p i l o t program, and that we'd maybe be interested in i t . Do you remember what your i n i t i a l react ions to being asked were? Very in te res ted . Didn ' t know anything about i t at a l l , but l i ked to know more about i t . Okay, and what were your react ions when you f i r s t attended the work-shops? Confusion, overwhelming, the hand signs and jus t everything seemed to be so much to deal with at f i r s t . Uhhum... I think probably the general fee l ing of the meeting seemed to be that way too, that the f i r s t thing was, "Oh, how w i l l we ever feel comfortable using i t in the classroom?" Do you remember who...which people were at that f i r s t meeting? Uhhum, i t was headed by (Program Developer) at the beginning. And i t was teachers from th is school . Oh..yes i t was. The teachers that went, have a l l gone, though, the pr-imary end of i t are a l l changed. Can you kind of sum up your react ions now, a f te r having worked with i t for about s ix years? I feel quite comfortable with i t now, but s t i l l need to grow in i t , and s t i l l feel that I need refresher courses in i t , and, to keep in touch, ah, not as often as we did have i t , but I think i t ' s necessary to have a re f resher , even a summer course or whatever. Mainly because I don' t f e e l , ah , you know, r e a l l y s k i l l e d in the music area. I f ind that that can be a d i f f i c u l t y . 190 Interview 2: #6P Yeah, and you would feel refresher courses wi th in the d i s t r i c t would be the answer, n o t . . . ? Yes. Okay, what would you say, planning on teaching Koda'ly for next year , what would you l i k e to accomplish as a teacher? What would you aim for? Um. What areas, you said you would l i k e to grow...what areas would be of concern? I think I have de-emphasized more of the wr i t ten part of i t . More of the every day, working i t in throughout the day, in tegrat ing i t as much as you can, rather than the set c l a s s . Having the set c lass where you ac tua l l y do the lesson plans that are set out for you and you are formally fo l lowing that , but to be aware of using i t every day, and I think i t ' s the da i l y morning opening exercise and f i t t i n g i t i n , and from that the ch i ld ren can see that growth come. You get a l i t t l e lazy or forget or have interrupt ions and th ink , "Oh, I haven't got time to f i t i t i n , " then they do suf fer and you do see a d i f fe rence . Oh, and so making more use o f . . . Making more use of the program with in the day. Being more aware of doing so , I t ry to do that , but not consc ious ly . Um, have you, or what kind of changes have you noticed in your ex-pectat ions of yourse l f , as a teacher of music, during the time that you have been teaching the Kodaly program? Yes, I think i t makes you a l o t more aware of what you are doing, more aware of p i tch and rhythm and jus t the basic s k i l l s , that are expected, that I r e a l l y wasn't aware o f . I 've even noticed that I s ing more in-tune now than I used t o . Yes. You know, I have f e l t that my own voice has become stronger and more on p i t c h , than i t used to be. Uhhum, and what about d iscr iminat ing p i t ch , when the students are singing? Can you hear now, without using the piano, for example, can you hear i f they are s i n g i n g ; . . Yes. ..on the 'soh ' or the ' d o h ' . . Y e s , I guess tha t ' s something we bui ld up. Interview 2: #6P 191 And i t jus t bu i l ds . I d idn ' t have i t before. But I often f ind i f I'm dr iv ing back from Vancouver, singing in the ca r , I th ink . . "Gee , you know, I think I do s i n g . " . . . n o t t e r r i f i c , but I 've noticed a d i f fe rence , that i t did grow, and even in the workshops with other teachers, when we would sing together with (Program Developer), that having other voices around and matching that p i tch was a help, too. And a l o t of them in the beginning, tha t ' s where i t seemed to be f r u s t r a t i n g . You'd sound so good in a group, and you'd come back to c l a s s , and you'd th ink , "That 's not the way the song sounded when we sang i t together!" But i t grows. But i t gradual ly star ted to come. And the mistakes one can make in a group are much more evident when you're work ing . . . Yes. by yourse l f . And the unfortunate thing i s at th is grade level the kids r e a l l y mimic you, so i f you make a mistake, they do top. You had some piano background and some music background; how did that act on learning the Koda'ly program? I t was a big help with reading of the music, I would think that i f you hadn't any i t would be very confusing, at f i r s t . Just the idea of the s ta f f and whatever r e a l l y helped. That part of i t , I f e e l , r e a l l y made me comfortable. I t ' s the voice part I've had to work on. What about, working w i th , for example, the moveable 'doh'? I mean tha t ' s something that you don't r e a l l y consciously use in playing the piano. Was that a problem in learning the Koda'ly program, or not? Not at t h i s l e v e l . Okay, tha t ' s something that I know, I had d i f f i c u l t y w i th . Um, the program i s d i s t r i c t author ized. What does that mean to you? Um, that we should be having i t in our schools. I feel that i s should be in every school , i f poss ib le . That i t shouldn't be so much a choice of whether they should or shouldn ' t , and people fee l ing that , "We l l , I don' t care to do i t . . . o r I feel a l o t of f au l t with i t . " That I would l i k e to see people t ry because, even I went into the program en thus ia t i c , but was f rus t ra ted . I think as you work with i t , you can see valuable th ings . And there are things that are problem areas s t i l l , that bother you, but I think that bas i ca l l y i t ' s a good grounding to begin w i th . Yea, i t sort of does provide a common background for the students, that there 's a language there. 1 92 Interview 2: #6P Yea, and you can t e l l when ch i ld ren come from another d i s t r i c t , or from another school that haven't had i t . Just the rhythm, the clapping and that , i t r e a l l y does develop. And even i f you do the minimum, I think that i t he lps. I t even helps when you work w i th , ah, l i s t en i ng for sy l l ab l e sounds and that where i t a l l sort of flows together. So I think i t enhances the program in primary. Can I ask, ah, you've mentioned using i t with sy l l ab les or Language A r t s , and also tha t , ah, the students in the Math program. The pat tern ing. Followed the pat terns. When did you f ind that you were beginning to integrate i t with other subjects? How long had you been teaching the program? Or was that something that started r igh t from the beginning? No, i t d i dn ' t s ta r t r igh t from the beginning. The sy l lab les sort of f e l l into p lace, but the math has been th i s year , that has f a l l e n into looking for pat terns, and ah, with poetry, rhythm, I guess, you can ' t r e a l l y say, I guess the l a s t four or f i ve years. Not at the very beginning, I wasn't doing that then. Yes, the i n i t i a l . . . Yes, the i n i t i a l shock, r i g h t . Um, why do you think the Koda'ly program was chosen for th is d i s t r i c t ? I have no idea why i t was chosen, other than the people that in t ro -duced i t , and pa r t i cu l a r l y (Program Developer) has been so interested in music a l l along that I sort of t rusted her. She must have f e l t that i t had the components for the basic program. I think you know, i t depends how you went...how you looked at i t when you s ta r ted . I f you went in to c r i t i c i z e i t . . . Maybe because I don't have that much music, I wanted to have something. You saw that as a need . . . I had that need, that I was pleased to go, I was pleased to go in the summer and l e a r n . I enjoyed i t . Yea, t ha t ' s good. Um, s p e c i f i e d . . . o r rather the program i s , or has been maintained for s ix years, and w i l l be . . . t he re ' s a commitment to maintain i t for another three years ; how do you react to that? I would approve of tha t , I would enjoy going along with i t . Um, the program spec i f ies a spec i f i c order , an order for learning the music s k i l l s . How does that work with your grade 1 students? Do you make changes, or? 193 Interview 2: #6P No. I fo l low i t s p e c i f i c a l l y . Uhhum, and do you f ind that kind of flows? Yes. Because I f ind that maybe by the end I don't get through the l a s t part of i t , but the beginning part of i t , I feel they've es tab l ished. Okay, tha t ' s good. I f you have concerns or a question about how to teach a par t i cu la r part of the program, do you ta l k to anyone on the s ta f f? Um, I used to but I'm the one tha t ' s used i t the longest now, except C. in grade 2, who i s quite experienced in music, and we've discussed th ings. Um, there are others on s ta f f that have maybe grade 10 music in piano, or whatever. But we r e a l l y don't ta lk to each other that much, we jus t haven't and th is i s r e a l l y the f i r s t year that I haven't been involved in going to workshops, or have had (Music Resource Teacher) come in or whatever, I think maybe for a change for the ch i ldren i t would be nice to have someone come in and do a demonstration lesson , but I feel that there are a l o t of people who have never had them and I feel that i t i s the i r turn , th is year. And you feel more confident with the program and not needing t o . . . No, I feel that I know the bas ics , i t ' s elaborat ing and adding to that I need to work on. Now, when you did use to discuss i t or had concerns, what kinds of things would you discuss with another teacher? Rhythm p a t t e r n s . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y when teaching at the grade 3 level I found, um, when you get into the ' t i c k a t i c k a ' . . i t d idn ' t come that na tura l l y and ah, we would maybe work through a song together and es tab l i sh i t before teaching i t . Uhhum, so working on spec i f i c s k i l l sequence. Yes. Okay, how do you think the administrator at the school now, reacts to or supports th is program? I feel from jus t general comments that he's very pleased and he has mentioned many times that the Kodaly i s establ ished as music in the school , helping the ch i ldren to move into the band or whatever. And I think he's quite p o s i t i v e . . . I get that f e e l i n g , whether he i s or not. Yea, so you' re sort of gett ing support in terms of what you' re doing as a bas i s . 194 Interview 2: #6P Yes. Um, resources or mater ials that you need for the classroom. Do you get those? Pret ty w e l l , yes . Our budget has been cut back l a s t year but we did get a few things and each year we add a l i t t l e more and he makes a point of saying, you know, "Budget i s ou t . . .Ge t your l i s t s i n . " So we have a chance at i t , and i t depends on the cutbacks. And I think the music program in the whole school i s very well supported by the admin is t ra t ion. Yes, and i t does make a d i f fe rence. D e f i n i t e l y . . . And I think i t ' s nice to know you have that f e e l i n g . I don' t know what i t would be l i k e to work for someone who d idn ' t care whether you were doing i t or not. Um, I would do i t anyway but i t ' s nice to know you're appreciated, that you are taking the time to do tha t . Um, has the pr inc ipa l ever sat down and talked to you s p e c i f i c a l l y about the Koda'ly program? No. Um, okay, have you used any students or parents or anyone else in teaching the program in the classroom, for example, th is year? No, I haven' t , not th i s year . Um, I was going t o s a y you were asking before about other s ta f f members taking courses and that . The kindergarten teachers, both teachers have, and we've worked together and we 've. . . they r e a l l y fo l low through, and so I enjoy having them r igh t nex door, so I can see what they've done. And then we jus t bui ld , on i t from there. And another quest ion, to t i e in with that , um, for example beginning ins t ruc t ion in grade 1, how do you decide where to begin? Or do you jus t sort of begin at the beginning of the grade 1 program? I begin at the beginning to assess where they ' re a t , but I 've found that the i r rhythm has r e a l l y been estab l ished, a l i t t l e b i t more work needed on the p i tch part of i t , but they do a l o t of rhythm, and have f e l t very good about that part of i t . Yea, and as you say, working that c lose ly with the other teachers you can get a good i d e a . . . That 's r i g h t , and you can hear what they do, and so I th ink , "Oh, yeah, they've done tha t ! " So now we know! Um, videotapes of a c lass in sess ion, have you seen any? 195 Interview 2: #6P I had a student teacher th i s spring and we booked one and we got a notice back saying that i t had been, become obsolete, that i t was no longer any use. I t was on p i tch and rhythm, sounded exact ly what I wanted, and that was my only attempt, and i t f a i l e d . Maybe i t ' s been withdrawn, with an intent of having another one made. Could be, but th is was jus t in March that we did t h i s . I was so disappointed. Because that i s one way of seeing, you know, what happened in other classrooms, and th ings. Have you seen any Kodaly classrooms, or any classes being taught Koda'ly, actual c lasses? Um, when I was teaching grade 3, the next classroom had grade 4 and S. was teaching that , and I, j us t from maybe having a spare, or something, had watched what S . had done, or heard i t . Not d e f i n i t e l y gone in and sat down, and said "May I watch?" . . . N o . Um, are those kinds of things of value? As a teache r . . . ? I think so. I must say though, I haven't watched C. but our wal ls are paper t h i n , and I can hear exact ly what she's doing and she sings every s ing le day, and I can hear her doing the ' d o h ' , ' r ay ' and whatever, so I know how she's fo l lowing through with the ch i ldren that I had, and we have compared notes you know. S h e ' l l say, "Gee, I hear you doing t h i s , but they ' re weak in th is s t i l l . Af ter a l l t h i s year I worked, they are s t i l l weak in th is a rea . " And so we do, even though we don't see each other, we have that comparison. And C. a lso mentioned, she was very much concerned with combining the pi tch and rhythm and the wr i t ing s k i l l s , which i s a big step. Right , we were discussing that , ourselves too, that we f e l t the wr i t ing was maybe rushed a l i t t l e at th is l e v e l . The problem of what t o , you know, not do. We l l , even today, I was doing a music lesson and one l i t t l e g i r l cou ldn ' t hear ' s o h . . l a ' . . . t h a t there was any d i f fe rence, and I thought, "Af ter a l l t h i s time she's s t i l l not tuning i n . " And when she could see I was playing d i f f e ren t l y on the b e l l s , then she s a i d . . "Oh yes ! " But she wasn't hearing i t . So I r e a l l y feel that we could maybe cut back on the wr i t ten par t , and more of j us t the ear-t r a i n i n g . And emphasize, repeat those learnings in d i f fe ren t forms. Just ta lk ing about some of the d i s t r i c t provided resources, ; f i rs t o f a l l , the music book, what parts of that do you use now? What parts of that 196 Interview 2: #6P do you f ind most valuable now? I use the lesson plans, s p e c i f i c a l l y . And I t r y to cover a l l the songs that are l i s t e d for the year, and then those that are not just for fun, and game a c t i v i t i e s . Um, I use i t a l o t . I t ' s always on my desk, and I think I r e l y on i t a l o t . > Any recommendations? Any things that you could see that could be changed? Not r e a l l y , I 've been very happy with i t , and I think i t ' s been very well set out for my purposes, anyway, not knowing that much. I t ' s great, i t ' s a real tool for me in the classroom. Okay, the in -serv ice at the L . R . C , you attended those for a number of years? Yes. Um, what aspects of those were most useful for you? I think they forced us to get up and play games and ac tua l l y do the th ings, and i t ' s jus t l i k e the ch i ldren come in and they are shy about s inging to each other, but by the end, you experienced what the ch i ldren are fee l ing with the program. Heavens, who'd ever think that I'd stand up and sing in f ront of f i f t y teachers, and the ch i ldren experience that too, and I think the pa r t i c i pa t i on , working through every song...You need that , you r e a l l y do. Just as the ch i ld ren do, they have i t repeated. That 's r i g h t . So t ha t ' s i t ' s almost an unconscious part o f . That 's r i gh t , and uh, i n the beginning there was a b i t of complaint o f , "Gee, i t ' s j us t three notes for the f i r s t year , " but i t takes that long to r e a l l y es tab l ish tha t , and learn that , and even the l i t t l e g i r l today s t i l l cou ldn ' t hear. I think that i s necessary, to r e a l l y re in force i t , and feel comfortable. But I see now when we sing songs, the kids are putt ing the i r hands in without being asked, or jus t s i t t i n g on the f l oo r w e ' l l do that too, they are fee l ing that now, and i t takes that t ime. Yes, okay, now the summer sess ion , ah, you attended once? No, I've been to two summer... Sorry . Now, what parts of those did you f ind valuable? In what ways? I think the pa r t i c i pa t i on , and a l s o , i t gave an overview of from kindergarten to grade 3, so you saw where i t had come from and where i t was going, and at the time that I took i t I was doing grade 3 music, which I said before was almost at my l i m i t , and i t was nice to have that reinforcement o f . . . t hese were the years before, th is i s what the ch i ld ren should have done, but when I got to teach them, I 197 Interview 2: #6P found they weren't there, usua l l y . So then you needed to know what came before. And, needed to r e a l i z e what hadn't been taught. That 's r i gh t . Now, any recommendations that you would make for e i t he r the sessions at L . R . C . , or the summer sess ions, that you could see would improve that? I don' t th ink , I can ' t r e a l l y think of any, I thought they were r e a l l y a f u l l week, jus t mind-boggling a l l the s tu f f at the end of i t . But, um, I don't know how they could change i t to get i t a l l i n and get through i t a l l , r e a l l y exposed to i t . Yea, uhhum, given we have l i t t l e time and so many other th ings. That 's r i g h t . When we were going to the monthly ones, ah, they were a f u l l two hours, or whatever they were, I f e l t you went i n , and you j u s t . . . t h e r e wasn't a minute when you were day dreaming. I t was very well organized, but you needed, I f e l t I needed, I could never have taught the program without that . I f you were going to rate those resources, the music resource book, the sessions held during the year , and the summer sess ions; which of those would be most necessary? I think the ones throughout the year because you forget . "Oh, yes , now I remember d o i n g . . . now how did we do that?" I think monthly or every other month, or even when they were doing them seasonly, up to Christmas and then spr ing , and they gave songs that you f i t t e d i n with i t . That reinforcement at the time you were doing i t was more va luable. The summer was f i n e , but you do forget and then maybe give up, because of not being able to remember. . .O r , "I can not f igure th i s o u t ! . . . " That 's r i gh t . Okay, ah, two quest ions, to do with sort of extending the program. The program was developed in th i s d i s t r i c t , i t ' s been modified a number of t imes, and there i s a commitment to maintain i t for another three or four years. Are there any ways that you can see tha the program could be improved, wi th in the d i s t r i c t ? I think maybe the expectations could be lowered. A l s o , I think that i t ' s necessary that someone on the s ta f f i s very fami l ia r with i t , for new teachers, beginning, or those that that are not sure of i t ; that i t ' s nice to have someone to go to in every school . Ah, 198 Interview 2: #6P and I think the monthly meetings or every other month are absolutely necessary, with the change of s t a f f s , or whatever from other d i s t r i c t s . There i s always someone that needs that reinforcement. That i s essent ia l for i t to be success fu l . Someone they can go to without fee l ing threatened about anything. Yes, and tha t ' s another th ing . I'm glad you brought that up, because I've always deal t with (Music Resource Teacher) and (Program Developer). You never f e l t threatened with i t . They never made you f e e l , "You are jus t never going to be able to do t h i s ! " Yes, "Why d idn ' t you know th is l as t week?" Other than that , sometimes, (Program Developer) makes i t feel very easy, and i t ' s not! The other one to do with that , the program i s being considered for adoption in a number of d i s t r i c t s in B . C . , or they are s tar t ing on adopting i t . Now, are there any ways that you would see th is program, or any resources that th i s program should have, to be used in a d i s t r i c t jus t beginning i t ? We l l , the book, and, um, jus t having resource people trained or make sure they have a summer session before i t begins, I think tha t ' s r e a l l y important. Okay, now the l a s t quest ion. To describe th i s program, what i s Koda'ly? Oh, enjoying music, and giv ing a basic foundation for the s k i l l s of music; an int roduct ion to that at a young age. Very good, thank you, ah, those are my quest ions. Is there any-thing else that you'd l i k e to say? I don' t think so . . . ve ry thorough. MODEL : KAMLOOPS KODALY PRIMARY MUSIC PROGRAM SCHOOL DISTRICT #24 TIME PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT 1975 & 1976 Sept . 1976 Spr ing 1977 Sept . 1977 I n i t i a l s tages: Needs reviewed; Research of Program Options Program Parameters set by D i s t r i c t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Deci s i o n : -Kodaly approach s e l e c t e d . Designated D i s t r i c t Author ized Program^ Summer 1976 Format of D i s t r i c t Implementation E s t a b l i s h e d : RESOURCE MATERIALS SUPPORT SERVICES SCHOOL-BASED IMPLEMENTATION Resource Book Draf t #1: Kinder. & Gr. 1 D i s t r i c t Workshops Informal assessment: District Music Coordi nator / Program Developer Teacher and Adminis-i 6 p i l o t s c h o o l s , cen t ra l zone K inder . & Gr . 1 t r a t i v e Input D e c i s i o n : -Program Extension •Add i t iona l D i s t r i c t Support •Rev is ion of Resource M a t e r i a l s Resource Book Draft #2: K., G r . l , Gr.2 J Monthly Workshops D i s t r i c t Kodaly Resource Teacher Al 1 1 schools vo lunteer bas is K. , G r . l & Gr .2 _ J APPENDIX 7: SOURCE: OUTLINE OF KAMLOOPS KODALY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT INTERVIEWS WITH PROGRAM DEVELOPER AND PRESENT MUSIC COORDINATOR. (Page 1 of 2 pages) TIME Spr ing 1978 Summer 1978 Sept. 1978 Spr ing 1979 Summer 1979 Sept . 1979 Spr ing 1980 Summer 1980 Sept . 1980 Spr ing 1981 Summer 1981 Sept . 1981 June 1982 PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT Informal assessment: Teacher and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e input . D e c i s i o n : -Program Maintenance •Seasonal Workshops •Summer: 4-da.y Workshops T D i s t r i c t Kodaly Resource Teacher Summer D i s t r i c t Music Workshops Coord ina tor / I Program Developer Seasronal Workshops Informal assessment: Teacher and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n p u t . D e c i s i o n : -Program Extension Summer Workshops A l l schools Volunteer bas is K, 1, 2 and 3 Informal assessment: Teacher and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e input Resource book Draf t #3 K , l , 2 , 3 I Informal Summer Workshops Seasonal Workshops (Page 2 of 2 pages o o 

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