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The relationship of teachers' expectations and academic learning time in grade six physical education.. 1987

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHERS' EXPECTATIONS AND ACADEMIC LEARNING TIME IN GRADE SIX PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES by WILLIAM J . COUSINEAU B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Center f o r the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1987 (c) W i l l i a m John Cousineau, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , and s t u d e n t g e n d e r , w i t h s t u d e n t a c h i e v e d A c ademic L e a r n i n g Time (A.L.T.) o f g r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s . To examine t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o u r main h y p o t h e s e s were g e n e r a t e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : l_ T h e r e would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . 2 T e a c h e r s w i t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m a j o r s would have g r e a t e r A.L.T. t h a n t h o s e w i t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m i n o r s , o r g e n e r a l i s t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . 3 T h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e i n A.L.T. t o t a l s between s t u d e n t g e n d e r . 4 T h e r e would be l e s s s t u d e n t o f f - t a s k t i m e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m a j o r s c l a s s e s , t h a n i n t h e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m i n o r s , and t h e g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' . T h i s s t u d y a l s o e x a m i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s * p e r c e p t i o n o f s t u d e n t e f f o r t , s t u d e n t g r a d e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e d A c a d e m i c L e a r n i n g Time. F i n a l l y , i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e how s t u d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e a r e d e v e l o p e d by t e a c h e r s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . i i i S i x , g r a d e s i x , c l a s s e s t a u g h t by m a l e t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . Two P.E. m a j o r s , two P.E. m i n o r s , and two g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s were o b s e r v e d . E a c h o-f t h e s e t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t e d a r a n k - o r d e r i n g o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s , b a s e d on t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . From t h i s r a n k o r d e r i n g , s i x s t u d e n t s f r o m e a c h c l a s s were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . E a c h c l a s s was o b s e r v e d t h r e e t i m e s , u s i n g t h e A c ademic L e a r n i n g Time V e r s i o n I I i n s t r u m e n t t o c o l l e c t d a t a . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t e a c h e r s were a l s o a s k e d t o s u b m i t s t u d e n t g r a d e s f o r t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d t e r m , r a t e s t u d e n t e f f o r t o v e r t h e t h r e e o b s e r v e d l e s s o n s , and c o m p l e t e a t e a c h e r d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t e a c h e r s " e x p e c t a n c y and A.L.T.. I t was f o u n d t h a t P.E. m a j o r s had h i g h e r A.L.T. t h a n d i d P.E. m i n o r s , o r g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d between s t u d e n t g e n d e r g r o u p s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n o f f - t a s k t i m e l e v e l s were n o t n o t e d between t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g g r o u p s . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between s t u d e n t p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t and s t u d e n t A.L.T.. F i n a l l y , i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s p r i m a r i l y u s e s t u d e n t a b i l i t y and s k i l l l e v e l i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t s ' e x p e c t a n c y l e v e l . Recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on t h i s t o p i c s u g g e s t t h a t a l a r g e r s a m ple s i z e be u s e d and t h a t l e s s o n i v and a c t i v i t y s t r u c t u r e be c o n t r o l l e d i n c o m p a r a t i v e A.L.T. s t u d i e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t and A.L.T.. Table o-f Contents ABSTRACT . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i DEDICATION x i i i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Subproblems 4 Def i n i t i ons 5 Hypotheses ~? V a r i a b l e s i n the Study 8 Assumptions 9 D e l i m i t a t i o n s lO L i m i t a t i o n s lO S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 11 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13 E x p e c t a t i o n Research i n Education 13 Expectancy Research i n P h y s i c a l Education 20 Research on Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n Education 30 Academic L e a r n i n g Time Research i n P h y s i c a l E ducation 33 v i Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 48 Po p u l a t i o n t o Which C o n c l u s i o n s W i l l Be General i zed 48 Samp 1 in g Techniques 4? Procedures 50 Gai n i n g Permission t o Perform Study SO S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s f o r Observation 51 Instruments 53 The Academic L e a r n i n g Time - V e r s i o n II Instrument 53 T r a i n i n g and R e l i a b i l i t y of Observers 63 Student Achieved Grades i n P h y s i c a l Education 67 E f f o r t R a t i n g Instrument 68 Demographic Information Instrument 68 Jour n a l 69 Type and Qual i t y of Measurement 69 Data A n a l y s i s 71 Chapter 4 FINDINGS 74 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s of Data from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time Instrument 81 I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s of Data from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time Instrument 89 I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s of Data from Other Instruments by Regression 107 v i i A n a l y s i s of C r i t e r i a used by Teachers f o r Rank-Ordering Students based on Expected Level of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education 112 A n a l y s i s of Teachers* Demographic Information Sheets 114 A n a l y s i s of Information Obtained i n the Researcher's Journal 116 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS . 119 Teachers* E x p e c t a t i o n of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education 119 E f f e c t of Teacher T r a i n i n g on Academic L e a r n i n g Time of Students i n P h y s i c a l Education 116 Student Gender and Academic L e a r n i n g Time ...... 127 Teacher T r a i n i n g and Student Off-Task Time i n P h y s i c a l Education 128 E f f e c t s of D i f f e r e n t Lessons on Achieved Academic L e a r n i n g Time 129 Teachers* P e r c e p t i o n of E f f o r t and Academic L e a r n i n g Time 131 Student Grades and Academic L e a r n i n g Time in P h y s i c a l Education 133 D i s c u s s i o n of D e s c r i p t i v e Information Gathered through the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education Instrument 134 Chapter 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 136 Summary 136 Co n c l u s i o n s 141 Recommendations 142 v i i i BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 APPENDICES A: Teachers* L e t t e r of Informed Consent 156 B: Explanatory L e t t e r Given t o Teachers P r e c e d i n g Study 157 C: Academic L e a r n i n g Time - V e r s i o n II Measuring Instrument 159 D: Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E ducation Demographic Information Sheet 160 E: Teacher Demographic Information Sheet .... 161 F: Raw Data from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time P h y s i c a l Education V e r s i o n II Instrument . 162 G: D i r e c t i o n s Given to Teachers f o r the Completion of Data C o l l e c t i o n 164 i x L i s t of Tables Table Page 1 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : General Summary Table - Context L e v e l 76 2 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : General Summary Table - Learner Involvement L e v e l 77 3 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Summary by S p e c i a l t y Table - Context L e v e l .. 78 4 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Summary by S p e c i a l t y Table - Learner ' Involvement Level 79 5 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Summary of Raw Scores, Means, D e v i a t i o n s , and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Subcategory and Teacher S p e c i a l t y 80 6 Context L e v e l of Lessons Observed - General Content Time 81 7 Context L e v e l of Lessons Observed - Subject Matter Knowledge Time 82 8 Context L e v e l of Lessons Observed - Time Subject Matter Motor Time 74 9 Learner Involvement L e v e l of Lessons Observed - Not Motor Engaged Time 85 10 Learner Involvement Level of Lessons Observed - Motor Engaged Time 87 11 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Expectancy R a t i n g and Lessons 89 12 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g and Lessons 92 13 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Student Gender and Lessons . 94 14 Two-Way A n a l y s i s o-f Va r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Expectancy and Lessons ...... 97 15 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g and Lessons lOO 16 Two-Way A n a l y s i s o-f Va r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Student Gender and Lessons .. 102 17 One-Way A n a l y s i s o-f Va r i a n c e - Mean O-f-f-Task Time by Expectancy R a t i n g 104 18 A n a l y s i s o-f Trend E f f e c t s f o r Off-Task Time by Expectancy R a t i n g 105 19 One-Way A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e - Mean Off-Task Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g 105 20 A n a l y s i s of Trend E f f e c t s f o r Off-Task Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g ......................... 106 21 Regression - Students* F i r s t Term P h y s i c a l Education Grade c o n t r a s t e d with Student T o t a l Academic L e a r n i n g Time 108 22 Regression - Teachers* P e r c e p t i o n of Student E f f o r t i n the Three Observed Lessons c o n t r a s t e d with Student T o t a l Academic L e a r n i n g Time H O 23 Nominal Ranking of C r i t e r i a used f o r Rank- Ord e r i n g of Teachers* Expected Level of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education 113 24 Means and Sample Range from Teachers' Demographic Information Sheets 115 x i L i s t of Figures Figure Page 1 Rosenthal's (1974) Model for Development of Teachers' Expectations 17 2 Cooper's (1979) Model for Development of Teachers' Expectations 18 3 Marti nek, Crowe, and Rejeski's (1982) Model for Development of Teachers' Expectations ... 19 4 Academic Learning Time - Version II Measuring Instrument 57 5 Mean Academic Learning Time of Students contrasted with Expectancy Rating and Lessons 90 6 Mean Academic Learning Time of Students contrasted with Teacher Training and Lessons 93 7 Mean Academic Learning Time of Students contrasted with Gender and Lessons 95 8 Mean Motor Engaged Time of Students contrasted with Expectancy Rating and Lessons 98 9 Mean Motor Engaged Time of Students contrasted with Teacher Training and Lessons 101 10 Mean Motor Engaged Time of Students contrasted with Gender and Lessons 103 11 Academic Learning Time Regressed with Students' F i r s t Term Grade 109 12 Academic Learning Time Regressed with Students* Perceived E f f o r t I l l x i i Ac know1edgemen t s I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e Dr. M o i r a Luke, - f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and c h a i r p e r s o n o-f my c o m m i t t e e , -for h e r most v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and en c o u r a g e m e n t t h r o u g h o u t my g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , h e r h e l p on t h i s t h e s i s . I would a l s o l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e and t h a n k Dr. G a r y S i n c l a i r , and Dr. F r a n k E c h o l s -for t h e i r s u p p o r t a s c o m m i t t e e members. T h a n k s t o C y n d i Cunneyworth, who s e r v e d a s my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t ; and t o Dr. W a l t e r B o l d t , who p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o-f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o would l i k e t o t h a n k t h e Kamloops S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , p r i n c i p a l s o f s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y , and f i n a l l y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e a l s o e x p r e s s e d t o two p e o p l e w i t h o u t whom t h i s s t u d y would have been e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p l e t e , Bev and Syd R o b e r t s . Many, many t h a n k s f o r a l l y o u r i n s p i r a t i o n , s u p p o r t , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and h e l p . x i i i Ded i c a t i o n To my p a r e n t s and b r o t h e r , f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . 1 Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n I t has been well documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e over the past -few y e a r s that t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o-f performance may c r e a t e a " s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" e f f e c t i n a classroom. Most notably, the work of Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a prophecy e x i s t i n g . Although Rosenthal and Jacobson's rese a r c h techniques and r e s u l t s were questioned i n i t i a l l y , i t appears that t h i s prophecy e x i s t s i n some classrooms (Brophy and Good, 1974). Much resea r c h i n t h i s area has been conducted i n t r a d i t i o n a l classroom s e t t i n g s , but, few s t u d i e s have been done i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Some resear c h has been done i n t h i s area by Thomas Marti nek (1979-84). He has explored the p o s s i b i l i t y that a teacher i n p h y s i c a l e ducation may be i n f l u e n c e d by the " s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophecy", and h i s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that t h i s phenomena may e x i s t . R ecently there has been evidence from s t u d i e s i n e v a l u a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n that suggest the most e f f e c t i v e method of i n s t r u c t i o n may be " d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n " ( B e r l i n e r , 1984). The r e s e a r c h i n " d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n " suggests a number of f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g i n the classroom. Perhaps the key f i n d i n g from t h i s r e s e a r c h i s that academic l e a r n i n g time seems to be the most important v a r i a b l e i n determining a c t u a l student achievement. A model f o r determining academic l e a r n i n g time i n the classroom was c o n s t r u c t e d by F i s h e r et a l . (1978). T h i s model was q u i c k l y adapted f o r use i n p h y s i c a l education by Siedentop, B i r d w e l l , and M e t z l e r i n 1979. S i n c e then the concept has been modified t o permit the measurement of management time, on task time, success r a t e , and motor engaged time, to name a few. However, there appears to be a s c a r c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e t h a t r e l a t e s the two f a c t o r s of academic l e a r n i n g time and teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s . S i n c e i t appears t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n may c o n t r i b u t e to student achievement, and a l s o t h at academic l e a r n i n g time may c o n t r i b u t e t o student achievement, i t would appear that these two v a r i a b l e s may be r e l a t e d . I f these two v a r i a b l e s are r e l a t e d , i t may be suggested that by c r e a t i n g an expectancy l e v e l , through student achieved academic l e a r n i n g time, the teacher c o u l d s u b s t a n t i a l y a l t e r student achievement i n c l a s s . A l s o , by a l t e r i n g academic l e a r n i n g time l e v e l s , a teacher may c r e a t e f a l s e student e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance. Over the l a s t decade, t h e r e has been an increased emphasis on q u a l i t y p h y s i c a l education programs both i n and out of s c h o o l . At the elementary school l e v e l i n B r i t i s h 3 Columbia, d a i l y p h y s i c a l education has been implemented i n s e v e r a l school d i s t r i c t s . To ensure a q u a l i t y p h y s i c a l education program, many s c h o o l s have h i r e d f u l l time p h y s i c a l education s p e c i a l i s t s , or have appointed someone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l . These " p h y s i c a l education s p e c i a l i s t s " u s u a l l y have formal t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p f o r the e n t i r e p h y s i c a l education program at the s c h o o l . S i n c e there may be a l i n k between student achievement and academic l e a r n i n g time, comparing p h y s i c a l education lessons taught by p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n majors, minors, and n o n s p e c i a l i s t s , u s i n g academic l e a r n i n g time, c o u l d p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s of p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n . Another p h i l o s o p h i c a l change i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, has r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of the c o - e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s . U n t i l the l a s t decade boys and g i r l s , i n most cases, were segregated f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . However, i n t h i s decade most p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s i n elementary s c h o o l s have become c o - e d u c a t i o n a l . By u s i n g academic l e a r n i n g time as a measuring t o o l , i n ter-gender d i f f e r e n c e s may be r e v e a l e d . In a r e l a t e d study, (Silverman, et a l . , 1984) i t was d i s c o v e r e d that d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes i n amounts of academic l e a r n i n g time were not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, i n 4 t h i s s t u d y , by u s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n and g e n d e r a s v a r i a b l e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g t i m e may be n o t e d . Zf t h i s i s t h e c a s e , i t c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s may be d i f f e r e n t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s . A l s o , by c o n t r o l l i n g b o t h g r a d e and l e s s o n v a r i a b l e s , u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n may be g a t h e r e d f o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o - e d u c a t i o n a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s . . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The pur-pose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' expectations of performance in Physical Education and academic learning time in selected grade six physical education students. Subprob 1ems To examine i f t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n t a r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e d A cademic L e a r n i n g Time i n s e l e c t e d g r a d e s i x p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . To d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t g e n d e r and A c a d e m i c L e a r n i n g Time i n s e l e c t e d g r a d e s i x p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . 5 D e f i n i t i o n s T e a c h e r s * e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : The p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s a b o u t a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t a t e a c h e r may have f o r m e d , b a s e d on e i t h e r p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , o r b i a s , t o p e r f o r m a c t i v i t i e s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n M a j o r : A t e a c h e r who has o b t a i n e d a r e c o g n i z e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d e g r e e a t a u n i v e r s i t y . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n M i n o r : A t e a c h e r who has t a k e n a d v a n c e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a t u n i v e r s i t y , w i t h o u t h a v i n g a d e c l a r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m a j o r . A c a d e m i c L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : The p o r t i o n o f t i m e i n a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n t h a t a s t u d e n t i s engaged i n a r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y a t a h i g h s u c c e s s r a t e . The r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y must be p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t c o n t e n t , must be a motor a c t i v i t y , and t h e a c t i v i t y must be o f an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . S u c c e s s r a t e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e a c t i v i t y , t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e a c t i v i t y , and t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u c c e s s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k . 6 A c t i v i t y : The s p o r t or general a c t i v i t y s e l e c t e d -for use i n the study. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, b a s k e t b a l l i s the s e l e c t e d s p o r t o-f -focus and i s r e f e r r e d t o as the act i v i t y . Lesson Type: The s p e c i f i c l e ssons to be taught w i t h i n each a c t i v i t y . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study t h r e e s p e c i f i c l e s sons ( b a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g , d r i b b l i n g , and shooting) were s e l e c t e d and taught d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d . C y c l e of Observation ( c y c l e ) : The p e r i o d of time taken to observe and r e c o r d b e h a v i o r s of the s i x s e l e c t e d s t udents per c l a s s one time. Off-Task Time: The p o r t i o n of time that a student i s not engaged i n an a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y , or engaged i n a d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y than an a p p r o p r i a t e one (Siedentop et a l . , 1983). 7 H y p o t h e s e s 1. That there will be a significant positive relationship between Academic Learning Time and expectancy levels in grade 6 Physical Educat ion classes. I f a p o s i t i v e , r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s , i t w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t , A.L.T. and e x p e c t a t i o n may be l i n k e d i n t h e gymnasium. I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t s u p p o r t e d , t h e n i t would i n d i c a t e t h a t A.L.T. and e x p e c t a n c y e f f e c t s may n o t be l i n k e d . 2 Physical Education classes taught by Physical Education majors will have greater mean Academic Learn ing Time than those taught by teachers with Physical Education minors, or by teachers with no specif ic training in Physical Educat ion. I f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d , t h e n i t would i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s w i t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m a j o r s , i n g e n e r a l , p r o v i d e more A.L.T. i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , t h a n do t e a c h e r s w i t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m i n o r s , o r t e a c h e r s w i t h no s p e c i f i c P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g . I f not s u p p o r t e d , i t would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n A.L.T. between P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m a j o r s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n m i n o r s , and n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . 3 That there will not be a significant difference between student gender with respect to Academic Learn ing Time. I f t r u e , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s would s u p p o r t f i n d i n g s 3 (Silverman et a l . , 1984; Placek et a l . , 1982) i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , that gender does not d i r e c t l y a-f-fect achievement o-f A.L.T. . If the h y p othesis i s not supported, t h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a may be needed, s i n c e gender may i n f l u e n c e A.L.T.. That classes taught by Physical Education majors w i l l have less off-task time than classes taught by Physical Education minors § or by teachers with no specif i c t r a i n i n g in Physical Education. I f t h i s h y p othesis i s supported, i t would i n d i c a t e that P h y s i c a l Education majors may be b e t t e r a b l e to minimize the amount of o f f - t a s k time than those of P.E. minors, or g e n e r a l i s t classroom t e a c h e r s . T h i s may i n d i c a t e that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n the P.E. majors* c l a s s e s may be d i f f e r e n t than those i n the P.E. minor, or g e n e r a l i s t c l a s s e s . Along with the p r e c e d i n g hypotheses, i t w i l l a l s o be p o s s i b l e to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a r i a b l e s , such as student term grades and teacher p e r c e i v e d student e f f o r t , t o Academic Le a r n i n g Time. Although hypotheses on these f a c t o r s w i l l not be generated, each f a c t o r w i l l be examined and i m p l i c a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d . 9 V a r i a b l e s i n the Study For t h i s study, the independent v a r i a b l e s are, i_ three e x p e c t a t i o n l e v e l s , high, middle, and low; 2 gender, male or -female; and 3 p h y s i c a l education teacher, P.E. major, P.E. minor, and g e n e r a l i s t . The dependent v a r i a b l e s -for t h i s study are academic l e a r n i n g time, and o f f - t a s k time. Other v a r i a b l e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study are f i r s t and second term grades, p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t of student by teacher, and c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of students' expectancy l e v e l s by the teacher. Assuropti ons T h i s study assumes t h a t : The p h y s i c a l education teacher was a b l e to rank-order s t u d e n t s by l e v e l of performance i n p h y s i c a l education w i t h i n t h e i r c l a s s . The observer was a b l e to observe the c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d with a r e l i a b i l i t y f a c t o r of over 80% (As t e s t e d by the scored i n t e r v a l d i f f e r e n c e method [Hawkins and Dotson, 19753). The teacher was a b l e to r a t e from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest) t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of student e f f o r t over the l O observed l e s s o n s . The teacher was a b l e t o grade students i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The teacher was a b l e t o i d e n t i f y how e x p e c t a t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l education were developed. That s t u d e n t s attempted to do a c t i v i t i e s t o the best of t h e i r a b i l i t y . Delimi t a t ions T h i s study i s d e l i m i t e d by the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : That a l l students were grade s i x students i n elementary s c h o o l . That the t e s t i n g was done over as s h o r t a time p e r i o d as f e a s i b l e . L i m i t a t i o n s The study i s l i m i t e d by: The assignment of expectancy l e v e l s . The use of the "Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education 1982 R e v i s i o n Coding Manual" (Siedentop et a l . , 1982). The s e l e c t i o n of s t u d e n t s based on t e a c h e r ' s r a n k - o r d e r i n g and s e l e c t i o n by a t h i r d p a r t y . The u s e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s o n l y . The u s e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s t a u g h t by n o n - i t i n e r a n t m a l e t e a c h e r s . The u s e o f c o m p l e t e g r a d e s i x c l a s s e s . The u s e o f b a s k e t b a l 1 a s t h e s p o r t o f f o c u s f o r l e s s o n s . The o b s e r v a t i o n o f b a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g , d r i b b l i n g , and s h o o t i n g l e s s o n s o n l y . The number o f c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y In e d u c a t i o n , e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e a r e a l w a y s c r e a t e d . In f a c t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r s n o t t o have e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s t u d e n t s . S i n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a l w a y s a p p a r e n t i n e d u c a t i o n , t h e c r e a t i o n o f f a u l t y e x p e c t a t i o n s may d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t m o d e l s be e s t a b l i s h e d t o a l l o w t e a c h e r s t o be aware o f and c o n t r o l t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s . A t t h e same t i m e , s t u d e n t t i m e on t a s k i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y . In f a c t , i t has been s u g g e s t e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t a v a r i a t i o n o f t i m e on t a s k c a l l e d A c a d e m i c L e a r n i n g Time may be a s u p e r i o r method t o 12 e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e ( B e r l i n e r , 1979). T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e and Academic L e a r n i n g Time a c h i e v e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . S h o u l d a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t between t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p e r f o r m a n c e and A.L.T., i t w i l l be a r g u e d t h a t m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t may be p o s s i b l e by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n s . A t t h e same t i m e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e a c h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , s t u d e n t g e n d e r , s t u d e n t e f f o r t i n o b s e r v e d l e s s o n s , s t u d e n t outcome g r a d e s and A.L.T. w i l l be examined and d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , a r e v i e w o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n and Ac a d e m i c L e a r n i n g Time w i l l be p r o v i d e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s c h a p t e r , i n C h a p t e r 3, t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e s employed i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l . C h a p t e r 4 p r e s e n t s t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r 5 p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s and a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e t h e s e t o p a s t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . F i n a l l y , i n C h a p t e r 6, a summary o f t h e s t u d y , t o g e t h e r w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t e d . 1 3 Chapter 2 Review o-f Related L i t e r a t u r e E x p e c t a t i o n Research i n Education P r i o r t o 1968, many e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s suspected that t h e r e may be an "expectancy" phenomena w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n . The whole area o-f expectancy r e s e a r c h emerged with the p u b l i c a t i o n o-f Rosenthal and Jacobsen's Pygmal ion i n the Classroom (1968). Rosenthal and Jacobson's r e s e a r c h explored whether or not t h e r e was evidence to suggest that t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s c r e a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance and e v a l u a t i o n of p u p i l s . The study was conducted i n a p u b l i c school s e t t i n g , one t h a t was l o c a t e d i n a low socioeconomic neighbourhood. The c h i l d r e n at the school were a l l g i v e n a t e s t f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , one that was purported to be a b l e to p r e d i c t i n t e l l e c t u a l "blooming", that i s , whether a c h i l d was l i k e l y to have an academic s p u r t t h a t year. In f a c t , the t e s t d i d not t e s t "blooming", but r a t h e r was an obscure general academic a b i l i t y t e s t . Using the r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t , 20% of the c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d at random and t e a c h e r s were t o l d t h a t these c h i l d r e n c o u l d be expected to "bloom" a c a d e m i c a l l y d u r i n g the coming year. L a t e r t h a t year, the 14 same general academic a b i l i t y t e s t was administered, and the s o - c a l l e d "bloomer" group showed more ga i n than c o u l d normally be expected. From t h i s study, Rosenthal and Jacobsen suggested that a " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" had o c c u r r e d , where students performed i n accordance with the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n l e v e l s . Based on t h i s study, r e s e a r c h e r s began to i n v e s t i g a t e the teacher expectancy phenomenon. I n i t i a l l y , the premise was viewed with s k e p t i c i s m by some r e s e a r c h e r s , due i n l a r g e p a r t to q u e s t i o n a b l e r e s e a r c h techniques u t i l i z e d by Rosenthal and Jacobsen. In p a r t i c u l a r , Thorndike (1971), s t a t e d t h a t : ... the i n d i c a t i o n s are that the b a s i c data upon which t h i s s t r u c t u r e has been r a i s e d are so untrustworthy that any c o n c l u s i o n s based upon them must be suspect. The c o n c l u s i o n s may be c o r r e c t , but i f so i t must be c o n s i d e r e d a f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e , (p. 68) In 1974, Brophy and Good analysed and conducted over 60 s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h i s phenomena, and concluded that t h e r e appeared to be a l i n k between performance and the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy". Support f o r the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" i s more widespread now, and has been accepted, i n p r i n c i p l e , by many r e s e a r c h e r s . However, the degree to which t h i s "prophecy" a f f e c t s l e a r n i n g i s debated. In 1974, Rosenthal suggested that t h e r e were f o u r l e v e l s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x p e c t a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The f o u r i d e n t i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s were, i_ C l i m a t e , 2 I n p u t , 3 F e e d b a c k , and 4 O u t p u t . T h e s e t e r m s were f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by H u t s l a r i n 1 9 8 1 . C l i m a t e r e f e r s t o ; " t h e e m o t i o n a l t o n e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t . " . I t i s f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s s o m e t i m e s c r e a t e a warmer a t m o s p h e r e f o r h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s t u d e n t s t h a n f o r lows (Co o p e r 8c Good, 1 9 7 7 ) . I n p u t r e f e r s t o , " t h e amount and d i f f i c u l t y o f new m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s . " . I t would seem t h a t h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e more new o r c h a l l e n g i n g m a t e r i a l t h a n t h o s e l a b e l l e d a s low ( R o s e n t h a l , 1 9 7 4 ; Mendosa, Good, & Brop h y , 1 9 7 2 ) . F e e d b a c k i s r e f e r r e d t o a s ; " t e a c h e r ' s u s e o f p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m . " . T e a c h e r s have been f o u n d t o p r a i s e h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s t u d e n t s f a r more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e lows (Br o p h y and Good, 1 9 7 4 ) . A l s o , i t h a s been f o u n d t h a t low e x p e c t a t i o n s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n p r a i s e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y (Good, 1 9 8 1 ) . O u t p u t r e f e r s t o " t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e t e a c h e r i s w i l l i n g t o sp e n d s e e k i n g a c o r r e c t answer f r o m a s t u d e n t . " . H i g h e x p e c t a n c y s t u d e n t s o f t e n a r e g i v e n more c l u e s and more t i m e t o answer a q u e s t i o n , t h a n lows (Rome, 1 9 6 9 ; B r o p h y and Good, 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s have been w e l l a c c e p t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s and a p p e a r t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r m o d e l s o f e x p e c t a n c y d e v e l o p m e n t . W i t h i n e x p e c t a n c y r e s e a r c h , t h r e e m o d e l s have been 16 developed to e x p l a i n t h i s phenomena. The c l a s s i c model, the one upon which o t h e r s have been developed, i s Rosenthal's (1974) model ( f i g u r e 1). In h i s model, Rosenthal i n d i c a t e d that the teacher e x p e c t a t i o n l e d to b i a s e d teacher behavior, which, i n t u r n , l e d t o b i a s e d student behavior ( S e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy). T h i s kind of model r e f l e c t s u n i l a t e r a l c a u s a t i o n , where teacher behavior d i c t a t e s student behavior. A second model, one that c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a refinement of the f i r s t , i s Cooper's (1979) model ( f i g u r e 2) . T h i s model, which a l s o r e f l e c t s u n i l a t e r a l c a u s a t i o n , i s based on Cooper's premise that e f f o r t p e r c e p t i o n s can g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e student performance and e v a l u a t i o n . The t h i r d model, developed by M a r t i nek, Crowe and R e j e s k i (1982) r e p r e s e n t s r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a t i o n (see f i g u r e 3) . In t h i s model, both student and teacher i n t e r a c t i n c r e a t i o n and development of expectancy e f f e c t s . I t would appear that t h i s model has most merit i n P h y s i c a l Education, due to the f a c t t h a t p e r c e i v e d student e f f o r t p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n development of t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n (Rejeski and Lowe, 1980; Martinek and Johnson, 1979; Martinek, 1983). 17 Teacher Expec t a t 1ons Bi ased Teacher B e h a v i o r Biased Student Performance Prophecy" F i g u r e 1. R o s e n t h a l ' s (1974) model f o r development of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . 18 Student A b i l i t y and Background Teacher Performance and E x p e c t a t i o n s •for Students Teacher P e r c e p t i o n of C o n t r o l over Performance Teacher-Created Soc1oemot i o n a l C 1 itnate Student I n t e r a c t ion I n i t i a t i o n I Teacher C o n t r o l of Content T r a i n i n g and D u r a t i o n Un i 1 a t e r a l Cau s a t i on Teacher Feedback Cont1ngency I Teacher use of P r a i s e and C r i t i c i s m Student E f f o r t Outcome and C o v a r i a t i o n B e l i e f s Student A t t i t u d e s and Performance Outcomes F i g u r e 2. Cooper's (1979) model f o r development of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . 1 9 Teacher Coac h Expec t a t 1 on Teacher Coach Behav1or I n f l u e n c e on Chi Id Percep t i on o* Chi Id 1 Impression 1 Cues 'The Expectancy Loop' Rec i proca1 Causa t i on F i g u r e 3. M a r t i n e k , Crowe, and R e j e s k i ' s (1982) model -for development of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . 2 0 Expectancy Research i n P h y s i c a l Education With these developments i n the f i e l d of expectancy r e s e a r c h i n education, i t was was onl y n a t u r a l that some r e s e a r c h e r s would e x p l o r e expectancy e f f e c t s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . S i n c e e v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Education i s p r i m a r i l y s u b j e c t i v e , some r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t t h a t f a u l t y e x p e c t a t i o n s could a f f e c t both student and teacher performance. In a 1979 study, Martinek and Johnson i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s on teacher-student behavior s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study a l s o c o n s i d e r e d the e f f e c t s of e x p e c t a t i o n on student's s e l f concept. Using f i v e p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , from d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , 170 f o u r t h and f i f t h grade students were observed. E x p e c t a t i o n e f f e c t s were determined by having the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s rank, and l a t e r re-rank c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s from 1 to 7 based on a n t i c i p a t e d performance of p h y s i c a l s k i l l s . From t h i s ranking, the top lO stu d e n t s and the bottom lO students were i d e n t i f i e d i n each c l a s s as being high and low expectancy s t u d e n t s . For t h i s study, t o ensure that both s t u d e n t s and te a c h e r s were unaware of who was being observed, a l l students i n the c l a s s wore numbered p i n n i e s . A dyadic v e r s i o n of the C h e f f e r s Adaptation of F l a n d e r s 2 1 I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s System (CAFIAS) was used to i d e n t i f y t eacher-student b e h a v i o r s . For the a n a l y s i s of data, the r e s e a r c h e r s used a 2x2x5 m u l t i - a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MANOVA). Martinek and Johnson suggested t h a t t e a c h e r s gave high a c h i e v e r s more o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t , than low a c h i e v e r s . I t a l s o appeared that t e a c h e r s gave more p r a i s e and s u p p o r t i v e encouragement to high expectancy students. Teachers a l s o appeared to more r e a d i l y accept a c t i o n s and ideas g i v e n from high expectancy s t u d e n t s . Martinek and Johnson conclude t h a t : In summary, i t i s f e a s i b l e t o assume t h a t w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l education s e t t i n g high a c h i e v e r s have a l l the advantages - more i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n and b e t t e r s e l f - c o n c e p t . I t f o l l o w s , then, that the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher should become s e n s i t i z e d t o those b e h a v i o r a l mechanisms that mediate e x p e c t a t i o n s which perpetuate success and f a i l u r e i n c h i l d r e n , (p. 8 9 ) In another r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t i v e study, Martinek ( 1 9 8 1 ) examined the e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s on t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s and s p e c i f i c teacher-student i n t e r a c t i o n s . To determine e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s study, t e a c h e r s were asked to r a t e s t u d e n t s from 1 to 7 on f o u r v a r i a b l e s , o v e r a l l s k i l l performance, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s with peers, c o o p e r a t i v e behavior, and a b i l i t y t o reason. P h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s c o r e s were determined by student t e a c h e r ' s r a n k i n g black and white photographs of s t u d e n t s . To i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , a dyadic 22 a d a p t a t i o n o-f Chef f e r s Adaptation of F l a n d e r s I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s System (CAFIAS) was used. Data was analyzed through use of two 2x2x3 MANOVAs, u s i n g the f o u r teacher expectancy v a r i a b l e s , and b e h a v i o r s measured by CAFIAS as dependent v a r i a b l e s . M a r t i nek concluded that p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s was " s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d " with t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance, and a l s o with expected s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s f o r peers. I t was suggested that p h y s i c a l educators view p h y s i c a l performance and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . Another i n t e r e s t i n g s uggestion from the r e s u l t s was that t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , based on p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s may become p r o p h e t i c . In 1982, Martinek and Karper conducted a d e s c r i p t i v e study to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d e x p r e s s i o n of e f f o r t and motor a b i l i t y , with teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . To determine e x p e c t a t i o n s , Martinek and Karper used the same method as d e s c r i b e d above i n Martinek's 1981 study. By u s i n g c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r s were a b l e t o determine the shared v a r i a n c e between s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s and found that a s t u d e n t ' s age and e x p r e s s i o n of e f f o r t can i n f l u e n c e the e x p e c t a t i o n s that a teacher develops, p a r t i c u l a r l y those l i n k i n g with s o c i a l prowess and r easoning a b i l i t y . They a l s o suggested that performance 2 3 e x p e c t a t i o n and a c t u a l motor a b i l i t y may be r e l a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , the students may be performing to, and r e i n f o r c i n g the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , thus c r e a t i n g a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy. Martinek and Karper a l s o i n d i c a t e d t hat teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s c o u l d d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s , as has been i n d i c a t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( R e j e s k i , D a r r a c o t t , and H u t s l a r , 1979; Martinek and Johnson, 1979). Martinek and Karper a l s o surmised that high expectancy c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e more c o r r e c t i v e feedback, because t e a c h e r s a n t i c i p a t e t hat high expectancy students are capable of u s i n g more c o r r e c t i v e feedback than those p e r c e i v e d as low. Th e r e f o r e , the performance gap between the highs and lows could be expected to widen with time. Martinek and Karper (1984) s t u d i e d the m u l t i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s p e c i f i c impression cues with teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s i n elementary school c h i l d r e n . As i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s study, a d e s c r i p t i v e format was employed with e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s determined by a 1-7 r a n k i n g on f o u r v a r i a b l e s , and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s determined by graduate students' assessment of student photographs. For e f f o r t r a t i n g s , t e a c h e r s were asked, d u r i n g the 11th and 20th weeks of study to rank students on a 1-5 continuum. As i n the p r e v i o u s study, Martinek and Karper used the r e v i s e d CAFIAS o b s e r v a t i o n a l t o o l t o 24 i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . In a n a l y z i n g data, the r e s e a r c h e r s used c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n . Martinek and Karper found that as students became o l d e r , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and e f f o r t became more important f a c t o r s i n formation of e x p e c t a t i o n s , which had a l s o been i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s study (Martinek and Karper, 1983). I t was a l s o suggested that lower e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r students may encourage them to misbehave d u r i n g c l a s s . One other s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g from t h i s study was that students that are expected t o be more s o c i a l l y adept working i n groups r e c e i v e more c o n t e n t - r e l a t e d feedback than students considered t o be l e s s s o c i a l l y adept. In a r e l a t e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Crowe, i n 1977, examined t e a c h e r s ' expectancy e f f e c t s and t h e i r mediating mechanisms on students i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Crowe's study i d e n t i f i e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d teacher b e h a v i o r s a f f e c t i n g student behavior based on Rosenthal's f o u r f a c t o r theory (1974). In t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study, t e a c h e r s were requested to rank-order s t u d e n t s i n order of t h e i r performance i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Four p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s were observed i n t h i s study. From the ra n k - o r d e r i n g , students were placed i n t o e i t h e r high or low expectancy groups. A t o t a l of 48 high expectancy students and 48 low expectancy s t u d e n t s were observed by three judges t r a i n e d i n the Brophy-Good I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s 2 5 System. An a n a l y s i s o-f v a r i a n c e was performed to assess the e f f e c t s of t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s on Rosenthal's f o u r f a c t o r s , as well as on a f i f t h f a c t o r , touch. Crowe found that designated high a c h i e v e r s were asked more ques t i o n s and given more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to respond than lows. Teachers acted more "warmly" towards high a c h i e v e r s than lows. L i k e other l a t e r s t u d i e s , i t was found that high expectancy students r e c e i v e d more c o r r e c t i v e feedback than d i d low s t u d e n t s . I t was a l s o found that high students r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n , and were given more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to respond, than those p e r c e i v e d t o be low s t u d e n t s . Crowe concluded that more evidence was needed t o conclude that teachers communicate e x p e c t a t i o n s to s t u d e n t s by u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o r s . P i e r o n (1982), i n a d e s c r i p t i v e study, examined be h a v i o r s of low and high a c h i e v e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . In determining expectancy, P i e r o n asked t e a c h e r s to i n d i c a t e the three h i g h e s t and lowest a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s i n terms of s u b j e c t matter content. From the c a t e g o r i e s , two of t h r e e s u b j e c t s were observed. Students were observed between the s i x t h and e l e v e n t h minutes of a l e s s o n . A t o t a l of 224 students, from ages 15-18 were observed, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e i t h e r a v o l l e y b a l l or gymnastics l e s s o n . P i e r o n used a m o d i f i e d i n t e r v a l i r e c o r d i n g system to accumulate necessary data. To 2 6 determine i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y , the scored i n t e r v a l d i f f e r e n c e method was used (Hawkins Ic Dotson, 1975). Data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of examining d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , with t - t e s t s b e i n g used to d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n c e s between high and low a c h i e v e r s . I t was found t h a t the success r a t e f o r a c t i v i t i e s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y between v o l l e y b a l l and gymnastics. I t was a l s o found that high a c h i e v e r s found more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to l e a r n i n c l a s s than d i d low a c h i e v e r s , and because of t h i s , the gap between high and low should be expected to widen over time. Teachers i n t h i s study appeared to behave s i m i l a r l y with the high and low a c h i e v e r s , although t e a c h e r s tended to r e a c t more o f t e n to low's u n s u c c e s s f u l t r i a l s . P i e r o n f i n a l l y s t a t e d that the s i z e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n teacher i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not appear to be high enough to account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between high and lows i n terms of time-on-task or success r a t e . In another expectancy r e l a t e d study, H a t f i e l d and Landers (1978) explored observer expectancy e f f e c t s upon a p p r a i s a l of gross motor performance. In t h i s study, H a t f i e l d and Landers s e l e c t e d t h r e e groups of o b s e r v e r s to watch c h i l d r e n on a s t a b i l o m e t e r . One of the groups was t o l d t h a t they were o b s e r v i n g " s u p e r i o r " performers, while the second group of observers were t o l d they were watching " i n f e r i o r " performers. A t h i r d group was used as a c o n t r o l 27 and, there-fore, were not given any expectancy i n f o r m a t i o n . In f a c t , a l l c h i l d r e n observed were of equal a b i l i t y . Each s u b j e c t was a l s o c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r mesomorphic or endomorphic by percentage of body f a t . Observers scored each i n d i v i d u a l on the s t a b i l o m e t e r by time on balance, and by performance e r r o r s . Each s u b j e c t performed s i x t r i a l s on the s t a b i l o m e t e r . A f t e r the s i x t r i a l s , o b s e r v e r s completed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e checking how t h e i r e x p e c t a n c i e s were developed, and t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n these e s t i m a t e s . For data a n a l y s i s , t h r e e s e p a r a t e 3x2x6 ANOVA's were used. H a t f i e l d and Landers concluded that p o s i t i v e expectancy performers were a t t r i b u t e d with l e s s e r r o r than negative expectancy performers. They went on to suggest that s i n c e these judges had to estimate both e r r o r s and time, the obs e r v e r s were so overloaded with i n f o r m a t i o n that e r r o r s were made i n e v a l u a t i o n . H a t f i e l d and Landers concluded that the above f i n d i n g showed a need t o examine a t h l e t i c e v a l u a t i o n and j u d g i n g . In a 1980 study, R e j e s k i and Lowe examined the r o l e of a b i l i t y and e f f o r t i n a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r s p o r t achievement. In t h i s study, R e j e s k i and Lowe t e s t e d a l l s u b j e c t s i n quadraceps s t r e n g t h . A f t e r a l l s u b j e c t s had been t e s t e d , the s u b j e c t s were given bogus i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r performance, and a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s bogus i n f o r m a t i o n were grouped. Next, s u b j e c t s then proceeded t o take two b i c y c l e 28 ergometer t e s t s . At the end o-f each t e s t , s u b j e c t s were informed of the number of r e v o l u t i o n s completed, and a l s o of t h e i r heart r a t e . However, the heart r a t e r e a d i n g was a bogus one, a l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h e r s t o manipulate the s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t f o r each a c t i v i t y . During the second ergometer t e s t , s u b j e c t s were given e i t h e r a higher or lower work load, without being informed. At the end of the second ergometer t e s t , s u b j e c t s that i n c r e a s e d t h e i r performance from t e s t 1 were t o l d t h a t they had scored i n the upper 90th p e r c e n t i l e f o r the t e s t . L i k e w i s e , s u b j e c t s that experienced a decrement i n performance were t o l d that they had scored i n the lower lOth p e r c e n t i l e . S u b j e c t s then completed an expectancy, a f f e c t , and a t t r i b u t i o n a l s c a l e . To analyze data, a 2x2x2 ( A b i l i t y x E f f o r t x Outcome) MANOVA was used on the fo u r dependent v a r i a b l e s of a b i l i t y , e f f o r t , task d i f f i c u l t y , and luck. R e j e s k i and Lowe d i s c o v e r e d that s u b j e c t s a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r success, or f a i l u r e , i n performance t o a b i l i t y , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p r i o r a b i l i t y l e v e l . E f f o r t , or lack of e f f o r t , was not p e r c e i v e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the success, or f a i l u r e , at the task. A f f e c t , or " f e e l i n g " f o r the a c t i v i t y was most p o s i t i v e when s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d high e f f o r t and a b i l i t y feedback. A f f e c t was most negative when low a b i l i t y and e f f o r t feedback was g i v e n . Expectancy f o r performance outcome l a r g e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o s u b j e c t s ' a n a l y s i s of task 2 9 d i f f i c u l t y . R e j e s k i , D a r r a c o t t , and H u t s l a r (1979) conducted a d e s c r i p t i v e study examining whether the "pygmalion e f f e c t " o c c u r r e d i n youth s p o r t programs. Coaches were observed i n the f i e l d and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with p a r t i c i p a n t s were analyzed. Observers recorded i n t e r a c t i o n s by use of the Coaching Behavior A n a l y s i s System (CBAS). A f t e r the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d , coaches were asked t o rank-order t h e i r team members by p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y . In t h i s manner the top and bottom three p l a y e r s were s e l e c t e d as high and low expectancy c h i l d r e n . In the a n a l y s i s of data, Hotel l i n g ' s T, and a one-way A n a l y s i s of Co-Variance was used. The r e s e a r c h e r s found that high expectancy s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d more s p e c i f i c reinforcement, and more s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , than d i d low expectancy p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s go on to s t a t e that u n l e s s students f e e l t h a t they can achieve a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of performance, t h e i r performance tends t o taper, and the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" can occur. T h e r e f o r e , the key in i n s t r u c t i o n i s to s e t r e a l i s t i c g o a l s f o r each c h i l d . 3 0 Research on Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n Education Most r e s e a r c h e r s i n education seem to agree that t h e r e have been three c y c l e s f o r examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and g a i n i n student achievement. F i r s t c y c l e r e s e a r c h , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the work of Barr was based on teacher p e r s o n a l i t y and teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were d i s p l a y e d (Rosenshine, 1979). Second c y c l e r e s e a r c h , b e g i n n i n g i n the 1950*s, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by F l a n d e r s , Medley, M i t z e l , and o t h e r s , focused on the s y s t e m a t i c c o u n t i n g of s p e c i f i c t e acher/student b e h a v i o r s , and a n a l y z i n g these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with student achievement g a i n (Rosenshine, 1979). T h i r d c y c l e r e s e a r c h i n i t i a t e d i n the e a r l y 1970's, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by B e r l i n e r , has focused on student a t t e n t i o n , content that the student i s c o v e r i n g and has mastered, and s e t t i n g s t h at promote engagement time of the student (Rosenshine, 1979). Rosenshine s t a t e s that the two major v a r i a b l e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the t h i r d c y c l e are content covered, and a c a d e m i c a l l y engaged minutes. Rosenshine p o i n t s out that i n a l l s t u d i e s reviewed, with one e x c e p t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to e x i s t between content covered and g a i n s i n student achievement. Rosenshine goes on to make a key p o i n t ; that 31 a l l o c a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i s not as important as students* a c a d e m i c a l l y engaged minutes per day. In -fact, Rosenshine s t a t e s t h a t : A teacher i s not o b l i g a t e d t o maintain high engagement o-f students at a l l times; what i s more c r i t i c a l i s the t o t a l number of a c a d e m i c a l l y engaged minutes and the amount covered, (p. 36) Rosenshine c l e a r l y s t a t e s that u n l e s s s u b j e c t matter i s taught i n academic areas i t i s not learned. The key u n d e r l y i n g theme i s that " d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n " ; a c t i v i t i e s that d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e to s u c c e s s f u l i n s t r u c t i o n i n academic areas and to s e t t i n g s t hat promote s u c c e s s f u l i n s t r u c t i o n , are c r i t i c a l l y important i n maximizing student l e a r n i n g and achievement. An e x t e n s i v e study c a r r i e d out i n the e a r l y 1970's, the Beginning Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Study (B.T.E.S.) ( F i s h e r , et a l . , 1978), g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d r e s e a r c h done on t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g i n elementary s c h o o l s . In t h i s study, t h r e e key v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d ; a l l o c a t e d time, "the time a teacher p r o v i d e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r content area"; engaged time, "the time a student i s a t t e n d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r content area"; and, academic l e a r n i n g time. "the time a student i s engaged with i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are at an easy l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y f o r that student" ( B e r l i n e r , 1979). The u n d e r l y i n g premise of the study was that v a r i a b i l i t y between a l l o c a t e d , engaged, and academic l e a r n i n g time may 32 be the best known p r e d i c t o r f o r l e a r n i n g ; d i s r e g a r d i n g i n i t i a l a p t i t u d e . For t h i s study, the key v a r i a b l e used was Academic L e a r n i n g Time (A.L.T). There was found to be a high c o r r e l a t i o n between math and r e a d i n g outcome s c o r e s , and A.L.T. . In r e v i e w i n g the f i n d i n g s of the B.T.E.S. study, B e r l i n e r (1979) e x p l a i n s t h a t although A.L.T. does not l i k e l y have a d i r e c t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p with achievement, i t l i k e l y has a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . B e r l i n e r a l s o s t a t e s that the content area a student i s working i n must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , that task engagement, and l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y be judged, and that time be measured. One of the key p o i n t s B e r l i n e r r a i s e s i s that academic l e a r n i n g time can be measured at any time, not j u s t at the end of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y a l l o w s a r e s e a r c h e r t o study l e a r n i n g as i t a c t u a l l y o c c u r s . In f a c t , B e r l i n e r l a t e r suggests t h a t academic l e a r n i n g time may be a b e t t e r method of e v a l u a t i n g student performance than achievement s c o r e s , s i n c e A.L.T. i s u n a f f e c t e d by entrance a b i l i t y , which can l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e student performance outcomes ( B e r l i n e r , 1979). 33 Academic L e a r n i n g Time Research i n P h y s i c a l Education With the p o t e n t i a l o-f the Academic L e a r n i n g Time model i n the Beginning Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Study being exposed, other d i s c i p l i n e s , b e s i d e s r e a d i n g and mathematics began to adapt the model. In P h y s i c a l Education, Daryl Siedentop and h i s graduate students began to produce and use a v a r i a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l A.L.T. model. In 1979, such a model was conceived and t e s t e d . In a 19SO d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , M e t z l e r developed an instrument to measure Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l Education (A.L.T. - P.E.). T h i s instrument used an i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g method, having f o u r c a t e g o r i e s f o r b e h a v i o r a l coding. These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t e d of; s e t t i n g , content, l e a r n e r moves, and l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y . Within each category, the r e s e a r c h e r had a c h o i c e of d e s c r i p t i o n s t h at s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s c r i b e student behavior. Each s u b j e c t was observed f o r s i x seconds, and then the observer had s i x seconds to r e c o r d what was seen. To use t h i s instrument, each r e s e a r c h e r had to undergo an e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d c o d i n g from v i d e o - t a p e i n i t i a l l y and l a t e r p r r o g r e s s i n g to l i v e o b s e r v a t i o n of s t u d e n t s . To ensure t h a t the data c o l l e c t e d was r e l i a b l e and v a l i d , , i n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y had to be determined. I f o b s e r v e r s were found t o be over 75% agreement f o r al1 34 coding c a t e a g o r i e s , then they were c o n s i d e r e d t o be ready f o r a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n . Within the d e s c r i p t i v e study, 92 students were observed i n 14 d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s . For the a n a l y s i s of data, d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used, with mean and percentage A.L.T. being c o n s i d e r e d . M e t z l e r a l s o examined A.L.T. - P.E.(M); the amount of time s u b j e c t s were engaged i n "motor a p p r o p r i a t e " A.L.T. - P.E.. He found that t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t " f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t " through the f o u r coding c a t e g o r i e s , as the a n a l y s i s of a c t i o n proceeded from s e t t i n g through t o l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y . In a r e l a t e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , a l s o at the Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , B i r d w e l l (1980) examined the e f f e c t s of m o d i f i c a t i o n of teacher behavior on the A.L.T. of p h y s i c a l education students. The A.L.T. - P.E. system devised by Siedentop et a l . (1979) was used f o r the purposes of data c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s study. Three t e a c h e r s , one from elementary, j u n i o r high, and s e n i o r high school were s e l e c t e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. Each of these t e a c h e r s were given i n s t r u c t i o n s t o reduce management time l e v e l s , n e g a t i v e feedback, and student non-engagement. As M e t z l e r had done p r e v i o u s l y , B i r d w e l l a l s o examined A.L.T. - P.E.(M). D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used f o r data a n a l y s i s . B i r d w e l l s t a t e d t h a t there appeared to be an a s s o c i a t i o n between changes i n teacher behavior and 35 i n c r e a s e s i n A.L.T.. I t was concluded that with a decrease in management time, and an i n c r e a s e i n c o r r e c t i v e -feedback, s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n both A.L.T. - P.E. and A.L.T. - P.E.(M) may occur. In another d e s c r i p t i v e study, Whaley (1980) used the A.L.T. - P.E. model to examine the e f f e c t of d a i l y m o n i t o r i n g and feedback on s t u d e n t s . In t h i s study, three students i n f o u r c l a s s e s were examined over seven weeks. H i s r e s e a r c h design used a b a s e l i n e study, an i n t e r v e n t i o n (feedback f o r teac h e r s on A.L.T. - P.E. c a t a g o r i e s ) and a f i n a l study. The data was analyzed by a m u l t i p l e b a s e l i n e a c r o s s s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s showed that g r a p h i c feedback had no e f f e c t on content time, engaged time, or A.L.T. - P.E. of students. I t was, however, noted t h a t changes of A.L.T. - P.E. occ u r r e d with changes i n the c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , r a t h e r than with i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Rate (1981) examined A.L.T. - P.E. and coaching behaviors i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c p r a c t i c e s . Rate used the system devised by Siedentop e t a l . (1979) t o r e c o r d A.L.T. - P.E. i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s e t t i n g s . Data was c o l l e c t e d on 46 teams i n f i v e s p o r t s , those being b a s k e t b a l 1 ( 3 2 ) , wrest 1 i n g ( 6 ) , gymnasties(2), t e n n i s ( 4 ) , and b a s e b a l l ( 2 ) . Data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , and a one-way ANOVA between the s p o r t s . Rate found that 75% of i n s t r u c t i o n was d i r e c t , and t h a t the same 3 6 f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t , r e p o r t e d by M e t z l e r o c c u r r e d . When l o o k i n g at s p e c i f i c s p o r t s , Rate found that A.L.T. - P.E. and A.L.T. - P.E.(M) v a r i e d from s p o r t to s p o r t with s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g recorded between w r e s t l i n g - t e n n i s , and w r e s t l i n g - gymnastics. I t was a l s o found t h a t A.L.T. - P.E. (M) made up approximately two t h i r d s of the o v e r a l l p r a c t i c e time. In a 1983 monograph, Siedentop analysed the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of A.L.T. - P.E.. He s t a t e s that the b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g concept of A.L.T. i s that of an advanced method of r e c o r d i n g time-on-task. In t h i s a r t i c l e , Siedentop c i t e s McLeish (1981) who s t a t e s t h a t : I t i s one of the major impressions r e c e i v e d i n the use of the ALT - PE system that t h i s s u p p l i e s the m i s s i n g element, or indeed the major component, f o r e v a l u a t i n g e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Time-on-task, academic l e a r n i n g time, o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n — c a l l i t what you w i l l , and measure i t i f you can — t h i s i s the v i t a l component of e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l , (p. 31) Siedentop goes on to suggest that the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument c o u l d be improved by d e v e l o p i n g c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s f o r each P.E. a c t i v i t y , and that A.L.T. - P.E. should more c a r e f u l l y r e f l e c t the g o a l s of the l e a r n i n g environment. He a l s o s t a t e s that another l i m i t i n g f a c t o r of A.L.T. - P.E. r e s e a r c h i s that i t uses an i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g method, thus i s s u b j e c t e d to problems that e x i s t with any i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g system. However, Siedentop 37 r e i t e r a t e s the need to q u a n t i f y , and the use of time a l l o w s f o r such q u a n t i f i c a t i o n . In t u r n , t h i s q u a n t i f i c a t i o n a l l o w s f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n . Godbout, B r u n e i l e , and Tousignant (1983), conducted a d e s c r i p t i v e study on A.L.T. - P.E. i n elementary and secondary P.E. c l a s s e s . Using the method developed by Siedentop e t a l . (1979) the r e s e a r c h e r s observed s i x t y - o n e c l a s s e s ( t h i r t y elementary and t h i r t y - o n e secondary) twice i n a two month p e r i o d , f o r A.L.T.- P.E.. The data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , with t - t e s t s used to compare elementary and secondary data. They found that the main d i f f e r e n c e between elementary and secondary c l a s s e s i n p h y s i c a l education tended t o be i n the amount of general content versus P.E. content a c t i v i t i e s . In the elementary school s e t t i n g , more time was spent on w a i t i n g , management, and r e s t i n g , than i n the secondary s c h o o l . In both cases, students were found to e x p e r i e n c e A.L.T. - P.E. about one t h i r d of the time. F i n a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r s s t a t e that they suspect A.L.T. - P.E. d a t a may be i n f l u e n c e d by the nature of the a c t i v i t y taught. Shute, Oodds, Placek, R i f e , and Silverman (1982) examined academic l e a r n i n g time i n movement e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e - a n a l y t i c study, the r e s e a r c h e r s examined d i f f e r e n c e s between student gender, s k i l l l e v e l s , s p e c i a l need and n o n - s p e c i a l need students, and o v e r a l l A.L.T. - 3 8 P.E. s c o r e s f o r movement educa t i o n with one p h y s i c a l e ducation teacher. 147 o b s e r v a t i o n s of s t u d e n t s were made, and a t o t a l of 20 c l a s s e s observed. To d i s t i n g u i s h between high, middle, and low s k i l l groups, the teacher was requested t o group the top and bottom 5 students, based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of s k i l l . The remaining, ungrouped students were co n s i d e r e d t o be middle s t u d e n t s . The sample was determined by randomly s e l e c t i n g f o u r s t u d e n t s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i n each c l a s s . At the c o n c l u s i o n of the study 46 high, 61 middle, and 40 low s k i l l s t u d e n t s were observed. Eleven s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d , and 15 o b s e r v a t i o n s were taken on these c h i l d r e n . A.L.T. - P.E. V e r s i o n I was used as the measurement d e v i c e (Siedentop et a l . , 1979). The data a n a l y s i s f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s , with means and percentages used. R e s u l t s of t h i s study found that students were engaged i n A.L.T. - P.E. about 22% of the time. L i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was noted between gender and a l s o i n s k i l l l e v e l i n terms of o v e r a l l A.L.T. - P.E. f o r the groups. The s p e c i a l needs st u d e n t s had l e s s motor response easy time than the non s p e c i a l s t u d e n t s . In a s i m i l a r study done by Placek, Silverman, Shute, Dodds, and R i f e (1982) a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of academic l e a r n i n g time i n a t r a d i t i o n a l elementary p h y s i c a l e ducation s e t t i n g was conducted. In t h i s study, one male 39 p h y s i c a l educator was observed t e a c h i n g a grade one, a grade three, and a grade s i x p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s . S k i l l l e v e l s were determined by the same procedures as i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s study. To determine s k i l l l e v e l , the teacher was asked i n the - f i r s t week to i n d i c a t e the f i v e h ighest and lowest s k i l l e d i n each c l a s s . During the data c o l l e c t i o n , c h i l d r e n were randomly observed, with 21 o b s e r v a t i o n s of h i g h l y s k i l l e d , 78 of middle s k i l l e d , and 24 of low s k i l l e d students taken. To d i s t i n g u i s h between the i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were assigned, (1) m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s , where students worked with o b j e c t s i n s k i l l p r a c t i c e r a t h e r than i n game s i t u a t i o n ; <2> team s p o r t s , group games with d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p l a y e r r o l e s ; and, (3) movement experiences, where problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , based on Laban's movement a n a l y s i s f a c t o r s were f o l l o w e d . In t h i s study, d i f f e r e n c e s between A.L.T.- P.E. f o r g i r l s and boys was examined, as was A.L.T. - P.E. f o r a l l students. Observers were t r a i n e d as o u t l i n e d by the V e r s i o n I A.L.T. - P.E. manual (Siedentop e t a l . , 1979). I n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y checks were conducted throughout the study t o ensure observer s t a b i l i t y . Data a n a l y s i s was done by use of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s with A.L.T. mean s c o r e s being converted to percentage f i g u r e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s found that s t u d e n t s were engaged i n A.L.T. - P.E. about 20% of the time. I t was noted that the 40 " f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t " r e p o r t e d by M e t z l e r (1980) occurred i n two areas. The r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t as time was c l a s s i f i e d , from a l l o c a t e d time, down to Motor Response Easy time t h e r e was a d r a s t i c f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d that a f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t was apparent i n the d i f f e r e n t s k i l l l e v e l s of students. High s k i l l e d s t u dents recorded more A.L.T. - P.E. than d i d middle s k i l l e d . In t u r n , these middle s k i l l e d s t u d e n t s recorded more A.L.T. - P.E. than low s k i l l e d s t u d e n t s . These f i g u r e s would seem to support P i e r o n ' s (1982) a s s e r t i o n that the performance gap between high and low s k i l l e d s tudents may widen due to high s k i l l e d s t u d e n t s higher A.L.T. - P.E. time. I t must a l s o be noted t h a t , i n t h i s study, i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s were not used, so i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t e l l i f the d i f f e r e n c e s between high, middle, and low groups were s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d that t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s i n t o t a l A.L.T. - P.E. time, with boys r e c o r d i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y higher A.L.T.. I t was found that movement exp e r i e n c e s provided f a r more A.L.T. (41%), than d i d m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s (22%), or team games ( 5 % ) . The r e s e a r c h e r s suggest that game and scrimmage s i t u a t i o n s seemed t o l i m i t p r a c t i c e time, thus l i m i t i n g A.L.T. - P.E.. Another s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i v e - a n a l y t i c study conducted by the same authors examined academic l e a r n i n g time f o r 41 student subgroups and i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y u n i t s i n elementary s c h o o l s (Silverman et a l . , 1984). In t h i s study two t e a c h i n g s t y l e s were examined, with one teacher u s i n g a movement education approach, w h i l e the second used a games and s p o r t s approach. The subgroups -for a c t i v i t i e s were; m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s , movement s k i l l s ; and team s p o r t s . The subgroup s e l e c t i o n procedure -for high, middle, and low groups was the same as i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , as was the procedure f o r s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i a l needs st u d e n t s . As i n pr e v i o u s s t u d i e s , observers were t r a i n e d t o observe and recor d u s i n g the A.L.T. instrument (Siedentop et a l . , 1979). The data a n a l y s i s used f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of a 2x2 ( s i t u a t i o n x sex) MANOVA, and a second 2x3 ( s i t u a t i o n x s k i l l l e v e l ) MANOVA, with the dependent v a r i a b l e s being the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of the A.L.T.-P.E. ( V e r s i o n 1) system (Learner Moves-Engaged, Motor Response, and Motor Response Easy). For the data a n a l y s i s between s p e c i a l need and non- s p e c i a l need students d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used. I t was found that n e i t h e r student gender, nor s k i l l l e v e l accounted f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Students recorded higher mean A.L.T. - P.E. time i n the movement educa t i o n c l a s s e s and m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s c l a s s e s than d i d students i n v o l v e d i n team s p o r t s c l a s s e s . As was repo r t e d i n the other study, s t u d e n t s i n the s p e c i a l needs category accumulated much l e s s motor-response easy time 42 than d i d non s p e c i a l needs students. Martinek and Karper, i n a 1983 d e s c r i p t i v e study, examined the i n f l u e n c e of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s on A.L.T. i n an elementary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s . In t h i s study, Martinek and Karper had a teacher s e l e c t a high and low expectancy student, based on the t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of performance. These two students were observed by r e s e a r c h e r s over a s i x week p e r i o d , u s i n g the A.L.T. i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g instrument. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used f o r the data a n a l y s i s . The r e s e a r c h e r s found that the high expectancy student had much higher A.L.T. then the low expectancy student. I t was a l s o found that the low expectancy c h i l d showed f a r more motor i n a p p r o p r i a t e responses than the high expectancy student. The teacher provided f a r more t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o the high expectancy student than the low expectancy student. F i n a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r s found that the high expectancy student was found t o be engaged i n more non-motor a c t i v i t i e s ( t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , r o u t i n e s , e t c . ) than the low expectancy student. Thus, Martinek and Karper surmised that expectancy e f f e c t s may be r e l a t e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n A.L.T. found. An example of A.L.T. - P.E. r e s e a r c h moving out of the formal t e a c h i n g s e t t i n g was Wuest, Mancini, van der Mars, and T e r r i 1 1 i o n ' s (1984) study examining the A.L.T. - P.E. 43 o-f high, average, and low s k i l l e d -Female i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e v o l l e y b a l l p l a y e r s . In t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e - a n a l y t i c study, 18 v o l l e y b a l l p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s were video-taped throughout a season o-f p l a y . At the end o-f the season, the coach o-f t h i s team r a t e d p l a y e r s on a continuum -from high to low a b i l i t y . From t h i s continuum, the r e s e a r c h e r s s e l e c t e d one high, middle, and low a b i l i t y student. The v i d e o t a p e s were then coded by observers u s i n g the A.L.T. - P.E. V e r s i o n II instrument. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used to analyze the data c o l l e c t e d . I t was -found . that low and average s k i l l e d p l a y e r s had fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e than d i d h i g h l y s k i l l e d p l a y e r s . However, d i f f e r e n c e s , with r e s p e c t t o non-motor a c t i v i t i e s were minimal. In a major r e v i s i o n of the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument, Siedentop, Tousignant, and Parker (1982) developed a s t r e a m l i n e d v e r s i o n of the o r i g i n a l instrument. Instead of having f o u r coding c a t e g o r i e s , V e r s i o n II used o n l y two coding c a t e g o r i e s , the Context L e v e l , and Learner Involvement L e v e l . Within the context category, the r e s e a r c h e r has to decide whether the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n e i t h e r the General Content, Subject Matter Knowledge, or Subject Matter Motor subcategory. Once t h i s has been determined on the coding sheet, the r e s e a r c h e r has to analyze whether the s u b j e c t i s i n e i t h e r the Not Motor Engaged, or Motor Engaged c a t e g o r i e s of l e a r n e r 44 involvement. I t has been f e l t by r e s e a r c h e r s that V e r s i o n II i s more s e n s i t i v e t o student b e h a v i o r s than V e r s i o n I, and i s e a s i e r to use ( R i f e , Shute, and Dodds, 1985). The t r a i n i n g procedures and i n t e r - o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y procedures remain the same as i n V e r s i o n I. R i f e , Shute, and Dodds (1985) c o n t r a s t e d A.L.T. V e r s i o n s I and I I . In t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study, two u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s , i n v o l l e y b a l l and badminton, were videotaped, over a t h r e e week p e r i o d . The vi d e o t a p e s began when the c l a s s was c a l l e d t o order and ended when the students were dism i s s e d . The vi d e o t a p e s were then coded by observers t r a i n e d i n both A.L.T. v e r s i o n I and I I . For both v e r s i o n s , the same students were observed on videotape to c o n t r o l f o r d i f f e r e n c e s by i n d i v i d u a l s . The data a n a l y s i s f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of percentages c a l c u l a t e d from mean A.L.T. s c o r e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s found that the two v e r s i o n s of A.L.T. y i e l d e d , e s s e n t i a l l y , s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . V e r s i o n I allowed the re s e a r c h e r t o gather some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the te a c h e r s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l moves, w h i l e v e r s i o n I I ' s combining of l e a r n e r moves and d i f f i c u l t y , through the motor a p p r o p r i a t e category, s t r e a m l i n e d data c o l l e c t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s concluded that both instruments y i e l d e d e s s e n t i a l l y the same kind of i n f o r m a t i o n . S i n c e both instruments y i e l d e d s i m i l a r data, i t was p o s s i b l e to compare r e s e a r c h done on A.L.T. by 45 v e r s i o n I and I I . In a 1986 d e s c r i p t i v e - a n a l y t i c study, Placek and Randall compared A.L.T. - P.E. i n s p e c i a l i s t and n o n s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s . 20 t e a c h e r s ' (7 s p e c i a l i s t s and 13 n o n s p e c i a l i s t s ) c l a s s e s were examined. For t h i s study, a s p e c i a l i s t was c l a s s i f i e d as having at l e a s t a b a c h e l o r ' s degree i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Teachers were t o l d not to d e v i a t e from t h e i r normal i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n the p e r i o d . Each o-f the t e a c h e r s were observed e i t h e r two or three times. Students were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n by random s e l e c t i o n , and observed lO c o n s e c u t i v e times (2 minutes). No attempt was made t o c o n t r o l grade l e v e l , and c l a s s e s were observed from k i n d e r g a r t e n t o grade 6. As i n other s t u d i e s , o b s e r v e r s were i n i t i a l l y t r a i n e d f o r use of the A.L.T. r e c o r d i n g instrument, and r e l i a b i l i t y checks conducted throughout the study. The data a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s t o c o n t r a s t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n the s p e c i a l i s t and n o n s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s . A t - t e s t was used t o c o n t r a s t mean academic l e a r n i n g time between s p e c i a l i s t and n o n s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s . I t was found that n o n s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s recorded higher A.L.T. than the s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s . However, when the s u b j e c t matter motor c a t e g o r i e s were examined, i t was found t h a t s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i a l i s t s * c l a s s e s spent more time i n s k i l l p r a c t i c e than i n n o n s p e c i a l i s t s " . The r e s e a r c h e r s noted that s tudents 46 u s u a l l y r e c e i v e -far more feedback i n s k i l l p r a c t i c e than i n the game s e t t i n g . In f a c t , when s k i l l p r a c t i c e and scrimmage time was combined, i t was found t h a t s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s had a f a r g r e a t e r amount of time devoted to these type of t a s k s , as opposed t o students i n n o n s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s . When the s p e c i a l i s t and n o n s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' mean A.L.T. was compared, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. Placek and Randall concluded that there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n academic l e a r n i n g time between c l a s s e s taught by s p e c i a l i s t p h y s i c a l education teachers, and those taught by n o n s p e c i a l i s t s . In examining the l i t e r a t u r e i n both teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and academic l e a r n i n g time i n p h y s i c a l education, t h e r e appears t o be s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s t o be exp l o r e d . The expectancy l i t e r a t u r e supports the premise v that a " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" i s i n e x i s t e n c e i n some p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , yet the impact of such a prophecy i s s t i l l debated. At the same time, the Academic L e a r n i n g Time instrument appears t o be a v a l i d way to reco r d student behavior i n a q u a n t i t a t i v e f a s h i o n . T h i s instrument i s a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because i t p r o v i d e s some measurable data on both s t u d e n t s and teach e r s . By u s i n g the A.L.T. instrument, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o 47 examine i-f there are differences in A.L.T. between high, middle, and low expectancy students in physical education. Although a previous study has been conducted in t h i s area by Martinek and Karper (1983), further research i s d e f i n i t e l y needed to substantiate or refute previous findings. In Martinek and Karper*s study two students (a low and high expectancy student) were observed over a six week period in physical education. Since only two students were observed, a potential weakness existed in Martinek and Karper*s study. In my study, 36 students, in six di f f e r e n t schools w i l l be observed for A.L.T. - P.E. It w i l l also be possible to place controls on teacher gender (male), grade (s i x ) , a c t i v i t y (basketball), and lesson structure. In previous A.L.T. - P.E. studies, these controls have not been used. By using such controls, differences not found in previous research, in both teacher expectations, and in Academic Learning Time in Physical Education may be revealed. It w i l l also be possible to examine the relationships of teacher t r a i n i n g and student gender to Academic Learning Time in Physical Education in t h i s study. 48 Chapter 3 Methodology In the i n i t i a l p a r t of t h i s chapter, the p o p u l a t i o n and sample are d e f i n e d , with sampling procedures o u t l i n e d . Next, procedures f o r g a i n i n g access to the d i s t r i c t , and s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n are presented. The instruments used i n t h i s study are then e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l . F i n a l l y , the sources and q u a l i t y of measurement are i d e n t i f i e d i n r e a d i n e s s f o r data a n a l y s i s . P o p u l a t i o n t o Which C o n c l u s i o n s W i l l Be G e n e r a l i z e d The p o p u l a t i o n to which c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be i n f e r r e d a re grade s i x s t u d e n t s t a k i n g P h y s i c a l Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia elementary s c h o o l s . In t h i s study, a l l students were i n s t r u c t e d by male t e a c h e r s i n the r e g u l a r elementary school program, and i n a whole grade c l a s s . The students' ages ranged from i l to 13 y e a r s . 49 Sampling Techniques The sample was determined by s e l e c t i n g s i x s c h o o l s •from a B r i t i s h Columbia School D i s t r i c t . The s c h o o l s s e l e c t e d had to have one whole grade s i x c l a s s -for measurement, and have c o - e d u c a t i o n a l p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . To s e l e c t t e a c h e r s and c l a s s e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i n the study, a l i s t of a l l male grade s i x t e a c h e r s i n the School D i s t r i c t was compiled. A l l t e a c h e r s i n s t r u c t i n g s p l i t - c l a s s e s were e l i m i n a t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the study. Furthermore, the t e a c h e r s had t o be the predominant i n s t r u c t o r of the c l a s s . The f i n a l subgrouping c o n s i s t e d of l i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . From the l i s t submitted, o n l y two t e a c h e r s q u a l i f i e d as b eing p h y s i c a l education majors, and t h e i r c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . Two other t e a c h e r s had taken advanced methodology courses i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and were c o n s i d e r e d to have obtained a minor i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n at u n i v e r s i t y . These two teachers* c l a s s e s were a l s o s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , two c l a s s e s , taught by t e a c h e r s who had no s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l education were s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. F i v e t e a c h e r s and c l a s s e s were found s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s category. From t h i s group of f i v e , two t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d at random, f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . These 5 0 two t e a c h e r s were co n s i d e r e d to be " g e n e r a l i s t " p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t o r s . Procedures G a i n i n g Permission to Perform Study Due to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a f f i l i a t i o n with a school d i s t r i c t , i t was decided t h a t a l l t e s t i n g would be done the r e . By s e l e c t i n g one school d i s t r i c t f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , b i a s , due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u r r i c u l u m emphasis, was minimized. To g a i n p e r m i s s i o n i n u s i n g d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s , the A s s i s t a n t Superintendent was approached, and informed f u l l y about the aims and procedures of the study. Permission was granted f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to c o n t a c t i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . At the same time, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia E t h i c s Committee gave consent f o r the r e s e a r c h to be conducted. Before c o n t a c t i n g each teacher about p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study, p r i n c i p a l s of the s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d were contacted and p e r m i s s i o n granted to use the s c h o o l , s t u d e n t s , and teacher i n the study. In November 1986, each teacher was c o n t a c t e d , i n person, and asked f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. At t h i s p o i n t , each teacher was asked to s i g n a l e t t e r of informed consent (Appendix 1). An e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r was given to each teacher, 51 o u t l i n i n g the requirements of the study, without d i r e c t l y in-Forming them about the purpose o-f the study (Appendix 2 ) . In t h i s l e t t e r , t e a c h e r s were requested t o teach t h r e e s p e c i f i c l e s s o n s on b a s k e t b a l l , each t o be observed by the r e s e a r c h e r . B a s k e t b a l l was s e l e c t e d as the a c t i v i t y t o be observed because, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , i n t h i s School D i s t r i c t ' s elementary s c h o o l s , i t i s taught t o i n t e r m e d i a t e c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l education at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time of year. Th e r e f o r e , i t was f e l t o b s e r v i n g b a s k e t b a l l l e s s o n s would c r e a t e the l e a s t amount of d i s r u p t i o n t o the c l a s s e s . Procedures S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s f o r Observation A f t e r completing the l e t t e r of informed consent, t e a c h e r s were asked t o rank-order students i n t h e i r c l a s s , based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of expected l e v e l of performance (expectancy) i n p h y s i c a l education (Crowe, 1977). The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d these l i s t s and, i n t u r n , passed them over t o a n e u t r a l t h i r d p a r t y , who then s e l e c t e d s i x students f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i n each c l a s s . T h i s t h i r d person grouped the t h r e e highest boys, and from t h i s group s e l e c t e d one s u b j e c t , at random, to be observed, with another s e l e c t e d as an a l t e r n a t e i n case of absence. The f o l l o w i n g procedure was a l s o used t o s e l e c t a high 52 expectancy g i r l , a low expectancy boy, and a low expectancy g i r l , i n each c l a s s . For the middle expectancy s u b j e c t s , the exact median boy and g i r l , a c c o r d i n g t o the rank-order sheet, was s e l e c t e d -for o b s e r v a t i o n , and an a l t e r n a t e a l s o s e l e c t e d . These s e l e c t i o n s were recorded by the t h i r d p a r t y , and then placed a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by c l a s s on a l i s t , d i s g u i s i n g the expectancy r a t i n g s . Along with each s e l e c t i o n , the a l t e r n a t e s u b j e c t was i n d i c a t e d . These new l i s t s , p l u s a blank c l a s s l i s t were then g i v e n t o the re s e a r c h e r and the o r i g i n a l rank-order sheets s t o r e d u n t i l the c o n c l u s i o n o-f the t e s t i n g p e r i o d . T h i s procedure was repeated -for a l l s i x c l a s s e s observed, producing a grand t o t a l of 36 students t o be observed, 6 i n each c l a s s . S i m i l a r grouping procedures have been used p r e v i o u s l y by Shute, et a l . (1982), Placek e t a l . (1982), Silverman et a l . (1984), and Wuest et a l . (1984). The r a t i o n a l e f o r having an independent t h i r d p a r t y group students was to minimize observer b i a s , e l i m i n a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the observer would know teacher expectancy r a t i n g s and be i n f l u e n c e d by these. I f a s u b j e c t was absent from the study f o r e i t h e r the second, t h i r d , or both days, then a replacement s u b j e c t was s u b s t i t u t e d . T h i s s u b j e c t had to be of the same gender as the o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t . In the case of a high expectancy c h i l d b e i n g absent, the c h i l d immediately a f t e r the s e l e c t e d c h i l d , a c c o r d i n g t o the 53 rank-order sheet, was observed -for A.L.T.. In the case of a low expectancy c h i l d being absent, the next highest c h i l d , a c c o r d i n g t o the rank-order sheet, was observed. In the case of a middle expectancy c h i l d being absent, the t h i r d p a r t y s e l e c t e d e i t h e r the c h i l d immediately above, or below, the s e l e c t e d c h i l d , a c c o r d i n g t o the rank-order measurement as a replacement. Instruments The Academic L e a r n i n g Time - V e r s i o n II Instrument The measuring instrument t o be used f o r c o l l e c t i o n of data was the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - V e r s i o n II model, developed by Siedentop, Tousignant, and Parker (1982). T h i s measuring t o o l was a r e v i s i o n of the i n i t i a l Academic Lea r n i n g Time instrument, developed and p i l o t e d by Metzl e r (1980). The i n i t i a l measuring instrument r e q u i r e d f o u r coding d e c i s i o n s t o be made i n s i x seconds, whereas i n Ve r s i o n I I , o n l y two coding d e c i s i o n s were made as v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s were combined t o s i m p l i f y the data c o l l e c t i o n p r ocess. In a study of both V e r s i o n I and II instruments, R i f e , Shute, and Dodds (1985) found t h a t both instruments y i e l d e d e s s e n t i a l l y the same kind of i n f o r m a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , e i t h e r c o u l d be used. Furthermore, they suggested that i n f o r m a t i o n u s i n g e i t h e r instrument c o u l d be 54 compared t o the other, i n terms of Academic L e a r n i n g Time assessmen t s. The r e s e a r c h e r , b e a r i n g t h i s study i n mind, decided t o use V e r s i o n I I , l a r g e l y because of the s i m p l i c i t y and ease o-f u s i n g the instrument. To use t h i s instrument, the r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t needed to have a audio-tape r e c o r d e r and a s p e c i a l tape with s i x - s e c o n d tones on the tape. T h i s tape r e c o r d i n g would i n d i c a t e the length of each o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , and the t o t a l r e c o r d i n g p e r i o d . In p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , s i x seconds was found t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e length t o observe a - su b j e c t and r e c o r d data (Siedentop et a l . , 1982). The res e a r c h e r l i s t e n e d t o the tape r e c o r d e r through head-phones. At f i r s t , u s i n g standard head-phones, i t was extremely d i f f i c u l t to hear the teacher t a l k i n g , and s i n c e one of the coding c a t e g o r i e s r e l i e d on d e c i d i n g the lesson context l e v e l , m o d i f i c a t i o n s had to be made. I t was found that standard "walkman" type headphones, t h a t allowed the re s e a r c h e r t o hear the l e s s o n , and a l s o the tone were s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r use. The tape, with s i x second p e r i o d s , and c u e i n g f o r each p e r i o d was prepared i n the U.B.C. Education Media Laboratory. On t h i s tape, a tone would i n i t i a t e o b s e r v a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by an audio "observe one", f o r s i x seconds. Another tone would f o l l o w , with the audio command, "record one". The f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n was repeated 55 -for s u b j e c t s two through s i x (As d e s c r i b e d i n sampling procedures, the s i x students were observed i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order with the r e s e a r c h e r not knowing the expectancy l e v e l -for each s t u d e n t ) . T h i s " c y c l e " was repeated on the ape s i x tiroes. A f t e r the s i x t h c y c l e ( s i x o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g s of each s u b j e c t - 7 minutes and 12 seconds d u r a t i o n ) , the r e s e a r c h e r was given a 72 second r e s t break. The o b s e r v a t i o n p a t t e r n was again repeated f o r s i x c y c l e s , f o l l o w e d by another 72 second break, f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l s i x c y c l e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d . T h i s provided 18 o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d s f o r each s u b j e c t , and the e n t i r e o b s e r v a t i o n a l sequence r e q u i r e d 24 minutes. The 72 second break allowed the r e s e a r c h e r t o r e f o c u s , and p r o v i d e an op p o r t u n i t y t o r e s t a f t e r i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r 7 minutes and 12 seconds. The p e r i o d of 24 minutes t o t a l o b s e r v a t i o n was determined by the r e s e a r c h e r . In the observed c l a s s e s , 5 of 6 had 30 minute P h y s i c a l Education c l a s s e s . S i n c e a small amount of time had t o be a l l o c a t e d to i n i t i a l r o u t i n e s ( i . e . , changing) that the teacher had l i t t l e c o n t r o l over i n terms of the les s o n , i t was f e l t t h a t the o b s e r v a t i o n s would begin when the teacher c l e a r l y i n i t i a t e d the l e s s o n . In the le s s o n s observed, the teacher always gave c h i l d r e n a cue to begin the l e s s o n s . S i n c e some time had to be a l l o c a t e d f o r s t a r t - u p r o u t i n e s , i t was f e l t by the re s e a r c h e r that 24 minutes was the maximum 56 p o s s i b l e o b s e r v a t i o n time. T h i s proved t o be a very wise d e c i s i o n , s i n c e i t was -found that i n the 30 minute lessons, about 25-26 minutes were spent with the a c t u a l l e s s o n s . The a c t u a l V e r s i o n II measuring instrument c o n s i s t e d of s i x double-boxed rows (F i g u r e 4 ). The top box i n d i c a t e d the Lesson Context L e v e l C O and the lower i n d i c a t e d the Learner Involvement L e v e l ("LI"). In each 12 second p e r i o d , the res e a r c h e r had to observe the student f o r s i x seconds, and then r e c o r d the s p e c i f i c Lesson Context L e v e l , and Learner Involvement L e v e l f o r the student d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The Lesson Context L e v e l r e f e r s t o the c l a s s as a whole, and d e s c r i b e s the context i n which student behavior i s o c c u r r i n g (Siedentop et a l . , 1982). Within Learner Context L e v e l t h e r e are th r e e s u b c a t e g o r i e s , General Content, which r e f e r s t o time spent where s t u d e n t s a re not d i r e c t l y engaged i n p h y s i c a l education content; Subject Matter Knowledge, which r e f e r s t o time spent on d e l i v e r y of knowledge r e l a t i n g to p h y s i c a l education; and Subject Matter Motor, which r e f e r s t o time spent where students have the o p p o r t u n i t y to become motor engaged. In the General Content area, t h e r e a re f o u r major s u b d i v i s i o n s , those being T r a n s i t i o n ("T"), Management ("M"), Break ("B"), and Warm-up ("WU"). T r a n s i t i o n r e f e r s t o time spent t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o 57 ALT-PI OODIHC Ifin 1 2 ) * 1 * ' • I 10 11 II U It U l i II II It 10 11 It ti 14 ti n u LI 14 LI LI C LI 1 2 3 4 ) • 1 • f W II 12 1) 14 IS It 17 II It 20 21 22 2} 24 JJ 24 1 3 3 4 S 4 7 • ) 10 II II II 14 IS 14 17 II It 20 21 12 23 24 IS 24 » 1 3 • » « 7 • f 10 11 12 IS 14 IS 14 17 II II 20 21 22 2} 24 IS 24 1 2 3 4 S 4 I I f 10 11 12 13 14 IS 11 17 II II 10 21 » » 14 15 14 1 3 3 4 S 4 7 I I 10 11 11 13 14 13 II 17 II It 10 II 12 I) i t 15 }» Ceatost Lovol pop.nl Contint SM Knovloan fX Motor UltMl lOVOlVOMOt LOYOl Hot Motor tniotoo Meter E n » n d Tronnttioa (T) Ttchnlqm (TN) S k i l l Froctleo (•) *. Mw»|*>*nt (M) Strotofr (ST) S c r l o M i o / l o u t U * (I) Waltln| (il) Irtok (I) »ul.. (*) Caao (C) Off-to*k (Of) Vara 0k (VU) S o c U l l«h«»lor (SI)Mtnt.i (f) On-totk (On) ••ckirowio (IK) Cognitive (C) Motor opproprlat* (Mo) Motor Inappropriate (HI) twpportln, (Mo) F i g u r e 4. Academic Le a r n i n g Time V e r s i o n II Measuring Instrument. 58 the l e s s o n . Management r e f e r s t o time spent on a c t i v i t i e s that are t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y . The key d i f f e r e n c e between these two s u b d i v i s i o n s i s that management onl y r e f e r s t o time spent u n r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l e ducation t a s k s . Break r e f e r s to time spent on r e s t or refreshment. Warm-up r e f e r s t o time spent on a c t i v i t y designed t o prepare the student f o r l a t e r a c t i v i t y , but not to a l t e r the long-term s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l ( T h i s was a category t h a t was e l i m i n a t e d when r e s e a r c h e r e s t a b l i s h e d coding c o n v e n t i o n s ) . In the Subject Matter Knowledge area, t h e r e are f i v e s u b d i v i s i o n s ; Technique ("T"), S t r a t e g y ("ST"), Rules ("R"), S o c i a l Behavior ("SB"), and Background ("BK"). Technique r e f e r s t o the teacher g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the p h y s i c a l form of the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . S t r a t e g y r e f e r s to the teacher g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on concepts performed i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Rules r e f e r s t o time spent d i s c u s s i n g the r e g u l a t i o n s of the a c t i v i t y / s p o r t . S o c i a l Behavior r e f e r s t o time spent d i s c u s s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e behavior i n context with the a c t i v i t y . The l a s t s u b d i v i s i o n , Background, r e f e r s t o g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the d e r i v a t i o n , or h i s t o r y of the a c t i v i t y . For the Subject Matter Motor area, f o u r s u b d i v i s i o n s were used; S k i l l P r a c t i c e ("P"), Scrimmage/Routine ("S"), 59 Game ("G"), and F i t n e s s ("F"). S k i l l P r a c t i c e r e f e r s to p r a c t i c i n g s k i l l s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the le s s o n . Scrimmage/Routine r e f e r s t o refinement of s k i l l s i n a c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g . Game r e f e r s t o the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v i t y i n a c o m p e t i t i v e s e t t i n g , without i n t e r v e n t i o n by the teacher. F i t n e s s r e f e r s t o a c t i v i t i e s done s p e c i f i c a l l y t o improve the p h y s i c a l w e l l b e i ng of an i n d i v i d u a l . A f t e r the re s e a r c h e r has coded the Context L e v e l of the l e s s o n , the Learner Involvement L e v e l has t o be coded. If the Context L e v e l s e l e c t e d was e i t h e r General Content, or Subject Matter Knowledge, then the r e s e a r c h e r may only s e l e c t from the Not Motor Engaged subcategory. I f the Context L e v e l s e l e c t e d was from Subject Matter Motor, then s e l e c t i o n s f o r the Learner Involvement L e v e l may be from e i t h e r the Not Motor Engaged, or Motor Engaged subcategor i es. In the Not Motor Engaged subcategory, the s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c l u d e Interim ("I"), Waiting ("W"), O f f - t a s k ("OF"), and On-task CON"). Interim r e f e r s t o being i n v o l v e d i n a n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l task ( i . e . , r e t r i e v i n g b a l l s ) . In the coding conventions e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s study, i n t e r i m was e l i m i n a t e d , and scored as on-task. Waiting r e f e r s t o aw a i t i n g a chance t o perform the determined task. On-task r e f e r s t o stu d e n t s that are a p p r o p r i a t e l y engaged i n a non 60 s u b j e c t matter task. I t was found that on-task and w a i t i n g could be scored at s i m i l a r times, and i t was decided, through the coding conventions e s t a b l i s h e d , that w a i t i n g only o c c u r r e d when the student was p h y s i c a l l y w a i t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e ( i . e . , i n l i n e ) . O f f - t a s k r e f e r s t o a student not engaged i n an a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y , or engaged i n a d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y than an a p p r o p r i a t e one. For the Motor Engaged category t h r e e s u b d i v i s i o n s were used; Motor A p p r o p r i a t e ("MA"), Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e ("MI"), and Motor Supporting ("MS"). Motor A p p r o p r i a t e was scored when the student was engaged at an a p p r o p r i a t e ) a c t i v i t y , with high success (approximately 8Q%). When students were scored as "MA", then, and onl y then, would the student be c o n s i d e r e d t o be engaged i n Academic L e a r n i n g Time. Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e was scored when students were engaged i n a c t i v i t y , yet the a c t i v i t y was too d i f f i c u l t , or too easy f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . F i n a l l y , when scored as Motor Supporting, the student was engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s which d i r e c t l y a s s i s t e d o t h e r s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t y . (For more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l cod i n g c a t e g o r i e s see Siedentop et a l . , 1982. Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education 1982 R e v i s i o n . Coding Manual) Before u s i n g the V e r s i o n II instrument, i t was found that s p e c i f i c c oding r u l e s (coding conventions) needed t o be e s t a b l i s h e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t o f u r t h e r t i g h t e n 61 d e f i n i t i o n s as we l l as t o a s s i s t i n the t r a i n i n g o-f a second r e l i a b i l i t y o bserver. Ten such r u l e s were e s t a b l i s h e d : 1_ When the r e s e a r c h e r was i n doubt between Waiting and On-Task the re s e a r c h e r was to s c o r e On-Task. 2 When the s u b j e c t i s s t a n d i n g i n a l i n e , seated, or c l e a r l y watching and w a i t i n g f o r someone, the re s e a r c h e r was t o s c o r e Waiting. 3 When the re s e a r c h e r was i n doubt between Motor A p p r o p r i a t e and Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e , the r e s e a r c h e r should s c o r e as Motor A p p r o p r i a t e (Siedentop e t a l . , 1982). 4 Management onl y o c c u r s when the s u b j e c t i s t a l k i n g about a n o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l item. 5 Motor Supporting o n l y o c c u r s when the s u b j e c t i s d i r e c t l y a i d i n g i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . 6 Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y occurs when the s u b j e c t i s doing the c o r r e c t motor response - but the motor response i s of a poor q u a l i t y . I f any other response i s given - sc o r e O f f - t a s k . 7 (a) I f the teacher i s t a l k i n g about technique s c o r e as Technique. (b) I f the teacher i s t a l k i n g about the s t r a t e g i e s of the g a m e / s k i l l s c o r e as S t r a t e g y . (c) I f the teacher i s t a l k i n g about r u l e s s c o r e 62 as Rules. 8 Warm-up w i l l be excluded, s i n c e v i r t u a l l y a l l warm-up a c t i v i t i e s can be scored as F i t n e s s a c t i v i t i e s . 9 When the res e a r c h e r i s i n doubt, s c o r i n g between the s u b c a t e g o r i e s of General Content and Subject Matter Knowledge, s c o r e as i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s u b d i v i s i o n of Subject Matter Knowledge. 10 The Interim category i s e l i m i n a t e d and a l l episodes i n t h i s category are scored as On-Task. To minimize s u b j e c t b i a s , a l l students wore laminated number c a r d s on t h e i r f r o n t and back. Each ca r d was a s i x by e i g h t inch white r e c t a n g l e . Within each white r e c t a n g l e one inch diameter numbers were mounted, and then laminated. S a f e t y p i n s were purchased and used t o f a s t e n the numbers in p l a c e . Teachers handed out and c o l l e c t e d the numbers f o r the d u r a t i o n of the study. Students were asked i f they found the numbers uncomfortable and i n d i c a t e d they were not. The numbers were assigned by a l p h a b e t i c a l order i n the c l a s s . Without these numbers, i t would have been extremely d i f f i c u l t t o observe students a c c u r a t e l y . As mentioned i n the sampling techniques, s i x stu d e n t s were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , based on expectancy r a t i n g s . A t h i r d p a r t y determined the students to be observed, and gave the name and number of the students t o be observed t o 63 the r e s e a r c h e r (along with a l t e r n a t e s f o r each). The r e s e a r c h e r observed the s i x s t u d e n t s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , -from lowest number to highest number (One c y c l e ) . T h i s c y c l e was repeated 18 times i n a 24 minute p e r i o d , thus p r o v i d i n g the necessary d a t a -for the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d . Each c l a s s was observed t h r e e s e p a r a t e times, and the data was t o t a l l e d from these o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r attempted to watch t h r e e concurrent p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n lessons, although i n some cases t h i s was not p o s s i b l e . In t o t a l , 18 lessons were observed, t h r e e each i n s i x d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . Instruments T r a i n i n g and R e l i a b i l i t y of Observers I n i t i a l t r a i n i n g f o r the r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i s t e d of r e a d i n g and completing s e v e r a l w r i t t e n t r a i n i n g documents provided with the Ohio S t a t e A.L.T. - P.E. V e r s i o n II t r a i n i n g manual (Siedentop e t a l . , 1982). A f t e r completing t h i s process, the r e s e a r c h e r observed p h y s i c a l education l e s s o n s t o become f a m i l i a r with the instrument. T h i s procedure was accomplished by o b s e r v i n g l e s s o n s i n the c o o p e r a t i n g School D i s t r i c t ' s elementary s c h o o l s . The s c h o o l s used f o r t r a i n i n g and v i d e o - t a p i n g purposes were not s c h o o l s i n the i n the a c t u a l study sample. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , f i v e p h y s i c a l education l e s s o n s were video-taped, 64 keying on s p e c i f i c s t udents i n the c l a s s . To a l l o w -for easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on video-tape, students to be observed wore p i n n i e s with numbers. Although t h i s may have a l t e r e d a c t i o n s of the students, i t was f e l t t h a t b i a s e d behavior on tape was not a concern, s i n c e the r e s e a r c h e r and f e l l o w observers would use these tapes f o r t r a i n i n g purposes o n l y . Three of the v i d e o - t a p e s examined f o u r students i n a c y c l i c a l f a s h i o n , as would be repeated i n the a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n . The two other v i d e o - t a p e s examined s i x students i n c y c l i c a l f a s h i o n , r e p l i c a t i n g the intended o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n and procedure. Each student was observed f o r a s i x second i n t e r v a l , and s i x seconds were allowed f o r r e c o r d i n g . Video-tapes were then coded, u s i n g the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education V e r s i o n II instrument (Siedentop et a l . , 1982). In the i n i t i a l phase of r e s e a r c h e r t r a i n i n g , o n l y the v i d e o - t a p e s with f o u r students were used. By u s i n g v i d e o - t a p e s with o n l y f o u r s u b j e c t s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s on a repeated b a s i s was e a s i e r . A f t e r coding these video-tapes, the r e s e a r c h e r recoded the i d e n t i c a l tapes t h r e e days l a t e r . R e l i a b i l i t y of codings was determined by u s i n g the scored i n t e r v a l d i f f e r e n c e method (Hawkins and Dotson, 1975). 65 Agreements x 100% = Percentage Agreement Agreements and Disagreements R e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r the i n i t i a l p e r i o d ranged from 65-81%. T h i s procedure was continued u n t i l the r e s e a r c h e r scored over 90% with a l l v i d e o - t a p e s . A f t e r 90% r e l i a b i l i t y had been accomplished, one v i d e o - t a p e with s i x s u b j e c t s was observed and recorded. As had been done p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s tape was recoded t h r e e days l a t e r and r e l i a b i l i t y was found to be 94%. At t h i s p o i n t , the r e s e a r c h e r made a l i s t of s p e c i f i c c o d i n g r u l e s t o be f o l l o w e d (see Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures) i n order t o a i d with r e l i a b i l i t y t r a i n i n g of a second observer. At t h i s p o i n t a second observer was r e c r u i t e d as a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t to p r o v i d e a c o n t r o l f o r v a r i a b i l i t y of the i n i t i a l o bserver. The a s s i s t a n t was given w r i t t e n c o p i e s of t r a i n i n g documents to read and complete, i n order to p r o v i d e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with the instrument. I n i t i a l l y , the a s s i s t a n t and the r e s e a r c h e r observed, d i s c u s s e d , and coded the tapes f o c u s i n g on f o u r s u b j e c t s . At t h i s p o i n t , coding r u l e s were reviewed to p r o v i d e c o n s i s t e n c y i n the r e c o r d i n g of data. These t h r e e tapes were then recorded without d i s c u s s i o n , and r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s ranged from 74-85%. In p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , a c c e p t i b l e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined to be between 75-80% (Siedentop et a l . , 1982; Godbout et a l . , 1983; Silverman et 66 a l . , 1984). The r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t continued to reco r d the t h r e e tapes u n t i l over 90% agreement had been reached. Next, a video-tape with s i x s u b j e c t s was introduced, and coded, with 88% r e l i a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , the l a s t v ideo-tape ( s i x s u b j e c t s ) was recorded, and r e l i a b i l i t y determined at 94%. At t h i s p o i n t , the r e s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t observed and coded two c l a s s e s i n a l o c a l s c h o o l . In t h i s c l a s s , a l l s t u dents wore laminated numbers pinned t o t h e i r f r o n t and back. These numbers were assigned i n random order t o students. The re s e a r c h e r and a s s i s t a n t then randomly s e l e c t e d and observed s i x students, e x a c t l y r e p l i c a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o be f o l l o w e d i n the a c t u a l study. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the l e s s o n s , r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined. Percentage agreements f o r the two lessons were found to be 83 and 87%. I t was f e l t t h a t s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y had been reached t o i n i t i a t e the study. To assure r e l i a b i l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n throughout the study, the a s s i s t a n t was flown up to the r e s e a r c h s i t e to code the 14th observed l e s s o n of the a c t u a l study with the r e s e a r c h e r . The percentage agreement f o r t h i s l esson was 92%. T h i s check provided assurances that the data c o l l e c t i o n was r e l i a b l e . 67 Instruments With the Academic L e a r n i n g Time instrument p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to support or r e f u t e the main hypotheses of the study, i t was then p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e s e v e r a l other q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s study. I t was p o s s i b l e to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of student achieved term grades, and teachers* p e r c e p t i o n s of student e f f o r t , with Academic L e a r n i n g Time. I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e to examine how t e a c h e r s develop e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r students i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , a j o u r n a l was kept to r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may not have been r e f l e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y by other instruments. Instruments Student Achieved Grades i n P h y s i c a l Education A t h i r d instrument was the c o l l e c t i o n of f i r s t and second term grades i n P h y s i c a l Education f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . I t was r e a l i z e d t h a t these grades would r e f l e c t achievement over an e n t i r e term of work, and not of the s p e c i f i c l e s s o n s observed by the r e s e a r c h e r . None the l e s s , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e may be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and grades. 68 Instruments E f f o r t R a t i n g Instrument To determine t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of e f f o r t , the r e s e a r c h e r requested that t e a c h e r s , at the completion of the study, r a t e each student i n the c l a s s , based on the t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of student e f f o r t . T h i s r a t i n g was based s o l e l y on p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t over the t h r e e b a s k e t b a l l lessons observed. The rank o r d e r i n g was on a 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest) s c a l e (Martinek and Karper, 1983; Martinek, 1984). Although t e a c h e r s ' s c a l e v a l u e s would vary from c l a s s t o c l a s s , i t was s t i l l f e l t t h a t important new i n f o r m a t i o n may be i n d i c a t e d about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of student e f f o r t . Instruments Demographic Information Instrument To g a i n some background i n f o r m a t i o n on the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the study, a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n instrument was c o n s t r u c t e d (Appendix 5 ) . On t h i s instrument, i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the age of the i n s t r u c t o r , y ears t e a c h i n g , years t e a c h i n g at elementary s c h o o l , years t e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l Education, years at present s c h o o l , years V 69 at present grade l e v e l , and number of s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s e s observed was c o l l e c t e d . Instruments Journal To ensure that the r e s e a r c h e r recorded i n c i d e n t s that were not been r e f l e c t e d by the Academic L e a r n i n g Time instrument, a j o u r n a l of the t r a i n i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n a l p e r i o d was kept. In t h i s j o u r n a l , the r e s e a r c h e r recorded a l l i n f o r m a t i o n that was f e l t t o be p e r t i n e n t to the study. In the data a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n , the o b s e r v a t i o n s from t h i s j o u r n a l are presented. Type and Q u a l i t y of Measurement The data accumulated through the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education instrument was a r a t i o s c a l e . Academic l e a r n i n g time can be expressed as a f r a c t i o n , percent, or a whole number. Each student was be observed 18 times i n a 24 minute p e r i o d . With s i x s t u d e n t s observed per c l a s s , o b s e r v a t i o n s per c l a s s t o t a l l e d 108. For the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of expectancy rankings, the teacher was asked to rank-order students, p r o v i d i n g o r d i n a l data. 70 For the outcome s c o r e s , grades on students were submitted. Grades are a -form o-f o r d i n a l data. To determine e f f o r t i n le s s o n s observed the teacher was asked t o rank-order s t u d e n t s from 1-5, with 1 being lowest and 5 being h i g h e s t . Again t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n provided o r d i n a l data. To determine how t e a c h e r s formed t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s study, t e a c h e r s were asked t o s t a t e , and rank, reasons f o r the development of e x p e c t a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n provided nominal data. To determine t r a i n i n g and background f o r t e a c h e r s i n the study, t e a c h e r s were requested to complete a demographic form (Appendix E ) . t A f i n a l source of i n f o r m a t i o n was a j o u r n a l kept by the r e s e a r c h e r over the instrument t r a i n i n g and d a t a a n a l y s i s p e r i o d . T h i s data was based on o b s e r v a t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r . 71 Data A n a l y s i s In t h i s study, s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t data a n a l y s e s were used. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s formed the i n i t i a l base f o r a n a l y s i s . Means and percentages f o r each category, sub-category, and s u b - d i v i s i o n on the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument were analysed. A complete raw data l i s t i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n gathered through the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument can be found i n Appendix 6. F o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of data gathered by the Academic L e a r n i n g Time instrument, i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s were used to t e s t hypotheses generated i n i t i a l l y i n the study. To examine measured Academic L e a r n i n g Time, and i t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o gender, e x p e c t a t i o n , and s p e c i a l t y , t h r e e 2 by 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s ign Analyses of V a r i a n c e (ANOVA) were used. At the same time, three more 2 by 3 ANOVA's, u s i n g motor engaged time as the dependent v a r i a b l e , were performed on expectancy, s p e c i a l t y , and gender. To examine o f f - t a s k time, two one-way Analyses of V a r i a n c e were computed, with one u s i n g expectancy as the independent v a r i a b l e , w h ile teacher s p e c i a l t y was used as the independent v a r i a b l e i n the o t h e r . A t h i r d a n a l y s i s used i n the study was that of r e g r e s s i o n . Although r e g r e s s i o n i s normally used with i n t e r v a l or r a t i o data, i t was found to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r 72 t h i s study. I t i s p o s s i b l e to use o r d i n a l data with r e g r e s s i o n , as long as the dependent v a r i a b l e i s e i t h e r i n t e r v a l or r a t i o i n nature (Pedhazur, 1982; M a r a s c u i l o Sc L e v i n , 1983). In t h i s case, Academic L e a r n i n g Time, which p r o v i d e s r a t i o data, was chosen as the dependent v a r i a b l e , t o which other v a r i a b l e s would be r e g r e s s e d . Another key c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the number o-f c a t e g o r i e s used with each o r d i n a l item. S i n c e a 1 t o 5 category s c a l e was the l a r g e s t s c a l e used, a near normal d i s t r i b u t i o n o ccurred with the o r d i n a l data. Student expectancy l e v e l s , 1st term grades, 2nd term grades, and e f f o r t over the observed lessons, ( a l l o r d i n a l d a t a ) , were i n d i v i d u a l l y r egressed with Academic Le a r n i n g Time. A f o u r t h method of data a n a l y s i s , examined the b a s i s f o r development of expectancy r a t i n g s by t e a c h e r s . Teachers were asked f o r c r i t e r i a on which they developed e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance i n c l a s s . T h i s nominal d a t a was i d e n t i f i e d and c l a s s i f i e d by content a n a l y s i s . By u s i n g content a n a l y s i s , data was analyzed by the s p e c i f i c wording of the teachers* response. From these responses s i x b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s emerged from the s p e c i f i c wording. The c a t e g o r i e s were, a b i 1 i t y . d e f i n e d by t e a c h e r s as the o v e r a l l a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l ; team s p o r t s , d e f i n e d as students' a b i l i t y i n peforming t r a d i t i o n a l team s p o r t s such as b a s k e t b a l l or v o l l e y b a l l ; f i t n e s s . d e f i n e d 73 as the p e r c e i v e d or measured -fitness l e v e l of the c h i l d ; e f f o r t . d e f i n e d as the p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t t h a t a teacher f e l t t h a t a student e x h i b i t e d i n p h y s i c a l e ducation; m a t u r i t y , d e f i n e d as a student's a b i l i t y t o work independently; and f i n a l l y , s k i 11 l e v e l . d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y of the student to perform s p e c i f i c s p o r t r e l a t e d s k i l l s . By u s i n g modes, i t was p o s s i b l e to determine f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d the development of e x p e c t a t i o n . A f i f t h form of data a n a l y s i s was done by examining the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheets that were completed by a l l t e a c h e r s at the c o n c l u s i o n of the study. Teachers were asked to c o n t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r t e a c h i n g experience, age, and number of student i n t h e i r present c l a s s . I t was hoped that t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be of a i d to understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p s explored i n the study. A s i x t h , and f i n a l form of data c o l l e c t i o n , was i n the form of a j o u r n a l . In t h i s j o u r n a l , the r e s e a r c h e r recorded experiences about t r a i n i n g procedures, and of the a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . I t was intended that t h i s j o u r n a l would serve to r e c o r d any event that may not have been r e f l e c t e d by the other instruments but would be of v a l u e i n the study. An a n a l y s i s of r e c o l l e c t i o n s from t h i s j o u r n a l w i l l be presented. 74 Chapter 4 F i n d i n g s In t h i s chapter, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of data w i l l be presented, and b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s w i l l be conducted i n Chapter 5, where r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i l l be compared t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . T h i s chapter begins with the p r e s e n t a t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n from the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument. Four t a b l e s are d i s p l a y e d i n d i c a t i n g t o t a l s and percentages f o r each category, subcategory, and s u b d i v i s i o n . A f i f t h t a b l e d i s p l a y s means, d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s , and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l s u b c a t e g o r i e s , based on the th r e e teacher t r a i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e s 1 and 2 g i v e a general summary of in f o r m a t i o n gathered from the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument. Tables 3 and 4 summarize A.L.T. - P.E. in f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In t a b l e s 1 and 2, percentage f i g u r e s are generated by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l f o r the s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o the t o t a l number of o b s e r v a t i o n s i n each category (1944). In t a b l e s 2 and 3, summary and percentages are e x a c t l y the same as i n t a b l e s 1 and 2. However, the percentages f o r the s p e c i a l t y l e v e l s are c a l c u l a t e d by summing the 2 te a c h e r s s c o r e s f o r each 75 s u b d i v i s i o n , and d i v i d i n g t h i s sum by the t o t a l number of o b s e r v a t i o n s taken on the two te a c h e r s i n each category (648). In t a b l e 5, means were computed by adding a l l teache r s raw s c o r e s f o r each subcategory, and d i v i d i n g by three. To compute d e v i a t i o n , the two t e a c h e r s ' s c o r e s f o r each t r a i n i n g area were added together, and f i n a l l y s u b t r a c t e d from the mean, g i v i n g the d e v i a t i o n . Using the d e v i a t i o n s c o r e , the v a r i a n c e and standard d e v i a t i o n f o r each subcategory were computed. 76 Table 1 ~* Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : General Summary Table Context L e v e l Majors Minors General 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l General Content T r a n s i t i o n 70 77 73 73 56 73 422 (21.7) Management O O O 5 1 1 7 (0.3) Break O O O 2 O 2 4 (0.2) S u b t o t a l : General Content 433 (22.2) Subject Matter Knowledge Technique 62 59 85 145 116 36 503 (25.9) S t r a t e g y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Rules _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S. Behavior - - - - - - - - Background - - - - - - - - S u b t o t a l : Subject Matter Knowledge 503 (25.9) Subject Matter Motor P r a c t i c e 184 121 149 86 121 197 858 (44.9) Scrimmage - 22 - 22 (1.1) Game 6 34 - - - 40 (2.1) F i t n e s s 2 33 17 13 8 15 88 (4.5) S u b t o t a l : Subject Matter Motor 1008 (51.9) O v e r a l l T o t a l 1944 77 Table 2 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : General Summary Table Learner Involvement Level Majors Minors General 1. 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l % Not Motor Engaged Time Waiting 34 30 37 17 40 35 193 (9.9) Off Task 15 15 19 22 12 30 113 (5.8) On Task 87 81 77 73 75 105 498 (25.6) C o g n i t i v e 56 56 70 129 99 31 441 (22.7) S u b t o t a l : Not Motor Engaged Time 1245 (64.O) Motor Engaged Inappro. 4 9 8 1 4 4 30 (1.5) Supporting 9 - - 1 - - lO (0.5) A p p r o p r i a t e 119 133 113 81 94 119 659 (33.9) S u b t o t a l : Motor Engaged Time 699 (36.O) Overal1 T o t a l 1944 , 7 8 , Table 3 7 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education: Summary bv S p e c i a l t y Table Context Level Majors Minors General T t l % T t l % T t l % Sum % General Content T r a n s i t i o n 147 (22.7) 146 (22.5) 129 (19.9) 422 (21.7) Management O O 5 (0.8) 2 (0.3) 7 (0.3) Break O O 2 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 4 (0.2) S u b t o t a l : General Content 433 (22.2) Subject Matter Knowledge Technique 121 (18.7) 230 (35.5) 152 (23.5) 503 (25.9) S t r a t e g y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Rules _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S. Behavior _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Background _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S u b t o t a l : Subject Matter Knowledge 503 (25.9) Subject Matter Motor P r a c t i c e 305 (47.1) 235 (36.3) 318 (49.1) 858 (44.9) Scrimmage - - - - 22 (3.4) 22 (1.1) Game 40 (6.2) - - - 40 (2.1) F i t n e s s 35 (5.4) 30 (4.6) 23 (3.5) 88 (4.5) S u b t o t a l : Subject Matter Motor 1008 (51.9) O v e r a l l T o t a l 1944 79 Table 4 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Summary by S p e c i a l t y Table Learner Involvement Level Majors Minors General T t l % T t l % T t l % Sure % Not Motor Engaged Time Waiting 64 (9.9) 54 (8.3) 75 (11.6) 193 (9.9) Off Task 30 (4.6) 41 (6.3) 4Z (6.5) 113 (5.8) On Task 168 (25.9) ISO (23.1) 180 (27.8) 498 (25.6) C o g n i t i v e 112 (17.3) 199 (30.7) 130 (20.0) 441 (22.7) S u b t o t a l : Not Motor Engaged Time 1245 (64.O) Motor Engaged Inappro. 13 (2.0) 9 (1.4) 8 (1.2) 30 (1.5) S u p p o r t i n g \ 9 (1.4) 1 (0.2) - - lO (0.5) A p p r o p r i a t e 252 (38.8) 194 (30.0) 213 (32.9) 659 (33.9) S u b t o t a l : Motor Engaged Time 699 (36.O) O v e r a l l T o t a l 1499 80 Table 5 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n : Summary o-f Raw Scores (R). Means (X). D e v i a t i o n s (D). and Standard D e v i a t i o n s (s) -for Subcategory and Teacher S p e c i a l t y Context Level Majors Minors General R D R D R D X s General Content 147 6.34 153 12.34 133 7.66 140.66 9.15 Subject Matter Knowledge 121 46.67 230 62.33 152 15.67 167.67 45.85 Subject Matter Motor 380 44.OO 265 71.OO 363 27.OO 336.OO 50.68 Learner Involvement Level Not Motor Engaged 374 41.OO 444 29.OO 427 12.OO 415.OO 29.81 Motor Engaged 274 41.OO 444 29.OO 427 12.OO 415.OO 29.81 81 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s o-f Data -from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time Instrument In t h i s s e c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n gathered through the A.L.T. - P.E. instrument w i l l be analyzed. T o t a l time p e r i o d s (Tot a l ) and percentages (%) of time each teacher spent i n the subcategory ( i . e . , % i n GO, and the mean percentage of time spent i n the i n d i v i d u a l category by a l l t e a c h e r s ( i . e . , X-CL) a r e d i s p l a y e d with a l l t a b l e s . A f u r t h e r l i s t i n g of raw data can be found i n Appendix F. Table 6 Context L e v e l (CL) of Lessons Observed - General Content Time (GO Majors Minors G e n e r a l i s t s Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l %-CL T r a n s i t i o n 70 77 73 73 56 73 422 (21.7) Management O O O 5 1 1 7 (0.3) Break O O O 2 O 2 4 (0.2) T o t a l 70 77 73 SO 57 76 433 % i n GC 21.6 23.8 22.5 24.7 17.6 23.5 (22.2) There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r s with 82 regard to general content time. T h i s i s re-Fleeted by the narrow range of percentages i n general content time (17.6% - 24.7%). The vast m a j o r i t y of episodes recorded i n t h i s category r e f l e c t t r a n s i t i o n . About 97.4% of the t o t a l time recorded i n t h i s subcategory was spent i n T r a n s i t i o n . Only 0.3% of the o v e r a l l Context L e v e l time was coded as Managerial time, a c c o r d i n g to the V e r s i o n II d e f i n i t i o n . T able 7 Context L e v e l (CL) of Lessons - Subject Matter Knowledge Time (SMK) Majors Minors G e n e r a l i s t s Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l %-CL Technique 62 59 85 145 116 36 503 (25.9) % i n SMK 19.1 18.2 26.3 44.7 35.8 11.1 (25.9) T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s a wide range (11.1% - 44.7%) i n the amount of time spent i n i n s t r u c t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , no time was recorded i n the other f o u r Subject Matter Knowledge s u b d i v i s i o n s (Strategy, Rules, S o c i a l Behavior, and Background). I t should be noted that the two P.E. majors* c l a s s e s s c o r e s were very s i m i l a r (59 - 62), and 83 that great f l u c t u a t i o n s o c c u r r e d with both the P.E. minors' (85 - 145) , and the g e n e r a l i s t s ' c l a s s e s (36 - 116) . Non-maj or tea c h e r s , i n three of the f o u r c l a s s e s observed, spent more time i n i n s t r u c t i o n than d i d P .E. maj o r s ' . Table 8 Context L e v e l (CD of Lessons • - Subject Matter Motor Time (SMM) Majors Mi nors G e n e r a l i s t s Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l %-CL P r a c t i c e 184 121 149 86 121 197 858 (44.9) Scrimmage O O O O 22 O 22 (1.1) Game 6 34 O O O O 40 (2. 1) F i t n e ss 2 33 17 13 8 15 88 (4.5) T o t a l 192 188 166 99 151 212 1008 % i n SMM 59.3 58. O 51.2 30.6 46.6 65.4 (51.9) In examining the percentages f o r Subject Matter Motor time, i t can be seen that t h e r e was l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s c o r e s . However, with c l o s e r examination, i t can be n o t i c e d that f i v e of s i x s c o r e s are w i t h i n 20% of each other (65.4% - 46.6%). The s i x t h s c o r e i s a f u r t h e r 16% 84 lower (30.6%). I t may be suggested t h a t , i n view of the other f i v e s c o r e s , the s i x t h s c o r e i s u n u s u a l l y low, and p u l l e d the mean percentage down. I t would c e r t a i n l y appear that t h i s group of educators put a premium on m o t o r - s k i l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , with 51.9% mean percentage time being spent in such a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t the m a j o r i t y of Subject Matter Motor time was spent i n s k i l l p r a c t i c e . 85.1% of a l l Subject Matter Motor time was devoted to s k i l l p r a c t i c e . I t i s a l s o indeed s u r p r i s i n g t o see the low s c o r e s f o r scrimmage, f i t n e s s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the game s u b d i v i s i o n . I t would appear that these t e a c h e r s d i d not want t o use the game s i t u a t i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , which may be c o n t r a r y t o t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s at elementary s c h o o l s . Another i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n at t h i s l e v e l was the s i m i l a r i t y of sc o r e s between the two s p e c i a l i s t P.E. te a c h e r s ' s t u d e n t s in o v e r a l l Subject Matter Motor time (58.0% - 59.3%). As was the case i n the Subject Matter Knowledge category (Table 5 ), the P.E. minors and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s have f a r g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e i r o v e r a l l Subject Matter Motor time. One f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n about t h i s d ata i s the lack of f i t n e s s time observed i n these l e s s o n s , although a case could be made that i f the student i s motor engaged, then some f i t n e s s b e n e f i t s accrue. 85 Table 9 Learner Involvement L e v e l (LI) of Lessons - Not Motor Enqaqed Time (NMT) Maj o r s Mi nors G e n e r a l i s t s Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l % -LI Waiting 34 30 37 17 40 35 193 (9.9) Off-Task 15 15 19 22 12 30 113 (5.8) On-Task 87 81 77 73 75 105 498 (25.6) C o g n i t i v e 56 56 70 129 99 31 441 (22.7) T o t a l 192 182 203 241 226 201 1245 % i n NMT 59.3 56.2 62.7 74.4 69.8 62. O (64.O) In f i v e of the s i x c l a s s e s observed, l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n Waiting time was noted (30 - 40). Only c l a s s f o u r showed a s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a n c e from the other c l a s s e s (17). T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the c l a s s having lower Subject Matter Motor time than the other c l a s s e s . In t h i s c l a s s , s t udents were motor engaged l e s s o f t e n than i n the other f i v e c l a s s e s , and because they had l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e , t here would l i k e l y be l e s s a s s o c i a t e d Waiting time. There was l e s s Off-Task time i n the two s p e c i a l i s t s ' c l a s s e s than i n the other c l a s s e s . Again, i t i s 86 i n t e r e s t i n g to note the s i m i l a r i t y o-f Off-Task time i n both s p e c i a l i s t s * c l a s s e s (15 e p i s o d e s ) . With On-Task time t h e r e appears some v a r i a t i o n between c l a s s e s (73 - 105), and i t appears that a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of Learner Involvement time i s spent i n t h i s area (25.6%). F i n a l l y , C o g n i t i v e time data showed a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of v a r i a n c e (31 - 129). I t would appear that Subject Matter Knowledge time (Table 7) and C o g n i t i v e time are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . T h i s would help e x p l a i n f o r the high t o t a l of C o g n i t i v e time recorded i n teacher 4's c l a s s . Again, the s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' showed s i m i l a r i t y i n s c o r e s (182 -192). Examining the accumulated means and percentages, i t appears that the P.E. majors' had l e s s Not-Motor Engaged time than the P.E. minors', or g e n e r a l i s t s * t e a c h e r s c l a s s e s . 87 Table 10 Learner Involvement L e v e l (LI) o-f Lessons - Motor Engaged Time (ME) Majors Minors G e n e r a l i s t s Teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o t a l % - LI Motor Inapp. 4 9 8 1 4 4 30 (1.5) Motor S U D D . 9 O O 1 O O lO (0.5) Motor Appro. 119 133 113 81 94 119 659 (33.9) T o t a l 132 142 121 83 98 123 699 % i n ME 40.7 43.8 37.3 25.6 30.2 38.O (36.O) When examining both the Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e and Motor Supporting c a t e g o r i e s , very few episodes were recorded, and ther e appears to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the c l a s s e s . When the two c a t e g o r i e s are combined, i t appears t h a t the s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s had more time i n these c a t e g o r i e s than other c l a s s e s , but d i f f e r e n c e s were s l i g h t . However, i n the Motor A p p r o p r i a t e category, t h e r e appears t o be s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s important t o note t h a t the Motor A p p r o p r i a t e category r e p r e s e n t s Academic L e a r n i n g Time achieved. I t can be seen that both s p e c i a l i s t c l a s s e s recorded high Motor A p p r o p r i a t e s c o r e s (119 - 133) when compared t o the other f o u r s c o r e s . For the P.E. minors* 88 (81 - 113), and g e n e r a l i s t s ' c l a s s e s (94 - 119), there was s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y with A.L.T. achieved. In the e n t i r e Motor Engaged category, t o t a l s and percentages showed that the two P.E. majors* c l a s s e s had higher time i n t h i s category than the P.E. minors', or g e n e r a l i s t s ' c l a s s e s . There appeared to be a l a r g e percentage d i f f e r e n c e between the lowest and h i g h e s t c l a s s with regard to motor engaged time (25.6% - 43.8%). A gap t h i s l a r g e c o u l d have an important impact on achievement i n P h y s i c a l Education. 89 I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s of Data from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time Instrument In the -following t a b l e s , r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s a re presented. In each t a b l e , c e l l s c o r e s are d i s p l a y e d , along with average means f o r the v a r i a b l e s of lesson ( L ) , expectancy (EX), teacher t r a i n i n g (T), and gender (G). At the bottom of each t a b l e , e f f e c t s of the v a r i a b l e s , and a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s are d i sp1ayed. Table 11 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Expectancy Rati n g and Lessons Lessons Expectancy R a t i n g High Middle Low Average-L P a s s i n g 6.75 6.25 5. 17 6.06 D r i b b l i n g 8.25 8.00 5.92 7.39 Shoot i ng 5.75 5.00 3. 75 4.83 Average EX 6.92 6.42 4.94 6.09 Maun e f f e c t expectancy F(2,33)= 6.62, p_< . 003 Main e f f e c t l e s s o n s F(2,33)=10.99, p_< .001 I n t e r a c t ion e f f e c t s F(4,66)= O.18, p_< . 946 (F i g u r e 5) 90 X - High O ~ Mid 0 ~ Low P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Shooting Lessons F i g u r e 5. Academic L e a r n i n g Time c o n t r a s t e d with Expectancy R a t i n g and Lessons. There i s a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t F s c o r e found between the t h r e e mean s c o r e s i n e x p e c t a t i o n . As hypothesized, the high expectancy students scored g r e a t e r A.L.T. than d i d the middle expectancy students, who, i n t u r n , scored g r e a t e r A.L.T. than the low students, averaged over the t h r e e l e s s o n s . There i s a l s o a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t F s c o r e recorded f o r the le s s o n s f a c t o r . The d r i b b l i n g lesson recorded the g r e a t e s t amount of A.L.T., f o l l o w e d by the p a s s i n g l e s s o n , and f i n a l l y by s h o o t i n g l e s s o n , averaged over the t h r e e expectancy c o n d i t i o n s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was recorded i n the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r the two independent v a r i a b l e s of expectancy and l e s s o n s . 92 Table 12 Two-Way A n a l y s i s o-f V a r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g and Lessons Lessons Pa s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Shoot i ng Average T Teacher T r a i n i n g Major Minor General Average-L 6.25 9.41 5.25 6.97 5.33 5.83 5.00 5.39 6.58 6.92 4.25 5.92 Main e f f e c t t r a i n i n g Main e f f e c t l essons I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s ( F i g u r e 6) F<2,33>= 3.55 pK .040 F<2,33>=12.68 p_< . OOl F<4,66>= 2.74 p_< . 036 6.06 7. 38 4.83 6.09 A s i g n i f i c a n t F s c o r e was found f o r the main e f f e c t of teacher t r a i n i n g . There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between P.E. majors, P.E. minors, and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' A.L.T. means. As hypothesized, the P.E. majors' c l a s s e s scored g r e a t e r A.L.T. than the P.E. minors* or g e n e r a l i s t s * c l a s s e s . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the g e n e r a l i s t P.E. t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s scored g r e a t e r A.L.T. than P.E. minors' c l a s s e s . I t appears that the g e n e r a l i s t s 93 fO.0- L - 7.0 + T. 6.0 + T r a i rting X - M»J or - M i nor ^fc - Gen P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Lessons Shoot i ng F i g u r e 6. T r a i n i ng Academic L e a r n i n g Time and Lessons. c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Teacher 94 spent l e s s time i n Subject Matter Knowledge, and C o g n i t i v e areas then d i d the P.E. minors. T h i s , i n t u r n , led to more Subject Matter Motor and Motor Engaged time i n the g e n e r a l i s t c l a s s e s , than i n the P.E. minors' c l a s s e s . The les s o n e f f e c t was very s i m i l a r t o those r e p o r t e d with the teacher expectancy data. S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were a l s o recorded between t r a i n i n g and l e s s o n s . The nature of change over the t h r e e lessons i n teacher t r a i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T able 13 Two-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Academic L e a r n i n g Time by Student Gender and Lessons Lessons P a s s i ng D r i b b l i n g Shoot i ng Average G Gender Male Female 5.94 7. 44 5.00 6. 13 6. 17 7.33 4.67 6.05 Average-L 6.06 7.39 4.83 6.09 Main e f f e c t gender F<2,33>= 0.02, p_<.891 Main e f f e c t l e s s o n s F<2,33)= 11.25, p_<.001 I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s F<4,66>= 0.13, p_<.874 95 firn-pr P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Shooting Lessons F i g u r e 7. Academic L e a r n i n g Time c o n t r a s t e d with Gender and Lessons.. 96 ( F i g u r e 7) A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not found between the mean s c o r e s f o r the two gender c a t e g o r i e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t l e sson e f f e c t was noted, and was very s i m i l a r to those repo r t e d e a r l i e r . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was not noted. To f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e f i n d i n g s on the motor engagement of students, t h r e e i d e n t i c a l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s were done, u s i n g Motor Engaged time, r a t h e r than A.L.T. as the dependent v a r i a b l e . The f o u r independent v a r i a b l e s , gender, expectancy, t r a i n i n g , and less o n , were the same as i n the A.L.T. ANOVA's. 97 Table 14 Two-Way A n a l y s i s o-f V a r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Expectancy and Lessons Lessons Expectancy Rati n g High Middle Low Average-L P a s s i ng 6.83 6.50 5.58 6.30 O r i b b l i n g 8. 33 8.25 6.83 7.80 Shoot i ng 6.00 5.41 4.50 5.30 Average EX 7.05 6.72 5.64 6.47 Main e f f e c t expectancy F(2,33)= 2.98, p_<.065 Main e f f e c t l e s s o n s F< 2,33) = 9.81, p_<.001 I n t e r a c t ion e f f e c t s F(4,66>= 0.06, p_<.994 (F i g u r e 8) In examining the main e f f e c t of expectancy, no s i g n i f i c a n t F was recorded. T h i s would appear to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y with e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher expectancy and A.L.T. (Table 11). However, i n more c l o s e l y examining the data, i t can be seen that the expectancy e f f e c t s F i s s t i l l high, d e s p i t e not being s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , i n examining the graphs between teacher expectancy and A.L.T. (F i g u r e 5 ) , and 98 I 0O+ 1-0 + X- High O * Mid • Low M o t o r E n 9 a 9 fco+ 70 + 60 + £o + H.o + P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Lessons Shoot i ng F i g u r e 8. Motor Engaged Time c o n t r a s t e d with Expectancy R a t i n g and Lessons. 99 teacher expectancy with Motor Engaged time, i t can be seen that general t r e n d s remained the same. In both cases the high expectancy students outperformed the midddle expectancy students, who i n t u r n , outperformed the low expectancy students. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i between the two r e s u l t s i s t h a t the low expectancy students scored more Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e time than d i d middle and high expectancy students. As a r e s u l t , the low expectancy s t u d e n t s ' mean s c o r e i n Motor Engaged time was c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the A.L.T. mean s c o r e (5.64 M.E. - 4.94 A.L.T.). For comparison, i t can be seen that the middle expectancy students* s c o r e d i d not change as s u b s t a n t i a l l y (6.72 M.E. - 6.42 A.L.T.), as the lows*. High expectancy students' s c o r e s changed even l e s s (7.05 M.E. - 6.92 A.L.T.), than the low or middle expectancy s t u d e n t s . Th e r e f o r e , the three expectancy s c o r e s were c l o s e r together, and t h i s led to the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t F. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the le s s o n s with the d r i b b l i n g lesson mean being higher than the p a s s i n g lesson mean, which i n t u r n , was higher than the s h o o t i n g lesson mean averaged over the th r e e c o n d i t i o n s . No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were recorded. lOO Table 15 Two-Way A n a l y s i s o-f V a r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Teacher T r a i n i n g and Lessons Lessons Teacher T r a i n i n g Major Minor General Average-L P a s s i ng D r i b b l i n g Shoot i ng Average T 6. 50 lO. 17 6.08 7.58 Main e f f e c t s t r a i n i n g Main e f f e c t s l e s s o n s I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s ( F i g u r e 9) 5.50 6.25 5.25 5.66 6.91 7.00 4.58 6. 16 6.31 7.81 5.31 6.47 F(2,33>= 6.28, p_< . 005 F(2,33)= 11.55, p_<-001 F(4,66)= 2.98, p_< . 025 A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the teacher t r a i n i n g main e f f e c t . The P.E. majors' c l a s s e s mean was higher than the g e n e r a l i s t s ' mean, which, i n t u r n , was higher than the P.E. minors' mean, averaged over the three l e s s o n s . I t can be seen that these r e s u l t s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l those found between teacher t r a i n i n g and A.L.T. (Table 12). A s i g n i f i c a n t l esson e f f e c t was noted, and was very s i m i l a r t o those r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r with the teacher l O l T r a i ni ng X - ««Jor ^ - Mi nor P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g S h o o t i n g Lessons F i g u r e 9. Motor Engaged T i n * c o n t r a s t e d w i t h Teacher T r a i n i n g and Lessons. 102 expectancy data. S i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were a l s o noted between t r a i n i n g and le s s o n s . The nature of change over the 3 le s s o n s f o r P.E. major, P.E. minor, and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . T able 16 Two-May A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Motor Engaged Time by Student Gender and Lessons Lessons Gender Male Female Average-L P a s s i n g 6.00 D r i b b l i n g 7.67 Shooting 5.27 Average G 6.31 6.61 6.31 7.81 7.80 5.33 5.30 6.63 6.47 Main e f f e c t gender F(2,33)= 0.36, p_<.555 Main e f f e c t l e s s o n s F(2,33>= l O . l l , cK.OOl I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s F(4,66)= 0.12, p_<. 883 (F i g u r e lO) No s i g n i f i c a n t gender e f f e c t was recorded. These r e s u l t s c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l those found between student gender and A.L.T. (Table 13). A s i g n i f i g a n t l e s s o n e f f e c t was 103 P a s s i n g D r i b b l i n g Shooting Lessons F i g u r e IP. Motor Engaged Ti»e c o n t r a s t e d with Gender and Lessons. 104 noted. No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were recorded. Table 17 One-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Mean Off-Task Time by Expectancy R a t i n g Expectancy R a t i n g High Middle Low Average-L O f f - t a s k time 2.75 2.83 4.OS 3.22 Main e f f e c t expectancy F (2,33) = 0.96, p_<.391 No s i g n i f i c a n t expectancy e f f e c t was found f o r o f f - t a s k time. None the l e s s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine the c e l l means. The high students appeared to have l e s s o f f - t a s k time than d i d the middle expectancy students, who, in t u r n , appeared t o have l e s s o f f - t a s k time than the low expectancy group. I t was decided t o examine the l i n e a r tendency of these means, due to the apparent i n c r e a s e i n o f f - t a s k time over the th r e e groups. i 105 Table 18 A n a l y s i s o-f Trend E f f e c t s f o r Off-Task Time by Expectancy R a t i n g L i n e a r term : F<1,33>= 1.53, p_<. 224 Quadratic term : F<1,33>= 0.39, p_<. 535 No s i g n i f i c a n t trend e f f e c t s were found f o r the t h r e e c e l l means. The r e f o r e , i t can be assumed t h a t these means are very s i m i l a r , and the i n c r e a s e i n o f f - t a s k time over groups may be due to chance. Table 19 One-Way A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e - Off-Task Time by Teacher S p e c i a l t y Teacher S p e c i a l t y Major Minor General Average-L O f f - t a s k time 2.58 3.41 3.66 3.22 Main e f f e c t s p e c i a l t y F<2,33)= 0.96, p_<.391 As was found with expectancy, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between o f f - t a s k time and teacher 106 s p e c i a l t y . Again, the means increased over the three c o n d i t i o n s of s p e c i a l t y , so a trend a n a l y s i s was done t o examine the tendencies of the three c e l l means. Table 20 A n a l y s i s of Trend E f f e c t s f o r Off-Task Time bv Teacher Spec i a l t y L i n e a r term : F<1,33>= 1.58, p_<.217 Quadratic term : F ( i , 3 3 ) = 0.20, p_<. 653 No s i g n i f i c a n t trend e f f e c t s were found f o r the t h r e e c e l l means. Th e r e f o r e , i t can be assumed that these means are s i m i l a r , and any d i f f e r e n c e r e p o r t e d may be due to chance. 107 I n f e r e n t i a l A n a l y s i s of Data from Other Instruments by Regression The f i n d i n g s presented i n t h i s next s e c t i o n do not d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n t o the hypotheses under examination i n t h i s study. During the course of t h i s study, i t was p o s s i b l e t o c o l l e c t d ata on student p h y s i c a l education grades i n f i r s t and second term. I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g of the t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s on student e f f o r t over the t h r e e observed p h y s i c a l education l e s s o n s . T h i s data was then c o n t r a s t e d with the Academic L e a r n i n g Time data c o l l e c t e d , through the use of r e g r e s s i o n . Although the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n used i n c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s data was crude, none the l e s s , i t i s f e l t t h a t these f i n d i n g s e x p l o r e new areas of p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y data i n a c o n t r a s t with Academic L e a r n i n g Time. Regression equations and graphs are provided with a l l v a r i a b l e s t h a t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 0 8 Table 21 Regression - Students' F i r s t Term P h y s i c a l Education Grade c o n t r a s t e d with Student T o t a l Academic L e a r n i n g Time. Regression equation : A.L.T. = 9.86 + (1.65) (Grade 1) t(35) = 2.75, cK.Ol F ( l , 3 4 ) = 7.53, p_<.01 r= .42 r a = 18.1% (P l o t see F i g u r e 11) H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t and F v a l u e s were -found f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n between f i r s t term student grade and A.L.T.. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h at the c o r r e l a t i o n achieved i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0. I t would appear that f i r s t term grade i s a good p r e d i c t o r of A.L.T. i n t h i s study. I t can be noted on the p l o t of these two v a r i a b l e s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the lower the grade achieved, the lower the A.L.T. recorded. In f a c t , t here i s a d i f f e r e n c e of 6.6 A.L.T. p e r i o d s between the average C- student (14.8) observed, and the average A student (21.4) observed. In t h i s study t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between students' f i r s t term grades and A.L.T. achieved. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t student achieved second term grades were found not to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o Academic L e a r n i n g Time achieved, and t h e r e f o r e 109 Term Grade. n o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not presented. Table 22 Regression - Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n of Student E f f o r t i n the Three Observed Lessons c o n t r a s t e d with Student T o t a l Academic L e a r n i n g Time. Regression equation : A.L.T. = 11.1 + (2.31) ( E f f o r t ) ;t(35) = 3.S4, p_<.01 F(l,34> = 12.56, p_<.01 r= .52 r2" = 27. 0% (P l o t see F i g u r e 12) Hi g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t and F v a l u e s were recorded f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n between te a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of e f f o r t i n the three observed l e s s o n s , and A.L.T.. The r e s u l t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from O. I t would appear, i n t h i s study, that p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t i s a good p r e d i c t o r of A.L.T. with a shared v a r i a n c e of 27.0%. I t can be noted on the p l o t of these two v a r i a b l e s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , as the te a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of student e f f o r t i n c r e a s e s , so does A.L.T.. Over the f i v e e f f o r t r a t i n g p o i n t s , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e of 9.2 A.L.T. p e r i o d s between an e f f o r t r a t i n g of 1 (13.4) and an e f f o r t r a t i n g of 5 (22.6). In t h i s study, t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p I l l P e r c e i v e d E f f o r t F i g u r e 12. Academic L e a r n i n g Time r e g r e s s e d with Students' P e r c e i v e d E f f o r t . ^ 1 1 2 between t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of student e f f o r t and A.L.T. achieved. A n a l y s i s of C r i t e r i a used by Teachers f o r Rank-Ordering Students based on Expected L e v e l of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education Data f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s was c o l l e c t e d by the re s e a r c h e r , through i n t e r v i e w s with p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s at the completion of the study. Each teacher was asked t o i n d i c a t e , i n descending order, the c r i t e r i a they used i n deve l o p i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In r e c l a s s i f y i n g the responses, by content a n a l y s i s (Borg & G a l l , 1979), i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n d i c a t e , through mode sc o r e s , areas which these t e a c h e r s f e l t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r development of e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r student performance i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In t h i s t a b l e , a tea c h e r s ' f i r s t c h o i c e i s denoted with a 1, h i s second c h o i c e with a 2, h i s t h i r d c h o i c e with a 3, and i f a f o u r t h c h o i c e was i n d i c a t e d , with a 4. At the bottom of the t a b l e a mode sco r e t o t a l i s d i s p l a y e d . 113 Table 23 Nominal Ranking of C r i t e r i a Used f o r Rank-Ordering of Teacher's Expected L e v e l of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education Team Sk i11 Teacher A b i 1 i t y S p o r t s F i tness E f f o r t M a t u r i t y Level 1 1 - 4 3 - 2 2 1 - - 4 2 3 3 2 1 - - - 3 4 1 3 2 5 1 - 2 - - 3 6 1 3 - 4 - 2 T o t a l S e l e c t e d 6 2 2 4 2 5 In examining t h i s data* i t can be seen t h a t the highest mode s c o r e occurred i n the a b i l i t y category, with a l l s i x te a c h e r s s e l e c t i n g t h i s as a component. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that f i v e of s i x t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h at o v e r a l l a b i l i t y was t h e i r f i r s t component i n the ra n k - o r d e r i n g of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . I t appears t h a t , o v e r a l l , t h i s group of teach e r s i n d i c a t e d p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y as the most important c r i t e r i a f o r r a n k - o r d e r i n g . The second h i g h e s t mode sc o r e o c c u r r e d i n the p e r c e i v e d s k i l l l e v e l category, with f i v e t e a c h e r s s e l e c t i n g t h i s component. Two o-f the te a c h e r s r a t e d s k i l l l e v e l as the second component con s i d e r e d i n dev e l o p i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r students. The other three teachers i n d i c a t e d t h i s as t h e i r t h i r d component -for s e l e c t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s component was never ranked ahead o-F a b i l i t y by any o-f the s i x te a c h e r s . The t h i r d h i g h e s t mode s c o r e was i n e f f o r t and a t t i t u d e , s e l e c t e d by fo u r of the i n s t r u c t o r s . Two of the i n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d t h i s component as t h e i r t h i r d r a t i n g c r i t e r i a , w h i le two o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d i t as t h e i r f o u r t h c r i t e r i a . Team s p o r t s was s e l e c t e d by two t e a c h e r s as a c r i t e r i a f o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and one of the te a c h e r s r a t e d i t as h i s most important r a t i n g category, w h i l e the other teacher f e l t i t was h i s t h i r d c r i t e r i a . M a t u r i t y was s e l e c t e d by two tea c h e r s , with both of them i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t was t h e i r second r a t i n g component. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , o n l y two t e a c h e r s r a t e d f i t n e s s important t o t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of l e v e l of performance i n P h y s i c a l Education. A n a l y s i s of Teachers* Demographic Information Sheets In t h i s study, a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet was completed by teach e r s i n v o l v e d . T h i s data t a b l e d i s p l a y s means and range s c o r e s f o r each item on the i n f o r m a t i o n sheet. 115 Table 24 Means and Sample Range -from Teachers' Demographic In-formation Sheets Mean Range Age of Teachers 36.5 31-40 Years Teaching 12.0 8-17 Years Teaching at Elem. School 9.3 2-17 Years Teaching P.E. at Elem. School 9.0 2-17 Years at Present School 3.8 1-7 Years at Grade Level 3.6 1-7 Number of Students i n C l a s s 32. O 27-36 The average age of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s samp 1e i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than that of the e s t imated mean age of teache r s i n the school d i s t r i c t (X=45). A l l tea c h e r s i n t h i s study had at l e a s t e i g h t years of classroom experience. There was a s u b s t a n t i a l range i n both years t e a c h i n g at elementary s c h o o l , and years t e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l Education at elementary s c h o o l . The small range and mean f o r y e ars at present school suggests that these teachers, as a group, have changed s c h o o l s r e c e n t l y w i t h i n the school d i s t r i c t . The mean and range f o r years at grade l e v e l are a l s o f a i r l y low, which i n d i c a t e s t h at these t e a c h e r s have accepted d i f f e r e n t grade assignments over t h e i r years 1 1 6 t e a c h i n g . F i n a l l y , numbers i n c l a s s r e f l e c t the c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l t rend of l a r g e r c l a s s s i z e s , with a narrow (27-36) range and a mean of 32 students per c l a s s . A n a l y s i s of Information Obtained i n the Researcher's J o u r n a l As a f i n a l source of i n f o r m a t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r kept a j o u r n a l , based on personal o b s e r v a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r attempted t o rec o r d any event t h a t may not have been r e f l e c t e d by the other instruments used i n the study. Observations from the j o u r n a l are l i s t e d below. One aspect that impressed the r e s e a r c h e r was the s k i l l l e v e l of the students i n g e n e r a l . In h i s o p i n i o n , i t was f e l t t h a t the students i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study had very advanced motor s k i l l s . I t was noted that the two s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s used both command and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Mosston, 1981). As d e f i n e d by Mosston, the command s t y l e of te a c h i n g occurs when the teacher c o n t r o l s a l l d e c i s i o n s made d u r i n g a le s s o n . The p r a c t i c e s t y l e r e f e r s t o a l l o w i n g students t o produce movement t a s k s on t h e i r own, w i t h i n parameters set by the teacher (Mosston, 1981; Rink 1985). The s p e c i a l i s t s used a command s t y l e t o g i v e c o g n i t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , yet to p r a c t i c e s k i l l s , both used 117 s t a t i o n s ( p r a c t i c e s t y l e ) on o c c a s i o n to maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The other -four t e a c h e r s used a command s t y l e of i n s t r u c t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e i r l e s s o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t t h e r e may be a weakness with the A.L.T. r e c o r d i n g instrument with regard t o c o g n i t i v e engagement time. High A.L.T. was recorded i n one of the g e n e r a l i s t c l a s s e s , yet the general l e v e l of s k i l l w i t h i n the c l a s s appeared to be f a r lower than the other f i v e c l a s s e s . I t was a l s o noted that t h i s teacher had f a r l e s s c o g n i t i v e engaged time than t h a t of the other t e a c h e r s . I t was f e l t t h a t , because of a lack of t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , the s t u d e n t s s k i l l l e v e l was not as high as i n the other c l a s s e s , yet t h i s was not r e f l e c t e d i n the A.L.T. s c o r e s . Another o b s e r v a t i o n noted i n the j o u r n a l was t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s * c l a s s e s appeared t o be task o r i e n t e d . Students were aware of the aims and i n t e n t s of each l e s s o n , whereas t h i s was not always apparent i n the f o u r other teachers* c l a s s e s . In the s p e c i a l i s t s ' c l a s s e s , s t u d e n t s had r o u t i n e s which aided i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c l a s s e s . In s e v e r a l of the other teachers* c l a s s e s , t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was not present, and t h i s appeared to d e t r a c t from the o b j e c t i v i t y and smoothness of the l e s s o n s . A f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n noted i n the j o u r n a l was the importance of Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n c l a s s e s . I t was very obvious i n the c l a s s e s observed that maximizing the 118 s u c c e s s f u l engagement of c h i l d r e n i s c r i t i c a l f o r e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n t o occur i n P h y s i c a l Education. Chapter 5 D i s c u s s i o n o-f the F i n d i n g s In t h i s chapter, -findings -from the study are d i s c u s s e d and compared with p r e v i o u s r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . Along with these comparisons, p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the r e s u l t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . In the i n i t i a l p a r t of t h i s chapter, f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o the f o u r s t a t e d hypotheses w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Next, any important f i n d i n g s not d i r e c t l y t i e d i n to the r e s e a r c h hypotheses w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time instrument w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t of other r e s e a r c h . Teachers' E x p e c t a t i o n of Performance i n P h y s i c a l Education In t h i s study, a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p (p_<.003) was found between Academic L e a r n i n g Time and teachers* e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance. Th e r e f o r e , i t would appear that the i n i t i a l h y p othesis, which s t a t e d that t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and teachers* e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance, may be accepted. In the l i t e r a t u r e , p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been found which both supports and c o n t r a d i c t s f i n d i n g s from t h i s study. Placek et a l . (1982) s t a t e d that d i f f e r e n c e s were 120 observed i n A.L.T. between high, middle, and low students. However, r e s e a r c h done by Shute et a l . (1982) and Silverman et a l . (1984) d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t t h i s -finding. In a l l three p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , grade l e v e l was not c o n t r o l l e d . T h i s f a c t o r c o u l d be important s i n c e a study done by Brophy (1983) suggested that lower grade t e a c h e r s tend to have more d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n s with students than at the upper intermediate or secondary l e v e l s . Consequently, a t the upper i n t e r m e d i a t e and secondary grade l e v e l , high a c h i e v e r s tend to dominate whole c l a s s i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s concept i s a l s o supported by P i e r o n (1982) who suggested that the gap between high a c h i e v e r s and low a c h i e v e r s tends to widen as students p r o g r e s s from lower to higher grades in s c h o o l . T h e r e f o r e t e a c h e r s i n higher grade l e v e l s may f i n d i t c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r to a c c u r a t e l y c l a s s i f y s t u d e n t s by e x p e c t a t i o n . I t would appear that i n lower elementary grades that the r e v e r s e would occur. By not s e p a r a t i n g grade l e v e l s , i t would appear that an important v a r i a b l e was not c o n s i d e r e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , one that c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between expectancy and Another important p o i n t r a i s e d by P i e r o n (1982) i s t h a t high expectancy students f i n d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be engaged i n a c t i v i t y than low expectancy s t u d e n t s . In t h i s study, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were not found between Motor Engaged time and expectancy l e v e l s , however, the data, on c l o s e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s the same general p a t t e r n s as d i d expectancy and A.L.T. data. The Motor Engaged data r e v e a l e d that high expectancy students had more Motor Engaged time than d i d middle or low students i n t h i s study, yet chance d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s c ategory c o u l d not be r u l e d out. I t was a l s o seen t h a t low expectancy s t u d e n t s had more Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e time than d i d middle or high students. When the Motor I n a p p r o p r i a t e s c o r e s were i n c l u d e d , as they were, with the Motor Engaged time s c o r e , i t was seen that the gap between the high, middle, and low expectancy groupings was s m a l l e r than i t had been f o r the A.L.T. s c o r e s e x c l u s i v e l y . I t would, indeed, appear t h a t high expectancy students f i n d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y engaged i n c l a s s than do middle or low expectancy students. S i n c e these high expectancy students have g r e a t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y engaged time than middle or low expectancy students, they have more o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop s k i l l s . I t i s on l y l o g i c a l t h a t achievement w i l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r between groups, and as suggested by P i e r o n , the gap between expectancy l e v e l s w i l l widen as stu d e n t s p r o g r e s s through the school system. Another p o s s i b l e f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g A.L.T. and t e a c h e r s ' expectancy i s the a c t i v i t y s e l e c t e d . Many p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( B i r d w e l l , 1980; Rate, 1981; Godbout et a l . , 1983; Placek 122 et a l , 1982; Silverman et a l . , 1984) suggest t h a t the type o-f a c t i v i t y observed g r e a t l y a l t e r s the amount of A.L.T.. By u s i n g b a s k e t b a l l as the s p e c i f i c s p o r t of f o c u s f o r t h i s study, the type of a c t i v i t y was c o n t r o l l e d . In t h i s study, t e a c h e r s were not aware that b a s k e t b a l l would be the s p o r t of f o c u s when i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of student performance. However, at the c o n c l u s i o n of the study, t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h at a b i l i t y was the most commonly used f a c t o r i n d e v e l o p i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of student performance. S i n c e b a s k e t b a l l i s u s u a l l y a major component of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m taught i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y i n t h i s a c t i v i t y may i n f l u e n c e teachers* e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Shute et a l . (1982) a l s o c o n t r o l l e d the a c t i v i t y (movement education) and i n d i c a t e d t h at l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was noted between expectancy groups. However, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t e a c h e r s may c l a s s i f y a b i l i t y a c c o r d i n g to performance i n games and team s p o r t s as opposed to movement educ a t i o n . I t must a l s o be r e c a l l e d t h a t Shute et a l . (1982) d i d not c o n t r o l grade l e v e l i n t h e i r study. I t would appear that s e l e c t i o n of a c t i v i t y can a f f e c t the e x p e c t a t i o n s that a teacher develops f o r a student. I t was found i n t h i s study that o v e r a l l a b i l i t y and s k i l l l e v e l were i n d i c a t e d by t e a c h e r s as the most important c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n expectancy formation. 123 T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Martinek and Karper (1982) who a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s k i l l l e v e l was an important f a c t o r i n development of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , f i t n e s s d i d not p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n development of e x p e c t a t i o n s , even though the c a t e g o r i e s of a b i l i t y and f i t n e s s may be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . I t was a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that t e a c h e r s i n t h i s study d i d not f e e l e f f o r t was p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n d e v e l o p i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance. Martinek and Karper (1984) found that high expectancy students were p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s as showing g r e a t e r e f f o r t than low a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s . T h i s hypothesis was not d i r e c t l y t e s t e d i n t h i s study. However, i f one a c c e p t s B e r l i n e r ' s (1979) premise that t h e r e i s a c l e a r l i n k between A.L.T. and achievement, then r e s u l t s from t h i s study showing a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and e f f o r t would a l s o tend t o c o n f i r m Martinek and Karper's f i n d i n g s . E f f e c t of Teacher T r a i n i n g on Academic L e a r n i n g Time of Students i n P h y s i c a l Education In t h i s study, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p_<.040) were found between the t h r e e l e v e l s of teacher t r a i n i n g f o r Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l Education. T h e r e f o r e , the data supports hypothesis 2, and t h i s h y p o thesis may be 124 accepted. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . Placek and Randall (1986) conducted a study l o o k i n g at the e f f e c t s of teacher s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and found that t h e r e appeared t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between teach e r s with s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and those without. In f a c t , i t was found that s p e c i a l i s t s had l e s s recorded Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n c l a s s , than d i d g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . However, i n Placek and R a n d a l l ' s study, grade l e v e l , and s u b j e c t content were not c o n t r o l l e d . They d i d , however, note that when scrimmage and s k i l l p r a c t i c e time were examined, i t appeared that the s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s spent more time i n these a s p e c t s than d i d g e n e r a l i s t s . S i n c e one may assume that s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y r e c e i v e more c o r r e c t i v e feedback i n s k i l l p r a c t i c e and scrimmage s i t u a t i o n s , i t may be argued that t h i s time i s more v a l u a b l e i n the l e a r n i n g environment than i s a c t u a l game p l a y i n g time. In t h i s study, r e s u l t s with, s k i l l p r a c t i c e time were very s i m i l a r t o those found i n Placek and Randal 1* 5 study. In f a c t , both P. E. majors showed a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y with s k i l l p r a c t i c e time i n t h i s study. The P. E. minors and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s showed a wide d i s p a r i t y i n these a s p e c t s . In f a c t , i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t , i n t h i s study, the P.E. minors* c l a s s e s had l e s s p r a c t i c e time and A.L.T. than d i d g e n e r a l i s t s " . The 125 e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may be i n the f a c t t h at the P.E. minors' c l a s s e s had f a r more Subject Matter Knowledge and C o g n i t i v e time a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r c l a s s e s than d i d the g e n e r a l i s t s * . I t would appear t h a t the g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s were more i n t e r e s t e d i n keeping students a c t i v e , whereas P.E. minors were more concerned with a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t content. I t appears that the P.E. majors may have a balance between i n s t r u c t i o n and a c t i v i t y . In t h i s study, by c o n t r o l l i n g s u b j e c t content, the same type of a c t i v i t y was b e i n g taught i n a l l s i x teachers* l e s s o n s . T h i s ensured that d i f f e r e n c e s i n A.L.T. due to a c t i v i t y were minimized, which was not done i n Placek and R a n d a l l ' s study. Many r e s e a r c h e r s ( B i r d w e l l , 1980; Rate, 1981; Godbout e t a l . , 1983; Placek et a l , 1982; Silverman et a l . , 1984) suggest t h a t the type of a c t i v i t y observed g r e a t l y a l t e r s the amount of A.L.T.. S i n c e i t appears t h a t g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s may spend more time i n game-type a c t i v i t i e s , and l e s s i n s k i 11-development or p r a c t i c e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h at g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s had s i m i l a r amounts of A.L.T. to s p e c i a l i s t s . By c o n t r o l l i n g a c t i v i t y , t h i s study demonstrated t h a t P.E. majors* students may indeed have g r e a t e r A.L.T. than g e n e r a l i s t s * i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . I t may appear that one of the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ' s g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i o n s i s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between new, 126 c h a l l e n g i n g , s u b s t a n t i v e l e a r n i n g , and t h a t of r e p e t i t i v e l e a r n i n g , i n which students can s c o r e high A.L.T. yet not be c h a l l e n g e d s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r s u b s t a n t i a l l e a r n i n g t o occur. Another important c o n t r o l added i n t h i s study was that of grade. In Placek and R a n d a l l ' s (1986) study, grade was not c o n t r o l l e d . In s e l e c t i n g an upper elementary grade f o r t h i s study, i t was f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s i n these grades work on more s p e c i f i c s k i l l s than i n e a r l y elementary years, where more fundamental s k i l l s are emphasized. S i n c e a P.E. major should have a s u p e r i o r background i n the i n s t r u c t i o n of p h y s i c a l education s k i l l s , i t would appear that t h i s a b i l i t y may be h i g h l i g h t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree i n upper elementary c l a s s e s . T h i s f a c t o r c o u l d help e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s found between the two s t u d i e s . One f i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n made d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h p e r i o d was that of lesson o b j e c t i v i t y . In the r e s e a r c h e r s j o u r n a l , i t was noted t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , P.E. majors' c l a s s e s appeared to be more o b j e c t i v e than those c l a s s e s taught by P.E. minors or g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . Although t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c evidence to back up t h i s statement, i t would appear that t h i s aspect may have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to g r e a t e r Academic L e a r n i n g Time l e v e l s i n P.E. majors' c l a s s e s . Student Gender and Academic L e a r n i n g Time 127 In t h i s study, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between Academic L e a r n i n g Time and student gender. Th e r e f o r e , the data supports hypothesis 3 and may be accepted. As was found i n s e v e r a l other p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Shute et a l . , 1982; Placek et a l . , 1982; Silverman e t a l . , 1984) gender was not found to c o n t r i b u t e to s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of Academic L e a r n i n g Time achieved. One important d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s , and p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , was c o n t r o l l i n g the type of a c t i v i t y . In u s i n g b a s k e t b a l l , i t was f e l t t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s may appear due to a t r a d i t i o n a l male o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h i s s p o r t . However, t h i s was found not to be t r u e . Another important d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , was c o n t r o l l i n g grade l e v e l . I t was f e l t t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s may be noted, i f o n l y upper i n t e r m e d i a t e students were used, as opposed to elementary students i n g e n e r a l . Again, t h i s assumption a l s o appears to be f a l s e . I t would appear t h a t , i n elementary school c l a s s e s , t h e r e are l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s i n the amount of Academic L e a r n i n g Time achieved i n p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . 128 Teacher T r a i n i n g and Student Off-Task Time i n P h y s i c a l E ducation C l a s s e s In t h i s study, no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between teacher t r a i n i n g and student o f f - t a s k time. T h e r e f o r e the data r e f u t e s h y p o t h e s i s 4, and t h i s h y p o thesis may be r e j e c t e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to c o n s i d e r that r e s u l t s from t h i s study s t r o n g l y p a r a l l e l those found by P i e r o n (1982). P i e r o n s t a t e d that t h e r e appeared t o be d i f f e r e n c e s between high and low students with regard t o time-on-task and success r a t e ; however, the s i z e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n teacher i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not appear t o be high enough t o account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups achievement. In t h i s study, i t was d i s c o v e r e d that t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the raw t o t a l amount of o f f - t a s k time f o r the t h r e e teacher t r a i n i n g groups, yet these d i f f e r e n c e s were not co n s i d e r e d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A t e s t of l i n e a r i t y a l s o confirmed that no s i g n i f i g a n t l i n e a r trend was apparent between means. In t h i s study, i t must be concluded that t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n student o f f - t a s k time between the t h r e e teacher t r a i n i n g groups. However, due t o tendencies found i n t h i s study and P i e r o n ' s , i t may be co n s i d e r e d worthwhile t o reexamine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of student o f f - t a s k time i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 129 In f u t u r e s t u d i e s , by i n c r e a s i n g the number of students observed, d i f f e r e n c e s may be found, that were not d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s study, due to a small sample s i z e . E f f e c t s of D i f f e r e n t Lessons on Achieved Academic L e a r n i n g Time The e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t l e s s o n s on Academic L e a r n i n g Time was not s t a t e d as a s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study. During s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s study, i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t types of b a s k e t b a l l l e s s o n s and A.L.T.. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body of l i t e r a t u r e t h a t suggests that the type of a c t i v i t y can g r e a t l y a l t e r the amount of A.L.T. achieved ( B i r d w e l l , 1980; Rate, 1981; Godbout et a l . , 1983; Placek et a l , 1982; Silverman e t a l . , 1984). In t h i s study, i t was f e l t by c o n t r o l l i n g the a c t i v i t y , ( b a s k e t b a l l ) , A.L.T. d i f f e r e n c e s , due to d i f f e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be lessened. To f u r t h e r c o n t r o l a c t i v i t y , a l l te a c h e r s i n t h i s study taught a lesson on b a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g f i r s t ; f o l l o w e d by a le s s o n on d r i b b i n g ; and f i n a l l y a lesson on s h o o t i n g . Within each lesson t o p i c , t e a c h e r s were allowed t o d e v i s e t h e i r own lesson p l a n , a l l o w i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s . I t was 130 a l s o f e l t t h a t by a l l o w i n g t e a c h e r s t o p l a n separate lessons f o r the same t o p i c , A.L.T. d i f f e r e n c e s between teacher t r a i n i n g groups may be found. As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t s p e c i a l i s t e f f e c t was noted. A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e s s o n e f f e c t was noted with the thre e v a r i a b l e s of expectancy, gender, and s p e c i a l t y . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, i t was found that d r i b b l i n g l e s s o n s had the hig h e s t l e v e l s of A.L.T., f o l l o w e d by p a s s i n g , and f i n a l l y by s h o o t i n g l e s s o n s . T h i s would c l e a r l y suggest that not o n l y does the type of a c t i v i t y a l t e r A.L.T., but the type of lesson w i t h i n the a c t i v i t y can g r e a t l y a l t e r achieved A.L.T.. T h i s s u b s t a n t i a t e s the need t o c o n t r o l lesson type i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s , where A.L.T. i s used f o r comparative purposes. I f the res e a r c h e r does not c o n t r o l t h i s v a r i a b l e , wide d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n A.L.T. may be noted from l e s s o n t o les s o n , b i a s i n g r e s u l t s . Another i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n was noted r e g a r d i n g lesson s t y l e . I t was seen t h a t the two P.E. major t e a c h e r s used a v a r i e t y of s t y l e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g both command and p r a c t i c e s t y l e s (Mosston, 1981). The P.E. majors used a command s t y l e t o g i v e c o g n i t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , yet t o p r a c t i c e s k i l l s , both used s t a t i o n s on o c c a s i o n t o maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f o u r other t e a c h e r s used a command s t y l e of i n s t r u c t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y . By u s i n g a s t a t i o n approach, i t would appear t h a t the P.E. majors were 131 more a b l e to maximize p r a c t i c e time, yet at the same time ensure t h a t s u b s t a n t i v e l e a r n i n g o c c u r r e d . With the inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n managing c h i l d r e n i n the gym or playground, i t would appear that t e a c h e r s without s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g may r e s o r t to command s t y l e s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e that P.E. s p e c i a l i s t s are more w i l l i n g t o modify the s t y l e of i n s t r u c t i o n t o meet stu d e n t s needs. T h i s i s a p o t e n t i a l q u e s t i o n to be explored i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Teachers* P e r c e p t i o n of E f f o r t and Academic L e a r n i n g Time A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (pK.Oi) was d i s c o v e r e d between t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of e f f o r t i n the t h r e e b a s k e t b a l l l e s s o n s and A.L.T. I t must be remembered that a L i k e r t s c a l e was used to gather e f f o r t s c o r e s , and t h i s instrument allowed f o r t e a c h e r s to make i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on the s c o r i n g of e f f o r t . None the l e s s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r these r e s u l t s . I t would seem t h a t , although f o u r t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d that e f f o r t was a f a c t o r i n t h e i r development of e x p e c t a t i o n , i t was not r a t e d as the most important c r i t e r i a by any. T h i s f i n d i n g would suggest that t e a c h e r s ' establishment of e f f o r t i s based on time on task. S i n c e A.L.T. i s i n l a r g e p a r t based on time on task, i t would seem that t e a c h e r s may be, i n e f f e c t , u s i n g a form of 132 A.L.T. t o e s t a b l i s h e f f o r t r a t i n g s i n c l a s s . I t has a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h that t h e r e may be a l i n k between student performance and the e f f o r t a teacher p e r c e i v e s s t u d e n t s t o be expending (Meyer, 1982; Weiner tc Kukla, 1970; Martinek & Karper, 1984). I f A.L.T. i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r , or i s analogous t o, student performance, as suggested by B e r l i n e r (1979), t h i s phenomena would p r o v i d e a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of A.L.T. and p e r c e i v e d e f f o r t . T h i s f i n d i n g may a l s o support the theory t h a t A.L.T. and achievement are r e l a t e d . Another p o i n t to c o n s i d e r i n l i g h t of these f i n d i n g s , i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f o r t and achievement i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, educators have i n c l u d e d a sep a r a t e e f f o r t and achievement grade when r e p o r t i n g student p r o g r e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I f one ac c e p t s the premise t h a t A.L.T. and achievement are r e l a t e d , and a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s found t o e x i s t between A.L.T. and e f f o r t , i t c o u l d be argued, i n B r i t i s h Columbia elementary p h y s i c a l education e v a l u a t i o n , e f f o r t and achievement e s s e n t i a l l y e v a l u a t e the same aspect of performance. I f e f f o r t and achievement are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , i t may a l s o be argued that t h e r e i s no need t o e v a l u a t e these a s p e c t s s e p a r a t e l y . R e s u l t s from t h i s study suggest that A.L.T. and e f f o r t may be r e l a t e d . 133 I t would appear that f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s needed t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f o r t and achievement. Student Grades and Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p <p_<.OD was found between f i r s t term grades and A.L.T.. At the same time, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between second term grades and A.L.T.. In l i g h t of e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s , i t i s very i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r these r e s u l t s . B e r l i n e r (1979) suggested that i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between A.L.T. and achievement. Si n c e b a s k e t b a l l only makes up a p o r t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m covered i n a term, i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t other s u b j e c t c u r r i c u l a had an i n f l u e n c e on the o v e r a l l establishment of a grade i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s would account f o r f l u c t u a t i o n s between A.L.T. achieved i n the b a s k e t b a l l lessons, and grades achieved. I t would appear t h a t t h i s study does not d e f i n i t i v e l y support or r e j e c t B e r l i n e r ' s hypothesis. Instead, i t i s suggested t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be done i n t h i s area. T h i s f u t u r e r e s e a r c h should examine A.L.T. over an e n t i r e g r a d i n g p e r i o d i n c l a s s e s , e l i m i n a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r y i n g amounts of A.L.T.. T h i s would a l s o 134 c o n t r o l f o r changes in student e f f o r t t h a t may occur when d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s are taught d u r i n g the term. D i s c u s s i o n of D e s c r i p t i v e Information Gathered through the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education Instrument In s e v e r a l other Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education s t u d i e s (Metzler, 1979; Rate, 1981; Godbout et a l . , 1982; Placek et a l . , 1982) a prominent " f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t " o ccurred i n the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , as data was analyzed from content a r e a to motor response. In t h i s study, the " f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t " was not as v i s i b l e as i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , due to the f a c t t h a t the V e r s i o n II instrument was used. The V e r s i o n II instrument has o n l y two 1eve15 f o r coding as opposed to V e r s i o n I, which has 4 coding l e v e l s . However, a " f u n n e l l i n g " of percentages from the s u b j e c t matter motor catagory to the motor engaged catagory was i n evidence i n t h i s study, and would d e f i n i t e l y support f i n d i n g s from other s t u d i e s . T h i s " f u n n e l l i n g e f f e c t " appears to show that A.L.T. i s o n l y a p o r t i o n of the a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n . In terms of o v e r a l l A.L.T. t o t a l s , i t would appear t h a t percentages found i n t h i s study are somewhat higher, 135 but s i m i l a r t o other A.L.T. s t u d i e s conducted i n elementary s c h o o l s (Placek e t a l , 1982; Shute e t a l , 1982; Silverman et a l . , 1984). I t i s p o s s i b l e that c o n t r o l s on a c t i v i t y and lesson c o u l d have produced higher A.L.T. s c o r e s than u s u a l . I t would a l s o appear that t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Subject Matter Knowledge time and C o g n i t i v e engaged time. During t h i s study, i n g e n e r a l , as Subject Matter Knowledge and C o g n i t i v e engaged time i n c r e a s e d , A.L.T. decreased. However, i t i s o b v i o u s l y necessary t o g i v e students i n s t r u c t i o n to enhance performance. When new m a t e r i a l i s presented i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a g r e a t e r amount of Subject Matter Knowledge and C o g n i t i v e time i s needed to p r o v i d e students with the proper knowledge with which to a c q u i r e the s k i l l . There would c l e a r l y appear t o be an optimum balance between i n s t r u c t i o n and engagement i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g d i r e c t l y r e i t e r a t e s McLeish's (1981) statement that student engaged time i s the key component i n e f f e c t i v e p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n . If one a c c e p t s the l i n k between A.L.T. and achievement, i t would appear that t e a c h e r s should attempt t o maximize student engaged time, and t r y to keep non-engaged i n s t r u c t i o n as s u c c i n c t as p o s s i b l e , t o i n c r e a s e performance and achievement i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 1 3 6 Chapter 6 Summary, Co n c l u s i o n s , and Recommendations Summary The primary purposes of t h i s study were: 1. To i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between te a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of performance i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and student achieved Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 2 To i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l education and student achieved Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 3 To i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between student gender and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 4 To i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of student o f f - t a s k time and teacher t r a i n i n g . 137 Four hypotheses were presented i n i t i a l l y : 1_ That t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and expectancy l e v e l s i n grade 6 p h y s i c a l e ducation c l a s s e s . 2 P h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s taught by t e a c h e r s with a P h y s i c a l Education majors w i l l have g r e a t e r Academic Lea r n i n g Time than those taught by t e a c h e r s without a p h y s i c a l education major. 3 That t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between gender with r e s p e c t t o Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 4 That P h y s i c a l Education majors* c l a s s e s w i l l have l e s s o f f - t a s k time than c l a s s e s taught by t e a c h e r s with P h y s i c a l Education minors, or g e n e r a l i s t s . Six grade s i x c l a s s e s from a B r i t i s h Columbia School D i s t r i c t were s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. Two of the c l a s s e s were taught by t e a c h e r s with P h y s i c a l Education majors, two were taught by t e a c h e r s with P h y s i c a l Education minors, and two taught by g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s . Teachers i n every c l a s s were asked to rank-order t h e i r s t udents, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of student performance i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . From t h i s r a n k - o r d e r i n g , s i x students (three boys and three g i r l s ) i n each c l a s s were s e l e c t e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g 138 high, middle and low expectancy groups. Each c l a s s was observed t h r e e times, and the s i x s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s were observed, u s i n g the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education V e r s i o n II instrument (Siedentop e t a l . , 1982). At the c o n c l u s i o n o-f the study, t e a c h e r s were asked to submit i n f o r m a t i o n about student grades, and p e r c e i v e d student e f f o r t i n the study. Teachers were a l s o asked t o complete a demographic i n f o r m a t i o n sheet at t h i s time. To i n v e s t i g a t e hypotheses under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were performed: 1. An A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e were performed to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Academic L e a r n i n g Time and t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n of performance i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 2 An A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e was performed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of teacher t r a i n i n g and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 3 An A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e was performed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of gender and Academic Lea r n i n g Time. 4 An A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e was performed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o f f - t a s k time and teacher spec i a l t y . 139 The r e s u l t s o-f the a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1_ A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p <p_<-003) was noted between teachers* e x p e c t a t i o n of performance and Academic L e a r n i n g Time 2 A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p_<-040) was noted between teacher t r a i n i n g groups and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 3 No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted with regard to gender d i f f e r e n c e s . 4 No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between teacher t r a i n i n g groups and o f f - t a s k time. I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t o examine: 1. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Motor Engaged time and teachers* e x p e c t a t i o n of performance, t r a i n i n g of teacher, and student gender. 2 The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of e f f o r t and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 3 The r e l a t i o n s h i p of student outcome grades i n f i r s t and second term, and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 4 The c r i t e r i a used by t e a c h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h student expectancy i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 140 The r e s u l t s -from these q u e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t : JL No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n of performance and Motor Engaged time. 2 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t <p_<-005) r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between teacher t r a i n i n g and Motor Engaged time. 3 No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between gender and motor engaged time. 4 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p_<-010) r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between student e f f o r t .and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 5 A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t <p_<.010) r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between f i r s t term student grade and Academic Lea r n i n g Time. 6 No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between second term student grade and Academic L e a r n i n g Time. 7 P e r c e i v e d student a b i l i t y and s k i l l l e v e l were the most commonly used f a c t o r s i n determining student expectancy. 141 C o n c l u s i o n s 1. That t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n l e v e l s and A.L.T. achieved by students. 1.1 That high expectancy s t u d e n t s recorded g r e a t e r A.L.T. than d i d middle expectancy s t u d e n t s who, i n t u r n , had g r e a t e r A.L.T. than low expectancy s t u d e n t s . 2 That P h y s i c a l Education majors' c l a s s e s recorded g r e a t e r A.L.T. than d i d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n minors or g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s . 3 That no d i f f e r e n c e was noted between boys and g i r l s with r e s p e c t t o A.L.T. achieved. 4 That d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t i n o f f - t a s k time f o r students i n P h y s i c a l Education major, minor, and g e n e r a l i s t t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s e s , but these d i f f e r e n c e s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 5 That t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of e f f o r t and A.L.T. achieved by students. 6 That the s p e c i f i c type of l e s s o n (passing, d r i b b l i n g , and shooting) d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the amount of A.L.T. achieved i n c l a s s . 7 That, i n g e n e r a l , P.E. s p e c i a l i s t s had more motor engaged time f o r students than d i d n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s . 142 8 That t e a c h e r s appear t o use a b i l i t y and s k i l l l e v e l i n d e v e l o p i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s -for s tudents. Recommendat ions In -future r e s e a r c h , i t i s recommended t h a t a l a r g e r sample s i z e be used t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e , or r e f u t e f i n d i n g s from t h i s study. I t would appear t h a t by adding c o n t r o l s on teacher gender, grade, and a c t i v i t y , d i f f e r e n c e s were noted that were not apparent i n other s t u d i e s . However, with the small sample s i z e of t h i s study, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a re d i f f i c u l t t o make. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should a l s o be done i n other a c t i v i t y areas and grade l e v e l s t o c o n f i r m or r e j e c t the importance of such c o n t r o l s . I t would a l s o appear t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed to be conducted on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher t r a i n i n g and o f f - t a s k time. In t h i s study, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between teacher t r a i n i n g and o f f - t a s k time, yet d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean t o t a l s of o f f - t a s k time f o r the th r e e teacher t r a i n i n g groups were e v i d e n t . I t seems p o s s i b l e that with a l o n g i t u d i n a l study such d i f f e r e n c e s may be magnified. I t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e that the A.L.T. instrument was not s e n s i t i v e enough t o examine the e n t i r e aspect of o f f - t a s k time i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 143 C e r t a i n l y , t h i s area appears to be one where more re s e a r c h needs to be done. I t would appear that not o n l y a c t i v i t y s t r u c t u r e but l e s s o n s t r u c t u r e be c o n t r o l l e d i n comparative Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education s t u d i e s . S e v e r a l recent A.L.T. s t u d i e s i d e n t i f i e d t h a t A.L.T. t o t a l s may be l i n k e d to a c t i v i t y . In t h i s study, the l i n k between a c t i v i t y and A.L.T. was not d i r e c t l y t e s t e d , but w i t h i n the a c t i v i t y , s p e c i f i c l e s s o n s were i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n A.L.T.. I t appeared that not o n l y a c t i v i t y , but the lessons w i t h i n the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y can c o n t r i b u t e t o v a r i e d t o t a l s of A.L.T.. I t would, t h e r e f o r e , appear necessary i n f u t u r e A.L.T. s t u d i e s to c o n t r o l both the a c t i v i t y and lesson type i n order to g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s from c l a s s to c l a s s . Another r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n t h a t needs to be examined i s that of lesson s t y l e . I t was observed i n t h i s study that the P.E. majors appeared to be more w i l l i n g t o use d i f f e r i n g s t y l e s of i n s t r u c t i o n that those teac h e r s with l e s s s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n P.E.. I t may w e l l be p o s s i b l e that t e a c h e r s without s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n P.E. are l e s s w i l l i n g t o vary i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s due to the managerial d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d with p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n . More r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area would appear t o be necessary. F i n a l l y , i t would appear that f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s 144 needed to determine the extent of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between student achieved grades and Academic L e a r n i n g Time i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e s e a r c h should be conducted over an e n t i r e school term, to e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g v a r y i n g amounts of A.L.T.. As mentioned e a r l i e r , a l o n g i t u d i n a l study may be an e x c e l l e n t way to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between A.L.T. and student grades, s i n c e student A.L.T. i s l i k e l y t o f l u c t u a t e due to a c t i v i t y , l e s s o n , and student i n t e r e s t i n the a c t i v i t y . By examining s t u d e n t s over a longer p e r i o d of time i t may be p o s s i b l e to c o n t r o l these k i n d s of v a r i a b l e s . C e r t a i n l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of achievement t o A.L.T. i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s an a r e a where f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s badly needed. 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Pygmalion i n the gym: A model f o r the communication of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Research Q u a r t e r l y . 52. 58-59. Martinek, T. (1983). C r e a t i n g golem and g a l a t e a e f f e c t s d u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n : A s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . " In Tempi i n and Olsen (Eds), Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . (pp. 59-70). Champaign, IL: Human K i n e t i c s . Martinek, T. , Crowe, P. te R e j e s k i , W. (1982). Pygmalion i n the gym: Causes and e f f e c t s of e x p e c t a t i o n s i n te a c h i n g and coaching. West P o i n t , NY: L e i s u r e P r e s s . Martinek, T. te Johnson, S. (1979). Teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s : E f f e c t s on dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s and s e l f concept i n elementary age c h i l d r e n . Research Q u a r t e r l y . 5Q. 60-70. Martinek, T. te Karper, W. (1982). Canonical r e l a t i o n s h i p s among motor a b i l i t y , e x p r e s s i o n of e f f o r t , teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s , and dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s i n elementary age c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . l_t 26-39. 150 Martinek, T. & Karper, W. (1983). The i n f l u e n c e of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s on A.L.T. i n p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l o-f Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Monographs. 1., 48-52. Martinek, T. &e Karper, W. (1984). M u l t i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s p e c i f i c impression cues with teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s and dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s i n elementary p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . Research Q u a r t e r l y . 55. 32-40. Martinek, T. & Karper, W. (1984b). The e f f e c t s of noncompetitive and c o m p e t i t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c l i m a t e s on teacher expectancy e f f e c t s i n elementary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . J o u r n a l of Sport Psychology. 6, 408-421. Mendoza, S. , Good, T. , Se Brophy, J . (1972). Who t a l k s i n j u n i o r high school classrooms (Rep. S e r i e s No. 8 ) . A u s t i n , TX: U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, Research and Development f o r Teacher Edu c a t i o n . M e t z l e r , M. (1979). The measurement of academic l e a r n i n g time i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1979). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 40, 5365A. Me t z l e r , M. (1983). An i n t e r v a l r e c o r d i n g system f o r measuring academic l e a r n i n g time i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In P. Darst, V. Mancini, and D. 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Teacher and p u p i l behavior and the i n t e r a c t i o n p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . In R. Telama, V. V a r s t a l a , J . T i a i n e n , L. Laasko, and T. Haajanen (Eds.), Research i n school p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . (pp. 13-30). J y v a s k y l a , F i n l a n d : K.J. Gummerus Osakeyhtion K i r j a p a i n o s s a . P i e r o n , M. (1986). A n a l y s i s of the r e s e a r c h based on o b s e r v a t i o n of the t e a c h i n g of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In Brkkoekhoff, E l l i s , and T r i p p s (Eds.). Sport Pedagogy, (pp. 193-202). 152 Placek, J., Silverman, S., Shute, S., Dodds, P., & R i f e , F. (1982). Academic l e a r n i n g time i n a t r a d i t i o n a l elementary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g : A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . Journal of Classroom I n t e r a c t i o n . 17(2). 41-47. Placek, J . , b R a n d a l l , L. (1986). Comparison of academic l e a r n i n g time i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : students of s p e c i a l i s t s and n o n s p e c i a l i s t s . J o u r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l Education. 5, 157-165. Rate, R. (1980). A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of academic l e a r n i n g time and coaching behavior i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c p r a c t i c e s (Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1980). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 41. 1477A. R e j e s k i , W. , D a r r a c o t t , C , &: H u t s l a r , S. (1979). Pygmalion i n youth s p o r t s : A f i e l d study. J o u r n a l of Sport Psychology. 1., 311-319. Rejeski,, W. & Lowe, C. (1980). The r o l e of a b i l i t y and e f f o r t i n s p o r t achievement. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 48, 233-244. R e j e s k i , W. & H u t s l a r , S. (1980). teacher e x p e c t a n c i e s on performance of s p o r t s k i l l s . P r a c t i c e . 4, 91-94. The m e d i a t i o n a l r o l e of the a c q u i s i t i o n and Motor S k i l l s : Theory i n t o R i f e , F., Shute, S., & Dodds, P. (1985). A.L.T. - P.E. v e r s i o n s I and I I : E v o l u t i o n of a student-centered o b s e r v a t i o n system i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n. 4, 134-142. Rink, J . (1985). Teaching p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . S t . L o u i s , MO: Times Mirror/Mosby C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g , 1985. Rink, J . , Werner, P., Hohn, R. , Ward, D. , &c Timmermans, H. (1986). D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of t h r e e t e a c h e r s over a u n i t of i n s t r u c t i o n . Research Q u a r t e r l y . 57. 132-138. 153 Rosenshine, B. (1979). Content, time, and d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . In P. Peterson and H. Walberg (Eds.), Research on t e a c h i n g : Concepts. f i n d i n g s . and i m p l i c a t i o n s (pp. 28-56). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan. Rosenthal, R. (1974). On the s o c i a l psychology of the s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophesy: F u r t h e r evidence f o r pygmalion e f f e c t s and t h e i r mediating mechanisms. New York: M.S.S. Modular P u b l i c a t i o n s . Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion i n the classroom: Teacher e x p e c t a t i o n and PUPJ I s ' i n t e l l e c t u a l development. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston. Seidentop, D. (1983). Academic l e a r n i n g time: R e f l e c t i o n s and p r o s p e c t s . J o u r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l Education Monographs. 1_, 3-7. Seidentop, B. (1983b). Developing t e a c h i n g s k i l l s i n p h y s i c a l education (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton-Miff1 i n . Seidentop, D., B i r d w e l l , D., & Me t z l e r , M. (1979). A pr o c e s s approach t o s t u d y i n g t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Paper presented at the N a t i o n a l AAHPERD Convention, New Orleans, LA.. Seidentop, D., Tousignant, M., & Parker, M. (1982). Academic l e a r n i n g time - p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : 1982 r e v i s i o n : Coding manual. Columbus, OH: School of Heal t h , P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n , The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . Silverman, S., Dodds, P., Placek, J . , Shute, S., & R i f e , F. (1984). Academic l e a r n i n g time i n elementary school p h y s i c a l education f o r student subgroups and i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y u n i t s . Research Q u a r t e r l y . 55. 365-370. 154 Silverman, S. (1982). The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among student achievement, student engagement, and s e l e c t e d student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o-f Massachesetts, 1982). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 43, 1082A. Shute, S., Dodds, P., Placek, J . , R i f e , F., 8c Silverman, S. (1982). Academic l e a r n i n g time i n elementary school movement ed u c a t i o n : A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . J o u r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l Education. 1_(2> , 3-14. Smith, D. (1983). A comparison of A.L.T. - P.E. of students of d i f f e r e n t s k i l l l e v e l s and of a whole c l a s s at a hockey s c h o o l . Unpublished manuscript, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Tousignant, M., B r u n e i l e , J . , P i e r o n , M., 8c D h i l l o n , G. (1983). What's happening t o the A.L.T. - P.E. r e s e a r c h o u t s i d e the U.S.A.. Jou r n a l of Teaching i n P h y s i c a l Education Monographs. 1., 27-33. Whaley, G. (1980). The e f f e c t of d a i l y m o n i t o r i n g and feedback t o t e a c h e r s and students on academic l e a r n i n g time - p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1980). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l . 41. 1477A. Weiner, B. , 8c Kukla, G. (1970). An a t t r i b u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of achievement m o t i v a t i o n . Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology. 15. 1-20. Weinstein, R. 8c M i d d l e s t a d t , S. (1979) Student p e r c e p t i o n s of teacher i n t e r a c t i o n s with male high and low a c h i e v e r s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. 71. 421-431. West, C. 8c Anderson, T. (1976). The q u e s t i o n of preponderant c a u s a t i o n i n teacher expectancy r e s e a r c h . Review of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . 46. 613-630. 155 Wuest, D. , van der Mars, H. , Be T e r r i l o n , K. (1985). The academic l e a r n i n g time - p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o-f high, average, and low s k i l l e d female i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e v o l l e y b a l l p l a y e r s . In Brkkoekhoff, E l l i s , and T r i p p s (Eds.), Sport Pedagogy (pp. 123-129). 156 Appendix A Teachers' L e t t e r o-f Informed Consent THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 212S M A I N M A I L VANCOUVER, SC.. CANADA V6T 1Z5 FACULTY OF EOUCATION 0 £ P » « T M £ N T OF C U B B I C U I U M A N D INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES • C O T I I * 'or ->w Siwav al C — c i H w i * A I M W U C I M • CIMd VutfT C«mra • Cjrtv auur tead COMCMIOII • inowatnM €4uc«tiafi l-*U«r of Informed C o r n t n t I, h t r t b y g i v e c o n s e n t f o r B . C a u t i n t i u and c o - i n v t t t 1 g a t o r s t o c o l l e c t d a t a In ay d t i i r o o a , s t a r t i n g J a n u a r y 1987. I r e a l i z e t h a t , due t o t h e n a t u r e o-f t h e s t u d y , I M i l l not be i n f o r m e d of p u p i l s b e i n g o b s e r v e d , nor t h e e x a c t f o c u s of s t u d y . At t h e c o n c l u s i o n of the s t u d y I M i l l be f u l l y i n f o r e e d , by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , of t h e p u p i l s o b s e r v e d , and of p u r p o s e s and p r o c e d u r e s c a r r i e d o u t . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f d a t a M i l l be a a l n t a x n e d t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y . 157 A p p e n d i x B E x p l a n a t o r y L e t t e r Given to Teachers P r e c e d i n g Study THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2125 MAIN MAL VANCOUVER, B.C.. CANADA V6T 125 FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM ANO INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES • Business Education • Contra lor the St way of Curriculum A Instruction • Child Study Centra • Commumcationa. Uadla. and Tscnnoiogy • Cany Childhood Education • Noma Econamica • Industrial Education • School ubrananaftip Dear . Thank you very much f o r a l l o w i n g access to your classroom f o r my study. By now, you have rank-ordered c h i l d r e n in your c l a s s , a c c o r d i n g to your expected l e v e l o-f performance in p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and have given me a sched u l e of your p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d s in the month o-f January. A f t e r examining a l l s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d s , I M i l l attempt, t e n t a t i v e l y , to set up an o b s e r v a t i o n schedule. Within t h i s schedule, I M i l l attempt to observe 3 p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d s that are as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e ( c o n s e c u t i v e l y i s p r e f e r a b l e ) . In the f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n , the lesson focus M i l l be on b a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g . In the second, the lesson focus M i l l be on b a s k e t b a l l d r i b b l i n g , and f i n a l l y , a lesson M i t h a focus on b a s k e t b a l l s h o o t i n g M i l l be observed. Your l e s s o n s may take any f o r m a t d e s i r e d , as long as the focus of i n s t r u c t i o n remains on the given task. During these o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s , a l l p u p i l s M i l l be r e q u i r e d to wear numbers, to a i d r e s e a r c h e r s with o b s e r v a t i o n s . It would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d i f you co u l d handle a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 158 p r o c e d u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n o f numbers. In t h e f i r s t week o f J a n u a r y , y ou M i l l be i n f o r m e d o f t h e t e n t a t i v e l e s s o n s t o be o b s e r v e d , and a n y c h a n g e s t o t h e s c h e d u l e M i l l be done a t t h a t t i m e . A g a i n , t h a n k s f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t , and I t r u s t t h a t t h i s s t u d y M i l l not p r o v e t o be a Inconv1 e n i e c e f o r y o u , o r y o u r c l a s s . • Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y . B i l l . 159 Appendix C Academic L e a r n i n g Time V e r s i o n II Measuring Instrument ALT-PI O00IHC SHUT 1 2 ) » ) * 7 I t 10 1! 11 11 It 1) It 1! II It 10 21 22 21 24 2S 24 LI LI LI LI LI C LI I 2 3 4 S 4 7 I I 10 11 12 13 14 IS 14 IT II 1» 20 21 22 23 24 JJ 24 1 2 3 t J 4 7 1 f 10 11 12 IS 14 IS II 17 II 11 20 21 22 23 24 2S 24 I 2 3 4 S 4 7 I f 10 11 12 13 14 13 II 17 II It 20 21 22 23 24 JJ 24 1 2 3 t 5 4 7 I t 10 11 12 IS 14 15 14 17 II It 20 21 22 23 24 25 24 I 2 3 4 5 4 7 I t 10 U 12 13 14 13 II 17 II It 20 21 22 23 24 25 24 Context Laval Central Content SH Knovlodio SH Motor Learner Iovolvea*nt Level Hot Motor I n t e n d Motor Inteiod Traneltloa (T) Technique (TM) S k i l l Practice (P) ' Manegeaant (M) Stratogr (ST) Scrlaa-ie/toutUe (S) Waiting (V) Ireak (I) tulta (*) Cea* (C) Off-tack (Of) Wen Up (W) Social gehovlor (Sl)Pltneaa (f) Oa-taek (On) lackground (II) Cognitive (C) Motor epproprlece (Ma) Motor lnapproprlete (Ml) Supporting (Ma) 160 Appendix D Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l Education Demographic Information Sheet AM-rr. coniNC SHEET , DftMOCRAHUC tNrOIWXTIOfl Date: Teacher : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s«'»~>» : Cleea/Actlvlty : °»>"~«r i Start t i i — : Stop C 1M : Duration I rage of Thl» observation le day of daye in thla wilt. Tlia teacher allocated alnutaa of a c t i v i t y time for thla leoeon. Tha eource of thla a l l o c a t i o n Information vae (aakad teacher, aav laaaon plan). Observer comaanta on thla claaa. Data Summary Total time Allocnteil practice time AI.T-PF. Content level data: General content S»l Knowledge SU Motor Learner Involvement data: Not motor encased motor eiiear.ed Teacher Appendix E Demographic i n f o r m a t i o n Sheet THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2123 MAIN MAL VANCOUVER, B.C. CANADA V6T 1Z5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM ANO INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES • Bunnell Education • Centre lor the Study of Curriculum A Instructs • Cluid Study Centni • Communications. Media, and Technology • tarty Childhood Education • Home Economica e industrial Education e School u r x a n e n e r M p Demographic I nf ormat i on Name: Age: . Number of year* t e a c h i n g : Number of years t e a c h i n g in elementary s c h o o l : Number of years t e a c h i n g P.E. ln elementary s c h o o l : Number of years t e a c h i n g at present s c h o o l : . Number of years at present grade l e v e l : . D e g r e e s / c o n c e n t r a t i o n areas a p p l i c a b l e to teaching: Number of s t u d e n t s in your present c l a s s : 162 Appendix F Raw Data -from the Academic L e a r n i n g Time - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n V e r s i o n II Instrument I 2 3 H S 6 Toioj TrioJ i _ 3 T T r . _ l 1 4 3 T 1 i s T T r i a l 1 *. s T 1 * s T • -Tr_i t _ s T T 23 7p »r3 77 19 32 12 •7 30 73 22 22 II a 73 •f22 t"f 3 I $ - - 1 1 ! - 1 7 - - - - - - - — - - - ( - 1 1 - - - - / - 2 «f 77 73 s 76 Hi3 TM 17 If (.2 to IS 59 39 32 *7 Hb 92 TV (0 9 ;7 36 _?T ft - - 62 _q Vii Ko P * l £i 3o ft 37 in 33 tt, 3? IT ttl 75 m as? - 22 . G - - 6 - - 3V 3V - - - - — — - - - - - - - - - f - - 2 _ 2* - 33 17 - - 17 - 13 - 2 IS - - .S \K. M5Tbf IIS T7 nr. 212 /O0«? ^ « 9 W w 17 II 3V 3 30 H / // 17 - K 11 <b 23 9 I9S V / . - to i 9 3 7 7 y 9 21 1 £T (0 »i 11 U 13 2o H3 CM II 3/ *7 19 23 yf V 21 27 2? 77 u 'Y 33 73 30 2Y 2J 75 Y3 n Hi /05 c 12 si 3V «L to it. 27 «? 7o to 3? 9f 7 lb 3/ iV)oT Kcfor- ita rxz. IW I'd 2o/ mi MI - H — f ? 1 ? 2 Y 2 — 1 - 1 - - H H 3 / - 30 MS - - 9 7 1 1 It? MA 27 3/ 32 ? fry 2"? »3 2o YI To ?t 37 3/ T2 29 (7<7 w H2 fil J-3 n 21 <̂ 9? 163 Academic L e a r n i n g Time - Raw Data Over A l l Three Lessons. 1 2. 3 5 ToTod 17 2o 21 I2Y HCr 2/3 IS I& Z3 r2 4? 27 Hf LAB 1% 21 '9 lb . \k> 27 ft Ih to HI 48 3$ 32, 3b 231 1? 14 17 II W 20 <?9 L& /V IH /3 II 1? ?/ 31 3 3 3 o *>•? /?_) 119 H3 "? Off-Task Time - Raw Data Over A l l Three Lessons. i ! i 2 H (* Toted 0 o 2. t . . . 7 %_ o II /<? , «o 0 / 1 V '? 0 if 1 1* 37. H 6 <r 7 z 2- f 3 2 2f 1 0 O 7 HArV| (? 9 5" ( 1 2? H 2_ . . . £> *r 3 </ 5 2- 2̂  2? LouJ 9 _ // IZ \< / ? XI. 12. 30 l'3 Appendix G 164 D i r e c t i o n s Given to Teachers -for Completion o-f Data Co11ec t i on THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2129 MAIN MALL VANCOUVER. B.C., CANADA V6T 125 FACULTY OF EDUCATION Dear DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES • Sueines* Education • Centre 'o» trw Stuov ol Curriculum i inetruciron • Child Sludr Centre • Commumrationa. Media, and Tacnnotogv • Cert, Childhood Education • Home Economic* • induetnei Education • Vhoot libranansnip Thank you v e r y much t o r a l l o t t i n g me a c c e s s t o y o u r c l a s s r o o m d u r i n g t h e p a s t t t M weeks. I c e r t a i n l y hope t h a t t h e s t u d y d i d n o t p r o v e t o be t o o n u c h o-f an t n c o n v i e n c e t o y o u , o r y o u r s t u d e n t s . In c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s s t u d y , I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o t a k e a n o t h e r c l a s s l i s t , and on t h i s l i s t , i n d i c a t e y o u r p e r c e i v e d l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t f o r e a c h s t u d e n t l n t h e c l a s s o v e r t h e p a s t t h r e e l e s s o n s . T h i s p e r c e i v e d l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t s h o u l d be r a t e d f r o m 1 ( l o w e s t ) t o 3 ( h i g h e s t ) . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d a p p r r e c i a t e i t i f y o u w o u ld f o r w a r d , on t h e same c l a s s l i s t , s t u d e n t s g r a d e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e 1 s t and 2nd t e r m , a s w e l l a s t h e d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t , and p o s t t h i s b a c k t o me i n t h e r e t u r n e n v e l o p e b e f o r e t h e end o-f F e b r u a r y . A g a i n , t h a n k s f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . I hope t h a t any q u e s t i o n s y o u may h a v e a b o u t t h e s t u d y h a v e b e e n a n s w e r e d . I f n o t , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o c o n t a c t me a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , and I would be p l e a s e d t o c l a r i f y a n y q u e s t i o n s . I am, a n t i c i p a t i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i n A p r i l , and h o p e f u l l y w i l l be a b l e t o c o m m u n i c a t e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e s t u d y t o y o u , a t t h i s t i m e . T a k e c a r e , and a l l t h e b e s t f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e y e a r . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , B i l l .

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