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Graphic representation of knowledge structures in ESL student learning Tang, Gloria Mann 1989

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G R A P H I C R E P R E S E N T A T I O N O F K N O W L E D G E S T R U C T U R E S I N E S L S T U D E N T L E A R N I N G by G L O R I A M A N N T A N G B.A. (hons), Universi ty of Hong Kong, 1960 M . E d . , Universi ty of Hong Kong, 1981 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F E D U C A T I O N i n T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S C E N T R E F O R T H E S T U D Y OF C U R R I C U L U M & I N S T R U C T I O N , F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A July, 1989 © Gloria Mann Tang, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of L a n m i a a s F . r h i n a h i n n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 10th October 1989 DE-6 (2/88) ii ABSTRACT Research suggests that students can understand information more easily if the structure of that information is given in graphic as well as verbal form, and that this is especially true for second language students. These suggestions have major implications for the education of second language learners. This study was conducted to explore the role and value of graphic representation of knowledge structures in English as a Second Language student learning, based on a specific definition and categorization of knowledge structures (Mohan 1986). To obtain a complete picture of graphics in two seventh grade ESL classes, an ethnography and an experiment were conducted. The first part of the study, employing ethnographic techniques (examination of documents, intensive and participant observation, and interview) includes detailed analysis of the graphics in a chapter of a textbook and analytic descriptions of student activities related to graphics. Findings revealed that students were exposed to a considerable number of graphics. However, whether, and how, students used graphics to facilitate learning depended to a large extent on the guidance they received. Without teacher guidance, students could not successfully extract information from graphics or use graphics to represent knowledge, nor did they recognize graphics as an alternative way of communicating information/knowledge. They perceived the function of graphics to be decorative, and their general attitude towards graphic representation of knowledge structures was negative. Students did not find graphics facilitative of comprehension and recall. With explicit teacher guidance, however, students iii could use graphics to organize information; a percentage of the students recognized graphics as an alternative way of communicating information, and were more positive about the facilitative effect of the graphics they had been taught. Results suggested, but failed to conclude, that graphics can facilitate student learning. The second part of the study was conducted to test the hypotheses thus generated. The second part reports an experiment and an attitude or preference study conducted to establish the effect of graphics on student learning. Based on a pretest-posttest nonequivalent-control group design, a pretest and two posttests were administered on 45 intermediate ESL students. Findings suggested that 1. using a tree graph to present knowledge to seventh grade ESL students facilitated learning in 90% of the students; 2. teaching students to construct a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic while reading, facilitated comprehension and immediate recall in 95% of the students; 3. the majority of seventh grade ESL students could be taught to construct a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of a text passage; 4. students' perception of, and attitude towards, * graphics changed after they had been taught to use a tree graph to represent one type of text; and, 5. over 80% of the students found a tree graph helpful as a teaching technique and over 75% found it helpful as a reading strategy. Moreover, most students affirmed that they would employ a tree graph to represent or organize knowledge, and as a reading strategy, although many of them felt that they needed more practice in using the technique. i v T h u s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n / k n o w l e d g e s t r u c t u r e s c a n i m p r o v e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , b u t t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e u n l i k e l y t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f i t u n l e s s t e a c h e r s t a k e a c t i v e s t e p s t o r e a l i z e i t s p o t e n t i a l . V T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page Abstract ii Table of Contents '. . v List of Tables vii List of Figures ix Acknowledgements x Chapter One Statement and Definition of the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 1 Research Questions 5 Definition of Construct 8 Reasons for the Inquiry 26 Two Review of Related Literature 29 The Value of Familiarizing Students with Text Structures 30 Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures 32 Graphics in Instructional Materials and Instruction 45 Three The Ethnographic Study 53 The Research Design 53 Conduct of the Study 56 vi Four Findings of the Ethnographic Study 62 Graphics Encountered by Both Divisions 62 Division One 78 Division Two 96 Summary of Findings 113 Five The Experimental Study 118 Rationale 118 Design of the Study 122 Conduct of the Study 128 Procedure for Analysis of Data 136 Results of the Study 138 Summary of Findings 149 Student Attitude 152 Discussion 163 Six Conclusions and Recommendations 171 References 179 Appendices 187 vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Lessons Observed 59 II Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures in Chapter Four of Other Places, Other Times 66 III Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures in Review Questions of Other Places, Other Times, Chapter Four 70 IV Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures in Chapter Four of Teacher's Guide, Other Places, Other Times 73 V Graphics Students of Division One Interacted with in Instructional Materials and Instruction 83 VI Graphics Students of Division Two Interacted with in Instructional Materials and Instruction 103 VII Summary of Findings of Ethnographic Study 115 VIII Conduct of Experimental Study 123 IX The Participants : Boy-Girl Distribution 125 X Analysis of Variance - Pretest .„ 139 XI Analysis of Covariance - Posttest 1 140 XII Gain in Information Recalled in Posttest 1 over Pretest 141 XIII Gain in Structure in Posttest 1 over Pretest 143 XIV Analysis of Covariance - Posttest 2 145 viii XV Gain in Information Recalled in Posttest 2 over Pretest 146 XVI Gain in Structure in Posttest 2 over Pretest 147 XVII Summary of Findings of Experimental Study 151 XVIII Student Attitude 154 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figures Page 1 General Framework for Knowledge Structures 19 2 Text Structures and Knowledge Structures 21 3 Key Visuals for Knowledge 24 4 Design of the Experimental Study 122 c X A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I would like to express my appreciation of the good will of the Vancouver School Board, and all those who took part in the study. The research could not have been conducted without their co-operation. I am grateful to my research supervisor, Dr. B. Mohan for the help he gave and the interest he showed in the project, and to Dr. V. D'Oyley and Dr. M. Early for the advice they offered. I wish to thank my husband and my children, Hugh and Genevieve, for being supportive throughout the period of the study. 1 Chapter One S T A T E M E N T AND DEFINITION OF T H E P R O B L E M Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to explore the role of graphic representation of knowledge structures in intermediate English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum and instruction and student learning and to investigate the effect of using graphics to represent knowledge structures on intermediate ESL student learning. ESL and content-area teachers have always been concerned with the difficulties ESL students experience in understanding knowledge presented in the medium of English. They have tried to find better ways to help ESL students understand and retain knowledge they encounter in the classroom or in text materials which they are required to read. Recently, considerable research effort has gone into exploring the usefulness of various teaching and learning strategies, among them the investigation of "students' awareness of the different organizational patterns that characterize expository text" (Alvermann & Boothby 1986, p. 88); and the use of graphic aids to facilitate comprehension of content-area texts. This study combined the two. It sought to discover the role and value of graphic representation of knowledge structures in ESL student learning. 2 Various learning theories have contributed to the use of graphic representation of knowledge structures to facilitate learning. Ausubel's cognitive learning theory, which maintains that to learn meaningfully, individuals must choose to relate new knowledge to known concepts (Ausubel 1986), and schema theory, which "maintains that processing a text is an interactive process between the text and the prior background knowledge or memory schemata of the listener or reader" (Carrell 1982, p. 482), have prompted educators to devise graphic tools to tie new knowledge to background knowledge. The Gestalt theory of perception, i.e., the idea that whenever possible students should be presented the whole picture rather than discrete parts, has contributed to the use of graphics "to condense descriptive materials into more 'intellectually manageable' visual displays" (Holliday 1975, p. 21). Some educators have become more interested in graphic communication as a result of Paivio's (1971) dual code model which argues that dual coding is more likely to occur with pictures than with words and explains "the pictorial superiority effect" (Levie 1987, p. 10). In addition, "a number of researchers have proposed that certain types of information are stored in memory as image-like structures (Anderson 1978; Kosslyn 1980, 1981; Shepard 1978; Shepard & Cooper 1982) which retain some, though not all, of the properties of the pictures, the graphic forms or the direct visual experience that gave rise to them" (Winn 1987, p. 158). Studies have concluded that "graphic forms encourage students to create mental images that, in turn, make it easier for them to learn certain types of material" (Winn 1987, p. 159). Moreover, it has also been argued that because graphics allow students 3 to use alternative systems of logic, "certain physiological strengths of learners, such as pattern recognition, and the ability to recognize geometric shapes, as well as the advantages of 'right-brain' processing, can be exploited" (Winn 1987, p. 160). Among the graphic techniques which have been developed and studied are graphic organizers (Alvermann 1981, 1982; Boothby & Alvermann 1984; Dana 1980; Hawk 1986); the structured overview (Barron 1979); flowcharting (Geva 1983); flow diagram, picture-word and block-word (Holliday 1976; Winn 1980); networking (Dansereau 1979); mapping (Armbruster & Anderson 1980); text mapping (Mosenthal 1984, cited by Carrell 1985); story map (Reutzel 1985, cited by Carrell 1985); concept mapping (Novak & Gowin 1984); and semantic mapping (Johnson, Pittelman & Heimlich 1986). Results of much of the research on the above cited techniques indicate that using graphics to present knowledge, and enabling students to use graphics to represent knowledge structures during the reading process can facilitate comprehension and recall in varying degrees in students at various levels. Research has shown that diagrams "help low-verbal learners overcome some of their difficulty with language by providing information in a form they can handle more easily" (Winn & Holliday 1981, p. 736). In other words, graphics can lower the language barrier for students rwho learn English as a second language. Indeed, educators and ESL teachers have suggested that an effective way to "teach a topic of worthwhile or interesting information to a class of ESL students using English as the medium of instruction ... or to adapt a lesson 4 which has been successful with a class of English-speaking students" (Mohan 1986, p. 25) to ESL students is to use visuals and graphics (Martinez 1984, cited by Mohan 1986). Both theories of learning and research indicate that graphics of various types have a facilitative effect on learning in students who are weak in verbal skills. As a matter of fact, the value of graphics and illustrations appears to be recognized by textbook writers. Recent reviews of textbook illustrations reveal that textbooks are highly illustrated in the primary and intermediate grades (Evans, Watson & Willows 1987). Moreover they contain a wide variety of forms of illustrations, ranging from pictures and photographs to diagrams, graphs, charts and maps. It has also been observed that illustrations have in recent decades become more important as comprehension aids, instead of being mere artistic ornaments (Mulcahy & Samuels 1987). However, are graphics used in real-life classroom teaching and learning? The only naturalistic study (Evans, et al. 1987) which investigated the ways in which textbook illustrations were used by teachers in the classroom, offers only minimal comment on how teachers actually used illustrations, because the researchers had to terminate their project after about 20 hours of observation. I have not been able to locate any ethnographic research which studies how graphics are used by students in the classroom. There is thus a glaring gap in the research literature on the role of graphics in the classroom and how they are actually used by teachers and students. Or as Peeck (1987) maintains, "not much is known, either in research or in real-life settings, about what subjects 5 do with illustrated text [and graphics in curriculum and instruction, for that matter], that is, how and when (or indeed whether at all) they use pictures" (Peeck 1987, p. 144). The first part of this study, a study using ethnographic techniques (Spradley 1980; Wolcott 1980) was, therefore, conducted to fill this gap in the literature on graphics. The main purpose was to discover whether and how graphics were used in two seventh grade ESL classrooms, and to explore the effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on intermediate ESL student learning. A secondary purpose was to use the data collected in this part of the study to sharpen the focus of future studies in this area. The second part of the study was an experiment conducted to test hypotheses generated from the findings of the first part of the study. Tests were administered on the same participants. The purpose was to discover the effect of one kind of graphic representation of one type of knowledge structure on student comprehension and recall, and to explore students' attitude towards graphic representation of knowledge structures. The use of a teacher-provided graphic, and student-generated graphics, of one type of knowledge structure was examined in actual classroom situations to provide information on the practical applicability of the concept. Research Questions The study was conducted in two parts, the first part, an ethnographic study 6 is reported in Chapters Three and Four and, the second, an experimental study is reported in Chapter Five. The ethnographic study was conducted to discover the role of graphic representation of knowledge structures in seventh grade ESL curriculum, instruction and student learning. More specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What types of graphics were found in seventh grade curriculum and instruction in a certain elementary school in Vancouver, and in what quantity? 2. What did teachers and students do with graphics? 3. Did the graphics students encountered in the classroom facilitate comprehension of knowledge? 4. What were students' perception of, and attitude towards, the graphic representation of knowledge structures they encountered? The second part of the study is labelled experimental study for ease of reference, although strictly speaking, the design of the study is quasiexperimental (Shavelson 1981). The purpose of this part of the study was to investigate the effects of using a teacher-provided graphic as a teaching technique, and a student-generated graphic representation of knowledge structures as a reading strategy on seventh grade ESL student learning. More specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 7 1. Did using a teacher-provided tree graph to present one type of expository text facilitate intermediate ESL students' comprehension and immediate recall of the text? 2. Did teaching students to construct, and requiring them to generate, a graphic to represent the knowledge of one type of expository text facilitate intermediate ESL students' comprehension and immediate recall of the text? 3. Could seventh grade ESL students be taught to construct a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of one type of expository text? 4. Did students' perception of, and attitude towards, graphic representation of knowledge structures change as a result of learning to use a tree graph to represent the knowledge structure of one type of text? Before reporting the study, however, I deem it necessary to make a few stage-setting remarks, and to define the constructs of the study. First of all, I hope the reader will appreciate the difficulty of putting two research studies, which employ two basically different research methods in one report. It is usual for ethnographies to be written in the first person, and traditional for experiments to be reported in the third, as befit the nature and spirit of the two different types of studies. However, to maintain a consistent point of view, I decided to report both studies in the same person, which means departing from tradition or usual practice in one of them. After much deliberation, I chose to employ the first person. I hope the experimental study will not suffer as a result. 8 Second, I should point out that the ethnographic study and the experimental study are not two unconnected enquiries put under one cover. Data obtained in the ethnographic study suggested patterns of behaviour which called for exploration in greater detail. The experimental study was thus a follow-up of the ethnographic study. Third, since the study was on the value of graphics, situations and behaviours which reflected the presence of graphics were likely to be referred to as positive, while those which reflected the absence of graphics might be labelled negative. However, I should point out that comments on the absence of graphics in instruction were not meant to be disparaging remarks on the teacher or his/her teaching, and should not be taken as synonymous with ineffective teaching, the definition of which I do not intend to go into in this study. Definition of Construct The construct of this study is graphic representation of knowledge structures, but I shall begin by defining "graphics", and its related terms, which have, through the imprecision of their use, caused a great deal of confusion. Graphics The term "graphics" occurs frequently in the report. Unfortunately, there 9 is little agreement on what "graphic" and its related terms embrace. In the first place, the problem addressed by different studies is different. Some are interested solely in graphic representation of statistics, or what they label "quantitative graphics" or "statistical graphics" (Funkhouser 1937; Beniger & Robyn 1978). Others use the term in a, perhaps, too comprehensive sense to include anything "alternative to prose," but excluding "ordinary language and its derivatives (such as poetry and Basic English)" (Macdonald-Ross 1977, p. 50). To add to the confusion, "graphics" and "graph," "graph" and "chart," and "graph" and "diagram" are used interchangeably by some and specifically by others. Funkhouser (1938) used the terms "graph" (Funkhouser 1937, p. 313 & p.330) and "graphics" (Funkhouser 1937, p. 329 & p. 330) interchangeably with "graphical representation" to include cartograms, bar graphs or bar charts, diagrams, histograms, frequency polygons and frequency curves, pictograms and pie diagrams or charts. At the same time, he used the term "diagram" "in a generic sense to include all the various kinds of graphs, charts, lines and pictorial illustrations for the display and comparison of numerical data" (Funkhouser 1937, p. 365). Beniger & Robyn (1978) did not define the term directly, but made it obvious that graphics include "the table, co-ordinate systems, and map, and in derivative forms like the line graph, histogram, and scatterplot,... bar chart... pie chart,... circle graph ... pictogram, and ... strings of unit drawings" (Beniger & Robyn 1978, pp. 1-6). Macdonald-Ross (1977), however, defined "graph" as "a line drawn on a co-ordinate grid to show the relationship between two variables" (Macdonald-Ross 1977, p. 336), but used the 10 term "graphic" to refer to all non-prose ways of presenting information, such as tables, graphs, bar charts, circle graphs, pie charts, maps, pictorial charts, nomograms, algorithms, cartography, comic strips, typography, and scientific and technical diagrams. To Fry (1983), graph is "information transmitted by position of point, line or area on a two-dimensional surface" (Fry 1983, p. 2), and not by symbolic means, although he was aware that graphs do transmit some information by using such symbols as titles, labels and arrows. To him, tables are not graphs. He defined "graph" by identifying five major categories and a number of specific sub-categories in his Taxonomy of Graphs (Fry 1981, p. 384-5). Levie and Lentz (1982) preferred the term "pictures" to cover all text illustrations, which Duchastel (1980) defined as "a generic [term] which covers such diverse elements as photographs, schematic drawings, diagrams and maps" (Duchastel 1980, p. 284). Langer referred to illustrations as "the visual categories of presentational form" (Langer 1953, 1957, 1962, cited by Hunter, Crismore & Pearson 1987, p. 118), and Doblin described them as iconographic information (Doblin 1980). In the report, I employ the term "graphic" in a generic sense to cover text illustrations and such diverse elements as photographs, schematic drawings, diagrams, maps (Duchastel 1980), as well as tables, charts and graphs, in classroom instruction. Graphic representation of knowledge structures, on the other hand, refers to knowledge structures (Mohan 1986) presented in graphic form, elaborated in a later section. "Illustration" refers exclusively to pictures, both representational and non-representational (Levie & Lentz 1982) in written 11 instructional materials; "diagram" refers to graphics which show conceptual relationships (Levie & Lentz 1982) among ideas and are usually non-representational; "picture" refers to reproductions of photographs and "representational pictures" (Levie & Lentz 1982); and "chart" refers to verbal labels or drawings arranged in table form and is used interchangeably with "table." Classification of graphics Graphics and illustrations have been analyzed from both a morphological point of view, i.e., in terms of what they look like, and a functional point of view, i.e., in terms of the roles they are expected to play in a text (Duchastel 1981). In terms of form or morphology, Levie & Lentz (1982) classified pictures into "representational pictures," which they defined as "ordinary drawings and photographs that show what things look like" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 214), and "non-representational pictures," in which they included maps, diagrams and graphic organizers. Maps, they maintained, show spatial relationships, while diagrams show conceptual relationships and "depict the organization and structure of the key concepts of a content area" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 215). They defined graphic organizers as "schematic representations of the relationships between concepts-usually the key terms from a text (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 215). In his taxonomy of graphs, Fry (1983) divided graphics into three large categories according to their form: one-dimensional, which includes 12 lineal graphs; two-dimensional, which embraces rectangular, circular, and area graphs; and three-dimensional, which is made up of pictures, realistic, semi-realistic and abstract. Doblin (1980) classified printed visual information into orthographic (alphanumeric) and iconographic (visual), the latter of which he further classified into ideogrammatic, or visual words that convey a single meaning, such as road signs; diagrammatic, which includes charts, graphs or diagrams; and isogrammatic, which are visual representation of reality such as photography, drawing, drafting, etc. (Doblin 1980, p. 90). Hunter et al. (1987), on the other hand, regarded the different iconographic forms as points along a continuum of "referential representationality," with photography at the far left, orthography at the far right and artwork, diagrams, maps, graphs, formulae, tables, and charts in between. Discussing the functional roles of graphics, Duchastel (1981) described "three roles which text illustrations can play in an instructional situation: an attentional role, an explicative role, which he analyzed into seven further functions, and, a retentional role" (Duchastel 1981, p. 141). "Illustrations fulfilling an attentional role are meant to motivate the reader, no more" (Duchastel 1981, p. 37). The explicative role of illustrations is "that of helping the student to understand what is being presented" (Duchastel 1981, p. 38), while illustrations in the retentional role "form a conceptual plan of the subject matter for the learner, although an iconic plan rather than a verbal one" (Duchastel 1981, p. 38). These roles are described in relation to students. They are not unrelated to Levin's five picture functions, namely, decoration, which 13 encompasses "the remuneration function (when illustrations are provided to increase a publisher's sales" and the motivation function (when illustrations are provided to increase students' interest in the material)" (Levin et al. 1987, p. 53); representation, which illustrates the words exactly; organization, which gives coherence; interpretation, which clarifies difficult-to-understand passages and abstract concepts; and transformation, which recodes information and relates it in a well-organized context (Levin, Anglin & Carney 1987, p. 53-61). Levin's functions describe graphics in relation to the text or information they accompany. Levie & Lentz (1982), reviewing the literature of the effects of text illustrations, suggested four broad categories: attentional, those which attract attention to the material and direct attention within the material; affective, those which enhance enjoyment and affect emotion; cognitive, those which facilitate learning text content via improving comprehension and retention, and those which provide additional information; and compensatory, those which accommodate poor readers (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 218-224). The categorization of visual displays in textbooks into five functions by Hunter et al. (1987) expresses the relation of the graphics to the text they accompany rather than the role they play in student learning. The five functions are: to embellish, when the display is not discussed in the text; to reinforce, when the information is repeated in the text; to elaborate, when the display not only repeats but also adds new information not included in the text; to summarize, when the display provides a sketchy overview of a portion of text; and to compare, when a display is included for the reader to compare or contrast with an earlier occurring 14 display (Hunter, et al. 1987, p. 122). In the first part of the study, I explored the role of all illustrations in instructional materials and graphics in classroom instruction. However, the focus was on graphics which are cognitive and compensatory (Levie & Lentz 1982) in function, or explicative and retentional (Duchastel 1981), or organizational, interpretational, representational and transformational (Levin et al. 1987). In other words, graphics which were text-irrelevant or purely decorative, according to Levin et al. (1987), or attentional and affective, according to Levie & Lentz (1982), or for embellishment (Hunter et al. 1987) were either dismissed or mentioned briefly. The graphics observed were classified according to Mohan's (1986) framework of knowledge structures which I shall treat in a later section. However, other terms, e.g., representational pictures and non-representational pictures (Levie & Lentz 1982) and realistic pictures (Fry 1983) were used for elaboration purposes. To discuss the functions of graphics, I borrowed such terms as explicative (Duchastel 1978), cognitive (Levie & Lentz 1982), representational, organizational or interpretational (Levin et al. 1987), etc., and to analyze the illustrations in a chapter of a social studies textbook, I chose the categories of Hunter et al. (1987). Text Structures and Knowledge Structures This section explains what text structures and knowledge structures are, 15 and shows how they are related yet different. Writers interested in the structure of text have used a number of different labels such as style (Cheek & Cheek 1983), rhetorical relationships (Meyer 1985), patterns (Vacca 1981; Readence, Bean & Baldwin 1981), and schema to describe the structure of written texts. They were basically referring to either writing style, or semantic relations; patterns of sequences of words and sentences or a combination of all of them. Cheek & Cheek (1983) pointed out that "textbooks, newspapers, magazines, and other printed materials are written using a variety of styles" (Cheek & Cheek 1983, p. 278) which have been considered important to understanding content materials. They cited that as early as 1917, Thorndike had suggested that students failed in reading because they could neither organize nor understand the organizational relationships in written texts; and in the 1960's other writers had identified different patterns in different content areas. "Smith (1964) found that while different patterns do exist in ... content materials, ... in many content materials, a variety of patterns exist within a chapter. Thus students must recognize changes in organizational patterns in order to adjust their reading to understand the information" (Cheek & Cheek 1983, p. 278-9). Writers of methods books have also encouraged teachers to help students learn to look for the organizational patterns of writers while reading (Deschant 1970, McQuire & Bumpus 1971, Niles 1974, cited by Cheek & Cheek 1983). However, it was not until recently that more research effort began to focus on text structure, organizational patterns, or schemata. 16 Meyer (1975) identified five basic patterns: response, comparison, antecedent/consequent, description and collection, which she in 1985 re-defined as collection, causation, response, comparison and description. They are "rhetorical relationships that can interrelate the greatest amount of text" (Meyer 1985, p. 269). She maintained that discourse can be placed into one of these categories according to the overall plan for writing the text. These basic types of top-level structures or plans are familiar in various contexts. The collection relationship is exemplified in the time-order plan or history texts. Scientific treatises often adhere to the response type, first raising a question or problem and then seeking to give an answer or solution. Political speeches are often of the comparison type, and in particular, its adversative subtype. Newspaper articles are often of the description type, telling us who, where, how, and when (Meyer 1985, p. 270). Meyer's patterns are in some ways related to the organizational patterns suggested by other writers. Herber (1970) identified four organizational structures which "appear with regularity in text materials used in content classes: cause/effect; comparison/contrast; time order; enumerative order. 'Main idea' also is listed by these sources as an organizational pattern ... but it is of a different magnitude" (Herber 1970, p. 105). Cheek & Cheek (1983) reviewed 142 middle and secondary school content materials and identified four commonly used organizational patterns: enumeration; relationship, which includes cause-effect, comparison-contrast, classification or direction and sequencing of ideas; persuasive; and problem-solving. Other writers have classified written language into three to five predominant organizational patterns. Vacca (1981) and 17 Readence et al. (1981) adopted the types which Niles and Memory (1977) recommended as most prominent (Readence et al. 1981), i.e., cause/effect, comparison/contrast, time order and simple listing, and Readence et al. (1981) chose to include an additional pattern, problem/solution, to the four categories adopted by Vacca. It appears that there are certain organizational patterns in text which are common across the curriculum, and to facilitate the learning of knowledge in the content area, it seems that teachers should familiarize students with text structures or organizational patterns. However, the categories referred to as organizational patterns by different writers are not all of the same magnitude; some of them are macrostructures or top-level structures, while others include top-level structures and lower-level details; some refer to semantic relations, while others to patterns of sequences of words and sentences, or both. It appears that what is needed is a model which provides a terminological structure to facilitate discussion of the topic. Mohan's (1986) general framework for knowledge structures (see Figure 1) provides such a model. He argues that it is the structure of knowledge rather than the structure of text that teachers should familiarize students with. He explains that text structures or "genres are oral or written interactions that people engage in ... A genre is defined by its stages or schematic structure: it is defined on sequential patterns of discourse, on the temporal ordering of text" (Mohan 1989, pp. 6-7). But knowledge structures are not genres. By contrast, knowledge structures are defined on the semantic relations that underlie text. For example, narrative or story is typically based on the semantic relation of 18 temporal sequence, but the order of the story text need not match the temporal sequence of the events narrated. The story may begin "in the middle of things" and use flashback techniques. Mohan (1986) suggests that a typical situation includes a certain group of knowledge structures (see Figure 1). They are divided into theoretical or background knowledge, which includes classification, principles, and evaluation or values; and specific, practical knowledge, which includes description, temporal sequence and choice or decision-making. They are cognitive categories (Mohan 1986). Mohan (1987) shows that evidence for their existence can be found in texts which explain such situations as gardening, bridge, statistics and parliamentary procedure, and "knowledge structures of a situation are reflected in the macrostructure of the expository texts of that situation" (Mohan 1989, p. 9). These knowledge structures are, moreover, fundamental throughout the curriculum, and each knowledge structure includes certain thinking processes. The framework has been used successfully in classroom teaching. It can provide for transfer of learning from one activity to another (Mohan 1986). Figure 1 19 General Framework f o r Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s (ESL 1988) CLASSIFICATION PRINCIPLES EVALUATION c l a s s i f y i n g e x p l a i n i n g e v a l u a t i n g c a t e g o r i z i n g p r e d i c t i n g judging d e f i n i n g i n t e r p r e t i n g data & drawing conclusions c r i t i c i z i n g developing g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s (cause, e f f e c t s , r u l e s , means-ends, reasons) j u s t i f y i n g preference & personal o p i n i o n s hypothes i z i n g recommending observing time r e l a t i o n s between events forming personal o p i n i o n s d e s c r i b i n g sequencing s p a t i a l l y steps i n a process making d e c i s i o n s naming comparing c o n t r a s t i n g DESCRIPTION SEQUENCE CHOICE 20 The knowledge structures in the knowledge framework are not unrelated to Meyer's (1985) categories of top-level text structures or rhetorical relationships (See Figure 2). Though related, there are, as we have seen, basic differences between text structures and knowledge structures. Knowledge structures "are defined on semantic relations and not on the sequential patterns of discourse" (Mohan 1989, p. 10). They are not special to text, and are not uniquely textual, although they are reflected in texts and are components of discourse and texts. Since knowledge structures are built from semantic relations, they "appear across modes of communication and understanding, being expressed verbally and non-verbally. For instance, classification can be expressed not only through writing and reading, and monologue or dialogue, but also across nonverbal modes of communication, such as graphics and database programs" (Mohan 1989, p. 10). The term "knowledge structures," as defined by Mohan (1986), thus embraces the structure of written text, and oral discourse as well as graphic information, and is preferable to "text structures" for the purpose of this study. 2 1 Figure 2 Text S t r u c t u r e s and Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s CLASSIFICATION PRINCIPLES EVALUATION c o l l e c t i o n c a u s ation — comparison d e s c r i p t i o n c o l l e c t i o n response DESCRIPTION SEQUENCE CHOICE 22 Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures Since knowledge structures are fundamental throughout the curriculum and exist in all content-area subjects, the best way to help students deal with content knowledge is to enable them to learn knowledge as well as the structure of that knowledge. Frequently, teachers find it difficult to communicate knowledge structures to students. An efficient means for making visible the knowledge structures which underlie the information is to present knowledge structures in graphic form. Graphics communicate the shape of the information, thus making it possible for students to understand the information and "to transfer their learning beyond the immediate lesson" (Mohan 1986, p. 39). There are certain standard forms of graphics for communicating each knowledge structure. Classification, for example, is defined as forming objects, individuals, or items into classes, concepts, or definitions on the basis of their characteristics, attributes, or properties. Classification is the same process regardless of subject area or the sets of objects, individuals or items to be classified. There are common graphics used for classification: the table, the tree, and the Venn diagram. These graphic representations have general forms, so that the same table can be used for classifying living things, plants and animals, in science; imports and exports, in social studies; and food types, in home economics; to mention a few. Similarly, the same cause-effect table can be used for different cause-effect relations; and the same evaluation and decision table formats can be used for making judgments on different objects, items, 23 individuals or cases, actions or outcomes. In other words, graphic representation of knowledge structures "provides a context which can be returned to again and again" (ESL 1988). Figure 3 shows some graphic forms or key visuals (ESL 1988), which represent each knowledge structure. The chart or table, specific forms of which can be used to represent all knowledge structures, is another example. Since graphic representation of knowledge structures is defined as the semantic relations of knowledge in graphic form, the term also embraces such graphic and graphing techniques as graphic organizers which utilize "lines, arrows, and spatial arrangement to indicate organizational relationships among key vocabulary terms" (Boothby & Alvermann 1984, p. 327); and mapping and networking, techniques which require students "to identify the important relationships that define the text structure and re-represent the interconnected ideas symbolically, thus yielding a diagrammatic representation of text meaning" (Armbruster & Anderson 1980, p. 1), among others. Apart from its potential as a conceptual framework for analyzing graphics, the knowledge framework is considered most appropriate for analyzing learning and teaching in a classroom situation because "knowledge structures are means of representing experience" (Mohan 1989, p. 11), and activities in the classroom can be experiential, such as laboratory experience, field trips and games, as much as expository, such as lecturing, reading and writing. Mohan's (1986) categorization of knowledge structures was thus chosen as the conceptual framework on which to build the present study. 24 Figure 3 Key V i s u a l s f o r Knowledge (ESL 1988) CLASSIFICATION OR CONCEPTS PRINCIPLES EVALUATION OR VALUE t r e e l i n e graph(s) marks book g r i d p i c t u r e s , s l i d e s diagrams maps a c t i o n s t r i p time l i n e f lowchart f l o w c h a r t choice diagram DESCRIPTION TEMPORAL SEQUENCE CHOICE OR DECISION MAKING 25 ESL Students For the purpose of this study, "ESL students" is used in a generic sense to define overseas students, "immigrants or Canadian born inhabitants who identify themselves to some relevant degree with a linguistic heritage other than that of English" (Burnaby 1987, p. 10), rather than specifically to refer to students who were placed in one of the district support ESL programmes which are mounted to "provide sufficient English instruction so that the student can be integrated into the regular stream of courses as quickly as possible" (Information for School Administrators 1987). Thus ESL students embraced those who were in the regular stream as well as those who were in district support ESL programmes. These "students are seen as Limited English Proficiency (LEP) students who have difficulty with the language demands of the school" (Mohan 1989, p. 1). They lag behind in achievement mainly because they have to acquire English and, at the same time, learn school knowledge through English. Comprehension and Recall In the first place, comprehension and recall were used as measures of learning in the study. Comprehension and recall are often difficult to separate, especially in measures of learning from text. There are studies on the facilitative effect of graphics and illustrations which have made the distinction between the two, but usually not in strong operational terms (Duchastel 1980). 26 Most researchers claim that their work tested the comprehension and recall of students. However, it was the retention component that was emphasized. Or as Peeck (1987) stated, "direct evidence for comprehension facilitation is surprisingly scarce, with most studies measuring retention of learning material rather than comprehension per se" (Peeck 1987, p. 119). They defined comprehension operationally as, or measured comprehension by, the immediate recall of idea units (Connor 1984; Carrell 1985). In this study I followed the traditional definition and measured comprehension according to the number of idea units recalled, although in the experimental study, I often referred to the dependent variable as comprehension and immediate recall. However, being aware of the need to measure comprehension more directly, I employed other techniques and criteria in addition to calculating the amount of information recalled: I judged the quality of the recall protocols; interviewed students to discover whether the mistakes and omissions resulted from students' inability to understand, to remember or to express in English; I studied the structure of the written recall protocols to find out whether they reflected the structure of the original; and I questioned students on their opinion of the facilitative effect of the graphic. Reasons for the Inquiry In the first place, this study was conducted to fill a glaring gap in the research on graphics, and to'inform naturalistic inquiry in this area. Although ! 27 research on the facilitative effects of graphic and graphing techniques, and the effectiveness of illustrations in promoting comprehension and retention of text information is voluminous; and although research in this area has gained in sophistication and precision by considering various attributes of the students, the text and the graphic, there is little documentation of the use of graphics in real-life classroom situations. Little is known about how and when, or whether, graphics are used by teachers and students. Furthermore, although researchers recognize the unique characteristics of naturalistic inquiry as a technique well-suited to the examination of how pictures are used by teachers and students (Brody 1984), research on graphics using this technique is almost non-existent. It was hoped that, with or without major breakthroughs, the ethnographic study would inform naturalistic research on graphics. Second, it is a well-known fact that Canada is one of the leading nations for attracting immigrants and students, particularly in the last few years. They arrive full of optimism, but soon realize that there are linguistic, cultural and social obstacles they must overcome in order to be accepted as full participatory and equal members in the Canadian society (Wolfgang 1975). Students experience learning difficulties in school settings. They lag behind in achievement mainly because they face the extreme difficulty of having to "acquire English as well as learn difficult subject matter through English" (Mohan 1986). The concern that ESL students are denied the full benefits of education because of their low language proficiency, and the findings that immigrants take considerably longer to reach native-speaker levels in school 28 language, or cognitively demanding language, than to reach proficiency in basic communicative skills in English (Cummins 1981), have pointed to the importance of studying teaching/learning strategies that might help ESL students access school knowledge. One of these strategies is graphic representation of knowledge structures. This study was thus conducted to discover the role of graphics, and the value of using one kind of graphic to represent knowledge in seventh grade ESL student learning. If it could be established that graphic representation of knowledge structures facilitated ESL student learning by giving them access to school knowledge, the findings would, at least, inform ESL pedagogy and perhaps, contribute to the curricular and teaching practices in schools where there are large numbers of immigrant students. Moreover, by employing the knowledge framework (Mohan 1986) as a tool for analyzing curriculum and instruction in actual classroom situations, I hoped the study would open the door to future studies in the same area. Chapter Two 29 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Educators have for centuries been interested in finding better ways to help ESL students understand knowledge presented in the medium of English both orally and in written texts. Recently considerable research effort has gone into exploring the effectiveness of various teaching and learning strategies. Some of the areas which have received attention are the organizational patterns of expository text and the value of familiarizing students, both English-speaking and ESL, with expository text structures; and the use of adjunct aids such as graphic representation of text and knowledge structures to facilitate student learning. Another area which has been researched is the effectiveness of illustrations in promoting comprehension of text information. In recent years, however, "several authors (Brody 1981; Willows et al. 1981) have noted that it is doubtful to what extent the outcome of picture-text studies may be generalized to the use of illustrations in educational practice" (Peeck 1987, p. 144). Recognizing this problem, some researchers have begun to turn their attention to studying the implementation of illustrations in the classroom. This chapter reviews literature on these topics. The first section reviews research on the value of familiarizing students with expository text structures. The second section examines some graphic forms and techniques which represent text and knowledge structures, and cites research on the facilitative effect of 30 these forms and techniques on student learning. The last section looks at some research reviews on text illustrations and research literature on more practical aspects: analysis of graphics in instructional materials and the use of graphics in the classroom. The Value of Familiarizing Students with Text Structures Research has demonstrated the value of familiarizing students with expository text structure. Taylor and Beach (1984) conducted a study on seventh grade students. 114 students were assigned to either the experimental group, conventional group or control group. Experimental students received instruction and practice in a hierarchical summary procedure. Results showed that instruction and practice in the hierarchical summary procedure had a positive effect on the recall of unfamiliar social studies material as well as on the quality of students' expository writing. In an earlier study, Bartlett (1978) taught ninth grade students to identify top-level structure in text during the reading of prose passages and to use the top-level structure in organizing written recall of the passage. In the pretest-posttest control group experiment, students were taught four of Meyer's (1975) text types. Results revealed that the experimental group remembered twice as much content on the posttest as on the pretest and they performed twice as well as the control group. These studies suggest that explicitly teaching English-speaking readers about expository text structures can significantly facilitate comprehension during 31 the reading process. To find out if training in text structures has similar effect on ESL students, Carrell (1985) conducted a study "with a heterogeneous group of high-intermediate proficiency ESL students enrolled in the intensive English program for foreign students at the Centre for English as a Second Language at Southern Illinois University" (Carrell 1985, p. 734). She concluded that "after training, the experimental group significantly increased in the proportions of those who recognized and used the text's top-level organization, whereas the control group did not" (p. 739). Moreover, the qualitative analysis showed that training facilitated recall of main topics, subtopics as well as details, and students' reaction to the training was positive. Results of the study are promising: they point to the fact that reading comprehension can be significantly facilitated by explicitly teaching ESL readers about expository text structure. However, subjects were college students, and whether ESL students of other age groups will benefit likewise has yet to be discovered by conducting similar studies at the elementary or secondary level. The recognition of the importance of identifying and utilizing text structures in the reading process, and in the understanding of knowledge, particularly in expository prose, has prompted teachers and educators to devise and employ various strategies to draw students' attention to text organization. Among them is the use of graphic representation of text and knowledge structures. It is believed that graphics, particularly charts, graphs and diagrams, have intrinsic attributes which "make it easier for people to understand and learn information that these graphic forms present" (Winn 1987, p. 154). The following section 32 looks at some of these graphic forms and techniques, and examines research studies on their possible effects on student learning. Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures Flow Diagrams The Gestalt theory of perception, i.e., "the idea that, whenever possible, students should be presented the whole picture rather than discrete parts" (Holliday 1975, p. 21), has led to an interest in using flow diagrams in the science classroom. Flow diagrams make use of cyclic schema or pathways to condense descriptive material in texts into more manageable coherent displays (Holliday 1975). They have been refined to become block-word diagrams and picture-word diagrams. The block-word diagram consists of printed words and rectangles or circles, joined by arrows; and the picture-word diagram consists of line drawings illustrating verbal concrete concepts and verbal labels of more technical concepts joined by arrows (Holliday, Brunner & Donais 1977). Holliday (1976) investigated the use of flow diagrams as an aid to present a science text to high school students and discovered that flow diagrams produced better learning of biology concepts than either text alone or text plus the flow diagram. Though the experiment did not prove that flow diagrams are better than text descriptions, there being many variables surrounding the study, Holliday found it reasonable to assume that a single flow diagram of verbal 33 chains can be an effective instructional medium. He explained that an instructional package consisting of a single flow diagram allows the learner easier and more immediate access to all critical chains and the interrelationships among these chains. This form of instructional condensation into a single 'manageable' display also allows the learner to view the total or 'big' picture at a glance (Holliday 1976, p. 64). In another study, Holliday, et al. (1977) found that high school students with low-verbal performance scored significantly higher when provided with a picture-word diagram than those provided with a block-word diagram. In contrast, high-verbal performers did not respond differently to those two types of diagrams. Although their studies did not yield more positive results, Holliday concluded that results of his study and related studies "support the use of picture-word diagrams in science classrooms, especially for learners with verbal ability deficiencies" (Holliday 1977, p. 137). Prompted by these findings, Winn (1980) conducted a study on the effect of block-word diagrams on the structuring of science concepts in high school students and concluded that diagrams are more effective than text alone for the comprehension of biological concepts. Graphic Organizers Another form of graphic representation which has been much researched in the last decade and been conveniently termed 'graphic organizer' "appears as a recommended strategy in books written for content area teachers" (Hawk 1986, 34 p. 82). Herber (1970, 1978) and Vacca (1981) are among the authors who have cited the graphic organizer as a teaching strategy to help students learn. The graphic organizer has its roots in Ausubel's (1968) concept of meaningful receptive learning. Ausubel maintains that presenting learners with a statement of content structure prior to instruction facilitates receptive learning (Ausubel 1968). He developed the advance organizer to provide content structure for new materials. It was presented as prose passages. Barron (1969) modified the advance organizer and used a graphic form. He termed these tree diagrams "the structured overview" (Barron 1969). Structured overviews are often referred to as graphic organizers which, according to Estes, Mills and Barron (1969), are "visual and verbal presentations of the key vocabulary in a new learning task in relation to subsuming and/or parallel terms that presumably have previously been incorporated into the learner's cognitive structure" (Estes, et al. 1969, p. 41), or, more simply, "diagrammatic representations of the basic vocabulary of a unit [which] show relationships among the concepts represented by these words" (Herber & Sanders 1969, p. 4). Originally used as a readiness activity or as a means to integrate new information with the learner's prior knowledge, the graphic organizer has been shown to be "equally useful as assimilation or follow-up activities" (Dishner, Bean, & Readence 1981, cited by Hawk 1986, p. 82). Hawk (1986) maintains that the graphic organizer enhances learning because it "provides a framework that in turn provides reference points to aid the learner in assimilating the new vocabulary and organizing the main concepts 35 into a logical pattern ... The organizers direct students to look for cause and effect, for comparison and contrast, for sequence of events, and a variety of other relationships" (Hawk 1986, p. 86). In other words, graphic organizers facilitate recognition of knowledge structures because they act as a signalling device (Boothby & Alvermann 1984) and highlight the structure of the text, or information. Or in the words of Boothby and Alvermann (1984), "because a graphic organizer utilizes lines, arrows, and spatial arrangement to indicate organizational relationships among key vocabulary terms, it can serve as a diagram of a text's top-level structure" (Boothby & Alvermann 1984, p. 327), or the semantic relations of the text. Research shows that graphic organizers increase student achievement at high school level (Hawk, Mcleod & Jeane 1981, cited by Hawk 1986), as well as elementary and intermediate levels. Dana (1980) tested the effects of using a graphic organizer before, during and after reading on sixth-grade students' comprehension of written text. Based on the notion that organizing concepts while reading would facilitate learning, Dana required students to fill in "the organizer with facts that developed the main ideas. The students were directed to the main ideas by the key terms and phrases that served as headings on the organizer" (Dana 1980, p. 58). They were thus encouraged to process information in an organized scheme. Results of her study indicated that although the graphic organizer did not facilitate immediate comprehension of single-theme text, it "did facilitate comprehension of multi-thematic text" (Dana 1980, p. 59). Apparently students reading a single-theme text had no difficulty 36 organizing facts; it needed no organization. However, when the text was multi-thematic, the student needed "a blueprint to help [them] see how the facts [could] be organized" (Dana 1980, p. 62), and the graphic organizer served as that blueprint. Alvermann's (1981) study which investigated tenth graders' use of graphic organizers to compensate for text that was less than optimal in its organization yielded similar results. These results support Dana's finding that "organizers aid recall when readers must reorganize information" (Alvermann 1981, p. 44). Alvermann concluded that the list-type descriptive text "occurs most frequently in secondary textbooks, yet has the least facilitative effect on students' recall" (Alvermann 1981, p. 49), a fact which suggests the feasibility of using graphic organizers. In both Dana's study (1980) and Alvermann's (1981), all students, regardless of reading level, i.e., students classified as below-level, at-level and above-level readers, benefitted similarly from using a graphic organizer. In a more recent study, to determine the effectiveness of graphic organizers in facilitating learning of above-average students in the sixth and seventh grades, Hawk (1986) found that results clearly supported the use of graphic organizers as a teaching strategy for improving student achievement. The use of teacher-provided graphic organizers to draw tenth grade students' attention to text structure was explored in Alvermann's (1982) study on restructuring text structure. Findings in her study suggested that "when a comparison/contrast graphic organizer was used to induce students to re-organize descriptive top-level structure ... experimental subjects recalled more main ideas than the controls. Presumably, the graphic organizer's imposed 37 structure served to signal or highlight the contrastive nature of the high level information which was originally embedded in the descriptive text" (Boothby & Alvermann 1984, p. 327). The above study was replicated at the elementary level (Boothby & Alvermann 1984). In the study, the graphic organizers for each passage were prepared to reflect either a comparison/contrast or a cause/effect top-level structure both of which were considered more memorable by Meyer (1979). Results showed that "students in the graphic organizer group recalled significantly more of the total number of idea units than students in the control group for each of two times: immediately after reading the passage and 48 hours later" (Boothby & Alvermann 1984, p. 325). As an improvement on the 1984 study, Alvermann and Boothby (1986) conducted another study on 4th graders. Its purpose was to examine the transfer effects of the graphic organizer strategy on elementary students' ability to use text structure as an aid to comprehending and retaining information from content materials. Results revealed that subjects in the 14-day training group comprehended and recalled significantly more information than those who received no instruction in the use of graphic organizers. The graphic organizer in the study was made up of lines and arrows connecting words to other words or empty slots which represented the author's organizational plan. Students were required to fill in the empty slots in the graphic organizer and the teacher explained "how the diagram provided a visual display of the author's organizational plan, and how that plan could serve as a 38 cue to help them comprehend and retain what they read" (Alvermann & Boothby 1982, p. 92). The graphic was not just an advance organizer, for the majority of the student's time was spent in completing the organizer after they had finished reading the text. It is interesting that some of the students drew their own unsolicited versions of a graphic organizer although they were only required to produce a written free recall. This finding indicates that fourth grade students can be taught to produce their own graphic organizer of a text passage, a finding supported by the results of another study (Huard 1983). Huard taught sixth grade students to generate their own graphic organizer to aid them in understanding text. To evaluate the success of the training, she required her subjects to construct graphic organizers after reading the text. Scores showed that "it was possible to train students to construct graphic post organizers. The experimental group as a whole was able to produce organizers which were acceptable to a panel of judges" (Huard 1983, p. 93). One of the questions addressed in the present study is related to this finding. If intermediate English-speaking students could be taught to produce their own graphic representation of the structure of knowledge, could intermediate ESL students be taught to perform a similar task? Researchers have also turned their attention to studying the value of student-generated graphics. "In their review of graphic organizers, Moore and Readence (1979) and Barron (1980) observed that learning can be facilitated when students are asked to construct their own graphic organizers as a postreading activity" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 215) and Levie and Lentz (1982) 39 concluded that "learning is facilitated when learners produce their own drawings --if the drawings they produce are relevant to the text content" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 216). Researchers have, moreover, devised techniques to teach students to generate their own graphic representation of knowledge using flowcharting, networking, and mapping among other techniques. Flowcharting Another graphic technique which has been studied is the flowcharting technique which Geva (1980) employed to represent the content and structure of expository text. Geva (1983) conducted two studies to examine the effects of training in flowcharting on college level students' performance on various measures of reading comprehension. In both studies, students were trained to represent prior knowledge and analyze text structure at the paragraph level in flowcharts. The results of the first study showed that after a 5-week period of training, students improved both on the flowcharting task and on reading comprehension. The second study showed that less skilled readers benefitted most from the training. Geva concluded that the results seemed "to support the conjecture that learning to recognize text structure through flowcharting transferred to more careful reading of expository texts by less skilled readers" (Geva 1983, p. 384). Other methods for visually representing the important relationships of ideas in text have been developed. "These techniques make possible the transformation of linear prose into non-linear symbolic 40 representations that are presumably more closely matched to the way knowledge is stored in memory" (Anderson & Armbruster 1982, p. 235). Networking and mapping are two of them. Networking "As early as 1969, Quillian proposed a network structure of memory in his design of a computer programme that could be taught to 'comprehend' text" (Patten, Chao & Reigeluth 1986, p. 454). The basic idea of the structure is that every concept is stored as a unit in the memory. Relating to each unit are attributes and "supersets" which contain general concepts that subsume the ' unit. Every time there is input of new information, it is broken down into units which combine with the existing memory structure, thus reorganizing the structure of the memory network. "Basically, networking requires students to identify the important concepts or ideas in the text and to describe the interrelationships among these ideas in the form of a network diagram using nodes (for concepts) and links (for relationships)" (Patten et al. 1986, p. 454). Dansereau and his associates identified three types of relationships which they labelled hierarchy structure, chain structure and cluster structure. Dansereau held that applying the networking technique in reading will result in improved comprehension and retention of the material read, "since the network diagram provides a visual, spatial organization of the information and helps the student see an overall picture of the material. In addition, the terms describing the 41 relationships depicted in the network can serve as a language for the students when exploring the memory during retrieval of information" (Patten et al. 1986, p. 454). To evaluate the effectiveness of the technique as a strategy for teaching and learning content relationships, Dansereau (1979) and his associates trained college students in the network technique for five and a half hours and administered a series of tests on the trained students and a control group. Results showed that on the whole the networking group performed significantly better than the control group in the recall of main ideas, but not the details. For low G P A students, however, the networking group outperformed the control group in the recall of details as well; for high G P A students the reverse was true. Mapping Mapping, a technique similar to networking, probably comes from the work of Hanf (1971) who defined a map as a "graphic representation of the intellectual territory travelled or to be travelled via reading" (Hanf 1971, p. 225). To construct a map of a text passage, students have to locate the main idea, then their supporting ideas. In appearance it is like a web with the main idea in the centre and supporting ideas around the main idea to which they are connected by lines. H a n f s map serves as a reading aid to help students grasp the organization of the text. 42 Following the idea, Anderson developed another mapping scheme. He referred to it as an innovative reading comprehension strategy which re-represents linear prose into non-linear symbolic representations that are supposed to be more closely matched to the way knowledge is remembered (Anderson & Armbruster 1982). Mapping is, in fact, very similar to networking. Both assume that there are "a few fundamental relationships in text" (Anderson & Armbruster 1982, p. 235) and both require students to "identify the important relationships that define the text structure and re-represent the interconnected ideas symbolically, thus yielding a diagrammatic representation of text meaning" (Armbruster & Anderson 1980, p. 1). In a study on the effectiveness of mapping as a reading comprehension strategy for middle school students, Armbruster and Anderson (1980) taught eighth graders to identify seven basic relationships in text as well as the mapping symbols corresponding to them. They trained them to map six of the relationships: examples, property, definitions, compare-contrast, temporal and causal, and required them to practise mapping single sentences in the beginning and short text passages later on. They contend that "the process of mapping is likely to facilitate comprehension and recall since mapping requires semantic involvement with the text, attention to text structure, and the transformation of prose into a diagrammatic representation (Armbruster & Anderson 1980, p. 5). Results of their study showed that subjects in the experimental group recalled a significantly greater number of idea units than subjects in the control group. They conclude that eighth grade students can be taught to map at least 43 some types of expository text. And although the maps produced were less-than-perfect, results suggest that mapping may be "an effective aid to recall of at least some kinds of expository passages for at least some eighth graders" (Armbruster & Anderson 1980, p. 17). Similarly, in Mosenthal's 1984 study (Carrell 1985), he trained "sixth and eighth grade social studies and physical science students ... [to identify] the writer's general goal for a text, as well as subtopics, main ideas, and the relationship of main ideas across subtopics and to the writer's general goal ... [and to utilize] a text-mapping strategy" (Carrell 1985, p. 733). Results showed that trained students performed better than control students on all comprehension measures. Another study which showed the effect of training students to use a graphic representation of text structure was conducted by Reutzel in 1985 (Carrell 1985), in which he trained fifth grade students to use a story map or visual text map for both simple narrative and various types of expository texts. The trained group recalled significantly more of the texts than the control group. Two other mapping techniques have been devised, concept mapping and semantic mapping. Concept mapping is a "schematic device for visualizing concepts and the hierarchical relationship between them" (Novak & Gowin 1984). "A concept map is a two-dimensional diagram representing the conceptual structure of a subject matter" (Patten, et al. 1986, p. 459). Concept maps can be teacher-provided or student-generated, and being graphic, have "a potential for enlisting this human capacity for recognizing patterns in images to 44 facilitate learning and recall" (Novak & Gowin 1984, p. 28). The strategy has so far been used primarily for facilitating science teaching. Results of studies conducted to find out if junior high school students could learn to use concept mapping strategies, (Novak 1980, cited by Lehman, Carter & Kahle 1985) suggest that seventh and eighth graders can understand and learn to use concept mapping in the science classroom. This finding is supported in another study (Novak, Gowin and Johansen 1983), in which they discovered evidence to suggest that the device might be able to help students to learn meaningfully (Novak 1981, cited by Lehman et al. 1985). In their own study on black high school students, Lehman et al. (1985) concluded that though results were not significant, there were indications that concept mapping is an effective tool for helping black high school students learn biology concepts. Results also suggest that there is value in the use of concept maps as aids to help students understand the meanings of principles and concepts. "Semantic mapping is a categorical structure of information in graphic form" (Johnson, Pittelman & Heimlich 1986, p. 779), originally devised to help students learn the meanings and uses of new words and new meanings for known words. However, it has been recommended for use as an "alternative to traditional activities used before reading a new passage (prereading)" (Johnson et al. 1986, p. 780). Although no research has yet been reported, the authors of semantic mapping contend that since semantic mapping is an active process which draws heavily on students' prior knowledge, it is reasonable to assume that the strategy enhances comprehension which is also "an active process 45 wherein the reader interprets and processes what is read in accordance with what is already known" (Johnson et al. 1986, p. 781). Thus, they recommend using semantic mapping with any content-area reading material. In sum, research in graphic representation of knowledge structures supports the contention that using graphics to draw students' attention to the structure of knowledge, i.e., a teacher-provided graphic, and requiring students to construct a graphic to represent the knowledge of text passages during the reading process, i.e., a student-generated graphic, facilitate comprehension and recall in students at various levels, particularly in "less skilled readers" (Geva 1983) or "low-ability subjects" (Koran & Koran 1980). Would using a teacher-provided graphic to present knowledge, and requiring students to generate a graphic to represent the knowledge structure of expository text, likewise, facilitate comprehension in intermediate ESL students? Graphics in Instructional Materials and Instruction This section looks at research reviews on text illustrations and research studies on graphics in instructional materials and classroom teaching. Illustrations in Instructional Materials There is a sizeable body of research literature on the effectiveness of illustrations in promoting comprehension and retention of text information, 46 particularly in the last fifteen years (Willows & Houghton 1987). The frequency of reviews of research on illustrations (Duchastel 1980; Schallert 1980; Levie & Lentz 1982) testifies to the growth of research and interest in this area. Reviewing studies on the effects of representational pictures in written texts, Levie & Lentz (1982) studied "55 experiments comparing learning from illustrated text with learning from text alone" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 195). Their conclusions can be summarized as follows: 1. In cases where text-embedded illustrations are relevant (i.e., largely overlapping or redundant with) the to-be-remembered content, moderate to substantial prose-learning gains can be expected. 2. In cases where text-embedded illustrations are not relevant to the to-be-remembered prose content (i.e., they depict unrelated - or worse, conflicting - text information), no prose-learning facilitation is to be expected. 3. In cases where 'pictures' consist of self-generated visual images that are relevant to the to-be-remembered content, some positive effects can be expected, but these are much more modest and more variable than those associated with actual illustrations (Levin et al. 1987, p. 52). In his review of literature on the role of illustrations in reading comprehension, Schallert (1980) delineated "when it is that a picture is worth a thousand words" (Schallert 1980, p. 503). Results of his review supported the claim of moderate to substantial learning benefits associated with text-relevant illustrations. In their meta-analysis of picture-in-prose literature, Levin et al. (1987) employed a functional approach. They analyzed 150 units of research on the effects of pictures on learning prose content, and concluded "that all types of 47 text-relevant picture facilitate students' prose learning to some degree" (Levin et al. 1987, p. 77). The data of their study also indicate that pictures serving both the conventional functions of representation, organization and interpretation, and the unconventional function of transformation are facilitative of comprehension. A survey of the literature in this area reveals that a good deal more is now known about the functions and effectiveness of text illustrations. While earlier surveys, which were based on the few studies then available, concluded that "pictures in text are not beneficial and may even be harmful" (Samuel 1970, cited by Levin et al. 1987, p. 53), recent reviews are more sensitive to the differences in objectives and variables of different research studies. They separate 'reading-to-learn' studies from 'learning-to-read' studies, and, moreover, take into consideration various functions of illustrations as well as different factors that influence the effect of illustrations on prose learning. Furthermore, some researchers have devised models or conceptual frameworks for classifying illustrations in text both from a morphological and functional viewpoint (Duchastel 1978). Peeck (1987), for example, analyzed and explained the functions and roles of illustrations and explored the possible factors that influence the occurrence and magnitude of text-illustration effects. In her review, she took into consideration learner characteristics such as age, reading ability, verbal ability and prior knowledge of subject matter; picture variable such as realism, complexity, experimenter-provided or subject-generated; text variable such as 48 difficulty and length; and picture-text variable, such as spatial-structural relationships and position of pictures in text. Although basic research on the influence of various types of illustrations on student learning is voluminous, it is doubtful whether the outcome of picture-text studies can be "generalized to the use of illustrations in educational practice" (Peeck 1987, p. 144), research and practice being so different in such variables as illustrations, texts, presentation conditions and learner characteristics. Realizing this, a number of researchers (Mulcahy & Samuels 1987; Evans et al. 1987; Hunter et al. 1987), have turned their attention to the practical aspects of illustrations, such as the analysis of illustrations in textbooks. Mulcahy & Samuels (1987) traced the history of illustrations in American textbooks in the last three hundred years, and discovered that not only had the quantity of illustrations increased, but the role of illustrations had also shifted. Instead of being artistic ornaments, they began "to take on the role of introducing concepts in the text, of clarifying concepts, or of representing concepts (Mulcahy & Samuels 1987, p. 46). The role of illustrations as a comprehension aid became more important towards the mid-nineteenth century. At about the same time, with technological advances in printing, both the syntactic and semantic text parallels between the illustration and the content of the text improved. Evans et al. (1987), conducting an inquiry into practical aspects of illustrated educational materials, analyzed illustrations as they actually appear in 49 instructional textbooks. They discovered that "publishers agreed that considerably more attention is given to illustrations and the design of books now than in the past" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 89), and that "illustrations were reported to be 'more visually appealing,' 'more lively,' 'more varied,' 'more colorful,' and more frequent" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 89). Moreover, in updated editions of textbooks, illustrations take on a more contemporary quality. However, they also found that "while the role of illustration is frequently suggested in manuals and guidebooks accompanying textbooks, the extent to which suggestions are included on how to use textbook illustrations while teaching varies widely" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 92), and that "the attention-getting and motivational aspects of illustrations seem so prominent among the teachers, publishing house spokespersons, and promotional literature ... that some counterbalance appear necessary" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 92). In their review of over 60 textbooks across different subject areas, Evans et al. (1987) discovered that textbooks are highly illustrated in the primary grades, but the frequency of illustrations declines as grade level increases. In the intermediate grades, however, illustrations still "appear on about 60 percent of the pages in both mathematics and science textbooks" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 95). In terms of illustration type, it was observed that "while readers [containe] almost exclusively only pictures and photographs, mathematics and science textbooks [include] a wide variety of forms of illustration ~ graphs, diagrams, illustrated charts, and maps in addition to pictures, photographs, and the occasional cartoon" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 98). In seventh grade mathematics and science textbooks, diagrams comprise two-50 thirds of the illustrations. Another study which considers the practical aspects of textbook illustrations (Hunter et al. 1987) examined fifth and sixth grade social studies and Basal reading textbooks for the types, functions, physical layout of visual displays, and studied how authors direct readers to use the information presented by visual displays. Hunter et al. (1987) not only developed a taxonomy of visual displays, but devised a vocabulary and a set of functions for analyzing them, as well. An interesting conclusion yielded in their study is that illustrations in Basal readers are different from those in social studies textbooks; Basal readers have a "study-skills" orientation towards the use of visual displays and do not view them "as the philosophers and graphics advocates ... would have us view them, as an j alternative medium of communication" (Hunter et al. 1987, p. 133). While it is important to research practical questions, such as graphics in textbooks in use, Peeck (1987) points out that "of primary importance for the effect that illustrations may have is ... what the reader does with a picture" (Peeck 1987, p. 130). Unfortunately, there has been little documentation'of the use of illustrated educational materials by students and teachers. Whether graphics are found in instruction, and what teachers and students do with illustrations in instructional materials in classroom situations, have received little attention. Moreover, although researchers have directed our attention to the value and unique characteristics of naturalistic inquiry as a technique well-suited to the examination of how pictures are used by teachers and students (Brody 1984), research employing the technique of actually going into a 51 classroom and observing whether and how graphics are made use of is almost non-existent. The Role of Graphics in Classroom Instruction Teacher educators and advocates of graphic instructional techniques are concerned that graphics have not been given their due attention in the classroom. This concern is expressed in observations such as "the vocabulary of graphs is seldom taught and the underlying structure of a graph is seldom explained in the curriculum of today's schools" (Fry 1983, p. 2); or "textbooks frequently contain a variety of graphic aids, and students must develop skills for acquiring information from maps, charts, table, pictures, and diagrams .... The need for instructional activities which help students develop these skills is clear. Graphic aids have been identified as an important variable in reading comprehension (Jenkins and Pany 1981), yet many students ignore or only superficially attend to them (Vacca 1981)" (Reinking 1986, p. 146). However, despite the concern, not many studies on how, or how often, graphics are actually used in the classroom have been reported. Or as Evans et al. (1987) maintain, "the most glaring gaps in the research literature are studies of how illustrations are actually used by students and teachers" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 107). The only research which studied how teachers used illustrations in instructional materials is the naturalistic study conducted by Evans et al. (1987) using questionnaires, interviews, and "direct observation of teachers' use of 52 illustrated educational materials (textbooks, workbooks, wall charts, etc.) in classrooms (including various subject areas across a range of grades)" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 92). They concluded that "teachers made very few direct reference to illustrations in the classroom, and that they provided little guidance in the educational function that illustrations are thought to serve" (Evans et al. 1987, p. 93). Their use of illustration was less than 10 percent of their classroom teaching and aside from the occasional reference to maps and display materials, little was observed. It thus appears that "teachers ... assign an inflated value to the printed word" (Fleming 1962, cited by Holliday 1975, p. 22), and do not value graphics as a mediator of intellectual content. However, the sample was small (n = 20), and the observation period was short (20 hours). Besides, we cannot draw any definite conclusions on the merits of one research study. Rather, the review of research on the practical application of graphics in the classroom points up the fact that there is a paucity of research, particularly naturalistic research, in this area, and what is needed is a systematic programme of ethnographic research to discover how graphics are used by teachers and students in real-life classroom situations. The first part of this study was an attempt to fill this gap, i.e., to discover what intermediate ESL students did with illustrated text and graphics in curriculum and instruction in real-life situations. Chapter Three 53 T H E ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY The Research Design This part of the study was conducted to investigate the role of graphics in intermediate ESL curriculum and instruction and the facilitative effect of using graphics to represent knowledge structures on student learning. The purpose was to gain access into an intact cultural scene, and by means of ethnographic techniques (Spradley 1980; Wolcott 1980, 1987) collect all available data so as to reconstruct as complete a picture as possible of the scene. A naturalistic inquiry (Brody 1984) was conducted, and the natural setting of two seventh grade classrooms in an elementary school in Vancouver (to which I shall give the fictitious name B.C. Elementary) was the primary source of data. Selection of participants was based on judgment sampling (Burgess 1984) rather than probability sampling, being constrained by access. B.C. Elementary was chosen because 80% of the students in the seventh grade were ESL students representing a wide range of ethnic groups. Having no access to the research conditions for generalization, the search for universal laws was rejected "in favour of detailed description of the concrete experience of life within a particular culture" (Hammersley and Atkinson 1983, p.8). I was seeking to understand the particular as an example of the several, so as to better 54 comprehend events through a more thorough examination of a particular case (Wolcott 1980). I was making a particular cultural description as I saw it and interpreting data in terms of a particular situation within a particular time frame, rather than attempting to infer causal relationships for the patterns identified, or to use results to explain what had occurred, or to predict outcomes in other settings, or to prove or disprove generalizations (Brody 1984). Instead, in application, I aim for "comparability and transferability of generated findings rather than for outright transference to groups not investigated" (Goetz & LeCompte 1984, p. 8). I hope that the reader will read the report on this understanding and draw his/her own inferences, and construct his/her own reality from it. This part of the study, characteristic of ethnographic research, is, thus "located closer to the generative, inductive, constructive and subjective ends of the [generative-verificative, inductive-deductive, constructive-enumerative and subjective-objective] continua" (Goetz & LeCompte 1984, p. 4). The Research Location This field study was located on a single site, B.C. Elementary, which is on the east side of Vancouver. In the 1988-89 academic year, there were altogether 23 divisions or classes in the school. Besides the 18 kindergarten to grade seven divisions, there were five district special programmes: two English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, a special remedial class, an extended learning assistance (ExLAC) class and a learning assistance (LAC) class. The classes were housed 55 in two buildings, labelled Brick Building and Frame Building for ease of reference. The locations that were intensively observed were the two seventh grade classrooms: Division One in the Frame Building and Division Two in the Brick Building. Besides, I also observed seventh grade students' activities in other locations, such as the library, corridors and foyers outside the classrooms. The Participants Of the 56 students (35 boys and 21 girls) who were regularly in one or other of the two seventh grade divisions, ten were English speaking, eight Canadian, one English and the other Scot. The rest could all fit into the category of ESL, which, for the purpose of this study, is defined as overseas students or visa students, "immigrants or Canadian born inhabitants who identify themselves to some relevant degree with a linguistic heritage other than that of English" (Burnaby 1987, p. 10). The sample represented a wide range of nationalities: Chinese from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia or Vietnam who spoke Cantonese or one of the Chinese dialects (19). Others were from Fiji (9), India and Pakistan (9), the Philippines and Singapore (2), Kenya (2), Czechoslovakia (2), Guatemala (2), Denmark (1). Their length of stay in Canada ranged from four months to 13 years. A large number of them were born here. However, nearly all of them spoke their first language at home. 28 of them indicated that their parents spoke very little English or no English at all. They were all LEP students (Mohan 1989) representing a wide range of 56 abilities within the category. According to the class teachers' estimate, the reading level of the students was between the second and fifth grade. Some had difficulty with the language demands of the curriculum, others had difficulty communicating in English. In certain lessons, social studies, science, mathematics and, in Division Two, spelling, as well, boys and girls from the district support "ESL" programme and Special Remedial class joined the two divisions, making a total of 65 students. The class teacher of Division One was a woman who taught the class all subjects except social studies, computer, and physical education, which were taken over by a man, and art, which was taught by an art specialist. The class teacher of Division Two was a man who taught them all subject areas except music and art. Incidentally, the class teacher of Division One taught both classes music. Conduct of the Study Data on the role of graphics in seventh grade ESL curriculum and instruction and student learning were gathered in two seventh grade classrooms "under normal instructional settings" (Brody 1984, p. 5). Methods included detailed classroom observation, informal interview of students and teachers, examination of textbooks and other instructional materials, and examination of student assignments. 57 School started in early September, but I did not begin observation until October 7, 1988 mainly to give the classes time to settle into a routine. Data for this part of the study were gathered between October 7 and December 12, 1988 and between February 9 and February 14, when I visited the school again mainly to examine certain documents not yet available in December and to interview students on the documents. Excluding the four days when the students went camping, two school holidays and five days away from the setting, the number of school days observed totalled 39. All subject areas on the timetable were observed except art, music and physical education. The original intention of observing only reading, language arts and social studies was abandoned because the timetable was flexible. Although each class had a timetable with a definite time slot for each subject area, the timetable was not strictly adhered to. It was not unusual for lessons to end 10 minutes before or after the scheduled time if the activity or topic demanded, or for lessons to be moved forward or postponed. Thus it was more realistic to be in the class and observe whatever was offered without being too selective: it might even yield richer data. The difficulty of not being able to be in two classes at the same time was solved by spending a longer observation period in the school so that an adequate number of lessons of each subject area in each division could be observed. Altogether 163 lessons were intensively observed, 80 in Division One and 83 in Division Two, representing all subject areas (see Table I). The lessons varied in length from 20 to about 50 minutes. I should point out, though, that the figures are only approximate: lessons might be interrupted for 58 the 10 o'clock news broadcast, or for the taking of photographs, for the Remembrance Day performance or for fluoridation of teeth. To maintain an attitude of respect (Hammersley & Atkinson 1983) towards the world of the classrooms, and to reduce the possibility of distortion due to the presence of a stranger (Brody 1984), I began by being an unobtrusive observer, but gradually became a participant observer as the students showed signs of acceptance of my presence and participation. My role, as perceived by them, was at times a teacher aide who could answer their questions, and help them with their assignments, and at other times a student teacher who could use their advice and information on teaching, the school and the routine of the class. Although at the beginning, I was painfully aware of myself as an outsider and an intruder, I soon found that I could not hope for a better research site in terms of accessibility, unobtrusiveness, permissibleness and participation (Spradley 1980). During the first six weeks, I made no attempt to manipulate the variables in the study, but merely played the part of either an observer or a participant observer. In the seventh to ninth week, however, for a lesson each day I conducted an experiment, results of which are reported in Chapter Five. The rest of the lessons were observed as usual. Table I Lessons Observed 59 D i v i s i o n One D i v i s i o n Two T o t a l J o u r n a l / S e l f study 17 17 34 Mathematics 13 11 24 Reading 11 9 20 Language A r t s / S p e l l i n g 9 12 21 S o c i a l Studies 15 17 32 Science 9 10 19 Computer 2 2 News 4 7 11 F i e l d t r i p 3 hours T o t a l 80 83 163 60 Since the purpose of the study was to obtain a full picture of the role of graphics in the two classes, I employed various data collection strategies in addition to observation and participant observation. To find out the types and quantity of graphics in the curriculum, I examined one of the prescribed textbooks, and classified the graphics found in a typical chapter according to the knowledge framework (Mohan 1986). In addition, I examined all instructional materials used during the observation period, mainly for the existence of graphics. These included chapters in the science and spelling textbooks and a number of handouts. The purpose was to discover if graphics were present in the curriculum-in-use (Anyon 1981). In Division One, about 50 story books chosen by students for book reports were also examined for the presence of graphics, and to find out if students interacted with them. The documents which yielded the richest data by far on graphics which students interacted with were their assignments. I analyzed a set of social studies projects, a set of science projects, two sets of reading assignments and a number of short-term assignments. They threw light on students' understanding of graphics, the use they made of them and their attitude towards them. The examination of assignments was followed by discussions with students. Some of the other documents which I read were test papers and a few journals which students (Division One only) were required to write every morning. Interviews of teachers were informally conducted before lesson started, at recess or lunch break. They provided information on the standard and background of students, on instructional materials used and not used, and on 61 t h e i r p r e f e r r e d t e a c h i n g s t y l e . S t u d e n t s w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g l e s s o n u s u a l l y w h e n t h e y w e r e e n g a g e d i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g o r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p l e t i n g a p r o j e c t o r s o m e h o m e w o r k a s s i g n m e n t , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y a t r e c e s s w h e n t h e y v o l u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e l l a s c o m m e n t s o n v a r i o u s t o p i c s . T h e s e w e r e r e c o r d e d o n t h e s p o t o r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w . A u d i o r e c o r d i n g w a s n o t u s e d a s o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d b e c a u s e e v e r y b o d y , m y s e l f i n c l u d e d , f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e a u d i o r e c o r d e r , a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n b e c a m e s t r a i n e d a n d u n n a t u r a l . Chapter Four 62 FINDINGS OF T H E ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY This chapter reports the findings of the ethnographic study in three sections: 1. graphics encountered by both divisions; 2. Division One, an analytic description of the role of graphics in Division One; and, 3. Division Two, an analytic description of the role of graphics in Division Two. Graphics Encountered by Both Divisions Graphics which both divisions encountered are represented by a brief description of graphics in the environment, and an analysis of the graphics in a chapter of a content-area textbook. The purpose of including an analysis of a textbook is to supply information on the type and quantity of graphics students were likely to encounter in the curriculum. One chapter was analyzed instead of the whole book because I was interested in capturing the graphics students were likely to encounter within the time frame of several weeks. It was unrealistic to analyze all content-area textbooks, which would be a study in itself. A social studies text was, therefore, chosen. This particular textbook was the most recently published of all the textbooks assigned, and the only one, apart from the Mathematics textbook, with a teacher's guide, which can be very illuminating. Both divisions were using it. So there is reason to assume that 63 the graphics in the book represent part of the graphics in the curriculum. Graphics in the Environment Graphics existed in the environment of B.C. Elementary, but they were mainly decorative or attentional (Levie & Lentz 1982). Large blow-ups of historical photographs of the school, postcard-size current pictures of activities of students, works of art by famous artists, and student assignments lined the walls of the corridors. Current photographs and students' assignments were changed from time to time. The library, too, was colourful with posters and pictures. There were six groups of posters on the wall. They were all coloured with both pictures and writing. A series of five colourful posters with animated pictures of animals and inanimate objects, e.g., a pencil, was entitled, "Tips for Better Writing." On each was an animal giving advice on writing. In the fairy-tale section was a large bulletin board with pictures of fairy-tale characters. Likewise, pictures of a space shuttle, fish swimming, and a dinosaur, each with a call number, drew attention to books on more popular topics. Besides, there were isolated pictures of cartoon and fictional characters, each bearing a motto, e.g., Superman with the message "Knowledge is Power." Yet another bulletin board displayed book covers to introduce titles of new books. These were mainly decorative and attentional, and they enlivened the atmosphere of the library considerably. One visual which occupied the whole top half of a wall above the reference section 64 was meant to be organizational besides being attentional. It was a catalogue guide in the form of a telephone entitled "Information please!" The numbers on the dial represented the call numbers of books on different subjects. Graphics in Textbooks, and Instructional Materials Graphics students were exposed to in textbooks and instructional materials varied from those which are purely decorative to those which explain, represent, interpret, or organize information or knowledge. I examined one of the textbooks currently in use in the school for the quantity and types of illustrations, and the findings confirmed the truth of the statement that textbooks are highly illustrated in the primary grades (Evans et al. 1987). The textbook, Other Places, Other Times (Neering & Grant 1986), a social studies textbook, is the most recently published of all the prescribed textbooks, and was received with enthusiasm by all seventh grade teachers. Besides, there is a teacher's guide, the author of which seems to advocate the use of graphics. It can thus be assumed that the graphics in this textbook represents part of the graphics students were likely to encounter. The following is an analysis of the illustrations in one chapter of the textbook and the teacher's guide. The chapter was chosen for no special reason, all the chapters being presented in much the same way. Analysis of Other Times, Other Places, Chapter Four 65 The chapter (pp. 104-143) is 39 pages in length, and 27 of them, representing 69% of all the pages that make up the chapter, are illustrated. The total number of illustrations is 29, and the types include photographs & pictures or representational pictures (21); maps & plans (4); charts (2); and time lines (2). A breakdown of the forms of the graphics is shown in Table II. To put items into hard and fast compartments is not always easy. The main reason is that some illustrations represent more than one category. I should, perhaps, explain how I determined the categorization. I classified the graphics which could be placed in more than one category, as far as possible, according to their function in the lesson or task, or the intent of the instruction. In textbook illustrations, there appears to be some commonly accepted conventions which authors of graphics adhere to. These conventions helped to decide the function of the graphic. They include the title, the headings, the organization, and the top-down or left-right convention, which authors generally follow. In classifying charts/tables, when the same format can be either a classification chart or a cause-effect chart or an evaluation chart, the headings or items on the top row or in the left-most column were the determining factor. Sometimes both the top and side of a chart had to be considered for the joint characteristics of both variables. On some occasions the whole graphic had to be studied to determine its function. With all these distinctions, there were yet grey areas, e.g., a chart with cause/effect on the Table II 66 Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures i n Chapter Four of Other Places, Other Times C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (4) P r i n c i p l e Evaluation Chart 2 Time l i n e * 2 Photographs/ 21 pictures Maps/plans 4 Description (25) Seguence Choice * The time l i n e s can be placed under seguence as well. 67 first row and eras or years down its left-most column could be either a cause/effect chart or a time chart. Moreover, certain graphics were found to serve more than one function. Thus, the various categories cannot be considered to be mutually exclusive. To analyze the function of the illustrations in relation to the text, I employed the categories devised by Hunter et al. (1987), mainly because they are so clearly operationalized. The authors have been "able to validate, use, and find examples of five categories of function" (Hunter, et al. 1987, p. 122): embellish, reinforce, elaborate, summarize and compare. However, as we will see, there were still overlaps and difficulties in categorizing. I believe that whatever framework we use, there are bound to be grey areas, and overlaps, for various reasons. The intended function of an illustration may not always be explicit, and categorization is but the interpretation of the analyst. Besides, very often, the function of the illustration depends more on its user than its author. Thus, some illustrations elude hard and fast compartmentalization. Of the 29 illustrations, 17 of them reinforce the text, i.e., all the information in the graphic is repeated in the text. Five of them elaborate, i.e., they repeat information in the text and also add new information. The two time lines summarize a portion of the text, and the rest, i.e., five pictures, appear to be for embellishment in that nowhere are they referred to in the text. However, if the student or the teacher decides to make use of them, they can definitely be used to elaborate the text (Hunter, et al. 1987). I should also point out that eleven of the illustrations are each accompanied by a higher-order, thought-provoking question, which means that graphics are intended to be 68 comprehension aids and not mere ornaments. With the exception of those which embellish or decorate, all illustrations are repeating or clarifying what is described in text form. Another characteristic of the graphics is that they are placed in strategic positions. In other words, the authors have been careful to create good syntactic text parallels, or "spatial relationships between text and illustration" (Goldsmith 1987, p. 66), which in itself should facilitate comprehension. However, apart from good syntactic text parallelism, nowhere does the text draw students' attention to the illustration except on one occasion, when it directs students' attention to a map located six pages before. This analysis shows that the textbook is rich in illustrations, or graphic representations of at least two/three knowledge structures, but whether they are used to advantage depends on the use students and teachers make of them. One of the factors which affects the use students make of illustrations is whether they are referred to in review questions at the end of a section/chapter, for, more often than not, these questions are part of the assignments students have to do. Examination of the review questions in the chapter revealed that of the 51 questions that appear at the end of a section or of the chapter, six involve either the reading and interpretation of graphics or the drawing/construction of them. Questions that give practice in reading and interpreting graphics include describing a picture; locating places in a map; comparing data in a chart; and reading a chart for information. Questions which require the drawing of graphics include drawing a chart for comparison; and drawing a time line to 69 show a sequence of events. The graphics in review questions are shown in Table III. It was even more difficult to decide into which category certain graphics referred to in review questions should be put. Sometimes the graphic serves one function, but the question on the graphic may serve another. A chart showing the temperature and precipitation of a place, for example, takes the place of a lengthy paragraph of description, but the questions asked may require students to draw conclusions and give reasons (principle), and to compare and evaluate (evaluation). Thus, from the chart showing the climate of Athens on page 111 (Neering & Grant 1986), which is a representation of description, the questions demand that the graphic be used as a representation of principle. They involve drawing conclusions, e.g., "Give evidence to show that Athens is in the northern hemisphere" (Neering & Grant 1986, p. Ill); and interpretation of data, e.g., "Which months of the year are the warmest? and coldest?" (Neering & Grant 1986, p. 111). Another question involves using the chart for evaluation, e.g., "Do you think this is a lot of rain?" (Neering & Grant 1986, p. 111). Table I I I 70 Graphic Representation of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n the Review Questions of Chapter Four of Other Places, Other Times C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (1) P r i n c i p l e E v a l u a t i o n Drawing a chart 1 Reading p i c t u r e s 1 Reading maps 1 Reading c h a r t 1 Drawing chart 1 Drawing time l i n e s 1 D e s c r i p t i o n 4 Sequence 1 Choice 71 The graphics found in review questions were categorized according to their function in the lesson, and if no graphic is given, according to the wording of the question. But the categorization does not do justice to the graphics, for although they represent only three of the six knowledge structures in the framework, they lend themselves to activities involving all knowledge structures. The percentage of questions on graphics is not particularly high. However, the teacher's guide appears to stress graphics and to encourage teachers to use graphics to facilitate student learning. The following is an analysis of the same chapter in the teacher's guide. Analysis of Other Places, Other Times Teacher's Guide (Draper 1988) A typical chapter in the teacher's guide begins with a chapter overview and three inquiry questions. The key visual or planning guide for the whole chapter is in the form of a chart which shows at a glance the organization, contents, and page numbers of the chapter. It also gives suggestions on comprehension activities, skill-building activities, decision-making activities, problem-solving activities and evaluation activities. It is a guide for the implementation of the intent of the course, and shows how the suggested activities relate to the key inquiry questions. The guidelines for Chapter Four were examined for the quantity, type and purpose of graphics included. It was discovered that various graphic forms are suggested for use in different activities for different purposes. The graphic 72 forms are shown in Table IV, but the quantity has been left out because many of them are suggested for use for more than one purpose: e.g., the same chart is used to classify, compare and evaluate. In other words, it is as much a classification table as a comparison chart; as much an evaluation table as a decision-making table. Table IV thus shows the types of graphics students were likely to be exposed to, but not the frequency of their occurrence. Table IV 73 Graphic Representation of Knowledge S t r u c t u r e s i n Chapter Four of the Teacher's Guide Other Places, Other Times C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r i n c i p l e E v a l u a t i o n L i s t i n f o r m a t i o n i n c h a r t I n t e r p r e t Chart Construct c h a r t Construct chart Complete cause-e f f e c t c hart Complete & study c h a r t Read diagram i n v e r t e d pyramid Construct chart Construct time chart Draw d e c i s i o n making t a b l e Describe map Draw guide map & a e r i a l map C o l l e c t & i d e n t i f y p i c t u r e Describe p i c t u r e Discuss p i c t u r e Draw p i c t u r e D e s c r i p t i o n Sequence Choice 74 The most popular graphic appears to be the chart or table. The chart. The guide encourages using charts to organize information. To introduce the topic, the guide suggests that the teacher organize the class into groups; instruct students to examine the organization of the chapter; list the major and minor headings in a chart and come up with one question for each heading. Another activity which aims at developing the organization of ideas in chart form is a problem-solving activity. Students are organized in groups. By brain storming, they suggest reasons for the fall of Crete and the fall of Mycenae. They record their answer in a chart, the format of which is given on page 64 (Draper 1988). These reasons form the hypothesis of their research. To look for data to test their hypothesis, they read the text book for commonly held theories. After analyzing the data, students can state their solution to the problem. This activity involves using a chart to organize (classification), compare (description and evaluation), interpret data and draw conclusions (principle). A similar activity involving the construction of a chart requires students to list factors that influence the choice of a new location for a new colony in a chart. They will then look up the atlas to check the physical characteristics of the sites being considered, and rate them on a scale of 1 to 5. Studying the chart and the rating scale, the students will decide where a new colony can be established and give reasons for the decision (Draper 1988, p. 65). This activity involves using a chart to organize information (classification), to rate factors on a scale of 1 to 5 (evaluation) and decide on the location of a new colony (decision-making or choice). The chart is also used to summarize the 75 findings of a discussion or research. A chart in a more interesting form, is the cause-and-effect (principle) wheel on Activity page 10 which is a partially complete graphic for students to interact with. Students complete the chart after reading and considering the conflicts described on pages 119 to 121. Perhaps the most common function of the chart is for listing the advantages and disadvantages of a situation, examples of which appear on page 63 and page 69, or for comparing the characteristics of two places (pp. 64, 70, & 71). Pictures and drawings. There are various suggestions for the use of representational pictures and drawings. One activity involves the collection of pictures of Greece; placing them on a bulletin board around a wall map of Greece; identifying the location of each picture; and connecting the pictures to their proper places on the map. The follow-up is the drawing of "a guide map to Greece using a legend to show historic sites, government centres, entertainment attractions, festivals, etc." (Draper 1988, p. 61). Another suggestion is to use pictures to aid description, e.g., description of the excavation at Knossos, and of the Parthenon using pictures in the textbook. Yet another suggestion is to use illustrations as starting points for discussion, speculation and drawing conclusions. An example is found on page 70 of the teacher's guide: students study the picture and suggest reasons why the phalanx would have been an effective battle formation. Working on the principle discovered, they describe how the enemies of the Greeks might "attempt to overcome the strength of the phalanx" (Draper 1988, p. 70). Other examples are: "What might have been the purpose of bull-leaping?" and "Should participation in dangerous 76 forms of sports or entertainment, such as bull-leaping by the ancient Minoans or sky-diving by contemporary Canadians be allowed?" (Draper 1988, p. 63). Besides reading and interpreting pictures, students are also encouraged to make sketches from aerial photographs. Maps. Another graphic the teacher's guide considers is the map. The guide suggests ideas for developing and reviewing mapping skills. Using the map on page 139 of the textbook and an atlas, students determine the maximum latitude and longitude of Alexander's empire; list, in order of conquest, the cities conquered by Alexander and the total distance travelled; determine the conditions that limited the expansion of Alexander's empire; give reasons why Alexander expanded westward rather than to the north or to the east; as well as speculate on the direction in which Alexander would have gone on his next campaign, had he lived (Draper 1988, p. 71). Diagrams. Besides, there are ideas to help the teacher present knowledge to students. An example is "an inverted pyramid" which represents the format of a newspaper article. It is a guide for the teacher to help develop students' writing skills. From the analysis of graphics in the textbook, it appears that students should be exposed to a considerable amount of graphics, most of which describe or reinforce a text passage. There are a few time lines which either represent sequence or classification (Mohan 1986), and a few charts which classify, but no graphics represent principles, choice and evaluation. It is only in the teacher's guide that there are suggestions for using graphics to represent all knowledge 77 structures in the framework. From this set of data, which represents a slice of the whole curriculum, and is fairly representative of it, the indication is clear. Students are likely to be exposed to an abundance of illustrations which describe (Mohan 1986) and reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987), and are likely to interact with a few graphic representations of classification and description. They also have the chance to encounter a large quantity of graphics which represent all knowledge structures as advocated in the teacher's guide. However, graphics found in the curriculum are not necessarily the same as graphics in the "curriculum-in-use" (Anyon 1981). At best, they represent the graphics students are exposed to. To determine the effect that illustrations may have on student learning, it is important to find out "what the reader does with a picture that goes with the text. Does he or she look at the picture, and, if so, for how long and what kind of inspection occurs" (Peeck 1987, p. 130)? Whether students interact with illustrations or ignore them depends on a number of factors, among them, what the teacher does with illustrations, which in turn depends on the philosophy and pedagogical style of the teacher. Since the two divisions were taught by different teachers, I shall describe the two divisions separately. I would like to stress that the following report is not a critique of the teachers or their teaching, or an evaluative study, but an attempt to re-represent the events I had the privilege to witness or participate in. 78 Division One The Classroom The classroom was full of graphics of various types. Besides designs which serve no apparent purpose except, perhaps, to decorate the bare wall below the chalkboard, there were no fewer than 11 coloured posters with pictures and mottoes, some on reading, others connected with learning and making friends. Two wall maps, one of the world, and the other of North America, were usually rolled up, but could be easily pulled down to cover the front chalkboard and side chalkboard, respectively. Besides, there were displays of students' work, which, incidentally, were picture stories or rebus stories. Did Students Pay Attention to the Graphics in the Environment? Few students ever looked at the graphics in the corridors, the library or their classrooms. They regarded graphics as ornamental, not meant to be studied. I drew several students' attention to the catalogue guide on the wall of the library. A few seemed to be looking at it for the first time. A handful could explain what it was, but asserted that they never had to look for information there. They never read the posters in the classroom, either. According to them, the posters were already there when they first moved in, and it never occurred to them to read or look at them. 79 Did Students Pay Attention to Graphics in Instructional Materials and  Instruction? When students encountered graphics in textbooks and other instructional materials, some passed over them after a quick look, others did not even look. During silent reading or completion of assignment, when I had the chance to approach individual students to ask about a graphic they had just come across in their textbook or story book, ten out of ten hesitated before they said what it was; none of them had any idea why it was put there; and all admitted that they had not looked at it. This was true of graphics which were mainly decorative, those which were illustrative of vocabulary, as well as those which represented and summarized text passages. One of the reading assignments was novel reading. Students had to choose a novel or storybook, read it, write a summary of the few pages they had read every day and answer questions on it when they had finished the whole story. Some of their novels were illustrated, some were not, but in reading the novel, very few paid attention to the illustrations. Even in their choice of a storybook, none of them considered the illustrations: they chose the book not because there were pictures or illustrations, nor because the illustrations had attracted them. Some responses were: "For reading, I choose a reading book, not a picture book." 80 "All we have to do is to produce a summary of a chapter. We don't have to draw. So I don't care if it has pictures or not." "I don't think anyone in this class cares about pictures in their novels." Some even preferred books without pictures: "Pictures occupy space so I don't care for them. With more words in the book, I can write a longer summary." To them, reading did not include reading of graphics. On the whole, they thought that pictures were unimportant and unnecessary, and had no place in a story book, or at least the story book did not gain by having pictures. One boy did not even notice that there were no pictures in his book. His main concern was to read and produce a summary every day. A few of their novels did have graphics, though. They were mostly representations of description. All students, with the exception of four, affirmed that they did not look at the pictures at all. I asked all the students whose novels had illustrations to explain the picture on the page they were reading, or had just finished reading. Most of them had to look a long time before they knew what it was about, indicating that they had not looked at it before. Those who did look, did so either because it was a funny picture, or because the book called the reader's attention to the graphic, as one student said, "I look only when the book tells me to. Otherwise I just flip it over." However, even when they looked at, and enjoyed, the pictures, they maintained that pictures/illustrations did not help them understand the story. Only two 81 students seemed to rely on pictures in reading and re-telling the stories. One of them pointed to the picture all the time she told the story. The other turned back the pages of the book to look for pictures to illustrate: "This is Jim," and when he had difficulty describing the kind of house and environment the hero was looking for, he said, "Wait, let me show you the picture." It appears that most students did indeed "tend to skip over visual aids entirely or pay only cursory attention to them" (Vacca 1981, p. 208) unless there was real curricular need. Few interacted with the graphics they encountered unless the teacher or the assignment required them to study, write about, or reproduce them. In other words the type and quantity of graphics students interacted with and the way students interacted with them depended on the teachers' expectations, beliefs, and pedagogical style, among other factors. The Teachers The teachers of this division seemed to prefer student inquiry. They encouraged students to use multiple resources, and set assignments which involved research and reading of reference books on the part of students. They usually set the topic, distributed question papers, gave explicit instructions on the requirements, arranged for them to use the library, and left students much on their own. Intensive observation of the class, and analysis of the time students spent on various activities revealed that 77% of class time was engaged 82 in silent reading and completing assignments. Only a small proportion of the graphics students interacted with was presented by the teacher. Graphics Students Interacted with Table V shows the graphics students of Division One interacted with during the observation period. For the purpose of this report, interaction with graphics is defined as reading, interpreting, copying, constructing, answering questions on, or explaining them. I should point out that because of the nature of the assignments, the quantities recorded are by no means accurate. Because different students were engaged in different projects, the number and type of graphics they interacted with were necessarily different. The figures in the sequence category, for example, represent the average number of graphics individual students interacted with. Besides, even if the figures were more accurate, it would still be impossible to paint the entire picture of the graphics students interacted with on a chart, without indicating the actual time individual students spent on the graphic, and what they did with the graphic. Table V 83 Graphic Students of D i v i s i o n One I n t e r a c t e d w i t h i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s and I n s t r u c t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 4 P r i n c i p l e 1 E v a l u a t i o n 3 Tree 1 Chart 2 Diagram 1 Chart 1 Chart 3 P i c t u r e 5 F i l m s t r i p / 2 video Chart 2 Time l i n e 4 Diagram 1 D e s c r i p t i o n 7 Sequence 7 Choice 84 Classification. The tree graph showed the classification of news in the newspaper. It was drawn on the chalkboard by the teacher during News, and students had to copy it. The function was to reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987) or clarify. One of the charts was a handout for students to keep a personal record of books read during the term. The other chart appeared in a social studies test paper. Students had to complete the empty slots in the chart. The diagram, which showed the constituents of living things in descending order, appeared in the science textbook. Students had to copy it into their notebook. The function of these three graphics was organization (Levin et al. 1987). Description. A filmstrip was shown in a social studies class and a video in a science class. The follow-up was to write on one event/item in the film or video which impressed them most after viewing. The pictures were various photographs which they had to gather or copy for their projects. The number of 'pictures' shown in Table V is approximate. It was difficult to decide the exact number each student interacted with: in doing their projects, different students interacted with a different number of pictures. Some of them had many, others had only one or two. The function of graphic representations of description was on the whole to represent (Levin et al. 1987) or reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987), although some of the pictures proved to be decorative. Principle. The only graphic in this category was a cause-effect chart or table students had to complete to demonstrate their knowledge of the effect of certain developments, such as the discovery of fire on the life of early people. The graphic appeared in a test paper, which students interacted with twice: 85 during the test and during the correction of the test. The function was organization (Levin et al. 1987). Sequence. The charts appeared in a social studies test paper in which students had to classify events and developments in sequence from Dawn Stone Age to New Stone Age. The function was organization (Levin et al. 1987). The time lines were all part of students' projects which they interacted with at least three times: reading, drawing and presenting. The number shown in Table V is again approximate, for some students interacted with more than four, others none at all. One group included a diagram, i.e., pictures to represent the development of life in ancient history. The function of the time lines and diagram was organization (Levin et al. 1987), although not all of them served the intended purpose. Evaluation/values. Simple two-column tables representing the boys' team and the girls' team, were put on the chalkboard on two occasions for students to record the points they scored in a spelling competition, for comparison and evaluation of the two teams. The function was representation as well as organization (Levin et al. 1987). The other chart showed the name, area, length and depth of a number of lakes in Canada. Students had to answer questions on the information given. It was a comparison table, but to answer questions, students had to estimate and evaluate the differences in size and the areas of the lakes. Hence it is put in this category instead of description. The function of the chart was organization (Levin et al. 1987). 86 Apart from the above there was a crossword puzzle which students had to solve by deciding on the right word to put in the graphic. The function was partly motivation, and partly representation (Levin et al. 1987). The task connected with the crossword puzzle involved identifying, decision making and problem solving, but it was neither a definition diagram, an evaluation diagram nor a decision making diagram. Hence it has not been placed in any category. These represented the types of graphics students of Division One interacted with in the nine weeks of observation. Apart from these, there were others. They were mostly pictures and diagrams (not recorded in Table V) which students drew to decorate the covers of their journals and the title page of assignments. From time to time, in their journals, one could detect colourful pictures of cartoon characters beautifully drawn. Embedded in assignments, too, were pictures which served no apparent purpose, except to decorate the page. Besides using them for decoration, how else did seventh grade ESL students make use of graphics? Did Students Choose to Interact with Graphics when They Had a Choice? Students in Division One did not choose to interact with graphics. When they had a choice, the majority chose to write in text form. The only graphic they did by choice was constructing graphics for decoration or 'for fun.' Many questions in social studies and science exercises involved comparison and contrast, e.g., the physical appearance of homo habilis and homo erectus; 87 classification, e.g., animal and plant kingdom; sequencing in chronological order, e.g., discoveries made from Dawn Stone Age to New Stone Age; and showing cause-effect relationship of a number of discoveries and developments, which could all be answered in graphic form, i.e., a chart or table or time line. No student chose to do them graphically; they preferred answering in text form. In a long-term reading assignment, students had to choose four from a list of 37 questions. Of these, 10 involved the use of graphics. Students could, if they chose, give information in the form of a chart, a map, an action strip or a model, or design an original cover for the book they had read, instead of writing a paragraph on the topic. During the observation period, all students had finished one novel, some had completed two and were on the third. A total of some 200 answers in 50 assignments were read. However, only eight included maps to show the location of all the places in the story. Three of them were reproductions of maps in the story. So only five attempted to use a map or plan to represent information. Two students devised a puzzle and two attempted to answer a question on the plot of the story by drawing a three-column chart as specified in the question. All the others chose to write in text form. Only a small percentage of questions were done in graphic form. The only exception was the question: "Design an original cover for the book." It was by far the most popular question in the question paper. 12 students chose the question for both novels. They made colourful designs with the title of the book in fancy lettering and all sorts of pictures. Some even included frills to adorn the page. They seemed to enjoy drawing and needed little effort to do it. This could be 88 seen in the way students decorated their journal and camp journal covers, the title pages of various projects as well as the journals themselves. As a matter of fact, they drew and doodled so much that the teacher had to have their desks covered with paper, and to have the paper changed when it became too full of drawing. It should be noted, though, that there were exceptions: two girls, both from India, never drew or doodled. They disliked drawing and found it extremely difficult to draw. In other words, the only graphics the majority of students chose to construct were graphics for their own sake or for decorative purposes. When an assignment was set on graphics, however, it was quite a different story. When Assignments Demanded Studying, or Reproduction or Production of  Graphics, Students Directed Their Attention to Graphics Two term projects, science and social studies, required students to produce graphics. In one of them, a group project, they had to choose an era in prehistoric times, search for information and make a large chart to show the duration, the name of each period in that era, the kind of vegetation and life found in each period, as well as relevant information on the era. It was specified that they were to include pictures and drawings. The other project required individual students to write five to ten pages on a topic selected from a given list of topics. The teacher stressed that they had to include charts and diagrams. Both involved information search and information organization. 89 In the process of searching for information, all students had reference books opened to a chart or time line before them, including those who maintained that they did not care for graphics in their reading books, or that they did not even notice if there were graphics or that they never looked at the graphics in the textbook or novel. Some turned the pages of magazines, e.g., National Geographic, to look for pictures. Others copied diagrams from various sources. Those who were reading text passages were waiting for their turn to use the right reference book. Many asked the teacher to make photocopies of the charts they had found. They were all making an effort to interpret and present knowledge in graphic form, but whether they could handle the task is another question. Did Students Have Difficulty Interpreting and Presenting Knowledge in Graphic  Form when They Were Left on Their Own? The students did not know how to use graphics to explain (Duchastel 1979), represent (Levin et al. 1987) or reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987), organize and interpret (Levin et al. 1987) knowledge or information. It appeared that even when students had gathered relevant or related data, they had difficulty organizing and presenting them. They had no idea what format to use and what categories and information to select. Some groups approached me for help. In directing students' attention to graphics, the teacher had assumed that students were capable of processing and producing illustrative material when 90 they were simply told to do so. However, this assumption is questionable: "competency in adequately dealing with illustrations develop only gradually" (Peeck 1987, p. 133). Or, as Herber (1970) states, graphics seem to be absolutely unnecessary to 'teach.' However, he maintains, "many understandings appear obvious after they have been understood and have become a part of our set of reflex understandings. They are not obvious to the person struggling to acquire the insight" (Herber 1970, p. 103). The instructions the teacher gave were explicit, but, perhaps, students needed more than mentioning, i.e., "saying just enough about an assignment so that students understood the formal requirements of the task, but stopping short of demonstrating how to solve the task cognitively" (Pearson 1985, p. 730). In the group project in which they had to present information in a large chart, most of them transcribed either the whole table or part of a table from an encyclopedia onto their chart, which to many students meant an oversized sheet of paper. The only editing one group did was using a different colour for each period. Another copied the whole chart leaving out some categories and information. The result was a three-column chart with very little information. A few copied the format or layout of a chart from an encyclopedia, and attempted to fit information from other books into the chart without too much understanding. In many boxes, they had just put down "nothing mentioned." Yet another group merely glued four pages of animals and plants of the Mesozoic Era, photocopied from an encyclopedia onto a large sheet of paper, which, they explained, was the chart the teacher wanted. They made no 91 attempt to integrate or organize the data. The last group could not quite manage a chart. After many attempts, they merely drew a few sketches of living things found in the era they had chosen: bacteria, sponge and jelly fish, and wrote a few lines on the era that were quite unrelated to the sketches. The failure of students to produce complete and accurate charts indicated "comprehension gaps" (Peeck 1987, p. 141) in the learning process. It was not because they could not manage to work independently: they were used to such assignments, and had produced projects in written form. In searching for information, they had gone to the right database: relevant information organized in charts. However, it appears that they could neither extract information from a chart nor organize information in graphic form. They were "incapable of taking advantage of the information that the charts gave them about how the content was organized" (Winn 1987, p. 179); they had not yet learned to use their abilities as strategies for learning, strategies such as "finding and attending to the important information in a chart and ignoring the rest" (Winn 1987, p. 179). Perhaps what the students needed was for the teacher to help them read, decide, and understand information in a chart by directing their attention to relevant parts of a chart as Winn (1987) suggests; and to teach them explicitly how to organize or represent information in chart form. In the social studies project, which required students to write five to 10 pages on a topic and to include charts and diagrams, all students included charts, trees, maps, diagrams, or photographs and the inevitable painstakingly prepared cover or title page. In spite of all the graphics, some of which were 92 very interesting, it was evident that a great majority of the students had difficulty presenting information or expository text in a chart or diagram. The assignments submitted could roughly be classified into three main categories. One group of students, who had no difficulty communicating in written language, wrote five-page to seven-page essays on the topic. The essays were complete in themselves without illustrations. They were well written. Tagged on as an afterthought were a few pages of graphics which seemed to have been included for no apparent reason except to fulfil the requirement. The graphics were pictures, rough sketches, maps, or photocopied charts. But nowhere were the graphics referred to in the text, and the graphics contributed nothing to the project. One of them had included only a world map showing early settlement, which could have been left out without hurting the essay. Another included rough sketches which did not do justice to the rest of the project. The students admitted that they had included them in the project to fulfil the requirement. Because they failed to see the representation, organization and interpretation functions of graphics, students found graphics a waste of time: graphics slowed down their work and did not help them write a better assignment. The second category of assignments consisted of both text passages and graphics. The text passages and graphics were on different subtopics which were unrelated, or only remotely related to one another, but were put together under the same broad topic, e.g., Stone Age. One of them had described in text form the tools found in that period and how an axe was made and included 93 photocopies of a tool time chart and diagrams of how a spearhead was used. Another had photocopies of time lines and a tool time chart, but the topic they had written on in text form was stone age weapons and skulls. Yet another group had made a booklet of 11 pages, all photocopies. There were text passages as well as diagrams and charts. Some diagrams were extremely interesting, but they had no connection whatsoever with other photocopied pages. In fact there was no central theme, and there were no attempts to connect the data. In this category of assignments, the graphics were not constructed by the students; they were either photocopied or copied from a reference book. It appears that students had gathered whatever relevant data were available and copied them or presented them 'as is.' They did not attempt to represent text information in graphic form or re-represent graphic information in another graphic form. The third category of projects was made up of assignments which included only graphics: magazine clippings, photocopies of charts and pictures, and outline maps of different continents, plus, at most, a brief introduction. In some of them there was no central theme; they had made no attempts to edit or reorganize the information they had gathered; their sole concern was to collect as many different graphics as possible and put them together under a cover. One of them was entitled Weapons and Tools. However, apart from sketches of tools on the first page, the project was on anything but weapons and tools. There were pictures of houses, clothing, a chart on language, and a three-dimensional model of a house. In another, there was a central theme: it was on 94 Cave Art. The girl had included beautiful pictures, some magazine clippings and some photocopies of photographs. Again there was no attempt to organize them, or understand them. The brief introduction on what cave art was did not refer to the pictures at all. She explained that she had included so many pictures because the teacher insisted. The project of an Indian girl was made up of eight pages of diagrams which she had copied from three sources. Six pages were on sign language; a chart showed the evolution of written language and another showed the origin of the letters of the English alphabet. There was no writing whatsoever. She confessed that she found it difficult to express in writing, and since the teacher wanted drawings and charts, she had included some of each. However, she did not know how to link the three subtopics together. It was not evident that students knew how to read or extract information from charts, or how to use graphics to explain, represent, interpret or organize information. Nor did they attempt to integrate graphics with text. There was one Chinese girl, though, who made use of graphics to explain and illustrate a text passage. Paragraphs on how stone age men made tools were followed by a sequence of diagrams illustrating chipping step by step. She even used highlighted arrows to show where the chipping was. On being complimented, the girl confessed that it was her grandfather who had suggested the idea to her and taught her how to do it. The indication is clear. Most students did not seem to recognize the relationship between the two forms of communication: graphic and text. To 95 most of them, graphics were a separate category irrelevant to text, neither something which facilitated the understanding of text nor another way of expressing information. Their attitude towards graphics was negative. When they were asked to draw, their main concern was to produce art work, or to fulfil the requirement. Perhaps, they needed more than encouragement and prompting to be able to read and use graphics to represent knowledge: they needed to be taught the skills of reading and writing them. Did Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures Facilitate Comprehension  and Recall? There was no indication that graphic representation of knowledge structures facilitated comprehension and recall. The follow-up activity of the science assignment was an oral presentation of their projects. Students organized themselves in groups and discussed their charts. Each had to present two aspects of the epoch they had chosen. Most students merely read out what they had put down on their charts. Those who had included too little information could not answer many of the questions the teacher put to them. Some had left out categories which they should have included. Others had omitted information and details they should have put in. Only one group whose chart appeared more comprehensive could answer more of the questions. Those who had merely made photocopies of charts and pictures did not understand the information. A group who had drawn beautiful pictures did not know how to 96 translate the pictures into spoken language. "To answer in sentences, I have to study sentences not pictures and charts," was the honest reply of a recent immigrant from China. Another group voiced their concern. They admitted that their chart had been copied word for word and feared that they would be unable to answer the questions the teacher put to them. This follow up activity suggested that putting information in graphic form did not necessarily help students to understand or remember information, but not because graphics have no intrinsic value. Rather, it was either because students had not yet learned how to read and interpret information in charts; or because they could not write and organize in graphic form; or because they did not quite know how to translate graphics into oral language; or because of all or some of these factors. Division Two The Classroom The walls of the classroom of Division Two were all covered with graphics, apart from the two chalkboards. High up on one wall was a copy of a large oil painting of the "Father of Confederation." Two wall maps, one of the world and the other of Canada, were usually rolled up, but were pulled down to cover the front and side chalkboards, during map reading and news lessons. By far the 97 displays which occurred in greatest abundance were students' work which ranged from campaign posters to homework assignments on various subjects. They were mostly in text form, with only occasional pictures for decoration. Did Students Pay Attention to the Graphics in the Environment? Few students ever looked at the graphics in the corridors, the library or their classroom. Again, I drew several students' attention to the catalogue guide in the library. As in Division One, some seemed to be looking at it for the first time. A handful could explain what it was, but asserted that they never had to look for information there. They seldom paid any attention to the graphics in the classroom. Only a few of them looked cursorily at the campaign posters and homework assignments, and only one of them, a Pakistani boy, could tell me what the oil painting was about. Did Students Pay Attention to Graphics in Instructional Materials? In Division Two as in Division One, when students encountered graphics in books and instructional materials, some passed over them after a quick look, others did not even look. They did not pay attention to the graphics they were exposed to in instructional materials. In a social studies class, the teacher put a question on the chalkboard: "Name the four major groups of early people who lived during the period from 98 1.75 million years ago to 50 thousand years ago, from the earliest to the most recent." He asked students to look for the answer which could be found in a paragraph on page 2 to page 3 of the textbook. The same information is summarized in a time line coloured gold and orange immediately following the paragraph. The value of visual summaries has been acknowledged by graphic experts, such as Tuft (1986) and Wainer (1984) (Hunter et al. 1987, p. 128). However, when I went round the class to see what students did with the graphic, I discovered that nobody took advantage of the visual summary to answer the question. Instead they were all busy looking for, reading or copying the sentence from the paragraph. Nobody even looked at the time line. They did not seem to associate the time line with the information in the paragraph, although the graphic had good syntactic text parallelism. Nor did it occur to them to examine the time line. Perhaps, Herber (1970) had a point when he stated that "unless the value and usefulness [of graphic aids] is pointed out to them, students ignore these aids" (Herber 1970, p. 104). The task was to name the four groups of people mentioned in the paragraph. That was where they looked to obtain the information. This can, perhaps, be explained by Holliday's (1976) theory that learners generally exert the least effort necessary to perform a task. Consequently, if a learner can attend to a more familiar medium (i.e., text) and still perform the practice task (i.e., answer the instructive question) the chance of learner inspection of the less familiar medium (i.e., the graph) is reduced (Holliday 1976, p. 66) It could also be because they were unaware of the cognitive functions of the 99 graphic. When I asked them why they did not copy the answer from the graphic, they answered with a shrug that the teacher did not tell them to, or that they had to answer the question in a sentence, naturally they would look for a sentence. The graphic did not lack prominence, but students just did not bother to look. I asked them what they thought the time line was put there for, they admitted that they did not know. Some suggested: "It's colourful!" "To have one more picture. This book is full of pictures, you know!" "To make the book more interesting." They perceived the function of the graphic to be decorative, i.e., to make a textbook more attractive rather than to support or supplement text information (Levin et al. 1987). Their retorts should not surprise us, considering the fact that in recent years, publishers' concern for aesthetic appeal has become more evident (Mulcahy & Samuels 1987). Of course, this in no way implies that the functional value of graphics has been neglected, only that students did not seem to recognize the representation or organization function of the diagram (Levin et al. 1987), or realize that the paragraph and the graphic were giving the same information in a different form, or that graphics were a device "by which the authors clarify their exposition" (Herber 1970, p. 104). A even more extreme example was when students were required to answer a question, "What does Homo erectus mean?" They were given the hint that the answer could be found in the caption of a picture on page 8 of the textbook. To answer the question, they read the caption and copied the answer without 100 looking at the picture. When asked if they looked at the picture, some replied that they did not because the caption was where the teacher told them to look. This appears to be further evidence to support my suggestion that whether students interact with graphics depends to a large extent on the teacher. A few did look cursorily, but none studied it, and nobody could explain what it was about, supporting Levie & Lentz's (1982) conclusion that "often learners look at illustrations superficially and without expecting to see useful information" (Levie & Lentz 1982, p. 226). Or, perhaps, Downey (1980) had a point when he argued that, with all their potentials as effective teaching aids, "pictures do not speak for themselves. Most of the information contained in any picture has to be deliberately and patiently extracted from it" (Downey 1980, p. 93). Evidently, students were not able to extract knowledge from the picture. Moreover, it appears that students did indeed "tend to skip over visual aids entirely or pay only cursory attention to them" (Vacca 1981, p. 208) unless there was real curricular need. Few interacted with the graphics they encountered unless the teacher or the assignment required them to study, write about, or reproduce them. Merely calling attention to graphics may not be sufficient. "One way to achieve adequate attention could be to force readers to study illustrations in a text" (Peeck 1987, p. 131). In other words the type and quantity of graphics students interacted with and the way students interacted with them depended on the teachers' expectations, beliefs, and pedagogical style, among other factors. 101 The Teacher The class teacher of Division Two appeared to prefer teaching from a set of curriculum materials of his choice and reinforcing its content through structured field trips, controlled classroom activities, and assignments and tests. The assignments were mostly short-term, and set after the teacher had guided the students step by step through the tasks, or, at least, after ample examples. Thus, in this division, all students interacted with the same instructional materials. Graphics Students Interacted with Table VI shows the type and quantity of graphics students of Division Two interacted with during the observation period. This represents the graphics the whole class almost uniformly interacted with or was required to interact with. However, it shows only the number of graphics, not the actual time students spent on each graphic. Classification. The web was a semantic map which students had to complete as part of a spelling exercise. The function was to reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987) and organize (Levin et al. 1987). One of the charts was for recording findings of activities in the Vancouver Museum field trip, which students completed. The other was for organizing the findings of the grass population project, part of a social studies project, which they copied and completed. The third chart 102 was the one they had to complete as part of a social studies assignment on whales. All three charts reinforced as well as organized. The diagram was the energy pyramid, which they had to copy, while the map was an outline map of Canada which students had to colour to show the popularity of each political party in the 1988 election. Again the function was organization. Description. Graphic representation of description consisted mainly of map reading: identifying landforms, locating places by longitude and latitude, and describing direction and bearing of places. These included using wall maps, atlases and maps put on the chalkboard and OHP. The main function was to represent (Levin et al. 1987) or reinforce (Hunter et al. 1987) the knowledge or information the teacher presented. The picture was a picture of the caricatures of political leaders in the Vancouver Sun, which students had to identify. It served both an elaboration (Hunter et al. 1987) and motivation function. The diagrams were a representation of the globe to show the meaning of latitudes and longitudes; a diagram of a gorge drawn to scale which students had to construct; and line drawings of whales for comparison of size and showing other features. The function of the diagrams was reinforcing (Hunter et al. 1987) information or knowledge presented by the teacher or in the textbook. The films were on early civilization which students had to answer questions on after viewing. They reinforced as well as elaborated on the information in the textbook. 103 Table VI Graphic Students of D i v i s i o n Two I n t e r a c t e d w i t h i n I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s and I n s t r u c t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 6 P r i n c i p l e 2 E v a l u a t i o n 2 Web 1 Chart 3 Diagram 1 Map 1 Diagram 2 Chart 1 Bar graph 1 Map 6 Diagram 5 P i c t u r e 1 F i l m 2 Time chart 1 Diagram 2 D e s c r i p t i o n 14 Sequence 3 Choice 104 Principle. Only two diagrams represented principle. One was the diagram of a compass rose which students had to copy and answer questions on. The other was the energy cycle which students copied from the textbook onto their exercise books. The same diagram appeared again in a science test. The function of both diagrams was interpretation (Levin et al. 1987) or clarification of difficult-to-understand concepts. Sequence. The three graphic representations of sequence were a diagram of a food chain which students copied from the science textbook; a series of pictures to explain the meaning of ecological succession which students had to draw and colour; and a time chart which they answered questions on. The functions were mainly interpretation (Levin et al. 1987) and elaboration (Hunter et al. 1987). Evaluation/values. The chart was a simple two-column table for students to record scores in a competition. The function was mainly organization (Levin et al. 1987). The bar graphs showed the popularity of each political party in the 1988 election. Students had to interpret the bar graphs and answer questions on them. The function of the bar graphs was representation (Levin et al. 1987) or reinforcement (Hunter et al. 1987) as well as organization (Levin et al. 1987). Again, as in Division One, students had to solve a crossword puzzle. They had to choose the right vocabulary item and put it in the right place. The function of the graphic appeared to be representation, and, to an extent, reinforcement (Hunter et al. 1987). 105 Apart from these, there were pictures, and diagrams (not recorded in Table VI) students drew "for fun." These appeared on title pages of assignments and in the assignments themselves. They were mainly ornamental. In amount, the graphic representation of knowledge structures students interacted with was not particularly impressive. However, quantities alone do not signify very much. The important question is what students did with them. How did the students of Division Two make use of graphics? Did they interact with graphics by choice? Did Students Choose to Interact with Graphics when They Had a Choice? Whether students in Division Two chose to interact with graphics depended on what the graphic was, and whether they had to do an assignment on it. In the first place, they chose to draw 'for fun.' Most of them had a title page for each of their projects, although it was not a requirement, and they were mostly decorated with pictures. Some even had additional pages of drawings and computer printouts besides the title page. As those in Division One, students enjoyed drawing pictures and diagrams which served no apparent purpose, except to decorate. They interacted with graphics when they had to do an assignment on graphics or in graphic form. This is elaborated in the following section. 106 When Assignments Demanded Studying, or Reproduction or Production of  Graphics, Students Directed Their Attention to Graphics When assignments demanded the studying, or reproduction of graphics, students of Division Two, like those of Division One, directed their attention to graphics. In map reading classes, and tests on longitudes and latitudes, students directed their attention to atlases and handouts of maps. A social studies assignment required students to draw and colour a sequence of pictures to show a principle. To explain the meaning of ecological succession and dynamic equilibrium, the teacher required students to complete and colour a sequence of pictures. With his own copy of the sequence projected on the overhead projector, the teacher showed students what to draw and how to colour the pictures. They copied the first picture and soon became absorbed in drawing coniferous trees, tidily, one by one on the mountain slope. Some tried to make them the same size, others gave them different sizes to show depth of field; some chose different shades of green, others the same shade. Then they went to the next picture in the sequence. They copied the first picture into the second square with the same care; a few even made the second one an improvement on the first one. Those who had used the same shade of green, realizing that their neighbours' picture with different shades of green looked so much better, decided to do the same with their second picture. They did not seem to realize yet what the two pictures represented. Next they were asked 107 to draw a forest fire in the second picture. They painted away, each trying to outdo the rest in producing a spectacular fire. They went on with the destruction of the forest in the third picture by drawing burned trees and stumps, and then the growing of new trees in the fourth picture. In the fifth picture they painted full grown trees to show the full cycle of ecological succession. They enjoyed drawing and colouring, and soon some were turning out masterpieces of art, beautifully coloured. Another assignment was on how Canada voted. To bring home to the students the name and strength of the major political parties and the support they received in each province/territory in the 1988 election, the teacher used graphics which appeared in an article in the Vancouver Sun on November 25. It was an article which occupied the better part of a page, with a map of Canada showing the different provinces/territories and a number of bar graphs comparing the support each political party received in the different provinces/territories. They had to read the article and answer two questions. The first task was to decide on a legend for each political party and then shade the province/territory according to the winning party. The second task was to list the parties in descending order of popularity for each province/territory and estimate the percentage of ballots cast. The assignment involved reading and interpreting the bar graphs and re-representing the information in another graphic form. Again with his own outline map of Canada projected on the overhead projector, he guided students step by step through the process of looking up information and colouring two provinces. There were many 108 questions and requests for help, but they still tried their best to complete the assignment in graphic form. At least a third of the class required individual attention and additional instruction, showing that they had to be shown "how to solve the task cognitively" (Pearson 1985, p. 730). However, when they had coloured two provinces, they seemed to have no difficulty shading the rest of the map, although there were a handful who sought confirmation for every province. When information was given in both text and graphic form, however, the response was different: most chose to look for information in text passages. To present a unit on whales, the teacher had organized a visit to the Aquarium where a programme on mysterious mammals was mounted for the benefit of seventh grade students. After the visit and discussion, the teacher distributed information sheets on the topic and made available to students a number of books on whales. The handout consisted of seven pages, five of text passages and two of graphics. One of the graphic pages showed the characteristics of each of the two groups of whales in two labelled drawings, and the other was a comparison of the length of different types of whales in graphic form. The assignment was to complete a classification table which included looking up the information sheets and reference books for the type, length, weight, colour, eating habits and home of various whales. All students with the exception of one Pakistani boy looked for information in the text passages. Half of them put in additional information which they had got from reference books. But almost nobody referred to the graphics at all, even though the teacher had gone over 109 the handout with them. This indicated that they did not refer to the graphic not because they did not understand it. It was probably because all the information was given in the text passages. The diagram was redundant, and nowhere in the text passages was students' attention directed to the diagram. They found it simpler and more direct to copy the stated length of the whale from the text. Because they could get all the information from the text, they did not take advantage of the graphic form. In studying for tests, too, nearly all students depended on the printed word. Examining the answers to the question on ecological succession in a test paper, I found that nearly all of them had studied the text and ignored the graphics. The details they had included in their answers were found in the text passages, not the graphics. Only one Chinese boy appeared to have studied the graphics, but he had still chosen to answer in a paragraph. The paragraph briefly described the sequence of pictures without explaining the concept of ecological succession adequately. There was some misunderstanding of the time it took for the trees to grow to their full size. Can it be true that schools and teachers are biased towards verbal form of representation, as Winn (1987) suggests, and that students have been forced into the verbal format of learning by tradition? In the same test, there were three long questions from which students were to select one and write a short paragraph on. The teacher gave them the option to answer the questions either in graphic or in text form. Of the 28 students who completed the test, 12 chose the question on ecological succession, but only three attempted the question in graphic form. They were among the 110 students who could hardly manage to write a paragraph in English. It should be noted that the teacher had explained the concepts, asked students to read and understand the chapter, asked questions and moreover, guided students in drawing a sequence on the topic. All students had completed the task of drawing a graphic representation of a sequence. Yet given a choice, not many of them chose to study the graphics or to answer the question in graphic form. To them text was the familiar form of communicating information. Did Students Have Difficulty Presenting Knowledge in Graphic Form? It appears that students of Division Two did not experience similar difficulties as students of Division One, at least in the assignments on ecological succession, how Canada voted, and whales. All students finished the assignment on ecological succession without difficulty. All the pictures were beautifully coloured, and correctly labelled. Although many students needed individual help, the assignments on "how Canada voted" were completed within six lessons. All included a legend, some using colour codes, others interesting symbols. All maps, too, were correctly completed, although some were tidier than others. Some turned out to be masterpieces of art. To list the results of the election in each province/territory, students used various means. Most of them merely listed the provinces/territories in random order and put down the names of the political parties in descending order of popularity. Three produced a four-column chart on their own; others did the same when I suggested the form to I l l them, and showed them how. In the assignment on whales, students had no difficulty completing the classification table. Some listed only five types and their characteristics, the five described in the information sheets. Others completed the eight rows, having got the information from reference books. Some had left out the column on weight, which was not given in the information sheets. However, most of them managed to find the data from reference materials. In short, some tables were more complete than others, but nobody showed difficulty in completing the assignment. It is true that the nature of the assignments the two divisions had to produce was different and so was the nature of the graphics. Various types of graphics were referred to in the projects of Division One and only two specific types were dealt with in Division Two. It is true that the situation in Division Two cannot be generalized to situations in Division One. However, the indication is clear that with systematic guidance, most students could organize particular information in a specific graphic form. Did Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures Facilitate Comprehension  and Recall? The test on ecological succession showed that, although the drawing of the sequence might have facilitated understanding, only 10% of the students showed that it did. The rest seemed to ignore it after drawing it. Because most students did not take advantage of the graphics, it could not be established 112 whether graphics facilitated student learning. The graphics on the whale unit, i.e., the pictures of a toothed whale and a baleen whale, and the diagram showing the relative sizes of different whales, did not seem to have a facilitative effect on student learning. The classification table, however, seemed to have helped them understand and remember the information in the text passages. At least a number of students claimed that it did. Moreover, their attitude towards graphics was not all negative. Eight students maintained that organizing information in a chart did help them to have a better understanding of the characteristics of whales. "I can compare them!" "It's easier to remember because it's shorter than the passages," "It's simple. In note form, and organized," "I can remember the necessary details. All the important information is arranged in a neat way," "The chart is good for a quick review, because that's all you need to remember" were some of their responses. They seemed to recognize the role of the chart as providing "an organizing scheme," which clarifies and represents spatial and structural relationships of elements of knowledge presented (Peeck 1987, p. 128), thus facilitating learning. There were seven, however, who did not find the chart helpful at all. Three girls who had attained a comparatively high standard of English proficiency found they had no difficulty understanding the text passages, and therefore did not need the chart. Besides, the passages were 113 more interesting. "The information in the chart is limited," one of them said. Two boys, one from Guatemala, and the other from China did not find the chart useful for quite another reason. They explained, "I have to study sentences because in tests and exams I have to write sentences." "I cannot put the things in here (meaning information in the chart) in complete sentences. The teacher likes complete sentences." There are various reasons why graphics did not facilitate learning in a large percentage of students. Some of them did not recognize the function of the graphic, because teachers "spend little time training students to interpret pictures" (Holliday 1975, p. 22). Others felt that they had to learn in text form, probably because they had been taught to attach great importance to the printed word. A few did not quite know how to translate graphics into text. Thus most of them were not able to take full advantage of the graphics in instructional materials to facilitate learning. Summary of Findings Table VII, which summarizes some of the findings of the ethnographic study, shows that graphics existed in instructional materials of both seventh grade classes. However, whether the richness of graphics in instructional materials was taken full advantage of depended on what the teacher and students did with them. 114 Apart from graphics which they drew for decoration or for fun, students did not pay attention to, or interact with, the graphics they were exposed to, unless there was curricular need, i.e., unless assignments demanded the studying or drawing of graphics. It was observed that in both divisions, they had to interact with an amount of graphics, but the way they dealt with them differed. In Division One, where student inquiry was the preferred approach, students were left much on their own to read, look for and produce graphics. These students had difficulty reading and interpreting graphics as well as using graphics to represent, reinforce, interpret and organize information, even when they had gathered relevant data. They merely transcribed graphics from c reference books without attempting to integrate or organize them. They did not recognize graphics as an alternative way of expressing/ representing knowledge, nor did they understand that graphics could be used for explaining and organizing text. They had not been taught the possible functions of graphics. So most of them thought that graphic representation of knowledge structures was synonymous with art. Their attitude towards graphics was negative. Nobody in that division found graphics helpful for explication, organization, interpretation or even retention. They did not seem to benefit from graphic representation of knowledge structures. 115 Table V I I Summary of Findings of Ethnographic Study D i v i s i o n One Graphics e x i s t e d i n c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n Students were exposed t o a number of graphics They d i d not pay a t t e n t i o n t o or i n t e r a c t w i t h graphics unless there was c u r r i c u l a r need They had t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a number of graphics Teachers favoured student enquiry Without guidance students had d i f f i c u l t y e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from graphics and u s i n g graphics t o represent knowledge T h e i r p e r c e i v e d f u n c t i o n of graphics was d e c o r a t i v e They d i d not recognize graphics as an a l t e r n a t i v e way of communication There was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of knowledge s t r u c t u r e s f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g T h e i r a t t i t u d e towards graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of knowledge s t r u c t u r e s was negative Given a choice between graphic and t e x t form, n e a r l y a l l students chose t e x t form D i v i s i o n Two Graphics e x i s t e d i n c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n Students were exposed t o a number of graphics They d i d not pay a t t e n t i o n to or i n t e r a c t w i t h graphics unless there was c u r r i c u l a r need They had t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a number of graphics Teacher favoured step by step guidance With guidance students had no d i f f i c u l t y u s i n g graphics t o represent knowledge Th e i r perceived f u n c t i o n of graphics was d e c o r a t i v e A percentage recognized the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of graphics Graphics f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g i n 10% of the students i n one task 3 0% showed a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards one type of graphics Given a choice between graphic and t e x t form, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases most students chose t e x t form 116 In Division Two where the teacher preferred teaching a set of curriculum materials and guiding students step by step through most assignments, students seemed to have no difficulty using a graphic (one they had been taught) to represent or organize knowledge. Moreover, having been systematically taught how to represent information graphically, they recognized the organizational function of graphics and knew how to use graphics to represent and organize knowledge. Graphics seemed to facilitate student learning in about 10% of the students in one task. And over 30% were positive about the facilitative effect of a classification table. Yet in both divisions when they had a choice, most students chose to read as well as to write in text form, when the accompanying graphic represented (Hunter et al. 1987) a text passage, regardless of whether or not the teacher had directed their attention to the graphic. I would be making too sweeping a statement if I concluded that graphics did not facilitate student learning. We have to consider the graphic, the situation, as well as what the teacher does with it and what students do with it. Or as Duchastel (1980) maintains, "asking whether pictures aid learning is not unlike asking whether music helps dancing. It depends on the type and quality of the picture" (Duchastel 1980, p. 284). The same illustrations can have a variety of significant effects, or in some cases, can have no effect at all (Levie & Lentz 1982). "One reason for this is that illustrations are complex, multivariate media" (Hurt 1987, p.85). Besides, we have to consider what students do with 117 a picture that goes with the text (Peeck 1987). Nor can we establish from the findings of the ethnographic study that graphics do or do not facilitate student learning. The ethnographic study is not a comparative study; the graphics the two divisions encountered differed in type and the way they were dealt with. The findings summarized in Table VII merely suggest that, perhaps, with explicit teaching, graphics may facilitate ESL student learning. This suggestion and the behaviours of Division One with regard to graphics merit further investigation. Therefore, to establish the facilitative effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on student learning, and to link theory and research to practice, an experiment was administered on the students of Division One. It was conducted to discover: 1. if using one kind of graphic representation of knowledge structure, i.e., a tree graph, to present knowledge to seventh grade ESL students in B.C. Elementary facilitated comprehension and immediate recall; 2. if teaching seventh grade ESL students to construct a tree to represent the semantic relations of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic while reading, facilitated comprehension and immediate recall; 3. if seventh grade ESL students could be taught to construct a tree to represent knowledge; and 4. if seventh grade ESL students' perception of graphics, and their attitude towards graphics, changed as a result of the experiment, i.e., after they had been taught to use one kind of graphic to represent one type of knowledge structure. Chapter Five 118 T H E E X P E R I M E N T A L STUDY Rationale The value of using graphic representation of knowledge structures to present knowledge to students, and teaching students to represent knowledge graphically is well documented in the review of related literature (Chapter Two). Findings of the ethnographic study suggest that ESL students can likewise benefit from graphic representation of knowledge structures. However, results of the study also showed that graphics failed to facilitate comprehension in the students of Division One, and suggest that it may, in part, be due to the fact that although graphics representing knowledge structures existed in instructional materials and instruction, students did not know how to read and interpret them, or that they did not pay attention to them and were thus unable to take advantage of them to facilitate learning. The second part of the study was therefore conducted, and the first question addressed was whether teaching students one kind of graphic representation of knowledge structure, i.e., a tree graph, and using it to present knowledge to students of Division One facilitated comprehension and recall? It was also discovered that when students of Division One were required to use graphics to organize knowledge, there was no indication that the task 119 facilitated comprehension and recall. Their assignments showed that it was probably because they did not quite know how to perform the task properly. The second question addressed was whether teaching students to construct a graphic, i.e., a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic while reading, facilitated comprehension and recall. Results also indicated that Division One did not seem able to use graphics to represent, explain, interpret or organize knowledge. It could be because they had not been explicitly taught to use graphics to represent knowledge, or that they had not been told that graphics were capable of performing many functions. Another question the experimental study addressed was whether these students could learn to construct a graphic to represent, interpret and organize knowledge after they had been taught to do so. Another interesting finding of the first part of the study was that students did not perceive graphics as an alternative way of communicating knowledge. To them, "graphics" was synonymous with "art." While they loved drawing for decoration, their attitude towards graphics as a means of communicating knowledge was negative, or one of indifference. According to them, graphics did not facilitate comprehension or recall. This could be due to the fact that they had not been taught that graphics were capable of performing functions other than decoration. The last question the experiment addressed was whether students' perception of graphics, and their attitude towards graphics, changed after they had been taught to use one kind of graphic to represent one type of 1 2 0 text? Yet another finding made during the observation was that the students of Division One learned mostly by reading. The class teachers' preferred teaching style was student inquiry, which, I hasten to add, is not meant to be a derogatory remark. The merits of the approach are many, but expounding them is not wi th in the scope of this study. Because of the teacher's teaching style, students spent over 77% of class time doing assignments. Classroom activities varied from lesson to lesson, but the one activity which never failed to appear was the setting of assignments on the part of the teacher and the doing of assignments by the students. Assignments were either short-term exercises to be checked wi th in the same lesson or long-term projects to be submitted in three to six weeks. The completion of assignments invariably involved reading and writing. By far the activity which took up the greatest proportion of class time was reading for comprehension. Reading for comprehension included reading novels and stories wi th a view to wri t ing a summary or book report on them; reading reference materials to search for information for social studies and science projects; and reading set texts to answer review questions at the end of a section or chapter. Tests were seldom impromptu. Students had to prepare for them, which implied that they had to read. In other words, students were required to do a considerable amount of reading, mainly reading for comprehension. However, none of them seemed to be using any reading or study strategy. A number of assignments did call for note-taking and summarizing, even summarizing in graphic form, e.g., 121 summarizing a section or chapter of a novel; taking notes from encyclopedias and books of knowledge; and organizing information in note form in a chart. However, there was no indication that they were using these strategies effectively. Since most of the knowledge was gained via written prose, it might be worthwhile to teach them a reading strategy, i.e., using a student-generated graphic to represent the semantic relations of a type of text, and to find out if the strategy facilitated comprehension. An experiment was conducted between November 21 and December 12, 1988. Its conduct and findings are reported in the following sections. Design of the Study 122 This part of the study was based on a pretest-posttest nonequivalent-control-group design which is a quasiexperimental design (Shavelson 1981), represented schematically as follows: Figure 4 Design of the Experimental Study Assignment P r e t e s t Treatment P o s t t e s t Graphic (?) 0 1 X 0 2 C o n t r o l (?) 0 1 0 2 There were two treatments and two posttests, conducted to test two related but different hypotheses: 1. using a teacher-provided tree graph to present one type of expository text facilitates ESL student comprehension, and 2. requiring students to generate a graphic to represent the knowledge structure of one type of expository text while reading facilitates comprehension of the text. The conduct of the study is summarized in Table VIII. Table V I I I Conduct of the Experimental Study 123 Test & Treatment Input Output Graphic C o n t r o l Graphic C o n t r o l P r e t e s t Passage 1* Passage 1 W r i t t e n r e c a l l W r i t t e n r e c a l l I n t r o d u c t i o n E x p l a n a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s P r a c t i c e Passage 1 w i t h graphic Passage 2* w i t h graphic Passage 1 r e v i s i o n Passage 2 w i t h questions W r i t t e n r e c a l l W r i t t e n r e c a l l P o s t t e s t 1 Passage 3* w i t h graphic Passage 3 W r i t t e n r e c a l l W r i t t e n r e c a l l P r a c t i c e Passage 2 Passage 2 Graphic R e v i s i o n P o s t t e s t 2 Passage 4* Passage 4 Graphic & w r i t t e n r e c a l l W r i t t e n r e c a l l A d d i t i o n a l t e s t Passage 5* Graphic 124 Results of both tests were measured against the same pretest. The treatment before Posttest 1 consisted of teaching students to read a tree graph which represented the semantic relations of a text passage, and giving them practice in reading and interacting with tree graphs, while the treatment before Posttest 2 provided opportunities for students to practise constructing a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of a text passage. Intact classes were assigned to treatment condition rather than random allocation of students, because the purpose was to discover the effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on Division One, the group whose behaviour patterns warranted further research. Thus Division One served as the graphic group (n = 22), and Division Two was used as the control (n = 23). The allocation of students to either of the two divisions at the beginning of the term was effected by rating students academically and behaviourally on a 4-point scale and randomly assigning them to Division One or Division Two, so that adding up, the points in the two classes were about equal and they had, as nearly as possible, the same boy-girl ratio. The mean score for reading comprehension in the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, administered on all seventh grade students by the Vancouver School Board, was less than one stanine apart between the two groups. 125 The Participants All seventh grade students participated in the experiment, but only the tests of those who fell into the category of ESL students and were present in the pretest, the practice sessions and all the posttests were processed. As a result, 45 students from various ethnic groups formed the sample of the study, 22 in the graphic group and 23 in the control group. The boy-girl distribution is shown in Table IX. T a b l e IX The P a r t i c i p a n t s : B o y - G i r l D i s t r i b u t i o n C o n t r o l G r a p h i c Boys 14 16 G i r l s 9 6 T o t a l 23 22 126 In both groups the following nationalities were represented: Chinese; East Indian/Pakistani; Fijian; Malaysian/Filipino; Kenyan; Czechoslovakian and Guatemalan. Not only could all students fall into the category of ESL, but they were also all LEP students, representing a wide range of abilities within the category. One of the class teachers estimated that the reading age of the students ranged from about grade 2 to grade 5. The Instrument The passages. The instrument consisted of a number of text passages and the graphic representation of the top level structure, or semantic relations of the text. The passages were adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People Other Lands (Neering, Usukawa & Wood, 1986), a widely used social studies textbook prescribed by the Ministry of Education and considered suitable for grade six, but had not been used by the participants of this study. These passages were chosen because they represent passages sixth- and seventh- grade students are likely to encounter in textbooks. Though the readability level might prove difficult for the participants, whose reading level was between grade 2 and grade 5, I am inclined to agree with Dana (1980) that "studies should be conducted with text that comes directly from widely used textbooks ... [and that researchers] could identify a textbook that has proven difficult for students and could test ways of employing a graphic ... to facilitate learning from the textbook" (Dana 1980, p.66). These passages are similar in reading 127 difficulty level, content, as well as structure. The top level structure of the passages is classification (Mohan 1986), or collection of descriptions (Meyer & Freedle 1984). This text type is considered one of the more loosely organized and therefore less facilitative of encoding, retention and retrieval (Carrell 1984). However, ironically, this is also one of the most prevalent types found in school textbooks. The passages for the pretest and the posttests were on the system of government of different countries (see Appendix A). They were adapted from the original so that all passages were about the same length, between 230 and 251 words. This length was chosen because the idea was to select passages short enough for seventh grade students to complete the test, i.e., reading and writing a recall of it, within a 40-minute period, but at the same time long enough to ensure that no student could commit the passage to memory within that time. In a pilot study administered to a comparable group of ESL students but later in the school year, results showed that none took longer than 30 minutes to complete the task. Moreover, the difficulty level of the passages as rated by the students on a four-point scale was very similar. The passages were thus deemed appropriate for the experiment. However, even when the length of the passages was controlled, it did not prevent one girl in the control group from memorizing the whole passage almost word for word in the pretest as well as posttests. Graphic representation of the text passages. Trees which reflect the organization or the semantic relations of the information/knowledge in the text 128 passages for Posttest 1 and practice were prepared (see Appendix B). Each graphic or diagram was made up of words in slots which were joined by lines to represent spatially the relation of ideas. As a means of helping students to attend to the graphic and to ensure that they did not ignore it, a partially complete graphic was prepared, in addition. It was exactly the same as the completed graphic, only certain terms were omitted. To complete the graphic, students had to use information in the text to fill in the empty slots. This was to ensure that students attended to, and interacted with the graphic, while processing the text. Conduct of the Study This part of the study, made up of a pretest, practice sessions, two posttests (see Table VIII), an additional test, and semi-structured interviews, was conducted between November 21 and December 12, 1988. The tests and practice sessions took place during the students' regular 40-minute reading classes, but the interviews took up some recess and lunch time as well. In order to eliminate unnecessary experimenter effect, which poses a threat to internal validity, and to hold constant experimenter attributes across all treatment conditions (Christensen 1985), I decided to administer all treatments and tests myself instead of enlisting the help of the class teacher, so tests for the graphic group and control group were conducted on the same day but not the same time. 129 Pretest Both the graphic group and the control group were administered a pretest on November 21. The test consisted of reading a passage and writing a free recall. The passage was on the system of government in Nigeria (see Appendix A). By way of preparing the students, I asked them questions on the system of government in Canada, the different levels of government and the function of each, and on Nigeria. Both groups were familiar with the system of government in Canada in varying degrees. I proceeded to tell them that the passage they were about to read was on the system of government in Nigeria which was in certain ways similar to the levels of government in Canada. Students had to read the passage until they had understood it. When they had finished, they wrote a free recall of the system of government in Nigeria without looking at the passage. No time limit was set. In both groups all students finished reading and writing between 15 and 40 minutes. Treatment Treatment consisted of drawing students' attention to one kind of knowledge structure and showing them how it could be represented by a tree graph. Students were not exactly unfamiliar with tree graphs: both groups had come across tree graphs for classification in science classes, only most of the students did not pay attention to them. The main purpose of the treatment 130 was to help them relate the graphic to the text passage and to ensure that they had been alerted to the graphic, and forced to interact with it. This would eliminate the chance of students confounding the experiment by ignoring the graphic altogether. In the first practice session, I explicitly communicated the objectives of the experiment to the students. I explained that in order to help them better understand and remember knowledge/information, I would show them how a kind of graphic-a tree graph, can represent the knowledge/information in a passage. Second, since students had to read such a great amount on their own, I would teach them a reading strategy, i.e., to draw a graphic to represent and organize the knowledge presented in a passage, and find out if a tree graph would help them understand text materials they had to read. Treatment started with referring students to the pretest passage and explaining that this was one type of text they were likely to encounter in content-area textbooks. While going over the passage, I organized the information in the passage in a tree graph, (see Appendix B), and demonstrated how a few words in slots connected by lines could be used to represent the semantic relations or top-level structure of the passage, and how by means of the graphic, they could access the information in the passage "in one and the same instant, thus acquiring a concise and accurate overview of the material" (Winn 1987, p. 160). I was careful to point out that the tree graph I had constructed was by no means the one and only correct graphic representation of the knowledge structure of the passage; and that different trees could be 131 used to represent the same passage. The idea was to use lines and slots and words or phrases to represent and organize the knowledge/information in the passage into a concise graphic. There could be more or fewer slots and more or fewer words in each slot. The students then read the passage, while I distributed handouts of the partially complete graphic. When students had finished reading the passage, they had to complete the partially complete graphic, which was a way of forcing students to study, pay attention to, and interact with the graphic, or use the graphic to process information. At the risk of being redundant, I again called their attention to "how the diagram provided a visual display of the author's organizational plan and how the diagram could serve as a cue to help them comprehend and retain what they had read" (Alvermann & Boothby 1986, p. 92). A practice session followed the same pattern. The text passage was similar to the pretest passage (see Appendix A). Control The control group was given the same practice passage as the graphic group. Instead of drawing a tree graph to explain the passage, I went over the passage orally with the group. In other words, the passages were dealt with in the same way in both groups, except that the control group did not have the aid of the graphic, and the students did not have to complete a partially complete graphic. Instead they interacted with the material by answering questions. 132 Posttest 1 A posttest was administered on both groups on the same day but not the same period. The objective was to find out if using a graphic to present knowledge would facilitate students' understanding of the passage as shown by the number of idea units recalled, as well as the structure of their written recall. It was the effect of the presence of a familiar graphic which students were forced to read and interact with that this test proposed to measure. Both groups received a text passage similar to the passages in the pretest and the practice session. It was on Japan's system of government (see Appendix A). The graphic group was presented a graphic representation of the passage (see Appendix B) on the chalkboard before they read the passage. It has been suggested that when the graphic is placed or presented before the text passage, it provides a scheme for "organizing incoming textual material and may also have an attention-directing and controlling effect as the learner proceeds through the text" (Koran & Koran 1980, p. 478). They were given a partially complete graphic to fill in when they had finished reading the passage. Then they wrote a recall of the passage without referring to the passage. Treatment of the passage was different for the control group: I presented the passage orally. Students read the passage silently and answered questions orally. The answers to the questions corresponded to the empty slots students in the graphic group had to fill in. This was to make sure that students in both groups were given the same treatment, as far as possible, 133 apart from the graphic, although it is true that not all students in the control group had to give an answer, while everybody in the graphic group was forced to. Besides, the two groups were allowed the same amount of time to read the passage and write the recall. It turned out that in both groups, all students finished the task between 15 and 40 minutes. In terms of reading time and time spent on the task, there were no systematic differences between the pretest and posttest in the graphic group. This could, perhaps, mean that "the time spent on the [graphic] was compensated for by a more rapid reading of the text itself* (Peeck 1974, p. 887). Practice Session on the Construction of Graphics Students in the graphic group had an additional session to practise the drawing of a graphic to represent a passage. They were given the passage which they had for the first practice session, but not the graphic. They read the passage and, while reading, drew a graphic with lines, slots and words to show the relationship of the knowledge in the passage. At their request, the graphic of the passage was distributed to the students after they had drawn their tree graphs so that they could see if they had left out anything. Some of the finished products turned out to be carefully constructed diagrams almost more complete than the master. Some could manage only with difficulty. I went round the class and explained how to draw a tree graph to represent a text passage to all those who could not quite manage the task. 134 Posttest 2 The purpose of Posttest 2 was two-fold. First, it was administered to discover if the act of constructing a graphic to represent a passage while reading it would facilitate comprehension. It was expected that students who generated a graphic would exhibit greater comprehension as measured by the amount of information recalled and the structure of the written recall. The second purpose was to find out if seventh grade ESL students could be taught to draw a graphic representation of knowledge structures, i.e., to organize knowledge in graphic form. In her training study with sixth grade students, Huard (1983) concluded that "it was possible to train students to construct post graphic organizers" (Huard 1983, p. 93), and Alvermann and Boothby (1986) found their fourth grade students drew their own unsolicited version of a graphic organizer, indicating that intermediate students had the ability to generate a graphic after they had been shown the way. It was, therefore, believed that seventh grade ESL students could likewise learn to construct a graphic representation of knowledge structures. Students in the graphic group had been familiarized with graphic representation of knowledge structures. They had encountered them and interacted with them in the treatment of Posttest 1. They had practised drawing similar graphics in a practice session and been given individual help. In Posttest 2, both groups received the same instrument, a passage on Peru's system of government (see Appendix A). The graphic group had to read 135 the passage and draw a graphic representation of the passage before they wrote the free recall. The control group, instead of drawing a graphic, made notes from the passage. This had not been pre-planned. The cue was taken when two students asked if they could make notes while reading. All students in the control group were told to do so. This ensured that both groups received the same treatment except drawing the graphic, and that the graphic group did not spend considerably more time on the passage than the control group. All students in the graphic group drew a tree graph, but not all students in the control group made notes. However, the graphic group did not take longer than the control group to finish the task. In both groups, the first finished the test in 15 minutes and the last in 40 minutes. Three days after Posttest 2, an additional test was given to the graphic group. The purpose was to confirm that students could learn to draw a tree graph to represent the semantic relations or knowledge structure of a text passage. The passage was similar in structure to those in the pretest, practice sessions, and posttests, but the topic was different. It was on religious beliefs in Nigeria (see Appendix A). Students were told to read the passage and, while reading, construct a tree graph to represent its top-level structure. All students finished the test in less than 30 minutes. 136 Procedure for Analysis of Data Quantity of Idea Units Recalled Scoring was based on the number of idea units recalled, recall being commonly accepted as the operational definition of comprehension (Connor 1984). The pretest, practice and posttest passages were analyzed into idea units in consultation with an ESL expert who is also an experienced elementary school teacher. We scored the recall protocols for the presence of idea units from the original passage, and agreed over 90% of the time in the scoring. Discrepancies were settled by discussion. Ambiguities were clarified by questioning students. Because the number of idea units varied slightly from passage to passage, the number of idea units recalled was converted into a percentage of the total number of idea units in the original passage. I statistically analyzed the data, employing an analysis of covariance. On a nonequivalent-control-group design such as this, which involves comparable pretest and posttests, "there are likely to be prior differences between groups, and such differences are completely confounded with treatments" (Heermann & Braskamp 1970, p. 312), and there is reason to suspect that performance on the posttests can be predicted from the pretest. Such a design calls for an analysis of covariance procedure if the correlation of the pre- and posttests scores is high. A check on the correlation between the pretest and Posttest 1 revealed that the correlation was indeed significant (r = .67, p < .000). Thus, analyses 137 of covariance with a single covariate (Reichardt 1979) were computed on the posttests to remove that part of the treatment which was attributable to prior differences (Heermann & Braskamp 1970). It was hypothesized that in both Posttest 1 and Posttest 2, the mean scores of the two groups would be significantly different, and that the mean for the graphic group would be greater than that for the control group rather than the reverse. Structure of the Written Recall Protocols Each written recall protocol was also examined for its structure or organization pattern, to discover if the recall protocols of the students in the graphic group reflected the structure or organization of the original passage as a result of the treatment. Structure or organization pattern is defined as the "semantic relations and not... the sequentialpatterns of discourse" (Mohan 1989, p. 6). If the recall protocol reflected the knowledge structure of the original passage, it was also assumed that it indicated understanding of the passage. Both the ESL expert and I agreed that reflecting the structure of the original passage, i.e., including the levels of government, and the set-up and role of each level (referred to in the rest of the report as structure), was a surer indication of comprehension than including a large number of unconnected details. It was hypothesized that in the graphic group more of the posttest recall protocols would reflect the structure of the original passage than the pretest recall 138 protocols but in the control group no such change would be detected. We did not score the student-generated graphics, but judged each of them individually according to the shape of the graphic, the information it included, the accuracy of information and the categorization of information. Results of the Study Pretest A one-way analysis of variance on the pretest showed no significant difference between the graphic group (x = 22.7) and the control group (x = 24.7). Although intact classes were used as the graphic and control groups, the difference in mean between the two groups was insignificant (F = 0.243) (see Table X). Analysis of the written recall protocols also revealed that the two groups were not much different. Not many of them reflected the structure of the original passage. In the graphic group, only two students showed some structure ~ an imperfect structure. In the control group, four students showed either a distinct or an imperfect structure. One Chinese girl very definitely recognized the structure of the passage and reproduced it in her own words. Three others, a Chinese boy, an Indian boy and a Pakistani boy showed the semantic relations of the knowledge presented in the passage, but the 139 organization was imperfect. Another girl from Hong Kong reproduced the whole passage almost word for word, so it was difficult to decide whether she recognized the structure of the passage. All the others had put down a list of isolated details. Most of them recalled the first few sentences of the passage, and the amount of information recalled depended on the number of sentences they managed to remember. Others had included the first few sentences and the last sentence. Table X A n a l y s i s of Variance : P r e t e s t Source of v a r i a t i o n Sum of squares df Mean square Between group Wi t h i n group T o t a l 45.512 8042.799 8088.311 1 43 44 45.512 187.042 F obs = 0.243 < F c r i t F c r i t (.05, 1, 43) = 4.06 140 Posttest 1 Posttest 1 was conducted to answer the question: Did using graphic representation of knowledge structures to present knowledge to seventh grade ESL students in B.C. Elementary facilitate comprehension and recall? In Posttest 1, the mean score of the graphic group (x = 35.6) was greater than that of the control group (x = 25.2), and an analysis of covariance performed on the test showed that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (F = 12.205, p. < .001) (see Table XI). Table XI A n a l y s i s of Covariance : P o s t t e s t 1 Source of Sum of df Mean F S i g V a r i a t i o n Squares Square of F Covariate P r e t e s t 5827.010 1 5827.010 43.098 .000 E f f e c t Graphic 1650.457 1 1650.457 12.205 .001 Between groups 7477.467 2 3738.733 27.647 .000 E r r o r 5679.777 42 135.233 T o t a l 13157.244 44 141 In other words, using a graphic representation of the knowledge structure of a passage to present knowledge to students, and making sure that they attended to the graphic, significantly increased the total amount of information recalled. Indeed, a comparison of the scores of individual students in the pretest and Posttest 1 revealed that 18 students in the graphic group (n = 22) gained in the amount of information recalled, while only 12 students in the control group (n = 23) showed similar gain (see Table XII). Table X I I Gain i n Information R e c a l l e d i n P o s t t e s t 1 over P r e t e s t Information r e c a l l e d : P o s t t e s t 1 over P r e t e s t No. of students Graphic group C o n t r o l group Gain 18 12 No ga i n 4 11 T o t a l 22 23 142 Analysis of the recall protocols revealed that there was marked improvement in structure in a number of the graphic group protocols, but no improvement in structure in any of the students in the control group (see Table XIII), although a number of them gained in the amount of information recalled. In the control group, the written recall which reflected perfectly the structure of the passage in the pretest, and the three which reflected the structure of the passage imperfectly, all showed the same degree of structure in their posttest recalls. The girl who reproduced the passage almost word for word did the same in the posttest. In the graphic group, however, there was marked improvement in 10 of the protocols. 10 students recognized the three levels of government and were able to identify some characteristics of each. In addition, three others showed some structure: they included two levels of government and misunderstood the third. In all, 13, representing 59% of the recall protocols in the graphic group, gained in structure. Nine students showed no gain. Of the nine students who did not gain in structure, however, seven gained in the amount of information recalled. Only two students (0.9%) did not seem to benefit from the graphic at all one way or the other. 143 Table XIII Gain i n Structure i n Posttest 1 over Pretest Structure of written r e c a l l : Posttest 1 No. of students Graphic group Control group Gain 13 0 No gain 9 23 Total 22 23 144 The two boys who gained neither in information recalled nor in structure were extremely limited in English proficiency. They had great difficulty understanding and even greater difficulty expressing themselves in English. The graphic had obviously helped one of them, a boy from Taiwan, understand the passage. He had difficulty understanding the passage but he could explain the information in the diagram to me in Chinese, although he could not put the information in English. The other, an Indian, did not show understanding. What he had written in the tests were merely two sentences he had memorized. It could imply either of two possibilities : the graphic had facilitated understanding but the student's limited English proficiency had prevented him from expressing what he had understood, or he had not understood the passage any better even with the graphic because of his limited English proficiency. In either case, the task was too far beyond the student's language level. Even the addition of a graphic did not help. Nevertheless, using a graphic to present knowledge did facilitate comprehension and immediate recall in most seventh grade ESL students. Posttest 2 Posttest 2 was administered to find out if teaching students to construct a graphic representation of the knowledge structure of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic while reading, facilitated comprehension and immediate recall. 145 A comparison of the means of the percentage scores of the graphic group (x = 37.8) and the control group (x = 24.5) indicated better performance for the graphic group in Posttest 2, and results of an analysis of covariance performed on the test also showed that the effect of the treatment was significant (F = 14.450, p < .001) (see Table XIV). Table X I V A n a l y s i s of Covariance : P o s t t e s t 2 Source of V a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F S i g of F Covar i a t e P r e t e s t 4091.955 1 4091.955 23 .967 . 000 E f f e c t Graphic 3467.190 1 2467.190 14 .450 . 000 Between groups 6559.146 2 3279.573 19 .209 . 000 E r r o r 7170.854 42 170.735 T o t a l 13730.000 44 312.045 146 Thus results of Posttest 2 pointed to the fact that when students had been explicitly taught to represent a text passage of the knowledge structure of classification graphically, a student-generated graphic significantly increased the total amount of information recalled. Moreover, the percentage scores of individual students also showed that 19 in the graphic group (n = 22), but only 10 in the control group (n = 23) gained in the amount of information recalled in Posttest 2 as measured against the pretest (see Table XV). Table XV Gain i n Information R e c a l l e d i n P o s t t e s t 2 over P r e t e s t Information r e c a l l e d : P o s t t e s t 2 over P r e t e s t No. of students Graphic group C o n t r o l group Gain 19 10 No ga i n 3 13 T o t a l 22 23 147 Furthermore, in the graphic group, 15 (68%) of the recall protocols of Posttest 2 gained in structure over the pretest, but the control group showed no gain (see Table XVI). In the control group, the four who showed structure in the pretest, the one who reproduced the passage almost word for word, as well as those who showed no structure, were all consistent in their performance. Table XVI Gain i n S t r u c t u r e i n P o s t t e s t 2 over P r e t e s t S t r u c t u r e of w r i t t e n r e c a l l : P o s t t e s t 2 No. of students Graphic group C o n t r o l group Gain 15 0 No gain 7 23 T o t a l 22 23 148 In Posttest 2, both the gain in structure and the gain in information recalled were significant in the graphic group. 13 students gained in both. The rest gained in either one or the other. Only one student did not seem to benefit from drawing a graphic to represent the knowledge structure of a passage. Nevertheless, there appears to be sufficient evidence to conclude that drawing a graphic representation of the knowledge structure of one kind of text does facilitate comprehension as shown by the gain in amount of information recalled, as well as the improvement in the structure of the written recall protocols. Could Seventh Grade ESL Students Be Taught to Construct Graphics to  Represent Knowledge Structures? The second purpose of Posttest 2 was to find out whether seventh grade ESL students could construct graphics to represent knowledge structures once they had been shown how. An additional test was administered three days after Posttest 2. In terms of student ability to construct graphics to represent the semantic relations of a passage, results of the two tests were almost identical. Of the 22 students in Division One, only one Indian girl did not attempt to draw a diagram. All the others produced a graphic of some sort to represent the structure of the passage. 19 drew tree graphs, modelled on the tree graphs they had encountered in the treatment and Posttest 1. Some of the results were comprehensive and detailed: the graphic covered all information in the 149 passage. Others were simple: they showed only the top-level structure with hardly any detail. Some put the set-up of the government before its work or responsibilities; others vice versa. However, all the graphics showed an attempt to organize knowledge in the form of a tree and to link up the information in the passage by means of lines, and slots. Of the 19, three had placed some items under the wrong category, showing that they could not successfully organize knowledge in graphic form, although the overall pattern was there. The two students who failed to produce a tree graph had written three lists in note form and used lines to connect the items in each list, but the three lists were not connected to each other. Nevertheless, at least 16 (73%) of the students showed the ability to draw a graphic and to organize knowledge in graphic form, which was an improvement, considering that in the ethnographic study (Chapters Three and Four) almost nobody in the class could organize knowledge in graphic form. Incidentally, three of the students who failed to produce an acceptable tree graph were among those who showed no gain in structure in their posttest recall protocols, although two who had placed certain items in the wrong category gained in both the amount of information recalled and structure. Summary of Findings Although evidence obtained in this part of the study was based on a small number of students over a short period of time, the results (see Table XVII) 150 show that the graphic group gained in the amount of information recalled in both Posttest 1 and Posttest 2, while the scores of the control group were consistent in all three tests. The scores showed that the increase in the percentage of idea units recalled in the graphic group was significant. The gain was not the sole result of exposure to, and interaction with, the same type of text passages. The most remarkable outcome was the improvement in the structure of students' written recall (see Appendix C). Nobody in the control group showed any improvement. In the graphic group, however, 13 (n = 22), representing 59% of the students, gained in structure in Posttest 1, and 15, representing 68% of the students, gained in structure in Posttest 2. The students who showed no improvement in structure were among the lowest in terms of English proficiency, according to both the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test and the grading of the class teacher. At first glance, it appeared that graphic representation of knowledge structures facilitated the reading comprehension of ESL students whose English proficiency was low but not those whose English proficiency was very low. However, this needs further investigation. As one student pointed out, the graphic did help him understand the text, only he was not yet able to express what he had understood in English. Table XVII Summary of Findings of Experimental Study 151 Groups (n = 45) Pr e t e s t P o s t t e s t 1 P o s t t e s t 2 Ancova F 12. 2 * 14. 45 * Graphic (n = 22) Mean % of in f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d 22.7% 35. 6% 37. 9% Standard d e v i a t i o n 9.3 16. 9 15. 8 Gain i n idea u n i t s no. & % of students 18 (82%) 19 (86%) Gain i n s t r u c t u r e no. & % of students 13 (59%) 15 (68%) No gai n 2 (.9%) 1 (.45%) Co n t r o l (n = 23) Mean % of in f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d 24.7% 25. 2% 24 . 5% Standard d e v i a t i o n 16.8 15. 7 17. 2 Gain i n idea u n i t s no. & % of students 12 (52%) 10 (43%) Gain i n s t r u c t u r e 0 0 No gai n 11 (48%) 13 (57%) * p < .001 152 It could, thus, be concluded that in the majority of cases 1. a teacher-provided graphic representation of a text passage of the knowledge structure of classification (Mohan 1986) or collection of descriptions (Meyer & Freedle 1984) used as a teaching device to present knowledge facilitated comprehension and immediate recall; 2. a student-generated tree graph to represent the semantic relations of a text of classification facilitated comprehension and immediate recall; and, 3. seventh grade E S L students could draw a graphic to represent the knowledge structure of a passage after they had been taught. One question remains to be answered. Did students' attitude towards graphic representation of knowledge structures change as a result of the experiment? Student Attitude Al l students in the graphic group were interviewed after the posttests and additional test to discover their views on the facilitative effect of using a teacher-provided graphic to present knowledge, and using a student-generated graphic of the semantic relations of a text passage as a reading strategy. A n interview format was chosen over a questionnaire or written format because a questionnaire did not seem adequate for providing a true picture of the students' thoughts and feelings. A n interview format, on the other hand, makes 153 it possible for participants to supply information that would not occur if only a written questionnaire were given. However, both structured and unstructured interviews have disadvantages. Too structured an interview defeats the reasons for choosing an interview format, and too unstructured an interview may give rise to the interviewer seeking out his/her own preconceived ideas (Borg & Gall 1979). In order to understand the students' construction, semi-structured interviews (Borg & Gall 1979) were conducted. Semi-structured interviews permit the interviewer to probe for clarification and additional information and interviewees to explain their construction of reality in their own terms, thus yielding richer data. The following reports students' responses under three headings: their attitude to a teacher-provided graphic; their attitude to student-generated graphics as a reading strategy; and their preferred format of expressing information. Teacher-Provided Graphic Not much attention has been given to whether students prefer learning from illustrated or non-illustrated instructional materials. According to Levie (1987), the question has received so little attention apparently because "the answer is so obvious" (Levie 1987, p. 24). He cited a few studies which demonstrated students' preference for illustrated materials: "Baker & Popham 1965; Samuels, Biesbrock, & Terry 1974; Sewell & Moore 1980" (Levie 1987, p. 24). However, results of the ethnographic study (Chapter Four) showed that, 154 quite contrary to popular belief, students preferred learning and expressing in text form when they had a choice between graphic and text. However, after the experimental study, most students expressed their preference for learning from text accompanied by a graphic representing its structure (see Table XVIII). Table XVIII Student A t t i t u d e Number of students who responded Yes No Undecided T o t a l Was the teacher-provided graphic h e l p f u l ? 18 1 3 22 Were student-generated graphics h e l p f u l ? 17 3 2 22 Did they p r e f e r expressing knowledge i n graphic form? 13 7 2 22 155 18 (n = 22), representing 82% of the students in the graphic group, were positive that using a graphic representation of the semantic relations of a text passage to present information helped comprehension; one did not find it helpful and three were undecided. Of the 18 students who found the graphic helpful, at least six showed enthusiasm. They received the graphic with such remarks as, "This is neat!" "It's great!" "This would make it easier to understand!" "It's very helpful!" "Good idea to explain with a diagram. I know what the passage is about." Some recognized the organizational function of the graphic, which facilitates student learning by giving knowledge/information additional "coherence" (Levin, et al. 1987, p. 60). They explained that it was this function which facilitated comprehension: "The passage was confusing. If you draw a diagram, you put the information in the right place and make it easy to understand." "It makes the information not so confusing." "The diagram organizes the information. So you don't get it all mixed up." However, they seemed more concerned about their ability to write a recall of the passage. They found the graphic helpful because it helped them remember. 156 "The passage was difficult to remember because the information was mixed up. The diagram made it easy to remember." "It helped me remember!" "The diagram reminded me of the things I forgot!" "The diagram summarized the main points. I did not have to remember so much, so the diagram helped me remember." "I can remember where the information is placed in the diagram; on the right, the left or the middle; also the top or the bottom. So it's easier to remember." "I would remember a lot less without the diagram." In other words, the graphic supplements, and enhances the shape of, the verbally presented text by organizing it thus giving it additional coherence, and "memory for thematically organized materials exceeds memory for unorganized materials" (Levin, et al. 1987, p. 60). However, some of the students were aware that, with all its usefulness, graphic representation of knowledge structures has its limitations: "The diagram did not help me spell the words correctly." "It helped me understand, but it did not help me write. I mean if I just remember the diagram, I don't know how to write a paragraph from it." This remark was made by a student who was extremely limited in English proficiency, having been in Canada for only a year. His main concern at the moment was learning the language. The only boy who did not find the graphic helpful explained that he could understand the passage without the graphic. 157 His remarks were surprisingly reminiscent of a point made by Armbruster and Anderson (1980) that graphing or "mapping may be superfluous and perhaps even distracting for text the students could already meaningfully process" (Armbruster & Anderson 1980, p. 20). He preferred spending more time reading the passage, and observed that "The diagram was a waste of time." Whatever the reason, he was one of the students who did not gain in the posttest. The remaining three students were undecided about the value of the graphic and gave safe and evasive answers: "Maybe!" and "A little!" Among them were the two Indian girls who did not like diagrams or pictures, not even decorative ones, and the experiment had not changed their attitude. They were undecided about the facilitative effect of teacher-provided graphics or illustrated text. The other one appeared quite indifferent. He found graphics "A little bit helpful!" but could not explain how or why. So the general attitude was positive. The majority of the students (82%), including those who did not gain in the amount of information recalled or in the structure of their written recall in Posttest 1, agreed that using a graphic to present knowledge facilitated either comprehension or recall, or both. Only one boy, representing .45% of the participants in the graphic group, was really negative about using a graphic to present knowledge. 158 Student-Generated Graphic Representation of Knowledge Structures In answer to whether they found drawing a graphic to represent the knowledge structure of a text passage helpful in reading comprehension in Posttest 2, 17, representing over 77% of the participants, responded in the affirmative (see Table XVIII). They were the same students who found the teacher-provided graphic helpful. Three gave negative answers, and the other two were undecided. Those who responded positively gave a variety of reasons: "Drawing a diagram and looking for information to put in the right place, you understand the passage." "Organizing the information in a diagram makes it easier to understand the information." 'When you make a diagram of a complicated passage, you make it simple. You don't put down every word. So it's easier to understand." Again students seemed more concerned about recalling information. In their responses, they referred to the facilitative effect of drawing a graphic on recall rather than on comprehension. Their reasons differed. To some, "Drawing a diagram gives shape to the information and makes it easier to remember." To others, "When the information is put into columns, I can remember by thinking about the diagram and I remember from the diagram." 159 Yet others found it helpful because 'You spend more time on the passage looking for information. So you remember more." "When you put the information in a diagram, it's in note form so you don't have to remember so many words. That makes it easy." However, even the students who favoured the idea of drawing a graphic to organize information in a passage were not unaware of its limitations. 'You have to learn how to draw a diagram first." 'You have to understand the words in the passage before you can draw it. If you don't know the words, it's useless. It helps you organize and remember later on, but it doesn't help you understand." Indeed, those who gave negative replies about the facilitative effect of drawing a graphic representation of the structure of a passage reiterated similar concerns, although some of them voiced their concern for curricular demands, such as tests and examinations, as well: "I don't know how to draw." "It's too difficult to draw a passage, if you don't understand the words in the passage." "I never like drawing." "If we can answer exam, questions in a diagram, this is useful. But we have to answer in a paragraph. So I'd rather read the paragraph many times instead of drawing." 160 When asked whether they would use the strategy in future, 11 of the students who favoured the graphic as a reading strategy were positive that they would use the technique, only the graphic would not be tidy or well drawn. "It will be very rough!" Four affirmed they would use it, but only for complicated passages; "When it's complicated, I'll draw a diagram to help me understand." "For complicated things, yes, but for things I can easily understand, no." "I would draw a diagram to simplify difficult passages." Two students were undecided: they felt that they did not know enough about it, and would like to have more practice. Their responses were: "Probably! when I have more practice and know more about it. We've learned to draw only one kind. When I have learned other kinds, maybe." "Probably, depends! Depends on whether I know how to draw the passage." The general attitude towards using a student-generated graphic as a reading strategy was positive. The majority of the students (77%) found the technique facilitative of comprehension or recall, and 15 (68%) affirmed that they would use the technique as a reading strategy either for all passages or for complicated passages, although a few of the more perceptive ones were aware of its limitations as well. Students' Preferred Format of Representation/Expression 161 Another interesting finding which students revealed in the interviews was that if they were given a choice, 13 students (n = 22) claimed they would choose to answer questions on passages similar to those in the experiment in graphic form (see Table XVIII). Their main reasons were : "I won't have to write so many words." "I can answer in point form. Easier than to answer in sentences." "I like drawing." "I have difficulty writing sentences. So I prefer drawing." Two students were undecided: "It depends. If I know how, I would draw." "At this point, I feel I need to have more practice." The other seven students were quite definite they would answer questions in text form, i.e., in a paragraph. Their explanations were : "It's easier!" "I've always answered questions in that way. Isn't that the way to answer questions?" "In a paragraph. Because I only have to find the answer in the textbook and copy it down. If I draw, I have to look for points. That is hard!" "I don't think I know how to draw." 162 Although there were a handful of students who did not benefit from, and did not favour, graphics for one reason or another, 13 (59%) claimed that they would choose to answer questions in graphic form if they had a choice. It is even more remarkable that on the very day of the treatment, i.e., when students were shown that a tree graph could be used to organize knowledge, five boys actually used a tree graph to answer two questions in a social studies assignment. One question read: Summarize, in the form of a chart, your knowledge about the three areas in which the Maya lived: the highlands, the lowland rain forest, and the Yucatan Peninsula (Neering & Grant 1988, p. 215). Some students used a three column table as suggested in the question, but most of them made three separate lists, their usual way of answering such questions. Five boys, however, used a tree graph, the format they had just learned. It is remarkable because from the observation of previous weeks, listing their knowledge of each area separately was the usual form of all their answers. In another question, they were not required to summarize in the form of a table or chart. They had to List three resources of the Maya under each of these headings : plants, animals, minerals (Neering & Grant 1988, p. 215). The teacher had assigned the question but had not suggested a format for the answer. The expected format was three independent lists or three paragraphs. Again the same five boys used a tree graph to answer the question. The 163 graphic was simple but correct. It was the first time students had drawn a graphic without prompting. Hitherto, they had written a paragraph even when a graphic would have simplified matters considerably. Although this was detected in only five boys, the incident showed that when students had been taught to organize knowledge in graphic form, some of them would apply the technique to advantage. It was encouraging to discover that not only could graphic representation of knowledge structures be taught and used to advantage by most intermediate ESL students, but some actually preferred expressing in graphic form to expressing in text form when they had learned the technique. Discussion The experiment was conducted to answer four questions: 1. Did using one kind of graphic representation of one type of knowledge structure, i.e., a tree graph to present a text passage to seventh grade ESL students facilitate comprehension and immediate recall? Results of Posttest 1 showed that using a teacher-provided graphic to present knowledge facilitated comprehension and immediate recall. Statistical analysis showed significant increase in the amount of information recalled. The scores of individual students also showed that more students in the graphic group gained in the amount of information recalled than in the control group. Moreover, 59% of the recalls in the graphic group gained in structure, but none in the control group did. "Since low comprehenders rarely use any structure at 164 all" (Alvermann 1981, p. 44), the gain in structure could be attributed to their gain in comprehension of the text. The gain in structure, though not subjected to statistical analysis, was significant by visual inspection. A tree-like graphic which organizes knowledge in a text passage enabled LEP students to recognize and use the structure of the knowledge presented to them, and, as research results (Carrell 1975) indicated, increased reading comprehension in the majority of ESL students. All students gained either in structure or in the amount of information recalled or in both, with the exception of only two, representing 0.9% of the students in the graphic group. The positive results of the experiment evidenced Schallert's (1980) observation that graphics are specially facilitative when they depict spatial-structural relationships in a text-a conclusion drawn by many reviewers of research literature on graphics and illustrations in text, e.g., Levie & Lentz (1982). Or, as Koran & Koran (1980) suggested, the graphic provided "an organizational structure to facilitate the semantic processing of the textual material as well as a pictorial alternative to verbal storage and retrieval" (Koran & Koran 1980, p. 481). The two boys who showed no gain were extremely limited in English proficiency. However, it does not necessarily mean that using a graphic to present knowledge did not facilitate comprehension in those two students. It could be that they could not express what they had understood in English. One of them proved his understanding by explaining the graphic in Chinese, showing clearly that he had understood, but could not produce a written recall of the 165 text in English; the other did not seem to understand the passage. At least, I could not use his first language to find out whether he had understood the text with the help of the graphic. This question merits further investigation. In any case, the task was too far beyond them. Perhaps, Winn (1987) was correct in asserting that "the addition of a graphic to a text which makes the organization of the text more explicit helps only those students who are able to take advantage of it" (Winn 1987, p. 178-179). Nevertheless, only a small minority failed to benefit from the graphic. Thus, it can safely be concluded that using a graphic to present knowledge does facilitate comprehension and immediate recall in most seventh grade ESL or LEP students, a finding consistent with the results of Koran & Koran's (1980) experiment in which they used a flow diagram to teach seventh and eighth grade students the water cycle. They reported significant improvement for seventh grade students, "with low-ability subjects benefitting most" (Koran & Koran 1980, p. 481). 2. Did teaching students to construct a graphic, i.e., a tree, to represent the semantic relations of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic while reading, facilitate comprehension and immediate recall in seventh grade ESL students? Results of Posttest 2 showed that a student-generated graphic representation of the knowledge structure of a text passage did indeed facilitate comprehension and recall. Statistical analysis yielded significant results; and the 166 scores of individual students clearly revealed that more students in the graphic group actually gained in the amount of information recalled than the control group. Besides, 15 (over 68%) of the written recalls in the graphic group gained in structure, but none in the control group did. This positive finding supported the results of "some studies (Alesandrini 1981; Dean & Kulhavy 1981; Rasco, Tennyson & Boutwell 1975; Snowman & Cunningham 1975) [in which] subjects who had drawn aspects of the reading passage retained significantly more of the passage than subjects who just read the text" (Peeck 1987, p. 141). Maybe what is important for comprehension is the act of constructing a graphic, not simply the presence of a graphic. Thus, "having students actually draw graphics that explain the structure and meaning of text is advantageous" (Winn 1987, p. 190). Constructing a graphic requires students to process the text more thoroughly in an attempt to organize the content into a tree, the function of which serves "both an attentional and organizational purpose that aids storage by increasing the depth at which content is processed" (Dean & Kulhavy 1981, p. 63). Or as Geva (1983) maintains, "by attempting to represent knowledge in such a fashion, the learner is encouraged to consider all the elements necessary for comprehension and to create a coherent representation of what he or she understands after having read a text" (Geva 1983, p.386). Only one student did not seem to benefit from the task. Again, it could very well be her inability to express herself in English, or her inability to understand the passage, her English proficiency being extremely limited. 167 3. Could seventh grade ESL students be taught to construct a tree graph to represent the semantic relations of a text passage? In both Posttest 2 and the additional test, all students, with the exception of one Indian girl, produced a graphic which represented the structure of knowledge or information presented in the passage. The girl did not attempt to draw, because, according to her, she did not know how; Two others were far from perfect : they were three lists of information joined by lines. The rest were all trees, some detailed others simple, but all attempted to link up the information by means of lines and slots. This was a remarkable change: before the experiment students did not know how to organize information in graphic form. It is true that the forms of graphic representations students were required to construct before the experiment and those they constructed during the experiment were not the same, and thus not directly comparable. However, results of this study indicated that teaching did make a difference in the majority of students. It is interesting to note that drawing the graphic seemed to have natural appeal for a number of students. Some of the graphics were more interesting and detailed than those I prepared. However, whether the ability to construct a tree graph affects comprehension and recall could not be established: the two who failed to produce an acceptable tree graph showed no gain in structure in their recall protocols, but two others who constructed less-than-perfect graphics gained in both the amount of information recalled and structure. It is clear, though, that the attempt to construct, or the act of constructing, a student-generated tree 168 graph, which organizes knowledge in a text passage, was an effective aid for at least some seventh grade ESL students, as Armbruster & Anderson (1980) suggested. It also indicates that students have to be taught to construct graphics to represent knowledge structures before they can take advantage of them to facilitate learning. We must not forget, though, that this study investigated the effect of but one type of graphic representation of but one kind of text on a small sample. Further research will have to be conducted using other forms of graphics and other types of text to decide their effects on student learning. 4. Did students' perception of graphics, and their attitude towards graphics, change as a result of the experiment/treatment, i.e., after they had been taught to use one kind of graphics to represent one type of knowledge structure? Before the experiment, students had not recognized graphics to be a form of expression alternative to discourse and text. To them graphics were merely for decoration. After the experiment, many of them still considered the main purpose of graphics to be ornamental, but all of them realized that they could use graphics for expressing knowledge/information as well. The fact that the majority claimed to prefer expressing information in graphic form indicates that most of them recognized graphics as an alternative format for communicating knowledge. 169 Given an option, no student had chosen to interact with graphics or express in graphic form before the experiment. After the experiment, however, 13 (n = 22) claimed that they would choose to express in graphic form and two others that they might if they learned more about the technique, or had more practice. Moreover, five students actually employed a tree graph to answer assignment questions. It is remarkable that many of the students felt that they needed more practice both in reading and constructing graphic representation of knowledge structures, supporting Peeck's (1987) suggestion that "competency in adequately dealing with illustration develops only gradually" (Peeck 1987, p. 33), and Winn's (1987) maintenance that what students need is for the teacher to help them read, decide and understand information in graphic form by directing their attention to relevant parts of a chart or graph (Winn 1987). One weakness of this study is the short treatment period. A longer treatment and practice period might have yielded more positive, or, at any rate, different results. Perhaps, further investigation can be conducted to determine the optimal length of treatment and practice. 18 students (82%) found the graphic useful as a teaching device and 17 (77%) found it helpful as a reading strategy. The high percentage enables us to conclude that not only did the experiment evidence the facilitative effect of using a teacher-provided graphic to present knowledge and a student-generated graphic as a reading strategy in the majority of seventh grade ESL students, but it also indicated that most of the students perceived graphics as facilitative of comprehension and recall after they had been taught the technique. Moreover, 170 many recognized graphics as an alternative format for communicating knowledge, in addition to being ornamental. Chapter Six 171 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I have in this study attempted to produce a complete reconstruction of the role and value of graphic representation of knowledge structures in seventh grade ESL curriculum, instruction and student learning in a particular cultural scene. To effect this, I used a variety of kinds of data to examine the research questions: an analysis of textbook illustrations, an ethnographic study of two classrooms, an experiment and an attitude or preference study. Each of these kinds of data contributes to the whole. Thus, the use of these data could be described as a prism approach, where each facet of the prism reflects an aspect of the scene being investigated. The experiment described was the modest fruit of but one researcher's endeavour. It was by no means a statistically pure experiment of high generalizability: the participants were only 45 ESL students from one school on the east side of Vancouver. But the results suggest that 1. using a tree graph to present knowledge can facilitate comprehension and immediate recall in most seventh grade ESL students; 2. explicitly teaching seventh grade ESL students to construct a graphic, i.e., a tree to represent the semantic relations of one type of text, and requiring them to generate a similar graphic, can facilitate comprehension and immediate recall in the majority of students; 3. seventh grade ESL students can be taught to construct a tree graph to represent knowledge after explicit teaching and practice; 4. students' perception of graphics changes after they have been taught to use one kind of graphic to represent one type of knowledge structure: they begin to understand the cognitive functions of graphics. Their attitude towards graphic representation of knowledge structures becomes more positive after they have learned to use graphics to represent knowledge. 82% of the students found the teacher-provided tree graph used to present knowledge helpful, and 77% of them found the student-generated tree graph helpful as a reading strategy, although many felt they needed more practice in using the technique; and 5. to recall information from a text passage, students are likely to prefer using a tree graph to writing a text passage, when they have learned the technique. Results are promising, but the study needs further exploration, and many issues need further clarification. 1. The sample was small. Perhaps a larger sample drawn from various schools over Vancouver would give the study a higher generalizability, and thus greater value. 2. The participants were different in terms of ethnicity and length of residence, but they were treated as one group. Studies can perhaps be conducted on a specific native language group to find out their specific characteristics and how they interact with graphics. Other variables, e.g., 173 length of residence of the participants, level of education in their first language and age can also be taken into consideration. 3. The instrument needs refinement. Though realistic, the passages were beyond the participants in terms of readability level. There were far too many long and difficult words, which could have affected their recall. 4. Besides, only one type of graphic representation of only one kind of knowledge structure was investigated. Obviously, content-area reading comprehension and E S L pedagogy would benefit from a systematic programme of research to explore the value of various graphic forms, graphic functions and knowledge structures on student learning. 5. Moreover, the treatment was short. Although many of the participants had learned the graphic technique, there was evidence that a number of them would have performed differently had they been given a longer treatment period. A few of them remarked that they would be more comfortable with the technique if they were given more practice. 6. The experiment did not take into account longer-range persistence of the effect, because it would mean disrupting the class for too long. I feel that this should not be neglected. Perhaps the issue can best be studied by the class teacher him/herself, who can incorporate the technique into his/her teaching. Nevertheless, the experiment has succeeded in indicating that a tree graph which represents the structure of one kind of expository text used as a teaching technique and reading strategy can facilitate learning in intermediate E S L 1 7 4 students. Yet findings of the ethnographic study show that students do not seem to use graphic representation of knowledge structures to advantage in learning. As a matter of fact, the ethnographic study has uncovered several interesting findings, which suggest the following: 1. Graphics exist in the environment, but they are mainly decorative, with only occasional wall posters which organize and represent information. Few students ever look at the graphics in the corridors, the library or their classroom. To them, graphics are ornamental, not meant to be studied. 2. Textbooks are highly illustrated, and graphics exist in other instructional materials. Teachers' guides accompanying textbooks also stress the use of graphics to present information. However, whether the richness of graphics in instructional materials is used to advantage depends on what the students do with them, which, in turn, depends on what the teacher requires students to do with them, and how the teacher deals with them. 3. Most intermediate ESL students do not seem to pay attention to graphics they are exposed to. To them, reading does not include reading graphics. 4. It appears that students do not choose to interact with graphics when they have a choice. The only graphics they interact with by choice are pictures they draw for fun. 5. It is only when the teacher sets an assignment which demands the studying, reproduction or production of graphics that students pay attention to, and interact with graphics. 175 6. Furthermore, even when they have to extract information from, or organize information in, a graphic, students do not seem able to do it. When left to their own devices, few can make use of graphics to explain, represent, interpret or organize information. It is only when students have been taught systematically to present information graphically that they can perform the task without difficulty. 7. Students do not seem to recognize graphics as an alternative way of expressing or representing knowledge. To them 'graphics' is synonymous with art, and the function of graphics is for decoration; thus, they do not perceive graphics as being useful for explaining, interpreting or organizing knowledge. Only those who have been shown explicitly how graphics can be used to represent knowledge/information understand the organizational function of graphics. 8. When students are given a choice between graphic and text form, nearly all students prefer learning as well as expressing knowledge in text form. It may be because students do not associate graphics with knowledge and learning. It may also be "partly because teachers, parents and students tend to assign an inflated value to the printed word" (Fleming 1962, cited by Holliday 1975, p.22), and, as a result, "students have been forced into the verbal format of learning by tradition" (Winn 1987). Students are, therefore, unwilling to invest their time and attention in graphics. Perhaps, if test and examination questions were not to be answered exclusively in text form, students would be more willing to learn to express knowledge in 176 graphic form. 9. There is little indication that graphic representation of knowledge structures facilitates student learning, a fact which can, perhaps, be attributed to the lack of emphasis on teaching graphics in the classroom, and to the fact that teachers "spend little time training students to interpret pictures" (Holliday 1975, p. 22). This suggestion merits further investigation. Perhaps it can best be done by the class teacher or researcher who has access to students for extended periods. Based on the results of this study and other studies on the effect of graphic representation of knowledge structures on student learning, it appears that teachers can facilitate student learning by using graphics to represent knowledge structures. They can take full advantage of the graphics present in instructional materials, not only by drawing students' attention to them, but "by collecting and discussing examples from textbooks and from everyday reading" (Mohan 1986, p. 88). They can give students systematic guidance on how to read, interpret, and understand information in a chart or graphic by directing their attention to relevant parts of the graphic and by teaching them explicitly how to organize or present information in graphic form. Teachers' guides accompanying textbooks are an invaluable source to go to for methods of handling graphics. Teachers can familiarize students with graphics by using tables and line graphs "on the chalkboard or overhead projectors in explaining ideas" (Fry 1981, 177 p. 388), or "as a way of previewing (or reviewing) content" (Mohan 1986, p. 89). They can help students develop the habit of always referring to illustrations in instructional materials; and enable them to use graphics "by making assignments just as they now do for writing" (Fry 1981, p. 388). "One standard task that students face is demonstrating their comprehension of a chapter or lecture by writing answers to questions. An alternative to such questions, and a convenient way to reach the same goal, is for students to fill out a table or line graph" (Mohan 1986, p. 88). Teachers can also encourage students to take full advantage of graphics by setting some examination questions in graphic form, or requiring students to fill out tables or graphs as "an alternative to the various writing tasks" (Mohan 1986, p. 88) that face them. It appears that unless teachers recognize the potential power of graphic representation of knowledge structures, and the role it plays in student learning, and take active steps to realize this potential, students will not benefit from graphics even if large amounts exist in the curriculum. Finally, this study has raised many important questions for future investigation. Teachers or researchers who have access to students for extended periods can conduct ethnographic studies on ESL students at different levels of English proficiency, and on specific native-language groups, to explore the way ESL students use graphics to increase their understanding of text. The way ESL students with different characteristics, such as length of residence, and from different cultures, use, and respond to, graphics can also be explored. 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Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. 187 APPENDICES Appendix A Government in Nigeria (Pretest) The System of Government in France (Practice) Japan's System of Government (Posttest 1) Peru's System of Government (Posttest 2) Nigerian Religious Beliefs (Additional Test) 189 Passage 1 Government in Nigeria Nigeria is an independent country made up of 19 states. At times, Nigeria has been governed by an elected government. At other times, the elected government has been overthrown by a military dictatorship. The elected government consists of a president and the National Assembly, which includes an executive president, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The national government looks after such things as education, health, agriculture, trade, industry and cultural affairs. One of the main problems the government has is how to keep the country together. Many different groups of people live in Nigeria, all with different languages and customs. Sometimes there is a long history of hostility between the groups and even within the groups. This hostility makes it difficult to develop a unified state. Nigeria's problems as a Third World country add to its problems of unity. Wealth is often unequally distributed in Nigeria, making many people dissatisfied. In cities unemployment is high. The Nigerian government tries hard to develop the country and keep it unified. State governments look after such areas as agriculture, education and health programs. Each state is headed by a governor. 190 Local governments are run by councils, which maintain some roads and parks, enforce sanitary regulations, register births, deaths and marriages and collect taxes on property, radios and television sets. The councils also help the state government provide health services and primary education. (Adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People, Other Lands) Passage 2 The System of Government in France 191 France is a republic. The national government is made up of a president, a prime minister, other ministers and Parliament, which includes the National Assembly and the Senate. The president appoints the prime minister, and together they choose the other ministers. The president has the most powerful role in the government. He decides what will be done in all the areas he considers important. The prime minister must get Parliament to pass the laws the president wants passed. The prime minister also makes decisions in areas not covered by the president. What happens if the prime minister does not agree with the president, or if Parliament will not pass the president's laws? The president can dismiss the prime minister at anytime. He can dissolve the National Assembly and hold new elections. He can also hold a referendum, or a vote in which all the people of the country can decide on his policy. Most often, though, the president and the prime minister persuade Parliament to pass the laws the president wants. France is divided into 95 districts called departments. In each department the General Council and the commissioner decide about questions affecting that department. There are also many local areas. Each has a mayor and a council to look after its affairs. France also has a number of overseas departments and territories, all former colonies. The territories are run mainly by people appointed by the national government. (Adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People, Other Lands) Passage 3 192 Japan's System of Government The government of Japan is democratic. The present emperor is the head of state, but he has no power. The government is run by a prime minister, as in Canada. Japan has a government elected by the people. Every woman and man who is a citizen and is at least 20 years old has the right to vote. Like Canada, Japan has three levels of government. The national government is based in the capital of the nation, Tokyo. There is a kind of parliament known as the National Diet. It is made up of two parts, a House of Councillors and a House of Representatives. Both parts are elected, and laws must be passed by both houses in order to take effect. The prime minister is chosen by the Diet from its members. Usually the prime minister is the leader of the political party with the most seats. The two strongest parties are the Liberal Democratic Party and the Japan Socialist Party. Japan is divided into 47 areas called prefectures. Like a Canadian province, a prefecture has its own capital city where its government is located. In Japan, the government of a prefecture is an elected governor and assembly. At the city or local level, voters choose a mayor and an assembly. These local governments, like those in Canada, try to deal with problems that relate to the well-being of their citizens. Among other things they deal with parks, 193 playgrounds, building schools and recreation centres, collecting garbage and running public transit. (Adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People, Other Lands) 194 Passage 4 Peru's System of Government There are three levels of government in Peru. One level looks after local decisions. The council is an example of a local government. Communities in Peru have councils. In communities where people share all the land, they choose councils that make decisions about who will farm what part of the land, how many animals will graze the pasture and what will happen at festivals. They also decide how to treat people who break community rules. In larger communities, such as cities and large towns, decisions are made by councils and by officials hired by the councils. The second level of government is something like Canadian provincial governments. But instead of provinces, Peru has departments. Each of Peru's 23 departments has a government of its own that makes decisions about matters that are important to that department. The matters might include the construction of a road or of new schools. The national government of Peru makes decisions that affect the whole country. It decides such things as the amount of education each child must have and what the minimum wage should be. The national government also makes decisions about transportation, industry and trade. The leader of the national government is called the president. Advisers help the president. There is also a National Assembly. When there is an elected government, the president and advisers as well as the officials who run the 195 departments are elected by the people of Peru. (Adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People, Other Lands) Passage 5 196 Nigerian Religious Beliefs Nigeria has three main religions: traditional, Islam and Christianity. In the traditional religion, people believe that rocks, trees and other natural objects have souls or spirits. Believers of this religion ask these natural objects with souls or spirits to take minor requests to God. But they pray to God directly when the requests are very important. Sometimes believers go to shrines to pray. A shrine may be a building or special place where a wooden or stone monument has been placed. Traditional worshippers also celebrate good harvests, births and marriages, and they mourn when someone dies. People who practise Islam are called Moslems. More than half the population of Nigeria is Moslem. The founder of Islam was the prophet Muhammad. He was born around A.D. 570 in Arabia. When he was 40 years old, he was visited by the angel Gabriel in a cave near Mecca. Today many thousands of people from Nigeria and from around the world travel to Mecca each year to honour Muhammad and worship Allah. Moslems believe in one god, Allah and god's messenger Muhammad. They pray to Allah five times a day. The two main Moslem celebrations are Muhammad's birthday and Ramadan, a month of fasting that ends with a celebration of the new year. 197 Christianity was brought to the southern regions of Nigeria in the 1400's by Portuguese missionaries. Most of the missionaries were Roman Catholic. As a result, most Christian Nigerians today are Catholics, and they celebrate religious rites and holidays as Catholics do in Canada. (Adapted from Exploring Our World, Other People, Other Lands) Appendix B Graphic Representation of Government in Nigeria Japan's System of Government 199 1. Government i n Nigeria N i g e r i a (independent country) e l e c t e d government Pre s i d e n t Stc gove: 19 £ i t e rnuient states Govt srnor l o c a l government education a g r i c u l t u r e N a t i o n a l Assembly Executive p r e s i d e n t C o u n c i l h e a l t h programs House of Represen-t a t i v e s problems u n i t y Senate h e a l t h education c u l t u r a l trade & i n d u s t r y maintain roads, parks s a n i t a r y r e g u l a t i o n s r e g i s t e r b i r t h s c o l l e c t tax primary education h e a l t h s e r v i c e s a g r i c u l t u r e 200 2 . Japan's System of Government J a p a n G o v e r n m e n t 3 l e v e l s E m p e r o r h e a d o f s t a t e n o p o w e r n a t i o n a l s t a t e 4 7 P r e f e c t u r e s P r i m e M i n i s t e r P a r l i a m e n t : N a t i o n a l D i e t e l e c t e d g o v e r n o r A s s e m b l y M a y o r c h o s e n b y p e o p l e A s s e m b l y H o u s e o f C o u n c i l l o r s e l e c t e d H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d p a r k s , p l a y g r o u n d s b u i l d i n g s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s c o l l e c t i n g g a r b a g e p u b l i c t r a n s i t Appendix C Samples of students' written recall protocols Sample 1 202 Graphic group : written by a girl from Taiwan Pretest Nigeria is an independent country. Nigeria has three levels of government. Nigeria is made up by 19 states. Each states is headed by a governor. Councils help the states government for health services and elementary education. The National government tried their best to keep their country in peace. Posttest 1 The government of Japan is democratic. It is elected by the people. The emperor is the head of the state but he has no power. Japan has three level of government. The national goverment is run by a prime minister. A parliament is known as the National Diet. The National Diet is made up by the House of Councilor and House of Representive, both are elected. Japan is divided into 47 areas, they're called prefectures. A prefectures has its own capital city. Every prefected is run by a elected governor and a assembly. The local city is run by a mayor and a assembly who is chosen by people. They tried their best to make the city better place to live. They look after the park, playground, bulid school and recreation, collect grabage. Posttest 2 There are three levels of government in Peru. The national government makes decisions about the country. The national government make decision about transportatio, industry and trade. Peru's 23 departments has its own government to make decision that effected the department. The Local government make local decisions. And the councils decide where can farm the land, festaval and people that broke the country law. Sample 2 203 Graphic group : written by a boy from Fiji Pretest Nigeria has 19 states, elected government. National government looks after education agriculture, trade, health etc. It is Third world country; has trouble with unity. The government consists of: national assembly, president, executive president. Posttest 1 Japan is a democratic. It has 3 levels of government. It has a National government, local and departmental government. The national government has a prime minister a parliament and two Houses. One of elected representatives and another of elected councillors. The local government has an elected mayor and an assembly. The mayor decides the construction of playgrounds, building new school and the citizens take part in keeping their city clean by garbage collecting. The departmental government has 47 parts. It has an elected governor and an assembly. Posttest 2 Peru has 3 levels of government; local government provincial government and National government. The local government has a council. The council makes decisions about who will cultivate the land, how many roam the land and what activies are happen at festivals. The council also decides on punishments for law breakers. The provincial government has 23 departments. These departments make decisions on matters that are important to the department. It could be about building a new road or school. The National government makes decisions that affct the whole country. Education and what minimum wage are some decisions and Trade, transportation and industry are major decisions that the National government has to decide on. The president of Peru has advisors. Peru has an elected government; the president, officials and advisors are elected by peru's people. 204 Sample 3 Control group : written by a girl from Taiwan Pretest The government has 19 states and the government are encharge of the education, trade, igriculture, and custom. Assembly. 3 world country Nigeria can't make its country together. Elected government consist Assembly. government encharge of education, trade, health, agriculture and culture and custom, difficulty - country together, because its a 3 world country. Posttest 1 Government run by Prime minister. Government are elected by people. man or women has to be at least 20 years old to vote. The parliment are a house concouls and a house of representetive. Prime ministers were deside by the members of the Diet paliment. Everyone can choose a mayor and a Assembly. Posttest 2 Peru has three government levels Communittes have concils in Peru. Peru has departments instead of provinces concils make the decisions national goverment are run by presedent and Advisers helps the presedent Each 23 departments have a goverment. Presedent make decisions about education, transportation and trade. Presedent, Advisers and officials are elected by Peru people. 205 Sample 4 Control group : written by a girl from India Pretest It is independent, has 19 states sometimes elected. National government takes care of education, health E T C . Wealth is not equally distrubuited. Each state has a governor as head. Nigeria's problem is unity. The main problem is to keep the country together. There are many groups and they speak different languages. The elected government was rule. Local governments are run by councils. The councols are also in charge of health services. Posttest 1 Japan is a democratic country. The head person is the latest emperor. Emperor has no power. The Prime minister runs the country like Canada. There are 3 levels of government. men and women who are citizens over 20 yars old are allowed to vote. The strongest parties are the Liberals and the Japan Socailists. There are a house of councillars and house of representatives and there are bothe elected. Japan is dived into 47 areas prefectures Voters choose a mayor and an assembly in the prefectures. Posttest 2 3 levels of government in Peru. Some communities have to share land. In order to choose who will farm or when are the festivals they have concils. In bigger towns the desions are made by officals hired by councils. Peru has 23 departments look after construction of roads, schools. The national government decides things like How much the min. wage should be or How much a child must be educated and trade. The national government leader is the presendent. There is national Assembly and advisers to help the presendent. 

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