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The use of videotapes in early childhood education Weisz, Iolanda 1981

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I  THE U S E O F V I D E O T A P E S EARLY  IN  CHILDHOOD E D U C A T I O N by IOLANDA  B.A.  (Hons.),.The  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  WEISZ  University IN PARTIAL  OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S  of Cluj,  1972  FULFILMENT  F O R T H E D E G R E E OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE Department  We  F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S  o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  accept to  this  thesis  the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  as c o n f o r m i n g standards  OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  September (q^Iolanda  19 81 Weisz  Studies  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this for  an  available  that  I  understood  that  financial  by  his  the  University shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive be  her  shall  copying of  granted  by  the  publication  not  be  of  allowed  this  head  representatives.  of  C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  nF.-fi  December 2 5 .  1981  Columbia  make  further  It  this  without  permission.  Department  the  Library  for  or  at  of  the  copying or  gain  degree  fulfilment  that  p u r p o s e s may  or  partial  agree  for  permission  scholarly  in  advanced  Columbia,  department  for  thesis  Studies  thesis  of  my  is thesis my  written  ABSTRACT In the realm of modern e d u c a t i o n a l media, v e r b a l and scientific  support has been g i v e n t o the p o t e n t i a l o f videotape  f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c  skills.  L i t t l e evidence, however, can be found to s u b s t a n t i a t e , the support i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d teacher t r a i n i n g . T h i s l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t evidence p e r t a i n i n g to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and lities  possibi-  f o r use of videotapes as a t e a c h i n g a i d i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  teacher t r a i n i n g , served as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r the p r e s e n t study. The  f i r s t purpose  videotaped data about  of t h i s study was  to  f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n who  f e r e n t n a t u r a l behaviours d u r i n g chosen  accumulate displayed d i f -  free play a c t i v i t i e s , a n d  to develop a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n f o r a n a l y s i s of v i d e o taped i n f o r m a t i o n . The  second purpose  o f t h i s study was  to t e s t the  t i v e n e s s o f videotaped r e c o r d s d i s p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s  effect  behaviour  used with s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s to h e l p p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s become more a c c u r a t e o b s e r v e r s of young children's natural Two  behaviour.  b a s i c procedures were used i n t h i s  (1) To accumulate  study.  videotaped data about young c h i l d r e n ' s  b e h a v i o u r , f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d and videotaped. A 20 minute continuous tape" f o r each t a r g e t  f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t y was child.  r e t a i n e d as a " r e c o r d  iv F o r a n a l y s i s o f o b t a i n e d videotaped r e c o r d s , a systemat i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n was (2)  developed.  To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f videotapes used i n connec-  t i o n w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s , the f o l l o w i n g procedures were used: Subjects o f the study were 23 p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers e n r o l l e d i n an E a r l y Childhood c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n c l a s s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers were asked to observe without i n t e r r u p t i o n a 15 minute segment of videotape No. 1 entitled  "Kevin and Aaron".  When the videotape showing ended, a l l  the s u b j e c t s were asked to w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n of what they saw u s i n g the guide s h e e t s .  Three types o f guide sheets were admin-  i s t e r e d to the same group a t one week time i n t e r v a l s between each test.  A f t e r completion o f the o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets, a l l sub-  j e c t s were asked t o e v a l u a t e the videotaped o b s e r v a t i o n s and guide sheets  used. From a n a l y s i s o f videotaped r e c o r d s , i t was concluded  t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom i s a remarkably each c h i l d has unique and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s .  busy p l a c e and  A l l the c h i l d r e n do  not t h i n k i d e n t i c a l l y , a r e not e q u a l l y s k i l l e d nor a r e they r e s t e d i n o r concerned  inte-  by i d e n t i c a l problems.  R e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out i n the p i l o t  study  suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t e s t s c o r e s obtained on o b s e r v a t i o n Type 1 and Type 3, i n d i c a t i n g a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the most s t r u c t u r e d guide  sheet.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS  . .  . . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES  V  . . .  v i i  •  viii  LIST OF VIDEOTAPES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . I.  . . . . . . .  X  INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction  1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Statement o f the Problem  4  Procedures  5  L i m i t a t i o n of the Study  . . . . . . . . . .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms . . . . . IT.  i i i  6 7  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Major Uses o f Videotapes i n E a r l y Teacher T r a i n i n g . . . . . . .  Childhood 8  Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t e d t o the Major Uses o f Videotapes Microteaching P r e s e n t a t i o n of the "Modelling" Components . . . P r e s e n t a t i o n and Comments about Research F i n d i n g s on the "Feedback" Component . . . . . . Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t i n g t o "Microteaching" . .; .; . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24 25 31 33 37  vi PAGE III.  IV.  V.  PROCEDURES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... •  39  Procedures o f Accumulating Videotaped Data and D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Systematic O b s e r v a t i o n a l P l a n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. .  39  Procedures Used i n P i l o t Study  . . . . . . . .  48  PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS . . . . . .  50  Analyses o f Four Videotapes  51  D i s c u s s i o n o f Four Videotapes  63  R e s u l t s o f A n a l y s i s C a r r i e d Out i n the P i l o t Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69  D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s o f the P i l o t Study  . .  73  .  74  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  . . .  Purposes, Procedures, Subjects Conclusions . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .  74 75  Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research  77  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  80  APPENDIX A. P h y s i c a l Layout and M a t e r i a l s A v a i l a b l e i n the Classroom  85  APPENDIX B. D e s c r i p t i o n o f O b s e r v a t i o n Guide Sheets Type 1, 2, 3, and the E v a l u a t i o n Form as i t was Used i n t h i s Study  89  vii LIST OF TABLES  Page Table I  Table I I  Summary o f Scores Obtained on Each Type of Observation..........  69  Summary o f Frequency o f Score D i s t r i b u t i o n . .... ..... .  70  Table I I I  Summary of Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n  ^1  Table IV  Frequency o f P r e f e r r e d Types o f Observation Guide Sheets * , ....... . Participants Over-all Evaluation of O b s e r v a t i o n Guide Sheets  Table V  Table VI  P a r t i c i p a n t s A t t i t u d e s Toward Usefulness o f O b s e r v a t i o n Guide Sheets i  7  2  '  7  2  viii LIST OF FIGURES  Page  Figure 1 '  Amount o f Time Spent on Chosen A c t i v i t y by Each C h i l d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Figure 2  G r a p h i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Mean Scores  ..  67 71  viiia  For information on the videotapes listed on leaf ix, please contact the Special Collections Division, Library, 1956 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Y3 ; or the Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, Faculty, of Education, Scarfe Building, 2125 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z5.  ix LIST OF VIDEOTAPES  Videotape No. 1 KEVIN & AARON, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 2 ZEV, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 3 SHAWNA, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 4 AARON, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W.  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS •  My s i n c e r e thanks a r e expressed to Dr. Glen T. Dixon f o r h i s time, a s s i s t a n c e and guidance throughout a l l phases o f this educational  endeavour.  I a l s o thank Mr. Bruce White f o r h i s k i n d  assistance,  and Dr. Hannah Polowy f o r h e r guidance and i n v a l u a b l e support and continuing  encouragement. F u r t h e r g r a t i t u d e i s expressed to Mr. Terry Frank f o r  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and t o Dr.  Steen Esbensen f o r h i s  to f a c i l i t a t i n g the p i l o t study.  P a r t i c u l a r mention must be made  o f the w i l l i n g n e s s o f p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers up with  considerable  greatly  appreciated.  inconvenience,  support  to put  t h e i r time and e f f o r t s a r e  A s p e c i a l thanks i s extended t o Dr. A. Stan f o r h i s thoughtfulness  and encouragement, and above a l l my c h i l d , Anna-  marie, t o whom I d e d i c a t e my work.  1 CHAPTER I ' INTRODUCTION AND' 'STATEMENT OF- 'THE PROBLEM The r a p i d pace o f today's e l e c t r o n i c technology  and the  growing d i v e r s i f i e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y to e d u c a t i o n a l and communication processes  a r e making a. g r e a t impact on the e d u c a t i o n a l world  cifically  i n North America.  spe-  " T e l e v i s i o n has a g r e a t e r impact on our day-to-day l i f e than any o t h e r medium. way we l i v e ,  I t p l a y s a major r o l e i n determining the  the way we communicate and the way we l e a r n .  Our  l i v i n g p a t t e r n s have assumed t e l e v i s i o n as a prime source of news, c u l t u r e and entertainment. for  I t becomes a b a b y s i t t e r and a t u t o r  the young, and a major c o n t a c t with the o u t s i d e world  aged".  (Ackerman & Lawrence, 1977).  potential.  I t can motivate,  people o f a l l ages.  f o r the  T e l e v i s i o n has a tremendous  e x c i t e and i n v o l v e l a r g e numbers o f  I t can t r a n s p o r t the viewer to any l o c a t i o n  i n the p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , i n the realms o f f a c t o r f i c t i o n , r e a l i t y or fantasy. what would normally  I t can make v i s i b l e t o a l l a t the same time be v i s i b l e only to one, such as the image  from a microscope o r a t e l e s c o p e .  I t can a l t e r n a t e close-up and  d i s t a n t views, u s i n g the zoom lens t o make smooth t r a n s i t i o n s . A b s t r a c t concepts  can be c o n c r e t e l y v i s u a l i z e d by  animation.  The use o f t e l e v i s i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g has been e x p l o r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d s o f medicine, d e n t i s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e and i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s . experience  This i n i t i a l  i n d i c a t e s t h a t wherever t h e r e i s need f o r r a p i d and  widespread communication o f p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ,  there i s g r e a t e r  scope f o r employment o f t e l e v i s i o n i n t e c h n i c a l education.  2 In g e n e r a l , these p o t e n t i a l s have not been r e a l i z e d f o r educational t e l e v i s i o n .  The most powerful  communication medium  i n the h i s t o r y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i s u n d e r - u t i l i z e d i n c o l l e g e s and schools.  (Ackerman & L i p s i t z , The  1977).  new t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments  (videotapes,  video-  d i s c s , s a t e l l i t e s ) c o u l d have a profound e f f e c t on e d u c a t i o n a l methods, and on education  itself.  With proper  u t i l i z a t i o n and  management, these new developments c o u l d be used a t any time, a t any p l a c e and f o r a v a r i e t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l and a p p l i e s purposes. Experiments i n the use o f ETV/videotapes f o r the t r a i n i n g o f student  teachers o r those already teaching i n s c h o o l s ,  have been conducted by teacher  c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and s c h o o l  systems i n many p a r t s o f the United States and Canada. i n d i c a t i o n s o f areas o f teacher  There are  education where ETV/videotapes  can make a d i s t i n c t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the speed and q u a l i t y o f training.  F o r example:  microteaching videotapes  and i n many d i a g n o s t i c s i t u a t i o n s .  used t o present common experiences  s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . evidence  Videotapes used f o r s e l f e v a l u a t i o n i n Similarly,  f o r group d i s c u s -  (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967).  There i s r e s e a r c h  t o c o n f i r m the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such use, with  cant gains over c o n v e n t i o n a l methods i n many i n s t a n c e s .  signifiOne f a c -  t o r which appears c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout the r e s e a r c h i s a reduct i o n i n l e a r n i n g time compared t o c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. B a i r d , 1967).  (Webb &  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the i n f o r m a t i o n , and the use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l methods of communication.  Another f i n d i n g which i s a l s o r e p o r t e d i s i n c r e a s e d  3 retention.  (Sleeman & Cobun, 1979). Most educators and ETV producers  agree t h a t t e l e v i s i o n  i s most e f f e c t i v e when combined w i t h other l e a r n i n g  experiences.  The combined method i s most e f f e c t i v e when the separate elements are designed  t o work t o g e t h e r .  Learning i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r  than t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n when t e l e v i s i o n serves as an i n t e g r a l component w i t h other methods, techniques and media to comp r i s e a t o t a l l e a r n i n g system. In undertaken  (Anderson,  1976).  the l a s t decade a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h has been  u s i n g v i d e o t a p e s i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  But con-  v e n t i o n a l l y a t t e n t i o n has been focused on teacher s k i l l s , tudes, c u r r i c u l u m , p a r e n t s ' background and involvement.  attiHowever,  l i m i t e d videotaped m a t e r i a l s and s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n p l a n s c o u l d be found which p r o v i d e and enhance knowledge about the beh a v i o u r and the development o f the young c h i l d . In  the absence o f documented evidence about the c h i l d ,  the nature o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n , environment and m a t e r i a l s , have f o r c e d educators t o p l a c e a g r e a t d e a l o f f a i t h i n t h e i r own i n t u i t i v e i n s i g h t s . i n a busy classroom.  Teachers  cannot  see e v e r y t h i n g  The g r e a t e r the d e t a i l the l e s s p r e c i s e  they are, furthermore, behaviour i s t r a n s i t o r y .  "A behaviour i s  an i n s t a n c e o f a p r o c e s s , i t s s t a t u s a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r  time."  (Cartwright, 1974). Development o f the c h i l d from an i n f a n t t o a mature a d u l t depends on a number o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s . However, none of these are o b s e r v a b l e , except as s t a t i o n a r y s l i c e s o f behaviour caught a t a g i v e n moment i n time.  Some be-  4  h a v i o u r s , e s p e c i a l l y those which i n d i c a t e the process o f c a t i o n , can o n l y be known through t i o n methods.  the use o f systematic  Some other behaviours  appliobserva-  can only be known through  the  use o f n o n o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to p r o v i d e a complete p i c t u r e of a c h i l d .  However, paper p e n c i l  t e s t s a t k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l are l i m i t e d , good o b s e r v a t i o n methods t  and s k i l l s are important  f o r every teacher of young c h i l d r e n .  To overcome the t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , enabled haviour.  videocameras  the a c q u i s i t i o n of a comprehensive r e c o r d o f o v e r t beSuch records subsequently  are analyzed by human obser-  v e r s , but the permanency o f the r e c o r d allows repeated o f each i n c i d e n t . gap  The videotape can f i l l  examination  the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y  l e f t by the t r a d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n a l method, and f o r t h i s  reason i s a v a l u a b l e medium to o b s e r v a t i o n . t u t e s the a p r i o r i r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s  T h i s argument c o n s t i -  study.  Statement of the Problem A t w o f o l d problem was (1) ren who.'  investigated i n this  To accumulate videotaped  data about f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d -  d i s p l a y e d d i f f e r e n t n a t u r a l behaviours  f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , and to develop p l a n f o r a n a l y s i s o f videotaped (2)  study:  d u r i n g chosen  a systematic o b s e r v a t i o n a l  information.  To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of videotaped r e c o r d s d i s p l a y -  i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviours  used i n connection w i t h  struc-  t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s i n order to help p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers to be a c c u r a t e observers o f young c h i l d r e n ' s natural  behaviour.  5 R e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l i n determining to what e x t e n t videotaped records about the c h i l d i s an o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l method to gather i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d , and how i t can. be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d teacher t r a i n i n g programs. Procedures Two b a s i c procedures (1)  were used i n t h i s  study:  To accumulate videotaped data about young c h i l d r e n ' s  behaviour,  f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n who-,  displayed different natural  behaviours d u r i n g chosen f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s were s e l e c t e d and videotaped.  A twenty minute continuous  free play a c t i v i t y  r e t a i n e d as a " r e c o r d tape" f o r each t a r g e t c h i l d .  In o r d e r to  analyze the o b t a i n e d videotaped r e c o r d s , a systematic t i o n a l p l a n was developed.  was  observa-  The p l a n emphasized g e n e r a l and spe-  c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s of language,  p h y s i c a l , a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and i n -  t e l l e c t u a l , c o g n i t i v e areas o f development of young c h i l d r e n . (2)  To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f videotaped r e c o r d i n g s d i s -  p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviours used i n connection w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s i n order to help p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers t o be a c c u r a t e observers o f young c h i l d ren's n a t u r a l behaviour  the f o l l o w i n g procedures were  used:  Twenty-three p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers were asked t o observe without i n t e r r u p t i o n a f i f t e e n minute segment o f videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d  "Kevin and Aaron".  When the videotape showing  ended, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what they have seen i n the p r o v i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets.  6 Three types of o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets were administ e r e d to the same group a t one week time i n t e r v a l s between each test.  A f t e r completion of the o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets a l l par-  t i c i p a n t s were aksed to e v a l u a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n guide used d u r i n g the  sheets  tests.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study (1)  Only one videotaped segment was  recorded f o r each t a r -  get c h i l d i n t h i s p i l o t study except f o r Aaron.  Additional  r e c o r d i n g s c o u l d have p r o v i d e d more i n f o r m a t i o n to a s s e s s , e v a l u ate and diagnose  the c h i l d r e n i n order to b e t t e r meet t h e i r  e d u c a t i o n a l needs. (2)  The  s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample were students  e n r o l l e d i n C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Young C h i l d r e n c l a s s (Ed. 333)  during the summer s e s s i o n 1981  a t U.B.C.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms are d e f i n e d as they were used i n this  study: (1)  Videotap e' r e c o r d e r (VTR)  - i s a three p a r t communication  system which takes: a s i g n a l from a t e l e v i s i o n camera, records i t on a b a t t e r y or power operated video r e c o r d e r , and p l a y s i t back on the t e l e v i s i o n (2)  monitor.  O b s e r v a t i o n - i s a process of s y s t e m a t i c a l l y l o o k i n g and r e c o r d i n g behaviour a c c o r d i n g to a prearranged  plan  which i s a p p l i e d c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r a s s e s s i n g , e v a l u a t i o n , diagnostic  purposes.  7 (3)  P r e - s e r v i c e teacher- e d u c a t i o n - a student e n r o l l e d i n a teacher education program s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o t r a i n him t o teach young c h i l d r e n .  (4)  I n s e r v i c e education - any a c t i v i t y which a teacher o f young c h i l d r e n undertakes  a f t e r he has begun to teach,  which i s concerned w i t h h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l work. Observing the c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l behaviour means f o l l o w i n g unrehearsed a c t i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o h o f the Study A review o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the major uses o f videotapes i n e d u c a t i o n and teacher t r a i n i n g and a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and comments about m i c r o t e a c h i n g programs i s presented i n Chapter I I . Chapter  I I I o u t l i n e s the procedures  c o l l e c t i o n and data a n a l y s i s procedures.  f o r the study,  data  A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of  the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n i s g i v e n . P r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f f i n d i n g s are d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV. A summary o f the study i s g i v e n i n Chapter V, w i t h c l u s i o n s and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The study concludes w i t h r e f e r e n c e s and appendices.  con-  CHAPTER I I R E V I E W OF This part presents Early  chapter  literature  i s divided  literature  Childhood  RELATED  relating  LITERATURE into  to  sections.  to major uses of  Teacher T r a i n i n g , and  relating  two  the  second  The  firs  videotapes  part  presents  microteaching.  Major Uses o f V i d e o t a p e s Teacher Training'  i n Early  Childhood  "As t h e a d v a n c e d n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d m o v e i n t o t h e 'age o f t e c h n o l o g y , c h a n g e s come m o r e r a p i d l y and w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r i m p a c t on our l i v e s . S u r v i v a l o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n and o f e a c h o f us i n d i v i d u a l s depends upon o u r a b i l i t y to a d a p t t o t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s and to c o n t r o l the changes they produce w i t h i n our society. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a d v a n c e s b e i n g m a d e now a n d t h o s e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e f u t u r e m u s t b e made a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l g r o u p s and s t r a t a . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f u l l participation for a l l i s clear. Within the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s , s u c h c o n t r o l c a n be r e a l i z e d only w i t h p u b l i c understanding of the nature, t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s , and t h e t r e n d s of technology. 1  "And, t h e a d v a n c e o f t e c h n o l o g y c a n n o t be u n d e r stood without consideration of i t s interplay w i t h s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and b e h a v i oural forces." ( W i n t h r o p , p. 5 7 9 ) . The vision's results  role are  convinced  history  of  educational technology  i n education  contradictory.  i s beginning (McAnany,  that educational technology  educational  investment  i s past, others  t o be  1977). as  a  and  of  written  teleand  the  Some w r i t e r s  "growth area"  t h a t the  are  for  f u t u r e of  Winthrop, Henry. "Two P i o n e e r P r o g r a m s i n S t u d i e s o f t h e F u t u r e " S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n " , v o l . 5 5 , No. 4, 1 9 7 1 , p .  579.  9 i n s t r u c t i o n a l technology systems i s only a t a b e g i n n i n g .  The  development o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l hardware such as v i d e o c a s s e t t e s , v i d e o d i s c s , c a b l e and s a t e l l i t e s can p r o v i d e b e t t e r ways o f g i v i n g more f l e x i b l e education a t a l l l e v e l s . A t h i r d group, o f a d v e r s a r i e s argue t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l technology i s f a r from dead but t h a t i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o education are e i t h e r useless, i r r e l e v a n t or negative.  (McAnany,  1977) . What f o l l o w s i s a review of the major uses of v i d e o tapes i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n - teacher t r a i n i n g ,  charac-  t e r i s t i c s o f videotapes and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s p a r t i c u l a r s u i t a b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l as a t o o l f o r p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers to become b e t t e r observers o f c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l behaviour. A new i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium:  "Video"  (often  confused  and compared with i t s predecessor - TV) i s t a k i n g i t s p l a c e i n schools, colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , h o s p i t a l s , business, industry and a g r i c u l t u r e .  U n l i k e broadcast t e l e v i s i o n , use o f more per-  s o n a l i z e d videotape systems allows f o r c o n t r o l o f the l e a r n i n g process by .the i n s t r u c t o r o r student.  Both i n s t r u c t o r and s t u -  dent have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c r e a t e t h e i r audio-video message. Videotape r e c o r d e r s have become a multi-purpose  tool -  more f l e x i b l e , more a c c e s s i b l e , l e s s c o s t l y , then ever b e f o r e . (Macdonald, 1979).  Videotape r e c o r d e r s enable teachers to s t o r e  broadcast m a t e r i a l and re-use i t a t d i s c r e t i o n , t o f i t t h e i r own t i m e t a b l e s and to match t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s pace o f l e a r n i n g .  10 Numerous reviews videotapes  and s t u d i e s have been made of use of  i n teacher t r a i n i n g .  There appears to be a consensus  of  o p i n i o n t h a t videotapes  of  ways f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes. Videotapes Training  can be s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n a number  as a Tool i n Observation and  By the e a r l y 19 60's,  ETV was  Teacher  becoming widely accepted  a u s e f u l medium f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n higher education.  as  Experiments  i n the use of t e l e v i s i o n f o r the t r a i n i n g of student teachers or those a l r e a d y t e a c h i n g i n schools have been conducted by c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  s c h o o l systems i n many p a r t s o f  the  ( C a s s i r e r , 1960).  Student teachers are normally room t e a c h i n g .  teachers'  r e q u i r e d to observe c l a s s -  But when many teachers must be t r a i n e d t h i s i n -  volves d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The  s c h e d u l i n g o f such a l a r g e number of  o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h the l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s which were a v a i l a b l e was an exceedingly  difficult  task, f o r a l l c o u l d not be accommodated  i n the campus l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l s . p r o v i d e d no common experience s i o n s and  interpretations.  Moreover, d i v e r s e o b s e r v a t i o n s  among students f o r follow-up d i s c u s -  A l s o , u n i t i a t e d observers  f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y the most s i g n i f i c a n t events  frequently  and f e a t u r e s of  what to look f o r o r were unaware of the e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of  what they saw. In 1960,  ( C a s s i r e r , 1960). the C o l l e g e o f Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  Minnesota a t Minneapolis as an o b s e r v a t i o n medium.  i n t r o d u c e d the c l o s e d - c i r c u i t ( C a s s i r e r , 1960).  television  With c l o s e d - c i r c u i t  11 t e l e v i s i o n as the viewing medium f o r o b s e r v a t i o n , s e v e r a l advantages over d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n are achieved.  The o b s e r v a t i o n can  be w e l l i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the content being presented or d i s c u s s e d i n the course l e c t u r e or l a b o r a t o r y s e c t i o n s .  Television i s dis-  t i n c t i v e i n i t s a b i l i t y to focus a t t e n t i o n on s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s or d e t a i l s of a t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i l e removing unwanted or t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the scene.  dis-  The o b s e r v a t i o n i s under  the c o n t r o l of the c o - o r d i n a t o r so t h a t observers can r a i s e quest i o n s d u r i n g the progress o f the demonstration informed about what they see.  or be  otherwise  The teacher o f the observed  class  can e a s i l y meet with the observers p e r s o n a l l y or by means o f c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n both b e f o r e and a f t e r the o b s e r v a t i o n f o r e x p l a n a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n .  A l l o b s e r v e r s have a common ex-  p e r i e n c e f o r such d i s c u s s i o n s as w e l l as d i s c u s s i o n s a t a l a t e r time.  These advantages o f c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n seem  t h i s medium a most promising technique f o r f u l l  to make  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  classroom o b s e r v a t i o n i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p r o f e s s i o n a l course i n education. In 1960, C o l l e g e i n New  an e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s t a r t e d a t Hunter  York C i t y .  I t u t i l i z e d s m a l l compact t e l e v i s i o n  cameras, equipped with a zoom l e n s , which were p l a c e d a t f i x e d p o s i t i o n s and were remote c o n t r o l l e d .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e expected  t h a t t e l e v i s i o n coverage w i l l not i n t e r f e r e a t a l l w i t h the normal classroom atmosphere.  T h i s e l i m i n a t e s the p o t e n t i a l l y  dis-  t r a c t i n g e f f e c t s of v i s i t o r s or a l a r g e camera operated by a cameraman.  ( C a s s i r e r , 1960) .  12 Another f e a t u r e o f the Hunter C o l l e g e p r o j e c t was the r e c o r d i n g o f these c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n o b s e r v a t i o n s on videotape.  T h i s p r o v i d e d an immediately  a v a i l a b l e and permanently  a c c e s s i b l e r e c o r d o f the t e a c h i n g performance.  One use o f the  r e c o r d i n g s was t o enable the student teacher to review h i s own performance w i t h h i s s u p e r v i s o r a f t e r completing a l e s s o n . A f u r t h e r purpose o f the Hunter C o l l e g e r e s e a r c h was t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i d e o t a p e s , made d u r i n g a c t u a l classroom p e r i o d s i n which v a r i o u s b e h a v i o u r a l or academic p r o blems o c c u r r e d , as a p o i n t of departure f o r seminar d i s c u s s i o n . What would be the e f f e c t o f p r e s e n t i n g a videotape o f an e x p e r i enced and s u p e r i o r teacher i n a c t i o n , up t o the p o i n t where the problem becomes c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , a t which p o i n t the seminar student would proceed to  to o f f e r p a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n s .  Subsequent  the d i s c u s s i o n s , the tape c o u l d be continued to show the a c t u a l  s o l u t i o n which had been achieved by the experienced t e a c h e r . ( C a s s i r e r , 1960).  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f recorded c l a s s e s w i t h  the most v a r i e d s u b j e c t s and age group s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i d e  illus-  t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l which can e a s i l y be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t r a i n i n g of  student t e a c h e r s . A s i m i l a r use o f videotapes was made by the School o f  Education a t Syracuse program.  U n i v e r s i t y , i n a s p e c i a l teacher p r e p a r a t i o n  (Clayton, 1969).  Student  teachers were videotaped i n  the classroom engaged i n regular' teacher a c t i v i t i e s .  These v i d e o -  tapes were l a t e r viewed by them i n order t h a t they c o u l d access t h e i r own t e a c h i n g behaviour.  The f i r s t tapes were made i n the  13 f a l l semester o f 1963. was  Each student i n the experimental program  taped i n the classroom twice d u r i n g the t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c u m  had an o p p o r t u n i t y to view h i m s e l f i n a c t i o n .  (Clayton, 1969).  The r e c o r d i n g , a 30 minute segment o f continuous v i t y , o f t e n i n c l u d e d s p e c i a l l y planned  classroom  activities.  were made showing r o u t i n e classroom a c t i v i t i e s .  Other  actitapes  When schedules  p e r m i t t e d , l o n g e r videotapes were recorded, and the student an immediate o p p o r t u n i t y  ( i n a f r e e p e r i o d or immediately  school) to view the extended  for  had  after  episode.  The d i r e c t use o f tapes has been accomplished v a r i e t y of ways.  and  In some cases, a p r i v a t e viewing was  in a arranged  the s t u d e n t w i t h no one p r e s e n t except the t e c h n i c i a n .  In  other cases, he has viewed with a f e l l o w student o r s t u d e n t s . Sometimes a s u p e r v i s o r or s e v e r a l s t a f f members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a viewing and c r i t i q u e , and sometimes a tape was f u l l seminar s e t t i n g . disadvantages.  f i r s t viewed i n a  Each approach has had i t s advantages  The i n s t r u c t o r s main concern was  used f o r o b j e c t i v e feedback our, and t h a t a judgmental  and  t h a t the tape  be  and a n a l y s i s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behavis e t be avoided as much as p o s s i b l e .  As C l a y t o n mentioned, the l i b r a r y o f examples o f t e a c h ing  c o n t a i n e d i n the student tapes has made p o s s i b l e a number of  additional instructional  uses.  S e l e c t e d tapes were used to p r o v i d e r e p e a t a b l e observat i o n experiences f o r a n a l y z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l  behaviour.  Students were t r a i n e d to observe and r e c o r d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom i n the F l a n d e r s I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s  14 system.  The tapes p r o v i d e d a wealth of classroom data f o r such  training. Recognizing the r o l e o f education as a primary agent i n the e n t i r e change process, the 89th Congress o f the> U n i t e d States enacted P u b l i c Law 89-10, the Elementary A c t o f 1965.  and Secondary Education  T i t l e V, S e c t i o n 505 o f t h i s A c t p r o v i d e s f o r spec-  i a l grants "to State e d u c a t i o n a l agencies to pay p a r t o f the c o s t of experimental p r o j e c t s f o r developing s t a t e l e a d e r s h i p o r f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s which, i n the judgment o f the Commissioner, h o l d promise of making a s u b s t a n t i a l  contri-  b u t i o n t o the s o l u t i o n o f problems common t o the s t a t e educat i o n a l agencies o f a l l o r s e v e r a l s t a t e s . "  F i s c a l support p r o -  v i d e d by t h i s law made the f o r m a t i o n o f M u l t i - S t a t e Teacher  Educa-  t i o n P r o j e c t (M-STEP) p o s s i b l e . In d e s c r i b i n g the p r o j e c t , Bosley  (1969) w r i t e s :  "The M-STEP d e s i g n which evolved through  cooperative  a c t i o n l a t e i n 19 65 and e a r l y 1966 embraced an avowed attempt to f i n d new d i r e c t i o n s , even new h o r i z o n s , i n teacher e d u c a t i o n . Major t h r u s t s o f t h i s e f f o r t were planned  to move i n s p e c i f i e d  d i r e c t i o n s toward i n t e n s i v e experimentation i n the uses o f t e l e v i s i o n and video processes as a i d s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l  learning."  (Bosley, p. 6, v o l . 1, 1969). In b r i e f , the aims and commitments o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t a t e s were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . was  In F l o r i d a , f o r example, the g o a l  to p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n a l experiences i n  those' areas o f the c u r r i c u l u m which were r e l a t i v e l y new t o the  s c h o o l program, and to improve p r e - s e r v i c e programs f o r p r o f e s s i o nal personnel.  In Maryland,  a c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t with the C o l -  lege o f E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y o f Maryland  and a l o c a l educa-  t i o n agency to e s t a b l i s h a Teacher E d u c a t i o n Center f o r l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s , was  successful.  Leadership i n e l i c i t i n g r e g i o n a l agreements r e g a r d i n g standards f o r student t e a c h i n g programs and the c o o p e r a t i v e admini s t r a t i o n of such programs on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s by c o l l e g e s and l o c a l e d u c a t i o n agencies was Michigan.  the c e n t r a l g o a l of the program i n  Other s t a t e s which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the program were:  South C a r o l i n a , Utah, Washington and West V i r g i n i a . The e x i s t e n c e of the p r o j e c t was  based on the  expecta-  t i o n t h a t the seven s t a t e s c o u l d accomplish more by working t o gether than by working a l o n e .  The p r o j e c t was  extremely f o r t u n a t e  to r e c e i v e the i n t e r e s t and the s e r v i c e s o f hundreds o f top s p e c i a l i s t s from the resource groups, both from i n s i d e the  level seven  s t a t e s i n t e n s i v e l y and from o t h e r s t a t e s . The p r o j e c t i t s e l f possess  and the outgrowths of the p r o j e c t  a g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r teacher education i n North  America.  (Bosley, 1969). In 1973,  developed  i n J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l o r i d a , Herbert  the L e a r n i n g to L e a r n Teacher Multi-media  Sprigle  Education System (LTL).  t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s were used i n a c u r r i c u l u m  which gave t r a i n e e s a r e a l i s t i c understanding o f the processes techniques of t e a c h i n g young c h i l d r e n . t a n t f a c e t of the program was  ( S p r i g l e , 1973).  An  and  impor-  the p r o d u c t i o n of a s e r i e s o f v i d e o -  16 tapes showing c h i l d r e n ' s S p r i g l e developed classroom" and  a c t i v i t i e s i n the LTL School, which  i n o r d e r to "capture the r e a l - l i f e drama of the  " i s o l a t e and c o n t r o l f o r examination  t a i l the processes of l e a r n i n g  and t e a c h i n g .  i n close  (Sprigle,  de-  1973,  p. 9 ) . " D e s c r i b i n g h i s program, S p r i g l e  (1973) w r i t e s :  In a very r e a l sense the t r a i n i n g system ... i s a competency  based  system.  We  know the long b e n e f i t s o f  children  exposed to the L e a r n i n g to Learn School program ..., we  know the  p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the L e a r n i n g to Learn Program v a r i a b l e s , including  the teacher competencies,  sive benefits.  which produced  these  impres-  (p. 12).  Because o f the i n i t i a l success of the system, i t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o teacher t r a i n i n g programs a t other u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h the hope t h a t i t might be w i d e l y accepted. Sprigle's  The problem with  tapes has simply been t h a t the f a r t h e r away from  F l o r i d a they were shown, the more f o r e i g n the c h i l d r e n ' s our  ( e s p e c i a l l y language and accent) have appeared  behavi-  to students.  O b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s thus became i m p o s s i b l e f o r students were unable  to see beyond the s u p e r f i c i a l r e g i o n a l  t i c s o f the c h i l d r e n on the s c r e e n .  (Dixon, 1981,  characterisp. 5 ) .  A v a l i d a t i o n study of L e a r n i n g to Learn Teacher System was  c a r r i e d out a t the U n i v e r s i t y  Comparison was  who  of G e o r g i a .  Education  (Dixon, 1975).  made o f s k i l l s i n i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g spe-  c i f i c videotaped c h i l d behaviours between e a r l y c h i l d h o o d teacher e d u c a t i o n students e n r o l l e d  i n the L e a r n i n g to Learn course  (test  17 group) and students not exposed t o the v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l (comp a r i s o n group). T e s t group students' progress i n the L e a r n i n g t o L e a r n course was (pre-  assessed by means of the Videotape A n a l y s i s T e s t  (VAT)  and p o s t - t e s t s ) , and examined i n r e l a t i o n to student's cog-  n i t i v e s t y l e s , p e r s o n a l i t y types, and s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and performance.  Test group student's c o g n i t i v e s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e s  were measured by the S i e g e l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e t e s t , and t h e i r pers o n a l i t y types d e f i n e d by Myers-Briggs  Type I n d i c a t o r .  A l l s u b j e c t s i n the study p a r t i c i p a t e d in. the VAT and p o s t - t e s t s ) , used t o measure student's s k i l l  (pre-  i n o b s e r v i n g and  c l a s s i f y i n g s p e c i f i c videotaped c h i l d behaviours.  The  Scholastic  A p t i t u d e T e s t and Grade P o i n t Average were a l s o used to assess s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and academic performance  l e v e l s of a l l  subjects. R e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s demonstrated s h i p between student's s k i l l s  relation-  i n o b s e r v i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g  f i c v i d e o t a p e d c h i l d behaviours the independent  no l i n e a r  (as measured by VAT)  and any of  v a r i a b l e s , so t h a t none o f the independent  a b l e s examined can be used to p r e d i c t VAT  speci-  change s c o r e s .  vari(Dixon,  1975) . From the r e s u l t s i t was  concluded t h a t students who  exposed to the L e a r n i n g to Learn course demonstrated  increased  s k i l l s i n o b s e r v i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g s p e c i f i c videotaped c h i l d haviours  (as measured by VAT).  were  be-  These i n c r e a s e d s k i l l s were not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the independent  variables of cognitive  18 s t y l e , p e r s o n a l i t y type, and s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e and performance. (Dixon,  1975). Videotapes i n Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n When video f i r s t became a v a i l a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c  many E n g l i s h Language Teaching t h i s new technology (McGovern, 1980).  (ELT) i n s t i t u t i o n s r e a l i z e d  c o u l d be o f s e r v i c e to language  that  teaching.  ELT i n s t i t u t i o n s now make use o f video to r e -  cord the l e a r n e r ' s performance i n the classroom.  Audio  recordings  made i n c l a s s o r i n language booths f u l f i l l e d the f u n c t i o n o f a l lowing  the student  to hear h i m s e l f speaking  the language.  The  b e l i e f was t h a t t h i s would motivate the l e a r n e r and h e l p the t e a cher to diagnose problem areas.  ( K r i t z e r , 1976).  a stage f u r t h e r .  Video  one  t o take t h i s technique  ing  the l e a r n e r not only hears h i m s e l f but sees h i m s e l f  t i n g v e r b a l l y and n o n v e r b a l l y . to operate and  a l l the equipment.  enables  With a video  Some i n s t i t u t i o n s allow They f i n d t h i s i n c r e a s e s  record-  communicastudents motivation  involvement and a l s o generates a l o t o f language usage. Modern c o n d i t i o n s r e g u i r e an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e  t e a c h i n g f o r a l l ages.  A t the same time, s c i e n c e i s a f i e l d which  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e s v i s u a l demonstration. The  (Spears,  s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f experienced  1980).  science  teachers  tends t o c o n f i r m t h a t the e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g o f s c i e n c e r e q u i r e s the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p u p i l s i n l a b o r a t o r y work, f i e l d work, or i n s i m i l a r p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o u t i n the classroom. I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r the p u p i l simply  t o read about s c i e n c e ,  l i s t e n to t a l k s on s c i e n c e , look a t the s c i e n t i f i c f i l m s , o r a t -  19 tend to s c i e n c e programs on t e l e v i s i o n .  Accordingly, i f t e l e v i -  s i o n i s t o be e f f e c t i v e l y employed as a medium f o r the d i r e c t t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l work by the p u p i l s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n and as follow-up t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n should form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the l e s s o n .  (Spears, 1980).  However, the r e s e a r c h evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t where the s p e c i a l i s t teacher i n t e g r a t e s t e l e v i s i o n t e a c h i n g with l a b o r a t o r y work, the p u p i l s achieve r e s u l t s as good as o r b e t t e r than achieved by p u p i l s taught by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods.  those  (Barrington,.  1970). The  i n s t a n t r e p l a y a b i l i t y of v i d e o r e c o r d i n g makes i t  i n v a l u a b l e i n t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n concepts  i n science.  (Spears,  1980) . Videotapes poses o f enrichment  are most o f t e n used i n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r purto heighten the student's i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i -  c u l a r area of the c i r r i c u l u m .  ( C o f f e l t , 1960).  grams o f t h i s k i n d are not c o n s i d e r e d  ;  sine-qua-non  o f the courses w i t h which they are used. ded as supplementary  components  Instead they are r e g a r -  and e x t r a o r d i n a r y , w i t h t h e i r main emphasis  being on s p e c i a l m o t i v a t i o n and e f f e c t . Videotapes  Customarily p r o -  (Ackerman, . 1977).  f o r Parents' Education  I n d i v i d u a l housewives and members of v a r i o u s PTA i n P o r t Washington have gained i n s t r u c t i o n i n video and quently become q u i t e adept i n i t s u t i l i z a t i o n .  conse-  (Dale, 1974).  T h e i r major concern has been the nature and q u a l i t y of school i n s t r u c t i o n .  groups  elementary  The l i b r a r y has videotaped c l a s s e s ,  special  20  events, and i n n o v a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . able t o p a r e n t s .  These tapes were made a v a i l -  F o r many parents i t was the f i r s t  time  they  c o u l d be seated with t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e s i d e them and see on screen b e f o r e them t h e i r c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s i n a c l a s s s i t u a t i o n as i t happened. for  T h i s type o f video i n f o r m a t i o n has p r o v i d e d many people  the f i r s t  time a d i r e c t sense o f what a c t u a l l y i s t a k i n g p l a c e  i n the e d u c a t i v e process o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  A l s o , such  tapes  have p r o v i d e d parents with a knowledge o f e d u c a t i o n a l change s i n c e t h e i r days i n elementary  schools.  (Dale, 1974).  Videotapes as Means o f Communication t o Parents o f Handicapped C h i l d r e n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n who a r e handicapped  but not  a t t e n d i n g school,, o r otherwise not r e c e i v i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e educ a t i o n a l program i s r e q u i r e d under the Education f o r A l l Handicapped C h i l d r e n A c t . When the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process i n v o l v e s American Indian c h i l d r e n i n r e s e r v a t i o n communities, s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e p r e sented w i t h c h a l l e n g e s i n the area o f e f f e c t i v e communication. (Dunlop, Odenlacy & S e l l s , 1979).  L i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f news  media and telephone s e r v i c e , poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the p r e v a i l ing  use o f the n a t i v e language a r e i s s u e d to be d e a l t w i t h i n the  endeavour to e x p l a i n t o parents and o t h e r s what c o n s t i t u t e s a handicapping  c o n d i t i o n , and what s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e to handi-  capped c h i l d r e n . In  the Navajo community o f Rough Rock, A r i z o n a , s p e c i a l  e d u c a t i o n s t a f f o f the Rough Rock Demonstration  School used v i d e o -  21 taped v i g n e t t e s o f t y p i c a l s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s as a means o f communication to p a r e n t s .  (Dunlop, Odenlacy & S e l l s ,  1979). B a t t e r y operated equipment was  used to show these  tapes  to parents i n t h e i r homes, o r to meetings of community persons. An  " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t " , a community p a r e n t experienced  an aide i n a r e s o u r c e room, and b i l i n g u a l i n Navajo and  as  English,  presented the tapes and e x p l a i n e d h e l p a v a i l a b l e to the h a n d i capped.  Viewers were s o l i c i t e d f o r r e f e r r a l s o f c h i l d r e n  might be handicapped, The  who  p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l .  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o j e c t r e c o g n i z e d the o b s t a c l e s t o  communication p r e s e n t e d by i s s u e s o f language, p o r t a t i o n i n a r e s e r v a t i o n community. added the dimension the n a t i v e language,  media, and t r a n s -  The Rough Rock p r o j e c t  of a video program to p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t  through  as a means o f i n f o r m i n g the community about  s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s and l o c a t i n g unserved  handicapped  children. Videotape  Recordings  Videotape  r e c o r d i n g s have been used f o r remote t e a c h i n g  at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Tennessee  f o r Remote Teaching  (UT) s i n c e 1969.  The most e x t e n s i v e  use of t h i s medium has been i n the o f f e r i n g o f graduate courses a t e i g h t remote l o c a t i o n s .  engineering  More r e c e n t l y , course  offerings  have expanded to i n c l u d e c l a s s e s i n teacher t r a i n i n g , , i n d u s t r i a l management s t a t i s t i c s and f i n a n c e . t e a c h i n g program, which was o f F.N.  Peebles and C.H.  developed  (Dotterweich, 1971). initially  The remote  under the l e a d e r s h i p  Weaver, has o f f e r e d 47 separate courses  22 over i t s two y e a r h i s t o r y .  Facilities  f o r t e a c h i n g these remote  c l a s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Dougherty H a l l , P e r k i n s H a l l ,  and  i n the t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o s of the communications b u i l d i n g on the K n o x v i l l e campus. The E l e c t r o w r i t e r , a two-way audio and v i s u a l t i o n s d e v i c e , coupled w i t h VTR  communica-  i s one remote medium which posses-  ses c e r t a i n i n h e r e n t advantages which can be used e f f e c t i v e l y to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y of the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . 1971).  One  (Dotterweich,  videotape can be d u p l i c a t e d or reused to serve m u l t i -  l o c a t i o n c l a s s e s a t v a r i o u s times w i t h v i r t u a l l y no l i m i t a t i o n t o t a l student exposure.  In a d d i t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y permanent e l e c t r o -  w r i t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n s can be maintained, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f two  telephone l i n e s .  dependent o n l y on the  This system i s more f l e x i b l e  and n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e as a l i v e c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e c a s t and s i d e r a b l y l e s s expensive  on  con-  to i n s t a l l and to operate.  T e c h n i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Videotapes The b a s i c videotape system i s a t h r e e - p i e c e audio v i s u a l communication system:  camera, r e c o r d e r and monitor.  and It  i s a t h r e e - p a r t communication system which takes a s i g n a l from a t e l e v i s i o n camera, records i t on a videotape r e c o r d e r , and p l a y s i t on the t e l e v i s i o n monitor.  (Hague, 1978).  The e s s e n t i a l p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the videotape medium t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from t e l e v i s i o n i s t h a t a l l three hardware components  (camera, r e c o r d e r , and monitor)  to the user under h i s c o n t r o l , i n one (Hague, 1978).  are a v a i l a b l e  l o c a t i o n , a t one  time.  23 Regardless of the k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium, l e a r n i n g and remembering r e q u i r e the i m p o s i t i o n o f an a c t i v e  intellectual  process by the l e a r n e r on the m a t e r i a l presented to h i s senses. While many have a t t e s t e d to the power o f t e l e v i s i o n i n changing the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , one s i g n i f i c a n t disadvantage  of the  tele-  v i s i o n medium i s t h a t the l e a r n e r i s not given the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r immediate a p p l i c a t i o n o f the knowledge he or she has r e ceived.  (Anderson, - 1976). U n l i k e t e l e v i s i o n , videotape allows f o r c o n t r o l o f the  l e a r n i n g process by the i n s t r u c t o r o r student. r e c o r d i n g can be c o n t r o l l e d on the l o c a l l e v e l .  Both playback  Both i n s t r u c t o r  and student have o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c r e a t e t h e i r own message.  and  audio-video  Videotape programs can a c t i v e l y engage the l e a r n e r i n  e x e r c i s e s t h a t s t i m u l a t e and encourage l e a r n i n g by use of i n s e r ted questions.  (Heestand,  1979-80).  The use of videotaped i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the f i e l d s of a r t , speech,  realistic self  eva-  l u a t i n g t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y and performance (Waimon and Ramseyer, 1970), and a l s o may  be used f o r a l l kinds o f d i s c i p l i n e s and  j e c t matter  Videotapes  areas.  immediate v i s u a l feedback  sub-  are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to p r o v i d e  t o students concerning t h e i r performance,  as they d i s p l a y t h e i r s k i l l s and  abilities.  Videotape has the advantage of c a p t u r i n g a moving image and p r e s e n t i n g people i n t h e i r n a t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n . The viewer of the v i d e o t a p e , f e e l s the communicator i s speaking to him on a one-to-one b a s i s and has the sense t h a t the t h i n g s he  witnesses  a r e o c c u r r i n g now and have t r u e - t o - l i f e c h a r a c t e r .  (Hague, 1978). Videotapes  can t r a n s m i t v e r b a l , non-verbal, and para-  v e r b a l kinds o f messages.  Another p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  videotape i s the c a p a c i t y f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r media i n t o one i n s t r u c t i o n a l module. overhead  P r e s e n t a t i o n s may u t i l i z e  t r a n s p a r e n c i e s , f i l m c l i p s , photographs,  or other d i s p l a y media.  s l i d e s , graphics,  Thus, video programs can save time, e f -  f o r t , and storage space r e q u i r e d f o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f o t h e r forms o f both media hardware and software.  (Hague, 1978) .  Video can produce the same i n f o r m a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o v a r i o u s s i z e d audiences i n v a r i o u s classrooms  i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s by having  monitors  and can be p l a y e d back upon r e q u e s t .  another p r o m i s i n g use i s videotape c a t a l o g i n g and l i b r a r y  Thus, develop-  ment, which r e q u i r e s l e s s s t o r a g e space than p r i n t and o t h e r nonprint materials. Summary There i s now c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t o document the f a c t t h a t t e l e v i s i o n can be used w i t h g r e a t e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s , r a n g i n g from classroom  instruc-  t i o n , p r e - s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r young c h i l d r e n , fundamental and b a s i c e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s , and the p r e - s e r v i c e and the i n s e r v i c e education o f teachers.  With the advent o f c l o s e d c i r c u i t  t i e s , videotapes and v i d e o d i s c s , i t appears w i l l be b r i g h t e r than i t s p a s t .  facili-  television's future  I t s use c o u l d be extended and  expanded beyond the education and r e - e d u c a t i o n o f teacher person-  25 n e l , and w i l l p l a c e emphasis on the use of v i d e o systems as a r e search and  d i a g n o s t i c instrument  i n a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  and  s m a l l group r a t h e r than as a d i s p e r s e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n mass audience s i t u a t i o n s .  The use o f videotapes  and videotape  recor-  ders h o l d the promise o f t u r n i n g t e l e v i s i o n i n t o a much more f l e x i b l e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g  instrument.  MICROTEACHING Microteaching represents a m i n i a t u r e teaching  situation  which o f f e r s a h e l p f u l s e t t i n g f o r a teacher, experienced experienced,  to a c q u i r e new  t e a c h i n g s k i l l s and  or i n -  to r e f i n e o l d  ones. The uniqueness of m i c r o t e a c h i n g The  c o n s i s t s o f two  elements:  ease with which the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n can be con-  t r o l l e d and manipulated, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f immediate feedback f o r the student The  teacher.  f i r s t microteaching  program began i n 1963  as p a r t  of a p r e - s e r v i c e program at S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y under the l e a d e r s h i p of A l l e n , Bush and McDonald. From 1963 ducted  to 1966,  c l i n i c s were con-  at S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y w i t h f o u r hundred and  students p a r t i c i p a t i n g . formed, and  1969)  Experimental  a comparison was  observations. Baird,  four microteaching  The  fifty-nine  and c o n t r o l groups were  made o f the v a r i o u s outcomes  f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d :  and  (Webb &  26 (1)  Candidates t r a i n e d through m i c r o - t e a c h i n g techniques over an e i g h t week p e r i o d and spending l e s s than ten hours a week i n t r a i n i n g , performed a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f t e a c h i n g competence than a s i m i l a r group of candidates r e c e i v i n g separate i n s t r u c t i o n and theory with an a s s o c i a t e d teacher aide experience - i n v o l v i n g a time r e q u i r e ment' o f 20 and 25 hours per week.  (2)  Candidates who r e c e i v e d student a p p r a i s a l of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g performance than candidates who d i d not have access to such feedback.  (3)  Candidates r e c e i v i n g student feedback ( i n a d d i t i o n to the video playback) improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g performance than candidates not having access to such feedback. (Webb & B a i r d , p. 87-88).  In  September 1972,  a B r i t i s h team began to work on a  p r o j e c t i n L a n c a s t e r and Manchester concerned with the t r a n s f e r , redevelopment and e v a l u a t i o n of s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l m i c r o t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s o r i g i n a l l y developed  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  This p r o j e c t ,  under the d i r e c t i o n of E l i z a b e t h P e r r o t t , had d i v e r s e g o a l s . One Research  emphasis, supported by the Centre f o r E d u c a t i o n a l  and Innovation of the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Coopera-  t i o n and Development  (OECD) focused on the t r a n s f e r process  Could teacher t r a i n i n g systems developed f u l l y redeveloped  f o r use i n another?  i n one country be  A second  emphasis,  by the Department of Education and Science, sought  itself: success-  supported  to e v a l u a t e the  u s e f u l n e s s o f the m a t e r i a l s i n i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs i n the U n i t e d Kingdom.  (Applebee,  1976).  Through the l i a i s o n work of OECD, a s e l e c t i o n o f "minicourses" developed  a t the Far West Laboratory f o r E d u c a t i o n a l  27 Research and Development, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , were made a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a n s f e r and redevelopment both by the U.K. team and by a s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r teams working i n other European countries . These minicourses  o f f e r s h o r t , i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g de-  signed t o b r i n g about changes i n experienced  teacher's  use o f 12  s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , l e a d i n g to a r e d u c t i o n i n t e a c h e r - t a l k and  an i n c r e a s e i n p u p i l involvement. P a r a l l e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f teacher's  attitudes indicated  t h a t the courses and goals were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d by the teachers.  V i r t u a l l y a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s emerged convinced  value o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g , improved.  o f the  and f e l t t h a t t h e i r own teaching had been  ( P e r o t t , E. e t a l , 1975). In both the European and S t a n f o r d programs,  microteaching  has been used f o r the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g program o f t e a c h e r s , and was planned around the f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g p a t t e r n : Mclntyre,  (Morrison &  19 69) A f t e r t e a c h i n g a b r i e f l e s s o n , u s u a l l y f i v e to t e n minu-  tes,  the t r a i n e e and h i s s u p e r v i s o r c r i t i q u e the l e s s o n .  videotape at and  recordings  t h i s time.  If  are made o f the l e s s o n s , they a r e played  back  A f t e r the c r i t i q u e , the t r a i n e e r e v i s e s h i s l e s s o n  teaches i t again, u s u a l l y t o a d i f f e r e n t group o f p u p i l s .  second t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n i s a l s o f o l l o w e d by a c r i t i q u e .  The  There are  many v a r i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e t o t h i s p a t t e r n due t o the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the components.  F o r example, i f s k i l l s  training i s involved, i t  may occur b e f o r e  the i n i t i a l t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n when, f o r example,  28  videotapes of teachers "modelling" the t e a c h i n g s k i l l to  t r a i n e e s who  then p r a c t i c e the s k i l l  another v a r i a t i o n , the r e t e a c h may  i n their lesson.  ing  f i e d teaching s k i l l s  the  (Morrison & M c l n t y r e ,  From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , f o u r components of the  process emerge:  In  be h e l d much l a t e r , g i v i n g  t r a i n e e l o n g e r time to r e v i s e h i s l e s s o n . 1969).  are shown  microteach-  S e t t i n g and equipment; p a r t i c i p a n t s ;  speci-  (or the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f teaching)/; and  a program f o r imparting these  skills.  These components w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r .  S e t t i n g and Equipment.  A normal classroom s e t t i n g , with  a teacher's desk, b l a c k b o a r d , and student desks, p r o v i d e s the necessary  space and equipment f o r a m i c r o t e a c h i n g s t a t i o n .  c i a l rooms or equipment may (e.g.  Spe-  be needed f o r c e r t a i n s u b j e c t areas  p h y s i c s , gymnastics).  I f the c l i n i c  i s held i n a school,  i t should be p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g s e t t i n g s for  a l l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r areas.  cordings are used, there w i l l o p e r a t o r i n the room.  (Brown, 1975).  I f videotape r e -  be a d d i t i o n a l equipment and  an  However, videotape r e c o r d e r s are compact,  e a s i l y manoeuvrable and operable by n o n - t e c h n i c a l s t a f f . There are s e v e r a l advantages to u s i n g videotape r e c o r d ings i n m i c r o t e a c h i n g . For t r a i n i n g purposes,  videotape r e c o r d i n g s p r o v i d e  s u p e r v i s o r s and t r a i n e e s a common, o b j e c t i v e frame of r e f e r e n c e for  c r i t i q u i n g a teacher's performance immediately  completed.  after i t i s  The advantages o f such a t t r i b u t e s are p o i n t e d out by  e x t e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t s o f feedback i n -  29 e l u d i n g work on knowledge of r e s u l t s , t r i a l and r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  and e r r o r l e a r n i n g ,  (Brown, 1 9 7 5 ) .  For r e s e a r c h purposes,  videotape r e c o r d i n g s p r o v i d e  o b j e c t i v e data which can be s t o r e d and r e p l a y e d almost n i t e l y so t h a t a data bank of t e a c h i n g behaviours can be accumulated.  and  indefisituations  Longitudinal studies benefit especially  from  such data banks. Videotape the m i c r o t e a c h i n g concept.  r e c o r d i n g s are an extremely  u s e f u l adjunct to  s e t t i n g , but they are not the essence of the  (Harrison & M c l n t y r e , 1969) .  m i c r o t e a c h i n g context has  T h e i r f r e q u e n t use i n  l e d some to assume t h a t there cannot  be m i c r o t e a c h i n g without videotape r e c o r d i n g .  Because they l a c k  the resources to p r o v i d e such t e c h n i c a l c o n t e x t s , many would-be c o n t r i b u t o r s to the development o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g have d e c l i n e d to investigate i t s potential. Participants.  T r a i n e e s are i n d i v i d u a l s g i v e n the oppor-  t u n i t y to become more p r o f i c i e n t a t t e a c h i n g , u s u a l l y w i t h rence to a c e r t a i n s k i l l  or group of s k i l l s ,  focused p r e s e n t a t i o n , p r a c t i c e and feedback. Mclntyre, 1969).  Feedback may  through  refe-  a program o f  (Morrison &  come from p u p i l s and s u p e r v i s o r s  i n w r i t t e n and/or v e r b a l form and p o s s i b l y from playback o f a videotape r e c o r d i n g of the performance.  The  t r a i n e e i s then  given a chance to r e v i s e h i s performance s t r a t e g y and to teach a second l e s s o n , u s u a l l y w i t h a d i f f e r e n t group o f students. The  task o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g p u p i l s , u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d to  r e p r e s e n t a v a r i e t y o f socio-economic  backgrounds, s u b j e c t matter,  30 i n t e r e s t s and competencies, and age l e v e l s , i s twofold: vide r e a l i s t i c  classroom  To pro-  i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t r a i n e e s , and t o help  p r o v i d e them w i t h a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r t e a c h i n g p e r formances . S u p e r v i s o r s p l a y a key r o l e i n m i c r o t e a c h i n g , larly  i n p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs.  Experienced  particu-  i n the s k i l l s  emphasized i n the t r a i n i n g , i t i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o help t r a i n e e s r e l a t e such s k i l l s to both the theory u n d e r l y i n g the s k i l l s and to the p r a c t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the classroom.  (Young,  1970) . The r o l e o f s u p e r v i s o r i s one o f continuous c o n s u l t a t i o n . S u p e r v i s i o n s h o u l d be c o n s u l t a t i v e because the type o f assessment a t r a i n e e r e c e i v e s a f f e c t s the amount o f freedom he f e e l s he has to  innovate  i n t h i s microteaching  performances; the s u p e r v i s o r ' s  r o l e i s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t r a i n e e ' s performances which w i l l h e l p them t o a c q u i r e the a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g Technical S k i l l s . y  In the i n i t i a l  skills.  microteaching  clinic  at  S t a n f o r d , i t was found t h a t some s o r t o f s y s t e m a t i c exposure  to  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s was needed t o h e l p a c q u a i n t t r a i n e e s w i t h  a r e p e r t o i r e o f u s e f u l behaviours for  and a l s o t o help p r o v i d e a focus  c r i t i q u i n g trainee's microteaching  lessons.  l i m i t e d t o o v e r a l l and i n d i v i d u a l impressions  Instead o f being  about t e a c h i n g per-  formances s u p e r v i s o r s could concentrate on h e l p i n g t r a i n e e s a c q u i r e s t r a t e g i e s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as h e l p f u l t o t e a c h e r s . & Mclntyre,  19 69).  One such s k i l l  (Morrison  i s that of reinforcement.  As  w i t h many o f the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f t e a c h i n g i d e n t i f i e d thus f a r , it  i s based on p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t i o n a l e and r e s e a r c h , i n t h i s  case  31 about the importance to l e a r n i n g o f r e c e i v i n g p o s i t i v e feedback about one's p r e v i o u s a c t i o n s . A more c o g n i t i v e s k i l l i s t h a t of a s k i n g "probing" questions.  (Morrison & M c l n t y r e , 1969).  A probing q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e s  a p u p i l to go beyond h i s i n i t i a l response or question..  to a teacher's comment  This u s u a l l y e n t a i l s some s o r t of c l a r i f i c a t i o n or  e l a b o r a t i o n upon h i s p r e v i o u s  response.  From the number and d i v e r s i t y o f components o f microt e a c h i n g programs, p l a n n i n g i s a demanding task.  Still,  this i s  perhaps an advantage i n t h a t i t f o r c e s a t r a i n i n g program to analyze and plans.  to evaluate the b a s i s f o r , and consequences o f , i t s  In t h i s way,  microteaching  encourages d i s c u s s i o n and  de-  bate about these i s s u e s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a s e t t i n g f o r o b s e r v i n g and a s s e s s i n g the d e c i s i o n s made.  (Brown, 1975).  S t u d i e s on components of the m i c r o t e a c h i n g process i t s e l f have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the techniques o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e c h nical skills  to t r a i n e e s (modelling research)  and on the way  in  which t r a i n e e s are given i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r attempts to l e a r n and apply these and other t e a c h i n g s k i l l s  (research on  feedback),  because these two v a r i a b l e s have been i d e n t i f i e d by many concerned w i t h m i c r o t e a c h i n g  to be the most important  in skills  training. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f the " M o d e l l i n g " Component M o d e l l i n g has been d e s c r i b e d as a two-step process where the l e a r n e r f i r s t observes monstrating  a model (e.g. an expert teacher)  a s k i l l or s k i l l s and then t r i e s to shape h i s  deown  32 behaviours a f t e r those o f the model. A review o f r e s e a r c h  (Borg e t a l , 1970).  on o b s e r v a t i o n a l  l e a r n i n g i n per-  s o n a l i t y development by Bandura and Walters has s o c i a l behaviour may t i o n and  be acquired  shown t h a t complex  almost e n t i r e l y through i m i t a -  t h a t "the p r o v i s i o n of face to face models"  the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  accelerates  (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967).  They a l s o showed t h a t f i l m e d models are as e f f e c t i v e as r e a l l i f e models i n t r a n s m i t t i n g behaviours. Modelling  has  been seen to be important to teacher  educa-  t i o n because t r a i n e e s are able to d i s c e r n from d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a n ned models d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f teaching Constructed  a u d i o v i s u a l demonstrations are assumed to  more e f f e c t i v e than l i v e uncontrolled  skills.  classroom observations  i n the sense t h a t the t r a i n e e may  be  which are u s u a l l y not observe  the  c o r r e c t behaviours or c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t what he has been t o l d to observe.  (Morrison  In teacher  & Mclntyre,  19 69).  t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e modelling  the s k i l l s which t r a i n e e s observe and  requires  i m i t a t e be d e s c r i b e d  o f s p e c i f i c behaviours, t h a t competent models be used, and t r a i n e e s have p r a c t i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s on which they w i l l  that i n terms that  receive  immediate feedback. A f t e r p r o v i d i n g f o r these c o n d i t i o n s , s e v e r a l e x p e r i ments have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f these on teacher's teaching.  conditions  a c q u i s i t i o n of s e v e r a l o f the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  In the modelling  view s h o r t v i d e o  recordings  techniques i n v e s t i g a t e d , o f master teachers  of  trainees  performing l e s -  33 sons t o demonstrate v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and then p r a c t i c e the s k i l l  i n a l e s s o n o f t h e i r own.  They then view a videotape  r e c o r d i n g o f the l e s s o n w i t h o r without a s u p e r v i s o r to c r i t i q u e t h e i r attempt In  to emulate the s k i l l p r e v i o u s l y modelled. a d d i t i o n to showing the o v e r a l l v a l u e o f model t e c h -  niques t o teacher t r a i n i n g , the s t u d i e s conducted  thus f a r have  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some s o r t o f accompanying commentary  (e.g. cueing  and c o n t i n g e n t focus) i s a u s e f u l adjunct t o the model tapes. W r i t t e n commentaries are a l s o u s e f u l but perhaps not as v a l u a b l e by themselves  as a r e the model tapes.  In sum, videotape  models are* an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e a d d i t i o n to m i c r o t e a c h i n g t r a i n i n g techniques.  (Brown, 1975).  P r e s e n t a t i o n and Comments about Research on the "Feedback" Component • Research  on the feedback  Findings  component o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g has  concentrates on a s s e s s i n g v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e means o f p r o v i d i n g t r a i n e e s with h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r m i c r o t e a c h i n g performances so t h a t they can improve upon t h e i r t e a c h i n g behaviours in  subsequent m i c r o t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s and/or  actual  classroom  performance.. Wolfe made the f o l l o w i n g statement  regarding  feedback:  "Knowledge o f r e s u l t s i n t r a i n i n g programs should be automatic, immediate, and m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d t o the task b e i n g l e a r n e d . " (Wolfe,  1951). Lawther deciphered the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s r e -  g a r d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f knowledge o f r e s u l t s on the s t i m u l a t i o n of learning:  34  -  "Learning i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y g r e a t e r as q u a l i t y , exactness, and p r e c i s i o n o f t h i s playback o f knowledge o f r e s u l t s i n c r e a s e s .  -  "When knowledge o f r e s u l t s i s not a v a i l a b l e , the l e a r n e r o f t e n can improve a t some extent by s e t t i n g up h i s own c r i t e r i a from p a s t exp e r i e n c e t o help him s u b j e c t i v e l y approximate his results.  -  "With a delay o f knowledge of r e s u l t s , p e r f o r mance d e c l i n e s .  - "Performance d e t e r i o r a t e s when knowledge o f r e s u l t s i s withdrawn. - "Continuous and complete knowledge o f r e s u l t s f o s t e r s much g r e a t e r l e a r n i n g than d i s c o n tinuous and incomplete knowledge o f r e s u l t s . -  " P r e c i s e supplemental a i d s ( i . e . graphs, f i l m s of a c t i o n , etc.) which p r o v i d e more p r e c i s e knowledge o r make apparent the d i f f e r e n c e s between the l e a r n e r ' s performance and those o f b e t t e r performers, seems t o i n c r e a s e learning.  - "Feedback o f i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n r e t a r d s l e a r n i n g i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the amount of m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . "  (Lawther, 1 9 6 8 , p. 9 8 - 9 9 ) .  Lawther summarized t h a t when knowledge o f r e s u l t s f o r a given performance i s l a c k i n g , l i t t l e o r no l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e . The  need to develop new modes o f p r o v i d i n g  feedback i n microteaching  possible  s e s s i o n s , stemmed from the inadequacy  of the s u b j e c t i v e , l i m i t e d feedback from s e l f o r s u p e r v i s o r y observations. Videotape r e c o r d i n g s mediums, a l l o w i n g  were seen as v i a b l e communication  the student teachers  to see t h e i r own p e r f o r -  mances immediately, i n a complete, o b j e c t i v e and r e l i a b l e manner. ( A l l e n & Fortune, 1 9 6 7 ) .  The teacher  and h i s s u p e r v i s o r can  communicate more e f f e c t i v e l y s i n c e both members c o u l d see the  35 s p e c i f i c p o i n t being d i s c u s s e d as they a c t u a l l y happen. ing  p o i n t s c o u l d be i n s t a n t l y r e p l a y e d , thereby  The  a v o i d i n g the  misspit-  f a l l s of t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r y s e s s i o n s . McDonald and A l l e n s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of feedback procedures i n two microteaching  r e l a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted i n the S t a n f o r d clinic.  In the f i r s t experiment, " E f f e c t s of  self-  feedback and r e i n f o r c e m e n t on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a t e a c h i n g the o b j e c t i v e was  skill",  to compare the e f f e c t s of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n of a  teaching performance with feedback p r o v i d e d by a s u p e r v i s i n g instructor.  (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967).  The dependent v a r i a b l e was  the r e l a t i v e frequency  with  which the teacher p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d p u p i l s p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s ponses d u r i n g t e a c h e r - p u p i l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom. treatment  groups r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n v o l v i n g e i t h e r  only, reinforcement  The  self-feedback  o n l y , or reinforcement p l u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  (when they were g i v e n cues to p u p i l behaviour ment should be made).  to which r e i n f o r c e -  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t reinforcement  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t r a i n i n g had the most e f f e c t on subsequent  plus  teacher  performances. The  o b j e c t i v e o f the second experiment was  the e f f e c t s of delay of reinforcement ment p r o v i d e d . ing  questions  "to compare  and the k i n d of  (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967).  reinforce-  Trainee's use of prob-  c o n s t i t u t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e .  t i a l w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s about p r o b i n g , treatment  Following  ini-  groups p r o v i d e d  t r a i n e e s w i t h e i t h e r immediate feedback with massed p r a c t i c e (three t e a c h i n g and feedback s e s s i o n s h e l d together on  successive  36 days); immediate  feedback with d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e  t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n , f o l l o w i n g immediate  (the next  feedback on the p r e v i o u s  s e s s i o n , took p l a c e one o r two weeks l a t e r ) ; delayed feedback (one week a f t e r a performance) w i t h d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e  (where  the feedback on, f o r example, performance one, was  g i v e n a week  l a t e r , a t which time the next p r a c t i c e performance  took p l a c e  a l s o ) ; o r r e i n s t a t e d feedback i n g o f the performance)  ( s u p e r v i s i o n based on a tape r e c o r d -  and d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e .  No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s were found between groups, though r e s u l t s suggested t h a t d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e and delayed feedback groups kept r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r p r o b i n g response r a t e s when measured on a p o s t t e s t seven weeks a f t e r i n i t i a l  training.  The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  between the c o n d i t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e is; c o n t r a r y to most e x p e r i mental r e s u l t s on the s p a c i n g of p r a c t i c e , where d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e has proven s u p e r i o r to massed p r a c t i c e . Based on r e s e a r c h on feedback, the f o l l o w i n g concepts were e s t a b l i s h e d : (1)  Feedback  or knowledge o f r e s u l t s appears to be the  most important v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l i n g s k i l l e d performances  and  learning. (2)  Feedback  can be t r a n s m i t t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l  through i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l means.  I n t e r n a l feedback i n c l u d e s  i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d through the "sense o f p r o p r i o c e p t i o n " , whereas e x t e r n a l feedback i s r e c e i v e d through the senses o f s m e l l , s i g h t , t o u c h , , t a s t e and sound. (3)  (McDonald  & A l l e n , 1 9 6 7 , p. 8 3 ) .  The exact f u n c t i o n of feedback i s unknown; however,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s and educators are i n agreement t h a t a m o t i v a t i n g ,  37 r e g u l a t i n g , o r r e i n f o r c i n g f a c t o r takes p l a c e to change human behaviour when feedback i s induced.  A t the same time the l i t e r a -  t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t no improvement i s made i n the absence o f feedback,  improvement i s made i n i t s presence,  and d e t e r i o r a t i o n  occurs when feedback i s withdrawn. (4)  Time delay between performance and feedback i s a  c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c ; however, most s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t when the time i n t e r v a l i s made s h o r t , performance and l e a r n i n g a r e f u r t h e r enhanced.  On the o t h e r hand, a s h o r t time delay does not appear  to be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r f o r improving r e t e n t i o n . (5)  S t u d i e s t h a t have u t i l i z e d feedback by means o f a  videotape r e c o r d e r and monitor  were a v a l u a b l e a d j u n c t t o super-  v i s o r y c r i t i q u e s , but these s t u d i e s were l i m i t e d , and l i t t l e o r no r e p l i c a t i o n of s t u d i e s was a v a i l a b l e .  (McDonald & A l l e n ,  1967). Summary The  advent o f video r e c o r d i n g equipment which i s r e l a -  t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and convenient  i n use has had a marked  impact j  on the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s .  The development o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g a t  S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y and a t other centres r e f l e c t e d the c a p a c i t y o f v i d e o r e c o r d i n g t o g i v e feedback t o a t r a i n e e about h i s p e r f o r mances.  I t became p o s s i b l e t o use video r e c o r d i n g to p r o v i d e a  common frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r i n s t r u c t o r and student f o r a c q u i s i tion of specific  skills.  S t u d i e s o f m i c r o t e a c h i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t i t can produce s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t e a c h i n g behaviour  i n a microteaching s e t -  38 ting.  The most important determinants o f the changes  appear  be the e x h i b i t i o n o f examples o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g s k i l l s "Modelling" and "feedback"  procedures.  CHAPTER I I I  39  PROCEDURES The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s to p r e s e n t the procedures f o r the study.  Procedures  o f accumulating v i d e o t a p e d data  about  f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n , and the procedures used i n the p i l o t study a r e presented. Sequences were videotaped i n a k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom d u r i n g f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n a u n i v e r s i t y c h i l d study c e n t r e . A d e t a i l e d l a y o u t o f the s e t t i n g and a l i s t o f m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n the classroom i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A. The f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d by the classroom teacher f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s g i v e n by a f a c u l t y member.  These  g u i d e l i n e s i n c l u d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f three s o c i a l behaviour  types  ( c o o p e r a t i v e , s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d , and h i g h l y s o c i a l ) which would p r o v i d e c o n t r a s t i n g modes o f behaviour f o r a n a l y s i s .  The c h i l d -  ren attended k i n d e r g a r t e n f o r f i v e 2% hour s e s s i o n s per week. The  c h i l d r e n ' s parents were informed about the nature o f  the study and w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d a l l o w i n g observat i o n and v i d e o t a p i n g o f the c h i l d r e n , they were i n v i t e d to observe i n the classroom a t any time d u r i n g the study. In o r d e r to accumulate  data on the n a t u r a l behaviour o f  t a r g e t c h i l d r e n f o r the p r e s e n t study, a videotape r e c o r d i n g s y s tem was employed. researcher.  The a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g was undertaken by the  The main task was t o r e c o r d c l e a r and i n focus ima-  ges o f t a r g e t c h i l d r e n .  The camera was operated without n o i s e ,  and the presence o f the o p e r a t o r and the camera i n the classroom were d i s r e g a r d e d almost completely.  Teachers were not r e q u i r e d  40 to a d j u s t t h e i r procedures and r o u t i n e s i n any way, was  made to present  anything  other  each t a r g e t c h i l d during f r e e p l a y  no  attempt  than the behaviours d i s p l a y e d activities.  A twenty minute segment o f continuous f r e e p l a y v i t y was  by  r e t a i n e d as a " r e c o r d tape"  acti-  f o r each t a r g e t c h i l d .  The  r e c o r d tapes are e n t i t l e d as f o l l o w s : Tape No.  1:  Kevin  Tape No.  2:  Tape No.  3:  Shawna  Tape. No.  4:  Aaron  Zev  When the videotape t i o n a l p l a n was  & Aaron  r e c o r d i n g was  completed, an observa-  developed.  Emphasizing i n s i x g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : c a l , a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and  Language, p h y s i -  i n t e l l e c t u a l , c o g n i t i v e areas of  development of young c h i l d r e n a f t e r e x t e n s i v e  r e s e a r c h work  was  developed and d e f i n e d a l a r g e number, o f s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s f o r observing  c h i l d r e n ' s behaviour. Use  behaviour and  of g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e d assured  broader grouping o f  adequate frequency o f occurrence.  same time, the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s allowed  At  the  for distinguishing  among the t a r g e t c h i l d r e n . The  g u i d i n g q u e s t i o n s , which encompass the  kindergarten  l e v e l , with some m o d i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be extended to p r e s c h o o l s p e c i a l education The 1.  levels.  f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n was  established:  P h y s i c a l Development How  1.1  and  do you view the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  Gross motor s k i l l s .  4i:  1.1.1  Can the c h i l d walk and run evenly?  1.1.2  Can the c h i l d walk forward h e e l t o toe?  1.1.3  Can the c h i l d walk backward h e e l to toe?  1.1.4  Can the c h i l d walk on h i s h e e l s ?  1.1.5  Can the c h i l d walk on h i s toes?  1.1.6  Can the c h i l d s k i p a t l e a s t rhythm?  1.1.7  Can the c h i l d jump up and down i n p l a c e without balance?  1.1.8  Can the c h i l d hop on one foot?  1.1.9  Can the c h i l d throw and c a t c h a b a l l ?  1.1.10  Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y t o climb,> across frames, up ladders?  1.1.11  Does the c h i l d show c o n t r o l o f a t r i c y c l e ?  1.1.12  Does the c h i l d attempt to r i d e  1.1.13  Can the c h i l d maintain balance on a balance  1.1.14  Does the c h i l d l i f t building activity?  1.1.15  What type o f movements does the c h i l d  1.1.16  Which p a r t o f the body were a c t i v e l y the a c t i v i t y ? -  t e n f e e t without  losing losing  climbing  a bicycle? beam?  s t r u c t u r e s and crawl i n b l o c k exercise? engaged d u r i n g  head neck shoulder arm wrist trunk legs feet  1.2  F i n e Motor S k i l l s  1.2i.rl  Can the c h i l d make a s t a c k o f f o u r t o e i g h t s m a l l blocks ?  4,2  ,  1.2.2  Can the c h i l d dump o b j e c t s out o f small without dropping c o n t a i n e r ?  1.2.3  Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y t o h o l d the p e n c i l t o make a mark on paper?  1.2.4  Can the c h i l d pass s m a l l o b j e c t s from one hand t o the other without dropping o b j e c t ?  1.2.5  How does the c h i l d handle and p l a c e each block?  1.2.6  How does the c h i l d handle the c l a y ? grasp, pound, s t r e t c h )  1.2.7  Can the c h i l d pour without  1.2.8  Can the c h i l d use s c i s s o r s ?  1.2.9  Can the c h i l d p r i n t h i s f i r s t  1.2.10  Can the c h i l d t i e h i s shoe l a c e ?  1.2.11  Can the c h i l d dress  1.2.12  Does the c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t / c r a f t  1.2.13  Does the c h i l d assemble simple  1.2.14  Does the c h i l d use p i n c e r grasp to p i c k up s m a l l o b j e c t s ?  2.  container  (squeeze, push,  spilling?  name?  himself? activities?  puzzles?  A f f e c t i v e and S o c i a l Development  2.1.1  How the c h i l d views h i s p h y s i c a l appearance? s i z e ...)  (body,  2.1.2  What evidence i s i n the c h i l d ' s behaviour o f how he views h i s sex r o l e ?  2.1.3  Does the c h i l d express h i s f e e l i n g s ?  2.1.4  Is the c h i l d s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r s ' f e e l i n g s and views?  2.1.5  Does the c h i l d h e l p other c h i l d r e n ?  2.1.6  Does the c h i l d show evidence responsibility?  2.1.7  Does the c h i l d stand i n l i n e w a i t i n g f o r a t u r n a t the activity centre/playground?  2.1.8  Does the c h i l d say "please" when r e q u e s t i n g from another c h i l d ?  o f r e l i a b i l i t y and  something  43.  2.1.9  In what a c t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s i s the c h i l d or independent?  2.1.10  Does the c h i l d choose one p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y more o f t e n than another?  2.1.11  In what types o f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s does the c h i l d marily participate? -  dependent  pri-  s o l i t a r y play p a r a l l e l play a s s o c i a t i v e play c o o p e r a t i v e toy p l a y (equipment centered) c o o p e r a t i v e peer p l a y (peer centered)  2.1.12  Does the c h i l d show evidence o f unoccupied behaviour?  2.1.13  Is the c h i l d i s o l a t e d ?  2.1.14  What i s the c h i l d ' s m a n n e r r  of controlling  o r onlooker  others?  - leader - follower - clown 2.1.15  What k i n d o f ideas o r suggestions does the c h i l d to o t h e r s o r f o l l o w ?  2.1.16  When c o n f l i c t s o r disagreements w i t h peers occur, what does the c h i l d do t o reach a r e s o l u t i o n ?  2.1.17  Is the c h i l d o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n arguments o r f i g h t s ? so, what s i t u a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e s these occurrences?  2.1.18  Does the c h i l d show evidence o f d i s r u p t i v e -  2.1.19  d i s r u p t i v e noise w i t h o b j e c t s o r i e n t i n g responses b l u r t i n g o u t , commenting on v o c a l noise talking improper p o s i t i o n a g r e s s i o n - d i s t u r b i n g others d i r e c t l y  Does the c h i l d show -  aggressiveness?  personal physical attack taunting threatening d e s t r o y i n g property o f another's u s u r p i n g property  labour  offer  If  behaviour?  44 3.  I n t e l l e c t u a l and C o g n i t i v e Development  3.1.1  Can the c h i l d r e c o g n i z e alphabet l e t t e r s A - Z?  3.1.2  Can the c h i l d r e c o g n i z e numerals  3.1.3  Does' the c h i l d know h i s f i r s t  3.1.4  Does the c h i l d know h i s f u l l address and telephone number?  3.1.5  Given a simple sentence a c h i l d  3.1.6  Given a p i c t u r e , a c h i l d can formulate and s t a t e a sentence d e s c r i b i n g the p i c t u r e ?  3.1.7  Does the c h i l d know the b a s i c c o l o u r s ? yellow)  3.1.8  Does the c h i l d r e c o g n i z e the shapes o f a square ...?  3.1.9  Does the c h i l d note s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s f o r objects? ( s i z e , shape, weight, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , quantity)  3.1.10  Does the c h i l d show an i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t / a c t i v i t y ?  3.1.11  Does the c h i l d f i n d activity?  i t hard to get s t a r t e d on an  3.1.12  Does the c h i l d f l i t  from one a c t i v i t y  3.1.13  To what e x t e n t i s the c h i l d i n t e r e s t e d i n books?  3.1.14  To what e x t e n t does the c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t activities?  3.1.15  Does the c h i l d assemble m a t e r i a l s and manipulate equipment?  3.1.16  Does the c h i l d choose a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s ?  3.1.17  What evidence does the c h i l d g i v e o f awareness o f space, p o s i t i o n , or l o c a t i o n ?  3.1.18  Does the c h i l d Show evidence o f understanding o f time sequences? (yesterday, today, tomorrow)  3.1.19  Does the c h i l d enjoy l e a r n i n g about new t h i n g s and new experiences?  1 - 12?  and l a s t name?  can r e s t a t e i t ?  (red, b l u e ,  t o another?  45  4.  Language  4.1  What i s the c h i l d ' s use o f spoken  4.1.1  Vocabulary  language?  What c a t e g o r i e s o f words i n the c h i l d ' s vocabulary are most frequent? 4.1.2  family r e l a t i o n s h i p people feelings body p a r t s toys animals p l a n t s ... food colours/shapes space time vehicles clothes weather furniture tools  Sentence S t r u c t u r e Does the c h i l d use the f o l l o w i n g type o f sentences? - questions? - imperatives? - subject/predicate/object?  4.1.3  S y n t a c t i c a l Forms What i s the c h i l d ' s use o f :  4.1.4  - pronouns? - adverbs ? - f u t u r e tense? - singular/plural? Is the c h i l d ' s speech c l e a r and d i s t i n c t ?  4.1.5  C h i l d says "please" when r e q u e s t i n g something another c h i l d .  from  4.1.6  Does the c h i l d choose vocabulary to b e s t express h i s thoughts?  4.1.7  What i s the o v e r a l l impression made by the c h i l d when speaking to another c h i l d o r a d u l t ?  46  4.1.8  W r i t t e n Language  4.1.9  Does the c h i l d show evidence o f knowledge o f l e f t - t o r i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n i n the w r i t t e n language?  4.1.10  Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t i e s i n a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a tion?  4.1.13  Can the c h i l d r e c o g n i z e the alphabet A - Z?  4.1.14  Is the c h i l d able t o r e c o g n i z e some word forms? hat, c a t ; e x i t )  4.2  Does the c h i l d communicate nonverbally? (Posture and b o d i l y o r i e n t a t i o n , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , g e s t u r e s , eye c o n t a c t , touch, (contacts made and r e c e i v e d ) , use o f space and time, d i s t a n c e v..)  4.2.1  How -  4.2.2  i s the c h i l d ' s posture and b o d i l y o r i e n t a t i o n ?  comfortable and r e l a x e d confident poised, s t r a i g h t t h i n k i n g posture small c o n t r o l l e r s tense  Which a r e the c h i l d ' s most common gestures? -  4.2.3  (sun,  tapping f i n g e r toe tapping nose .touching and rubbing rubbing the eye c o v e r i n g the mouth w i t h the hand gestures c l a r i f y i n g the v e r b a l message busy hands pen or p e n c i l chewing tremor o f the hand, h e s i t a t i n g or v a c i l l a t i n g movement  How -  i s the c h i l d ' s f a c i a l  happy, s i n c e r e s m i l e reasonably a t t e n t i v e sad frowning blushing timid bored angry disgusted  expression?  47 4.2.4  What type o f c o n t a c t s -  4.2.5  (touches)  i s the c h i l d  doing?  accident support assistance caress exploration pointing hitting pushing pulling  What a r e the responses  t o the c h i l d ' s  contacts?  - cooperation - resistence - flight - passivity 4.2.6  Does the c h i l d show evidence o f good eye c o n t a c t ? - glance - gaze  4.2.7  What a r e the minimum d i s t a n c e s between the c h i l d and others?  4.2.8  How i s the c h i l d ' s ing?  4.2.9  Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y to o r g a n i z e h i s time w e l l ?  4.2.10  How much time does the c h i l d spend a t each  4.3  What i s the c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n t o the presence o r absence of c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s , s u p p l i e s and equipment?  4.4  How does the room/centre arrangement a f f e c t the children?  4.5  OTHERS  use o f space i n the classroom  settr-  activity?  4;8; To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f videotaped a c t i v i t i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviours used  i n connection w i t h systema-  t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s i n order to help p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers to be accurate observers o f young c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l behaviour  the f o l l o w i n g p i l o t study was c a r r i e d o u t .  Subjects Subjects o f the study were 23 p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers comprising the enrollment o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Young C h i l d r e n c l a s s s i o n 1981 a t U.B.C.  (Ed. 333) d u r i n g summer ses-  P r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e teachers were  t r e a t e d as a homogeneous  group.  Procedures P r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e teachers were asked to observe without i n t e r r u p t i o n a 15 minute segment o f videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d "Kevin and Aaron". p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked  When the videotape showing ended, the  to w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what they saw i n  the p r o v i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets. Three types o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets were  adminis-  t e r e d to the same group a t one week time i n t e r v a l s between each test.  Before s t a r t i n g another viewing s e s s i o n o f the same v i d e o -  tape and the second  type o f o b s e r v a t i o n , the p r e v i o u s type o f  o b s e r v a t i o n was r e i n f o r c e d , g e n e r a l p o s i t i v e feedback was g i v e n and the c r i t e r i a o f s c o r i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s was p r o v i d e d . A 30 minute time l i m i t was s e t f o r w r i t i n g up the f i r s t two o b s e r v a t i o n s , and 45 minutes f o r the t h i r d type.  A f t e r com-  p l e t i o n of the o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets, a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to e v a l u a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets used during the  49  t e s t s , and g i v e reasons why they p r e f e r r e d the chosen observation  type o f  form.  The o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets as w e l l as the e v a l u a t i o n form as i t was used i n the p r e s e n t study i s a t t a c h e d i n Appendix B. The f o l l o w i n g s c o r i n g system was e s t a b l i s h e d t o score each i n d i v i d u a l  test.  C l a s s A. 120 o r more on a maximum o f 150  D e s c r i b e s p a r t i c u l a r observed behaviour, uses p r o f e s s i o n a l terminology,. i s s p e c i f i c , f o u r examples o r more are g i v e n ,  C l a s s B. 98 - 119 out o f 150  D e s c r i b e s p a r t i c u l a r observed behaviour, uses p r o f e s s i o n a l terminology, i s l e s s s p e c i f i c , g i v e s two examples.  C l a s s C. 70 - 97 out o f 150  Does not adequately d e s c r i b e p a r t i c u l a r observed behaviour, i s a g e n e r a l i z e d statement, i s vague, i n c o r r e c t o r no examples a r e g i v e n .  Each response sheet was scored by the r e s e a r c h e r and another r a t e r a c c o r d i n g to the s c o r i n g procedures above.  Interrater r e l i a b i l i t y  established  f o r scored response sheets was .98.  50 ' PRESENTATION AND  CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the a n a l y s i s of f o u r videotapes and the r e s u l t s o f analyses c a r r i e d out i n the p i l o t V.l  When the videotape r e c o r d i n g s were completed,  matic o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n was resulted.  study.  developed  a syste-  and a g r e a t amount o f data  T h i s data t o l d about the t a r g e t ' c h i l d r e n as f o l l o w s : Tape No.  1  C h i l d r e n ' s Name & Age: Setting:  Kevin and Aaron^both 5 years o l d .  C h i l d Study Centre, k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom.  The o b s e r v a t i o n i s based on a 20 minute videotaped sequence i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom on January  15,  1980.  "The o b s e r v a t i o n begins with a c h o i c e c h a r t where Kevin and Aaron chose " s m a l l b l o c k s " . Kevin i s o f average p r o p o r t i o n , not p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e boned, n e i t h e r would he be d e s c r i b e d as s m a l l . h i s p o s t u r e i s s t r a i g h t and comfortable.  He i s s l i m ,  and  He has s h o r t brown c u r l y  h a i r , C r e o l e s k i n , and dark eyes, g e n e r a l l y c l e a n appearance. Aaron i s a t a l l boy, w e l l developed up f i r m l y with easy balance. c r e o l e s k i n and dark  f o r h i s age,  He has l o n g i s h s t r a i g h t dark  stands hair,  eyes.  Kevin and Aaron have good gross motor s k i l l s .  Their  gross motor a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h complex a c t i o n s i n the block building centre.  Both boys e a s i l y move to rhythmic  music,  s k i p about 10 f e e t from chosing board to the s m a l l b l o c k c e n t r e , a b l e to step over b l o c k s t r u c t u r e without k i c k i n g i t down.  Both  c h i l d r e n are s t r e t c h i n g , c r a w l i n g on knees, s t a n d i n g , s i t t i n g .  They are moving i n rhythm with music on the r e c o r d p l a y e r . head, s h o u l d e r s , arms and legs are a c t i v e l y engaged.  Their  Kevin's  balance seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c e l l e n t as evidenced by h i s l e g on, a c h a i r and h i s f o o t s t i c k i n g out the o t h e r s i d e and s t a n d i n g in, t h i s p o s i t i o n f o r more than 20 seconds. lity  Kevin d i s p l a y s f l e x i b i -  i n h i s body, e.g. l a y i n g down, t w i s t i n g , c u r l i n g , bending h i s  body, r o l l i n g  on the f l o o r d u r i n g b l o c k b u i l d i n g  activity.  A l s o , Kevin shows good c o n t r o l o f arm-eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n when he i s t u r n i n g the crank handle i n both d i r e c t i o n s .  Kevin  and Aaron demonstrate food f i n e muscle c o n t r o l and eye-hand coo r d i n a t i o n by p l a c i n g t o g e t h e r q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y square u n i t b l o c k s to make the w a l l s of the house o r by p l a c i n g on  and the  top of the " l a r g e s w i t c h " b l o c k a cone shaped b l o c k to form a r o c k e t launch pad.  A l s o , both boys demonstrated c a p a b i l i t y o f  f i n e motor s k i l l s by u s i n g p i n c e r grasp when they p i c k e d up  the  t h i n twigs o f the "pick-up s e t " . Kevin began a c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t , Aaron took i t over, Kevin p r o t e c t e d i t and excluded other p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i l e Aaron was  prepared  to accept another p l a y e r .  In the b e g i n n i n g Kevin  p l a c e d b l o c k s a l o n g s i d e , w h i l e Aaron f i t t e d b l o c k s t o g e t h e r . Though Kevin r e a l i z e d the "boat" p a r t ( g o t h i c door shaped block) fit  i n t o the dock  (large switch block) t h i s f i r e d  h i s imagination  and gave the whole c o n s t r u c t i o n a c l i m a t e . When Darren wanted to e n t e r Kevin and Aaron's p l a y , both are q u i c k to l e t him know: the tower" or "We  "You  can't put i t i n o u r s ; you whack  always b u i l d t h i n g s , you don't" and r e g a r d l e s s  .52  of Darren's  f e e l i n g s he i s not accepted i n t o t h e i r p l a y .  At the b e g i n n i n g o f Kevin and Aaron's b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t , Amir e a g e r l y s u p p l i e s square and u n i t b l o c k which Aaron i s quick to use, b u t he i s not i n v i t e d i n to p l a y .  He began some play o f  h i s own next to Kevin and Aaron's p r o j e c t . They are not concerned much about o t h e r c h i l d r e n . They are d e v e l o p i n g r e l i a n c e and t r u s t o f each other as good f r i e n d s .  Kevin and Aaron were a u n i t o f p l a y w i t h i n them-  s e l v e s s i n g i n g and s o c i a l l y i n t e r a c t i n g throughout.  They a r e  engaged i n a peer centered c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y . A v e r b a l argument o c c u r r e d when Darren knocked down Kevin and Aaron's "town". physically  "throwing  T h i s i n t r u s i o n caused Kevin to r e a c t  a b l o c k " and t h i s terminated Kevin and Aaron's  b l o c k b u i l d i n g experience and they went to the choosing board to choose a new a c t i v i t y .  Both boys are a b l e to choose and work  independently on a chosen a c t i v i t y , when an argument o c c u r r e d they were a b l e to s o l v e i t without teacher  intervention.  Kevin s t a r t e d to choose s m a l l b l o c k b u i l d i n g and Aaron f o l l o w e d him. They were i n t e r e s t e d i n the b l o c k b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y and they kept adding and modifying t h e i r s t r u c t u r e , e.g. house,  garage,  dock, and r o c k e t launch pad. In a background o f a r e c o r d p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s songs, Kevin and Aaron were a l t e r n a t i v e l y s i n g i n g and c h a t t i n g w i t h each o t h e r and choosing the a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s f o r the b l o c k b u i l d ing.  53 Both boys a r e r e o r g a n i z i n g and u s i n g not only b a s i c square, r e c t a n g l e , t r i a n g l e shaped b l o c k s , they a r e able to use more complex shapes as " l a r g e s w i t c h " f o r t u n n e l , and cones f o r the top o f the launch pad. Aaron and Kevin note s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f s i z e , shape and weight o f the b l o c k s . Aaron:  F o r example:  "Too b i g , t r y t h i s one." "Here i s one t h a t m i g h t ' f i t . "  In another  i n s t a n c e both boys are comparing the bottom o f the  cones to see i f they w i l l f i t ,  and s l i g h t l y weighing  them w i t h  t h e i r hands. Aaron's c o n c e n t r a t i o n seemed to have i n c r e a s e d as the work and p l a n  developed.  Kevin sometimes takes o f f and p i c k s up a p l a s t i c b i n o c u l a r and looks through, then r e t u r n s to p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s . Kevin and Aaron's m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r own bodies and m a t e r i a l s r e f l e c t e d e x c e l l e n t s p a t i a l awareness.  They a r e p l a c -  i n g s y m e t r i c a l l y and b a l a n c i n g the b l o c k s without knocking  them  over, a l s o , when Kevin i s p l a y i n g w i t h the toy crane, p u l l i n g i t up and down, when i t was down Aaron s a i d : "Maip^ j, i s the bottom", when t h e r o c k e t i s t a k i n g o f f , Kevin s a i d "psh" and i s moving h i s hands w i t h t h e cone s t r a i g h t up i n the a i r . Kevin and Aaron can r e c o g n i z e alphabet l e t t e r s .  They  were a b l e t o read t h e i r own names, and p l a c e the name tags beside the a c t i v i t y they  chose.  Kevin and Aaron's v e r b a l and non-verbal languages to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r age l e v e l .  appear  They a r e u s i n g language t o  54 d e s c r i b e t h e i r experiences and to express  their feelings.. For  example: Aaron t o l d Kevin:  "Don't p u t i t i n t h e r e , t h a t ' s not how i t goes." "You  can't park t h e r e .  That's where the boat  comes o u t . " Kevin:  " I t carries blocks."  Aaron:  " I t doesn't  carry blocks, i t carries  people."  (pushing a b l o c k along i n t o the s t r u c t u r e ) Kevin:  "Is t h a t your house?"  Aaron:  (gave i n f o r m a t i o n )  (questioned)  "That's  n o t how i t goes."  Aaron's comment based on p r e v i o u s b l o c k p l a y e x p e r i e n c e , e.g.: "No, don't p u t i t i n t h e r e , i t ' s hard t o get out." Kevin demonstrates w e l l developed f r o n t s Darren,  language when he con-  "You always break t h i n g s " , and continues to argue  w i t h r e a s o n i n g as why he doesn*t want him to j o i n i n . 1  Aaron's r e a c t i o n was g i v i n g him a v e r b a l  reprimand.  "Look what you d i d I " Darren:  "No, I d i d n ' t . "  Kevin:  "Yes, you d i d I it  Darren: Kevin's Darren:  You were p r e s s i n g down hard and  broke."  "I wasn't p r e s s i n g t h a t hard." f a c e expressed  anger and r a i s i n g h i s v o i c e he s a i d t o  "You're not p l a y i n g l "  (in frustration,  threw  Darren's c a r on the f l o o r ) Kevin and Aaron used words i n proper c o n t e x t , e.g. b u i l d -  i n g , house, s m a l l e r ramp, wreck, broke, park, r o c k e t s , shelter.. The boys a r e u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e language, and t h e i r speech  speaking i n sentences,  i s clear.  They use sentences when d e s c r i b i n g a c t i o n s o r g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s and a r e u s i n g gestures t o r e i n f o r c e the v e r b a l language. At•the b e g i n n i n g o f the tape Kevin i s s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f the choosing board undecided, watching w i t h wide open eyes, and the moment when he saw Aaron, h i s f a c e shows a happy s i n c e r e smile and w i t h a c h e e r f u l v o i c e he i n v i t e s him, "Hey, you want to p l a y w i t h me?" Both, boys made good use o f the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n the b l o c k b u i l d i n g c e n t e r , f a n t a s i z i n g and imagining t h i n g s during the a c t i v i t y .  Kevin and Aaron chose an a c t i v i t y i n a couple o f  seconds and they are b u i l d i n g w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t f o r about 15 minutes.  Afterwards  they choose another  a c t i v i t y and play w i t h a  pick-up s e t u n t i l the end o f the sequence. Tape No. 2 C h i l d ' s Name & Age: Setting:  Zev, 5 years o l d .  C h i l d Study Center, k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom.  The o b s e r v a t i o n i s based on a 20 minute videotaped sequence d u r i n g f r e e play a c t i v i t i e s on January  21, 1980.  Zev i s a s m a l l s l i m boy, h i s posture and b o d i l y t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e s s and tense. and b l u e  orienta-  He has long brown h a i r , p a l i d f a c e ,  eyes. Zev's gross motor a c t i o n s were l i m i t e d d u r i n g the obser-  56 ved p e r i o d .  He was  hopping,  jumping, stamping  h i s f e e t , h i s move-  ments were j e r k y and h i s f i d g e t i n g and constant b o d i l y movements are q u i t e d i s r u p t i v e . Zev's motor a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r actions.  F o r example, Zev covers h i s mouth w i t h a book, looks  un-  decided around the room, chews h i s l i p s , a i m l e s s l y wanders around, l e a v e s the book on a s h e l f and f i n a l l y approaches the c a l e n d a r on the w a l l next to the choosing board, watches the c a l e n d a r b a l a n c i n g h i s body moving the weight from r i g h t to l e f t f o o t . to work on t h i s week's theme "Dinosaurs".  Zev i s hopping  He  chose  back to  the s h e l f where he l e f t h i s drawing book, a l s o , there were o t h e r books d i s p l a y e d about d i n o s a u r s . legs.  He i s stamping  and rubbing h i s  Zev s t a r t e d to look i n h i s drawing book, t u r n i n g the pages,  he i s yawning and again h i s l e g s are c o n s t a n t l y moving. teacher d i r e c t e d him and helped to get him s t a r t e d i n the vity  .  Zev chose to draw an a l t i c a m e l l u s .  The acti-  He i s working alone,  nobody i n h i s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . Zev i s h o l d i n g c o r r e c t l y the p e n c i l w i t h h i s r i g h t hand, f o l l o w s the d i r e c t i o n s from the drawing book, draws c i r c l e s , r e c t a n g l e s and o v a l s and c o n f r o n t i n g again what he d i d w i t h the d i r e c t i o n s from the book. Kevin i s coming along and i s a s k i n g Zev, is  "What d i n o s a u r  this?" Zev answers promptly,  "Stegosaurus",  and continues t o  draw. L a t e r Mark asks him,  "Is t h i s a b r o n t o s a u r ? "  57 Zev answers, "Yup." He  continues to draw, and sometimes i s e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d  and l o o k s a t the o t h e r c h i l d r e n around  him.  Zev f i n i s h e d drawing and goes b e s i d e the t e a c h e r i n g on. the edge o f the t a b l e ) and t e l l i n g her, draw.. I copied from my It  (lean-  " C a r o l , look what I  dinosaur book."  i s an a l t i c a m e l l u s .  The t e a c h e r helps him to s p e l l a l t i c a m e l l u s and she adds it  i s 18 f e e t  tall.  Zev r e p e a t s , " A l t i c a m e l l u s .  18 f e e t t a l l . "  He s p e l l s  along with the t e a c h e r the s y l l a b l e s o f the word " a l - t i - c a - m e l lus"  . Zev's p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the above vowels and  is  very c l e a r and he shows an awareness how  consonants  the sounds form the  word. Zev took h i s drawing and wanders around showing h i s a l t i c a m e l l u s to c h i l d r e n working near to him.  Helen becomes  i n t e r e s t e d i n Zev's drawing and she decides to draw an lus  too .  alticamel-  Zev i s c o o p e r a t i v e and shows h i s drawing book and g i v e s  her d i r e c t i o n s . s a i d , "Good.  For example, Helen i s drawing a c i r c l e and  Then go w i t h t h i s . "  " A f t e r t h a t , t h i s and t h i s .  Now  Zev  ( P o i n t i n g from the book.) you do a r e c t a n g l e . "  (Pointing  again w i t h h i s index f i n g e r , and h i s body o r l e g s are f i d g e t i n g again.  When Helen f i n i s h e d her drawing she went to another  v i t y c e n t e r , and guessing game.  acti-  Zev went to watch a group of c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g He wanted to j o i n i n s a y i n g , "I want to be  the  a  58  guesser.  I want t o be the guesser.",  (jumping  and hopping  around  w i t h a bag f u l l o f rubber dinosaurs i n h i s hands) b u t he wasn't accepted because i t was not h i s t u r n . Zev i n the f i r s t  p a r t o f o b s e r v a t i o n was not t a l k i n g .  He was communicating through h i s g e s t u r e s , t i m i d f a c i a l s i o n s and j e r k y unsteady  b o d i l y movements making an impression o f  u n c e r t a i n t y and c o n f u s i o n .  When Helen s t a r t e d t o i n t e r a c t with  Zev he s t a r t e d t o v e r b a l i z e h i s a c t i o n s ' and express h i s F o r example: shapes:  draw, drew, c o p i e d , do, can.  round, square, r e c t a n g l e , o v a l .  stegosaur, brontosaur,  expres-  thoughts.  Words d e s i g n a t i n g Animals:  dinosaur,  alticamellus.  Zev sometimes answered t o c h i l d r e n w i t h a s i n g l e word, steposaurus.  Yup. When he was g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s , he used the  imperative sentence s t r u c t u r e , e.g. "Now do t h i s , than, t h a t ... Zev i s a b l e t o use complex sentences  too, e.g. " C a r o l , look what  I draw, I c o p i e d from my d i n o s a u r book." Zev d i d not use i n t e n s e l y the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e around him.  During the chosen a c t i v i t y he was u s i n g h i s d i n o s a u r book  and rubber c o l l e c t i o n , and a p i e c e o f paper and a p e n c i l . Tape No. 3 C h i l d ' s Name & Age: Shawna, 5 years o l d . Setting:  C h i l d Study Center, k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom.  Shawna i s t a l l ,  l a r g e boned, h e a l t h y l o o k i n g g i r l .  stands s t r a i g h t and c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h easy b a l a n c e .  She  She has s h o r t  l i g h t c o l o u r e d h a i r and s k i n , rosy cheeks and blue eyes.  Shawna  i s neat and c l e a n a t the beginning o f o b s e r v a t i o n , and she remains  59  t h a t way u n t i l the end. At.the beginning Shawna chose to work i n the "paper center".  She p l a c e d her name t a g q u i c k l y on the choosing  board  (paper center) and she skipped without l o s i n g her balance about 15 f e e t to the c e n t e r . Carla.  Shawna s i t s b e s i d e Beth, E r i c a , Ann and  She decided to make a dinosaur c a r d .  c o n s t r u c t i o n paper,  She took a p i e c e o f  f o l d e d i t p e r f e c t l y i n two, and s t a r t e d t o  t r a c e around a " b i g f a t d i n o s a u r " .  She holds the p e n c i l i n her  r i g h t hand with good eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n and w i t h very hands s h e - t r a c e s w e l l the d i n o s a u r s .  steady  She i s t a l k i n g to the g i r l s  around the t a b l e b u t her hands are busy again and on the o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the paper she t r a c e s another skinny d i n o s a u r . Shawna s f i n e motor a c t i v i t i e s were f r e q u e n t l y w e l l i n 1  t e g r a t e d with more complex a c t i o n s .  F o r example, Shawna f o l d e d  the paper and on the f r o n t o f the card she drew a b i g "5" u s i n g a s t e n c i l and then she p r i n t e d h e r f i r s t  name, "Shawna", and s t a -  r t e d t o s i n g , " F i v e l i t t l e s i l l y bugs ..." c u t t i n g o u t papers  from d i f f e r e n t magazines.  On the t a b l e was some She took one sheet  and c u t out a d o l l and pasted i t on the r i g h t corner o f her c a r d . When she f i n i s h e d , Shawna c a l l e d the o t h e r s a t t e n t i o n to  her s k i l l s ,  "Look what I c u t out", and appears  she s h o u l d be good a t things.. She appeared E r i c a t o l d her, " I d o n ' t ties. ing ter.  care".  to f e e l that  to be s u r p r i s e d when  Shawna o f t e n chooses a r t a c t i v i -  She j u s t f i n i s h e d her c a r d and s k i p s n i c e l y t o the choos-  board and' changes her name from paper c e n t e r to drawing cen( F o l l o w i n g the r u l e s . )  A t the drawing t a b l e she wanted t o  60 make s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s but the screens were busy.  The  teacher  asked her to wash the d i s h e s (which had been used by o t h e r ren  i n the cooking center) and she promptly  and she washed and r i n s e d the d i s h e s . led  child-  climbed up on a c h a i r  When she f i n i s h e d she  cal-  out, "I j u s t d i d the d i s h e s . " Shawna was  wearing  w a i t i n g f o r her t u r n . him.  a p a i n t i n g smock and was  She was  watching  anxiously  Darren without, d i s t u r b i n g  F i n a l l y , i t . i s her t u r n and w i t h p e r f e c t technique  she  screen p a i n t e d a dinosaur  (using brown p a i n t ) and immediately  to  (a d i f f e r e n t shape, u s i n g green  p a i n t another dinosaur  wants  paint).  When she f i n i s h e d , she p r i n t e d her f i r s t name on the r i g h t corner of  the paper and l e f t her p a i n t i n g on the d r y i n g rack.  still  a little  time l e f t and Shawna moves t o the p a i n t i n g  She draws t h r e e p i n e t r e e s then she heard the clean-up (music).  There i s easel.  signal  Her hands move f a s t e r i n the upper l e f t corner o f the  page and she draws a happy sun and then removes the page and i t on the d r y i n g rack. painting.  Shawna f o r g o t to s i g n her name on  She took a p e n c i l from the drawing t a b l e and  down b e s i d e the d r y i n g rack and s i g n s her name. sociable.  the  kneels  Shawna i s very  Her hands and a t t e n t i o n are on the p r o j e c t , but her  mouth i s busy t a l k i n g to Shawna choses thoughts  puts  playmates. the r i g h t vocabulary t o express  and her speech i s very c l e a r .  observation:  mom,  her  Words used d u r i n g the  f r i e n d , c a r d , donosaurus, d i s h e s , b i g , f a t ,  m i n i , orange, brown, and d i d , p a i n t , l i k e , c u t . Shawna used d i f f e r e n t sentence s t r u c t u r e s .  For example:  61 "I used to t h i n k Beth i s r e a l l y  cute."  "I used to very l i k e her but now  I don't."  "Look what I c u t out." "I "How  j u s t d i d the d i s h e s . " do you s p e l l 5 years o l d ? "  "Hang i t up! She was  (question)  (imperative)  not heard to make e r r o r s with the use o f s i n g l e  and p l u r a l nouns o r verb forms. The pronouns Shawna used i n c l u d e d :  I, my,  her, he,  you,  they, i t . Shawna o b v i o u s l y has bers.  the concept of alphabet, and num-  She p r i n t e d s e v e r a l times her f i r s t name d u r i n g the  s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d and on the c a r d made i n the paper c e n t e r drew w i t h s t e n c i l s the number "5". of  obshe  A l s o , she has the knowledge  l e f t to r i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n i n the w r i t t e n language. Shawna's gestures are c l a r i f y i n g the v e r b a l message.  For example:  When she wrote f i v e u s i n g her r i g h t hand, w i t h  l e f t she p o i n t e d  the  5.  Shawna i s a very o r g a n i z e d c h i l d .  She has a p l a n i n  her mind, she f o l l o w the g e n e r a l r u l e s i n the classroom, makes good use of the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n the c e n t e r and  success-  f u l l y completed f i v e a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the " f r e e p l a y  time".  Tape No.  4  C h i l d ' s Name & Age: Setting:  Aaron, 5 years o l d .  C h i l d Study Center, k i n d e r g a r t e n  Aaron i s the same boy who  was  presented  classroom.  i n Tape No.  1.  62  T h i s sequence was  videotaped  two weeks l a t e r .  Aaron i s s t a n d i n g undecided i n f r o n t o f the board.  choosing  He i s l o o k i n g around, t r y i n g to f i n d a p a r t n e r .  Aaron  appears to put h i s name t a g i n the l i t t l e b l o c k c e n t e r , no he changed h i s mind.  He i s choosing  language a r t s c e n t e r .  He  changed h i s mind again and chose to p l a y i n the house c e n t e r . Dafne came to the choosing board and Aaron asks her, "Dafne, where are you  going?"  Dafne chose the paper c e n t e r and p l a c e d her name tag b e s i d e Shawna's and C a r l a ' s .  Aaron i s t h i n k i n g f o r a moment and  a f t e r 43g minutes o f h e s i t a t i o n and v a c i l l a t i n g movements he dec i d e s to work i n the "paper c e n t e r " w i t h Dafne.  In the paper  c e n t e r , Aaron takes a p i e c e o f paper and f o l d s i t - i t looks  like  he i s making a p o i n t e d h a t . Dafne announced, "I w i l l do a puppet;'"  She asks Aaron,  "Do you want t o make a puppet?" Aaron s a i d , "No." again,  (shaking h i s head).  Aaron asked h e r  "What k i n d ? " Dafne:  "A bag puppet."  Aaron and Dafne continue t h e i r own p r o j e c t and are not i n t e r a c t i n g anymore t i l l  the end o f the videotaped  sequence.  Aaron  i s f o l d i n g and smoothing h i s paper and he i s l o o k i n g a t Shawna and w a i t i n g to get the s t a p l e r . Aaron asks Shawna: Shawna:  "No,  "Are you making what I am making?"  I am making a k i t e . "  Aaron i s s t r e t c h i n g out f o r the s t a p l e r c a r e l e s s l y gaz-  ing  a t Shawna and t e l l i n g her:  "This i s j u s t gonna be a purse,  i s where you put s t u f f i n i t . " Shawna: Aaron:  "What?" " I s a i d t h i s j u s t gonna be a purse."  Shawna i s t r y i n g t o grab the s t a p l e r i n a movement o f resistance.  He s m i l e s and l e t s her have the s t a p l e r .  The presence o f the s i n g l e s t a p l e r i n the c e n t e r c r e a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between Aaron and Shawna.  Aaron's  f a c i a l expressions', eye c o n t a c t r e v e a l h i s f e e l i n g s o f t h i s  inter-  change . Aaron takes another p i e c e of paper and cuts i t with "sharp s c i s s o r s " and s t a p l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s "purse".  He i s  p r e s s i n g the s t a p l e r with both hands and h i s trunk and shoulders are l e a n i n g ahead. tive play.  In t h i s sequence Aaron p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a s s o c i a -  He does not show evidence o f d i s r u p t i v e behaviour  he r a t h e r f o l l o w s g i r l s around  and  him.  Discussion The f i r s t  i m p r e s s i o n gained from the v i d e o t a p e s i s t h a t  the k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom i s a remarkably has unique  and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s .  busy p l a c e and each  child  A l l the c h i l d r e n do not t h i n k  i d e n t i c a l l y , are not e q u a l l y s k i l l e d nor are they i n t e r e s t e d i n or concerned by i d e n t i c a l problems.  A l l the c h i l d r e n are c o n s t a n t l y  behaving, behaviours are t r a n s i t o r y , a c h i l d who c o o p e r a t i v e l y and was  the n a t u r a l  p l a y e d today  l e a d e r , o f the p l a y , the same  c h i l d i n another o c c a s i o n c o u l d be a p e r m i s s i v e f o l l o w e r . Aaron i s a t a l l a g i l e boy, w e l l developed  physically.  64 Zev compared to Aaron i s a s m a l l , skinny, p a l i d  child.  Shawna i s l a r g e boned, t a l l e r than Kevin. Kevin, Aaron and Shawna's p o s t u r e and b o d i l y  orienta-  t i o n a r e - c o m f o r t a b l e and r e l a x e d , Zev's i s c o n t r o l l e s s and Kevin and Aaron showed w e l l developed block b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y .  All  gross motor s k i l l s d u r i n g  F o r Shawna and  n i t i e s t o observe gross motor  tense.  Zev were l i m i t e d  opportu-  skills.  f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n showed evidence of w e l l deve-  loped f i n e motor s k i l l s .  Shawna impressed  dent, competent and capable i n most areas.  as b e i n g very  indepen-  She approaches s i t u a -  t i o n s with g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e and t h i s proves an important p e r s o n a l asset.  Shawna's r e p e r t o i r e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a dominant p o s i t i o n  i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e , she was  t y p i c a l l y successful i n getting others,  even t e a c h e r s , to accommodate her Zev i s o p p o s i t e .  desires.  He i s dependent i n most s i t u a t i o n s , i s  e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d from h i s p r o j e c t , and i s not a g g r e s s i v e nor brilliant. Kevin and Aaron are peer o r i e n t e d c h i l d r e n . a u n i t o f p l a y w i t h i n themselves,  They were  worked independently and when  an argument o c c u r r e d they were a b l e to s o l v e i t without the teacher 's i n t e r v e n t i o n . In Tape No. t e n , Aaron appears All  4, when Kevin i s absent from the k i n d e r g a r -  to be. l o s t and r e a l l y misses  him.  the c h i l d r e n have a w e l l developed vocabulary f o r  t h e i r age l e v e l , they l o v e t o t a l k , express t h e i r own listen.  feelings  and  65  All  t a r g e t c h i l d r e n showed evidence  v e r b a l communication s k i l l s .  The non-verbal  of developing  non-  m o d a l i t i e s found to  be of prime importance i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h peers are gaze and tance.  dis-  Aaron's a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e and gaze as cues to a t -  t r a c t i o n and  l i k i n g i s well established.  mity o f Kev.vn and  Shawna.  He p l a y s i n c l o s e p r o x i -  Other c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s are a t a  c l o s e d i s t a n c e with Shawna but a t a f a r d i s t a n c e w i t h All  Zev.  t a r g e t c h i l d r e n showed d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and  inte-  r e s t s i n u s i n g the space and m a t e r i a l s . In Tape No.  1, Kevin and Aaron s t a r t e d a t the  c h a r t " and worked i n the s m a l l b l o c k c e n t e r and t i v e toys c e n t e r . see Appendix A.)  (No.  "choice  s m a l l manipula-  2 & 14 - f o r l o c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y  centers  They made good use o f the very l a r g e s e t o f u n i t  b l o c k s , used a l a r g e v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t shaped b l o c k s , and r e c t use o f pick-up  cor-  set.  In Tape No. around then he decided  2, Zev,  i n the b e g i n n i n g , was  wandering  to work on the "Theme" (Center No.  11)  f o r most o f the time, and only a t the end watched a group o f c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g a guessing  game' i n the l i b r a r y c e n t e r  (No.  13).  Zev d u r i n g h i s f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t y used a drawing book, one s i n g l e sheet o f paper, a p e n c i l , and was  h o l d i n g a bag  f u l l o f rubber  dinosaurs. In Tape No.  3, Shawna s t a r t e d a t the "choice c h a r t " .  She went to work i n the paper c e n t e r  (No.  10).  She used paper,  c o l o u r e d p e n c i l s , s t e n c i l , s c i s s o r s , g l u e , and then she washed the dishes  ( p l a s t i c medium s i z e d i s h , hand mixer, spoons, wooden  spoon). screen,  A t the round drawing t a b l e  (center No. 6) she used the  two p i e c e s o f paper, two d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s .  moved t o p a i n t i n g a t the e a s e l  (center No. 9 ) .  F i n a l l y she  She used f i v e d i f '  f e r e n t c o l o u r s , p a i n t brushes and paper. In Tape No. 4, Aaron h e s i t a t e d f o r awhile around the "choice center  chart".  Then he chose t o work a l l the time i n the paper  (No. 10).  Aaron used two p i e c e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n paper  ( d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s ) , s t a p l e r , s c i s s o r s , one f e l t pen, and a p i e c e of cardboard paper. A s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the c h i l d r e n was i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o "choose an a c t i v i t y " and t h e i r use o f f r e e play  "time"  Figure 1 Amount o f time spent on chosen a c t i v i t i e s by each c h i l d .  Tape No. 1 Kevin & Aaron I Organizing period ( l | 1 min.) k\\\\\| F i r s t a c t i v i t y (13| | ' min.) ' Second a c t i v i t y (5 min.) H  1  Tape No. 2 Zev Choosing and get s t a r t e d (4% min.) F i r s t a c t i v i t y (12% min.) Second a c t i v i t y (3 min.)  67.  T a p e No. Shawna  3  T a p e No. Aaron  1\\\\1 F i r s t a c t i v i t y (10 rain.) | | Second a c t i v i t y (2 m i n . ) tr.--.-j T h i r d a c t i v i t y (5 m i n . ) FfffFF) F o u r t h a c t i v i t y (3 m i n . ) Children instantly,  | | C h o o s i n g p e r i o d (5 K\\\\J F i r s t a c t i v i t y (15  i n t a p e s No.  however, c h i l d r e n  4  1 and  i n tape  No. No.  3 chose 2 and  an  No.  min.) min.)  activity  4 find  i t very  difficult. The Aaron,  Zev  and  observations.  p r e c e d i n g comprehensive Shawna a r e b a s e d I t was  on  kindergarten classroom.  due  absence  to the  of particular  observed  children.  Additional  periods,  i n other activity  settings  (such as  enced cate  by  context or  growth  or  lack  setting,  Other  actions  brief the  Kevin, period  on  the p a r t of  patterns of behaviour time,changes  playground  homes) w o u l d are  be  useful  are  the  or  time other  to deter-  significantly  i n behaviour over i n v a r i o u s areas  of  of  target  observations at diversified  own  of progress  about  i n f o r m a t i o n gaps  centers, outdoor  children's  mine whether t h e i r  a relatively  done i n o n l y one  children's  statements  time w i l l  influindi-  development.  -6 8' The  \-,'I pilot  following  results  of  analysis  were  obtained  for  the  study: Table  observation  I  guide  summarizes  the  and p r e f e r r e d  scores  types  of  on each  type  Observation Type 1 N = 23  001 .  85  105  110  1  002  87  95  115  3  003  107  120  125  1  004  120  130  125  3  005  72  102  3  006  82  99  120  3  007  75  89  85  3  008  87  110  125  2  009  77  85  120  2  010  102  115  120  3  011  110  115  117  3  012.  110  112  -  -  013  103  117  127  1  014  77  85  99  1  015  91  95  115  2  016  107  112  -  -  017  102  116  127  3  018  118  131  -  -  019  120  123  135  2  020  95  115  108  2  021  83  85  80  3  022  74  98  120  3  023  98  115  118  2  2  A =  4  Observation Type 3 N =20  Obtained  A =  Class  B = 10  B = 12  B  =  8  C = 11  C =  C =  2  6  of  forms.  Participant s I.D. 1  Observation Type 2 N = 22  obtained  A. -  10  Preferred Type N = 20  69 Table Summary . Test  II:.. of  Frequency  of • Score  Distributions  Score X  "'. .  135 - 131  0  1  1  130 - 126  0  1  2  125 - 121  0  1  3  120 - 116  3  3  6  115 - 111  0  6  2  110 - 106  4  1  2  105 - 101  3  1  1  100 -  96  1  2  1  95 -  91  3  2  0  90 -  86  2  1  0  85 -  81  3  3  1  80 -  76  2  0  1  75 -  70  2  0  0  N = 23  N; = 22  N = 20  70 Table x i i summarizes the means and standard d e v i a t i o n o f the t e s t e d o b s e r v a t i o n guide s h e e t s . x  :•  SD  Type 1 N = 23  94.86  Type 2 N = 22  107.59  13.88  Type 3 N = 20  114.65  13.65  Type I  15.1  Type 2  F i gure 2iGraphical  Type 3 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Mean Scores.  71 Table IV summarizes the frequency o f p r e f e r r e d types o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets as s t a t e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n forms.  N = 20  Observation Type 1  Observation Type 2  Observation Type 3  4  6  10  Table V shows the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s o v e r - a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide s h e e t s .  N = 20  Excellent  Good  Of L i t t l e Value  1  17  2  Useless  —  Table VI shows the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s a t t i t u d e s toward usef u l n e s s o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets i n d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n a classroom.  Very Useful N = 20  4  Useful 12  Somewhat Useful 4  Not Usable -  Discussion The guide sheets were p r e f e r r e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: O b s e r v a t i o n guide sheet Type 1 was allowed freedom.  I t was  p r e f e r r e d because i t  found to be too g e n e r a l , too vague, and  used w i t h t h e v i d e o t a p e helped to g i v e a g e n e r a l O b s e r v a t i o n guide sheet Type 2 was  overview.  p r e f e r r e d because i t  d i r e c t e d the o b s e r v a t i o n i n the major areas o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n , but s t i l l  allowed some freedom.  O b s e r v a t i o n guide sheet Type 3 was was  p r e f e r r e d because i t  s p e c i f i c , i t helped to observe more a c c u r a t e l y . As s t a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n , Type 3 would  be even more o f t e n p r e f e r r e d i f a l o n g e r time l i m i t would be a l l o t t e d f o r w r i t i n g up the o b s e r v a t i o n s . From the t e s t s c o r e s , shown i n Table I I , r e s u l t s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n Type 1 are s i g n i f i c a n t a t "C"  level.  For the o b s e r v a t i o n Type 2, "C" l e v e l decreased f i c a n t l y and i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s 3, l e v e l "A"  "B" and  "A".  signi-  For o b s e r v a t i o n Type  indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n scores.  Two  par-  t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n e d scores under 90, because they d i d not f o l l o w i  the d i r e c t i o n s of the o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheet and o f t e n "yes  and  no" answers were g i v e n . The above r e s u l t s o f t e s t scores and the frequency  of  p r e f e r r e d types of o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets i n d i c a t e s t h a t v i d e o tape r e c o r d i n g s d i s p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviours  used  w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s are e f f e c t i v e ways to i n crease p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s .  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND' CONCLUSIONS T h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . s e c t i o n presents a b r i e f review o f the purposes r e s e a r c h procedures.  The second  The f i r s t  o f the study and  s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s c o n c l u s i o n s and  suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Purposes The- f i r s t purpose o f t h i s study was to accumulate v i d e o taped data about f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n who:  ;  n a t u r a l behaviours  displayed different  d u r i n g chosen f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , and to  develop a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n f o r a n a l y s i s o f v i d e o taped i n f o r m a t i o n . The second purpose o f t h i s study was t o t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f videotaped records d i s p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t behaviour used i n connection w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l guidel i n e s i n o r d e r to h e l p p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e teachers t o be a c c u r a t e observers o f young c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l behaviour. Two b a s i c procedures were used i n t h i s (1) behaviour,  study.  To accumulate videotaped data about young c h i l d r e n ' s f o u r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d and videotaped.  20 minute continuous  A  f r e e p l a y a c t i v i t y was r e t a i n e d as a " r e c o r d  tape" f o r each t a r g e t c h i l d . F o r a n a l y s i s o f o b t a i n e d videotaped r e c o r d s , a systemat i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n was  developed.  74  (2)  To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f videotapes used i n connec-  t i o n w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s , the f o l l o w i n g procedures were used: Subjects' o f the study were 23 p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e teachers e n r o l l e d i n C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Young C h i l d r e n class  (Ed. 333). P r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e teachers were asked t o  observe without i n t e r r u p t i o n a 15 minute segment o f videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d "Kevin.and  Aaron".  When the videotape showing ended,  all  the s u b j e c t s were asked to w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what they  saw  i n the p r o v i d e d guide sheets.  Three types o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide  sheets were administered t o the same group a t one week time v a l s between each t e s t .  inter-  A f t e r completion o f the o b s e r v a t i o n guide  sheets, a l l s u b j e c t s were asked t o e v a l u a t e the videotaped  obser-  v a t i o n s and guide sheets used d u r i n g the t e s t . Conclusions Videotape  r e c o r d i n g s helped to decode o b j e c t i v e informa-  t i o n about the n a t u r a l behaviour o f young c h i l d r e n . three p r i n c i p a l advantages o f t h i s method o f data  There were  collection.  F i r s t , comprehensive r e c o r d s o f d i s p l a y e d behaviours c o u l d be p r e served f o r subsequent and repeated examinations. f i d e l i t y o f the system was good. to  r e c o r d the behaviours  Second, the  The camera had no  difficulty  i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n s e t t i n g .  T h i r d , the  playback c o n t r o l mechanism on the tape r e c o r d e r p e r m i t t e d s t o p p i n g and rewinding.  fast  As a consequence, sequences o f behaviour  c o u l d be viewed and re-viewed  at w i l l .  The s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l p l a n helped t o focus the  75 observations.  S e v e r a l viewings o f each tape were r e q u i r e d i n  o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the behaviours and r e c o r d them i n t o c a t e g o r i e s of areas o f development o f young c h i l d r e n . From a n a l y s i s o f videotaped r e c o r d s , i t may be concluded t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n classroom i s a remarkably  busy p l a c e and  each c h i l d i s unique and has s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t  abili-  t i e s and needs. R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d o u t i n the p i l o t  study  demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t e s t s c o r e s obtained on o b s e r v a t i o n Type 1 and Type 3.  T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s confirmed  and by the c o r r e l a t i o n between the means and frequency o f p r e f e r r e d types o f o b s e r v a t i o n guide sheets. t h a t the course  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e  (Ed. 333) had a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the students  i n terms o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t and observe c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i our . The use o f videotapes and s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l guidel i n e s was found t o be an e f f e c t i v e way t o p r e s e n t common e x p e r i ences f o r group o b s e r v a t i o n .  Since a student o r a young i n s e r v i c e  teacher cannot be expected t o be e x p e r t o b s e r v e r s , i t i s most important t h a t they are guided i n what to observe and, having  seen,  to make v a l i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f d i s p l a y e d behaviours. Videotapes d i s p l a y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f e r e n t  behaviours  used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s helped p r e - s e r v i c e and i n s e r v i c e teachers to be a c c u r a t e observers o f young c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l behaviour. Videotaped o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods are not without i t s problems.  L i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t i n a l l measurement systems, i n c l u d -  76 i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l ones.  Such l i m i t a t i o n s must be c l e a r l y  n i z e d and reduced whenever p o s s i b l e .  recog-  O v e r a l l , the d i r e c t use o f  videotapes i n s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s p r o v i d e g r e a t promise f o r e x c i t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e adventures ready  ahead f o r E.C.E. educators  to accept the c h a l l e n g e . Suggestions The  f o r F u r t h e r Research  f o l l o w i n g suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are p r e -  sented: (1)  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s might be c a r r i e d out c o l l e c t i n g a t l e a s t t h r e e " r e c o r d tapes" a t d i v e r s i f i e d time p e r i o d s f o r t a r g e t c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l kindergartens or provinces. p r o v i d e p r e - s e r v i c e and  district  Such a data bank would  i n - s e r v i c e teachers adequate  i n f o r m a t i o n about l o c a l , r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l  diffe-  rences, would h e l p teachers to accept these d i f f e r e n c e s , and prepare them to meet the d i f f e r e n t needs o f young children. (2)  That another  r e s e a r c h study might be conducted  using  the m a t e r i a l s o f the p r e s e n t study, modifying the of the r e s e a r c h e r with an a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n s t r u c t o r  role em-  p l o y i n g c o m p e t i t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s i n s t e a d of c o o p e r a t i o n as i t was (3)  used i n the p r e s e n t  study.  That r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s study can be c a r r i e d out u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t design to check the v a l i d i t y o f i t s f i n d ings.  I f v a l i d , they suggest t h a t t r a i n i n g might be  scheduled i n a v a r i e t y o f ways to s a t i s f y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and p e r s o n a l  requirements.  F u r t h e r s t u d i e s , u s i n g the m a t e r i a l s of t h i s  study,  m i g h t b e c a r r i e d out w i t h the f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s : A f t e r s e v e r a l i n t r o d u c t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s , the p a n t s w o u l d c h o o s e an a r e a or problem  (e.g. s o c i a l ,  (e.g.. a g g r e s s i v e n e s s  p l a n " or extend  the present  one  cognitive  ...)  develop  a  "new  i n order to gather  more  ...)  and  i n f o r m a t i o n about the chosen area o r problem. the  "new  share  p l a n " through  partici-  Try  observation i n a classroom  the r e v i s e d o b s e r v a t i o n p l a n w i t h the group  pre-service or i n - s e r v i c e teachers.  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Three P e r s p e c t i v e s on I n s e r v i c e Education. J o u r n a l o f T e a c h e r -Education, 1979,' XXX, 13-19.  Schatzman, N.J.:  L., & Strauss, Prentice-Hall  A.L. ' Field Inc., 1973.  Research.  S c h r a m , W. Basic  T h e S c i e n c e o f Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n . Books I n c . , 1963.  Englewood  Cliffs,  New Y o r k ,  N.Y.:  S c h u e l e r , H. T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n ' a n d t h e New M e d i a . Washington, D.C.: The A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o l l e g e s f o r T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , 19 6 7 . Sleeman, P.J., & Cobun, T . C . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media and Technology A Guide to Accountable Learning Systems. New Y o r k , N.Y.: Longman I n c . , 1979.  -  Sommer, R., & Somer, B.B. A P r a c t i c a l Guide to B e h a v i o r a l Research : T o o l s and T e c h n i q u e s " New Y o r k , N . Y . : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. Spears, J . D . Replays.  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' T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n ' i n T r a n s i t i o n . Baltimore: Multi-State Teacher Education Project, 19 6 9 , V o l . 1, 8 7 - 9 7 .  83 Weinberg, R.A. , - & Wood, F. H. • O b s e r v a t i o n o f P u p i l s and Teachers f h Mainstream and Special' E d u c a t i o n S e t t i n g s ; ' A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s . Minnesota, Minn.: Leadership T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e , 19 75. Wilkes, J . Theory i n E d u c a t i o n a l Technology and C u r r i c u l u m . Programmed L e a r n i n g and E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 1978, 15, 79-81. Winthrop, H. Two Pioneer Programs i n Studies of the F u t u r e . S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , 1971, 55, 573-579. Wolfe, D. "Training"•'/ Handbook o f Experimental Psychology. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1951. Yorke, D.M. T e l e v i s i o n i n the E d u c a t i o n o f Teachers: A Case Study. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 1977, 131-141. Young, D.B. P r e s e r v i c e Micro-Teaching. 1970, 59, 33-40.  Today's E d u c a t i o n ,  84  APPENDIX A P h y s i c a l Layout and L i s t o f M a t e r i a l s A v a i l a b l e i n the Classroom  85  LAYOUT OF THE CLASSROOM S c a l e I " = 3'  X. C h o i c e  Chart  , I . L a r g e Group <;  O H  Center  2. B l o c k C e n t e r  Q  3. S c i e n c e C e n t e r  <;  4. W a t e r T a b l e 5. Sand T a b l e  >  6. D r a w i n g T a b l e 7. M o d e l l i n g C e n t e r 3. C o o k i n g C e n t e r  7  H  10. P a p e r C e n t e r <;  H  9. E a s e l  CO H  Q  « >  II.  Theme - S m a l l g r o u p  12. L a n g u a g e A r t s 13. L i b r a r y C o r n e r 14. C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d manipulative  15. House  Corner  16. M u s i c C e n t e r H  toys  86 LIST OF MATERIALS Block -  Building  unit  blocks  Materials - units, small  -  accessories  triangles,  - miniature animals,  Science  Supplies  circles,  large  curves,  ramps,  arches.  trucks,  family  figures,  coloured  cubes.  switches, cars, small  - magnifying  glasses,  thermometer, Water Sand  horseshoe-  seeds  and  magnets,  ...  Table. Table.  Screens Drying Clay  half  and  different  colours  for  painting.  boards,  wooden  Rack.  and p l a s t i c i n e  Cooking  Supplies  -  - pots  and p a n s ,  spoons, Easel  - easel paint  Paper  Center  Theme  -  Language  books, Arts  drawing -  Corner  easy  books,  readers,  -  about  handled  Toys  miniature  measuring  saucepans, brushes  scoops.  for  each  flash  dinosaurs.  cards,  paper,  pens,  erasers.  50 b o o k s  strips, Manipulative  spoons,  pins.  - paper i n d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and c o l o u r s , stickers t h r e a d s , crayons, marker pens, p e n c i l s , scissors, hole punchers, glue, cellophane, tinfoil f e a t h e r s , beads ...  pencils, Library  long  rolling  egg b e a t e r s ,  wooden  paper, paint, container.  knives,  slides,  on  different  hand  subjects,  film  puppets.  - p i c t u r e L o t t o games, p u z z l e s , varying degrees of d i f f i c u l t y Lego, interlocking sets, pick-up sets, cards, pennies for beads f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , f l a n n e l board and f i g u r e s .  87 House Center - d o l l bed and bedding, d o l l s , d o l l c l o t h i n g , stove, cupboard, s i n k , d i s h e s and cooking u t e n s i l s , i r o n i n g board, i r o n , c h i l d s i z e t a b l e and c h a i r s , telephones, brooms, 2 mirr o r s , f u l l - l e n g t h , dress-up c l o t h e s . Music Center - p i a n o , tambourines, b e l l s , drums, xylophones.  88  APPENDIX  B  Description of O b s e r v a t i o n G u i d e S h e e t s T y p e 1, 2, 3, a n d t h e E v a l u a t i o n F o r m a s i t was u s e d in this Study  89 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET TYPE 1  Observer: ' ' :  ::: :: ::: :::::::::;;;  C h i l d ' s Name: '  •••  Date: ' ^  ;. - . - :. - :: •  Time: from  to  Setting: Directions:  Observe a l l the behaviours d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g a 15 minute p e r i o d  by the c h i l d r e n  i n which they a r e engaged  i n the chosen a c t i v i t y / a c t i v i t i e s .  F i r s t , observe  the videotape and then w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what you have seen. Description:  90  OBSERVATION GUIDE  Observer: Child's  •  ;  ;  ;  '  :  ;  ;  • '  ;  :  ;  ;  SHEET  ' '  TYPE  2  Date:  Name:  Time:  from  to_  Setting: Directions:  Observe  the  focusing  on  behaviours the  displayed  following  by  the  children  points:  GUIDELINES 1.  LANGUAGE -  2.  3.  Are  PHYSICAL  children  communicating?  DEVELOPMENT  -  Are  the  children  happy  -  Are  the  children  showing  AFFECTIVE  AND S O C I A L  Are  the  children  -  How  are  the  -  INTELLECTUAL -  Are  a  in  good p h y s i c a l  condition?  developed muscular  control?  sharing  children  with  others  selecting  in  work  activities  -  and  play?  alone  or  or  activities  the  children  initiat-  organizing?  AND C O G N I T I V E the  are  children  DEVELOPMENT  choosing  appropriate  tools/  materials? -  Are  or  others?  What a c t i o n s ing  and  DEVELOPMENT  -  with  4.  the  the  children  alphabet,  words,  showing  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  numbers  ...  of  the  ? . . ,/2-  91 5.  D e s c r i b e and vities  of the  Description:  comment on children.  any  other relevant  activity  or  acti-  92 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET TYPE 3  Observer: ' '  :: : :: : : : : : ; : : :: : :; : : :  C h i l d ' s Name:  • ••••  '' •  :: : : : : : : :: : : : : : ; ; ;  Date: ' ' ' ' •' :  ••  Time:  ::  ' '' ' '' ' ;;  from  :  to  Setting: Directions:  Observe a l l the behaviours focusing sical  displayed  by the c h i l d r e n  on more s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s i n language, phy-  a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l / c o g n i t i v e  areas o f development. GUIDELINES 1.  LANGUAGE 1.1  How  are the c h i l d r e n u s i n g the spoken language?  (vocabulary, sentence s t r u c t u r e , 1.2  Are the c h i l d r e n communicating nonverbally? f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , eye c o n t a c t  1;3  s y n t a c t i c a l forms  ...)  (gesture,  ...)  Are the c h i l d r e n u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e language f o r t h e i r age l e v e l ?  2.  PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 2.1  How  do you view the c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  2.2  What are the c h i l d r e n ' s l a r g e muscles  abilities  t o use and c o n t r o l  ( l e g s , arms, body) and f i n e muscles  (fin-  gers , hands)? 3.  AFFECTIVE AND'SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3.1  Are the c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r own  feelings?  3.2  Are the c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p i n g  3.3  Are they s e n s i t i v e to other's f e e l i n g s and views?  independence?  . . ./2  93 3.4  Are they h e l p i n g o t h e r c h i l d r e n ?  3.5  What type of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s are the c h i l d r e n engaged i n ? Is i t p a r a l l e l , c o o p e r a t i v e , s o l i t a r y  3.6  What are t h e i r manners of c o n t r o l l i n g others? f o l l o w e r , clown  3.7  ... play? (leader,  ...)  Are the c h i l d r e n showing evidence of d i s r u p t i v e behaviour?  3.8 4.  Are they o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n arguments or f i g h t s ?  INTELLECTUAL AND 4.1  COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  Are the c h i l d r e n showing an i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t / activity?  4.2  Can they use materials, i n d i f f e r e n t or c r e a t i v e ways?  4.3  Are they assembling m a t e r i a l s and m a n i p u l a t i n g equipment?  4.4  Are they showing evidence of knowledge o f l e f t - t o r i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n i n the w r i t t e n language?  5.  D e s c r i b e and comment on any o t h e r r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y o r a c t i v i t i e s of the c h i l d r e n .  Description:  94 OBSERVATION  Evaluator: 1.  ' '  Which  :  type  :  :  of  :  :  :  :  ;  :  :  ;  :  :  ;  ;  :  observation  •••  EVALUATION  Date:  ' ' ' ' '  guide  sheet  :  FORM  ;  guide  sheet  type  1  ' ' ' -  -  observation  guide  sheet  type  2  '  -  observation  guide  sheet  type  3  reasons  What  What guide  are  the  a  checkmark  strong points  type  1?  -  type  2?  ...  -; t y p e  3?  ...  (Please  comment).  are  weak  points  -  type  1?  ...  -  type  2?  ...  -  type  3?  ...  (Please  comment).  is  overall  your  the  blank  ;  •' prefer?  space).  why?  -  the  in  :  do y o u  observation  What  4.  :  SHEET  -  (Place 2. - G i v e  :  GUIDE  of  of  the  the  evaluation  observation  observation  of  the  guide  guide  preferred  sheet?  sheet  observation  sheet? Excellent  Of  little  Good  Useless  value  ••'•/;  :  ' ' '  :  ; .• •  95 6.  Would the live  observation  children  Very useful (Place  •••••  in  a  Useful  a checkmark  guide  sheet  be  useful  in  observing  classroom? •• •. . in  the  Somewhat useful ' ' ' • blank  Not usable  space).  ' ' '  

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