UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The use of videotapes in early childhood education Weisz, Iolanda 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 W45.pdf [ 4.21MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055215.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055215-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055215-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055215-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055215-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055215-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055215-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055215-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055215.ris

Full Text

I THE USE OF V IDEOTAPES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION by IOLANDA WEISZ B . A . ( H o n s . ) , . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C l u j , 1972 A THES IS SUBMITTED IN PART IAL FULF ILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s THE UNIVERS ITY OF BR IT ISH S e p t e m b e r 19 81 ( q ^ I o l a n d a W e i s z COLUMBIA I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e December 25. 1981 nF.-fi ABSTRACT In the realm of modern educational media, verbal and s c i e n t i f i c support has been given to the potential of videotape for teaching and learning s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . L i t t l e evidence, however, can be found to substantiate, the support i n early childhood teacher t r a i n i n g . This lack of s u f f i c i e n t evidence pertaining to the effectiveness and p o s s i b i -l i t i e s for use of videotapes as a teaching aid i n early childhood teacher t r a i n i n g , served as the motivating force for the present study. The f i r s t purpose of t h i s study was to accumulate videotaped data about four target children who displayed d i f -ferent natural behaviours during chosen free play a c t i v i t i e s , a n d to develop a systematic observational plan for analysis of video-taped information. The second purpose of t h i s study was to test the e f f e c t tiveness of videotaped records displaying children's behaviour used with structured observational guidelines to help pre-service and inservice teachers become more accurate observers of young children's natural behaviour. Two basic procedures were used i n t h i s study. (1) To accumulate videotaped data about young children's behaviour,four target children were selected and videotaped. A 20 minute continuous free play a c t i v i t y was retained as a "record tape" for each target c h i l d . i v For analysis of obtained videotaped records, a systema-t i c observational plan was developed. (2) To test the effectiveness of videotapes used i n connec-tion with structured observational guidelines, the following pro-cedures were used: Subjects of the study were 23 pre-service and inservice teachers enrolled i n an Early Childhood curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n class at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Pre-service and inservice teachers were asked to observe without interruption a 15 minute segment of videotape No. 1 en-t i t l e d "Kevin and Aaron". When the videotape showing ended, a l l the subjects were asked to write a description of what they saw using the guide sheets. Three types of guide sheets were admin-ist e r e d to the same group at one week time inte r v a l s between each test. After completion of the observation guide sheets, a l l sub-jects were asked to evaluate the videotaped observations and guide sheets used. From analysis of videotaped records, i t was concluded that the kindergarten classroom i s a remarkably busy place and each c h i l d has unique and spe c i a l q u a l i t i e s . A l l the children do not think i d e n t i c a l l y , are not equally s k i l l e d nor are they in t e -rested i n or concerned by i d e n t i c a l problems. Results of analysis carried out i n the p i l o t study suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between test scores obtained on observation Type 1 and Type 3, indi c a t i n g a preference for the most structured guide sheet. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . V LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i LIST OF FIGURES • v i i i LIST OF VIDEOTAPES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . X I. INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Procedures 5 Limitation of the Study . . . . . . . . . . 6 De f i n i t i o n of Terms . . . . . 7 IT. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Major Uses of Videotapes i n Early Childhood Teacher Training . . . . . . . 8 Summary of Literature Related to the Major Uses of Videotapes 24 Microteaching 25 Presentation of the "Modelling" Components . . . 31 Presentation and Comments about Research Findings on the "Feedback" Component . . . . . . 33 Summary of Literature Relating to "Microteaching" . .; .; . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 v i PAGE II I . PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... • 39 Procedures of Accumulating Videotaped Data and Description of the Systematic Observatio-nal Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . 39 Procedures Used i n P i l o t Study . . . . . . . . 48 IV. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS . . . . . . 50 Analyses of Four Videotapes 51 Discussion of Four Videotapes 63 Results of Analysis Carried Out i n the P i l o t Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Discussion of Findings of the P i l o t Study . . 73 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . 74 Purposes, Procedures, Subjects . . . . 74 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Suggestions for Further Research 77 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDIX A. Physical Layout and Materials Available i n the Classroom 85 APPENDIX B. Description of Observation Guide Sheets Type 1, 2, 3, and the Evaluation Form as i t was Used i n this Study 89 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page Table I Summary of Scores Obtained on Each Type of Observation.......... 69 Table II Summary of Frequency of Score D i s t r i b u t i o n . .... ..... . 70 Table III Summary of Means and Standard Deviation ^1 Table IV Frequency of Preferred Types of Observation Guide Sheets * , ....... . 7 2 Table V Participants Over-all Evaluation of Observation Guide Sheets ' Table VI Participants Attitudes Toward Usefulness of Observation Guide Sheets i 7 2 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 ' Amount of Time Spent on Chosen A c t i v i t y by Each C h i l d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67 Figure 2 Graphical Representation of Mean Scores 71 v i i i a For information on the videotapes listed on leaf ix, please contact the Special Collections Division, Library, 1956 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Y3 ; or the Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, Faculty, of Education, Scarfe Building, 2125 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z5. i x LIST OF VIDEOTAPES Videotape No. 1 KEVIN & AARON, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 2 ZEV, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 3 SHAWNA, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. Videotape No. 4 AARON, U.B.C. 1980, 20 min., B & W. X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • My sincere thanks are expressed to Dr. Glen T. Dixon for his time, assistance and guidance throughout a l l phases of this educational endeavour. I also thank Mr. Bruce White for his kind assistance, and Dr. Hannah Polowy for her guidance and invaluable support and continuing encouragement. Further gratitude i s expressed to Mr. Terry Frank for technical assistance, and to Dr. Steen Esbensen for his support to f a c i l i t a t i n g the p i l o t study. P a r t i c u l a r mention must be made of the willingness of pre-service and inservice teachers to put up with considerable inconvenience, t h e i r time and e f f o r t s are greatly appreciated. A s p e c i a l thanks i s extended to Dr. A. Stan for his thoughtfulness and encouragement, and above a l l my c h i l d , Anna-marie, to whom I dedicate my work. 1 CHAPTER I ' INTRODUCTION AND' 'STATEMENT OF- 'THE PROBLEM The rapid pace of today's ele c t r o n i c technology and the growing d i v e r s i f i e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y to educational and communication processes are making a. great impact on the educational world spe-c i f i c a l l y i n North America. "Television has a greater impact on our day-to-day l i f e than any other medium. I t plays a major r o l e i n determining the way we l i v e , the way we communicate and the way we learn. Our l i v i n g patterns have assumed t e l e v i s i o n as a prime source of news, culture and entertainment. I t becomes a babysitter and a tutor for the young, and a major contact with the outside world for the aged". (Ackerman & Lawrence, 1977). Television has a tremendous p o t e n t i a l . It can motivate, excite and involve large numbers of people of a l l ages. I t can transport the viewer to any location i n the past, present and future, i n the realms of fac t or f i c t i o n , r e a l i t y or fantasy. I t can make v i s i b l e to a l l at the same time what would normally be v i s i b l e only to one, such as the image from a microscope or a telescope. I t can alternate close-up and distant views, using the zoom lens to make smooth t r a n s i t i o n s . Abstract concepts can be concretely v i s u a l i z e d by animation. The use of t e l e v i s i o n i n professional and technical tr a i n i n g has been explored, es p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d s of medicine, dentistry, agriculture and i n certa i n industries. This i n i t i a l experience indicates that wherever there i s need for rapid and widespread communication of p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , there i s greater scope f o r employment of t e l e v i s i o n i n technical education. 2 In general, these potentials have not been r e a l i z e d f or educational t e l e v i s i o n . The most powerful communication medium i n the history of c i v i l i z a t i o n i s under-utilized i n colleges and schools. (Ackerman & L i p s i t z , 1977). The new technological developments (videotapes, video-discs, s a t e l l i t e s ) could have a profound e f f e c t on educational methods, and on education i t s e l f . With proper u t i l i z a t i o n and management, these new developments could be used at any time, at any place and for a variety of educational and applies purposes. Experiments i n the use of ETV/videotapes for the t r a i n -ing of student teachers or those already teaching i n schools, have been conducted by teacher colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s and school systems i n many parts of the United States and Canada. There are indications of areas of teacher education where ETV/videotapes can make a d i s t i n c t contribution to the speed and quality of tr a i n i n g . For example: Videotapes used for s e l f evaluation i n microteaching and i n many diagnostic si t u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , videotapes used to present common experiences for group discus-sion and evaluation. (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967). There i s research evidence to confirm the effectiveness of such use, with s i g n i f i -cant gains over conventional methods i n many instances. One fac-tor which appears consistently throughout the research i s a reduc-t i o n i n learning time compared to conventional methods. (Webb & Baird, 1967). This can be attributed to the careful organization of the information, and the use of audio-visual methods of commu-nication. Another finding which i s also reported i s increased 3 retention. (Sleeman & Cobun, 1979). Most educators and ETV producers agree that t e l e v i s i o n i s most e f f e c t i v e when combined with other learning experiences. The combined method i s most e f f e c t i v e when the separate elements are designed to work together. Learning i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n when t e l e v i s i o n serves as an int e -g r a l component with other methods, techniques and media to com-prise a t o t a l learning system. (Anderson, 1976). In the l a s t decade a great deal of research has been undertaken using videotapes i n the learning process. But con-ventionally attention has been focused on teacher s k i l l s , a t t i -tudes, curriculum, parents' background and involvement. However, limi t e d videotaped materials and systematic observation plans could be found which provide and enhance knowledge about the be-haviour and the development of the young c h i l d . In the absence of documented evidence about the c h i l d , the nature of int e r a c t i o n with other children, environment and materials, have forced educators to place a great deal of f a i t h i n t h e i r own i n t u i t i v e insights. Teachers cannot see everything i n a busy classroom. The greater the d e t a i l the less precise they are, furthermore, behaviour i s tra n s i t o r y . "A behaviour i s an instance of a process, i t s status at that p a r t i c u l a r time." (Cartwright, 1974). Development of the c h i l d from an infant to a mature adult depends on a number of in t e r n a l and external processes. However, none of these are observable, except as stationary s l i c e s of behaviour caught at a given moment i n time. Some be-4 haviours, es p e c i a l l y those which indicate the process of a p p l i -cation, can only be known through the use of systematic observa-tion methods. Some other behaviours can only be known through the use of nonobservational methods of gathering information i n order to provide a complete picture of a c h i l d . However, paper pencil tests at kindergarten l e v e l are l i m i t e d , good observation methods t and s k i l l s are important for every teacher of young children. To overcome the t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , videocameras enabled the a c q u i s i t i o n of a comprehensive record of overt be-haviour. Such records subsequently are analyzed by human obser-vers, but the permanency of the record allows repeated examination of each incident. The videotape can f i l l the v i s u a l and auditory gap l e f t by the t r a d i t i o n a l observational method, and for this reason i s a valuable medium to observation. This argument consti-tutes the a p r i o r i rationale for this study. Statement of the Problem A twofold problem was investigated i n this study: (1) To accumulate videotaped data about four target c h i l d -ren who.' displayed d i f f e r e n t natural behaviours during chosen free play a c t i v i t i e s , and to develop a systematic observational plan for analysis of videotaped information. (2) To test the effectiveness of videotaped records display-ing children's d i f f e r e n t behaviours used i n connection with struc-tured observational guidelines i n order to help pre-service and inservice teachers to be accurate observers of young children's natural behaviour. 5 Results of this investigation w i l l be h e l p f u l i n determining to what extent videotaped records about the c h i l d i s an objective observational method to gather information about the c h i l d , and how i t can. be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n early childhood teacher t r a i n i n g programs. Procedures Two basic procedures were used i n this study: (1) To accumulate videotaped data about young children's behaviour, four target children who-, displayed d i f f e r e n t natural behaviours during chosen free play a c t i v i t i e s were selected and videotaped. A twenty minute continuous free play a c t i v i t y was retained as a "record tape" f o r each target c h i l d . In order to analyze the obtained videotaped records, a systematic observa-t i o n a l plan was developed. The plan emphasized general and spe-c i f i c categories of language, physical, a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and i n -t e l l e c t u a l , cognitive areas of development of young children. (2) To test the effectiveness of videotaped recordings d i s -playing children's d i f f e r e n t behaviours used i n connection with structured observational guidelines i n order to help pre-service and inservice teachers to be accurate observers of young c h i l d -ren's natural behaviour the following procedures were used: Twenty-three pre-service and inservice teachers were asked to ob-serve without interruption a f i f t e e n minute segment of videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d "Kevin and Aaron". When the videotape showing ended, the participants were asked to write a description of what they have seen i n the provided observation guide sheets. 6 Three types of observation guide sheets were adminis-tered to the same group at one week time inte r v a l s between each test. A f t e r completion of the observation guide sheets a l l par-t i c i p a n t s were aksed to evaluate the observation guide sheets used during the tests. Limitations of the Study (1) Only one videotaped segment was recorded for each t a r -get c h i l d i n this p i l o t study except for Aaron. Additional recordings could have provided more information to assess, evalu-ate and diagnose the children i n order to better meet t h e i r educational needs. (2) The subjects represented i n the sample were students enrolled i n Curriculum and Instruction for Young Children class (Ed. 333) during the summer session 1981 at U.B.C. De f i n i t i o n of Terms The following terms are defined as they were used i n this study: (1) Videotap e' recorder (VTR) - i s a three part communication system which takes: a signal from a t e l e v i s i o n camera, records i t on a battery or power operated video recorder, and plays i t back on the t e l e v i s i o n monitor. (2) Observation - i s a process of systematically looking and recording behaviour according to a prearranged plan which i s applied consistently for assessing, evaluation, diagnostic purposes. 7 (3) Pre-service teacher- education - a student enrolled i n a teacher education program s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to t r a i n him to teach young children. (4) Inservice education - any a c t i v i t y which a teacher of young children undertakes aft e r he has begun to teach, which i s concerned with his professional work. Observing the children's natural behaviour means follow-ing unrehearsed actions. Organizatioh of the Study A review of l i t e r a t u r e related to the major uses of videotapes i n education and teacher t r a i n i n g and a general descrip-t i o n and comments about microteaching programs i s presented i n Chapter I I . Chapter III outlines the procedures for the study, data c o l l e c t i o n and data analysis procedures. A f u l l description of the observational plan i s given. Presentation and discussion of findings are described i n Chapter IV. A summary of the study i s given i n Chapter V, with con-clusions and suggestions for further research. The study concludes with references and appendices. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s p a r t p r e s e n t s l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o m a j o r u s e s o f v i d e o t a p e s E a r l y C h i l d h o o d T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g , a n d t h e s e c o n d p a r t p r e s e n t s l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o m i c r o t e a c h i n g . M a j o r U s e s o f V i d e o t a p e s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g ' "As t h e a d v a n c e d n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d move i n t o t h e 'age o f t e c h n o l o g y 1 , c h a n g e s come more r a p i d l y a nd w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r i m p a c t o n o u r l i v e s . S u r v i v a l o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d o f e a c h o f u s i n d i v i d u a l s d e p e n d s u p o n o u r a b i l i t y t o a d a p t t o t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s and t o c o n t r o l t h e c h a n g e s t h e y p r o d u c e w i t h i n o u r s o c i e t y . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a d v a n c e s b e i n g made now a n d t h o s e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e f u t u r e m u s t be made a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l g r o u p s and s t r a t a . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r a l l i s c l e a r . W i t h i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s , s u c h c o n t r o l c a n be r e a l i z e d o n l y w i t h p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e , t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e l i m i t a t i o n s , and t h e t r e n d s o f t e c h n o l o g y . "And, t h e a d v a n c e o f t e c h n o l o g y c a n n o t be u n d e r -s t o o d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t s i n t e r p l a y w i t h s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , a n d b e h a v i -o u r a l f o r c e s . " ( W i n t h r o p , p. 5 7 9 ) . The h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y and o f t e l e -v i s i o n ' s r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n i s b e g i n n i n g t o be w r i t t e n a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . (McAnany, 1 9 7 7 ) . Some w r i t e r s a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y a s a " g r o w t h a r e a " f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t i s p a s t , o t h e r s t h a t t h e f u t u r e o f W i n t h r o p , H e n r y . "Two P i o n e e r P r o g r a m s i n S t u d i e s o f t h e F u t u r e " S c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n " , v o l . 5 5 , No. 4, 1 9 7 1 , p. 5 7 9 . 9 i n s t r u c t i o n a l technology systems i s only at a beginning. The development of technological hardware such as videocassettes, videodiscs, cable and s a t e l l i t e s can provide better ways of giving more f l e x i b l e education at a l l l e v e l s . A t h i r d group, of adversaries argue that educational technology i s f a r from dead but that i t s contributions to edu-cation are either useless, i r r e l e v a n t or negative. (McAnany, 1977) . What follows i s a review of the major uses of video-tapes i n early childhood education - teacher t r a i n i n g , charac-t e r i s t i c s of videotapes and the recognition of i t s p a r t i c u l a r s u i t a b i l i t y and poten t i a l as a tool for pre-service and inservice teachers to become better observers of children's natural be-haviour. A new i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium: "Video" (often confused and compared with i t s predecessor - TV) i s taking i t s place i n schools, colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , hospitals, business, industry and agriculture. Unlike broadcast t e l e v i s i o n , use of more per-sonalized videotape systems allows for control of the learning process by .the instructor or student. Both instructor and stu-dent have opportunities to create t h e i r audio-video message. Videotape recorders have become a multi-purpose tool -more f l e x i b l e , more accessible, less costly, then ever before. (Macdonald, 1979). Videotape recorders enable teachers to store broadcast material and re-use i t at d i s c r e t i o n , to f i t their own timetables and to match their children's pace of learning. 10 Numerous reviews and studies have been made of use of videotapes i n teacher t r a i n i n g . There appears to be a consensus of opinion that videotapes can be successfully used i n a number of ways for educational purposes. Videotapes as a Tool i n Observation and Teacher Training By the early 19 60's, ETV was becoming widely accepted as a useful medium for i n s t i t u t i o n s i n higher education. Experiments i n the use of t e l e v i s i o n f o r the t r a i n i n g of student teachers or those already teaching i n schools have been conducted by teachers' colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , and school systems i n many parts of the United States and Canada. (Cassirer, 1960). Student teachers are normally required to observe c l a s s -room teaching. But when many teachers must be trained t h i s i n -volves d i f f i c u l t i e s . The scheduling of such a large number of observations with the l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s which were available was an exceedingly d i f f i c u l t task, for a l l could not be accommodated i n the campus laboratory schools. Moreover, diverse observations provided no common experience among students f o r follow-up discus-sions and interpretations. Also, unitiated observers frequently f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y the most s i g n i f i c a n t events and features of what to look for or were unaware of the educational implications of what they saw. (Cassirer, 1960). In 1960, the College of Education at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis introduced the c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n as an observation medium. (Cassirer, 1960). With c l o s e d - c i r c u i t 11 t e l e v i s i o n as the viewing medium for observation, several advan-tages over d i r e c t observation are achieved. The observation can be well integrated with the content being presented or discussed i n the course lecture or laboratory sections. Tele v i s i o n i s d i s -t i n c t i v e i n i t s a b i l i t y to focus attention on selected features or d e t a i l s of a teaching s i t u a t i o n while removing unwanted or d i s -t r a c t i n g information from the scene. The observation i s under the control of the co-ordinator so that observers can rai s e ques-tions during the progress of the demonstration or be otherwise informed about what they see. The teacher of the observed class can e a s i l y meet with the observers personally or by means of c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n both before and after the observation for explanation and discussion. A l l observers have a common ex-perience for such discussions as well as discussions at a l a t e r time. These advantages of c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n seem to make this medium a most promising technique for f u l l e x p loitation of classroom observation i n the introductory professional course i n education. In 1960, an extensive research project started at Hunter College i n New York C i t y . I t u t i l i z e d small compact t e l e v i s i o n cameras, equipped with a zoom lens, which were placed at fixed positions and were remote controlled. I t i s therefore expected that t e l e v i s i o n coverage w i l l not i n t e r f e r e at a l l with the nor-mal classroom atmosphere. This eliminates the p o t e n t i a l l y d i s -t r a c t i n g effects of v i s i t o r s or a large camera operated by a cameraman. (Cassirer, 1960) . 12 Another feature of the Hunter College project was the recording of these c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n observations on videotape. This provided an immediately available and permanently accessible record of the teaching performance. One use of the recordings was to enable the student teacher to review his own performance with his supervisor aft e r completing a lesson. A further purpose of the Hunter College research was to evaluate the effectiveness of videotapes, made during actual classroom periods i n which various behavioural or academic pro-blems occurred, as a point of departure for seminar discussion. What would be the e f f e c t of presenting a videotape of an experi-enced and superior teacher i n action, up to the point where the problem becomes c l e a r l y defined, at which point the seminar student would proceed to offer pausible solutions. Subsequent to the discussions, the tape could be continued to show the actual solution which had been achieved by the experienced teacher. (Cassirer, 1960). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of recorded classes with the most varied subjects and age group situations provide i l l u s -t r a t i v e material which can eas i l y be integrated into the tr a i n i n g of student teachers. A si m i l a r use of videotapes was made by the School of Education at Syracuse University, i n a special teacher preparation program. (Clayton, 1969). Student teachers were videotaped i n the classroom engaged i n regular' teacher a c t i v i t i e s . These video-tapes were l a t e r viewed by them i n order that they could access t h e i r own teaching behaviour. The f i r s t tapes were made i n the 13 f a l l semester of 1963. Each student i n the experimental program was taped i n the classroom twice during the teaching practicum and had an opportunity to view himself i n action. (Clayton, 1969). The recording, a 30 minute segment of continuous classroom a c t i -v i t y , often included s p e c i a l l y planned a c t i v i t i e s . Other tapes were made showing routine classroom a c t i v i t i e s . When schedules permitted, longer videotapes were recorded, and the student had an immediate opportunity (in a free period or immediately aft e r school) to view the extended episode. The d i r e c t use of tapes has been accomplished i n a variety of ways. In some cases, a private viewing was arranged fo r the student with no one present except the technician. In other cases, he has viewed with a fellow student or students. Sometimes a supervisor or several s t a f f members pa r t i c i p a t e d i n a viewing and c r i t i q u e , and sometimes a tape was f i r s t viewed i n a f u l l seminar setting. Each approach has had i t s advantages and disadvantages. The instructors main concern was that the tape be used f o r objective feedback and analysis of i n s t r u c t i o n a l behavi-our, and that a judgmental set be avoided as much as possible. As Clayton mentioned, the l i b r a r y of examples of teach-ing contained i n the student tapes has made possible a number of additional i n s t r u c t i o n a l uses. Selected tapes were used to provide repeatable observa-t i o n experiences f o r analyzing i n s t r u c t i o n a l behaviour. Students were trained to observe and record verbal in t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom i n the Flanders Interaction Analysis 14 system. The tapes provided a wealth of classroom data for such t r a i n i n g . Recognizing the role of education as a primary agent i n the entire change process, the 89th Congress of the> United States enacted Public Law 89-10, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. T i t l e V, Section 505 of this Act provides for spec-i a l grants "to State educational agencies to pay part of the cost of experimental projects f o r developing state leadership or for the establishment of special services which, i n the judgment of the Commissioner, hold promise of making a substantial c o n t r i -bution to the solution of problems common to the state educa-t i o n a l agencies of a l l or several states." F i s c a l support pro-vided by this law made the formation of Multi-State Teacher Educa-t i o n Project (M-STEP) possible. In describing the project, Bosley (1969) writes: "The M-STEP design which evolved through cooperative action l a t e i n 19 65 and early 1966 embraced an avowed attempt to f i n d new di r e c t i o n s , even new horizons, i n teacher education. Major thrusts of this e f f o r t were planned to move i n s p e c i f i e d directions toward intensive experimentation i n the uses of t e l e -v i s i o n and video processes as aids to professional learning." (Bosley, p. 6, v o l . 1, 1969). In b r i e f , the aims and commitments of p a r t i c i p a t i n g states were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . In F l o r i d a , for example, the goal was to provide appropriate inservice educational experiences i n those' areas of the curriculum which were r e l a t i v e l y new to the school program, and to improve pre-service programs for professio-nal personnel. In Maryland, a cooperative project with the Col-lege of Education of the University of Maryland and a l o c a l educa-t i o n agency to e s t a b l i s h a Teacher Education Center for laboratory experiences, was successful. Leadership i n e l i c i t i n g regional agreements regarding standards for student teaching programs and the cooperative admin-i s t r a t i o n of such programs on a regional basis by colleges and l o c a l education agencies was the central goal of the program i n Michigan. Other states which participated i n the program were: South Carolina, Utah, Washington and West V i r g i n i a . The existence of the project was based on the expecta-ti o n that the seven states could accomplish more by working to-gether than by working alone. The project was extremely fortunate to receive the i n t e r e s t and the services of hundreds of top l e v e l s p e c i a l i s t s from the resource groups, both from inside the seven states intensively and from other states. The project i t s e l f and the outgrowths of the project possess a great significance for teacher education i n North America. (Bosley, 1969). In 1973, i n Jacksonville, F l o r i d a , Herbert Sprigle developed the Learning to Learn Teacher Education System (LTL). Multi-media tr a i n i n g materials were used i n a curriculum which gave trainees a r e a l i s t i c understanding of the processes and techniques of teaching young children. (Sprigle, 1973). An impor-tant facet of the program was the production of a series of video-16 tapes showing children's a c t i v i t i e s i n the LTL School, which Sprigle developed i n order to "capture the r e a l - l i f e drama of the classroom" and " i s o l a t e and control f o r examination i n close de-t a i l the processes of learning and teaching. (Sprigle, 1973, p. 9)." Describing his program, Sprigle (1973) writes: In a very r e a l sense the t r a i n i n g system ... i s a com-petency based system. We know the long benefits of children exposed to the Learning to Learn School program ..., we know the pre d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the Learning to Learn Program variables, including the teacher competencies, which produced these impres-sive benefits. (p. 12). Because of the i n i t i a l success of the system, i t was introduced into teacher t r a i n i n g programs at other u n i v e r s i t i e s with the hope that i t might be widely accepted. The problem with Sprigle's tapes has simply been that the farther away from F l o r i d a they were shown, the more foreign the children's behavi-our (especially language and accent) have appeared to students. Objective observations thus became impossible for students who were unable to see beyond the s u p e r f i c i a l regional characteris-t i c s of the children on the screen. (Dixon, 1981, p. 5). A v a l i d a t i o n study of Learning to Learn Teacher Education System was carried out at the University of Georgia. (Dixon, 1975). Comparison was made of s k i l l s i n i d e n t i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g spe-c i f i c videotaped c h i l d behaviours between early childhood teacher education students enrolled i n the Learning to Learn course (test 17 group) and students not exposed to the videotaped material (com-parison group). Test group students' progress i n the Learning to Learn course was assessed by means of the Videotape Analysis Test (VAT) (pre- and post-tests), and examined i n r e l a t i o n to student's cog-n i t i v e s t y l e s , personality types, and scholastic aptitude and performance. Test group student's cognitive s t y l e preferences were measured by the Siegel cognitive s t y l e test, and t h e i r per-sonality types defined by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. A l l subjects i n the study p a r t i c i p a t e d in. the VAT (pre-and pos t - t e s t s ) , used to measure student's s k i l l i n observing and c l a s s i f y i n g s p e c i f i c videotaped c h i l d behaviours. The Scholastic Aptitude Test and Grade Point Average were also used to assess sc h o l a s t i c aptitude and academic performance levels of a l l subjects. Result of this analysis demonstrated no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n -ship between student's s k i l l s i n observing and c l a s s i f y i n g speci-f i c videotaped c h i l d behaviours (as measured by VAT) and any of the independent variables, so that none of the independent v a r i -ables examined can be used to predict VAT change scores. (Dixon, 1975) . From the results i t was concluded that students who were exposed to the Learning to Learn course demonstrated increased s k i l l s i n observing and c l a s s i f y i n g s p e c i f i c videotaped c h i l d be-haviours (as measured by VAT). These increased s k i l l s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the independent variables of cognitive 18 s t y l e , personality type, and scholastic aptitude and performance. (Dixon, 1975). Videotapes i n Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n When video f i r s t became available to the general public many English Language Teaching (ELT) i n s t i t u t i o n s r e a l i z e d that th i s new technology could be of service to language teaching. (McGovern, 1980). ELT i n s t i t u t i o n s now make use of video to re-cord the learner's performance i n the classroom. Audio recordings made i n class or i n language booths f u l f i l l e d the function of a l -lowing the student to hear himself speaking the language. The b e l i e f was that t h i s would motivate the learner and help the tea-cher to diagnose problem areas. (Kritzer, 1976). Video enables one to take t h i s technique a stage further. With a video record-ing the learner not only hears himself but sees himself communica-ting verbally and nonverbally. Some i n s t i t u t i o n s allow students to operate a l l the equipment. They f i n d this increases motivation and involvement and also generates a l o t of language usage. Modern conditions reguire an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of science teaching f o r a l l ages. At the same time, science i s a f i e l d which p a r t i c u l a r l y requires v i s u a l demonstration. (Spears, 1980). The subjective opinion of experienced science teachers tends to confirm that the e f f e c t i v e learning of science requires the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of pupils i n laboratory work, f i e l d work, or i n sim i l a r p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out i n the classroom. It i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r the pupi l simply to read about science, l i s t e n to talks on science, look at the s c i e n t i f i c f i l m s , or at-19 tend to science programs on t e l e v i s i o n . Accordingly, i f t e l e v i -sion i s to be e f f e c t i v e l y employed as a medium for the d i r e c t teaching of science, p r a c t i c a l work by the pupils i n preparation for the transmission and as follow-up to the transmission should form an i n t e g r a l part of the lesson. (Spears, 1980). However, the research evidence indicates that where the s p e c i a l i s t teacher integrates t e l e v i s i o n teaching with laboratory work, the pupils achieve re s u l t s as good as or better than those achieved by pupils taught by conventional methods. (Barrington,. 1970). The instant replay a b i l i t y of video recording makes i t invaluable i n teaching certain concepts i n science. (Spears, 1980) . Videotapes are most often used i n i n s t r u c t i o n for pur-poses of enrichment to heighten the student's i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i -cular area of the cirriculum. (Coffelt, 1960). Customarily pro-grams of this kind are not considered ;sine-qua-non components of the courses with which they are used. Instead they are regar-ded as supplementary and extraordinary, with t h e i r main emphasis being on sp e c i a l motivation and e f f e c t . (Ackerman, . 1977). Videotapes for Parents' Education Individual housewives and members of various PTA groups i n Port Washington have gained i n s t r u c t i o n i n video and conse-quently become quite adept i n i t s u t i l i z a t i o n . (Dale, 1974). Their major concern has been the nature and quality of elementary school i n s t r u c t i o n . The l i b r a r y has videotaped classes, s p e c i a l 20 events, and innovative i n s t r u c t i o n . These tapes were made a v a i l -able to parents. For many parents i t was the f i r s t time they could be seated with th e i r children beside them and see on screen before them t h e i r children and others i n a class s i t u a t i o n as i t happened. This type of video information has provided many people for the f i r s t time a d i r e c t sense of what actually i s taking place i n the educative process of t h e i r children. Also, such tapes have provided parents with a knowledge of educational change since the i r days i n elementary schools. (Dale, 1974). Videotapes as Means of Communication to Parents of Handicapped Children I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of children who are handicapped but not attending school,, or otherwise not receiving an appropriate edu-cational program i s required under the Education for A l l Handi-capped Children Act. When the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process involves American Indian children i n reservation communities, school authorities are pre-sented with challenges i n the area of e f f e c t i v e communication. (Dunlop, Odenlacy & S e l l s , 1979). Limited a v a i l a b i l i t y of news media and telephone service, poor transportation, and the p r e v a i l -ing use of the native language are issued to be dealt with i n the endeavour to explain to parents and others what constitutes a handicapping condition, and what services are available to handi-capped children. In the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, sp e c i a l education s t a f f of the Rough Rock Demonstration School used video-21 taped vignettes of t y p i c a l s p e c i a l educational services as a means of communication to parents. (Dunlop, Odenlacy & S e l l s , 1979). Battery operated equipment was used to show these tapes to parents i n t h e i r homes, or to meetings of community persons. An " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t " , a community parent experienced as an aide i n a resource room, and b i l i n g u a l i n Navajo and English, presented the tapes and explained help available to the handi-capped. Viewers were s o l i c i t e d for r e f e r r a l s of children who might be handicapped, p a r t i c u l a r l y children not attending school. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n project recognized the obstacles to communication presented by issues of language, media, and trans-portation i n a reservation community. The Rough Rock project added the dimension of a video program to personal contact through the native language, as a means of informing the community about special education services and locating unserved handicapped children. Videotape Recordings for Remote Teaching Videotape recordings have been used for remote teaching at the University of Tennessee (UT) since 1969. The most extensive use of this medium has been i n the o f f e r i n g of graduate engineering courses at eight remote locations. More recently, course offerings have expanded to include classes i n teacher training,, i n d u s t r i a l management s t a t i s t i c s and finance. (Dotterweich, 1971). The remote teaching program, which was developed i n i t i a l l y under the leadership of F.N. Peebles and C.H. Weaver, has offered 47 separate courses 22 over i t s two year history. F a c i l i t i e s f o r teaching these remote classes have been established i n Dougherty H a l l , Perkins H a l l , and i n the t e l e v i s i o n studios of the communications building on the Knoxville campus. The Electrowriter, a two-way audio and v i s u a l communica-tions device, coupled with VTR i s one remote medium which posses-ses cert a i n inherent advantages which can be used e f f e c t i v e l y to increase the e f f i c i e n c y of the teaching process. (Dotterweich, 1971). One videotape can be duplicated or reused to serve multi-location classes at various times with v i r t u a l l y no l i m i t a t i o n on t o t a l student exposure. In addition, r e l a t i v e l y permanent e l e c t r o -writer i n s t a l l a t i o n s can be maintained, dependent only on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of two telephone l i n e s . This system i s more f l e x i b l e and nearly as e f f e c t i v e as a l i v e c l o s e d - c i r c u i t telecast and con-siderably less expensive to i n s t a l l and to operate. Technical Characteristics of the Videotapes The basic videotape system i s a three-piece audio and v i s u a l communication system: camera, recorder and monitor. I t i s a three-part communication system which takes a signal from a t e l e v i s i o n camera, records i t on a videotape recorder, and plays i t on the t e l e v i s i o n monitor. (Hague, 1978). The e s s e n t i a l physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the videotape medium that d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from t e l e v i s i o n i s that a l l three hardware components (camera, recorder, and monitor) are available to the user under his control, i n one location, at one time. (Hague, 1978). 23 Regardless of the kind of i n s t r u c t i o n a l medium, learning and remembering require the imposition of an active i n t e l l e c t u a l process by the learner on the material presented to his senses. While many have attested to the power of t e l e v i s i o n i n changing the learning process, one s i g n i f i c a n t disadvantage of the t e l e -v i s i o n medium i s that the learner i s not given the opportunity for immediate application of the knowledge he or she has re-ceived. (Anderson, - 1976). Unlike t e l e v i s i o n , videotape allows f o r control of the learning process by the i n s t r u c t o r or student. Both playback and recording can be controlled on the l o c a l l e v e l . Both in s t r u c t o r and student have opportunities to create th e i r own audio-video message. Videotape programs can a c t i v e l y engage the learner i n exercises that stimulate and encourage learning by use of inser-ted questions. (Heestand, 1979-80). The use of videotaped information involving r e a l i s t i c situations i s increasing i n the f i e l d s of art, speech, s e l f eva-luating teaching a b i l i t y and performance (Waimon and Ramseyer, 1970), and also may be used for a l l kinds of d i s c i p l i n e s and sub-j e c t matter areas. Videotapes are p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to provide immediate v i s u a l feedback to students concerning t h e i r performance, as they display t h e i r s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s . Videotape has the advantage of capturing a moving image and presenting people i n t h e i r natural a c t i v i t i e s and conversation. The viewer of the videotape, feels the communicator i s speaking to him on a one-to-one basis and has the sense that the things he witnesses are occurring now and have t r u e - t o - l i f e character. (Hague, 1978). Videotapes can transmit verbal, non-verbal, and para-verbal kinds of messages. Another p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of videotape i s the capacity f o r incorporating a variety of other media into one i n s t r u c t i o n a l module. Presentations may u t i l i z e overhead transparencies, f i l m c l i p s , photographs, s l i d e s , graphics, or other display media. Thus, video programs can save time, ef-f o r t , and storage space required f o r u t i l i z a t i o n of other forms of both media hardware and software. (Hague, 1978) . Video can produce the same information simultaneously to various sized audiences i n d i f f e r e n t locations by having monitors i n various classrooms and can be played back upon request. Thus, another promising use i s videotape cataloging and l i b r a r y develop-ment, which requires less storage space than p r i n t and other non-p r i n t materials. Summary There i s now considerable evidence to document the fac t that t e l e v i s i o n can be used with great effectiveness for a wide variety of i n s t r u c t i o n a l tasks, ranging from classroom i n s t r u c -t i o n , pre-school i n s t r u c t i o n for young children, fundamental and basic education for adults, and the pre-service and the inservice education of teachers. With the advent of closed c i r c u i t f a c i l i -t i e s , videotapes and videodiscs, i t appears t e l e v i s i o n ' s future w i l l be brighter than i t s past. Its use could be extended and expanded beyond the education and re-education of teacher person-25 nel, and w i l l place emphasis on the use of video systems as a re-search and diagnostic instrument i n a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and small group rather than as a disperser of information i n mass audience s i t u a t i o n s . The use of videotapes and videotape recor-ders hold the promise of turning t e l e v i s i o n into a much more f l e x i b l e teaching and learning instrument. MICROTEACHING Microteaching represents a m i n i a t u r e teaching s i t u a t i o n which o f f e r s a he l p f u l s e t t i n g for a teacher, experienced or i n -experienced, to acquire new teaching s k i l l s and to re f i n e o l d ones. The uniqueness of microteaching consists of two elements: The ease with which the teaching s i t u a t i o n can be con-t r o l l e d and manipulated, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of immediate feed-back for the student teacher. The f i r s t microteaching program began i n 1963 as part of a pre-service program at Stanford University under the leader-ship of Alle n , Bush and McDonald. From 1963 to 1966, four microteaching c l i n i c s were con-ducted at Stanford University with four hundred and f i f t y - n i n e students p a r t i c i p a t i n g . Experimental and control groups were formed, and a comparison was made of the various outcomes and observations. The following results were reported: (Webb & Baird, 1969) 26 (1) Candidates trained through micro-teaching techniques over an eight week period and spending less than ten hours a week i n t r a i n i n g , performed at a higher l e v e l of teaching competence than a similar group of candidates receiving separate i n s t r u c -t i o n and theory with an associated teacher aide experience - involving a time require-ment' of 20 and 25 hours per week. (2) Candidates who received student appraisal of t h e i r effectiveness improved s i g n i f i -cantly more i n t h e i r teaching performance than candidates who did not have access to such feedback. (3) Candidates receiving student feedback (in addition to the video playback) improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t h e i r teaching per-formance than candidates not having access to such feedback. (Webb & Baird, p. 87-88). In September 1972, a B r i t i s h team began to work on a project i n Lancaster and Manchester concerned with the transfer, redevelopment and evaluation of s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n a l microteaching materials o r i g i n a l l y developed i n the United States. This project, under the d i r e c t i o n of Elizabeth Perrott, had diverse goals. One emphasis, supported by the Centre f o r Educational Research and Innovation of the Organization for Economic Coopera-ti o n and Development (OECD) focused on the transfer process i t s e l f : Could teacher t r a i n i n g systems developed i n one country be success-f u l l y redeveloped for use i n another? A second emphasis, supported by the Department of Education and Science, sought to evaluate the usefulness of the materials i n inservice t r a i n i n g programs i n the United Kingdom. (Applebee, 1976). Through the l i a i s o n work of OECD, a se l e c t i o n of "mini-courses" developed at the Far West Laboratory f o r Educational 27 Research and Development, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , were made available f o r transfer and redevelopment both by the U.K. team and by a series of s i m i l a r teams working i n other European coun-t r i e s . These minicourses o f f e r short, intensive t r a i n i n g de-signed to bring about changes i n experienced teacher's use of 12 s p e c i f i c teaching s k i l l s , leading to a reduction i n teacher-talk and an increase i n pupil involvement. P a r a l l e l investigations of teacher's attitudes indicated that the courses and goals were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y received by the teachers. V i r t u a l l y a l l participants emerged convinced of the value of microteaching, and f e l t that t h e i r own teaching had been improved. (Perott, E. et a l , 1975). In both the European and Stanford programs, microteaching has been used f o r the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g program of teachers, and was planned around the following t r a i n i n g pattern: (Morrison & Mclntyre, 19 69) Afte r teaching a b r i e f lesson, usually f i v e to ten minu-tes, the trainee and his supervisor c r i t i q u e the lesson. If videotape recordings are made of the lessons, they are played back at this time. Afte r the c r i t i q u e , the trainee revises his lesson and teaches i t again, usually to a d i f f e r e n t group of pupils. The second teaching session i s also followed by a c r i t i q u e . There are many variations possible to thi s pattern due to the f l e x i b i l i t y of the components. For example, i f s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i s involved, i t may occur before the i n i t i a l teaching session when, for example, 28 videotapes of teachers "modelling" the teaching s k i l l are shown to trainees who then practice the s k i l l i n t h e i r lesson. In another v a r i a t i o n , the reteach may be held much l a t e r , giving the trainee longer time to revise his lesson. (Morrison & Mclntyre, 1969). From this description, four components of the microteach-ing process emerge: Setting and equipment; pa r t i c i p a n t s ; speci-f i e d teaching s k i l l s (or the technical s k i l l s of teaching)/; and a program f o r imparting these s k i l l s . These components w i l l be discussed further. Setting and Equipment. A normal classroom setting, with a teacher's desk, blackboard, and student desks, provides the necessary space and equipment f o r a microteaching station. Spe-c i a l rooms or equipment may be needed for c e r t a i n subject areas (e.g. physics, gymnastics). I f the c l i n i c i s held i n a school, i t should be possible to provide appropriate teaching settings for a l l subject-matter areas. (Brown, 1975). If videotape re-cordings are used, there w i l l be additional equipment and an operator i n the room. However, videotape recorders are compact, ea s i l y manoeuvrable and operable by non-technical s t a f f . There are several advantages to using videotape record-ings i n microteaching. For t r a i n i n g purposes, videotape recordings provide supervisors and trainees a common, objective frame of reference for c r i t i q u i n g a teacher's performance immediately after i t i s completed. The advantages of such attributes are pointed out by extensive psychological research on the effects of feedback i n -29 eluding work on knowledge of r e s u l t s , t r i a l and error learning, and reinforcement. (Brown, 1975). For research purposes, videotape recordings provide objective data which can be stored and replayed almost i n d e f i -n i t e l y so that a data bank of teaching behaviours and situations can be accumulated. Longitudinal studies benefit especially from such data banks. Videotape recordings are an extremely useful adjunct to the microteaching setting, but they are not the essence of the concept. (Harrison & Mclntyre, 1969) . Their frequent use i n microteaching context has led some to assume that there cannot be microteaching without videotape recording. Because they lack the resources to provide such technical contexts, many would-be contributors to the development of microteaching have declined to investigate i t s p o t e n t i a l . Participants. Trainees are individuals given the oppor-tunity to become more p r o f i c i e n t at teaching, usually with refe-rence to a cer t a i n s k i l l or group of s k i l l s , through a program of focused presentation, practice and feedback. (Morrison & Mclntyre, 1969). Feedback may come from pupils and supervisors i n written and/or verbal form and possibly from playback of a videotape recording of the performance. The trainee i s then given a chance to revise his performance strategy and to teach a second lesson, usually with a d i f f e r e n t group of students. The task of microteaching pupils, usually selected to represent a variety of socio-economic backgrounds, subject matter, 30 interests and competencies, and age l e v e l s , i s twofold: To pro-vide r e a l i s t i c classroom in t e r a c t i o n f o r trainees, and to help provide them with accurate information about t h e i r teaching per-formances . Supervisors play a key ro l e i n microteaching, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n pre-service t r a i n i n g programs. Experienced i n the s k i l l s emphasized i n the tr a i n i n g , i t i s the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to help trainees r e l a t e such s k i l l s to both the theory underlying the s k i l l s and to the p r a c t i c a l conditions of the classroom. (Young, 1970) . The r o l e of supervisor i s one of continuous consultation. Supervision should be consultative because the type of assessment a trainee receives a f f e c t s the amount of freedom he feels he has to innovate i n thi s microteaching performances; the supervisor's r o l e i s to provide information about trainee's performances which w i l l help them to acquire the appropriate teaching s k i l l s . Technical S k i l l s . y In the i n i t i a l microteaching c l i n i c at Stanford, i t was found that some sort of systematic exposure to teaching strategies was needed to help acquaint trainees with a repertoire of useful behaviours and also to help provide a focus for c r i t i q u i n g trainee's microteaching lessons. Instead of being l i m i t e d to o v e r a l l and in d i v i d u a l impressions about teaching per-formances supervisors could concentrate on helping trainees acquire strategies previously i d e n t i f i e d as help f u l to teachers. (Morrison & Mclntyre, 19 69). One such s k i l l i s that of reinforcement. As with many of the technical s k i l l s of teaching i d e n t i f i e d thus f a r , i t i s based on psychological rationale and research, i n thi s case 31 about the importance to learning of receiving p o s i t i v e feedback about one's previous actions. A more cognitive s k i l l i s that of asking "probing" ques-tions. (Morrison & Mclntyre, 1969). A probing question requires a pup i l to go beyond his i n i t i a l response to a teacher's comment or question.. This usually e n t a i l s some sort of c l a r i f i c a t i o n or elaboration upon his previous response. From the number and d i v e r s i t y of components of micro-teaching programs, planning i s a demanding task. S t i l l , t his i s perhaps an advantage i n that i t forces a t r a i n i n g program to analyze and to evaluate the basis f o r , and consequences of, i t s plans. In this way, microteaching encourages discussion and de-bate about these issues, as well as providing a setting for observing and assessing the decisions made. (Brown, 1975). Studies on components of the microteaching process i t -s e l f have concentrated on the techniques of presentation of tech-n i c a l s k i l l s to trainees (modelling research) and on the way i n which trainees are given information about th e i r attempts to learn and apply these and other teaching s k i l l s (research on feedback), because these two variables have been i d e n t i f i e d by many con-cerned with microteaching to be the most important i n s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . Presentation of the "Modelling" Component Modelling has been described as a two-step process where the learner f i r s t observes a model (e.g. an expert teacher) de-monstrating a s k i l l or s k i l l s and then t r i e s to shape his own 32 behaviours af t e r those of the model. (Borg et a l , 1970). A review of research on observational learning i n per-sonality development by Bandura and Walters has shown that complex s o c i a l behaviour may be acquired almost e n t i r e l y through imita-t i o n and that "the provision of face to face models" accelerates the learning process. (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967). They also showed that filmed models are as e f f e c t i v e as r e a l l i f e models i n transmitting behaviours. Modelling has been seen to be important to teacher educa-ti o n because trainees are able to discern from deliberately plan-ned models d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teaching s k i l l s . Constructed audiovisual demonstrations are assumed to be more e f f e c t i v e than l i v e classroom observations which are usually uncontrolled i n the sense that the trainee may not observe the correct behaviours or c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t what he has been t o l d to observe. (Morrison & Mclntyre, 19 69). In teacher t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e modelling requires that the s k i l l s which trainees observe and imitate be described i n terms of s p e c i f i c behaviours, that competent models be used, and that trainees have practice opportunities on which they w i l l receive immediate feedback. After providing for these conditions, several experi-ments have investigated the r e l a t i v e effects of these conditions on teacher's a c q u i s i t i o n of several of the technical s k i l l s of teaching. In the modelling techniques investigated, trainees view short video recordings of master teachers performing l e s -33 sons to demonstrate various teaching strategies and then practice the s k i l l i n a lesson of the i r own. They then view a videotape recording of the lesson with or without a supervisor to c r i t i q u e t h e i r attempt to emulate the s k i l l previously modelled. In addition to showing the o v e r a l l value of model tech-niques to teacher t r a i n i n g , the studies conducted thus far have indicated that some sort of accompanying commentary (e.g. cueing and contingent focus) i s a useful adjunct to the model tapes. Written commentaries are also useful but perhaps not as valuable by themselves as are the model tapes. In sum, videotape models are* an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e addition to microteaching tra i n i n g techniques. (Brown, 1975). Presentation and Comments about Research Findings on the "Feedback" Component • Research on the feedback component of microteaching has concentrates on assessing various possible means of providing trainees with he l p f u l information about t h e i r microteaching per-formances so that they can improve upon their teaching behaviours i n subsequent microteaching sessions and/or actual classroom performance.. Wolfe made the following statement regarding feedback: "Knowledge of results i n t r a i n i n g programs should be automatic, immediate, and meaningfully related to the task being learned." (Wolfe, 1951). Lawther deciphered the following basic p r i n c i p l e s re-garding the effectiveness of knowledge of results on the stimula-ti o n of learning: 34 - "Learning i s proportionally greater as quality, exactness, and pre c i s i o n of this playback of knowledge of results increases. - "When knowledge of results i s not available, the learner often can improve at some extent by setting up his own c r i t e r i a from past ex-perience to help him subjectively approximate his r e s u l t s . - "With a delay of knowledge of r e s u l t s , perfor-mance declines. - "Performance deteriorates when knowledge of results i s withdrawn. - "Continuous and complete knowledge of res u l t s fosters much greater learning than discon-tinuous and incomplete knowledge of r e s u l t s . - "Precise supplemental aids ( i . e . graphs, films of action, etc.) which provide more precise knowledge or make apparent the differences between the learner's performance and those of better performers, seems to increase learning. - "Feedback of incorrect information retards learning i n d i r e c t proportion to the amount of misinformation." (Lawther, 1968, p. 98-99). Lawther summarized that when knowledge of results for a given performance i s lacking, l i t t l e or no learning takes place. The need to develop new modes of providing possible feedback i n microteaching sessions, stemmed from the inadequacy of the subjective, limited feedback from s e l f or supervisory observations. Videotape recordings were seen as viable communication mediums, allowing the student teachers to see the i r own perfor-mances immediately, i n a complete, objective and r e l i a b l e manner. (Allen & Fortune, 1967). The teacher and his supervisor can communicate more e f f e c t i v e l y since both members could see the 35 s p e c i f i c point being discussed as they actually happen. The miss-ing points could be in s t a n t l y replayed, thereby avoiding the p i t -f a l l s of t r a d i t i o n a l supervisory sessions. McDonald and A l l e n studied the effects of feedback pro-cedures i n two related investigations conducted i n the Stanford microteaching c l i n i c . In the f i r s t experiment, "Effects of s e l f -feedback and reinforcement on the a c q u i s i t i o n of a teaching s k i l l " , the objective was to compare the effects of self-evaluation of a teaching performance with feedback provided by a supervising i n s t r u c t o r . (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967). The dependent variable was the r e l a t i v e frequency with which the teacher p o s i t i v e l y reinforced pupils p a r t i c i p a t o r y res-ponses during teacher-pupil i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom. The treatment groups received t r a i n i n g involving either self-feedback only, reinforcement only, or reinforcement plus discrimination (when they were given cues to pup i l behaviour to which reinforce-ment should be made). Results indicated that reinforcement plus discrimination t r a i n i n g had the most e f f e c t on subsequent teacher performances. The objective of the second experiment was "to compare the effects of delay of reinforcement and the kind of reinforce-ment provided. (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967). Trainee's use of prob-ing questions constituted the dependent variable. Following i n i -t i a l written instructions about probing, treatment groups provided trainees with either immediate feedback with massed practice (three teaching and feedback sessions held together on successive 36 days); immediate feedback with di s t r i b u t e d practice (the next teaching session, following immediate feedback on the previous session, took place one or two weeks l a t e r ) ; delayed feedback (one week afte r a performance) with distributed practice (where the feedback on, for example, performance one, was given a week la t e r , at which time the next practice performance took place also); or reinstated feedback (supervision based on a tape record-ing of the performance) and d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between groups, though results suggested that d i s t r i b u t e d practice and delayed feedback groups kept r e l a -t i v e l y higher probing response rates when measured on a post test seven weeks afte r i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g . The lack of significance between the conditions of practice is; contrary to most experi-mental results on the spacing of practice, where d i s t r i b u t e d practice has proven superior to massed practi c e . Based on research on feedback, the following concepts were established: (1) Feedback or knowledge of results appears to be the most important variable c o n t r o l l i n g s k i l l e d performances and learning. (2) Feedback can be transmitted to an i n d i v i d u a l through i n t e r n a l and external means. Internal feedback includes information received through the "sense of proprioception", whereas external feedback i s received through the senses of smell, sight, touch,,taste and sound. (McDonald & A l l e n , 1967, p. 83). (3) The exact function of feedback i s unknown; however, psychologists and educators are i n agreement that a motivating, 37 regulating, or r e i n f o r c i n g factor takes place to change human be-haviour when feedback i s induced. At the same time the l i t e r a -ture indicates that no improvement i s made i n the absence of feedback, improvement i s made i n i t s presence, and deterioration occurs when feedback i s withdrawn. (4) Time delay between performance and feedback i s a controversial topic; however, most studies indicated that when the time i n t e r v a l i s made short, performance and learning are further enhanced. On the other hand, a short time delay does not appear to be a s i g n i f i c a n t factor for improving retention. (5) Studies that have u t i l i z e d feedback by means of a videotape recorder and monitor were a valuable adjunct to super-visory c r i t i q u e s , but these studies were limited, and l i t t l e or no r e p l i c a t i o n of studies was available. (McDonald & Al l e n , 1967). Summary The advent of video recording equipment which i s r e l a -t i v e l y inexpensive and convenient i n use has had a marked impact j on the t r a i n i n g of teachers. The development of microteaching at Stanford University and at other centres r e f l e c t e d the capacity of video recording to give feedback to a trainee about his perfor-mances. It became possible to use video recording to provide a common frame of reference for instr u c t o r and student for acqu i s i -t i o n of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . Studies of microteaching indicate that i t can produce s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n teaching behaviour i n a microteaching set-38 t i n g . The most important determinants of the changes appear be the e x h i b i t i o n of examples of appropriate teaching s k i l l s "Modelling" and "feedback" procedures. CHAPTER III 39 PROCEDURES The purpose of this chapter i s to present the procedures for the study. Procedures of accumulating videotaped data about four target children, a description of the systematic observatio-nal plan, and the procedures used i n the p i l o t study are presented. Sequences were videotaped i n a kindergarten classroom during free play a c t i v i t i e s i n a university c h i l d study centre. A detailed layout of the set t i n g and a l i s t of materials available i n the classroom i s provided i n Appendix A. The four target children were selected by the classroom teacher following guidelines given by a faculty member. These guidelines included a description of three s o c i a l behaviour types (cooperative, s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d , and highly social) which would provide contrasting modes of behaviour for analysis. The c h i l d -ren attended kindergarten f o r f i v e 2% hour sessions per week. The children's parents were informed about the nature of the study and written permission was obtained allowing observa-ti o n and videotaping of the children, they were i n v i t e d to observe i n the classroom at any time during the study. In order to accumulate data on the natural behaviour of target children for the present study, a videotape recording sys-tem was employed. The actual recording was undertaken by the researcher. The main task was to record clear and i n focus ima-ges of target children. The camera was operated without noise, and the presence of the operator and the camera i n the classroom were disregarded almost completely. Teachers were not required 40 to adjust t h e i r procedures and routines i n any way, no attempt was made to present anything other than the behaviours displayed by each target c h i l d during free play a c t i v i t i e s . A twenty minute segment of continuous free play a c t i -v i t y was retained as a "record tape" for each target c h i l d . The record tapes are e n t i t l e d as follows: Tape No. 1: Kevin & Aaron Tape No. 2: Zev Tape No. 3: Shawna Tape. No. 4: Aaron When the videotape recording was completed, an observa-t i o n a l plan was developed. Emphasizing i n s i x general categories: Language, physi-c a l , a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , cognitive areas of development of young children after extensive research work was developed and defined a large number, of s p e c i f i c categories for observing children's behaviour. Use of general categories provided broader grouping of behaviour and assured adequate frequency of occurrence. At the same time, the s p e c i f i c categories allowed for distinguishing among the target children. The guiding questions, which encompass the kindergarten l e v e l , with some modification could be extended to preschool and sp e c i a l education l e v e l s . The following observational plan was established: 1. Physical Development How do you view the child's physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? 1.1 Gross motor s k i l l s . 4i: 1.1.1 Can the c h i l d walk and run evenly? 1.1.2 Can the c h i l d walk forward heel to toe? 1.1.3 Can the c h i l d walk backward heel to toe? 1.1.4 Can the c h i l d walk on his heels? 1.1.5 Can the c h i l d walk on his toes? 1.1.6 Can the c h i l d skip at least ten feet without losing rhythm? 1.1.7 Can the c h i l d jump up and down i n place without losing balance? 1.1.8 Can the c h i l d hop on one foot? 1.1.9 Can the c h i l d throw and catch a b a l l ? 1.1.10 Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y to climb,> across climbing frames, up ladders? 1.1.11 Does the c h i l d show control of a t r i c y c l e ? 1.1.12 Does the c h i l d attempt to ride a bicycle? 1.1.13 Can the c h i l d maintain balance on a balance beam? 1.1.14 Does the c h i l d l i f t structures and crawl i n block b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y ? 1.1.15 What type of movements does the c h i l d exercise? 1.1.16 Which part of the body were ac t i v e l y engaged during the a c t i v i t y ? - head - neck - shoulder - arm - wrist - trunk - legs - feet 1.2 Fine Motor S k i l l s 1.2i.rl Can the c h i l d make a stack of four to eight small blocks ? 4,2 , 1.2.2 Can the c h i l d dump objects out of small container without dropping container? 1.2.3 Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y to hold the pe n c i l to make a mark on paper? 1.2.4 Can the c h i l d pass small objects from one hand to the other without dropping object? 1.2.5 How does the c h i l d handle and place each block? 1.2.6 How does the c h i l d handle the clay? (squeeze, push, grasp, pound, stretch) 1.2.7 Can the c h i l d pour without s p i l l i n g ? 1.2.8 Can the c h i l d use scissors? 1.2.9 Can the c h i l d p r i n t his f i r s t name? 1.2.10 Can the c h i l d t i e his shoe lace? 1.2.11 Can the c h i l d dress himself? 1.2.12 Does the c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t / c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s ? 1.2.13 Does the c h i l d assemble simple puzzles? 1.2.14 Does the c h i l d use pincer grasp to pick up small objects? 2. A f f e c t i v e and Soc i a l Development 2.1.1 How the c h i l d views his physical appearance? (body, siz e ...) 2.1.2 What evidence i s i n the child's behaviour of how he views his sex role? 2.1.3 Does the c h i l d express his feelings? 2.1.4 Is the c h i l d s ensitive to others' feelings and views? 2.1.5 Does the c h i l d help other children? 2.1.6 Does the c h i l d show evidence of r e l i a b i l i t y and re s p o n s i b i l i t y ? 2.1.7 Does the c h i l d stand i n l i n e waiting for a turn at the a c t i v i t y centre/playground? 2.1.8 Does the c h i l d say "please" when requesting something from another child? 43. 2.1.9 In what actions or a c t i v i t i e s i s the c h i l d dependent or independent? 2.1.10 Does the c h i l d choose one p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y more often than another? 2.1.11 In what types of play a c t i v i t i e s does the c h i l d p r i -marily participate? - s o l i t a r y play - p a r a l l e l play - associative play - cooperative toy play (equipment centered) - cooperative peer play (peer centered) 2.1.12 Does the c h i l d show evidence of unoccupied or onlooker behaviour? 2.1.13 Is the c h i l d isolated? 2.1.14 What i s the child's rmanner of c o n t r o l l i n g others? - leader - follower - clown 2.1.15 What kind of ideas or suggestions does the c h i l d o f f e r to others or follow? 2.1.16 When c o n f l i c t s or disagreements with peers occur, what does the c h i l d do to reach a resolution? 2.1.17 Is the c h i l d often involved i n arguments or fights? If so, what s i t u a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e s these occurrences? 2.1.18 Does the c h i l d show evidence of disruptive behaviour? - disruptive noise with objects - ori e n t i n g responses - b l u r t i n g out, commenting on vocal noise - t a l k i n g - improper po s i t i o n - agression - disturbing others d i r e c t l y 2.1.19 Does the c h i l d show aggressiveness? - personal physical attack - taunting - threatening - destroying property of another's labour - usurping property 44 3. I n t e l l e c t u a l and Cognitive Development 3.1.1 Can the c h i l d recognize alphabet l e t t e r s A - Z? 3.1.2 Can the c h i l d recognize numerals 1 - 12? 3.1.3 Does' the c h i l d know his f i r s t and l a s t name? 3.1.4 Does the c h i l d know his f u l l address and telephone number? 3.1.5 Given a simple sentence a c h i l d can restate i t ? 3.1.6 Given a picture, a c h i l d can formulate and state a sentence describing the picture? 3.1.7 Does the c h i l d know the basic colours? (red, blue, yellow) 3.1.8 Does the c h i l d recognize the shapes of a square ...? 3.1.9 Does the c h i l d note s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences for objects? (size, shape, weight, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , quantity) 3.1.10 Does the c h i l d show an in t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t / a c t i v i t y ? 3.1.11 Does the c h i l d f i n d i t hard to get started on an a c t i v i t y ? 3.1.12 Does the c h i l d f l i t from one a c t i v i t y to another? 3.1.13 To what extent i s the c h i l d interested i n books? 3.1.14 To what extent does the c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s ? 3.1.15 Does the c h i l d assemble materials and manipulate equipment? 3.1.16 Does the c h i l d choose appropriate tools/materials? 3.1.17 What evidence does the c h i l d give of awareness of space, p o s i t i o n , or location? 3.1.18 Does the c h i l d Show evidence of understanding of time sequences? (yesterday, today, tomorrow) 3.1.19 Does the c h i l d enjoy learning about new things and new experiences? 4 5 4. Language 4.1 What i s the child's use of spoken language? 4.1.1 Vocabulary What categories of words i n the child' s vocabulary are most frequent? - family relationship - people - feelings - body parts - toys - animals - plants ... - food - colours/shapes - space - time - vehicles - clothes - weather - furniture - tools 4.1.2 Sentence Structure Does the c h i l d use the following type of sentences? - questions? - imperatives? - subject/predicate/object? 4.1.3 Syn t a c t i c a l Forms What i s the child's use of: - pronouns? - adverbs ? - future tense? - singular/plural? 4.1.4 Is the child's speech clear and d i s t i n c t ? 4.1.5 Child says "please" when requesting something from another c h i l d . 4.1.6 Does the c h i l d choose vocabulary to best express his thoughts? 4.1.7 What i s the o v e r a l l impression made by the c h i l d when speaking to another c h i l d or adult? 46 4.1.8 Written Language 4.1.9 Does the c h i l d show evidence of knowledge of l e f t - t o -r i g h t orientation i n the written language? 4.1.10 Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t i e s i n auditory discrimina-tion? 4.1.13 Can the c h i l d recognize the alphabet A - Z? 4.1.14 Is the c h i l d able to recognize some word forms? (sun, hat, cat; exit) 4.2 Does the c h i l d communicate nonverbally? (Posture and bodily o r i e n t a t i o n , f a c i a l expressions, gestures, eye contact, touch, (contacts made and received), use of space and time, distance v..) 4.2.1 How i s the child's posture and bodily orientation? - comfortable and relaxed - confident - poised, s t r a i g h t - thinking posture - small co n t r o l l e r s - tense 4.2.2 Which are the ch i l d ' s most common gestures? - tapping finger - toe tapping - nose .touching and rubbing - rubbing the eye - covering the mouth with the hand - gestures c l a r i f y i n g the verbal message - busy hands - pen or pencil chewing - tremor of the hand, he s i t a t i n g or v a c i l l a t i n g move-ment 4.2.3 How i s the child's f a c i a l expression? - happy, sincere smile - reasonably attentive - sad - frowning - blushing - timid - bored - angry - disgusted 47 4.2.4 What type of contacts (touches) i s the c h i l d doing? - accident - support - assistance - caress - exploration - pointing - h i t t i n g - pushing - p u l l i n g 4.2.5 What are the responses to the child's contacts? - cooperation - resistence - f l i g h t - p a s s i v i t y 4.2.6 Does the c h i l d show evidence of good eye contact? - glance - gaze 4.2.7 What are the minimum distances between the c h i l d and others? 4.2.8 How i s the child's use of space i n the classroom settr-ing? 4.2.9 Does the c h i l d show a b i l i t y to organize his time well? 4.2.10 How much time does the c h i l d spend at each a c t i v i t y ? 4.3 What i s the child's reaction to the presence or absence of certain materials, supplies and equipment? 4.4 How does the room/centre arrangement a f f e c t the children? 4.5 OTHERS 4;8; To test the effectiveness of videotaped a c t i v i t i e s of children's d i f f e r e n t behaviours used i n connection with systema-t i c observational guidelines i n order to help pre-service and i n -service teachers to be accurate observers of young children's natural behaviour the following p i l o t study was c a r r i e d out. Subjects Subjects of the study were 23 pre-service and i n -service teachers comprising the enrollment of Curriculum and Instruction for Young Children class (Ed. 333) during summer ses-sion 1981 at U.B.C. Pre-service and in-service teachers were treated as a homogeneous group. Procedures Pre-service and in-service teachers were asked to ob-serve without interruption a 15 minute segment of videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d "Kevin and Aaron". When the videotape showing ended, the participants were asked to write a description of what they saw i n the provided observation guide sheets. Three types of observation guide sheets were adminis-tered to the same group at one week time inte r v a l s between each test. Before s t a r t i n g another viewing session of the same video-tape and the second type of observation, the previous type of observation was reinforced, general p o s i t i v e feedback was given and the c r i t e r i a of scoring observations was provided. A 30 minute time l i m i t was set for writing up the f i r s t two observations, and 45 minutes f o r the t h i r d type. After com-pl e t i o n of the observation guide sheets, a l l participants were asked to evaluate the observation guide sheets used during the 49 tes t s , and give reasons why they preferred the chosen type of observation form. The observation guide sheets as well as the evaluation form as i t was used i n the present study i s attached i n Appendix B. The following scoring system was established to score each i n d i v i d u a l t e s t . Class A. Describes p a r t i c u l a r observed behaviour, 120 or more uses professional terminology,. i s speci-on a maximum f i c , four examples or more are given, of 150 Class B. Describes p a r t i c u l a r observed behaviour, 98 - 119 uses professional terminology, i s less out of 150 s p e c i f i c , gives two examples. Class C. Does not adequately describe p a r t i c u l a r 70 - 97 observed behaviour, i s a generalized out of 150 statement, i s vague, incorrect or no examples are given. Each response sheet was scored by the researcher and another rater according to the scoring procedures established above. Interrater r e l i a b i l i t y for scored response sheets was .98. 50 ' CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS This chapter presents the analysis of four videotapes and the r e s u l t s of analyses c a r r i e d out i n the p i l o t study. V . l When the videotape recordings were completed, a syste-matic observational plan was developed and a great amount of data resulted. This data t o l d about the target'children as follows: Tape No. 1 Children's Name & Age: Kevin and Aaron^both 5 years old. Setting: C h i l d Study Centre, kindergarten classroom. The observation i s based on a 20 minute videotaped sequence i n the kindergarten classroom on January 15, 1980. "The observation begins with a choice chart where Kevin and Aaron chose "small blocks". Kevin i s of average proportion, not p a r t i c u l a r l y large boned, neither would he be described as small. He i s slim, and his posture i s s t r a i g h t and comfortable. He has short brown curly ha i r , Creole skin, and dark eyes, generally clean appearance. Aaron i s a t a l l boy, well developed for his age, stands up firmly with easy balance. He has longish s t r a i g h t dark hair, creole skin and dark eyes. Kevin and Aaron have good gross motor s k i l l s . Their gross motor a c t i v i t i e s were integrated with complex actions i n the block building centre. Both boys e a s i l y move to rhythmic music, skip about 10 feet from chosing board to the small block centre, able to step over block structure without kicking i t down. Both children are stretching, crawling on knees, standing, s i t t i n g . They are moving i n rhythm with music on the record player. Their head, shoulders, arms and legs are a c t i v e l y engaged. Kevin's balance seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y excellent as evidenced by his leg on, a chair and his foot s t i c k i n g out the other side and standing in, this p o s i t i o n for more than 20 seconds. Kevin displays f l e x i b i -l i t y i n his body, e.g. laying down, twisting, c u r l i n g , bending his body, r o l l i n g on the f l o o r during block building a c t i v i t y . Also, Kevin shows good control of arm-eye-hand coordina-ti o n when he i s turning the crank handle i n both d i r e c t i o n s . Kevin and Aaron demonstrate food f i n e muscle control and eye-hand co-ordination by placing together quickly and accurately square and unit blocks to make the walls of the house or by placing on the top of the "large switch" block a cone shaped block to form a rocket launch pad. Also, both boys demonstrated c a p a b i l i t y of fi n e motor s k i l l s by using pincer grasp when they picked up the thi n twigs of the "pick-up set". Kevin began a construction project, Aaron took i t over, Kevin protected i t and excluded other participants while Aaron was prepared to accept another player. In the beginning Kevin placed blocks alongside, while Aaron f i t t e d blocks together. Though Kevin r e a l i z e d the "boat" part (gothic door shaped block) f i t into the dock (large switch block) t h i s f i r e d his imagination and gave the whole construction a climate. When Darren wanted to enter Kevin and Aaron's play, both are quick to l e t him know: "You can't put i t i n ours; you whack the tower" or "We always b u i l d things, you don't" and regardless .52 of Darren's feelings he i s not accepted into t h e i r play. At the beginning of Kevin and Aaron's bu i l d i n g project, Amir eagerly supplies square and unit block which Aaron i s quick to use, but he i s not i n v i t e d i n to play. He began some play of his own next to Kevin and Aaron's project. They are not concerned much about other children. They are developing reliance and trust of each other as good friends. Kevin and Aaron were a unit of play within them-selves singing and s o c i a l l y i n t e r a c t i n g throughout. They are engaged i n a peer centered cooperative play. A verbal argument occurred when Darren knocked down Kevin and Aaron's "town". This i n t r u s i o n caused Kevin to react physically "throwing a block" and this terminated Kevin and Aaron's block building experience and they went to the choosing board to choose a new a c t i v i t y . Both boys are able to choose and work independently on a chosen a c t i v i t y , when an argument occurred they were able to solve i t without teacher intervention. Kevin started to choose small block building and Aaron followed him. They were interested i n the block building a c t i v i t y and they kept adding and modifying th e i r structure, e.g. house, garage, dock, and rocket launch pad. In a background of a record playing children's songs, Kevin and Aaron were a l t e r n a t i v e l y singing and chatting with each other and choosing the appropriate materials for the block b u i l d -ing. 53 Both boys are reorganizing and using not only basic square, rectangle, t r i a n g l e shaped blocks, they are able to use more complex shapes as "large switch" f o r tunnel, and cones for the top of the launch pad. Aaron and Kevin note s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of s i z e , shape and weight of the blocks. For example: Aaron: "Too big, t r y t h i s one." "Here i s one that might'fit." In another instance both boys are comparing the bottom of the cones to see i f they w i l l f i t , and s l i g h t l y weighing them with t h e i r hands. Aaron's concentration seemed to have increased as the work and plan developed. Kevin sometimes takes o f f and picks up a p l a s t i c bino-cular and looks through, then returns to playing with blocks. Kevin and Aaron's manipulation of t h e i r own bodies and materials r e f l e c t e d excellent s p a t i a l awareness. They are plac-ing symetrically and balancing the blocks without knocking them over, also, when Kevin i s playing with the toy crane, p u l l i n g i t up and down, when i t was down Aaron said: "Maip^ j, i s the bottom", when the rocket i s taking o f f , Kevin said "psh" and i s moving his hands with the cone s t r a i g h t up i n the a i r . Kevin and Aaron can recognize alphabet l e t t e r s . They were able to read t h e i r own names, and place the name tags beside the a c t i v i t y they chose. Kevin and Aaron's verbal and non-verbal languages appear to be appropriate for th e i r age l e v e l . They are using language to 54 describe t h e i r experiences and to express t h e i r feelings.. For example: Aaron t o l d Kevin: "Don't put i t i n there, that's not how i t goes." "You can't park there. That's where the boat comes out." Kevin: " I t carries blocks." Aaron: " I t doesn't carry blocks, i t carries people." (pushing a block along into the structure) Kevin: "Is that your house?" (questioned) Aaron: (gave information) "That's not how i t goes." Aaron's comment based on previous block play experience, e.g.: "No, don't put i t i n there, i t ' s hard to get out." Kevin demonstrates well developed language when he con-fronts Darren, "You always break things", and continues to argue with reasoning as why he 1doesn*t want him to j o i n i n . Aaron's reaction was givi n g him a verbal reprimand. "Look what you d i d I " Darren: "No, I didn't." Kevin: "Yes, you did I You were pressing down hard and i t broke." Darren: "I wasn't pressing that hard." Kevin's face expressed anger and r a i s i n g his voice he said to Darren: "You're not p l a y i n g l " (in f r u s t r a t i o n , threw Darren's car on the floor) Kevin and Aaron used words i n proper context, e.g. bu i l d -ing, house, smaller ramp, wreck, broke, park, rockets, shelter.. The boys are using appropriate language, speaking i n sentences, and t h e i r speech i s cle a r . They use sentences when describing actions or giving directions and are using gestures to reinforce the verbal langu-age. At•the beginning of the tape Kevin i s standing i n front of the choosing board undecided, watching with wide open eyes, and the moment when he saw Aaron, his face shows a happy sincere smile and with a cheerful voice he in v i t e s him, "Hey, you want to play with me?" Both, boys made good use of the materials available i n the block building center, fantasizing and imagining things during the a c t i v i t y . Kevin and Aaron chose an a c t i v i t y i n a couple of seconds and they are building with great interest for about 15 minutes. Afterwards they choose another a c t i v i t y and play with a pick-up set u n t i l the end of the sequence. Tape No. 2 Child's Name & Age: Zev, 5 years old. Setting: Child Study Center, kindergarten classroom. The observation i s based on a 20 minute videotaped sequence during free play a c t i v i t i e s on January 21, 1980. Zev i s a small slim boy, his posture and bodily orienta-tion i s controlless and tense. He has long brown hair, p a l i d face, and blue eyes. Zev's gross motor actions were lim i t e d during the obser-56 ved period. He was hopping, jumping, stamping his feet, his move-ments were jerky and his fidgeting and constant bodily movements are quite disruptive. Zev's motor a c t i v i t i e s were integrated with other ac-tions. For example, Zev covers his mouth with a book, looks un-decided around the room, chews his l i p s , aimlessly wanders around, leaves the book on a shelf and f i n a l l y approaches the calendar on the wall next to the choosing board, watches the calendar balanc-ing his body moving the weight from r i g h t to l e f t foot. He chose to work on this week's theme "Dinosaurs". Zev i s hopping back to the shelf where he l e f t his drawing book, also, there were other books displayed about dinosaurs. He i s stamping and rubbing his legs. Zev started to look i n his drawing book, turning the pages, he i s yawning and again his legs are constantly moving. The teacher directed him and helped to get him started i n the a c t i -v i t y . Zev chose to draw an alticamellus. He i s working alone, nobody i n his close proximity. Zev i s holding correctly the pencil with his r i g h t hand, follows the directions from the drawing book, draws c i r c l e s , rec-tangles and ovals and confronting again what he did with the directions from the book. Kevin i s coming along and i s asking Zev, "What dinosaur is t h i s ? " Zev answers promptly, "Stegosaurus", and continues to draw. Later Mark asks him, "Is this a brontosaur?" 57 Zev answers, "Yup." He continues to draw, and sometimes i s e a s i l y distracted and looks at the other children around him. Zev f i n i s h e d drawing and goes beside the teacher (lean-ing on. the edge of the table) and t e l l i n g her, "Carol, look what I draw.. I copied from my dinosaur book." It i s an alticamellus. The teacher helps him to s p e l l alticamellus and she adds i t i s 18 feet t a l l . Zev repeats, "Alticamellus. 18 feet t a l l . " He s p e l l s along with the teacher the s y l l a b l e s of the word "al-ti-ca-mel-lus" . Zev's pronunciation of the above vowels and consonants i s very clear and he shows an awareness how the sounds form the word. Zev took his drawing and wanders around showing his alticamellus to children working near to him. Helen becomes interested i n Zev's drawing and she decides to draw an alticamel-lus too . Zev i s cooperative and shows his drawing book and gives her d i r e c t i o n s . For example, Helen i s drawing a c i r c l e and Zev said, "Good. Then go with t h i s . " (Pointing from the book.) "After that, t h i s and t h i s . Now you do a rectangle." (Pointing again with his index finger, and his body or legs are fidgeting again. When Helen fi n i s h e d her drawing she went to another a c t i -v i t y center, and Zev went to watch a group of children playing a guessing game. He wanted to j o i n i n saying, "I want to be the 58 guesser. I want to be the guesser.", (jumping and hopping around with a bag f u l l of rubber dinosaurs i n his hands) but he wasn't accepted because i t was not his turn. Zev i n the f i r s t part of observation was not tal k i n g . He was communicating through his gestures, timid f a c i a l expres-sions and jerky unsteady bodily movements making an impression of uncertainty and confusion. When Helen started to int e r a c t with Zev he started to verbalize his actions' and express his thoughts. For example: draw, drew, copied, do, can. Words designating shapes: round, square, rectangle, oval. Animals: dinosaur, stegosaur, brontosaur, alticamellus. Zev sometimes answered to children with a single word, steposaurus. Yup. When he was giving d i r e c t i o n s , he used the imperative sentence structure, e.g. "Now do t h i s , than, that ... Zev i s able to use complex sentences too, e.g. "Carol, look what I draw, I copied from my dinosaur book." Zev did not use intensely the materials available around him. During the chosen a c t i v i t y he was using his dinosaur book and rubber c o l l e c t i o n , and a piece of paper and a p e n c i l . Tape No. 3 Child's Name & Age: Shawna, 5 years o l d . Setting: C h i l d Study Center, kindergarten classroom. Shawna i s t a l l , large boned, healthy looking g i r l . She stands st r a i g h t and confidently with easy balance. She has short l i g h t coloured hair and skin, rosy cheeks and blue eyes. Shawna i s neat and clean at the beginning of observation, and she remains 59 that way u n t i l the end. At.the beginning Shawna chose to work i n the "paper center". She placed her name tag quickly on the choosing board (paper center) and she skipped without losing her balance about 15 feet to the center. Shawna s i t s beside Beth, E r i c a , Ann and Carla. She decided to make a dinosaur card. She took a piece of construction paper, folded i t pe r f e c t l y i n two, and started to trace around a "big f a t dinosaur". She holds the pe n c i l i n her right hand with good eye-hand coordination and with very steady hands she-traces well the dinosaurs. She i s ta l k i n g to the g i r l s around the table but her hands are busy again and on the opposite side of the paper she traces another skinny dinosaur. Shawna1s fine motor a c t i v i t i e s were frequently well i n -tegrated with more complex actions. For example, Shawna folded the paper and on the front of the card she drew a b i g "5" using a s t e n c i l and then she printed her f i r s t name, "Shawna", and sta-rted to sing, "Five l i t t l e s i l l y bugs ..." On the table was some cutting out papers from d i f f e r e n t magazines. She took one sheet and cut out a d o l l and pasted i t on the r i g h t corner of her card. When she fi n i s h e d , Shawna c a l l e d the others attention to her s k i l l s , "Look what I cut out", and appears to f e e l that she should be good at things.. She appeared to be surprised when E r i c a t o l d her, " I d o n ' t care". Shawna often chooses art a c t i v i -t i e s . She just f i n i s h e d her card and skips n i c e l y to the choos-ing board and' changes her name from paper center to drawing cen-ter. (Following the rules.) At the drawing table she wanted to 60 make screen paintings but the screens were busy. The teacher asked her to wash the dishes (which had been used by other c h i l d -ren i n the cooking center) and she promptly climbed up on a chair and she washed and rinsed the dishes. When she f i n i s h e d she c a l -led out, "I just did the dishes." Shawna was wearing a painting smock and was anxiously waiting f o r her turn. She was watching Darren without, disturbing him. F i n a l l y , i t . i s her turn and with perfect technique she screen painted a dinosaur (using brown paint) and immediately wants to paint another dinosaur (a d i f f e r e n t shape, using green paint). When she f i n i s h e d , she printed her f i r s t name on the r i g h t corner of the paper and l e f t her painting on the drying rack. There i s s t i l l a l i t t l e time l e f t and Shawna moves to the painting easel. She draws three pine trees then she heard the clean-up sig n a l (music). Her hands move faster i n the upper l e f t corner of the page and she draws a happy sun and then removes the page and puts i t on the drying rack. Shawna forgot to sign her name on the painting. She took a p e n c i l from the drawing table and kneels down beside the drying rack and signs her name. Shawna i s very sociable. Her hands and attention are on the project, but her mouth i s busy t a l k i n g to playmates. Shawna choses the r i g h t vocabulary to express her thoughts and her speech i s very clear. Words used during the observation: mom, f r i e n d , card, donosaurus, dishes, b i g , f a t , mini, orange, brown, and did, paint, l i k e , cut. Shawna used d i f f e r e n t sentence structures. For example: 61 "I used to think Beth i s r e a l l y cute." "I used to very l i k e her but now I don't." "Look what I cut out." "I just did the dishes." "How do you s p e l l 5 years old?" (question) "Hang i t up! (imperative) She was not heard to make errors with the use of single and p l u r a l nouns or verb forms. The pronouns Shawna used included: I, my, her, he, you, they, i t . Shawna obviously has the concept of alphabet, and num-bers. She printed several times her f i r s t name during the ob-servation period and on the card made i n the paper center she drew with s t e n c i l s the number "5". Also, she has the knowledge of l e f t to r i g h t orientation i n the written language. Shawna's gestures are c l a r i f y i n g the verbal message. For example: When she wrote f i v e using her r i g h t hand, with the l e f t she pointed 5. Shawna i s a very organized c h i l d . She has a plan i n her mind, she follow the general rules i n the classroom, makes good use of the materials available i n the center and success-f u l l y completed f i v e a c t i v i t i e s during the "free play time". Tape No. 4 Child's Name & Age: Aaron, 5 years o l d . Setting: Child Study Center, kindergarten classroom. Aaron i s the same boy who was presented i n Tape No. 1. 62 This sequence was videotaped two weeks l a t e r . Aaron i s standing undecided in front of the choosing board. He i s looking around, trying to f i n d a partner. Aaron appears to put his name tag i n the l i t t l e block center, no he changed his mind. He i s choosing language arts center. He changed his mind again and chose to play i n the house center. Dafne came to the choosing board and Aaron asks her, "Dafne, where are you going?" Dafne chose the paper center and placed her name tag beside Shawna's and Carla's. Aaron i s thinking f o r a moment and after 43g minutes of hesitat i o n and v a c i l l a t i n g movements he de-cides to work i n the "paper center" with Dafne. In the paper center, Aaron takes a piece of paper and folds i t - i t looks l i k e he i s making a pointed hat. Dafne announced, "I w i l l do a puppet;'" She asks Aaron, "Do you want to make a puppet?" Aaron said, "No." (shaking his head). Aaron asked her again, "What kind?" Dafne: "A bag puppet." Aaron and Dafne continue t h e i r own project and are not in t e r a c t i n g anymore t i l l the end of the videotaped sequence. Aaron i s f o l d i n g and smoothing his paper and he i s looking at Shawna and waiting to get the stapler. Aaron asks Shawna: "Are you making what I am making?" Shawna: "No, I am making a k i t e . " Aaron i s stretching out f o r the stapler carelessly gaz-ing at Shawna and t e l l i n g her: "This i s just gonna be a purse, is where you put s t u f f i n i t . " Shawna: "What?" Aaron: "I said this just gonna be a purse." Shawna i s t r y i n g to grab the stapler i n a movement of resistance. He smiles and l e t s her have the stapler. The presence of the single stapler i n the center created an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between Aaron and Shawna. Aaron's f a c i a l expressions', eye contact reveal his feelings of this i n t e r -change . Aaron takes another piece of paper and cuts i t with "sharp s c i s s o r s " and staples together with his "purse". He i s pressing the s t a p l e r with both hands and his trunk and shoulders are leaning ahead. In this sequence Aaron participates i n associa-t i v e play. He does not show evidence of disruptive behaviour and he rather follows g i r l s around him. Discussion The f i r s t impression gained from the videotapes i s that the kindergarten classroom i s a remarkably busy place and each c h i l d has unique and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s . A l l the children do not think i d e n t i c a l l y , are not equally s k i l l e d nor are they interested i n or concerned by i d e n t i c a l problems. A l l the children are constantly behaving, behaviours are transitory, a c h i l d who played today cooperatively and was the natural leader, of the play, the same c h i l d i n another occasion could be a permissive follower. Aaron i s a t a l l a g i l e boy, well developed p h y s i c a l l y . 64 Zev compared to Aaron i s a small, skinny, p a l i d c h i l d . Shawna i s large boned, t a l l e r than Kevin. Kevin, Aaron and Shawna's posture and bodily orienta-tion are-comfortable and relaxed, Zev's i s controlless and tense. Kevin and Aaron showed well developed gross motor s k i l l s during block building a c t i v i t y . For Shawna and Zev were limited opportu-n i t i e s to observe gross motor s k i l l s . A l l four target children showed evidence of well deve-loped f i n e motor s k i l l s . Shawna impressed as being very indepen-dent, competent and capable i n most areas. She approaches s i t u a -tions with great confidence and t h i s proves an important personal asset. Shawna's repertoire for maintaining a dominant p o s i t i o n i s quite extensive, she was t y p i c a l l y successful i n getting others, even teachers, to accommodate her desires. Zev i s opposite. He i s dependent i n most situations, i s e a s i l y distracted from his project, and i s not aggressive nor b r i l l i a n t . Kevin and Aaron are peer oriented children. They were a unit of play within themselves, worked independently and when an argument occurred they were able to solve i t without the teac-her 's intervention. In Tape No. 4, when Kevin i s absent from the kindergar-ten, Aaron appears to be. l o s t and r e a l l y misses him. A l l the children have a well developed vocabulary for t h e i r age l e v e l , they love to talk , express t h e i r own feelings and l i s t e n . 65 A l l target children showed evidence of developing non-verbal communication s k i l l s . The non-verbal modalities found to be of prime importance i n i n t e r a c t i o n with peers are gaze and d i s -tance. Aaron's appreciation of distance and gaze as cues to at-t r a c t i o n and l i k i n g i s well established. He plays i n close proxi-mity of Kev.vn and Shawna. Other children and adults are at a close distance with Shawna but at a f a r distance with Zev. A l l target children showed d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and inte-rests i n using the space and materials. In Tape No. 1, Kevin and Aaron started at the "choice chart" and worked i n the small block center and small manipula-t i v e toys center. (No. 2 & 14 - for location of a c t i v i t y centers see Appendix A.) They made good use of the very large set of unit blocks, used a large variety of d i f f e r e n t shaped blocks, and cor-rect use of pick-up set. In Tape No. 2, Zev, i n the beginning, was wandering around then he decided to work on the "Theme" (Center No. 11) for most of the time, and only at the end watched a group of children playing a guessing game' i n the l i b r a r y center (No. 13). Zev during his free play a c t i v i t y used a drawing book, one single sheet of paper, a p e n c i l , and was holding a bag f u l l of rubber dinosaurs. In Tape No. 3, Shawna started at the "choice chart". She went to work i n the paper center (No. 10). She used paper, coloured p e n c i l s , s t e n c i l , s c i s s o r s , glue, and then she washed the dishes (p l a s t i c medium siz e dish, hand mixer, spoons, wooden spoon). At the round drawing table (center No. 6) she used the screen, two pieces of paper, two d i f f e r e n t colours. F i n a l l y she moved to painting at the easel (center No. 9). She used f i v e dif' ferent colours, paint brushes and paper. In Tape No. 4, Aaron hesitated for awhile around the "choice chart". Then he chose to work a l l the time i n the paper center (No. 10). Aaron used two pieces of construction paper (different colours), stapler, s c i s s o r s , one f e l t pen, and a piece of cardboard paper. A s t r i k i n g difference between the children was i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to "choose an a c t i v i t y " and t h e i r use of free play "time" Figure 1 Amount of time spent on chosen a c t i v i t i e s by each c h i l d . Tape No. 1 Kevin & Aaron Tape No. 2 Zev I Organizing period ( l | 1 min.) k\\\\\| F i r s t a c t i v i t y (13| | H' min.) 1 ' Second a c t i v i t y (5 min.) Choosing and get started (4% min.) F i r s t a c t i v i t y (12% min.) Second a c t i v i t y (3 min.) 67. Tape No. 3 Tape No. 4 Shawna A a r o n 1\\\\1 F i r s t a c t i v i t y (10 rain.) | | C h o o s i n g p e r i o d (5 min.) | | S e c o n d a c t i v i t y (2 min.) K\\\\J F i r s t a c t i v i t y (15 min.) tr.--.-j T h i r d a c t i v i t y (5 min.) FfffFF) F o u r t h a c t i v i t y (3 min.) C h i l d r e n i n t a p e s No. 1 a n d No. 3 c h o s e a n a c t i v i t y i n s t a n t l y , h o w e v e r , c h i l d r e n i n t a p e No. 2 a n d No. 4 f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The p r e c e d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t K e v i n , A a r o n , Zev and Shawna a r e b a s e d o n a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n s . I t was done i n o n l y o n e s e t t i n g , t h e t a r g e t c h i l d r e n ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s r o o m . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n gaps a r e due t o t h e a b s e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d r e n . A d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a t d i v e r s i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d s , i n o t h e r a c t i v i t y c e n t e r s , o u t d o o r p l a y g r o u n d o r o t h e r s e t t i n g s ( s u c h a s c h i l d r e n ' s own homes) w o u l d be u s e f u l t o d e t e r -m i n e w h e t h e r t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u -e n c e d by c o n t e x t o r t i m e , c h a n g e s i n b e h a v i o u r o v e r t i m e w i l l i n d i -c a t e g r o w t h o r l a c k o f p r o g r e s s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . -6 8' \-,'I The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s we re o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y : T a b l e I s u m m a r i z e s t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o n e a c h t y p e o f o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e and p r e f e r r e d t y p e s o f f o r m s . P a r t i c i p a n t 1 s O b s e r v a t i o n O b s e r v a t i o n O b s e r v a t i o n P r e f e r r e d I . D . T y p e 1 T y p e 2 T y p e 3 T y p e N = 23 N = 22 N = 2 0 N = 20 001 . 85 105 110 1 002 87 95 115 3 003 107 120 125 1 004 120 130 125 3 005 72 102 3 006 82 99 120 3 007 75 89 85 3 008 87 110 125 2 009 77 85 120 2 010 102 115 120 3 011 110 115 117 3 012 . 110 112 - -013 103 117 127 1 014 77 85 99 1 015 91 95 115 2 016 107 112 - -017 102 116 127 3 018 118 131 - -019 120 123 135 2 020 95 115 108 2 021 83 85 80 3 022 74 98 120 3 023 98 115 118 2 O b t a i n e d A = 2 A = 4 A. - 10 C l a s s B = 10 B = 12 B = 8 C = 11 C = 6 C = 2 69 T a b l e II:.. Summary o f F r e q u e n c y o f • S c o r e D i s t r i b u t i o n s . T e s t S c o r e X "'. . 135 - 131 0 1 1 130 - 126 0 1 2 125 - 121 0 1 3 120 - 116 3 3 6 115 - 111 0 6 2 110 - 106 4 1 2 105 - 101 3 1 1 100 - 96 1 2 1 95 - 91 3 2 0 90 - 86 2 1 0 85 - 81 3 3 1 80 - 76 2 0 1 75 - 70 2 0 0 N = 23 N; = 22 N = 20 70 Table x i i summarizes the means and standard deviation of the tested observation guide sheets. x :• SD Type 1 N = 23 94.86 15.1 Type 2 N = 22 107.59 13.88 Type 3 N = 20 114.65 13.65 F i Type I Type 2 Type 3 gure 2iGraphical Representation of Mean Scores. 71 Table IV summarizes the frequency of preferred types of observation guide sheets as stated i n the evaluation forms. N = 20 Observation Type 1 Observation Type 2 Observation Type 3 4 6 10 Table V shows the participant's o v e r - a l l evaluation of observation guide sheets. Excellent Good Of L i t t l e Value Useless N = 20 1 17 2 — Table VI shows the participant's attitudes toward use-fulness of observation guide sheets i n d i r e c t observation of children i n a classroom. Very Somewhat Not Useful Useful Useful Usable N = 20 4 12 4 -Discussion The guide sheets were preferred for the following reasons: Observation guide sheet Type 1 was preferred because i t allowed freedom. I t was found to be too general, too vague, and used with thevideotape helped to give a general overview. Observation guide sheet Type 2 was preferred because i t directed the observation i n the major areas of early childhood education, but s t i l l allowed some freedom. Observation guide sheet Type 3 was preferred because i t was s p e c i f i c , i t helped to observe more accurately. As stated by the participant's observation, Type 3 would be even more often preferred i f a longer time l i m i t would be a l -l o t t e d for writing up the observations. From the test scores, shown i n Table I I , results for observation Type 1 are s i g n i f i c a n t at "C" l e v e l . For the observation Type 2, "C" l e v e l decreased s i g n i -f i c a n t l y and increased lev e l s "B" and "A". For observation Type 3, l e v e l "A" indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n scores. Two par-t i c i p a n t s obtained scores under 90, because they did not follow i the directions of the observation guide sheet and often "yes and no" answers were given. The above res u l t s of test scores and the frequency of preferred types of observation guide sheets indicates that video-tape recordings displaying children's d i f f e r e n t behaviours used with structured observational guidelines are e f f e c t i v e ways to i n -crease pre-service and inservice teachers observational s k i l l s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND' CONCLUSIONS This chapter i s divided into two sections. The f i r s t section presents a b r i e f review of the purposes of the study and research procedures. The second section presents conclusions and suggestions for further research. Purposes The- f i r s t purpose of this study was to accumulate video-taped data about four target children who:; displayed d i f f e r e n t natural behaviours during chosen free play a c t i v i t i e s , and to develop a systematic observational plan f o r analysis of video-taped information. The second purpose of this study was to test the effec-tiveness of videotaped records displaying children's d i f f e r e n t behaviour used i n connection with structured observational guide-l i n e s i n order to help pre-service and in-service teachers to be accurate observers of young children's natural behaviour. Two basic procedures were used i n this study. (1) To accumulate videotaped data about young children's behaviour, four target children were selected and videotaped. A 20 minute continuous free play a c t i v i t y was retained as a "record tape" f o r each target c h i l d . For analysis of obtained videotaped records, a systema-t i c observational plan was developed. 74 (2) To test the effectiveness of videotapes used i n connec-tion with structured observational guidelines, the following pro-cedures were used: Subjects' of the study were 23 pre-service and in-service teachers enrolled i n Curriculum and Instruction for Young Children class (Ed. 333). Pre-service and in-service teachers were asked to observe without interruption a 15 minute segment of videotape No. 1 e n t i t l e d "Kevin.and Aaron". When the videotape showing ended, a l l the subjects were asked to write a description of what they saw i n the provided guide sheets. Three types of observation guide sheets were administered to the same group at one week time i n t e r -vals between each t e s t . After completion of the observation guide sheets, a l l subjects were asked to evaluate the videotaped obser-vations and guide sheets used during the te s t . Conclusions Videotape recordings helped to decode objective informa-ti o n about the natural behaviour of young children. There were three p r i n c i p a l advantages of this method of data c o l l e c t i o n . F i r s t , comprehensive records of displayed behaviours could be pre-served for subsequent and repeated examinations. Second, the f i d e l i t y of the system was good. The camera had no d i f f i c u l t y to record the behaviours i n the kindergarten s e t t i n g . Third, the playback control mechanism on the tape recorder permitted fas t stopping and rewinding. As a consequence, sequences of behaviour could be viewed and re-viewed at w i l l . The systematic observational plan helped to focus the 75 observations. Several viewings of each tape were required i n order to i d e n t i f y the behaviours and record them into categories of areas of development of young children. From analysis of videotaped records, i t may be concluded that the kindergarten classroom i s a remarkably busy place and each c h i l d i s unique and has special q u a l i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t a b i l i -t i e s and needs. Results of analysis carried out i n the p i l o t study demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between test scores obtained on observation Type 1 and Type 3. This significance i s confirmed and by the cor r e l a t i o n between the means and frequency of prefer-red types of observation guide sheets. However, i t i s possible that the course (Ed. 333) had a p o s i t i v e influence on the students i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t y to se l e c t and observe children's behavi-our . The use of videotapes and systematic observational guide-li n e s was found to be an e f f e c t i v e way to present common experi-ences for group observation. Since a student or a young inservice teacher cannot be expected to be expert observers, i t i s most important that they are guided i n what to observe and, having seen, to make v a l i d interpretations of displayed behaviours. Videotapes displaying children's d i f f e r e n t behaviours used i n connection with structured observational guidelines helped pre-service and inservice teachers to be accurate observers of young children's natural behaviour. Videotaped observational methods are not without i t s problems. Limitations e x i s t i n a l l measurement systems, includ-76 ing observational ones. Such l i m i t a t i o n s must be c l e a r l y recog-nized and reduced whenever possible. Overall, the d i r e c t use of videotapes i n systematic observations provide great promise for e x c i t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e adventures ahead f o r E.C.E. educators ready to accept the challenge. Suggestions for Further Research The following suggestions f o r further research are pre-sented: (1) Further studies might be carried out c o l l e c t i n g at le a s t three "record tapes" at d i v e r s i f i e d time periods for target children from d i f f e r e n t school d i s t r i c t kindergartens or provinces. Such a data bank would provide pre-service and in-service teachers adequate information about local, regional or p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e -rences, would help teachers to accept these differences, and prepare them to meet the d i f f e r e n t needs of young children. (2) That another research study might be conducted using the materials of the present study, modifying the role of the researcher with an authoritarian ins t r u c t o r em-ploying competitive i n s t r u c t i o n a l strategies instead of cooperation as i t was used i n the present study. (3) That r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study can be carried out using a d i f f e r e n t design to check the v a l i d i t y of i t s f i n d -ings. I f v a l i d , they suggest that t r a i n i n g might be scheduled i n a variety of ways to s a t i s f y administrative and p e r s o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s , u s i n g the m a t e r i a l s o f t h i s s t u d y , m i g h t b e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s : A f t e r s e v e r a l i n t r o d u c t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s , the p a r t i c i -p a n t s would choose an a r e a (e.g. s o c i a l , c o g n i t i v e ...) o r problem (e.g.. a g g r e s s i v e n e s s ...) and d e v e l o p a "new p l a n " o r e x t e n d t h e p r e s e n t one i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e chosen a r e a o r problem. T r y o u t the "new p l a n " t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n i n a c l a s s r o o m and s h a r e the r e v i s e d o b s e r v a t i o n p l a n w i t h t h e group o f p r e - s e r v i c e o r i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . I n t h i s way each p a r t i c i p a n t would c o n t r i b u t e t o i n v e s t i g a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n o b s e r v a t i o n methods and w o u l d i n c r e a s e i t s scope'and a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o r e a l - l i f e c o n d i t i o n s i n e a r l y c h i l d -hood e d u c a t i o n . S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 79 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, J. , . & L i p s i t z , L. Instructional 'Televis ion. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1977. Adams, S., & Biddle, B.J. R e a l i t i e s of Teaching - Exploration With Videotape. New York, N. Y. : Holt Rmehart and Winston Inc., 1970. Adkins, E.P. Te l e v i s i o n iri Teacher Education. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1960. Al l e n , D.W., & Ryan, K. Microteaching. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1969. Anderson, R.H. Selecting and Developing Media for Instruction, New York, N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1976. Applebee, A.N. Microteaching, Component S k i l l s and the Training of Teachers: An Evaluation of a Research and Development Project. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Technology, 1976, 1_, 35-44. Beegle, W., & Brandt, R.M. Observational Methods i n the Classroom. Washington, D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1973. Borg, W.R., & G a l l , M.D. Educational Research. New York, N.Y.: Longman Inc., 1979. Borg, W.R., Kallenbach, W., Morris, M., & F r i e b e l , A. Videotape Feedback and Microteaching i n a Teacher Training Model. Journal of Experimental Education, 1969, 3_7, 9-16. Borrich, G. D., & Madden, S.K. Evaluating Classroom Instruction: A Sourcebook of Instruments~. Reading, Mass.: Addison Wes-ley, 1977. Bosley, H.E. (ed.) Teacher Education i n Transition. Baltimore: Multi-State Teacher Education Project, 1969, V o l . 1-2. Brown, G. Microteaching: A Programme of Teaching S k i l l s . London: Butler & Tanner Ltd., 1975. Cartwright, A., & Cartwright, G. Developing Observation S k i l l s . New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1974. Cassirer, H.R. T e l e v i s i o n Teaching Today. Paris: UMESCO, 1960. 80 Cheek, V.P. Some Factors i n the Selection of Media. Programmed  Learning and Educational Technology, 1977, 14, 222-233. Clayton,. T.E. Using Videotape A c t i v i t i e s i n Teacher Education. In Bosley, H.E. (ed.). • Teacher Education i n Transition. Baltimore: Multistate Teacher Education Project, 1969, Vol. 1, . 70-75. C o f f e l t , K. ' Basic Design and U t i l i z a t i o n df Instructional Tele-v i s i o n . Univ. of Texas: Instructional Media Center, 1967. Colton, F.V. Using Videotapes i n the S o c i a l i z a t i o n Process. Audiovisual Instruction, 1971, 16, 43-44. Cruickshank, D.R. What We Think We Know About.inservice Educa-t i o n . Journal of Teacher Education, 1979, XXX, 27-32. Dale, W., & Gordon, G. Video & Kids. New York, N.Y.: Science Publishers Inc., 1974. Dede, C.J. Educational Technology i n Next Ten Years. Instruc- t i o n a l Innovator, 1980, 25, 17-23. Dixon, G.T. Videotapes for Early Childhood Training.Newsletter, Canadian Education Association,Feb.-March, 1981,p. 5 Dixon, G.T. Learning to Learn Teacher Education System: A Valid a t i o n Study. (unpublished doctoral dissertation) Athens, Georgia, 197 5. Dobosh, 0., & Wright, E.M. Televis i o n U t i l i z a t i o n . Toronto, Ont.: Toronto Board of Education, 1972. Dotterweich, W. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Remote Teaching. Audiovisual Instruction, 1971, 1_6, 39-42. Dunlap, D. A., . Ondelacy, J . , & S e l l s , E. Videotape Involves Parents. Journal of American Indian Education, 1979, 19, 1-6. E l l i n g s t a d , V., & Heimstra, H.W. Methods i n the Study of Human  Behaviour. Monterey, C a l i f . : Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1974. Galloway, C. The S i l e n t Language of the Classroom. Bloomington, Indiana: Phi Delta Kappa, 1976. Gibson, T. The Use Of :ETV. London; Hutchinson Educational Ltd., 19 70. Guardo, C.J. Personal Space, Sex Differences, and Interpersonal A t t r a c t i o n . Journal Of Psychology, 19 76, 9_2, 9-14. H a l l , D. Using Video and Video Art: Some Notes, Educational Broadc as t i n g International, 1980,' 13, 120-122. Hague, S.M. Video Applications i n Education. Educational Technology, 1978, XXVIII, 28-32. Heestand, D.E. The Use of Inserted Questions i n Videotape Pro-grams. Int'T.' J. 'Instructional Media, 1979-80, 7, 149-157. K r i t z e r , R. The Application of Videotape to the Teaching of Reading. H i c k s v i l l e , N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1976. Lawther, J.D. The- Learning' of Physical S k i l l s E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1968. Leedham, J.,.& Romiszowski, A.J. Videocassettes i n Education and  Training. London: Kogan Page Ltd., 1977. McAnany, E.G. Why Educational Technology? Educational Broadcast-ing international,).1977, 10, 130-134. McDonald, F.J., & A l l e n , D.W. Training Effects of Feedback and  Modelling Procedures on Teacher Performance, Technical Re-port No. 3. Stanford Center for Research and Development i n Teaching, Stanford, 1967. Macdonald, G. Educational Videorecordings: Planning for the 1980's. Educational Broadcasting International, 1979, 12, 138-140. McGovern, J. Video Use i n English Language Teaching. Educa- t i o n a l Broadcasting int e r n a t i o n a l, 1980, X3, 126-128. M i l l e r , J.F., Proxemics: A Hidden Dimension i n the Classroom, I n t ' l . J . Instructional Media, 1979-80, 1_, 55-59. Morrison, A., & Mclntyre, D. The Social Psychology of Teaching, Selected Readings. London: Penguin Books, 1972. Morrison, A., & Mclntyre, D. Teachers and Teaching* London: Penguin Books, 1969. Perrott, E., Applebee, A.N., Heap, B., & Watson, E.P. Changes i n Teaching Behaviour A f t e r Completing a S e l f - I n s t r u c t i o n a l Microteaching Course. ' Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 1975, 12, 34 8-3 62. Pula, F.J., & Goff, R.J. 'Technology i n Education: Challenge arid Change. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones Publishing Co., 1972. ( 82 R e i d , W.R.> E n g e l , R . C , & R u c k e r , P . P . L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e Y o u n g . A u d i o v i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n , 1 9 6 6 , 1 1 , 5 3 4 - 3 7 . R u t h e r f o r d , R .B . T h e - E f f e c t s o f a M o d e l V i d e o t a p e and F e e d b a c k V i d e o t a p e s o n t h e T e a c h i n g S t y l e s o f T e a c h e r s i n T r a i n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 3 , 4 2 , 6 4 - 6 9 . R y o r , J . , & S h a n k e r , A . T h r e e P e r s p e c t i v e s o n I n s e r v i c e E d u c a -t i o n . J o u r n a l o f T e a c h e r - E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 , ' XXX , 1 3 - 1 9 . S c h a t z m a n , L . , & S t r a u s s , A . L . ' F i e l d R e s e a r c h . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1 9 7 3 . S c h r a m , W. The S c i e n c e o f Human C o m m u n i c a t i o n . New Y o r k , N . Y . : B a s i c Books I n c . , 1 9 6 3 . S c h u e l e r , H. T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n ' and t h e New M e d i a . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : The A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o l l e g e s f o r T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , 19 6 7 . S l e e m a n , P . J . , & C o b u n , T . C . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M e d i a a n d T e c h n o l o g y -A G u i d e t o A c c o u n t a b l e L e a r n i n g S y s t e m s . New Y o r k , N . Y . : Longman I n c . , 1 9 7 9 . Sommer, R. , & S o m e r , B .B . A P r a c t i c a l G u i d e t o B e h a v i o r a l R e - s e a r c h : T o o l s and T e c h n i q u e s " New Y o r k , N . Y . : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 . S p e a r s , J . D . T e a c h i n g R e f e r e n c e F r ames w i t h V i d e o t a p e d I n s t a n t R e p l a y s . The P h y s i c s T e a c h e r , 1 9 8 0 , 18_, 3 9 3 - 3 9 4 . S p r i g l e , H. U n p u b l i s h e d M a n u a l and R e l a t e d M a t e r i a l s . The L e a r n -i n g To L e a r n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g S y s t e m , C h i l d B e h a v i o r U n i t . J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . : The L e a r n i n g To L e a r n S c h o o l , 1 9 7 3 . S t u b b s , M . , & D e l a m o n t , S. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n C l a s s r o o m O b s e r v a - t i o n s . L o n d o n : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 7 6 . T e l e v i s i o n i n I n s t r u c t i o n : What i s P o s s i b l e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t e r s , 1 9 7 0 . Wa imon, M . D . , & R a m s e y e r , G . C E f f e c t s o f V i d e o F e e d b a c k on t h e / A b i l i t y t o E v a l u a t e T e a c h i n g . T h e J o u r n a l o f : T e a c h e r E d u c a -t i o n , 1 9 7 0 , X X I , 9 2 - 9 5 . Webb, C , & B a i r d , H. S e l e c t e d R e s e a r c h on M i c r o - T e a c h i n g , i n B o s l e y , H . E . ( ed . ) . ' T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n ' i n T r a n s i t i o n . B a l t i m o r e : M u l t i - S t a t e T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n P r o j e c t , 19 6 9 , V o l . 1, 8 7-97 . 8 3 Weinberg, R.A. , - & Wood, F. H. • Observation of Pupils and Teachers f h Mainstream and Special' Education Settings; ' Alternative Strategies. Minnesota, Minn.: Leadership Training I n s t i t u t e , 19 75. Wilkes, J. Theory i n Educational Technology and Curriculum. Programmed Learning and E d u c a t i o n a l Technology, 1978, 15, 79-81. Winthrop, H. Two Pioneer Programs i n Studies of the Future. Science Education, 1971, 55, 573-579. Wolfe, D. "Training"•'/ Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1951. Yorke, D.M. Tele v i s i o n i n the Education of Teachers: A Case Study. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Technology, 1977, 131-141. Young, D.B. Preservice Micro-Teaching. Today's Education, 1970, 59, 33-40. 84 APPENDIX A Physical Layout and L i s t of Materials Available i n the Classroom LAYOUT OF THE CLASSROOM S c a l e I " = 3 ' 85 H H O H CO H X. , I . 2. <; Q 3. <; 4. 5. > 6. 7. 3. 7 9. 10. <; I I . Q 12. « 13. 14. > 15. 16. C h o i c e C h a r t L a r g e Group C e n t e r B l o c k C e n t e r S c i e n c e C e n t e r Water T a b l e Sand Table Drawing T a b l e M o d e l l i n g C e n t e r Cooking C e n t e r E a s e l Paper C e n t e r Theme - S m a l l group Language A r t s L i b r a r y C o r n e r C o n s t r u c t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i v e t o y s House Corner M u s i c C e n t e r H 86 LIST OF MATERIALS B l o c k B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s - u n i t b l o c k s - u n i t s , t r i a n g l e s , h a l f c i r c l e s , l a r g e and s m a l l s w i t c h e s , c u r v e s , r a m p s , a r c h e s . - a c c e s s o r i e s - m i n i a t u r e c a r s , t r u c k s , f a m i l y f i g u r e s , a n i m a l s , s m a l l c o l o u r e d c u b e s . S c i e n c e S u p p l i e s - m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s e s , h o r s e s h o e - m a g n e t s , t h e r m o m e t e r , s e e d s . . . Wa t e r T a b l e . S a n d T a b l e . S c r e e n s and d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s f o r p a i n t i n g . D r y i n g R a c k . C l a y and p l a s t i c i n e - b o a r d s , wooden k n i v e s , r o l l i n g p i n s . C o o k i n g S u p p l i e s - p o t s a n d p a n s , egg b e a t e r s , m e a s u r i n g s p o o n s , wooden s p o o n s , s a u c e p a n s , s c o o p s . E a s e l - e a s e l p a p e r , p a i n t , l o n g h a n d l e d b r u s h e s f o r e a c h p a i n t c o n t a i n e r . P a p e r C e n t e r - p a p e r i n d i f f e r e n t s i z e s a n d c o l o u r s , s t i c k e r s t h r e a d s , c r a y o n s , m a r k e r p e n s , p e n c i l s , s c i s -s o r s , h o l e p u n c h e r s , g l u e , c e l l o p h a n e , t i n f o i l f e a t h e r s , b e a d s . . . Theme - b o o k s , d r a w i n g b o o k s , m i n i a t u r e d i n o s a u r s . L a n g u a g e A r t s - e a s y r e a d e r s , f l a s h c a r d s , p a p e r , p e n s , p e n c i l s , e r a s e r s . L i b r a r y C o r n e r - a b o u t 50 b o o k s o n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , f i l m s t r i p s , s l i d e s , h a n d p u p p e t s . M a n i p u l a t i v e T o y s - p i c t u r e L o t t o g a m e s , p u z z l e s , v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f d i f f i c u l t y L e g o , i n t e r l o c k i n g s e t s , p i c k - u p s e t s , c a r d s , p e n n i e s f o r b e a d s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , f l a n n e l b o a r d and f i g u r e s . 87 House Center - d o l l bed and bedding, d o l l s , d o l l clothing, stove, cupboard, sink, dishes and cooking u t e n s i l s , ironing board, iron, c h i l d size table and chairs, telephones, brooms, 2 mir-rors, f u l l - l e n g t h , dress-up clothes. Music Center - piano, tambourines, b e l l s , drums, xylophones. 88 APPENDIX B D e s c r i p t i o n o f O b s e r v a t i o n G u i d e S h e e t s T y p e 1, 2 , 3, and t h e E v a l u a t i o n Fo rm as i t was u s e d i n t h i s S t u d y 89 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET TYPE 1 Observer: ' ' : -: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ; ; ; • • • Date: ' ; .- .- : .- : : Child's Name: ' ^ • Time: from to Setting: Directions: Observe a l l the behaviours displayed by the children during a 15 minute period i n which they are engaged i n the chosen a c t i v i t y / a c t i v i t i e s . F i r s t , observe the videotape and then write a description of what you have seen. Description: 90 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET TYPE 2 O b s e r v e r : ; • ; ; ' : ; ; '• ; : ; ; ' ' D a t e : C h i l d ' s Name: T i m e : f r o m to_ S e t t i n g : D i r e c t i o n s : O b s e r v e t h e b e h a v i o u r s d i s p l a y e d by t h e c h i l d r e n f o c u s i n g o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : GUIDEL INES 1. LANGUAGE - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n c o m m u n i c a t i n g ? 2. PHYS ICAL DEVELOPMENT - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n h a p p y and i n g o o d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n ? - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n s h o w i n g a d e v e l o p e d m u s c u l a r c o n t r o l ? 3. A F F E C T I V E AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n wo rk and p l a y ? - How a r e t h e c h i l d r e n s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s - a l o n e o r w i t h o t h e r s ? - What a c t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h e c h i l d r e n i n i t i a t -i n g o r o r g a n i z i n g ? 4 . INTELLECTUAL AND COGNIT IVE DEVELOPMENT - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l s / m a t e r i a l s ? - A r e t h e c h i l d r e n s h o w i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a l p h a b e t , w o r d s , numbers . . . ? . . , /2-91 5. D e s c r i b e and comment on any o t h e r r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y o r a c t i -v i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . D e s c r i p t i o n : 92 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET TYPE 3 Observer: ' ' : : : : : : : : : : ; : : : : : : ; : : : • • • • • Date: ' ' ' ' : •' : : ' ; ; ' ' ' : ' ' ' Child's Name: ' ' • :: : : : : : : : : : : : : : ; ; ; • • Time: from to Setting: Directions: Observe a l l the behaviours displayed by the children focusing on more s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s i n language, phy-s i c a l a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l / c o g n i t i v e areas of development. GUIDELINES 1. LANGUAGE 1.1 How are the children using the spoken language? (vocabulary, sentence structure, s y n t a c t i c a l forms ...) 1.2 Are the children communicating nonverbally? (gesture, f a c i a l expression, eye contact ...) 1;3 Are the children using appropriate language for t h e i r age level? 2. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 2.1 How do you view the children's physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? 2.2 What are the children's a b i l i t i e s to use and control large muscles (legs, arms, body) and f i n e muscles ( f i n -gers , hands)? 3. AFFECTIVE AND'SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 3.1 Are the children expressing t h e i r own feelings? 3.2 Are the children developing independence? 3.3 Are they sen s i t i v e to other's feelings and views? . . ./2 93 3.4 Are they helping other children? 3.5 What type of play a c t i v i t i e s are the children engaged in? Is i t p a r a l l e l , cooperative, s o l i t a r y ... play? 3.6 What are t h e i r manners of c o n t r o l l i n g others? (leader, follower, clown ...) 3.7 Are the children showing evidence of disruptive behaviour? 3.8 Are they often involved i n arguments or fights? 4. INTELLECTUAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 4.1 Are the children showing an i n t e r e s t i n the project/ a c t i v i t y ? 4.2 Can they use materials, i n d i f f e r e n t or creative ways? 4.3 Are they assembling materials and manipulating equip-ment? 4.4 Are they showing evidence of knowledge of l e f t - t o -r i g h t orientation i n the written language? 5. Describe and comment on any other relevant a c t i v i t y or a c t i v i t i e s of the children. Description: 94 OBSERVATION GUIDE SHEET EVALUATION FORM E v a l u a t o r : ' ' : : : : : : : : : ; : : ; : : ; ; : • • • D a t e : ' ' ' ' ' : ; : ; •' 1. W h i c h t y p e o f o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t do y o u p r e f e r ? - o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t t y p e 1 ' ' ' -- o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t t y p e 2 ' - o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t t y p e 3 ( P l a c e a c h e c k m a r k i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e ) . 2. - G i v e r e a s o n s why? What a r e t h e s t r o n g p o i n t s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t ? - t y p e 1? - t y p e 2? ... -; t y p e 3? ... ( P l e a s e c o m m e n t ) . What a r e t h e weak p o i n t s o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t - t y p e 1? . . . - t y p e 2? ... - t y p e 3? ... ( P l e a s e commen t ) . What i s y o u r o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r e f e r r e d o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t ? E x c e l l e n t O f l i t t l e v a l u e : ' ' ' : Good U s e l e s s • • ' • / ; ; .• • 4 . 95 6. W o u l d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n g u i d e s h e e t be u s e f u l i n o b s e r v i n g l i v e c h i l d r e n i n a c l a s s r o o m ? V e r y U s e f u l Somewhat N o t u s e f u l • • • • • • • • . . u s e f u l ' ' ' • u s a b l e ' ' ' ( P l a c e a c h e c k m a r k i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e ) . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055215/manifest

Comment

Related Items