UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Interpretations of a classroom culture Davies, Joyce L. 1981

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INTERPRETATIONS OF A CLASSROOM CULTURE by JOYCE LOUISE DAVIES M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS . i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1981 c ) J o y c e L o u i s e D a v i e s , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 /nci \ ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s were posed: How much do c h i l d r e n r e v e a l about the sha r e d w o r l d t h e y l i v e i n , i n the day-to-day r o u t i n e s of s c h o o l ? How do c h i l d r e n l e a r n the t h i n g s n e c e s -s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m w o r l d ? The s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were: What a r e t h e commonplace r o u t i n e s t h a t o c c u r i n a t y p i c a l c l a s s day? What i s i t t h a t c h i l d r e n share w i t h each o t h e r about c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ? How do young c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v e s i n the c l a s s r o o m ? The c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the s t u d y was d e r i v e d from i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , ethnomethodology, and ethn o g r a p h y . T e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e d f i e l d n o t e s , p h o t o g r a p h y , e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t w i t h s t u d e n t s , r e c o r d i n g the i n s i d e r ' s v i e w , and a n a l y z i n g i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the d a t a c o l l e c t e d . The f o c u s was the whole c l a s s s e t t i n g as seen from the p o i n t of v i e w of p a r t i c i p a n t s . To r e c o v e r the s h a r e d meanings i n the s i t u a t i o n and t o uncover how p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r r e a l i t y and d e f i n e d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o see the o p e r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n as the a c t o r s saw i t , t o p e r c e i v e the o b j e c t s as the a c t o r s p e r c e i v e d them, t o a s c e r t a i n t h e meanLngs f o r o b j e c t s i n terms of the meanings t h e y had f o r the a c t o r s , t o f o l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i n e s of conduct as th e y o r g a n i z e d them, and, t o t a k e the r o l e o f the c h i l d and see the w o r l d from h i s / h e r p o i n t of vi e w . E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n combined i i w i t h photography and the i n t e r p r e t i v e paradigm p r o v i d e d a new way of l o o k i n g at e v e r y d a y l i f e i n a c l a s s r o o m . The f i n d i n g s o f the st u d y a re r e l a t e d t o the humaneness of c l a s s r o o m l i f e as e x p e r i e n c e d by the c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n r e v e a l e d t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of t i m e , o b j e c t s , and m a t e r i a l s , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of the g o a l s of c u r r i c -ulum, and a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the d u p l i c i t y of some of t h e i r a c t i o n s . What emerged was an a d u l t v e r s u s c h i l d r e n ' s agenda f o r the e v e n t s of the day. The c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d the t a c i t r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r and a c t i o n but the y i n t e r p r e t e d c l a s s r o o m l i f e i n terms of r e s t r i c t e d communication. W h i l e they had s t r o n g l y f e l t needs t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h ' o n e a n o t h e r on the one hand, on the o t h e r hand, the c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d the s t r o n g emphasis the t e a c h e r p l a c e d on t a s k c o m p l e t i o n . To r e c o n c i l e t h i s c o n f l i c t t he c h i l d r e n used v i s u a l and v e r b a l cues t o communicate c o v e r t l y . They spoke of manoeuvering around the r u l e s . I n summary, what emerged were sh a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s used f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o r e f i n e t he use of photography as a t o o l t o g a i n e n t r y i n t o a s i t u a t i o n and t o d i s c o v e r how c h i l d r e n ' s and t e a c h e r ' s c o n s t r u c t s o v e r l a p , the im p o r t a n c e o f s e c r e t s i g n l a n g u a g e s , and the degree of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n s of t a c i t c l a s s r o o m r u l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r o b s e r v e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r c a r r y i n g them o u t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i Chapt e r I RESEARCH ON CHILDREN'S CULTURE 1 H i s t o r i c a l and I d e o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s 2 P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h i l d r e n ' s C u l t u r e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 10 Purpose of the Study 13 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 14 L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study 18 Summary . . • 18 I I THE STUDY OF CULTURE IN CLASSROOM L I F E 21 C h i l d r e n as S u b j e c t s 21 C h i l d r e n as Respondents 28 C h i l d r e n as I n t e r p r e t e r s 37 The I n t e r p r e t i v e Approach 42 P r o c e d u r e s f o r ^ ' P o r t r a y a l 44 bummary 46 I I I METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION 49 C o n c e p t u a l Framework 49 Res e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 55 F i e l d Work 56 D a t a - G a t h e r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 62 Summary 77 .IV INTERPRETATIONS AND SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS OF A CHILDREN'S CULTURE 80 I n t r o d u c t i o n 80 How C h i l d r e n Become Knowledgeable About O b j e c t s , R u l e s and E v e n t s 82 How the Teacher-and C h i l d r e n Saw Themselves 90 How C h i l d r e n I n t e r p r e t e d C l a s s r o o m L i f e 93 What C h i l d r e n C o n f i r m e d about C l a s s r o o m L i f e 95 summary 98 i v V SUMMARY- OF THE STUDY 99 Background t o the Study 99 Purpose of the Study 101 R e s e a r c h Methods 101 F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s 104 E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c l u s i o n s from t h e Study 107 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY . .. 110 APPENDICES 120 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r . I would l i k e t o e x t e n d a s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o t h e c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e s . A s i n c e r e thank you i s extended t o Dr. Naomi Hersom f o r h e r k i n d n e s s and encouragement d u r i n g my y e a r s as a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . She p r o v i d e d c o n s t a n t h e l p and p r o f e s s i o n a l g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l . My t h a n k s t o Dr. P a t r i c i a Montgomery and Dr. Do n a l d C. W i l s o n who s e r v e d as members of my s u p e r v i s o r y committee. T h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s and s u p p o r t were a p p r e c i a t e d . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o than k my f r i e n d s , P h y l l i s Ohs, R o n a l d J o b e , and Ron Siddaway f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l h e l p . v i CHAPTER I RESEARCH ON CHILDREN'S CULTURE " C h i l d h o o d " i s a r e l a t i v e l y new t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t o r i d e o l o g y t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s t o r i a n s , e d u c a t o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and l a y p e r s o n s v i e w the e a r l y y e a r s o f human l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s t o r i a n s c h i l d h o o d d e f i n e d as a d i s t i n c t s t a g e of l i f e i s a p r o d u c t of r e c e n t t i m e s . What i s now u n d e r s t o o d t o be o b v i o u s , n a t u r a l , and u n i v e r s a l about c h i l d h o o d can be seen t o be the r e s u l t of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n l i v e . What we t e n d t o t h i n k about " c h i l d h o o d " has been h i s t o r i c a l l y shaped, based on i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t i o n and the growth of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . C h i l d h o o d seen as a s e p a r a t e s t a t e has a l s o been c u l t u r a l l y shaped: N o r t h Americans have extended and c o n t r o l l e d c h i l d h o o d f o r a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l p u r p o s e s . As a consequence, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l s , the development of the concept o f c h i l d h o o d as a time f o r r e s c u e , the evolvement of a new group o f i d e a s about c h i l d - r e a r i n g and c h i l d c a r e , and the i d e o l o g y of c h i l d h o o d as a d i s c r e t e s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e have a l l appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e about c h i l d r e n and c h i l d h o o d . 1 2 H i s t o r i c a l and I d e o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s A r i e s (1962) p o i n t s out t h a t i n the M i d d l e Ages c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d the a d u l t w o r l d at age seven. They d i d not e x p e r i e n c e a sense of c h i l d h o o d as they were put t o work, and s o c i a l s t a t u s was no b a r r i e r t o t h i s p r a c t i c e . There were no n o t i o n s of p r i v a c y between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n as u n d e r s t o o d t o d a y . The p o p u l a r i d e a of p u b e r t y r i t e s as expounded i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s of the l a s t two c e n t u r i e s were secondary i n n a t u r e . T h i s i d e a i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d as of major s i g n i f i c a n c e t o any p e r i o d of w e s t e r n h i s t o r y about c h i l d h o o d b e f o r e modern t i m e s . F u r t h e r , i t i s r a r e t o f i n d c h i l d r e n d e p i c t e d as c h i l d r e n b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g s of the modern w o r l d , r o u g h l y a t the t i m e of R e n a i s s a n c e . C h i l d h o o d was not a s e p a r a t e s t a t e because a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n i n t e r -mixed and l i v e d t h e i r l i v e s t o g e t h e r i n t i m a t e l y (Plumb, 1971, p. 6 ) . Indeed, c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s s h a r e d games, t o y s , and f a i r y s t o r i e s . I n m e d i e v a l Europe age was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v i l l a g e e v e n t , the a r r i v a l of e m i s s a r i e s , s o l d i e r s , and f a i r s . T h i s means t h a t the p r e c i s i o n w i t h w h i c h age i s measured i s a modern phenomenon because most s o c i e t i e s grouped the young i n t o b l o c k s , f o r example, i n f a n t s , n o n - i n i t i a t e boys and g i r l s . By 1600 a new c o n c e p t i o n of " c h i l d h o o d " d e v e l o p e d . . T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the .schoolmen of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The concept of c h i l d h o o d was adopted by such e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s of the R e n a i s s a n c e as Erasmus, V i v e s , and M o s e l l a n u s . The J e s u i t s adopted the c o ncept as- t h e i r s t o c k i n t r a d e . The new a t t i t u d e c o n s i d e r e d c h i l d h o o d t h e 3 age of i n n o c e n c e and the duty of a d u l t s was t o p r e s e r v e t h i s i n n o c e n c e . At the same t i m e , the c u l t of J e s u s , s y m b o l i z i n g c h i l d i s h i n n o c e n c e d e v e l o p e d . A c h i l d became an o b j e c t of r e s p e c t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a s p e c i a l c r e a t u r e w i t h a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e and d i f f e r e n t needs. The time 1600 t o 1800 saw a major r e v o l u t i o n i n the w e s t e r n w o r l d ' s a t t i t u d e s toward the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . These a t t i t u d e s were t i e d almost i n f l e x i b l y t o the c a l e n d a r age of c h i l d r e n . The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y saw the a f f l u e n t c l a s s e s a c c e p t the s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s of c o n c e r n f o r the i n n o c e n t n a t u r e of c h i l d r e n . By t h e end of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y the l e i s u r e and amusements of s c h o o l b o y s were d i f -f e r e n t from a d u l t s ; t h e r e was the c o n c e r n f o r the young c h i l d and a d o l e s c e n t on the p a r t of m o r a l r e f o r m e r s . T h i s c o n c e r n was prompted or promoted g e n e r a l l y by c l e r g y m e n and by p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n s ; f o r example, M a r t i n L u t h e r . Both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t churchmen ex-p r e s s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n f o r the w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n . By the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the European upper c l a s s e s e x c l u d e d c h i l d r e n i n the home and a p r i v a t e w o r l d f o r upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n had been c r e a t e d . Up t o t h i s t i m e , however, the E n g l i s h w o r k i n g c l a s s c h i l d c o n t i n u e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e v e r y form of a d u l t l i f e ; but as a f f l u e n c e s p r e a d , t h e y too began t o have a s e p a r a t e w o r l d f o r c e d upon them by p a r e n t s who emulated the upper and m i d d l e c l a s s a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l -d ren (Plumb, 1971, p. 11). The growth of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the development of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d an e d u c a t e d , d o c i l e , and competent work f o r c e . By the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s u g g e s t s K a t z ( 1 9 7 5 ) , e d u c a t o r s and laymen 4 were d e v i s i n g and r e v i s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o cope w i t h p o v e r t y , i g n o r a n c e , and o t h e r forms of s o c i a l d i s t r e s s . These i n f l u e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d s o c i a l change from the top down. K a t z (1975) argues t h a t t h e educa-t i o n o f c h i l d r e n was something the b e t t e r p a r t of s o c i e t y d i d t o o t h e r s t o make them o r d e r l y , m o r a l , and t r a c t a b l e . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d d o c i l e w o r k e r s and b u s i n e s s men e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s about the competence of the urban p o o r . The common s c h o o l , i t was c o n s i d e r e d , c o u l d produce t r a c t a b l e company men. S c h o o l s , t h e n , became t r a i n i n g grounds f o r commerce and i n d u s t r y . By t h i s t o k e n , p u b l i c . s c h o o l s were used i n an attempt t o e f f e c t m a s s i v e and permanent s o c i a l change ( K a t z , 1975). P r e n t i c e (1970) s u g g e s t s t h e r e were two p e r s i s t e n t themes i n the h i s t o r y o f c h i l d h o o d i n the t h r e e n a t i o n s , G r e a t B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Canada. One theme was the c o m p e l l i n g d e s i r e t o e x t e n d and c o n t r o l c h i l d h o o d f o r a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l p u rposes t o w h i c h K a t z (1975) a l l u d e d ; and the second theme was the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i c s c h o o l systems. Canadians were i n f l u e n c e d by European p r a c t i c e s i n e d u c a t i o n . The major e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s f e l t f i r s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e n i n Canada m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n an overwhelming movement t o " r e s c u e " c h i l d r e n . An e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t v i e w of human development t o o k h o l d and was e x p r e s s e d by the p u b l i c i n c o n c e r n s f o r bad t e a c h e r s , bad p a r e n t s , and bad s u r r o u n d i n g s w h i c h c o u l d c o n t a m i n a t e the c h i l d . A whole s e r i e s o f good works movements a t t e m p t e d t o r e s c u e the c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y the urban poor c h i l d ( P r e n t i c e , 1970, p. 5 7 ) . The d e v e l o p i n g concept of c h i l d h o o d as a time f o r " r e s c u e " 5 p a r a l l e l e d the s c h o o l movement. To ensure r e s c u e , c h i l d h o o d became i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (Rooke, 1977, p. 162). There was ever i n c r e a s i n g s e g r e g a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n t o a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l c a t e g o r y — a s e p a r a t e w o r l d of c h i l d r e n where they were p r o t e c t e d from moral c o n t a m i n a t i o n and the abuses of the a d u l t w o r l d . The i d e a of r e s c u e was e v i d e n t i n making c h i l d r e n dependent e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y — n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members of s o c i e t y . C h i l d h o o d was then extended to i n c o r p o r a t e ado-l e s c e n c e . C h i l d r e n were not h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s as members of s o c i e t y u n t i l the a d u l t s o c i e t y deemed i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r youth to take upon themselves the r i g h t s of a d u l t h o o d . The age of a d u l t h o o d dependency, then, can be shown to have lengthened h i s t o r i c a l l y from age seven to a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty-one. The v a s t s o c i a l changes i n the l a s t c e n t u r y a f f e c t e d Canadian i d e a s about c h i l d - r e a r i n g and c h i l d c a r e . A c c o r d i n g to S u t h e r l a n d (1979) Canada became modernized i n the y e a r s between C o n f e d e r a t i o n and the end of World War One. The c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t e d from a l a r g e r u r a l one w i t h l i f e o r g a n i z e d around f a r m i n g , f i s h i n g , and lumbering, to a v a s t l y i n c r e a s e d urban p o p u l a t i o n . As suggested e a r l i e r , the n o t i o n of c h i l d h o o d had i t s b a s i s i n the growth of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y i n the western w o r l d . As a consequence, a l o n g e r educa-t i o n was r e q u i r e d to make c h i l d r e n competent and t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d workers. There e v o l v e d i n Canada a new set of i d e a s about c h i l d h o o d , c h i l d - r e a r i n g , and c h i l d c a r e . A c c o r d i n g to S u t h e r l a n d , Canadians developed these to s u i t t h e i r growing n a t i o n . He argues t h a t the 6 changed s o c i a l p o l i c i e s about c h i l d r e n were assembled by the 1920's and t h a t today we are w o r k i n g w i t h i n the framework of t h e s e p o l i c i e s . C anadians had a r e v u l s i o n f o r c h i l d l a b o u r . They needed an e d u c a t e d or at l e a s t l i t e r a t e work f o r c e ; and t h e s h i f t i n f a m i l y l i f e d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n C a n a d i a n s ' b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h became the p o p u l a r i d e o l o g y . The p u b l i c h e a l t h movement, t h e s h i f t from i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e t o f a m i l y c a r e f o r wayward c h i l d r e n , and a d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s i n f l u e n c e d the k i n d s of s o c i a l p o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d i n the h a l f -c e n t u r y e n d i n g i n t h e 1920's w h i c h S u t h e r l a n d contends i n f l u e n c e d our modern day s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . The concept of a d o l e s c e n c e , o t h e r w r i t e r s s u g g e s t , was d e v e l o p e d from the e a r l y 1900's t o 1950. The s t a t e of a d o l e s c e n c e was s a i d t o have been caused by a d u l t s who wanted t o keep c h i l d r e n out o f the a d u l t w o r l d . The y o u t h responded by d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own s o c i a l w o r l d , t h e i r own m o r a l s , c l o t h e s , and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . P r e s e n t l y , t h e p e r i o d between i n f a n c y , ages f o u r or f i v e , t o a d o l e s c e n c e , ages t e n t o f i f t e e n , have been s h a r p l y r e d u c e d and the p r i v a t e w o r l d of c h i l -dren even more pronounced. I n o t h e r words, c h i l d h o o d has come, t o mean a t i m e out from a d u l t work and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y , c h i l d h o o d as a d i s t i n c t s t a g e of the l i f e c y c l e i s a r e s u l t of t h e v a s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l changes w h i c h removed c h i l d r e n from the w o r l d of work and p l a c e d them i n age-graded s c h o o l s . The consequences have been e v i d e n t i n changes i n a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d r e n as w e l l as t h e i r t r e a t m e n t . Our c h i l d l a b o u r and compulsory e d u c a t i o n l a w s , j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , and c h i l d 7 gu i d a n c e c l i n i c s a r e e v i d e n c e s of our changes i n a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e r n s . These a t t i t u d e s have h e l p e d r e s o l v e the problem of the " i d l e c h i l d " i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y . I n our w o r l d , the i d e o l o g y o f c h i l d h o o d as a s e p a r a t e s o c i a l a e x p e r i e n c e has become i n g r a i n e d i n the p o p u l a r mind. C h i l d h o o d , t h e n , has become a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e h e l d by s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s groups i n our s o c i e t y . As such, c h i l d h o o d as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t , i s one of the ways i n whi c h we have come t o see our w o r l d . C h i l d h o o d as an i d e o l o g y has become a normal way of s t r u c t u r i n g our s o c i a l r e a l i t y (Rooke, 1977, p. 161). P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s U n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e of c h i l d h o o d may be l i m i t e d and incom-p l e t e i f based s o l e l y on the c o n c e p t s of d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . As a major s o u r c e of knowledge about c h i l d r e n i t tends t o have an i n c o m p l e t e v i e w . P s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s of c h i l d h o o d have been based on the n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d h o o d i s q u i t e s e p a r a t e from a d u l t l i f e , an e n t i t y t o be examined. W i t h i n the e n t i t y t h e r e a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s or g r a d a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s development w h i c h have r e s u l t e d i n t h e v i e w of c h i l d r e n e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y a g a i n s t some c r i t e r i a of m a t u r a t i o n or p s y c h o l o g i c a l / i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a d i n g s . A f t e r s u r v e y i n g major t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d development, B a l d w i n (1967) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a re two main t y p e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n -i n g . Consensus among the t h e o r i e s i s t h a t the f i r s t i s p r i m i t i v e , d i r e c t , and i m p u l s i v e : e s s e n t i a l l y c h i l d - l i k e . The second i s more 8 c o n t r o l l e d , t h o u g h t f u l , and l o g i c a l : e s s e n t i a l l y a d u l t - l i k e . There i s a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l agreement about the i m p o r t a n c e o f ages f i v e t o seven. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s agreement has been a t t r i b u t e d t o knowledge about t h e p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e i n many a r e a s o f the b r a i n d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d of growth. The n e u r o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n t e r n a l f o r c e s upon the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t when one t a k e s the v i e w t h a t m a t u r a t i o n p l a y s the major r o l e i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l change. These f o r c e s a r e e v i d e n t between ages f i v e t o seven. A l t h o u g h c o n c e p t i o n s of c h i l d h o o d have been based on the n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d h o o d i s q u i t e s e p a r a t e from a d u l t l i f e , Kagan, G e s e l l , B r u n e r , and P i a g e t and o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o -g i s t s p r o v i d e i n c o m p l e t e v i e w s of c h i l d r e n because t h e y a r e l i m i t e d t o a b i l i t i e s and b e h a v i o r s . F o r example, Jerome S. B r u n e r (1975) s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s l i m i t e d s y s t e m a t i c knowledge about what i n f a c t happens t o c h i l d r e n d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and even l e s s on what i t s l a t e r e f f e c t s on competence may be ( B r u n e r , 1975). Indeed, i n the c u r r e n t debates among p s y c h o l o -g i s t s i t i s a moot p o i n t as t o what i s p r o p e r l y meant by i n t e l l e c t u a l competence. P h i l l i p s and K e l l y (1975, p. 351) argue t h a t the "much t o u t e d h i e r a r c h i c a l t h e o r i e s of development i n e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y and t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g a s s u mptions have not been a d e q u a t e l y examined." Based on r e v i e w s of P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , K o l b e r g , E r i k s o n , and Gagne, P h i l l i p s and K e l l y c l a i m i t i s u n c l e a r as t o whether d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i e s a r e e m p i r i c a l l y o r c o n c e p t u a l l y grounded. Moreover, P h i l l i p s and K e l l y (1975) argue t h a t because of such o b s c u r i t i e s , a good many 9 of the as s u m p t i o n s c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y are d u b i o u s . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d h o o d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the b e l i e f t h a t t h e " p r i m i t i v e a d u l t " i s the same as our p r e s e n t day w e s t e r n c h i l d . The i r o n y i s t h a t t h e r e i s s t r o n g h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e ( A r i e s , 1975) t h a t c h i l d r e n become competent f o r the a d u l t w o r l d a t e a r l i e r ages. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s r e a s o n i n g has not g u i d e d our n o t i o n s about c h i l d h o o d and we c o n t i n u e t o make c h i l d r e n dependent and not r e s p o n s i b l e . That i s t o say, we c o n t i n u e t o make c h i l d r e n n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members of our s o c i e t y u n t i l t h e y a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty-one. C h i l d r e n i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the work and p l a y of the a d u l t w o r l d do so because t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s , the r e s u l t o f m a t u r a t i o n of the b r a i n a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y ages seven t o n i n e . How we come t o see and u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d h o o d , t h e n , depends upon the p e r s p e c t i v e , whether h i s t o r i c a l , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l . When c h i l d r e n were h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as ' f a u l t e d members of s o c i e t y , ' t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d ". . . i n c o m p l e t e i n t h e i r m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development, a s o c i a l and a c u l t u r a l i n t h e i r ego-c e n t r i s m , i r r a t i o n a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e a s o n , and incompetent i n p o s s e s s i n g knowledge and judgement t o c a r r y out t a s k s as o r d i n a r y members of s o c i e t y " ( S i l v e r , 1975, p. 4 5 ) . However, a c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d i n c l u d e s s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c , economic, and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s ; c h i l d h o o d c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of how c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t r u c t and o r d e r t h e i r s o c i a l w o r l d . C h i l d r e n do not d e v e l o p i n c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n , i n a s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l vacuum; r a t h e r , t h e i r w o r l d i s complex and c o m p r i s e s the i n f l u e n c e s of home, p l a y g r o u n d , o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s homes, the s t r e e t , the c h u r c h , the w o r k p l a c e , and the nei g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l . I n t u r n , 10 c h i l d r e n a c t upon t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s and i n so d o i n g cause t h e i r own s o c i a l o r d e r . By t h e m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , e d u c a t o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s v i e w e d c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r g r o w i n g knowledge. I t has been assumed t h a t because c h i l d r e n have a c c e s s t o knowledge about a d u l t - l i k e b e h a v i o r t h e y choose p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s t o e m u l a t e . C h i l d r e n have been j u d g e d t o have a c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r knowledge o f a d u l t s ' competent a c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n a r e admonished t o ' a c t more grown-up'; b u t , a d u l t s t h e m s e l v e s have v a r y i n g degrees o f com-p e t e n c e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o be mature and a d u l t - l i k e . C h i l d r e n when v i e w e d by a d u l t s from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e have v a r y i n g d e grees o f competency i n a c t i n g more grown-up. What m i g h t have been c o n s i d e r e d t o be o b v i o u s and n a t u r a l about c h i l d h o o d : p l a y , f a n t a s y , c h i l d - l i k e whimsy, can be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d as t h e outcome o f h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1974) s u g g e s t s f o r example, t h a t most r e s e a r c h about c h i l d r e n has l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t o f d a i l y l i f e . One o f t h e s e c o n t e x t s i s t h e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m where c h i l d r e n spend l o n g h o u r s , d a y s , weeks, and y e a r s l i v i n g o u t t h e i r days as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c u l t u r e . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C h i l d r e n ' s C u l t u r e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s C h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t among t h e m s e l v e s and s h a r e r u l e s f o r f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s , games, and r u l e s f o r p l a y i n g t h e s e games. A c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d e x i s t s w i t h o u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d u l t s . C h i l d r e n a c q u i r e i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m each o t h e r about how t o c o n s t r u c t and i n t e r p r e t t h e • w o r l d around them. They do t h i s i n t h o s e s e t t i n g s where t h e y o b s e r v e and mime a d u l t s and t h e y a l s o i n t e r p r e t t h e w o r l d around them t h r o u g h t h e i r own s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . S o c i a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e s c h o o l -11 room a n d e a n be d e f i n e d as the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c i e s . S o c i o l o g i s t s s t u d y such s e t t i n g s as ones i n wh i c h c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r the ' r u l e s of s o c i e t y ' from o t h e r s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s o c i o l o g i s t s v i e w t h e s e s e t t i n g s as two c u l t u r e s a b i d i n g t o g e t h e r , a d u l t and c h i l d , e x i s t i n g s i d e - b y - s i d e , each w i t h i t s own i d e o l o g y f o r a c t i o n . On the one hand t h e r e i s the a d u l t c u l t u r e as e x p r e s s e d by the t e a c h e r i n the c l a s s r o o m , o b s e r v e d and a c t e d upon by the c h i l d r e n as they come t o know and u n d e r s t a n d i t ; w h i l e on the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s the c h i l d r e n ' s own w o r l d w h i c h may or may not i n c o r p o r a t e p a r t s of the a d u l t i d e o l o g y . W h i l e t h e r e have been many c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , S;ger.e.r (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a u s e f u l ". . . stu d y would be to i n s p e c t the methods t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n use t o c o n s t r u c t d a i l y c l a s s -room a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r " (p. 180) and' a s k i n g the major q u e s t i o n , "What are the commonplace r o u t i n e s t h a t o c c u r i n a t y p i c a l c l a s s day?" (p. 186). These r o u t i n e s may or may not be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d " t o the t e a c h e r ' s p r e s e n -t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . What i s i t t h a t c h i l d r e n s hare w i t h each o t h e r about c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ? i s the f i r s t major r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , and the second i s How do young c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v e s i n the c l a s s r o o m ? Background t o the q u e s t i o n s . C h i l d r e n appear t o have l i m i t e d a c -ces s t o a d u l t s ' a t t e n t i o n because they have been h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y s e p a r a t e d from the a d u l t w o r l d , l e f t t o b u i l d t h e i r own p r i v a t e l y s h a r e d meanings. As a r e s u l t , c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s as h e l p l e s s p a r t i c -i p a n t s i n an e f f o r t t o c o n s t r u c t i n t e r a c t i o n a l e v e n t s w i t h a d u l t s . When two c u l t u r e s meet, d e f i n e d as the i n t e r a c t i o n between members of groups from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , i n t h i s case the t e a c h e r ' s c u l t u r e v i s - a - v i s 12 the c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e , the r e s u l t can be the d i f f u s i o n of c u l t u r a l t r a i t s between the two c u l t u r e s i n v o l v e d . F o r example, i t i s u s u a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t the a d u l t s and t h e i r c u l t u r e can m o n i t o r , s u p e r v i s e , and q u e s t i o n c h i l d r e n ' s competence. A d u l t s t e n d t o promote or s a n c t i o n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . When the two c u l t u r e s make c o n t a c t , u s u a l l y , though not a l w a y s , i t r e s u l t s i n some m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f both c u l t u r e s . C o n v e r s e l y , c h i l d r e n have t o c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t o a d u l t o r t e a c h e r d r a f t e d t o p i c s i n a c l a s s r o o m . There appears t o e x i s t , t h e n , a ". . . s t r u c t u r e of d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t e n t i o n s between c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s " ( S p e i e r , 1976, p. 170). I n a c l a s s r o o m , the a d u l t c u l t u r e pervades the s e t t i n g and g e n e r a t e s the f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m r u l e s , and the d i f f e r e n c e i n a d u l t a t t e n t i o n s to a d u l t d r a f t e d c o n c e r n s i s f a r g r e a t e r t h a n the a t t e n t i o n s g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n ' s d r a f t e d t o p i c s . The i n f l u e n c e t h a t the t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f s have on the c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e o r s h a r e d c h i l d h o o d c l a s s r o o m meanings r e q u i r e s t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r l o o k a t the l e v e l a t w h i c h r u l e s a r e l e a r n e d i n a c l a s s r o o m . Some c h i l d r e n ". . . may have l e a r n e d about the r u l e , whereas o t h e r s have u n d e r s t o o d the meaning f o r the r u l e " ( S p r a d l e y , 1972, p. 2 1 ) . The f oremost t a s k , t h e n , i s t o d i s c o v e r the w o r l d as u n d e r s t o o d by the c h i l d r e n , i t s n a t u r e , and i t s meanings i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . I t i s presumed t h a t s o c i a l a c t i o n s — d e f i n e d as the b e h a v i o r s d i s p l a y e d by i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n — a r e o r i e n t e d t o or i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s i n the c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . C h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n s i n t h i s e v eryday c o n t e x t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i n t e r p r e t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a r u l e - g o v e r n e d p r o c e s s . That i s t o say, as the c h i l d r e n g a i n t h e i r s o c i a l knowledge, they become p a r t of the c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e . 13 A s s u m p t i o n s . To s t u d y t h e s h a r e d s u b j e c t i v e meanings t h a t s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r c r e a t e d u r i n g the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s o f a c l a s s r e q u i r e s the s h a r i n g of s u b j e c t i v e meanings between the r e s e a r c h e r and the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the s i t u a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n the s t u d y , the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n i s assumed t o be a s o c i a l c u l t u r a l w o r l d t h a t i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and s h a r e d by members i n t h a t s e t t i n g . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l l i f e can be p r o v i d e d t o the r e s e a r c h e r by means of d e s c r i p t i o n s based upon c l a s s r o o m knowledge t h a t i s t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s . Purpose of the Study The purpose f o r t h i s s t u d y of c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e was t o examine how young c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t e d l i f e i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m and t o examine how the members of a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r s o c i a l w o r l d . The f o c u s f o r t h i s s t u d y was the d i s c o v e r y of the u n d e r l y i n g p a t -t e r n i n c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s i n a c l a s s r o o m . The p a t t e r n r e s u l t s from the s h a r e d w o r l d of s o c i a l meanings t h r o u g h w h i c h the c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . Because c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s and t h e i r meanings are s o c i a l phenomena, the s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the n a t u r e of t h e s e s o c i a l phenomena such as the k i n d s of r o u t i n e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a c t i o n used by c l a s s r o o m members; what t h e y r e g a r d e d as t y p i c a l c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s ; the i n t e r p r e t i v e schemes the c h i l d r e n used t o u n d e r s t a n d r o u t i n e s of c l a s s r o o m l i f e ; and t h e sense of s o c i a l s t r u c -t u r e the c h i l d r e n r e l i e d on t o make sense of the s o c i a l phenomena around them. 14 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms C u l t u r e i s ". . . the a c q u i r e d knowledge t h a t p e o p l e use t o i n t e r -p r e t e x p e r i e n c e and t o g e n e r a t e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l l o w s e d u c a t o r s t o v i e w c h i l d r e n as ". . . s o c i a l b e i n g s b e h a v i n g i n terms of a complex c u l t u r a l code" ( S p r a d l e y & McCurdy, 1972, p. 8 ) . By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , c u l t u r e i s v i e w e d as a s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e the c u l t u r e of c h i l d h o o d can be viewed as a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t . I t e x i s t s and ". . . knowledge of i t ( s h o u l d ) p r o v i d e e d u c a t o r s w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l l e n s t o see the p a t t e r n i n g of c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e b e h i n d the s u r f a c e of c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r " ( S i l v e r , 1975, pp. 47-51). When a d o p t i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , e d u c a t o r s may no l o n g e r i n t e r p r e t the phenomena of c h i l d h o o d s i m p l y i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l terms. E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n i s the g a t h e r i n g of s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s based on s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s and a n a l y s e s of e v e r y d a y l i f e . I n the s t u d y of e veryday l i f e on i t s own terms e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n uses methods of o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s w h i c h attempt t o r e t a i n the i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s e phenomena. E t h n o g r a p h i c method i s the t e c h n i q u e of e t h n o g r a p h y , the ways of d o i n g the work of d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h are r e g a r d e d as a c c e p t a b l e . W i t h i n any method or p r o c e s s of e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y t h e r e are i n h e r e n t p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of some t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n s of some v a r i a n t s of s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s ( K a p l a n , 1964, p. 13). F o r example, the r o l e of d a t a - g a t h e r i n g by p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i n e t h n o g r a p h i c f i e l d work can be e xtended t o i n c l u d e the use of p h o t o g -raphy, the camera becomes p a r t i c i p a n t camera, thus overcoming one of the l i m i t a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . C o n s t i t u t i v e ethnography s t u d i e s examine the s t r u c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and the s o c i a l f a c t s of e d u c a t i o n . They d e s c r i b e how t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o n s t i t u t e d ; r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y r e p o r t i n g r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s . These s t u d i e s a l s o i n c l u d e the r u l e s by w h i c h d a t a a r e a b s t r a c t e d from o b s e r v e d m a t e r i a l s ; t h e y do not t r e a t s t r u c t u r i n g s e p a r a t e l y from s t r u c t u r e . " C o n s t i t u t i v e s t u d i e s put s t r u c t u r i n g and s t r u c t u r e on an e q u a l f o o t i n g by showing how the s o c i a l f a c t s of the w o r l d emerge from s t r u c t u r i n g work t o become e x t e r n a l and c o n s t r a i n i n g , as p a r t of a w o r l d t h a t i s a t once of our making and beyond our making" (Mehan & Wood, 1975, pp. 201-203). F u r t h e r , c o n s t i t u t i v e ethnography aims f o r r e t r i e v a b i l i t y of d a t a ; comprehensive d a t a t r e a t m e n t ; a convergence between r e s e a r c h e r s ' and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e on e v e n t s ; and, an i n t e r a c t i o n a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s (Mehan, 1979, p. 1 9 ) . I n e s s e n c e , c o n s t i t u t i v e e t hnography o p e r a t e s on the p r e m i s e t h a t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s are i n t e r a c t i o n a l accom-p l i s h m e n t s (p. 17). S o c i a l a c t i o n i s the b e h a v i o r s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s w h i c h has meaning t o the i n d i v i d u a l ; i t i s d i r e c t e d toward a g o a l . S o c i a l a c t i o n i s a c t i o n o r i e n t e d t o or i n f l u e n c e d by a n o t h e r p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s ; a l s o f a i l u r e t o a c t , or p a s s i v e a c q u i e s c e n c e t o the a c t i o n of o t h e r s . T h i s means t h a t i n s o c i a l a c t i o n , the a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r of o t h e r s i s t a k e n i n t o a c count i n the a c t i o n . S o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ' - are the phenomena as d e s c r i b e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s i t u a t i o n . The a c t of r e p r e s e n t i n g a phenomenon and d e s c r i b i n g i t can i n v o l v e such t h i n g s as p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a c t i v i t i e s (Dawson, 1979, pp. 1-12). 16 V a l i d i t y of an e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n i s the adequacy of a des-c r i p t i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . S o c i a l knowledge i s t h a t body or corpus of knowledge w h i c h i s somehow r e l a t e d t o the a c t i v i t i e s of a c u l t u r e ' s members. At t i m e s , the terms c u l t u r e , p e r s p e c t i v e , i d e o l o g y , and w o r l d v i e w a r e used t o mean a body of knowledge w h i c h i s s o c i a l l y known. I t i s supposed t h a t t h e r e must be some c o n n e c t i o n between what members know and what t h e y do. Members' a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n , can be c o n s t r u e d by r e f e r e n c e t o some c o r p u s of knowledge. F u r t h e r , the body of knowledge i t s e l f may be viewed as b e i n g i n some way a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the group i n wh i c h the p a r t i c i p a n t s have membership. A s t o c k of knowledge i s t h a t knowledge owned by a p a r t i c u l a r member and a c t e d on a c c o r d i n g t o h i s or her s e t s of m o t i v e s ; because of and i n o r d e r t o . T h i s r e c o g n i z e s the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s . By t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l knowledge i s an i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e of h i s s o c i a l competence. H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e v e n t s and a c t i o n s around him i s based on t h i s s o c i a l competence. An i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of s o c i a l knowledge i s t h a t some p e o p l e know some t h i n g s , but not everybody knows a l l t h i n g s . F u r t h e r , any event means f o r b o t h the w i t n e s s and the o t h e r , more than the w i t n e s s can say. Knowledge i s s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the members of a c u l t u r a l group, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , i t i s t a c i t . Mem-be r s t a k e the knowledge f o r g r a n t e d . I n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s a re the d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r a c t i o n a l a c t i v -i t i e s done by p e o p l e i n i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r example, i n i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e -dures each c h i l d d i s p l a y s h i s o r her s o c i a l competence by d e s c r i b i n g a p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n h i s or h e r r e a l i t y i n a s e t t i n g ; h i s or her owner-s h i p of s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d knowledge of everyday e v e n t s ; t h e r e b y s e t -t i n g a s i d e h i s / h e r i r r e l e v a n t b i o g r a p h i c a l s p e c i f i c meanings f o r e v e n t s or a c t i o n s ; and, h i s / h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s t a k e the w o r l d f o r g r a n t e d , o b j e c t s are a c c e p t e d f o r what they appeared t o be on the s u r f a c e . D e s c r i p t i o n s , then c o m p r i s e a schema of c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h r e n d e r some a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f what i s a c t u a l l y out t h e r e . The s t r u c t u r e s and s t r u c t u r i n g p r a c t i c e s used by the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o d e s c r i b e s i t u a t i o n s m u t u a l l y c o n t a i n each o t h e r . The k i n d s o f i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s used by c h i l d r e n t o make sense of the o b j e c t s , e v e n t s , and a c t i o n s around t h e m s e l v e s a r e not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l i n e a r , d e d u c t i v e , l o g i c a l systems as u n d e r s t o o d by most a d u l t s be-cause each c h i l d a s s i g n s h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l meanings t o o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . These p r o c e d u r e s can be seen as h i s / h e r a t t e m p t s t o e v a l u a t e and s t r i v e f o r a r e c i p r o c a l l y assumed normal form o f judgement of h i s / h e r p e r c e p -t i o n s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i s termed s e a r c h i n g f o r the normal form ( C i c o u r e l , 1971, p. 147). M u l t i p l e r e a l i t i e s . R e a l i t i e s a r e dependent upon s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n : meaning cannot o c c u r a p a r t from some s o c i a l c o n t e x t . I f the c o n s t r u c t i o n of knowledge depends upon c e a s e l e s s r e f l e x i v e use of a body of knowledge i n i n t e r a c t i o n t h e n each - ' r e a l i t y i s a l s o f r a g i l e . I t i s c a p a b l e of d i s s o l u t i o n . Each p a r t i c i p a n t c o n s t r u c t s a r e a l i t y around him w h i c h can be d i s s o l v e d by f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I f no one r e a l i t y can be c a l l e d paramount t h e n each r e a l i t y as u n d e r s t o o d by each p a r t i c -i p a n t o r member i s e q u a l l y r e a l . I n t e r a c t i o n a l competence i s d e f i n e d i n terms of e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c -i p a t i o n o r membership i n the c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e . The competencies a r e the n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e s f o r communication w i t h o t h e r s , and the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f language, b e h a v i o r , r u l e s , and o t h e r n o r m a t i v e d i m e n s i o n s of c l a s s r o o m l i f e (Mehan, 1979, p. 127). The e t h n o g r a p h e r ' s competence 18 as a member of a s o c i e t y he or she i s s t u d y i n g ". . . i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s ( h e r ) a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y i n i t s terms w i t h o t h e r s who are a l r e a d y competent" (Goodenough, 1976, p. 4 ) . L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study E t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s were chosen because they p r o v i d e d a means to uncover t h e s e meanings of p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t d e f i n e the s i t u a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e were s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h l i m i t a t i o n s because t h e r e a r e many e t h n o g r a p h i c methods. The c o n c e r n s , a d v a n t a g e s , and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of v a r i o u s approaches appeared t o c o a l e s c e around s i x major t a s k s or s t e p s f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c f i e l d work: the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n -c i p l e s of the s t u d y ; g a i n i n g e n t r y and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r o l e i n the s e t t i n g ; d e c i s i o n s about the s p e c i f i c f i e l d work t e c h n i q u e s t o be used; d e t e r m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a n t s i n the s e t t i n g , who they would be; a c t u a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ; and, d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c u l t u r e . Summary The i d e a of c h i l d h o o d as a s t a t e c r e a t e d by s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s among c h i l d r e n , has been f o r m u l a t e d by h i s t o r i a n s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s , and e d u c a t o r s w i t h i n the l a s t one hundred y e a r s . Other i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h have h e l p e d s o c i e t y c o n s i d e r c h i l d h o o d a s p e c i a l time f o r the young have been economic, the change from r u r a l t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e d urban s o c i e t i e s . C h i l d h o o d has come t o mean a time f r e e from a d u l t work and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a time t o be c a r e f u l l y n u r t u r e d , and a time f o r r e s c u e from s o c i a l i l l s . The n a t u r e of c h i l d h o o d has a l s o been p r o v i d e d t o us by 19 p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r s . They have documented the i n t e r n a l f o r c e s w h i c h a re deemed t o det e r m i n e c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and s o c i a l g r o w th. The e x t e r n a l f o r c e s on c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l and m o r a l development have a l s o been documented. These a r e the home, r e l i g i o n , f a m i l y , c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n , language, and up-b r i n g i n g . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d h o o d have s u g g e s t e d the c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d t o be e n c l o s e d i n f a n t a s y , p l a y , and s p e c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s among the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e i r songs and games. I n t h e i r s o c i a l development, c h i l d r e n mime each o t h e r and the a d u l t s around them. The schoolroom i s one of the r e a l i t i e s c h i l d r e n share w i t h a d u l t s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m would encompass the i n t r i c a c i e s of how c h i l d r e n become k n o w l e d g e a b l e of the shar e d meanings f o r o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and e v e n t s . What i s t h i s w o r l d of s h a r e d m e a n i n g s — t h i s w o r l d of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l games, p l a y , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ? Through s o c i a l i z a t i o n c h i l -d r e n a c q u i r e i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c i e s . C h i l d r e n , t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s a c q u i r e a sense of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The puzzlement i s how t h i s comes about. How can r e s e a r c h e r s e n t e r t h i s w o r l d and share t h i s r e a l i t y t o answer the f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n s known o n l y t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s : What i s i t t h a t • c h i l d r e n share,with;each:•othebcabout c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ? How much do c h i l d r e n r e v e a l about the s h a r e d w o r l d they l i v e i n , i n the day t o day r o u t i n e s of s c h o o l ? What c o n s t i t u t e s c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m ? What s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s do c h i l d r e n g a t h e r about t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s from the o t h e r c h i l d r e n and from the t e a c h e r ? F i n a l l y , how do c h i l d r e n l e a r n the t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m w o r l d ? CHAPTER I I THE STUDY OF CULTURE IN CLASSROOM L I F E R e s e a r c h on c l a s s r o o m l i f e i n s c h o o l s can be a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : (1) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e s u b j e c t s who a r e t e s t e d and measured a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e f f e c t s o f m a t e r i a l s , t h e i r e n v i r o n -ments, o r e d u c a t o r s ' methods; (2) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e n o t only-s u b j e c t s b u t r e s p o n d e n t s whose l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e a s s e s s e d ; and (3) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e a c t u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l w o r l d . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h w h i c h has s t r e s s e d i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s s t u d i e s o f c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s use c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s . S t u d i e s w h i c h use s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a l schema a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e n o t o n l y s u b j e c t s b u t r e s p o n d e n t s . Many s t u d i e s have been completed f o l l o w i n g t h e s e p a t t e r n s . S t u d i e s o f c h i l -d r e n as p a r t i c i p a n t s who make known a c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n f o r i n q u i r y , a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y o r s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , have been s c a n t . C h i l d r e n as S u b j e c t s I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s . I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s i s a way of l o o k i n g a t c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s and d a i l y e v e n t s . T h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s i s t h e s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r , v e r b a l o r non-v e r b a l , i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . A m u l t i t u d e o f o b s e r v a t i o n systems i n c o r p o r a t e o r measure a s p e c t s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m on t h e c o g n i t i v e , p s y c h o -l o g i c a l , o r s o c i a l l e v e l s . R e s e a r c h e r s a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e k i n d s o f 21 22 i n t e r a c t i o n s among and between c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . They have e v o l v e d c o u n t l e s s c h e c k l i s t s , s c a l e s , and measures. These c a t e g o r y , s i g n , o r r a t i n g s c a l e s a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s t o j u d g e t h e p r e s e n c e , a b s e n c e , o r degree of b e h a v i o r o r i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e y a r e used t o a s s e s s , j u d g e , o r measure, t h e q u a l i t y and k i n d s o f e v e n t s i n a c l a s s r o o m . The m a j o r p u r p o s e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s have been: t o measure what t h e t e a c h e r does (means o f i n s t r u c t i o n ) and t o examine changes i n l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r as a r e s u l t o f i n s t r u c t i o n ( t h e outcomes o f i n s t r u c t i o n ) ; t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t e n u r e , p r o m o t i o n , o r s a l a r y ; t o change, m o d i f y , o r improve t e a c h e r s ' p e r f o r m a n c e s ; t o j u d g e changes i n p u p i l s , t h a t i s , development o f c h a r a c t e r , s o c i a l mindedness, c r e a t i v -i t y o r i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y ; t o measure p e r f o r m a n c e o b j e c t i v e s ; and t o use m u l t i p l e bases f o r e v a l u a t i o n and s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . The g r e a t e s t amount of i n t e r e s t and t h e major f o c u s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s has been t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e measures of c l a s s -room b e h a v i o r s ( p r o c e s s e s ) and measures o f s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes ( p r o d u c t s ) . The f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n h e l d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r can be t a b u l a t e d . R e s e a r c h e r s s e l e c t e d ' p r o c e s s - p r o d u c t ' d i m e n s i o n s f r o m a narrow r a n g e . T h i s meant t h a t d i s c r e t e i n s t a n c e s o f b e h a v i o r were p l o t t e d out o f t h e f l o w and sequence o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . The second a s s u m p t i o n has been t h a t b e h a v i o r s s h o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a . R e s e a r c h e r s used 'low i n f e r e n c e ' o b s e r v a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h i s o l a t e d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s . The t h i r d a s s u m p t i o n p o s i t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between o b s e r v e d c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r and outcome measures. F i n a l l y , t h e i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t o b s e r v e d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s have a d i r e c t e f f e c t on s t u d e n t outcomes. D a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n a r e seldom c o l l e c t e d and 23 analyzed (Rosenshine, 1970). Flanders' Verbal Interaction Analysis is one of the foremost and seminal classroom observation systems. The focus is teaching, rather than studenting. For example, i t provided a conceptual framework for understanding teacher/pupil interactions. The underlying assumptions reflected process/product research design: specific or isolated processes carried out by the teacher would produce improved student achievement or pupil growth. A change in teacher verbal behaviors would f a c i l i t a t e pupil growth; a change in teacher insights about children would produce higher student achievement scores; and, a change in teachers' understand-ings about classrooms as places where the young are exposed to society's ways and values would produce gains in student achievement. For these purposes Flanders ,isolated different kinds of verbal interactions. Through this perspective, teaching was the focus rather than the social world which students constructed and which gave meaning to their daily a c t i v i t i e s . Teaching was viewed as a pattern of acts, logically related to certain perceived outcomes. Researchers have subsequently used Flanders' scale or modifications of his categories. For example, Brown, Ober, Soar, and Webb (1967) have developed the Teacher Observation Record, the Florida Taxonomy of Cognitive Behavior and Reciprocal Category System. These provided a framework for observing and reading the cognitive behaviors of teachers and students in a classroom; for assessing the cognitive level of func-tioning of teachers and students in a classroom; and as a means of collecting the same kinds of information about the pupils as about the teacher (p. 12). The research findings from studies of interaction analysis and 24 observation have been "non-significant," "conflicting," and "anomalous" (Borich, 1976). It appears that researchers cannot agree on c r i t e r i a , definitions, or categories. There is no overall framework or model; no conceptualization to guide researchers in choosing teacher and pupil behaviors to observe. For example, the meanings for teacher-pupil behaviors have been based on observation and not a concern for the intentionality of the actions. The results, then, have produced iso-lated category systems defining a very narrow and limited perspective of classroom interaction. Research using Flanders' categories or modifications of his cate-gories has shown that verbal interaction occupies a great deal of time in a classroom, and that teacher-student interactions are many and complex. However, the sheer complexity of communication in a classroom is d i f f i -cult to simplify into a fragmented view of teaching (Atkin, 1967-68). For example, i f researchers have accumulated 600 elements of teacher-pupil interaction, 200 of which are non-recurring this means these many elements may contribute to an observation system of 100 categories of teacher-pupil behavior. In turn, these categories could involve 10,000 different patterns of teaching behavior and combinations of three ele-ments could involve well beyond a million distinct teaching patterns (Campbell & Barnes, 1969). Findings have been conflicting because researchers have often used locally developed instruments rather than attempting to improve existing measures with replication studies. It appears that no two investiga-tions have used instruments which possess the same r e l i a b i l i t y or validity while at the same time measuring variables operationally defined in the same way. Moreover, few studies in the literature 25 p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e k i n d s o f t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r t h e y a s s e s s . I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s f i n d i n g s have been anomalous because o f t h e emphasis on a b s t r a c t i o n s . These a r e groups o f p r o p e r t i e s t h a t can be a b s t r a c t e d f r o m p e o p l e , o b j e c t s , and e v e n t s . A l t h o u g h i t i s g r a n t e d t h a t most t h e o r e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d e a l s w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s , t h i s r e s e a r c h has s t r e s s e d p r e d i c t i o n of l e a r n i n g based on i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . I n d i v i d u a l s have been g u i d e d by a b e l i e f i n f a c t s , methods, means, t e c h n i q u e s , and p r o c e d u r e s and t h e r e b y assume a d i r e c t l i n k between t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r and s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes. I n summary, t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h i s way of l o o k i n g a t o r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s have been ba s e d on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s : g l o b a l o b s e r v a t i o n s ; m a n i p u l a t i o n and assignment o r non-assignment o f e q u a l w e i g h t s t o i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s ; a s e a r c h f o r c l e a r c u t boun-d a r i e s ; l i t e r a l s t a t e m e n t s ; and an a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h c a t e g o r i e s . The p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t t e a c h i n g - i s a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l a c t i n n a t u r e i s l o s t . Any i s o l a t e d c a t e g o r y system i s by d e f i n i t i o n a v e r y n a rrow and l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e , c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , o r framework f o r t h e whole range o f p o s s i b l e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s and t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s s t u d i e s depend upon t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e o b s e r v e r s and t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used. R e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d anomalous f i n d i n g s b ecause t h e y have been c o n s t r a i n e d by o b s e r v e r b i a s . I t i s a d m i t t e d f o r example, t h a t r a t i n g s c a l e s l a c k p r e c i s i o n because t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t i v e judgements. R a t e r s v i e w s e l e c t i v e l y and measure q u a l i t a -t i v e l y . A l l a s p e c t s o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g cannot be c o v e r e d by o b s e r v a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , we cannot measure s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n one o r a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s ( B o r i c h , 1 9 7 6 ) . 26 F i n a l l y , o b s e r v a t i o n a l systems and i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s t e n d t o i g n o r e t h e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p u p i l i n h i s own s i t u a t i o n . There i s a d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e meanings and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t s t u d e n t s may g i v e t o c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s and t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . R a t h e r , t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r such s t u d i e s has been t o examine t h e f a c t u a l p r o p e r t i e s , based upon o b s e r v a t i o n a c c o u n t s . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a d e t a c h e d v i e w o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e . P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f t h e development o f knowledge. J e a n P i a g e t p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r t y p e o f d e t a c h e d v i e w o f t h e c h i l d ' s w o r l d . He spent many h o u r s o b s e r v i n g h i s own c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s ; however, he t o o has an a d u l t i d e o l l o g y w h i c h p e r v a d e s h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l t h e o r y about t h e d e v e l o p -ment of c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge about t h e i r w o r l d . H i s i s an " a s s i m i l a t i o n o f a l l o t h e r v i e w s of t h e c h i l d ' s w o r l d i n t o l o g i c o - m a t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r -a l i s m " ( S i l v e r , 1975). Because he r e p r e s e n t s t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l o g i c of s c i e n c e , h i s s e n t i m e n t s a r e n o t v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e l o g i c o - p o s i t i v i s t s . As a r e s u l t , h i s work r e v e a l s t h a t he j u d g e d c h i l d r e n by t h e i d e a l f e a t u r e s o f a d u l t s . F o r example, when P i a g e t a t t e m p t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d r e n ' s r e a s o n -i n g he p r e s e n t e d them as d e f i c i e n t s u b j e c t s seen i n t h e shadows o f a d u l t s . F o r h i s p u r p o s e s he used many c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n and posed q u e s t i o n s t o them. These q u e s t i o n s were a c t u a l l y P i a g e t ' s formu-l a t i o n s about t h e e m p i r i c a l w o r l d . The c h i l d r e n ' s answers were t h e n compared w i t h P i a g e t ' s own "commonsense o r s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s , he ( d i d ) not t r y t o p u r s u e how t h e w o r l d c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r way" ( S i l v e r , 1975). P i a g e t used t h e manner of an a d u l t s c i e n t i s t when he asked c h i l d r e n t h e r u l e s of games i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m o r a l r u l e s ( S p e i e r , 1976). T h i s s e r v e s as a second example of h i s 27 orientation. Further, Piaget's adult ideological view of the development of children and childhood are inherent in his disregard for interactional elements in children's games. Evidence for this is in his question-answer sessions when he overlooked the nature of adult-child interac-tion. In his interpretations of children's games he saw no relevance in children's cultural activities as expressed in these games. His classic psychological stance evidenced an adult ideological position. For example, the children's answers to his questions were subject to his own epistemological indicators of intellectual and social development. The fact that he used a theoretical framework before he undertook his obser-vations i s considered an "adult ideological position" (Speier, 1976, p. 172). Unfortunately, Piaget's theory of the development of knowledge has been taken by school practitioners to be a psychological theory of learning. Piaget's theory disregarded how children "mutually built social occasions" (p. 172). He did not consider the formal properties of children's interactional events (p. 172). Moreover, Piaget ignored the "interactional foundations to social knowledge and commonsense every-day l i f e " (p. 172). Consequently', there is a lack of the social dimen-sion in Piaget's psychological theory. It is a sociological vacuum (Sullivan, 1975). It i s granted that Piaget used commonsense resources; however, he did not make them topics of enquiry. Speiers (1976) contends that this is ironic; furthermore, Silver (1975) suggests that Piaget "violated the very life-world he sought to understand." As a consequence, Piaget has not helped us to discover how children mutually build social occasions or how the complex interactions between the world of the adult and the 28 child's world take place. The p i t f a l l , then, is that we as adults and educators ascribe or judge children's actions either developmentally or individualistically against some stages of "normal" development. Children as Respondents Sociological/anthropological approaches. Sindell (1969) suggests there are three major sociological/anthropological ways of looking at classrooms: (1) to look at schools and their relations with the socio-cultural milieux in which they exist; (2) to describe and analyze class-room practices; and (3) to study individual educators. The f i r s t has as i t s underlying principles the relationships each school system, each school, and each classroom might have with the broader social and cultural contexts in which schools exist. Generally, the school is considered only one of the enculturative agencies that affects children. The strengths of these studies are in the interrelationships given the effects of social and cultural processes occurring in the surrounding milieux. Usually, ". . . a cross-cultural comparative framework i s used when (researchers) present their findings" (Sindell, p. 595). These have included familial socialization, urbanization, and modernization (p. 593). The methodology used is traditional sociological/anthropological studies with two emphases: f i e l d work in an educational setting, and fieldwork in the community. Some studies of Canadian issues in this mode include work in a Canadian Indian (Kwakiutl) village ( W o l c o t t , 1967) and in a residential school serving Canadian Indian children in the Yukon Territory (King, 1969; Sindell, 1969). Classrooms in relationship to the socio-cultural milieux. Louis Smith's work i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i s an example of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach w i t h two emphases, s c h o o l and community. I n h i s f i r s t major work ( S m i t h , 1967) he t r i e d t o r e l a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of c l a s s r o o m l i f e t o the o b j e c t i v e s of the t e a c h e r s . He d e s c r i b e d and o f f e r e d e x p l a n a -t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s i n terms of o u t s i d e e v e n t s . For example, the k i n d s of r e l a t i o n s between s c h o o l s and the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u i n w h i c h t h e y e x i s t e d were " r i p p l e s i n the c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e " not e a s i l y d i s c o v e r a b l e by an o c c a s i o n a l o b s e r v e r . He p r o v i d e d the example of b u s i n g . I n h i s e f f o r t s t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e p r o c e s s e s i n the s c h o o l as a whole he spent many months i n the c l a s s r o o m he s t u d i e d and he became i n v o l v e d w i t h the s c h o o l i n v a r i o u s r o l e s . As a r e s u l t , he emphasized t h a t e d u c a t o r s and s o c i o l o g i s t s needed to know more about e d u c a t i o n a l aims and o b j e c t i v e s as t h e y were r e f l e c t e d i n c l a s s r o o m p r o c e s s e s . An i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g i n Smith's o b s e r v a t i o n s of the c l a s s r o o m was t h a t a l o n g - t e r m p a t t e r n emerged. Not o n l y d i d he d i s c o v e r a s o c i a l system w h e r e i n i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n had b o t h i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l r o l e s , but he a l s o found t h a t w i t h i n t h i s system t h e r e were r o u t i n e s and r i t u a l s e s t a b l i s h e d . These appeared t o be most s i g n i f i c a n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the f i r s t few days of the s c h o o l y e a r and they p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the emergence of the s o c i a l system. The weaknesses of b r o a d s t u d i e s a r i s e when they remain a t the d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l ; t hey g e n e r a t e s o c i o l o g i c a l laws and not s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; they p r e s e n t t h e i r f i n d i n g s from the t e a c h e r s ' views of r e a l i t y ; and, t h e y have not i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n t e r a c t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n have not been used as key i n f o r m a n t s e i t h e r f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r -m a l l y or i n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . S i l b e r m a n (1969) and H o l t (1964) 30 have described classrooms but, from their own views of reality and with their own concerns for change. There are very few interactional anal-yses and anthropological descriptions that have asked questions about and have taken as their focus the everyday world of the classroom. Finally, there are few studies which have considered the possibility that a children's culture exists along with an adult culture in a classroom setting. Smith and Geoffrey (1968) used anthropological techniques in an urban classroom to generate a general theory of instruction. Geoffrey, the teacher, and Smith, the researcher, comprised an ethnographic team. The two gathered extensive f i e l d notes. Geoffrey wrote and compiled, notes while Smith spent much time writing "running process records" in the classroom. After school he made summary observations and interpre-tations. Together, they developed hypotheses and then returned to their ethnographic data to l i s t and to elaborate. The strength of this methodology was in Smith's "interpretive asides." These occurred as he wrote down any insights or tentative interpretations as he was observing. These then were used in developing hypotheses. These techniques can be defined ". . . as a series of studies that follow each other daily and build on each other in a cyber-netic fashion" (Wilson, S., 1977). There were criticisms launched against their approach. Sindell (1969) suggests Smith and Geoffrey did not relate anything they observed to events outside the classroom, the teachers seemed to exist in a cul-tural vacuum, and their findings were questionable because they asked "purely psychological questions of the data." Yet these criticisms could be deemed to be inconsequential i f the interest for the study was 31 the social system within the classroom. Finally, the purpose for Smith and Geoffrey's work was to generate law statements; rather than to gather subjective understandings. Con-sequently, there is a lack of information derived from children concern-ing the social meaning of classroom l i f e . Context, setting, and analyses of classroom processes. Socio-logical/psychological studies about classroom settings have emphasized processes in children's socialization or efforts to recover children's perceptions, or ratings of children's attitudes toward school, teacher, or curriculum. Classroom studies of settings and children's socializa-tion from their point of view are scant and varied. McKay (1973) described Grade One children in Alberta, Canada, and their conceptions and socialization in a school setting. Sociological studies of c h i l -dren's perceptions are rare. Lightfoot (1973) assessed perceptions of both teachers and students in an elementary classroom in the United States; and Blandford (1977) addressed her work directly to children's perceptions of school in Great Brxtain. Carew and Lightfoot (1979) sought to describe the social contexts which surrounded the interactions of teachers and children in three classrooms in an urban integrated neighborhood i n the United States. In their study, they interviewed children as part of their methodology. They gathered children's per-ceptions of the three teachers whose classroom interactions were recorded. Studies which attempted to discover children's attitudes toward school, teacher, curriculum, or classroom events are more common in the literature of educational psychology. For example, Henry (1957) examined attitude organization in elementary school children. Barker-Lunn (1969, 1972) examined the influence of sex, achievement, and social class on 32 these variables. Beere (1973) devised a group instrument to measure children's attitudes; while Herrman (1972) conducted research into children's classroom status as perceived by children and the relationship these perceptions had with teacher approval and disapproval. Research about classroom processes f a i l to document children's responses to the classroom environment in any systematic manner. We know very l i t t l e about children's perceptions of their learning experi-ences, and everyday social experiences. Not only do we not know how children perceive the classroom environment but we have not gathered any information about what they, the children, perceived to be salient and important i n the classroom world. The lives of children are conspicu-ously absent from studies on classroom process. The voices of children are not heard in the research literature about school classrooms (Carew & Lightfoot, 1979, p. 4). Studies of individual pupils and educators. Ethnographic f i e l d research used with a small group or individual as the focus for the study represent an anthropological approach to the examination of classroom settings. They are efforts to document the activities of pupils and educators. Jackson (1968) and Rist (1970) studied routine classroom events in our society; /Wolcott (1973) chronicled days in the l i f e of an individual participant; and Burnett (1969) used a f i e l d research approach. Philip Jackson's (1968) work represents a concern for the everyday routine happenings in classrooms as he understood i t to be experienced by the children themselves. Jackson's studies can be classified as cultural studies using ethnographic techniques with a small group. He extended his analyses from the classroom to schools as social institutions 33 based on data comprising o f f i c i a l curricula devised by educators. He pointed out the existence of a 'hidden curriculum' which served the social institution called 'the schools'. He suggested that society pays a price for the relationship between conformity—good behavior, docility, and acquiescence to authority—as demanded by the schools, and intellectual prowess. The results are the production of 'social scholars'. Jackson advanced premises about everyday l i f e in a classroom. These included the notion that the teacher is a "gate keeper who manages the flow of interaction"; a "supply sergeant" doling out resources; a granter of special privileges to deserving students; the assigner of coveted duties; and f i n a l l y an " o f f i c i a l timekeeper, one who sees that things begin and end at the same time." According to Jackson, the classroom world, defined as the routine, taken for granted occurrences of everyday l i f e , includes students who feel they are in a cage from which there is no escape. They consider school activities dull and repetitious. The most salient features are delay, denial, and interruption. Jackson concluded that the "pain of school l i f e was a natural outgrowth of the problems of institutionalized l i v i n g and the management of social t r a f f i c " (Jackson, 19?6, pp. 345-357). Students adapted to and coped with the "mundane features of school l i f e " by expressing patience and resignation by "masquerading," masking, or feigning enthusiasm for educational affairs. They either displayed masks of enthusiasm or masks of indifference. Jackson's work provides an example of the adult-centrism rampant in educational research about school settings. Although he spent three years observing the "students' world" he overemphasized his own observa-tion methodology with l i t t l e discussion of his methods and how 34 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were made. He d i s p l a y e d b i a s i n s t u d y i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s r e a l i t y as he saw i t : — a s an a d u l t ' i s . He was an ' o u t s i d e r ' t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r l d as t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i t . Not o n l y d i d he t a k e an e x t e r n a l o r e t i c ( W i l s o n , 1976) framework but he a l s o c a t e -g o r i z e d and pushed h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t o t h i s framework. A l t h o u g h J a c k s o n ' s c e n t r a l c o n c e r n was " w i t h a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m " he deduced a for m o f e x p l a n a t i o n . He began w i t h h i s a s s u r e d t h e o r e t i c a l p r e m i s e s , he t h e n used e m p i r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d f a c t s and t h e c o n d i t i o n s he found i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e p r e m i s e s . H i s r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s were i n f e a t u r e s he c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . J a c k s o n o b l i t e r a t e d t h e p u p i l s ' o r i n s i d e r s ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s and n e g l e c t e d t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n because he assumed t h e r e was 'cog-n i t i v e c o n s e n s u s ' among t h e t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n . T h i s he assumed i n h i s s t u d i e s o f t h e p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t p u p i l s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between s i t u a t i o n s and a c t i o n s i n v e r y n e a r l y t h e same way. I n h i s a n a l y s i s , J a c k s o n made no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between how he, as an a d u l t v i e w e d t h e ' s t u d e n t s ' w o r l d ' o r ' l i f e i n c l a s s r o o m s ' , and how t h e s t u d e n t s v i e w e d i t . Because he used t h e e t i c ( o u t s i d e ) frame-work of n o r m a t i v e s o c i o l o g y when he d e s c r i b e d t h e e v e n t s he o b s e r v e d , t h e e v e n t s were i n t e r p r e t e d by an o u t s i d e r , J a c k s o n , t h e a d u l t . F i n a l l y , J a c k s o n ' s methodology p r o v i d e d e d u c a t o r s w i t h a p e r s p e c -t i v e a l b e i t a d u l t , w h i c h r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s about t h e i n t o l e r a b i l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r l d . He was a c c e s s i b l e t o i t f o r s u c h a l o n g t i m e , — r t h r e e y e a r s — a s an o b s e r v e r . Indeed, he came r i g h t up t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; b u t , he d i d n o t r e p o r t e m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r w o r l d as i n t e r p r e t e d t o him by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i s s t u d y . He d i d n o t g a i n s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s . The major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l 35 limitation of his work is the lack of information derived from children themselves. There are no data about their views of the classroom. Jackson formulated what he thought they had experienced without validat-ing his interpretations with the actors in the situation. This limita-tion to his work is important. Rist (1970) used ethnographic procedures and studied teachers' expectations and how they were mirrored in and magnified by the behavior and attitudes of children in.the classroom. He pointed out that c h i l -dren might reject their teacher's judgements and behave in a manner deliberately in conflict with her expectations. Secondly, he suggested that i f we really want to understand the influence of teacher expecta-tions we need to explore the complicated network of relationships among children. Thirdly, Rist's study made a significant contribution because he not only provided an analysis of c r i t i c a l factors in the teacher's development of expectations but he documented the process by which these expectations influenced the classroom experiences of both the teacher and the children. Finally,'his observations underscored educa-tional researchers' need to consider expectations that children have of one another. The issue at hand, then, is that expectations—teacher's or children's or both intermeshed—develop out of the interactional experiences of the participants in a classroom (Carew & Lightfoot, 1979, p. 12). ^Wolcott (1968, 1969) described and analyzed a school participant; a principal was the key informant. He used a diverse methodology which included " . . . three kinds of materials: enumerative and census data; protocols and f i e l d notes based on participant observation; and inter-views with informants" (Wolcott, 1968, 1969). His contribution was in 36 the role of participant observer using several methods for data collec-tion. The single vision of one method cannot by i t s own nature encom-pass a l l the important aspects of the phenomena of school l i f e from any participant's point of view. Wolcott attempted to provide a conscious-ness of the motivating forces that shaped his research by reporting rich details of the setting and detailed descriptions of a small number of social events. Burnett (1968) combined community and ethnographic procedures which used interviews and observations with both children and adults. She attempted to uncover how children and adults viewed each other and how they viewed c ommon problems. But, Lightfoot (1979) believes that c h i l -dren receive many messages from teachers that go beyond or are in conflict with the interactions an observer might witness. Further, for research-ers to interpret teachers' behavior responsibly they need to know the teacher's perceptions of the social structure of the classroom (Carew & Lightfoot, 1979, p. 23). Significantly, Jules Henry (1957) suggested that the most important aspect of teacher-child communication in the classroom is the transmission of teacher value orientations to the c h i l -dren (Henry, 1957, pp. 117-133). This means that Jackson's later (1977) warning that there are dangers in perceiving classroom experience as one that i s shared equally by a l l children should be heeded. He points out that the perspectives of the classroom's participants are as many as there are pairs of eyes through which to view the particular environment (Jackson, 1977). In summary, there has been a decided bias on the part of these researchers toward studying reality as adults see i t . These studies portrayed the teacher as the central actor in the classroom—the maker 37 of the c h i l d p r o d u c t (Carew & L i g h t f o o t , 1979, p. 6 ) . T h i s o v e r s i m p l i -f i e d p i c t u r e o f l i f e i n c l a s s r o o m s , one i n w h i c h the t e a c h e r looms l a r g e and i m p o s i n g , has as a b a s i c but h i d d e n a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the t e a c h e r f o l l o w s some s t a n d a r d r o u t i n e i n h i s / h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n , much l i k e a f a c t o r y worker who f o l l o w s a sequence of s t e p s i n a s s e m b l i n g a machine ( p . 6 ) . These s t u d i e s were not o b j e c t i v e l y comprehensive i n c a p t u r i n g the p e r c e p t i o n s o f many d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m drama (p. 2 4 ) . The a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches r e v i e w e d suggest r e s e a r c h weaknesses: (1) t h e r e has been a b i a s toward s t u d y i n g c l a s s r o o m s and c u l t u r e s o n l y as a d u l t s p r e s e n t i t or see i t ; (2) t h e r e has been an overemphasis on o b s e r v a t i o n a l methods; (3) t h e r e has been l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of methods and methodology; (4) t h e r e has been i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about how t h e methods a r e used t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ; (5) t h e r e has been s c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x a c t c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h has been done; (6) t h e r e has not been enough i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n t e r v i e w s used; and (8) t h e r e has been l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o the d i s t i n c t i o n s between o u t s i d e r ( e t i c ) and i n s i d e r (emic) v i e w p o i n t s . C h i l d r e n as I n t e r p r e t e r s The e x a m i n a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s by r e s e a r c h e r s whose i n t e r e s t s have been w i t h i n the n o r m a t i v e paradigm have been r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s t u d i e s u s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s , the s o c i o l o g i c a l / a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r u l e - g o v e r n e d s t u d i e s , and i n Jean " P i a g e t ' s work. S t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s c l a s s r o o m l i f e w i t h i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e p aradigm a re t h o s e i n w h i c h the major f o c u s i s on the i n t e r a c t i o n s among the p a r t i c i p a n t s ; the u n c o v e r i n g of the s h a r e d meanings f o r a c t i o n s and 38 events occurring around them. These kinds of studies which view children as interpreters of their classroom experiences have not been fu l l y explored by educational researchers using classroom settings. Phenomenologists. In contrast to developmental approaches to the study of children, phenomenologists have as their interest in research the common everyday l i f e of the child. A specific .focus would be on the children's practices for constructing meaning. It is supposed that by exposing their interpretive understandings researchers can begin to know how children themselves organize their activities (Silver, pp. 47-51). In contrast to Piaget's disregard for the interactional elements in children's culture, phenomenologists make an effort to preserve children's forms of reasoning. Instead of an extrinsic epistemological framework imposed on children's thinking processes there are ways to preserve children's various forms of reasoning. Van Manen (1978) suggests that children's talk reveals that their views of reality are different to those of adults. Rather than Piaget's pre-formulated answers there need to be attempts to have children display their world, as i t is understood and taken-for-granted by them, among themselves. Adults w i l l need to "cross over to the children's world in order to share their view of the world" (Van Manen, 1978, pp. 1-17). Thus far, adults have used external divisions between what children consider to be real; therefore, c h i l -dren's plausible descriptions appear incomplete (Silver, pp. 47-51). Finally, children's culture needs to be thought about in ". . . keeping with i t s distinctive features" (pp. 47-51). Cultural examinations. Research about cultural events in class-rooms have been derived from many sources. These have included Speier's (1970) and Cicourel's (1971) concerns with children's 39 acquisition of language, Kelly's (1955) work about personal constructs and communication, studies about shared perceptions and hypothetical social constructs conceived by Berger and Luckmann (1966) based on the social construction of reality and carried out by E l l i o t t (1975, 1976), Kounin's (1969) psychological naturalistic studies, and the ethno-methodological study of classroom l i f e carried out by Mehan (1979). Speier (1970) pointed out that what is classically problematic about studying children is the process of their cultural induction (p. 188). Significantly, he went further and suggested a simple definition for socialization as the acquisition of interactional competencies. Speier contended that Cicourel's studies of children's language acquisi-tion had erroneously pre-supposed a good knowledge of children's inter-actional competencies. It was Speier's belief that no investigation of acquisitional processes on the part of children can effectively get under-way un t i l the concrete features of interactional competencies are analyzed as topics in their own right (p. 189). Finally, he stated emphatically that an investigation of the concrete features of competent interaction is nothing more or less than a study of what children normally and routinely do in their everyday ac t i v i t i e s . George Kelly's (1955) work about personal constructs was essentially psychologically based. However, he investigated the way people concep-tualize the important people in their lives. Kelly's work about personal constructions in communication spawned interaction studies about social constructs. Ethnographic studies about shared perceptions and hypothetical constructs were carried out by E l l i o t t (1975, 1976) which suggested that teachers' hypothetical constructs may or may not match the perceptions 40 or constructs shared by their' students. These findings point to the major research question, what are the shared meanings for classroom events among teachers and children in an educational setting? Kounin's (1969) work pointed out the complexity of events and people in individual classrooms. He stated there are four major issues for students and teachers to handle in the classroom world. The f i r s t i s the dense collection of people. Indeed, Kounin suggested that the schoolroom group can be viewed as a large colle c t i v i t y " . . . where scattered events come in rapid succession." The second is the rapid flow of verbal exchanges between a teacher and pupils, while the third is the easy opportunity for spontaneous expression on the part of both the teacher and the children. Finally, the program of activities planned by the teacher is managed by a l l participants. Mehan's (1979) ethnomethodological study provided a significant conceptualization for examining classroom l i f e . His research interests were in children's contributions to the classroom routines and events; a relationship between children's verbal and non-verbal behavior; a rela-tionship between the participants' behavior to the context of the situa-tion; and the function of language as an expression of a shared culture among classroom participants (Mehan, 1979, p. 10). The ethnomethod-ological approach used by Mehan attempted to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in the usual f i e l d ethnographies with participant observation. These d i f f i c u l t i e s are the tendency on the part of researchers to report with anecdotal data, providing only a few exemplary instances of behavior culled from the f i e l d notes; the usual habit of not providing a c r i t e r i a or grounds for interpreting certain data, that i s , to try to achieve typicality and representativeness and yet not preserve the materials upon 41 which the a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d ; and the c o n v e n t i o n of not r e t a i n i n g the o r i g i n a l form of the m a t e r i a l s (Mehan, 1979, p. 16). A l t h o u g h Mehan's methodology and d o c u m e n t a t i o n are a major c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o s t u d i e s of c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v i d e o -taped sequences r e c o r d e d i n the c l a s s r o o m , and the d a t a g a t h e r e d f o r f u r t h e r l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s e s of t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n t a l k , were made from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . An o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e advantage of the c h i l -d ren's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y and have them i n t e r p r e t the c o n v e r s a -t i o n s and v i d e o t a p e d sequences of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m l i f e was not e v i d e n c e d i n Mehan's work. As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , J a c k s o n (1968) was not a l o n e i n i g n o r i n g c h i l d r e n as key i n f o r m a n t s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the emic ( i n s i d e r s ' ) p o i n t of v i e w , t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n s t u d i e s about c h i l d r e n have been f u t u r e o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than l o o k i n g at c h i l d r e n as they a r e , r i g h t now at whatever time and p l a c e they are found t o be i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e m s e l v e s and w i t h a d u l t s . R e s e a r c h e r s who have i d e n t i f i e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n as a major g o a l f o r s c h o o l s have o v e r l o o k e d the i n t e r a c t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s of group l i f e . "The p r o c e s s e s by which c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s say and do t h i n g s t o g e t h e r has not been a d e q u a t e l y r e s e a r c h e d " ( S p e i e r , 1976, p. 170). The k i n d s of s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d are t h o s e i n w h i c h the c h i l d r e n a r e i n t e r a c t a n t s w i t h a d u l t s and i n t e r a c t a n t s among the m s e l v e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . H a l l o w e l l (1976) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t we i n the o c c i d e n t a l w o r l d c o n -t r i b u t e t o the f e a t u r e s of a c h i l d m e n t a l i t y . We appear t o have made p o s i t i v e e f f o r t s t o keep c h i l d r e n ' c h i l d i s h ' . S i m i l a r l y , S p e i e r (1976) has contended t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f an ' a d u l t c e n t r i c ' b i a s i n f a v o r of what a c h i l d w i l l become. In our c o n c e r n s f o r the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p -mental p r o c e s s , from c h i l d t o a d u l t , we have o v e r l o o k e d the e v e n t s of 42 c h i l d h o o d as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . The I n t e r p r e t i v e Approach The t h r e e c e n t r a l p r e m i s e s f o r r e s e a r c h f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h r e v o l v e around t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s a r e i n d i v i d u a l . There i s no b e s t way o f s e e i n g an event as an a c t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b i n g i t s f e a t u r e s o t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t h e documentary method o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f i r s t p r e m i s e s t a t e s t h a t a c t i o n s a r e made up o f and have t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' own i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s . The second p r e m i s e s t a t e s t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r has a c c e s s t o t h e s e same a c t i o n s as t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d t o him/her o n l y t h r o u g h documentary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e a c c o u n t s f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t r e a t e d as d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p a t t e r n s o f a c t i o n o r o f e x p e c t a t i o n s o r d i s p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s i n t e r e s t e d ( W i l s o n , T., 1971, p. 7 0 ) . Of i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h a r e t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h r e c o g n i z e t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e a c t o r and c o n s i d e r t h e t h r e e c e n t r a l p r e m i s e s ; b u t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o o s t r i k e s a r e f l e c t i v e s t a n c e and c o n s t r u c t s a p e r s o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n as a b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s by l o o k i n g t h r o u g h t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n t h e y r e f l e c t . F o r example, i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e method-o l o g i c a l weaknesses o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s , a com-b i n a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i q u e s based on t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h and e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s as s u g g e s t e d by Mehan and E l l i o t t may be d e v e l o p e d . These i n c l u d e f i e l d n o t e s , r a p p o r t w i t h s t u d e n t s , t h e i n s i d e r ' s v i e w , and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p -t i o n f a l l s under t h e a e g i s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p a r a d i g m because t h e r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n i s the phenomenology of s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . R e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e a r e the f u r t h e r i n g of one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l l y produced s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and an i n t e r e s t i n communication and t h e r e c o v e r y of meanings f o r a u t h e n t i c e x p e r i e n c e s . There i s a f a i r degree of consensus as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s normal a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . When such r e s e a r c h i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r p r e -. t i v e , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r use ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g ) may f a l l w i t h i n a d e f i n i t i o n of a paradigm: the p a r t i c i p a n t s a c t toward t h i n g s on the b a s i s of meanings t h a t the o b j e c t s and e v e n t s have f o r them; the .meanings of such e v e n t s or o b j e c t s a r e d e r i v e d from, or a r i s e out of t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s have w i t h each o t h e r ; and, t h e s e meanings a r e h a n d l e d w i t h i n and m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s e s used by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the t h i n g s t h e y e n c o u n t e r . F u r t h e r , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n means not t o j u s t r e c o u n t the e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r i n a c u l t u r e , but t o say e x a c t l y what I must know t o make t h o s e e v e n t s m a x i m a l l y p r o b a b l e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u l t u r e i s not t o s t a t e m e r e l y what someone d i d but t o s t a t e p r e c i s e l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a t the p e r s o n o c c u p y i n g the r o l e w i l l r e n d e r an e q u i v a l e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . I t would be n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y i n the s i t u a t i o n from the p o s i t i o n of the a c t o r s — a n emic v i e w p o i n t . The a c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m are f o r g e d 44 by p a r t i c i p a n t s out of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and judgements. I , as r e s e a r c h e r , would attempt t o see the o p e r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n as the a c t o r s see i t , I would attempt t o p e r c e i v e the o b j e c t s as the a c t o r s p e r -c e i v e them. I would t r y t o a s c e r t a i n the meanings f o r o b j e c t s i n terms of the meanings t h e y have f o r the a c t o r s , and would attempt t o f o l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l s ' l i n e s o f conduct as th e y o r g a n i z e them. I n e s s e n c e , t h e n , I would attempt t o t a k e the r o l e of the c h i l d and see the w o r l d from t h a t p o i n t of v i e w . To a d j u d i c a t e the q u a l i t y o f the work done i n c u r s the use of some c r i t e r i a o r t e s t of d e s c r i p t i v e adequacy. T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of e v e n t s and not s i m p l y t o the o c c u r r e n c e of e v e n t s ( F r a k e , 1964, p. 112). The t e s t f o r adequacy i s found i n the k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s whereby p a r t i c i p a n t s produce and manage t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n o f o r g a n i z e d e v e r y d a y a f f a i r s and how th e y a r e i d e n -t i c a l w i t h members' p r o c e d u r e s f o r making the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n a c c o u n t a b l e . I n summary, the two p r i n c i p l e s f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e : t o r e c o v e r the s h a r e d meanings i n a s i t u a t i o n and t o uncover how p a r t i c -i p a n t s c o n s t r u c t t h e i r r e a l i t y and d e f i n e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . P r o c e d u r e s f o r P o r t r a y a l The p r o c e d u r e s f o r p o r t r a y a l a r e : t o assemble a l l the d a t a , f i e l d n o t e s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s f o r o b j e c t s and ev e n t s i n a s e t t i n g , a l l the p h o t o g r a p h s , t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s ; t o i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i a t i o n s among the assembled range o f i n s t a n c e s ; t o c l a s s i f y d a t a i n t o an a r t i c u l a t e s e t of what a p p e a r s r t o be p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l o r o b s e r v e r / o j u s t i f i a b l e t y p e s , and, t o p r e s e n t t h e s e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n s t a n c e s i n an 45 orderly labelled or named manner. Course of assertion or t e l l i n g . The course of assertion or t e l l i n g includes the social interaction among participants, the objects, the individual children as actors or participants, human action, and the interconnection of lines of action. The culture may be derived, then, from what participants do. The social structure refers to the kinds of relationships derived from how participants act toward each other. Maxims of good ethnography. The four maxims of good ethnography to be followed are: (1) to make provision for the inconsequentiality of my presence; (2) to seek not to impose a perspective on the domain, but rather, to have surface the perspective native to i t ; (3) to give atten-tion to techniques for gathering data which may be constitutive of the data gathered; and (4) to attend to the premise that any domain has as a leading feature the differentiated distribution of competence amongst i t s members. Within this context informants need to be well-informed and natives have to be entitled to speak as natives for their domain (Stoddart, 1979, p. 14). Photography as ethnographic description. The language used by "sociology" is frequently abstract, even enigmatic and sometimes positively incomprehensible, whereas the ethnographer displays a marked preference for concrete experi-ences which are always unique. This type of approach no doubt explains why i t is traditional—or—exotic—ethnographic research which in recent years has provided the greatest number of . . . documents on man's social condition. (deHeusch, 1962, p. 27) The procedures for photography and the inquiry into classroom cul-ture may become identical. The results are a presentation of an alter-native way of describing a situation; not only a tool for inquiry, but also as a medium of communication. As such, they may direct my observa-tions and serve to discriminate and order my data. For example, the 46 p h o t o g r a p h i c d i s c o v e r i e s may become more and more d i r e c t e d and i n t e n s i v e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e o n l y a few l i n e s o f i n q u i r y i n t o e v e r y d a y e v e n t s . The p h o t o g r a p h s may be made out o f t h e c l a s s r o o m r e a l i t i e s ; t h e p l a n s o r s h o o t i n g s t r a t e g i e s may become h y p o t h e s e s about a s u b j e c t , o b j e c t , o r e v e n t . These t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s may become r e f e r e n t i a l t r u t h s w h i c h can be ' t e s t e d ' . The o n - g o i n g p h o t o graphy and p l a n s may be m o d i f i e d . These t h e n , a r e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r o t h e r p r o v i s i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h i n t u r n become d e f i n i t e p l a n s . Summary In s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s , t h e o b s e r v a t i o n systems and i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s have te n d e d t o i g n o r e t h e s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s . They have a l s o tended t o d i s -r e g a r d t h e meanings and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s s t u d e n t s may g i v e t o c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . There has been a f u r t h e r t e n d e n c y t o p r o v i d e o n l y a d e t a c h e d v i e w o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e . F o r example, P i a g e t d i d n o t a d d r e s s e i t h e r how c h i l d r e n m u t u a l l y b u i l d s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s t o s o c i a l knowledge and commonsense e v e r y d a y l i v i n g . S t u d i e s o f t h i s i l k a r e s o c i o l o g i c a l vacuums w h i c h have n o t h e l p e d us -to d i s c o v e r how c h i l d r e n m u t u a l l y b u i l d s o c i a l l i f e o r how t h e complex i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e w o r l d o f t h e a d u l t and t h e c h i l d ' s w o r l d t a k e p l a c e . I n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n as r e s p o n d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l systems i n c l a s s r o o m s w i t h i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l r o u t i n e s and r i t u a l s have been u n c o v e r e d ; b u t , t h e s e s t u d i e s have n o t p r o v i d e d s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r -s t a n d i n g s o f e i t h e r t h e t e a c h e r s ' o r c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d s . C h i l d r e n have g e n e r a l l y n o t been key i n f o r m a n t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h i l d r e n ' s c u l -t u r e i n a c l a s s r o o m has n o t been e x p l o r e d . These s t u d i e s have tended t o 47 g e n e r a t e l a w s t a t e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . There has been an o v e r a l l l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m c h i l d r e n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s o c i a l meaning o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e . I n s t u d i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , s e t t i n g , and a n a l y s e s o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s have been d i f f u s e and u n r e l a t e d — r a t h e r unsystema-t i z e d . From t h e s e s t u d i e s we know l i t t l e about c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and e v e r y d a y s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . F u r t h e r , we do n o t know what c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r s a l i e n t and i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m w o r l d . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e v o i c e s o f c h i l d r e n a r e n o t h e a r d i n t h e r e p o r t s o f s t u d i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , s e t t i n g , and a n a l y s e s o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e . I n s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , e d u c a t o r s , and c l a s s r o o m s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n t a d u l t - c e n t r i s m , and an overem p h a s i s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a from r e s e a r c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v a l i d a t i o n s f o r t h e s e d a t a . The p u p i l s ' o r i n s i d e r s ' v i e w s a r e n e g l e c t e d and t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i s o v e r -l o o k e d because an e t i c o r o u t s i d e r s ' framework i s used f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . A g a i n , s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e l a c k -i n g and v a l i d a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l s i t u a -t i o n s s t u d i e d w i t h t h e a c t o r s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s a r e n o t p r o v i d e d . R e s e a r c h e r s , i n s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n as i n t e r p r e t e r s : (1) e x p l o r e t h e c o m p l i c a t e d n e t w o r k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n ; (2) c o n s i d e r e x p e c t a t i o n s c h i l d r e n have of one a n o t h e r ; (3) use a d i v e r s e methodology when e x a m i n i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ; (.4) a t t e m p t t o c a p t u r e t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f many d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ; (5) c o n s i d e r i n t e r a c t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c i e s among c h i l d r e n ; (6) l o o k a t e v e n t s o f c h i l d h o o d as i n t e r p r e t e d by c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s ; and (7) use c h i l d r e n as key i n f o r m a n t s about t h e i r 4 8 own s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n a c l a s s r o o m . Mehan (1979), E l l i o t t (1975, 1976), and S t o d d a r t (1979) p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e development of a schema f o r adequate e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p -t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s . The schema i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , f i e l d n o t e s , r a p p o r t w i t h s t u d e n t s , and the i n s i d e r ' s view. I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t q u a n t i f i c a t i o n methods m i n i m i z e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s s t u -d e n t s make t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . C h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r work t o g e t h e r to c r e a t e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and the c l a s s r o o m can be seen t o be s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d . The many n o n - v e r b a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s made to c l a s s -room ev e n t s cannot be o v e r l o o k e d e i t h e r by s i m p l e time sampling t e c h n i q u e s which o b s c u r e the s e q u e n t i a l f l o w o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t y , or by n e g l e c t i n g the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s . Each event i s guided by n o r m a t i v e r u l e s , and a d i f f e r e n t r u l e a p p l i e s t o d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s . Students l e a r n t h e r u l e s t h a t a p p l y i n each s i t u a t i o n , and on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n a l competencies they a r e a b l e to r e c o g n i z e the d i f -f e r e n c e s between s i t u a t i o n s and produce the b e h a v i o r a p p r o p r i a t e to each s i t u a t i o n . S t o d d a r t (1979) sugge s t s bases f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e paradigm by o u t l i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r p o r t r a y a l , a c o u r s e of a s s e r t i o n o r t e l l i n g , and t h e maxims o f good ethnography. Photography as a means f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n and i n q u i r y about c l a s s r o o m c u l -t u r e has a b a s i s f o r use from a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f v i s u a l a n t h r o p o l o g y and documentary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by v i s u a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . E t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n combined w i t h photography and t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e paradigm p r o -v i d e a new way of l o o k i n g a t everyday l i f e i n a c l a s s r o o m . CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION The g o a l o f t h i s e t h n o g r a p h i c and i n t e r p r e t i v e s t y l e of r e s e a r c h i s to g a t h e r d a t a w h i c h d e s c r i b e the i n t e r a c t i o n a l work p a r t i c i p a n t s do t o assemble the e v e n t s i n t h e i r s e t t i n g i n t o s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o r a c l a s s -room c u l t u r e . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t each o f t h e s e e v e n t s i s g u i d e d by n o r m a t i v e r u l e s and t h a t d i f f e r e n t r u l e s a p p l y t o d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s . Because t h e s e r u l e s a r e t a c i t , seldom s t a t e d i n words, t h e r e s e a r c h t a s k i s t o uncover the i m p l i c i t r u l e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . C o n c e p t u a l Framework A c c o r d i n g t o Stoddart" ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "The good e t h n o g r a p h e r seeks not t o impose a p e r s p e c t i v e on the domain but t o s u r f a c e the p e r s p e c t i v e n a t i v e t o i t " ( p . 3 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y the f o c u s was the whole c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g as s e e n l f r o m the p o i n t of v i e w of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The r e a l i t y of c l a s s -room l i f e , from t h i s v i e w , i s one t h a t i s assumed t o be s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s : t he c h i l d r e n , t he t e a c h e r , and the r e s e a r c h e r . T o g e t h e r t h e y s h a r e d v a r y i n g l e v e l s of c o m p e t e n c i e s , s k i l l s , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s about how t o conduct t h e m s e l v e s i n t h a t s e t t i n g . I t was assumed t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s make sense o f t h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n a number of ways: how th e y i n t e r a c t and v i e w each o t h e r ; how th e y l e a r n t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l ; how th e y become kn o w l e d g e a b l e about s h a r e d meanings; how th e y come t o u n d e r s t a n d the r u l e s f o r a c t i o n i n t h e i r c u l t u r e ; how th e y l i v e t h r o u g h an average day; what i t i s t h a t .49 50 c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r see t h e m s e l v e s d o i n g ; and, what i t i s one has t o know t o g a i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y as a member, t h a t i s , " . . . how t o be compe-t e n t i n t h e t h i n g s t h e members a r e e x p e c t e d t o be competent i n " (Goodenough, 1964, p. 1 1 1 ) . How p a r t i c i p a n t s c a r r y out and do t h e s e t h i n g s have seldom been d i r e c t l y examined i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h about c l a s s r o o m s ; r a t h e r , t h e y have been t r e a t e d as though t h e y c o u l d not be known, o r were n o t i m p o r t a n t l i n k s between i n p u t and o u t p u t (Mehan, 1979, p. 4 ) . We a r e p r e s e n t l y l a c k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s o f e d u c a t i o n i n s i d e c l a s s r o o m s from t h e i n s i d e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n t h i s v i e w , t h e n , c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r s o c i a l w o r l d d i r e c t t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i o n s toward g o a l s because t h e y s h a r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p r o -v i d e d by t h e m i l i e u o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . F u r t h e r , c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e s r e f l e c t t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e s o c i a l w o r l d . Thus, c h i l d r e n ' s a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m l i f e c o n s i s t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l meanings of a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e . Based on i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , t h i s means t h a t r o u t i n e e v e n t s become s i g n i f i c a n t and p r o b l e m a t i c and t h e s t u d y must d e a l w i t h d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n h e r e n t i n u s u a l f i e l d e t h n o g r a p h i e s . R o u t i n e e v e n t s must be b r o u g h t out o f t h e background o f t h e s e t t i n g t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s t h o u g h t s . To do t h i s , p r e - f o r m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s d e r i v e d from o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s were posed i n two d i m e n s i o n s ; q u e s t i o n s o f p r o c e d u r e and q u e s t i o n s about t h e s i t u a t i o n . As t h e s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d , f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s a r o s e from two s o u r c e s : (1) answers g i v e n t o t h e p r e - f o r m u l a t e d q u e s t i o n s ; and (2) i n f o r m a t i o n added s e q u e n t i a l l y by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t h e g r o w i n g c o r p u s o f knowledge about t h e s i t u a t i o n . T here were m a t t e r s t o p r o v i d e f o r i n u n d e r t a k i n g an i n t e r p r e t i v e 51 s t u d y . F i r s t , a means had t o be d i s c o v e r e d i n o r d e r t o document a s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y . Second, I wanted t o d e a l w i t h p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s . T h i r d , I hoped t o r e c o v e r s h a r e d knowledge t h a t was t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y . , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o become p a r t o f t h e l i f e o f t h e c h i l d r e n b ecause t h e s e t t i n g i s v i e w e d as s e l f - o r g a n i z i n g . Matched w i t h t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s were t h e u s u a l p roblems r e l a t e d t o f i e l d methods: g a i n i n g e n t r y ; t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r ; t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y t o t h e s i t u a t i o n and t o t h e s u b j e c t s ; and t h e use o f an i n s t r u m e n t , s p e c i f i c a l l y a camera, as a means o f p o r t r a y i n g c l a s s r o o m l i f e . To overcome t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s I chose t o r e p o r t a l l t h e d a t a , n o t j u s t exemplary t i d b i t s ; t o use c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; t o p r e s e r v e m a t e r i a l s used i n a n a l y s i s ; and t o r e t a i n t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e m a t e r i a l s . 'Doing' e t h n o g r a p h y. The f i r s t p r o b l e m i n d o i n g an e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e i s t h e l a c k o f a ' t h e o r e t i c a l ' o r ' o p e r a t i o n a l ' d e f i n i t i o n . A w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n was chosen a l o n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p r e -s u p p o s i t i o n s about ways o f l o o k i n g a t how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . I t was pr e s u p p o s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d were a f o r m o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge used by c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . I t was a l s o p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s b a ckground knowledge and t h e i r d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e each c h i l d w i t h a c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g s t o c k o f knowledge t h a t g i v e s each c h i l d a means f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g . F u r t h e r , i t was p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t and a c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l b i o g r a p h i e s and d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e s . Such a s t o c k o f knowledge i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e v e n t s around c h i l d r e n i n a s o c i a l m i l i e u ; from t h e handed down e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ; t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t e a c h e r and o t h e r s ; and 52 from an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d of r e a l i t y a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n t o i n t e r -p r e t because i t p r e - e x i s t s . They can e x p e r i e n c e i t i n an o r d e r l y way. Based on t h e s e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a p u r p o s e f u l , c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n would i n c l u d e : (1) what t a k e s p l a c e i n s i d e the c l a s s r o o m ; (2) what r e g u l a r i z e s r o u t i n e s ; and'(3) what p a r t i c i p a n t s e n v i s i o n t o be an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . For the d e s c r i p t i o n , the i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s used by the c h i l d r e n t o u n d e r s t a n d the meanings i n a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e a r e assumed t o be the r e s u l t of the c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e the c h i l -dren's s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e i n a c l a s s r o o m a r e ones i n whi c h they e x p e r i -ence and i n t e r p r e t the many and c o n t i n u a l impingements of d a i l y l i f e upon t h e m s e l v e s . Through s y s t e m a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n f o r m -a n t s , the p r e - c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s about the c l a s s r o o m can be examined; and the s u p e r f i c i a l i m p r e s s i o n s g a i n e d can g r a d u a l l y be r e p l a c e d w i t h more a c c u r a t e i n s i g h t s . Through t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , t h e n , an attempt can be made to document a s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y . A second problem i n d o i n g an e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y i s t h a t of d e a l i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s ; what t h e y a r e , how t o make them a c c e s s i b l e t o s t u d y , and what i s t o be l e a r n e d about them ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967, p. 3 1 ) . Any o c c a s i o n whatsoever i n the c l a s s r o o m can be examined. The e t h n o g r a p h i c .purpose i s to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n ' s p r a c t i c e s o f s t r u c t u r i n g o r r e p l i c a t i n g p r a c t i c e s and e f f e c t s so they can be r e c o r d e d and v a l i d a t e d ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967, p. 3 1 ) . The i n q u i r y i n c l u d e s c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and e v e n t s ; the . . . r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e h a v i o r and the c o n t e x t o f the s i t u a t i o n ; and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' language o r t a l k as an e x p r e s s i o n of a s h a r e d c u l t u r e among c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a n t s (Mehan, 53 1979, p. 10). Conceptually, then, the children contributed to the organization of classroom events because they and the teacher constructed the reality by working together to formulate and construct the social organization of the classroom which they know and understand as pa r t i c i -pant S : A third problem i s that of identifying the ways participants of the class invoke rules with which to define the coherent or consistent or planful. There are many organizations of common practices among members of a class creating the classroom organizational phenomena. Children work to achieve their objectives in the context of the teacher's objec-tives. Children provide information to the teacher and to each other verbally and non-verbally, and behave in a sequential flow of classroom activity. I needed to discover the rules for events, how different rules apply to different events; to discover and recognize differences between situations known and understood by participants; and to discover how pupils produce behavior appropriate to each situation. A fourth problem in ethnographic studies is the self-organizing nature of the setting. This requires the use of properties which are recognized, used, produced, and talked about by participants rather than the use of a standard or rule obtained from outside. The rational properties, "efficiency, efficacy, effectiveness, i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , uniformity, reproducibility of their everyday world" were sought (Garfinkel, 1967, p. 33). In the search i t is is c r i t i c a l to establish a role which facilitates the collection of information and provides access to the children's interpretations of their world. To do this, I needed to become someone with whom participants were willing to share information. It was imperative for me to become part of the l i f e world 54 that daily oriented participants. . ' Finally, the study attempted to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in f i e l d ethnographies through the use of observation. These d i f f i c u l -ties are associated with the tendency to report anecdotal data providing only a few exemplary instances of behavior culled from the f i e l d notes; the lack of c r i t e r i a or grounds for interpreting data; failure to achieve typicality and representativeness by not preserving the materials upon which the analysis was conducted; and the convention of not retain-ing the original form of the materials (Mehan, 1979, p. 16). In the study, 35 mm photography and tape-recorded interviews were introduced in an attempt to preserve the research materials and thereby allow extensive and repeated analysis. These materials can be presented along with the analyses to document the conclusions in the study and thus allows for alternative interpretations. To overcome the lack of rigour suggested by the participant observer role, a l l the photographs and a l l the transcripts can be presented. In addition the guiding principles of what Mehan (1979) describes as "constitutive ethnography" w i l l be used as c r i t e r i a . Constitutive ethnography. The principles for constitutive ethnog-raphy place structures and structuring on an equal footing, and operate on the premise that social structures are interactional accomplishments. In this study, an attempt is made to show how social factors.of the class-room world emerge from structuring work done by the participants them-selves. The question of how the social facts of the classroom world do emerge and become external and constraining is posed. If these social facts become known as social rules in a setting they become part of the classroom world as one of the participants' making and beyond their 55 making (Mehan, 1979, p. 17). G u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s were adopted: (1) a l l d a t a , m a t e r i a l s g a t h e r e d , p h o t o g r a p h s , i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s and f i e l d n o t e s a r e t o be r e t a i n e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form; (2) the e n t i r e c o r p u s of m a t e r i a l s w i l l be a n a l -y z e d ; and (3) the c u l t u r a l event o r phenomenon t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r l o c a t e s upon a n a l y s i s must be a phenomenon t h a t a c t u a l l y o r i e n t s the b e h a v i o r of p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the c o u r s e of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n (Mehan, 1979, p. 23) . Re s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The p r e - f o r m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n two dimen-s i o n s : q u e s t i o n s about p r o c e d u r e , and q u e s t i o n s about the s i t u a t i o n . 1.0 P r o c e d u r e 1.1 What were the p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r the s e t t i n g ? 1.2 How can I as r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r t h i s w o r l d and share t h i s r e a l i t y ? 1.3 What s h o u l d I do t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f communications among c h i l d r e n ? 1.4 What was i t one had t o know t o g a i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y as a member, how c o u l d I become competent i n the t h i n g s members are e x p e c t e d t o be competent i n ? 2.0 S i t u a t i o n 2.1 What meanings d i d s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r g i v e t o p h y s i c a l arrangements of the c l a s s r o o m ? 2.2 What i s i t c h i l d r e n share w i t h each o t h e r about c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ? a. What i s t h i s w o r l d o f c h i l d r e n ' s games, p l a y , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ? b. How do they become k n o w l e d g e a b l e of the s h a r e d meanings f o r o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and e v e n t s ? c. How much do c h i l d r e n r e v e a l about the s h a r e d w o r l d they l i v e i n , i n the day-to-day r o u t i n e s of s c h o o l ? 2.3 How do young c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v e s i n the c l a s s r o o m ? a. What c o n s t i t u t e s c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m ? b. What was i t the t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n saw the m s e l v e s doing? 56 c. What s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s do c h i l d r e n g a t h e r about t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s from o t h e r c h i l d r e n and from the t e a c h e r ? d. What d i d i t mean to l i v e out a day i n a classroom? e. How do the c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l i n the c l a s s r o o m world? F i e l d Work E n t r y as p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . There i s much w r i t t e n i n the l i t e r -a t u r e of s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y about the means of doing f i e l d work but t h e r e i s l e s s w r i t t e n about the problem of a c c e s s or e n t r y to a s i t u -a t i o n and how to understand the s o c i a l r u l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . Because i t i s of g r e a t importance i n such a study to have amicable r e l a t i o n s w i t h persons i n the s e t t i n g , ways of e s t a b l i s h i n g these good r e l a t i o n s were c r i t i c a l to the conduct of the study. The t e a c h e r ' s p r i v a c y was invaded by the presence of the r e s e a r c h e r ; t h e r e f o r e , the c o n t i n u i n g conduct of the f i e l d work r e q u i r e d r e a s s u r a n c e s and a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of m a i n t a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g amicable r e l a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , my r e q u e s t f o r e n t r y was the b e g i n n i n g of on-going n e g o t i a -t i o n s between the t e a c h e r and m y s e l f . For these purposes, I needed to ensure t h a t the t e a c h e r ' s freedom of a c t i o n and the i n t e g r i t y of her p o s i t i o n were m a i n t a i n e d . G a i n i n g e n t r y and e s t a b l i s h i n g a r o l e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the c o l l e c -t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s posed d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r me. For example, my a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , who i n t u r n a r r a n g e d f o r the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m and t e a c h e r to take p a r t i n the study meant th a t the s i t u a t i o n was not a v o l u n t a r y one on the p a r t of the c l a s s r o o m 57 t e a c h e r . The t e a c h e r appeared t o p e r c e i v e t h e f i e l d n o t e s b e i n g t a k e n , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n , and my p r e s e n c e w i t h a degree o f w a r i n e s s . My d i f f i c u l t i e s i n becoming a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r were p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e n a t u r e o f c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . The l a t t e r c o n c e r n was m a n i f e s t e d i n my d a i l y o b s e r v a t i o n s and t h e need on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n — f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c -t i v e — t o be s i t t i n g q u i e t l y on t a s k f o r t h e major p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l day and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t a c t i v i t i e s were s o l e l y i n d i v i d u a l and r a r e l y p a r t n e r o r group a c t i v i t i e s . These c l a s s r o o m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t r i -b u t e d t o my n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e f o r t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The c h i l d r e n ' s desk arrangement was a major d i f f i c u l t y i n a d o p t i n g a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r ' s r o l e and i n c r e a s e d my image as ' s t r a n g e r ' i n t h e s e t t i n g . The desks were a r r a n g e d i n a d i a g o n a l f a s h i o n p o i n t i n g t o t h e c l a s s r o o m d o o r . A l t h o u g h t h e s p a c i n g between t h e rows was w i d e enough f o r two a d u l t s t o p a s s , I spent much o f my f i e l d t i m e s e a t e d a t t h e back of t h e c l a s s r o o m n e a r t h e s i n k and c l o a k r o o m . There were few o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d t o me t o i n t e r a c t w i t h any p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, when t h e t e a c h e r l e f t t h e c l a s s r o o m — w h i c h was f r e q u e n t , about e v e r y t e n m i n u t e s ~ t h e c h i l d r e n watched t o see: my r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r many communica-t i o n s and movements around t h e room. A n o n - r e a c t i v e , n o n - j u d g e m e n t a l s t a n c e on my p a r t appeared t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t I d i d n o t i d e n t i f y m y s e l f w i t h t h e t e a c h e r - r o l e . A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n g a i n i n g e n t r y came about as a r e s u l t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s modus o p e r a n d i . She m a i n t a i n e d a c o n t r o l l e d d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t I h e s i t a t e d t o l e a v e my s e a t a t t h e back o f t h e room t o move i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p i n g o f desks t o engage them 58 i n e i t h e r f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . The o n l y i n f o r m a l c o n v e r -s a t i o n was w i t h a boy s e a t e d a l o n e , a t t h e b a c k o f t h e room, n e a r 'my p l a c e ' . A t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y i n g a i n i n g e n t r y and p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r s t a t u s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was t h e need f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o behave q u i e t l y , on t a s k , t h a t i s , t o keep w r i t i n g , c r a y o n i n g , o r r e a d i n g . F i n a l l y , a f o u r t h o b s t a c l e e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e week o f o b s e r v a t i o n , a r o s e because t h e c h i l d r e n r a r e l y d i d any a c t i v i t y w i t h a p a r t n e r and t h e y were n o t o b s e r v e d t o work t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l groups. T h i s meant t h e r e s e a r c h e r was n o t a b l e t o j o i n any group o f c h i l d r e n e i t h e r f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r m a l l y . T h i s l a s t d i f f i c u l t y meant t h a t I had t o d e v i s e o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o g a i n e n t r y t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i f e w o r l d . I s u g g e s t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e t e a c h e r ; f o r example, i n i t i a t i n g group a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n (by t h e t e a c h e r ) and I asked t h e t e a c h e r t o a r r a n g e f o r c h i l d r e n t o work on a t a s k i n a group. A l l of t h e s e e f f o r t s were w i t h o u t r e s u l t . I was an o b s e r v e r , an o n l o o k e r . As a r e s u l t , f o r a t i m e , t h e k i n d s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s were non-p a r t i c i p a n t . I a t t e m p t e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s based on o b s e r v a t i o n s i n my f i e l d n o t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a ppeared t o r e s p o n d t o i n s y s t e m a t i c ways as t h e y c a r r i e d out t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t a c l a s s r o o m day. The f o c u s f o r t h e i n q u i r y and o b s e r v a t i o n s were t h e k i n d s of e v e n t s , o c c u r -r e n c e s , and exchanges i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d , f o r example, t e a c h e r t o s t u d e n t t a l k , t e a c h e r e i t h e r i n o r out o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . However, d u r i n g t h i s t i m e m e t i c u l o u s and e x t e n s i v e f i e l d n o t e s were c o l l e c t e d . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e n o t e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s I r e a l i z e d t h a t t a k i n g p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m would i n c r e a s e my p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n . I n o t h e r words, p i c t u r e s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 59 d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s p r o v e d u s e f u l . The r o l e o f p h o t o g -r a p h e r - p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about d a i l y l i f e r o u t i n e s and p r o v i d e d e n t r y i n t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . P a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . I n my c o n c e r n t o g a i n t h e s h a r e d meanings o f t h e group, I a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n of t h e s o c i a l group w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g an a t t i t u d e o f 'not knowing' o r a s u s p e n s i o n o f b e l i e f s and a s s u m p t i o n s about c l a s s r o o m l i f e . To do t h i s I a t t e m p t e d n o t t o impose a s o c i a l o r d e r upon t h e s i t u a t i o n ; r a t h e r I made p r o b l e m -a t i c t h e s o c i a l o r d e r of d a i l y l i f e . That i s t o s a y , ' t h e s o c i a l l i f e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m p r oceeded r o u t i n e l y because t h e commonsense i d e a s about what was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s cenes I o b s e r v e d were known t o t h e c h i l d r e n . The a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h were c a r r i e d out day by day i n t h e c l a s s r o o m by t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e t e a c h e r appeared c l e a r t o them. A c c o r d i n g t o A l f r e d S c h u t z ' s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s used ' t r u s t w o r t h y r e c i p e s ' o f s h a r e d knowledge w h i c h s e r v e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l schemes f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s ( S c h u t z , 1973, p •. 33) .• ; The i d e a s o r b ackground e x p e c t a n c i e s e x i s t e d n o t s i m p l y i n t h e mind o f any one c h i l d b u t were s u s t a i n e d and o r i g i n a t e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n i n t h e s e t t i n g . I n t h e i r w o r l d , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e o r s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y , t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e non-p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r w o r l d i s a " c o n t i n u a l accom-p l i s h m e n t o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . These t h e n were t h e i r ' t r u s t w o r t h y r e c i p e s ' o f knowledge i n d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . I a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e s e ' t r u s t w o r t h y r e c i p e s ' w h i c h gave meaning t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e i r day t o day a c t i o n s and e v e n t s i n t h e s e t t i n g . I a l s o c o n t i n u e d t h e a t t i t u d e o f 'not knowing' and 60 q u e s t i o n e d n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g t h a t seemed t o be u n q u e s t i o n e d t o t h e members o f t h e approached group. I became a would-be-member o f t h e group and n o t j u s t an o n l o o k e r . G r a d u a l l y , t h e new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n a c q u i r e d a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r . The g r a d u a l c u l t u r a l i m m e r s i o n I f a c e d w h i l e t r y i n g t o become p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r can be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f a scheme o f o r i e n -t a t i o n . The i n - g r o u p c o u l d t r u s t t h e i r c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t o be n a t u r a l ; whereas I was u n a b l e t o get a s t a r t i n g p o i n t t o t a k e my b e a r i n g s . S e c o n d l y , t h e i n - g r o u p saw t h e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n and i t s r e c i p e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f "a u n i t o f c o i n c i d i n g schemes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as w e l l as e x p r e s s i o n " ( S c h u t z , 1973, p. 3 5 ) . I as ' s t r a n g e r ' t h e n , c o u l d n o t assume t h a t my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e "new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e members o f t h e i n - g r o u p " (p. 3 5 ) . To t h e i n - g r o u p my manoeuvres w i t h a m b i v a l e n c e between remote-ness and i n t i m a c y , my h e s i t a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y , and d i s t r u s t o f m a t t e r s w h i c h t o t h e i n - g r o u p seemed v e r y s i m p l e , p r e s e n t e d two k i n d s o f a t t i -t u d e s on my p a r t toward t h e group. I hoped t o appear o b j e c t i v e and y e t a t t h e same t i m e l o y a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s and t o t h e t e a c h e r . The two a t t i t u d e s p r o v i d e d me w i t h a d e g r e e o f s o c i a l t e n s i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s I , as ' s t r a n g e r ' needed t o examine a l l t h e e lements o f my g r o w i n g knowledge o f t h e c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e " w i t h c a r e and p r e c i -s i o n " w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e n o t f a l l i n g i n t o a web o r ' ' l a b y r i n t h o f meanings" i n w h i c h I might have l o s t a l l sense o f my b e a r i n g s and o r i e n -t a t i o n ( S c h u t z , 1973, p. 3 7 ) . R o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . D u r i n g t h e l a s t t e n days of t h e s t u d y I had a more d e f i n e d r o l e g i v e n t o me by t h e t e a c h e r as a d i r e c t outcome o f t h e f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w h e l d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ; t h a t o f t e a c h e r 61 a i d e . T h i s c h a n g i n g r o l e was adopted as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r and i n g a i n i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f h e r c l a s s r o o m l i f e . The new r o l e came about when I asked i f I c o u l d r e c i p -r o c a t e t h e t e a c h e r ' s h e l p and c o o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y by d o i n g t a s k s f o r h e r each a f t e r n o o n . I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o m a i n t a i n my r o l e w h i l e my a c t i v i t i e s were d i r e c t e d by t h e t e a c h e r . On t h e one hand, t h e c o n t i n u e d a c c e s s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p h o t o g r a p h i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s u g g e s t e d s h o t s , and t h e f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d be excused t o h e l p w i t h t h e aim of t h e r e s e a r c h more t h a n compensated f o r t h e c h o r e s of t h e t e a c h e r a i d e r o l e . A t t h e same t i m e , the r o l e as t e a c h e r a i d e appeared t o s t r e n g t h e n my r a p p o r t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ; w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e my r a p p o r t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n appeared t o weaken. The t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n t o me i n c l u d e d c a r d i n g books i n t h e l i b r a r y , h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n s e l e c t b o o k s , w o r k i n g w i t h a boy who had j u s t r e t u r n e d f r o m New Z e a l a n d , making w a l l c h a r t s , m a r k i n g a r i t h m e t i c and s p e l l i n g p a p e r s , and d e c o r a t i n g a b u l l e t i n b o a r d . The i n s t a n c e s w h e r e i n I t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n my r o l e as p a r t i c i p a n t -o b s e r v e r - p h o t o g r a p h e r i n c l u d e d a F r i d a y when t h e t e a c h e r a s s i g n e d me m a r k i n g w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n r e a d s i l e n t l y . Then t h e t e a c h e r t o l d t h e c h i l d r e n she would be out of t h e room f o r a w h i l e and I would be t h e r e . However, I s t a t e d s t a u n c h l y , t h a t I was "not i n c h a r g e . " I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , I had been away f r o m t h e s e t t i n g f o r two days because t h e whole s c h o o l had been i n v o l v e d i n a m u s i c a l . C h i l d r e n asked where I had been, C. reminded me t h a t i t was h e r b i r t h d a y . I had i n t e n d e d t o t a k e C's p i c t u r e , b u t t h e r o l e o f t e a c h e r a i d e t o o k p r e c e -dence because t h e t e a c h e r began t o d i r e c t my a c t i v i t i e s . When t h e 62 c l a s s l i n e d up t o go t o the l i b r a r y , the t e a c h e r asked me t o h e l p w i t h books. L a t e r I was a b l e t o h e l p C. s e l e c t books. She k e p t s a y i n g t h a t she d i d not l i k e the books. I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e was e v i d e n c e of h o s t i l i t y toward me e i t h e r because I had not remembered her b i r t h d a y or because of my r o l e of t e a c h e r a i d e . I n a f i n a l i n s t a n c e , the c h i l d r e n c h a t t e d and were q u i t e n o i s y w h i l e the t e a c h e r was out of the c l a s s r o o m . I t o o k p i c t u r e s and t w i c e commented t o the c h i l d r e n t h a t I was c a u g h t , i n t h e m i d d l e , maybe t h e y s h o u l d r e a d ! As a r e s u l t , the l a s t i n t e r v i e w w i t h two g i r l s , C. and L., who knew a ' s e c r e t language' between them was not s u c c e s s f u l . They appeared i n d i f f e r e n t toward me and made many n e g a t i v e comments. When I asked t o t a k e p i c t u r e s of t h e i r ' s e c r e t language' i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e y no l o n g e r wanted t o d i v u l g e too much. I t o o k some p i c t u r e s , one of w h i c h i n c l u d e d my name w h i c h was c o n n o t e d w i t h a s t u c k out tongue. F i n a l l y , a n o t h e r group of g i r l s who s h a r e d a ' s e c r e t language' a l l o w e d me t o t a k e p h o t o g r a p h s . These were t a k e n i n the c l a s s r o o m w h i l e the r e s t of the c l a s s went t o the l i b r a r y . The f o l l o w i n g day the g i r l s i d e n t i f i e d the code i n the p h o t o g r a p h s . D a t a - G a t h e r i n g P r o c e d u r e s I p l a n n e d the form of d a t a t o be c o l l e c t e d ; the s e t t i n g s i n w h i c h I would c o l l e c t t h e s e d a t a ; the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h whom I would i n t e r a c t ; and the q u e s t i o n s I would ask i n the i n t e r v i e w s . F i e l d n o t e s . The n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s were g a t h e r e d f o r the f i r s t week. These were o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l , and t o p i c a l . They were the e v e n t s I e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h w a t c h i n g and l i s t e n i n g , c h r o n o l o g i c a l f o r the e v e n t s i n a ' p a s s i n g p a r a d e ' , s t a t e d 63 w i t h as l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . As sueh, t h e y p r o v i d e d me w i t h t h e b a s e s f o r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f what I had o b s e r v e d . A l s o , some o f t h e s c e n i c p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e parade o f o b s e r v e d e v e n t s became r e l a -t i v e l y r e p e t i t i v e l a t e r i n my r e s e a r c h . These n o t e s were t o p i c a l , t h e y d e p i c t e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s and t e a c h e r ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g and p r o v i d e d t o p i c s f o r q u e s t i o n s t o be answered. The n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s were i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h my t h e o r e t -i c a l and p r o c e d u r a l f i e l d n o t e s as w e l l . F o r example, t h e r e were t e n t a -t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i n f e r e n c e s , c o n j e c t u r e s , and t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s . These n o t e s were a l s o i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h p r o c e d u r a l n o t e s , t h e s e were i n s t r u c t i o n s t o m y s e l f o r r e m i n d e r s t o conduct some a c t . The t h e o r e t i c a l and p r o c e d u r a l n o t e s were u s u a l l y w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s . F o r example, I a s k e d m y s e l f : How can I get t h e s t u d e n t s t o t a l k t o me w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i n g t h e r o u t i n e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m as p e r c e i v e d by t h e t e a c h e r ? S h o u l d I g i v e t h e boy s e a t e d a l o n e a l o n g y e l l o w p e n c i l ? S h o u l d I c o n s i d e r t h i s boy a key i n f o r m a n t because he has mumbled t o me? Other q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d : (1) What were t h e p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r t h e s e t t i n g ? I suspended a p r i o r i judgements about c l a s s r o o m a r r a n g e m e n t s , t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t move-ments and t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p i n g s o f m a t e r i a l s and f u r n i t u r e . The s i g n i f -i c a n c e o f t h e s e e v e n t s , m a t e r i a l s , and arrangements was q u e s t i o n e d . F o r example, i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e desks were a r r a n g e d d i a g o n a l l y t o w a r d one o f t h e c l a s s r o o m d o o r s , a boy was s e a t e d away f r o m t h e group, a g a i n s t t h e c l o a k r o o m door jamb, n e a r t h e round t a b l e a t t h e back o f the room where I was d e s i g n a t e d t o s i t . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n I began t o pose t o m y s e l f was (2) How can r e s e a r c h -e r s e n t e r t h i s w o r l d and s h a r e t h i s r e a l i t y ? The o b s e r v a t i o n s were i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l n o t e s and p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and answers f o r t h e o b s e r v e d p a r t i c i p a n t a c t i o n s . F o r example, I o b s e r v e d i n an i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n u s i n g n o n - v e r b a l language t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r . I c o n j e c t u r e d i t was t o share answers. T h i s caused a q u e s t i o n i n my f i e l d n o t e s , (3) How c o u l d I as r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d ? I n the second i n s t a n c e , a boy approached me at the round t a b l e where I was s e a t e d . I used my f i n g e r over my mouth t o d i r e c t him back t o h i s s e a t . These i n s t a n c e s r a i s e d two q u e s t i o n s i n my f i e l d n o t e s : (4) What s h o u l d I do t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the com-m u n i c a t i o n s among c h i l d r e n ? and (5) What i s the c h i l d r e n ' s r u l e f o r a p p r o a c h i n g an a d u l t i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m ? The f i e l d n o t e s gave me a l i s t of what appeared t o be s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i c a l arrangements of the s e t t i n g w h i c h c o u l d be photographed (see Appendix A ) . F i n a l l y , t he f i e l d n o t e s p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r some f o r t y q u e s t i o n s t o be posed i n some f a s h i o n t o c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the attempt t o d i s c o v e r what were the " i n t e r n a l i z e d n o t i o n s i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s minds about what i s e x p e c t e d and a l l o w e d " ( W i l s o n , 1977, p. 2 4 7). F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t he o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used i n the stu d y were based on the u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n adopted g e n e r a l l y f o r use i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e . I must have a t h e o r e t i c a l g r a s p o f t h e p r o b l e m i n o r d e r t o make r e l e v a n t o b s e r v a t io.ns. These o b s e r v a t i o n s were deemed t o c o n -s t i t u t e r e a l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , I c h a r t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s and checked on o b s e r v a t i o n s . These a c t i o n s were founded on the i d e a o f phenomenology and the a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t I p o s s e s s e d the n e c e s s a r y t h e o r e t i c a l concep-t a u l i z a t i o n t o conduct the s t u d y . I n summary, I p l a n n e d and used o b s e r v a t i o n f i e l d n o t e s o f a non-p a r t i c i p a n t n a t u r e . Some q u e s t i o n s were posed and s u b s e q u e n t l y answered 65 as more t i m e was sp e n t o b s e r v i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and g a i n i n g o b s e r v e r s t a t u s i n t h e s e t t i n g . S t i l l p h o t o g r a p h y. D a ta were a l s o c o l l e c t e d by t h e use o f s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h y . I t was d e c i d e d t o use photography as a way o f c a p t u r i n g d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and t o use p h o t o s as a ' d i s p l a y o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e ' t h a t p r o v i d e d - o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . . The p h o t o g r a p h y a l l o w e d me a c c e s s t o e v e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h i s meant t h e camera became ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera'. The r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g p h o t o g -r a p h y t o document e v e n t s as t h e y o c c u r r e d was t w o f o l d : (1) t o p r o v i d e e n t r y i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e v e r y d a y l i f e as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ; and (2) t o p r o v i d e a d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s t h a t I c o u l d s h a r e w i t h s t u d e n t s . The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e pho t o g r a p h y was t o uncover t h e i m p o r t a n t frameworks t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e t e a c h e r used f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g and d e f i n i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s and o b j e c t s p h o t o g r a p h e d . The camera as ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera' h e l p e d me as ' s t r a n g e r ' i n t h e s i t u a t i o n and r e s o l v e d t h e e n t r y d i f f i c u l t i e s ; i t p r o v i d e d me a c c e s s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n ; and i t c r e a t e d a f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e ' l i f e -w o r l d ' o f t h e s t u d e n t s . I had e n t e r e d t h e c l a s s r o o m w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a d o p t i n g a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r ' s r o l e b a s e d on d i a l o g u e and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Because of t h e . a p p a r e n t c o n t r o l l i n g n a t u r e o f c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s , my e n t r y as s t r a n g e r was d i f f i c u l t . The camera as ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera' r e s o l v e d t h e e n t r y d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e s h i f t t o p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r s t a t u s t o o k p l a c e when I e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r o l e o f e t h n o g r a p h e r - p h o t o g r a p h e r . T h i s r o l e e n a b l e d me t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n - o b s e r v a t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s w i t h camera and pen. The 'camera as p a r t i c i p a n t ' p r o v i d e d immediate a c c e s s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . When 66 p h o t o g r a p h i n g , I was a l l o w e d t o move around the room f r e e l y , speak b r i e f l y to s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s , and t o o r g a n i z e the sequences of e v e n t s I docu-mented. The 'camera as p a r t i c i p a n t ' a l s o meant t h a t m y i h t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c l a s s s i t u a t i o n was v i s u a l as w e l l as v e r b a l . I c o u l d g a t h e r a l a r g e enough body of i n f o r m a t i o n t o form p a t t e r n s l a t e r i n the r e s e a r c h , i n c l u d i n g a l l m a t e r i a l i t e m s , and a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These p r o v i d e d a frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r l a t e r i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h c h i l d r e n . The s e l e c t i o n of what was t o be photographed was based on the prem-i s e t h a t c e r t a i n phenomena appear i n q u a n t i t i e s l a r g e enough t o make p a t -t e r n s of the c u l t u r e s u r f a c e . T h i s meant t h a t o n l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s , based on the e a r l i e r f i e l d n o t e s , were g a t h e r e d p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y to p r o v i d e a l a r g e enough body of i n f o r m a t i o n t o form p a t t e r n s d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s . The f i r s t s t e p i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c methodology was t o make a p h o t o -g r a p h i c r e c o r d of the e v e n t s and o b j e c t s i n the c l a s s r o o m i n an o p p o r t u n i s -t i c manner, as p r o v i d e d i n the f i e l d n o t e s . To do t h i s I a t t e m p t e d t o adopt a p o s i t i o n S t o d d a r t s u g g e s t s : ". .. not t o impose a p e r s p e c t i v e on a domain but t o s u r f a c e the p e r s p e c t i v e n a t i v e t o i t " ( S t o d d a r t , 1978-79, p. 3 ) . The r o l e of camera, t h e n , as s u g g e s t e d was ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera' and I took e v e n t s as they came and p h o tographed them d e f i n e d or u n d e f i n e d . L a t e r i n the s t u d y when the c h i l d r e n had d i v u l g e d t h e i r ' s e c r e t l a n g u a g e s ' the second s t e p i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c methodology was programmed s a m p l i n g . When th e s e languages were documented p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y and when the c h i l d r e n s u g g e s t e d c a t e g o r i e s t o be photographed I used the p r o -grammed s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The f i n a l s t e p i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c method was t o p h o t o graph d i g r e s -s i v e l y , t h a t i s I randomly documented ahead of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and awareness. 67 The o p p o r t u n i s t i c p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n as e v e n t s d e v e l o p e d and f l o w e d w i t h t h e day. These d i s p l a y s .of d a i l y l i f e c o n s i s t e d o f r o l l s #1, #2, and #3. R o l l #1 p i c t u r e s p o r t r a y e d d u r i n g and a f t e r r e c e s s happen-i n g s : t h e c h i l d r e n were photographed i n f o r m a l l y d u r i n g r e c e s s ; w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r was out o f t h e c l a s s r o o m ; t h e t e a c h e r b e g i n n i n g an a r i t h m e t i c speed d r i l l ; t h e c l a s s w o r k i n g on t h e d r i l l ; t h e c h i l d r e n w o r k i n g a t a s s i g n e d a r i t h m e t i c t a s k s ; t h e c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g "gym s t r i p f rom t h e c l o a k r o o m ; c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g f r o m washrooms w e a r i n g t h e i r s t r i p ; t h e p a r e n t v o l u n t e e r s h e l p i n g w i t h a f i t n e s s t e s t ; t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk; t h e a r m c h a i r ; t h e r e s e a r c h desk; t h e boxes f o r l a n g u a g e a r t s , a r i t h m e t i c , and j o u r n a l s ; t h e r e s e r v e d books; and t h e b l u e c a r p e t a r e a . The second r o l l o f f i l m t a k e n a f t e r a r e c e s s c o n s i s t e d o f e l e v e n p i c t u r e s d e p i c t i n g : two g i r l s l o o k i n g a t a b u l l e t i n b o a r d ; t h e same p i c t u r e c l o s e r i n ; a g i r l t a l k i n g t o two boys who were i n a r e a d i n g c h a i r ; two p i c t u r e s o f two boys i n t h e r e a d i n g a r m c h a i r ; t h e t e a c h e r a t t h e b l a c k b o a r d ; t h e t e a c h e r a t t h e s t u d e n t ' s desk; a boy s t a n d i n g w h i l e o t h e r s i n t h e c l a s s were s e a t e d ; t h e c l a s s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r g i v i n g out b ooks; and, a p i c t u r e of t h e c l a s s l o o k i n g i n t o t h e camera. The t h i r d r o l l o f f i l m t a k e n d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a s i n g l e m orning c o n s i s t e d of boys and g i r l s a t t h e ' r e s e r v e d book' box; s e v e r a l s h o t s o f c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r a t work on an a r i t h m e t i c d r i l l ; and t h e "Super S p e l l e r s " a r e a . These p i c t u r e s were based on f i e l d n o t e s t a k e n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m f o r t h e f i r s t week, i n c l u d i n g m orning and some a f t e r n o o n a c t i v -i t i e s . T h i s r o l l was p o o r l y exposed when r e t u r n e d f r o m p r o c e s s i n g and i n d i c a t e d t h a t I ought t o use more back-up s h o t s i n b o t h k i n d s o f p i c -t u r e s , c o l o u r and b l a c k and w h i t e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f l a s h a t t a c h m e n t needed t o be used f o r i n d i v i d u a l s h o t s l a t e r i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s . 68 I n the second week of r e s e a r c h , I too k p i c t u r e s i n b l a c k and w h i t e to augment the p i c t u r e s t a k e n e a r l i e r . I a l s o a r r a n g e d f o r i n t e r v i e w space i n the s c h o o l l i b r a r y , and made p l a n s t o i n t e r v i e w c h i l d r e n the next day. I i n t e r v i e w e d t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose names I had l e a r n e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n f i r s t . I n the t h i r d week of the s t u d y , the next group of p r o c e d u r e s i n -c l u d e d p h o t o g r a p h i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s s u g g e s t e d c a t e g o r i e s . The s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e were: (1) what t h e c h i l d r e n used when th e y s o r t e d the e a r l i e r p i c t u r e s ; (2) what the c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be m i s s i n g from an a c c u r -a t e p o r t r a y a l of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m l i f e ; and (3) photographs s u g g e s t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . These s u g g e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d an anchor f o r l a t e r d i s c u s -s i o n s w i t h the c h i l d r e n . They a l s o p r o v i d e d a means f o r c o n j e c t u r e - and st u d y on my p a r t . I n t o t a l , t h i s meant what, where, and when t o shoot photographs were known i n advance. The photographs t a k e n were of s i t u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the " v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s " ( W i l s o n , 1977, p. 256). I n o t h e r words, thes e c a t e g o r i e s were based on the c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e frameworks and t h e i r c o n c e p t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of what was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r e v eryday l i v e s . An e f f o r t was made t o comprehend t h e s e 'mental maps' or s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s as th e y were s u g g e s t e d t o me by the c h i l d r e n . These " f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l p s y c h i c s c h e d u l e s and g e o g r a p h i e s of the p a r t i c -i p a n t s " ( W i l s o n , 1977, p. 256) were used t o d e v e l o p p h o t o g r a p h i c s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d the r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t ; t o d i s c o v e r the e v e r y -day w o r l d of the c h i l d r e n i n the f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s t u d i e d - . The photographs p r o v i d e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e d me t o get a t h i d d e n o r u n e x p r e s s e d meanings and to become i n v o l v e d i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s . 69 Further photographic procedures took place at the end of the third week. At this time children were again interviewed individually or in groups of twos and threes. They were asked to interpret a l l the photo-graphs taken (except for the sign languages) and, furthermore, they were asked to indicate to me what i t was I may have forgotten to photograph when I took the many pictures of their classroom. The last photographic sampling procedures used in the study were digressive. This involved moving beyond the suggested categories provided by the children or the originally defined scope for the early photography and deliberately looking for the unanticipated. To do this I looked for shots beyond the situation peripheral to my attention; the novel, however incoherent and insignificant; and for the unknown. The results were a great number of photographs which were used by the c h i l -dren to describe their day i n the classroom (Sorenson & Jablonko, 1975, pp. 154-155). In summary, the role of photography in the study was directly con-cerned with uncovering the meanings for the everyday events in the class-room. When the photos were used in the interview sessions they provided a display for dialogue with students. As a result, the pictures made interviewing easier and more productive because they provided a basis for dialogue. In addition, they were synchronic, that is both emic and etic. By emic is meant the internal view or theoretical construct determined during analysis; whereas etic is meant units and c l a s s i f i c a -tions based on prior sampling before one begins the analysis of a particular culture (Pike, K. W., 1966). In essence i t is the creation versus discovery of a system. Finally, the photographs documented events that were too complex to be identified through my observation. C h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The k i n d s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s the c h i l -d ren made of the f i r s t r o l l s of p i c t u r e s were used t o g a i n r a p p o r t w i t h the c h i l d r e n and t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e i r w o r l d . The s o u r c e s f o r the k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s a s ked them were the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s the o n - g o i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s they made of the p h o t o g r a p h s , the on - g o i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s they made of the p h o t o g r a p h s , the answers p r o v i d e d by e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w s , and the k i n d s o f c a t e g o r i e s the c h i l d r e n used when they grouped p h o t o g r a p h s . The c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the p i c t u r e s means the 'open-ended q u a l i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h i c o p p o r t u n i t y was e x p l o i t e d f o r t h i s v e r y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c . There was t h e f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s when the photographs were shown t o the p a r t i c i -p a n t s and t h e i r answers were r e c o r d e d . These d e s c r i p t i o n s were tape r e c o r d e d . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was the o p p o r t u n i t y t o have c h i l d r e n communicate to me t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s as ' i n s i d e r s ' . The p e r s p e c t i v e o f the ' i n s i d e r ' was p r o v i d e d t o me when the c h i l -d ren i n t e r p r e t e d the p h o t o g r a p h s . I kep t i n mind t h a t ". . . the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t cannot u n d e r s t a n d human b e h a v i o r w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the frame work w i t h i n w h i c h the s u b j e c t s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s " ( W i l s o n , 1977, p. 249). T h i s meant, the d e f i n i t i o n o f a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n as d e p i c t e d by the photographs was how the c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e d i t . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n was a b a s i c component of the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ' s p e r c e i v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s I had as a main i n t e r e s t the s e a r c h f o r s t r u c t u r e s of members' knowledge. An attempt was made t o uncover the l o g i c of everyday d e s c r i p t i o n s , the d e s c r i p t i o n by c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s made by the c h i l d r e n . I n the s e a r c h , a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d t o the 'competencies' the c h i l d r e n h e l d . These were d e f i n e d as the c h i l d r e n ' s p r a c t i c e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the w o r l d and t h o s e p r a c -t i c e s w h i c h a l l o w e d c h i l d r e n t o e n c o u n t e r s e t t i n g s , t o e x p l o r e them, and to o r g a n i z e knowledge about the e v e n t s , o b j e c t s , and p e o p l e i n the s e t t i n g s . C h i l d r e n ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s . I n the s e a r c h f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n s of t he s e t t i n g by c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s the k i n d s of groups the c h i l d r e n used t o s o r t the photographs p r o v i d e d me w i t h i n s i g h t s f o r the way p a r t i c i p a n t s def i n e d the e v e n t s and o b j e c t s i n the c l a s s r o o m . These were c o n s t r u c -t i o n s and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n wh i c h b o t h the c h i l d r e n and I p a r t i c i p a t e d . T h i s meant the v a l i d i t y of the i n q u i r y was not t e s t e d a g a i n s t the co r p u s of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w h i c h c o u l d be d e r i v e d from a s e t t i n g ; r a t h e r , i t was t e s t e d a g a i n s t e veryday e x p e r i e n c e s o f the c h i l d r e n . Concern was "not o n l y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d r e n made, but i n the p r o -c edures they used i n c o n s t r u c t i n g them" ( S i l v e r , 1975, p. 51) and a c k n o w l -edges the p r o c e s s I used t o i n t e r p r e t s o c i a l meaning. The c a t e g o r i e s used by the c h i l d r e n t o s o r t the p i c t u r e s were u n u s u a l , d i v e r s e , and e s o t e r i c . Because t h e y were so a t y p i c a l I came to r e a l i z e the magnitude and v a r i e t y w i t h i n the c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p i n g s and c a t e g o r i e s . Each c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f o r many r e a s o n s . I n the c o n t e x t of the s t u d y , d e s i g n a t e d t o be d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y r a t h e r than t o i n f e r c a u s a l i t y , the d i v e r s i t y was a c c e p t e d . T h e r e a f t e r , the g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e was p l a c e d on the s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n about what had been m i s s e d or not i n c l u d e d i n the p h o t o g r a p h s . D u r i n g the l a s t two days of the s t u d y I took a group o f c h i l d r e n to the l i b r a r y who had been s u g g e s t e d by the t e a c h e r t o be y o u n g s t e r s who c o u l d a f f o r d t o miss b e i n g i n c l a s s d u r i n g a language a r t s l e s s o n . They l o o k e d a t a l a r g e group o f p i c t u r e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d e v e n t s , o b j e c t s , c a t e g o r i e s , and p e o p l e p e r f o r m i n g a c t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t o me by o t h e r c h i l -d r e n . The group of y o u n g s t e r s were s e t t a s k s f o r a r r a n g i n g the p i c t u r e s as i n d i v i d u a l s , as p a r t n e r s , and as a group of f o u r . I n d i v i d u a l l y , they moved the p i c t u r e s around t o add and make up what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i r s c h o o l day. Then each c h i l d d e s c r i b e d why s/he had chosen the p i c t u r e s s/he d i d . I coded t h e s e r e s p o n s e s . I n p a r t n e r s , the c h i l d r e n made up t h e i r day. Here a g a i n , t h e y c o u l d l e a v e out any p i c t u r e s they w i s h e d . Then they d e s c r i b e d what the photos meant and why they had i n c l u d e d the p i c t u r e s they had. I r e c o r d e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . I n a group o f f o u r , the c h i l d r e n made up a d e s c r i p t i o n o r p o r t r a y a l o f what i t meant t o l i v e out a day i n the c l a s s r o o m . To do t h i s they were asked t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r c h o i c e s and t h e s e were r e c o r d e d . Then the c h i l d r e n were asked t o i n c l u d e o t h e r p i c t u r e s i f t hey wanted t o a f t e r they had checked t h r o u g h a l l o f the e x t r a p i c -t u r e s and the albums of the v a r i o u s photos w h i c h had augmented the r o l l s t a k e n i n i t i a l l y i n the s t u d y , o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y , programmed, and d i g r e s -s i v e l y . The c h i l d r e n ' s 'group day' was r e c o r d e d . I n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s were d e v e l o p e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a -t i o n w h i l e the c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d , i n t e r p r e t e d , and c a t e g o r i z e d c o n c e p t u -a l l y the photographs w h i c h documented t h e i r s e t t i n g . The use of the photos and the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were e n t w i n e d i n t h e i r mutual f o c i , t o uncover everyday e v e n t s . Together t h e y were used t o de v e l o p the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e s , t o o b s e r v e , c o l l e c t d a t a , make d i s c o v e r i e s , and t o d e v e l o p 73 p r o v i s i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s . The C h i l d r e n ' s S c h e d u l e s , A. and B. (see A p p e n d i x B) were used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s ; as a p r o c e d u r e f o r g a t h e r i n g s h a r e d meanings; as a means t o d i s c o v e r what was a l l o w e d and not a l l o w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ; and as a means o f u n c o v e r i n g deeper p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s e v e r y d a y a c t i o n s i n t h e s e t t i n g . The T e a c h e r ' s S c h e d u l e C. (see A p p e n d i x B) was a l s o d e v e l o p e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s h a r e d meanings and r u l e s f o r d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The p h o t o g r a p h s o f the c l a s s r o o m were shown t o t h e t e a c h e r when she was f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t days o f t h e s t u d y . A g a i n , t h e f o c i f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s and t h e use o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was t o u n c o v e r t h e c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e as u n d e r s t o o d and s h a r e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e t t i n g , c h i l d r e n , and t h e t e a c h e r . The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n t o o k p l a c e o v e r t h e f i v e week d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . The f i r s t group was w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n . The second s e r i e s was w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s , some c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d as many as t h r e e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e f i v e weeks. The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n s t r a i n e d by s p a c e , t i m e , and l e s s e n e d r a p -p o r t due t o a change i n my p e r c e i v e d r o l e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n . I had some c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d on my f i e l d work by t h e t e a c h e r , t h e s e were: l e n g t h o f t i m e t o be spent w i t h c h i l d r e n ( i t had f a r exceeded t h e 15 m i n u t e p e r i o d s u g g e s t e d ) ; whether t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d a second and t h i r d t i m e ; where t h e c h i l d r e n were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ; and whether p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n c o u l d be exc u s e d from t h e c l a s s r o o m . These c o n s t r a i n t s i n c r e a s e d by t h e end o f t h e second week o f t h e s t u d y . F o r example, t h e t e a c h e r began t o l i m i t i n t e r v i e w s t o be h e l d d u r i n g s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t t i m e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , e.g., mathematics and 74 math d r i l l . In addition, she would not allow children who had not finished their work to leave for interviews. Finally, the three c h i l -dren who also shared a 'secret language' (the fourth) could not be taken out of class to have their code photographed. However, these constraints began to lessen after an interview with the teacher. They lessened further when I made my v i s i t s during the afternoons, and they were almost gone by the time I had spent the last week of the study as a teacher aide. The basis for the interview questions was to gain further under-standing of the pupils' life-world. This meant I needed to gain access to the conceptual world of the subjects so I could converse with them. While the questions were preformulated, they were neither based on other studies nor were they used with an interest in production. They were an intellectual effort to understand the descriptions and interpretations children gave for their experiences. To do this I u s e d t h e e t i c ( o u t -sider's) framework for the formulation of the f i r s t interview questions and the selections of questions to ask in the f i r s t interviews. I kept in mind that the devised etic framework-—pre-formulated questions—impinged on the interview situation in that my own motives and interests became part of the situation. Recognizing this, I attempted to suspend my pre-conceptions, and to use "the tension between p a r t i c i -pant data and observer analysis" (Wilson, 1977, p. 250) to both refine, re-formulate, and choose questions as the interviews flowed, and merged one with the other. In the interviews I tried to gain an awareness or an 'empathetic understanding' of the classroom culture, nearly impossible with quanti-tative research methods (p. 250). To do this I became gradually aware of the 'emic' (actor-relevant) categories. These included disclosures from t h e c h i l d r e n about c h e a t i n g , s n e a k i n g d r i n k s , r e c e s s a c t i v i t i e s , and what happened when t h e t e a c h e r was out o f t h e room. Any b i a s t o spon-t a n e i t y was overcome by my comments t h a t I would p r o t e c t t h e c o n f i d e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t h a t I woul d n o t r e p o r t them t o anyone e l s e . The f o r m a t s f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y were t h o s e i n w h i c h I was o f f e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s o f communi-c a t i o n . These were a c c e p t e d (Wax, 1971, p. 1 5 ) . F u r t h e r , t h e s o c i a l v a n t a g e p o i n t s t h r o u g h w h i c h and fr o m w h i c h I made my o b s e r v a t i o n s and how I would be p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g was de t e r m i n e d (p. 1 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d u r i n g t h e s e f i r s t s t a g e s t h a t t h e " c h a r a c t e r , s c o p e , and emphasis o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s was d e t e r -mined" (p. 1 5 ) . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s and t h e f i r s t group o f m e t h o d o l o g i e s e x p l o r e d were w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n . Some o f t h e s e y o u n g s t e r s were a s k e d t o l o o k a t t h e f i r s t group o f p i c t u r e s and i n t e r p r e t what t h e y t h o u g h t was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e p i c t u r e s . They were asked q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e A. The s o u r c e s f o r t h i s s c h e d u l e were as f o l l o w s : f i e l d n o t e s t a k e n w h i l e I o b s e r v e d t h e c l a s s r o o m ; t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s appeared t o answer; e v e r y d a y h a p p e n i n g s q u e s t i o n e d and s h o r t c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n h a l l w a y s and on t h e p l a y g r o u n d . The i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s s h a r e d by t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h me i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s were based on what Cr o w l e (1971) has t r a n s l a t e d t o be s i m p l y s t a t e d as " r u l e s f o r s p e a k e r s and h e a r e r s . " He c o d i f i e d S c h u t z ' s model and drew on C i c o u r e l and G a r f i n k e l . Based on h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e i n t e r v i e w s were seen as s p e a k e r s and h e a r e r s a b i d i n g by s p e c i f i c r u l e s . By r u l e s f o r s p e a k e r s and h e a r e r s i t was meant t h a t s p e a k e r s spoke n o r m a l l y , and t h e y assumed t h a t t h e h e a r e r s u n d e r s t o o d them as meaning t h e same as t h e y w o u l d mean i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . H e a r e r s assumed t h e s p e a k e r s were t a l k i n g n o r m a l l y , t h a t t h e s p e a k e r s meant t h e same as you would mean i f you were t o say t h e same t h i n g i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . That i f t h e h e a r e r s can see what i s s a i d i s r e l e v e n t , t h e y use t h e i r 'knowledge' o f what was s a i d b e f o r e , t o i n t e r p r e t t h e meaning o f what i s s a i d a t t h e moment. I f t h e h e a r e r s s t i l l do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e y w i l l a s k s p e a k e r s t o c l a r i f y what t h e y mean and, f i n a l l y , t h e h e a r e r s w i l l w a i t and see i f what s p e a k e r s s a i d c l a r i f i e s what has a l r e a d y been s a i d (Mehan & Wood, 1975, p. 116). The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e use o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was t o have c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f y t h e e v e n t s o r o b j e c t s by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s : What i s happening? What i s i t c a l l e d ? The second s t e p was t o a s k them what t h e p i c t u r e s meant t o them. The t h i r d s t e p was t o l e a r n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s . They were e x p r e s s e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own words o r c o n c e p t s K r e b s (1975, p. 282) s u g g e s t e d t h e s e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were us e d : T e l l me about...Does t h a t have a p a r t i c u l a r name? o r Do any o f them have p a r t i c u l a r names? How would you d e s c r i b e t h a t ? How do you t h i n k p e r s o n X wou l d d e s c r i b e t h a t ? What i s h a p p e n i n g now? What e l s e i s r e l a t e d t o t h a t ? When t h e c h i l d r e n had p r o v i d e d me w i t h t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s t h e s e were t h e n used i n new q u e s t i o n s . I n each c a s e t h e c h i l d r e n c a t e -g o r i z e d t h e phenomena o f t h e c l a s s r o o m w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d and e l u c i d a t e d how t h e y s t r u c t u r e d t h a t s l i c e o f r e a l i t y as p o r t r a y e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The p r o g r e s s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were fr o m e x p l o r a t o r y t o more d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n s as each p a r t i c i p a n t p r o v i d e d new and v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e s d e p i c t e d i n t h e p h o t o s . 77 Summary The p h o t o g r a p h s s e r v e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e way o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n as known and u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I o b s e r v e d , i n t e r v i e w e d , and t h o u g h t about t h e c u l t u r e i n p h o t o g r a p h i c terms. Then I moved t o t h e c o n c r e t e phenomena and a more f o c u s e d c o l -l e c t i o n o f p i c t u r e s . I n e s s e n c e , I g a t h e r e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c knowledge o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . B o t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e n t i o n s and t h e s i t u a t i o n a l e v e n t s e v i d e n c e d t h e m s e l v e s i n o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r . The p h o t o g r a p h s s e r v e d as a t o o l f o r s o c i a l i n q u i r y i n phenomeno-l o g i c a l terms and p r e s e n t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n p h e n e m o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . As a p h o t o g r a p h i c o b s e r v e r I a t t e m p t e d t o suspend b i a s e s and judgements and I o b s e r v e d and d e s c r i b e d as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s i b l e t h e phenomena i n v o l v e d i n t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . I emphasized p e r c e p t i o n and c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I was g u i d e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t phenomena s h a p i n g i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r were phenomena p e r c e i v e d by t h e a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . I r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o b j e c t s e x i s t e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n as o b j e c t i v e phenom-ena; b u t t h a t t h e i r meaning f o r b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r t i c i -p a n t s d e r i v e d f r o m each i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p and r e a c t i o n t o t h e o b j e c t s . To do a l l o f t h i s , I s u r r e n d e r e d m y s e l f i n t e l l i g e n t l y t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t l o s i n g my i d e n t i t y as p h o t o g r a p h e r - p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r . I n t u r n , t h e s i t u a t i o n s u r r e n d e r e d i t s meanings t o me. I n summary, t h e b a s i c meanings and v a l u e s were p r i m a r i l y d e r i v e d from t h e s i t u a t i o n . The p h o t o g r a p h i c d a t a s t a n d as a medium o f communication about t h e c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e b ecause o f i m p o r t a n t elements i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a : t h e key s h o t s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as s c e n a r i s t s , and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as e d i t o r s o r c o n s t r u c t o r s o f t h e r e a l i t y t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were i n t e r p r e t e d t o d i s p l a y . 78 There i s no u n i v e r s a l method o f d i s c o v e r y and p r o o f . I n t h i s s t u d y d i s c o v e r y and p r o o f were i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . I as p h o t o g r a p h e r f u n c t i o n e d as a s o c i a l a r t i s t , t h e c h i l d r e n as e d i t o r s , and s c e n a r i s t s . To do t h i s I borrowed P u d o v k i n ' s n o t i o n of a c i n e m a t i c " k e y s t o n e . " A l t h o u g h k e y s t o n i n g i s a c i n e m a t i c t e r m , I am b o r r o w i n g t h e n o t i o n o f key s h o t s . These a r e ph o t o g r a p h s i n w h i c h an i m p o r t a n t element i s p o r -t r a y e d . From t h e element one can d e s c r i b e a c t i o n w h i c h l e d up t o t h e sh o t and f r o m w h i c h a l l a f t e r c l e a r l y f o l l o w s . I n f i l m s o c i a l i n q u i r y , a k e y s t o n e s h o t can a l s o be d e f i n e d as a b e h a v i o r a l l y o b s e r v a b l e p o s s i -b i l i t y around w h i c h f i l m d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and p h o t o g r a p h i c t h i n k i n g can o r g a n i z e i t s e l f . Because key s h o t s a r e made out o f m a t e r i a l o f t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t y I c o u l d not e n v i s i o n a n y t h i n g about t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t an i n t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y . I n p r e s e n t i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c d a t a , t h e n , t h e r e a r e 'key s h o t s ' . These can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and t h e y h e l p s t r u c t u r e t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y . The c h i l d r e n and I f u n c t i o n e d as s c e n a r i s t s . A s c e n a r i o i s a g r e a t number o f s e p a r a t e p i e c e s . The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d was s h o t i n s e p a r a t e p h o t o g r a p h s , what I saw, what t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t e d . L a t e r t h e p h o t o g r a p h s s e r v e d as p i e c e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as t h e y t h e c h i l d r e n saw i t . I c o u l d t h e n see a g a i n . The c h i l d r e n and I as s c e n a r i s t s c o u l d have w r i t t e n out m a t e r i a l on paper as i t appeared i n t h e p h o t o -g r a p h s . However, t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e v e n t s f o r s u b j e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t o o k p l a c e as s h a r e d meanings between t h e c h i l d r e n and me. We b u i l t f r o m t h e s e p a r a t e p i e c e s and c o n c e n t r a t e d our a t t e n t i o n o n l y on t h e i m p o r t a n t element i n each p h o t o g r a p h . What t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r -p r e t e d were t h e ' f r o z e n moments' i n an o n - g o i n g r e a l i t y . T h i s p r o c e s s was c o n s t r u c t i o n a l e d i t i n g , a method s p e c i f i c a l l y and p e c u l i a r l y f i l m i c . As s u c h , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were an i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t o f i m p r e s s i o n . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e use o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s s e r v e d as a means t o r e i t e r a t e t h e theme of e v e n t s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m as i n t e r p r e t e d t o me by t h e c h i l d r e n . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e u n d e r l y i n g theme. The message o r t h e meaning f o r e v e r y d a y l i f e as s h a r e d and u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c documents d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . A l s o , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e m s e l v e s p r o v i d e d a p o r t r a y a l o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . CHAPTER IV INTERPRETATIONS AND SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS OF A CHILDREN'S CULTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n The methodology f o r d e r i v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i n the c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e d i n c o r p o r a t e d n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s , p hotographs of the everyday e v e n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m based on p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s , p h o t ography s u g g e s t e d by the c h i l d r e n them-s e l v e s , and the c h i l d r e n ' s many i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s of the photographs used i n the s t u d y . The f o c u s f o r the a n a l y s i s was not o n l y t o d e s c r i b e t he s i t u a t i o n as i n t e r p r e t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s , but t o attempt t o overcome the d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n some f i e l d e t h n o g r a p h i e s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g c r i t e r i a o r grounds f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g c e r t a i n d a t a ; t h a t i s , by p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l s upon w h i c h the a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d and by r e t a i n i n g t he o r i g i n a l form of the m a t e r i a l s (Mehan, 1979, p. 1 6 ) . The a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a was u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n as one s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r . I t has a t t e m p t e d t o t y p i f y t he a c t u a l way i n w h i c h the c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s and t h e a c t i o n s of o t h e r s i n the s i t u a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s a r e b o t h d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r -p r e t i v e . The d e s c r i p t i o n i s based upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of meaning s t r u c t u r e s t h a t e x i s t e d w i t h i n t he ev e r y d a y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s of the i n d i -v i d u a l s i n the c l a s s r o o m . 80 81 The o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e t e l l i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s and s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s i s i n f i v e p a r t s . F i r s t , a p r e - f o r m u -l a t e d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t o do w i t h t h e methodology o r t h e s i t u a t i o n was posed. Second, a q u e s t i o n w h i c h e v o l v e d d u r i n g t h e con d u c t o f t h e s t u d y i s posed. T h i r d , r e l e v a n t d i a l o g u e from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i s p r e s e n t e d . F o u r t h , from t h e s e d a t a , I g i v e my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h e meanings t h e y s h a r e d w i t h me. F i n a l l y , f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s a r e posed. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t a t e a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t as t h e i n q u i r y p r o -g r e s s e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s u g g e s t e d c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e d a framework f o r more c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a . The d a t a were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o some o b s e r v e r - j u s t i f i a b l e t y p e s . To do t h i s , I t o o k t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s used by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c a r r y on t h e i r e v e r y -day l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e a l s o , p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f d a t a were a n a l y z e d and p r e s e n t e d . These i n c l u d e d t h e l a t e r s t a g e s o f s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h y ; t h e o n - g o i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s ; t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f p h o t o g r a p h s ; and t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f s p e c i a l c o mmunication systems among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s were g a t h e r e d f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i n a l i n t e r -v i e w s and i n t h e l a s t p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e s . A l l o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s b u i l t more d a t a f o r t h e adequate d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e d . The d e s c r i p t i o n t o f o l l o w , t h e n , i s based on n o t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e and ethnomethodology w h i c h q u e s t i o n t h e ev e r y d a y l i f e w o r l d of t h e s e c h i l d r e n . S e c o n d l y , t h e c h i l d r e n l o c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n d a i l y l i f e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r b i o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n o r background o f e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s meant, i n essence, t h a t every c h i l d b r o u g h t t o t h e c l a s s r o o m not o n l y s h a r e d c u l t u r a l knowledge, b u t they t o o k t h e s e forms and t r a n s l a t e d them 82 i n t o the w o r l d of d a i l y l i f e i n the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s was done by each c h i l d i n terms of h i s or h e r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Each c h i l d d e f i n e d a s o c i a l r e a l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o h i s or her b i o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d a t a began w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n , " I n what ways d i d members of the c u l t u r e a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t the s o c i a l w o r l d they shared"? To r e c o v e r t h e s e s h a r e d meanings I a l l o w e d the members t o speak f o r t h e m s e l v e s . As t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r s o c i a l w o r l d I s e a r c h e d t h e s o c i a l c o m p l e x i t i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r s i m p l i f y i n g s t r u c -t u r e s . These were the " e l u c i d a t e d i n t e r p r e t i v e c o m p e t e n c i e s and r e a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n s " of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s e t t i n g s t u d i e d (Van Manen, 1978, pp. 43-59)'. T h i s c h a p t e r t h e n , p r e s e n t s a p a r t of the c u l t u r a l knowledge of some Grade Three c h i l d r e n i n a s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . As an e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n i t aims t o p r o v i d e the i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w . The p a r t i c i -p a n t s speak f o r t h e m s e l v e s about the a c t i o n s and e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r r e d around them. They t e l l what i t i s t h e y needed t o know t o c a r r y on the everyday r o u t i n e s i n the l i f e - w o r l d of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e . To c a r r y out an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n I r e f i n e d my d o c u m e n t a t i o n of the c u l t u r e on the b a s i s of the f i n d i n g s upon e n t r y i n t o the s e t t i n g ; the o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used; the s t i l l p h o t ography; t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s ; and the communications among the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , b o t h v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l , w h i c h were g a t h e r e d . How C h i l d r e n Became Knowledgeable About O b j e c t s , R u l e s , and E v e n t s E n v i r o n m e n t a l cues. Based on n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d n o t e s the f i r s t p h o tographs were t a k e n i n the s e t t i n g . These i n c l u d e d the c h i l -d ren and the t e a c h e r , o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p e o p l e , f u r n i t u r e , b u l l e t i n s , and o b j e c t s . A l l of t h e s e appeared t o have some s i g n i f i c a n c e t o 83 t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h i s k i n d o f cinema v e r i t e p h o t o g -r a p h y was t o o r g a n i z e t h e pho t o g r a p h s around "an e v e n t , o r p r o c e s s , o r theme i n h e r e n t i n t h e p e o p l e ' s l i v e s , n ot by an a r t i f i c i a l t h e o r y " (Temaner & Quinn, 1974, p. 5 4 ) . The c l a s s r o o m as p o r t r a y e d by t h e pho t o g r a p h s i n c l u d e d a b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a ; a l a r g e brown a r m c h a i r ; boxes on a window s i l l ; a c l o s e - u p o f t h e s e boxes; t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk; a desk a g a i n s t a b l a c k -b o a r d space f i l l e d w i t h p a p e r s and books w i t h a c h a r t ; two c l a s s p i c -t u r e s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r h o l d i n g l o n g s h e e t s o f p a p e r ; two boys i n t h e cl o a k r o o m ; two p i c t u r e s o f t h e t e a c h e r a i d e s t a n d i n g n e a r t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n were s e a t e d a t t h e i r d e s k s ; a p i c t u r e o f t h e a i d e s i t t i n g a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk w h i l e some c h i l d r e n were s t a n d i n g up, t u r n e d a r o u n d , o r c h a t t i n g ; t h e t e a c h e r , a man, and t h e c h i l d r e n , some s e a t e d , some s t a n d i n g ; two p i c t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n o n l y ( t a k e n f r o m t h e back o f t h e c l a s s r o o m ) w i t h most s e a t e d and two f a c e s v i s i b l e ; a man, some c h i l d r e n s t a n d i n g o r moving about near t h e i r d e s k s ; a p i c t u r e o f some v a c a n t d e s k s , one g i r l s t a n d i n g l o o k i n g toward t h e camera and a boy f a c i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ; a boy s t a n d i n g i n t h e c l o a k r o o m h o l d i n g r u n n e r s and c l o t h i n g ; t h e t e a c h e r b e n d i n g o v e r t h e t e a c h e r a i d e a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk, c h i l d r e n s e a t e d , a l l on t a s k ; and one boy s t a n d i n g and h o l d i n g a l o n g p a p e r . P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y , t h e p r o b l e m o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i s whether I can r e c o n s t r u c t f o r t h e r e a d e r what I d i d and how I came t o s e l e c t some t h i n g s out as i m p o r t a n t . To do t h i s meant I a t t e m p t e d n o t t o impose a s o c i a l o r d e r upon t h e s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r , I r e a s s e r t e d t h e p r o b l e m a t i c . The s o c i a l l i f e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m p r oceeded r o u t i n e l y because t h e common-sen s e i d e a s about what was happening i n t h e s o c i a l s cenes I o b s e r v e d were 84 known t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The i d e a s o r background e x p e c t a n c i e s e x i s t e d not s i m p l y i n t h e mind o f any one c h i l d b u t were s u s t a i n e d and o r i g i n a t e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n i n t h e s e t t i n g . I n t h e i r w o r l d , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r -s u b j e c t i v e s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y , t h e r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e n o n - p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f s i t u a t i o n s i s a c o n t i n u a l a c c o m p l i s h -ment o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . I n o r d e r t o r e v e a l t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s about n o r m a l i t y I had t o b r i n g t h e background i n t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d ; suspend my a s s u m p t i o n s about what was h a p p e n i n g . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n , t h e c h i l d r e n became k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and e v e n t s i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i r i n t e r -a c t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r and how w e l l t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e meanings p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n posed from t h e f i e l d n o t e s was, What meanings d i d c h i l d r e n s h a r e f o r t h e p h y s i c a l arrangements i n t h e s e t t i n g ? W h i l e t h e s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e t e a c h e r worked w i t h t h e c l a s s f o r a whole day, I began t o i n t e r v i e w t h e c h i l d r e n . Those i n t e r e v i e w e d were c h i l d r e n whose names had come t o my a t t e n t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and most p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e p l a y g r o u n d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few days o f t h e f i e l d work. To b e g i n , each c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d groups o f pho t o g r a p h s and t h e n t h e y were i n t e r v i e w e d . The f i r s t c h i l d i n t e r v i e w e d mentioned t h e s e o b j e c t s and e v e n t s w h i l e he t o l d what was ha p p e n i n g i n t h e p h o t o s : A r t b o o k s , r e s e r v e d b o o k s , games, j o u r n a l s , gym b a g s , j a c k e t s , f u n and f i t n e s s , Mrs. M. i n p i c t u r e , poem, t e a c h e r ' s d e s k , d o o d l e d e s k , r e a d i n g c a r p e t , t h i n g s ( f o r b i r d c a g e s ) , s p e l l i n g words, c h a i r , where some o f f i n i s h e d a r t i s , where o t h e r books a r e , boxes f o r j o u r n a l s , someone's f a t h e r who has come t o h e l p , p i c t u r e s done a month ago, g e t t i n g h i s s t u f f , where boys put j a c k e t s , b l a c k b o a r d work, m a i l b a g s — n o t whole t h i n g home, S's de s k , t e a c h e r ' s desk. Doing a r t we do t h e s e t h i n g s , " o u r " s p e l l i n g w o rds, c h a i r , some o f us we f i g h t t o get i n t h e c h a i r , some of our a r t , some of our books. Here's our game, o u r j o u r n a l s , o ur math, we hand i t i n , r e a d i n g c o r n e r , some books we r e a d , our d o o d l e t a b l e , p a p e r s , our a r t , our gym bags, h e r e ' s our m a i l b a g s , f i n i s h our p a p e r s , where we put our j a c k e t s . The v a l i d i t y of t h e s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s was c o n f i r m e d by c l a r i f y i n g or s h a r i n g w i t h the s t u d e n t the names he gave and the meanings he gave f o r s p e c i f i c e v e n t s and o b j e c t s . I had not known t h a t the photographed desk w i t h a r e s e a r c h c h a r t about dogs v e r y near i t was not t h e ' r e s e a r c h ' desk as one c o u l d suppose, but was i n f o r m a l l y l a b e l l e d t he 'doodle' desk by the f i r s t c h i l d and by o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t e r v i e w e d l a t e r . The f i r s t c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d t he a r m c h a i r as t h e p l a c e where "some of us we f i g h t t o get i n the c h a i r . " The r a c e t o get i n t h e c h a i r was c o r r o b o r a t e d by o t h e r c h i l -d r e n i n l a t e r i n t e r v i e w s . The p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r the s e t t i n g were d e r i v e d from i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e p i c t u r e s w h i c h v a r i e d from q u i t e l i t e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t o l e n g t h y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F o r example, the b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a as the ' r e a d i n g c o r n e r ' , "That's the c a r p e t , " " C a r p e t we r e a d on," "That's our c a r p e t we s i t down and r e a d books t h e r e , " and "There's a c a r p e t and the bottom drawers of Mrs. S's cu p b o a r d . " The c h i l d r e n were asked what the b l u e - c a r p e t e d a r e a meant and when the y c o u l d go t h e r e . They responded a t l e n g t h . "Can go t o s i t on i t t o r e a d and p l a y games," " S i t down and r e a d , s i t i n d e s k s . I n e c l i p s e , [ o f the sun, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d eye damage] s a t on c a r p e t , not t o l o o k what i t ' s a l l a b o u t , " "Math and t h e r e a r e games and f l a s h c a r d s , " "Only a f t e r l u n c h , r e a d i n g t i m e , " "At l u n c h time you c a n ' t p l a y n o t h i n g , not games or n o t h i n g j u s t s i l e n t r e a d i n g , " "That's f o r i f the t e a c h e r i s r e a d i n g us a s t o r y . U s u a l l y at s i l e n t r e a d i n g some of the k i d s go over t h e r e , and r e a d over t h e r e , but I u s u a l l y s t a y a t my desk. Mrs. B. we always do a s t o r y Tuesday " I t ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g , j u s t r e a d , a f t e r r e c e s s , at l u n c h , " " J u s t so you don' have t o s i t on the f l o o r when you r e a d , " " I t means when you r e a d t h e r e , and i t means ' s i l e n t r e a d i n g ' , " " I t means umm t h a t the t e a c h e r comes and 86 r e a d s you a s t o r y . " The c h i l d r e n s h a r e d w i t h me when i t was t h a t t h e y went t o r e a d . They a l s o s h a r e d how t h e y knew i t was t i m e t o go. " A f t e r we do our work, a f t e r l u n c h , everybody r u s h e s t o get i n t h e c h a i r . A f t e r r e c e s s i f we have f i n i s h e d o ur work," " I n t h e morning and a f t e r l u n c h , when we come bac k f r o m l i b r a r y , " " I n t h e morning. She c a l l s us t o t h e r e a d i n g c h a i r s , " "The l o w e s t group i s 'Wings o f Wonder', and t h e second h i g h e s t group i s umm ' S k i e s and Wings', and t h e n t h e r e ' s ' A l l S o r t s o f T h i n g s ' , t h a t ' s t h e h i g h e s t , have a l l t h r e e groups e v e r y day. U s u a l l y 'Wings o f Wonder' goes f i r s t , " " I n t h a t c h a i r , sometimes when we have s u b s t i t u t e s t h e y t h i n k we r e a d on t h e c a r p e t b u t i n (we) i n r e a d i n g c o r n e r , s i t on t h e c h a i r s , " " I f you've f i n i s h e d y o u r work you can go t o t h e c a r p e t a r e a . A f t e r l u n c h , m o s t l y r e c e s s , she t o l d us a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r , you s h o u l d r e a d . " When t h e c h i l d r e n were a s k e d why t h e y put not e b o o k s i n t o boxes w i t h s i g n s on them t h e y s t a t e d : "Teacher d o e s n ' t want t o get mixed up," "Our group we have ' m i n i - r e s e a r c h ' , s t i c k , t h a t i n w i t h o ur la n g u a g e a r t s , " "The t e a c h e r g e t s them f r o m t h e box i n s t e a d o f fr o m our d e s k s , " "So, w e ' l l know w h i c h one's t h e math box and w e ' l l j u s t p u t i t i n t h e r e , " and "Oh, you p u t not e b o o k s i n t o t h e boxes because t h e y have t o be marked and be d e l i v e r e d back t o y o u . " When t h e c h i l d r e n were asked why a boy was s e a t e d by h i m s e l f t h e y s t a t e d : "He t a l k s t o o much," "Because Jimmy and Sean t h e y p l a y a l o t , r i g h t , f o o l around when t h e t e a c h e r ' s o u t . Do bad s t u f f . They don't do t h e i r work. Supposed t o be b e s i d e A. He bugs e v e r y b o d y , " "He's a l w a y s b e i n g bad and t a l k i n g . T a l k i n g t o Z," "Always d i s t u r b s p e o p l e , " " T a l k s t o e v e r y o n e , " " U s u a l l y t a l k s t o everybody so t h e y c a n ' t g et t h e i r work done," " U s u a l l y bad, l i k e s t o t a l k t o p e o p l e , d o e s n ' t get h i s work done. 87 He's away from p e o p l e , does h i s work, g e t s i t done," "Because he's m o s t l y t a l k i n g and he's bad m o s t l y and he umm he always has t o do h i s c o r r e c -t i o n s , " "He's bad . . . he's alw a y s t a l k i n g t o Z. and he g e t s out o f h i s desk a l l t h e t i m e and he t a l k s t o Z." When t h e c h i l d r e n were asked what t h e y t h o u g h t i t would be l i k e t o s i t a l o n e , t h e y s t a t e d , "Don't t h i n k i t ' s v e r y n i c e . Maybe okay, nobody b o t h e r i n g y o u , " "You can get y o u r work done f a s t e r , " " I t h i n k i t ' s a l o t b e t t e r because p e o p l e a r e b u g g i n g you and a s k i n g y o u , " "Don't know," " W e l l you c o u l d g e t y o u r work done e a s i e r w i t h o u t t a l k i n g t o o t h e r p e o p l e . I t ' s k i n d o f l o n e l y , b u t a t l e a s t you can work by y o u r s e l f and get l o t s o f work done." Teacher n o n - v e r b a l cues. The c h i l d r e n were k n o w l e d g e a b l e about o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and e v e n t s f r o m cues t h e y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r non-v e r b a l l y . F o r example, t h e k i n d s o f p a p e r s p r o v i d e d f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m were cues f o r e v e n t s . P a r t i c u l a r s h e e t s meant speed d r i l l w h i l e o t h e r s meant l a n g u a g e a r t s . C h i l d r e n knew i t t o be t h e o n l y s u b j e c t f o r w h i c h t h e y u s u a l l y used s h e e t s o f paper . When t h e t e a c h e r a i d e was a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t was a t i m e t o do t h e i r work. A n o t h e r t i m e , because t h e r e were no math books o u t , i t meant t h e c l a s s was d o i n g l a n g u a g e a r t s . O b j e c t s t h e n , p r o v i d e d cues f o r s u b j e c t s . G l u e on t h e de s k s meant a r t t i m e and w h i t e paper a l s o meant a r t . T e a c h e r a c t i o n s o r b e h a v i o r s q u e s t i o n e d about were: When does t h e t e a c h e r work a t h e r desk? What does i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r works a t h e r desk? and What i s u s u a l l y on t h e end of t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? What k i n d s o f p a p e r s ? To t h e s e , t h e c h i l d r e n p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e t e a c h e r works a t h e r desk "Whenever we're w o r k i n g , " "When she marks," "When 88 we're d o i n g s o m e t h i n g , " "When she marks work," "When s i l e n t r e a d i n g , sometimes a f t e r s c h o o l , when we're w o r k i n g , " "She's w o r k i n g , m a r k i n g p a p e r s f o r use f o r t h e n e x t day," and "She works a t h e r desk when she marks . . . and sometimes . . . r e a d s a newspaper." The c h i l d r e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r a t work a t h e r desk meant: "Maybe she's d o i n g r e p o r t c a r d s . G i v i n g out d e t e n t i o n s , " " W e l l when she's s i t t i n g a t h e r desk u s u a l l y p e o p l e . . . t a l k i n g , " "She throws y o u r book on t h e f l o o r , " " G e t t i n g r e a d i n g f o r s u b s t i t u t e s , " " J u s t go on d o i n g y o u r work. You s h o u l d n ' t t a l k o r a n y t h i n g . She's f i g u r i n g out what she's g o i n g t o have us do i n a r t and s t u f f . " The k i n d s o f pa p e r s a t t h e end o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k were: "Books, p a p e r s , " "That's t h e d o o d l e t a b l e , something t o do. C o l o u r m o s t l y , " " C a l e n d a r s , c o u l d be f o r a s t o r y o r p i c t u r e , " "Papers t h a t y ou need," "Working p a p e r s f o r us f o r t h e n e x t day," and " C a l e n d a r s , a r t s t u f f . " Teacher v e r b a l cues. The t e a c h e r ' s r e q u e s t s t o a c h i l d t o d e l i v e r a message t o t h e o f f i c e meant, "Anybody u s u a l l y g e t s t o do i t . Once I d i d , " " L o r i s s a u s u a l l y g e t s a s k e d , " " M u s i c , l a s t t i m e I got choosed," "Teacher j u s t p i c k s someone, u s u a l l y when you've f i n i s h e d . Or i f we're a l l w o r k i n g she u s u a l l y t a k e s i t up h e r s e l f , " "Sometimes t h e t e a c h e r does, sometimes she g e t s o t h e r k i d s t o do i t . P i c k s p e r s o n who i s work-i n g h a r d e s t and who i s f i n i s h e d , " "Me cause I s i t q u i e t and s t a r t d o i n g my work," and "Jamie sometimes me, St e v e . . . ummm L o r i s s a . " Other k i n d s o f t e a c h e r v e r b a l b e h a v i o r s a s k e d about were: Why does t h e t e a c h e r say L's name a l o t ? Why does t h e t e a c h e r say J's name a l o t ? and What does i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? The t e a c h e r s a i d L's name a l o t b e c a u s e , "She alw a y s t a l k s , she's 89 always t u r n e d around i n h e r desk," "Because she speaks and t a l k s t o S and she sometimes has t o s t a y i n , " and "Because she always g e t s out o f h e r s e a t . " I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s a i d J ' s name a l o t b e c a u s e , "She alwa y s t a l k s t o E r i c , " "They're [ g e n e r a l r e s p o n s e ] b e i n g bad o r t a l k i n g , " "Sometimes she t a l k s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and you know when y a do f l a s h c a r d s . She q u i t e y e l l s , " and t h e g i r l h e r s e l f s t a t e d , "'Cause I'm h a v i n g f u n t a l k i n g . " The c h i l d r e n e x p l a i n e d what i t meant when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l e d t h e i r names. "She wants you a t h e r desk," " E i t h e r b ad, i n t h e morning i f y o u ' r e h e r e o r n o t , i f you have c o r r e c t i o n s , " "You have a p r o b l e m , she c a l l s y o u t o s t o p t a l k i n g o r s o m e t h i n g , " "Means she wants you t o go and do s o m e t h i n g , " " C o u l d mean a l o t o f t h i n g s . To get y o u r book, when she marks i t . Or someone needs h e l p . When she needs you f o r h e l p , w i t h a t a b l e o r s o m e t h i n g , " " I t means t h a t y o u ' r e bad, t h a t you d i d n ' t l i s t e n . I t means t h a t you got umm I t h i n k t h a t i t means t h a t ummm. When you t r a d e desks and she t e l l s you t o t r a d e them back. When she wants them back." The p r e d o m i n a n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h e c h i l d r e n s h a r e d w i t h me about t h e p h y s i c a l arrangements o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m , t e a c h e r n o n - v e r b a l and v e r b a l cues were t h e i r needs t o f i n d ways t o get t h e r i g h t answers f r o m each o t h e r , t h e i r needs t o f i n d ways t o get out of t h e i r d e s k s , and t h e i r needs t o work w i t h i n t h e imp o s e d . t i m e , s p a c e , and s u b j e c t s t r u c t u r e s d e s i g n a t e d by t h e t e a c h e r and conveyed t o t h e c h i l d r e n by h e r v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l cues f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n s pent unmeasured. amounts o f t i m e c o v e r t l y communi-c a t i n g w i t h each o t h e r , i n s t r u c t i n g each o t h e r , and a t t e m p t i n g t o b r e a k t h e monotony o f t h e day i n an environment where t h e y were g i v e n l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s or a c t i o n s . They were e x p e c t e d to comply to the r e g i m e n t a t i o n and r i g i d i t y o f t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s . I t seems t h a t the t y r a n n y of the t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l o ver the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s was t o l e r a b l e f o r them o n l y because i t was f a m i l i a r . The same t h i n g s happened day i n and day o u t . How the Teacher and C h i l d r e n Saw Themselves I n many s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n we have tended t o s u b o r d i n a t e c h i l d r e n ' e x p e r i e n c e s t o our own e x p e r i e n c e s . We have s u b o r d i n a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e p r a c t i c e s t o our own c o n s t r u c t i o n s of knowing. As a r e s u l t we have l o s t t h e i r forms of knowledge and have i n v o k e d a d i v i s i o n between what i s r e a l l y r e a l and what c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e t o be r e a l . I n t h i s a n a l -y s i s t h e r e i s an attempt t o overcome t h i s a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n and a l l o w the c h i l d r e n t o s t a t e t h e i r w o r l d of knowledge about t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . The t e a c h e r and the c h i l d r e n saw t h e m s e l v e s d o i n g s c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n appeared to a c c e p t b e i n g t r e a t e d as members of a c a t e g o r y , p u p i l The t e a c h e r saw h e r s e l f t e a c h i n g . To h e r , c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t was p r e -s e n t e d , c h i l d r e n were to l e a r n i t . The c h i l d r e n were reminded t o comply t o g e t t i n g speed t e s t s , math d r i l l s , and s p e l l i n g t e s t s done c o r r e c t l y , t o s t a y i n t h e i r d e s k s , and t o remain on t a s k f o r most of the f i v e and o n e - h a l f hours they spent i n the c l a s s r o o m . Shared u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . Teacher u n d e r s t a n d i n g s s h a r e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n were the t a c i t r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r and a c t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m . I n an attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e r u l e s , groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d by the o b s e r v e r i n twos, t h r e e s , and i n a group o f f i v e . The k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s they were asked were d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t an under-s t a n d i n g of the t r i v i a l and mundane meanings i n the c l a s s r o o m t o do w i t h o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . They got out of t h e i r desks t o get paper, "When I'm w r i t i n g a s t o r y , " "When you don't have a book." They went f o r paper t o w e l s , "When you s p i l l w a t e r , or i f t h e r e ' s g l u e on the t a b l e s o r something or when we're p a i n t i n g , " "We're supposed t o have them when we're p a i n t i n g . " They p a s s e d papers f o r w a r d and back so " P e r s o n doesn't have t o get out of t h e i r desk." To be a 'Super S p e l l e r ' meant "You got a l l your words r i g h t . " The k i n d s o f n o t e s t h a t went home about books were, "To pay money f o r books. I f you haven't brought the book back, you have t o pay f o r i t . " F i n a l l y , t h e r e was " t h e l o s t and found c a n" on the c o u n t e r . Other r u l e s g o v e r n i n g l e a v i n g the room: When can you go and get a drink?.vand .When .can_y.ou"~go?to the washroom? i n d i c a t e d c h i l d r e n who were not f a m i l i a r w i t h the r u l e s would be i n f o r m e d by c l a s s m a t e s because, "We'd pass i t a r o u n d — t h a t you c o u l d n ' t have a d r i n k . " Other meanings were, "She never l e t s us get a d r i n k . She always says no, but umm some p e o p l e sneak 'cause t h e r e ' s a s i n k i n our back o f the room, r i g h t ? " o r you can go t o the washroom " A f t e r l u n c h o r r e c e s s , she says no," "Supposed to go b e f o r e s c h o o l , r e c e s s and l u n c h , " "You c a n ' t do i t i n the morning, a f t e r r e c e s s o r a f t e r l u n c h because we s h o u l d have gone by t h e n , but umm one p e r s o n [ c a n go] i n between r e c e s s and l u n c h , " and "Only a t r e c e s s , l u n c h , ummm sometimes she l e t s you." S o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s . The c h i l d r e n had been o b s e r v e d t o mark each o t h e r ' s work; they were asked what t h i s meant. They r e p l i e d , "Doesn't 92 want you t o mark i t r i g h t i f i t ' s wrong," "You're not supposed t o make any m i s t a k e s . I f I t ' s r i g h t you c a n ' t mark i t wrong. I f i t ' s wrong y ou c a n ' t mark i t r i g h t , " "Don't make any changes," " I t means a t math you . . . u s u a l l y means l i k e she l e t s you mark, l i k e , you u s u a l l y put one t i c k , you put y o u r math book on o t h e r p e r s o n ' s desk and t h e y pass them b e h i n d and t h e back p e r s o n b r i n g s h i s up t o t h e f r o n t and be marked. T h a t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e , a t math." ' And "So we don't c h e a t . " The p h y s i c a l movements a l l o w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m c e n t r e d a r o u n d : When do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? Why,do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? What does i t mean t o go and get paper? Why do you put notebooks i n t o boxes w i t h s i g n s on them? What does t h e b l u e - c a r p e t e d a r e a mean? When can you go t h e r e ? When do you go t o s i t and read? How do you know you . s h o u l d go? The c h i l d r e n went t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk: " F o r r e a d i n g c l u b , t o get somet h i n g marked," "Math d r i l l , i f you have some pr o b l e m s . Don't get som e t h i n g . When you don't know what a word means," " F o r c o r r e c t i n g o ur work. Somebody's b u g g i n g you-. T a t t l e . A sk f o r a word," "When we have t r o u b l e , e s p e c i a l l y s p e l l i n g . When you have p r o b l e m s . When you have t o t e l l on somebody," "When you don't b r i n g i t [book] t o t h e m a r k i n g box. For c o r r e c t i o n s . What, we don't u n d e r s t a n d , " "Or i f she c a l l s up. Get paper w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s , " "To get some t h i n g marked o r have a q u e s t i o n t o a s k , " "When she c a l l s us up t o get work marked and s t u f f . When she wants t o a s k you some t h i n g o r . . ." The c h i l d r e n ' s r e a s o n s f o r g o i n g t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk were s i m i l a r t o t e l l i n g when t h e y would, go. They went be c a u s e : "Don't know words, somebody's b u g g i n g me," " F o r book c l u b , g et some t h i n g marked," "When I don't know what som e t h i n g i s on p a p e r , " " I f you have a pr o b l e m . U s u a l l y 93 to p i c k up my papers and s t u f f , " " I f I don't know how t o do something. I ' l l j u s t go up and ask h e r . Lot of p e o p l e go up and a s k . " The c h i l d r e n ' s r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r desks t o go and get paper were not many. They ranged from "That's j u s t a doodle t a b l e , e x t r a s l e f t , " t o " I t means you c a n ' t t a l k t o anybody, you have t o j u s t go and get the paper and go back t o your s e a t , " and "That means l i k e when, when they r a n out . . . " The r e s p i t e s the c h i l d r e n manoeuvred f o r t h e m s e l v e s were s m a l l . Some c h a t t e r e d when the t e a c h e r was out of the room, a sneaked d r i n k , a spoken answer. Not once i n the f i v e weeks I s t u d i e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d I hear l a u g h t e r and the j o y o u s v o i c e s o f c h i l d r e n h a p p i l y d i s c o v e r i n g an e x c i t i n g w o r l d t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g . Oh r e f l e c t i o n , I have the unhappy i d e a t h a t the c h i l d r e n d i v u l g e d o n l y a t i n y p o r t i o n o f t h e i r w o r l d . A f t e r a l l , who was I t o be t r u s t e d ? S m a l l i n k l i n g s of o t h e r p e r c e p t i o n s t h e y had of t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h some of the i n t e r v i e w s . S u g g e s t i o n s t h a t I p h o t o g r a p h c h i l d r e n when th e y were " f r u s t r a t e d " o r when t h e r e were s h i n y g l i s t e n s i n t h e i r eyes ( t e a r s of f r u s t r a t i o n ) h e i g h t e n e d my c u r i o s i t y and the w i s h t h a t I c o u l d uncover more l a y e r s o f h i d d e n meanings about t h e i r s h a r e d w o r l d . How C h i l d r e n I n t e r p r e t e d C l a s s r o o m L i f e R e s t r i c t e d communication. The k i n d s o f t h i n g s the c h i l d r e n c o u l d not t e l l the t e a c h e r were: " S e c r e t s , c o p y i n g work, c h e a t i n g , l o o k i n g a t p e o p l e ' s work," " S e c r e t hand language . . . use i t , " " A l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s . We p l a y games. Sometimes I c h e a t , I c h e a t , " " I f your p e n c i l needs s h a r p e n i n g , you are not supposed t o go and ask her i f you can sharpen i t , " "Not t o say swear words, don't c a l l them names," and "You make l o t s of r a c k e t when she goes out of the room and we're not supposed 94 to." Non-verbal communication. The interview question, How do you talk to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? uncovered a group of sign languages used by the girls in the class. In response to the question, they replied: "Whisper," "We have a secret hand language," "Whisper, pass notes, pass messages," "With normal sign language," and "Some people do a sign language to each other." The boys in the classroom stated they did not use a sign language to communicate when they didn't want to be heard. They indicated they "Wave them off," "When teacher isn't looking, I usually tap somebody," and "Do i t four times before I figure i t out." It appeared that getting the right answer prompted many of the communications among both boys and girls in the classroom which they preferred the teacher not to know about. Gamesmanship. Some children had more understanding of the class-room rules and procedures than others. There were some children who not only understood the tacit rules but managed to manoeuvre around them. For example, when asked when they could go to the washroom, they replied, "Lunch and recess, at 9:00 a.m. i f you say you didn't go at home," "Can't go right after lunch or recess," and "Sometimes in the afternoon around two o'clock or two thirty." Three girls stated they talked when the teacher was out of the room, "Just what number we're on." They didn't pass notes when the teacher was in the classroom, "We do 'normal' sign language." They passed notes, both boys and g i r l s , when they were down at the back of the room. When asked what they talked about mostly when the teacher was out of the room, they replied, "Just what number we're on," "Just finish doing our work," and ". . . or i f we're finished we just read or something." 95 What C h i l d r e n C o n f i r m e d about C l a s s r o o m L i f e L i v i n g out a day. I n the s e a r c h f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s e t t i n g by c a t e g o r i e s of e v e n t s and happenings d u r i n g a s c h o o l day, the k i n d s of groups the c h i l d r e n used t o s o r t the photographs p r o v i d e d me w i t h i n s i g h t s f o r the way p a r t i c i p a n t s d e f i n e d the e v e n t s i n the c l a s s -room. These were c o n s t r u c t i o n s and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n wh i c h b o t h the c h i l d r e n and I p a r t i c i p a t e d . T h i s means the v a l i d i t y of the i n q u i r y was not t e s t e d a g a i n s t the co r p u s o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge or q u a n t i t a -t i v e m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be d e r i v e d from a s e t t i n g ; r a t h e r i t was t e s t e d a g a i n s t everyday e x p e r i e n c e s o f the c h i l d r e n . I t was contended t h a t To u n d e r s t a n d the i n t e r p r e t i v e p r a c t i c e s of c h i l d r e n as they go about t h e i r r o u t i n e s , we cannot s u b o r d i n a t e them t o our e x p e r i -ences, t o our c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowing, and t o our forms of knowledge. R a t h e r we a r e c a l l e d upon t o compose p r a c t i c e s t h a t r e v e a l the c h i l d ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e meanings as r e a s o n a b l e and p r a c t i c a l t o t h e i r p u r p o s e s - a t - h a n d , and, i n d o i n g so, t o r e c o g -n i z e t h e i r forms of o r g a n i z i n g the w o r l d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o our own. ( S i l v e r , 1975, p. 48) The c a t e g o r i e s used by the c h i l d r e n t o s o r t the p i c t u r e s were un-u s u a l , d i v e r s e , and e s o t e r i c . For example, when a y o u n g s t e r s o r t e d r o l l #3 he s t a t e d , " ( 1 ) A boy i s t a l k i n g and t h e r e i s the t e a c h e r . (2) These two, b o t h p l a c e s where we r e a d . (3) These two g e t t i n g ready f o r gym. (4) These two, a l l the time we're s i t t i n g down. (5) Both s t a n d i n g up. (6) Both w o r k i n g h a r d . (7) These two, b o t h same d e s k s . (8) These two, i n h i s desk, now gone. (9) These two, b o t h p l a c e s have work t h e r e . " I n c o n t r a s t , a n o t h e r c h i l d c a t e g o r i z e d the same p i c t u r e s as " ( 1 ) Nobody w o r k i n g . (2) Working. (3) L i s t e n i n g . " Because they were so a t y p i c a l I came t o r e a l i z e the magnitude and v a r i e t y w i t h i n the c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p -i n g s and c a t e g o r i e s . Each c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f o r many r e a s o n s . 96 However, i n the c o n t e x t of the s t u d y , d e s i g n a t e d t o be d e s c r i p t i v e and e x p l o r a t o r y r a t h e r t h a n t o i n f e r c a u s a l i t y , the d i v e r s i t y was a c c e p t e d . T h e r e a f t e r , the g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e was p l a c e d on the s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n about what had been m i s s e d o r not i n c l u d e d i n the p h o t o g r a p h s . F o r example, I was a b l e t o t a k e many photographs of the c a t e g o r i e s , e v e n t s , and a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d t o me by the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . These i n c l u d e d : the c l a s s out on the a s p h a l t a r e a o u t -s i d e the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g w i t h w a t e r , b r u s h e s , p a i n t s , and p a p e r ; c h i l d r e n g o i n g t o music and w h i l e t h e y were d o i n g m u s i c ; s i l e n t r e a d i n g ; a r t ; g o i n g home; homework desk; homework; language a r t s and a r t ; the s o c i a l s t u d i e s l e s s o n about the f o r e s t ; c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g homework a s s i g n -ments; c h i l d r e n s i g n i n g t h e i r names on the b l a c k b o a r d because they had not f i n i s h e d t h e i r work; and the s i n k a r e a i n the c l a s s r o o m . A d u l t v e r s u s c h i l d r e n ' s agenda. What the c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be m i s s i n g from an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of t h e i r c l a s s r o o m l i f e were the k i n d s of t i m e t a b l e changes and movements from the c l a s s r o o m w h i c h cued or d i s r u p t e d the monotony of s t a y i n g i n t h e i r desks on t a s k . They d i d not f e e l f r e e t o speak to me w h i l e I worked i n the c l a s s r o o m i t s e l f and I was not a b l e t o get the c h i l d r e n t o t a l k t o me w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i n g the r o u t i n e of the c l a s s r o o m as p e r c e i v e d by the t e a c h e r . The i m p l i c i t s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d the c h i l d r e n and w h i c h o r d e r e d the l i f e w o r l d of r e a l i t y i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m were found i n the p r a c t i c e s , p r o c e d u r e s , d a i l y u t t e r a n c e s , a c t i o n s , and i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h took p l a c e i n the s e t t i n g . An attempt was made t o ground the d e s c r i p -t i o n s of t h i s r e a l i t y i n the i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n , the l i f e - w o r l d , and t h e r e b y the i n h e r e n t meaning s t r u c t u r e s became i n t e l l i g i b l e . I n the d a t a g a t h e r e d i t became e v i d e n t t h a t not o n l y d i d the c h i l -d r e n i n the s e t t i n g have e x p l i c i t e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge and the knowledge of t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , but a l s o they had t o behave i n a p u r p o s e f u l , c o n t r o l l e d , and s t e a d y manner as e x p r e s s e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s c o n c e r n w i t h d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l . The t e a c h e r ' s p r o f e s s e d aims f o r the c h i l d r e n w i t h whom she worked were e v i d e n t i n the k i n d s of s t r u c t u r e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . To s u r v i v e i n t h i s s e t t i n g c h i l d r e n had t o know the t a c i t r u l e s . They were e x p e c t e d t o mesh t h e i r b e h a v i o r s w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g s the t e a c h e r had about c l a s s r o o m l i f e . They were e x p e c t e d t o mesh t h e i r b e h a v i o r s w i t h the r e g u l a r i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the c l a s s r o o m and t o mesh s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y had i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m w i t h the t e a c h e r ' s own v i e w s of r e a l i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s e t t i n g . On the one hand, t h e r e were s t r o n g l y f e l t needs on the p a r t of the c h i l d r e n t o s o c i a l i z e , w h i l e on the o t h e r hand the c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d the s t r o n g emphasis the t e a c h e r p l a c e d on t a s k c o m p l e t i o n as an aim of much i m p o r t a n c e i n the s e t t i n g . To r e c o n c i l e t h i s c o n f l i c t , c h i l d r e n i n the s e t t i n g used a wide d i v e r s i t y of v i s u a l and v e r b a l cues to h e l p them t h r o u g h the r e a l i t i e s o f t h e i r e v eryday c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . S e l f -i n i t i a t i n g y o u n g s t e r s c i r c u m v e n t e d t h e i r e v e r y d a y c l a s s r o o m a m b i g u i t i e s by c h e c k i n g cues w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s . F o r example, some g i r l s used a s i g n language a l l day l o n g t o communicate w i t h f r i e n d s . I t would seem to f o l l o w t h a t f o r the c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r i n t h i s s e t t i n g was a w o r l d where t h e r e i s a m e e t i n g of l i f e - w o r l d s ' (Van Manen, 1978, pp.43-59). When th e y meet, w i t h i n b o t h t h e r e a r e many mani-f e s t i n t e r a c t i o n s between and among t e a c h e r and c h i l d r e n as t h e y share the r e a l i t y of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . These m a n i f e s t a t i o n s may t a k e the form of t e n t a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s and p l a n n i n g , agreements, c o n f l i c t s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , t a s k s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , and t r i u m p h s ' (Van Manen, 1978, pp..43-59). The l i f e - w o r l d of the c h i l d r e n l a y i n t h e i r p e r c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i o u s t a l k , g e s t u r e s , r e a d -i n g s , exchanges, and c o n v e n t i o n s i n the s e t t i n g . I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t those c h i l d r e n who b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d the s t r u c t u r e of the r e a l i t y p r o v i d e d them by the t e a c h e r and who s h a r e d the meanings of the l i f e - w o r l d of the t e a c h e r would be more c o m f o r t a b l e and competent i n t h i s s e t t i n g . Summary The s t u d y of a c h i l d r e n ' s c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e and the k i n d s of i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s and s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s were g a t h e r e d from the everyday t a l k of the c h i l d r e n i n answer t o p r e - f o r m u l a t e d q u e s t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r o s e d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of the s t u d y . The s t u d y uncovered c o v e r t , s h a r e d communications, ways to c i r c u m -vent c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s , and the d u p l i c i t y and c h e a t i n g w h i c h took p l a c e i n the c l a s s r o o m o u t s i d e of the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s knowledge. The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e appeared to engender and p r e c i p i t a t e c o v e r t s t u d e n t a c t i o n s , most p a r t i c u l a r l y s h a r e d s e c r e t s i g n languages among some of the g i r l s and note p a s s i n g and w h i s p e r i n g among some of the boys. The c l a s s r o o m p r o c e d u r e s f o r m a r k i n g and o n - t a s k b e h a v i o r appeared to encourage c h i l d r e n t o get the r i g h t answer by any means a v a i l a b l e t o them wh i c h i n c l u d e d c h e a t i n g . F i n a l l y , the monotony of the c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s appeared t o encourage c h i l d r e n t o t r y t o e n l i v e n t h e i r l i v e s by communicating w i t h s i g n language, note p a s s i n g , and c h a t t e r whenever the t e a c h e r was out of the c l a s s r o o m . CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF THE STUDY Background to the Study How we come to see and u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d h o o d depends upon the p e r -s p e c t i v e adopted whether h i s t o r i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . The n o t i o n of c h i l d h o o d has become a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e about human l i f e among s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and e d u c a t i o n a l groups i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n the w e s t e r n w o r l d . C h i l d h o o d as a s e p a r a t e s t a t e has become a concept sometimes m a n i f e s t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n as i n c o m p l e t e p e r s o n s l a c k i n g i n m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development, i r r a t i o n a l , and t h e r e f o r e incompetent because they l a c k the knowledge and judgement to a c t as o r d i n a r y members of our s o c i e t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c h i l d h o o d , or the c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d , i n c l u d e s the same s e t s of s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c , economic, and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s as the w o r l d of a d u l t s . T h e i r complex w o r l d c o m p r i s e s the i n f l u e n c e s of home, p l a y -ground, o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s homes, the s t r e e t , the c h u r c h , the w o r k p l a c e , and the n e i g h b o r h o o d s c h o o l . Young c h i l d r e n a c t i n the c o n t e x t of t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s and by so d o i n g they c r e a t e t h e i r own s o c i a l o r d e r . Even young c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n u n s u p e r v i s e d s e t t i n g s w i l l i n t e r a c t i n groups of t h r e e or f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s . They e x e r c i s e peer competencies and t h e y e x h i b i t s k i l l s i n r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o one a n o t h e r . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a type of s o c i a l o r d e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n do not d e v e l o p i n c u l t u r a l ' i s o l a t i o n or i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l vacuum. 99 100 Some p s y c h o l o g i s t s have a t t e m p t e d t o s t u d y c h i l d h o o d by v i e w i n g i t as a s e r i e s of d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s or g r a d a t i o n s i n c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l development. They have e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a of m a t u r a t i o n by p s y c h o l o g i c a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a d i n g s . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have t a k e n a broad v i e w of the c h i l d . I n t h e i r s t u d i e s of c h i l d h o o d i n c u l t u r e they have found c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g in'tfreiwork and p l a y of the a d u l t w o r l d b e g i n n i n g a t ages seven to n i n e ; i n C anadian c u l t u r e we make c h i l d r e n dependent n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members u n t i l t h e y are a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty-one y e a r s of age. A d o p t i n g an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l v i e w of a c l a s s r o o m s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a c u l t u r e and r e l a t e d s u b c u l t u r e s , each g u i d e d by b e l i e f s or a body of i d e a s , each i m p i n g i n g upon and i n f l u e n c i n g the o t h e r s . The b e l i e f s of the c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d may e x i s t w i t h or w i t h o u t the p r e s e n c e of a d u l t s w h i l e the b e l i e f s of the t e a c h e r ' s w o r l d are a c t e d upon by b o t h the t e a c h e r and the c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . I n c o n s i d e r i n g c h i l d h o o d as a s u b - c u l t u r e a d u l t s have tended t o make judgements on the b a s i s of c h i l d r e n ' s supposed i n c o m p l e t e knowledge about a d u l t s ' competent a c t i o n s . Compounding the inadequacy of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h about c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y , f a n t a s y , and the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t of t h e i r d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . C o n s t r u c t i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e , the c l a s s r o o m as a c u l t u r e , t e a c h e r s and c h i l d r e n are seen to be i n the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v -i t i e s t o g e t h e r . The a d u l t c u l t u r e seems to pervade the s e t t i n g , t o g e n e r -a t e the f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m r u l e s , w i t h the t e a c h e r t e n d i n g t o promote o r to s a n c t i o n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . Teacher's b e l i e f s can i n f l u e n c e the k i n d s of s h a r e d meanings c h i l d r e n h o l d about the r u l e s of the c l a s s r o o m . 101 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was t o d i s c o v e r the n a t u r e and meaning of a c l a s s r o o m ' s s o c i a l w o r l d as u n d e r s t o o d by the c h i l d r e n i n i t . I f the a c t i o n s d i s p l a y e d by i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n and groups of c h i l d r e n a r e i n f l u -enced by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g , t h e n i t i s assumed t h a t the s o c i a l w o r l d of t h e c l a s s r o o m can be u n d e r s t o o d i n the ways young c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . How do c h i l d r e n as members of a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s ? ' T h i s q u e s t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e has r e c e i v e d o n l y p a s s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Review of r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d most s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s and r e s p o n d e n t s r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l w o r l d s . R e s e a r c h Methods In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e the purpose of t h e s t u d y , c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h methods had t o be d e v i s e d . The st u d y a t t e m p t e d t o document the e v e n t s of c l a s s -room l i f e as i n t e r p r e t e d by the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . P r o c e d u r e s d e v i s e d f o r t he s t u d y i n c l u d e d the use of f i e l d n o t e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t w i t h s t u d e n t s , r e p o r t i n g the i n s i d e r ' s v i e w , and a n a l y z i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d a t a c o l l e c t e d . Photography p r o v i d e d a means f o r documentary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s combined w i t h p hotographs and the i n t e r p r e t i v e p aradigm were the t e c h n i q u e s used i n documenting e v e r y d a y c l a s s r o o m l i f e . I n an e f f o r t t o make the eve r y d a y l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c , the r e s e a r c h r e s t e d on c e r t a i n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s about c h i l d r e n ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge; t h e i r s t o c k o f knowledge; t h e i r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g ; t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s and a c t i o n s on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l b i o g r a p h i e s and d a i l y e x p e r i -ences; and the s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r s t o c k o f knowledge. The i m p o r t a n t 102 s o u r c e f o r c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge was t a k e n t o be the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d of r e a l i t y w h i c h p r e - e x i s t s and i s a v a i l a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n t o i n t e r p r e t and e x p e r i e n c e i n an o r d e r l y way. The c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge about the w o r l d comes from t h e i r handed-down e x p e r i e n c e s from t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i r p e e r s , and w i t h the t e a c h e r , as w e l l as the e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r around them. The s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s d e v e l o p e d f o r the s t u d y were an o u t g r o w t h of the problems a r i s i n g from f i e l d work; g a i n i n g e n t r y , e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t , and becoming p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r . The sequence of p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d amassing a l l d a t a i n r e t r i e v a b l e form, i n c l u d i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s and f i e l d n o t e s ; t r e a t i n g d a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y ; a n a l y z i n g the e n t i r e c o r p u s of m a t e r i a l s ; p r o v i d i n g p r o v i s i o n a l schema u n t i l r e c u r s i v e r u l e s o c c u r r e d w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l t h e d a t a ; and a c h i e v i n g c onvergences between the r e s e a r c h e r ' s and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s . The methodology and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r the s t u d y were based on the i d e a s of i n t e r p r e t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e w i t h emphasis on the d i s c o v e r y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning s t r u c t u r e s . I t i s a premise t h a t everyday e v e n t s a r e p r o b l e m a t i c . To attempt t o document a s o c i a l l y c o n -s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y one must d e a l w i t h p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s , r e c o v e r t a k e n - f o r -g r a n t e d knowledge from p a r t i c i p a n t s , and become p a r t of the l i f e w o r l d of a s e l f - o r g a n i z i n g s e t t i n g . The methodology and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e : (1) what t a k e s p l a c e i n a c l a s s r o o m ; (2) what r e g u l a r i z e s the r o u t i n e s ; and (3) what p a r t i c i p a n t s e n v i s i o n e d t o be an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c l a s s r o o m . The p a r t i c u l a r problems posed i n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o : the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n g a i n i n g e n t r y and 103 e s t a b l i s h i n g a r o l e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the* c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; the n a t u r e of c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n ; the d e s i r e on the p a r t of t h e t e a c h e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l ; the c h i l d r e n ' s desk arrangement; t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l as m a n i f e s t e d i n the forms of q u e s t i o n s ; o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c l a s s work and reward systems; the need f o r c h i l d r e n to behave q u i e t l y on t a s k ; and the f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n r a r e l y d i d any a c t i v -i t y w i t h a p a r t n e r or i n a s m a l l group. I n o r d e r t o overcome the e f f e c t s of t h e s e f e a t u r e s , i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n v o l v e d the c o l l e c t i o n of m e t i c u -l o u s f i e l d n o t e s . L a t e r , photography was used by the r e s e a r c h e r t o uncover frameworks i m p o r t a n t t o the c h i l d r e n and the frameworks the t e a c h e r used f o r d e f i n i n g and c a t e g o r i z i n g c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s and o b j e c t s . The camera as ' p a r t i c i p a n t - c a m e r a ' and a new r o l e of p h o t o g r a p h e r - p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r p r o v i d e d e n t r y i n t o the c h i l d r e n ' s e v e r y d a y l i f e w o r l d . P h otographs docu-mented c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s and t h e s e were s h a r e d w i t h the c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r . They i n t u r n i d e n t i f i e d , d e s c r i b e d , i n t e r p r e t e d , and c a t e g o r i z e d t h e photos when th e y s a i d What the photographs meant t o them. The meanings the photographs h e l d were v a l i d a t i o n s or check p o i n t s i n a r e s e a r c h sequence: photos t a k e n , photos shown t o p a r t i c i p a n t s , photos i n t e r p r e t e d t o the r e s e a r c h e r . The p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e n , d e f i n e d the s i t u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c camera t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e d the r e c o r d i n g of e v e n t s and o b j e c t s i n an o p p o r t u n i s t i c f a s h i o n ; p h o t o g r a p h i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s u g g e s t e d o c c u r r e n c e s i n a programmed way; and t a k i n g p hotographs of happenings i n a random f a s h i o n . The r o l e of the p hotographs i n the s t u d y was t o uncover th e meanings f o r the e veryday e v e n t s i n the r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g by p r o v i d i n g a d i s p l a y t o s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s ; by d e f i n i n g the s i t u a t i o n as the r e s u l t of p h o t o g r a p h i c c h o i c e s ; and by documenting e v e n t s t h a t were too complex t o be i d e n t i f i e d by immediate c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d was used as the b a s i s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the c h i l d r e n . T r a n s c r i p t i o n s r e v e a l e d c h i l d r e n ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s , s h a r e d meanings f o r what'iwas a l l o w e d and not a l l o w e d i n the c l a s s r o o m , as w e l l as t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r awarenesses f o r what had been m i s s e d or not i n c l u d e d f o r an adequate p o r t r a y a l o f t h e i r c u l t u r e . C h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the photographs d i s p l a y e d t o them d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s a l l o w e d t h e 'open-ended' q u a l i t y of the p h o t o g r a p h i c o p p o r t u n i t y t o be e x p l o r e d . The t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e f o c u s e d on the meanings f o r e v e n t s and o b j e c t s as u n d e r s t o o d and sh a r e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s e t t i n g , c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r . F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s s t u d y d e s c r i b e d how c l a s s r o o m l i f e c o n s i s t s o f b o t h an a d u l t and a c h i l d r e n ' s d a i l y agenda f o r p a t t e r n i n g e v e n t s . S t u d e n t s l e a r n e d what was t o go on i n the c l a s s r o o m by b e i n g exposed t o p a t t e r n s r a n g i n g from f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e i r own i n f o r m a l group g o s s i p . When the c h i l -d r e n were crowded i n t o t he c l a s s r o o m t h e y found i t d i f f i c u l t t o use t h e k i n d s o f s k i l l s and competencies t h e y a l r e a d y had d e v e l o p e d f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o one a n o t h e r i n s e t t i n g s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . U s u a l l y , t h e i r o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s were r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l t h i n g s , t o y s , o b j e c t s , s p a c e s , and p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s . These t h i n g s h e l p e d mediate t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h one a n o t h e r and h e l p e d p r o v i d e s o c i a l o r d e r . When th e y were i n the c l a s s r o o m t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o language encoded i n f o r m a t i o n , spoken or w r i t t e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s own r u l e s f o r r e g u -l a t i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s no l o n g e r a p p l i e d . They were s c o l d e d f o r f o r m i n g spontaneous groups or l a p s i n g i n t o p l a y w i t h o b j e c t s at hand. The c h i l -d ren's own agenda emphasized the k i n d s of- t i m e t a b l e changes and movements 105 f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m w h i c h c u e d t h e m o r d i s r u p t e d t h e m o n o t o n y o f s t a y i n g i n t h e i r d e s k s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e t e a c h e r ' s a g e n d a e m p h a s i z e d t i m e t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s o r d e r e d a r o u n d s u b j e c t s a n d s e a t w o r k a c t i v i t i e s . The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n d a was p a r t o f t h e i r game f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h e . c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The p r e d o m i n a n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a r e d a b o u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c u e s , t e a c h e r n o n - v e r b a l a n d v e r b a l c u e s , w e r e r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s t o f i n d ways t o g e t r i g h t a n s w e r s , t o f i n d w a y s t o g e t o u t o f t h e i r d e s k s , a n d w a y s t o w o r k w i t h i n t h e t i m e , s p a c e , a n d s u b j e c t s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e c l a s s . The t a c i t r u l e s f o r a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m w e r e d e s c r i b e d b y t h e c h i l d r e n as t h e n e e d t o c o m p l y t o t h e r e g i m e n t a t i o n f o r t h e d a y a n d t o r e m a i n on t a s k . P h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c u e s a p p e a r e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o l i m i t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s p r o v i d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a l t o r a t h e r l e n g t h y i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e f u r n i t u r e a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d o t h e r o b j e c t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s c r e a t e d t i m e , s p a c e , a n d movement c o n s t r a i n t s o n t h e c h i l d r e n s t e m m i n g f r o m w h a t t h e t e a c h e r saw h e r s e l f d o i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c h i l d r e n s h a r e d t h e i r own u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a b o u t t h e u s e s a n d p u r p o s e s f o r t h e s e o b j e c t s a n d how t h e y w e r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e f l o w o f e v e n t s o r s u b j e c t s t r u c t u r e s d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r . C h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t e a c h e r n o n - v e r b a l a n d v e r b a l c u e s i n d i -c a t e d t h e y u s e d t h e s e t o g u i d e t h e i r a c t i o n s . C h i l d r e n p a t t e r n e d t h e i r l i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d s o f p a p e r u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s ; o b j e c t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d s u b j e c t s t r u c t u r e s ; w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e t e a c h e r w o r k e d a t h e r d e s k ; a n d t h e o b j e c t s a n d p a p e r s on t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k . T e a c h e r v e r b a l c u e s , c a l l i n g s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n b y name; t e a c h e r r e q u e s t s , c h i l d r e n 106 asked t o d e l i v e r messages; and t e a c h e r use of t h e i r names were un d e r s t o o d by the c h i l d r e n to be e i t h e r rewards or s a n c t i o n s f o r i : s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r . The c h i l d r e n a l s o shared u n d e r s t a n d i n g s about r e s t r i c t e d communications and n o n - v e r b a l s e c r e t languages. The need to get the r i g h t answer prompted many of these communications among both boys and g i r l s . They r e p o r t e d to the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t they c h e a t e d — l o o k e d at o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s work and c o p i e d — w h i s p e r e d , passed n o t e s , sought answers from each o t h e r w h i l e the t e a c h e r was i n the c l a s s r o o m and r a i s e d a r a c k e t when the t e a c h e r l e f t . G i r l s shared s e c r e t s i g n languages and communicated when they were at t h e i r desks. The b a s i c meanings r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s study were p r i m a r i l y d e r i v e d from the r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n as p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o v i d e d new and v a r i e d i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s f o r the o c c u r r e n c e s from the photographs. The study r e v e a l e d t h a t from the p u p i l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s , many h y p o c r i t i c a l a c t i o n s w i t h i n the c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d were c a r r i e d on t o s a t i s f y the t e a c h e r . C h i l -dren were observed and spoke about g i v i n g answers to math d r i l l s heets and to p r o v i d e c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g s t o each o t h e r d u r i n g t e s t s . These a c t i o n s appeared to s a t i s f y some of the c h i l d r e n ' s l o n g i n g s to communicate, s o c i a l -i z e , and make t h e i r -own r u l e s f o r the s c h o o l game. The c h i l d r e n seemed to conduct t h e i r a c t i o n s among themselves to convey the why and how of what they d i d as bona f i d e members of t h e i r own c u l t u r e , i n the eyes of each o t h e r . The c h i l d r e n ' s peer group had knowledge of codes and a c c o u n t i n g to each o t h e r f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . Because they were not s u c c e s s f u l i n meeting the e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the a d u l t c u l t u r e n o r m a t i v e l y imposed by the s c h o o l system, they were f o r c e d to use s u b t e r f u g e to s a t i s f y the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . The dichotomy of o v e r t and c o v e r t a c t i o n s , the b e g i n n i n g s of an underground communication system, v i s - a - v i s the t e a c h e r ' s s t r u c t u r e s 107 f o r conduct i n the s e t t i n g engendered the c h i l d r e n ' s need t o f i l l i n gaps w i t h t h e i r own c u l t u r e . They d i s s e m b l e d i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m c o n d u c t , c h a t t e r e d whenever the t e a c h e r l e f t the c l a s s r o o m , manoeuvered around the t a c i t c l a s s r o o m r u l e s . They d i d t h i s t o s u r v i v e — t o l i v e out a day knowing the s c h o o l game r u l e s . E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c l u s i o n s from the Study The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y . 1. The prime g o a l f o r the conduct of the s c h o o l day r e f l e c t e d a p e r v a s i v e t e a c h e r i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s r o o m d i s c i p l i n e , o r d e r , and c o n t r o l . T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the humaneness of c l a s s r o o m l i f e as e x p e r i e n c e d by the c h i l d r e n . 2. C h i l d r e n s t r u c t u r e d t h e i r d a i l y c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s around t h e i r own agenda. The q u e s t i o n of how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e the t e a c h e r ' s s u b j e c t s t r u c -t u r e s and c u r r i c u l u m i n t e n t s and whether c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S e v e r a l i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and d e s i g n are s u g g e s t e d : (a) c h i l d r e n c o n c e i v e of time i n ways o t h e r t h a n the teacher:';s; (b) c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e o b j e c t s and m a t e r i a l s f o r p urposes o t h e r t h a n the i n t e n t s of the t e a c h e r ; and ( c ) c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d t h e g o a l s of c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e s t o be t o get the r i g h t answers. The p r o d u c t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s were of major c o n c e r n f o r them r a t h e r , t h a n the k i n d s of p r o c e s s e s f o r i n q u i r y and the q u a l i t y of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s h e l d t o be m e a n i n g f u l by t h e t e a c h e r . These i m p l i c a t i o n s suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the c l a s s r o o m may be r e q u i r e d . F o r example, a l t e r n a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g would be t o change the p u p i l -t e a c h e r r a t i o , the f i x e d time frame, and the c l a s s r o o m t e s t i n g so s u b s t a n -t i a l l y t h a t the s t a n d a r d c l a s s r o o m as documented i n t h i s s t u d y would not work. 108 3. The c h i l d r e n made i t known t o the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t they c h e a t e d , sneaked, p r e t e n d e d , and d i s s e m b l e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o get the r i g h t answers from each o t h e r by whatever means. For example, they communicated answers w i t h s e c r e t s i g n l a n g u a g e s , n o t e s , w h i s p e r s , and c o v e r t c o p y i n g from each o t h e r ' s p a p e r s . These e v i d e n c e s of d u p l i c i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m r a i s e the q u e s t i o n , How can s c h o o l s demonstrate c o n c e r n s f o r h o n e s t y and a u t h e n t i c i t y i n c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r w h i l e t h e y c o n t i n u e t o engender the k i n d s of ambiguous ' s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e i n t h e s e b e h a v i o r s not o n l y t h r i v e but c r e a t e d i s s o n a n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s f o r the p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s o f s c h o o l s ? S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The f i n d i n g s from t h i s s t u d y suggest t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o the s o c i a l c u l t u r e of the s c h o o l . 1. Photographs as ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera' as a means of g a i n i n g easy e n t r y to a s o c i a l s e t t i n g s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s as an e x t e n s i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r ' s r o l e i n s o c i a l s e t t i n g s . 2. P r o c e d u r e s u s i n g s t i l l p h o tographs i n v i t e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . They a l l o w members t o p o r t r a y a c u l t u r e i n a way w h i c h i s too complex f o r human o b s e r v a t i o n methods. I n s i d e r s t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d d i r e c t t he documentary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r w o r l d were each t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h a camera. 3. Ways i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n ' s c l a s s r o o m knowledge c o n s t r u c t s o v e r l a p w i t h the a d u l t or t e a c h e r ' s c o n s t r u c t s remain t o be e l a b o r a t e d . 4. C h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n s o f t a c i t c l a s s r o o m r u l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r o b s e r v e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r l i v i n g out a c l a s s r o o m day c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t r e s e a r c h a r e a . A measure of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the degree of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r avowed p r o c e d u r e s f o r conduct c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . 109 5. S e c r e t s i g n languages i n c l a s s r o o m s suggest a n o t h e r avenue f o r r e s e a r c h : i n what k i n d s of s c h o o l s e t t i n g s do t h e y f l o u r i s h ? o ver what p e r i o d of c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s a r e they an i m p o r t a n t means of c l a s s r o o m communication? 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New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967. W o l c o t t , H. F. C r i t e r i a f o r an e t h n o g r a p h i c approach t o r e s e a r c h i n s c h o o l s . Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1975, 3 4 ( 2 ) , 112-127. W o l c o t t , H. F. Handle w i t h c a r e : N e c e s s a r y p r e c a u t i o n s i n the a n t h r o -p o l o g y o f s c h o o l s . I n M. A. Wax, S. Diamond, and F. 0. G e a r i n g ( E d s . ) , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on e d u c a t i o n . Pp. 98-117. New Y o r k : B a s i c , 1971. W o l c o t t , H. F. The man i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1973. APPENDIX A F i e l d note q u e s t i o n s 121 Questions generated by f i e l d notes Taken sequentially 1. Why is Sean seated by himself? 2. What is i t like to s i t alone? 3. What kinds of notes go home about books? 4. What does i t mean to be seated in way they are seated? 5. When do you pass notes to each other? 6. Why do people give each other notes? 7. What does i t mean to s i t in hard desks without cushions? 8. How do you talk to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? 9. What is a calendar? 10. When do you go to the teacher's desk? 11. Why do you go to the teacher's desk? 12. What does i t mean to go and get paper? 13. Why do you sometimes do i t twice? (go for paper) 14. Who delivers notes to the office? 15. When can you go to the washroom? 16. "Ask about sign language and communication while teacher is out of the room. 17. Why do you put notebooks into boxes with signs on them? 18. Why does the teacher say L's name a lot? 19. Why does the teacher say J's name a lot? 20. What does i t mean when the teacher calls your name? 21. What can you do when the teacher goes out of the room? 22. What does the blue-covered area mean? When can you go there? 23. What does i t mean to have a time test? 24. How does Sean get papers given to him? 25. Where does he belong? 26. What does i t mean to give answers out loud, one by one? 27. Do you always start with the same person? (calling out answers) 28. How do you help each other, so you don't miss your place? 29. What does i t mean to call'how you did on a test out loud? 30. When does the teacher work at her desk? 31. What does i t mean when the teacher works at her desk? 32. When do you go to s i t to read? How do you know you should go? 33. What things can you do while a group i s reading with the teacher? 34. What do you do i f you don't know what to do? 35. What is usually on the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? 36. What does i t mean when kid's stuff f a l l s on the floor? 37. What kinds of things can you not t e l l a teacher? 38. Why does the teacher bring her coffee cup into the room after recess? 39. Who is Mrs. Bario? 40. What does i t mean to be a 'super speller'? 41. What does i t mean to s i t and figure things out? 42. What does i t mean to mark someone else's work? 122 APPENDIX B I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s A, B, C 123 Children's interview questions Schedule A. 1. Why is S. seated by himself? 2. What do you think i t ' s lik e to s i t alone? 3. How do you talk to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? 4. When do you go to the teacher's desk? 5. Why do you go to the teacher's desk? 6. What does i t mean to go and get paper? 7. Who delivers notes to the office? 8. Why do you put notebooks into boxes with signs on them? 9. Why does the teacher say L's name a lot? 10. Why does the teacher say J's name a lot? 11. What does i t mean when the teacher :ealls your name? 12. What does the blue-covered area mean? when can you go there? 13. When does the teacher work at her desk? 14. What does i t mean when the ..teacher works at her desk? 15. When do you si t to read? How do you know you should go? 16. What is usually on the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? 17. What kinds of things can you not t e l l a teacher? 18. What are "reserved books"? 19. Who is Mrs. B? 20. What does i t mean to mark someone else's work? 124 Children's questions Schedule B. (Generated again from f i e l d notes and earlier interviews) 1. What kind of note goes home about books? 2. What is on the counter, in the tins, erasers? 3. When do you pass notes? 4. What does i t mean to s i t on hard desks without cushions? 5. What do you talk about mostly when the teacher is out of the room? 6. When do you talk to other grown-ups in the room? 7. When do you get out of your desk and get paper? 8. Why did a boy put his notebook under the others in the box? 9. When do you get up for paper towels? 10. Why do you pass papers forward and back? 11. How do you keep track as you c a l l out the answers? 12. What does i t mean when the teacher calls for the scores? 13. What does 'super speller' mean? 14. How do you talk to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? 15. When can you go to the washroom? 16. When can you go and get a drink? 125 Interview with teacher Schedule C. 1. What kinds of routines for marking do you have, I mean the boxes that the children put their work into? 2. What kinds of routines do you have for the washroom, drinks, and eating at recess and lunch? 3. What kinds of routines do you have for reading groups, and silent reading that I may have not gathered in the f i e l d notes? 4. What kinds of routines do the children have for music, P.E., and library? 5. What kinds of routines do you have for the children when they complete their work. Sharper focus 1. Why i s Sean seated by himself? 2. What does i t mean for him to s i t alone? 3. What kinds of notes go home about books? 4. What part of the room i s the back, the front, etc.? 5. What i s the calendar job? 6. When do the children go to your desk? 7. What does i t mean to go and get paper? 8. What does the blue covered carpet area mean? 9. What does i t mean for the teacher to work at her desk? 10. What routines do the children have while you are working with a reading group? 11. What is usually at the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? 12. What does i t mean to be a 'super speller'? 13. What are the routines for marking other children's work by the children? 14. What are the routines for notes delivered to the office? 15. Who else is involved with your class, e.g., parents, other teachers? May I please arrange to take pictures again? May I please arrange to have some of the children arrange the pictures to t e l l the routines of their everyday l i f e , i.e., have other children t e l l me what another child means by an arrangement of pictures? APPENDIX C T r a n s c r i p t s of I n t e r v i e w s w i t h C h i l d r e n 127 D o m i n i c , f i r s t c h i l d i n t e r v i e w e d R o l l #1 R. Would you l i k e t o s p r e a d them out on t h e f l o o r down h e r e and t e l l me about them? Would t h a t be a l i t t l e more c o n v e n i e n t f o r you? D. I don't c a r e . R. You ' r e s u r e ? Okay. How about down h e r e ? As l o n g as we have t h e microphone c l o s e t o you. Okay, and me t o o . L e t ' s have a l o o k a t t h e s e . D. Do I t a l k i n t h e r e ? R. Y e s , w e l l you don't have t o w o r r y , you know. You don't have t o w o r r y t o o much about g e t t i n g t o o c l o s e because i t ' s p i c k i n g ' y o u r v o i c e up r i g h t now. I've t u r n e d t h e volume r i g h t up. D. I s t h a t our c l a s s ? R. Yes. You t e l l me something about t h e s e p i c t u r e s . Have a l o o k a t them. C o u l d y ou e x p l a i n them t o me a l i t t l e b i t , p l e a s e ? D. T h i s i s our r e a d i n g c l u b and umm t h i s i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk. And we're d o i n g a r t and t h i s i s t h e s t r i n g f o r t h e s e t h i n g s . R. How do you know y o u ' r e d o i n g a r t ? D. W e l l , because we do t h e s e t h i n g s , l i k e umm . . . we're w h a t e v e r t h i n g s c a l l e d . . . and t h e n . . . ( h e s i t a t i o n ) T h i s i s our s p e l l i n g words. R. Mmm. D. We have t o p r a c t i c e and do i t on a s h e e t . R. Okay. D. Then . . . t h i s i s t h e c h a i r where some us we f i g h t t o get i n t h e c h a i r and we r e a d . . . and t h i s . . . ooops. R. Okay. D. T h i s i s where um, t h i s i s where some o f our a r t i s , y e a h , some o f our f i n i s h e d work. And h e r e ' s some books. R. What books a r e th e y ? D. Uh, umm . . . r e a d i n g b o o k s , l i k e you can r e a d . R. Mmmm. D. Here's where o t h e r books a r e . The song books and h e r e ' s our games and t h a t . . . we have when we're f i n i s h e d . T h i s i s t h e box our j o u r n a l s . . . yeah . . . j o u r n a l s . And when we go on a weekend o r so m e t h i n g we ummm. L i k e we t e l l about what we d i d on t h e weekend. We hand them i n and t h e t e a c h e r marks them. R. I see. D. And t h i s i s r e a d i n g books. R. What k i n d o f r e a d i n g books a r e t h e y , D o m i n i c ? D. Oh, t h e s e a r e r e s e r v e d . P e o p l e who a r e r e a d i n g . R. What does ' r e s e r v e d ' mean? D. P e o p l e get a r e a d i n g book, a r e a d e r . R. Oh, I see. Where do t h e y come fr o m i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e ? D. Oh, some a r e o v e r . . . whoops. R. Okay. D. Maybe you've got a p i c t u r e o f them. R. Okay, l e t ' s check and see. Maybe w e ' l l come t o i t l a t e r . D. L e t ' s see i f t h e r e i s one p i c t u r e . I t would be o v e r h e r e . R. I s e e , what's i n h e r e ? D. T h i s i s . . . t h e t h i s i s t h e lang u a g e a r t . . . math, lan g u a g e a r t s . When we do our math we hand i t i n . I n t h e r e . . . language . . . we hand i t i n . 128 R. Okay. D. T h i s i s . . . o h , our r e a d i n g c o r n e r t o o . R. What k i n d o f a r e a d i n g c o r n e r i s i t ? D. Oh, we j u s t . . . Here's t h e box I was t e l l i n g you abou t . R. Y e s. D. Yeah. D. And t h a t . . . and t h e s e a r e some books we r e a d t o o . R. When do you r e a d them? D. We r e a d them about . . . a t r i g h t a f t e r one o ' c l o c k . We r e a d a book f o r h a l f an h o u r , t h e n we do a r t o r someth i n g . R. Okay. D. T h i s i s our d o o d l e t a b l e . . . oh yeah . . . we uh . . . R. I beg y o u r pardon? D. T h i s i s o u r d o o d l e t a b l e and t h e n . . . R. What i s a d o o d l e t a b l e ? D. W e l l t h e t e a c h e r has . . . w e l l . . . ummm l i k e . . . l i k e we do pap e r s and t h a t . And she p u t s them i n t h e r e . I t ' s f u l l o f a l l d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f paper. R. I see . D. And t h i s , o ur our a r t t o o . R. What i s i t ? D. A r t . D. T h a t ' s our a r t . R. What's h a p p e n i n g i n t h a t p i c t u r e ? D. T h e y ' r e d o i n g t h e i r work. They're d o i n g t h e i r work. (Long pause) No, ooh . . . uh . . . yeah, we're g o i n g t o ummm . . . what's i t ummm . . . f u n and f i t n e s s . R. Who does f u n and f i t n e s s w i t h you? D. Ummm t h e t e a c h e r umm and umm some o f t h e k i d s i n t h e c l a s s b r i n g t h e i r f a t h e r s and mothers and t h e y come and h e l p . R. Oh, r e a l l y ? Mmmm. I s t h i s someone's f a t h e r ? D. Mmmm. R. Whose f a t h e r i s i t ? D. L a . . . f a t h e r . R. Mmmm. D. And t h e s e a r e p i c t u r e s we drew. R. When d i d you do th o s e ? D. I don't know, about a month ago. R. ( L a u g h t e r ) Do you want t o t e l l t h o s e guys we're r e c o r d i n g o v e r h e r e ? D. Okay. ( D i s r u p t e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e l i b r a r y n e a r c o r n e r used f o r t a p i n g ) . R. Thanks D. Want t o make s u r e I get y o u r v o i c e . D. T h i s i s t h e same p i c t u r e . T h a t ' s when we . . . R. Beg pardon? D. T h i s i s t h e same p i c t u r e , n o t t h e same but . . . T h i s i s when we were g o i n g t o . . . I t h i n k . . . yeah ( I n a u d i b l e ) R. Okay. D. And h e r e ' s Ga . . ., g e t t i n g h i s s t u f f . R. What k i n d o f s t u f f i s he g e t t i n g ? D. H i s gym bags t o go t o f u n and f i t n e s s . R. Okay. D. T h i s i s t h e room where you put y o u r j a c k e t s h e r e and t h e g i r l s h e r e and we put our gym shoes and our gym s t u f f up t h e r e . 129 R. Does everybody have t h e i r s t u f f on t h e r i g h t s h e l f ? D. Mmmm. R. How do you know? D. W e l l , we j u s t put them under t h e r e and up h e r e . R. I s e e . D. And h e r e . Here's our work we do our work up h e r e on t h e b o a r d and o v e r down t h e r e . Mmm, t h a t ' s about i t f o r t h i s one. And h e r e ' s our um m a i l b a g s . R. What a r e t h e y f o r ? D. T h a t ' s f o r when we f i n i s h e d o ur work . . . and. we do p a p e r s . . . and t h e t e a c h e r . . . t h e t e a c h e r doesn't want•them . .-. and when - she's f i n i s h e d w i t h m a r k i n g them . . . and t h e y ' r e a l l r i g h t she p u t s them i n t h e r e . R. I see. D. They're a l l c o r r e c t . R. Okay. Do you t a k e them home sometime? D. Yep. R. How o f t e n do you t a k e them home? D. Anytime you want. R. Oh, I s e e , you t a k e t h e m a i l b a g home any t i m e you want. D. Yeah, n o t t h e whole t h i n g , j u s t t a k e t h e p a p e r s out o f i t . R. Okay. D. And . . . c a n ' t see a n y t h i n g f o r t h i s p i c t u r e . . . Umm t h i s one, I t h i n k t h i s i s t h e morning work, t h e t e a c h e r t e l l s us what t o do on t h e b o a r d and t h a t . T h i s one's ummm when we j u s t began t o do t h e f u n and f i t n e s s . We were gonna get umm o u r gym bags and t h a t . R. Mmm. D. And t h e y got t h e t h i n g s t o t i m e u s . And t h i s i s when we d i d our 1 poem. Yeah, i t ' s when we d i d our poem f o r mothers. R. Oh, mother's day? D. F o r mother's day, yeah. R. Okay. D. And we d i d t h e s e f l o w e r s i n Mrs. D e n l e y ' s c l a s s . R. Mmm. D. And uh t h i s i s when we umm d o i n g umm we were umm w r i t i n g , c o p y i n g t h e poem. R. I s e e . D. I don't want t o get t h e s e p i c t u r e s h u r t . R. Beg pardon? D. I don't want t o get t h e s e p i c t u r e s h u r t . R. T h a t ' s v e r y k i n d o f you. D. Um, t h a t ' s t h e same t h i n g h e r e t o o . R. Umm. D. And t h i s i s when we d i d f u n and f i t n e s s t o o . R. Okay. D. ( I n a u d i b l e ) . R. How do you know i t ' s f u n and f i t n e s s ? D. Because M r s . M. i s t h e r e . R. Oh, I s e e , b u t what i s t h i s boy d o i n g ? (Rare q u e s t i o n r e a p i c t u r e ) D. What? Here? R. Mmm. D. I t h i n k he's f i n i s h i n g h i s poem. R. Oh, I s e e . What do you t h i n k t h e t e a c h e r i s d o i n g ? 130 D. T a l k i n g about f u n and f i t n e s s . R. Okay. D. And t h i s i s J i . . . and t h a t ' s . . . and umm wh a t e v e r h i s name, I c a n ' t remember. R. Okay. D. Because I c a n ' t see him t h a t w e l l . R. No, i t ' s d a r k i s n ' t i t ? D. Yes. D. T h i s i s t h e gym p l a c e . . . and t h a t ' s S's desk. 131 Lamour R. These a r e p i c t u r e s o f t h e c l a s s , you can t e l l me what's i n them i f you l i k e . Okay? R. I'm r e c o r d i n g you t o o , i s t h a t okay? (Not much r e s p o n s e ) L. Ummm, t h e s e a r e paper b i r d c ages. R. Okay. You c a n t e l l me what's h a p p e n i n g i n each p i c t u r e . (Long pause) R. D i d Sh. t e l l we were d o i n g t h e s e c r e t language? L. Mmm. R. Do you mind i f I f i n d o ut what i t i s and t a k e p i c t u r e s o f i t ? L. No. R. Okay. Do you want t o put t h o s e a s i d e f o r a few m i n u t e s ? I f you s i t o v e r t h e r e s w e e t h e a r t and i f you t e l l me what t h e s i g n s a r e . And, ah, I'm not g o i n g t o t e l l anybody e l s e about t h i s . ( L a u g h t e r ) W e ' l l , where d i d I put t h e e n v e l o p e . The e n v e l o p e f o r t h e p i c t u r e s ? Oh, t h e r e i t i s . I ' l l t a k e p i c t u r e s okay? J u s t l e t me get t h e f l a s h warmed up. You can s i t o v e r t h e r e i n t h e l i g h t . You can t e l l me w h i c h ones a r e w h i c h , okay? L. T h i s i s "do you." R. Mmm. L. And t h i s means "The.". R. L e t me f o c u s you a b i t b e t t e r . Y e s . L. T h i s means " L o r . " R. Yes. L. And, t h i s means "why." R. Mmmm. R. Oh, I've got t o change my f i l m . J u s t a s e c . ( L a u g h t e r ) Do you want t o s t o p ? R. Okay, l e t ' s t r y a g a i n , I t h i n k you were on "why." Do you want t o do t h a t why a g a i n f o r me? T h a t ' s g r e a t . L. T h i s means "and." R. Y e s. L. T h i s a l s o means "The..". R. Mmm. Why do you have two f o r The..? L. Because she found o u t . The., found out what h e r name was i n t h e s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . R. Who d i d ? L. The.. R. Mmmm. L. She found out what h e r name was, we changed i t . R. R i g h t . L. And ummmm. T h i s means " a t t e n t i o n . " R. Y e s . L. T h i s means " s h o w - o f f . " R. Mmmm. L. And, and, and t h e n , we t r y t o get somebody's a t t e n t i o n , you go, w e l l you ah, y o u ' r e supposed t o stamp y o u r f o o t . R. I thought C r. knew t h a t one, so you changed i t . L. Oh yeah , we changed i t , b r e a t h i n g h a r d , g o i n g "uh." R. Y e s , okay. L. And, umm, t h i s means L... C... (tongue o u t ) . R. Who? 132 L • L • • • C * • • R. Oh I see, t h a t ' s h e r l a s t name i s i t ? L. Yeah. L. T h i s means " C r y . . " R. Y e s , mmmm. L. And t h i s means " g r o s s . " R. Y e s , .mmm. Gr o s s ? L. Yeah. And ummm, I c a n ' t t h i n k o f any o t h e r t h i n g s we made up. R. T h a t ' s okay, maybe y o u ' l l t h i n k o f some o t h e r s . Now I ' l l a s k you some q u e s t i o n s t o o , maybe y o u ' l l t h i n k o f some o t h e r s . R. Who e l s e knows y o u r language? L. Ummm. We f i n a l l y t o l d The., our s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . R. But i t , b u t t h e r e ' s t h r e e o f you i s n ' t t h e r e ? Sharon t o l d me t h e r e were t h r e e o f you. L. There's f o u r p e o p l e . R. Four p e o p l e who know? L. Yeah. R. Who knows t h e lang u a g e then? L. L o r . R. Mmm. L. The.. L o r , The., and Sh.. R. L o r . me The.. You and Sh. R. Okay, and when do you use i t ? L. Ummm. We use i t , a l l t h e t i m e umm when you wanna know i f a p e r s o n i s mad . a t you. And. R. Yes? L. And when. R. Mmm. L. When we want t o see i f th e y l i k e somebody e l s e . R. Do any o f t h e o t h e r k i d s know y o u r language? L. Umm. L. J u s t . R. Do t h e y know some o f t h e words? L. Some o f t h e p e o p l e f i g u r e d out a c o u p l e o f t h e words. R. And, do any o f t h e o t h e r k i d s have any o f t h e i r own la n g u a g e s ? L. Yeah. R. Who e l s e has a language? L. C r . . R. Mmm. Who does she have a langu a g e w i t h ? L. W i t h L i . . R. Yes. L. And, umm, Sha... and L i . , used t o have a la n g u a g e . R. Umm. L. And a ( i n a u d i b l e ) . T h a t ' s a l l I c a n t h i n k o f . R. Do any o f t h e boys have a language? L. No. R. How do you know? L. Mmm, neve r see them, s a y i n g a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t o r . . . R. Mmm. L. Or d o i n g any s i g n l a n g u a g e . R. Mmm. R. How l o n g have you had t h i s l a n g u age? L. T h i s one? We've had i t f o r about two months. 133 R. Do you keep a d d i n g new words? L. Yeah. R. How many words do you t h i n k you have now? L. Umm. R. Want t o count them t o n i g h t and t e l l me? L. Yeah. R. Okay. Now t h e k i d s who don't have a l a n g u a g e , l i k e y ou do, what do t h e y do so t h e y can t a l k t o each o t h e r ? L. W e l l , t h e t e a c h e r t a u g h t a l l o f us a l l t h e l e t t e r s i n t h e a l p h a b e t . Then t h e y c a n use t h o s e l e t t e r s and s p e l l words. R. I see. Who uses t h o s e ? L. Uh. R. J i . . u s e s t h o s e d o e s n ' t she? t h o s e l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t ? L. I t h i n k so. R. Mmmm, mmm. I guess I've k e p t you l o n g enough. I f you t h i n k o f any more I ' l l be h e r e a whole o t h e r week y e t . ( L a u g h t e r ) R. And y o u ' l l see t h e p i c t u r e s . I ' l l get you down t o see t h e p i c t u r e s and you can t e l l me what t h e y a r e a g a i n , okay? Do you want me t o t a l k t o ah . . .Do you want me t o t a l k t o The..? L. Yeah. R. Okay, you send h e r down. You can j u s t push t h e s t o p b u t t o n i p l e a s e . 134 Z o r a n F u l l t r a n s c r i p t o f i n t e r v i e w s R. Whenever you f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . Z. Okay. R. You t e l l me. Z. Can I say t h e names t o o ? R. Sure. Z. Te.. i s t a l k i n g t o J a . . I don't know what about 'cause she's j u s t t a l k i n g about s o m e t h i n g . R. Okay. Z. Oh, l e t ' s see t h e o t h e r one. Mrs. S. i s showing Sh.. what t o do. Not what t o do, Sh.. doesn't know what t o do. R. Okay, how do you know she's d o i n g t h a t ? Z. Because she's r i g h t t h e r e and Mrs. S. i s t u r n i n g t h e book. R. Oh, I s e e . Z. I n t h i s one ev e r y b o d y ' s w o r k i n g and Dea.. i s s t a n d i n g t h e r e l i k e t h i s . R. Does he do t h a t v e r y o f t e n ? Z. Yeah, now and t h e n . . . t h e y ' r e a l l j u s t q u i e t w o r k i n g . There's Mrs. S. t a l k i n g . R. Mmm. Z. Some group, t h e r e a d i n g group. I mean our group and t h e r e ' s L i . . s t a r i n g t h i s way. There's L i . , and C r y . , l o o k i n g a t t h e p o s t c a r d s h e r e . R. Mmm. Z. And t h i s one, ah, Mrs. S. i s gonna hand u s , me and G.., a l o t o f T i n T i n books. R. What k i n d o f books? Z. T i n , T i n , one I g o t , t h e s t a r . R. What i s she d o i n g t h e r e a g a i n , I'm s o r r y . Z. She's got a d e l i v e r T i n T i n books. Not t o everybody. W e l l you know our l i s t . T i n T i n . R. Mmmm. Z. Me and Ga.. got i t 'cause i t was our t u r n . R. Oh, I see. Z. Here a r e S t e . . and J a . . and t h e y ' r e r e a d i n g and J a . . has h i s f o o t up on t h e s e a t . R. Mmm. Z. Here's S t e . . and J a . . S t e v e ' s l a u g h i n g and J a . . i s r e a d i n g w i t h h i s l e g up on t h e c h a i r a g a i n . R. Mmm. Z. And t h i s i s Se.. T.. He's r e a d i n g h i s book. R. Okay. Z. Mmmm. Here's l e t ' s see J e f f and Dea.. No, J e . . i s t a l k i n g t o Dea.. R. Okay. Z. T h a t ' s i t . R. Would you l i k e t o put them i n p i l e s t h a t k i n d o f go t o g e t h e r ? Z. Okay. R. Choose y o u r own k i n d o f p i l e s . Z. Have t o s o r t them out t h e n . R. S u r e . Z. These a r e l i k e s t i c k y when you get them out f i r s t . R. Mmm. 135 E . Y o u ' r e t h e f i r s t one i n t h e c l a s s t o see them. Z. Okay. R. Okay. Z. Mmm ( a f f i r m a t i o n ) . R. Which ones b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? ( I n a u d i b l e exchanges) Z. Those t h r e e because t h e y ' r e , because t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g . R. What o t h e r ones b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? Z. T here's t h e s e two. R. Why do t h o s e two b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? Z. Because t h e y ' r e r e a d i n g g r o u p s . R. Oh, I see. Z. And h e r e . R. Okay. Z. T h a t ' s j u s t . . . R. Do t h e y b e l o n g w i t h t h o s e two? Z. No, no. R. Okay. Z. Umm, t h e s e two p r o b a b l y h e r e . T h i s i s a l i t t l e b i t f a r o u t , t h i s i s f a r o u t , but t h i s i s c l o s e r i n , t h e y ' r e n o t as t o g e t h e r when you see them a l i t t l e b e t t e r . R. Oh, I see. Z. Mmm. T h i s . . . Mrs. S. R. How d i d you put them t o g e t h e r because t h e y ' r e c l o s e i n ? Z. T h e y ' r e c l o s e and one's f a r o u t . R. Okay. Which one i s f a r o u t ? Z. T h i s one, t h i s one i s i n . R. Oh, I s e e , okay. Z. T h i s one. T h i s one's q u i t e f a r o u t . T h i s one's q u i t e l i t t l e b i t i n . R. Okay. Z. They match t o g e t h e r because Mrs. S. i s s t a n d i n g t h e r e and Mrs. M c . she's r i g h t t h e r e . R. Oh, t h e r e , I see. Okay. So t h a t ' s k i n d o f l i k e t h e same i d e a as t h e o t h e r o nes, okay? Z. How come y o u ' r e p u t t i n g c i r c l e s on them numbers? R. So I can keep t r a c k o f y o u r answers. Z. Oh. R. Okay. Z. And t h i s i s j u s t S.. w o r k i n g . R. Okay. Z. Oh, s p i d e r webs. R. What? Z. Yeah, r i g h t t h e r e . R. Wonder i f I can a s k you some q u e s t i o n s now t h a t you've l o o k e d a t t h o s e p i c t u r e s . Z. Okay. Z. Those a l l t h e o t h e r k i d s ? R. Some o f them, y e s . Z. Whose i s t h a t ? R. These a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s I'm a s k i n g you d e a r . Z. Oh. R. Okay. R. Why, why i s Se.. s e a t e d by h i m s e l f , d e a r ? 136 Z. Because you c a n ' t . . . see t h e o t h e r p e o p l e 'cause you move a l i t t l e b i t i n and you s e e , you see t h e o t h e r t h i n g s b u t no p e o p l e . Only y o u x a n see t h i s p a r t o f t h e group, p a r t o f t h e d e s k , t h e back desk and t h e s e . . . (Boy does not p e r c e i v e Se.. t o be a l o n e , he d e l i v e r s p a p e r s t o him as Se.. i s p a r t o f h i s row.) R. That i s Se.. though i s n ' t i t ? Z. Yes. R. Why i s he s e a t e d i n t h a t desk by h i m s e l f ? ••• Z. Because he d o e s n ' t d i s t u r b p e o p l e . Mrs. S. t e l l s h im t o move o v e r --.there because he a l w a y s ; d i s t u r b s p e o p l e . R. I s e e . And.ah, how do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f you don't want t o be heard? Z. You know I know t h e k i n d a h u r t you mean. You mean n o t l i k e you h u r t y o u r s e l f not l i k e t h a t . R. No, no, I meant i f you don't want t o be h e a r d . I f you don't want t h e t e a c h e r t o h e a r you how do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s ? Z. S i l e n t , n o t s i l e n t , s o f t l y , l i k e w h i s p e r . R. Y e s , any o t h e r way? Z. Yeah, l i k e y ou c o u l d p a s s messages. Get a p i e c e o f paper and w r i t e . . . p a s s messages. R. What do you say on t h e messages? Z. Oh, l o t s o f t h i n g s . R. Can you t e l l me? Z. Umm. R. T h i s i s j u s t between you and me. R. Pardon? J u s t j o k e s . Z. L i k e sometimes j o k e s and he p a s s e s back t o me. R. What k i n d o f j o k e s ? Z. Oh, Why d i d , why d i d t h e t u r k e y c r o s s t h e s t r e e t ? R. Umm, ummm, why d i d he? Z. Because he wanted t o get t o t h e o t h e r s i d e . R. Oh, I s e e . ( L a u g h t e r ) Z. To t h e b u t c h e r ' s s t o r e . R. A r e t h e r e any o t h e r ways t h a t you pass messages i n c l a s s ? Z. Yeah, we j u s t k i n d a go l i k e t h i s , Se.., s h . L i k e t h i s way, l i k e t h i s way, Se.. Yeah we j u s t say t h a t o r t h e p e o p l e ... . R. Umm. Z. Or we j u s t , i f somebody's c l o s e . . . j u s t t a p on t h e back. R. Umm. Z. Yeah. R. What about? R. What about i f somebody i s a l o n g way away from you? How do you get a message t o them? Z. Oh, sometimes, b u t I. n e v e r do t h i s when Mrs. S. i s h e r e . Or Mrs. B.., l i k e t h i s . When she's a t t h e desk, t o o much k i d s and she's b l o c k e d o f h e r v i e w . R. Mmm. Z. I j u s t k i n d a get under and sneak under and get . . . and g i v e 'em, j u s t t e l l them t h e message. R. Who i s t h a t , t h a t you do? Z. Oh, l o t s . . . I don't know e x a c t l y , j u s t k i d s . R. Okay, s u r e . 137 Z. And t h i s , oh yeah , t h i s i s my desk r i g h t h e r e . . . back i n t h e desk. R. Oh, mm, mmm. Z. Yeah, r i g h t t h e r e . R. Okay. R. And ah, when do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? Z. Oh, when? Sometimes when she says don't b r i n g i t t o t h e m a r k i n g b o x e s . R. I see. Z. J u s t b r i n g them t o h e r o r f o r c o r r e c t i o n s o r t e l l you what t o do. Or what, o r what we, what we don't u n d e r s t a n d o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . Yeah, t h a t ' s what we do. R. Umm, mmm. Z. Yeah, t h a t ' s what we do. R. Okay. R. And ah, who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? Z. Notes? R. Mmmm. Z. No t e s ? N o t e s ? Oh, n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e . . . sometimes Mrs. S. and Mrs. B i . . o r Mrs. B. and o t h e r umm . . . and o t h e r uh, and o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s ? . . . um what you c a l l them? R. Y e s , mmmm. Z. S u b s t i t u t e s . R. Mmmm. Z. Yeah! t h e y d e l i v e r , sometimes t h e y a s k u s . R. Okay, who does get '.to go? Z. Oh, I don't know, sometimes . . . R. Do you e v e r get t o go? Z. Mmm, o n l y sometimes i f we have m u s i c . Yeah, an we as k h e r . L a s t t i m e I got choosed. Sometimes y a . . . j u s t choose us. We don't have t o a s k h e r sometimes. Sometimes j u s t choosed. R. Mmm. Z. The p e r s o n . R. And ah . . . Z. What i s t h o s e f o r ? R. Oh, i t ' s f o r my t h e s i s . Z. Oh. Z. What does t h a t mean? R. I t ' s a b i g book t h a t I'm g o i n g t o w r i t e . Z. Oh, oooooh. R. You're g o i n g t o be i n a book. ( L a u g h t e r ) Z. I don't b e l i e v e i t . (More q u e s t i o n s f r o m s c h e d u l e s ) Z. I s i t a r e a l book? R. Mmmm. Z. Ah, I s u r e don't b e l i e v e t h i s . R. I ' l l come back and show i t t o y o u , how would t h a t be? Z. Okay. R. When do you go t o t h e washrooms? Z. Oh, o n l y mmm . . . l e t me see. Sometimes y a h a f t a a s k and sometimes she says no. And i f you j u s t . A t r e c e s s she says why d i d y o u , d i d n ' t you go a t r e c e s s ? R. Mmmm. 138 Z. So, mmm, oh yeah and she s a y s no and when you come back umm a f t e r mmm l u n c h o r r e c e s s she says an I asked h e r l a s t t i m e and she s a i d okay, b u t be q u i c k . R. I see. Z. Yeah, t h a t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e between, between, between, y e a h , between r e c e s s and l u n c h . L i k e you go, I t h i n k so. R. Why does t h e t e a c h e r say L i . . ' s name a l o t ? Z. L i . . ? Because she speaks and t a l k s t o Sh.. and she sometimes has t o s t a y i n . S t a y i n . R. And why does t h e t e a c h e r say J i . . ' s name a l o t ? Z. Mmm. Sometimes she t a l k s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e and you know when y a do f l a s h c a r d s . She q u i t e y e l l s . R. Oh, I see . Z. 'Bout l i k e SEVEN. And she's q u i t e l o u d . R. I see. R. I see. R. What does i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? Z. Sometimes, i t means come and get y o u r book. R. Mmm. Z. When she c a l l s y o u r name and sometimes she wants you o r s o m e t h i n g . R. Mmmm. Z. And sometimes. Sometimes she marks them. Then she c a l l s y o u r name and you have t o come up t o t h e desk. An th e n when y o u ' r e f i n i s h e d mm, she marks i t . R. Mmm, I see. R. What does t h e b l u e - c o v e r e d c a r p e t e d a r e a mean? When can you get t o go t h e r e ? Z. Oh, o n l y a f t e r l u n c h , 'cause i t ' s what . . . L e t me s e e , i t ' s c a l l e d ? R e a d i n g t i m e , y e a h , s i l e n t r e a d i n g . R. I see. R. B u t , I saw some k i d s t h e r e when t h e y f i n i s h e d t h e i r work. Can you go then? Z. When you f i n i s h work? Y e s , you c o u l d and a t you r desk you c o u l d . Yeah, a t l u n c h t i m e you c a n ' t p l a y n o t h i n g , no games o r n o t h i n g , j u s t s i l e n t r e a d i n g . R. A f t e r l u n c h ? Z. Yeah. Z. How many p e o p l e d i d you do anyways? R. I t h i n k about f o u r p e o p l e y e s t e r d a y . Z. I s t h i s d o i n g what I'm j u s t . . .? R. Mmm. Z. What I j u s t s a i d now? R. Mmmm, mmm. Z. Oh, my god, I don't b e l i e v e i t . ( L a u g h t e r ) R. When does t h e t e a c h e r work a t h e r desk, dear? Z. A t he r desk? Sometimes she works r i g h t , l i k e n o t e s , o r som e t h i n g . R. Mmm, when does she do t h a t ? Z. Oh, I don't know e x a c t l y . R. Okay. And ah what does i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r works a t h e r desk? What does i t mean t o you? Z. Oh, i t means t o me. I t ' s l i k e she's m a r k i n g s o m e t h i n g o r w r i t i n g s o m e t h i n g o r w i t h a n o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s coming o r Mrs. Be.., M r s . Be.., she's coming you know on t h e l i s t . She p u t s r e a d i n g group and what you r e a d and page number. 139 R. Mmm. Z. Yeah. R. Mmmm. Z. And she ah, and t h e book, la n g u a g e a r t s book . . . t h a t ' s she g e t s language a r t s , book . . . uh on t h e desk . . . and she w r i t e s . R. What i s u s u a l l y on t h e end o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? Z. End, mean on t h i s s i d e where she s i t s o r , oh? u s u a l l y t h i s b i g g r e e n . . R. Mmmm. Z. Yeah, when you can p i c k some s t u f f up. R. I s i t g r e e n , t h e cupboard? Z. Yeah, i t i s . And l i k e a l i t t l e p o s t e r . . . R. I see . Z. About t h e h e a r t , yeah. R. I see. Z. L i k e on t h i s a n g l e i s h e r , t h e b o o k s , books. Then t h i s c h a i r , w i t h two p e o p l e c o u l d s i t , yeah. R. What does she put on t h e end o f h e r desk f o r you t o go and g e t ? Z. Uh, you know i n t h e cupboard she p u t s some t h i n g s f o r a r t work. R. I see. Z. Not a r t work ' x a c t l y , i t ' s a p i e c e o f pape r . Uh, I don't know. R. Mmm. And uh . . . R. J u s t a c o u p l e more. What k i n d s o f t h i n g s do you do i n t h e room t h a t you c a n ' t t e l l anybody about? What do you do? Z. Oh, a l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s , we w r i t e n o t e s . R. Mmm, mmm. Z. And a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s and we p l a y games. R. What k i n d o f games? Z. Oh, l i k e s c r a m b l e s . R. S c r a m b l e s ? ! How does t h a t work? Z. Oh, j u s t you have t o p i c k up seven t h i n g s . Sometimes, I c h e a t . I j u s t l o o k t h r o u g h . I j u s t peek and you c a n see words on i t l i k e ' c a t ' . Then I j u s t put i t down and t h e n I get a p o i n t . I c h e a t . R. I s t h a t one of t h e games t h a t I saw on t h e s h e l f ? Z. Yeah, t h e r e ' s more games. R. Yeah, what o t h e r games? Z. Yeah, t h e r e ' s math t h i n g s . R. Do you k i d s have any of y o u r own games t h a t don't have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e s h e l f ? Z. Oh, we c a n ' t keep i t o r i t has t o go i n t o t h e c l o a k r o o m . Or a t Mrs. S.'s desk. R. Mmm, mmm. Z. She s a y s , " t h a n k y ou." T h a t ' s what u s u a l l y she s a y s . R. Ummm. Z. A r e you g o i n g t o show t h e s e t o M r s . S.? R. No. Z. Oh. R. Uh, who i s Mrs. B.? Z. Mrs. B.? Oh she's a n i c e t e a c h e r . R. Mmm. Z. And i f we're j u s t r e a d i n g q u i e t she p u t s our name on t h e b o a r d and t h a t means we ge t t o go f i r s t one t o go o u t . A t l u n c h , o r r e c e s s , o r a f t e r s c h o o l . R. Mmm. 140 Z. Or a t gym days. R. Mmm. Z. Tuesday and F r i d a y . R. Mmm. R. And what does i t mean t o mark someone e l s e ' s work? Z. I t means l i k e somebody's w o r k i n g and t h e y f i n i s h b e f o r e anybody and t h e y l i k e f i n i s h b e f o r e anybody and t h e y l i k e h u r r y and t h e y get l o t s o f m i s t a k e s , l o t s o f m i s t a k e s done o r she g e t s a mark . . . o r . . . s t a n d s . . . i t ' s wrong. They j u s t h u r r y , t h e y don't t h i n k what t h e y ' r e d o i n g . R. Oh, I s e e . R. Okay. R. Who do you t h i n k I s h o u l d t a l k t o n e x t ? Z. Oh, l e t ' s s ee. Any group? R. Mmm. Z. Sh.. R. Okay. Would you l i k e t o go and get h e r q u i e t l y , and j u s t send h e r down? J u s t push t h i s s t o p b u t t o n . 141 Sharon R. How about t e l l i n g me about some of them ( p i c t u r e s ) . S. S h o u l d I j u s t t e l l who I saw? R. J u s t t e l l me w h a t e v e r , j u s t t e l l me about t h e p i c t u r e s , remember, I don't know a w f u l l y much about y o u r c l a s s r o o m and t h e p e o p l e i n i t so how about t e l l i n g me s o m e t h i n g . . . what i t makes you t h i n k o f when you l o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e s . S. Umm. I n t h i s p i c t u r e J a ' s h o l d i n g a book. R. Mmm. what's he d o i n g ? Where's he coming from? S. He's coming from t h e c a r p e t . R. Mmmm. S. He's g o i n g t o h i s desk, I t h i n k , and t h e r e ' s p e o p l e l o o k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . And t h e r e ' s b i r d cages up. R. Okay. (Long pause) S. I n t h i s t h e r e ' s J a s t a n d i n g on t h e c a r p e t , r e a d i n g h i s book. And a g a i n t h e r e ' s b i r d cages h a n g i n g up. And t h e r e ' s Z. w a l k i n g t o t h e c a r p e t and J i . ' s w o r k i n g a t h i s desk. R. How do you know he's w o r k i n g ? S. I guess he's j u s t s i t t i n g a t h i s desk. And i n t h i s one t h e r e ' s S t . w a l k i n g from t h e c a r p e t . I don't know where he's w a l k i n g t o . T h e re's J i w o r k i n g a t h i s desk a g a i n . And t h e r e ' s b i r d cages h a n g i n g up. R. Mmm. S. I n t h i s one t h e r e ' s one b i r d cage and S. a t h i s d e s k and t h e r e ' s the. round t a b l e w i t h two c h a i r s . S. T h i s one, Mrs. S. i s at her desk. And everybody e l s e i s a t t h e i r desk w o r k i n g . And t h e r e ' s more b i r d c a g e s . And t h e r e ' s a r e a d i n g c l u b c h a r t . T h i s one, t h e r e ' s more b i r d cages and t h e r e ' s some p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . And t h e r e ' s s h e l v e s a t t h e back w i t h books on them, and games. T h i s one, M r s . S. i s a t h e r desk. R. Mmm. S. And t h e r e ' s b i r d cages h a n g i n g up a g a i n . There's a r e a d i n g c l u b . . . c h a r t . And t h e r e ' s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . T h i s one, a l l I see i s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . T h i s one Mrs. S. i s t a l k i n g t o \ p e o p l e . I don't know who, b u t she's t a l k i n g t o some p e o p l e and p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g . T h i s one Mrs. S. i s t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e a g a i n and some p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g . And t h e r e ' s b i r d cages h a n g i n g up. R. Mmm. R. Okay, would you l i k e t o put them i n t o some p i l e s f o r me? The ones t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r , do you t h i n k ? (Long pause) R. Can you t e l l me why you put them i n t h o s e groups? S. Okay, t h e s e two i n t h i s group because Mrs. S. i s w o r k i n g a t h e r desk and she's i n t h i s one t o o . R. Okay. S. And t h e s e two, t h e s e t h r e e , J a i s s t a n d i n g and J a i s w a l k i n g on t h e c a r p e t r e a d i n g h i s book. And S t e . j u s t got a book. So t h e y ' r e a l l about books. And t h i s one i s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . R. Mmm. S. These two, t h e s e t h r e e , p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s and Mrs. S. i s t a l k i n g and t h i s one i s j u s t S. w o r k i n g a t h i s desk and t h e r e ' s o n l y one p e r s o n . R. Okay. 142 S. T h a t ' s a l l . R. Okay. R. Do you want t o put them i n t h a t e n v e l o p e f o r me? S. Sure. R. I ' d l i k e t o a s k you some q u e s t i o n s i f I may S\ S. Okay. R. Why i s S. s i t t i n g by h i m s e l f ? S. Because he s i t s a t t h e back o f t h e room, he al w a y s s i t s t h e r e . R. How come he's t h e r e ? S. 'Cause he, guess he t a l k s t o o much. He used t o s i t b e h i n d Z. R. T h i s i s j u s t between you and me, okay? S. Mmm. R. Mmm. What about ah, what do you t h i n k i t ' s l i k e t o s i t a l o n e ? S. I don't t h i n k i t ' s v e r y n i c e . R. Why n o t ? S. W e l l , I guess i t ' s k i n d a good 'cause you have nobody b o t h e r i n g you w h i l e y o u ' r e w o r k i n g . R. Mmm. S. You can get y o u r work done a b i t b e t t e r . R. Any o t h e r r e a s o n s , one way o r t h e o t h e r . R. Any o t h e r r e a s o n s , one way o r t h e o t h e r ? S. Ummm, I c a n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . R. Okay, and how do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f you don't want anybody t o know you a r e t a l k i n g t o them. S. You w h i s p e r . R. You w h i s p e r , what e l s e do you do? S. Umm, sometimes when t h e t e a c h e r i s out o f t h e room we t a l k . R. Umm. S. I ' d say e v e r y t i m e we t a l k . R. Umm. S. And whenever t h e t e a c h e r i s not l o o k i n g . R. Umm. R. What do you do? S. We a s k p e o p l e answers. ( L a u g h t e r ) R. I see. ( L a u g h t e r ) S. And we, t a l k about d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s ? R. What t h i n g s , do you t a l k a b out? S. T h i n g s p e o p l e say o r i f . . . R. Mmm. L i k e ? S. I f you l i k e somebody, ask somebody i f she's l y i n g o r n o t , t h a t ' s about a l l . R. Okay. And when do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? S. She c a l l s us up t o t h e r e a d i n g c l u b i f we've f i n i s h e d o ur book. She wants us t o t e l l about i t . R. I s e e . S. She c a l l s us up t o get some t h i n g marked. And i f she's c a l l i n g o ut d r i l l t o see i f who got what. See i f t h e r e ' s any problems t h e n you've got t o go up and i f she c a l l s y o u r name. And i f . . . you don't know t h e word i n t h e book t h e n you go up and a s k h e r . R. Okay. S. T h a t ' s about a l l . Or i f you c a n ' t f i g u r e out a word on t h e p a p e r . You a s k h e r . R. Mmm. 143 S. Or i f you don't get s o m e t h i n g l i k e , i f you don't know what i t means t h e n or a n y t h i n g t h e n , you go up and a s k h e r . R. Okay, and uh, why : do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk. S. Sometimes I don't know words i n books and sometimes when somebody's b u g g i n g me w h i l e I'm w o r k i n g I go up t o h e r . R. Mmm. S. And she's and i f she c a l l s me up t o get something marked. R. Mmm. S. Or i f she c a l l s me up t o the Book C l u b . R. Mmmm. Okay, and uh, who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? S. Anybody, i f she j u s t , i f somebody's w o r k i n g r e a l l y good she j u s t s a y s l i k e , u s u a l l y L. i s f i n i s h e d a l l t h e t i m e f i r s t so she u s u a l l y g e t s t o do : i t . R. I see. Do you e v e r get t o do i t ? S. Once, I d i d . Sometimes. R. And ah, when can you go t o t h e washrooms? S. Ummm, t h e o n l y t i m e we're a l l o w e d t o go i s r e c e s s , l u n c h t i m e , whenever we're o u t s i d e o r a f t e r s c h o o l . R. When a r e you a l l o w e d t o go and have a d r i n k ? S. Never, u n l e s s we ask h e r and she s a y s s o m e t h i n g . R. Okay, where do you get y o u r d r i n k ? S. E i t h e r , ummmm, t h e g i r l ' s basement o r i n t h e washroom sometimes. R. Do you e v e r sneak any d r i n k s ? S. No. R. Not even when y o u ' r e d o i n g a r t o r a n y t h i n g ? ( L a u g h t e r ) S. No, . . . some p e o p l e go up t o t h e b a c k but I d o n ' t . R. I se e , t o get a d r i n k , I see. S. We have t o a s k h e r i f we can though. R. Mmm, mmm. R. And why does t h e t e a c h e r s say L ' s . name a l o t ? S. Cause she a l w a y s t a l k s . R. Does she? S. Yeah, and she's a l w a y s t u r n e d around i n h e r desk and she s a y s , " L a . t u r n a r o u n d . " R. And ah, why does t h e t e a c h e r say J i l ' s name a l o t ? S. Oh, J i l a l w a y s t a l k s t o E r . R. To whom? S. E r . R. J u s t a few more q u e s t i o n . S. P a r d o n me? R. We j u s t have a few more q u e s t i o n s . ( L a u g h t e r ) S. I'm m i s s i n g work, we have t o do t e n q u e s t i o n s . R. Oh, I s e e , what k i n d ? S. They've changed t h e meaning, o f a word. I f t h e s e n t e n c e book s a y s "The monkey saw t h e s n a k e , " we h a f t o p u t i t i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r l i k e , "The snake saw a monkey." R. Oh, I s e e , you have t o t u r n i t around a l i t t l e b i t , okay. R. What does i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? S. I t e i t h e r means she wants you t o go up t o h e r d e s k , o r she wants you t o t u r n around o r she wants you t o s t o p t a l k i n g . Sometimes she j u s t l o o k s a t t h e p e r s o n and he t u r n s around o r she t u r n s a r o u n d , w h a t e v e r . R. Umm. And ah, what does t h e b l u e - c o v e r e d a r e a mean? 144 S. The what? R. The b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a . S. Oh, t h a t ' s umm, you can go and s i t on i t t o r e a d o r p l a y games. R. And ah, when does t h e t e a c h e r work a t h e r desk? S. Umm, whenever we're w o r k i n g . R. What does i t mean when she works a t h e r desk? S. I don't know. R. What do you t h i n k she's d o i n g ? S. Maybe, d o i n g r e p o r t c a r d s . R. Mmm. S. Or, I know s o m e t h i n g t h a t she might have been d o i n g t o d a y . R. What's t h a t ? S. She was g i v i n g out d e t e n t i o n s , she p u t s p e o p l e ' s names on a p i e c e of p a p e r . R. Mmm. S. Cause she s a i d Dea's name she w r o t e s o m e t h i n g on a p i e c e o f p a p e r . R. I see. R. And, when do you go t o s i t t o r e a d ? How do you know when you a r e t o go and r e a d ? S. W e l l we can r e a d , a f t e r we do our work, o r we can p l a y games, o r a f t e r l u n c h , o r when t h e b e l l r i n g s we come i n s i d e and everybody r u s h e s t o get t h e c h a i r . There's o n l y two p e o p l e a l l o w e d and t h e n we r e a d . Fo r around h a l f an h o u r . And, we r e a d a f t e r r e c e s s i f we've f i n i s h e d our work. R. Mmm. S. And whenever we come i n t o s c h o o l . We j u s t come i n and r e a d f o r around t e n o r f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . R. Mmm. What's u s u a l l y on t h e end o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? To go and p i c k up? S. Books, i f she c a l l s our name we go and p i c k up o u r book o r our p a p e r s . R. Mmm. S. Or, t h a t ' s about a l l . R. I have a few more q u e s t i o n s . How do you t a l k ? Have I asked you how do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s when you don't want t o be h e a r d ? S. You w h i s p e r . R. Any o t h e r way? S. No. R. (Sneezed) S. We n e v e r t a l k out l o u d o r s h e ' l l h e ar u s . R. (Sneezed a g a i n ) R. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t you do so t h a t you c a n g e t messages t o o t h e r p e o p l e ? S. W e l l , some o f t h e p e o p l e have a s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . R. Do you have a s e c r e t l a n g uage? S. Yeah, me and L a , and Th., and L r . We have a s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . And o u r s e c r e t s i g n t o get each o t h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s huh (deep h u f f ) . R. Oh, i s t h a t r i g h t ? S. We used t o have stomp y o u r f e e t on t h e f l o o r . R. Oh. S. But we don't anymore because C r . knew i t so we d i d n ' t . And we j u s t , a f t e r t h e y do t h e s e c r e t s i g n , t h e y do, t h e n we j u s t t e l l them what we want t o . R. Oh, I s e e . Can you t e l l me, can you show me what y o u r s i g n s a r e ? 145 S. T h a t ' s "do you." R. Oh, I s e e , mm, j u s t a s e c . R. Do you t h i n k I can t a k e a p i c t u r e ? S. Okay. R. Okay. S. Take a p i c t u r e of a l l o f i t ? S. Sure. R.J We have l o t s o f t h i n g s . C o u l d you s i t o v e r i n t h e l i g h t ? j u s t a l i t t l e b i t okay? R. T h a t ' s "do you." R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s " l i k e . " R. Mmm. S. T h a t ' s "The..". R. Mmm. S. And we p o i n t t o t h e p e r s o n t h a t y o u ' r e t a l k i n g about i f we don't have i t . R. Oh, I see. S. And t h i s i s " I . " R. J u s t a s e c . S. T h i s i s " I . " R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s . . . R. T h i n k ? S. "Hate," " I h a t e Th.." w h a t e v e r . R. Mmm. S. T h a t ' s " I know." R. Mmm. S. Mmm, oh, y e a h , t h i s i s "no." R. Mmm. S. T h a t ' s about a l l , I c a n ' t t h i n k o f anymore. (Pause) S. Oh, t h i s i s j u s t " w a i t a m i n u t e . " R. Mmm. S. You s l a m you hand on y o u r desk f o r " r i g h t now." Then j u s t w a i t a m i n u t e t h e n you go. Slam y o u r hand and t h e y j u s t l o o k a t you. R. Mmm. R. I ' l l have t o change my f i l m now. S. I t h i n k t h a t ' s about a l l . R. Okay, j u s t t h i n k about i t f o r a few m i n u t e s . See i f you m i s s e d any o f them. Who e l s e knows i t ? S. The, L a , and L o r , and me. C r . knows a l o t o f i t . R. Mmm. S. Oh, y e a h , and J u . R. I haven't got t h e f i l m r e a d y y e t , j u s t a s e c . W e ' l l go t h r o u g h y o u r a l p h a b e t a g a i n . W e l l you know, y o u r l a n g u a g e , y o u r s i g n l a n g u a g e , s o r r y . S. I a l r e a d y know t h e a l p h a b e t . R. Okay. R. You can s t a r t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , s o o n ' s i get my f l a s h warmed up a g a i n . There i t i s okay. S. T h a t ' s "do y o u . " R. Mmm. S. T h a t ' s " l i k e . " R. Mmm. 146 S. T h i s i s " k i n d o f . " R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s " y e s . " R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s "no." R. L e t me f o c u s f o r a mi n u t e . R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s " I know." R. Okay. S. P o i n t t o t h e p e r s o n , whoever y o u ' r e t a l k i n g t o , i f you don't have i t . R. Mmm. S. And ( l o n g pause) I c a n ' t t h i n k o f any. (Pause) S. Oh, y e a h , t h i s i s "The.". R. Mmm. S. T h i s i s "The.." ( d i f f e r e n t s i g n , g i r l ' s name has more t h a n one v e r s i o n ) R. Mmmmmm. S. Mmmm. (Long pause) R. Can you t h i n k of any o t h e r s ? S. No. R. Okay, Sh. I ' l l show t h e s e p i c t u r e s t o you when I get them back, okay? 147 APPENDIX D T r a n s c r i p t s of C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 148 T e r r a I n t e r p r e t a t i o n R. Okay, j u s t go ahead. T. Our c h a i r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . R. What do you do i n t h a t c h a i r ? T. You s i t and r e a d . R. Okay. T. T h a t ' s our c l a s s r o o m and she's t e a c h i n g us r i g h t t h e r e . R. How do you know? T. She's a l m o s t t o g i v e us out some d r i l l s . R. How do you know t h a t ? T. Math d r i l l s . I see t h e p a p e r s and t h e p a p e r s a r e . . . alwa y s l o n g . R. I see. T. And t h a t one we're a l l s i t t i n ' t o get r e a d y f o r s o m e t h i n g . R. What do you t h i n k i t i s ? T. Or al m o s t t o t a l k t o somebody. R. A l m o s t t o t a l k t o somebody? I s t h a t r i g h t ? ( L a u g h t e r ) T. ( I n a u d i b l e ) L o t s o f p e o p l e a r e s t a n d i n g up d o i n g s o m e t h i n g . C l e a n i n g o f f t h e i r d e s k s . (Long pause) R. What's h a p p e n i n g t h e r e ? T. Mmmm, t h e t e a c h e r p r o b a b l y t e l l i n g us t o . . . s t o p w o r k i n g she wants t o t e l l s o m e t h i n g but some p e o p l e a r e j u s t . . . on t a l k i n g . R. Okay. T. And t h a t (cough) we're g o i n g t o w r i t e a s t o r y . R. How do you know? T. W e l l everybody has p i e c e s o f p a p e r . (Long pause) R. Mmm. T. T h i s one he's r e a d i n g no he's got a l a r g e . . . d r i l l p a p e r . But he's d o i n g math. R. Who has d r i l l p a per? T. ( I n a u d i b l e ) R. Who has? T. H i s name's S. (boy a l o n e ) R. Okay, what does he . . . he has a d r i l l p a per? T. ( I n a u d i b l e ) must have a d i f f e r e n t ( i n a u d i b l e ) . R. Mmmm. T. And t h e r e ' s one o f t h e k i d s t a l k i n g t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . W h i l e e v e r y -body e l s e i s s i t t i n g up. Oh, c o u p l e ah p e o p l e a r e l o o k i n g i n t h e i r d e s k s . R. Mmm. T. And t h e r e we a r e a l m o s t s i t t i n g up s t r a i g h t some of u s , some o f us a r e w r i t i n g . That one our t e a c h e r i s t a l k i n g t o us ( p a u s e ) . About some-t h i n g . O ther one we're a l l r e a d i n g s o m e t h i n g . And t h i s one i s a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s . . . work. R. I s i t ? Can you t e l l me about i t ? T. L i k e , t h e y ' r e d o i n g r e s e a r c h . R. Mmm. T. About dogs. There's t h e books and t h e r e ' s t h e r e s e a r c h , dogs. S t o r i e s "Man's B e s t F r i e n d . " T h i s one t h e t e a c h e r went o u t o f t h e c l a s s . 149 R. How do you know t h a t ? T. 'Cause e v e r y b o d y ' s t a l k i n g . When everybody t a l k s t h e t e a c h e r i s u s u a l l y out o f t h e c l a s s . And t h e r e ' s t h e books . . . we a l w a y s r e a d . R. What a r e t h e b o o k s , T.? -T. Um, a l l s o r t s of books. R. Okay. T. Mmm. And t h i s one i s t o do w i t h t h e t h i n g what where we put our books i n . Then t h e r e ' s t h e books. And down h e r e i s where we put games. R. Mmm. T. And t h a t ' s when we're j u s t about t o do t h e C a n a d i a n F i t n e s s T e s t . R. How do you know t h a t ? T. Because t h e r e ' s t h e man. W i t h t h e box i n h i s hand. I know, I see he has a box t o keep y o u r s c o r e . R. Mmm. T. And t h e r e ' s a k i d g e t t i n g h i s r u n n e r s g e t t i n g . . . r a t h e r g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r gym o r t a k i n g i t home. No, (pause) y e a h , g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r gym. R. Mmm. T. The n e x t one i s a c o u p l e o f p e o p l e d o i n g t h e same t h i n g , g e t t i n ' r e a d y f o r gym. R. The o t h e r one ( l o n g pause) R. What's t h a t one say? T. T h a t ' s t h e c a r p e t we have i n t h e room. P e o p l e s i t on t h e c a r p e t t o r e a d . R. Mmm. T. T h a t ' s t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk. R. What's t h a t one about? T. T h e r e ' s t e a c h e r ' s desk w i t h l o t s o f p a p e r s and s t u f f on i t and t h e r e ' s p a r t o f t h e b l a c k b o a r d because you can see a l i t t l e b i t o f i t . R. Mmm. T. W i t h s p e l l i n g words. And t h e r e ' s a c h a r t , t h e whole c h a r t i s n ' t p r i n t e d f o r t h e r e a d i n g . T h a t ' s where p e o p l e r e a d and t e l l about t h e b ooks. R. How do t h e y t e l l about t h e i r books? T. They t e l l what happened i n t h e book and s t u f f . R. Oh, I see. R. Okay, would you l i k e t o s o r t them i n t o p i l e s f o r me? 150 S t e v e R. Would you l i k e t o t e l l me what's happening i n t h e s e p i c t u r e s ? S. We're w r i t i n ' a s t o r y . R. I see. How do you know t h a t ? S. 'Cause I can t e l l by a l l t h e s e p i c t u r e s and 'cause we n e v e r use paper f o r a n y t h i n g e x c e p t f o r s t o r i e s . R. Okay. S. And i n t h i s one we're w r i t i n ' t h e s t o r y . R. J u s t put them on t h e f l o o r . I'm s o r r y I i n t e r r u p t e d y ou. S. We're s t a r t i n g t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y . R. Okay. S. There's a l l t h e books we t a k e o u t , t h e y ' r e " r e s e r v e d " b o o k s , nobody can use . . . ( l o n g pause) And t h i s i s where we p u t our books f o r our t e a c h e r t o mark. (Long pause) Here we're d o i n ' our work. R. How do you know t h a t ? S. I can t e l l by t h e s t u f f up on t h e b o a r d . (Pause) R. Okay. (Long pause) S. T h i s i s where we . . . t h e t e a c h e r t e l l s us what t o do on t h e b o a r d . T h i s i s r e a d y t o go out and . . . do . . . um . . . The R. Do what? S. Do ummmm. R. F i t n e s s ? S. Yeah, t h e f i t n e s s t e s t . T h i s i s when we s t a r t a l l our work and we s t a r t d o i n ' i t . R. How do you know t h a t ? S. 'Cause I can t e l l when Mrs. M. i s t h e r e and I remember when she was t h e r e and I remember we're d o i n ' our work. And she's t h e r e and we don't t a l k . R. What does Mrs. M. do? S. She j u s t s i t s down and l o o k s a f t e r us w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r i s o u t . R. Mmmm. S. T h i s i s when we t a l k e d about t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r . And t h i s i s our t e a c h e r ' s desk. R. That one? How do you know i t ' s when you t a l k e d about t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r ? S. Because o f t h e . . . R. But what e l s e i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h a t p i c t u r e ? (Long pause) Okay, l e t ' s l e t i t go. S. T h i s i s o u r t e a c h e r ' s desk. R. Okay. S. T h i s by our f i r e d o o r . And t h a t ' s t h e d o o d l e t a b l e , where we s t a r t d r a w i n g s t u f f . R. And t h a t ' s what, dear? S. Where we, where we get some d o o d l e paper and we draw on t h e back. T h i s i s everybody g e t t i n g r e a d y . And t h e y ' r e t r y i n ' t o l o o k f o r t h e gym s t r i p I t h i n k . T h i s i s when we're d o i n ' a r t . R. How do you know t h a t ? S. 'Cause everybody has t h e i r g l u e . P l u s , I know t h a t we do a r t w i t h w h i t e p a p e r . T h i s i s when we're h a v i n ' a speed d r i l l . R. How do you know t h a t ? 151 S. 'Cause t h e t e a c h e r i s h a n d i n g out s m a l l s t r i p s o f p a p e r . T h i s i s a c h a i r t h a t we s i t i n t o r e a d books. T h a t ' s our c a r p e t we s i t down and r e a d books t h e r e , t o o . (Long pause) S. T h i s i s when we're d o i n g our work. And t h i s i s . . . when we're d r a w i n g some s t u f f , I t h i n k . R. Mmm. Would you l i k e t o put them i n p i l e s t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? Then a f t e r you can t e l l me why you put them i n t h o s e g r o u p s . Okay? 152 J i l l , f u l l t r a n s c r i p t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n R. You can put them on t h e f l o o r when y o u ' r e f i n i s h e d i f you l i k e . J . ( T a l k i n g ) T h a t ' s t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk. And t h e b o a r d w i t h w r i t i n g on i t . And a p u r s e and t h e c h a i r and a cup o f c o f f e e . And t h e s e . . . Deacon t a l k i n g t o Z o r a n . Jamie w o r k i n g , I a n l o o k i n g a t h i s desk. Zoran's w o r k i n g . Mrs. M. s t a n d i n g . ( i n a u d i b l e ) T h i s i s t h e r e a d i n g c h a i r , where y o u . s i t down and r e a d . ( i n a u d i b l e ) Mrs. S. s t a n d i n g up e x p l a i n i n g our work. And umm . . . ( i n a u d i b l e ) . Mrs. S., she's g i v i n g our speed d r i l l o u t . J e f f t a l k i n g t o Thea. L i s a s t a n d i n g up. Gary's . . . t h i s i s Gary, t a k i n g h i s t h i n g s o u t . T h i s i s a desk w i t h books on i t . T h i s i s Jimmy s t a n d i n g up and J u l i a . T h i s i s Lamour s t a n d i n g up and Lamour's dad. R. Whose dad? J . Lamour's. R. How do you s p e l l h e r name? J . L A M O U R . And h e r dad. R. How come he's t h e r e ? J . Because ummm I don't know why he's b u t , I t h i n k he was t a l k i n g , he was g o i n g t o h e l p s o m e t h i n g i s n ' t he? Jamie he's s t a r t i n g t o get up. ( I n a u d i b l e ) J . And t h i s one a t n i g h t ? R. No. J . Looks l i k e . T h i s i s a k i n d a a uh . . . a desk and a t a b l e and a r u g . S. i s s t a n d i n g up l o o k i n g a t h i s p a p e r s . And Mrs. S. i s p u t t i n g h e r two f i n g e r s i n h e r mouth. R. P a r d o n , who i s p u t t i n g two f i n g e r s i n h i s mouth? J . Mrs. S. R. Where? J . R i g h t t h e r e . R. Oh yeah. J . And Mrs. M. s i t t i n ' down. Here's Jimmy g o i n g f o r h i s p a p e r . E r i c l o o k i n g f o r h i s gym bag. We're s i t t i n g down w o r k i n g . R. Okay. J . And t h i s i s t h e books when we get f i n i s h e d . And t h e r e ' s t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s , math, and j o u r n a l s e c t i o n . R. Can you s l o w down a s e c ? I ' l l w r i t e t h a t down. S o r r y , what d i d you say? J . Here's t h e r e a d i n g books t h a t you r e a d and umm and t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s box, and t h e math box and t h e j o u r n a l box s e c t i o n . And s h e l v e s , and t h e window, and t r e e s ( a r t w o r k ) . J amie's s t a n d i n g up. And Lamour's dad's t h e r e . And S. i s t u r n i n g around. And Sharon i s g e t t i n g up. And t h e books t h a t we u s u a l l y g e t . R. What d i d you say Sharon was d o i n g i n t h e r e ? J . G e t t i n g up. R. Mmm. J . T h e re's some o f t h e books we r e a d a g a i n and t h e s h e l v e s and a l i t t l e peek of t h e j o u r n a l box ( p h o t o g r a p h i c s t a t e m e n t ) . T h a t ' s a l l . R. Do you want t o put them i n t o p i l e s t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r f o r me? J . P a r d on me? R. You can s o r t them i n t o p i l e s i f you want. (Long pause) 153 R. A l l r i g h t , can you t e l l why you put them i n t h e p i l e s you d i d ? J . I p u t t h e s e b o t h i n p i l e s 'cause t h e y ' r e k i n d a t h e same. R. How a r e t h e y t h e same? J . Because t h e y ' r e b o t h g o i n g i n t h e c l o a k r o o m and g o i n g o u t . R. Mmm. J . And I d i d t h i s one because t h e y ' r e b o t h books. R. Okay. J . And, I d i d t h i s one because ummm t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g r e a l q u i e t . But sometimes t h e y t a l k , b u t t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g q u i e t . J . And t h e s e ones umm a r e t h e ones t h a t ummm s t a n d up and t a l k . And t h i s i s t h e c h a i r above t h e r u g . R. Do t h e y have any o t h e r meaning t o you b e s i d e s ? . . . B e i n g near each o t h e r ? J . W e l l k i n d o f beca u s e t h i s i s a c h a i r and t h i s i s a r u g . ( I n a u d i b l e ) And t h a t ' s a r u g . Because t h e y s i t on a c h a i r and r u g . T h i s i s j u s t l e f t a l o n e , desk we ( i n a u d i b l e ) And t h i s i s a l o n e . I n t e r v i e w R. I ' d l i k e t o a s k you some q u e s t i o n s t o o . W e ' l l j u s t push them back t o g e t h e r a g a i n . 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, c a t e g o r i e s . J . Yeah. R. Okay. A l l r i g h t . Why i s S. s e a t e d by h i m s e l f t o work? J . Because he's m o s t l y t a l k i n g and he's bad m o s t l y and he ummm he alwa y s has t o do h i s c o r r e c t i o n s . W e l l no . . . not t h a t . He's bad . . . he's a l w a y s t a l k i n g t o Z. and he g e t s out o f h i s desk a l l t h e t i m e and he t a l k s t o Z. R. What's i t l i k e t o s i t a l o n e , do you t h i n k ? J . Umm, I don't . . . W e l l you c o u l d get y o u r work done e a s i e r w i t h o u t t a l k i n g 'to:, o t h e r p e o p l e . L i k e you be a l o n e , r i g h t ? I t ' s k i n d o f l o n e l y b u t a t l e a s t you can work by y o u r s e l f and get l o t s o f work done. W e l l ummm S. does n ' t f e e l l o n e l y b ecause he alwa y s ( g e t s out .of h i s d e s k and t a l k s . R. Mmmm. How do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f you don't want t o be heard? J . You t a l k n i c e , k i n d l y . R. I f you don't want t o be heard? Okay? You don't want anybody t o he a r you? How do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f you don't want anybody t o know who you a r e t a l k i n g t o ? J . W h i s p e r . R. And what e l s e do you do? J . Umm you . . . some p e o p l e do a s i g n l a n g u a g e , t o each o t h e r . R. S i g n language? J . Yeah. R. What f o r ? J . L i k e t h i s i s 'a' t h a t ' s 'b' and . . . R. Okay, and what e l s e , any o t h e r language? J . Yeah, ' c ' . And we know up t o z and p l u s . . . R. You know up t o z ? ! J . W i t h . . . i n t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e but I f o r g e t some o f i t . But I passe d a t e s t i n B r o w n i e s up t o z an . . . R. Oh, I s e e , i f I b r i n g my camera tomorrow w i l l you t e l l me what t h e d i f f e r e n t ones a r e and I ' l l t a k e y o u r p i c t u r e ? 154 J . Okay. R. Who knows t h e s i g n language? J . I t h i n k ummm me, Thea, Sharon, L a r i s a , mmm L i s a and t h a t ' s a l l . R. Anybody e l s e know i t . J . Yeah, t h e y know i t but . . . ah . . . I t h i n k so b u t I don't t h i n k t h e y do i t sometimes. R. Okay, what do you t e l l each o t h e r ? J . Umm, but Lamour and Sharon and Thea l i k e t h e y ' r e k i n d o f a group r i g h t ? . . Cause t h e y a l l p l a y t o g e t h e r . P l u s t h e y made up . . . t h e y go, l i k e t h i s , t h a t means, I t h i n k t h a t means 'what number t h e y ' r e on i n math'. And i t means something e l s e I t h i n k . And umm 'cause t h e y don't want t o get t h e i r name on t h e b o a r d I t h i n k . R. What do you get y o u r name on t h e bo a r d f o r ? J . F o r t a l k i n g out l o u d . . . ummm, making n o i s e . R. Mmmm. How e l s e do you t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d i f you don't want anybody t o know? J . Oh. R. B e s i d e s t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e , any o t h e r way? Do you s p e l l out a word? J . You c o u l d use y o u r l i p s , b u t t h e y h a r d l y do t h a t . R. How do you use y o u r l i p s ? J . W e l l , maybe some p e o p l e . But t h e y don't do i t T don't t h i n k . Maybe t h a t ' s a way t h a t you c o u l d t a l k t o yo u r f r i e n d s . R. Mmm, okay. J . Because, t h e y c o u l d r e a d y o u r l i p s , r i g h t ? R. Yeah. J . How many p e o p l e have you a l r e a d y t o o k ? R. Four o r f i v e . J . Four o r f i v e . R. Mmm, okay? R. When do you go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? J . When? sometimes when you want marked . . . And you want t o ask h e r a q u e s t i o n . And i f . . . t o t a t t l e t a l e . Some .people t a t t l e on o t h e r s and a s k h e r umm something t h a t you don't know. S h e ' l l e x p l a i n i t t o you b u t sometimes she d o e s n ' t . And t o go t o t h e bathroom and some-t i m e s t o get a d r i n k . R. When can you go t o t h e bathroom? J . Only a t r e c e s s , l u n c h , umm sometimes she l e t s you. . . R. When c a n you get a d r i n k ? J . She ne v e r l e t s us get a d r i n k . She a l w a y s s a y s no, but umm some p e o p l e sneak 'cause t h e r e ' s a s i n k i n our back o f t h e room, r i g h t ? R. Who sneaks? J . Sean, Z o r a n , and . . . R. Any g i r l s ? J . I do sometimes b u t I don't sneak b u t I j u s t . . . l i k e when we're d o i n ' a r t and I'm t h i r s t y , I don't sneak i t I j u s t t a k e a d r i n k , b u t I don't a l w a y s sneak. I don't ( i n a u d i b l e ) 'cause when we're d o i n ' e l l a y . . . when we're d o i n ' e l l a y ( l a n g u a g e a r t s ) . . . R. Mmm. What does i t mean t o go and get paper? J . P aper? R. Mm. J . Means . . . R. I saw some p e o p l e g o i n g and g e t t i n g p a p e r . What does t h a t mean? 155 J . That means l i k e when . . . when t h e y r a n out . . . t h e y umm langu a g e a r t s books you were w r i t i n g . R. Oh, I see. J . Umm t h e n you t a k e paper because umm, t h e y don't need t o get any books. (End o f y e a r ? ) And I'm one o f them. R. Oh, I see. Okay. R. And who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? J . Oh, j u s t sometimes me, Ste v e . . . not n o t e s b u t . . . R. Messages? J . Yeah, messages. And ummm L o r i s a . R. Mmm. J . And I t h i n k Thea . . . R. You t o l d me when you can go t o t h e washroom. Can you t e l l when you put n o t e b o o k s i n t o t h e boxes? , J . Oh, you put not e b o o k s i n t o t h e boxes because t h e y have t o be marked and be d e l i v e r e d back t o you. R. Okay, why does t h e t e a c h e r say L i s a ' s name a l o t ? J . L i s a ? R. Mmm. J . She c a l l s h e r name a l o t because she's always g e t s out o f h e r s e a t . And she al w a y s c a l l s T e r r a ' s name 'cause. But T e r r a ' s t h e w o r s t , she a l w a y s t a l k s and always goes up . . . t h e rows and g e t s out o f he r s e a t . L i s a does t h a t t o o . R. Does she do t h a t t o o ? J . Umm. R. Why does she say J i l l ' s name a l o t ? J . P a r d o n me. R. Why does she say J i l l ' s name a l o t ? J . L i s a ? R. No, y o u r name, why does she say y o u r name a l o t ? J . Who does? R. The t e a c h e r . J . 'Cause I'm h a v i n g f u n t a l k i n g . R. Mmm. ( L a u g h t e r ) J . T h i s i s k i n d o f e m b a r r a s s i n g ( l o n g p a u s e ) . R. T h i s i s k i n d o f e m b a r r a s s i n g ? J . Mmm. R. I'm t h e o n l y one t h a t h e a r s t h e t a p e s . A l l r i g h t ? J . Umm, and because ummm. I don't l i s t e n sometimes. And umm I t h i n k t h a t ' s i t . R. Okay. Umm, what does i t mean-when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? J . Oh, i t means, t h a t y o u ' r e bad, t h a t you d i d n ' t l i s t e n . I t means t h a t you got umm I t h i n k t h a t i t means t h a t ummm. When you t r a d e desks and she t e l l s you t o t r a d e them back. When she wants them back. R. What do you mean t r a d e d e s k s ? J . L i k e some p e o p l e t r a d e desks r i g h t ? R. You mean t h e y s i t i n them f o r a w h i l e ? J . L i k e , t h e y s i t i n someone e l s e ' s desk f o r a w h i l e . L i k e s a y , L i s a ' s h e r e r i g h t ? R. Mmm. J . A t t h e t o p o f our row and T e r r a ' s a t t h e ba c k and t h e n T e r r a comes up and s i t s i n h e r desk and L i s a comes back and s i t s i n T e r r a ' s desk. R. When can you get t o do t h a t ? 156 J . When Mrs. B's h e r e , sometimes. But most o f t h e t i m e she s a y s you umm b e t t e r n o t do t h a t r i g h t ? And p e o p l e don't l i s t e n 'cause t h e y know t h a t she's n i c e . And she ne v e r c a l l s y o u r name. R. I see. Okay. What does t h e b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a mean? J . I t means when you r e a d down mmm t h e r e and mmm i t means oh, s i l e n t r e a d i n g . And means umm t h a t t h e t e a c h e r comes and r e a d s you a s t o r y . R. Okay. When does t h e t e a c h e r work a t h e r desk? J . She works a t h e r desk when she marks and some umm re a d s a comic . . . newspaper sometimes. She u s u a l l y ( i n a u d i b l e ) s i t s a t h e r desk but most . . . R. When do you s i t t o read? How do you know you s h o u l d go sometimes t o r ead? J . Oh, umm. At one o ' c l o c k you u s u a l l y go and s i t down and r e a d a t t h e b l u e c a r p e t . And you can r e a d i n t h a t b i g ( i n a u d i b l e ) t h i s t h i n g ( p o i n t s t o p i c t u r e ) . R. Okay. J . You r e a d i n t h a t c h a i r . Only two p e o p l e can s i t . I s t h a t t a p e on? R. I t h i n k s o , i s i t s t i l l moving? J . Yep. R. And uh, what's u s u a l l y on t h e end umm o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk? What k i n d s o f pa p e r s ? J . Oh, umm oh, ummm t e a c h e r ' s desk? R. Mmm. J . Oh ummm uh t h e c a l e n d a r s . R. Mmm. J . And uh a r t s t u f f . R. Mmmm. And what k i n d o f t h i n g s can you n o t t e l l a t e a c h e r . J . Oh. R. I don't t e a c h anymore so you can t e l l me what you c a n ' t t e l l a t e a c h e r , about what happens i n t h e room. J . I don't know what you mean? R. W e l l you t o l d me about y o u r s i g n l a n g u a g e . A n y t h i n g e l s e ? And about you g o i n g i n t o a d i f f e r e n t desk. J . And t h e n mmm oh, you make l o t s o f r a c k e t when she goes out o f t h e room and we're n o t supposed t o . Then sometimes she comes i n and we're s t i l l making a r a c k e t . Then she goes (heaves g r e a t s i g h . o f i n d i g n a t i o n ) . R. Mmm. J . And uh . . . She umm. When she g e t s out o f t h e room, sometimes you can sneak a d r i n k . R. Mmm. J . And sometimes we get out o f d e s k s . R. Okay, what a r e t h e r e s e r v e d books? J . R e s e r v e d . R. Mmm. J . Oh, t h o s e a r e t h e ones t h a t you haven't f i n i s h e d . R. And what does i t mean t o mark someone e l s e ' s work? J . I t means a t math you . . . u s u a l l y means l i k e she l e t s you mark, l i k e , you u s u a l l y p u t one t i c k , you put y o u r math book on o t h e r p e r s o n ' s desk and t h e y p ass them b e h i n d and t h e b a c k p e r s o n b r i n g s h i s up t o t h e f r o n t and be marked. Tha t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e , a t math. R. Thank y o u , do you want t o push t h e ' s t o p ' b u t t o n ? APPENDIX E T r a n s c r i p t of Teacher I n t e r v i e w 158 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Teacher R. W e l l , t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h e n i s "How can I h e l p , i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s , a b i t more?" There a r e so many p e o p l e i n t h e s c h o o l , v o l u n t e e r s and p a r e n t s I get mixed up. T. W e l l , I guess h e l p i n g w i t h t h e m a r k i n g and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . R. Okay. T. I g i v e them t o o much, i s my p r o b l e m I know, but a . . . And you know, p r i n t up some c h a r t s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . R. S u r e , s u r e , okay. T. Or i f you p r e f e r t o work w i t h k i d s I know one t h a t needs a l o t of h e l p w i t h h i s h a n d w r i t i n g he was away when we d i d a l o t o f i t . R. Oh, s u r e I ' d be g l a d t o . T. The b a s i c s o f h a n d w r i t i n g . R. I s t h a t L. who j u s t came back? T. Okay, y e a h , he j u s t got b ack, he c o u l d p r o b a b l y do w i t h some. R. W e l l t h a t ' s f i n e . T. You know. R. G r e a t . T. Yeah. R. Okay. T. T h a t ' s p r o b a b l y e a s i e r , t h a t ' s s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s r e a l l y h a r d t o get t o . . . i n d i v i d u a l h e l p . R. Okay, s u r e l y . Would you l i k e t o be a b l e t o count on me . . . f o r a f t e r n o o n s . . . t o h e l p ? T. Yeah, t h a t might even be e a s i e r . . . t o j u s t use you t h a t way, f o r a number o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o do. R. Okay, j u s t g r e a t . T. Okay, j u s t you know, a t t h e back t a b l e . . . w h a t e v e r . R. R i g h t , I seem ah t o get down t o w r i t i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g f i r s t o f f . I'm not as l i k e l y t o umm do umm a l l s o r t s o f a v o i d a n c e t h i n g s e x c e p t g e t -t i n g t o my work and so t h e a f t e r n o o n s w o u l d be b e t t e r . T. Yeah, okay. R. I c o u l d j u s t come so I'd be r i g h t h e r e j u s t a f t e r t h e y ' v e gone i n . Okay. So when I come up t h e d r i v e w a y , i t ' s c l e a r . T. Okay, yeah. R. Or even ( i n a u d i b l e d u a l e xchange). R. S u r e , okay. T. R i g h t . R. Okay, g r e a t . R. T h a t ' s t e r r i f i c . T. Yeah, okay. R. And t h a t , t h a t l e a d s r i g h t i n t o one of t h e q u e s t i o n s I was g o i n g t o a s k was what k i n d s o f r o u t i n e s f o r m a r k i n g do you have? I mean t h e boxes and so on. T. Mmm. R. I f you c o u l d d e s c r i b e i t f o r me. T. W e l l when t h e y f i n i s h t h e i r work t h e y ' r e t o d e l i v e r i t t o t h e approp-r i a t e box. And t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t I'm supposed t o t r y and f i n d f i v e m i n u t e s sometimes d u r i n g t h e morning and w h a t e v e r t o t r y t o get a t t h o s e t h i n g s . Yeah, and l o n g enough t o and I don't have t o hunt them down. I can mark them when I've got a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s . R. Mmm. 159 T. And t h e y f o l l o w t h a t r o u t i n e v e r y w e l l . T h e r e ' r e s t i l l one o r two who s t i l l a v o i d p u t t i n g i t i n t h e box because i t ' s n o t done o r i t ' s n o t done w e l l enough. R. What do t h e y do? T. They j u s t don't up i t ( i n d i g n a n t tone) And I don't c a t c h i t ' t i l t h e n e x t day and I've marked and t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t h e r e from so and s o . I t ' s a tough t h i n g t o watch. I'm aware of w h i c h ones t h e y a r e and I t e n d t o check them b e f o r e t h e y t a k e o f f i n t h e a f t e r n o o n u s u a l l y . I don't have t o hunt s o m e t h i n g down so I can mark something when I have a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s . R. You're v e r y t h o r o u g h . T. I t d o e s n ' t happen u s u a l l y . T. Oh, I keep I guess t h i s i s t h e f i r s t y e a r where t h e y have t o do a whole l o t o f work. My e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . And t h e y p r o d u c e h o r r e n d o u s amounts o f work w h i c h means a l o t o f m a r k i n g . . . but i t ' s b e t t e r t h a n h a v i n g them d o i n g n o t h i n g . R. You r e a l l y know what everybody's d o i n g . T. Yeah, I t h i n k I've got a f a i r l y good sample on most . . . t h e r e ' s a few t h a t s l i p by e v e r y so o f t e n but . . . s l i p shod work o r what-ev e r . . . but c a n ' t keep them a l l g o i n g . ( L a u g h t e r ) R. Okay. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g s p e c i a l I need t o know about marking? T. No, I . . . j u s t t h a t I do no c o r r e c t i o n s f o r them, I u n d e r l i n e o r c i r c l e a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s wrong. Don't o f t e n put 'x' on t h i n g s u n l e s s i t ' s s p e c i f i c a l l y a wrong answer. R. Mmm. T. O r a l comprehension o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s a s p e c i f i c a l l y a wrong answer, but n o r m a l l y I would j u s t u n d e r l i n e and l e a v e t h i n g s ummm put a q u e s t i o n mark o r I do no c o r r e c t i n g s o f s p e l l i n g s o r a n y t h i n g e l s e . APPENDIX F P i c t u r e s Suggested to be t a k e n — C h i l d r e n 161 Pictures suggested to be taken—Children 1. Lunch kits-—eating. J. 2. Journal—doing i t . 3. Going home after school—that's fun. 3. Going to library. 5. Going to gym. 1. Art—happens about 2:30 to 3:00. G. 2. Half hour silent reading. 3. 10 to 3:00 p.m., ready to go home. 4. At gym, Friday and Monday, 11:30 a.m. both days. 1. Sink—painting. M. 2. When we have movies—when the g i r l comes to t e l l us about her teeth. 3. Already taken curtains—sun. 4. Policewoman Kathy—brings film from place where she works a t — t e l l s us about police dogs. 5. Coming up stairs from library—go into classroom and read. 6. When we're eating, recess, lunch time. 7. Having our detentions, or else maybe in the afternoon. Sit on hands for ten minutes. Happens when we are noisy. 8. Playing recorders—Miss Smith—sometimes in library, sometimes in classroom. Afternoon on Monday, sometimes Tuesday. 9. When we have broadcasts—last Wednesday—doesn't come back unt i l September. 10. Take pictures of "doing math." 11. English book things—afternoon—sometimes. 12. Doing our journal. 1. Mrs. S. writing—everybody's working. 2. Close-ups—people doing work and getting frustrated. 3. People who come about costumes, 7., 6., 5., and 4's. 

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