UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Interpretations of a classroom culture Davies, Joyce L. 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 D39_4.pdf [ 7.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055208.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055208-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055208-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055208-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055208-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055208-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055208-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055208-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055208.ris

Full Text

INTERPRETATIONS  OF A CLASSROOM CULTURE  by  JOYCE LOUISE DAVIES M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1977  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS .  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  to the required  as  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA M a r c h 1981  c)Joyce  L o u i s e D a v i e s , 1981  Studie  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Iti s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  /nci \  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT The  main purpose of t h i s  i n a classroom posed: the  setting.  study  was t o i n v e s t i g a t e c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e  The f o l l o w i n g k i n d s  live  world?  The s p e c i f i c  rules  f o r behavior?  lives  i n the classroom? The  conceptual  each other  about c l a s s r o o m  framework f o r t h e study  was d e r i v e d  s c i e n c e , ethnomethodology, and ethnography.  notes,  photography, e s t a b l i s h i n g rapport  with  constructed  questions  c l a s s day?  r o u t i n e s and  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the data  own  from i n t e r p r e t i v e  Techniques included  students,  was t h e w h o l e c l a s s s e t t i n g a s s e e n f r o m t h e p o i n t recover  neces-  How do y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r  social  v i e w , and a n a l y z i n g  in, in  research  What a r e t h e c o m m o n p l a c e r o u t i n e s t h a t o c c u r i n a t y p i c a l  What i s i t t h a t c h i l d r e n s h a r e w i t h  To  they  were  How do c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e t h i n g s  f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h e i r classroom  were:  questions  How much do c h i l d r e n r e v e a l a b o u t t h e s h a r e d w o r l d  day-to-day r o u t i n e s of school?  sary  of c u l t u r a l  recording  collected.  field  the i n s i d e r ' s  The  focus  of view of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  t h e s h a r e d m e a n i n g s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d t o u n c o v e r how p a r t i c i p a n t s their  reality  to  see t h e o p e r a t i n g  as  the actors perceived  and d e f i n e d  situation  their  as t h e a c t o r s  situation, saw i t ,  the researcher  to perceive  attempted  the objects  them, t o a s c e r t a i n t h e meanLngs f o r o b j e c t s  i n terms  of t h e meanings they had f o r t h e a c t o r s , t o f o l l o w t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i n e s of conduct as t h e y o r g a n i z e d see  the world  them, a n d , t o t a k e  from h i s / h e r p o i n t  of view. ii  t h e r o l e o f t h e c h i l d and  Ethnographic  d e s c r i p t i o n combined  w i t h photography  and t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e paradigm  at  i n a classroom.  everyday The  life of  life  f i n d i n g s of the study are r e l a t e d  a s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e c h i l d r e n .  time, objects,  and m a t e r i a l s ,  ulum, and a c o n s c i o u s n e s s  p r o v i d e d a new way o f l o o k i n g  t o t h e humaneness o f c l a s s r o o m  Children revealed their  their  understandings  of the d u p l i c i t y  of the goals of c u r r i c -  o f some o f t h e i r a c t i o n s .  e m e r g e d was an a d u l t v e r s u s c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n d a f o r t h e e v e n t s The  c h i l d r e n understood  they i n t e r p r e t e d classroom they had s t r o n g l y  felt  the t a c i t  life  rules  needs t o s o c i a l i z e w i t h ' o n e  p l a c e d on t a s k c o m p l e t i o n .  To r e c o n c i l e  this  and v e r b a l cues t o communicate c o v e r t l y .  around  the rules.  for survival  i n this  Further research i s required to refine  children's  observed  internalizations  procedures  another  While  on t h e one h a n d ,  conflict  the c h i l d r e n  used  They s p o k e o f m a n o e u v e r i n g  classroom  setting.  t h e use of photography  as a t o o l  a s i t u a t i o n a n d t o d i s c o v e r how c h i l d r e n ' s a n d t e a c h e r ' s  c o n s t r u c t s o v e r l a p , the importance of  communication.  I n summary, what e m e r g e d w e r e s h a r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s used  gain entry into  of t h e day.  t h e s t r o n g emphasis t h e t e a c h e r  visual  to  What  f o r b e h a v i o r and a c t i o n b u t  i n terms of r e s t r i c t e d  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t o o d  conceptions  of secret sign  of t a c i t  for carrying  languages,  classroom rules  them o u t .  iii  and t h e degree  i n relation  to their  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v i  Chapter I RESEARCH ON CHILDREN'S CULTURE  1  H i s t o r i c a l and I d e o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s Psychological Aspects Introduction to Children's Culture Questions Purpose of t h e Study D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study Summary .. • II  2 7 Research 10 13 14 18 18  THE STUDY OF CULTURE I N CLASSROOM L I F E  21  C h i l d r e n as S u b j e c t s C h i l d r e n as Respondents C h i l d r e n as I n t e r p r e t e r s The I n t e r p r e t i v e A p p r o a c h Procedures for^'Portrayal bummary III  21 28 37 42 44 46  METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION  49  C o n c e p t u a l Framework Research Questions F i e l d Work Data-Gathering Procedures Summary .IV  i  49 55 56 62 77  INTERPRETATIONS AND SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS CHILDREN'S CULTURE  OF A  Introduction How C h i l d r e n Become K n o w l e d g e a b l e A b o u t O b j e c t s , R u l e s and Events How t h e T e a c h e r - a n d C h i l d r e n Saw T h e m s e l v e s How C h i l d r e n I n t e r p r e t e d C l a s s r o o m L i f e What C h i l d r e n C o n f i r m e d a b o u t C l a s s r o o m L i f e summary iv  80 80 82 90 93 95 98  V  SUMMARY- OF THE  STUDY  99  Background to the Study Purpose of the Study Research Methods F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l C o n c l u s i o n s from the Study Suggestions f o r Further Research BIBLIOGRAPHY  99 101 101 104 107 108 . ..  APPENDICES  110 120  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s study would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t district to  extend  the help of the school  and t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l and teacher. a s p e c i a l thanks  to thechildren for their  I would  like  t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e s .  A s i n c e r e t h a n k y o u i s e x t e n d e d t o D r . Naomi Hersom f o r h e r k i n d n e s s and  e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g my y e a r s a s a g r a d u a t e  constant h e l p and p r o f e s s i o n a l guidance Dr.  and c o u n s e l .  Finally,  I would l i k e  Their suggestions  special  help.  vi  a s members o f  and s u p p o r t were a p p r e c i a t e d .  t o t h a n k my f r i e n d s , P h y l l i s  Ron Siddaway f o r t h e i r  She p r o v i d e d  My t h a n k s t o  P a t r i c i a M o n t g o m e r y a n d D r . D o n a l d C. W i l s o n who s e r v e d  my s u p e r v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e .  and  student.  Ohs, R o n a l d  Jobe,  CHAPTER I RESEARCH ON CHILDREN'S CULTURE  "Childhood" through and  i s a relatively  which h i s t o r i a n s ,  laypersons  historians  new t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t o r i d e o l o g y  educators,  view the e a r l y years  childhood  psychologists, anthropologists, o f human l i f e .  d e f i n e d as a d i s t i n c t  of l i f e  of r e c e n t  times.  universal  a b o u t c h i l d h o o d c a n be s e e n t o be t h e r e s u l t  and c u l t u r a l  What i s now u n d e r s t o o d  stage  According to  t o be o b v i o u s ,  conditions i n which c h i l d r e n l i v e .  isa  n a t u r a l , and  of the h i s t o r i c a l  What we t e n d  a b o u t " c h i l d h o o d " h a s b e e n h i s t o r i c a l l y s h a p e d , b a s e d on tion  and t h e growth o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y .  separate  s t a t e has a l s o been c u l t u r a l l y  extended and c o n t r o l l e d c h i l d h o o d As a c o n s e q u e n c e , development evolvement  Childhood  shaped:  fora variety  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  North  industrializaseen as a have  purposes.  of l e a r n i n g i n schools, the f o r rescue, the  o f a new g r o u p o f i d e a s a b o u t c h i l d - r e a r i n g  and t h e i d e o l o g y o f c h i l d h o o d a s a d i s c r e t e s o c i a l  and c h i l d  experience  about c h i l d r e n and c h i l d h o o d .  1  to think  Americans  of s o c i a l  o f t h e c o n c e p t o f c h i l d h o o d as a time  appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e  product  care,  have a l l  2 Historical  and  Aries the  I d e o l o g i c a l Aspects  (1962) p o i n t s  adult world  childhood  as  a t age  as  c h i l d r e n as  i n the Middle  They d i d n o t  t o w o r k , and  T h e r e w e r e no  social  notions  understood today.  The  i n nature.  significance modern  This  t o any  period  idea  Ages c h i l d r e n  experience  of  no b a r r i e r  of p r i v a c y between  popular  entered  a sense  s t a t u s was  adults  idea of puberty  expounded i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s of the  secondary  last  two  rites  centuries  i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y a p p l i e d as  were  of  of w e s t e r n h i s t o r y about c h i l d h o o d  major  before  times. Further,  the  that  seven.  t h e y were put  to t h i s p r a c t i c e . and  out  i t i s rare to f i n d  beginnings  of  Childhood  was  m i x e d and  lived  children depicted  the modern w o r l d ,  not  a separate  their  I n d e e d , c h i l d r e n and  together  adults was  at the  s t a t e because a d u l t s  lives  I n m e d i e v a l E u r o p e age  roughly  as  time of and  interp.  stories.  event, the  w i t h w h i c h age  i s m e a s u r e d i s a m o d e r n phenomenon b e c a u s e most s o c i e t i e s  and  precision  f o r example, i n f a n t s , n o n - i n i t i a t e boys  girls. By  1600  attributed  a new  was  a d o p t e d by  Erasmus, V i v e s ,  as- t h e i r  conception  t o t h e .schoolmen o f  of c h i l d h o o d as  the  arrival  soldiers,  young i n t o b l o c k s ,  T h i s means t h a t  6).  of e m i s s a r i e s ,  grouped the  fairs.  1971,  fairy  associated with a village  before  Renaissance.  children  i n t i m a t e l y (Plumb,  s h a r e d games, t o y s , and  and  children  stock  and  of " c h i l d h o o d " the  century.  such e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s of  Mosellanus.  i n trade.  fifteenth  developed.  The  new  The  the  . This The  concept  Renaissance  J e s u i t s adopted the  a t t i t u d e considered  is  concept  childhood  the  3  age At  of innocence the  and  same t i m e ,  developed. special  the duty  the c u l t  of J e s u s ,  world's  time  1600  attitudes  were t i e d  almost  t o 1800  toward  saw  inflexibly  of concern  innocent  f o r the  eighteenth century  adolescent  on  nature  l e i s u r e and  t h e r e was  example, M a r t i n L u t h e r .  Both  p r o f e s s i o n a l concern  of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  Up  continued spread,  of c h i l d r e n .  p a r e n t s who dren  the concern  By  By  The  social  t h e end  attitudes of  This concern  prompted  by p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n s ;  for  P r o t e s t a n t churchmen  time, however, the E n g l i s h w o r k i n g form of a d u l t l i f e ;  By  middle  end  children been child  as a f f l u e n c e  f o r c e d u p o n them  class attitudes  ex-  the  class  but  dif-  and  was  f o r upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n had  i n every  the  were  the European upper c l a s s e s excluded  toward  by chil-  11).  growth of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  technology  of c h i l d r e n .  f o r the young c h i l d  C a t h o l i c and  e m u l a t e d t h e u p p e r and p.  attitudes  amusements o f s c h o o l b o y s  too began t o have a s e p a r a t e w o r l d  ( P l u m b , 1971, The  and  to t h i s  western  These  the  a  needs.  f o r the w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n .  a private world  to p a r t i c i p a t e  they  age  the p a r t of moral r e f o r m e r s .  i n t h e home and  consequently  different  c l a s s e s accept  o r p r o m o t e d g e n e r a l l y by c l e r g y m e n and  created.  and  innocence.  innocence  a major r e v o l u t i o n i n the  the a f f l u e n t  the  from a d u l t s ;  nature  to the c a l e n d a r  saw  this  symbolizing c h i l d i s h  the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n .  eighteenth century  pressed  to preserve  A c h i l d became an o b j e c t o f r e s p e c t , and  creature with a different  The  ferent  o f a d u l t s was  r e q u i r e d an e d u c a t e d ,  the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  suggests  and  the development of  docile,  Katz  and  (1975),  science  competent work f o r c e . educators  and  laymen  4  w e r e d e v i s i n g and r e v i s i n g and o t h e r f o r m s o f s o c i a l social  institutions distress.  c h a n g e f r o m t h e t o p down.  t i o n o f c h i l d r e n was  something  t o cope w i t h p o v e r t y , i g n o r a n c e ,  These i n f l u e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d K a t z (1975)  the b e t t e r part  t o make them o r d e r l y , m o r a l , and t r a c t a b l e . d o c i l e w o r k e r s and b u s i n e s s men of the urban poor.  The  argues that of s o c i e t y  i t was  S c h o o l s , t h e n , became t r a i n i n g  commerce and  By t h i s  an a t t e m p t  (1970)  of childhood  for a variety  childhood  (1975) a l l u d e d ;  theme was  systems.  education.  and t h e s e c o n d  of s o c i a l purposes  theme was  The  educational  movement t o " r e s c u e " c h i l d r e n . development  t o o k h o l d and was  The  Katz  and  large  influences  felt  of  bureaucratic practices i n  first  i n the U n i t e d  overwhelming  An e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t v i e w o f human e x p r e s s e d by  t e a c h e r s , b a d p a r e n t s , and b a d A whole  the U n i t e d  to which  C a n a d i a n s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by E u r o p e a n major  1975).  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  S t a t e s and t h e n i n C a n a d a m a n i f e s t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n an  the c h i l d ,  for  the c o m p e l l i n g d e s i r e to extend  i n schools, colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  the c h i l d .  produce  themes i n t h e  i n the t h r e e n a t i o n s , Great B r i t a i n ,  and c o n t r o l  bad  grounds  s u g g e s t s t h e r e w e r e two p e r s i s t e n t  One  school  competence  t o k e n , p u b l i c . s c h o o l s were used i n  S t a t e s , and C a n a d a .  learning  the  required  t o e f f e c t m a s s i v e and p e r m a n e n t s o c i a l c h a n g e ( K a t z ,  Prentice history  d i d to others  considered, could  t r a c t a b l e company men. industry.  educa-  Industrialization  e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n s about  common s c h o o l ,  the  the p u b l i c  i n concerns f o r  surroundings which could  contaminate  s e r i e s o f g o o d w o r k s movements a t t e m p t e d t o r e s c u e  particularly  the urban poor c h i l d  d e v e l o p i n g concept of c h i l d h o o d  (Prentice,  1970,  p.  as a t i m e f o r " r e s c u e "  57).  5  paralleled  the  s c h o o l movement.  institutionalized segregation world and in  of  the  abuses  of  The ideas  adult world.  until  held  the  can  social  changes  child-rearing  and  then  rights  be  i n the child  a  large rural  lumbering, the  n o t i o n of  was  with  to a v a s t l y  technology tion  one  life  extended  to  deemed  i n the western  incorporate  of  actions  adoas  i t appropriate for  adulthood.  The  lengthened  century  care.  According  years  between  country's  organized  affected  age  of  historically  around  i t s basis  world.  As  r e q u i r e d t o make c h i l d r e n  i n the  Sutherland  Confederation  farming,  growth  and  fishing, As  of  a consequence,  competent  to  Canadian  population shifted  i n c r e a s e d urban p o p u l a t i o n .  c h i l d h o o d had  evident  and s o c i a l l y — n o n - p r o d u c t i v e  last  The  One.  was  twenty-one.  and  o f W o r l d War  separate  contamination  rescue  shown t o h a v e  i n the  end  moral  became  increasing  category—a  i d e a of  society  ( 1 9 7 9 ) C a n a d a became m o d e r n i z e d the  ever  responsible for their  adult  to approximately  vast  about  the  then,  social  The  was  childhood  T h e r e was  economically  Childhood  dependency,  162).  rescue,  were p r o t e c t e d from  upon t h e m s e l v e s  seven  p.  ensure  a distinct  dependent  society  take  age  into  C h i l d r e n were n o t  adulthood from  the  society.  members o f to  of  1977,  where t h e y  children  lescence.  youth  of c h i l d r e n  children  making  members  (Rooke,  To  a  from  and  suggested science longer  technically  earlier,  and educa-  trained  workers. There  evolved  child-rearing, developed  these  and to  i n Canada child suit  care. their  a new  set of  According growing  ideas to  nation.  about  childhood,  Sutherland, He  argues  Canadians that  the  6  changed s o c i a l p o l i c i e s and  that  t o d a y we  Canadians educated life the  about  c h i l d r e n were assembled  are working w i t h i n  had  a revulsion  or at l e a s t  services  The  beliefs  social concept  from the e a r l y  their  The own  of a d o l e s c e n c e , o t h e r w r i t e r s  1900's t o 1950.  youth responded  The  western society,  i s a result  schools.  attitudes  i n the  influenced  s u g g e s t , was  by d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r  and  The  halfour  developed said  to adult  social world, Presently,  the  t o a d o l e s c e n c e , ages t e n the p r i v a t e w o r l d of  I n o t h e r w o r d s , c h i l d h o o d has  chil-  come, t o  responsibility.  c h i l d h o o d as a d i s t i n c t  stage of the cultural  life  changes  f r o m t h e w o r l d o f w o r k a n d p l a c e d them i n a g e consequences  t o w a r d c h i l d r e n as w e l l  l a b o u r and c o m p u l s o r y  own  leisure activities.  o f t h e v a s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and  w h i c h removed c h i l d r e n graded  adoption  wanted t o keep c h i l d r e n out o f the  mean a t i m e o u t f r o m a d u l t w o r k and  cycle  from  s t a t e o f a d o l e s c e n c e was  h a v e b e e n s h a r p l y r e d u c e d and  d r e n e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d .  In  became  policies.  morals, clothes,  fifteen,  and  developed  S u t h e r l a n d contends  an  i n family  and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h  p e r i o d between i n f a n c y , ages f o u r or f i v e , to  the s h i f t  the k i n d s of s o c i a l p o l i c i e s  h a v e b e e n c a u s e d by a d u l t s who world.  policies.  p u b l i c h e a l t h movement, t h e s h i f t  c e n t u r y e n d i n g i n t h e 1920's w h i c h  The  and  1920's  They n e e d e d  c a r e t o f a m i l y c a r e f o r wayward c h i l d r e n ,  influenced  m o d e r n day  labour.  l i t e r a t e work f o r c e ;  popular ideology.  institutional  the framework of t h e s e  for child  developed w i t h i n Canadians'  by t h e  have been e v i d e n t i n changes i n as t h e i r  treatment.  education laws, j u v e n i l e  Our  c o u r t s , and  child child  7  guidance  c l i n i c s are evidences  These a t t i t u d e s have h e l p e d i n western In  of our changes i n a t t i t u d e s  r e s o l v e the problem  and c o n c e r n s .  of the " i d l e  child"  society.  o u r w o r l d , t h e i d e o l o g y o f c h i l d h o o d as a s e p a r a t e  social  a  e x p e r i e n c e h a s become i n g r a i n e d i n t h e p o p u l a r m i n d .  Childhood,  has  become a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e h e l d by s o c i a l ,  and  r e l i g i o u s groups i n our s o c i e t y .  construct, Childhood social  reality  we h a v e come t o s e e o u r w o r l d .  ( R o o k e , 1 9 7 7 , p. 1 6 1 ) . Aspects  Understanding  As  the nature  o f c h i l d h o o d may be l i m i t e d  i f b a s e d s o l e l y on t h e c o n c e p t s  a major source  incomplete  view.  of developmental  of knowledge about c h i l d r e n Psychological conceptions  be  t o be e x a m i n e d .  developmental  have r e s u l t e d  intellectual After  o f c h i l d h o o d have been  Within the e n t i t y  of c h i l d r e n e i t h e r  a g a i n s t some c r i t e r i a  direct,  from  adult  life,  there are considered to which  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y or  of m a t u r a t i o n  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l /  gradings. surveying major t h e o r i e s of c h i l d  ( 1 9 6 7 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two m a i n t y p e s ing.  t o h a v e an  stages o r g r a d a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s development  i n the view  developmentally  and incom-  psychology.  i t tends  b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d h o o d i s q u i t e s e p a r a t e an e n t i t y  social  a s a n i d e o l o g y h a s become a n o r m a l way o f s t r u c t u r i n g o u r  Psychological  plete  political,  As s u c h , c h i l d h o o d a s a  i s one o f t h e ways i n w h i c h  then,  development,  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n -  C o n s e n s u s among t h e t h e o r i e s i s t h a t t h e f i r s t and i m p u l s i v e :  essentially  Baldwin  child-like.  i s primitive,  The s e c o n d  i s more  8  controlled,  t h o u g h t f u l , and l o g i c a l :  essentially  adult-like.  There  i s a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l agreement about t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f ages f i v e t o seven.  The r e a s o n  for this  about t h e p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n brain during The behavior  agreement has been a t t r i b u t e d which takes  place  i n many a r e a s  a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t when one t a k e s  p l a y s the major r o l e between ages f i v e  the view that  i n developmental change.  t o seven.  Although  f o r c e s upon t h e c h i l d ' s  conceptions  of childhood  i s quite separate  life,  and o t h e r  Kagan, G e s e l l ,  For  Bruner,  incomplete  and P i a g e t  maturation  These f o r c e s a r e e v i d e n t  b e e n b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t c h i l d h o o d  to a b i l i t i e s  of the  that p e r i o d of growth.  n e u r o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n t e r n a l  gists provide  t o knowledge  from a d u l t  developmental  views of c h i l d r e n because they  have  psycholo-  are limited  and b e h a v i o r s .  e x a m p l e , J e r o m e S. B r u n e r  (1975) suggests  there  i s limited  s y s t e m a t i c k n o w l e d g e about what i n f a c t happens t o c h i l d r e n d u r i n g early childhood  and even l e s s on what i t s l a t e r  may be ( B r u n e r ,  1975).  gists  Phillips  touted h i e r a r c h i c a l their  I n d e e d , i n t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e s among  Phillips  and K e l l y  t h e o r i e s of development i n e d u c a t i o n  of Piaget  and K e l l y  Kelly  and I n h e l d e r , K o l b e r g ,  intellectual  o r c o n c e p t u a l l y grounded.  and  psychology  examined."  E r i k s o n , and Gagne,  c l a i m i t i s u n c l e a r as t o whether  theories are empirically  psycholo-  ( 1 9 7 5 , p. 3 5 1 ) a r g u e t h a t t h e "much  u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s have n o t been a d e q u a t e l y  Based on r e v i e w s  and  on c o m p e t e n c e  i t i s a moot p o i n t a s t o what i s p r o p e r l y meant by  competence.  and  effects  developmental Moreover,  (1975) argue t h a t because of such o b s c u r i t i e s ,  Phillips  a g o o d many  9 of  the assumptions c u r r e n t l y accepted  i n developmental psychology are  dubious. Cross-cultural that The  irony  i s that  we c o n t i n u e  i s strong  historical  this  reasoning  evidence  a shift  at e a r l i e r  child.  ages.  about  childhood  t o make c h i l d r e n d e p e n d e n t a n d n o t r e s p o n s i b l e .  That i s  t o make c h i l d r e n n o n - p r o d u c t i v e members o f o u r s o c i e t y  i n t h e work and p l a y i n their  Children  i n other  of the adult world  thinking capabilities,  cultures  do so b e c a u s e  who  there  the r e s u l t of maturation of  b r a i n a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y ages seven t o n i n e . How we come t o s e e a n d u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d h o o d ,  perspective,  whether h i s t o r i c a l ,  c h i l d r e n were h i s t o r i c a l l y  anthropological,  and c u l t u r a l l y  members o f s o c i e t y , ' t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l centrism, possessing of  to the b e l i e f  ( A r i e s , 1975)  has not guided our n o t i o n s  they are approximately twenty-one.  participate  the  there  s a y , we c o n t i n u e  until  is  have c o n t r i b u t e d  c h i l d r e n become c o m p e t e n t f o r t h e a d u l t w o r l d  Unfortunately,  to  of childhood  t h e " p r i m i t i v e a d u l t " i s t h e same a s o u r p r e s e n t day w e s t e r n  that  and  studies  irrational  or psychological.  characterized  historic,  i n their  ability  1 9 7 5 , p. 4 5 ) .  t o r e a s o n , and i n c o m p e t e n t i n as o r d i n a r y  However, a c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d  economic, and c u l t u r a l  Children  s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l vacuum;  as ' f a u l t e d  d e v e l o p m e n t , a s o c i a l and a c u l t u r a l i n t h e i r e g o -  influences;  childhood  u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f how c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t r u c t social world.  When  ". . . i n c o m p l e t e i n t h e i r  knowledge and judgement t o c a r r y out t a s k s  society" (Silver,  social,  t h e n , depends upon t h e  do n o t d e v e l o p  i n cultural  rather, t h e i r world  o f home, p l a y g r o u n d , o t h e r  members includes  could  and o r d e r  isolation,  be  their  ina  i s complex and comprises  the  influences  c h i l d r e n ' s homes, t h e s t r e e t ,  the  c h u r c h , t h e w o r k p l a c e , and t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c h o o l .  In turn,  10 c h i l d r e n a c t u p o n t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s and  i n so d o i n g c a u s e t h e i r own  social  order. By  the mid-twentieth century,  educators,  p o l o g i s t s viewed c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s growing knowledge.  I t has  t o be  psychologists,  directly  and  anthro-  r e l a t e d to  their  been assumed t h a t b e c a u s e c h i l d r e n have a c c e s s  to knowledge about a d u l t - l i k e b e h a v i o r they choose p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s emulate.  C h i l d r e n have been judged to have acted  t h e i r knowledge of a d u l t s ' competent a c t i o n s . ' a c t more g r o w n - u p ' ;  but,  adults  e f f o r t s t o be m a t u r e and  v i e w e d by  from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  in  C h i l d r e n are  themselves have v a r y i n g  petence i n t h e i r adults  i n accordance  adult-like.  have v a r y i n g  with  admonished  degrees of  to  com-  C h i l d r e n when  degrees of  competency  a c t i n g more grown-up. What m i g h t h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d  childhood:  play,  fantasy,  the outcome of h i s t o r i c a l  t o be  with  the  cultural  context  o b v i o u s and  c h i l d - l i k e whimsy, can and  be  cultural conditions.  s u g g e s t s f o r example, t h a t most r e s e a r c h of d a i l y  natural  better understood Bronfenbrenner  about c h i l d r e n has  life.  One  of  about  these contexts  living  out  to Children's  Culture Research  C h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t among t h e m s e l v e s and informal a c t i v i t i e s , children's world instructions  the years  games, a n d  from each other  mime a d u l t s social  Questions share r u l e s f o r formal  r u l e s f o r p l a y i n g t h e s e games.  e x i s t s w i t h o u t the presence of a d u l t s .  a r o u n d them.  t h e i r own  do  t h e i r d a y s as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c u l t u r e .  Introduction  world  to  is  c l a s s r o o m w h e r e c h i l d r e n s p e n d l o n g h o u r s , d a y s , w e e k s , and  as  (1974)  little  school  and  to  and  T h e y do  a b o u t how this  to c o n s t r u c t  A  Children  acquire  i n t e r p r e t the •  i n those s e t t i n g s where they  they a l s o i n t e r p r e t the world  interactions.  and  and  observe  a r o u n d them t h r o u g h  S o c i a l i z a t i o n takes place  i n the  school-  11 room a n d e a n be d e f i n e d Sociologists  study  as t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n a l  s u c h s e t t i n g s as ones i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r t h e  ' r u l e s of s o c i e t y ' from Alternatively, abiding  together,  own i d e o l o g y as the  others.  s o c i o l o g i s t s v i e w t h e s e s e t t i n g s a s two c u l t u r e s  a d u l t and c h i l d ,  for action.  existing  i n the c l a s s r o o m ,  i s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own w o r l d  of the adult While there  observed and a c t e d  t h e methods t e a c h e r s together"  interpret  question, their  i n the educational  and c h i l d r e n use t o c o n s t r u c t  ipants  c h i l d r e n share w i t h  r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ?  i s the f i r s t  two  186).  preseneach major  a n d t h e s e c o n d i s How do y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s  own l i v e s  i n the classroom?  from the a d u l t w o r l d , As a r e s u l t ,  i n an e f f o r t  "What  c l a s s day?" (p.  C h i l d r e n appear t o have l i m i t e d a c -  c e s s t o a d u l t s ' a t t e n t i o n because they have been h i s t o r i c a l l y  meanings.  daily class-  r e l a t e d " to the teacher's  What i s i t t h a t  Background to the questions.  separated  w o u l d be  the major q u e s t i o n ,  that occur i n a t y p i c a l  content.  about c l a s s r o o m  research  on t h e o t h e r  a u s e f u l ". . . s t u d y  T h e s e r o u t i n e s may o r may n o t be d i r e c t l y t a t i o n of curriculum  studies  ( p . 180) and' a s k i n g  t h e commonplace r o u t i n e s  other  i t ; while  upon by  w h i c h may o r may n o t i n c o r p o r a t e  h a v e b e e n many c u l t u r a l  ;  room a c t i v i t i e s  culture  ideology.  l i t e r a t u r e , S ger.e.r ( 1 9 7 6 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t to i n s p e c t  each w i t h i t s  i s the adult  c h i l d r e n as t h e y come t o know a n d u n d e r s t a n d  parts  are  side-by-side,  On t h e one h a n d t h e r e  e x p r e s s e d by t h e t e a c h e r  hand, t h e r e  competencies.  left  to build  c h i l d r e n present  to construct  c u l t u r e s meet, d e f i n e d  and c u l t u r a l l y  t h e i r own p r i v a t e l y s h a r e d  t h e m s e l v e s as h e l p l e s s  interactional  events with  partic-  adults.  When  as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n members o f g r o u p s  from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , i n t h i s  case the teacher's  culture vis-a-vis  12 the  c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e , t h e r e s u l t c a n be t h e d i f f u s i o n o f c u l t u r a l  b e t w e e n t h e two c u l t u r e s that  the adults  involved.  and t h e i r  c h i l d r e n ' s competence. behavior. it  c u l t u r e can monitor, supervise, Adults  When t h e two c u l t u r e s make c o n t a c t ,  have t o c o n s t r u c t  their  i n a classroom.  of  differential  p.  170).  to a d u l t  drafted  that  whereas o t h e r s  ( S p e i e r , 1976,  c u l t u r e pervades t h e s e t t i n g and  i s f a r greater  topics.  look  attentions  than the a t t e n t i o n s given t o  The i n f l u e n c e  the researcher  in a classroom.  drafted  t h e n , a ". . . s t r u c t u r e  that  the teacher's  h a v e on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e o r s h a r e d c h i l d h o o d requires  children  c l a s s r o o m r u l e s , and t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a d u l t  d r a f t e d concerns  children's  or teacher  between c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s "  In a classroom, the adult  generates the formal  Conversely,  into adult  There appears t o e x i s t ,  attentions  children's  u s u a l l y , though not always,  of both c u l t u r e s .  own c o n t r i b u t i o n s  accepted  and q u e s t i o n  t e n d t o promote o r s a n c t i o n  r e s u l t s i n some m o d i f i c a t i o n s  topics  F o r example, i t i s u s u a l l y  traits  at the level  classroom  beliefs meanings  at which r u l e s are learned  Some c h i l d r e n ". . . may h a v e l e a r n e d  about t h e r u l e ,  have u n d e r s t o o d t h e meaning f o r t h e r u l e " ( S p r a d l e y , 1972,  p. 2 1 ) . The  foremost task,  then,  by  the c h i l d r e n , i t s nature,  It  i s presumed t h a t  by  individual children—are  actions  with  in  everyday context  this  others  social  i s to discover  as u n d e r s t o o d  and i t s meanings i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g .  actions—defined oriented  as t h e b e h a v i o r s  are considered  Children's  social  interactions  t o be a n i n t e r p r e t i v e r a t h e r  That i s t o say,  s o c i a l k n o w l e d g e , t h e y become p a r t  displayed  t o o r i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l  i n the classroom s e t t i n g .  a rule-governed process.  the world  as t h e c h i l d r e n g a i n  of the classroom c u l t u r e .  their  than  13 Assumptions. and  To s t u d y t h e s h a r e d  teacher create during the d a i l y  s u b j e c t i v e meanings t h a t  activities  students  of a c l a s s r e q u i r e s the  s h a r i n g o f s u b j e c t i v e m e a n i n g s b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s of  the  situation. Furthermore,  a social in  cultural  i n the study, the classroom  that setting.  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i a l  t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d by  Purpose  of the  life  participants.  for this  s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r e was  young c h i l d r e n  how  t h e members o f a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e c o n s t i t u t e d  interpreted  focus f o r t h i s  life  s t u d y was  in their  their  and i n t e r p r e t e d .  meanings are s o c i a l  the nature of these  social  as t y p i c a l  classroom routines;  understand  them.  social  world.  The p a t t e r n r e s u l t s  r e l i e d on t o make s e n s e  social  Because c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s concerned  with  as t h e k i n d s o f r o u t i n e s o f  the i n t e r p r e t i v e life;  from  the c h i l d r e n ' s  by c l a s s r o o m members;  r o u t i n e s of classroom  ture the c h i l d r e n  their  phenomena, t h e s t u d y was  phenomena s u c h  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a c t i o n used  to  c l a s s r o o m and t o e x a m i n e  shared w o r l d of s o c i a l meanings through which  a c t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d  t o examine  the d i s c o v e r y of the u n d e r l y i n g p a t -  tern i n children's actions i n a classroom.  and  c a n be p r o v i d e d t o  upon c l a s s r o o m k n o w l e d g e t h a t  how  the  t o be  Study  The p u r p o s e  The  i s assumed  w o r l d t h a t i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and s h a r e d by members  t h e r e s e a r c h e r by means o f d e s c r i p t i o n s b a s e d is  situation  what  schemes  and t h e s e n s e of the s o c i a l  they  regarded  the c h i l d r e n of s o c i a l phenomena  used  strucaround  14 D e f i n i t i o n of  Terms  Culture  i s ".  pret  experience  educators  and  this  reality.  pp.  longer  construct.  47-51).  interpret  b a s e d on  It exists  c u l t u r e behind  life  on  in  it  simply  of  viewed  (should)  the p a t t e r n i n g of  t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , educators  and  i t s own  in  (Silver, may  no  individualistic  analyses  of everyday  terms e t h n o g r a p h i c  understandings life.  In  the  d e s c r i p t i o n uses  a n a l y s i s which attempt to r e t a i n  the  integrity  phenomena. method i s the  technique  the work of d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h are  and  limitations  of ethnographic  For  example, the  ethnographic  field  role  study  specific  work can  be  of p a r t i c i p a n t  as a c c e p t a b l e .  there are  inherent  techniques by  (Kaplan,  participant  e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h e use camera, thus  observation.  of  Within potential-  as w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  of d a t a - g a t h e r i n g  r a p h y , t h e c a m e r a becomes p a r t i c i p a n t limitations  o f e t h n o g r a p h y , t h e ways  regarded  o f some t e c h n i q u e s  e x p l o r a t i o n s o f some v a r i a n t s o f 13).  be  s u r f a c e of c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r "  observations  method or p r o c e s s  ities  the  i n terms  constructed  . . knowledge of  l e n s t o see  allows  8).  d e s c r i p t i o n i s the g a t h e r i n g of s o c i a l  systematic  Ethnographic  any  ".  inter-  definition  behaving p.  to  terms.  m e t h o d s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and of these  and  t h e phenomena o f c h i l d h o o d  of everyday  beings  use  c u l t u r e of c h i l d h o o d can  theoretical  When a d o p t i n g  Ethnographic  doing  . . social  This  c u l t u r e i s v i e w e d as a s o c i a l l y  w i t h the  or developmental  study  ".  behavior."  c o d e " ( S p r a d l e y & M c C u r d y , 1972,  definition,  educators  children's 1975,  social  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e  as a s o c i a l provide  to generate  t o v i e w c h i l d r e n as  a complex c u l t u r a l By  . . the a c q u i r e d knowledge t h a t people  1964,  p.  observation of  o v e r c o m i n g one  photogof  the  Constitutive and  the  social  are  constituted;  studies  also  materials;  f a c t s of  t h e y do  the  our  m a k i n g and  Further,  how  put  recurrent  which data are  s t r u c t u r i n g and  and  f a c t s of  the  constraining,  beyond our  these  structure  from on  an  perspective  (Mehan, 1979,  o p e r a t e s on plishments  the (p.  on  p.  individual;  i s the  to or  failure  or p a s s i v e  in social  i n t o account Social  i n the  situation.  can  involve  and  activities  events;  structure. equal  footing  as  part  of  a world that  i s at  pp. of  and,  an  once  201-203). data; and  interactional level  of  In essence, c o n s t i t u t i v e ethnography  social  structures  The  behavior shared with  influenced  are  i n t e r a c t i o n a l accom-  by  o t h e r s w h i c h has  toward a g o a l .  meaning  Social action  another person or persons;  a c q u i e s c e n c e to the  a c t i o n , the  a c t i o n of o t h e r s .  a n t i c i p a t e d b e h a v i o r of o t h e r s  is  also This i s taken  action.  situations'- are  the  observed  a convergence between r e s e a r c h e r s '  i t is directed  action oriented  means t h a t  from  These  17).  Social action  to a c t ,  activities  w o r l d emerge f r o m s t r u c t u r i n g w o r k  m a k i n g " (Mehan & Wood, 1975,  19).  premise that  activities  patterns.  abstracted  c o n s t i t u t i v e ethnography aims f o r r e t r i e v a b i l i t y  participants'  to the  structuring  treat structuring separately  comprehensive data treatment;  analysis  They d e s c r i b e  r u l e s by  social  t o become e x t e r n a l of  not  examine the  than merely r e p o r t i n g  the  studies  s h o w i n g how  education.  rather  include  "Constitutive by  ethnography studies  act  such t h i n g s  the  of as  phenomena as  representing  described  by  a phenomenon and  p h y s i c a l environments, s o c i a l  ( D a w s o n , 1979,  pp.  1-12).  participants  in  describing i t relationships,  16 Validity cription  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s o c i a l  Social related  knowledge  perspective,  i s the adequacy of a des-  situation.  i s t h a t body o r c o r p u s o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h i s somehow  to the a c t i v i t i e s  culture, of  o f an e t h n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n  o f a c u l t u r e ' s members.  At times,  t h e terms  i d e o l o g y , a n d w o r l d v i e w a r e u s e d t o mean a body  k n o w l e d g e w h i c h i s s o c i a l l y known.  I t i s supposed that  t h e r e must  be some c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n what members know a n d what t h e y do. activities, Further,  t h e n , c a n be c o n s t r u e d by r e f e r e n c e  t h e body o f k n o w l e d g e  itself  t o some c o r p u s o f k n o w l e d g e .  may be v i e w e d a s b e i n g  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the group i n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s A s t o c k of knowledge and a c t e d on a c c o r d i n g in  order t o .  By t h i s his  social  knowledge all  to h i s or her sets of motives;  a child's  competence.  h i m i s b a s e d on t h i s i s that  things.  social  social  competence.  Interpretive  because o f and  of i n d i v i d u a l  i s an i n t e g r a l  actions.  feature of  o f e v e n t s and a c t i o n s An i m p o r t a n t  Knowledge  around  feature of s o c i a l  i s socially distributed  group, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ,  i ti s tacit.  procedures are the d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r a c t i o n a l F o r example, i n i n t e r p r e t i v e  displays h i s or her s o c i a l  interest  competence  i n h i s or her r e a l i t y i n a s e t t i n g ;  ship of s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d aside his/her  among Mem-  f o r granted.  done by p e o p l e i n i n t e r a c t i o n .  dures each c h i l d  ting  member  F u r t h e r , a n y e v e n t means f o r b o t h t h e w i t n e s s a n d t h e o t h e r ,  bers take the knowledge  practical  membership.  some p e o p l e know some t h i n g s , b u t n o t e v e r y b o d y knows  members o f a c u l t u r a l  ities  knowledge  His interpretation  more t h a n t h e w i t n e s s c a n s a y . the  have  i n some way  i s t h a t k n o w l e d g e owned by a p a r t i c u l a r  This recognizes the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y  definition  Members'  irrelevant  specific  proce-  by d e s c r i b i n g a h i s o r h e r owner-  knowledge o f everyday events; biographical  activ-  meanings  thereby  set-  f o r events  or a c t i o n s ;  and, h i s / h e r  descriptions  a r e a c c e p t e d f o r what t h e y a p p e a r e d  take the world f o r granted, objects  t o be on t h e s u r f a c e .  Descriptions,  t h e n c o m p r i s e a schema o f c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h r e n d e r some a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f what i s a c t u a l l y  out there.  u s e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  The s t r u c t u r e s a n d s t r u c t u r i n g  to describe  practices  situations mutually contain  each  other. The  k i n d s o f i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d by c h i l d r e n  t o make  sense  of t h e o b j e c t s , e v e n t s , and a c t i o n s around t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t with  linear,  deductive,  cause each c h i l d These  logical  s y s t e m s a s u n d e r s t o o d by most a d u l t s b e -  a s s i g n s h i s / h e r p e r s o n a l meanings t o o b j e c t s and e v e n t s .  p r o c e d u r e s c a n be s e e n a s h i s / h e r a t t e m p t s t o e v a l u a t e a n d s t r i v e  for a r e c i p r o c a l l y tions.  assumed n o r m a l  T h i s p r o c e d u r e i s termed  form o f judgement searching  of his/her  f o r the normal  form  percep(Cicourel,  1 9 7 1 , p. 1 4 7 ) . Multiple action:  realities.  meaning  Realities  cannot occur apart  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge of knowledge  a r e dependent  f r o m some s o c i a l  capable of d i s s o l u t i o n .  then each  -'reality  Each p a r t i c i p a n t  h i m w h i c h c a n be d i s s o l v e d b y f u r t h e r  i p a n t o r member i s e q u a l l y  interI f the  use o f a body  fragile.  constructs a r e a l i t y  It is around  I f no one r e a l i t y  a s u n d e r s t o o d by e a c h  partic-  i n terms of e f f e c t i v e  partic-  real.  competence i s d e f i n e d  i p a t i o n o r membership i n t h e c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e .  The c o m p e t e n c i e s a r e  f o r communication w i t h o t h e r s , and t h e i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n of language, b e h a v i o r , r u l e s , of c l a s s r o o m l i f e  i s also  information.  c a n be c a l l e d p a r a m o u n t t h e n e a c h r e a l i t y  the n e c e s s a r y r e q u i s i t e s  context.  depends upon c e a s e l e s s r e f l e x i v e  i n interaction  Interactional  upon s o c i a l  and o t h e r n o r m a t i v e dimensions  (Mehan, 1 9 7 9 , p. 1 2 7 ) .  The e t h n o g r a p h e r ' s c o m p e t e n c e  18 as a member o f a s o c i e t y he o r she i s s t u d y i n g ". . . i s i n d i c a t e d by his  (her) a b i l i t y  to interact  effectively  i n i t s terms w i t h o t h e r s  who  a r e a l r e a d y c o m p e t e n t " ( G o o d e n o u g h , 1 9 7 6 , p. 4 ) .  Limitations  of the Study  Ethnographic  techniques  w e r e c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y p r o v i d e d a means  to  uncover these meanings o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  As  a result,  t h e r e were s o u r c e s  a r e many e t h n o g r a p h i c  methods.  that define the s i t u a t i o n .  f o r research  limitations  The c o n c e r n s ,  because  a d v a n t a g e s , and  there disadvantages  of v a r i o u s approaches appeared to c o a l e s c e around s i x major tasks or steps for  ethnographic  ciples  f i e l d work:  of the study;  the s e t t i n g ;  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of the underlying  g a i n i n g e n t r y and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  d e c i s i o n s about t h e s p e c i f i c  field  prin-  of a r o l e i n  work t e c h n i q u e s  t o be  used;  determination of informants  i n t h e s e t t i n g , who t h e y w o u l d b e ;  actual  data c o l l e c t i o n ;  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  and, data  of the c u l t u r e . Summary The  i d e a o f c h i l d h o o d a s a s t a t e c r e a t e d by s o c i a l  among c h i l d r e n , pologists,  has been f o r m u l a t e d  and e d u c a t o r s  w i t h i n the l a s t  i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h have h e l p e d for  psychologists, anthro-  one h u n d r e d y e a r s .  Childhood  responsibility,  from s o c i a l The  a time  h a s come t o mean a t i m e  f r e e from a d u l t work  t o be c a r e f u l l y n u r t u r e d , a n d a t i m e  o f c h i l d h o o d has a l s o been p r o v i d e d  time  to industrialized  ills.  nature  Other  society consider childhood a special  t h e young have been economic, t h e change from r u r a l  urban s o c i e t i e s . and  by h i s t o r i a n s ,  interactions  t o us by  f o r rescue  19 psychologists, internal  They h a v e d o c u m e n t e d t h e  f o r c e s w h i c h a r e deemed t o d e t e r m i n e  intellectual, social  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r s .  and s o c i a l g r o w t h .  children's physical,  The e x t e r n a l f o r c e s on c h i l d r e n ' s  and m o r a l development have a l s o been documented.  t h e home, r e l i g i o n ,  family, culture,  education,  These a r e  language,  and up-  bringing.  world  Cross-cultural  s t u d i e s o f c h i l d h o o d have s u g g e s t e d  t o be e n c l o s e d  i n f a n t a s y , p l a y , and s p e c i a l  understandings  themselves,  their  d e v e l o p m e n t , c h i l d r e n mime e a c h o t h e r a n d t h e a d u l t s a r o u n d  them.  The s c h o o l r o o m  adults.  i s one o f t h e r e a l i t i e s  children  The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y  encompass t h e i n t r i c a c i e s shared  s o n g s a n d games.  among  the c h i l d r e n social  exemplified i n their  the c h i l d r e n ' s  share  In  with  classroom  would  o f how c h i l d r e n become k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e  meanings f o r o b j e c t s , r u l e s ,  and e v e n t s .  What i s t h i s w o r l d o f s h a r e d m e a n i n g s — t h i s  world  of c h i l d r e n ' s  p e r s o n a l games, p l a y , a n d s o c i a l i z a t i o n ?  Through s o c i a l i z a t i o n  dren  C h i l d r e n , through  acquire interactional  competencies.  w i t h o t h e r s a c q u i r e a sense of s o c i a l how t h i s  structure.  interaction  The p u z z l e m e n t i s  comes a b o u t .  How c a n r e s e a r c h e r s e n t e r  t h i s w o r l d and share  answer t h e f o l l o w i n g k i n d s o f c u l t u r a l participants: classroom  r o u t i n e s and r u l e s  of school?  world  live  How much do c h i l d r e n  i n , i n t h e day t o day r o u t i n e s  What c o n s t i t u t e s c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y  c o n s t r u c t i o n s do c h i l d r e n g a t h e r  r e a l i t y to  share,with;each:•othebcabout  f o r behavior? they  this  q u e s t i o n s known o n l y t o t h e  What i s i t t h a t • c h i l d r e n  r e v e a l about the shared  social  chil-  about t e a c h e r  classroom? expectations  What  f r o m t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n and  from the teacher?  Finally,  how  l e a r n the t h i n g s necessary f o r s u r v i v a l i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m  do  children  world?  CHAPTER I I THE  STUDY OF CULTURE I N CLASSROOM L I F E  R e s e a r c h on c l a s s r o o m general  categories:  life  i n schools  c a n be a r r a n g e d  i n three  (1) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e s u b j e c t s who  t e s t e d and measured a c c o r d i n g ments, o r e d u c a t o r s '  to the e f f e c t s of m a t e r i a l s , t h e i r  methods;  i n t e r a c t i o n s are assessed;  actually  cultural  world.  E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h which has s t r e s s e d i n t e r a c t i o n  use  s e t t i n g s u s e c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s .  s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l environmental  those  values,  a n d (3) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e  i n t e r p r e t e r s of t h e i r  studies of classroom  environ-  (2) s t u d i e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e n o t only-  s u b j e c t s b u t r e s p o n d e n t s whose l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s , a t t i t u d e s , and  are  analyses Studies  which  o r c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t a l schema a r e  i n which c h i l d r e n are not only subjects but respondents.  s t u d i e s have been completed f o l l o w i n g these p a t t e r n s .  Many  Studies of  chil-  d r e n a s p a r t i c i p a n t s who make known a c u l t u r a l  situation for inquiry,  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y o r s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , have been  scant.  C h i l d r e n as  Subjects  Interaction analysis. classroom  I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s i s a way  s e t t i n g s and d a i l y e v e n t s .  systematic observation of teacher verbal,  i n c o r p o r a t e o r measure a s p e c t s logical,  or s o c i a l  levels.  This k i n d of a n a l y s i s i s the  and s t u d e n t  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  of l o o k i n g at  b e h a v i o r , v e r b a l o r non-  A multitude of observation  of the classroom  Researchers  21  systems  on t h e c o g n i t i v e , p s y c h o -  attempt to i s o l a t e kinds of  22  i n t e r a c t i o n s among a n d  b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n and  countless checklists,  s c a l e s , and measures.  r a t i n g s c a l e s a l l o w researchers to judge of b e h a v i o r or i n t e r a c t i o n . judge,  major purposes  They have  the presence,  absence, or  kinds of events  in a  assess,  of i n s t r u c t i o n  to  (the outcomes of  to provide information f o r tenure, promotion, or improve t e a c h e r s ' performances;  ity  or i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y ;  and  t o u s e m u l t i p l e b a s e s f o r e v a l u a t i o n and  or  salary;  to judge  changes  g r e a t e s t amount o f i n t e r e s t and  a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s has room b e h a v i o r s (products). behavior  t o measure performance  The  second  first  assumption  tabulated.  specified  criteria.  instruments which  has  selected  classroom  'process-product'  events.  been t h a t b e h a v i o r s s h o u l d agree w i t h  Researchers  the i m p l i c i t  b e h a v i o r s have a d i r e c t  in  outcomes  sequence of c l a s s r o o m  used  The  third  assumption  c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r and  assumption  was  that observed  e f f e c t on s t u d e n t outcomes.  d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of classroom  the  'low i n f e r e n c e ' o b s e r v a t i o n a l  i s o l a t e d teacher behaviors.  Finally,  learning  class-  T h i s meant t h a t d i s c r e t e i n s t a n c e s o f  p o s i t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between observed measures.  performance.  held that v a r i a b i l i t y  Researchers  from a narrow range.  assumption  objectives;  been the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measures of  b e h a v i o r w e r e p l o t t e d o u t o f t h e f l o w and The  creativ-  the major focus f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  ( p r o c e s s e s ) and measures o f s t u d e n t  c a n be  dimensions  student  to  examine  i n p u p i l s , t h a t i s , development of c h a r a c t e r , s o c i a l mindedness,  The  degree  f o r i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s have been:  changes i n l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r as a r e s u l t  to change, modify,  or  classroom.  m e a s u r e w h a t t h e t e a c h e r d o e s (means o f i n s t r u c t i o n ) and  instruction);  evolved  These c a t e g o r y , s i g n ,  In t h i s context they are used to  o r m e a s u r e , t h e q u a l i t y and The  adults.  outcome teacher  Data obtained  i n t e r a c t i o n are seldom c o l l e c t e d  and  from  23 analyzed (Rosenshine, 1970). Flanders' Verbal Interaction Analysis i s one of the foremost seminal classroom observation than studenting.  systems.  and  The focus i s teaching, rather  For example, i t provided a conceptual framework for  understanding teacher/pupil interactions.  The underlying assumptions  reflected process/product research design:  s p e c i f i c or isolated processes  carried out by the teacher would produce improved student achievement or p u p i l growth. pupil growth;  A change i n teacher verbal behaviors would f a c i l i t a t e a change i n teacher insights about children would produce  higher student achievement scores;  and, a change i n teachers' understand-  ings about classrooms as places where the young are exposed to society's ways and values would produce gains i n student achievement.  For these  purposes Flanders ,isolated d i f f e r e n t kinds of verbal interactions. Through this perspective, teaching was the focus rather than the s o c i a l world which students constructed and which gave meaning to their d a i l y activities.  Teaching was viewed as a pattern of acts, l o g i c a l l y related  to certain perceived outcomes. Researchers have subsequently used Flanders' scale or modifications of his categories.  For example, Brown, Ober, Soar, and Webb (1967) have  developed the Teacher Observation Record, the F l o r i d a Taxonomy of Cognitive Behavior and Reciprocal Category System.  These provided a  framework for observing and reading the cognitive behaviors of teachers and students i n a classroom;  for assessing the cognitive l e v e l of func-  tioning of teachers and students i n a classroom;  and as a means of  c o l l e c t i n g the same kinds of information about the pupils as about the teacher (p. 12). The research findings from studies of interaction analysis and  24 observation have been "non-significant," " c o n f l i c t i n g , " and "anomalous" (Borich, 1976).  I t appears that researchers cannot agree on c r i t e r i a ,  d e f i n i t i o n s , or categories.  There i s no o v e r a l l framework or model;  conceptualization to guide researchers i n choosing behaviors  to observe.  no  teacher and p u p i l  For example, the meanings for teacher-pupil  behaviors have been based on observation and not a concern for the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of the actions. lated category  The r e s u l t s , then, have produced i s o -  systems defining a very narrow and limited perspective of  classroom i n t e r a c t i o n . Research using Flanders' categories or modifications of his categories has shown that verbal i n t e r a c t i o n occupies a great deal of time i n a classroom, and that teacher-student However, the sheer complexity  interactions are many and complex.  of communication i n a classroom  is d i f f i -  cult to simplify into a fragmented view of teaching (Atkin, 1967-68). For example, i f researchers have accumulated 600 elements of teacherpupil i n t e r a c t i o n , 200 of which are non-recurring  this means these many  elements may contribute to an observation system of 100 categories of teacher-pupil behavior.  In turn, these categories could involve 10,000  different patterns of teaching behavior and combinations of three e l e ments could involve well beyond a m i l l i o n d i s t i n c t teaching  patterns  (Campbell & Barnes, 1969). Findings have been c o n f l i c t i n g because researchers have often used l o c a l l y developed instruments rather than attempting measures with r e p l i c a t i o n studies.  to improve e x i s t i n g  I t appears that no two investiga-  tions have used instruments which possess the same r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y while at the same time measuring variables operationally defined i n the same way.  Moreover, few studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e  25 provide a r a t i o n a l e f o r the kinds of teacher behavior  they  assess.  I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s f i n d i n g s have been anomalous because of e m p h a s i s on a b s t r a c t i o n s . a b s t r a c t e d from people,  the  These a r e groups of p r o p e r t i e s t h a t can  o b j e c t s , and  events.  Although  be  i t i s granted  t h a t most t h e o r e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d e a l s w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s , t h i s r e s e a r c h has  s t r e s s e d p r e d i c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g b a s e d on  instructional  practices.  I n d i v i d u a l s have been g u i d e d by a b e l i e f  i n facts,  m e a n s , t e c h n i q u e s , and  procedures  b e t w e e n t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r and In ing  and  student  t h e r e b y assume a d i r e c t learning  summary, t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h i s way  equal weights daries;  m a n i p u l a t i o n and  of l o o k i n g at or  and  understand-  concerns:  assignment or non-assignment  to i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s ;  l i t e r a l statements;  link  outcomes.  c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s have been b a s e d on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  global observations;  methods,  a search f o r c l e a r cut  an attempt  of  boun-  to e s t a b l i s h categories.  The  perspective that teaching-isa multi-dimensional act i n nature i s l o s t .  Any  isolated  category system  i s b y d e f i n i t i o n a v e r y n a r r o w and  limited  p e r s p e c t i v e , c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , o r framework f o r t h e whole range p o s s i b l e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s and  teacher-student  of  interactions.  F u r t h e r , i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s s t u d i e s depend upon t h e v a l i d i t y reliability  o f t h e o b s e r v e r s and  i n s t r u m e n t s used.  Researchers  t h e y have b e e n c o n s t r a i n e d by example, t h a t r a t i n g  and  reliability  observer bias.  I t i s admitted  Raters view  s e l e c t i v e l y and m e a s u r e  A l l a s p e c t s o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g cannot  observation categories.  Consequently,  failure  aspect  i n one  or another  of  have r e p o r t e d anomalous f i n d i n g s  s c a l e s l a c k p r e c i s i o n because they are  s u b j e c t i v e judgements. tively.  the v a l i d i t y  we  cannot  be  the because  for  essentially qualita-  covered  by  measure success  or  of the t e a c h i n g process  and  (Borich,  1976).  26 Finally,  o b s e r v a t i o n a l s y s t e m s and  ignore the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s  o f t h e p u p i l i n h i s own  i s a d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e m e a n i n g s and to classroom  events  o b j e c t i v e f o r such  and  understandings  teacher-student  s t u d i e s has  to  situation.  There  t h a t s t u d e n t s may  interactions.  Rather,  T h i s has  resulted  view  life.  another  type of detached  many h o u r s o b s e r v i n g h i s own  Jean Piaget  view of the c h i l d ' s world.  c h i l d r e n and  others;  He  h o w e v e r , he  spent  too has  a d u l t ideollogy which pervades h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theory about the ment o f c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e i r w o r l d . of a l l o t h e r views of the c h i l d ' s w o r l d alism"  (Silver,  1975).  B e c a u s e he  are  c h i l d r e n by  them as d e f i c i e n t  As  a r e s u l t , h i s work  to understand  c h i l d r e n ' s reason-  s u b j e c t s s e e n i n t h e shadows o f a d u l t s .  F o r h i s p u r p o s e s h e u s e d many c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n posed q u e s t i o n s  t o them.  These q u e s t i o n s were a c t u a l l y P i a g e t ' s  l a t i o n s about the e m p i r i c a l w o r l d . c o m p a r e d w i t h P i a g e t ' s own ( d i d ) not (Silver,  t r y t o p u r s u e how 1975).  not  the i d e a l f e a t u r e s of a d u l t s .  F o r e x a m p l e , when P i a g e t a t t e m p t e d presented  structur-  l o g i c of s c i e n c e , h i s s e n t i m e n t s  from the l o g i c o - p o s i t i v i s t s . judged  "assimilation  the  very d i f f e r e n t  an  develop-  r e p r e s e n t s the o r i e n t a t i o n of  twentieth century  r e v e a l s t h a t he  H i s i s an  into logico-mathematic  n i n e t e e n t h and  i n g he  give  the  i n a detached  P i a g e t ' s theory of the development of knowledge. presents  tend  been t o examine the f a c t u a l p r o p e r t i e s ,  based upon o b s e r v a t i o n a c c o u n t s . of classroom  i n t e r a c t i o n analyses  The  c h i l d r e n ' s answers were  "commonsense o r s c i e n t i f i c the world  c o u l d be  their  P i a g e t u s e d t h e manner o f an a d u l t s c i e n t i s t  c h i l d r e n t h e r u l e s o f games i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r  rules  ( S p e i e r , 1976).  formuthen  explanations,  understood  asked  and  he  way" when  he  the c h i l d r e n ' s moral  T h i s s e r v e s as a s e c o n d e x a m p l e o f h i s  27 orientation. Further, Piaget's adult i d e o l o g i c a l view of the development of children and childhood are inherent i n his disregard for i n t e r a c t i o n a l elements i n children's games.  Evidence for t h i s i s i n h i s question-  answer sessions when he overlooked the nature of adult-child interaction.  In h i s interpretations of children's games he saw no relevance i n  children's c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as expressed i n these games. psychological stance evidenced an adult i d e o l o g i c a l position.  His c l a s s i c For  example, the children's answers to his questions were subject to h i s own epistemological indicators of i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l development.  The  fact that he used a theoretical framework before he undertook h i s observations i s considered an "adult i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n " (Speier, 1976, p. 172).  Unfortunately, Piaget's theory of the development of knowledge  has been taken by school practitioners to be a psychological theory of learning.  Piaget's theory disregarded how  s o c i a l occasions" (p. 172).  children "mutually b u i l t  He did not consider the formal properties  of children's i n t e r a c t i o n a l events (p. 172).  Moreover, Piaget ignored  the " i n t e r a c t i o n a l foundations to s o c i a l knowledge and commonsense everyday l i f e " (p. 172).  Consequently',  there i s a lack of the s o c i a l dimen-  sion i n Piaget's psychological theory.  It i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l vacuum  (Sullivan, 1975). It i s granted that Piaget used commonsense resources; did not make them topics of enquiry. is ironic;  however, he  Speiers (1976) contends that this  furthermore, Silver (1975) suggests that Piaget "violated the  very l i f e - w o r l d he sought to understand." not helped us to discover how  As a consequence, Piaget has  children mutually b u i l d s o c i a l occasions  or how the complex interactions between the world of the adult and the  28 child's world take place.  The p i t f a l l , then, i s that we as adults and  educators ascribe or judge children's actions either developmentally or i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y against some stages of "normal" development. Children as Respondents Sociological/anthropological approaches.  S i n d e l l (1969) suggests  there are three major sociological/anthropological ways of looking at classrooms:  (1) to look at schools and their r e l a t i o n s with the socio-  c u l t u r a l milieux i n which they exist; room practices;  (2) to describe and analyze c l a s s -  and (3) to study i n d i v i d u a l educators.  The f i r s t has as i t s underlying p r i n c i p l e s the relationships each school system, each school, and each classroom might have with the broader s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contexts i n which schools e x i s t .  Generally,  the school i s considered only one of the enculturative agencies that affects children. The strengths of these studies are i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s given the effects of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l processes occurring i n the surrounding milieux.  Usually, ". . . a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparative framework i s used  when (researchers) present their findings" ( S i n d e l l , p. 595).  These  have included f a m i l i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , urbanization, and modernization (p. 593). The methodology used i s t r a d i t i o n a l sociological/anthropological studies with two emphases: fieldwork i n the community.  f i e l d work i n an educational setting, and Some studies of Canadian issues i n t h i s  mode include work i n a Canadian Indian (Kwakiutl) v i l l a g e  (Wolcott,  1967) and i n a r e s i d e n t i a l school serving Canadian Indian children i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y (King, 1969; S i n d e l l , 1969). Classrooms i n relationship to the socio-cultural milieux.  Louis  Smith's  work i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s  approach  w i t h two  w o r k ( S m i t h , 1967) to  i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  e m p h a s e s , s c h o o l and he  tried  to r e l a t e the a c t i v i t i e s  the o b j e c t i v e s of the t e a c h e r s .  tions  f o r classroom events  the k i n d s of r e l a t i o n s which  community.  He  analyze processes  s p e n t many m o n t h s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m he  a i m s and  and  sociologists  objectives  For  explanaexample,  As  of  i n the  s t u d i e d and  in  easily  p r o v i d e d the example  became i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e s c h o o l i n v a r i o u s r o l e s .  educational  offered  the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u  He  t o d e s c r i b e and  emphasized t h a t educators  life  i n the c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e " not  d i s c o v e r a b l e by an o c c a s i o n a l o b s e r v e r .  as a w h o l e he  of c l a s s r o o m  d e s c r i b e d and  b e t w e e n s c h o o l s and  In h i s e f f o r t s  major  i n terms of o u t s i d e e v e n t s .  t h e y e x i s t e d were " r i p p l e s  busing.  In h i s f i r s t  school  he  a result,  he  n e e d e d t o know more a b o u t  as t h e y w e r e r e f l e c t e d  i n classroom  processes. An  important  finding  i n Smith's  t h a t a l o n g - t e r m p a t t e r n emerged. system  wherein  b u t he  also  found  established. the f i r s t in  individual  that within  this  level;  understanding; reality;  and,  both  system  d a y s o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r and  weaknesses of broad  descriptive  o n l y d i d he  t h e y have not  C h i l d r e n have not been used m a l l y or i n s t r u c t u r e d  i n f o r m a l and  social  formal  roles,  t h e r e w e r e r o u t i n e s and  rituals  established  t h e y p l a y e d an  was  important  during part  system. s t u d i e s a r i s e when t h e y r e m a i n  they generate  they present  discover a  t o be most s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the emergence o f the s o c i a l The  Not  c h i l d r e n had  These appeared  few  o b s e r v a t i o n s of the c l a s s r o o m  their  sociological findings  intentionally as k e y  interviews.  l a w s and  from  not  the  subjective  the t e a c h e r s ' views  interacted with  informants either Silberman  at  children.  f o r m a l l y or  ( 1 9 6 9 ) and  of  Holt  infor-  (1964)  30 have described classrooms but, from their own views of r e a l i t y and with their own concerns for change.  There are very few i n t e r a c t i o n a l anal-  yses and anthropological descriptions that have asked questions about and have taken as their focus the everyday world of the classroom. F i n a l l y , there are few studies which have considered the p o s s i b i l i t y that a children's culture exists along with an adult culture i n a classroom setting. Smith and Geoffrey (1968) used anthropological techniques i n an urban classroom to generate a general theory of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Geoffrey,  the teacher, and Smith, the researcher, comprised an ethnographic team. The two gathered extensive f i e l d notes.  Geoffrey wrote and compiled,  notes while Smith spent much time writing "running process records" i n the classroom. tations.  After school he made summary observations and interpre-  Together, they developed hypotheses and then returned to their  ethnographic data to l i s t and to elaborate. The strength of t h i s methodology was i n Smith's " i n t e r p r e t i v e asides."  These occurred as he wrote down any insights or tentative  interpretations as he was observing. hypotheses.  These then were used i n developing  These techniques can be defined ". . . as a series of  studies that follow each other d a i l y and build on each other i n a cybernetic fashion" (Wilson, S., 1977). There were c r i t i c i s m s launched against their approach.  Sindell  (1969) suggests Smith and Geoffrey did not r e l a t e anything they observed to events outside the classroom, the teachers seemed to exist i n a c u l t u r a l vacuum, and their findings were questionable because they asked "purely psychological questions of the data."  Yet these c r i t i c i s m s  could be deemed to be inconsequential i f the interest for the study was  31 the s o c i a l system within the  classroom.  F i n a l l y , the purpose for Smith and Geoffrey's work was law statements;  to generate  rather than to gather subjective understandings.  Con-  sequently, there i s a lack of information derived from children concerning the s o c i a l meaning of classroom  life.  Context, setting, and analyses of classroom processes.  Socio-  logical/psychological studies about classroom settings have emphasized processes i n children's s o c i a l i z a t i o n or e f f o r t s to recover children's perceptions, or ratings of children's attitudes toward school, teacher, or curriculum.  Classroom studies of settings and children's s o c i a l i z a -  tion from their point of view are scant and varied.  McKay (1973)  described Grade One children i n Alberta, Canada, and their and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a school setting. dren's perceptions are rare.  conceptions  Sociological studies of c h i l -  Lightfoot (1973) assessed perceptions of  both teachers and students i n an elementary classroom i n the United States;  and Blandford (1977) addressed her work d i r e c t l y to children's  perceptions of school i n Great Brxtain.  Carew and Lightfoot (1979)  sought to describe the s o c i a l contexts which surrounded the interactions of teachers and children i n three classrooms neighborhood i n the United States.  i n an urban integrated  In t h e i r study, they interviewed  children as part of their methodology.  They gathered children's per-  ceptions of the three teachers whose classroom interactions were recorded. Studies which attempted to discover children's attitudes toward school, teacher, curriculum, or classroom events are more common i n the l i t e r a t u r e of educational psychology.  For example, Henry (1957) examined  attitude organization i n elementary school children. 1972)  Barker-Lunn (1969,  examined the influence of sex, achievement, and s o c i a l class on  32 these variables.  Beere (1973) devised a group instrument to measure  children's attitudes;  while Herrman (1972) conducted research into  children's classroom status as perceived by children and the relationship these perceptions had with teacher approval and disapproval. Research about classroom processes f a i l to document children's responses to the classroom environment i n any systematic manner.  We  know very l i t t l e about children's perceptions of their learning experiences, and everyday s o c i a l experiences.  Not only do we not know how  children perceive the classroom environment but we have not gathered any information about what they, the children, perceived to be salient and important i n the classroom world.  The l i v e s of children are conspicu-  ously absent from studies on classroom process.  The voices of children  are not heard i n the research l i t e r a t u r e about school classrooms  (Carew  & Lightfoot, 1979, p. 4). Studies of i n d i v i d u a l pupils and educators.  Ethnographic  field  research used with a small group or i n d i v i d u a l as the focus for the study represent an anthropological approach to the examination of classroom settings. educators.  They are e f f o r t s to document the a c t i v i t i e s of pupils and Jackson (1968) and Rist (1970) studied routine classroom  events i n our society;  /Wolcott (1973) chronicled days i n the l i f e of  an i n d i v i d u a l participant;  and Burnett (1969) used a f i e l d research  approach. P h i l i p Jackson's  (1968) work represents a concern f o r the everyday  routine happenings i n classrooms as he understood by the children themselves.  i t to be experienced  Jackson's studies can be c l a s s i f i e d as  c u l t u r a l studies using ethnographic techniques with a small group.  He  extended h i s analyses from the classroom to schools as s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  33 based on data comprising o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l a devised by educators.  He  pointed out the existence of a 'hidden curriculum' which served the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n called 'the schools'. for  He suggested that society pays a price  the relationship between conformity—good  behavior, d o c i l i t y , and  acquiescence to a u t h o r i t y — a s demanded by the schools, and i n t e l l e c t u a l prowess.  The results are the production of ' s o c i a l scholars'.  Jackson advanced premises about everyday l i f e i n a classroom. These included the notion that the teacher i s a "gate keeper who manages the flow of interaction";  a "supply sergeant" doling out resources;  granter of special p r i v i l e g e s to deserving students; coveted duties;  a  the assigner of  and f i n a l l y an " o f f i c i a l timekeeper, one who  sees that  things begin and end at the same time." According to Jackson, the classroom world, defined as the routine, taken f o r granted occurrences of everyday l i f e , includes students f e e l they are i n a cage from which there i s no escape. school a c t i v i t i e s d u l l and repetitious. delay, denial, and interruption.  who  They consider  The most salient features are  Jackson concluded that the "pain of  school l i f e was a natural outgrowth of the problems of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l i v i n g and the management of s o c i a l t r a f f i c " (Jackson, 19?6, pp. 357).  345-  Students adapted to and coped with the "mundane features of  school l i f e " by expressing patience and resignation by "masquerading," masking, or feigning enthusiasm for educational a f f a i r s .  They either  displayed masks of enthusiasm or masks of indifference. Jackson's work provides an example of the adult-centrism rampant i n educational research about school settings.  Although he spent three  years observing the "students' world" he overemphasized h i s own t i o n methodology with l i t t l e discussion of h i s methods and  how  observa-  34 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w e r e made. studying other people's 'outsider' he  reality  :  central  this  to s u b s t a n t i a t e these premises.  obliterated  the s o c i a l nitive  cate-  Although  t h e o r e t i c a l premises,  d e s c r i b e d f a c t s and t h e c o n d i t i o n s he found  f e a t u r e s he c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l  Jackson  framework.  He b e g a n w i t h h i s a s s u r e d  then used e m p i r i c a l l y  in  Not o n l y d i d  c o n c e r n was " w i t h a c t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m " h e d e d u c e d a  of explanation.  classroom  it.  He was a n  ( W i l s o n , 1976) framework but he a l s o  g o r i z e d and pushed h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t o  form  an a d u l t ' i s .  a s h e saw i t — a s  t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' w o r l d as they e x p e r i e n c e d  take an e x t e r n a l o r e t i c  Jackson's  He d i s p l a y e d b i a s i n  the pupils'  i nthe  His research interests  were  t o the actors involved.  or insiders'  discriminations  and n e g l e c t e d  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e c a u s e h e a s s u m e d t h e r e was  consensus'  he  among t h e t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d r e n .  'cog-  T h i s he assumed i n h i s  studies of the patterns of a c t i o n i n the classroom.  He s u g g e s t e d  that  p u p i l s d i s c r i m i n a t e d between s i t u a t i o n s and a c t i o n s i n v e r y n e a r l y t h e same way. he,  I n h i s a n a l y s i s , J a c k s o n made no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n how  as an a d u l t viewed  the 'students' world' or ' l i f e  how t h e s t u d e n t s v i e w e d work of normative  it.  i n c l a s s r o o m s ' , and  Because he used t h e e t i c  ( o u t s i d e ) frame-  s o c i o l o g y when h e d e s c r i b e d t h e e v e n t s  he o b s e r v e d , t h e  e v e n t s were i n t e r p r e t e d by an o u t s i d e r , J a c k s o n , t h e a d u l t . Finally, tive albeit  Jackson's  a d u l t , which  students' world. years—as classroom; as  methodology p r o v i d e d educators w i t h a raised  q u e s t i o n s about t h e i n t o l e r a b i l i t y  of the  He was a c c e s s i b l e t o i t f o r s u c h a l o n g t i m e , — r t h r e e  an o b s e r v e r .  Indeed,  h e came r i g h t  b u t , he d i d n o t r e p o r t e m p a t h e t i c  interpreted  perspec-  t o him by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  subjective understanding  up t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e understanding  i n h i s study.  of their perspectives.  of their  world  He d i d n o t g a i n  The m a j o r  methodological  35 l i m i t a t i o n of h i s work i s the lack of information derived from children themselves.  There are no data about their views of the classroom.  Jackson formulated what he thought they had experienced without v a l i d a t ing h i s interpretations with the actors i n the s i t u a t i o n .  This l i m i t a -  tion to his work i s important. Rist (1970) used ethnographic procedures and studied teachers' expectations and how they were mirrored i n and magnified by the behavior and attitudes of children in.the classroom.  He pointed out that c h i l -  dren might reject their teacher's judgements and behave i n a manner deliberately i n c o n f l i c t with her expectations. that i f we r e a l l y want to understand  Secondly, he  suggested  the influence of teacher expecta-  tions we need to explore the complicated network of relationships among children.  Thirdly, Rist's study made a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution  because he not only provided an analysis of c r i t i c a l factors i n the teacher's development of expectations but he documented the process by which these expectations influenced the classroom experiences of both the teacher and the children.  F i n a l l y , ' h i s observations underscored educa-  t i o n a l researchers' need to consider expectations that children have of one another.  The issue at hand, then, i s that expectations—teacher's  or children's or both intermeshed—develop  out of the i n t e r a c t i o n a l  experiences of the participants i n a classroom (Carew & Lightfoot,  1979,  p. 12). ^Wolcott (1968, 1969) described and analyzed a school participant; a p r i n c i p a l was the key informant. included " . . .  He used a diverse methodology which  three kinds of materials:  enumerative and census data;  protocols and f i e l d notes based on participant observation; views with informants"  (Wolcott, 1968,  1969).  and i n t e r -  His contribution was i n  36 the r o l e of participant observer using several methods for data c o l l e c tion.  The single v i s i o n of one method cannot by i t s own nature encom-  pass a l l the important aspects of the phenomena of school l i f e from any participant's point of view.  Wolcott attempted  to provide a conscious-  ness of the motivating forces that shaped his research by reporting r i c h d e t a i l s of the setting and detailed descriptions of a small number of s o c i a l events. Burnett (1968) combined community and ethnographic procedures which used interviews and observations with both children and adults. attempted  to uncover how children and adults viewed each other and  they viewed c ommon problems.  She how  But, Lightfoot (1979) believes that c h i l -  dren receive many messages from teachers that go beyond or are i n c o n f l i c t with the interactions an observer might witness. ers  Further, for research-  to interpret teachers' behavior responsibly they need to know the  teacher's perceptions of the s o c i a l structure of the classroom (Carew & Lightfoot, 1979, p. 23).  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Jules Henry (1957) suggested  that the most important aspect of teacher-child communication i n the classroom i s the transmission of teacher value orientations to the c h i l dren (Henry, 1957, pp. 117-133).  This means that Jackson's l a t e r (1977)  warning that there are dangers i n perceiving classroom experience as one that i s shared equally by a l l children should be heeded.  He points out  that the perspectives of the classroom's participants are as many as there are pairs of eyes through which to view the p a r t i c u l a r environment (Jackson, 1977). In summary, there has been a decided bias on the part of these researchers toward studying r e a l i t y as adults see i t .  These studies  portrayed the teacher as the central actor i n the classroom—the maker  37 of  the c h i l d  fied and  product  ( C a r e w & L i g h t f o o t , 1 9 7 9 , p. 6 ) .  picture of l i f e  i n c l a s s r o o m s , one i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r  i m p o s i n g , has as a b a s i c  follows  some s t a n d a r d  much l i k e  capturing  routine  i n his/her  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  studying  c l a s s r o o m s and c u l t u r e s o n l y  (2)  there  has  been l i t t l e  (4)  there  weaknesses:  has been i n s u f f i c i e n t  children, i n assembling  been l i t t l e  approaches  has been a b i a s  as a d u l t s p r e s e n t  toward  i t or see i t ;  methods;  (3) there  a b o u t how t h e m e t h o d s a r e  has been scant  information  about  i n which research  has been done;  (6) there  has not  about t h e i n t e r v i e w s  a t t e n t i o n given  i n s i d e r (emic)  information  (5) there  been enough i n f o r m a t i o n  used;  and ( 8 ) t h e r e has  t o the d i s t i n c t i o n s between o u t s i d e r  (etic)  viewpoints.  as I n t e r p r e t e r s e x a m i n a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s by r e s e a r c h e r s  whose i n t e r e s t s  have been w i t h i n t h e n o r m a t i v e p a r a d i g m have been r e p r e s e n t e d using  teacher  e m p i r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f methods and methodology;  exact conditions  The  (1) there  has been an o v e r e m p h a s i s on o b s e r v a t i o n a l  used t o gather i n f o r m a t i o n ;  Children  a sequence o f steps  large  24).  suggest research  and  interactions with  looms  o f many d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  reviewed  the  the  oversimpli-  These s t u d i e s were n o t o b j e c t i v e l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n  the perceptions  drama ( p . The  but hidden assumption that  a f a c t o r y w o r k e r who f o l l o w s  a machine ( p . 6 ) .  This  i n t e r a c t i o n analyses,  the s o c i o l o g i c a l / a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l rule-governed  s t u d i e s , and i n Jean " P i a g e t ' s Studies  i n the studies  work.  of c h i l d r e n ' s classroom l i f e  w i t h i n the i n t e r p r e t i v e  p a r a d i g m a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e m a j o r f o c u s i s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s among the  participants;  t h e u n c o v e r i n g o f t h e s h a r e d meanings f o r a c t i o n s and  38 events occurring around them.  These kinds of studies which view children  as interpreters of their classroom experiences have not been f u l l y explored by educational researchers using classroom settings. Phenomenologists.  In contrast to developmental  approaches to the  study of children, phenomenologists have as their i n t e r e s t i n research the common everyday l i f e of the c h i l d .  A s p e c i f i c .focus would be on the  children's practices for constructing meaning.  It i s supposed that by  exposing their interpretive understandings researchers can begin to know how  children themselves organize their a c t i v i t i e s (Silver, pp. 47-51). In contrast to Piaget's disregard for the i n t e r a c t i o n a l elements i n  children's culture, phenomenologists make an e f f o r t to preserve children's forms of reasoning.  Instead of an e x t r i n s i c epistemological framework  imposed on children's thinking processes there are ways to preserve children's various forms of reasoning.  Van Manen (1978) suggests that  children's t a l k reveals that their views of r e a l i t y are d i f f e r e n t to those of adults.  Rather than Piaget's pre-formulated answers there need  to be attempts to have children display their world, as i t i s understood and taken-for-granted by them, among themselves.  Adults w i l l need to  "cross over to the children's world i n order to share their view of the world" (Van Manen, 1978, pp. 1-17).  Thus f a r , adults have used external  divisions between what children consider to be r e a l ;  therefore, c h i l -  dren's plausible descriptions appear incomplete ( S i l v e r , pp. 47-51). F i n a l l y , children's culture needs to be thought about i n ". . . keeping with i t s d i s t i n c t i v e features" (pp. 47-51). Cultural examinations.  Research about c u l t u r a l events i n c l a s s -  rooms have been derived from many sources.  These have included  Speier's (1970) and Cicourel's (1971) concerns with children's  39 a c q u i s i t i o n of language, Kelly's (1955) work about personal  constructs  and communication, studies about shared perceptions and hypothetical s o c i a l constructs conceived by Berger and Luckmann (1966) based on the s o c i a l construction of r e a l i t y and carried out by E l l i o t t  (1975, 1976),  Kounin's (1969) psychological n a t u r a l i s t i c studies, and the ethnomethodological  study of classroom  l i f e carried out by Mehan (1979).  Speier (1970) pointed out that what i s c l a s s i c a l l y  problematic  about studying children i s the process of their c u l t u r a l induction (p. 188). for  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he went further and suggested a simple  definition  s o c i a l i z a t i o n as the a c q u i s i t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n a l competencies.  Speier contended that Cicourel's studies of children's language a c q u i s i tion had erroneously pre-supposed a good knowledge of children's i n t e r actional competencies. a c q u i s i t i o n a l processes way  It was  Speier's b e l i e f that no investigation of  on the part of children can e f f e c t i v e l y get under-  u n t i l the concrete features of i n t e r a c t i o n a l competencies are  as topics i n their own  right (p. 189).  F i n a l l y , he stated  analyzed  emphatically  that an investigation of the concrete features of competent i n t e r a c t i o n i s nothing more or less than a study of what children normally  and  routinely do i n t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s . George Kelly's (1955) work about personal constructs was psychologically based.  However, he investigated the way  t u a l i z e the important people i n their l i v e s .  essentially  people concep-  Kelly's work about personal  constructions i n communication spawned i n t e r a c t i o n studies about s o c i a l constructs. Ethnographic studies about shared perceptions and hypothetical constructs were carried out by E l l i o t t teachers' hypothetical constructs may  (1975, 1976) or may  which suggested that  not match the  perceptions  40 or constructs shared by their' students.  These findings point to the  major research question, what are the shared meanings for classroom events among teachers and children i n an educational setting? Kounin's (1969) work pointed out the complexity of events and people i n i n d i v i d u a l classrooms.  He stated there are four major issues for  students and teachers to handle i n the classroom world. dense c o l l e c t i o n of people.  Indeed, Kounin suggested that the  group can be viewed as a large c o l l e c t i v i t y " . . . come i n rapid succession."  The f i r s t i s the schoolroom  where scattered events  The second i s the rapid flow of verbal  exchanges between a teacher and pupils, while the t h i r d i s the easy opportunity for spontaneous expression on the part of both the teacher and the children.  F i n a l l y , the program of a c t i v i t i e s planned by the  teacher i s managed by a l l participants. Mehan's (1979) ethnomethodological study provided a s i g n i f i c a n t conceptualization for examining classroom l i f e .  His research interests  were i n children's contributions to the classroom routines and events; relationship between children's verbal and non-verbal behavior;  a  a rela-  tionship between the participants' behavior to the context of the s i t u a tion;  and the function of language as an expression of a shared culture  among classroom participants (Mehan, 1979, p. 10). o l o g i c a l approach used by Mehan attempted  The ethnomethod-  to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s  inherent i n the usual f i e l d ethnographies with participant observation. These d i f f i c u l t i e s are the tendency on the part of researchers to report with anecdotal data, providing only a few exemplary instances of behavior culled from the f i e l d notes;  the usual habit of not providing a c r i t e r i a  or grounds for interpreting c e r t a i n data, that i s , to try to achieve t y p i c a l i t y and representativeness and yet not preserve the materials upon  41 which  t h e a n a l y s i s was  the o r i g i n a l  form  conducted;  and  the c o n v e n t i o n of not  o f t h e m a t e r i a l s (Mehan, 1979,  A l t h o u g h Mehan's m e t h o d o l o g y and  p.  retaining  16).  documentation  are a major  contri-  b u t i o n to s t u d i e s of c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v i d e o taped  s e q u e n c e s r e c o r d e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , and  further  linguistic  a n a l y s e s o f t e a c h e r and  researcher's perspective. dren's  participation  tions  and v i d e o t a p e d  An  the data gathered  children  for  t a l k , w e r e made f r o m  o p p o r t u n i t y to take advantage of the  i n t h e s t u d y and  h a v e them i n t e r p r e t  sequences of t h e i r  classroom  life  the  was  the  chil-  conversa-  not  evidenced  i n Mehan's w o r k . As  suggested  c h i l d r e n as k e y view,  earlier,  Jackson  interests  r a t h e r than  t i m e and  p l a c e they are found  has of  Researchers  processes  by w h i c h  t o be  they are, r i g h t  c h i l d r e n and  socialization  tribute  i n t e r a c t a n t s among t h e m s e l v e s suggested  efforts  contended  to keep c h i l d r e n  p r o c e s s , from  become. child  t h a t we  as a m a j o r  with goal  p.  life.  things together 170).  The  kinds  interactants  i n the o c c i d e n t a l w o r l d  'childish'.  We  with  con-  a p p e a r t o h a v e made  Similarly,  'adultcentric'  In our concerns  t o a d u l t , we  and  i n educational settings.  t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f an  what a c h i l d w i l l  do  the c h i l d r e n are  to the f e a t u r e s of a c h i l d m e n t a l i t y .  positive  mental  a d u l t s s a y and  i n which  at whatever  f o u n d a t i o n s of group  r e s e a r c h e d " ( S p e i e r , 1976,  ( 1 9 7 6 ) has  now  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h themselves  have i d e n t i f i e d  s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d are those  Hallowell  of  who  not been a d e q u a t e l y  a d u l t s and  has  l o o k i n g a t c h i l d r e n as  s c h o o l s have o v e r l o o k e d the i n t e r a c t i o n a l  "The  in ignoring  i n s t u d i e s about c h i l d r e n have been f u t u r e  oriented  for  not alone  i n f o r m a n t s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the emic ( i n s i d e r s ' ) p o i n t of  traditional  adults.  ( 1 9 6 8 ) was  Speier  (1976)  bias i n favor  f o r the c h i l d ' s  develop-  have o v e r l o o k e d the e v e n t s  of  42 c h i l d h o o d as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n The  themselves.  I n t e r p r e t i v e Approach The  three c e n t r a l premises f o r research f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r p r e t i v e  approach r e v o l v e around t h e s u g g e s t i o n  that perceptions  are individual.  T h e r e i s no b e s t way o f s e e i n g a n e v e n t a s a n a c t i o n a n d d e s c r i b i n g i t s f e a t u r e s other than interpretation. and  have t h e i r  tions.  through  t h e documentary method o f  The f i r s t p r e m i s e s t a t e s t h a t a c t i o n s a r e made up o f existence only through  the participants'  own  interpreta-  The s e c o n d p r e m i s e s t a t e s t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r h a s a c c e s s  same a c t i o n s a s t h e y interpretation.  a r e d e s c r i b e d t o him/her o n l y through  Finally,  the accounts  which the researcher Of  t o these  documentary  from p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t r e a t e d as  descriptions of patterns of action or of expectations  or dispositions i n  i s i n t e r e s t e d ( W i l s o n , T., 1 9 7 1 , p . 7 0 ) .  importance w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e approach a r e t h e g u i d i n g  p r i n c i p l e s which recognize three c e n t r a l premises; stance  subsequently  the standpoint  o f t h e a c t o r and c o n s i d e r t h e  but, the researcher  too strikes a  reflective  and c o n s t r u c t s a p e r s o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n as a b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s by  l o o k i n g through  the reports of the c h i l d r e n t o i d e n t i f y  p a t t e r n they r e f l e c t .  F o r example, i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e method-  o l o g i c a l weaknesses o f s t u d i e s conducted i n classroom b i n a t i o n of the important and  ethnographic  and  Elliott  students,  the underlying  techniques  s e t t i n g s , a com-  based on t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e  s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s as suggested  may b e d e v e l o p e d .  These i n c l u d e f i e l d  notes,  approach b y Mehan  rapport  with  t h e i n s i d e r ' s view, and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e data  collected. Ethnographic tion falls  d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  Ethnographic  descrip-  under t h e a e g i s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e paradigm because t h e  research orientation  i s the  phenomenology of  Research i n t e r e s t s associated the  furthering  activities  and  of  with  an  r e c o v e r y of meanings f o r a u t h e n t i c There i s a f a i r anthropological .tive,  the  pretation  research.  of  children's  a d e f i n i t i o n of  on  basis  .meanings o f social and,  interest  these meanings are  c o n s e n s u s as  experiences  Further,  the  the  but  participants  are  and  derived  handled w i t h i n  to  say  and  in dealing  exactly  The  to  that  equivalent performance.  social construction  of  reality  the  a c t o r s — a n emic v i e w p o i n t .  The  inter-  may  fall  toward  things  a r i s e out  have w i t h  each  the  things  of  the  other;  interpretive  they  j u s t recount the  the  encounter.  events which  w h a t I must know t o make t h o s e  state  which i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to a n t i c i p a t e  normal  interpre-  the  modified through with  to  act  from, or  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  s t a t e m e r e l y what someone d i d b u t  the  the  e v e n t s h a v e f o r them;  individual participants  events maximally probable.  r e n d e r an  i s considered  ( i n t h i s instance  objects  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n means n o t  occur i n a c u l t u r e ,  t o what c o n s t i t u t e s  i n a classroom setting)  a paradigm:  participants  social  experiences.  such events or o b j e c t s  i n t e r a c t i o n that  are  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  When s u c h r e s e a r c h  of meanings t h a t  p r o c e s s e s u s e d by  will  c u l t u r a l l y produced  t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r use  within the  degree of  understandings.  interpretive s o c i a l science  one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and  social  i n the  the  precisely the  culture  the  conditions  necessary to  s i t u a t i o n from the i n the  to  under  p e r s o n o c c u p y i n g the  I t w o u l d be  actions  i s not  role  study  position  c l a s s r o o m are  of  forged  44 by p a r t i c i p a n t s o u t o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , I,  as r e s e a r c h e r , would attempt  actors  see i t , I would attempt  c e i v e them. of  t o p e r c e i v e t h e o b j e c t s as t h e a c t o r s p e r t h e meanings f o r o b j e c t s i n terms  t h e meanings t h e y have f o r t h e a c t o r s , lines  I would attempt point  o f conduct  and would attempt  a s t h e y o r g a n i z e them.  to take the r o l e  of the c h i l d  to follow the  I n essence,  then,  and see t h e w o r l d from  that  of view. To  criteria  adjudicate the q u a l i t y or test  informants' of  t o see t h e o p e r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n as t h e  I would t r y t o a s c e r t a i n  individuals'  and judgements.  events  o f t h e w o r k done i n c u r s  of d e s c r i p t i v e adequacy.  interpretations  of events  ( F r a k e , 1 9 6 4 , p. 1 1 2 ) .  This refers  t h e u s e o f some to the  and n o t s i m p l y t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e  The t e s t  f o r adequacy i s found i n  t h e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s w h e r e b y p a r t i c i p a n t s p r o d u c e a n d manage t h e classroom s i t u a t i o n of organized everyday tical  w i t h members' p r o c e d u r e s  affairs  a n d how t h e y a r e i d e n -  f o r making t h e c l a s s r o o m  situation  accountable. In to  summary, t h e two p r i n c i p l e s  f o r ethnographic  descriptionsare:  r e c o v e r t h e s h a r e d meanings i n a s i t u a t i o n and t o uncover  ipants construct their Procedures The  reality  and d e f i n e t h e i r  how  partic-  situation.  f o r Portrayal procedures  f o rportrayal  notes,  identifications,  events  i n a setting,  t o assemble a l l the d a t a ,  interpretations,  categorizations  a l l the photographs,  t h e v a r i a t i o n s among t h e a s s e m b l e d i n t o an a r t i c u l a t e  are:  range  s e t o f what a p p e a r s r  taped  f o r o b j e c t s and  interviews;  of instances;  field  to identify  to c l a s s i f y  t o be p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l  data  or observer/  o  justifiable  t y p e s , and, t o present  these phenomenological  i n s t a n c e s i n an  45 orderly l a b e l l e d or named manner. Course of assertion or t e l l i n g .  The course of assertion or t e l l i n g  includes the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s , the objects, the i n d i v i d u a l children as actors or p a r t i c i p a n t s , human action, and interconnection of l i n e s of action. from what participants do.  participants act toward each other.  Maxims of good ethnography.  presence;  be derived, then,  The s o c i a l structure refers to the kinds of  relationships derived from how  be followed are:  The culture may  the  The four maxims of good ethnography to  (1) to make provision for the inconsequentiality of my  (2) to seek not to impose a perspective on the domain, but  rather, to have surface the perspective native to i t ; (3) to give attention to techniques for gathering data which may data gathered;  and  be c o n s t i t u t i v e of the  (4) to attend to the premise that any domain has as a  leading feature the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of competence amongst i t s members.  Within this context  informants need to be well-informed  and  natives have to be e n t i t l e d to speak as natives for their domain (Stoddart, 1979,  p.  14).  Photography as ethnographic description. The language used by "sociology" i s frequently abstract, even enigmatic and sometimes p o s i t i v e l y incomprehensible, whereas the ethnographer displays a marked preference for concrete experiences which are always unique. This type of approach no doubt explains why i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l — o r — e x o t i c — e t h n o g r a p h i c research which i n recent years has provided the greatest number of . . . documents on man's s o c i a l condition. (deHeusch, 1962, p. 27) The procedures for photography and the inquiry into classroom c u l ture may  become i d e n t i c a l .  native way  The results are a presentation of an a l t e r -  of describing a s i t u a t i o n ; not only a t o o l for inquiry, but  also as a medium of communication.  As such, they may  tions and serve to discriminate and order my data.  d i r e c t my observa-  For example, the  46 photographic Finally, The  d i s c o v e r i e s may become more a n d more d i r e c t e d a n d i n t e n s i v e .  t h e r e a r e o n l y a few l i n e s o f i n q u i r y i n t o everyday  p h o t o g r a p h s may b e made o u t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m  realities;  events. the plans or  s h o o t i n g s t r a t e g i e s may become h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t a s u b j e c t , o b j e c t , o r event.  T h e s e t e n t a t i v e h y p o t h e s e s may become r e f e r e n t i a l t r u t h s w h i c h  can be ' t e s t e d ' .  The o n - g o i n g  These then, a r e s u g g e s t i o n s t u r n become d e f i n i t e  p h o t o g r a p h y a n d p l a n s may b e m o d i f i e d .  f o r other p r o v i s i o n a l hypotheses which i n  plans.  Summary In and  s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s , the o b s e r v a t i o n  i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s have tended  the students regard  to ignore the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of  i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n s .  t h e meanings and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  events.  They h a v e a l s o t e n d e d  life.  children mutually build foundations  F o r example, P i a g e t d i d n o t address s o c i a l occasions  detached either  living.  i l k a r e s o c i o l o g i c a l vacuums w h i c h have n o t h e l p e d  d i s c o v e r how c h i l d r e n m u t u a l l y b u i l d  how  or the children's i n t e r a c t i o n a l  t o s o c i a l k n o w l e d g e a n d commonsense e v e r y d a y  Studies of this  to dis-  s t u d e n t s may g i v e t o c l a s s r o o m  There has been a f u r t h e r tendency t o p r o v i d e o n l y a  view of classroom  systems  social life  u s -to  o r how t h e c o m p l e x  i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e w o r l d o f t h e a d u l t and t h e c h i l d ' s w o r l d  take  place. In  s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n as r e s p o n d e n t s ,  systems i n classrooms been uncovered;  particular  social  w i t h i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l r o u t i n e s and r i t u a l s  b u t , these s t u d i e s have n o t p r o v i d e d  s u b j e c t i v e under-  standings of either the teachers' or children's worlds. g e n e r a l l y n o t been key i n f o r m a n t s .  The p o s s i b i l i t y  t u r e i n a c l a s s r o o m has n o t been e x p l o r e d .  have  C h i l d r e n have  of a children's cul-  These s t u d i e s have tended  to  47 generate  law statements  been an o v e r a l l  r a t h e r than  There has  l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from c h i l d r e n concerning the  s o c i a l meaning o f c l a s s r o o m In  subjective understanding.  life.  s t u d i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , s e t t i n g , and a n a l y s e s  of classroom  t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s h a v e b e e n d i f f u s e and u n r e l a t e d — r a t h e r tized.  From t h e s e  s t u d i e s we know l i t t l e  of t h e i r l e a r n i n g experiences  world.  unsystema-  about c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  and everyday s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s .  we do n o t know w h a t c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r s a l i e n t a n d i m p o r t a n t classroom  Ironically,  life  Further,  i n their  t h e v o i c e s of c h i l d r e n a r e not heard i n  t h e r e p o r t s o f s t u d i e s o f t h e c o n t e x t , s e t t i n g , and a n a l y s e s  of  classroom  life. In is  studies of i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , educators,  evident  and c l a s s r o o m s ,  there  a d u l t - c e n t r i s m , and an o v e r e m p h a s i s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a  from r e s e a r c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v a l i d a t i o n s f o r these  data.  The p u p i l s '  construction of r e a l i t y looked because an e t i c Again, ing  or i n s i d e r s ' views a r e neglected  through  and t h e s o c i a l  i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom  i s over-  o r o u t s i d e r s ' framework i s used f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s .  subjective understanding  of participants'  understandings  are lack-  and v a l i d a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l  situa-  tions studied with the actors i n the situations are not provided. Researchers, the complicated expectations  n e t w o r k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n ;  c h i l d r e n have o f one a n o t h e r ;  when e x a m i n i n g s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ; o f many d i f f e r e n t among c h i l d r e n ;  (1)  i n s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n as i n t e r p r e t e r s :  situations; (6)  c h i l d r e n themselves;  (5)  look a t events a n d (7)  (.4)  (3)  consider  use a d i v e r s e methodology  attempt t o capture  consider  (2)  explore  interactional  the perceptions competencies  o f c h i l d h o o d as i n t e r p r e t e d by  use c h i l d r e n as k e y i n f o r m a n t s  about  their  48  own  social  experiences  Mehan basis tion  f o r the of  field  out  the  The  cannot  obscure  social  normative  the  be  the  rules,  structure  either  and  classroom  a different  learn  the r u l e s  of  interactional  that  the  apply  and  observation, I t has  contributions  can be  teacher seen  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made t o  simple  time  sampling  events.  Each event  i s guided  to d i f f e r e n t  events.  i n each they  produce  situation,  class-  o r by n e g l e c t i n g  and  on  by  the b a s i s  are a b l e to r e c o g n i z e the the behavior  to  techniques  activity,  applies  been  stu-  C h i l d r e n and  classroom  a  descrip-  classroom  rule  competencies  f e r e n c e s between s i t u a t i o n s  and  by  the  view.  events.  many n o n - v e r b a l  sequential flow of  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  ethnographic  insider's  methods m i n i m i z e  overlooked  Students their  The  (1979) p r o v i d e  schema i n c l u d e p a r t i c i p a n t  s t u d e n t s , and  create social  organized.  room e v e n t s which  settings.  make t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m  socially  Stoddart  a schema f o r a d e q u a t e  quantification  work t o g e t h e r t o be  (1975, 1976), and  of  rapport with that  classroom.  Elliott  development  classroom  notes,  pointed dents  (1979),  in a  dif-  a p p r o p r i a t e to  each  situation. Stoddart the  (1979) s u g g e s t s  interpretive  of  assertion  as  a means f o r e t h n o g r a p h i c  ture  has  or  p a r a d i g m by telling,  a b a s i s f o r use  bases  outlining  and  description  from  description  combined w i t h photography way  by  good  and  visual  of l o o k i n g at everyday  ethnography. about  of v i s u a l  anthropologists. and life  the  description within  for portrayal,  inquiry  a long t r a d i t i o n  interpretation  a new  procedures  t h e maxims o f  documentary  vide  f o r ethnographic  course  Photography  classroom  cul-  anthropology  and  Ethnographic  interpretive  in a  a  classroom.  paradigm  pro-  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION  The  goal of this  to gather data which assemble t h e events room c u l t u r e . normative  ethnographic  i ntheir  setting  Conceptual  into  social  I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t each  r u l e s and t h a t d i f f e r e n t  t o uncover  style of research i s  d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l work p a r t i c i p a n t s  Because these r u l e s a r e t a c i t , is  and i n t e r p r e t i v e  the i m p l i c i t  rules  rules  structure or a class-  of these events  i s g u i d e d by  apply to d i f f e r e n t  seldom s t a t e d  do t o  events.  i n words, t h e r e s e a r c h t a s k  i n a p a r t i c u l a r primary classroom  setting.  Framework  According  t o S t o d d a r t " ( 1 9 7 9 ) , "The g o o d e t h n o g r a p h e r  seeks  not t o  i m p o s e a p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e d o m a i n b u t t o s u r f a c e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e n a t i v e to  it"  (p.3 ) .  as  seenlfrom the p o i n t of view of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  room l i f e ,  In this  from  t h i s view,  by p a r t i c i p a n t s : they how  s t u d y t h e f o c u s was t h e w h o l e c l a s s r o o m  the children,  themselves  t h e t e a c h e r , and t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  i n that  skills,  learn things necessary shared meanings; their  culture;  how t h e y  interact  for survival;  and view  live  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  through  of their each  social  other;  about  the rules  an a v e r a g e .49  reality  how t h e y  how t h e y become k n o w l e d g e a b l e  how t h e y come t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y  Together  setting.  I t was a s s u m e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s make s e n s e i n a number o f w a y s :  of c l a s s -  i s one t h a t i s a s s u m e d t o be s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  shared v a r y i n g l e v e l s of competencies, t o conduct  The r e a l i t y  setting  about  for action i n  day; what i t i s t h a t  50 c h i l d r e n and  t e a c h e r see themselves  doing;  a n d , w h a t i t i s one  know t o g a i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y a s a member, t h a t i s , " . . . t e n t i n t h e t h i n g s t h e members a r e e x p e c t e d (Goodenough, 1964,  p. 1 1 1 ) .  How  t h i n g s have seldom been d i r e c t l y classrooms;  of  We  important  reflect  from the i n s i d e r s '  do  output  classroom l i f e  (Mehan,  and  s o c i a l world  two  Thus, c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e s t u d y must d e a l w i t h  ethnographies.  To  do  Routine  dimensions;  the study progressed,  of  and  (1) a n s w e r s g i v e n t o t h e p r e - f o r m u l a t e d q u e s t i o n s ;  of knowledge about the There were matters  the  notes  questions  further questions arose  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  be  questions  non-participant field  questions of procedure  (2) i n f o r m a t i o n added s e q u e n t i a l l y by corpus  social  difficul-  e v e n t s must  t h i s , pre-formulated research  f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g and  sources:  pro-  s c i e n c e , t h i s means t h a t r o u t i n e e v e n t s  p r o b l e m a t i c and  researcher's thoughts.  As  direct  Further, children's experiences  brought out of t h e background of the s e t t i n g to the foreground  the s i t u a t i o n .  In  culture.  inherent i n usual f i e l d  w e r e p o s e d i n two  1979,  processes  c o n s i s t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the  interpretive social  become s i g n i f i c a n t  be  share understandings  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the s o c i a l w o r l d .  of t h e i r  B a s e d on  derived  these  perspectives.  of t h e i r  goals because they  the m i l i e u of the classroom.  meanings of a c l a s s r o o m  ties  and  examined i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h about  then, c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  their  accounts  p a r t i c i p a n t s c a r r y out  are p r e s e n t l y l a c k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of the a c t u a l  t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i o n s toward v i d e d by  compe-  t o be c o m p e t e n t i n "  l i n k s b e t w e e n i n p u t and  education i n s i d e classrooms  t h i s view,  t o be  to  r a t h e r , t h e y h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d as t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d n o t  known, o r w e r e n o t p. 4 ) .  how  has  to the  about  from and  growing  situation.  t o p r o v i d e f o r i n u n d e r t a k i n g an  interpretive  51 study.  First,  socially  constructed r e a l i t y .  actions. granted  a means h a d t o b e d i s c o v e r e d i n o r d e r t o d o c u m e n t a Second, I wanted t o d e a l w i t h  T h i r d , I hoped t o r e c o v e r by p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the l i f e  shared  practical  k n o w l e d g e t h a t was t a k e n f o r  F i n a l l y . , i t was n e c e s s a r y  t o become p a r t o f  o f t h e c h i l d r e n because t h e s e t t i n g i s viewed as s e l f - o r g a n i z i n g .  Matched w i t h these d i f f i c u l t i e s were t h e u s u a l problems r e l a t e d methods:  gaining entry;  the r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t  ship of t h e research study use  o f an i n s t r u m e n t ,  classroom  life.  to  the relation-  t o t h e s i t u a t i o n and t o t h e s u b j e c t s ;  specifically  and t h e  a c a m e r a , a s a means o f p o r t r a y i n g  To o v e r c o m e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s  the data, n o t j u s t  observer;  to field  exemplary t i d b i t s ;  I chose t o r e p o r t a l l  t o use c r i t e r i a  p r e s e r v e m a t e r i a l s used i n a n a l y s i s ;  for interpretation;  and t o r e t a i n t h e o r i g i n a l  form  of t h e m a t e r i a l s . 'Doing' study  ethnography.  of classroom  definition.  The f i r s t  problem i n d o i n g an  culture i s the lack of a 'theoretical'  A working  or 'operational'  d e f i n i t i o n was c h o s e n a l o n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  s u p p o s i t i o n s a b o u t w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t how p a r t i c i p a n t s constituted  ethnographic  their daily lives.  pre-  i n the classroom  I t was p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d were a form o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge used by children i n their daily  lives.  I t was a l s o p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s  b a c k g r o u n d knowledge and t h e i r d a i l y a continually for  changing  F u r t h e r , i t was p r e s u p p o s e d t h a t  and a c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  experiences.  with  a means  children  i n d i v i d u a l b i o g r a p h i e s and d a i l y  Such a s t o c k o f knowledge i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e v e n t s  around c h i l d r e n i n a s o c i a l m i l i e u ; their parents;  p r o v i d e each c h i l d  s t o c k o f knowledge t h a t g i v e s each c h i l d  p r a c t i c a l reasoning.  reflect  experiences  through  their  f r o m t h e h a n d e d down e x p e r i e n c e s o f  experiences  w i t h t e a c h e r and o t h e r s ;  and  52 from an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y p r e t because i t p r e - e x i s t s .  available  They c a n e x p e r i e n c e  forchildren  i t i n a n o r d e r l y way.  B a s e d on t h e s e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s a p u r p o s e f u l , c a r e f u l the c l a s s r o o m classroom; envision  s i t u a t i o n would i n c l u d e :  ( 2 ) what r e g u l a r i z e s  understand result  routines;  a n d ' ( 3 ) what  the i n t e r p r e t i v e procedures  used  participants  organization.  For  by t h e c h i l d r e n t o  t h e m e a n i n g s i n a c l a s s r o o m c u l t u r e a r e a s s u m e d t o be t h e  of the c h i l d r e n ' s understandings  organization dren's  d e s c r i p t i o n of  ( 1 ) what t a k e s p l a c e i n s i d e t h e  t o be a n a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l  the d e s c r i p t i o n ,  to i n t e r -  i n a classroom  setting.  of a s o c i a l  s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l  From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e c h i l -  s t a t e s o f e x i s t e n c e i n a c l a s s r o o m a r e ones i n w h i c h  ence and i n t e r p r e t themselves.  t h e many a n d c o n t i n u a l  they  impingements of d a i l y  experilife  Through s y s t e m a t i c q u e s t i o n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n f o r m -  a n t s , t h e p r e - c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s a b o u t t h e c l a s s r o o m c a n be e x a m i n e d ; the s u p e r f i c i a l accurate  Through t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , t h e n , an a t t e m p t  made t o document a s o c i a l l y A second with practical  problem  i n d o i n g an e t h n o g r a p h i c  study  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m c a n be e x a m i n e d .  The e t h n o g r a p h i c .purpose i s  and  so t h e y c a n be r e c o r d e d a n d v a l i d a t e d  routines and  The i n q u i r y and e v e n t s ;  includes children's  or r e p l i c a t i n g  practices  ( G a r f i n k e l , 1967,  contributions  to classroom  the ...relationship between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  the context of the s i t u a t i o n ;  and p a r t i c i p a n t s '  as a n e x p r e s s i o n o f a s h a r e d c u l t u r e  to study,  1 9 6 7 , p. 3 1 ) . Any o c c a s i o n  children's practices of structuring  31).  i s that of d e a l i n g  a c t i o n s ; what t h e y a r e , how t o make them a c c e s s i b l e  to i d e n t i f y  p.  c a n be  constructed reality.  and w h a t i s t o be l e a r n e d a b o u t them ( G a r f i n k e l ,  effects  and  i m p r e s s i o n s g a i n e d c a n g r a d u a l l y be r e p l a c e d w i t h more  insights.  whatsoever  upon  language  behavior  or talk  among c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Mehan,  53 1979, p. 10).  Conceptually, then, the children contributed to the  organization of classroom events because they and the teacher constructed the r e a l i t y by working together to formulate and construct the s o c i a l organization of the classroom which they know and understand as p a r t i c i pant S : A t h i r d problem i s that of i d e n t i f y i n g the ways participants of the class invoke rules with which to define the coherent or consistent or planful.  There are many organizations of common practices among members  of a class creating the classroom organizational phenomena.  Children  work to achieve their objectives i n the context of the teacher's objectives.  Children provide information to the teacher and to each other  verbally and non-verbally, and behave i n a sequential flow of classroom activity.  I needed to discover the rules f o r events, how different rules  apply to d i f f e r e n t events;  to discover and recognize differences between  situations known and understood by participants;  and to discover how  pupils produce behavior appropriate to each s i t u a t i o n . A fourth problem i n ethnographic studies i s the self-organizing nature of the s e t t i n g .  This requires the use of properties which are  recognized, used, produced, and talked about by participants rather than the use of a standard or rule obtained from outside.  The r a t i o n a l  properties, " e f f i c i e n c y , e f f i c a c y , effectiveness, i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , uniformity, r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of their everyday world" were sought (Garfinkel, 1967, p. 33).  In the search i t i s i s c r i t i c a l to establish  a role which f a c i l i t a t e s the c o l l e c t i o n of information and provides access to the children's interpretations of their world.  To do t h i s , I  needed to become someone with whom participants were w i l l i n g to share information.  It was imperative f o r me to become part of the l i f e world  54 that daily oriented participants. F i n a l l y , the study attempted  . ' to overcome the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent  in f i e l d ethnographies through the use of observation.  These d i f f i c u l -  t i e s are associated with the tendency to report anecdotal data providing only a few exemplary instances of behavior culled from the f i e l d notes; the lack of c r i t e r i a or grounds for interpreting data;  f a i l u r e to  achieve t y p i c a l i t y and representativeness by not preserving the materials upon which the analysis was  conducted;  and the convention of not r e t a i n -  ing the o r i g i n a l form of the materials (Mehan, 1979, p. 16). In the study, 35 mm photography and tape-recorded interviews were introduced i n an attempt to preserve the research materials and thereby allow extensive and repeated analysis.  These materials can be presented  along with the analyses to document the conclusions i n the study and thus allows for alternative interpretations. To overcome the lack of rigour suggested by the participant observer r o l e , a l l the photographs and a l l the transcripts can be presented.  In  addition the guiding p r i n c i p l e s of what Mehan (1979) describes as "constitutive ethnography" w i l l be used as c r i t e r i a . Constitutive ethnography.  The p r i n c i p l e s for constitutive  ethnog-  raphy place structures and structuring on an equal footing, and operate on the premise that s o c i a l structures are i n t e r a c t i o n a l accomplishments. In this study, an attempt i s made to show how  s o c i a l factors.of the class-  room world emerge from structuring work done by the participants themselves.  The question of how  the s o c i a l facts of the classroom world do  emerge and become external and constraining i s posed.  If these s o c i a l  facts become known as s o c i a l rules i n a setting they become part of the classroom world as one of the participants' making and beyond their  55 making  (Mehan, 1 9 7 9 , p. 1 7 ) . G u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s were a d o p t e d :  photographs, in  their  yzed;  interview transcripts  original  form;  (1) a l l data, m a t e r i a l s  and f i e l d  notes  (2) the e n t i r e corpus  and ( 3 ) t h e c u l t u r a l  event  during the course  a r e t o be r e t a i n e d  of m a t e r i a l s w i l l  be a n a l -  o r phenomenon t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r  upon a n a l y s i s must be a phenomenon t h a t a c t u a l l y of p a r t i c i p a n t s  gathered,  of t h e i r  locates  o r i e n t s the behavior  interaction  (Mehan, 1979, p.  23) . Research  Questions  The sions: 1.0  pre-formulated  questions  about procedure,  are presented  and q u e s t i o n s  i n two d i m e n -  about t h e s i t u a t i o n .  Procedure 1.1  What w e r e t h e p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e s e t t i n g ?  1.2  How c a n I a s r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r t h i s w o r l d a n d s h a r e this reality? What s h o u l d I do t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s among c h i l d r e n ? What was i t one h a d t o know t o g a i n a c c e p t a b i l i t y a s a member, how c o u l d I become c o m p e t e n t i n t h e t h i n g s members a r e e x p e c t e d t o be c o m p e t e n t i n ?  1.3 1.4  2.0  research questions  Situation 2.1 2.2  2.3  What m e a n i n g s d i d s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r g i v e t o p h y s i c a l arrangements of the classroom? What i s i t c h i l d r e n s h a r e w i t h e a c h o t h e r a b o u t c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s and r u l e s f o r b e h a v i o r ? a. What i s t h i s w o r l d o f c h i l d r e n ' s games, p l a y , a n d socialization? b. How do t h e y become k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f t h e s h a r e d meanings f o r o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and events? c. How much do c h i l d r e n r e v e a l a b o u t t h e s h a r e d w o r l d they l i v e i n , i n the day-to-day r o u t i n e s of school? How do y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v e s i n the classroom? a. What c o n s t i t u t e s c h i l d h o o d i n a p r i m a r y classroom? b. What was i t t h e t e a c h e r a n d c h i l d r e n saw t h e m s e l v e s doing?  56  Field  ature  there  What d i d i t mean t o l i v e o u t a day i n a c l a s s r o o m ? How do t h e c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l i n the classroom world?  as p a r t i c i p a n t  i s less  a n d how  importance  to the conduct  The  addition,  my  between  ensure  that  position  were  for that  my  a study  f i e l d work  or entry  to a  of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  t o have  amicable  these  good  invaded  by t h e p r e s e n c e  situ-  Because  relations  relations  with  were  f o r e n t r y was  the beginning  and m y s e l f . freedom  of the r e s e a r c h e r ;  o f t h e f i e l d work r e q u i r e d  o f m a i n t a i n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g  the teacher  For these  of a c t i o n  reassurances  amicable  of on-going  purposes,  relations. negotia-  I needed to  and t h e i n t e g r i t y  of her  maintained. e n t r y and e s t a b l i s h i n g  of information  example,  i n such  rules  of access  liter-  of the study.  the teacher's  Gaining tion  about from  i s much w r i t t e n i n t h e  t h e means o f d o i n g  ways o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  process request  about  the problem  the c o n t i n u i n g conduct  a continuous  There  the s o c i a l  t e a c h e r ' s p r i v a c y was  therefore,  tions  w r i t t e n about  i n the s e t t i n g ,  critical  and  observer.  to understand  i s of great  persons  In  d. e.  o f s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y  ation it  What s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s do c h i l d r e n g a t h e r t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s from o t h e r c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r ?  Work Entry  but  c.  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  acquaintance  the p a r t i c u l a r the s i t u a t i o n  a role  with  classroom  that  posed  facilitated  difficulties  the school p r i n c i p a l , and t e a c h e r  to take  who  part  was n o t a v o l u n t a r y one on t h e p a r t  the c o l l e c f o r me.  i n turn  For  arranged  i n t h e s t u d y meant of the classroom  57  teacher.  The t e a c h e r a p p e a r e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e f i e l d n o t e s  t h e p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n , a n d my p r e s e n c e My d i f f i c u l t i e s  of the teacher children. and  the class activities  c o n c e r n was m a n i f e s t e d  be s i t t i n g  i n my d a i l y  p a r t n e r o r group a c t i v i t i e s .  were s o l e l y  These c l a s s r o o m  t o my n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e The  observations  a p a r t i c i p a n t observer's  the classroom  perspec-  f o rthe f i r s t  i n d i v i d u a l and r a r e l y  characteristics  i n adopting  r o l e a n d i n c r e a s e d my i m a g e a s ' s t r a n g e r ' i n  The d e s k s were a r r a n g e d door.  contri-  part of t h e study.  c h i l d r e n ' s d e s k a r r a n g e m e n t was a m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y  the s e t t i n g .  of the  q u i e t l y on t a s k f o r t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l day  the observations that a c t i v i t i e s  buted  partly  t h e d e s i r e on t h e part  t h e need on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n — f r o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s  tive—to and  The l a t t e r  observer were  of class i n s t r u c t i o n ,  t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over  Although  e n o u g h f o r two a d u l t s t o p a s s , the back of t h e classroom  i n a diagonal fashion pointing to  t h e s p a c i n g b e t w e e n t h e r o w s was w i d e I spent  much o f my f i e l d t i m e s e a t e d a t  near t h e s i n k and cloakroom.  There were few  o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d t o me t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a n y p a r t i c i p a n t s . when t h e t e a c h e r minutes~the  left  the classroom—which  However,  was f r e q u e n t , a b o u t e v e r y t e n  c h i l d r e n w a t c h e d t o see: my r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r many  t i o n s a n d movements a r o u n d t h e room.  communica-  A non-reactive, non-judgemental  s t a n c e o n my p a r t a p p e a r e d t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g did  not i d e n t i f y myself  that I  with the teacher-role.  Another d i f f i c u l t y t e a c h e r ' s modus o p e r a n d i . the classroom  taken,  w i t h a degree o f wariness.  i n becoming a p a r t i c i p a n t  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the nature  being  i n g a i n i n g e n t r y came a b o u t a s a r e s u l t She m a i n t a i n e d  of the  a controlled d i s c i p l i n e of  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t I h e s i t a t e d t o l e a v e my s e a t a t t h e b a c k  o f t h e r o o m t o move i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p i n g  o f d e s k s t o engage them  58 in either  formal or i n f o r m a l communications.  s a t i o n was  w i t h a boy  The  only informal  conver-  s e a t e d a l o n e , a t t h e b a c k o f t h e room, n e a r  'my  place'. A third  difficulty  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was  i n g a i n i n g e n t r y and  t h e need f o r the c h i l d r e n t o behave q u i e t l y ,  t h a t i s , t o keep w r i t i n g , o b s t a c l e encountered  crayoning, or reading.  a c t i v i t y w i t h a p a r t n e r and  to work t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l groups.  d i f f i c u l t y meant t h a t I h a d the c h i l d r e n ' s l i f e  participant. field  notes  as t h e y focus  I attempted  (by t h e t e a c h e r )  result.  I was  their  activities  throughout  I asked  the  t a l k , teacher  On  A l l of  onlooker. non-  setting  a classroom  day.  The  the b a s i s of these notes  occur-  i n v e s t i g a t e d , f o r example,  e i t h e r i n or out and  my  t o i n s y s t e m a t i c ways  of the  classroom.  extensive f i e l d and  notes  observations I  t h a t t a k i n g p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m w o u l d i n c r e a s e my with children.  to  initiating  o b s e r v a t i o n s were the k i n d s of e v e n t s ,  However, d u r i n g t h i s t i m e m e t i c u l o u s were c o l l e c t e d .  able  last  t o a s k q u e s t i o n s b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s i n  exchanges i n the c l a s s r o o m  to student  and  an o b s e r v e r , a n  t h a t the c h i l d r e n appeared to respond  f o r t h e i n q u i r y and  teacher  f o r example,  f o r a time, the k i n d s of o b s e r v a t i o n s were  c a r r i e d out  r e n c e s , and  not  This  f o r c h i l d r e n t o w o r k on a t a s k i n a g r o u p .  a result,  observed  world.  these e f f o r t s were without As  they were not  f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y .  a l t e r n a t i v e s to the teacher;  to arrange  the  to devise other a l t e r n a t i v e s to gain entry  group a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n teacher  task,  a fourth  T h i s meant t h e r e s e a r c h e r was  group of c h i l d r e n e i t h e r  I suggested  Finally,  on  d u r i n g t h e week o f o b s e r v a t i o n , a r o s e b e c a u s e  c h i l d r e n r a r e l y d i d any  t o j o i n any  participant-observer status  realized  participation  I n o t h e r w o r d s , p i c t u r e s p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  59 dialogue w i t h the students.  This proved  rapher-participant-observer facilitated about d a i l y of the  life  r o u t i n e s and  r o l e of  photog-  the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n  provided entry i n t o the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  observation.  of the group, I attempted  I n my  to i n t e r p r e t  group w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g an a t t i t u d e o f beliefs  atic  The  classroom. Participant  not  useful.  and  assumptions about c l a s s r o o m  concern  to gain the shared  the c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n of the  the classroom  life.  life.  To  this  I  The  a c t i v i t i e s which were c a r r i e d  attempted  r a t h e r I made p r o b l e m social  out day  the teacher appeared c l e a r  w e r e known t o t h e  by day  life  r e c i p e s ' of shared  t o them.  According  to  by  Alfred  'trustworthy  activities  ( S c h u t z , 1973,  p •. 33) .•  The  ideas or background expectancies  e x i s t e d not  any  one  originated in social action i n  c h i l d b u t were s u s t a i n e d and  the r a t i o n a l i t y  problematic nature of s i t u a t i o n s of s o c i a l a c t i o n .  of knowledge i n d a i l y attempted  life  the s e t t i n g .  a c t i o n s and  i n their world  the  of the  socially non-  i s a " c o n t i n u a l accom-  These then were t h e i r  'trustworthy recipes'  activities.  to discover these  meaning to the p a r t i c i p a n t s  of t h e i r  ;  s i m p l y i n the mind  I n t h e i r w o r l d , the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e or  constructed r e a l i t y ,  I  the  knowledge w h i c h s e r v e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l schemes f o r  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r d a i l y  plishment  in  children.  i n the classroom  s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e the p a r t i c i p a n t s used  setting.  of  p r o c e e d e d r o u t i n e l y b e c a u s e t h e commonsense i d e a s a b o u t w h a t  happening i n the s o c i a l scenes I observed  Schutz'  do  That i s to say,'the  was  c h i l d r e n and  social  'not k n o w i n g ' o r a s u s p e n s i o n  t o impose a s o c i a l o r d e r upon t h e s i t u a t i o n ; the s o c i a l o r d e r of d a i l y  meanings  'trustworthy r e c i p e s ' which  f o r t h e i r day  I also continued  t o day  the a t t i t u d e of  gave  a c t i o n s and  events  'not k n o w i n g '  and  in  60 questioned  nearly everything  of the approached group. just  an  onlooker.  particular The  environmental  cultural  in-group  t h e new  c u l t u r a l pattern acquired  immersion I faced w h i l e  trying  could trust their  c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t o be n a t u r a l ;  Secondly, the  in-group  saw  a s t a r t i n g p o i n t t o t a k e my the  c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n and  the  "new  'stranger'  then,  To  the  in-group  i n t i m a c y , my  which to the t u d e s on my  p.  35).  could not  a s s u m e t h a t my  my  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  in-group  seemed v e r y  simple,  p a r t toward the group.  attitudes provided  me  Following this  presented  and  two  (Schutz, Role  study  I had  p.  falling  a more d e f i n e d r o l e g i v e n formal  atti-  The  yet  two  c u l t u r e " w i t h c a r e and i n t o a web  elements preci-  or ''labyrinth of bearings  and  orien-  37).  of p a r t i c i p a n t observer.  outcome of the  of  ' s t r a n g e r ' needed t o examine a l l the  same t i m e n o t  1973,  kinds  matters  tension.  m e a n i n g s " i n w h i c h I m i g h t h a v e l o s t a l l s e n s e o f my tation  of  to the teacher.  w i t h a degree of s o c i a l  growing knowledge of the classroom  s i o n " w h i l e at the  distrust  I h o p e d t o a p p e a r o b j e c t i v e and  to the students  I , as  in-group"  manoeuvres w i t h a m b i v a l e n c e between remote-  h e s i t a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y , and  a t t h e same t i m e l o y a l  o f my  1973,  as  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as  c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e members o f t h e  (p. 35). n e s s and  (Schutz,  bearings.  i t s recipes  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f " a u n i t o f c o i n c i d i n g schemes o f  I as  t o become  t h e b a s i s o f a scheme o f o r i e n -  unable to get  expression"  a  e x p l a i n e d on  w h e r e a s I was  w e l l as  not  character.  p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r can be The  u n q u e s t i o n e d t o t h e members  I became a w o u l d - b e - m e m b e r o f t h e g r o u p and  Gradually,  gradual  tation.  t h a t seemed t o b e  During t o me  the by  last  the  t e n days of  teacher  i n t e r v i e w held w i t h the teacher;  as a  that of  the  direct teacher  61 aide.  This changing  participant classroom  observer  life.  r o l e was a d o p t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f and i n g a i n i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  T h e new r o l e came a b o u t when I a s k e d  i f I could  r o c a t e t h e t e a c h e r ' s h e l p and c o o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e study by d o i n g f o r h e r each  of her reciptasks  afternoon.  I t was d i f f i c u l t  f o r me t o m a i n t a i n my r o l e w h i l e my  were d i r e c t e d by t h e t e a c h e r . the classroom,  On t h e o n e h a n d , t h e c o n t i n u e d  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r photographing  s h o t s , and t h e f u r t h e r understanding  children's  access t o suggested  t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d be excused t o  h e l p w i t h t h e a i m o f t h e r e s e a r c h more t h a n of t h e teacher a i d e r o l e .  activities  compensated f o r t h e chores  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r o l e  a p p e a r e d t o s t r e n g t h e n my r a p p o r t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ;  as t e a c h e r  aide  w h i l e a t t h e same  t i m e my r a p p o r t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o w e a k e n . The  teacher-directed activities  g i v e n t o me i n c l u d e d c a r d i n g b o o k s  i n the l i b r a r y , h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n s e l e c t books, working just and  r e t u r n e d f r o m New Z e a l a n d , s p e l l i n g papers, The  observer-photographer  making w a l l c h a r t s , marking a r i t h m e t i c  and d e c o r a t i n g a b u l l e t i n  instances wherein  w i t h a b o y who h a d  I tried  board.  t o m a i n t a i n my r o l e a s p a r t i c i p a n t -  i n c l u d e d a F r i d a y when t h e t e a c h e r  marking w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n read s i l e n t l y .  assigned  Then t h e t e a c h e r  me  told the  c h i l d r e n s h e w o u l d be o u t o f t h e room f o r a w h i l e and I w o u l d be t h e r e . H o w e v e r , I s t a t e d s t a u n c h l y , t h a t I was " n o t i n c h a r g e . " In another  i n s t a n c e , I h a d b e e n away f r o m t h e s e t t i n g f o r two d a y s  because t h e whole s c h o o l had been i n v o l v e d i n a m u s i c a l . w h e r e I h a d b e e n , C. r e m i n d e d me t h a t i t was h e r b i r t h d a y .  Children I had  i n t e n d e d t o t a k e C's p i c t u r e , b u t t h e r o l e o f t e a c h e r a i d e t o o k d e n c e b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r b e g a n t o d i r e c t my a c t i v i t i e s .  asked  prece-  When t h e  62 class  l i n e d up  t o go  to the l i b r a r y ,  t h e t e a c h e r a s k e d me  books.  L a t e r I was  a b l e t o h e l p C.  select  that  d i d not  she  like  evidence of h o s t i l i t y  the books. toward  b i r t h d a y o r b e c a u s e o f my In a f i n a l while  either  instance,  kept  saying  there  was  remembered  her  aide.  t h e c h i l d r e n c h a t t e d and w e r e q u i t e n o i s y  that  I was  I t o o k p i c t u r e s and  caught,  twice  i n t h e m i d d l e , maybe t h e y  read! As  a result,  'secret  language'  indifferent  the l a s t  i n t e r v i e w w i t h two  b e t w e e n them was  t o w a r d me  take p i c t u r e s of t h e i r  i n c l u d e d my  'secret  name w h i c h was  Finally, a l l o w e d me the r e s t  language'  i t was  the code i n t h e  shared a  collect  appeared  When I a s k e d they  one  of  to  no which  tongue.  'secret  language'  These were t a k e n i n the c l a s s r o o m w h i l e The  following  day  the  girls  photographs.  t h e f o r m o f d a t a t o be c o l l e c t e d ; these data;  the q u e s t i o n s I would notes.  f o r the f i r s t  knew  Procedures  I planned  Field  They  I t o o k some p i c t u r e s ,  o f g i r l s who  to take photographs.  and L., who  evident that  connoted w i t h a s t u c k out  another group  Data-Gathering  C.  successful.  o f t h e c l a s s went t o t h e l i b r a r y .  identified  I would  not  girls,  and made many n e g a t i v e comments.  l o n g e r w a n t e d t o d i v u l g e t o o much.  and  b e c a u s e I had n o t  t h e t e a c h e r was o u t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m .  should  She  considered that  r o l e of teacher  commented t o t h e c h i l d r e n  a  me  I t was  books.  to help w i t h  week.  The  the s e t t i n g s  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h whom I w o u l d  ask i n the  n o t e s were  gathered  These were o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,  They w e r e t h e e v e n t s  listening,  chronological  interact;  interviews.  non-participant field  topical.  i n which  I experienced through watching  f o r the events  in a  'passing parade',  and and stated  63 w i t h as l i t t l e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as p o s s i b l e .  As s u e h , t h e y p r o v i d e d  w i t h t h e b a s e s f o r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f what I h a d o b s e r v e d . of the s c e n i c p r o p e r t i e s i n the parade of observed tively  repetitive later  i n my r e s e a r c h .  events  me  A l s o , some  became  These notes were  rela-  topical,  t h e y d e p i c t e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s and t e a c h e r ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g and p r o v i d e d  t o p i c s f o r q u e s t i o n s t o be answered.  The n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d ical  and p r o c e d u r a l f i e l d  tive interpretations,  notes  notes  w e r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h my  as w e l l .  F o r example, t h e r e were t e n t a -  i n f e r e n c e s , c o n j e c t u r e s , and t e n t a t i v e  These notes were a l s o i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h p r o c e d u r a l n o t e s , i n s t r u c t i o n s to myself and  or reminders  theoret-  hypotheses.  these were  t o c o n d u c t some a c t .  The  theoretical  p r o c e d u r a l notes were u s u a l l y w r i t t e n a f t e r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s .  For example, I asked without  How  can I get the students  d i s r u p t i n g the routine of the classroom  teacher? Should  myself:  Should  t o t a l k t o me  as p e r c e i v e d by t h e  I g i v e t h e boy s e a t e d a l o n e a l o n g y e l l o w p e n c i l ?  I c o n s i d e r t h i s boy a key i n f o r m a n t Other q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h e i n i t i a l  b e c a u s e h e h a s mumbled t o me? stages  of the study  (1) What w e r e t h e p h y s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e s e t t i n g ? a p r i o r i judgements about classroom ments and t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p i n g s  included:  I suspended  arrangements, teacher-student  o f m a t e r i a l s and f u r n i t u r e .  The  movesignif-  i c a n c e o f t h e s e e v e n t s , m a t e r i a l s , a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s was q u e s t i o n e d . e x a m p l e , i t was n o t e d of the classroom cloakroom  t h a t t h e desks were arranged  doors,  one  a b o y was s e a t e d away f r o m t h e g r o u p , a g a i n s t t h e  d o o r jamb, n e a r t h e r o u n d t a b l e a t t h e b a c k o f t h e room where I  was d e s i g n a t e d  tos i t .  Another q u e s t i o n I began t o pose t o m y s e l f ers  d i a g o n a l l y toward  For  e n t e r t h i s w o r l d and share  this  reality?  was  (2)  How  can r e s e a r c h -  The o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e  i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l n o t e s and p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and answers f o r t h e observed p a r t i c i p a n t a c t i o n s . in  an i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n u s i n g n o n - v e r b a l  each o t h e r . question  I conjectured  i n my f i e l d  c h i l d r e n ' s world?  notes,  munications  physical  I u s e d my f i n g e r o v e r my mouth t o These i n s t a n c e s  ( 4 ) What s h o u l d  r a i s e d two q u e s t i o n s i n  I do t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  field  n o t e s g a v e me a l i s t  Finally,  o f what  a p p e a r e d t o be  the f i e l d  notes provided  significant  t h e b a s i s f o r some  t o be p o s e d i n some f a s h i o n t o c l a s s r o o m  minds about what Following  i s e x p e c t e d and a l l o w e d " this,  the observation  b a s e d on t h e u n d e r l y i n g science.  (Wilson,  techniques  I must h a v e a t h e o r e t i c a l  reality.  p a r t i c i p a n t s i nthe  used i n t h e study  were  grasp of the problem i n order  These o b s e r v a t i o n s  In addition, I charted  w e r e deemed t o c o n -  observations  a n d c h e c k e d on  These a c t i o n s were f o u n d e d on t h e i d e a o f phenomenology theoretical  concep-  t o conduct the study.  I n summary, I p l a n n e d a n d u s e d o b s e r v a t i o n participant  i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s  1 9 7 7 , p. 2 4 7 ) .  t h e a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t I p o s s e s s e d t h e n e c e s s a r y  taulization  forty  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n adopted g e n e r a l l y f o r use i n  make r e l e v a n t o b s e r v a t io.ns.  observations. and  o f t h e com-  classroom?  a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r what w e r e t h e " i n t e r n a l i z e d n o t i o n s  stitute  enter the  a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e s e t t i n g w h i c h c o u l d be p h o t o g r a p h e d ( s e e  questions  to  caused a  among c h i l d r e n ? a n d ( 5 ) What i s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r u l e f o r  Appendix A ) .  social  with  I n t h e s e c o n d i n s t a n c e , a b o y a p p r o a c h e d me a t t h e  a p p r o a c h i n g an a d u l t i n t h e i r The  This  ( 3 ) How c o u l d I a s r e s e a r c h e r  d i r e c t him back t o h i s seat. notes:  language t o communicate  i t was t o s h a r e a n s w e r s .  r o u n d t a b l e w h e r e I was s e a t e d .  my f i e l d  F o r example, I observed  nature.  Some q u e s t i o n s  field  notes of a non-  were posed and s u b s e q u e n t l y  answered  65 as m o r e t i m e was s p e n t  o b s e r v i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and g a i n i n g  observer  status i n the setting. Still  photography.  photography. daily l i f e  I t was d e c i d e d  activities  of classroom  Data were a l s o c o l l e c t e d by t h e use o f  life'  t o u s e p h o t o g r a p h y a s a way o f c a p t u r i n g  i n the classroom  and t o u s e p h o t o s as a ' d i s p l a y  that provided - opportunity f o r interaction..  p h o t o g r a p h y a l l o w e d me a c c e s s  t o events  i n the classroom.  t h e c a m e r a became ' p a r t i c i p a n t c a m e r a ' . r a p h y t o document e v e n t s entry to  events  a n d (2)  life  The  T h i s meant  The r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i n g  a s t h e y o c c u r r e d was t w o f o l d :  i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s everyday  the researcher;  still  (1)  photog-  to provide  as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n  t o provide a documentation of  classroom  that I could share w i t h students.  The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r t h e  p h o t o g r a p h y was t o u n c o v e r t h e i m p o r t a n t  frameworks t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e  t e a c h e r used f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g and d e f i n i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m objects  c a m e r a a s ' p a r t i c i p a n t c a m e r a ' h e l p e d me a s ' s t r a n g e r ' i n t h e  s i t u a t i o n and r e s o l v e d t h e e n t r y d i f f i c u l t i e s ; the s i t u a t i o n ;  of the students.  observations.  I had e n t e r e d  camera as ' p a r t i c i p a n t  the shift  'life-  the classroom w i t h the i n t e n t i o n  r o l e b a s e d o n d i a l o g u e and p e r s o n a l  Because of the.apparent  r o u t i n e s , my e n t r y a s s t r a n g e r was The  i t p r o v i d e d me a c c e s s t o  and i t c r e a t e d a f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e  of adopting a p a r t i c i p a n t observer's  and  and  photographed.  The  world'  events  c o n t r o l l i n g nature of  classroom  difficult.  camera' r e s o l v e d t h e e n t r y  difficulties  t o p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r s t a t u s t o o k p l a c e when I e s t a b l i s h e d  the r o l e of ethnographer-photographer.  This r o l e enabled  i n f o r m a t i o n - o b s e r v a t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s w i t h camera and pen. as p a r t i c i p a n t '  p r o v i d e d immediate access  to the s i t u a t i o n .  me t o c o l l e c t The  'camera  When  66 photographing, to  students  mented. the  I was  and  The  allowed  teachers,  l a r g e e n o u g h body o f  a frame of r e f e r e n c e  ise  speak  briefly  sequences of events I docu-  verbal.  i n f o r m a t i o n to form p a t t e r n s items,  for later  and  I could gather later  i n the  a l l circumstances.  in-depth t o be  with  These  a  research, provided  interviews with children.  p h o t o g r a p h e d was  b a s e d on  the  prem-  t h a t c e r t a i n phenomena a p p e a r i n q u a n t i t i e s l a r g e e n o u g h t o make  events, to  The  the  earlier  first  step  e v e n t s and i n the  adopt a p o s i t i o n Stoddart a domain but The  to s u r f a c e role  t o o k e v e n t s as Later  to form p a t t e r n s  ".  the p e r s p e c t i v e  came and  study  as  final  i n the  notes.  during  To  .. n o t  t o make a  classroom do  this  i n an  opportunis-  I attempted  n a t i v e to i t " (Stoddart,  c h i l d r e n had  i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c  divulged  on  1978-79, and  undefined.  their  'secret  m e t h o d o l o g y was  programmed  languages were documented p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y t o be  to  ' p a r t i c i p a n t camera'  p h o t o g r a p h e d them d e f i n e d o r  when t h e  photo-  to impose a p e r s p e c t i v e  s u g g e s t e d was  c h i l d r e n suggested c a t e g o r i e s  that  significant  photographically  m e t h o d o l o g y was  objects  suggests:  second step  grammed s a m p l i n g  sively,  they  When t h e s e  The  were g a t h e r e d  information  field  of camera, then,  i n the  languages' the sampling.  notes,  i n the photographic  r e c o r d of the  when t h e  field  t h e most  pat-  process.  t i c m a n n e r , as p r o v i d e d  3).  T h i s meant t h a t o n l y  a l a r g e e n o u g h body o f  research  graphic  culture surface.  b a s e d on  provide  the  I  the  as w e l l as  s e l e c t i o n o f what was  t e r n s of the  p.  to organize  visual  a l l material  The  and  room f r e e l y ,  'camera as p a r t i c i p a n t ' a l s o meant t h a t m y i h t e r a c t i o n  c l a s s s i t u a t i o n was  including  t o move a r o u n d t h e  and  photographed I used the  pro-  techniques. step  i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c  m e t h o d was  to photograph  i s I randomly documented ahead of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  digresawareness.  67 The  o p p o r t u n i s t i c p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n as e v e n t s  f l o w e d w i t h t h e day. #2,  and  ings:  #3.  Roll  speed d r i l l ; assigned  out of the classroom;  the c l a s s working  volunteers helping with a fitness test; the r e s e a r c h desk;  journals; The  second r o l l  picture closer two  in;  a girl  The  third  roll  o f c h i l d r e n and  teacher  S p e l l e r s " area.  ities. indicated  b o y s who  T h i s r o l l was  the  strip;  the  boys i n the r e a d i n g armchair; at the student's  desk;  at the  the  a boy  reading  standing while giving  of a s i n g l e  a t work on an a r i t h m e t i c d r i l l ;  In addition,  needed t o be u s e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s h o t s  later  out  morning  s e v e r a l shots and  notes  the  "Super  taken  i n the  some a f t e r n o o n  activ-  p o o r l y e x p o s e d when r e t u r n e d f r o m p r o c e s s i n g  b l a c k and w h i t e .  at  camera.  ' r e s e r v e d book' box;  w e e k , i n c l u d i n g m o r n i n g and  same  the teacher  the c l a s s w i t h the teacher the  eleven  t h a t I o u g h t t o u s e more b a c k - u p s h o t s i n b o t h k i n d s o f  t u r e s , c o l o u r and  the  area.  were i n a  T h e s e p i c t u r e s w e r e b a s e d on f i e l d  f o r the f i r s t  their  the blue carpet  of f i l m taken d u r i n g the course girls  from  at  the teacher's desk;  a p i c t u r e of the c l a s s l o o k i n g i n t o  c o n s i s t e d o f b o y s and  classroom  strip  l o o k i n g at a b u l l e t i n board;  i n the c l a s s were s e a t e d ; and,  and  t a l k i n g t o two  the teacher  an a r i t h m e t i c  taken a f t e r a recess c o n s i s t e d of  girls  p i c t u r e s o f two  the blackboard;  books;  of f i l m two  while  the boxes f o r language a r t s , a r i t h m e t i c ,  the reserved books;  pictures depicting:  others  t h e c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g "gym  #1,  happen-  the c h i l d r e n working  c h i l d r e n r e t u r n i n g f r o m washrooms w e a r i n g  armchair;  chair;  after recess  the teacher beginning  on t h e d r i l l ;  and  c o n s i s t e d of r o l l s  p i c t u r e s p o r t r a y e d d u r i n g and  arithmetic tasks;  cloakroom;  and  #1  life  the c h i l d r e n were photographed i n f o r m a l l y d u r i n g r e c e s s ;  t h e t e a c h e r was  parent  T h e s e d i s p l a y s .of d a i l y  developed  the f l a s h  and  pic-  attachment  i n the i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s .  68 I n t h e s e c o n d week o f r e s e a r c h , I t o o k p i c t u r e s t o augment t h e p i c t u r e s space next  taken e a r l i e r .  i n the school l i b r a r y , day.  I also arranged  a n d made p l a n s t o i n t e r v i e w c h i l d r e n t h e  first.  I n t h e t h i r d week o f t h e s t u d y , t h e n e x t g r o u p cluded photographing f o r these were: pictures;  the children's  suggested  of t h e i r  individuals.  classroom l i f e ;  photographs  and ( 3 ) p h o t o g r a p h s  These s u g g e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d an anchor  s t u d y on my p a r t .  In t o t a l ,  suggested  forlater  discus-  w e r e known i n a d v a n c e .  photographs  t a k e n were o f s i t u a t i o n s  frameworks and t h e i r c o n c e p t s everyday  maps' o r s o c i a l  lives.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  ( W i l s o n , 1 9 7 7 , p. 2 5 6 ) . on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  ( W i l s o n , 1 9 7 7 , p. 2 5 6 ) w e r e u s e d  techniques which  reflected  day w o r l d o f t h e c h i l d r e n photographs  s i t u a t i o n which  i n the f i e l d  of the p a r t i c -  to develop photographic  the research i n t e r e s t ; situation  provided a representative  'mental  t o me b y t h e c h i l d r e n .  sampling  t o d i s c o v e r the everystudied . -  sample o f t h e c l a s s r o o m  e n a b l e d me t o g e t a t h i d d e n o r u n e x p r e s s e d  t o become i n v o l v e d  significant  An e f f o r t was made t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e s e  c o n s t r u c t s as t h e y w e r e s u g g e s t e d  In  cognitive  o f w h a t was  These " f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l p s y c h i c s c h e d u l e s and g e o g r a p h i e s  The  the e a r l i e r  t h i s meant w h a t , w h e r e , a n d when t o s h o o t  o t h e r words, t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were based  ipants"  The s o u r c e s  They a l s o p r o v i d e d a means f o r c o n j e c t u r e - a n d  "various experiences of the p a r t i c i p a n t s "  their  categories.  ( 1 ) w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n u s e d when t h e y s o r t e d  sions with the c h i l d r e n .  in  of procedures i n -  ( 2 ) what t h e c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be m i s s i n g f r o m an a c c u r -  ate p o r t r a y a l  The  f o r interview  I i n t e r v i e w e d t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose names I h a d l e a r n e d t h r o u g h  observation  by  i n b l a c k and w h i t e  i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s .  meanings and  69 Further photographic procedures took place at the end of the t h i r d week.  At this time children were again interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n  groups of twos and threes.  They were asked to interpret a l l the photo-  graphs taken (except for the sign languages) and, furthermore, they were asked to indicate to me what i t was I may have forgotten to photograph when I took the many pictures of their classroom. The l a s t photographic sampling procedures used i n the study were digressive.  This involved moving beyond the suggested categories  provided by the children or the o r i g i n a l l y defined scope for the early photography  and deliberately looking for the unanticipated.  To do this  I looked for shots beyond the s i t u a t i o n peripheral to my attention;  the  novel, however incoherent and i n s i g n i f i c a n t ;  The  and for the unknown.  results were a great number of photographs which were used by the c h i l dren to describe their day i n the classroom (Sorenson & Jablonko, 1 9 7 5 , pp.  154-155).  In summary, the role of photography i n the study was d i r e c t l y concerned with uncovering the meanings for the everyday events i n the c l a s s room.  When the photos were used i n the interview sessions they provided  a display for dialogue with students.  As a r e s u l t , the pictures made  interviewing easier and more productive because they provided a basis for dialogue. etic.  In addition, they were synchronic, that i s both emic and  By emic i s meant the i n t e r n a l view or t h e o r e t i c a l construct  determined during analysis;  whereas e t i c i s meant units and c l a s s i f i c a -  tions based on prior sampling before one begins the analysis of a p a r t i c u l a r culture (Pike, K. W., versus discovery of a system.  1966).  In essence i t i s the creation  F i n a l l y , the photographs documented  events that were too complex to be i d e n t i f i e d through my observation.  Children's  interpretations.  d r e n made o f t h e f i r s t  rolls  The k i n d s  o f p i c t u r e s were used t o g a i n r a p p o r t  the  c h i l d r e n and t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  for  the kinds  the  on-going i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  of questions  interpretations earlier they  The quality  they  sources field  notes  made o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e o n - g o i n g  of categories  by  t h e c h i l d r e n u s e d when  c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p i c t u r e s means t h e ' o p e n - e n d e d opportunity  was e x p l o i t e d f o r t h i s v e r y  T h e r e was t h e f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y  recorded.  Finally,  me t h e i r The  perspectives  as  particitape  t o have c h i l d r e n communicate  'insiders'.  of the ' i n s i d e r '  dren i n t e r p r e t e d the photographs.  was p r o v i d e d  I kept  c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d human b e h a v i o r  work w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s (Wilson,  character-  the v a l i d i t y of  These d e s c r i p t i o n s were  t h e r e was t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  perspective  scientist  to increase  when t h e p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e shown t o t h e  p a n t s and t h e i r answers were r e c o r d e d .  actions"  with  photographs.  f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s  to  The  t h e y made o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e a n s w e r s p r o v i d e d  of photographic  istic.  of their world.  a s k e d them w e r e t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t  i n t e r v i e w s , and t h e k i n d s  grouped  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s the c h i l -  i n m i n d t h a t ". . . t h e s o c i a l without  interpret their  1 9 7 7 , p. 2 4 9 ) .  t o me when t h e c h i l -  understanding  thoughts,  t h e frame  f e e l i n g s , and  T h i s meant, t h e d e f i n i t i o n  of a  social  s i t u a t i o n a s d e p i c t e d by t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was how t h e c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e d it.  This  perceived  d e f i n i t i o n was a b a s i c component o f t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ' s organization.  During  the interview sessions  I h a d as a m a i n i n t e r e s t  for  s t r u c t u r e s o f members' k n o w l e d g e .  the  logic  and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s made by t h e c h i l d r e n .  the search  An a t t e m p t was made t o u n c o v e r  o f e v e r y d a y d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n by c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , In the search,  a t t e n t i o n was  directed as  to the 'competencies'  the c h i l d r e n ' s  practices  t i c e s which allowed c h i l d r e n  the c h i l d r e n held.  These were  defined  f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e w o r l d and t h o s e to encounter s e t t i n g s ,  to o r g a n i z e knowledge about the e v e n t s , o b j e c t s ,  to explore  and p e o p l e  prac-  them, a n d  i nthe  settings. Children's  categorizations.  of  t h e s e t t i n g by c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s  to  sort  t h e e v e n t s and o b j e c t s  and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  T h i s meant t h e v a l i d i t y  it  was t e s t e d  against  be d e r i v e d  cedures they used i n c o n s t r u c t i n g  that  to r e a l i z e and  social  used by t h e c h i l d r e n  and e s o t e r i c .  Each c o u l d  greater children  causality,  construc-  the corpus rather, Concern  1 9 7 5 , p. 5 1 ) a n d a c k n o w l -  meaning.  to sort  the pictures  were  B e c a u s e t h e y w e r e so a t y p i c a l I came the children's  be d i f f e r e n t f o r many r e a s o n s .  c o n t e x t o f t h e s t u d y , d e s i g n a t e d t o be d e s c r i p t i v e than t o i n f e r  participants  t h e c h i l d r e n made, b u t i n t h e p r o -  t h e magnitude and v a r i e t y w i t h i n  categories.  against  from a s e t t i n g ;  them" ( S i l v e r ,  edges t h e p r o c e s s I used t o i n t e r p r e t  used  and I p a r t i c i p a t e d .  everyday experiences of the c h i l d r e n .  i n the formulations  unusual, diverse,  These were  o f t h e i n q u i r y was n o t t e s t e d  knowledge which c o u l d  categories  f o r t h e way  i n which both the c h i l d r e n  scientific  The  insights  i n the classroom.  of  was " n o t o n l y  descriptions  the k i n d s of groups the c h i l d r e n  t h e p h o t o g r a p h s p r o v i d e d me w i t h  def i n e d tions  In the search f o r the  In the  and e x p l o r a t o r y  t h e d i v e r s i t y was a c c e p t e d .  rather  Thereafter, the  r e l i a n c e was p l a c e d on t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d a b o u t what h a d b e e n m i s s e d o r n o t i n c l u d e d  groupings  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i n the photographs.  During the l a s t to  two d a y s o f t h e s t u d y I t o o k a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n  t h e l i b r a r y who h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d  who c o u l d a f f o r d  t o miss  by t h e t e a c h e r t o be  being i n class  during a  They l o o k e d a t a l a r g e g r o u p o f p i c t u r e s w h i c h c a t e g o r i e s , and p e o p l e dren. as  individuals,  t h e y moved t h e p i c t u r e s a r o u n d  why s/he h a d c h o s e n t h e p i c t u r e s  s/he d i d .  p a r t n e r s , t h e c h i l d r e n made up t h e i r  l e a v e o u t any p i c t u r e s  responses. portrayal  they wished.  I n a group o f f o u r ,  chil-  they were asked  day.  sively.  I recorded  their  out a day i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .  they had checked  their  c h o i c e s and t h e s e  to include other  through  To do  pictures  a l l of the extra  pic-  had augmented t h e r o l l s  i n the study, o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y ,  programmed, and d i g r e s -  'group d a y ' was r e c o r d e d .  The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d  t i o n w h i l e the c h i l d r e n the photographs  identified,  which  interpreted,  documented t h e i r  t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were e n t w i n e d  procedures,  responses.  which  The c h i l d r e n ' s  events.  described  Here a g a i n , they c o u l d  they had.  Then t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d  Interviews.  everyday  child  Then t h e y d e s c r i b e d what t h e p h o t o s  t u r e s and t h e albums o f t h e v a r i o u s p h o t o s taken i n i t i a l l y  Then e a c h  t o d e s c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t  they wanted t o a f t e r  t o a d d a n d make up  t h e c h i l d r e n made up a d e s c r i p t i o n o r  o f what i t meant t o l i v e  were r e c o r d e d .  and  t o me b y o t h e r  I coded these  meant a n d why t h e y h a d i n c l u d e d t h e p i c t u r e s  ally  objects,  as p a r t n e r s , a n d a s a g r o u p o f f o u r .  s c h o o l day.  if  included events,  performing a c t i o n s suggested  what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i r  this  arts lesson.  The g r o u p o f y o u n g s t e r s w e r e s e t t a s k s f o r a r r a n g i n g t h e p i c t u r e s  Individually,  In  language  youngsters  Together  to observe,  t h e y were used  collect  to gather  informa-  and c a t e g o r i z e d c o n c e p t u -  setting.  The u s e o f t h e p h o t o s  i n t h e i r mutual to develop  foci,  t o uncover  the photographic  d a t a , make d i s c o v e r i e s ,  and t o d e v e l o p  73 provisional The  hypotheses.  Children's Schedules,  A. a n d B. ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) w e r e u s e d a s a  starting point f o r the interviews; meanings;  as a procedure f o r g a t h e r i n g  a s a means t o d i s c o v e r w h a t was a l l o w e d  classroom;  a n d a s a means o f u n c o v e r i n g  shared  and n o t a l l o w e d  i nthe  deeper p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r e s  u n d e r l y i n g c h i l d r e n ' s everyday a c t i o n s i n t h e s e t t i n g . The gather  T e a c h e r ' s S c h e d u l e C. ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) was a l s o d e v e l o p e d t o  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e shared  actions i n t h e classroom. to the teacher the  study.  meanings and r u l e s f o r d e c i s i o n s and  The p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m  when s h e was f o r m a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t d a y s o f  Again,  the f o c i  f o r the interview questions  t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was t o u n c o v e r t h e c l a s s r o o m shared  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e t t i n g , The  c u l t u r e as u n d e r s t o o d and  c h i l d r e n , and t h e t e a c h e r .  The f i r s t  g r o u p was w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n .  s e c o n d s e r i e s was w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e c l a s s , w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d a s many a s t h r e e  times  I h a d some c o n s t r a i n t s p l a c e d  The  some c h i l d r e n  t h e f i v e weeks. and l e s s e n e d  rap-  r o l e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n .  o n my f i e l d w o r k b y t h e t e a c h e r ,  these  l e n g t h o f t i m e t o be spent w i t h c h i l d r e n ( i t had f a r exceeded t h e  15 m i n u t e p e r i o d s u g g e s t e d ) ; a second and t h i r d and  during  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n s t r a i n e d by space, time,  p o r t due t o a c h a n g e i n my p e r c e i v e d  were:  and t h e use o f  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n t o o k p l a c e o v e r t h e f i v e week  d u r a t i o n of the study.  The  w e r e shown  time;  whether p a r t i c u l a r  whether t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d be i n t e r v i e w e d  where t h e c h i l d r e n were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ;  c h i l d r e n c o u l d be excused from t h e  classroom.  T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s i n c r e a s e d b y t h e e n d o f t h e s e c o n d week o f t h e study.  F o r example, t h e teacher  during specific  subject  times  began t o l i m i t  i n the classroom,  i n t e r v i e w s t o be h e l d e.g., mathematics and  74 math d r i l l .  In addition, she would not allow children who  finished t h e i r work to leave for interviews. dren who  had not  F i n a l l y , the three c h i l -  also shared a 'secret language' (the fourth) could not be taken  out of class to have their code photographed.  However, these constraints  began to lessen after an interview with the teacher.  They lessened  further when I made my v i s i t s during the afternoons, and they were almost gone by the time I had spent the l a s t week of the study as a teacher aide. The basis for the interview questions was to gain further understanding of the pupils' l i f e - w o r l d .  This meant I needed to gain access  to the conceptual world of the subjects so I could converse with them. While the questions were preformulated, they were neither based on other studies nor were they used with an interest i n production. an i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t to understand  They were  the descriptions and interpretations  children gave for their experiences.  To do t h i s  I used the e t i c  (out-  sider's) framework f o r the formulation of the f i r s t interview questions and the selections of questions to ask i n the f i r s t interviews. I kept i n mind that the devised e t i c framework-—pre-formulated questions—impinged  on the interview s i t u a t i o n i n that my own motives and  interests became part of the s i t u a t i o n .  Recognizing t h i s , I attempted  to suspend my pre-conceptions, and to use "the tension between p a r t i c i pant data and observer analysis" (Wilson, 1977,  p. 250) to both r e f i n e ,  re-formulate, and choose questions as the interviews flowed, and merged one with the other. In the interviews I t r i e d to gain an awareness or an  'empathetic  understanding' of the classroom culture, nearly impossible with quantit a t i v e research methods (p. 250).  To do this I became gradually aware  of the 'emic' (actor-relevant) categories.  These included disclosures  from t h e c h i l d r e n about c h e a t i n g , sneaking  d r i n k s , r e c e s s a c t i v i t i e s , and  w h a t h a p p e n e d when t h e t e a c h e r was o u t o f t h e room.  Any b i a s t o s p o n -  t a n e i t y was o v e r c o m e b y my comments t h a t I w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e c o n f i d e n c e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t I w o u l d n o t r e p o r t them t o anyone The f o r m a t s  f o rthe interview sessions during the f i r s t  the study were those cation.  i n w h i c h I was o f f e r e d p a r t i c u l a r  These were accepted  vantage p o i n t s through  (Wax, 1 9 7 1 , p . 1 5 ) .  (p. 15).  Therefore,  the " c h a r a c t e r , scope, mined"  the f i r s t  i n the classroom  i t was d u r i n g t h e s e  s e t t i n g was  first  stages  i n t e r v i e w s and t h e f i r s t  group o f methodologies  Some o f t h e s e y o u n g s t e r s  A.  They were asked  The s o u r c e s  taken w h i l e I observed children's activities  that  the classroom;  f o r speakers  everyday  normally,  and h e a r e r s  happenings  notes  questioned  and on t h e p l a y g r o u n d .  (1971) h a s t r a n s l a t e d  and h e a r e r s . "  i n t e r v i e w s were seen as speakers  field  s h a r e d b y t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h me i n t h e  drew on C i c o u r e l and G a r f i n k e l .  f o rspeakers  was h a p p e n i n g  the kinds of questions that the  appeared t o answer;  i n t e r v i e w s were based on what C r o w l e s t a t e d as " r u l e s  to look at  f o r t h i s schedule were as f o l l o w s :  The i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e d u r e s  explored  questions according t o Interview  short conversations with children i nhallways  By r u l e s  were asked  g r o u p o f p i c t u r e s and i n t e r p r e t what t h e y t h o u g h t  the pictures.  Schedule  and  Further, the social  a n d e m p h a s i s o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s was d e t e r -  were w i t h t e n c h i l d r e n .  and  l i n e s o f communi-  (p. 15). The f i r s t  in  stages of  w h i c h a n d f r o m w h i c h I made my o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d  how I w o u l d b e p e r m i t t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e determined  else.  He c o d i f i e d  t o be s i m p l y Schutz's  model  Based on h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e  and hearers  a b i d i n g by s p e c i f i c  i t was meant t h a t s p e a k e r s  and t h e y assumed t h a t t h e h e a r e r s u n d e r s t o o d  rules.  spoke  them a s meaning  t h e same a s t h e y w o u l d mean i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . speakers  were t a l k i n g n o r m a l l y , t h a t t h e speakers  Hearers  meant t h e same a s y o u  w o u l d mean i f y o u w e r e t o s a y t h e same t h i n g i n t h e same That i f t h e hearers  ask  speakers  situation.  c a n s e e what i s s a i d i s r e l e v e n t , t h e y u s e t h e i r  ' k n o w l e d g e ' o f w h a t was s a i d b e f o r e , t o i n t e r p r e t s a i d a t t h e moment.  assumed t h e  I f the hearers  still  t h e meaning o f what i s  do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  t o c l a r i f y w h a t t h e y mean a n d , f i n a l l y ,  w a i t and s e e i f what s p e a k e r s  said  they  the hearers  will will  c l a r i f i e s what has a l r e a d y been  said  (Mehan & Wood, 1 9 7 5 , p. 1 1 6 ) . The f i r s t identify  s t e p i n t h e u s e o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s was t o h a v e  the events  What i s i t c a l l e d ? meant t o them. categories. Krebs  o r o b j e c t s by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s :  children  What i s h a p p e n i n g ?  The s e c o n d s t e p was t o a s k t h e m w h a t t h e p i c t u r e s  The t h i r d  s t e p was t o l e a r n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t u a l  They were e x p r e s s e d  ( 1 9 7 5 , p. 2 8 2 ) s u g g e s t e d  i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own w o r d s o r  concepts  these k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s which were used:  T e l l me a b o u t . . . D o e s t h a t h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r name? o r  Do a n y o f t h e m  h a v e p a r t i c u l a r names?  How do y o u t h i n k  person  How w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h a t ?  X would d e s c r i b e that?  related  What i s h a p p e n i n g now?  What e l s e i s  to that?  When t h e c h i l d r e n h a d p r o v i d e d me w i t h t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l t h e s e w e r e t h e n u s e d i n new q u e s t i o n s .  I n each case  g o r i z e d t h e phenomena o f t h e c l a s s r o o m w o r l d e l u c i d a t e d how t h e y photographs.  cate-  l i v e d and  as p o r t r a y e d i nt h e  The p r o g r e s s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e  f r o m e x p l o r a t o r y t o more d e t a i l e d new a n d v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s photos.  the children  i n which they  structured that s l i c e of r e a l i t y  categories  q u e s t i o n s as each p a r t i c i p a n t  f o r the occurrences  provided  depicted i nthe  77 Summary The  photographs  s e r v e d a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e way o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e  c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n a s known a n d u n d e r s t o o d observed, terms.  i n t e r v i e w e d , and thought  of the s i t u a t i o n . events evidenced The logical  about t h e c u l t u r e i n p h o t o g r a p h i c  I n essence,  I gathered  the photographic  themselves  photographs  involved  i n observable behavior.  s e r v e d as a t o o l f o r s o c i a l i n q u i r y  i n phenomeno-  t o suspend  and d e s c r i b e d as f a i t h f u l l y  a s p o s s i b l e t h e phenomena  i n the behavior of the individuals.  consciousness.  I emphasized p e r c e p t i o n  I was g u i d e d b y t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t phenomena  I recognized that objects existed but  shaping  individuals.  i n t h e s i t u a t i o n as o b j e c t i v e  phenom-  t h a t t h e i r meaning f o r b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r t i c i -  pants d e r i v e d from each objects.  i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p and r e a c t i o n t o t h e  To do a l l o f t h i s ,  I surrendered myself  s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t l o s i n g my i d e n t i t y In turn,  structures.  b i a s e s and j u d g e m e n t s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r w e r e phenomena p e r c e i v e d b y t h e a c t i n g  ena;  knowledge  terms and p r e s e n t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n phenemonological  I observed  col-  B o t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e n t i o n s and t h e s i t u a t i o n a l  As a p h o t o g r a p h i c o b s e r v e r I a t t e m p t e d  and  I  T h e n I moved t o t h e c o n c r e t e phenomena a n d a m o r e f o c u s e d  l e c t i o n of pictures.  and  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  intelligently  to the  as p h o t o g r a p h e r - p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r .  t h e s i t u a t i o n s u r r e n d e r e d i t s m e a n i n g s t o me.  I n summary, t h e  b a s i c meanings and v a l u e s were p r i m a r i l y d e r i v e d from t h e s i t u a t i o n . The  p h o t o g r a p h i c d a t a s t a n d a s a medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  classroom c u l t u r e because o f important these data:  elements  about t h e  i n the construction of  t h e key s h o t s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as s c e n a r i s t s , and t h e  p a r t i c i p a n t s as e d i t o r s o r c o n s t r u c t o r s o f t h e r e a l i t y were i n t e r p r e t e d  to display.  the  photographs  78 T h e r e i s no u n i v e r s a l m e t h o d o f d i s c o v e r y a n d p r o o f . s t u d y d i s c o v e r y and p r o o f were i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . f u n c t i o n e d as a s o c i a l a r t i s t , To do t h i s  I borrowed Pudovkin's  shots.  trayed.  n o t i o n of a cinematic  These a r e photographs  a keystone bility  I am b o r r o w i n g  i n which  a l lafter  clearly  scenarists.  "keystone." the notion of  an i m p o r t a n t element i s p o r -  From t h e e l e m e n t one c a n d e s c r i b e a c t i o n w h i c h  s h o t and f r o m w h i c h  photographer  t h e c h i l d r e n as e d i t o r s , and  Although k e y s t o n i n g i s a c i n e m a t i c term, key  I as  In this  follows.  l e d up t o t h e  In film social  inquiry,  shot can a l s o be d e f i n e d as a b e h a v i o r a l l y o b s e r v a b l e  around  which  organize i t s e l f . social reality  f i l m d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and p h o t o g r a p h i c  possi-  t h i n k i n g can  B e c a u s e k e y s h o t s a r e made o u t o f m a t e r i a l o f t h e  I c o u l d not e n v i s i o n a n y t h i n g about t h e s i t u a t i o n  an i n t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y . t h e r e a r e 'key s h o t s ' .  In presenting the photographic data, These can be e a s i l y  identified  and t h e y  without then, help  s t r u c t u r e t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y . The c h i l d r e n and I f u n c t i o n e d as s c e n a r i s t s . g r e a t number o f s e p a r a t e p i e c e s . separate photographs, the photographs saw i t .  The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d was s h o t i n  w h a t I saw, w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t e d .  I could then see again.  The c h i l d r e n a n d I a s  We b u i l t  as i t appeared  However, t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e v e n t s  understandings  Later  s e r v e d as p i e c e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as t h e y t h e c h i l d r e n  c o u l d h a v e w r i t t e n o u t m a t e r i a l on paper graphs.  A scenario i s a  scenarists  i n the photo-  for subjective  t o o k p l a c e a s s h a r e d m e a n i n g s b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d r e n and  me.  from t h e s e p a r a t e p i e c e s and c o n c e n t r a t e d our a t t e n t i o n o n l y on  the important element i n each photograph.  What t h e c h i l d r e n  p r e t e d w e r e t h e ' f r o z e n moments' i n a n o n - g o i n g  reality.  inter-  This  was c o n s t r u c t i o n a l e d i t i n g , a m e t h o d s p e c i f i c a l l y a n d p e c u l i a r l y  process filmic.  As s u c h , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s The c o n s t r u c t i o n  were an i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t o f i m p r e s s i o n .  of r e a l i t y  through t h e use o f t h e photographs  s e r v e d a s a means t o r e i t e r a t e t h e theme o f e v e n t s o f e v e r y d a y the c l a s s r o o m as i n t e r p r e t e d the  u n d e r l y i n g theme.  t o me b y t h e c h i l d r e n .  This  life in  constituted  The m e s s a g e o r t h e m e a n i n g f o r e v e r y d a y  life  s h a r e d and u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d itself  i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c documents developed o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e  study. everyday  Also, life.  the photographs  i n themselves provided a p o r t r a y a l of  as  CHAPTER I V INTERPRETATIONS AND SHARED UNDERSTANDINGS OF A CHILDREN'S CULTURE Introduct ion The  methodology f o r d e r i v i n g  children's  understandings i n the classroom studied field on  participant  field  The  providing  by  presenting  retaining  i n some f i e l d  criteria  ethnographies with  materials  analysis  teacher.  others  participant  observation that i s ,  u p o n w h i c h t h e a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d a n d b y (Mehan, 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 6 ) .  o f t h e d a t a was u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g constructed  by t h e c h i l d r e n  I t h a s a t t e m p t e d t o t y p i f y t h e a c t u a l way i n w h i c h t h e  interpreted  t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s  i n the s i t u a t i o n .  pretive.  The d e s c r i p t i o n  structures  that  viduals  the s i t u a t i o n  o r grounds f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g c e r t a i n data;  t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n a s one s o c i a l l y  children  to describe  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t t o a t t e m p t t o overcome t h e d i f f i -  t h e o r i g i n a l form of t h e m a t e r i a l s  The  them-  of t h e photographs used i n t h e study.  inherent  by  based  many i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n d  f o c u s f o r t h e a n a l y s i s was n o t o n l y  interpreted  culties  and  non-participant  n o t e s , p h o t o g r a p h y s u g g e s t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n  and t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  categorizations  of  incorporated  and s h a r e d  notes, photographs of the everyday events i n the classroom  selves,  as  interpretations  The f i n d i n g s  and t h e a c t i o n s o f  a r e b o t h d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r -  i s b a s e d upon t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  existed within  the everyday l i f e  i n the classroom. 80  activities  of meaning of the i n d i -  81 The  organization f o r the t e l l i n g  t i o n s and shared u n d e r s t a n d i n g s lated  i s i n five parts.  First,  interpreta-  a  pre-formu-  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t o do w i t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o r t h e s i t u a t i o n  posed. is  o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own  Second, a q u e s t i o n which  posed.  evolved d u r i n g t h e conduct  T h i r d , r e l e v a n t d i a l o g u e from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  of the study  i s presented.  F o u r t h , f r o m t h e s e d a t a , I g i v e my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r t h e m e a n i n g s s h a r e d w i t h me. It  Finally,  further  t h a t as t h e i n q u i r y  i n t o some o b s e r v e r - j u s t i f i a b l e t y p e s .  i n t e r p r e t i v e procedures day  life  The d a t a w e r e  To do t h i s ,  i n the classroom.  For this  a l s o , p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f d a t a were a n a l y z e d and p r e s e n t e d .  with participants; and  of  stages of s t i l l  everypurpose  These  t h e on-going i n t e r v i e w s  descriptions,  interpretations,  and t h e documentation  s y s t e m s among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  these d e s c r i p t i o n s were gathered  views  photography;  the identifications,  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f photographs;  communication  I took the  used by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c a r r y on t h e i r  e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s  included the later  pro-  c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e d a f r a m e w o r k f o r more  c a r e f u l examination of the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i v e data. classified  they  q u e s t i o n s a r e posed.  i s important to state at the outset  gressed the c h i l d r e n ' s suggested  was  Finally,  of special  the v a l i d a t i o n  from the c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i n a l  and i n t h e l a s t p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e s .  inter-  A l l of the procedures  b u i l t more d a t a f o r t h e a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s t u d i e d . The  description to follow,  then, i s based  s o c i a l s c i e n c e and ethnomethodology w h i c h of  these c h i l d r e n .  life  Secondly,  on n o t i o n s o f i n t e r p r e t i v e  q u e s t i o n t h e everyday  the children located  themselves  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r b i o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n o r background  T h i s meant, i n essence,  that every c h i l d brought  s h a r e d c u l t u r a l knowledge, b u t they  life  world  i n daily  of experience.  to the classroom not only  t o o k t h e s e forms and t r a n s l a t e d  them  82 i n t o the w o r l d of d a i l y child  life  i n the classroom.  T h i s was  i n terms of h i s or her p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e .  a social  reality  done by  Each c h i l d  a c c o r d i n g to h i s or her b i o g r a p h i c a l  each  defined  situation.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a b e g a n w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n , " I n w h a t ways did  members o f t h e c u l t u r e a c t i v e l y  shared"? for  To  recover these  themselves.  social  As  they  s h a r e d m e a n i n g s I a l l o w e d t h e members t o  they i n t e r p r e t e d  their  s o c i a l world I searched  c o m p l e x i t i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  tures.  These were the " e l u c i d a t e d  p e r c e p t i o n s " of the p a r t i c i p a n t s pp.  c o n s t r u c t the s o c i a l w o r l d  interpretive  i n the s e t t i n g  for simplifying competencies  the  struc-  and  reality  s t u d i e d (Van Manen,  some G r a d e T h r e e c h i l d r e n description pants around  i n a school classroom.  i t aims t o p r o v i d e the  speak f o r themselves them.  everyday To  They t e l l  r o u t i n e s i n the carry  out  As  an  a b o u t t h e a c t i o n s and  of t h e i r  an a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n  o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used; photographs; verbal  and  and  events which  classroom  the  still  I r e f i n e d my  photography;  Environmental  d r e n and  on  cues.  the  documentation the  of  setting;  B a s e d on n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t f i e l d  were t a k e n i n the  setting.  A l l of these appeared  people,  the  the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h both  gathered.  the t e a c h e r , other s i g n i f i c a n t  objects.  occurred  t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s among t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s ,  n o n - v e r b a l , which were  photographs  partici-  culture.  C h i l d r e n Became K n o w l e d g e a b l e A b o u t O b j e c t s , R u l e s , and  first  The  what i t i s t h e y n e e d e d t o know t o c a r r y life-world  of  ethnographic  i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view.  t h e c u l t u r e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s u p o n e n t r y i n t o  and  1978,  43-59)'. T h i s c h a p t e r then, p r e s e n t s a p a r t of the c u l t u r a l knowledge  How  speak  Events notes  These i n c l u d e d the furniture,  the chil-  bulletins,  t o h a v e some s i g n i f i c a n c e  to  83 the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The p r i n c i p l e s  f o r t h i s k i n d o f cinema v e r i t e  r a p h y was t o o r g a n i z e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a r o u n d " a n e v e n t , theme i n h e r e n t i n t h e p e o p l e ' s  photog-  or process, or  l i v e s , n o t by an a r t i f i c i a l  theory"  (Temaner & Q u i n n , 1 9 7 4 , p. 5 4 ) . The  classroom  carpeted area;  as p o r t r a y e d by t h e photographs i n c l u d e d a b l u e  a l a r g e brown a r m c h a i r ;  close-up of these boxes; board  space f i l l e d  boxes on a window s i l l ;  t h e teacher's desk;  cloakroom;  a desk a g a i n s t a b l a c k -  w i t h papers and books w i t h a c h a r t ;  tures w i t h the teacher h o l d i n g long sheets  a  of paper;  two c l a s s  pic-  two b o y s i n t h e  two p i c t u r e s o f t h e t e a c h e r a i d e s t a n d i n g n e a r t h e t e a c h e r ' s  desk w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n were seated  at t h e i r desks;  a picture of the  a i d e s i t t i n g a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k w h i l e some c h i l d r e n w e r e s t a n d i n g u p , turned around, o r c h a t t i n g ; seated,  some s t a n d i n g ;  back o f t h e classroom)  t h e t e a c h e r , a man, a n d t h e c h i l d r e n ,  two p i c t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n o n l y w i t h most s e a t e d  some v a c a n t  desks,  one g i r l  f a c i n g the photographer; and  clothing;  over  the teacher  a man,  a picture of  t h e camera and a boy  a boy s t a n d i n g i n t h e c l o a k r o o m  the teacher bending  holding  runners  aide at the teacher's  and one boy s t a n d i n g and h o l d i n g a  paper. Phenomenologically,  I  desks;  s t a n d i n g l o o k i n g toward  d e s k , c h i l d r e n s e a t e d , a l l on t a s k ; long  (taken from t h e  a n d two f a c e s v i s i b l e ;  some c h i l d r e n s t a n d i n g o r m o v i n g a b o u t n e a r t h e i r  some  the problem of p a r t i c i p a n t  observer  i s whether  c a n r e c o n s t r u c t f o r t h e r e a d e r w h a t I d i d a n d how I came t o s e l e c t  t h i n g s out as important.  To do t h i s meant I a t t e m p t e d  some  n o t t o impose a  s o c i a l o r d e r upon t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  rather, I reasserted the problematic.  The  p r o c e e d e d r o u t i n e l y b e c a u s e t h e common-  social  life  i n the classroom  s e n s e i d e a s a b o u t w h a t was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s c e n e s I o b s e r v e d  were  84 known t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . not in  s i m p l y i n t h e mind  The i d e a s o r b a c k g r o u n d e x p e c t a n c i e s  o f any one c h i l d b u t w e r e s u s t a i n e d and o r i g i n a t e d  social action i n the setting.  subjective socially  existed  In their world, the children's  constructed r e a l i t y ,  the rationality  of their  interactions  and t h e n o n - p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f s i t u a t i o n s i s a c o n t i n u a l a c c o m p l i s h ment o f s o c i a l a c t i o n .  I n order t o r e v e a l t h e s e assumptions about  n o r m a l i t y I had t o b r i n g t h e background i n t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d ;  suspend  my  a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t w h a t was h a p p e n i n g . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n , t h e c h i l d r e n became k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and e v e n t s i n v a r y i n g degrees depending upon t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h e a c h o t h e r a n d how w e l l  t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e meanings  interprovided  by t h e t e a c h e r . The  first  q u e s t i o n posed from t h e f i e l d  n o t e s w a s , What m e a n i n g s d i d  c h i l d r e n share f o r t h e p h y s i c a l arrangements i n t h e s e t t i n g ?  While the  s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e t e a c h e r worked w i t h t h e c l a s s f o r a whole day, I began to  interview the children.  Those  i n t e r e v i e w e d were c h i l d r e n whose  names h a d come t o my a t t e n t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d m o s t p a r t i c u l a r l y the  playground during the f i r s t  each c h i l d The  identified first  child  few days o f t h e f i e l d  work.  groups o f photographs and t h e n t h e y were  on  To b e g i n , interviewed.  i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d t h e s e o b j e c t s and e v e n t s  w h i l e h e t o l d w h a t was h a p p e n i n g i n t h e p h o t o s : A r t b o o k s , r e s e r v e d b o o k s , games, j o u r n a l s , gym b a g s , j a c k e t s , f u n a n d f i t n e s s , M r s . M. i n p i c t u r e , poem, t e a c h e r ' s d e s k , d o o d l e d e s k , r e a d i n g c a r p e t , t h i n g s ( f o r b i r d cages), s p e l l i n g words, c h a i r , w h e r e some o f f i n i s h e d a r t i s , w h e r e o t h e r b o o k s a r e , b o x e s f o r j o u r n a l s , someone's f a t h e r who h a s come t o h e l p , p i c t u r e s d o n e a month ago, g e t t i n g h i s s t u f f , where boys p u t j a c k e t s , b l a c k b o a r d w o r k , m a i l b a g s — n o t w h o l e t h i n g home, S's d e s k , t e a c h e r ' s d e s k . D o i n g a r t we do t h e s e t h i n g s , " o u r " s p e l l i n g w o r d s , c h a i r , some o f u s we f i g h t t o g e t i n t h e c h a i r , some o f o u r a r t , some o f o u r b o o k s . H e r e ' s o u r game, o u r j o u r n a l s , o u r m a t h , we h a n d i t i n , r e a d i n g c o r n e r , some b o o k s we r e a d , o u r d o o d l e t a b l e , p a p e r s , o u r a r t , o u r gym b a g s , h e r e ' s o u r m a i l b a g s , f i n i s h o u r p a p e r s , w h e r e we p u t o u r jackets.  The  validity  of these  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s was c o n f i r m e d  or s h a r i n g w i t h t h e student specific  events  as  I h a d n o t known t h a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h e d  desk  c h a r t a b o u t d o g s v e r y n e a r i t was n o t t h e ' r e s e a r c h '  desk  one c o u l d s u p p o s e , b u t was i n f o r m a l l y l a b e l l e d  first  child  identified  a n d by o t h e r the armchair  the c h a i r . "  clarifying  t h e names he g a v e a n d t h e m e a n i n g s he g a v e f o r  and o b j e c t s .  with a research  by  The r a c e  t h e 'doodle'  children interviewed later.  d e s k by t h e  The f i r s t  a s t h e p l a c e w h e r e "some o f us we f i g h t t o g e t i n t h e c h a i r was c o r r o b o r a t e d  child to get i n  by o t h e r  chil-  dren i n l a t e r i n t e r v i e w s . The cations to  p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r t h e s e t t i n g were d e r i v e d from  f o r these  lengthy  'reading  p i c t u r e s which v a r i e d from q u i t e l i t e r a l  interpretations.  corner',  F o r example, the blue  "That's the c a r p e t , " "Carpet  descriptions  carpeted  we r e a d  identifi-  area  as t h e  on," "That's our  c a r p e t we s i t down a n d r e a d b o o k s t h e r e , " a n d " T h e r e ' s a c a r p e t  and t h e  b o t t o m d r a w e r s o f M r s . S's c u p b o a r d . " The they  c h i l d r e n were a s k e d what t h e b l u e - c a r p e t e d  c o u l d go t h e r e .  They r e s p o n d e d a t l e n g t h .  r e a d a n d p l a y games," " S i t down a n d r e a d ,  a r e a meant a n d when  "Can go t o s i t o n i t t o  s i t i n desks.  In eclipse, [of  the  sun, i n order  all  a b o u t , " " M a t h a n d t h e r e a r e games a n d f l a s h c a r d s , " " O n l y a f t e r  reading just  time,"  silent  Usually  t o a v o i d e y e damage] s a t on c a r p e t , n o t t o l o o k w h a t i t ' s  "At lunch time  you can't  play nothing,  r e a d i n g , " "That's f o r i f the teacher  at s i l e n t  reading  lunch,  n o t games o r n o t h i n g  i s r e a d i n g us a s t o r y .  some o f t h e k i d s go o v e r  t h e r e , and r e a d  over  t h e r e , b u t I u s u a l l y s t a y a t my d e s k .  M r s . B. we a l w a y s do a s t o r y T u e s d a y  "It's  r e c e s s , a t l u n c h , " " J u s t so y o u d o n '  silent  reading,  just  read,  after  h a v e t o s i t on t h e f l o o r when y o u r e a d , " it  means  'silent  reading',"  " I t means umm  " I t means when y o u r e a d that the teacher  t h e r e , and  comes a n d  86 reads  you a s t o r y . " The  c h i l d r e n s h a r e d w i t h me when i t was t h a t t h e y w e n t t o r e a d .  They a l s o s h a r e d  how t h e y knew i t was t i m e t o g o .  a f t e r l u n c h , everybody rushes have f i n i s h e d  umm  lowest  " I n t h e morning.  She c a l l s u s t o t h e r e a d i n g  chairs,"  g r o u p i s 'Wings o f W o n d e r ' , a n d t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t g r o u p i s  ' S k i e s and Wings', and then t h e r e ' s  h i g h e s t , have a l l t h r e e groups every first,"  A f t e r r e c e s s i f we  o u r w o r k , " " I n t h e m o r n i n g a n d a f t e r l u n c h , when we come  back from l i b r a r y , " "The  t o get i n the chair.  " A f t e r we do o u r w o r k ,  ' A l l Sorts of Things',  day.  that's the  U s u a l l y 'Wings o f Wonder' g o e s  " I n t h a t c h a i r , s o m e t i m e s when we h a v e s u b s t i t u t e s t h e y  t h i n k we  r e a d o n t h e c a r p e t b u t i n (we) i n r e a d i n g c o r n e r , s i t o n t h e c h a i r s , " " I f y o u ' v e f i n i s h e d y o u r w o r k y o u c a n go t o t h e c a r p e t a r e a . mostly  r e c e s s , she t o l d us a t t h e b e g i n n i n g When t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d  s i g n s on them t h e y  stated:  After  lunch,  of t h e year, you should  read."  why t h e y p u t n o t e b o o k s i n t o b o x e s w i t h  " T e a c h e r d o e s n ' t w a n t t o g e t m i x e d u p , " "Our  g r o u p we h a v e ' m i n i - r e s e a r c h ' , s t i c k , t h a t i n w i t h o u r l a n g u a g e "The  teacher  gets  arts,"  them f r o m t h e b o x i n s t e a d o f f r o m o u r d e s k s , "  "So, w e ' l l  know w h i c h o n e ' s t h e m a t h b o x a n d w e ' l l j u s t p u t i t i n t h e r e , " a n d "Oh, you  p u t n o t e b o o k s i n t o t h e boxes b e c a u s e t h e y have t o be marked and be  d e l i v e r e d back t o you." When t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d stated: right,  why a b o y was s e a t e d b y h i m s e l f  they  "He t a l k s t o o much," " B e c a u s e Jimmy a n d S e a n t h e y p l a y a l o t , f o o l a r o u n d when t h e t e a c h e r ' s o u t .  t h e i r work.  S u p p o s e d t o b e b e s i d e A.  being bad and t a l k i n g .  Do b a d s t u f f .  He b u g s e v e r y b o d y , " "He's a l w a y s  T a l k i n g t o Z," " A l w a y s d i s t u r b s p e o p l e , "  to everyone," " U s u a l l y t a l k s t o everybody so they done," " U s u a l l y bad,  They d o n ' t do  likes  to t a l k to people,  can't  get their  "Talks work  doesn't g e t h i s work done.  87 He's  away f r o m p e o p l e ,  does h i s work, gets i t done," "Because h e ' s m o s t l y  t a l k i n g and he's bad m o s t l y  a n d h e umm h e a l w a y s h a s t o do h i s c o r r e c -  t i o n s , " "He's b a d . . . h e ' s a l w a y s t a l k i n g t o Z. a n d h e g e t s o u t o f h i s d e s k a l l t h e t i m e a n d h e t a l k s t o Z." When t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d sit  i t would be l i k e t o  a l o n e , t h e y s t a t e d , "Don't t h i n k i t ' s v e r y n i c e .  b o t h e r i n g you,"  Maybe o k a y , n o b o d y  "You c a n g e t y o u r w o r k done f a s t e r , " " I t h i n k i t ' s a l o t  b e t t e r because people you  what t h e y thought  a r e bugging y o u and a s k i n g you,"  c o u l d g e t y o u r w o r k done e a s i e r w i t h o u t  talking  " D o n ' t know,"  "Well  t o other people. I t ' s  k i n d o f l o n e l y , b u t a t l e a s t y o u c a n work by y o u r s e l f and g e t l o t s o f work done." Teacher non-verbal  cues.  o b j e c t s , r u l e s , and events verbally. activities  The c h i l d r e n were k n o w l e d g e a b l e about  from cues they d e r i v e d from t h e t e a c h e r non-  F o r example, t h e k i n d s o f papers provided i n t h e c l a s s r o o m were cues f o r events.  meant s p e e d d r i l l w h i l e o t h e r s meant l a n g u a g e a r t s . to  for  Particular  o f paper.  a i d e was a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k t h e c h i l d r e n  t h a t i t was a t i m e t o do t h e i r w o r k .  understood  Another t i m e , because t h e r e were  no m a t h b o o k s o u t , i t meant t h e c l a s s was d o i n g then, p r o v i d e d cues f o r s u b j e c t s .  sheets  C h i l d r e n knew i t  be t h e o n l y s u b j e c t f o r w h i c h they u s u a l l y used s h e e t s  When t h e t e a c h e r  different  language a r t s .  Objects  G l u e o n t h e d e s k s meant a r t t i m e a n d  w h i t e p a p e r a l s o meant a r t . Teacher a c t i o n s o r behaviors teacher work a t h e r desk?  questioned  about were:  When d o e s t h e  What d o e s i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r w o r k s a t  h e r d e s k ? a n d What i s u s u a l l y o n t h e e n d o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? kinds o f papers?  What  To t h e s e , t h e c h i l d r e n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r  w o r k s a t h e r d e s k "Whenever w e ' r e w o r k i n g , "  "When s h e m a r k s , " "When  88 we're d o i n g something," sometimes a f t e r papers  "When s h e m a r k s w o r k , " "When s i l e n t  s c h o o l , when w e ' r e w o r k i n g , "  f o r use f o r the next  marks . . . and sometimes The  reading,  "She's w o r k i n g ,  marking  d a y , " a n d "She w o r k s a t h e r d e s k when s h e  . . . reads  a newspaper."  c h i l d r e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r a t work a t h e r desk meant:  "Maybe s h e ' s d o i n g r e p o r t c a r d s .  G i v i n g o u t d e t e n t i o n s , " " W e l l when  she's s i t t i n g a t h e r desk u s u a l l y people y o u r book on t h e f l o o r , " d o i n g your work.  . . . talking,"  "She t h r o w s  " G e t t i n g r e a d i n g f o r s u b s t i t u t e s , " " J u s t go o n  You s h o u l d n ' t  t a l k or anything.  She's f i g u r i n g o u t  w h a t s h e ' s g o i n g t o h a v e u s do i n a r t a n d s t u f f . " The  k i n d s o f papers  "Books, papers," mostly,"  "That's  a t t h e end o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k were: the doodle  table,  something  t o do.  " C a l e n d a r s , c o u l d be f o r a s t o r y o r p i c t u r e , "  need," "Working papers  Colour  "Papers  that you  f o r us f o r t h e n e x t d a y , " and " C a l e n d a r s , a r t  stuff." Teacher v e r b a l cues.  The t e a c h e r ' s r e q u e s t s t o a c h i l d  a message t o t h e o f f i c e meant, "Anybody u s u a l l y d i d , " " L o r i s s a u s u a l l y gets asked,"  "Music,  g e t s t o do i t .  last  she u s u a l l y  i n g h a r d e s t a n d who i s f i n i s h e d , "  P i c k s p e r s o n who i s w o r k -  "Me c a u s e I s i t q u i e t a n d s t a r t  my w o r k , " a n d " J a m i e s o m e t i m e s me, S t e v e  about were:  Why  Why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y J ' s name  a n d What d o e s i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r The  doing  . . . ummm L o r i s s a . "  kinds o f teacher v e r b a l behaviors asked  d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y L ' s name a l o t ? a lot?  Or i f w e ' r e  t a k e s i t up h e r s e l f , " " S o m e t i m e s t h e t e a c h e r  d o e s , s o m e t i m e s s h e g e t s o t h e r k i d s t o do i t .  Other  Once I  time I got choosed,"  " T e a c h e r j u s t p i c k s someone, u s u a l l y when y o u ' v e f i n i s h e d . a l l working  to deliver  name?  t e a c h e r s a i d L ' s name a l o t b e c a u s e , "She a l w a y s  talks,  she's  89  always t u r n e d around  i n h e r desk," "Because  she sometimes h a s t o s t a y i n , " seat."  and "Because  she speaks and t a l k s  t o S and  she always gets out o f h e r  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s a i d J ' s name a l o t b e c a u s e , "She  always t a l k s  to Eric,"  "They're  [general response] being bad o r t a l k i n g , "  " S o m e t i m e s s h e t a l k s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e a n d y o u know w h e n y a d o f l a s h cards. fun  She q u i t e y e l l s , "  and t h e g i r l h e r s e l f  s t a t e d , " ' C a u s e I'm h a v i n g  talking." The  names.  c h i l d r e n e x p l a i n e d w h a t i t meant when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l e d  their  "She w a n t s y o u a t h e r d e s k , " " E i t h e r b a d , i n t h e m o r n i n g i f  y o u ' r e h e r e o r n o t , i f y o u have c o r r e c t i o n s , " "You have a p r o b l e m , s h e c a l l s you t o stop t a l k i n g  o r s o m e t h i n g , " "Means s h e w a n t s y o u t o go a n d  do s o m e t h i n g , " " C o u l d mean a l o t o f t h i n g s . marks i t .  Or someone n e e d s h e l p .  To g e t y o u r b o o k , when s h e  When s h e n e e d s y o u f o r h e l p , w i t h a  t a b l e o r s o m e t h i n g , " " I t means t h a t y o u ' r e b a d , t h a t y o u d i d n ' t I t means t h a t y o u g o t umm  I t h i n k t h a t i t means t h a t ummm.  t r a d e d e s k s and s h e t e l l s y o u t o t r a d e them b a c k .  listen.  When y o u  When s h e w a n t s  them  back." The  predominant  u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h e c h i l d r e n s h a r e d w i t h me  the p h y s i c a l arrangements  of their  about  c l a s s r o o m , t e a c h e r n o n - v e r b a l and  v e r b a l cues were t h e i r needs t o f i n d ways t o g e t t h e r i g h t answers  from  each o t h e r , t h e i r needs t o f i n d ways t o g e t o u t o f t h e i r d e s k s , and t h e i r needs t o work w i t h i n t h e imposed.time, d e s i g n a t e d by t h e t e a c h e r and conveyed  space, and s u b j e c t  structures  t o t h e c h i l d r e n by h e r v e r b a l and  n o n - v e r b a l cues f o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s from t h e c h i l d r e n . The  c h i l d r e n s p e n t unmeasured.  amounts o f t i m e c o v e r t l y  communi-  c a t i n g w i t h each o t h e r , i n s t r u c t i n g each o t h e r , and a t t e m p t i n g t o b r e a k t h e monotony o f t h e day i n an environment where t h e y were g i v e n  little  responsibility  for their  own  d e c i s i o n s or a c t i o n s .  t o c o m p l y t o t h e r e g i m e n t a t i o n and It  rigidity  seems t h a t t h e t y r a n n y o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s  c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s was  tolerable  The  same t h i n g s h a p p e n e d day  How  t h e T e a c h e r and  day  to our  own  we  have l o s t  their  what i s r e a l l y ysis  real  to our  the c h i l d r e n The  to state  t e a c h e r and  teacher  saw  lives.  in control  over  c o n s t r u c t i o n s of knowing.  being  saw  As  a  have i n v o k e d a d i v i s i o n  t o overcome t h i s  the c h i l d r e n  children'  have s u b o r d i n a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s  arbitrary  real.  themselves  doing  result between  In t h i s  division  t h e i r w o r l d of knowledge about t h e i r  herself  the  familiar.  to subordinate  and what c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e t o be  c h i l d r e n appeared to accept The  own  We  f o r m s o f k n o w l e d g e and  t h e r e i s an a t t e m p t  everyday  out.  have tended  experiences.  interpretive practices  interest  expected  Themselves  I n many s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n we experiences  of t h e i r  f o r them o n l y b e c a u s e i t was  i n and  C h i l d r e n Saw  They w e r e  and  anal-  allow  daily  lives.  school.  The  t r e a t e d as members o f a c a t e g o r y ,  teaching.  To  h e r , c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t was  pupil pre-  s e n t e d , c h i l d r e n were t o l e a r n i t .  The  c h i l d r e n were reminded t o comply  to g e t t i n g  and  spelling  s p e e d t e s t s , math d r i l l s ,  to s t a y i n t h e i r o n e - h a l f hours Shared  desks,  they  spent  to remain  i n the  understandings.  c h i l d r e n were the t a c i t I n an a t t e m p t  and  rules  on  tests  done  correctly,  t a s k f o r most o f t h e  five  and  classroom.  Teacher understandings for behavior  to understand these r u l e s ,  and  action  shared w i t h i n the  the  classroom.  groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s  were  i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e o b s e r v e r i n t w o s , The  t h r e e s , and i n a group o f f i v e .  k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s t h e y were a s k e d were d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t  standing of the t r i v i a l  an u n d e r -  a n d mundane m e a n i n g s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o do w i t h  o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . They g o t o u t o f t h e i r  d e s k s t o g e t p a p e r , "When I'm w r i t i n g a  s t o r y , " "When y o u d o n ' t h a v e a b o o k . " you  spill  "We're s u p p o s e d  t o h a v e them when w e ' r e  They p a s s e d p a p e r s f o r w a r d a n d b a c k their  desk."  right."  To be a 'Super  i t . "  painting."  so " P e r s o n d o e s n ' t h a v e t o g e t o u t  S p e l l e r ' meant "You g o t a l l y o u r w o r d s  The k i n d s o f n o t e s t h a t went home a b o u t b o o k s w e r e ,  money f o r b o o k s . for  "When  w a t e r , o r i f t h e r e ' s g l u e on t h e t a b l e s o r s o m e t h i n g o r when  we're p a i n t i n g , "  of  They went f o r p a p e r t o w e l s ,  "To p a y  I f y o u h a v e n ' t b r o u g h t t h e book b a c k , y o u have t o pay  Finally,  t h e r e was " t h e l o s t  Other r u l e s governing l e a v i n g  and found c a n " on t h e c o u n t e r .  t h e room:  When c a n y o u go a n d g e t a  d r i n k ? . v a n d .When .can_y.ou"~go?to t h e washroom? i n d i c a t e d c h i l d r e n who w e r e not  familiar with  "We'd p a s s were,  t h e r u l e s w o u l d be i n f o r m e d by c l a s s m a t e s b e c a u s e ,  i t a r o u n d — t h a t you c o u l d n ' t have a d r i n k . "  "She n e v e r l e t s  p e o p l e sneak  us g e t a d r i n k .  go b e f o r e s c h o o l ,  after  recess or after  l u n c h , ummm s o m e t i m e s  o t h e r ' s work;  some  lunch or recess,  she s a y s no," "Supposed  r e c e s s a n d l u n c h , " "You c a n ' t do i t i n t h e m o r n i n g , l u n c h b e c a u s e we s h o u l d h a v e gone b y t h e n , b u t umm  one p e r s o n [ c a n g o ] i n b e t w e e n  Social  She a l w a y s s a y s n o , b u t umm  ' c a u s e t h e r e ' s a s i n k i n o u r b a c k o f t h e room, r i g h t ? " o r  y o u c a n go t o t h e w a s h r o o m " A f t e r to  Other meanings  r e c e s s and l u n c h , " and "Only a t r e c e s s ,  she l e t s y o u . "  constructions.  The c h i l d r e n h a d b e e n o b s e r v e d t o mark  t h e y w e r e a s k e d what t h i s m e a n t .  They r e p l i e d ,  each  "Doesn't  92 want y o u t o mark i t r i g h t any m i s t a k e s .  I f I t ' s r i g h t y o u c a n ' t mark i t wrong.  c a n ' t mark i t r i g h t , " .  i f i t ' s wrong," "You're not supposed  " D o n ' t make a n y c h a n g e s , "  . . u s u a l l y means l i k e  t o make  I f i t ' s wrong y o u  " I t means a t m a t h y o u  she l e t s y o u mark, l i k e , y o u u s u a l l y p u t one  t i c k , y o u p u t y o u r math book o n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s desk and t h e y p a s s  them  b e h i n d a n d t h e b a c k p e r s o n b r i n g s h i s up t o t h e f r o n t a n d b e m a r k e d . T h a t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e , a t m a t h . " ' A n d "So we d o n ' t c h e a t . " The p h y s i c a l movements a l l o w e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m c e n t r e d When do y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? What d o e s  Why,do y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ?  i t mean t o go a n d g e t p a p e r ?  b o x e s w i t h s i g n s o n them? c a n y o u go t h e r e ?  What d o e s  around:  Why do y o u p u t n o t e b o o k s  t h e b l u e - c a r p e t e d a r e a mean?  When do y o u go t o s i t a n d r e a d ?  into When  How d o y o u know y o u .  s h o u l d go? The  c h i l d r e n went t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk:  s o m e t h i n g marked," "Math d r i l l , something. work.  tell  i f y o u h a v e some p r o b l e m s .  Don't g e t  When y o u d o n ' t know w h a t a w o r d means," " F o r c o r r e c t i n g o u r  Somebody's b u g g i n g you-.  trouble,  "Forreading club, t o get  especially spelling.  Tattle.  A s k f o r a word,"  When y o u h a v e p r o b l e m s .  "When we h a v e  When y o u h a v e t o  o n s o m e b o d y , " "When y o u d o n ' t b r i n g i t [ b o o k ] t o t h e m a r k i n g b o x .  For c o r r e c t i o n s .  What, we d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , " "Or i f s h e c a l l s u p .  Get  p a p e r w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s , " "To g e t s o m e t h i n g m a r k e d o r h a v e a q u e s t i o n t o a s k , " "When s h e c a l l s wants  u s up t o g e t w o r k m a r k e d a n d s t u f f .  When s h e  t o a s k y o u s o m e t h i n g o r . . ." The  c h i l d r e n ' s reasons f o r going t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s desk were  t o t e l l i n g when t h e y w o u l d , g o .  They w e n t b e c a u s e :  similar  " D o n ' t know w o r d s ,  s o m e b o d y ' s b u g g i n g me," " F o r b o o k c l u b , g e t s o m e t h i n g m a r k e d , " "When I d o n ' t know w h a t s o m e t h i n g i s o n p a p e r , " " I f y o u h a v e a p r o b l e m .  Usually  93 t o p i c k up my p a p e r s a n d s t u f f , " I'll  j u s t go up a n d a s k h e r . The  children's  w e r e n o t many. left," get  reasons f o r l e a v i n g  I hear  when t h e t e a c h e r  a n d " T h a t means l i k e when, when  was o u t o f t h e room, a s n e a k e d  Not o n c e i n t h e f i v e w e e k s I s t u d i e d  laughter  e x c i t i n g world  and t h e j o y o u s v o i c e s  through  Oh r e f l e c t i o n ,  perceptions  t h r o u g h some o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s .  that  the c h i l d r e n  they had of t h e i r Suggestions that  Restricted not  tell  classmates  Classroom  communication.  the teacher  were:  trusted? filtered  glistens i n their and t h e w i s h  u n c o v e r more l a y e r s o f h i d d e n m e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e i r Interpreted  divulged  I photograph c h i l d r e n  were s h i n y  e y e s ( t e a r s o f f r u s t r a t i o n ) h e i g h t e n e d my c u r i o s i t y  How C h i l d r e n  discovering  A f t e r a l l , who was I t o be  when t h e y w e r e " f r u s t r a t e d " o r when t h e r e  I could  drink,  this situation  of c h i l d r e n happily  I have t h e unhappy i d e a  i n k l i n g s of other  small.  learning.  a tiny portion of their world.  Small  extras  t o a n y b o d y , y o u h a v e t o j u s t go a n d  r e s p i t e s t h e c h i l d r e n manoeuvred f o r t h e m s e l v e s were  spoken answer.  only  d e s k s t o go a n d g e t p a p e r  ..."  Some c h a t t e r e d  did  their  They r a n g e d f r o m " T h a t ' s j u s t a d o o d l e t a b l e ,  t h e p a p e r a n d go b a c k t o y o u r s e a t , "  The  an  L o t o f p e o p l e go up a n d a s k . "  t o " I t means y o u c a n ' t t a l k  they r a n out  a  " I f I d o n ' t know how t o do s o m e t h i n g .  that  shared  world.  Life The k i n d s  "Secrets,  of things  the c h i l d r e n  c o p y i n g work, c h e a t i n g ,  could  looking  at people's work," "Secret  hand language  things.  Sometimes I c h e a t , I c h e a t , " " I f y o u r p e n c i l  We p l a y  games.  . . . use i t , " " A l l s o r t s o f  n e e d s s h a r p e n i n g , y o u a r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o go a n d a s k h e r i f y o u c a n s h a r p e n i t , " "Not t o s a y swear words, don't c a l l make l o t s o f r a c k e t  them names," a n d "You  when s h e g o e s o u t o f t h e room a n d w e ' r e n o t s u p p o s e d  94 to." Non-verbal communication.  The interview question, How do you talk  to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? uncovered a group of sign languages used by the g i r l s i n the class. they r e p l i e d :  In response to the question,  "Whisper," "We have a secret hand language," "Whisper, pass  notes, pass messages," "With normal sign language," and "Some people do a sign language to each other." The boys i n the classroom stated they did not use a sign language to communicate when they didn't want to be heard.  They indicated they  "Wave them o f f , " "When teacher isn't looking, I usually tap somebody," and "Do i t four times before I figure i t out."  It appeared that getting the  right answer prompted many of the communications among both boys and g i r l s i n the classroom which they preferred the teacher not to know about. Gamesmanship.  Some children had more understanding of the c l a s s -  room rules and procedures than others.  There were some children who not  only understood the t a c i t rules but managed to manoeuvre around them. For example, when asked when they could go to the washroom, they r e p l i e d , "Lunch and recess, at 9:00 a.m.  i f you say you didn't go at home,"  "Can't go r i g h t after lunch or recess," and "Sometimes i n the afternoon around two o'clock or two t h i r t y . " Three g i r l s stated they talked when the teacher was out of the room, "Just what number we're on."  They didn't pass notes when the teacher  was i n the classroom, "We do 'normal' sign language."  They passed  notes, both boys and g i r l s , when they were down at the back of the room. When asked what they talked about mostly when the teacher was out of the room, they r e p l i e d , "Just what number we're on," "Just f i n i s h doing our work," and ". . . or i f we're finished we just read or something."  95 What C h i l d r e n C o n f i r m e d a b o u t Living  out a day.  Classroom  Life  In the search f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n s  s e t t i n g by c a t e g o r i e s o f e v e n t s a n d h a p p e n i n g s k i n d s of groups with  insights  room.  the c h i l d r e n used  to sort  f o r t h e way p a r t i c i p a n t s  These were c o n s t r u c t i o n s  c h i l d r e n and I p a r t i c i p a t e d .  d u r i n g a s c h o o l day, the  the photographs  defined  of the  the events  and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  p r o v i d e d me i n the c l a s s -  i n which both the  T h i s means t h e v a l i d i t y  of the i n q u i r y  was n o t t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e c o r p u s o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e o r q u a n t i t a t i v e mathematical rather  f o r m u l a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be d e r i v e d  i t was t e s t e d a g a i n s t e v e r y d a y  was c o n t e n d e d  from a  setting;  experiences of the children.  It  that  To u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p r a c t i c e s o f c h i l d r e n as t h e y go a b o u t t h e i r r o u t i n e s , we c a n n o t s u b o r d i n a t e them t o o u r e x p e r i ences, t o o u r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowing, and t o o u r forms o f knowledge. R a t h e r we a r e c a l l e d u p o n t o compose p r a c t i c e s t h a t r e v e a l t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r p r e t i v e meanings as r e a s o n a b l e and p r a c t i c a l t o t h e i r purposes-at-hand, and, i n doing so, t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r forms o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e w o r l d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o o u r own. ( S i l v e r , 1 9 7 5 , p. 4 8 ) The  c a t e g o r i e s u s e d by t h e c h i l d r e n  usual, diverse, roll  and e s o t e r i c .  #3 he s t a t e d ,  F o r example,  " ( 1 ) A boy i s t a l k i n g  T h e s e t w o , b o t h p l a c e s w h e r e we r e a d . gym.  to sort  when a y o u n g s t e r  (6) Both working hard.  two,  i n h i s desk,  In c o n t r a s t , working.  ( 3 ) T h e s e two g e t t i n g down.  (5) Both s t a n d i n g  ( 7 ) T h e s e t w o , b o t h same d e s k s .  (2) Working.  c a t e g o r i z e d t h e same p i c t u r e s  (3) L i s t e n i n g . "  the magnitude  i n g s and c a t e g o r i e s .  Each  Because  and v a r i e t y w i t h i n  c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t  (2)  ready f o r  ( 8 ) These  now g o n e . ( 9 ) T h e s e t w o , b o t h p l a c e s h a v e w o r k  another c h i l d  I came t o r e a l i z e  sorted  and t h e r e i s t h e t e a c h e r .  ( 4 ) These two, a l l t h e time we're s i t t i n g  up.  t h e p i c t u r e s were u n -  there."  a s " ( 1 ) Nobody  t h e y w e r e so a t y p i c a l the c h i l d r e n ' s  f o r many r e a s o n s .  group-  96 However, i n the c o n t e x t of the s t u d y , d e s i g n a t e d exploratory  r a t h e r than  Thereafter,  t h e g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e was  by  the  in  the  individual  to i n f e r  and  a c t i v i t i e s which  interviews.  been m i s s e d  were s u g g e s t e d  These i n c l u d e d :  t o me  the c l a s s out brushes,  homework d e s k ; homework;  studies  l e s s o n about the f o r e s t ;  ments;  children  finished  signing their  t h e i r work;  Adult versus be m i s s i n g f r o m  and  children  feel  c h i l d r e n ' s agenda.  free  not  t o s p e a k t o me  a b l e to get  on  The ordered  implicit  the  life  took p l a c e i n the of t h i s  thereby  the  daily  setting.  reality  i n the  and  silent  paper;  reading;  and  art;  i n the  of t h e i r  to t a l k  the  life  social  were  the c l a s s r o o m which d e s k s on  task.  without  attempt  immediately  the cued  itself  and  disrupting  the  c l a s s r o o m were found  was  to  They d i d  i n v o l v e d t h e c h i l d r e n and  in this  had  teacher.  utterances, actions, An  art;  classroom.  classroom  t o me  the  out-  children  What t h e c h i l d r e n c o n s i d e r e d  as p e r c e i v e d by  w o r l d of r e a l i t y  p r a c t i c e s , procedures,  the a s p h a l t area  w h i l e I worked i n the c l a s s r o o m  s t r u c t u r e s which  during  r e c e i v i n g homework a s s i g n -  movements f r o m  the c h i l d r e n  r o u t i n e of the c l a s s r o o m  tions  included  the c h i l d r e n  paints,  d i s r u p t e d the monotony of s t a y i n g i n t h e i r  I was  or not  the b l a c k b o a r d because they  the s i n k area  an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l  by  language a r t s  names on  k i n d s o f t i m e t a b l e c h a n g e s and  not  the s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d  t o m u s i c and w h i l e t h e y w e r e d o i n g m u s i c ;  g o i n g home;  or  accepted.  a b l e t o t a k e many p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s ,  s i d e the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g w i t h water,  not  and  photographs.  events,  going  descriptive  t h e d i v e r s i t y was  p l a c e d on  c h i l d r e n a b o u t what had  F o r e x a m p l e , I was  the  causality,  t o be  and  which i n the  interactions  which  made t o g r o u n d t h e d e s c r i p -  g i v e n , the  i n h e r e n t m e a n i n g s t r u c t u r e s became  life-world,  intelligible.  and  In the data gathered dren of  i n the  s e t t i n g have e x p l i c i t  teacher's  controlled, discipline The  e x p e c t a t i o n s , but and  behaviors  To  experiences  life.  t h e y had  in their  f o r the c h i l d r e n  t h e one  teacher's  w h i l e on  setting  initiating  p l a c e d on To  circumvented  everyday  fest  and  everyday For  b e t w e e n and  of t h i s  particular  setting.  of  help Self-  ambiguities  e x a m p l e , some g i r l s  and  the  children  activities.  classroom  used a  friends.  i s a meeting of  among t e a c h e r  as an a i m  v e r b a l cues to  p p . 4 3 - 5 9 ) . When t h e y m e e t , w i t h i n b o t h  interactions  the r e a l i t y  where t h e r e  own  understood  conflict,  classroom  l o n g t o communicate w i t h  a world  t o mesh  the p a r t of  task completion  of v i s u a l  students.  and  their  teacher's  n e e d s on  I t w o u l d seem t o f o l l o w t h a t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and s e t t i n g was  t o mesh  setting.  reconcile this  their  tacit  understandings  i n the c l a s s r o o m w i t h the  worked  t o know t h e  They w e r e e x p e c t e d  in this  of t h e i r  cues w i t h o t h e r  l a n g u a g e a l l day  Manen, 1978,  with  activities within  b e h a v i o r s w i t h the  classroom  used a wide d i v e r s i t y  youngsters  by c h e c k i n g  this  knowledge  concern  the o t h e r hand the c h i l d r e n  i n the s e t t i n g .  the r e a l i t i e s  and  c h i l d r e n had  hand, t h e r e were s t r o n g l y f e l t  to s o c i a l i z e ,  them t h r o u g h  sign  setting  t o mesh t h e i r  s t r o n g emphasis the t e a c h e r  the  i n the  w i t h the r e g u l a r i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s  much i m p o r t a n c e in  survive i n this  about c l a s s r o o m  views of r e a l i t y  the  chil-  to behave i n a p u r p o s e f u l ,  i n the k i n d s of s t r u c t u r e s , p r o c e d u r e s ,  t h e t e a c h e r had  children  a l s o t h e y had  the  t e a c h e r ' s p r o f e s s e d a i m s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h whom she  They w e r e e x p e c t e d  On  o n l y d i d the  control.  the classroom.  social  t h a t not  e d u c a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e and  s t e a d y manner as e x p r e s s e d  and  were e v i d e n t  rules.  i t became e v i d e n t  the  teacher  in  l i f e - w o r l d s ' (Van  t h e r e a r e many m a n i -  c h i l d r e n as  they  T h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s may  share take  the form  of  t e n t a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s and p l a n n i n g , a g r e e m e n t s ,  understandings, misinterpretations, and  triumphs'  (Van Manen, 1978,  lay  in their perceived significance  i n g s , e x c h a n g e s , and  pp..43-59).  conventions  t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who  the r e a l i t y  p r o v i d e d them by  in  life-world this  responsibilities, The  life-world  of the v a r i o u s t a l k ,  i n the s e t t i n g .  to conclude  the  tasks,  conflicts, frustrations,  of the  gestures, read-  I t w o u l d seem  better understood  t h e t e a c h e r and who  children  reasonable  the s t r u c t u r e  shared  of  the meanings  o f t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d be more c o m f o r t a b l e and  of  competent  setting.  Summary The  study of a c h i l d r e n ' s  p r e t a t i o n s and of the c h i l d r e n  shared understandings  vent  of the  study uncovered  classroom  t o e n g e n d e r and shared  and  the d u p l i c i t y  teacher's interest  precipitate  secret sign  languages  and  talk which  ways t o c i r c u m took  t e a c h e r ' s knowledge.  in control  and  discipline  and  appeared  particularly note  passing  boys.  f o r marking  the r i g h t  and  on-task  behavior  appeared  a n s w e r by any means a v a i l a b l e  to  included cheating.  Finally,  the monotony of the c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s  encourage c h i l d r e n language,  of the  to get  questions  cheating which  among some o f t h e g i r l s  classroom procedures  to encourage c h i l d r e n them w h i c h  the everyday  c o v e r t s t u d e n t a c t i o n s , most  and w h i s p e r i n g among some o f t h e The  from  inter-  study.  i n the c l a s s r o o m o u t s i d e of the c l a s s r o o m The  sign  were g a t h e r e d  the k i n d s of  c o v e r t , shared communications,  classroom procedures,  place  and  i n a n s w e r t o p r e - f o r m u l a t e d q u e s t i o n s and  arose d u r i n g the process The  classroom culture  note  classroom.  to t r y to e n l i v e n p a s s i n g , and  their  lives  appeared  by c o m m u n i c a t i n g  c h a t t e r w h e n e v e r t h e t e a c h e r was  to with out  CHAPTER V  Background to the  SUMMARY OF  THE  understand  c h i l d h o o d depends upon the  Study  How we come t o see  and  s p e c t i v e adopted whether h i s t o r i c a l , The  n o t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d has  human l i f e in  among s o c i a l ,  the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  s t a t e has  development, i r r a t i o n a l , k n o w l e d g e and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l .  religious,  i n the western  incomplete  and  world.  sometimes m a n i f e s t e d persons  and  lacking  adults.  i n the  i n m o r a l and  e c o n o m i c , and  T h e i r complex w o r l d  by  so d o i n g  cultural  comprises  the n e i g h b o r h o o d s c h o o l .  i n f l u e n c e s and  skills  in  of s o c i a l  cultural'isolation  lack  same s e t s  the w o r l d  the church,  social  settings will  relationships indicating  or i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l 99  of  i n f l u e n c e s o f home, p l a y the  workplace,  order.  interact  of  t o one  i n groups  another.  t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t vacuum.  these  Even  They e x e r c i s e p e e r c o m p e t e n c i e s and  order  the  society.  i n c l u d e s the  i n f l u e n c e s as  c r e a t e t h e i r own  in regulating their  c o n s t i t u t e s a type  the  street,  young c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n u n s u p e r v i s e d  exhibit  intellectual  Young c h i l d r e n a c t i n t h e c o n t e x t  they  of t h r e e or f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s .  separate  characterization  j u d g e m e n t t o a c t as o r d i n a r y members o f o u r  historic,  as a  t h e r e f o r e incompetent because they  g r o u n d , o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s homes, t h e and  e d u c a t i o n a l groups  Childhood  N e v e r t h e l e s s , c h i l d h o o d , or the c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d , of s o c i a l ,  per-  become a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d p e r s p e c t i v e a b o u t  political,  become a c o n c e p t  o f c h i l d r e n as  STUDY  they This develop  100 Some p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e a t t e m p t e d it and  as a s e r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l emotional  of m a t u r a t i o n  development.  stages  to study  or g r a d a t i o n s  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have t a k e n  until  they  a broad  exists  twenty-one years  related  u p o n and  of a d u l t s w h i l e the b e l i e f s and  of the  the c h i l d r e n  daily  and  Compounding the  inadequacy  c h i l d r e n are together.  ate the to  that  by b e l i e f s  the o t h e r s . the  context  of t h e i r  s e e n t o be The  both  t o make j u d g e m e n t s on  the  knowledge about a d u l t s ' competent  interactions  i n the process  comparatively  as a c u l t u r e ,  classroom.  teachers  their  daily  setting,  to  t e n d i n g to promote  Teacher's b e l i e f s  k i n d s of shared meanings c h i l d r e n h o l d about the  fantasy,  i n a school  of developing  r u l e s , w i t h the t e a c h e r  sanction children's behavior.  The  In c o n s i d e r i n g  a d u l t c u l t u r e seems t o p e r v a d e t h e  formal classroom  a  a r e a c t e d upon by  of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ,  daily  or  there  presence  i s known i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y ,  the c u l t u r a l  ities  suggests  interaction.  C o n s t r u c t i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e , the c l a s s r o o m and  members  age.  teacher's world  b a s i s of c h i l d r e n ' s supposed i n c o m p l e t e  little  of  influencing  c h i l d h o o d as a s u b - c u l t u r e a d u l t s h a v e t e n d e d  actions.  participating  e x i s t w i t h or without  through  their  a t ages seven to n i n e ;  s u b c u l t u r e s , each guided  o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w o r l d may  the t e a c h e r  In  make c h i l d r e n d e p e n d e n t n o n - p r o d u c t i v e  body o f i d e a s , e a c h i m p i n g i n g beliefs  children  an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l v i e w o f a c l a s s r o o m  a c u l t u r e and  criteria  view of the c h i l d .  p l a y of the a d u l t w o r l d b e g i n n i n g  are a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Adopting  in children's social  gradings.  s t u d i e s of c h i l d h o o d i n c u l t u r e they have found  i n C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e we  viewing  They h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t i c u l a r  by p s y c h o l o g i c a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n ' t f r e i w o r k and  c h i l d h o o d by  can  rules  activgeneror  i n f l u e n c e the  of the  classroom.  101 Purpose of the Study The  p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d i s c o v e r t h e n a t u r e  a classroom's actions  s o c i a l world  as u n d e r s t o o d  d i s p l a y e d by i n d i v i d u a l  by t h e c h i l d r e n  assumed t h a t t h e s o c i a l w o r l d  of the classroom  ways y o u n g c h i l d r e n  their  as members o f a c l a s s r o o m question of classroom educational  life  literature.  daily  worlds.  Research  Methods  In had  order  room l i f e for  i t is  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d  activities.  r a t h e r than  i nthe  How do c h i l d r e n  daily  lives?  ' This  The s t u d y  attempted  students, r e p o r t i n g the i n s i d e r ' s view, among t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d .  interpreters  of t h e i r  t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h methods  i n c l u d e d t h e use of f i e l d  interpretation.  then  has r e c e i v e d o n l y p a s s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t h e  a s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n  the study  I f the  R e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d most s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r  to achieve  t o be d e v i s e d .  setting,  culture constitute their  c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s and r e s p o n d e n t s cultural  in it.  c h i l d r e n and groups o f c h i l d r e n a r e i n f l u -  enced by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  interpret  and meaning o f  t o document t h e e v e n t s themselves. notes,  Procedures  establishing  rapport  documenting everyday In  an e f f o r t  classroom  with  a means f o r d o c u m e n t a r y  d e s c r i p t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  w i t h p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p a r a d i g m were t h e t e c h n i q u e s in  devised  and a n a l y z i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  Photography provided  The e t h n o g r a p h i c  of c l a s s -  combined used  life.  t o make t h e e v e r y d a y  life  problematic, the research  r e s t e d on c e r t a i n p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s about c h i l d r e n ' s p r a c t i c a l  knowledge;  their  reflections  and  stock of knowledge;  their practical  a c t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  ences;  and t h e sources  fortheir  reasoning;  their  i n d i v i d u a l b i o g r a p h i e s and d a i l y e x p e r i s t o c k o f knowledge.  The  important  102 source  f o r c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e was  of r e a l i t y which and  experience  p r e - e x i s t s and  taken  is available  i n an o r d e r l y way.  w o r l d comes f r o m  t o be  The  the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e  for c h i l d r e n to  from  their parents,  e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i r p e e r s , and w i t h t h e t e a c h e r , as w e l l which  occur The  around  of the problems a r i s i n g  from  interview transcripts  until  developed  f o r the  f i e l d work;  and  in retrievable field  the e n t i r e corpus  notes;  a c h i e v i n g convergences  The  form,  treating  of m a t e r i a l s ;  r e c u r s i v e r u l e s occurred which  s t u d y w e r e an  gaining entry,  becoming p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r .  i n c l u d e d amassing a l l data  analyzing  as t h e  the their events  them.  s p e c i f i c procedures  r a p p o r t , and  interpret  c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge about  t h e i r handed-down e x p e r i e n c e s  world  establishing  sequence of  including data  outgrowth  procedures  photographs,  comprehensively;  providing provisional  schema  i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l the data;  b e t w e e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s and  the  and  participants'  perspectives. The b a s e d on  m e t h o d o l o g y and the  data c o l l e c t i o n procedures  i d e a s of i n t e r p r e t i v e  social  s c i e n c e w i t h e m p h a s i s on  d i s c o v e r y o f an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s meaning s t r u c t u r e s .  everyday  are problematic.  events  structed reality  one  To  a self-organizing study attempted  setting.  to describe:  The  an a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n The  and  I t i s a premise  actions,  data c o l l e c t i o n  to:  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  encountered  con-  of  for this  classroom; envisioned  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  p a r t i c u l a r problems posed i n u n d e r t a k i n g t h i s  were a t t r i b u t a b l e  that  l i f e world  (3) what p a r t i c i p a n t s  of the s o c i a l  the  recover taken-for-  become p a r t o f t h e  (1) what t a k e s p l a c e i n a and  were  t o document a s o c i a l l y  m e t h o d o l o g y and  ( 2 ) what r e g u l a r i z e s t h e r o u t i n e s ; t o be  attempt  must d e a l w i t h p r a c t i c a l  g r a n t e d knowledge from p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  f o r the study  classroom.  ethnographic  i n gaining entry  study and  103 establishing  a role  interpretations; of the  teacher  teacher's  that f a c i l i t a t e d  the nature  to maintain  interest  ity  behave q u i e t l y with a partner  of these  notes.  as  d e f i n i n g and  entry  teacher.  and  the  fact  the  i n the systems;  and  a new  role  these  t h e p h o t o s when t h e y  the  s a i d What t h e  collection  the  of  researcher  frameworks the  e v e n t s and of  d i d any  to  teacher  objects.  life  world.  with  the  The  c h i l d r e n and  p h o t o g r a p h s meant t o them.  i n an  occurrences  i n c l u d e d the  opportunistic fashion;  i n a programmed way;  a random f a s h i o n .  The  the meanings f o r the  role  of the  as too  the  result  c o m p l e x t o be  identified  choices; by  the  and  suggested  t a k i n g photographs of happenings i n  everyday events i n the  of photographic  r e c o r d i n g of events  photographs i n the  a d i s p l a y to s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h  sequence:  situation.  photographing children's  and  meanings  i n a research  The  the  the  The  researcher.  defined  docu-  categorized  p h o t o s shown t o p a r t i c i p a n t s , p h o t o s i n t e r p r e t e d t o  objects  used  camera  photos taken,  camera t e c h n i q u e s  uncover  Photographs  i n t e r p r e t e d , and  the photographs h e l d were v a l i d a t i o n s or check p o i n t s  Specific  meticu-  photographer-participant-observer  described,  p a r t i c i p a n t s , then,  activ-  t o overcome the e f f e c t s  u s e d by  were shared  They i n t u r n i d e n t i f i e d ,  the need f o r c h i l d r e n  i n v o l v e d the  c h i l d r e n ' s everyday  e v e n t s and  questions;  that c h i l d r e n rarely  c h i l d r e n and  c a t e g o r i z i n g classroom  d e s i r e on  forms of  In order  observations  to the  i n t o the  mented c l a s s r o o m  c h i l d r e n ' s desk arrangement;  reward  the  and part  L a t e r , p h o t o g r a p h y was  'participant-camera'  provided  the  information  the  or i n a s m a l l group.  frameworks important for  task;  features, i n i t i a l  lous f i e l d  control;  c l a s s w o r k and  on  of  of c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n ;  i n c o n t r o l as m a n i f e s t e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the to  the* c o l l e c t i o n  research  students; and  by  by  s t u d y was  s e t t i n g by  to  uncover  providing  d e f i n i n g the  situation  documenting events that  immediate classroom  observation  were  techniques.  This photographic with  r e c o r d was u s e d a s t h e b a s i s  the c h i l d r e n .  interpretations,  Transcriptions revealed  children's  and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s , shared i n the classroom,  f o rindividual  interviews  identifications,  m e a n i n g s f o r what'iwas  as w e l l as t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  allowed  and  not allowed  awarenesses  for  what h a d b e e n m i s s e d o r n o t i n c l u d e d f o r a n a d e q u a t e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e i r  culture. Children's interview  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d i s p l a y e d t o them  sessions  opportunity  allowed  t o be e x p l o r e d .  t h e 'open-ended' q u a l i t y The t e a c h e r ' s  of the photographic  i n t e r v i e w schedule  the meanings f o r e v e n t s and o b j e c t s as u n d e r s t o o d and shared in  the s e t t i n g ,  Findings  and  This and  d e s c r i b e d how c l a s s r o o m  instruction  d r e n were crowded i n t o  life  by p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o n s i s t s o f b o t h an a d u l t  agenda f o r p a t t e r n i n g e v e n t s .  what was t o go o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m to their  by b e i n g  Students  learned  exposed t o p a t t e r n s  ranging  own i n f o r m a l g r o u p g o s s i p .  the classroom  they  and competencies they  found  of s k i l l s  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o one a n o t h e r i n s e t t i n g s o u t s i d e  Usually,  their  outside  objects,  spaces,  activities  and p l a y g r o u n d  relationships with  a l r e a d y had developed  t o uset h e f o r regulating  the school.  were r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l t h i n g s ,  areas.  These t h i n g s h e l p e d  one a n o t h e r a n d h e l p e d  were i n t h e c l a s s r o o m  When t h e c h i l -  i t difficult  kinds  provide  social  toys,  mediate  order.  their  When  they  they were e x p e c t e d t o o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o language  encoded i n f o r m a t i o n , spoken o r w r i t t e n . their  on  Conclusions  a children's daily  lating  focused  c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r .  study  from formal  during  i n t e r a c t i o n s no l o n g e r  The c h i l d r e n ' s own r u l e s f o r r e g u -  applied.  spontaneous groups o r l a p s i n g i n t o p l a y w i t h d r e n ' s own a g e n d a e m p h a s i z e d t h e k i n d s  They were s c o l d e d o b j e c t s a t hand.  f o r forming The c h i l -  of- t i m e t a b l e c h a n g e s a n d movements  105 from in  the  classroom  their  desks.  structures suggest  around  predominant  non-verbal  needs  to  ways  find  and  ways  class. the  to  remain  children  limit  on  children  children  for  these  right  rules  the  need  activities.  of  game f o r  their  of  emphasized  seatwork  the  cues,  answers,  were to  time,  comply  staying  timetable The  findings  survival  space,  to  the  shared  related  find  environmental  among  ways and  about  to to  the get  subject  classroom  in  the.  environmental children's  out  of  their  s t r u c t u r e s of  were  regimentation  time,  from what  the  their  and  own  how  they  used  lives  according  to  which  indicated  subject  and  by  these  the  to  the  kinds  calling  described  f o r the  and  other  herself  integrated into  the  the  rather  objects  saw  about  to  children  to  teacher  day  and  researcher themselves  lengthy  i n the  c o n s t r a i n t s on doing.  the  By  uses  the  flow  and of  inter-  classroom. the  contrast, purposes events  or  teacher.  teacher  their  of  and  specific  literal  movement  non-verbal  actions.  paper  structures;  objects  the  The  and  of  guide  appeared  space,  were  understandings  they  from  understandings  structures designated  cated  cues  children.  arrangements  created  shared  the  ranged  furniture  objects  cues,  participants  f o r a c t i o n i n the to  interaction  Children's  verbal  part  verbal  s t r u c t u r e s and  stemming  desk;  and  agenda  monotony  task.  of  the  her  and  get  tacit  arrangements  subject  subjects  descriptions which  pretations These  to  as  social  provided  d i s r u p t e d the  teacher's  to work w i t h i n the  The  Physical to  or  understandings  teacher  by  the  c h i l d r e n ' s a g e n d a was  cues,  the  them  setting.  The  desks,  cued  Conversely,  ordered  the  classroom  which  used  children  on by  the  v e r b a l cues  Children patterned  in different  whether  papers  and  or  not  the  teacher's  name;  activities; teacher desk.  teacher  indi-  their objects  worked  at  Teacher  requests,  children  106 asked by  to deliver  the children The  and  to  of these  also  secret  shared  communications  copied—whispered,  Girls  rewards  they  passed  secret  The n e e d  sought  about  and g i r l s . at other  answers  and r a i s e d  from  understood  behavior.  restricted  to get the r i g h t  boys  cheated—looked  notes,  names w e r e  or sanctions fori:student  among b o t h  i n the classroom  shared  use o f t h e i r  understandings  languages.  the researcher that  t e a c h e r was  and t e a c h e r  t o be e i t h e r  children  non-verbal  many  messages;  communications  answer  They  reported  children's each  work a n d  other while the  a r a c k e t when t h e t e a c h e r  sign  languages  and communicated  meanings  reflected  i n this  when  prompted  left.  t h e y were  at  their  desks. The from  basic  the research s i t u a t i o n  pretations that  from  within  to  provide  appeared ize, to  they  to  meeting school  correct  spellings  t o each  fide  members  The c h i l d r e n ' s other  giving  for their  peer  themselves of t h e i r  group  actions.  t h e y were  forced  The d i c h o t o m y  an u n d e r g r o u n d  social-  seemed  a n d how o f what  i n t h e eyes  of  each  and a c c o u n t i n g  t h e y were n o t s u c c e s s f u l i n  culture  normatively  t o use s u b t e r f u g e  system,  These a c t i o n s  t h e why  of codes  Chil-  s h e e t s and  The c h i l d r e n  vis-a-vis  imposed  to s a t i s f y  o f o v e r t and c o v e r t a c t i o n s ,  communication  drill  l o n g i n g s t o communicate,  own c u l t u r e ,  Because  actions  the teacher.  t o math  t o convey  inter-  revealed  hypocritical  during tests.  had knowledge  the expectations i n the adult system,  other  answers  f o r t h e s c h o o l game.  a c t i o n s among  The s t u d y  on t o s a t i s f y  some o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e i r -own r u l e s  their  expectations. of  were c a r r i e d about  d i d as bona  each  p e r s p e c t i v e s , many  and spoke  a n d make  other.  world  derived  p r o v i d e d new a n d v a r i e d  the photographs.  observed  to s a t i s f y  conduct  from  participants'  the c h i l d r e n ' s  d r e n were  as p a r t i c i p a n t s  f o r the occurrences the p u p i l  s t u d y were p r i m a r i l y  by t h e  the teacher's  the beginnings  the teacher's  structures  107 f o r conduct i n the with  their  own  setting  culture.  c h a t t e r e d whenever the tacit the  classroom  They d i s s e m b l e d teacher  rules.  s c h o o l game  1.  The  teacher  left  i n t h e i r classroom  the classroom,  They d i d t h i s  i n gaps  conduct,  manoeuvered around  to s u r v i v e — t o l i v e  out  a day  following  knowing  from the  Study  c o n c l u s i o n s may  be  drawn from the  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  prime g o a l f o r the conduct of the  s c h o o l day  reflected  interest  o r d e r , and  control.  This  as e x p e r i e n c e d  by  implications  the  rules.  Educational Conclusions The  engendered the c h i l d r e n ' s need t o f i l l  i n classroom  discipline,  f o r t h e humaneness o f c l a s s r o o m  life  study.  a pervasive has the  children. 2.  Children structured their q u e s t i o n o f how  daily  classroom  activities  around t h e i r  agenda.  The  c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e the teacher's  t u r e s and  c u r r i c u l u m i n t e n t s and w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e  their  l e a r n i n g processes  tions  f o r c u r r i c u l u m c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and  (a) c h i l d r e n conceive  requires further consideration.  of time  i n ways o t h e r t h a n  ( b ) c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e o b j e c t s and i n t e n t s of the teacher; structures  t o be  to get  were of major c o n c e r n and  the q u a l i t y  of  and  For  teacher tially work.  ratio, t h a t the  answers.  learning experiences  the f i x e d standard  alternatives  The  f r a m e , and  classroom  Several  as  implica-  suggested: teacher:';s; than  the  the goals of c u r r i c u l u m  products  of t h e i r  the k i n d s of p r o c e s s e s  h e l d t o be m e a n i n g f u l to the classroom  c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g w o u l d be time  struc-  i n planning  m a t e r i a l s f o r purposes other  f o r them r a t h e r , t h a n  example, a l t e r n a t i v e  the  (c) c h i l d r e n understood  the r i g h t  These i m p l i c a t i o n s suggest  design are  subject  own  the classroom  may  by be  efforts for  the  documented i n t h i s  teacher.  required.  t o change the testing  inquiry  so  pupil-  substan-  study would  not  108 3.  The c h i l d r e n made i t known t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r  pretended,  and d i s s e m b l e d  i n their  e a c h o t h e r by w h a t e v e r means. with  s e c r e t s i g n languages,  other's papers. the c l a s s r o o m f o r honesty  notes, whispers,  and a u t h e n t i c i t y  concerns  Suggestions The inquiry 1.  the s o c i a l  setting  Procedures  answers from  each  i n children's actions i n concerns  i n c h i l d r e n ' s behavior w h i l e they  study  'situations wherein  these  continue  behaviors  i n children's perceptions  f o r the  suggest  that there  i s a need f o r f u r t h e r  c u l t u r e of the school.  P h o t o g r a p h s as ' p a r t i c i p a n t  of the p a r t i c i p a n t 2.  from  Research  f i n d i n g s from t h i s  to a s o c i a l  sneaked,  of schools?  f o r Further  into  communicated  t h e q u e s t i o n , How c a n s c h o o l s d e m o n s t r a t e  only t h r i v e but create dissonance  primary  answers  and c o v e r t c o p y i n g  of d u p l i c i t y  t o engender t h e k i n d s o f ambiguous not  cheated,  to get the r i g h t  F o r example, they  These e v i d e n c e s  raise  efforts  that they  c a m e r a ' a s a means o f g a i n i n g e a s y  s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d by s o c i a l observer's  using s t i l l  role  i n social  photographs i n v i t e  scientists  entry  a s an e x t e n s i o n  settings. further exploration.  They  a l l o w members t o p o r t r a y a c u l t u r e i n a way w h i c h i s t o o c o m p l e x f o r human o b s e r v a t i o n methods.  I n s i d e r s themselves  could direct  t h e documentary  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r w o r l d w e r e e a c h t o be p r o v i d e d w i t h a c a m e r a . 3.  Ways  i n which c h i l d r e n ' s classroom  the a d u l t o r t e a c h e r ' s 4.  observed  important  procedures  research area.  of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n procedures  with  c o n s t r u c t s r e m a i n t o be e l a b o r a t e d .  Children's internalizations  their  knowledge c o n s t r u c t s o v e r l a p  of t a c i t  for living  classroom  rules  out a classroom  day c o n s t i t u t e an  A measure o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  on t h e p a r t o f i n d i v i d u a l  f o r c o n d u c t c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d .  i n r e l a t i o n to  between t h e degree  children with their  avowed  109 5.  Secret sign  languages  i n c l a s s r o o m s suggest a n o t h e r avenue f o r r e s e a r c h :  i n what k i n d s o f s c h o o l s e t t i n g s children's Do s e c r e t  do t h e y f l o u r i s h ?  o v e r what p e r i o d o f  l i v e s a r e t h e y an i m p o r t a n t means o f c l a s s r o o m s i g n languages  c h i l d r e n a n d hamper  constitute a regressive  language  development?  communication?  form of communication  among  110  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Atkin,  J . M. Research s t y l e s i n science education. i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 , 5, -.338-345.  Aries,  P. Centuries 1962.  Baldwin,  A.  L.  of c h i l d h o o d .  Theories  T r a n s . R.  of development.  New  J o u r n a l of  Baldluk.  York:  Research  New  York:  Wiley,  1967.  Knopf,  Barker-Lunn, J . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e x , a c h i e v e m e n t and s o c i a l c l a s s on j u n i o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1969, 39, 6 4 - 7 1 . Barker-Lunn, J. The i n f l u e n c e o f s e x , a c h i e v e m e n t and s o c i a l c l a s s on j u n i o r school c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of Educat i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 42, 7 0 - 7 4 . B e c k , M. D. What a r e p u p i l s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c h o o l E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1977, 7 8 ( 1 ) , 7 3 - 7 8 . B e c k e r , H. S. Making the grade: The New Y o r k : John Wiley, 1968. B e c k e r , H. S. Journal  curriculum?  academic s i d e of c o l l e g e  The  life.  Social class variation in teacher-pupil relationships. o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y , 1952, 25, 4 5 1 - 4 6 5 .  B e c k e r , H. S. S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n . I n J . G o u l d and W. L. K o l b ( E d s . ) , A d i c t i o n a r y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Pp. 6 5 7 - 6 5 8 . London: T a v i s t o c k , B e e r e , C. Development of a group i n s t r u m e n t t o measure c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1973, 10, 308-315. B e n e d i c t , R. C o n t i n u i t i e s and d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . I n A. S k o l n i c k ( E d . ) , R e t h i n k i n g c h i l d h o o d — p e r s p e c t i v e s on d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i e t y . Pp. 1 9 - 2 8 . Toronto": L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1976. B e r g e r , P., & L u c k m a n n , T. The Garden C i t y : Doubleday,  social 1966.  B l a n d f o r d , G. A child's perception 1977, 2 9 ( 3 ) , 1 7 8 - 1 8 0 .  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  of the s c h o o l .  B l u m e r , H. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n i s m : Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1969.  Perspective  B l u m e r , H. Symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n . I n James P. and c o g n i t i o n : R u l e s , maps, and p l a n s . 1972.  reality.  Educational  and  method.  Spradley (Ed.), San F r a n c i s c o :  Review,  New  Culture Chandler,  1964.  Ill B o r i c h , G. D. Sources of i n v a l i d i t y i n measuring classroom behavior. T e x a s U n i v e r s i t y , A u s t i n ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e , (ED 120 2 6 2 ) , 1 9 7 6 . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. of c h i l d h o o d .  Developmental research, p u b l i c p o l i c y , C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 4 , 4 5 , 1-5.  and t h e ecology  B r o w n , B. B., O b e r , R. L., S o a r , R. S., & Webb, J . N. F l o r i d a t a x o n o m y of c o g n i t i v e behavior. I n A. S i m o n a n d E. B o y e r ( E d s . ) , M i r r o r f o r behavior; An a n t h o l o g y o f o b s e r v a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . Pp. 37, 37-4. Philadelphia: R e s e a r c h f o r B e t t e r S c h o o l s , 1970. B r u n e r , J . S. P o v e r t y 1(1), 31-50.  and c h i l d h o o d .  Oxford  B u l m e r , M., ( E d . ) . S o c i o l o g i c a l research London: M a c M i l l a n , 1977.  Review o f E d u c a t i o n , 1975,  methods:  An i n t r o d u c t i o n .  B u r n e t t , J . Event d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s i n t h e m i c r o e t h n o g r a p h y o f urban classrooms. I n F. I a n n a n d E. S t a r e y , ( E d s . ) , C u l t u r a l r e l e v a n c e and e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . Pp. 287-303. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973. C a m p b e l l , J . R., & B a r n e s , C. W. I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s — a breakthrough? P h i D e l t a Kappan, 1969, 50, 588-590. C a r e w , J . V., & L i g h t f o o t , S. L. B e y o n d b i a s : rooms . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 . C a s e , R. Phi  Perspectives  on c l a s s -  P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f c h i l d development and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . D e l t a Kappan, 1973, 5 5 ( 1 ) , 20-25.  C a z d e n , C. B. The n e g l e c t e d s i t u a t i o n i n c h i l d l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h a n d education. In Arlene Skolnick (Ed.), Rethinking c h i l d h o o d — p e r s p e c t i v e s on d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s o c i e t y . P p . 1 4 9 - 1 6 7 . Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown, 1976. C i c o u r e l , A. V. L a n g u a g e u s e a n d s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e . P r e s s , 1974.  New Y o r k :  Academic  C i c o u r e l , A. V. The a c q u i s i t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e : T o w a r d a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s o c i o l o g y o f language and meaning. I n J . D. D o u g l a s ( E d . ) , Understanding everyday l i f e . Pp. 136-168. London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1971. C o h e n , Y. A. The s h a p i n g o f men's m i n d s — a d a p t a t i o n s to imperatives of culture. I n M u r r a y Wax a n d S t a n l e y D i a m o n d ( E d s . ) , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l perspectives i n education. P p . 1 9 - 5 0 . New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1968. C o l l i e r , J . V i s u a l anthropology: P h o t o g r a p h s as a r e s e a r c h Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967.  method.  112 C r o w l e , A. P o s t e x p e r i m e n t a l i n t e r v i e w s : An e x p e r i m e n t a l and l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s . Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Santa Barbara, 1971.  a socioUniver-  Dawson, J . A. Validity in qualitative inquiry. University o f l l l i n o i s a t U r b a n a - Champaign. P r e p a r e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n at the annual meeti n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o , A p r i l 9, 1979. d e H e u s c h , L. social Dewey, J .  The c i n e m a and sciences. 16.  D e m o c r a c y and  social Paris:  science. R e p o r t s and Unesco P u b l i c a t i o n .  education.  New  D e x t e r , L. A. E l i t e and s p e c i a l i z i n g Northwestern Press, 1970.  York:  D r e e b i n , R. On what i s l e a r n e d Wesley, 1968.  life.  111.:  sociology.  London:  effectiveness research,"  i n school.  the  1916.  Evanston,  Existential  D o u g l a s , J . D. ( E d . ) . Understanding everyday and K e g a n P a u l , 19717! D o y l e , W. "Paradigms f o r teacher 1977 .  MacMillan,  interviewing.  D o u g l a s , J . D., & J o h n s o n , J . M., (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge P r e s s , 1977.  papers i n  R e a d i n g , Mass.:  Routledge  Manuscript,  Addison-  D r e e b i n , R. The s c h o o l as w o r k p l a c e . I n R. M. T r a v e r s ( E d . ) , S e c o n d h a n d book o f r e s e a r c h .-on t e a c h i n g . Pp." 450-47-3." C h i c a g o R a n d ; M c N a l l y , 1973. Duke, D. L. Environmental i n f l u e n c e s on c l a s s r o o m management. I n D. L. Duke ( E d . ) , C l a s s r o o m management, t h e 7 8 t h y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , pp. 3 3 3 - 3 6 1 , P a r t 11, E i s n e r , E. On t h e u s e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and c r i t i c i s m evaluating classroom l i f e . T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 1973, 78, 357.  1979.  for 354-  —  E l k i n d , D. C h i l d development i n e d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1976, 12, 4 9 - 5 8 .  settings.  Educational  E l l i o t t , J. Developing hypotheses about c l a s s r o o m s from t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i cal constructs. G r a n d F o r k s , N.D.: U n i v e r s i t y of North Dakota, 1976. E l l i o t t , J. Three p o i n t s of v i e w i n the c l a s s r o o m . Ford j e c t p u b l i c a t i o n . Cambridge: Cambridge I n s t i t u t e  teaching proof E d u c a t i o n ,  19T5.  F l a n d e r s , N. Analyzing Wesley, 1970.  teacher  behavior.  R e a d i n g , Mass.:  Addison-  113 F l a n d e r s , N. I n t e r a c t i o n models of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b e h a v i o r s . I n E. J . A m i d o n and J . B. Hough ( E d s . ) , I n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s : T h e o r y r e s e a r c h , and a p p l i c a t i o n . Pp. 3 6 0 - 3 7 4 . Don M i l l s , Ont.: Addison-Wesley, 1967. Frake,  C.  0.  Comment t o B u r l i n g .  G a r f i n k e l , H. Studies Hall, 1967.  A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 1964,  i n ethnomethodology.  Englewood C l i f f s :  66,  119.  Prentice-  G e a r i n g , F., & H u g h e s , W. On o b s e r v i n g w e l l : S e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n i n ethnog r a p h i c o b s e r v a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s u p e r v i s o r s . A m h e r s t , N.Y.: Centre f o r S t u d i e s of " C u l t u r a l T r a n s m i s s i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k a t B u f f a l o , 1975. Geertz,  C.  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u l t u r e s .  G l a s e r , B. C , & S t r a u s s , A. L. Strategies for qualitative  New  York:  W.  The  1973.  The d i s c o v e r y o f g r o u n d e d t h e o r y : research. Chicago: A l d i n e , 1967.  G o o d e n o u g h , W. C u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y and l i n g u i s t i c s . L a n g u a g e i n c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . Pp. 3 6 - 3 9 . New Row, 1964. G o u l d n e r , A. 1971.  Basic,  coming c r i s i s  of w e s t e r n s o c i o l o g y .  I n D. Hymes ( E d . ) , York: H a r p e r and  New  York:  Avon,  Gump, P. V. I n t r a - s e t t i n g a n a l y s i s : The t h i r d g r a d e c l a s s r o o m as a s p e c i a l but i n s t r u c t i v e c a s e . I n E. P. W i l l i a m s and H. L. R a u s h (Eds.), N a t u r a l i s t i c viewpoints i n psychological research. Pp. 200220. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1969. H a l l o w e l l , I . The c h i l d , t h e s a v a g e , and human e x p e r i e n c e . I n A. ( E d . ) , R e t h i n k i n g c h i l d h o o d - — p e r s p e c t i v e s on d e v e l o p m e n t and Pp. 7 8 - 1 0 0 . Toronto: L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1976.  Skolnick society.  H a m i l t o n , P. K n o w l e d g e and K e g a n P a u l , 1974.  and  social  structure.  London:  Routledge  Henry, J . A t t i t u d e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n elementary school classrooms. A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1957, 27, 1 1 7 - 1 3 3 . H e r r m a n , R. C l a s s r o o m s t a t u s and of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . 1972, 4 1 , 3 2 - 3 9 . H o c k i n g s , P., ( E d . ) . M o u t o n , 1975. Holt,  J.  Hymes, D.,  How  Principles  children fail.  (Ed.).  Reinventing  New  t e a c h e r a p p r o v a l and d i s a p p r o v a l — s t u d y J o u r n a l o,f E x p e r i m e n t a l Education,  of v i s u a l  York:  anthropology.  Dell,  anthropology.  The  Hague:  1964. New  York:  Pantheon,  1969.  114 Jackson,  P.  J a c k s o n , P. 1968.  Students'' w o r l d . Life  The  i n classrooms.  Elementary School New  York:  Journal,  Holt, Rinehart  1966.  and  Winston,  J a c k s o n , P. The s t u d e n t s ' w o r l d . I n A. S k o l n i c k ( E d . ) , R e t h i n k i n g c h i l d h o o d — p e r s p e c t i v e s on d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i e t y . Pp. 3 6 8 - 3 8 0 . Toronto: L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1976. J a c k s o n , P., & K i e s l a r , S. B. F u n d a m e n t a l r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n . In S. B. K i e s l a r and C. F. T u r n e r ( E d s . ) , F u n d a m e n t a l r e s e a r c h and t h e process of e d u c a t i o n . Pp. 7-18. ' W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s , 1977. K a p l a n , A. The Scranton,  conduct of i n q u i r y : Methodology f o r b e h a v i o r a l Penn.: Chandler, 1964.  K a t z , M. B. C l a s s b u r e a u c r a c y , and s c h o o l s — t h e i l l u s i o n change i n A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : - P r a e g e r , 1975.  of  science.  educational  1  K a t z , M. B. The i r o n y o f e a r l y s c h o o l r e f o r m : Educational innovation i n mid-nineteenthc:century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Press, 1968. Kelly,  G.  A.  The  psychology  of p e r s o n a l  constructs.  W.  W.  Norton,  K e t t , J . A d o l e s c e n c e and y o u t h i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a . o f I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y H i s t o r y , 1971, _L1, 2 8 3 - 9 8 .  1955.  Journal  K i n g , R. A. The s c h o o l a t M o p a s s , a p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i t y , c a s e s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1969. Krebs,  S. The f i l m e l i c i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . I n P. H o c k i n g s ( E d . ) , P r i n c i p l e s of v i s u a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . Pp. 2 8 3 - 3 0 1 . The Hague: 1975.  L i g h t f o o t , S. L. P o l i t i c s and r e a s o n i n g : Through eyes of t e a c h e r s children. H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1973, 4 3 ( 2 ) , 1 9 7 ^ 2 4 4 . L o f l a n d , J . Analyzing s o c i a l s e t t i n g s , a guide to q u a l i t a t i v e t i o n s and a n a l y s i s . B e l m o n t , C a l . : W a d s w o r t h , 1971. L o r t i e , D. O b s e r v a t i o n s on t e a c h i n g as w o r k . I n R. Handbook o f r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g , 2nd e d . Pp. Rand M c N a l l y , 1973.  Mouton,  and  observa-  M. T r a v e r s ( E d . ) , 474-497. Chicago:  L u t z , F. W., & Ramsey, M. A. The use o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d m e t h o d s in education. E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1974, 3 ( 1 0 ) , 5-9.  115 M a l i n o w s k i , B. 1961.  Argonauts '  of the western P a c i f i c .  New Y o r k :  Dutton,  Mead, M., & M a c G r e g o r - C o o k e , F. G r o w t h a n d c u l t u r e : A photographic study of B a l i n e s e c h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : John W i l e y , 1951. Mehan, H. L e a r n i n g l e s s o n s — s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d P r e s s , 1979. M e h a n , H., & Wood, H. W i l e y , 1975. M o r g a n , G.  The r e a l i t y  The human p r e d i c a m e n t .  i n thecclassroom.  of ethnomethodology.  New Y o r k :  New Y o r k :  John  D e l t a Books, 1968.  M a c K a y , R. W. C o n c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n and models o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I n H. P. D r e i t z e l ( E d . ) , R e c e n t s o c i o l o g y . Pp. 27-43. M a c M i l l a n , 1973. M a c K a y , R. W. C o n c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n and models o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . R. T u r n e r ( E d . ) , E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y . Pp. 180-193. Baltimore: 1974. M c L u h a n , M. 1964.  U n d e r s t a n d i n g media:  The e x t e n s i o n o f man.  New Y o r k :  In Penguin,  Signet,  N u t h a l l , G. I s classroom i n t e r a c t i o n research worth the e f f o r t involved? New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 4 , 9 ( 1 ) , 1-17. O l s o n , D. R., ( E d . ) . Media and symbols: Forms o f e x p r e s s i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n , C h a p t e r 1. Pp. 1-24. C h i c a g o : National Society f o r t h e Study o f E d u c a t i o n , 1974. O p i e , P., a n d O p i e , I . C h i l d r e n ' s games i n s t r e e t O x f o r d P r e s s , 1969. O p i e , P., a n d O p i e , I . C l a r e n d o n , 1969.  The l o r e a n d l a n g u a g e  and p l a y g r o u n d .  of school c h i l d r e n .  London:  Oxford:  P h i l l i p s , D. S., & K e l l y , M. E. H i e r a r c h i c a l t h e o r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n and p s y c h o l o g y . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1975, 45, 351-375. P i k e , K. L. E t i c a n d e m i c s t a n d p o i n t s f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f . b e h a v i o r . I n D. C. H i l d u m ( E d . ) , L a n g u a g e a n d t h o u g h t . Pp. 32-39. Toronto: D. V a n N o s t r a n d , 1 9 6 7 . P i k e , K. L. E t i c a n d e m i c s t a n d p o i n t s f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . E x c e r p t e d f r o m K. L. P i k e , L a n g u a g e i n r e l a t i o n t o a u n i f i e d t h e o r y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f human b e h a v i o r . Pp. 3 7 - 6 8 . The Hague: Mouton, 1967.  116 Piaget, J. 1962.  The  P l u m b , J . H.  m o r a l j u d g e m e n t o f t h e c ' c h i l ' d . New  The  great  change i n c h i l d r e n .  York:  Horizon,  Collier  1971,  P r e n t i c e , A. The A m e r i c a n E x a m p l e . 'In J . D. W i l s o n , R. Audet ( E d s . ) , Canadian e d u c a t i o n : A h i s t o r y . Pp. Prentice-Hall, 1970.  13,  Books,  6-12.  M. Stamp, & L. 41-68. Toronto:  Rist,  R. C. S t u d e n t s o c i a l c l a s s and t e a c h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The s e l f f u l f i l l i n g prophecy i n ghetto education. Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1970, 4 0 , 4 1 1 - 4 5 1 .  Rist,  R. C. The u r b a n s c h o o l : M.I.T. P r e s s , 1973.  Rist,  R. C. E t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s and t h e U r b a n E d u c a t i o n , 1975, 1 0 ( 1 ) , 8 6 - 1 0 7 .  A factory for failure.  study  Cambridge:  o f an u r b a n  school.  R o o k e , P. The " c h i l d - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " i n C a n a d a , B r i t a i n and t h e United States: A trans-Atlantic perspective. The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t , 1977, 2 ( 2 ) , 1 5 6 - 1 7 7 . R o s e n s h i n e , B. E v a l u a t i o n of c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n . R e s e a r c h , 4 0 ( 2 ) , 279-298. S a c k s , H. "On some f o r m a l A u g u s t 27, 1965.  Review of  Educational  p r o p e r t i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s games,"  Manuscript,  S c h a t z m a n , L., & S t r a u s s , A. L. F i e l d research: Strategies for a natural sociology. New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1973. S c h u t z , A. C o l l e c t e d papers. V o l . 1. The The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j o f f , 1962.  problem of  S c h u t z , A. C o l l e c t e d p a p e r s 1: The p r o b l e m o f s o c i a l M. N a t a n s o n ( E d . ) . The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j o f f , S c h u t z , A. Rules  The and  social  reality.  reality. 1971.  frame of u n q u e s t i o n e d c o n s t r u c t s . I n M. D o u g l a s meanings. Pp. 18-20. H a r m o n d s w o r t h : Penguin,  S c h u t z , A. The s t r a n g e r : P a p e r s , V o l . 2. The  (Ed.), 1973.  An e s s a y i n s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . From C o l l e c t e d Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1973.  S c h w a r t z , M. S., & S c h w a r t z , C. G. Problems i n p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 1955, 6 0 ( 4 ) , 3 4 3 - 3 5 3 . Silberman,  C.  Crisis  i n the  classroom.  New  York:  Random H o u s e ,  1970.  S i l b e r m a n , M. L. B e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n of t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward elementary school students. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1969, 60, 4 0 2 - 4 0 7 . S i l v e r , R. J . 47-51.  Discovering  children's culture.  Interchange,  1975,  6,  117 S i n d e l l , P. S. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approaches to the study of e d u c a t i o n . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1969, 3 9 ( 5 ) , 5 9 3 - 6 0 5 . S i t t o n , T., & M e h a f f y , G. L. The c h i l d ' s c u l t u r e o f c l a s s r o o m s ( a n d to d i s c o v e r i t ) . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 1978, 35, 5 2 1 - 5 2 5 . S m i t h , L. M., & G e o f f r e y , W. The c o m p l e x i t i e s o f an u r b a n An a n a l y s i s t o w a r d a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f t e a c h i n g . New R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1968.  how  classroom: York: Holt,  S m i t h , L., & P o h l a n d , P. A. E d u c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y and t h e r u r a l h i g h lands. Four e v a l u a t i o n examples: A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , economic, n a r r a t i v e , and p o r t r a y a l . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a tion. Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1973. S m i t h , L. M. The m i c r o e t h n o g r a p h y o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . Schools, 1967, 4, 2 1 6 - 2 2 1 . :  Psychology  in  the  S o r e n s o n , R. E., & J a b l o n k o , A. R e s e a r c h f i l m i n g of n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g phenomena. I n P. H o c k i n g s ( E d . ) , P r i n c i p l e s o f v i s u a l anthropology. Pp. 1 5 1 - 2 6 3 . The Hague: M o u t o n , 1975. S p e i e r , M. The a d u l t i d e o l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t i n s t u d i e s o f c h i l d h o o d . I n A. S k o l n i c k ( E d . ) , R e t h i n k i n g c h i l d h o o d : P e r s p e c t i v e s on development and s o c i e t y . Pp. 1 6 8 - 1 8 6 . Toronto: L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1976. S p i n d l e r , G. D. Winston,  Education 1974]  and  the c u l t u r a l  process.  Holt, Rinehart  and  S p r a d l e y , J . P. F o u n d a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l knowledge. I n J . P. Spradley ( E d . ) , C u l t u r e and c o g n i t i o n : R u l e s , maps, and p l a n s . Pp. 3-34. San F r a n c i s c o : Chandler, 1972. S p r a d l e y , J . P., & M c C u r d y , D. W., (Ed.). The c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e : Ethnography i n complex s o c i e t y . Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i ates, 1972. S t o d d a r t , K. "The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e v e r y d a y l i f e : 'adequate e t h n o g r a p h y ' . " Undated manuscript, C o l u m b i a , 1978-79, 1-15. S t u r t e v a n t , W. C. C u l t u r e and Francisco:  Strategies for U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Studies i n ethnoscience. I n J . P. S p r a d l e y ( E d . ) , c o g n i t i o n : R u l e s , maps, and p l a n s . Pp. 1 2 9 - 1 6 7 . San Chandler, 1972.  S u l l i v a n , E. V. Comment: P h e n o m e n o l o g y and s t r u c t u r a l i s m : the w o r l d s . I n t e r c h a n g e , 1975, 6 ( 4 ) , 5 2 - 5 5 .  A war  of  S u t h e r l a n d , N. The h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n : Some n o t e s f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Year of the C h i l d . CSSE News, 1979, 6 ( 2 ) , 3-8. Temaner, G., & Q u i n n , G. Cinematic s o c i a l i n q u i r y . P r i n c i p l e s o f v i s u a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . Pp. 5 3 - 6 4 .  I n P. H o c k i n g s ( E d . ) , The Hague: M o u t o n , 1975.  118 Tenenbaum, B. A t t i t u d e s of elementary school c h i l d r e n to s c h o o l , t e a c h ers, and c l a s s m a t e s . J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 1944, 28, 134-141. T u l k i n , S. R., & K o n n e r , M. J . A l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s of i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning. I n A. S k o l n i c k ( E d . ) , R e t h i n k i n g c h i l d h o o d — p e r s p e c t i v e s on d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i e t y . Pp.. 128-148. Toronto: L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1976. T u r n e r , R.,  (Ed.).  T r a v e r s , R. 1970.  M.  Ethnomethodology.  Penguin,  Man's i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m .  1974.  Pennsylvania:  Chandler  Press,  Van  Manen, M. An e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n s i n s o c i a l education. T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1975, 3(1), 1-28.  Van  Manen, M. L a n g u a g e s o f deep s t r u c t u r e i n c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . In K. R e e d e r and D. C. W i l s o n ( E d s . ) , L a n g u a g e , c u l t u r e and c u r r i c u lum. Pp. 4 3 - 5 9 . C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h . Columbia, Vancouver, 1978.  W a l k e r , R. The s o c i o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n and l i f e i n s c h o o l I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n , 1972, 18, 3 2 - 4 1 .  classrooms.  Wax,  M. L., Wax, R. H., & Dumont, R. V. J r . F o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n an A m e r i c a n I n d i a n community. SSSP m o n o g r a p h s : A s u p p l e m e n t t o s o c i a l problems, 2(4), 1964.  Wax,  R. H. 1971.  Doing f i e l d w o r k .  Chicago:  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  Press,  Webb, E. J . , C a m p b e l l , D. T., S c h w a r t z , R. D., & S e c r e s t , L. Unobtrusive measures: Nonreactive r e s e a r c h i n the s o c i a l Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y , 1969.  sciences.  W h a l e y - K l a h n , M. E., L o n e y , J . , W e i s f e n b u r g e r , F. E., & P r i n z , R. R e s p o n s e s o f b o y s and g i r l s t o b e h a v i o r a l l y f o c u s e d s c h o o l a t t i t u d e questionnaire. J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y , 1976, 1 4 ( 4 ) , 2 8 3 - 2 9 0 . W i e d e r , D.  On  everyday  m e a n i n g by life,  pp.  rule.  I n J . D.  107-135.  Douglas  (Ed.),  L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and  Understanding Kegan P a u l ,  1971.  W i l s o n , D. C. E m i c - e v a l u a t i v e i n q u i r y : An a p p r o a c h f o r e v a l u a t i n g school programs. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1976. W i l s o n , T. P. N o r m a t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e p a r a d i g m s i n s o c i o l o g y . In J . D. D o u g l a s ( E d . ) , U n d e r s t a n d i n g e v e r y d a y l i f e . Pp. 5 7 - 7 9 . London: R o u t l e d g e and K e g a n P a u l , 1971. W i l s o n , S. The use o f e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w o f . E d u c a t i o n a l Research,'-1977 , 4 7 / 2 4 5 - 2 6 5 .  research.  119 W o l c o t t , H. F. A K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e and s c h o o l . Case S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967. W o l c o t t , H. F. schools.  C r i t e r i a f o r an e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h t o r e s e a r c h i n Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1975, 3 4 ( 2 ) , 1 1 2 - 1 2 7 .  W o l c o t t , H. F. Handle w i t h care: Necessary p r e c a u t i o n s i n the anthropology of schools. I n M. A. Wax, S. D i a m o n d , a n d F. 0. G e a r i n g ( E d s . ) , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on e d u c a t i o n . Pp. 9 8 - 1 1 7 . New Y o r k : B a s i c , 1971. W o l c o t t , H. F. The man i n t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1973.  office.  New  York:  Holt,  APPENDIX A  Field  note  questions  121  Questions generated by f i e l d  notes  Taken sequentially 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.  Why i s Sean seated by himself? What i s i t l i k e to s i t alone? What kinds of notes go home about books? What does i t mean to be seated i n way they are seated? When do you pass notes to each other? Why do people give each other notes? What does i t mean to s i t i n hard desks without cushions? How do you t a l k to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? What i s a calendar? When do you go to the teacher's desk? Why do you go to the teacher's desk? What does i t mean to go and get paper? Why do you sometimes do i t twice? (go f o r paper) Who delivers notes to the o f f i c e ? When can you go to the washroom? "Ask about sign language and communication while teacher i s out of the room. Why do you put notebooks into boxes with signs on them? Why does the teacher say L's name a lot? Why does the teacher say J's name a lot? What does i t mean when the teacher c a l l s your name? What can you do when the teacher goes out of the room? What does the blue-covered area mean? When can you go there? What does i t mean to have a time test? How does Sean get papers given to him? Where does he belong? What does i t mean to give answers out loud, one by one? Do you always start with the same person? ( c a l l i n g out answers) How do you help each other, so you don't miss your place? What does i t mean to call'how you did on a test out loud? When does the teacher work at her desk? What does i t mean when the teacher works at her desk? When do you go to s i t to read? How do you know you should go? What things can you do while a group i s reading with the teacher? What do you do i f you don't know what to do? What i s usually on the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? What does i t mean when kid's stuff f a l l s on the floor? What kinds of things can you not t e l l a teacher? Why does the teacher bring her coffee cup into the room a f t e r recess? Who i s Mrs. Bario? What does i t mean to be a 'super speller'? What does i t mean to s i t and figure things out? What does i t mean to mark someone else's work?  122  APPENDIX B  I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s A, B, C  123  Children's interview questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  Schedule A.  Why i s S. seated by himself? What do you think i t ' s l i k e to s i t alone? How do you t a l k to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? When do you go to the teacher's desk? Why do you go to the teacher's desk? What does i t mean to go and get paper? Who delivers notes to the o f f i c e ? Why do you put notebooks into boxes with signs on them? Why does the teacher say L's name a lot? Why does the teacher say J's name a lot? What does i t mean when the teacher :ealls your name? What does the blue-covered area mean? when can you go there? When does the teacher work at her desk? What does i t mean when the ..teacher works at her desk? When do you s i t to read? How do you know you should go? What i s usually on the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? What kinds of things can you not t e l l a teacher? What are "reserved books"? Who i s Mrs. B? What does i t mean to mark someone else's work?  124  Children's questions  Schedule B.  (Generated again from f i e l d notes and e a r l i e r interviews) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  What kind of note goes home about books? What i s on the counter, i n the t i n s , erasers? When do you pass notes? What does i t mean to s i t on hard desks without cushions? What do you t a l k about mostly when the teacher i s out of the room? When do you talk to other grown-ups i n the room? When do you get out of your desk and get paper? Why did a boy put h i s notebook under the others i n the box? When do you get up f o r paper towels? Why do you pass papers forward and back? How do you keep track as you c a l l out the answers? What does i t mean when the teacher c a l l s for the scores? What does 'super s p e l l e r ' mean? How do you talk to your friends i f you don't want to be heard? When can you go to the washroom? When can you go and get a drink?  125  Interview with teacher 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Schedule C.  What kinds of routines for marking do you have, I mean the boxes that the children put their work into? What kinds of routines do you have for the washroom, drinks, and eating at recess and lunch? What kinds of routines do you have for reading groups, and s i l e n t reading that I may have not gathered i n the f i e l d notes? What kinds of routines do the children have for music, P.E., and library? What kinds of routines do you have for the children when they complete their work.  Sharper focus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  Why i s Sean seated by himself? What does i t mean for him to s i t alone? What kinds of notes go home about books? What part of the room i s the back, the front, etc.? What i s the calendar job? When do the children go to your desk? What does i t mean to go and get paper? What does the blue covered carpet area mean? What does i t mean for the teacher to work at her desk? What routines do the children have while you are working with a reading group? What i s usually at the end of the teacher's desk, what kinds of papers? What does i t mean to be a 'super speller'? What are the routines for marking other children's work by the children? What are the routines for notes delivered to the o f f i c e ? Who else i s involved with your class, e.g., parents, other teachers?  May I please arrange to take pictures again? May I please arrange to have some of the children arrange the pictures to t e l l the routines of their everyday l i f e , i . e . , have other children t e l l me what another c h i l d means by an arrangement of pictures?  APPENDIX C  T r a n s c r i p t s of I n t e r v i e w s  with  Children  127 Dominic, f i r s t Roll R. D. R.  D. R.  D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D.  R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D.  child  interviewed  #1 W o u l d y o u l i k e t o s p r e a d t h e m o u t o n t h e f l o o r down h e r e a n d t e l l me a b o u t them? W o u l d t h a t b e a l i t t l e m o r e c o n v e n i e n t f o r y o u ? I don't c a r e . You're sure? Okay. How a b o u t down h e r e ? A s l o n g a s we h a v e t h e m i c r o p h o n e c l o s e t o y o u . O k a y , a n d me t o o . L e t ' s have a l o o k a t these. Do I t a l k i n t h e r e ? Y e s , w e l l y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o w o r r y , y o u know. Y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o w o r r y t o o much a b o u t g e t t i n g t o o c l o s e b e c a u s e i t ' s p i c k i n g ' y o u r v o i c e up r i g h t now. I ' v e t u r n e d t h e volume r i g h t up. Is that our class? Y e s . Y o u t e l l me s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e s e p i c t u r e s . Have a l o o k a t them. C o u l d y o u e x p l a i n t h e m t o me a l i t t l e b i t , p l e a s e ? T h i s i s o u r r e a d i n g c l u b a n d umm t h i s i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k . A n d we're d o i n g a r t and t h i s i s t h e s t r i n g f o r t h e s e t h i n g s . How do y o u know y o u ' r e d o i n g a r t ? W e l l , b e c a u s e we do t h e s e t h i n g s , l i k e umm . . . w e ' r e w h a t e v e r t h i n g s c a l l e d . . . and then . . . ( h e s i t a t i o n ) This i s our s p e l l i n g words. Mmm. We h a v e t o p r a c t i c e a n d do i t o n a s h e e t . Okay. T h e n . . . t h i s i s t h e c h a i r w h e r e some u s we f i g h t t o g e t i n t h e c h a i r a n d we r e a d . . . a n d t h i s . . . o o o p s . Okay. T h i s i s w h e r e um, t h i s i s w h e r e some o f o u r a r t i s , y e a h , some o f o u r f i n i s h e d w o r k . A n d h e r e ' s some b o o k s . What b o o k s a r e t h e y ? U h , umm . . . r e a d i n g b o o k s , l i k e y o u c a n r e a d . Mmmm. Here's where o t h e r books a r e . The s o n g b o o k s a n d h e r e ' s o u r games a n d t h a t . . . we h a v e when w e ' r e f i n i s h e d . T h i s i s t h e box our j o u r n a l s . . . y e a h . . . j o u r n a l s . A n d when we go o n a w e e k e n d o r s o m e t h i n g we ummm. L i k e we t e l l a b o u t w h a t we d i d o n t h e w e e k e n d . We h a n d t h e m i n a n d t h e t e a c h e r m a r k s t h e m . I see. And t h i s i s r e a d i n g books. What k i n d o f r e a d i n g b o o k s a r e t h e y , D o m i n i c ? Oh, t h e s e a r e r e s e r v e d . P e o p l e who a r e r e a d i n g . What d o e s ' r e s e r v e d ' mean? People get a r e a d i n g book, a r e a d e r . Oh, I s e e . Where do t h e y come f r o m i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e ? Oh, some a r e o v e r . . . w h o o p s . Okay. Maybe y o u ' v e g o t a p i c t u r e o f them. O k a y , l e t ' s c h e c k a n d s e e . M a y b e w e ' l l come t o i t l a t e r . L e t ' s s e e i f t h e r e i s one p i c t u r e . I t would be o v e r h e r e . I s e e , what's i n here? T h i s i s . . . t h e t h i s i s t h e language a r t . . . math, language a r t s . When we do o u r m a t h we h a n d i t i n . I n t h e r e . . . l a n g u a g e . . . we hand i t i n .  128 R. Okay. D. This i s . . . o h , our reading corner t o o . R. What k i n d o f a r e a d i n g c o r n e r i s i t ? D. Oh, we j u s t . . . H e r e ' s t h e b o x I w a s t e l l i n g y o u a b o u t . R. Y e s . D. Yeah. D. A n d t h a t . . . a n d t h e s e a r e some b o o k s we r e a d t o o . R. When d o y o u r e a d them? D. We r e a d t h e m a b o u t . . . a t r i g h t a f t e r o n e o ' c l o c k . We r e a d a b o o k f o r h a l f a n h o u r , t h e n we d o a r t o r s o m e t h i n g . R. Okay. D. T h i s i s o u r d o o d l e t a b l e . . . o h y e a h . . . we u h . . . R. I beg your pardon? D. T h i s i s o u r d o o d l e t a b l e and t h e n . . . R. What i s a d o o d l e t a b l e ? D. W e l l t h e t e a c h e r h a s . . . w e l l . . . ummm l i k e . . . l i k e we d o papers and t h a t . A n d s h e p u t s them i n t h e r e . It's full of a l l d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f paper. R. I see. D. And t h i s , o u r o u r a r t t o o . R. What i s i t ? D. A r t . D. That's our a r t . R. W h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i n t h a t p i c t u r e ? D. They're d o i n g t h e i r work. They're d o i n g t h e i r work. (Long pause) No, o o h . . . u h . . . y e a h , w e ' r e g o i n g t o ummm . . . w h a t ' s i t ummm . . . f u n a n d f i t n e s s . R. Who d o e s f u n a n d f i t n e s s w i t h y o u ? D. Ummm t h e t e a c h e r umm a n d umm some o f t h e k i d s i n t h e c l a s s b r i n g t h e i r f a t h e r s a n d m o t h e r s a n d t h e y come a n d h e l p . R. Oh, r e a l l y ? Mmmm. I s t h i s someone's f a t h e r ? D. Mmmm. R. Whose f a t h e r i s i t ? D. La . . . father. R. Mmmm. D. A n d t h e s e a r e p i c t u r e s we d r e w . R. When d i d y o u d o t h o s e ? D. I d o n ' t know, a b o u t a m o n t h a g o . R. ( L a u g h t e r ) Do y o u w a n t t o t e l l t h o s e g u y s w e ' r e r e c o r d i n g o v e r h e r e ? D. Okay. ( D i s r u p t e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e l i b r a r y near c o r n e r used f o r taping). R. T h a n k s D. Want t o make s u r e I g e t y o u r v o i c e . D. T h i s i s t h e same p i c t u r e . T h a t ' s when we . . . R. B e g p a r d o n ? D. T h i s i s t h e same p i c t u r e , n o t t h e same b u t . . . T h i s i s when we w e r e going t o . . . I t h i n k . . . yeah (Inaudible) R. Okay. D. A n d h e r e ' s Ga . . ., g e t t i n g h i s s t u f f . R. What k i n d o f s t u f f i s h e g e t t i n g ? D. H i s gym b a g s t o go t o f u n a n d f i t n e s s . R. Okay. D. T h i s i s t h e room where y o u p u t y o u r j a c k e t s h e r e and t h e g i r l s h e r e a n d we p u t o u r gym s h o e s a n d o u r gym s t u f f u p t h e r e .  129 R. D. R. D. R. D.  R. D.  R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D.  R. D. 1  R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R. D. R.  Does e v e r y b o d y have t h e i r s t u f f on t h e r i g h t s h e l f ? Mmmm. How do y o u know? W e l l , we j u s t p u t t h e m u n d e r t h e r e a n d up h e r e . I see. And h e r e . H e r e ' s o u r w o r k we do o u r w o r k up h e r e o n t h e b o a r d a n d o v e r down t h e r e . Mmm, t h a t ' s a b o u t i t f o r t h i s o n e . And h e r e ' s o u r um m a i l b a g s . What a r e t h e y f o r ? T h a t ' s f o r when we f i n i s h e d o u r w o r k . . . and. we do p a p e r s . . . a n d t h e t e a c h e r . . . t h e t e a c h e r d o e s n ' t w a n t • t h e m . .-. a n d when - s h e ' s f i n i s h e d w i t h m a r k i n g them . . . and t h e y ' r e a l l r i g h t s h e p u t s them in there. I see. They're a l l c o r r e c t . Okay. Do y o u t a k e t h e m home s o m e t i m e ? Yep. How o f t e n do y o u t a k e them home? Anytime you want. Oh, I s e e , y o u t a k e t h e m a i l b a g home a n y t i m e y o u w a n t . Yeah, not t h e whole t h i n g , j u s t take t h e papers out o f i t . Okay. A n d . . . c a n ' t s e e a n y t h i n g f o r t h i s p i c t u r e . . . Umm t h i s o n e , I t h i n k t h i s i s t h e m o r n i n g w o r k , t h e t e a c h e r t e l l s u s w h a t t o do o n the board and t h a t . T h i s o n e ' s ummm when we j u s t b e g a n t o do t h e f u n and f i t n e s s . We w e r e g o n n a g e t umm o u r gym b a g s a n d t h a t . Mmm. A n d t h e y g o t t h e t h i n g s t o t i m e u s . A n d t h i s i s when we d i d o u r poem. Y e a h , i t ' s when we d i d o u r poem f o r m o t h e r s . Oh, m o t h e r ' s d a y ? F o r mother's day, yeah. Okay. A n d we d i d t h e s e f l o w e r s i n M r s . D e n l e y ' s c l a s s . Mmm. And u h t h i s i s when we umm d o i n g umm we w e r e umm w r i t i n g , c o p y i n g t h e poem. I see. I don't want t o g e t t h e s e p i c t u r e s h u r t . Beg p a r d o n ? I don't want t o g e t t h e s e p i c t u r e s h u r t . That's very kind o f you. Um, t h a t ' s t h e same t h i n g h e r e t o o . Umm. A n d t h i s i s when we d i d f u n a n d f i t n e s s t o o . Okay. (Inaudible). How do y o u know i t ' s f u n a n d f i t n e s s ? B e c a u s e M r s . M. i s t h e r e . Oh, I s e e , b u t w h a t i s t h i s b o y d o i n g ? (Rare q u e s t i o n r e a p i c t u r e ) What? H e r e ? Mmm. I t h i n k h e ' s f i n i s h i n g h i s poem. Oh, I s e e . What do y o u t h i n k t h e t e a c h e r i s d o i n g ?  130 D. R. D. R. D. R. D. D.  T a l k i n g about f u n and f i t n e s s . Okay. A n d t h i s i s J i . . . a n d t h a t ' s . . . a n d umm w h a t e v e r h i s name, I c a n ' t remember. Okay. Because I can't see him t h a t w e l l . No, i t ' s d a r k i s n ' t i t ? Yes. T h i s i s t h e gym p l a c e . . . a n d t h a t ' s S's d e s k .  131 Lamour R.  T h e s e a r e p i c t u r e s o f t h e c l a s s , y o u c a n t e l l me w h a t ' s i n t h e m i f you l i k e . Okay? R. I'm r e c o r d i n g y o u t o o , i s t h a t o k a y ? ( N o t much r e s p o n s e ) L. Ummm, t h e s e a r e p a p e r b i r d c a g e s . R. Okay. Y o u c a n t e l l me w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i n e a c h p i c t u r e . (Long pause) R. D i d S h . t e l l we w e r e d o i n g t h e s e c r e t l a n g u a g e ? L. Mmm. R. Do y o u m i n d i f I f i n d o u t w h a t i t i s a n d t a k e p i c t u r e s o f i t ? L. No. R. Okay. Do y o u w a n t t o p u t t h o s e a s i d e f o r a f e w m i n u t e s ? I f you s i t o v e r t h e r e s w e e t h e a r t a n d i f y o u t e l l me w h a t t h e s i g n s a r e . A n d , a h , I'm n o t g o i n g t o t e l l a n y b o d y e l s e a b o u t t h i s . (Laughter) W e ' l l , where d i d I p u t t h e e n v e l o p e . The e n v e l o p e f o r t h e p i c t u r e s ? Oh, t h e r e i t i s . I ' l l t a k e p i c t u r e s o k a y ? J u s t l e t me g e t t h e f l a s h warmed u p . Y o u c a n s i t o v e r t h e r e i n t h e l i g h t . Y o u c a n t e l l me w h i c h o n e s a r e w h i c h , o k a y ? L. T h i s i s "do y o u . " R. Mmm. L. A n d t h i s means " T h e . " . R. L e t me f o c u s y o u a b i t b e t t e r . Y e s . L. T h i s means " L o r . " R. Y e s . L. A n d , t h i s means "why." R. Mmmm. R. Oh, I ' v e g o t t o c h a n g e my f i l m . Just a sec. ( L a u g h t e r ) Do y o u w a n t to stop? R. O k a y , l e t ' s t r y a g a i n , I t h i n k y o u w e r e o n "why." Do y o u w a n t t o do t h a t why a g a i n f o r me? That's great. L. T h i s means " a n d . " R. Y e s . L. T h i s a l s o means " T h e . . " . R. Mmm. Why do y o u h a v e two f o r T h e . . ? L. B e c a u s e s h e f o u n d o u t . T h e . , f o u n d o u t w h a t h e r name was i n t h e s e c r e t language. R. Who d i d ? L. T h e . . R. Mmmm. L. She f o u n d o u t w h a t h e r name w a s , we c h a n g e d i t . R. Right. L. A n d ummmm. T h i s means " a t t e n t i o n . " R. Y e s . L. T h i s means " s h o w - o f f . " R. Mmmm. L. A n d , a n d , a n d t h e n , we t r y t o g e t somebody's a t t e n t i o n , y o u g o , w e l l y o u a h , y o u ' r e s u p p o s e d t o stamp y o u r f o o t . R. I t h o u g h t C r . knew t h a t o n e , s o y o u c h a n g e d i t . L. Oh y e a h , we c h a n g e d i t , b r e a t h i n g h a r d , g o i n g " u h . " R. Y e s , o k a y . L. A n d , umm, t h i s means L . . . C... ( t o n g u e o u t ) . R. Who?  132 L • R. L. L. R. L. R. L. R.  L• •• C* • • Oh I s e e , t h a t ' s h e r l a s t name i s i t ? Yeah. T h i s means " C r y . . " Y e s , mmmm. A n d t h i s means " g r o s s . " Y e s , .mmm. G r o s s ? Yeah. A n d ummm, I c a n ' t t h i n k o f a n y o t h e r t h i n g s we made u p . T h a t ' s o k a y , maybe y o u ' l l t h i n k o f some o t h e r s . Now I ' l l a s k y o u some q u e s t i o n s t o o , maybe y o u ' l l t h i n k o f some o t h e r s . R. Who e l s e knows y o u r l a n g u a g e ? L. Ummm. We f i n a l l y t o l d T h e . , o u r s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . R. B u t i t , b u t t h e r e ' s t h r e e o f y o u i s n ' t t h e r e ? S h a r o n t o l d me t h e r e were t h r e e o f you. L. There's four people. R. F o u r p e o p l e who know? L. Yeah. R. Who knows t h e l a n g u a g e t h e n ? L. L o r . R. Mmm. L. The.. L o r , The., and Sh.. R. L o r . me T h e . . Y o u a n d S h . R. O k a y , a n d when do y o u u s e i t ? L. Ummm. We u s e i t , a l l t h e t i m e umm when y o u w a n n a know i f a p e r s o n i s mad . a t y o u . A n d . R. Yes? L. A n d when. R. Mmm. L. When we w a n t t o s e e i f t h e y l i k e somebody e l s e . R. Do a n y o f t h e o t h e r k i d s know y o u r l a n g u a g e ? L. Umm. L. Just. R. Do t h e y know some o f t h e w o r d s ? L. Some o f t h e p e o p l e f i g u r e d o u t a c o u p l e o f t h e w o r d s . R. A n d , d o a n y o f t h e o t h e r k i d s h a v e a n y o f t h e i r own l a n g u a g e s ? L. Yeah. R. Who e l s e h a s a l a n g u a g e ? L. C r . . R. Mmm. Who d o e s s h e h a v e a l a n g u a g e w i t h ? L. With L i . . R. Y e s . L. A n d , umm, S h a . . . a n d L i . , u s e d t o h a v e a l a n g u a g e . R. Umm. L. And a ( i n a u d i b l e ) . That's a l l I can t h i n k o f . R. Do a n y o f t h e b o y s h a v e a l a n g u a g e ? L. No. R. How d o y o u know? L. Mmm, n e v e r s e e t h e m , s a y i n g a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t o r . . . R. Mmm. L. Or d o i n g any s i g n l a n g u a g e . R. Mmm. R. How l o n g h a v e y o u h a d t h i s l a n g u a g e ? L. T h i s o n e ? We've h a d i t f o r a b o u t two m o n t h s .  133 R. L. R. L. R. L. R. L. R. L. R. L. R. R.  L. R.  Do y o u k e e p a d d i n g new w o r d s ? Yeah. How many w o r d s do y o u t h i n k y o u h a v e now? Umm. Want t o c o u n t them t o n i g h t and t e l l me? Yeah. Okay. Now t h e k i d s who d o n ' t h a v e a l a n g u a g e , l i k e y o u d o , w h a t do t h e y do s o t h e y c a n t a l k t o e a c h o t h e r ? W e l l , t h e t e a c h e r t a u g h t a l l o f us a l l t h e l e t t e r s i n t h e a l p h a b e t . T h e n t h e y c a n u s e t h o s e l e t t e r s and s p e l l w o r d s . I see. Who u s e s t h o s e ? Uh. J i . . u s e s t h o s e d o e s n ' t she? t h o s e l e t t e r s of t h e a l p h a b e t ? I t h i n k so. Mmmm, mmm. I guess I've k e p t you l o n g enough. I f y o u t h i n k o f any m o r e I ' l l be h e r e a w h o l e o t h e r week y e t . (Laughter) And y o u ' l l s e e t h e p i c t u r e s . I ' l l g e t y o u down t o s e e t h e p i c t u r e s a n d y o u c a n t e l l me w h a t t h e y a r e a g a i n , o k a y ? Do y o u w a n t me t o t a l k t o a h . . . D o y o u w a n t me t o t a l k t o T h e . . ? Yeah. O k a y , y o u s e n d h e r down. Y o u c a n j u s t p u s h t h e s t o p b u t t o n i p l e a s e .  134 Zoran Full R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R.  transcript  of interviews  Whenever y o u f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e . Okay. Y o u t e l l me. C a n I s a y t h e names t o o ? Sure. T e . . i s t a l k i n g t o J a . . I d o n ' t know w h a t a b o u t ' c a u s e s h e ' s j u s t t a l k i n g about something. Okay. Oh, l e t ' s s e e t h e o t h e r o n e . M r s . S. i s s h o w i n g S h . . w h a t t o d o . N o t w h a t t o d o , S h . . d o e s n ' t know w h a t t o d o . O k a y , how do y o u know s h e ' s d o i n g t h a t ? B e c a u s e s h e ' s r i g h t t h e r e a n d M r s . S. i s t u r n i n g t h e b o o k . Oh, I s e e . I n t h i s one e v e r y b o d y ' s w o r k i n g and Dea.. i s s t a n d i n g t h e r e l i k e t h i s . Does h e do t h a t v e r y o f t e n ? Y e a h , now a n d t h e n . . . t h e y ' r e a l l j u s t q u i e t w o r k i n g . There's M r s . S. t a l k i n g . Mmm. Some g r o u p , t h e r e a d i n g g r o u p . I mean o u r g r o u p a n d t h e r e ' s L i . . s t a r i n g t h i s way. T h e r e ' s L i . , and C r y . , l o o k i n g a t t h e p o s t c a r d s here. Mmm. A n d t h i s o n e , a h , M r s . S. i s g o n n a h a n d u s , me a n d G.., a l o t o f T i n T i n books. What k i n d o f b o o k s ? T i n , T i n , one I g o t , t h e s t a r . What i s s h e d o i n g t h e r e a g a i n , I'm s o r r y . She's got a d e l i v e r T i n T i n books. Not t o everybody. W e l l you know o u r l i s t . Tin Tin. Mmmm. Me a n d Ga.. g o t i t ' c a u s e i t was o u r t u r n . Oh, I s e e . H e r e a r e S t e . . and J a . . and t h e y ' r e r e a d i n g and J a . . has h i s f o o t up o n t h e s e a t . Mmm. Here's S t e . . and J a . . S t e v e ' s l a u g h i n g and J a . . i s r e a d i n g w i t h h i s l e g up on t h e c h a i r a g a i n . Mmm. And t h i s i s S e . . T.. He's r e a d i n g h i s b o o k . Okay. Mmmm. H e r e ' s l e t ' s s e e J e f f a n d D e a . . No, J e . . i s t a l k i n g t o Dea.. Okay. That's i t . W o u l d y o u l i k e t o p u t t h e m i n p i l e s t h a t k i n d o f go t o g e t h e r ? Okay. C h o o s e y o u r own k i n d o f p i l e s . Have t o s o r t them o u t t h e n . Sure. T h e s e a r e l i k e s t i c k y when y o u g e t t h e m o u t f i r s t . Mmm.  135 E. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. R.  Y o u ' r e t h e f i r s t one i n t h e c l a s s t o s e e t h e m . Okay. Okay. Mmm (affirmation). Which ones b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? ( I n a u d i b l e exchanges) Those t h r e e because t h e y ' r e , because t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g . What o t h e r o n e s b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? T h e r e ' s t h e s e two. Why do t h o s e two b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? Because t h e y ' r e r e a d i n g groups. Oh, I s e e . And h e r e . Okay. That's j u s t . . . Do t h e y b e l o n g w i t h t h o s e two? No, no. Okay. Umm, t h e s e two p r o b a b l y h e r e . This i s a l i t t l e b i t f a r out, t h i s i s f a r o u t , b u t t h i s i s c l o s e r i n , t h e y ' r e n o t a s t o g e t h e r when y o u s e e them a l i t t l e b e t t e r . Oh, I s e e . Mmm. T h i s . . . M r s . S. How d i d y o u p u t t h e m t o g e t h e r b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e c l o s e i n ? T h e y ' r e c l o s e and one's f a r o u t . Okay. W h i c h one i s f a r o u t ? T h i s o n e , t h i s one i s i n . Oh, I s e e , o k a y . T h i s one. T h i s one's q u i t e f a r out. T h i s one's q u i t e l i t t l e b i t i n . Okay. T h e y m a t c h t o g e t h e r b e c a u s e M r s . S. i s s t a n d i n g t h e r e and M r s . Mc. she's r i g h t t h e r e . Oh, t h e r e , I s e e . Okay. So t h a t ' s k i n d o f l i k e t h e same i d e a as t h e o t h e r ones, okay? How come y o u ' r e p u t t i n g c i r c l e s o n t h e m n u m b e r s ? So I c a n k e e p t r a c k o f y o u r a n s w e r s . Oh. Okay. And t h i s i s j u s t S.. working. Okay. Oh, s p i d e r w e b s . What? Yeah, r i g h t t h e r e . Wonder i f I c a n a s k y o u some q u e s t i o n s now t h a t y o u ' v e l o o k e d a t those p i c t u r e s . Okay. Those a l l the o t h e r k i d s ? Some o f t h e m , y e s . Whose i s t h a t ? T h e s e a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s I'm a s k i n g y o u d e a r . Oh. Okay. Why, why i s Se.. s e a t e d b y h i m s e l f , d e a r ?  136 Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R.  B e c a u s e y o u c a n ' t . . . s e e t h e o t h e r p e o p l e ' c a u s e y o u move a l i t t l e b i t i n a n d y o u s e e , y o u s e e t h e o t h e r t h i n g s b u t no p e o p l e . O n l y y o u x a n see t h i s p a r t of t h e group, p a r t of the desk, the back desk and t h e s e ... (Boy does n o t p e r c e i v e Se.. t o be a l o n e , he d e l i v e r s papers t o him a s Se.. i s p a r t o f h i s row.) T h a t i s Se.. t h o u g h i s n ' t i t ? Yes. Why i s h e s e a t e d i n t h a t d e s k b y h i m s e l f ? ••• B e c a u s e h e d o e s n ' t d i s t u r b p e o p l e . M r s . S. t e l l s h i m t o move o v e r --.there b e c a u s e h e a l w a y s ; d i s t u r b s p e o p l e . I s e e . A n d . a h , how do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t t o be h e a r d ? Y o u know I know t h e k i n d a h u r t y o u mean. Y o u mean n o t l i k e y o u h u r t y o u r s e l f not l i k e t h a t . No, n o , I meant i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t t o b e h e a r d . I f y o u d o n ' t w a n t t h e t e a c h e r t o h e a r y o u how do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s ? S i l e n t , not s i l e n t , s o f t l y , l i k e whisper. Y e s , a n y o t h e r way? Yeah, l i k e you c o u l d pass messages. Get a p i e c e o f p a p e r and w r i t e . . . pass messages. What do y o u s a y o n t h e m e s s a g e s ? Oh, l o t s o f t h i n g s . Can y o u t e l l me? Umm. T h i s i s j u s t b e t w e e n y o u a n d me. Pardon? Just jokes. L i k e s o m e t i m e s j o k e s a n d h e p a s s e s b a c k t o me. What k i n d o f j o k e s ? Oh, Why d i d , why d i d t h e t u r k e y c r o s s t h e s t r e e t ? Umm, ummm, why d i d he? B e c a u s e he w a n t e d t o g e t t o t h e o t h e r s i d e . Oh, I s e e . ( L a u g h t e r ) To t h e b u t c h e r ' s s t o r e . A r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r ways t h a t y o u p a s s m e s s a g e s i n c l a s s ? Y e a h , we j u s t k i n d a go l i k e t h i s , S e . . , s h . L i k e t h i s way, l i k e t h i s way, S e . . Y e a h we j u s t s a y t h a t o r t h e p e o p l e ... . Umm. Or we j u s t , i f s o m e b o d y ' s c l o s e . . . j u s t t a p o n t h e b a c k . Umm. Yeah. What a b o u t ? What a b o u t i f somebody i s a l o n g way away f r o m y o u ? How do y o u g e t a m e s s a g e t o them? Oh, s o m e t i m e s , b u t I. n e v e r do t h i s when M r s . S. i s h e r e . Or M r s . B.., l i k e t h i s . When s h e ' s a t t h e d e s k , t o o much k i d s and s h e ' s blocked of her view. Mmm. I j u s t k i n d a g e t under and sneak u n d e r and g e t . . . and g i v e 'em, j u s t t e l l them t h e message. Who i s t h a t , t h a t y o u do? Oh, l o t s . . . I d o n ' t know e x a c t l y , j u s t k i d s . Okay, s u r e .  137 Z. R. Z. R. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. Z. R. Z. R. Z. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R.  And t h i s , o h y e a h , t h i s i s my d e s k r i g h t h e r e . . . b a c k i n t h e d e s k . Oh, mm, mmm. Yeah, r i g h t t h e r e . Okay. And a h , when do y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? Oh, when? S o m e t i m e s when s h e s a y s d o n ' t b r i n g i t t o t h e m a r k i n g boxes. I see. J u s t b r i n g t h e m t o h e r o r f o r c o r r e c t i o n s o r t e l l y o u w h a t t o do. Or w h a t , o r w h a t we, w h a t we d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . Y e a h , t h a t ' s w h a t we d o . Umm, mmm. Y e a h , t h a t ' s w h a t we d o . Okay. And a h , who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? Notes? Mmmm. Notes? Notes? Oh, n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e . . . s o m e t i m e s M r s . S. a n d M r s . B i . . o r M r s . B. and o t h e r umm . . . and o t h e r u h , a n d o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s ? . . . um w h a t y o u c a l l them? Y e s , mmmm. Substitutes. Mmmm. Yeah! t h e y d e l i v e r , sometimes t h e y a s k u s . O k a y , who d o e s g e t '.to go? Oh, I d o n ' t know, s o m e t i m e s . . . Do y o u e v e r g e t t o go? Mmm, o n l y s o m e t i m e s i f we h a v e m u s i c . Y e a h , a n we a s k h e r . Last t i m e I got choosed. S o m e t i m e s y a . . . j u s t c h o o s e u s . We d o n ' t have t o ask h e r sometimes. Sometimes j u s t choosed. Mmm. The p e r s o n . And a h . . . What i s t h o s e f o r ? Oh, i t ' s f o r my t h e s i s . Oh. What d o e s t h a t mean? I t ' s a b i g b o o k t h a t I'm g o i n g t o w r i t e . Oh, o o o o o h . You're g o i n g t o b e i n a book. (Laughter) I d o n ' t b e l i e v e i t . (More q u e s t i o n s f r o m s c h e d u l e s ) I s i t a r e a l book? Mmmm. Ah, I s u r e don't b e l i e v e t h i s . I ' l l come b a c k a n d show i t t o y o u , how w o u l d t h a t b e ? Okay. When do y o u go t o t h e w a s h r o o m s ? Oh, o n l y mmm . . . l e t me s e e . S o m e t i m e s y a h a f t a a s k and s o m e t i m e s she s a y s no. And i f y o u j u s t . A t r e c e s s s h e s a y s why d i d y o u , d i d n ' t y o u go a t r e c e s s ? Mmmm.  138 Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. R. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R. R. Z. R. R. Z.  R. Z. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  S o , mmm, o h y e a h a n d s h e s a y s n o a n d when y o u come b a c k umm a f t e r mmm l u n c h o r r e c e s s she says a n I asked h e r l a s t t i m e and she s a i d okay, but be quick. I see. Yeah, t h a t ' s t h e o n l y time between, between, between, yeah, between r e c e s s and l u n c h . L i k e you go, I t h i n k s o . Why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y L i . . ' s name a l o t ? L i . . ? Because she speaks and t a l k s t o Sh.. and she sometimes has t o stay i n . Stay i n . A n d why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y J i . . ' s name a l o t ? Mmm. S o m e t i m e s s h e t a l k s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e a n d y o u know when y a d o f l a s h cards. She q u i t e y e l l s . Oh, I s e e . ' B o u t l i k e SEVEN. A n d s h e ' s q u i t e l o u d . I see. I see. What d o e s i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? S o m e t i m e s , i t means come a n d g e t y o u r b o o k . Mmm. When s h e c a l l s y o u r name a n d s o m e t i m e s s h e w a n t s y o u o r s o m e t h i n g . Mmmm. A n d s o m e t i m e s . S o m e t i m e s s h e m a r k s them. T h e n s h e c a l l s y o u r name a n d y o u h a v e t o come u p t o t h e d e s k . A n t h e n when y o u ' r e f i n i s h e d mm, she marks i t . Mmm, I s e e . What d o e s t h e b l u e - c o v e r e d c a r p e t e d a r e a mean? When c a n y o u g e t t o go t h e r e ? Oh, o n l y a f t e r l u n c h , ' c a u s e i t ' s w h a t . . . L e t me s e e , i t ' s c a l l e d ? Reading time, yeah, s i l e n t reading. I see. B u t , I saw some k i d s t h e r e when t h e y f i n i s h e d t h e i r w o r k . Can y o u go t h e n ? When y o u f i n i s h w o r k ? Y e s , y o u c o u l d a n d a t y o u r d e s k y o u c o u l d . Y e a h , a t l u n c h t i m e y o u c a n ' t p l a y n o t h i n g , n o games o r n o t h i n g , just s i l e n t reading. A f t e r lunch? Yeah. How many p e o p l e d i d y o u do a n y w a y s ? I t h i n k about four people y e s t e r d a y . I s t h i s d o i n g w h a t I'm j u s t . . .? Mmm. What I j u s t s a i d now? Mmmm, mmm. Oh, my g o d , I d o n ' t b e l i e v e i t . (Laughter) When d o e s t h e t e a c h e r w o r k a t h e r d e s k , d e a r ? A t h e r d e s k ? Sometimes s h e w o r k s r i g h t , l i k e n o t e s , o r s o m e t h i n g . Mmm, when d o e s s h e d o t h a t ? Oh, I d o n ' t know e x a c t l y . Okay. A n d a h w h a t d o e s i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r w o r k s a t h e r d e s k ? What d o e s i t mean t o y o u ? Oh, i t means t o me. I t ' s l i k e she's marking something o r w r i t i n g something o r w i t h a n o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e s coming o r M r s . Be.., M r s . Be.., s h e ' s c o m i n g y o u know o n t h e l i s t . She p u t s r e a d i n g g r o u p a n d w h a t y o u r e a d a n d p a g e number.  139 R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z. R. Z.  R.  Mmm. Yeah. Mmmm. And she a h , and t h e book, l a n g u a g e a r t s book . . . t h a t ' s she g e t s language a r t s , book . . . u h on t h e desk . . . and she w r i t e s . What i s u s u a l l y o n t h e e n d o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? E n d , mean o n t h i s s i d e w h e r e s h e s i t s o r , o h ? u s u a l l y t h i s b i g g r e e n . . Mmmm. Y e a h , when y o u c a n p i c k some s t u f f u p . I s i t green, t h e cupboard? Yeah, i t i s . And l i k e a l i t t l e p o s t e r . . . I see. About t h e h e a r t , yeah. I see. L i k e on t h i s angle i s h e r , the books, books. Then t h i s c h a i r , w i t h two p e o p l e c o u l d s i t , y e a h . What d o e s s h e p u t o n t h e e n d o f h e r d e s k f o r y o u t o go a n d g e t ? U h , y o u know i n t h e c u p b o a r d s h e p u t s some t h i n g s f o r a r t w o r k . I see. Not a r t work ' x a c t l y , i t ' s a p i e c e o f paper. U h , I d o n ' t know. Mmm. A n d u h . . . J u s t a c o u p l e m o r e . What k i n d s o f t h i n g s do y o u do i n t h e r o o m t h a t y o u c a n ' t t e l l a n y b o d y a b o u t ? What d o y o u d o ? Oh, a l l k i n d s o f t h i n g s , we w r i t e n o t e s . Mmm, mmm. A n d a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s a n d we p l a y games. What k i n d o f games? Oh, l i k e s c r a m b l e s . Scrambles?! How d o e s t h a t w o r k ? Oh, j u s t y o u h a v e t o p i c k u p s e v e n t h i n g s . Sometimes, I c h e a t . I j u s t look through. I j u s t peek and you c a n s e e words on i t l i k e 'cat'. T h e n I j u s t p u t i t down a n d t h e n I g e t a p o i n t . I cheat. I s t h a t o n e o f t h e games t h a t I saw o n t h e s h e l f ? Y e a h , t h e r e ' s m o r e games. Y e a h , w h a t o t h e r games? Yeah, t h e r e ' s math t h i n g s . Do y o u k i d s h a v e a n y o f y o u r own games t h a t d o n ' t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e s h e l f ? Oh, we c a n ' t k e e p i t o r i t h a s t o go i n t o t h e c l o a k r o o m . Or a t M r s . S.'s d e s k . Mmm, mmm. She s a y s , " t h a n k y o u . " T h a t ' s w h a t u s u a l l y s h e s a y s . Ummm. A r e y o u g o i n g t o show t h e s e t o M r s . S.? No. Oh. U h , who i s M r s . B.? M r s . B.? Oh s h e ' s a n i c e t e a c h e r . Mmm. A n d i f w e ' r e j u s t r e a d i n g q u i e t s h e p u t s o u r name o n t h e b o a r d a n d t h a t means we g e t t o go f i r s t o n e t o go o u t . A t l u n c h , o r r e c e s s , or a f t e r school. Mmm.  140 Z. R. Z. R. R. Z.  R. R. R. Z. R. Z. R.  Or a t gym d a y s . Mmm. Tuesday and F r i d a y . Mmm. A n d w h a t d o e s i t mean t o m a r k someone e l s e ' s w o r k ? I t means l i k e s o m e b o d y ' s w o r k i n g a n d t h e y f i n i s h b e f o r e a n y b o d y a n d t h e y l i k e f i n i s h b e f o r e anybody and t h e y l i k e h u r r y and t h e y g e t l o t s of m i s t a k e s , l o t s o f m i s t a k e s done o r she g e t s a mark . . . o r . . . s t a n d s . . . i t ' s wrong. They j u s t h u r r y , t h e y don't t h i n k what they're doing. Oh, I s e e . Okay. Who do y o u t h i n k I s h o u l d t a l k t o n e x t ? Oh, l e t ' s s e e . Any g r o u p ? Mmm. Sh.. Okay. W o u l d y o u l i k e t o go a n d g e t h e r q u i e t l y , a n d j u s t s e n d h e r down? J u s t p u s h t h i s s t o p b u t t o n .  141 Sharon R. S. R.  S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S.  R. S. S.  R. S.  R. R. R. S. R. S.  R. S.  R.  How a b o u t t e l l i n g me a b o u t some o f t h e m ( p i c t u r e s ) . S h o u l d I j u s t t e l l who I saw? J u s t t e l l me w h a t e v e r , j u s t t e l l me a b o u t t h e p i c t u r e s , r e m e m b e r , I d o n ' t know a w f u l l y much a b o u t y o u r c l a s s r o o m and t h e p e o p l e i n i t s o how a b o u t t e l l i n g me s o m e t h i n g . . . w h a t i t makes y o u t h i n k o f when you l o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e s . Umm. I n t h i s p i c t u r e J a ' s h o l d i n g a book. Mmm. w h a t ' s he d o i n g ? W h e r e ' s he c o m i n g f r o m ? He's c o m i n g f r o m t h e c a r p e t . Mmmm. He's g o i n g t o h i s d e s k , I t h i n k , and t h e r e ' s p e o p l e l o o k i n g a t t h e i r desks. And t h e r e ' s b i r d c a g e s up. Okay. (Long pause) I n t h i s t h e r e ' s J a s t a n d i n g on t h e c a r p e t , r e a d i n g h i s book. And a g a i n t h e r e ' s b i r d c a g e s h a n g i n g up. And t h e r e ' s Z. w a l k i n g t o t h e c a r p e t and J i . ' s w o r k i n g a t h i s d e s k . How do y o u know h e ' s w o r k i n g ? I guess he's j u s t s i t t i n g a t h i s d e s k . And i n t h i s one t h e r e ' s S t . w a l k i n g from the carpet. I d o n ' t know w h e r e h e ' s w a l k i n g t o . There's J i working at h i s desk again. And t h e r e ' s b i r d c a g e s h a n g i n g up. Mmm. I n t h i s one t h e r e ' s one b i r d c a g e and S. a t h i s d e s k and t h e r e ' s the. r o u n d t a b l e w i t h two c h a i r s . T h i s one, M r s . S. i s at h e r d e s k . And e v e r y b o d y e l s e i s a t t h e i r desk working. And t h e r e ' s m o r e b i r d c a g e s . And t h e r e ' s a reading club chart. T h i s o n e , t h e r e ' s more b i r d c a g e s and t h e r e ' s some p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . And t h e r e ' s s h e l v e s a t t h e b a c k w i t h b o o k s o n t h e m , and games. T h i s o n e , M r s . S. i s a t h e r d e s k . Mmm. And t h e r e ' s b i r d c a g e s h a n g i n g up a g a i n . There's a r e a d i n g c l u b . . . chart. And t h e r e ' s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . T h i s one, a l l I see i s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . T h i s one M r s . S. i s t a l k i n g to\people. I d o n ' t know who, b u t s h e ' s t a l k i n g t o some p e o p l e and people are working. T h i s one M r s . S. i s t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e a g a i n and some p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g . And t h e r e ' s b i r d c a g e s h a n g i n g u p . Mmm. O k a y , w o u l d y o u l i k e t o p u t t h e m i n t o some p i l e s f o r me? The o n e s t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r , do y o u t h i n k ? (Long pause) Can y o u t e l l me why y o u p u t t h e m i n t h o s e g r o u p s ? O k a y , t h e s e two i n t h i s g r o u p b e c a u s e M r s . S. i s w o r k i n g a t h e r d e s k and s h e ' s i n t h i s one t o o . Okay. And t h e s e t w o , t h e s e t h r e e , J a i s s t a n d i n g and J a i s w a l k i n g o n t h e c a r p e t r e a d i n g h i s b o o k . And S t e . j u s t g o t a b o o k . So t h e y ' r e a l l about books. And t h i s one i s p e o p l e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s . Mmm. T h e s e t w o , t h e s e t h r e e , p e o p l e a r e w o r k i n g a t t h e i r d e s k s and M r s . S. i s t a l k i n g and t h i s one i s j u s t S. w o r k i n g a t h i s d e s k and t h e r e ' s o n l y one p e r s o n . Okay.  142 S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S. R.  That's a l l . Okay. Do y o u w a n t t o p u t t h e m i n t h a t e n v e l o p e f o r me? Sure. I ' d l i k e t o a s k y o u some q u e s t i o n s i f I may S\ Okay. Why i s S. s i t t i n g b y h i m s e l f ? B e c a u s e he s i t s a t t h e b a c k o f t h e room, he a l w a y s s i t s t h e r e . How come h e ' s t h e r e ? 'Cause h e , g u e s s h e t a l k s t o o much. He u s e d t o s i t b e h i n d Z. T h i s i s j u s t b e t w e e n y o u a n d me, o k a y ? Mmm. Mmm. What a b o u t a h , w h a t do y o u t h i n k i t ' s l i k e t o s i t a l o n e ? I don't t h i n k i t ' s v e r y n i c e . Why n o t ? W e l l , I g u e s s i t ' s k i n d a good ' c a u s e y o u h a v e n o b o d y b o t h e r i n g y o u w h i l e you're working. Mmm. You c a n g e t y o u r work done a b i t b e t t e r . A n y o t h e r r e a s o n s , o n e way o r t h e o t h e r . A n y o t h e r r e a s o n s , o n e way o r t h e o t h e r ? Ummm, I c a n ' t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e . O k a y , a n d how do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t a n y b o d y t o know y o u a r e t a l k i n g t o them. You w h i s p e r . Y o u w h i s p e r , w h a t e l s e do y o u d o ? Umm, s o m e t i m e s when t h e t e a c h e r i s o u t o f t h e r o o m we t a l k . Umm. I ' d s a y e v e r y t i m e we t a l k . Umm. And w h e n e v e r t h e t e a c h e r i s n o t l o o k i n g . Umm. What do y o u do? We a s k p e o p l e a n s w e r s . (Laughter) I see. (Laughter) A n d we, t a l k a b o u t d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s ? What t h i n g s , do y o u t a l k a b o u t ? Things people say or i f . . . Mmm. Like? I f y o u l i k e somebody, a s k somebody i f s h e ' s l y i n g o r n o t , t h a t ' s about a l l . Okay. A n d when do y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? She c a l l s u s up t o t h e r e a d i n g c l u b i f we've f i n i s h e d o u r book. She w a n t s u s t o t e l l a b o u t i t . I see. She c a l l s u s up t o g e t s o m e t h i n g m a r k e d . And i f s h e ' s c a l l i n g o u t d r i l l t o s e e i f who g o t w h a t . See i f t h e r e ' s any p r o b l e m s t h e n y o u ' v e g o t t o go up a n d i f s h e c a l l s y o u r name. And i f . . . y o u d o n ' t know t h e w o r d i n t h e b o o k t h e n y o u go up a n d a s k h e r . Okay. That's about a l l . Or i f y o u c a n ' t f i g u r e o u t a w o r d o n t h e p a p e r . You a s k h e r . Mmm.  143 S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. R. S.  R.  Or i f y o u d o n ' t g e t s o m e t h i n g l i k e , i f y o u d o n ' t know w h a t i t means t h e n o r a n y t h i n g t h e n , y o u go u p a n d a s k h e r . O k a y , and u h , why do y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k . S o m e t i m e s I d o n ' t know w o r d s i n b o o k s and s o m e t i m e s when s o m e b o d y ' s b u g g i n g me w h i l e I'm w o r k i n g I go u p t o h e r . Mmm. A n d s h e ' s a n d i f s h e c a l l s me u p t o g e t s o m e t h i n g m a r k e d . Mmm. O r i f s h e c a l l s me u p t o t h e B o o k C l u b . Mmmm. O k a y , and u h , who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? A n y b o d y , i f s h e j u s t , i f s o m e b o d y ' s w o r k i n g r e a l l y good s h e j u s t s a y s l i k e , u s u a l l y L. i s f i n i s h e d a l l t h e t i m e f i r s t s o s h e u s u a l l y g e t s t o do : i t . I see. Do y o u e v e r g e t t o d o i t ? Once, I d i d . Sometimes. And a h , when c a n y o u go t o t h e w a s h r o o m s ? Ummm, t h e o n l y t i m e w e ' r e a l l o w e d t o go i s r e c e s s , l u n c h t i m e , whenever we're o u t s i d e o r a f t e r s c h o o l . When a r e y o u a l l o w e d t o go and h a v e a d r i n k ? N e v e r , u n l e s s we a s k h e r a n d s h e s a y s s o m e t h i n g . Okay, where do y o u g e t y o u r d r i n k ? E i t h e r , ummmm, t h e g i r l ' s b a s e m e n t o r i n t h e w a s h r o o m s o m e t i m e s . Do y o u e v e r s n e a k any d r i n k s ? No. N o t e v e n when y o u ' r e d o i n g a r t o r a n y t h i n g ? ( L a u g h t e r ) N o , . . . some p e o p l e go up t o t h e b a c k b u t I d o n ' t . I see, t o get a d r i n k , I see. We h a v e t o a s k h e r i f we c a n t h o u g h . Mmm, mmm. And why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s s a y L ' s . name a l o t ? Cause she a l w a y s t a l k s . Does she? Y e a h , a n d s h e ' s a l w a y s t u r n e d a r o u n d i n h e r d e s k and s h e s a y s , " L a . t u r n around." A n d a h , why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y J i l ' s name a l o t ? Oh, J i l a l w a y s t a l k s t o E r . T o whom? Er. J u s t a few more q u e s t i o n . P a r d o n me? We j u s t h a v e a f e w m o r e q u e s t i o n s . (Laughter) I'm m i s s i n g w o r k , we h a v e t o d o t e n q u e s t i o n s . Oh, I s e e , w h a t k i n d ? They've changed t h e meaning, o f a word. I f t h e s e n t e n c e book says "The monkey saw t h e s n a k e , " we h a f t o p u t i t i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r l i k e , "The s n a k e saw a monkey." Oh, I s e e , y o u h a v e t o t u r n i t a r o u n d a l i t t l e b i t , o k a y . What d o e s i t mean when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? I t e i t h e r means s h e w a n t s y o u t o go up t o h e r d e s k , o r s h e w a n t s y o u to t u r n around o r she wants you t o s t o p t a l k i n g . Sometimes she j u s t l o o k s a t t h e p e r s o n and h e t u r n s a r o u n d o r she t u r n s a r o u n d , w h a t e v e r . Umm. And a h , w h a t d o e s t h e b l u e - c o v e r e d a r e a mean? :  144 S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S.  R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R.  The w h a t ? The b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a . Oh, t h a t ' s umm, y o u c a n go a n d s i t o n i t t o r e a d o r p l a y games. And a h , when d o e s t h e t e a c h e r w o r k a t h e r d e s k ? Umm, w h e n e v e r w e ' r e w o r k i n g . What d o e s i t mean when s h e w o r k s a t h e r d e s k ? I d o n ' t know. What do y o u t h i n k s h e ' s d o i n g ? Maybe, d o i n g r e p o r t c a r d s . Mmm. O r , I know s o m e t h i n g t h a t s h e m i g h t h a v e b e e n d o i n g t o d a y . What's t h a t ? She was g i v i n g o u t d e t e n t i o n s , s h e p u t s p e o p l e ' s names o n a p i e c e of p a p e r . Mmm. C a u s e s h e s a i d D e a ' s name s h e w r o t e s o m e t h i n g o n a p i e c e o f p a p e r . I see. A n d , when do y o u go t o s i t t o r e a d ? How do y o u know when y o u a r e t o go a n d r e a d ? W e l l we c a n r e a d , a f t e r we do o u r w o r k , o r we c a n p l a y games, o r a f t e r l u n c h , o r when t h e b e l l r i n g s we come i n s i d e a n d e v e r y b o d y r u s h e s to get t h e c h a i r . T h e r e ' s o n l y two p e o p l e a l l o w e d a n d t h e n we r e a d . For a r o u n d h a l f an h o u r . A n d , we r e a d a f t e r r e c e s s i f we've f i n i s h e d our work. Mmm. And w h e n e v e r we come i n t o s c h o o l . We j u s t come i n a n d r e a d f o r a r o u n d ten o r f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . Mmm. W h a t ' s u s u a l l y on t h e end o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? To go a n d p i c k up? B o o k s , i f s h e c a l l s o u r name we go a n d p i c k up o u r b o o k o r o u r p a p e r s . Mmm. Or, t h a t ' s about a l l . I h a v e a few more q u e s t i o n s . How do y o u t a l k ? H a v e I a s k e d y o u how do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s when y o u d o n ' t w a n t t o b e h e a r d ? You w h i s p e r . A n y o t h e r way? No. (Sneezed) We n e v e r t a l k o u t l o u d o r s h e ' l l h e a r u s . (Sneezed a g a i n ) I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t y o u do s o t h a t y o u c a n g e t m e s s a g e s t o o t h e r people? W e l l , some o f t h e p e o p l e h a v e a s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . Do y o u h a v e a s e c r e t l a n g u a g e ? Y e a h , me a n d L a , a n d T h . , a n d L r . We h a v e a s e c r e t l a n g u a g e . And o u r s e c r e t s i g n t o g e t e a c h o t h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s huh (deep h u f f ) . Oh, i s t h a t r i g h t ? We u s e d t o h a v e s t o m p y o u r f e e t o n t h e f l o o r . Oh. B u t we d o n ' t a n y m o r e b e c a u s e C r . knew i t s o we d i d n ' t . And we j u s t , a f t e r t h e y do t h e s e c r e t s i g n , t h e y d o , t h e n we j u s t t e l l t h e m w h a t we w a n t t o . Oh, I s e e . Can y o u t e l l me, c a n y o u show me w h a t y o u r s i g n s a r e ?  145 S. R. R. S. R. S. S. R.J R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. R.  S. R. R. S. R. S. R.  T h a t ' s "do y o u . " Oh, I s e e , mm, j u s t a s e c . Do y o u t h i n k I c a n t a k e a p i c t u r e ? Okay. Okay. Take a p i c t u r e of a l l o f i t ? Sure. We h a v e l o t s o f t h i n g s . Could you s i t over i n the l i g h t ? j u s t a l i t t l e b i t okay? T h a t ' s "do y o u . " Mmm. This i s " l i k e . " Mmm. T h a t ' s "The..". Mmm. And we p o i n t t o t h e p e r s o n t h a t y o u ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t i f we d o n ' t have i t . Oh, I s e e . And t h i s i s " I . " Just a sec. This i s " I . " Mmm. This i s . . . Think? "Hate," " I h a t e Th.." whatever. Mmm. T h a t ' s " I know." Mmm. Mmm, oh, y e a h , t h i s i s "no." Mmm. T h a t ' s about a l l , I c a n ' t t h i n k o f anymore. (Pause) Oh, t h i s i s j u s t " w a i t a m i n u t e . " Mmm. Y o u s l a m y o u h a n d o n y o u r d e s k f o r " r i g h t now." Then j u s t w a i t a m i n u t e t h e n y o u go. Slam y o u r hand and t h e y j u s t l o o k a t y o u . Mmm. I ' l l h a v e t o c h a n g e my f i l m now. I t h i n k t h a t ' s about a l l . Okay, j u s t t h i n k about i t f o r a few m i n u t e s . See i f y o u m i s s e d a n y o f t h e m . Who e l s e knows i t ? The, L a , a n d L o r , a n d me. C r . knows a l o t o f i t . Mmm. Oh, y e a h , a n d J u . I h a v e n ' t g o t t h e f i l m r e a d y y e t , j u s t a s e c . W e ' l l go t h r o u g h y o u r a l p h a b e t a g a i n . W e l l y o u know, y o u r l a n g u a g e , y o u r s i g n l a n g u a g e , sorry. I a l r e a d y know t h e a l p h a b e t . Okay. Y o u c a n s t a r t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , s o o n ' s i g e t my f l a s h warmed up again. There i t i s okay. T h a t ' s "do y o u . " Mmm. That's " l i k e . " Mmm.  146 S. R. S. R. S. R. R. S. R. S. R. S. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R.  This i s "kind of." Mmm. This i s "yes." Mmm. T h i s i s "no." L e t me f o c u s f o r a m i n u t e . Mmm. T h i s i s " I know." Okay. P o i n t t o t h e p e r s o n , whoever y o u ' r e t a l k i n g t o , i f you don't have i t . Mmm. A n d ( l o n g p a u s e ) I c a n ' t t h i n k o f any. (Pause) Oh, y e a h , t h i s i s " T h e . " . Mmm. T h i s i s " T h e . . " ( d i f f e r e n t s i g n , g i r l ' s name h a s m o r e t h a n one v e r s i o n ) Mmmmmm. Mmmm. ( L o n g p a u s e ) Can y o u t h i n k o f any o t h e r s ? No. O k a y , Sh. I ' l l show t h e s e p i c t u r e s t o y o u when I g e t t h e m b a c k , o k a y ?  147  APPENDIX D  Transcripts  of C h i l d r e n ' s  Interpretations  148 Terra Interpretation R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T.  R. T.  R. T. R. T.  O k a y , j u s t go a h e a d . Our c h a i r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . What do y o u do i n t h a t c h a i r ? Y o u s i t and r e a d . Okay. T h a t ' s o u r c l a s s r o o m and s h e ' s t e a c h i n g u s r i g h t t h e r e . How do y o u know? S h e ' s a l m o s t t o g i v e u s o u t some d r i l l s . How do y o u know t h a t ? Math d r i l l s . I see t h e p a p e r s and t h e p a p e r s a r e . . . a l w a y s l o n g . I see. And t h a t one w e ' r e a l l s i t t i n ' t o get ready f o r something. What do y o u t h i n k i t i s ? Or a l m o s t t o t a l k t o somebody. A l m o s t t o t a l k t o somebody? Is that right? (Laughter) ( I n a u d i b l e ) L o t s of p e o p l e a r e s t a n d i n g up d o i n g something. Cleaning o f f t h e i r desks. (Long pause) What's h a p p e n i n g t h e r e ? Mmmm, t h e t e a c h e r p r o b a b l y t e l l i n g u s t o . . . s t o p w o r k i n g s h e w a n t s t o t e l l s o m e t h i n g b u t some p e o p l e a r e j u s t . . . o n t a l k i n g . Okay. And t h a t ( c o u g h ) w e ' r e g o i n g t o w r i t e a s t o r y . How do y o u know? W e l l everybody has p i e c e s of paper. (Long pause) Mmm. T h i s one h e ' s r e a d i n g n o h e ' s g o t a l a r g e . . . d r i l l p a p e r . B u t he's d o i n g math. Who h a s d r i l l p a p e r ? (Inaudible) Who h a s ? H i s name's S. (boy a l o n e ) Okay, what does he . . . h e has a d r i l l p a p e r ? ( I n a u d i b l e ) must h a v e a d i f f e r e n t ( i n a u d i b l e ) . Mmmm. And t h e r e ' s one o f t h e k i d s t a l k i n g t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . While everyb o d y e l s e i s s i t t i n g up. Oh, c o u p l e a h p e o p l e a r e l o o k i n g i n t h e i r desks. Mmm. And t h e r e we a r e a l m o s t s i t t i n g u p s t r a i g h t some o f u s , some o f u s a r e writing. T h a t one o u r t e a c h e r i s t a l k i n g t o u s ( p a u s e ) . A b o u t something. O t h e r one w e ' r e a l l r e a d i n g s o m e t h i n g . And t h i s one i s a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s . . . work. I s i t ? Can y o u t e l l me a b o u t i t ? Like, they're doing research. Mmm. About dogs. T h e r e ' s t h e b o o k s and t h e r e ' s t h e r e s e a r c h , d o g s . S t o r i e s "Man's B e s t F r i e n d . " T h i s one t h e t e a c h e r w e n t o u t o f t h e class.  149 R. T.  R. T. R. T.  R. T. R. T. R. T.  R. T. R. R. T. R. T. R. T.  R. T.  R. T. R. R.  How do y o u know t h a t ? 'Cause e v e r y b o d y ' s t a l k i n g . When e v e r y b o d y t a l k s t h e t e a c h e r i s u s u a l l y out of the c l a s s . And t h e r e ' s t h e b o o k s . . . we a l w a y s read. What a r e t h e b o o k s , T.? Um, a l l s o r t s o f b o o k s . Okay. Mmm. And t h i s one i s t o do w i t h t h e t h i n g w h a t w h e r e we p u t o u r books i n . Then t h e r e ' s t h e books. And down h e r e i s w h e r e we p u t games. Mmm. And t h a t ' s when w e ' r e j u s t a b o u t t o do t h e C a n a d i a n F i t n e s s T e s t . How do y o u know t h a t ? B e c a u s e t h e r e ' s t h e man. W i t h t h e box i n h i s hand. I know, I s e e he has a box t o keep y o u r s c o r e . Mmm. And t h e r e ' s a k i d g e t t i n g h i s r u n n e r s g e t t i n g . . . r a t h e r g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r gym o r t a k i n g i t home. No, ( p a u s e ) y e a h , g e t t i n g r e a d y for gym. Mmm. The n e x t o n e i s a c o u p l e o f p e o p l e d o i n g t h e same t h i n g , g e t t i n ' r e a d y f o r gym. The o t h e r one ( l o n g p a u s e ) W h a t ' s t h a t one s a y ? T h a t ' s t h e c a r p e t we h a v e i n t h e r o o m . P e o p l e s i t o n t h e c a r p e t t o read. Mmm. That's the t e a c h e r ' s desk. What's t h a t one a b o u t ? T h e r e ' s t e a c h e r ' s d e s k w i t h l o t s o f p a p e r s a n d s t u f f o n i t and t h e r e ' s p a r t o f the b l a c k b o a r d because you can see a l i t t l e b i t o f it. Mmm. W i t h s p e l l i n g words. And t h e r e ' s a c h a r t , t h e w h o l e c h a r t i s n ' t printed f o r the reading. T h a t ' s where p e o p l e r e a d and t e l l about the books. How do t h e y t e l l a b o u t t h e i r b o o k s ? They t e l l what happened i n t h e b o o k and s t u f f . Oh, I s e e . O k a y , w o u l d y o u l i k e t o s o r t t h e m i n t o p i l e s f o r me?  150 Steve R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S. R. S.  R. S. R.  W o u l d y o u l i k e t o t e l l me w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s e p i c t u r e s ? We're w r i t i n ' a s t o r y . I s e e . How do y o u know t h a t ? ' C a u s e I c a n t e l l b y a l l t h e s e p i c t u r e s a n d ' c a u s e we n e v e r u s e paper f o r anything except f o r s t o r i e s . Okay. And i n t h i s one we're w r i t i n ' t h e s t o r y . J u s t p u t them on t h e f l o o r . I'm s o r r y I i n t e r r u p t e d y o u . We're s t a r t i n g t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y . Okay. T h e r e ' s a l l t h e b o o k s we t a k e o u t , t h e y ' r e " r e s e r v e d " b o o k s , n o b o d y c a n u s e . . . ( l o n g p a u s e ) A n d t h i s i s w h e r e we p u t o u r b o o k s f o r o u r t e a c h e r t o mark. (Long pause) Here we're d o i n ' o u r work. How do y o u know t h a t ? I c a n t e l l b y t h e s t u f f up o n t h e b o a r d . (Pause) Okay. (Long pause) T h i s i s w h e r e we . . . t h e t e a c h e r t e l l s u s w h a t t o do o n t h e b o a r d . T h i s i s r e a d y t o go o u t a n d . . . do . . . um . . . T h e Do w h a t ? Do ummmm. Fitness? Yeah, t h e f i t n e s s t e s t . T h i s i s when we s t a r t a l l o u r w o r k a n d we start doin' i t . How do y o u know t h a t ? 'Cause I c a n t e l l when M r s . M. i s t h e r e a n d I remember when s h e was t h e r e a n d I remember w e ' r e d o i n ' o u r w o r k . A n d s h e ' s t h e r e a n d we don't t a l k . What d o e s M r s . M. do? She j u s t s i t s down a n d l o o k s a f t e r u s w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r i s o u t . Mmmm. T h i s i s when we t a l k e d a b o u t t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r . And t h i s i s o u r teacher's desk. T h a t o n e ? How do y o u know i t ' s when y o u t a l k e d a b o u t t h e p r i m e minister? Because o f t h e . . . B u t what e l s e i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h a t p i c t u r e ? (Long pause) Okay, l e t ' s l e t i t go. This i s our teacher's desk. Okay. T h i s by o u r f i r e door. A n d t h a t ' s t h e d o o d l e t a b l e , w h e r e we s t a r t drawing s t u f f . And t h a t ' s what, dear? Where we, w h e r e we g e t some d o o d l e p a p e r a n d we d r a w o n t h e b a c k . T h i s i s everybody g e t t i n g ready. And t h e y ' r e t r y i n ' t o l o o k f o r t h e gym s t r i p I t h i n k . T h i s i s when w e ' r e d o i n ' a r t . How do y o u know t h a t ? 'Cause e v e r y b o d y h a s t h e i r g l u e . P l u s , I know t h a t we do a r t w i t h white paper. T h i s i s when w e ' r e h a v i n ' a s p e e d d r i l l . How do y o u know t h a t ?  151 S.  S. R.  'Cause t h e t e a c h e r i s h a n d i n g o u t s m a l l s t r i p s o f p a p e r . This i s a c h a i r t h a t we s i t i n t o r e a d b o o k s . T h a t ' s o u r c a r p e t we s i t down and r e a d b o o k s t h e r e , t o o . ( L o n g p a u s e ) T h i s i s when w e ' r e d o i n g o u r w o r k . A n d t h i s i s . . . when w e ' r e d r a w i n g some s t u f f , I t h i n k . Mmm. Would y o u l i k e t o p u t them i n p i l e s t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r ? T h e n a f t e r y o u c a n t e l l me why y o u p u t t h e m i n t h o s e g r o u p s . Okay?  152 Jill,  full  transcript  Interpretation R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J.  J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R.  Y o u c a n p u t them on t h e f l o o r when y o u ' r e f i n i s h e d i f y o u l i k e . ( T a l k i n g ) That's the t e a c h e r ' s desk. And t h e b o a r d w i t h w r i t i n g on i t . And a p u r s e and t h e c h a i r and a cup o f c o f f e e . And t h e s e . . . Deacon t a l k i n g t o Zoran. Jamie working, Ian l o o k i n g at h i s desk. Zoran's working. M r s . M. s t a n d i n g . ( i n a u d i b l e ) This i s the reading c h a i r , w h e r e y o u . s i t down and r e a d . ( i n a u d i b l e ) M r s . S. s t a n d i n g up e x p l a i n i n g o u r w o r k . And umm . . . (inaudible). M r s . S., s h e ' s g i v i n g our speed d r i l l out. J e f f t a l k i n g t o T h e a . L i s a s t a n d i n g up. Gary's . . . t h i s i s Gary, t a k i n g h i s t h i n g s out. This i s a desk w i t h books on i t . T h i s i s Jimmy s t a n d i n g up and J u l i a . This i s L a m o u r s t a n d i n g up a n d L a m o u r ' s d a d . Whose d a d ? Lamour's. How do y o u s p e l l h e r name? L A M O U R . And h e r d a d . How come h e ' s t h e r e ? B e c a u s e ummm I d o n ' t know why h e ' s b u t , I t h i n k he was t a l k i n g , h e was g o i n g t o h e l p s o m e t h i n g i s n ' t he? J a m i e he's s t a r t i n g t o get up. (Inaudible) And t h i s one a t n i g h t ? No. Looks l i k e . T h i s i s a k i n d a a u h . . . a d e s k and a t a b l e and a r u g . S. i s s t a n d i n g up l o o k i n g a t h i s p a p e r s . And M r s . S. i s p u t t i n g h e r two f i n g e r s i n h e r m o u t h . P a r d o n , who i s p u t t i n g two f i n g e r s i n h i s m o u t h ? M r s . S. Where? Right there. Oh y e a h . And M r s . M. s i t t i n ' down. H e r e ' s Jimmy g o i n g f o r h i s p a p e r . Eric l o o k i n g f o r h i s gym b a g . We're s i t t i n g down w o r k i n g . Okay. And t h i s i s t h e b o o k s when we g e t f i n i s h e d . And t h e r e ' s t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s , m a t h , and j o u r n a l s e c t i o n . Can y o u s l o w down a s e c ? I ' l l w r i t e t h a t down. S o r r y , what d i d you say? H e r e ' s t h e r e a d i n g b o o k s t h a t y o u r e a d a n d umm and t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s b o x , a n d t h e m a t h b o x and t h e j o u r n a l b o x s e c t i o n . And s h e l v e s , and t h e w i n d o w , and t r e e s ( a r t w o r k ) . J a m i e ' s s t a n d i n g up. And L a m o u r ' s d a d ' s t h e r e . And S. i s t u r n i n g a r o u n d . And S h a r o n i s g e t t i n g up. And t h e b o o k s t h a t we u s u a l l y g e t . What d i d y o u s a y S h a r o n was d o i n g i n t h e r e ? G e t t i n g up. Mmm. T h e r e ' s some o f t h e b o o k s we r e a d a g a i n a n d t h e s h e l v e s and a l i t t l e peek of the j o u r n a l box ( p h o t o g r a p h i c s t a t e m e n t ) . That's a l l . Do y o u w a n t t o p u t t h e m i n t o p i l e s t h a t b e l o n g t o g e t h e r f o r me? P a r d o n me? You can s o r t them i n t o p i l e s i f you want. (Long pause)  153 R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. J. R. J.  A l l r i g h t , c a n y o u t e l l why y o u p u t them i n t h e p i l e s y o u d i d ? I p u t t h e s e b o t h i n p i l e s ' c a u s e t h e y ' r e k i n d a t h e same. How a r e t h e y t h e same? B e c a u s e t h e y ' r e b o t h g o i n g i n t h e c l o a k r o o m and g o i n g o u t . Mmm. A n d I d i d t h i s one b e c a u s e t h e y ' r e b o t h b o o k s . Okay. A n d , I d i d t h i s one b e c a u s e ummm t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g r e a l q u i e t . B u t sometimes they t a l k , but t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g q u i e t . A n d t h e s e o n e s umm a r e t h e o n e s t h a t ummm s t a n d up and t a l k . And t h i s i s the c h a i r above the r u g . Do t h e y h a v e any o t h e r m e a n i n g t o y o u b e s i d e s ? . . . B e i n g n e a r e a c h other? W e l l k i n d o f b e c a u s e t h i s i s a c h a i r and t h i s i s a r u g . (Inaudible) And t h a t ' s a r u g . B e c a u s e t h e y s i t o n a c h a i r and r u g . This i s just l e f t a l o n e , d e s k we ( i n a u d i b l e ) A n d t h i s i s a l o n e .  Interview R. J. R. J.  R. J.  R. J. R.  J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R.  I ' d l i k e t o a s k y o u some q u e s t i o n s t o o . W e ' l l j u s t p u s h them b a c k together again. 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, c a t e g o r i e s . Yeah. Okay. A l l r i g h t . Why i s S. s e a t e d b y h i m s e l f t o w o r k ? B e c a u s e h e ' s m o s t l y t a l k i n g a n d h e ' s b a d m o s t l y and h e ummm h e a l w a y s h a s t o d o h i s c o r r e c t i o n s . W e l l n o . . . n o t t h a t . He's b a d . . . h e ' s a l w a y s t a l k i n g t o Z. and h e g e t s o u t o f h i s d e s k a l l t h e t i m e and he t a l k s t o Z. W h a t ' s i t l i k e t o s i t a l o n e , do y o u t h i n k ? Umm, I d o n ' t . . . W e l l y o u c o u l d g e t y o u r w o r k d o n e e a s i e r w i t h o u t t a l k i n g 'to:, o t h e r p e o p l e . L i k e you be a l o n e , r i g h t ? It's kind of l o n e l y b u t a t l e a s t y o u c a n w o r k b y y o u r s e l f and g e t l o t s o f w o r k d o n e . W e l l ummm S. d o e s n ' t f e e l l o n e l y b e c a u s e h e a l w a y s ( g e t s o u t .of h i s d e s k and t a l k s . Mmmm. How do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t t o b e h e a r d ? Yout a l k n i c e , k i n d l y . I f you don't want t o b e h e a r d ? Okay? Y o u d o n ' t w a n t a n y b o d y t o h e a r you? How do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t a n y b o d y t o know who y o u a r e t a l k i n g t o ? Whisper. A n d w h a t e l s e do y o u d o ? Umm y o u . . . some p e o p l e do a s i g n l a n g u a g e , t o e a c h o t h e r . Sign language? Yeah. What f o r ? L i k e t h i s i s ' a ' t h a t ' s 'b' a n d . . . O k a y , and w h a t e l s e , any o t h e r l a n g u a g e ? Y e a h , ' c ' . And we know up t o z and p l u s . . . Y o u know u p t o z ? ! W i t h . . . i n t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e b u t I f o r g e t some o f i t . B u t I p a s s e d a t e s t i n B r o w n i e s up t o z a n . . . Oh, I s e e , i f I b r i n g my c a m e r a t o m o r r o w w i l l y o u t e l l me w h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t o n e s a r e and I ' l l t a k e y o u r p i c t u r e ?  154 J. R. J. R. J. R. J. .  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R.  Okay. Who knows t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e ? I t h i n k ummm me, T h e a , S h a r o n , L a r i s a , mmm L i s a a n d t h a t ' s a l l . A n y b o d y e l s e know i t . Y e a h , t h e y know i t b u t . . . a h . . . I t h i n k s o b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y do i t s o m e t i m e s . Okay, what do y o u t e l l e a c h o t h e r ? Umm, b u t L a m o u r a n d S h a r o n a n d T h e a l i k e t h e y ' r e k i n d o f a g r o u p r i g h t ? . Cause t h e y a l l p l a y t o g e t h e r . P l u s t h e y made u p . . . t h e y g o , l i k e t h i s , t h a t means, I t h i n k t h a t means 'what number t h e y ' r e o n i n m a t h ' . And i t means s o m e t h i n g e l s e I t h i n k . A n d umm ' c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t w a n t t o g e t t h e i r name o n t h e b o a r d I t h i n k . What d o y o u g e t y o u r name o n t h e b o a r d f o r ? F o r t a l k i n g o u t l o u d . . . ummm, m a k i n g n o i s e . Mmmm. How e l s e do y o u t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d i f y o u d o n ' t w a n t a n y b o d y t o know? Oh. B e s i d e s t h e s i g n l a n g u a g e , a n y o t h e r way? Do y o u s p e l l o u t a w o r d ? Y o u c o u l d u s e y o u r l i p s , b u t t h e y h a r d l y do t h a t . How do y o u u s e y o u r l i p s ? W e l l , maybe some p e o p l e . B u t t h e y d o n ' t do i t T d o n ' t t h i n k . Maybe t h a t ' s a way t h a t y o u c o u l d t a l k t o y o u r f r i e n d s . Mmm, o k a y . Because, they could read your l i p s , r i g h t ? Yeah. How many p e o p l e h a v e y o u a l r e a d y t o o k ? Four o r f i v e . Four o r f i v e . Mmm, o k a y ? When d o y o u go t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? When? s o m e t i m e s when y o u w a n t m a r k e d . . . A n d y o u w a n t t o a s k h e r a question. And i f . . . t o t a t t l e t a l e . Some .people t a t t l e o n o t h e r s a n d a s k h e r umm s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u d o n ' t know. S h e ' l l e x p l a i n i t t o y o u b u t s o m e t i m e s s h e d o e s n ' t . A n d t o go t o t h e b a t h r o o m a n d sometimes t o get a drink. When c a n y o u go t o t h e b a t h r o o m ? O n l y a t r e c e s s , l u n c h , umm s o m e t i m e s s h e l e t s y o u . . . When c a n y o u g e t a d r i n k ? She n e v e r l e t s u s g e t a d r i n k . She a l w a y s s a y s n o , b u t umm some p e o p l e sneak 'cause t h e r e ' s a s i n k i n o u r b a c k o f t h e room, r i g h t ? Who s n e a k s ? Sean, Z o r a n , a n d . . . Any g i r l s ? I d o s o m e t i m e s b u t I d o n ' t s n e a k b u t I j u s t . . . l i k e when w e ' r e d o i n ' a r t a n d I'm t h i r s t y , I d o n ' t s n e a k i t I j u s t t a k e a d r i n k , b u t I don't always sneak. I d o n ' t ( i n a u d i b l e ) ' c a u s e when w e ' r e d o i n ' e l l a y . . . when w e ' r e d o i n ' e l l a y ( l a n g u a g e a r t s ) . . . Mmm. What d o e s i t mean t o go a n d g e t p a p e r ? Paper? Mm. Means . . . I saw some p e o p l e g o i n g a n d g e t t i n g p a p e r . What d o e s t h a t mean?  155 J. R. J. R. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R.  T h a t means l i k e when . . . when t h e y r a n o u t . . . t h e y umm l a n g u a g e a r t s books y o u were w r i t i n g . Oh, I s e e . Umm t h e n y o u t a k e p a p e r b e c a u s e umm, t h e y d o n ' t n e e d t o g e t a n y books. ( E n d o f y e a r ? ) A n d I'm one o f t h e m . Oh, I s e e . Okay. A n d who d e l i v e r s n o t e s t o t h e o f f i c e ? Oh, j u s t s o m e t i m e s me, S t e v e . . . n o t n o t e s b u t . . . Messages? Yeah, messages. A n d ummm L o r i s a . Mmm. And I t h i n k Thea . . . Y o u t o l d me when y o u c a n go t o t h e w a s h r o o m . Can y o u t e l l when y o u put n o t e b o o k s i n t o t h e b o x e s ? , Oh, y o u p u t n o t e b o o k s i n t o t h e b o x e s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e t o b e m a r k e d and b e d e l i v e r e d b a c k t o y o u . O k a y , why d o e s t h e t e a c h e r s a y L i s a ' s name a l o t ? Lisa? Mmm. S h e c a l l s h e r name a l o t b e c a u s e s h e ' s a l w a y s g e t s o u t o f h e r s e a t . And s h e a l w a y s c a l l s T e r r a ' s name ' c a u s e . B u t T e r r a ' s t h e w o r s t , s h e a l w a y s t a l k s a n d a l w a y s g o e s up . . . t h e r o w s a n d g e t s o u t o f her s e a t . L i s a does t h a t t o o . Does s h e do t h a t t o o ? Umm. Why d o e s s h e s a y J i l l ' s name a l o t ? P a r d o n me. Why d o e s s h e s a y J i l l ' s name a l o t ? Lisa? N o , y o u r name, why d o e s s h e s a y y o u r name a l o t ? Who d o e s ? The t e a c h e r . 'Cause I'm h a v i n g f u n t a l k i n g . Mmm. ( L a u g h t e r ) This i s kind o f embarrassing (long pause). This i s kind o f embarrassing? Mmm. I'm t h e o n l y o n e t h a t h e a r s t h e t a p e s . A l l right? Umm, a n d b e c a u s e ummm. I d o n ' t l i s t e n s o m e t i m e s . A n d umm I t h i n k that's i t . Okay. Umm, w h a t d o e s i t mean-when t h e t e a c h e r c a l l s y o u r name? Oh, i t m e a n s , t h a t y o u ' r e b a d , t h a t y o u d i d n ' t l i s t e n . I t means t h a t y o u g o t umm I t h i n k t h a t i t means t h a t ummm. When y o u t r a d e d e s k s a n d s h e t e l l s y o u t o t r a d e t h e m b a c k . When s h e w a n t s t h e m b a c k . What do y o u mean t r a d e d e s k s ? L i k e some p e o p l e t r a d e d e s k s r i g h t ? Y o u mean t h e y s i t i n t h e m f o r a w h i l e ? L i k e , t h e y s i t i n someone e l s e ' s d e s k f o r a w h i l e . Like say, Lisa's here r i g h t ? Mmm. A t t h e t o p o f o u r r o w a n d T e r r a ' s a t t h e b a c k a n d t h e n T e r r a comes up a n d s i t s i n h e r d e s k a n d L i s a comes b a c k a n d s i t s i n T e r r a ' s d e s k . When c a n y o u g e t t o do t h a t ?  156 J.  R. J. R. J.  R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J. R. J.  R.  When M r s . B ' s h e r e , s o m e t i m e s . B u t m o s t o f t h e t i m e s h e s a y s y o u umm b e t t e r n o t d o t h a t r i g h t ? And p e o p l e don't l i s t e n 'cause t h e y know t h a t s h e ' s n i c e . A n d s h e n e v e r c a l l s y o u r name. I s e e . Okay. What d o e s t h e b l u e c a r p e t e d a r e a mean? I t means when y o u r e a d down mmm t h e r e a n d mmm i t means o h , s i l e n t reading. A n d means umm t h a t t h e t e a c h e r comes a n d r e a d s y o u a s t o r y . Okay. When d o e s t h e t e a c h e r w o r k a t h e r d e s k ? She w o r k s a t h e r d e s k when s h e m a r k s a n d some umm r e a d s a c o m i c . . . n e w s p a p e r s o m e t i m e s . She u s u a l l y ( i n a u d i b l e ) s i t s a t h e r d e s k b u t most . . . When do y o u s i t t o r e a d ? How d o y o u know y o u s h o u l d go s o m e t i m e s to read? Oh, umm. A t o n e o ' c l o c k y o u u s u a l l y go a n d s i t down a n d r e a d a t t h e blue carpet. And y o u can r e a d i n t h a t b i g ( i n a u d i b l e ) t h i s t h i n g (points to picture). Okay. Youread i n that c h a i r . O n l y two p e o p l e c a n s i t . Is t h a t t a p e on? I t h i n k s o , i s i t s t i l l moving? Yep. A n d u h , w h a t ' s u s u a l l y o n t h e e n d umm o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? What kinds o f papers? Oh, umm o h , ummm t e a c h e r ' s d e s k ? Mmm. Oh ummm u h t h e c a l e n d a r s . Mmm. And uh a r t s t u f f . Mmmm. A n d w h a t k i n d o f t h i n g s c a n y o u n o t t e l l a t e a c h e r . Oh. I d o n ' t t e a c h a n y m o r e s o y o u c a n t e l l me w h a t y o u c a n ' t t e l l a t e a c h e r , a b o u t w h a t h a p p e n s i n t h e room. I d o n ' t know w h a t y o u mean? W e l l y o u t o l d me a b o u t y o u r s i g n l a n g u a g e . A n y t h i n g e l s e ? And about you going i n t o a d i f f e r e n t desk. A n d t h e n mmm o h , y o u make l o t s o f r a c k e t when s h e g o e s o u t o f t h e r o o m a n d w e ' r e n o t s u p p o s e d t o . T h e n s o m e t i m e s s h e comes i n a n d we're s t i l l making a r a c k e t . Then s h e goes (heaves g r e a t s i g h . o f indignation). Mmm. A n d u h . . . She umm. When s h e g e t s o u t o f t h e r o o m , s o m e t i m e s y o u can sneak a d r i n k . Mmm. A n d s o m e t i m e s we g e t o u t o f d e s k s . Okay, what a r e t h e r e s e r v e d b o o k s ? Reserved. Mmm. Oh, t h o s e a r e t h e o n e s t h a t y o u h a v e n ' t f i n i s h e d . And w h a t d o e s i t mean t o m a r k someone e l s e ' s w o r k ? I t means a t m a t h y o u . . . u s u a l l y means l i k e s h e l e t s y o u m a r k , l i k e , y o u u s u a l l y p u t one t i c k , y o u p u t y o u r math book o n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s desk and t h e y p a s s them b e h i n d and t h e b a c k p e r s o n b r i n g s h i s up t o t h e f r o n t and b e marked. T h a t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e , a t math. Thank y o u , do y o u want t o p u s h t h e ' s t o p ' b u t t o n ?  APPENDIX E  Transcript  of Teacher  Interview  158 Interview with R.  T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R. T. R.  T. R. T. R. R. T. R. R. T. R.  T. R. T.  R.  Teacher  W e l l , t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h e n i s "How can I h e l p , i n the a f t e r n o o n s , a b i t m o r e ? " T h e r e a r e s o many p e o p l e i n t h e s c h o o l , v o l u n t e e r s a n d p a r e n t s I g e t m i x e d up. W e l l , I guess h e l p i n g w i t h t h e m a r k i n g and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . Okay. I g i v e t h e m t o o much, i s my p r o b l e m I know, b u t a . . . And y o u know, p r i n t up some c h a r t s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t . Sure, s u r e , okay. Or i f y o u p r e f e r t o w o r k w i t h k i d s I know one t h a t n e e d s a l o t o f h e l p w i t h h i s h a n d w r i t i n g he was away when we d i d a l o t o f i t . Oh, s u r e I ' d b e g l a d t o . The b a s i c s o f h a n d w r i t i n g . I s t h a t L. who j u s t came b a c k ? O k a y , y e a h , he j u s t g o t b a c k , h e c o u l d p r o b a b l y do w i t h some. Well that's fine. Y o u know. Great. Yeah. Okay. That's p r o b a b l y e a s i e r , t h a t ' s something t h a t ' s r e a l l y hard to get to . . . i n d i v i d u a l h e l p . O k a y , s u r e l y . W o u l d y o u l i k e t o b e a b l e t o c o u n t o n me . . . f o r afternoons . . . to help? Y e a h , t h a t m i g h t e v e n be e a s i e r . . . t o j u s t u s e y o u t h a t way, f o r a number o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o do. Okay, j u s t g r e a t . O k a y , j u s t y o u know, a t t h e b a c k t a b l e . . . w h a t e v e r . R i g h t , I seem a h t o g e t down t o w r i t i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g f i r s t o f f . I'm n o t as l i k e l y t o umm do umm a l l s o r t s o f a v o i d a n c e t h i n g s e x c e p t g e t t i n g t o my w o r k and s o t h e a f t e r n o o n s w o u l d be b e t t e r . Yeah, okay. I c o u l d j u s t come s o I ' d be r i g h t h e r e j u s t a f t e r t h e y ' v e gone i n . Okay. So when I come up t h e d r i v e w a y , i t ' s c l e a r . Okay, y e a h . Or e v e n ( i n a u d i b l e d u a l e x c h a n g e ) . Sure, okay. Right. Okay, g r e a t . That's t e r r i f i c . Yeah, okay. And t h a t , t h a t l e a d s r i g h t i n t o one o f t h e q u e s t i o n s I was g o i n g t o a s k was w h a t k i n d s o f r o u t i n e s f o r m a r k i n g do y o u h a v e ? I mean t h e b o x e s and so o n . Mmm. I f y o u c o u l d d e s c r i b e i t f o r me. W e l l when t h e y f i n i s h t h e i r w o r k t h e y ' r e t o d e l i v e r i t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e box. And t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t I'm s u p p o s e d t o t r y and f i n d f i v e m i n u t e s sometimes d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g and w h a t e v e r t o t r y t o g e t a t t h o s e t h i n g s . Y e a h , and l o n g e n o u g h t o and I d o n ' t h a v e t o h u n t t h e m down. I c a n m a r k t h e m when I ' v e g o t a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s . Mmm.  159 T.  R. T.  R. T. T.  R. T.  R. T.  R. T.  And t h e y f o l l o w t h a t r o u t i n e v e r y w e l l . T h e r e ' r e s t i l l one o r two who s t i l l a v o i d p u t t i n g i t i n t h e b o x b e c a u s e i t ' s n o t d o n e o r i t ' s n o t done w e l l enough. What do t h e y do? T h e y j u s t d o n ' t up i t ( i n d i g n a n t t o n e ) And I d o n ' t c a t c h i t ' t i l t h e n e x t d a y a n d I ' v e m a r k e d and t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t h e r e f r o m so a n d s o . I t ' s a tough t h i n g to watch. I'm a w a r e o f w h i c h o n e s t h e y a r e and I t e n d t o c h e c k them b e f o r e t h e y t a k e o f f i n t h e a f t e r n o o n u s u a l l y . I d o n ' t h a v e t o h u n t s o m e t h i n g down so I c a n m a r k s o m e t h i n g when I have a couple of minutes. You're very thorough. I t doesn't happen u s u a l l y . Oh, I k e e p I g u e s s t h i s i s t h e f i r s t y e a r w h e r e t h e y h a v e t o do a w h o l e l o t o f w o r k . My e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . And t h e y p r o d u c e h o r r e n d o u s a m o u n t s o f w o r k w h i c h means a l o t o f m a r k i n g . . . b u t i t ' s b e t t e r t h a n h a v i n g them d o i n g n o t h i n g . You r e a l l y know w h a t e v e r y b o d y ' s d o i n g . Y e a h , I t h i n k I ' v e g o t a f a i r l y good s a m p l e on most . . . t h e r e ' s a f e w t h a t s l i p b y e v e r y so o f t e n b u t . . . s l i p s h o d w o r k o r w h a t e v e r . . . but c a n ' t keep them a l l g o i n g . (Laughter) Okay. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g s p e c i a l I n e e d t o know a b o u t m a r k i n g ? No, I . . . j u s t t h a t I do no c o r r e c t i o n s f o r t h e m , I u n d e r l i n e o r c i r c l e a n y t h i n g t h a t ' s w r o n g . D o n ' t o f t e n p u t 'x' on t h i n g s u n l e s s i t ' s s p e c i f i c a l l y a wrong answer. Mmm. O r a l comprehension or something t h a t ' s a s p e c i f i c a l l y a wrong answer, b u t n o r m a l l y I w o u l d j u s t u n d e r l i n e and l e a v e t h i n g s ummm p u t a q u e s t i o n mark o r I do no c o r r e c t i n g s o f s p e l l i n g s o r a n y t h i n g e l s e .  APPENDIX F  Pictures  S u g g e s t e d t o be  taken—Children  161  Pictures suggested to be taken—Children 1. 2. 3. 3. 5.  Lunch k i t s - — e a t i n g . J. Journal—doing i t . Going home after s c h o o l — t h a t ' s fun. Going to l i b r a r y . Going to gym.  1. 2. 3. 4.  Art—happens about 2:30 to 3:00. G. Half hour s i l e n t reading. 10 to 3:00 p.m., ready to go home. At gym, Friday and Monday, 11:30 a.m.  1. 2. 3. 4.  Sink—painting. M. When we have movies—when the g i r l comes to t e l l us about her teeth. Already taken c u r t a i n s — s u n . Policewoman Kathy—brings f i l m from place where she works a t — t e l l s us about police dogs. Coming up s t a i r s from l i b r a r y — g o into classroom and read. When we're eating, recess, lunch time. Having our detentions, or else maybe i n the afternoon. S i t on hands for ten minutes. Happens when we are noisy. Playing recorders—Miss Smith—sometimes i n l i b r a r y , sometimes i n classroom. Afternoon on Monday, sometimes Tuesday. When we have b r o a d c a s t s — l a s t Wednesday—doesn't come back u n t i l September. Take pictures of "doing math." English book things—afternoon—sometimes. Doing our journal.  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1. 2. 3.  both days.  Mrs. S. writing—everybody's working. Close-ups—people doing work and getting frustrated. People who come about costumes, 7., 6., 5., and 4's.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055208/manifest

Comment

Related Items