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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Structures of curriculum change as experienced by teachers Pike, Margaret Louise 1981

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S T R U C T U R E S O F C U R R I C U L U M C H A N G E A S E X P E R I E N C E D B Y T E A C H E R S b y M A R G A R E T L O U I S E P I K E B . E d . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 1 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S p r i n g , 1 9 8 1 ( c ) M a r g a r e t L . P i k e , 1 9 8 1 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1W5 11 ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o make e x p l i c i t some m e a n i n g s t e a c h e r s g i v e t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e t h i s c h a n g e . F r o m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and m e a n i n g s , some t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e w e r e d e f i n e d . The m a j o r q u e s t i o n a s k e d w a s : What a r e t h e t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e ? M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t h i s m a j o r q u e s t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. How i s c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s ? 2. What c o m m o n a l i t i e s ( i . e t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ) u n d e r l i e t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s ? 3. What i d e a l t y p e o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e e m e r g e s f r o m t h e s e t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ? T h r o u g h t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s and s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s c r i p t a n a l y s i s , t h r e e s t r u c t u r e s o f c h a n g e e m e r g e d . The f i r s t s t r u c t u r e was ' a c t u a l u s e ' , what t e a c h e r s d i d d u r i n g d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s when w o r k i n g w i t h t h e new c u r r i c u l u m . The s e c o n d s t r u c t u r e was t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f ' t i m e ' , how t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d a n d o r g a n i z e d t h e i r t i m e d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The t h i r d s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t e d o f v a r i o u s ' i n f l u e n c e s ' u p o n t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e s e ' i n f l u e n c e s ' i n c l u d e d t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t t e a c h i n g , t h e i r i i i t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t o r s , the k i n d s of support they r e c e i v e d d u r i n g the change, and the s t u d e n t responses towards the new c u r r i c u l u m . I n c l u d e d i n the study were twenty primary t e a c h e r s w i t h i n two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s who were implementing the Ginn 720 Reading Program d u r i n g the 1979-80 s c h o o l year. Fourteen t e a c h e r s were i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d t h r e e t i m e s : f i r s t , to e l i c i t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s of change; second to v a l i d a t e the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t r a n s c r i p t c o n v e r s a t i o n s ; and t h i r d to v a l i d a t e the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m change as e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s . S i x o t h e r s who were not i n v o l v e d i n the data g a t h e r i n g i n t e r v i e w s , a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s as a f i n a l v a l i d a t i o n o f the study's c o n c l u s i o n s . i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P a g e L I S T O F F I G U R E S . v i i C h a p t e r I P R O B L E M A N D M E T H O D 1 T h e P r o b l e m 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 6 M e t h o d 6 R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e 6 I n t e r v i e w S a m p l e 7 I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e 7 I n t e r v i e w I n s t r u m e n t s a n d P i l o t 9 D a t a A n a l y s i s 1 1 A s s u m p t i o n s 1 3 F o o t n o t e s 1 5 I I E V E R Y D A Y E X P E R I E N C E A N D C U R R I C U L U M C H A N G E 16 R o u t i n e s : T h e E v e r y d a y W o r l d a n d C l a s s r o o m L i f e I " 7 C h a n g e : M a k i n g F a m i l i a r W h a t i s S t r a n g e . 2 1 V I I I A N I D E A L T Y P E 2 5 A c t u a l U s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 F o l l o w i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m C l o s e l y 2 7 M a k i n g S e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e C u r r i c u l u m . 3 2 T i m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 A n t i c i p a t o r y T i m e 4 5 T r i a l T i m e 5 3 N o r m a l T i m e 6 3 I n f l u e n c e s 6 7 B e l i e f s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 T a l k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 S u p p o r t 9 1 I n - c l a s s V a l i d a t i o n 9 4 I V C O N C L U S I O N S A N D I M P L I C A T I O N S 1 0 0 S o m e G u i d e l i n e s f o r I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I n s e r v i c e 1 0 7 B I B L I O G R A P H Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H I A P P E N D I X A L e t t e r o f I n t e n t 1 1 4 A P P E N D I X B T h e O p e n - E n d e d I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 1 1 5 v i APPENDIX C S i x S t r u c t u r e s of C u r r i c u l u m Change E x p e r i e n c e d b y Teachers 116 APPENDIX D V a l i d a t i o n Recording Sheet ............ 118 APPENDIX E Sample I n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t 119 APPENDIX F Researcher's E x p e r i e n c e s 142 V l l LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 S t r u c t u r e s of Experienced Curriculum Change 26 v i i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w i s h t o t h a n k D r . D o n a l d C . W i l s o n a n d D r . I a n W r i g h t f o r s e r v i n g o n my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e . T h e i r c o m m e n t s a n d a d v i c e h a v e b e e n a p p r e c i a t e d . I e s p e c i a l l y w i s h t o t h a n k D r . W a l t e r W e r n e r , my a d v i s o r a n d t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r . W i t h o u t D r . W e r n e r ' s u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t , c a r e f u l g u i d a n c e a n d s c r u t i n y , my w o r k c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k t h e s u p e r v i s o r s a n d t e a c h e r s w h o g a v e u n s e l f i s h l y o f t h e i r t i m e i n s h a r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . I t h a s b e e n t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d t h e s t u d y t o b e . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k J o c e l y n G a r d n e r f o r h e r m e t i c u l o u s w o r k i n t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t . TO N A N C Y M . L A N G H e r p r o f e s s i o n a l d e d i c a t i o n and c a r i n g ways h a v e h e l p e d me t o d e f i n e " t e a c h e r " a n d " f r i e n d " . C h a p t e r I P R O B L E M A N D M E T H O D C u r r i c u l a u n d e r g o r e v i s i o n a n d a r e " i m p l e m e n t e d " i n c l a s s r o o m s . A s p a r t o f t h e L a n g u a g e A r t s r e v i s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e ( K - 7 ) a n d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e f o r c l a s s r o o m u s e i n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 7 9 . T h e P r o v i n c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n w a s t h a t b y 1 9 8 1 t h i s n e w c u r r i c u l u m w o u l d b e f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d . ^ T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o b e s u c c e s s f u l , . . . t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a s a s t a r t , n e e d t o b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e n e w l y - r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e a n d r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t n o t o n l y s h o u l d l o c a l p e r s o n n e l h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x a m i n e a c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e a n d t h e a s s o c i a t e d l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s s e v e r a l m o n t h s b e f o r e e a c h a r e t o b e u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , b u t t h a t t e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b e m a d e a w a r e o f t h e p r o g r e s s b e i n g m a d e i n c u r r i c u l u m a r e a s w h i c h a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g r e v i s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e i n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s • a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l • t o i n s u r e t h a t  t e a c h e r s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e c o n t i n u e d  s u p p o r t n e c e s s a r y t o i m p l e m e n t p r o v i n c i a l  c u r r i c u l u m . ^ ( e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s i n s e r v i c e a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e t h e o n g o i n g s u p p o r t d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e M i n i s t r y p r o v i d e d s o m e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e s e l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s : 2 The k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s which s h o u l d be encouraged at the l o c a l l e v e l a r e : r e f i n i n g p r o v i n c i a l l y s t a t e d l e a r n i n g outcomes; d e v e l o p i n g procedures through which l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s can be b e t t e r used i n the c l a s s r o o m ; and examining a l t e r n a t e t e a c h i n g and e v a l u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t types of s t u d e n t s . In s h o r t , a c t i v e t e a c h e r involvement i n a range of c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s a t the s c h o o l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l i s e s s e n t i a l i f the needs of s t u d e n t s are to be met. 3 I f p e r s o n n e l at the l o c a l l e v e l are to p r o v i d e the k i n d o f i n s e r v i c e t h a t b e n e f i t s t e a c h e r s i n an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s , then some un d e r s t a n d i n g of the change e x p e r i e n c e from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t e a c h e r s would be u s e f u l . The t e a c h e r who i s charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t r a n s l a t i n g new c u r r i c u l a i n t o t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , p l a y s a key r o l e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I t i s i n the c l a s s r o o m where the t e a c h e r g i v e s meaning to the c u r r i c u l u m i n the day to day a c t i o n s of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . A l l too o f t e n , however, t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n process i s viewed s u p e r f i c i a l l y as the a d o p t i o n and subsequent use of new m a t e r i a l s or approaches to l e a r n i n g . The meanings, b e l i e f s and f e e l i n g s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s b r i n g to the p r o c e s s , and which may have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon i t , are o f t e n l e f t unattended: S t a f f d e v e l o p e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and other change f a c i l i t a t o r s o f t e n a t t e n d c l o s e l y to the t r a p p i n g s and technology o f the i n n o v a t i o n but i g n o r e the p e r c e p t i o n s and f e e l i n g s of people. The p e r s o n a l dimension i s o f t e n more c r i t i c a l to the success of the change e f f o r t than are the t e c h n o l o g i c a l dimensions. Change i s brought about by i n d i v i d u a l s , so t h e i r p e r s o n a l 3 s a t i s f a c t i o n s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , c o n c e r n s , m o t i v a t i o n s , and p e r c e p t i o n s a l l p l a y a p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the success or f a i l u r e of a change i n i t i a t i v e . 4 S t u d y i n g the process of changing from one c u r r i c u l u m to another from the t e a c h e r ' s v i e w p o i n t may i l l u m i n a t e the meaning t e a c h e r s g i v e t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , and may p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the proc e s s of change. As w e l l , f o r those d e s i g n i n g i n s e r v i c e , such knowledge c o u l d guide the development of meaningful c u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s . The Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to make e x p l i c i t some meanings t e a c h e r s g i v e to the proc e s s of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i n orde r to understand how they t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e t h i s change. From t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and meanings, some of the t y p i c a l s t u c t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m change were d e f i n e d . The major q u e s t i o n asked was: What are the t y p i c a l s t u c t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m change? M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t h i s major q u e s t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. How i s c u r r i c u l u m change e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s ? 2 . What comm o n a l i t i e s ( i . e . t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ) u n d e r l i e these e x p e r i e n c e s ? 3. What i d e a l type of c u r r i c u l u m change emerges from these t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ? 4 The study d i d not set a • p r i o r i hypotheses f o r t e s t i n g . I t was the i n t e n t of the study to generate data from the t e a c h e r s ' p o i n t of view, and to develop t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of the p r o c e s s of e x p e r i e n c e d change. For s t u d y i n g t h i s s o c i a l phenomenon ( i n t h i s case a c u r r i c u l u m change), the meanings t h a t t e a c h e r s gave to t h e i r world and t h e i r a c t s w i t h i n i t p r o v i d e d the substance of study and d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the r e s e a r c h e r . "We cannot understand [ s o c i a l phenomena] o t h e r w i s e than w i t h i n the scheme of human mot i v e s , human means and ends, human p l a n n i n g - i n s h o r t w i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s of human ac t i o n . " ' ' In t h i s sense, the r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t c u r r i c u l u m change, as e x p e r i e n c e d by the t e a c h e r s , and not as d e f i n e d from some f i c t i o n a l w orld c r e a t e d by the o b s e r v e r , become the 'data' f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The primary q u e s t i o n s , then, were: "what does t h i s mean to the t e a c h e r ? " and "how does she make sense of her world so t h a t she can a c t i n i t ? " The dilemma faced by the r e s e a r c h e r , however, was i n t r a n s l a t i n g what has meaning' f o r the t e a c h e r i n t o an o b j e c t i v e , c o n c e p t u a l scheme t h a t can be a s c e r t a i n e d by those o u t s i d e the s i t u a t i o n . The method employed was the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an i d e a l t ype. I d e a l types supply c a t e g o r i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and f o r d e s c r i p t i o n which a l l o w an i n v e s t i g a t o r to d e s c r i b e the e x p e r i e n c e and to m a i n t a i n the v i e w p o i n t of the a c t o r ( i . e . to d e s c r i b e how he o r d e r s , i n t e r p r e t s , and a c t s upon h i s w o r l d ) . This i s not a t r a n s l a t i o n of h i s meaning i n t o c a t e g o r i e s 5 w h i c h c a n b e u s e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h o t h e r o b s e r v e r s , b u t i n t o c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c a n b e v a l i d a t e d b y t h e a c t o r h i m s e l f . ^ I d e a l t y p e c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s a n a t t e m p t t o b r i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e , t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e , a n d y e t a l l o w a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b y o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r s . A n i d e a l t y p e i s c o n s t r u c t e d b y u n c o v e r i n g t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n i t s t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s ( i . e . i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s ) s h a r e d b y t e a c h e r s . T h i s s e r v e s t o u n c o v e r s o m e a s p e c t o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d ( e . g . c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e ) w h i c h o r d i n a r i l y i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , a n d t o r e c o n s t r u c t i t i n a c o n c e p t u a l s c h e m e t h a t h o l d s m e a n i n g f o r b o t h t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e o b s e r v e r . W h e n b u i l d i n g a n i d e a l t y p e , a r e s e a r c h e r i s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o f o r m a c o n c e p t o f i t . H e n c e t h e i d e a l t y p e c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d a h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e i n q u e s t i o n . A n i d e a l t y p e i s a d e q u a t e i f i t m a k e s e x p l i c i t w h a t f o r m e r l y w a s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d b y b o t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e o b s e r v e r . T h e t e a c h e r c a n r e c o g n i z e i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e i d e a l t y p e t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h d e s c r i b e h e r e x p e r i e n c e . T h e o b s e r v e r d e s c r i b e s t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n a w a y t h a t i s m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e t e a c h e r a n d t o o t h e r o b s e r v e r s . 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 1. C u r r i c u l u m C h a n g e - T h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e ( e . g . g o a l s , m a t e r i a l s , s t r a t e g i e s , a n d / o r a s s u m p t i o n s ) i n t e r m s o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s n e w t o t h e t e a c h e r s . 2. I d e a l - T y p e - T h e t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e . 3. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n - P u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e a c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e . 4. M e a n i n g - A n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e f l e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r o w n e x p e r i e n c e . 5. S t r u c t u r e s - T h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o r k e y e l e m e n t s o f s o m e e x p e r i e n c e s h a r e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s . M e t h o d T h e s t u d y t o o k t w o c o n c u r r e n t a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e f i r s t i n v o l v e d a r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e ; t h e o t h e r , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s w h o w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e . F r o m t h e s e t w o a p p r o a c h e s a n i d e a l t y p e o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f " l i f e - w o r l d " w a s c o n d u c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s t u d y . A p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f l i t e r a t u r e w a s t h e w o r k o f A l f r e d S c h u t z . H i s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e e x p l i c a t e s t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f o u r " l i f e - w o r l d " a n d w a s u s e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d o f 7 classroom l i f e e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s . 7 Secondary sources of l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e d w r i t i n g s by some of the e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s who have a p p l i e d A l f r e d Schutz to un d e r s t a n d i n g c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e and change, a r t i c l e s r e l a t e d to i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and m a t e r i a l e x p l i c a t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methodology. In Chapter I I , some of the e x p e r i e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s of the " l i f e - w o r l d " have been r e l a t e d to as p e c t s of cl a s s r o o m l i f e and c u r r i c u l u m change. These s t r u c t u r e s were used as one b a s i s f o r g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s (Appendix B) and f o r a n a l y z i n g i n t e r v i e w data (Chapter I I I ) . I n t e r v i e w - Sample Twenty t e a c h e r s , from f i f t e e n s c h o o l s (seven t e a c h e r s from each o f two s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g and s i x from one d i s t r i c t f o r a f i n a l v a l i d i t y check) were i d e n t i f i e d by f o u r s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l . They were s e l e c t e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. W i l l i n g n e s s to share e x p e r i e n c e s openly and f r e e l y . 2. A b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t e a s i l y upon e x p e r i e n c e s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and past e x p e r i e n c e s . 3. A l l t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study were: a) primary grade t e a c h e r s , and were b) implementing Ginn 720 d u r i n g the 1979-80 s c h o o l year. I n t e r v i e w Procedure 1. An i n t e r v i e w ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y minutes) was 8 conducted w i t h each of f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r own s c h o o l . I n t e r v i e w s were taped and t r a n s c r i b e d . A l l names (e.g. t e a c h e r s , o t h e r p e r s o n n e l , s c h o o l and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ) were d e l e t e d from the t r a n s c r i p t s . A sample of one of the f o u r t e e n t r a n s c r i p t s appears i n Appendix E. 2 . The r e s e a r c h e r read each t r a n s c r i p t and noted p a r t s where meanings of statements were not c l e a r t o her. 3. At a second meeting between the r e s e a r c h e r and each of the f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s , i n t h e i r own s c h o o l s , each t r a n s c r i p t was reviewed f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of meaning. Teachers o c c a s i o n a l l y e l a b o r a t e d upon t h e i r o r i g i n a l comments. These statements were r e c o r d e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . These v i s i t s averaged f o r t y - f i v e minutes i n d u r a t i o n . 4 . F o l l o w i n g an i n i t i a l t r a n s c r i p t a n a l y s i s , the r e s e a r c h e r showed each of the f o u r t e e n t e a c h e r s the f i r s t t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t emerged (Appendix C ) , and asked each of them to v a l i d a t e these s t r u c t u r e s i n terms of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . These v i s i t s averaged t h i r t y minutes i n d u r a t i o n . 5 . S i x t e a c h e r s who were not i n i t i a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d (but s t i l l p a r t of the study sample) a l s o were asked to v a l i d a t e the t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o u t l i n e d i n Procedure 4 . Comments from the twenty t e a c h e r s were recorded on a summary sheet (Appendix D). 6. A l l t r a n s c r i p t s and summary sheets were coded to ensure anonymity ( I : d i s t r i c t ; A: s c h o o l ; 1: t e a c h e r ) . 9 U t t e r a n c e s i n each t r a n s c r i p t were numbered s e q u e n t i a l l y . The i n t e r v i e w e r ( I ) and i n t e r v i e w e e (R) were d e s i g n a t e d b e f o r e each u t t e r a n c e . I n t e r v i e w Instrument and P i l o t The i n s t r u m e n t used f o r the i n t e r v i e w s was 'The Open-Ended I n t e r v i e w Schedule' (Appendix B). A p i l o t of the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s was conducted to r e f i n e q u e s t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w i n g procedures t h a t would comprise the f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . The t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n the p i l o t were not p a r t of the study sample, but each was implementing Ginn 720. These thr e e i n t e r v i e w s a l l o w e d f o r a p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s s i n g of the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s , i n orde r to c r e a t e a schedule t h a t would be r e l e v a n t to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study. The procedure f o l l o w e d was: 1. Two elementary s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s were asked by the r e s e a r c h e r to suggest some g e n e r a l f a c i l i t a t i n g q u e s t i o n s they would use i n o r d e r to h e l p a c l i e n t r e f l e c t upon and t a l k about h i s / h e r e x p e r i e n c e s . These q u e s t i o n s were c l u s t e r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r as they r e l a t e d to implementation s t r u c t u r e s c i t e d i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . 2. Using the s e t of g e n e r a l f a c i l i t a t i n g q u e s t i o n s , one tea c h e r implementing Ginn 720, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a taped i n t e r v i e w w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r . The i n t e r v i e w was c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n tone i n order to generate e x p e r i e n c e s of the i n t e r v i e w e e . The tape was reviewed w i t h the tea c h e r f o r any a d d i t i o n a l comments. 10 The schedule was r e v i s e d and r e f i n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r based on these comments. 3. Using the r e v i s e d schedule the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d a second person a l s o e x p e r i e n c i n g the same change. The procedure f o r r e v i e w i n g the tape used w i t h the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w e e was u t i l i z e d . A g a i n , a p p r o p r i a t e changes were made. 4. The changed i n t e r v i e w schedule was used w i t h a t h i r d person. C l a r i t y of q u e s t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r and i n t e r v i e w e e f o l l o w i n g a review of the tape. R e v i s i o n s were made f o r c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n of wording. The f i n a l i n t e r v i e w schedule and a l e t t e r of i n t e n t (Appendices A and B) were ma i l e d to each of the f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i e w e e s t o a l l o w time p r i o r to the i n t e r v i e w f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to r e f l e c t on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . Any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c l a r i t y of the schedule were answered by the i n t e r v i e w e r p r i o r to the taped i n t e r v i e w . The i n t e n t of the i n t e r v i e w schedule was to generate d i s c u s s i o n of the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m change. Because of t h a t i n t e n t , the q u e s t i o n s were l e f t open-ended. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e was to f a c i l i t a t e the d i s c u s s i o n , keeping i n mind t h a t i t was the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s along w i t h t h e i r meanings t h a t were to be d i s c l o s e d . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t her 11 p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s about c u r r i c u l u m change may i n t e r f e r e w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . In orde r to overcome these p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t r a c t i n g f a c t o r s , two procedures were f o l l o w e d : 1. The r e s e a r c h e r set down some p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s and assumptions about c u r r i c u l u m change (These are r e p o r t e d i n Assumptions), and 2 . the r e s e a r c h e r used i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e s t h a t would check i n t e r v i e w e e s ' meanings of stat e m e n t s . During i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s , i t became the r e s e a r c h e r ' s p r a c t i c e : a. to ask f o r e l a b o r a t i o n o f comments l a c k i n g i n d e t a i l , and b. to ask f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of ambiguous comments to ensure the r e s e a r c h e r understood the i n t e r v i e w e e ' s meaning i n h e r e n t i n the comment. The r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s have been e l a b o r a t e d i n Appendix F. Data A n a l y s i s A n a l y s i s of data a c t u a l l y began when the r e s e a r c h e r reviewed the t r a n s c r i p t s d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g a l l v i s i t a t i o n s : 1. Each t r a n s c r i p t was reviewed w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of stat e m e n t s . A d d i t i o n a l comments made by the i n t e r v i e w e e were r e c o r d e d by the r e s e a r c h e r i n note form on the t r a n s c r i p t s . 12 2. A n a l y s i s of p a t t e r n s or c o m m o n a l i t i e s emerging from the t r a n s c r i p t s was made by the r e s e a r c h e r . To a r r i v e at these c o m m o n a l i t i e s , the r e s e a r c h e r t h o r o u g h l y read and r e r e a d i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s c r i p t s . For each t r a n s c r i p t , segments of the c o n v e r s a t i o n were summarized by the r e s e a r c h e r i n terms of how the i n t e r v i e w e e had e x p e r i e n c e d the change. For example: 198 R But i t ' s worth i t when we both f e e l t h a t , t h a t i t ' s a program 199 I Uh um, yes 200 R t h a t ' s working f o r the k i d s . IIB1 Researcher's summary: " C h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i n f l u e n c e d f e e l i n g s about the change" (198-200 I I B 1 ) . Once the t r a n s c r i p t s had been an a l y z e d i n terms of summary st a t e m e n t s , the r e s e a r c h e r c l u s t e r e d these statements f o r commonality of c o n t e n t . 3. These com m o n a l i t i e s were c l u s t e r e d i n t o s i x i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e s : t i m e , l e a r n i n g , t a l k , s u p p o r t , a d a p t a t i o n , and b e l i e f s . T h i s p r o v i d e d a c l a s s i f i c i a t i o n scheme f o r v a l i d a t i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r s (Appendix C). 4. These i n i t i a l s i x s t r u c t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m change were d i s c u s s e d w i t h each of the f o u r t e e n i n t e r v i e w e e s f o r v a l i d a t i o n (Appendices C and D). 5. S i x t e a c h e r s who were not i n t i t i a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d , a l s o reviewed the s i x s t r u c t u r e s f o r v a l i d a t i o n , and t h e i r r e a c t i o n s were recorded (Appendices C and D). A l l twenty p a r t i c i p a n t s v a l i d a t e d these s t r u c t u r e s as being t y p i c a l of t h e i r change e x p e r i e n c e . 13 6. F o l l o w i n g f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s c r i p t s , the i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e s were combined i n t o t h r e e s t r u c t u r e s of change to p r o v i d e f o r c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y and p o r t r a y a l . The s t r u c t u r e s of ' b e l i e f , ' s u p p o r t ' , and ' t a l k ' were d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y under the t i t l e ' i n f l u e n c e s ' t h a t shaped the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e of change. Because of o v e r l a p , the s t r u c t u r e s of ' l e a r n i n g ' and ' a d a p t a t i o n ' were combined as the ' a c t u a l use' of the c u r r i c u l u m ; however, because of the impact t h a t s t u d e n t s had upon the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e , i t was se p a r a t e d from ' a c t u a l use' and i n c l u d e d under the s t r u c t u r e ' i n f l u e n c e s ' as ' i n - c l a s s v a l i d a t i o n ' . 'Time* remained as i n the i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Assumptions The t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study were e x p e r i e n t i a l l y c l o s e t o the r e s e a r c h e r . Although not f a c e - t o - f a c e c o l l e a g u e s , they c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d peers because they shared many un d e r s t a n d i n g s about c l a s s r o o m l i f e . However, the r e s e a r c h e r had no ex p e r i e n c e implementing Ginn 720, and al t h o u g h she c o u l d a n t i c i p a t e what t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s might be, she had no f i r s t hand knowledge. Keeping i n mind t h a t her b e l i e f s and assumptions would i n f l u e n c e i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t making e x p l i c i t some o f these assumptions would h e l p her to focus on the i n t e r v i e w e e ' s b e l i e f s and e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than her own. The f o l l o w i n g assumptions about c u r r i c u l u m change were h e l d p r i o r to c o n t a c t w i t h the study's p a r t i c i p a n t s : 14 C u r r i c u l u m change depends upon how the t e a c h e r "sees" the program. e.g. t e a c h e r b e l i e f s about g o a l s , approaches t o t e a c h i n g , and how c h i l d r e n should l e a r n , w i l l i n f l u e n c e the change e x p e r i e n c e . Teachers are r e l u c t a n t to adopt a new program t h a t they don't und e r s t a n d . ^ Change w i l l be d i f f i c u l t w i t h o u t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t . 9 The c u r r i c u l u m and t e a c h e r p r a c t i c e s w i l l be Q changed d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Teachers need time to become f a m i l i a r w i t h and work w i t h a new c u r r i c u l u m . 9 Teachers are i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r peer's f e e l i n g s about the change. ^ (") 1 5 F o o t n o t e s 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h , C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g ( V i c t o r i a : P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 2 2 . 2 i b i d . , p . 4 . 3 i b i d . , p . 4 4 S . L o u c k s , a n d H . P r a t t , " A C o n c e r n s - B a s e d A p p r o a c h t o C u r r i c u l u m C h a n g e , " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 3 7 , N o . 3 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 2 1 4 . 5 A . S c h u t z , C o l l e c t e d - P a p e r s - I I ( T h e H a g u e : M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 8 5 . 6 W . W e r n e r , " A S t u d y o f P e r s p e c t i v e i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s " , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 7 , p p . 3 4 - 3 5 . 7 T h e l i f e - w o r l d s t r u c t u r e s e x p l i c a t e d b y A l f r e d S c h u t z d e f i n e h o w w e e x p e r i e n c e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l a s p e c t o f e v e r y d a y l i f e ( i n t h i s c a s e , t h e p r o c e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e ) w a s t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y , S c h u t z ' s " l i f e - w o r l d " s t r u c t u r e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k . 8 W . W e r n e r , " I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " T h e R o l e . o f B e l i e f " , i n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n V i e w p o i n t s , e d s . M . D a n i e l s a n d I . W r i g h t . ( V a n c o u v e r : C e T n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 5 4 - 6 7 . 9 M . F u l l a n a n d A . P o m f r e t , " R e s e a r c h o n C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " , R e v i e w  o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 4 7 , N o . 1 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 3 3 5 - 3 9 7 . 1 ° T h i s a s s u m p t i o n w a s b a s e d o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e o v e r t h e y e a r s w i t h *• c o l l e a g u e s . T a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e p a s t i n f l u e n c e d t o s o m e e x t e n t , h o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r a p p r o a c h e d h e r c l a s s r o o m t a s k s . 1 6 Chapter I I EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE AND CURRICULUM CHANGE The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m i n v o l v e s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of what i s u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n the cl a s s r o o m . Whether a change of m a t e r i a l s , a d i f f e r e n t s e t of g o a l s , or some new t e a c h i n g methodology, the c u r r i c u l u m i n t r o d u c e s something i n t o t h a t s e t t i n g which i s not yet a par t of the members' u s u a l ways o f going about t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . For the c u r r i c u l u m to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the c l a s s r o o m , a p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g about the c u r r i c u l u m and bei n g a b l e to use i t i s i m p l i e d . The nature o f t h i s p rocess depends upon what c h a r a c t e r i z e d classroom l i f e b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of the new c u r r i c u l u m , how i t i s i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d , and what subsequent events u n f o l d as the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n about i t . In essence, implementation i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s of a c q u i r i n g knowledge t h a t o c c u r s over a p e r i o d of time as the s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r use the new c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e i r c l a s s room s e t t i n g . C e n t r a l t o t h i s p rocess i s the t e a c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e of change w i t h i n the c l a s s r o o m . To e x p l i c a t e a s p e c t s of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s c h a p t e r r e l a t e s some of the e x p e r i e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the " l i f e w o r l d " d e f i n e d i n the phenomenological s o c i o l o g y of A l f r e d Schutz to f e a t u r e s of classroom l i f e . The reader should note, however, t h a t 17 Schutz's t e c h n i c a l language i s not used i n t h i s c h a p t e r , nor i s h i s comprehensive theory of the l i f e - w o r l d summarized. R a t h e r j an a c c o u n t i n g of r o u t i n e classroom l i f e and the e x p e r i e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m change are b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d as a background f o r Chapter I I I . R o u t i n e s : T h e E v e r y d a y W o r l d a n d C l a s s r o o m L i f e Everyday l i f e i s a taken f o r granted r e a l i t y . We act on a v a r i e t y of common sense assumptions t h a t our knowledge w i l l p ermit our a c t i o n s , and i n t u r n , our a c t i o n s w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our i n t e n t s . In the c l a s s r o o m , f o r i n s t a n c e , the t e a c h e r assumes t h a t when she t e l l s the c l a s s t h a t i t i s time f o r r e a d i n g , the b u s i n e s s of "doing r e a d i n g " can be e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out. I t i s assumed t h a t s t u d e n t s and te a c h e r know which m a t e r i a l s are needed and how they w i l l d e a l w i t h them. There i s an under-s t a n d i n g of how a c t i v i t i e s are t o be conducted: what to do du r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , where to s i t , how to respond to q u e s t i o n s and r e l a t e to o t h e r s , and how to o r g a n i z e time. Everyone possesses the knowledge t h a t a l l o w s c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s to remain unquestioned, and they have the competence to engage i n "b u s i n e s s as u s u a l " . The l e s s o n flows today i n much the same way i t d i d y e s t e r d a y , and everyone assumes f o r the p r e s e n t , t h a t t h i s w i l l c o n t i n u e . Only as a problem a r i s e s , when something does not " f i t " , do the te a c h e r and s t u d e n t s suspend t h e i r common sense ways of a c t i n g . What has been un q u e s t i o n e d , now becomes p r o b l e m a t i c , and t h e i r everyday r o u t i n e i s 18 stopped. For example, the t e a c h e r may have found t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r approach i s not w orking, and t h a t s t u d e n t s are not responding as they u s u a l l y do. The r e a d i n g l e s s o n "as u s u a l " i s i n t e r r u p t e d as the t e a c h e r and her s t u d e n t s f i n d a way to r e s o l v e the problem and r e t u r n to what becomes a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d r o u t i n e i n the b u s i n e s s of "doing r e a d i n g " . I l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s example i s the p e r v a s i v e n e s s of what Schutz c a l l s "the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " i n everyday l i f e . In the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e i t s u f f i c e s t h a t our knowledge of o b j e c t s or events p e r m i t s our a c t i o n s ; i t has i n the past and we assume i t w i l l c o n t i n u e i n the f u t u r e . T h i s a t t i t u d e g i v e s us pragmatic competence i n everyday l i f e and i s fundamental to a c t i o n . B u s i n e s s as u s u a l depends upon our a b i l i t y to act i n the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e , or when t h a t i s d i s r u p t e d , to e f f e c t i v e l y engage i n a p r o c e s s of i n q u i r y so t h a t r o u t i n e can once again be resumed. C e n t r a l to the " n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " i s the "everyday knowledge" or the " s t o c k of knowledge at hand" t h a t p e r m i t s a c t i o n i n everyday l i f e . To c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h i s knowledge i n i t s r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l a c t i o n , we can c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : what i s everyday knowledge?, how i s i t a c q u i r e d ? , and how i s i t v a l i d a t e d ? Knowledge of our everyday w o r l d i s the meaning we g i v e to an unbroken stream of l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s the a c c u m u l a t i o n of these meanings in' the form of b e l i e f s , r e c i p e s and t y p i f i c a t i o n s t h a t serve as a r e f e r e n t f o r a c t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n of our s i t u a t i o n . In p a r t , i t i s pre-determined by our 1 9 h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l l o c a t i o n , but a l s o i s c o n s t a n t l y shaped and i n f l u e n c e d i n our ongoing e x p e r i e n c e and thereby becomes the v e h i c l e f o r competent s o c i a l a c t i o n . I t i s the n o t i o n o f competency t h a t a l l o w s r o u t i n e s or everyday a c t i v i t i e s to proceed, f o r so long as we can operate e f f e c t i v e l y i n our everyday w o r l d , our knowledge i s adequate. In our example of the r e a d i n g l e s s o n , the t e a c h e r ' s knowledge of "doing r e a d i n g " has p a r t i c u l a r meaning f o r her. As a c h i l d , she was a s t u d e n t i n r e a d i n g c l a s s e s , and d u r i n g t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g she had e x p e r i e n c e s a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s knowledge. Now she i s i n v o l v e d d a i l y w i t h her s t u d e n t s and o t h e r t e a c h e r s . Her b e l i e f s and r e c i p e s f o r a c t i o n are i n f l u e n c e d by her p a s t , p r e s e n t and p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e . This knowledge a l l o w s her to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t of "doing r e a d i n g " i n the c l a s s r o o m , and to i n t e r p r e t emergent e x p e r i e n c e s u s i n g t h i s a c c u m u l a t i o n of knowledge at hand. I f a s t u d e n t has a p a r t i c u l a r problem, she knows t h a t she can f o l l o w c e r t a i n procedures i n o r d e r to h e l p . She r e c o g n i z e s something f a m i l i a r and i s a b l e to r e l a t e t h i s to past e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s i m i l a r problems, and assumes t h a t the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n can be handled i n a s i m i l a r way. What i s r e l e v a n t to her i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be attended to w i t h her p r e s e n t knowledge. She i s a b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e t h a t when a student demonstrates these t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r s , these p a r t i c u l a r procedures w i l l remedy the d i f f i c u l t y . She has a t y p i f i c a t i o n f o r h a n d l i n g the s i t u a t i o n . So long as 2 0 t h i s and o t h e r knowledge p e r m i t s her to "do r e a d i n g " i n a r o u t i n e way, her knowledge i s adequate f o r purposes at hand. As her i n t e r e s t s h i f t s d u r i n g d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , a s p e c t s o f her accumulated knowledge emerge as i m p o r t a n t . Another primary v e h i c l e f o r v a l i d a t i o n of knowledge of the s o c i a l w o r l d i n v o l v e s our i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r people, what Schutz c a l l s " i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y " . Through shared e x p e r i e n c e and r e c i p r o c a l a c t s we l e a r n what i s adquate f o r our a c t i o n i n d a i l y l i f e , and what i s a l s o adequate f o r one another. C o n s i d e r , once more, the student who has shown d i f f i c u l t y w i t h r e a d i n g comprehension. The t e a c h e r draws upon her accumulated knowledge to approach the s i t u a t i o n and to judge whether her a c t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e . What she knows about s u c c e s s f u l r e a d i n g comprehension and how t h i s student responds i n d i c a t e s to her success i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . I f the student shows he has comprehended the passage, the t e a c h e r can see her act as s u c c e s s f u l ; what t r a n s p i r e d between t h i s student and t e a c h e r was a v a l i d a t i o n of her knowledge. F u r t h e r , she may share t h i s e pisode w i t h a f e l l o w t e a c h e r and d i s c o v e r t h a t her c o l l e a g u e t o o , has had success w i t h t h a t approach. She may a l s o d i s c u s s her e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a c o n s u l t a n t , who i n t u r n , may c o n f i r m the success by r e l a t i n g i t to i n s t r u c t i o n a l t h e o r y . These i n t e r a c t i o n s a f f i r m the v a l i d i t y o f the t e a c h e r ' s knowledge of "doing r e a d i n g " ^ Through such a c q u i r i n g and v a l i d a t i n g knowledge, the t e a c h e r develops an o r i e n t a t i o n to "doing r e a d i n g " t h a t becomes r o u t i n e . 21 Change:- M a k i n g - F a m i l i a r - W h a t - I s - S t r a n g e I n t r o d u c i n g a new c u r r i c u l u m i n t o the cl a s s r o o m p r o v i d e s an example where something s t r a n g e has yet to be made f a m i l i a r by the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s e t t i n g . The new c u r r i c u l u m by i t s mere e n t r y i n f l u e n c e s the r o u t i n e s i n th a t c l a s s . As when a new student comes to s c h o o l , the a l r e a d y p r e s e n t members must a d j u s t i n some measure i f only to accommodate one more person i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r space. The s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r wonder what i t w i l l be l i k e when the new member a r r i v e s . ' W i l l he be l i k e the r e s t of us? W i l l he be a b l e to get along? Where w i l l he s i t ? What w i l l happen i f we don't l i k e him? A l l these a n t i c i p a t i o n s run through the thoughts of c l a s s members and r e f l e c t what they a l r e a d y know about "new members j o i n i n g c l a s s e s " and "being a member o f t h i s c l a s s " . T h e i r knowledge o f " t h i s " new s t u d e n t , at t h i s t i m e , i s merely knowledge t h a t c o u l d apply to "any" new s t u d e n t . Because he i s not p r e s e n t l y r e a l , he can o n l y be known i n a' t y p i f i e d way. At the time the new student a r r i v e s , t h e r e begins the face to face encounters t h a t permit the pre s e n t c l a s s members and the newcomer to become a c q u a i n t e d i n a more f u l l y r e a l way. At f i r s t , however, a l l t h a t anyone knows i s what they b e l i e v e w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . Both the newcomer and the a l r e a d y p r e s e n t members are s t r a n g e r s i n the emergent s i t u a t i o n . Whether or not t h e i r a n t i c i p a t i o n s are v a l i d a t e d w i l l depend on what t r a n s p i r e s 2 2 between the a c t o r s . Each w i l l p r e s e n t h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g to how he "sees" the s i t u a t i o n . What the c l a s s members a n t i c i p a t e d about the new stude n t b e f o r e h i s a r r i v a l w i l l be v a l i d a t e d or changed by the day to day e x p e r i e n c e s they share a f t e r he e n t e r s the c l a s s . The c h a r a c t e r of t h i s v a l i d a t i o n or change g r e a t l y depends upon what t r a n s p i r e s between the a c t o r s . On the one hand, the new student may f i t r i g h t i n because h i s ways c o i n c i d e w i t h o t h e r s i n the c l a s s ; b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s are not d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d . On the o t h e r hand, c o n s i d e r a b l y more n e g o t i a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e he becomes an " u n n o t i c e d " i . e . p a r t of e s t a b l i s h e d or m o d i f i e d r o u t i n e s and accepted member of the c l a s s . He may need s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n t e a c h i n g , or he may get i n v o l v e d i n classroom s t r u g g l e s . R e g a r d l e s s of the c o m p l e x i t y or d u r a t i o n of such n e g o t i a t i o n s , w i t h a l l the emergent problems, the process w i l l shape the c l a s s r o o m r e a l i t y w h i l e the "newcomer" i s becoming an accepted member. This analogy i l l u s t r a t e s how a c u r r i c u l u m as "newcomer" becomes p a r t of everyday c l a s s r o o m l i f e . C o n sider the p e r s p e c t i v e of the t e a c h e r becoming a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the new c u r r i c u l u m . Charged w i t h the task of i n s t r u c t i o n , she a n t i c i p a t e s what i t w i l l be l i k e to use the c u r r i c u l u m i n the c l a s s r o o m . She hears from c o l l e a g u e s or d e v e l o p e r s about the c u r r i c u l u m , but as wit h the new s t u d e n t , these f i r s t a c q u a i n t a n c e s are not f u l l y r e a l i n the sense of i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m i n d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . The teacher has knowledge from p r e v i o u s 2 3 e x p e r i e n c e s of " c u r r i c u l u m " and " i n t r o d u c i n g new c u r r i c u l a " , and f o r the time being would l i k e l y "see" the c u r r i c u l u m from t h i s t y p i f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e . As the t e a c h e r begins t o p l a n f o r t e a c h i n g , she s t a r t s a process of more i n t i m a t e a c q u a i n t a n c e . She reviews the new m a t e r i a l s or p l a n s l e s s o n s a c c o r d i n g to how she "sees" the c u r r i c u l u m r e l a t i n g t o what she "knows" about c l a s s r o o m l i f e . Her b e l i e f s about i n s t r u c t i o n and her r e c i p e s f o r a c t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m mediate t h i s p l a n n i n g . Even when a n t i c i p a t i n g how l e s s o n s w i l l proceed, she r e f l e c t s back on l e s s o n s a l r e a d y t a u g h t ; i n i t i a l l y the past i s the t e a c h e r ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e . During i n i t i a l c l a s s r o o m t r i a l s , a s p e c t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m may be very much l i k e what has happened i n the p a s t . That i s , knowledge t h a t has proved v a l i d may s t i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e , but o n l y through t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s w i l l t h i s become e v i d e n t to the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s . As they use p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m , they are i n the pr o c e s s of r e - v a l i d a t i n g t h e i r knowledge. But as soon as some-t h i n g does not " f i t " , a gain t h e . t e a c h e r r e f l e c t s back on p r e v i o u s s o l u t i o n s , l o o k i n g f o r something f a m i l i a r , and t r y i n g to use what was f o r m e r l y s u c c e s s f u l . However, i f something about the new s i t u a t i o n i s so s t r a n g e t h a t present knowledge f a i l s t o be adequate when a c t u a l l y brought i n t o p r a c t i c e , the t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e s a k i n d of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n because her u s u a l way of "doing r e a d i n g " i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n does not work. Her i n t e r e s t then s h i f t s t o a pr o c e s s o f i n q u i r y . She has to a c q u i r e new knowledge 2 4 through a process of v a l i d a t i o n i n orde r to have the competence f o r "b u s i n e s s as u s u a l " to be resumed. What does not " f i t " c o n t i n u e s to be a p a r t of t h e i r i n q u i r y process and c o n t i n u e s u n t i l once a g a i n " b u s i n e s s as u s u a l " resumes w i t h the new c u r r i c u l u m . In summary, classroom l i f e i s o r g a n i z e d around taken f o r granted knowledge, i n c l u d i n g r e c i p e s f o r a c t i o n , t y p i f i c a t i o n s about c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s , and b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g o f s u b j e c t matter. As long as t h i s knowledge remains u n q u e s t i o n e d , • classroom l i f e i s e x p e r i e n c e d as r o u t i n e . With the implementation of a new c u r r i c u l u m , much of t h i s know-ledge can no l o n g e r be taken f o r g r a n t e d . I t must be r e - v a l i d a t e d or changed f o r cla s s r o o m l i f e to be e x p e r i e n c e d , once a g a i n , i n r o u t i n e ways. Chapter I I I examines some of the f e a t u r e s of e x p e r i e n c e d change when a new c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t r o d u c e d and used. 2 5 Chapter I I I AN IDEAL TYPE The task of t h i s study was to determine what are the t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of c u r r i c u l u m change. To do t h i s , the r e s e a r c h e r asked how c u r r i c u l u m change was e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s , and what were the c o m m o n a l i t i e s u n d e r l y i n g these e x p e r i e n c e s . Data on these e x p e r i e n c e s were gathered through i n t e r v i e w s , and subsequent t r a n s c r i p t a n a l y s i s determined the c o m m o n a l i t i e s of the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . These c o m m o n a l i t i e s were r e f i n e d i n terms of an i d e a l type. T h i s i d e a l t y p e , comprised of t h r e e s t r u c t u r e s , i s presented i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Teachers e x p e r i e n c e d change p r i m a r i l y i n terms of ' a c t u a l use', 'time', and ' i n f l u e n c e s ' . Each of these s t r u c t u r e s was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d to show how t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of the change ( F i g u r e 1 ) . These three s t r u c t u r e s were not always d i s c r e t e i n the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . Some t e a c h e r s h i g h l i g h t e d one s t r u c t u r e over another and i n v a r y i n g degrees, because t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s of change d i f f e r e d . However, f o r purposes of a n a l y s i s , a l l of the t r a n s c r i p t s were t r e a t e d t o g e t h e r i n the development of an i d e a l type whose thre e s t r u c t u r e s are meant to p o r t r a y the c o l l e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . There i s o v e r l a p among the s t r u c t u r e s , and d i s c u s s i o n of them does r e t a i n some of t h i s . 2 6 E a c h o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h s e l e c t e d q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w t r a n s c r i p t s . T h e s e q u o t a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r a s e n s e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c h a n g e r e p o r t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s , a n d t o l e n d v a l i d i t y t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 1 . 0 A C T U A L U S E e x p e r i e n c e d a s : 1 . 1 F o l l o w i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m C l o s e l y 1 . 2 M a k i n g S e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e C u r r i c u l u m 2 . 0 T I M E e x p e r i e n c e d a s : 2 . 1 A n t i c i p a t o r y T i m e 2 . 2 T r i a l T i m e 2 . 3 N o r m a l T i m e - 3 . 0 I N F L U E N C E S e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h : 3 . 1 B e l i e f s 3 . 2 T a l k 3 . 3 S u p p o r t 3 . 4 I n - c l a s s V a l i d a t i o n F i g u r e 1 S t r u c t u r e s o f E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m C h a n g e 1 . 0 A c t u a l • U s e E x p e r i e n c e o f c h a n g e w a s a f f e c t e d b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y s t a r t e d t o u s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m . A c t u a l u s e w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a n i n i t i a l u n c e r t a i n t y , a n d a n a t t e m p t t o m a k e t h e c u r r i c u l u m p a r t t h e t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e o n c e a g a i n . 2 7 Teachers t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s a c t u a l use i n one of two ways. Some t e a c h e r s t r i e d t o f o l l o w the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y r i g h t from the very b e g i n n i n g ; o t h e r t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m f o r use, thereby s t a y i n g c l o s e r t o t h e i r accustomed p r a c t i c e . F o l l o w i n g the C u r r i c u l u m C l o s e l y Some t e a c h e r s t r i e d to use the c u r r i c u l u m by s e t t i n g a s i d e much of t h e i r p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e , and f o l l o w i n g the p r a c t i c e suggested by the new c u r r i c u l u m . Reasons were g i v e n by these t e a c h e r s f o r c hoosing t o f o l l o w the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g . F i r s t because of i n i t i a l u n c e r t a i n t y about the c u r r i c u l u m ' s u t i l i t y , and u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t s i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e , some t e a c h e r s decided to stay c l o s e t o the t e a c h i n g guide and m a t e r i a l s . 82 R Nobody r e a l l y — t e r r i b l y seemed to know -- um where' they were going w i t h Ginn i n i t i a l l y and t h e r e ' s even -- you know t h e r e j u s t wasn't enough i n s e r v i c e and I don't even know t h a t i n s e r v i c e would have been h e l p f u l , I don't t h i n k you r e a l l y know how you're going to use the program u n t i l you get i n t o i t . IA3 133 I What happened when you had to use t h i s new approach? 134 R I had to at f i r s t s t i c k very c l o s e to the guidebook 135 I Uh um 136 R i n terms of how t o i n t r o d u c e a word, because I found m y s e l f , even though the guidebook s a i d um d i s c u s s the p i c t u r e , t e l l them t h i s i s B i l l , I found myself s t i l l wanting t o go B - i l l w i t h them. 137 I How d i d you overcome t h i s ? 138 R I j u s t had to keep at the guidebook, and keep approaching i t from t h a t way 139 I Um um 28 140 R I t d i d n ' t take too l o n g , a f t e r you c o u l d see the k i d s read a sentence w i t h ease, you knew t h a t i t was going to be okay. IIB1 303 R [At the b e g i n n i n g ] you know you want to do a good j o b and you lo o k at i t a l l and i t s l i k e a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r 304 I Uh um 305 R and you t h i n k , I must do e v e r y t h i n g , every page and make sure t h a t they have been covered t h r o u g h l y 306 I Uh um 307 R and then", when you get more c o n f i d e n c e and you f i g u r e w e l l the c h i l d has a good knowledge o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r v o c a b u l a r y , I don't f e e l t h i s page i s n e c e s s a r y . IIB2 68 I So, are you s a y i n g t h a t you're not supplementing them w i t h an e x t r a phonics program, you're s t i c k i n g p r e t t y c l o s e t o t h i s one. 69 R I'm u s i n g the one i n the Ginn, yes 70 I Uh um 71 R where they do Phonics b a s i c s 72 I Uh um 73 R so they do a t , and 74 I Uh um 75 R and I'm and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , and I f i n d t h a t very c o n f u s i n g , I found t h a t very c o n f u s i n g at the Grade l ' s and maybe i t ' s because i t was my f i r s t year t e a c h i n g i t and maybe i t w i l l be much b e t t e r next y e a r . I may I may get b e t t e r r e s u l t s . I C I Second, t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y because they f e l t t h a t as they were thorough w i t h i t , the c u r r i c u l u m would be g i v e n a f a i r chance. These f e e l i n g s were expressed i n terms o f a committment t o t r y i n g out and ex p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h the new program, o r an assumption t h a t i t s d e v e l o p e r s had l e g i t i m a t e knowledge of how the c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be tau g h t . 2 9 2 2 I W h a t w a s i t l i k e w h e n y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d u s i n g i t i n t h e F a l l ? 2 3 R W e l l , i t w a s d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e - - I w a s n ' t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . I h a d t o k e e p d i p p i n g i n t o t h e g u i d e b o o k s b e c a u s e i f I w a s g o i n g t o d o i t , I w a n t e d t o d o i t e x a c t l y t h e w a y i t w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e d o n e . 2 4 I U m h u m . H o w d i d y o u f e e l t h a t i t s h o u l d b e d o n e ? A c c o r d i n g t o t h e g u i d e b o o k ? 2 5 R W e l l , u h , I d i d n ' t k n o w t h a t u n t i l , u n t i l I ' v e t a u g h t i t f o r a y e a r a t l e a s t . 2 6 I U h h u m 2 7 R B u t I t h i n k w h e n y o u a r e t r y i n g s o m e t h i n g , y o u s h o u l d t r y a n d d o i t t h e w a y i t ' s s u p p o s e d t o b e t a u g h t — I m e a n b a s i c a l l y , i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r w h a t t h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m i s . I t ' s t h e t e a c h e r t h a t c o u n t s , i s n ' t i t ? I C I 5 2 R I f o u n d w i t h t h e G i n n I s t a r t e d w o r k q u i t e s l o w l y a n d I t h a t I r e a l l y d o n ' t h a v e t h e t i m e - - t o u h d o m y o w n p h o n i c s p r o g r a m a n d d o t h e p h o n i c s t h a t a r e i n t h e g u i d e b o o k a n d g e t t h r o u g h t h e r e a d i n g a n d w i t h t h e m a s t e r y t e s t s t h a t g o a l o n g t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t i n g a n d t h e m a s t e r t e s t t h a t I p r e t t y w e l l h a v e t o s t i c k t o t h e i r p r o g a m . I I s e e . D o y o u f i n d t h i s c o m f o r t a b l e f o r y o u r s e l f ? R W e l l , b e c a u s e i t ' s u h - - b e c a u s e I ' m e x p e r i m e n t i n g I U h u m R t h a t ' s w h a t I ' m d o i n g n o w u h - -a f t e r w h e n I t e a c h t h i s a g a i n n e x t y e a r 5 7 I U h um 5 8 R I m a y m o d i f y i t t h e n . I I C 1 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 2 1 4 R I f e e l t h a t i f y o u ' r e g o i n g t o f o l l o w a a p r o g r a m - - y o u k n o w , t h e o n e s . w h o m a d e i t u p a r e t h e o n e s w h o k n o w , s o 2 1 5 I U h u m 2 1 6 R I ' m w i l l i n g t o g o a l o n g w i t h — w i t h t h e m . I I F 1 30 For the group of t e a c h e r s who chose to f o l l o w the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y , s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s were h i g h l i g h t e d . By f o l l o w i n g the c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d s e c u r i t y and c o n f i d e n c e , a f e e l i n g of bei n g r e s t r i c t e d , or an al l a y m e n t of i n i t i a l a n x i e t i e s as the c u r r i c u l u m d i d not prove to be as burdensome as was a n t i c i p a t e d : 213 R f o r me, i t s g i v e n me um a s e t of t o o l s I guess f o r um something th e r e t h a t uh -- I know t h a t i t ' s g i v e n me c o n f i d e n c e too because I know t h a t uh i f I s t i c k t o t h i s program w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s i n your d a i l y p l a n and you know you don't you're not doing the same t h i n g a l l the tim e , i t ' s g i v e n me the f e e l i n g t h a t once these k i d s get out of Grade 3 or once they get out of L e v e l 9, 8 or 5, 6 w i t h what t h e y ' r e i n now, t h e y ' r e , t h e y ' r e ready f o r the next l e v e 1 . IB2 26 R The t h i n g t h a t I found most l i m i t i n g i n s t a r t i n g a new program i s t h a t you teach the program j u s t as you have to cover the m a t e r i a l 27 I Uh um 28 R and some of the m a t e r i a l t h a t next year I I mean I found r e a l l y b o r i n g but I f e l t o b l i g e d to at l e a s t t r y to use i t or adapt i t . 29 I So t h i s f i r s t time around so to speak you're g e t t i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the m a t e r i a l 30 R Yeah 31 I And k i n d of doing i t the way i t says 32 R Yeah, i t s best you know, and a t the same time I s t i l l supplement i t now you know 33 I Uh um 34 R and u s i n g s o r t s of q u e s t i o n s , t e c h n i q u e s and a v a r i e t y of oth e r t h i n g s t h a t the book IA2 3 1 R . . . a t f i r s t I w a s s o r t o f t h i n k i n g o h d e a r y o u k n o w a l l t h e s e r e c o r d s t h a t I h a v e t o k e e p I h o p e I k e e p t h e m a c c u r a t e l y , I I g u e s s I h a v e t h e s e f e e l i n g s t h a t I h a v e t o r i s e t o c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t o o . U h a c t u a l l y n o w t h a t I I ' m d o i n g t h e m a n d I ' m i n t o i t , I ' m g l a d I . U h u m R t h a t t h e r e c o r d s a r e t h e r e . I I s i t g o i n g m o r e s m o o t h l y n o w t h e n ? R O h y e s , I t h i n k s o , a n d i t ' s n o t a s b i g a j o b a s I t h o u g h t i t w o u l d b e , I t h o u g h t i t w o u l d b e a t e r r i b l y b i g j o b a n d I I r e a l i z e n o w i t ' s n o t t h a t b i g a d e a l . I I t w a s j u s t s o m e t h i n g o f a n u n k n o w n I C 2 A f t e r u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m f o r a w h i l e , t e a c h e r s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f i t , t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g t h e m t o b e m o r e c r e a t i v e a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c w i t h i t . T h e y c o m b i n e d p a r t o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s , i n t e g r a t e d i t w i t h m a t e r i a l s t h e y a l r e a d y h a d , a n d t h e r e b y m a d e t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r L a n g u a g e A r t s . A c r i t i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n s w a s t h e a w a r e n e s s t e a c h e r s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h u s i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m . B y f o l l o w i n g i t c l o s e l y , t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t s o m e p a s t p r a c t i c e s a n d m a t e r i a l s c o u l d b e u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m . 1 7 7 I T h e n a t t h i s s t a g e y o u ' r e k i n d o f g o i n g a l o n g a n d f i n d i n g o u t w h a t i t ' s a l l a b o u t f i r s t . 1 7 8 R W e l l y e s , y o u h a v e t o d o t h e s e t h i n g s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n f i r s t a n d t h e n y o u e v a l u a t e a n d t h e n y o u d e c i d e w h e t h e r u m y o u k n o w s o m e o f t h i s w o r k c a n b e m o d i f i e d . 1 5 4 1 5 5 1 5 6 1 5 7 1 5 8 1 5 9 32 272 R I t h i n k p r o b a b l y next year when I s t a r t the program a f r e s h , I w i l l be you know a l o t more c o m f o r t a b l e i n i t 273 I Uh um so you f e e l t h a t you r e a l l y know what you're doing w i t h i t . 274 R Uh um s o r t of f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the m a t e r i a l and g i v e myself a chance and then s i t back and s t a r t p u l l i n g i n i d e a s t h a t I know have been s u c c e s s f u l and can be u t i l i z e d i n w i t h or along w i t h the program. IA2 162 R I t ' s um I t h i n k when you're, you're going i n t o l e a r n i n g uh maybe 5, 6, 7, 8 about 4 or 5 new readers w i t h i n a y ear's t e a c h i n g -- but i n i t s e l f you know, u n d e r t a k i n g to a s s i m i l a t e b e f o r e you know r e a l l y extend your i d e a s 163 I Uh um 164 R f o r m u l a t e o p i n i o n s , I mean next year I would probably t a c k l e the program d i f f e r e n t l y s t i l l t a k i n g the same m a t e r i a l 165 I In s a y i n g t h a t you'd do i t d i f f e r e n t l y , do you mean t h a t you would extend i t or modify i t ? 166 R I would modify i t and uh maybe arrange s o r t of -- you know the program g i v e s you g u i d e l i n e s how to s t a r t and t h a t w e l l at the moment um I would probably get t o g e t h e r say more work c a r d s t h a t c o u l d do a l o t of my t e a c h i n g . IA2 M a k i n g • S e l e c t i o n s • f r o m • t h e • C u r r i c u l u m Some t e a c h e r s r e t a i n e d , i n l a r g e p a r t , t h e i r p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e and m a t e r i a l s . They d i d not t r y to f o l l o w the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y , but s e l e c t e d p a r t s of i t f o r use. By i n t e r g r a t i n g p a r t s of the c u r r i c u l u m i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e , they i n i t i a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a l e s s abrupt change than those who f o l l o w e d the c u r r i c u l u m more c l o s e l y . 33 I n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s about s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s were based on v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a . F i r s t , t e a c h e r s made s e l e c t i o n s s i m p l y because they l a c k e d knowledge of the new c u r r i c u l u m i n i t s e n t i r e t y , and d e s i r e d to become f a m i l i a r w i t h one aspect of i t at a time 54 R Uh, the guidebook was f i n e , i t was very through, the s k i l p a k , the e x e r c i s e s matched what we were doing w i t h the s t o r i e s p l u s I had made made up my own comprehension q u e s t i o n s 55 I Uh um 56 R I have not gone i n t o the t e s t i n g program 57 I Uh um 58 R as t h o r o u g h l y as I would l i k e to i t ' s i t ' s a l l too much you know I've s o r t of being doing i t step by step on what I c o u l d handle and I haven't got to as many c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s as I would l i k e t o . 59 I ' So what you're s a y i n g then you're s e l e c t i n g a s p e c t s o f the program t h a t you're doing and you f e e l you can handle w i t h your knowledge 60 R Yes 61 I of the program at t h i s time 62 R yes IIB2 199 R I was m i s s i n g t h i n g s out b e f o r e t h a t I'm doing now because o f because o f you know the manuals 200' I Ri g h t 201 R h e l p you, h e l p you to zero i n on t h i n g s t h a t you — you know j u s t d i d n ' t know about b e f o r e . IB2 261 R I t h i n k I t h i n k I'm -- perhaps now us i n g i t a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r and a p p r e c i a t i n g , l i k e i t i s , t h e r e , i t c e r t a i n l y um you know has many new idea s and uh 262 I Uh um 263 R but I I don't see i t as being e a s i e r or d i f f i c u l t or 264 I Are you s a y i n g now t h a t you seem to be broadening you're awareness of what i s a v a i l a b l e 34 265 R Uh um 266 I i n the sense t h a t -- perhaps you're l o o k i n g at u s i n g i t more e x t e n s i v e l y 267 I Uh um H E 1 334 I I understand t h e r e ' s a c r e a t i v e aspect to t h i s 335 R oh d e f i n i t e l y 336 I Yeah 337 R D e f i n i t e l y 338 I So you're f e e l i n g t h a t i n the f u t u r e a b i t more you're going to be making use o f t h a t i n s t e a d of drawing from your own f i l e 339 R Yes IIB2 199 R I d i d n ' t want to confuse the c h i l d r e n because I have so many m a t e r i a l s and job car d s t h a t r e f e r to the o l d t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t I stayed w i t h t h i s year 200 I Uh um 201 R Next ye a r , I hope to go over to the new t e r m i n o l o g y and make up new m a t e r i a l s . IIB2 Second, the t e a c h e r ' s knowledge about the c h i l d r e n ' s 'needs' was a l s o a c r i t e r i o n i n s e l e c t i o n , as was t h e i r past e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h i l d r e n and l e a r n i n g . 52 R I r e a l l y f e l t t h a t t h e r e was so much m a t e r i a l f o r each s t o r y 53 I Uh um 54 R t h a t I c o u l d n ' t begin to get through i t a l l and so I would j u s t um focus on c e r t a i n -- um e x e r c i s e s which I knew the c h i l d r e n needed and the reason t h a t I knew t h a t they needed them i s , o f c o u r s e , from years of e x p e r i e n c e . IIA1 129 R Um, I t h i n k i t ' s important t h a t at the Grade 2, c e r t a i n l y at Grade 3, but Grade 2 t h a t t h e y ' r e w r i t i n g i n complete sentences, comprehension. 130 I So you're t a k i n g what you f e e l i s i s important f o r the c h i l d r e n at t h i s l e v e l to l e a r n 35 131 R Ri g h t 132 I t a k i n g from the program what you can and t a k i n g from o t h e r spots what you can to make a r e a d i n g program 133 R Yes 134 I t h a t f i t s your c l a s s r o o m . 135 R Yes, because I want I want these comprehension q u e s t i o n s which are not i n the s k i l p a k s IID1 228 R ... t h e r e r e a l l y i s a t e r r i f i c v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r the c h i l d r e n 229 I Uh um 230 R w i t h each s t o r y but I don't f o l l o w the manual per se, I don't f o l l o w i t to the e x t e n t t h a t say open the page, do i t now, say t h i s -- I take a l o t of i d e a s and I look at the group I've got and choose a c c o r d i n g to the group, t h e r e I am my own. IA3 174 R ... I f e e l t h a t we can accomplish what I want to acco m p l i s h w i t h the c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t c o v e r i n g 175 I Uh um 176 R a l l of t h a t but I would l i k e to be able to have the time to 177 I Uh um. What guides your d e c i s i o n t h e r e i n what you choose? 178 R Um b a s i c a l l y my past e x p e r i e n c e ... 183 I When you say your past e x p e r i e n c e s , does t h i s mean the k i n d s of t h i n g s you know about c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g and uh what t h e i r needs are? 184 R Yes IB1 78 R I d i d n ' t even s t a r t the program p e r i o d u n t i l November even f o r myself 79 I You d i d n ' t s t a r t l o o k i n g at i t u n t i l then? 80 R Not r e a l l y , um I d i d n ' t r e a l l y f e e l , I , t h e r e were t h i n g s I wanted to do with my c h i l d r e n i n the way of r e s e a r c h s k i l l s , and o u t l i n i n g s k i l l s , and language a r t s s k i l l s and paragraph w r i t i n g and I wanted to get a l o t of the n i t t y g r i t t i e s i n the way of communication s k i l l s out of the way so t h a t they would have those under t h e i r b e l t at the be g i n n i n g and I wasn't going to be c o n s t a n t l y b a c k - t r a c k i n g . IA3 36 208 R W e l l , I f o r i n s t a n c e I teach the Language A r t s s k i l l s t o t a l l y o u t s i d e of the r e a d i n g program and p r e - t e s t i n g i n September and do a l o t of d i a g n o s t i c work as the year goes on, and I p u l l the c h i l d r e n who need c e r t a i n s k i l l s out and you l e a r n s k i l l s and s k i l l groups 209 I Uh um 210 R and so a l o t of the work t h a t ' s done on s k i l l s i n the Ginn program I leav e out because.-- I don't t h i n k my c h i l d r e n need them depending on the c h i l d , some need them f o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t but I've taught most of them a l r e a d y b e f o r e they ever get them i n the Ginn. IA3 Teacher b e l i e f s about the proper approaches and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m guided t h e i r s e l e c t i o n s and i n i t i a l use o f the c u r r i c u l u m . These b e l i e f s c r e a t e d a n t i c i p a t i o n s as a b a s i s f o r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . AO R I went i n t o i t t h i n k i n g ok f i n e um I ' l l use the re a d e r s and I ' l l use you know t h e r e ' s a l o t a l o t of good i d e a s i n the manual here and um I g e n e r a l l y l i k e what I see but I know f o r a f a c t t h a t I'm going to have to put i n some t h i n g s t o f i l l i n the gap and some I'm going to have to be b r e a c h i n g and t h a t ' s a f a c t and t h a t ' s the way i t ' s going to have to be. 41 I You've had those f e e l i n g s r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g 42 R Oh yeah, oh sure you know I I over the summer you know when I was l o o k i n g at the manuals. IA1 82 R Ok, i f t h a t ' s what you want me to teach I ' l l teach i t um but I ' l l do i t , I w i l l i n t e g r a t e i t and I w i l l expand on i t and I l e t ' s f ace i t you know you're going to have to go to 37 supplementary and you're going to have to e n r i c h and you're going to have to you know r e i n f o r c e so what's the b i g d e a l . IA1 28 R I'm t a l k i n g about the Ginn, I i t ' s j u s t t h a t t h e r e are so many d i f f e r e n t elements i n v o l v e d uh 29 I Uh um 30 R to i t uh I I've used p a r t s of them and o t h e r s I haven't and and i t ' s j u s t , I guess -- because of my l a c k o f energy t o get i n t o i t 31 I Uh um 32 R and uh, i t ' s n o t , I don't t h i n k i t s a h e s i t a t i o n um i n one sense maybe i t i s because some of the t h i n g s I found I haven't l i k e d . I I E 1 177 R I t r y to do two approaches, I t r y to do the p h o n e t i c approach and the s i g h t r e a d i n g approach, I I t h i n k t h e y ' r e both very v a l u a b l e 178 I Uh um 179 R and I've always t r i e d to work w i t h them both and now t h a t we're u s i n g the s e r i e s we're u s i n g , I'm s t i l l t r y i n g t o implement the o t h e r , t oo. I I A l 31 I When you say you would proceed the way you o r d i n a r i l y would, does t h i s mean you would modify i t to s u i t your s t y l e of t e a c h i n g or what? 32 R Uh, I probably uh i n the background i n my mind I f e l t I would do t h a t . 33 I Uh um 34 R I don't know i f t h a t ' s r i g h t or n o t , I knew t h e r e would be c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I would have to do and I I I was t h i n k i n g a gain the c o n t i n u i t y from grade to grade, t h e r e would be c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t must be covered 35 I Uh um 36 R but I a l s o knew I I c o u l d n ' t take a manual and do step by step what was s a i d . IC2 In summary, r e g a r d l e s s of the t e a c h e r s ' approach a c t u a l l y u s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m , t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e 38 changed over time. For those who i n t i a l l y s t a y e d c l o s e tc the c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e was a r e a l i z a t i o n of how a s p e c t s of the o l d and new c o u l d be used t o g e t h e r , i n c l u d i n g the use of m a t e r i a l s , approaches to i n s t r u c t i o n , and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . The t e a c h e r s who were more s e l e c t i v e i n i t i a l l y and l e s s apt to change t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e , a l s o went through t r a n s i t i o n s as they i n c o r p o r a t e d more of the c u r r i c u l u m i n t o t h e i r p r a c t i c e and m o d i f i e d t h e i r s t y l e of t e a c h i n g . Some o f these t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s f u r t h e r a l o n g when past p r a c t i c e seemed u n s u c c e s s f u l ; at t h a t p o i n t they d e c i d e d to f o l l o w the program more s l o w l y and c l o s e l y . A d a p t a t i o n o c c u r r e d f o r both groups even though they d i f f e r e d i n the b e g i n n i n g i n the way they approached a c t u a l use. I t i s important to note t h a t t h i s a d a p t a t i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the e x p e r i e n c e of a c t u a l l y u s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . Some of the a d a p t a t i o n r e l a t e d to how te a c h e r s a n t i c i p a t e d u s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m i n the cl a s s r o o m and how these a n t i c i p a t i o n s matched a c t u a l e v e n t s . A d a p t a t i o n was a r e a c t i o n to f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n , a l a c k of i n i t i a l s u c c e s s , or a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t past p r a c t i c e s or a n t i c i p a t i o n s were not adequate. 90 R ... we were t r y i n g [ a t f i r s t ] to teach s i g h t , the s i g h t words as we had b e f o r e 91 I Uh um 92 R and f i n d i n g t h a t the decoding p a r t we were, you know needed more a t t e n t i o n . 93 I ' Now, you say you were going through the s i g h t p a r t l i k e you had b e f o r e , i s t h i s how you had b e f o r e w i t h o t h e r programs you mean? 39 94 95 R With the Nelson I So you're k i n d o f r e l y i n g on what you knew of o t h e r programs t o teach t h i s one 96 R R i g h t 97 I And you found t h a t d i d n ' t work? 98 R W e l l , no not as w e l l as the o t h e r ah programs Uh um, what d i d you do then t o modify t h a t so i t was more s u c c e s s f u l f o r you? We, I slowed down 98 99 100 R "c> - — \f2 I TSl p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o the ^ 1 decoding s t r a n d . 283 I „ h.t have you ^tuJ^T^ f r u s t r a t i o n because t n i g m o d l f l e d going s » W l ' " L d i f i e d 284 R 285 I Oh I m o d i f i e d myself 286 R mostly 287 I Uh um 288 R and and m o d i f i e d the program somewhat but I t h i n k i t ' s been me t h a t ' s had t o a d j u s t my work 289 I Uh um 290 R i n o r d e r t o g i v e i t a you know a f a i r chance. IB1 121 I I t seems th e n , you were f o l l o w i n g the program t o a degree then i t wasn't working as i t had worked i n the past or the p r o g r e s s d i d n ' t appear l i k e i t was i n the past 122 R Uh um 123 I So you then d i d your own t h i n g w i t h i t . 124 R Uh um IB1 350 R ... I s t a r t e d u s i n g the guide book l i k e a B i b l e at the b e g i n n i n g so t h a t I would do i t p r o p e r l y and t h a t ' s when I s t a r t e d s a y i n g " g l i d e d " and " u n g l i d e d " , but very q u i c k l y I found t h a t u n c o m f o r t a b l e . 351 I Uh um 352 R I j u s t went back t o what I was c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . IIB1 4 0 7 0 R A f t e r i n i t i a l l y t o o I t h i n k I w a s t r y i n g v e r y h a r d t o d o w h a t t h e m a n u a l s a i d a n d n o w I I t h i n k t h e p r o g r a m h a s p r o b a b l y b e c o m e m o r e m i n e a n d I ' m d o i n g w h a t I w a n t t o d o w i t h i t . I C 2 2 8 9 R U h , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g I t h o u g h t , o h m y g o o d n e s s , w i l l I b e a b l e t o c o v e r a l l t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t , y o u k n o w , a s t h o r o u g h l y a s t h e y , a s I f e e l t h e d i s t r i c t w a n t s m e t o 2 9 0 I U h u m 2 9 1 R o r I w a n t t o , u m I ' m n o w a t t h e s t a g e w h e r e I f e e l m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e a n d s a y t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t I d o n ' t f e e l t h i s g r o u p n e e d s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a g e i n t h e s k i l p a k , s o I ' m m o r e s e l e c t i v e . I I B 2 1 6 4 R . . . I t h i n k t h a t w a s t h e f i r s t s t a g e a n d I t r i e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e r e s t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n t h i s p r o g r a m u h u h I w a s n ' t s a t i s f i e d , I I f e l t t h a t I w a s d o i n g a h i t a n d m i s s j o b a t f i r s t 1 6 5 I U h u m 1 6 6 R i n t h e o t h e r - - a r e a s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m s o I t r i e d d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s a n d f i n a l l y I t h a t w o u l d b e a s e c o n d s t a g e s o r t o f t r y i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s a n d I t h i n k t h e t h i r d s t a g e I r e a l i z e d t h a t I h a v e t o d o w h a t w o r k s f o r m e . I C 2 W e l l , I w a s u n d e r g o i n g t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f c h a n g e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r a n d w h a t I n S e p t e m b e r , O c t o b e r y e s w h e n i t w a s j u s t b r a n d n e w , i t w a s n e w f o r m e t h e n a n d t h a t w a s t h e h a r d e s t t i m e f o r m e . N o w w a s t h a t b e c a u s e y o u s a i d y o u h a d t o u n d o s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u ' d d o n e ? U h u m , I h a d t o u n d o , I h a d s o m u c h w o r k t o d o I j u s t , I s e e m e d t o b e w o r k i n g a s t o r y a h e a d o f t h e m , t h a t 4 0 0 R 4 0 1 I 4 0 2 R 4 0 3 I 4 0 4 R 4 0 5 I 4 0 6 R 41 k i n d of f e e l i n g , you d i d n ' t know where you were g o i n g . IIB1 Knowledge about f a c e t s of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t was a c q u i r e d through a c t u a l use, a l s o caused t e a c h e r s to modify what happened i n the c l a s s r o o m . 181 I Did you f i n d you're making more e x t e n s i v e use of the m a t e r i a l s as time goes on? 182 R Yes 183 I Uh um 184 R uh j u s t as I f i n d out what I want to do and what the c h i l d r e n can do 185 I Yeah 186 R but um, but again I've I found out too t h a t I'm sure t h a t next year I ' l l uh supplement w i t h q u i t e a few m a t e r i a l s from o t h e r programs. IIC1 96 R There were so many a s p e c t s t h a t you c o u l d see although i t i t c o u l d a l s o and I t h i n k t h i s was a problem i n i t i a l l y f o r me, i t c o u l d tend to bog you down a l i t t l e b i t . 97 I What was i t about 98 R i f you f e l t , my goodness, I have to cover e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s here 99 I Did you f e e l t h a t you di d ? 100 R Um, i n i t i a l l y yes 101 I Uh um 102 R I I f e l t , w e l l t h e r e was t h i s good s t u f f and I you know I j u s t had to do t h i s , um l a t e r I I f e l t w e l l , no they don't need those phonics because they know them, um w e ' l l j u s t make, check t h a t out to a s m a l l e x e r c i s e to prove t h a t , yes, they do have those and you don't have to spend time going over the phonics element t h e r e . IID1 67 I So you made some d e c i s i o n s then t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n p a r t s of i t you 42 were going to omit and t h i n g s t h a t you might d i g i n t o more deeply or t h i n g s you might modify, i s t h i s c o r r e c t ? 68 R As I went through i t , yeah 69 I Uh um 70 R To s t a r t w i t h t h i s was s o r t of uh j u s t an o v e r a l l , now sometimes when I've gone back over i t , I s o r t of change my views on i t 71 I What caused you to change your mind? 72 R Um the type o f c h i l d r e n I'm working wi t h and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . IA2 96 R A l o t of i t seems to be f a i r l y s i m p l e and a matter of handing out a s t e n c i l w i t h a few l i n e s or b l a n k s to f i l l i n 97 I So now 98 R and I would use t h a t as one o f my c r i t e r i a , I would say w e l l , you know i f i t ' s too easy f o r them and i t ' s not going to be a c h a l l e n g e and I can't see i t doing o t h e r than f i l l i n g i n time 99 I Uh um 100 R then I wouldn't wouldn't use i t . IIE1 67 I So you f e e l then t h a t the phonic stream was f a i r l y smooth f o r them and they made the t r a n s i t i o n i n t o the program f a i r l y e a s i l y w i t h t h a t but some of the o t h e r streams were perhaps a l i t t l e more d i f f i c u l t f o r them, would your, a t t r i b u t e t h i s to t h a t t h e r e are t h i n g s t h a t had gone on b e f o r e ? 68 R Yes 69 I I see 70 R Um h a v i n g used a phonics based program 71 I Uh um 72 R those s k i l l s were very much more h i g h l y developed. 73 I Did you do a n y t h i n g w i t h the program to compensate f o r t h a t or d i d you modify i t ? 74 R Yes, we've done a g r e a t d e a l more work on i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension um, and on the study s k i l l s , or sequencing a c t i v i t i e s 75 I Uh um 4 3 76 R Um s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o w h a t i s i n t h e p r o g r a m b e c a u s e o b v i o u s l y t h e y w e r e n ' t g e t t i n g i t . I I D 1 2 0 8 R V e r y much s o , I h a v e my own uh uh I ' m u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m b u t I do my own t h i n g , I b r i n g t h e c h i l d r e n b a c k t o g e t h e r f o r t e n m i n u t e s o r s o t o do s o m e t h i n g i n t h e p r o g r a m b u t t h a t we w i l l a l l do t o g e t h e r . 2 0 9 I I s e e . I s t h i s um c o n t r i b u t i n g t o y o u f e e l i n g m o r e a t home w i t h i t ? 2 1 0 R Oh v e r y much s o . . . . 2 4 3 I So w i t h y o u r i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e t h e n t h e r e s e e m s t o b e , o r a t l e a s t a t t h e s e c o n d s t a g e t h a t y o u t a l k a b o u t , t h a t a s y o u r k n o w l e d g e i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m 2 4 4 R I h a d m o r e w o r k t o d o . 2 4 5 I Y o u h a d m o r e w o r k t o 2 4 6 R Oh y e s 2 4 7 I b e c a u s e y o u r a w a r e n e s s wa s g r o w i n g w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d a l s o 2 4 8 R y e s 2 4 9 I o f t h e c h a n g e i n y o u r s e l f . 2 5 0 R My own c h a n g e s i n s t r a t e g i e s , i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , t h e n t h e t h i r d s t a g e I f e l t t h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d c h a n g e a g a i n b e c a u s e a t t h a t s t a g e I now f e e l I ' m m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o w h a t I w i l l d o . 2 5 1 I I s e e 2 5 2 R So t h a t t h a t ' s a c h a n g e a g a i n , I t h i n k I h a v e g o n e f u l l c i r c l e . 2 5 3 I Uh um 2 5 4 R I t h i n k I ' m b a c k - now t o t o f e e l i n g um m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h my own t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s . 2 5 5 I Do y o u f e e l y o u r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s h a v e c h a n g e d t h o u g h ? 2 5 6 R Some o f t h e m y e s , I t h i n k , I t h i n k s ome o f t h e m e t h o d s h a v e c h a n g e d . I C 2 T h i s i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e t h a t c a m e t h r o u g h u s i n g t c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r u s i n g i t i n t h e f u t u r e . Some t e a c h e r s f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e e n o u g h w i t h 4 4 t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o b e g i n t h i n k i n g a n d p l a n n i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e . 1 0 2 R ' N e x t y e a r I ' m g o i n g t o c h a n g e i t r e a l l y a n d a n d g o f a s t e r a n d u h - -u h I ' m g o i n g t o u h - - o r d e r t h e s k i l p a k s 1 0 3 I U h u m 1 0 4 R S o i n s t e a d o f u s i n g my o w n m a t e r i a l s , t h a t u h I t h i n k t h a t w o u l d s p e e d i t u p . a n d m a k e i t e a s i e r f o r t h e m b u t i t ' s a l s o a a w e l l a w o r k a b l e t y p e o f a p p r o a c h 1 0 5 I U h u m 1 0 6 R w h i c h I ' m n o t s u r e i f I w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a g r e e w i t h t h a t . 1 0 7 I W h a t u m c a u s e d y o u t o d e c i d e t h a t y o u w e r e g o i n g t o u s e t h e s k i l p a k s n e x t y e a r ? 1 0 8 R B e c a u s e o f t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t i n g 1 0 9 I I s e e 1 1 0 R a n d t h e m a s t e r y t e s t . 1 1 1 I y e s 1 1 2 R I t ' s , i t ' s r e a l l y q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g t o t e s t t h e m a n d s e e w h a t t h e y d o k n o w a n d w h a t t h e y d o n ' t . I I C 1 2 4 8 R Y o u g e t n e w p r o g r a m s i n , w e l l , y o u j u s t h a v e t o f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e m a n d a n d w o r k t h e m i n a n d I I u h I f e e l t h a t I a l w a y s d o a b e t t e r j o b t h e n e x t y e a r i n t h e p r o g r a m w h e n I ' v e g o t u m I ' m m a k i n g l o t s o f a i d s 2 4 9 I U h u m 2 5 0 R a n d I ' l l h a v e t h e m m a d e a n d s o n e x t y e a r I ' l l b e a b l e t o d o m o r e a n d u h s o I ' v e j u s t s o r t o f t a k e n e a c h d a y a s i t c o m e s a n d p r e p a r e d w h a t I n e e d e d f o r m y n e x t d a y a n d m a y b e d o n e s o m e l o n g r a n g e p l a n n i n g w i t h m y p r e v i e w s . I I C A c t u a l u s e w a s a p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g h o w t h e c u r r i c u l u m ' w o r k s ' i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n i t i a l l y t e a c h e r s a n t i c i p a t e d h o w i t m i g h t " f i t i n ' , a n d t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o i m p l e m e n t i t , b u t a s t h e y w o r k e d w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e i r a n t i c i p a t i o n s w e r e e i t h e r v a l i d a t e d o r c h a n g e d . F r o m 45 t h e r e , they m o d i f i e d t h e i r p r a c t i c e and the c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s process h e l p e d t e a c h e r s f e e l more 'at home' w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m , and f e e l t h a t t h e i r knowledge was s u f f i c i e n t f o r c l a s s room a c t i o n . 2.0 Time Time was a major s t r u c t u r e of the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e of change. The s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of time i s more than ' c a l e n d a r t i m e ' , ' c l o c k time', or 'time l i n e s ' , and i n c l u d e s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s about ti m e , the meaning t h a t t e a c h e r s gave to t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , and how t h i s guided t h e i r a c t i o n s . L e a r n i n g to use the new c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e d the t e a c h e r s ' use and p e r c e p t i o n of time; as a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d towards the c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h e r s began a process of 'spending time' w i t h i t . How was time e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s d u r i n g c u r r i c u l u m change? T y p i c a l l y , time was e x p e r i e n c e d i n th r e e ways: ' a n t i c i p a t o r y time' b e f o r e a c t u a l l y u s i n g the c u r r i c u l u m , ' t r i a l time' when i n i t i a l l y t r y i n g out the c u r r i c u l u m and 'normal time' when cla s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e , once a g a i n , became c o m f o r t a b l e and r o u t i n e . I m p l i c i t i n these a s p e c t s of time i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a s t , present and f u t u r e . A n t i c i p a t o r y Time A n t i c i p a t i n g u s i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m began when t e a c h e r s f i r s t heard t h a t a change would be t a k i n g p l a c e . News came e i t h e r d i r e c t l y from the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n or from d i s t r i c t s t a f f , and t h e r e 4 6 w e r e m i x e d r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s n e w s . S o m e r e s e n t e d a p r o g r a m b e i n g " d i c t a t e d " f r o m a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , s o m e f e l t t h a t a c h a n g e m i g h t b e a w e l c o m e r e l i e f f r o m t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g t h e c u r r e n t r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l u m , w h e r e a s o t h e r s s a w i t a s a s m a l l c h a n g e . 1 I U m , I ' m w o n d e r i n g w h e r e y o u f i r s t l e a r n e d t h a t a c h a n g e w o u l d b e t a k i n g p l a c e a n d h o w y o u 2 R L a s t y e a r w h e n t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o u n c i l a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p 3 I U h u m 4 R a n d i t w a s I w a s o n a c o u p l e o f c o m m i t t e e s t h a t w e r e w o r k i n g - - t o o u t l i n e s o m e o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r m a n i f e s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s a n d 5 I U h u m 6 R a n d I k n e w a b o u t i t p r o b a b l y a h e a d o f a l o t o f t h e p e o p l e b e c a u s e o f t h a t b u t g e n e r a l l y m o s t o f u s w e r e n o t i f i e d t h a t - - c e r t a i n p r e s c r i p t i v e p r o g r a m s w e r e c o m i n g d o w n f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y . . . 7 R b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y a g a i n , i t w a s a n n o u n c e d I g u e s s l a s t S p r i n g a t a c u r r i c u l u m c o u n c i l a n d t h e c u r r i c u l u m m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p . 8 I D i d y o u h a v e a n y p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t a t t h a t t i m e ? 9 R N o t p a r t i c u l a r l y , n o e x c e p t t h a t I d i d n ' t l i k e i t b e c a u s e I d o n ' t l i k e b e i n g t o l d w h a t I h a v e t o d o . I A 3 2 R A c t u a l l y u h t h e f i r s t I l e a r n e d w a s a y e a r b e f o r e l a s t u h t h e r e w a s s o m e r u m o u r t h a t w e t h e P r o v i n c e w a s g o i n g t o a d o p t n e w t e x t b o o k s f o r r e a d i n g 3 I U h u m 4 R a n d t h e n u h l a s t y e a r i t b e c a m e m o r e o f f i c i a l w h e n t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o u n c i l a r r a n g e d m e e t i n g s u h w h e r e t h e p u b l i s h e r s c a m e i n a n d p r e s e n t e d t h e i r u h t e x t b o o k s a n d t h e i r 5 I U h um 6 R t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . 7 I D i d y o u g o t o t h e s e m e e t i n g s ? 8 R y e s 9 I H o w d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m a t t h a t t i m e ? 4 7 1 0 R U m , w e l l I my o p i n i o n w a s q u i t e u h d e p e n d e n t o n w h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e w i t h o t h e r 1 1 I U h u m 1 2 R U h , w i t h t h e t e x t b o o k s , t h e H o l t R e i n h a r t I k n e w w e l l b e c a u s e I ' d w o r k e d w i t h i t t h e p r i m a r y 1 3 I U h u m 1 4 R g r a d e s , a n d I ' d h e a r d p e o p l e u m p r a i s i n g t h e H o l t R e i n h a r t f o r t h e u p p e r g r a d e s a n d w e w e r e u s i n g t h e G i n n 3 6 0 i n o u r i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s f o r u h t h e m o r e a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s a n d w e ' d a l w a y s t h o u g h t o f i t a s a y o u k n o w , a h i g h e r s t r e a m . I B 1 1 I U m , I ' d b e i n t e r e s t e d t o k n o w h o w y o u f i r s t l e a r n e d t h a t a c h a n g e w a s g o i n g t o b e t a k i n g p l a c e . 2 R D o y o u m e a n i t c a m e , h o w i t c a m e d o w n t o u s f r o m t h e b o a r d l e v e l o r o r t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l s 3 I W a s t h i s h o w y o u f i r s t h e a r d a b o u t i t ? 4 R Y e s 5 I U h u m 6 R t h r o u g h t h r o u g h t h e d i s t r i c t a n d u h t h e n t h r o u g h t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t h e s c h o o l 7 I Y e a h 8 R U h , t h a t w o u l d b a s i c a l l y 9 I D i d y o u h a v e a n y f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e ? 1 0 R I a t f i r s t w a s u h e n t h u s i a s t i c , my i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n w a s g r e a t , u h I ' v e b e e n , l i k e I ' m g o i n g i n t o o t h e r q u e s t i o n s t h a t y o u r t h a t y o u a s k e d b e f o r e b u t 1 1 I P e r f e c t l y a l l r i g h t 1 2 R U h u m , my i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n w a s g o o d I I t h o u g h t t h i s i s t h i s i s a b o u t t i m e , I ' v e s e e n p e o p l e t e a c h i n g a n d m y s e l f a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e u m i n t h e p r o g r a m , i n d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m s , a n d u h t h e r e w a s a l o t o f g o o d t e a c h i n g , m o s t o f i t w a s g o o d t e a c h i n g b u t t h e r e d i d n ' t s e e m t o b e a g r e a t c o n s i s t e n c y 1 3 I U h u m 1 4 R S o , u m I I t h o u g h t , w e l l g r e a t , i t ' l l i t ' l l g i v e me a c h a n c e t o u m b i t e i n t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t l o o k s l i k e i t m a y d o s o m e g o o d r i g h t a c r o s s t h e b o a r d . I B 2 4 8 3 I U h u m . D i d y o u h a v e a n y f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t a t t h a t t i m e ? 4 R N o t r e a l l y , I , i f a n y t h i n g I t h i n k I w a s p r o b a b l y g l a d t h a t w e w e r e g o i n g t o h a v e s o m e t h i n g p o s i t i v e t o g o o n b e c a u s e w h e n I c a m e i n t o d o t h e l a n g u a g e a r t s l a s t y e a r , I - - I w a s n ' t g i v e n a n y g u i d e l i n e s . 5 I U h u m . 6 R I , b a s i c a l l y c h o o s e y o u r o w n r e a d e r , c h o o s e y o u r o w n p r o g r a m , w h a t d o y o u w a n t t o u s e , a n d t h e r e a s o n t h a t I c h o s e t h e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s i s I t a l k e d t o t h e t e a c h e r t h a t h a d t h e c h i l d r e n b e f o r e a n d f o u n d o u t w h a t p r o g r a m t h e y w e r e u s i n g a n d d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e o n f o r t h e G r a d e 3 i n t h e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s b e c a u s e i t w o u l d g i v e t h e m a p r i m a r y e x p e r i e n c e i n o n e p a r t i c u l a r - - u h - - o n e p a r t i c u l a r b o o k . 7 I S o y o u w e r e f e e l i n g t h e n w h e n y o u f i r s t h e a r d t h a t t h e r e w a s g o i n g t o b e a n e w p r o g r a m t h a t y o u w e r e g l a d o f t h i s t h a t y o u w a n t e d t o k n o w s o m e k i n d o f g u i d e l i n e s a n d 8 R Y e s , I t h i n k s o , u h e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e I h a d a s p l i t 3 - 4 9 I U h u m 1 0 R b e c a u s e I w a s u s i n g o n e k i n d o f p r o g r a m f o r G r a d e 3 a n d g o i n g o n t o a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m f o r G r a d e 4 , a n d u h I I d i d n ' t s e e a n y c o n t i n u i t y i n w h a t I w a s d o i n g o t h e r t h a n j u s t m y o w n my o w n i n p u t a n d my o w n I s u p p o s e c r e a t i v i t y , t h a t w a s t h e t h a t w a s t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t , s o I w a s I w a s r a t h e r g l a d a n d I h a d h o p e d a c t u a l l y t h a t w e w o u l d n ' t i f w e h a d a n e w p r o g r a m i t w o u l d n ' t b e i n j u s t o n e o f t h e g r a d e s I w a s t e a c h i n g , I w a n t e d i t i n b o t h g r a d e s a n d t h a t w a s m y o w n f e e l i n g a b o u t i t . 1 1 I W e l l , t h e n t h e c o n t i n u i t y w a s a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t 1 2 R O h y e s . I C 2 1 6 R I ' d d o n e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s , I ' d d o n e C o p p C l a r k s o i t w a s n o t a n o v e r w h e l m i n g c h a n g e f o r m e . I I B 2 4 9 A c c o m p a n y i n g t h e s e i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s w e r e t h e f e e l i n g s a n d a n t i c i p a t i o n s o f w h a t t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m w o u l d b e l i k e . D i s t r i c t s e n g a g e d i n v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s a n d m e e t i n g s t o o r i e n t t e a c h e r s t o t h e n e w m a t e r i a l s . T i m e s p e n t a t t h e s e m e e t i n g s o r d i s c u s s i o n s w a s e x p e r i e n c e d b y t e a c h e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e " w o r t h w h i l e n e s s " o f t h e e n d e a v o u r i t s e l f . 6 R U h , s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h e d i s t r i c t w a s i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r 7 I U h u m 8 R a n d s h e u h g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m e a c h s c h o o l a n d w e m e t t o e x a m i n e t h e m a t e r i a l s a n d i t w a s v e r y s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t s h e h a d e v e r y t h i n g l i s t e d f o r t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f G i n n a n d t h e • d i s a d v a n t a g e s ; t h e a d v a n t a g e s f o r L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s a n d t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n d w e t a l k e d a s a g r o u p a n d t h e n p r e s e n t e d u h t h e r e w e r e v a r i o u s t a b l e s a r o u n d t h e r o o m 9 I U h u m 1 0 R a n d w e p r e s e n t e d u h w h a t w e f e l t a f t e r l o o k i n g a t t h e m a t e r i a l s , w h a t t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s w e r e . A t t h e t i m e , t h e r e w a s a n i n k l i n g t h a t t h e ( d i s t r i c t ) m i g h t b e i n m o r e i n f a v o u r o f G i n n t h a n L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s 1 1 I H o w d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h a t ? 1 2 R U h , I d i d n ' t m i n d b e c a u s e I f e l t I w a s g o i n g t o s e l e c t w h a t I t h o u g h t w a s t h e b e s t 1 3 I S o i t d i d n ' t r e a l l y i n f l u e n c e y o u . 1 4 R N o i t d i d n ' t a n d a l s o t a l k i n g w i t h t h e t h i s t h e G r a d e 1 t e a c h e r s h a d a n i m p a c t o n m y a s t h e y w e r e h a v i n g s o m e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s . I I B 2 1 1 2 R I t h i n k t h e c h o o s i n g o f i t h a p p e n e d a w f u l l y f a s t . . . 1 1 6 R a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n a f e w s c h o o l s m i g h t h a v e b e e n [ h e l p f u l ] . . . 5 0 I t h i n k t h e n y o u c o u l d a c t u a l l y s i t d o w n w i t h , w i t h y o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a n d a n d s i t a n d s a y o k a y y o u k n o w . . . w h a t y o u ' r e b a s i c a l l y i s t a l k i n g a b o u t h o w y o u f e l t w i t h a n y c h a n g e . I A 1 2 R We l e a r n e d u h t h r o u g h t h e d i s t r i c t a n d w e w e r e c a l l e d t o a m e e t i n g 3 I U h u m 4 R a n d u h w e h a d , o u r s t a f f w a s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g a n d w e w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m s t h a t w o u l d b e o f f e r e d a s o p t i o n s 5 I U h u m 6 R a n d a t t h i s t i m e w e s t u d i e d t h e m a n d - - a n d t h r o u g h t h i s s t u d y w e h a d t o m a k e a d e c i s i o n a s t o w h i c h p r o g r a m o u r s c h o o l w o u l d c h o o s e t o u h t a k e . 7 I U h u m 8 R a n d 9 I D i d y o u h a v e a n y p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t a t t h a t t i m e ? 1 0 R U h , a b o u t w h i c h p r o g r a m I w o u l d c h o o s e o r t h e i d e a o f a c h a n g e o f p r o g r a m ? 1 1 I Y e s , t h e i d e a o f a c h a n g e o f p r o g r a m 1 2 R U h , n o t r e a l l y b e c a u s e u m y o u k n o w I w a s s o r t o f i n v o l v e d , I d i d n ' t r e a l l y s e e i t a s b e i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e t o m y w a y o f t e a c h i n g o r 1 3 I U h u m 1 A R t o t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t , I t h o u g h u h 1 5 I S o y o u a r e s a y i n g t h a t y o u d i d n ' t s e e i t a s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e , w h a t l e d y o u t o t h i n k t h a t ? 1 6 R U m , w e l l , I j u s t - - I g u e s s i t w a s b e c a u s e I I d i d n ' t t h i n k I w a s d o i n g , t h a t t h e c h a n g e w o u l d i n v o l v e t h a t m u c h d i f f e r e n c e i n t e r m s o f p r e p a r a t i o n o r o r i n t e r m s o f u h e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a n w h a t I w a s a l r e a d y t h e t r a c k t h a t I w a s a l r e a d y o n . I I E 1 3 3 3 I I t s o u n d s a s i f u m - - h a d y o u b e e n a b l e t o s e e t h e s e t h i n g s o v e r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , 3 3 4 R U h u m 3 3 5 I Y o u m a y n o t h a v e s e l e c t e d s o m e o f t h e m a t e r i a l s t h a t y o u d i d . 3 3 6 R H a d w e b e e n a b l e t o s e e i t i n p r a c t i c e o r h a d w e b e e n a b l e t o w o r k w i t h t h e m , w e w o u l d h a v e k n o w n 5 1 3 3 7 I U h u m 3 3 8 R I t ' s r e a l l y h a r d t o l o o k a t a s t u d y b o o k a n d s a y , w e l l , I w o n ' t n e e d t h a t i f y o u ' v e n e v e r e v e n w o r k e d t h r o u g h t h e g u i d e b o o k . I I B 1 9 9 R I s t i l l t h i n k y o u h a v e t o w o r k w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , t h e r e ' s n o p r e d i c t i n g t h e l e a r n i n g , y o u c a n ' t h a v e p e o p l e s t a n d i n g u p t h e r e a n d t r y i n g t o t e l l y o u t h i n g s , i t d o e s n ' t w o r k . I f t h e y ' d g i v e n a l e s s o n , o r i f w e ' d s e e n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t ' s a l i t t l e m o r e h e l p f u l , b u t y o u h a v e t o w o r k w i t h i t . I C I T e a c h e r s c l e a r l y w e r e o r i e n t e d t o h a v i n g t i m e a v a i l a b l e " t o s e e t h i n g s i n a c t i o n " , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y f e l t d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s f o r m a k i n g e i t h e r r e a l i s t i c d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m o r h a v i n g a c l e a r e r i d e a o f h o w t h e p r o g r a m m i g h t o p e r a t e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t i m e w a s o r i e n t e d t o e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . A s o n e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s , t h e t e a c h e r s b e g a n t a k i n g t i m e t o b e c o m e m o r e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h e y t a l k e d w i t h c o l l e a g u e s e i t h e r i n f o r m a l l y o r t h r o u g h f o r m a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e s s i o n s , a n d t h e y s t a r t e d s p e n d i n g t i m e r e v i e w i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s . F o r s o m e , t h i s w a s v e r y m u c h a c u r s o r y v i e w , w h i l e f o r o t h e r s i t w a s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a n a n d p r e p a r e f o r t h e t i m e t o b e s p e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . P e r s o n a l s t y l e i n t e a c h i n g s e e m e d t o b e t h e g u i d e f o r t e a c h e r s h e r e . T h e t e a c h e r w h o l i k e d t o h a v e t h i n g s q u i t e r e g u l a t e d i n a d v a n c e w a s l i k e l y t o f i n d 5 2 v a l u e i n s p e n d i n g t i m e f o r a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s ; t h e t e a c h e r w h o s e s t y l e r e s p o n d e d m o r e t o c l a s s r o o m e v e n t s w a n t e d o n l y t o o v e r v i e w t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m 6 6 R W e l l , I I d i d s o m e p r e - r e a d i n g i n t h e s u m m e r t i m e a n d I I r e a d u h t h r o u g h u h - - t w o g u i d e b o o k s b u t I d i d n ' t r e a d t h e m j u s t 6 7 I U h u m 6 8 R e v e r y p a g e , I I r e a d q u i t e a b i t o f t h e m b u t I g l a n c e d t h r o u g h q u i t e a b i t o f t h e m t o o a n d u h I d i d n ' t f i n d a n y t h i n g i n t h e g u i d e b o o k s t h a t u h I r e a l l y f e l t - - t h a t I t h a t I n e e d e d t o p r e p a r e u n t i l I g o t t o s c h o o l . 6 9 I U h u m 7 0 R a n d s o t h a t I j u s t , I d i d n ' t l o o k t h r o u g h t h e m t h r o u g h t h e m a n d I r e a d t h e t h e n e w L a n g u a g e A r t s G u i d e b u t I d i d n ' t r e a l l y u h - - d o m u c h p r e p a r a t i o n a h e a d o f t h a t , I l e f t i t a l l u n t i l t h e a c t u a l t i m e i n t h e r o o m u n t i l I k n e w w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n - - w e r e - -7 1 I U h u m 7 2 R w h a t t h e i r n e e d s w e r e . I I C 1 8 2 R I h a d g o n e a h e a d w i t h t h e u h w i t h t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l u h i n t h e t w o w e e k s b e f o r e S e p t e m b e r , t h e l a s t t w o w e e k s o f A u g u s t , a n d u m a n d I g o t a n a w f u l l o t d o n e t h e r e a n d I b e g a n t o s e e m y w a y t h r o u g h . 8 3 I U h u m 8 4 R I t h i n k y o u ' v e g o t t o w o r k w i t h i t , y o u j u s t c a n ' t s t a r t i n S e p t e m b e r a n d s t a r t o n a n e w p r o g r a m a t t h e b e g i n n i n g w i t h o u t a n y p r e - w o r k . I I F l W h e t h e r t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t e d p l a n n i n g o r m e r e l y r e v i e w e d t h e m a t e r i a l s , t h i s t i m e w a s v a l u a b l e t o t h e m . I t p r o v i d e d i n d i c a t i o n s a b o u t w h a t i t m a y b e l i k e t o u s e t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 5 3 A n t i c i p a t o r y t i m e c o u l d b e s u m m a r i z e d a s t h e t e a c h e r h e a r i n g a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , o r i e n t i n g t o i t , a n d i n s o m e w a y p l a n n i n g f o r u s e . M e e t i n g s , d i s c u s s i o n s , a n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s o w n p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s a n d b e l i e f s a l l i n f l u e n c e d h o w t h i s t i m e w a s e x p e r i e n c e d . I f t h e y f e l t t h a t s o m e t h i n g w a s t o b e g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e s e m e e t i n g s a n d p r e p a r a t i o n s e s s i o n s , t h e n t i m e w a s e x p e r i e n c e d a s w o r t h w h i l e . T r i a l T i m e T h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n i n i t i a l u s e a n d t h e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g " a t h o m e " w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m w a s ' t r i a l t i m e ' . D u r a t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d v a r i e d a m o n g t h e t e a c h e r s d e p e n d i n g u p o n w h e n t h e y r e g a i n e d t h i s s e n s e o f n o r m a l c y . A l s o , t h e t e a c h e r s ' i d e a o f w h a t t h e y s h o u l d d o a f f e c t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f " h o w m u c h " t i m e w o u l d b e n e e d e d o r " h o w l o n g " t h i s p r o c e s s w o u l d t a k e . 2 3 8 R i f y o u w a n t t o w o r k t h a t w a y y o u h a v e t o m a k e a w h o l e n e w s e t o f m a t e r i a l s , I s t i l l h a v e n ' t m a d e u p e v e r y t h i n g 2 3 9 I U h u m 2 4 0 R I ' m s t i l l w o r k i n g o n i t a l l t h e t i m e , t h a t ' s a t r e m e n d o u s a m o u n t o f w o r k . . . 2 4 4 R a n d j u s t t r y i n g t o f a m i l i a r i z e y o u r s e l f w i t h t h e n e w p r o g r a m , i t t a k e s a l o t o f t i m e . I C I 7 8 R W e l l I t h i n k , I t h i n k i t d o e s r e q u i r e t i m e t o b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e u h t h e v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e 7 9 I U h u m 8 0 R a n d h o w t o a p p l y t h e m t o y o u r r o o m a n d 8 1 I U h u m 8 2 R a n d j u s t g e t t i n g i n t o t h e h a b i t o f u s i n g t h i n g s t h a t m a y b e y o u h a v e n ' t y o u k n o w t h i n g s t h a t y o u h a v e g o t t e n a l o n g w i t h o u t u s i n g . . . 54 86 R you know you j u s t c a n ' t , you have to get out of the p a t t e r n t h a t you've been i n and change to another. IIE1 275 R you know I don't see i t as being h a r d , I j u s t see i n t i a l l y t a k i n g some time to change h a b i t s and to get i n t o u s i n g some of the m a t e r i a l t h a t perhaps I haven't used b e f o r e , and I t h i n k i n i t i a l l y i t takes time, but then i t j u s t becomes you know p a r t o f p a r t of your way o f doing t h i n g s . I I E 1 193-5 ... I've done more w i t h the o t h e r groups coming up i n t o l e v e l 6 t h a t are now i n t o l e v e l 6 — than I d i d wi t h them i n a l o t o f ways um I've maybe not t h a t more but what I've done i s i s I've r e o r g a n i z e d i t i n t o a I t h i n k more coherent k i n d of a program and a more e a s i l y i n t e g r a t e d . IA1 141 I I understand they use d i f f e r e n t t e r m i n o l o g y f o r the d i f f e r e n t vowels 142 R That's been an adjustment f o r me 143 I Uh um 144 R Very much so, I f i n d now I have, I have to make myself say at l e a s t s h o r t u n g l i d e d vowel or long g l i d e d vowel, at l e a s t I get i t . 145 I I t seems l i k e changing over to M e t r i c 146 R R i g h t 147 I T h i s was a t r a n s i t i o n f o r you to go through i n l e a r n i n g . 148 R Yes, yes 149 I Did t h i s take a b i t of time? 150 R I t s t i l l t a kes time 151 I I t ' s s t i l l p a r t of your t r a n s i t i o n 152 R Yes. IB1 70 R A f t e r i n i t i a l l y too I t h i n k I was t r y i n g very hard to do what the manual s a i d and now I I t h i n k the program has probably become more mine and I'm doing what I want to do w i t h i t . IC2 5 5 D o i n g w h a t w a s c o m f o r t a b l e m e a n t a r e t u r n t o t h e n o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t i m e . R e l a t e d t o t h i s w a s t h e s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c y w i t h t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m . I n i t i a l l y , t i m e m o v e d s l o w l y - " t h e r e w a s s o m u c h t o d o " . O r b e c a u s e - t h e r e w a s t h i s m a s s i v e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l , t i m e s e e m e d t o " s l i p a w a y " . T h e f e e l i n g o f n o t h a v i n g e n o u g h t i m e w a s c o m m o n , e i t h e r d u e t o s o m u c h p r e p a r a t i o n o r t o p a c i n g l e s s o n s s l o w l y . B e c a u s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m w a s b u r d e n s o m e a t t h i s t i m e , s o m e t e a c h e r s s a c r i f i c e d t i m e f r o m o t h e r s u b j e c t s . O t h e r s f e l t t h e y h a d t o r e - o r g a n i z e t h e i r t i m e w h e n o l d w a y s o f d o i n g t h i n g s d i d n o t s e e m e f f e c t i v e . T i m e a p p e a r e d t o t e a c h e r s a s u n c e r t a i n a n d f r u s t r a t i n g . A l I W h a t a b o u t w h e n y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d y o u k n o w d a y o n e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d a l i t t l e f u r t h e r o n f r o m t h e r e , d i d y o u r a n t i c i p a t i o n s m a t c h w h a t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w a s ? A 2 R I I t h i n k I I p r o b a b l y a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d f l o w f a i r l y s m o o t h l y a n d I w a s a b i t s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e t i m e d i s a p p e a r e d o n m e . A 3 I U h um A A R I d i d n ' t h a v e e n . o u g h t i m e t o d o e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w a s i n t h e m a n u a l o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I w a n t e d t o d o . A 5 I D o y o u a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o a n y t h i n g ? A 6 R P r o b a b l y b e c a u s e i n I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m t h e r e w a s j u s t s o m u c h t h a t t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t y o u d o 4 7 I U h u m A 8 R a n d I t h i n k I w a s v e r y c o n s c i e n c i o u s a b o u t c o v e r i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w a s s u g g e s t e d . I C 2 9 6 R T h e r e w e r e s o m a n y a s p e c t s t h a t y o u c o u l d s e e a l t h o u g h i t i t c o u l d a l s o a n d I t h i n k t h i s w a s a p r o b l e m i n i t i a l l y f o r m e , i t c o u l d t e n d t o b o g y o u d o w n a l i t t l e b i t 5 6 9 7 I W h a t w a s i t a b o u t 9 8 R i f y o u f e l t , my g o o d n e s s , I h a v e t o c o v e r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s h e r e . 9 9 I D i d y o u f e e l t h a t y o u d i d ? 1 0 0 R U m , i n i t i a l l y , y e s 1 0 1 I U h u m 1 0 2 R I I f e l t , w e l l t h e r e w a s t h i s g o o d s t u f f a n d y o u k n o w I j u s t h a v e t o d o t h i s , u m l a t e r I I f e l t w e l l , n o t h e y d o n ' t n e e d t h o s e p h o n i c s b e c a u s e t h e y k n o w t h e m . . . I I D 1 5 1 I Y o u m e n t i o n e d t h a t i n i n s t a r t i n g t o u s e t h e p r o g r a m y o u r e a l i z e d t h a t p e r h a p s i n p r a c t i c e i t w a s a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t t h a n w h a t i t l o o k e d l i k e w h e n y o u w e r e j u s t p l a n n i n g a n d t i m e s e e m e d t o b e o n e o f t h e t h i n g s . 5 2 R U h t i m e , t i m e w a s a r e a l l y b i g f a c t o r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g i n b r i n g i n g i n t h a t p r o g r a m , n o t j u s t t i m e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m b u t i f I c a n g o i n t o t h i s my o w n p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e . 5 3 I U h u m 5 4 R T h e a m o u n t o f t i m e I u s e d t o p r e p a r e a n e w p r o g r a m w a s p h e n o m e n a l . 5 5 I D i d y o u u h t h i n k a t t h i s t i m e t h a t I ' m t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s w a s i n i t i a l l y w h a t w e ' r e s p e a k i n g o f r i g h t n o w , t h a t y o u r p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e w a s g r e a t e r t h a n i t w o u l d b e f u r t h e r d o w n t h e r o a d . F o r i n s t a n c e , n o w a r e y o u s p e n d i n g a s m u c h t i m e i n p r e p a r a t i o n a n d t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g a s y o u d i d a t f i r s t ? 5 6 R N o , I ' m n o t . U h I t h i n k p a r t o f i t i s I ' m n o w l e a r n i n g m y s e l f t o t o p i c k a n d c h o o s e w h a t I ' m g o i n g t o d o 5 7 I U h u m 5 8 R i n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o c o v e r e v e r y t h i n g . I ' m a l s o r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s o m e t h i n g s I c o v e r i n o t h e r a s p e c t s t h a t I d o n ' t n e e d t o c o v e r a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e 2 1 7 I H a v e y o u f o u n d t h i s t o b e a b i t o f a b u r d e n ? 2 1 8 R Y e s , v e r y m u c h s o a f t e r t h e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g t o k n o w t h a t y o u k n o w t h e r e i s n o w a y y o u c a n c o n t i n u e t o w o r k a p r o g r a m w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t l y y o u h a v e t o b e o n e s t e p a h e a d o f t h e c h i l d r e n a l l t h e t i m e a n d a n d I f o u n d t h a t w h e n w e w a n t t o g e t i n t o o t h e r p r o g r a m s i t h a s c u t i n t o t h e t i m e o f s c i e n c e a n d s o c i a l s a n d u h m u s i c a n d 5 7 2 1 9 I H a v e y o u m o d i f i e d t h e o t h e r p r o g r a m s t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h i s o r h a v e y o u d o n e a n y k i n d o f r e a r r a n g i n g a t a l l ? 2 2 0 R W e l l , I h a v e c u t u m c u t d o w n t h e - -t h e r e ' s s o m u c h r e a d i n g t h a t I w e h a v e t o c o v e r a t t h i s s t a g e a n d s o my s c i e n c e a n d s o c i a l s t u d i e s t i m e h a s b e e n q u i t e m i n i m a l a n d m y a r t s , b e e n t h e b a s i c s . I A 2 9 3 I N o w y o u s a y y o u w e r e g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e s i g h t p a r t l i k e y o u h a d b e f o r e w i t h o t h e r p r o g r a m s y o u m e a n ? 9 4 R W i t h t h e 9 5 I S o y o u ' r e k i n d o f r e l y i n g o n w h a t y o u k n e w o f o t h e r p r o g r a m s t o t e a c h t h i s o n e 9 6 R R i g h t 9 7 I a n d y o u f o u n d t h a t d i d n ' t w o r k ? 9 8 R W e l l , n o n o t a s w e l l a s t h e o t h e r t h e o t h e r u h p r o g r a m s 9 9 I U h u m , w h a t d i d y o u d o t h e n t o m o d i f y t h a t s o i t w a s m o r e s u c c e s s f u l f o r y o u ? 1 0 0 R W e , I s l o w e d d o w n . I B 2 M o v i n g s l o w l y w a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m . T h e y w a n t e d t o d o a g o o d j o b , s e e w h a t t h e y p r o g r a m o f f e r e d a n d h o w i t l o o k e d i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s , l e a r n h o w t o u s e i t , a n d g i v e i t a f a i r t r i a l . A l l t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n l e d t o t h e s e n s e o f b u r d e n , f r u s t r a t i o n , a n d u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t i m e . 2 2 I W h a t w a s i t l i k e w h e n y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d u s i n g i t i n t h e F a l l ? 2 3 R W e l l , i t w a s d i f f i c u l t - - b e c a u s e I w a s n ' t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . I h a d t o k e e p d i p p i n g i n t o t h e g u i d e b o o k s b e c a u s e i f I w a s g o i n g t o d o i t , I w a n t e d t o d o i t e x a c t l y t h e w a y i t w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e d o n e 2 4 I U h u m . H o w d i d y o u f e e l t h a t i t s h o u l d b e d o n e ? A c c o r d i n g t o t h e g u i d e b o o k ? 2 5 R W e l l , u h , I d o n ' t k n o w t h a t u n t i l , u n t i l I ' v e t a u g h t i t f o r a y e a r a t l e a s t . I C I 5 8 6 6 R W e l l , I d i d n ' t f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t r i g h t a w a y b e c a u s e f o r a l l o f u s i t ' s b e e n a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s a s t h e y e a r ' s g o n e o n w h e n y o u ' r e w o r k i n g w i t h 4 o r 5 l e v e l s - - t h a t a r e b r a n d n e w t o y o u a l l i n t h e s p a c e o f a y e a r a n d p r e p a r i n g t h o s e m a t e r i a l s a n d j u s t r e a d i n g t h e s t o r i e s a n d k e e p i n g a h e a d o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e b o o k . I A 3 2 0 3 R I t h i n k f o r u m f o r t h a t f i r s t f e w m o n t h s t h e r e w a s y o u k n o w I t h i n k I d i d f e e l i t t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t b e c a u s e i t w a s u m y o u k n o w e v e r y n i g h t t h e r e w e r e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f i v e g r o u p s a n d w h a t a m I d o i n g , w h a t a m I d o i n g - - n o w i t ' s j u s t c o m i n g b e c a u s e I k n o w w h a t t o e x p e c t a n d k n o w w h a t ' s c o m i n g u m i t ' s i t ' s g e t t i n g e a s i e r . I A 1 1 4 0 R I t h i n k t h e t h i n g t h a t h a s b e e n t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m a l l y e a r i s k e e p i n g a h e a d o f f o u r g r o u p s w o r k i n g a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , a n d m a k i n g s u r e t h a t y o u a r e f a r e n o u g h a h e a d o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t y o u k n o w w h e r e t h e y ' r e g o i n g , w i t h e a c h s t o r y a n d w i t h e a c h u n t i l - - a n d i t ' s j u s t b e e n l o t s a n d l o t s o f p l a n n i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t ' s r e q u i r e d i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e p r o g r a m . I A 3 4 0 0 R W e l l , I w a s u n d e r g o i n g t h e g r e a t e s t a m o u n t o f c h a n g e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e y e a r 4 0 1 I a n d w h a t 4 0 2 R I n S e p t e m b e r , O c t o b e r 4 0 3 I Y e s 4 0 4 R W h e n i t w a s j u s t b r a n d n e w , i t w a s n e w f o r m e t h e n a n d t h a t w a s t h e h a r d e s t t i m e f o r m e . 4 0 5 I N o w w a s t h a t b e c a u s e y o u s a i d y o u h a d t o u n d o s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t y o u ' d d o n e ? 4 0 6 R U h u m , I h a d t o u n d o , I h a d s o m u c h w o r k t o d o I j u s t , I s e e m e d t o b e w o r k i n g a s t o r y a h e a d o f t h e m , t h a t k i n d o f f e e l i n g y o u d i d n ' t k n o w w h e r e y o u w e r e g o i n g . I I B 1 59 R e g a i n i n g a sense of competency r e l i e v e d some of the f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s i n i t i a l l y f e l t . A l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s r e g a i n e d competency was the time t e a c h e r s spent w i t h o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n ' . They found v a l u e i n s h a r i n g i d e a s and t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y weeks of u s i n g the program. 209 R I mean I know we spent a l o t of our time working on on and t a l k i n g t o g e t h e r e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the yea r . IA1 152-6 We w i l l s i t down and de c i d e as a group whether we f e l t t h a t we were wasting our time -- you know we we hope to get g a i n something from i t both from our time value and the c h i l d r e n ' s . IA2 203 I Was i t a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e c h a t t i n g w i t h him at a l l or was i t j u s t k i n d of s h a r i n g what you were doing? 204 R I t h i n k i t pro b a b l y was l e a r n i n g at the b e g i n n i n g , we haven't done so much of t h a t r e c e n t l y because I t h i n k now we both f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . IIB1 Time f o r s h a r i n g was v a l u a b l e because i t not only c o n t r i b u t e d t o knowledge about the c u r r i c u l u m , but a l s o a l l a y e d some of the f r u s t r a t i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t accompanied how they were u s i n g time. I t was impo r t a n t to know t h a t o t h e r s were having the same e x p e r i e n c e . S h a r i n g , then, was i n f o r m a l , as among c o l l e a g u e s i n a s c h o o l , or o r g a n i z e d around meetings conducted f o r groups from v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . 6 0 9 8 R U h , y e a h , c e r t a i n l y l e a r n i n g a b o u t i t u m - - t h e r e i s , w i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o t o o m u c h d e t a i l , t h e r e ' s s o t h e r e ' s s o m a n y u h d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f t h e p r o g r a m u m t h a t y o u y o u w i s h y o u c o u l d , y o u c o u l d d o 9 9 I U h u m 1 0 0 R U h , o n a d a i l y b a s i s b u t - - u h y o u c a n ' t d o i t , a n d w e ' v e h a d m e e t i n g s o n t h i s a n d d i s c u s s e d i t o t h e r , I d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h o t h e r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s , u h w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y ' v e a t t e m p t e d t o d o i t a n d y o u k n o w w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u c a n i s i s j u s t 1 0 1 I W h a t d i d y o u l e a r n f r o m t a l k i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s ? 1 0 2 R U m , o n e I g u e s s i s t h a t u h — d o n ' t b e d i s c o u r a g e d u h i f y o u i f y o u ' r e y o u r e a c h t h e p o i n t a f t e r a w e e k o f o f d o i n g i t a n d s o m e w e e k s a r e r e a l l y h e a v y a n d o t h e r w e e k s a r e l i g h t t h a t u h y o u r e a c h t h e p o i n t w h e r e y o u j u s t g e t s o d i s c o u r a g e d a n d s a y , l o o k , t h e r e ' s s o m u c h t o d o h e r e I c a n ' t d o i t . 1 0 3 I U h u m 1 0 4 R P a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s a t t h e r e c e n t , m o s t r e c e n t m e e t i n g s I w e n t t o u m w e d i d n ' t a l l c r y o n e a c h o t h e r ' s s h o u l d e r b u t w e s h a r e d o u r o u r c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m a n d j u s t m a d e i t m a d e i t , i t m a d e u s f e e l u h h a v i n g e x p r e s s e d a l l o u r s o r t o f l i t t l e l i t t l e p r o b l e m s t h a t , o k a y , w e ' r e d o i n g , e a c h o f u s i s d o i n g q u i t e a b i t a n y w a y u m w e ' r e n o t d o i n g 1 0 0 % y o u k n o w 1 0 5 I D i d i t f e e l b e t t e r t h a t y o u k n e w o t h e r g u y s w e r e h a v i n g 1 0 6 R o h 1 0 7 I t h e s a m e p r o b l e m s a s y o u ? 1 0 8 R Y e s . I B 2 H o w t h e t e a c h e r s v a l u e d t h e n e w p r o g r a m , w h a t b e l i e f s t h e y h e l d a b o u t l e a r n i n g , o r t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s a l s o w e r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f t i m e . S o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e y d i d n o t v a l u e w a s r e g a r d e d a s " t a k i n g t o o m u c h o f t h e i r t i m e " o r b e i n g a n i n a p p r o p r i a t e u s e o f t i m e . 61 171 R ... I've g i v e n um some of those [ t e s t s ] and I've not been impressed and have not been p l e a s e d w i t h them at a l l . For one t h i n g they take an i n c r e d i b l e amount of time -- up to l e v e l 6 90% t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d -- they take up a l o t o f the time um they are what I c o n s i d e r extremely um s i m p l e . IA1 51 R The management, w e l l i t takes a l o t of time w i t h um a l l the c r i t e r i o n e x e r c i s e s 52 I Uh um 53 R and the mastery t e s t s 54 I Are these some t h i n g s t h a t you had been used to doing? 55 R No. 56 I Uh um 57 R but t h a t t h a t d i d n ' t r e a l l y bother me, i t ' s very time consuming, but t h a t d i d n ' t r e a l l y concern me, i t s j u s t the r e s u l t s of 58 I Do you f e e l i t ' s g e t t i n g the same k i n d s of r e s u l t s ? 59 R No 60 I t h a t you had i n the p a s t . 61 R No, I don't, I don't t h i n k by t h i s time of the year -- most of the Grade One's would be a b l e to read j u s t about a n y t h i n g . 62 I And you f e l l they can't do t h i s ? 63 R No, they c a n ' t , t h e y ' r e very l i m i t e d by what they've l e a r n e d . ICI When time was a n t i c i p a t e d as b e i n g "too s h o r t " or "not enough", then t h e i r b e l i e f s and past e x p e r i e n c e became the mediator i n how they managed t h e i r use of time. 230 R W e l l I t h i n k you s o r t o f l o o k a t a program and you gauge you know what, what t h e y ' r e going to be expected to know i n Grade 2 and you uh uh you f e e l t h a t e s p e c i a l l y w i t h these b r i g h t e r ones t h a t you know c o u l d e a s i l y cover the c o u r s e , w e l l then I have t o make sure t h a t t h e y ' r e going to cover i t . 231 I Uh um 6 2 2 3 2 R y o u s e e , a n d s o a n d s o I t h i n k t h a t u h y o u h a v e t o s o r t o f m o r e o r l e s s b l o c k o u t y o u r y e a r ' s w o r k a n d d e c i d e h o w m u c h y o u c a n d o . I I C 1 5 2 R I r e a l l y f e l t , I r e a l l y f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s s o m u c h m a t e r i a l f o r e a c h s t o r y 5 3 I U h u m 5 4 R t h a t I c o u l d n ' t b e g i n t o g e t t h r o u g h i t a l l a n d s o I w o u l d j u s t u m f o c u s o n c e r t a i n - - u m e x e r c i s e s w h i c h I k n e w t h e c h i l d r e n n e e d e d a n d t h e r e a s o n t h a t I k n e w t h a t t h e y n e e d e d t h e m i s , o r c o u r s e , f r o m y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . . . 6 6 I Y o u r e l i e d o n w h a t y o u k n e w a b o u t - -t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g f r o m t h e p a s t i n o r d e r t o 6 7 R t h a t ' s r i g h t 6 8 I d o t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h e r e . I I A 1 1 7 2 R U h , t o c o v e r a l l t h e m a t e r i a l o f f e r e d i n t h e g u i d e b o o k f o r e a c h l e s s o n w o u l d t a k e w e l l a t l e a s t f i v e d a y s 1 7 3 I R i g h t . S o d i d y o u e v e r f e e l t h a t y o u s h o u l d c o v e r a l l t h a t ? 1 7 4 R U m , n o b e c a u s e I f e e l t h a t w e - c a n a c c o m p l i s h w h a t I w a n t t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t c o v e r i n g 1 7 5 I U h u m 1 7 6 R a l l o f t h a t b u t I w o u l d l i k e t o b e a b l e t o h a v e t h e t i m e t o . 1 7 7 I U h u m . W h a t g u i d e s y o u r d e c i s i o n s t h e r e i n w h a t y o u c h o o s e ? 1 7 8 R U m , b a s c i a l l y my. p a s t e x p e r i e n c e 1 7 9 I U h u m 1 8 0 R a n d t i m e 1 8 1 I U h u m 1 8 2 R y o u k n o w w h a t I w a n t t o c o v e r b y t h e t i m e , t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r . 1 8 3 I W h e n y o u s a y y o u r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , d o e s t h i s m e a n t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s y o u k n o w a b o u t c h l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g a n d u h w h a t t h e i r n e e d s a r e ? 1 8 4 R y e s . I B 1 T r i a l t i m e w a s a c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f t h e c h a n g e p r o c e s s . I n t h i s p e r i o d o f e x p l o r a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r ' s 63 sense of time i n the c l a s s r o o m , t h e i r f e e l i n g s about i t were u n f a m i l i a r . Important was the f a c t o r of being g i v e n enough time to d e a l w i t h these u n c e r t a i n t i e s , and a l s o the o p p o r t u n i t y to d e a l w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f the meaning t h a t time had f o r them. Normal Time The e x p e r i e n c e o f time as 'normal' or c o m f o r t a b l e was r e l a t e d to the t e a c h e r s ' f e e l i n g s of competency. T h i s competency i n v o l v e d knowledge of the c u r r i c u l a m and t h e c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s . For everyone g a i n i n g t h i s competency a l s o i n v o l v e d an amount of c a l e n d a r time. 347 R Um, b e f o r e Christmas -- a g a i n I was almost l i k e a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r f i g u r i n g I had to cover every page and as I say, i n February I came to terms t h a t t h a t wasn't ne c e s s a r y . 348 I Uh um 349 R as t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group of c h i l d r e n d i d n ' t need t h i s e x e r c i s e and t h e r e f o r e I c o u l d l e a v e i t out and not f e e l t h a t i t must be done 350 I Yes 351 R So, i t was, i t was v e r y , i t was a g r a d u a l 353 I Uh um 353 R e x p e r i e n c e from September to December a c q u a i n t i n g myself w i t h the program, w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s needs. IIB2 291 R ... Now I'm at the stage where I f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e and say, t h i s i s i m portant I don't f e e l t h i s group needs t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e at t h i s p a r t i c u l a r page i n the s k i l l pak, so I'm more s e l e c t i v e 292 I What has caused you to have t h a t f e e l i n g o f b e i n g c o m f o r t a b l e enough to be s e l e c t i v e ? 293 R Knowing my c h i l d r e n 294 I Uh um 295 R b e t t e r than I d i d i n September. IIB2 64 2 3 2 R . . . I s e e I s e e i t a s s o r t o f f o r m e r i g h t n o w t h r e e s t a g e s o r t h e p r o g r a m 2 3 3 I U h u m 2 3 4 R a n d i n my s e c o n d s t a g e u h w h e r e I I f o u n d t h a t I w a s g e t t i n g i n t o i t a n d t h e r e w a s m u c h m o r e i n t h e p r o g r a m t h a n I t h a n I h a d e x p e c t e d u h I w a s u h t r y i n g t o g e t n e w i d e a s y e s , I w a s c h a n g i n g t h e n , I w a s c h a n g i n g m y s e l f , I w a s c h a n g i n g m y o w n m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g t o o . 2 3 5 I W a s t h a t a m o r e d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d ? 2 3 6 R I t h i n k s o , I t h i n k I t h i n k i t r e a l l y w a s , I t h i n k I w a s s o b u s y a n d I s p e n t s o m a n y h o u r s o f p r e p a r a t i o n t r y i n g t o i m p l e m e n t n e w m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g , I w o u l d s p e n d - - f o r t h r e e h o u r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , I f o u n d t h a t I w a s s p e n d i n g e a s i l y t h r e e h o u r s o f p r e p a r a t i o n a t h o m e a n d t h i s i s j u s t o n e o n e p r o g r a m . 2 3 7 I Y o u a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o c h a n g i n g y o u r s t y l e a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i n g s t h a t y o u k n o w w e r e d i f f e r e n t f o r y o u a s a t e a c h e r . 2 3 8 R Y e s , Y e s , a n d a c t u a l l y r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g i n t o t h e p r o g r a m . . . 2 4 3 I S o w i t h y o u r i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e t h e n t h e r e s e e m s t o b e , o r a t l e a s t a t t h e s e c o n d s t a g e t h a t y o u t a l k a b o u t , t h a t a s y o u r k n o w l e d g e i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m 2 4 4 R I h a d m o r e w o r k t o d o . 2 4 5 I Y o u h a d m o r e w o r k t o 2 4 6 R O h y e s 2 4 7 I b e c a u s e y o u r a w a r e n e s s w a s g r o w i n g w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a n d a l s o 2 4 8 R y e s 2 4 9 I o f t h e c h a n g e i n - y o u r s e l f . 2 5 0 R M y o w n c h a n g e s i n s t r a t e g i e s , i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , t h e n t h e t h i r d s t a g e I f e l t t h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d c h a n g e a g a i n b e c a u s e a t t h a t s t a g e I n o w f e e l I ' m m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n a s t o w h a t I w i l l d o . 2 5 1 I I s e e 2 5 2 R S o t h a t t h a t ' s a c h a n g e a g a i n , I t h i n k I h a v e g o n e f u l l c i r c l e . 2 5 3 I U h um 2 5 4 R I t h i n k I ' m b a c k n o w t o t o f e e l i n g u m m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h m y o w n t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s . 2 5 5 I D o y o u f e e l y o u r t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s h a v e c h a n g e d t h o u g h ? 65 2 5 6 R S o m e o f t h e m y e s , I t h i n k , I t h i n k s o m e o f t h e m e t h o d s h a v e c h a n g e d . I t h i n k I ' m p r o b a b l y d o i n g m o r e g r o u p w o r k n o w , m o r e n o t i c e a b l e g r o u p w o r k , t h a n I d i d b e f o r e . 2 5 7 I B u t y o u ' r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . 2 5 8 R Y e s , I I a m c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t I C 2 H a v i n g h a d a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n w o r k w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s , a n d t h e n a p p r o a c h i n g i t a t a n o t h e r t i m e w i t h a n o t h e r g r o u p , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s e n s e o f n o r m a l c y f o r t h e t e a c h e r . 1 8 3 R I f e e l f a i r l y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t , m o r e , m o r e s o n o w , I ' v e w o r k e d w i t h i t f o r a f e w m o n t h s 1 8 4 I W h a t d o y o u t h n k c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s f e e l i n g t h a t y o u h a v e n o w w i t h i t 1 8 5 R W e l l , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e I ' v e g o t s o m e c h i l d r e n o n o n e o f t h e b o o k s t h a t I ' v e a l r e a d y d o n e w i t h s o m e o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n s o I ' m r e p e a t i n g s o m e o f i t 1 8 6 I S o y o u ' r e m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h i t 1 8 7 R O h , y e s . I C I A l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f e e l i n g s o f n o r m a l c y w a s t h e f e e l i n g o f " t h e n e x t t i m e " . T h i s n o t i o n o f " t h e n e x t t i m e " v a r i e d . F o r s o m e i t m e a n t r e p i t i t i o n w i t h i n a y e a r , b u t w o r k i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s ; s o m e f e l t t h a t a s e c o n d s c h o o l y e a r w o u l d b e m o r e ' n o r m a l ' ; a n d o t h e r s f e l t t h e y m a y h a v e t o u s e t h e p r o g r a m f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e f e e l i n g " a t h o m e " w i t h i t . 2 3 0 R . . . n e x t y e a r I ' l l b e a b l e t o d o m o r e a n d u h s o I ' v e j u s t s o r t o f t a k e n e a c h d a y a s i t c o m e s a n d p r e p a r e d w h a t I n e e d e d f o r m y n e x t d a y a n d m a y b e d o n e s o m e l o n g r a n g e p l a n n i n g w i t h m y p r e v i e w s . I I C 1 2 7 1 I I w o n d e r i f a t t h i s t i m e y o u ' r e f e e l i n g a t h o m e w i t h t h e p r o g r a m o r 66 w h e t h e r y o u s t i l l f e e l t h e r e ' s m o r e y o u n e e d t o k n o w a b o u t i t . 2 7 2 R O h n o . I t h i n k p r o b a b l y n e x t y e a r w h e n I s t a r t t h e p r o g r a m a f r e s h , I w i l l b e y o u k n o w a l o t m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e i n i t . 2 7 3 I U h u m , s o y o u f e e l y o u h a v e t o g o t h r o u g h i t f o r a w h o l e c y c l e u h i n o r d e r t o f e e l t h a t y o u r e a l l y k n o w w h a t y o u ' r e d o i n g w i t h i t . 2 7 4 R U h u m I A 2 1 0 2 R n e x t y e a r I ' m g o i n g t o c h a n g e i t r e a l l y a n d a n d g o f a s t e r a n d u h — u h I ' m g o i n g t o u h - - o r d e r t h e s k i l p a k s . 1 0 3 I U h u m 1 0 4 R S o i n s t e a d o f u s i n g my o w n , t h a t u h I t h i n k t h a t w o u l d s p e e d i t u p a n d m a k e i t e a s i e r f o r t h e m b u t i t ' s a l s o a a w e l l a w o r k a b l e t y p e o f a p p r o a c h . I I C 1 2 5 8 R I I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t u h t h a t I r e a l l y f e e l a t h o m e w i t h t h e p r o g r a m - - u n t i l I ' v e t a u g h t i t f o r a f e w y e a r s . 2 5 9 I U h u m 2 6 0 R L i k e t o d a y I w a s l o o k i n g a t u h t h e n e w s t o r y t h a t w e w e r e s t a r t i n g t o d a y a n d i t u h h a d a w o r d i n i t t h a t I c o u l d n ' t — p l a c e w h e t h e r t h a t h a d b e e n t a u g h t t o t h e m o r w h e t h e r i t w a s a w o r d t h e y s h o u l d b e a b l e t o s o u n d o u t a n d I w a s d o i n g f l a s h c a r d s s o I p u t i t o n a f l a s h c a r d a n d t h e n a f t e r I w a s f i n i s h e d - - I r e a l i z e d t h a t I h a d t a u g h t t h a t w o r d a n d u h a f t e r I ' v e t a u g h t i t u h t h e p r o g r a m f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s w e l l I c a n s e e a w o r d a n d I c a n r e m e m b e r w h i c h s t o r y i t w a s t a u g h t i n . I I C 1 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s f e e l i n g o f n o r m a l t i m e , s o m e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y c o u l d i n c l u d e m o r e i n t h e c u r r i c u l a m , a n d i n f a c t i n t e n d e d t o d o t h a t a f u t u r e t i m e . 67 In summary, the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s both b e f o r e u s i n g a new c u r r i c u l a m , and w h i l e u s i n g i t , i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e of time. R e l a t e d to t h i s e x p e r i e n c e was the t e a c h e r ' s sense of competency i n what she does, and t h i s may i n d i c a t e an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e r i e n c e d time and a c t u a l use. Time to o r i e n t , e x p l o r e , t a l k w i t h o t h e r s , d e a l w i t h f e e l i n g s , a l l were c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the e x p e r i e n c e the t e a c h e r s had d u r i n g t h i s change p r o c e s s . Time was more than a b e g i n n i n g or end, or f o r t h a t matter a continuum. I t was the way i n which they acted and e x p e r i e n c e d the c u r r i c u l u m over time. 3;0•INFLUENCES There were v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s -i n c l u d i n g b e l i e f s , t a l k , s u p p o r t , and i n - c l a s s v a l i d a t i o n , r e l a t e d t o the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s of change. During i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m , these i n f l u e n c e s mediated t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s and t h e i r c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the time of i n i t i a l awareness and a c t u a l use of t h e . c u r r i c u l u m , through to the p l a n n i n g f o r i t s f u t u r e u t i l i z a t i o n . B e l i e f s The t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r past e x p e r i e n c e s , n o t i o n s about i n s t r u c t i o n , c h i l d r e n ' s needs, and c l a s s r o o m management, i n f l u e n c e d how they i n i t i a l l y approached the c u r r i c u l u m , f e l t about i t , and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h i t i n the c l a s s r o o m . 6 8 W h e n t e a c h e r s w e r e s e l e c t i v e a b o u t w h i c h p a r t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h e y c h o s e t o u s e , a n d h o w t h e y o r g a n i z e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , i t w a s t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g t h a t p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . T h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e w a s t h e s o u r c e a n d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e s e b e l i e f s . 1 5 1 R I g u e s s t h e t h i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e w a y I w o u l d w o r k o r u s e o r g o w i t h t h e p r o g r a m i s t h e w a y I ' v e a l w a y s w o r k e d . I C I 6 2 R Y o u c o u l d n ' t p o s s i b l y g e t t h r o u g h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s o f f e r e d i n t h e g u i d e b o o k . 6 3 I Y o u d i d n ' t , y o u d i d n ' t a t t e m p t t o d o t h a t 6 4 R I d i d n ' t a t t e m p t t o d o t h a t . Y o u ' d b e t w o w e e k s o n a s t o r y . 6 5 I U h u m 6 6 R Y o u r e l i e d o n w h a t y o u k n e w a b o u t t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g f r o m t h e p a s t i n o r d e r t o 6 7 I T h a t ' s r i g h t 6 8 R d o t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h e r e . I I A 1 1 7 7 I Um u m . W h a t g u i d e s y o u r d e c i s i o n s t h e r e [ g u i d e b o o k s ] i n w h a t y o u c h o o s e ? 1 7 8 R Um b a s i c a l l y m y p a s t e x p e r i e n c e 1 7 9 I U h u m 1 8 0 R a n d t i m e . 1 8 1 I U h u m 1 8 2 R Y o u k n o w w h a t I w a n t t o c o v e r b y t h e t i m e , t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r . 1 8 3 I W h e n y o u s a y y o u r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , d o e s t h i s m e a n t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s y o u k n o w a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g a n d u h w h a t t h e i r n e e d s a r e ? 1 8 4 R Y e s . I B 1 1 5 0 I W a s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e d u m t h e k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n s y o u m a d e a b o u t w h a t y o u w o u l d u s e o r h o w y o u w o u l d g o w i t h t h e p r o g r a m ? 1 5 1 R I g u e s s t h e t h i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e w a y I w o u l d w o r k o r u s e o r g o w i t h t h e p r o g r a m i s t h e w a y I ' v e a l w a y s w o r k e d a n d a l o t o f i n d e p e n d e n t w o r k . 1 5 2 I U h u m 1 5 3 R I h a v e a l o t - - t o m a k e a l o t o f w o r k . 1 5 4 I U h u m 1 5 5 R S o I I u s e t h e g u i d e b o o k a n d t h e p h o n i c c a r d s a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n c a r d s . 1 5 6 I S o y o u w e r e u s i n g t h e i d e a s i n t h e g u i d e b o o k 1 5 7 R U h um 1 5 8 I t o m a k e t h e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s 1 5 9 R Y e a h 1 6 0 I t h a t y o u h a d d o n e i n t h e p a s t . 1 6 1 R Y e s . I C I T e a c h e r s t e n d e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r m s o f w h a t t h e y w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e y h a d f o r m e r l y m a d e s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l s , t h e n t h e y a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s m a y a l s o b e r e q u i r e d n o w . I f t h e y w e r e a c c u s t o m e d t o d e s i g n i n g a p e r s o n a l a p p r o a c h t o c u r r i c u l u m b y c h o o s i n g m a t e r i a l s f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , t h e n i m p l e m e n t i n g a p a c k a g e d c u r r i c u l u m p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y a n d l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w a s a f r u s t r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e m . 9 1 0 R I H o w d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m a t t h a t t i m e ? U m , w e l l my o p i n i o n w a s q u i t e u h d e p e n d e n t o n w h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e . I B 1 1 9 R W h a t I a n t i c i p a t e d w a s t h a t i t w a s g o i n g t o b e a n a w f u l l o t o f w o r k b e c a u s e I h a d t h i s t r e m e n d o u s a m o i s n t o f m a t e r i a l I ' d m a d e t o g o w i t h t h e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s . I C I 7 0 1 4 8 R I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y h a v e s o m e s a y i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f p r o g r a m , I t h i n k i t s i m p o r t a n t t h a t m a t e r i a l s a r e r e a d y , I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s k n o w b e f o r e t h e p r o g r a m c o m e s i n w h a t t o e x p e c t a n d w h a t t o d o w i t h i t a n d I t h i n k i t ' s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d a n d i t s d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l t o n o t m a k e t o o m a n y p u b l i c a n n o u n c e m e n t s b e f o r e t h e s t a f f k n o w s w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g . I A 3 T e a c h e r s a l s o h a d b e l i e f s a b o u t w h a t w a s w o r t h l e a r n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d h o w l e a r n i n g s h o u l d b e m a n a g e d , a n d t h i s a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m . 1 5 4 R Y o u k n o w w e h a v e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h t h e n e x t d a y a n d t h a t h a s u m i n f l u e n c e d h o w I h a n d l e my p r o g r a m , f o r i n s t a n c e w e s t a r t e a c h d a y w i t h c o r r e c t i n g t h e p r e v i o u s d a y - - a n d t h a t d o e s n ' t g o a l o n g w i t h m y o w n p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d I ' m f i n d i n g t h i s - - u m h a r d t o d e a l w i t h . I I A 1 5 8 R I k n o w t h a t w h e n I t h i n k t h e k i d s c a n l e a r n t o r e a d i f y o u ' r e r e a l l y c o n v i n c e d u m y o u k n o w i f y o u ' r e , i f y o u f e e l t h a t y o u ' v e g o t s o m e t h i n g g o o d 5 9 I U h u m 6 0 R a n d y o u ' v e g o t a l o t t o o f f e r t h e m a n d i f y o u ' r e n o t r e a l l y t o t a l l y s o l d o n s o m e t h i n g , I t h i n k i t I t h i n k i t d o e s a f f e c t y o u r t e a c h i n g . I B 1 1 2 6 R . . . my o w n f e e l i n g s t e n d t o g o t o e n r i c h m e n t s o I h a d t o r e a l l y m a k e m y s e l f s l o w d o w n w i t h t h e t h e u m b e g i n n i n g r e a d e r s w h o w e r e d o i n g a w h o l e n e w p r o g r a m b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n e e d m o r e t i m e 1 2 7 I U h u m 1 2 8 R I h a d t o b e v e r y c a r e f u l i n t h a t w a y , I f o u n d t h a t f r u s t r a t i n g . I C 2 7 1 4 5 R I l i k e t h e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s b u t I w a n t e d t o t r y t h i s o n e a n d I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e c h i l d r e n k n e w t h a t I d i d n ' t r e a l l y , i t d i d n ' t c o m e a c r o s s t o t h e k i d s t h a t I d o n ' t l i k e i t , I l o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e s a n d s a y e c s t a t i c t h i n g s a b o u t B i l l a n d t h a t 4 6 I ( l a u g h ) D i d y o u e n c o u n t e r a n y p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s w h e n y o u w e r e g e t t i n g g o i n g w i t h i t ? 4 7 R U h u h - - w e l l - - w i t h t h e - w e l l t h i s i s - - t h i s i s n ' t q u i t e w h a t y o u m e a n b u t I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o t e a c h t h e p h o n i c p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m . I C I 1 3 9 R T h e r e a r e t h i n g s I l i k e a b o u t i t a n d t h i n g s I d o n ' t l i k e a b o u t i t a n d t h e t h i n g s t h a t I l i k e I I i m p l e m e n t a n d u s e a n d t h e t h i n g s I d o n ' t l i k e I c h a n g e . . . 1 5 3 R I t h i n k t h a t u m t h a t I h a d t o p u t a l o t I ' v e h a d t o p u t a - - b a s i c a l l y m y o w n p r o g r a m t o g e t h e r o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a n d c r e a t i n g w r i t t e n s k i l l s . I t h i n k t h a t i f I f o l l o w e d w h a t a g a i n g u i d e l i n e s s t a r t i n g i n G r a d e 1 a n d g o i n g o n , I t h i n k t h e k i d s w o u l d n ' t b e a b l e t o y o u k n o w w r i t e . I A 1 3 0 R I ' v e u s e d p a r t s o f t h e m a n d o t h e r s I h a v e n ' t a n d a n d i t ' s j u s t , I g u e s s b e c a u s e o f m y l a c k o f e n e r g y t o g e t i n t o i t , 3 1 I U h u m 3 2 R a n d u h , i t ' s n o t , I d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s a h e s i t a t i o n u m - - i n o n e s e n s e m a y b e i t i s b e c a u s e s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s I f o u n d I h a v e n ' t l i k e d . I I E 1 A t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f s a b o u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m f u r t h e r m e d i a t e d t h e u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ; t h a t i s , d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f s . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s s a m e i n t e r a c t i o n f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d a n d m o d i f i e d 7 2 b e l i e f s o v e r t i m e . T e a c h e r s m a d e d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d w a s r i g h t f o r t h e g r o u p t h e y w e r e t e a c h i n g , o r t h e y w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i r g e n e r a l b e l i e f s a b o u t w h a t i s r i g h t f o r c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g . 3 6 7 R I t w a s n ' t a g r e a t s h o c k t o me 3 6 8 I y e s 3 6 9 R i n i m p l e m e n t i n g i t 3 7 0 I y e s 3 7 1 R i t ' s j u s t s o r t o f f i g u r i n g o u t i n y o u r o w n h e a d w h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t , w h a t i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p . I I B 2 3 5 I D o o t h e r k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t y o u ' r e s u p p l e m e n t i n g w i t h a r e t h e s e m o r e i n l i n e w i t h w h a t y o u ' v e d o n e i n t h e p a s t a n d f o u n d s u c c e s s w i t h ? 3 6 R U m , w e l l w h e n y o u t a k e a r e a d i n g p r o g r a m t o m a k e i t e x c i t i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n I t h i n k y o u h a v e t o e n r i c h i t . I A 2 3 1 9 R W e l l , i n t h a t s e n s e w h a t I ' m s a y i n g i s I h a v e n ' t u s e d s o m e o f t h e m [ r e s o u r c e s ] 3 2 0 I U h u m 3 2 1 R b e c a u s e I ' v e f o u n d d i f f e r e n t w a y s a n d t h o u g h t , I e v e n w i t h t h i s b o o k I ' l l c h a n g e t h i n g s i f I t h i n k , y o u k n o w , I I c a n s e e t h e k i d s d o i n g i t i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y t h a t I t h i n k w o u l d b e 3 2 2 I U h um 3 2 3 R m o r e c h a l l e n g i n g t o t h e m o r s o m e t h i n g u h y o u k n o w m o r e w o r t h w h i l e . I I E 1 5 8 R I f e l t t h e k i d s i n t h i s s c h o o l , u m a s a g e n e r a l r u l e , a r e n ' t t h e b e s t r e a d e r s 5 9 I S o d i d y o u u m l o o k a t t h e n e w p r o g r a m w i t h t h i s i n m i n d a n d 6 0 R w e l o o k e d t o s e e w h a t w o u l d b e b e s t f o r t h e k i d s , w e t r i e d t o p u t t h e i r n e e d s a h e a d o f w h a t w e h a d d o n e b e f o r e . I I B 1 73 80 R Your very slow c h i l d , you would take your guide and you would p r e t t y w e l l f o l l o w i t , your average c h i l d 81 I Uh um 82 R depending you know 83 I So you say t h a t depending on what the c h i l d r e n are doing you w i l l do d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s w i t h i t . 84 R Oh yeah, most d e f i n i t e l y . IA2 249 I What i s i t about i t t h a t you f e e l about i t i s w e l l s e t up? 250 R Um, w e l l they do break i t down, they g i v e you your v o c a b u l a r y , the background i n f o r m a t i o n i t ' s not too w e l l i n the comprehension 251 I Uh um 252 R you, you have to read i n t o t h a t and make your q u e s t i o n s s t i m u l a t i n g , but they do g i v e you a l o t o f s k i l l s t h a t go along w i t h t h a t . IA2 Teachers' b e l i e f s were a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e upon how they f e l t about the new c u r r i c u l u m , how they i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d u s i n g i t , and how they i n t e r a c t e d on a d a i l y b a s i s d u r i n g a c t u a l use. Although some b e l i e f s were m o d i f i e d over time, thereby r e s h a p i n g c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e or the c u r r i c u l u m , b e l i e f s c o n t i n u e d to mediate i n the process of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r people became a major v e h i c l e f o r a f f i r m i n g or m o d i f y i n g b e l i e f s . Talk T a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r s d u r i n g the implementation of the c u r r i c u l u m was an imp o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n the t e a c h e r s ' l e a r n i n g about i t and on t h e i r f e e l i n g s w h i l e they were l e a r n i n g . T h i s s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e helped to v a l i d a t e t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s , and to p r o v i d e a forum f o r a i r i n g concerns or s h a r i n g new i d e a s . Teachers found t h a t t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r s was p a r t i c u l a r l y important when they were f i r s t u s i n g the program; t h i s ' e a r l y ' t a l k p r o v i d e d 7 4 s u p p o r t a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n . C o n t i n u e d t a l k w a s i m p o r t a n t a l s o , h o w e v e r , f o r a s t i m e w e n t o n , t e a c h e r s e n c o u n t e r e d o b s t a c l e s o r w a n t e d t o e x p a n d w h a t t h e y p r e s e n t l y k n e w . T a l k w a s v e r y m u c h a n i n t e g r a l , a n d o n g o i n g p a r t o f t h e i r c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e , a n d e m e r g e d a s o n e o f t h e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s . T a l k a m o n g t e a c h e r s w i t h i n a s c h o o l w a s v e r y p r e v a l a n t . D e c i s i o n m a k i n g w a s a r e a s o n f o r " g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r " o n a s t a f f , s o m e t i m e s t o p o o l o r c l a r i f y i n f o m a t i o n , t o s e t p o l i c y , a n d a l s o t o h e a r f r o m o t h e r s w h e n t h i n g s w e r e u n c e r t a i n . 1 3 4 R We t a l k e d a l o t t o e a c h o t h e r ( o t h e r t e a c h e r s ) a b o u t p l a c e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n a n d w h a t w e w e r e f i n d i n g w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . I A 3 1 1 4 R Y e a h , I t h i n k u m m a y b e a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n a f e w s c h o o l s m i g h t h a v e b e e n [ h e l p f u l ] . 1 1 5 I H o w w o u l d y o u h a v e f o u n d o u t i t w o u l d h e l p t h e m ? 1 1 6 R W e l l , I t h i n k t h e n y o u c o u l d a c t u a l l y s i t d o w n w i t h y o u r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , a n d a n d s i t a n d s a y a n d s a y o k a y y o u k n o w w h a t y o u ' r e b a s c i a l l y t a l k i n g a b o u t i s h o w y o u f e l t w i t h a n y c h a n g e . I A 1 1 5 2 R We w i l l s i t d o w n a n d d e c i d e a s a g r o u p w h e t h e r w e f e l t t h a t w e w e r e w a s t i n g o u r t i m e . 1 5 3 I I s e e , s o t h e r e ' s n o t s o m u c h t o e v a l u a t e t h e c h i l d r e n a s t h e r e i s t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m . 1 5 4 R U h u h , w e l l i t w a s s o r t o f y o u k n o w , I g u e s s t h e y ' r e r u n n i n g s i d e b y s i d e r e a l l y 1 5 5 I Y e a h 1 5 6 R i n a s e n s e t h a t i f w e t h i n k t h e y ' r e w o r t h w h i l e b u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d 7 5 w i t h t h e g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s d o w n h e r e t h e r e ' s n o w a y w e w o u l d g i v e t h e t e s t f o r t h e s a k e o f g i v i n g i t . I A 2 1 9 4 R W e l l , I m e a n u h t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e v e r y u h o b l i g i n g y o u k n o w . We a l l d i s c u s s e d i t a n d w e h a d m e e t i n g a f t e r m e e t i n g y o u k n o w . W e ' d g e t t o g e t h e r a n d t a l k i t o v e r a n d h a s h o u t o u r p r o b l e m s b u t u h u m - - t h e r e w a s a l o t o f t a l k 1 9 5 I U h u m 1 9 6 R a n d t h e s t a f f a b o u t i t . 1 9 7 I U h u m , i n w h a t w a y w a s t h i s h e l p f u l 1 9 8 R W e l l , t h e y s e e m t o , y o u k n o w e v e r y o n e o f u s s e e m e d t o h a v e a d i f f e r e n t i d e a o f w h a t w a s s a i d a t t h e m e e t i n g s a n d t h e r e w e r e t h e r e w e r e t i m e s w h e n w e g o t s u c h a d i v e r s e o p i n i o n a s t o w h e r e w e s h o u l d b e a n d w h a t n o t a n d u h u m - - w e l l , I I t h i n k j u s t d i s c u s s i n g i t y o u k n o w w e b r o u g h t o u t t h i n g s t h a t t h e y k n e w t h a t y o u k n o w t h a t w e m i g h t h a v e s l i p p e d u p o n . I I F l T h i s t a l k i n g d e v e l o p e d a s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y a m o n g s o m e t e a c h e r s , a n d p r o v i d e d b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t f o r o n e a n o t h e r . S t u d y o r w o r k s e s s i o n s , s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , o r j u s t i n f o r m a l c h a t s b r o u g h t t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r a n d h e l p e d t h e m d e a l w i t h t h e w o r k t h e y a n t i c i p a t e d a n d w i t h t h e u n c e r t a i n t y t h e y i n i t i a l l y f e l t . 9 3 I W a s t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t u m w a s h e l p f u l d u r i n g y o u k n o w g e t t i n g g o i n g w i t h t h i s a n d g e t t i n g i t i m p l e m e n t e d ? 9 4 R Y e s , t h e r e w a s a n o t h e r t h i n g u m a l l t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e p r i m a r y d e p a r t m e n t w e r e f a c e d w i t h t h e s a m e p r o b l e m i n t h a t t h e y u m h a d t w o g r a d e s t o w o r k w i t h s o t h e y ^ w e r e p r e p a r i n g 9 5 I U h u m 9 6 R f o r m o r e t h a n I t h i n k t h e l e a s t a n y b o d y h a d w a s t h r e e g r o u p s - - I 7 6 b e l i e v e w e a l l h a d f o u r g r o u p s , s o w h a t w e d i d w a s w e m e t , w e h a d s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s a n d t h r e w i d e a s a r o u n d a n d a n d w h a t w e e v e n t u a l l y d i d w a s h a v e o n e p e r s o n p r e p a r e a l l t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n q u e s t i o n s f o r - -l e v e l s i x u m o n e p e r s o n p r e p a r e a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s f o r l e v e l s e v e n . I I A 1 1 8 6 R W e ' v e h e l p e d e a c h o t h e r a l o t . O n e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t i t ' s d o n e i s s o r t o f u n i t e u s a l l 1 8 7 I U h u m 1 8 8 R o n t h e s t a f f . 1 8 9 I W h a t s o r t s o f t h i n g s h a v e y o u d o n e w i t h t h e s t a f f ? 1 9 0 R W e l l , w e ' r e , w e ' r e d i s c u s s i n g w h a t w e ' r e d o i n g a n d w h a t p r o b l e m s w e ' r e h a v i n g a n d w h a t w e a k n e s s e s w e f i n d a n d w h a t y o u k n o w , w h a t t h i n g s w e f o u n d w o r k w e l l . 1 9 1 I U h u m 1 9 2 R W h e r e a s I t h i n k p r o b a b l y b e f o r e w e w e r e d o i n g o u r o w n k i n d s o f p r o g r a m a n d w e d i d n ' t , t h e r e w a s n ' t t h e n e e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e 1 9 3 I U h u m 1 9 4 R a s t h e r e i s n o w . 1 9 5 I H a v e y o u f o u n d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n h e l p f u l ? 1 9 6 R U h , w e o f t e n h e l p e a c h o t h e r w i t h i d e a s o r o r u m e s t a b l i s h i n g a n a p p r o a c h t o u h c o v e r i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e b o o k . I B 1 9 0 R T h e o t h e r t h i n g w a s u m o n e o f my c o l l e a g u e s h e r e t h a t t e a c h e s G r a d e 4 , G r a d e 3 - 4 , s h e h a d t a u g h t G i n n b e f o r e i n A l b e r t a 9 1 I U h u m 9 2 R a n d s h e w a s v e r y m u c h f o r i t 9 3 I U h u m 9 4 R a n d s h e c o u l d g i v e u s a l o t o f i n p u t a b o u t G i n n a n d h o w s h e f e l t a b o u t i t , a n d t h a t h a d t o b e p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n t h a t I f o u n d m y s e l f s a y i n g , o k a y , m a y b e I w i l l . I I B 1 2 6 0 R We h a v e t h e o t h e r p e r s o n I s h o u l d m e n t i o n t h a t ' s b e e n e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l i s o u r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r . 7 7 2 6 1 I U h u m 2 6 2 R S h e ' s u m m a d e q u i t e a s t u d y o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d s h e ' s v e r y u m w i l l i n g t o - - u h s h a r e w i t h u s w h a t s h e ' s f o u n d a n d w h a t y o u k n o w h o w t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p r o g r a m f o r u s - . . . 2 6 9 I S h e c o u l d a n s w e r t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s f o r y o u . 2 7 0 R N o t o n l y t h a t b u t s a y y o u k n o w I f o u n d t h a t s o a n d s o w o r k s b e s t a n d u h y o u k n o w u h t h i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t w e s h o u l d b e l o o k i n g a t o r t r y i n g t o d o 2 7 1 I U h u m 2 7 2 R s o s h e ' s c o n s t a n t l y e d u c a t i n g u s i n t h a t r e s p e c t . 2 7 3 I S o u n d s l i k e a l o t o f i n v o l v e m e n t , d o y o u 2 7 4 R i t s n e c e s s a r y 2 7 5 I Y o u f e e l t h a t ' s n e c e s s a r y 2 7 6 R o h f o r s u r e 2 7 7 I y e a h 2 7 8 R I t h i n k i t w o u l d b e t e r r i b l e t o b e p u t o n a n e w p r o g r a m a n d f e e l t h a t y o u d i d n ' t h a v e a n y b o d y t o g o t o o r t h a t y o u c o u l d n ' t d i s c u s s i t o r d i d n ' t h a v e a n y r e s o u r c e s . I B 1 A m o n g s o m e s t a f f t h i s s e n s e o f c o l l e g i a l i t y w a s n o t a l w a y s a c h i e v e d . T h i s w a s i n d i c a t e d b y a l a c k o f p o s i t i v e o r c o n s t r u c t i v e t a l k a m o n g t e a c h e r s , o r b y t e a c h e r s p r e f e r r i n g t o g o t o p e o p l e o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o r s u p p o r t . R e a s o n s f o r t h i s n e g a t i v e t o n e w e r e t h e f a c t t h a t s o m e t e a c h e r s d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s , a n d a p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t a t t h e s c h o o l l e v e l . 3 2 2 I I s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h a n g e t h a t m a y b e w e h a v e n ' t t o u c h e d o n t h a t y o u c o n s i d e r t o h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t f o r y o u ? 3 2 3 R W e l l — y e s , I I d o t h i n k t h a t u m - -o n e t h i n g a b o u t c h a n g e i s t h a t - - i t h a s t o b e , e v e r y b o d y h a s t o b e b e h i n d i t 1 0 0 % . 3 2 4 I U h u m 7 8 3 2 5 R I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t u m i t c a n b e a s e f f e c t i v e a s i t s h o u l d b e i f i t ' s o n l y 8 0 % d e s i r e d . 3 2 6 I U h u m 3 2 7 R U m , I d o n ' t k n o w h o w y o u w o u l d g e t a r o u n d t h a t s u p p o s e d l y i n y o u k n o w t h e m a j o r i t y i s s u p p o s e d t o h a v e t h e s a y a n d s o f o r t h b u t I t h i n k u n l e s s y o u h a v e u n a n i m o u s d e c i s i o n f o r c h a n g e 3 2 8 I U h u m 3 2 9 R u m i t p r e s e n t s o b s t a c l e s . . . I I A 1 8 3 I D o y o u t a l k a b o u t t h a t a s p e c t o f i t o t h e r t h a n j u s t f i n d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s , d o y o u t a l k a b o u t w h a t y o u r f e e l i n g w i t h i t , w h a t y o u ' r e d o i n g i n y o u r o w n c l a s s r o o m ? 8 4 R Y e s , I I t h i n k w e w e r e a l l y d o t a l k a b o u t i t , I ' m f i n d i n g r i g h t n o w t h a t - - my c o l l e a g u e s a r e p r e t t y w e l l f e d u p w i t h y o u k n o w t h e n e w p r o g r a m a n d w h e n e v e r y o u m e n t i o n i t t h e y t e n d t o t h r o w t h e i r a r m s u p a n s a y a h h h h y o u k n o w , I d o n ' t e v e n w a n t t o h e a r a b o u t i t a n y m o r e a n d I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t d o e s a n y g o o d . 8 5 I U h u m 8 6 R I , i f I h a v e a c o n c e r n w i t h a p r o g r a m I ' d r e a l l y l i k e t o s i t d o w n a n d t a l k t o s o m e b o d y a b o u t i t . 8 7 I H a v e y o u b e e n a b l e t o d o t h a t a t a l l ? 8 8 R Y e s , I ' v e g o n e b e y o n d o u r c o l l e a g u e s 8 9 I U h u m 9 0 R a b o u t t h i s b e c a u s e I ' m n o t t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e t o t h e p r o g r a m a n d i f y o u ' r e t a l k i n g t o c o l l e a g u e s t h a t a r e t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e a l l y o u ' r e d o i n g i s c o m p l a i n i n g a n d y o u ' r e n o t g e t t i n g a n y 9 1 I u h u m , s o y o u ' v e 9 2 R s o I ' v e g o n e b e y o n d t h a t , I h a v e g o n e t o o u r l a n g u a g e a r t s u h l i a s o n p e o p l e o u r c o - o r d i n a t o r s a n d d i s c u s s e d s o m e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e m a n d t h a t h a s b e e n , t h e y h a v e b e e n v e r y g o o d , t h a t ' s b e e n t e r r i f i c u m . T h e y h a v e g i v e n m e t h e f e e l i n g t h a t y o u a r e t h e t e a c h e r , t h e b o o k i s t h e r e f o r y o u t o u s e , b u t i t ' s n o t t h e t e a c h e r , y o u ' r e t h e t e a c h e r . I C 2 7 9 T a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l , p r o v i d e d a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e o n a d a i l y b a s i s . 2 4 5 I Y o u w e r e m e n t i o n i n g t h a t t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d y o u r d e c i s i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m w e r e y o u r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s a r e a n d t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g , w h a t a b o u t i n f l u e n c e s o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m , w a s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t g u i d e d t h e w a y y o u c o n d u c t e d y o u r u h d a i l y t h i n g s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ? 2 4 6 R U m , y e s I t h i n k w e w e r e , I f o u n d t h a t I w a s y o u k n o w , m o d i f y i n g m y u h u s e o f t h e p r o g r a m t h e m o r e I l e a r n e d a b o u t i t a n d t h e m o r e I d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h o t h e r s t a f f m e m b e r s . I B 1 1 9 2 R I p a r t i c u l a r l y t a l k e d w i t h _ _ , b e c a u s e h e ' s m y g r a d e p a r t n e r i n G r a d e 1 1 9 3 I U h u m 1 9 4 R H e ' s v e r y p l e a s e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , w e t a l k a l o t a b o u t h o w w e f e e l a b o u t i t a s o p p o s e d t o t h e p r o g r a m t h a t w e h a d l a s t y e a r . 1 9 5 I I s t h i s r e a s s u r i n g ? 1 9 6 R Y e s , i t i s , v e r y m u c h s o b e c a u s e w e b o t h h a d t o g o a n d r e - d o a n d m a k e a l l n e w t h i n g s a n d s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e a n d t e a c h o u r s e l v e s h o w t o t e a c h t h e p r o g r a m , s o i t h a s t a k e n a l o t o f w o r k 1 9 7 I O h y e s . 1 9 8 R B u t i t ' s i t ' s w o r t h i t w h e n w e b o t h f e e l t h a t t h a t i t ' s a p r o g r a m 1 9 9 I U h u m y e s 2 0 0 R t h a t ' s w o r k i n g f o r t h e k i d s . . . 2 0 3 I W a s i t a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e c h a t t i n g w i t h h i m a t a l l o r w a s i t j u s t k i n d o f s h a r i n g w h a t y o u w e r e d o i n g ? 2 0 4 R I t h i n k i t p r o b a b l y w a s l e a r n i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , w e h a v e n ' t d o n e s o m u c h o f t h a t r e c e n t l y b e c a u s e I t h i n k n o w w e b o t h f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . 2 0 5 I U h u m 2 0 6 R a t t h e b e g i n n i n g i t d e f i n i t e l y w a s , I ' d s a y , t h i n g s l i k e , h o w a r e y o u d o i n g w i t h t h e s e " g l i d e d " a n d 80 " u n g l i d e d " vowels you know, and he would say, not at a l l w e l l , I'm doing such and such and we'd t a l k about t h a t . IIB1 Through t a l k i n g , t e a c h e r s c l a r i f i e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l s o , i t was important f o r t e a c h e r s to know t h a t t h e i r c o l l e a g e s saw the program as "working" or w o r t h w h i l e f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 181 I Does t h i s have any i n f l u e n c e on you ' t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s ? 182 R Oh very much so. 183 I In what sense? 184 R I t h i n k your e x p e c t a t i o n s , or t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s perhaps um are r e a l l y very important uh I t h i n k t h a t what I want the next t e a c h e r to know where the k i d s a r e . IIB1 184 I Did you share any o t h e r k i n d s of t h i n g s w i t h people on s t a f f ? 185 R Uh, the Grade 1 t e a c h e r s were pl e a s e d w i t h how t h e i r c h i l d r e n were responding to the new program. IIB2 382 I Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t you have e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t maybe we haven't touched on t h a t you would c o n s i d e r an i m p o r t a n t aspect o f what happened f o r you? 383 R I f e e l I've had a l o t of p o s i t i v e feedback from the Grade 1 t e a c h e r s are very c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the program, t h a t h e l p s me a g r e a t d e a l . 1182 Meetings o r g a n i z e d o u t s i d e the s c h o o l p r o v i d e d o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e a c h e r s to c o n t a c t one another. At these meetings t h e i r t a l k took on s e v e r a l forms; workshop l e a d e r s p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l , d i s c u s s i o n or work groups s h a r i n g i d e a s or c o n c e r n s , and i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s . 8 1 I n f o r m a t i o n a l t a l k w a s h e l p f u l t o t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t t h e y n e e d e d d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e y s t a r t e d u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m a n d l e a r n i n g m o r e a b o u t i t . I t w a s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e k i n d a n d a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n b y t h e w o r k s h o p l e a d e r s w a s r e l e v a n t t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' n e e d s , b e c a u s e t h i s ' o f f i c i a l ' t a l k w a s o f t e n p e r c e i v e d b y t e a c h e r s a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e ; i t h a d i m p a c t o n w h a t t e a c h e r s s t a r t e d l o o k i n g a t a n d h o w t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e p r o g r a m . 1 0 R I f e l t a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g t h a t I a t t e n d e d u m w h e r e t h e r e w e r e t h e r e w e r e t h r e e p r o g r a m s p r e s e n t e d , a n d t h e f e e l i n g t h a t I g o t w a s t h a t o n e p r o g r a m w a s d e f i n i t e l y b e i n g p u s h e d o r b e i n g f a v o u r e d b y t h e p e o p l e i n c h a r g e . 1 1 I H o w d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h a t ? 1 2 R U m , w e l l I f e l t - - m y i m m e d i a t e r e a c t i o n w a s - - t o f e e l s u s p i c i o u s o f a b o u t w h y w a s t h i s o n e p r o g r a m b e i n g u m - - b e i n g s p o k e n o f s o f a v o u r a b l y , w h y w a s t h i s o n e b e i n g u s e d s o m u c h a s a n e x a m p l e u m t h e r e w e r e a l o t o f t h i n g s l i k e a h u s e d a s a n e x a m p l e h o w e a s i l y t h i n g s c o u l d b e f o u n d i n a c e r t a i n g u i d e b o o k i n r e l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r p r o g r a m w h e r e y o u r e a l l y h a d t o h u n t , s e a r c h a n d f i n d . . . 2 0 R S o , w h i l e I w a s s u s p i c i o u s o f i t I t h o u g h t 2 1 I U h u m 2 2 R Y o u k n o w , I w o n d e r w h a t t h e r e a s o n i n g i s w h a t ' s g o i n g o n h e r e 2 3 I D i d i t m a k e y o u c u r i o u s t o l o o k a t t h e n e w p r o g r a m t o s e e w h a t i t w a s l i k e ? 2 4 R U h u m , d e f i n i t e l y . I I A 1 2 2 R W e ' v e h a d m e e t i n g s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r a n d y o u k n o w e a c h o n e w a s u m y o u k n o w g i v e n t h e l e v e l w e w e r e a l l o n p r e t t y w e l l *" 2 3 I U h u m 2 4 R a n d i t w a s h e l p f u l t o f i n d t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s w e r e h a v i n g p r o b l e m s t h e s a m e a s y o u k n o w i t w a s a r e a l l y 8 2 g r a t i f y i n g t h i n g t o s p e a k t o t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d f i n d o u t t h e i r m i s g i v i n g s . I I F 1 3 0 R H a v i n g u m j u s t g l a n c i n g t h r o u g h a b o o k o r t h r o u g h b o o k s a t a w o r k s h o p r e a l l y d o e s n ' t g i v e y o u - - a n y i d e a . A t t h e t i m e I w a s g o i n g o n a g r e a t d e a l b y - - b y t h e u h - - t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t - - u h - - t h e d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e p e o p l e h a d s e t o u t f o r u s . . . 3 6 R S o I u m u m a c c e p t e d i t w h a t t h e y h a d s a i d . I I C 1 1 4 3 R We h a d u m - - s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t m e e t i n g s f o r f o r p e o p l e w h o w e r e g e t t i n g i n t o 1 4 4 I U h u m 1 4 5 R i n t o G i n n a n d u h , a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g s i t w a s m a d e q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t , h e y , y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o d o e v e r y t h i n g u m 1 4 6 I H o w d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h o s e s u g g e s t i o n s ? 1 4 7 R W e l l 1 4 8 I f r o m t h e , y o u k n o w s u p p o r t s t a f f ? 1 4 9 R Y e s , t h e n t h e n h a v i n g l o o k e d b a c k a n d , a n d y o u k n o w h e a r d w h a t t h e y s a i d a n d t h o u g h t a b o u t i t , y e s y o u k n o w , y o u ' r e r i g h t , u m i t w a s i t w a s s i l l y t o a t t e m p t t h i s 1 5 0 I U h um 1 5 1 R a n d I c o u l d s e e h o w t h e p r o g r a m f i t t e d t o g e t h e r . 1 1 0 1 2 2 0 I I t s e e m s f r o m w h a t y o u ' r e s a y i n g t h e r e t h a t f i r s t o f a l l t h e r e ' s a l o t o f f a c e t s t o t h e p r o g r a m a n d 2 2 1 R U h u m 2 2 2 I W h e n y o u f i r s t h e a r a b o u t i t , i t ' s k i n d o f d a z z l i n g . 2 2 3 R U h u m 2 2 4 I T h e r e ' s j u s t s o m u c h t o t a k e i n w h a t u h s o r t o f e m e r g e s o f i n t e r e s t t o y o u a t f i r s t i s w h a t y o u t a k e h o m e a n d s t a r t p l a y i n g w i t h , a n d t h e n f u r t h e r d o w n t h e r o a d y o u ' d l i k e t o g o b a c k a g a i n a n d p e r h a p s h a v e n e w t h i n g s r e v e a l e d 2 2 5 R U h u m 83 2 2 6 I b e c a u s e y o u r , k n o w l e d g e i n c r e a s e s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , i s t h a t c o r r e c t w a y t o 2 2 7 R Y e a h , I t h i n k s o . . . 2 4 9 R T h e n I h a v e t o b e r e m i n d e d y o u k n o w p e r h a p s I ' m n o t c o v e r i n g e v e r y t h i n g y o u k n o w s o i t ' s j u s t k i n d o f , y o u k n o w h o w i t i s w h e n s o m e o n e s a y s h e y , y o u k n o w a n d a n d g e e y o u a r e k i n d o f m a d e a w a r e a g a i n . I I E 1 4 9 I N o w y o u ' v e m e n t i o n e d t h e s u r v e y t h a t c a m e a r o u n d a n d y o u m e n t i o n e d d i s t r i c t m e e t i n g s 5 0 R U h u m 5 1 I a n d i n s e r v i c e I g u e s s y o u ' r e r e f e r r i n g t o . 5 2 R U h um 5 3 I D i d t h i s s u r v e y s o r t o f d r a w y o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h i n g s o r m a k e y o u s i t u p a n d t a k e n o t i c e o f t h i n g s i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r w a y ? 5 4 R Y e s , i t m a d e m e , l i k e l i k e t h e y t h e y w o u l d u h a s k p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t f a c e t s o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d 5 5 I U h u m 5 6 R W e r e y o u a w a r e o f t h i s a n d d i d y o u u s e i t a n d d i d y o u h a v e a c c e s s t o i t ? A n d y o u k n o w I h a d n ' t b e e n a w a r e o f s o m e o f t h e m 5 7 I U h u m 5 8 R a n d s o I I d i d t a k e t h e t i m e t o t a k e a l o o k a n d s e e t h a t , y e s , t h e y w e r e t h e r e o r n o t t h e y w e r e n ' t a n d u h a n d t h o u g h t a g a i n l i k e u h e s p e c i a l l y w h e n i t s a i d u h w o u l d t h e y b e v a l u a b l e o r w o u l d y o u u s e t h e m , a n d t h o u g h t y e s , p e r h a p s y o u k n o w I w o u l d a n d t h e y w o u l d b e v a l u a b l e . I I E 1 T h e i d e a o f m o r e t h a n o n e m e e t i n g w a s a p p e a l i n g a n d h e l p f u l t o t h e t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h t h e o n g o i n g o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d f o r t h e m t o i n c r e a s e a n d v a l i d a t e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . I t w a s i m p e r a t i v e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e m e e t i n g s m e t t h e t e a c h e r s ' n e e d s a t t h e t i m e ; o t h e r w i s e t h e m e e t i n g s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a w a s t e o f t i m e a n d w e r e n o t a t t e n d e d . 8 4 9 4 I W e r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r t e a c h e r s o r p e o p l e i n t h e d i s t r i c t t h a t p r o v i d e d s o m e k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r s u p p o r t o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t i n t h i s p r o c e s s ? 9 5 R W e l l w e h a d t h e w o r k s h o p s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , w e h a d s o m e b o d y u h w h o h a d d e v o t e d a l o t o f t i m e t o t e l l i n g u s y o u k n o w u h h e l p i n g u s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m a s i t w a s a n d s e e i n g u s p e r i o d i c a l l y a n d a n d I g o t r e a l l y f e d u p w i t h t h a t a n d I ' m g l a d ( l a u g h ) t h i s i s c o n f i d e n t i a l b u t w e w e n t t o t h e s a m e t h i n g t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s a n d I s a i d I j u s t , I ' m n o t g o i n g t o g o a g a i n I c a n ' t s t a n d t o g o a g a i n w e l l , w e j u s t s i t t h e r e a n d t h e y g o o v e r t h e p r o g r a m . I C I 1 4 0 R U m , t h e y d i d h a v e s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m b u t - - I t h i n k t h a t u h — p e o p l e w e r e y o u k n o w t h a t w e r e i n v o l v e d i n c h a n g e c o u l d h a v e u s e d a l i t t l e m o r e g u i d a n c e 1 4 1 I U h u m 1 4 2 R a s t o u m - - w h a t w a s r e a l i s t i c i n t e r m s o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h t h e n e w p r o g r a m a n d - - d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f u m - - a c t i v i t i e s t o - - I d o n ' t k n o w , m a y b e I ' m b e i n g t o o - - c r i t i c a l 1 4 3 I I t s o u n d s l i k e y o u w e r e — a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s l o o k i n g f o r t h e k i n d o f p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e o f t h e n u t s a n d b o l t s 1 4 4 R U h u m 1 4 5 I t h e d a y t o d a y r o u t i n e w a s s o m e t h i n g 1 4 6 R y e a h , y e a h I I A 1 O t h e r t e a c h e r s , a s w e l l a s w o r k s h o p l e a d e r s , w e r e a n i n f l u e n c e a t m e e t i n g s . 1 0 3 I I n w h a t w a y w e r e t h e d i s t r i c t m e e t i n g s h e l p f u l ? 1 0 4 R J u s t e x p l a i n i n g 1 0 5 I U h u m . . . 1 2 1 R Y e s , a n d t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s e d h o w t h e y w e r e u s i n g i t d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m , s o m e w e r e m a k i n g u p s t e n c i l s 1 2 2 I U h u m 85 i t ? 129 R Yes, yes, and you know someone was s a y i n g t h e r e ' s an a w f u l l o t of marking and so you would d i s c u s s how you c o u l d c u t down on t h i s . IIB2 295 I You mentioned t h a t what was h e l p f u l was t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . 296 R Uh um 297 I Was t h i s j u s t i n the s c h o o l ? 298 R W e l l , i t has been i n the s c h o o l mostly but the meetings t h a t we've at t e n d e d , we t a l k e d w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . 299 I Uh um 300 R That was the f i r s t time t h a t I heard t h a t some some people were d e f i n i t e l y not u s i n g t h i s f i r s t r e ader ... 304 R and uh t h a t ' s when I found out at the meeting then i n f a c t s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s weren't doing t h a t at a l l . IIB1 220 R ... I f e l t t h a t I was changing my own s t r a t e g i e s , my own t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s -- and t r y i n g some new t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r people had suggested t h a t t h a t was a change f o r me. 221 I Are you s a y i n g t h a t the ty p e s of t h i n g s you t r i e d out were t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r people had suggested you t r y ? 222 R Yes IC2 123 I What s o r t s o f t h i n g s have you found h e l p f u l ? 124 R W e l l , I I t h i n k j u s t uh t a l k i n g i t over w i t h o t h e r uh t e a c h e r s 125 I Uh um 126 R and the d i s t r i c t has had uh t h r e e meetings, I t h i n k t h r e may be f o u r I've gone to and uh we -- j u s t --t e a c h e r s i n the program 127 I Uh um 128 R w i l l get t o g e t h e r and t a l k about --t h i n g s t h e y ' r e doing 8 6 U h u m a n d a l s o w e ' v e u h - - t a k e n o n e i d e a o r s o m e t h i n g t o i t U h u m a n d t h a t r e a l l y h a s b e e n q u i t e h e l p f u l . I I C 1 W h a t a b o u t s u b s e q u e n t m e e t i n g s , y o u s a y t h a t t h e r e ' s b e e n t h i n g s t h i s y e a r . H a v e t h e y b e e n h e l f p u l ? U h , y e s , w e h a d s o m e s h a r i n g , s h a r i n g o f u m w o r k s h e e t s , i d e a s U h u m t h i n g s t h a t o f o f p e o p l e h a v e h a d , s o m e a i r i n g o f c o n c e r n s t h e p r o g r a m u m c o n c e r n s I d i d n ' t s h a r e , b u t o t h e r p e o p l e d i d . S o I y o u k n o w , I c o u l d s e e t h a t t h e y w e r e a v a l u a b l e t o o l t o t h o s e p e o p l e . 1 1 0 1 W h a t s o r t s o f t h i n g s d i d t h e y d o t h a t [ h e l p e d y o u ] J u s t , j u s t b r a i n s t o r m i n g i n w i t h l e t ' s s a y u h , t e a c h e r s w i t h G r a d e 3 w o u l d m e e t a t o n e t a b l e a n d w e w o u l d d i s c u s s w h a t d o y o u t h i n k o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y , a r e y o u d o i n g s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g i d e a s w i t h t h i s s t o r y ? I I B 2 A t t h e s e m e e t i n g s t e a c h e r s c o u l d b r o a d e n t h e i r b a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e i r p e e r s . F e e l i n g s w e r e c r e a t e d b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a l k a n d t h r o u g h t h e c l i m a t e e s t a b l i s h e d b y v a r i o u s k i n d s o f d i a l o g u e . B o t h i n s c h o o l s a n d a t m e e t i n g s , t e a c h e r s ' f e e l i n g s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c o n t e n t a n d t o n e o f t h e t a l k i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e i n v o l v e d . 1 4 R U h h h , o n e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t b o t h e r e d m e w h e n I w h e n w e w e r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , e v e r y b o d y k e p t s t r e s s i n g a t y p e o f a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a n d t h e r e w o u l d b e 1 2 9 I 1 3 0 R 1 3 1 I 1 3 2 R 2 1 2 I 2 1 3 R 2 1 4 I 2 1 5 R 1 4 6 I 1 4 7 R 87 a l o t o f a p a p e r w o r k f o r t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h i s t h i s u h b o t h e r e d m e , I w a s n o t a n t i c i p a t i n g a v e r y p l e a s a n t t i m e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t a s p e c t o f i t . 1 1 2 I D o y o u f i n d i t h e l p f u l t o t a l k t o y o u r c o l l e a g u e s ? 1 1 3 R Y e s 1 1 4 I A b o u t i t ? 1 1 5 R Y e s , I t h i n k s o 1 1 6 I I n w h a t s e n s e i s t h a t ? 1 1 7 R W e l l , i t ' s j u s t t h a t y o u s h a r e , i f y o u h a v e a p r o b l e m , o r i f y o u a r e f e d u p , i t s a l w a y s c o n s o l i n g t o h e a r t h a t s o m e o n e i s f e d u p a s w e l l , a n d I h a v e s o m e g o o d f r i e n d s a t t h e o t h e r s c h o o l I u s e d t o t e a c h a n d s o w e t a l k a b o u t i t q u i t e a l o t . I C 1 3 3 I D i d y o u f e e l a t a n y t i m e i n m a k i n g t h e s e k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n s t h a t y o u w e r e e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m i n a c e r t a i n w a y w i t h t h e p r o g r a m ? 1 3 4 R U h h u m , t h e o n l y w a y I f e l t t h a t I w a s r e a l l y e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m w a s i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t a r e a . I w a s e x p e c t e d t o k e e p r e c o r d s , a n d I e x p e c t e d t o g o — w e l l , t o k e e p t h e s e r e c o r d s a n d t o g e t t h e s e c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e s e v a r i o u s s t a g e s a n d w h e n t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d t h i s , t h e y w o u l d t h e n m o v e o n . 1 3 5 I A n d y o u h a d a l l t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g a n d s o o n t h a t w a s h o o k e d i n t o t h a t . 1 3 6 R Y e s , b u t t h a t w a s t h e o n l y w a y I f e l t I w a s r e a l l y e x p e c t e d t o d o i t , I d i d n ' t f e e l t h e p r e s s u r e t h o u g h , I w a s e x p e c t e d t o d o v o c a b u l a r y i n t h i s w a y o r I w a s e x p e c t e d t o d o c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n t h i s w a y . 1 3 7 I Y o u h a d t o g i v e y o u r o w n i n p u t i n t o t h i s s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g b u t y o u f e l t y o u w e r e s u p p o s e d t o d o a c e r t a i n a m o u n t t o g e t t h e m t o c e r t a i n l e v e l s . 1 3 8 R Y e s 1 3 9 I W h e r e d i d t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n c o m e f r o m ? 1 4 0 R H u m , p r o b a b l y i n i n p e o p l e . , . j u s t t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , t h e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e p r o g r a m , n o w I k n o w . 1 4 1 I W e r e t h e s e d i s t r i c t p e o p l e ? 8 8 1 4 2 R 1 4 3 I 1 4 4 R 2 0 2 I 2 0 3 R 2 0 4 I 2 0 5 R 2 0 6 I 2 0 7 R 2 4 7 R 2 4 8 I 2 4 9 R Y e s , d i s t r i c t p e o p l e a n d o u r o w n s t a f f , b u t I d o k n o w t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e f e l t f r o m l i s t e n i n g t o t h e m , m o r e p r e s s u r e t o p r o c e e d t h r o u g h e a c h l e s s o n t h e w a y t h e m a n u a l s a i d y o u s h o u l d . I w a s a l i t t l e s u r p r i s e d t h a t p e o p l e w o u l d f e e l t h a t p r e s s u r e . W h y d o y o u t h i n k t h e y g o t t o f e e l t h a t w a y ? I t h i n k a n i n s e c u r i t y a b o u t a n e w p r o g r a m . I C 2 W h e n y o u s a y t h a t t h e m e e t i n g s y o u k n o w t h a t w e r e i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e g a r d i n g p h o n i c s b a s e d o r t h e b a s a l r e a d e r s , u h w e r e h e l p f u l , w h a t w a s i t a b o u t t h e m t h a t y o u c o n s i d e r e d w a s a g o o d t h i n g ? W e l l , I t h i n k t h e t h e v e r y p o i n t t h e y m a d e t h a t t h e r e i s n o o n e w a y a n d t h a t i t d o e s n ' t r e a l l y m a t t e r w h i c h b o o k y o u ' r e u s i n g , y o u c a n a d a p t i t t o s u i t y o u , a n d I t h i n k i t w a s m a d e v e r y c l e a r t h a t j u s t b e c a u s e y o u ' r e t a k i n g t h i s p r o g r a m a n d y o u h a v e t h i s g u i d e b o o k i t d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t y o u h a v e t o - - t o d o i t v e r b a t i m . U h um Y o u d o w h a t e v e r i s c o m f o r t a b l e t o y o u . A n d t h i s w a s m a d e a p p a r e n t . I t w a s o b v i o u s t o u s t h a t I t h a t w a s t h e b e s t t h i n g t h a t t h e y c o u l d h a v e U h um y o u k n o w i s t o t o p u t p e o p l e a t t h e i r e a s e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r o w n f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t . I I D 1 A s a s t a f f w e ' v e t a l k e d a b o u t i t n o t o n a r e a l l y u h n o t a r e a l l y i n d e p t h a n d a a n d a a n d a a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l b u t j u s t g e n e r a l f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t . U h u m . D o y o u f i n d u m a h e l p f u l k i n d o f t h i n g j u s t t o b e a b l e t o s h a r e t h e T h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g a b o u t i t i s p r e t t y g o o d a n d I t h i n k m o s t p e o p l e a r e y e a h , I t h i n k j u s t t a l k i n g t o t h e m g e n e r a l l y n o t i n a s p e c i f i c i n a n y s p e c i f i c w a y h e l p s y o u u h b e c a u s e y o u k n o w y o u ' r e s o r t o f d o i n g t h e s a m e p r o g r a m w i t h t h e o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e s c h o o l . I B 2 89 T e a c h e r s f e l t a s e n s e o f r e a s s u r a n c e o r s u p p o r t t o h e a r w h a t t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s w e r e d o i n g a n d t h a t o t h e r s w e r e h a v i n g s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e o f m u t u a l c o n c e r n . 170 I S o t h e n i t w a s a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g a t t h e t i m e t h a t o t h e r s w e r e i n f a c t e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s a m e s o r t s o f t h i n g s 171 R Y e s 172 I t h a t y o u w e r e ? 173 R y e s 174 I D i d y o u f i n d t h i s r e a s s u r i n g a t a l l o r c o m f o r t i n g o r d i d y o u h a v e a n y f e e l i n g s ? 175 R U h , o h y e s , i t ' s a l w a y s g o o d t o k n o w t h a t y o u ' r e n o t t h e o n l y d u m m y i n t h e s h o w , a n d u m i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r h e r e o f c o u r s e w e W S 176 I Y e s 177 R h a d c o m e t o t h e s a m e c o n c l u s i o n w i t h o u t c o m i n g t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t w e w e r e d o i n g t h e w r o n g t h i n g i n t r y i n g t o c o v e r a l l t h e m a t e r i a l , I m e a n y o u c o u l d s e e v a l u e i n c o v e r i n g 178 I y e s 179 R a l l t h e m a t e r i a l 180 I y e s 181 R u m , b u t t h e n w e r e l a x e d a l i t t l e b i t a n d f e l t m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h u s i n g o u r o w n d i s c r e t i o n a s t o w h a t s h o u l d b e u s e d a n d w h a t n e e d e d t o b e u s e d . 182 I S o t h e n y o u w e r e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h y o u r c o l l e a g u e s h e r e i n t h e s c h o o l a s w e l l a s p e o p l e o u t s i d e . 183 R o h y e s . IID1 100 R W e ' v e h a d m e e t i n g s o n t h i s a n d d i s c u s s e d i t o t h e r , I d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h o t h e r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s u h w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y ' v e a t t e m p t e d t o d o i t a n d y o u k n o w w h e t h e r o r n o t y o u c a n i s i s j u s t 101 I W h a t d i d y o u l e a r n f r o m t a l k i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s ? 102 R Um - - o n e I g u e s s i s t h a t u h d o n ' t b e d i s c o u r a g e d u h i f y o u i f y o u r e a c h t h e p o i n t a f t e r a w e e k o f o f d o i n g i t a n d s o m e w e e k s a r e r e a l l y h e a v y a n d o t h e r w e e k s a r e 9 0 l i g h t t h a t u h y o u r e a c h t h e p o i n t w h e r e y o u j u s t g e t s o d i s c o u r a g e d a n d s a y , l o o k , t h e r e ' s s o m u c h t o d o h e r e I c a n ' t d o i t . 1 0 3 I U h u m 1 0 4 R T h e r e c e n t , m o s t r e c e n t m e e t i n g s I w e n t t o u m w e d i d n ' t a l l c r y o n e a c h o t h e r ' s s h o u l d e r b u t w e s h a r e d o u r o u r c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m a n d j u s t m a d e i t m a d e i t , i t m a d e u s f e e l u h h a v i n g e x p r e s s e d a l l o u r s o r t o f l i t t l e p r o b l e m s , t h a t , o k a y , w e ' r e d o i n g , e a c h o f u s i s d o i n g q u i t e a b i t a n y w a y u m w e ' r e n o t d o i n g 1 0 0 % y o u k n o w . 1 0 5 I D i d i t f e e l b e t t e r t h a t y o u k n e w o t h e r g u y s w e r e h a v i n g 1 0 6 R O h 1 0 7 I t h e s a m e p r o b l e m s a s y o u ? 1 0 8 R Y e s , y e s , I d o n ' t l i k e t o a d m i t t h a t I w a s g l a d t o s e e o t h e r p e o p l e h a v i n g t h e p r o b l e m s b u t i t c e r t a i n l y d i d . 1 0 9 I Y e a h 1 1 0 R y e s , i t s l i k e a n y t h i n g y o u d o , i f o t h e r p e o p l e a r e i n t h e s a m e b o a t a s y o u i t s m o r e e a s i e r . I B 2 2 9 5 I I n c h a n g i n g y o u r w a y s o f d o i n g t h i n g s h a s i t h e l p e d t o k n o w t h a t o t h e r s a r e d o i n g t h a t t o o o r 2 9 6 R y e s 2 9 7 I t h a t i t ' s a w h o l e n e w g a m e f o r t h e w h o l e b u n c h o f y o u ? 2 9 8 R Y e s , v e r y d e f i n i t e l y 2 9 9 I R i g h t . I B 1 1 0 0 R I t h i n k - - o n e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h a t w a s h e l p f u l a n d I ' d l i k e t o c o n t i n u e o n w i t h t h i s i s - - g e t t i n g t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r t o d i s c u s s t h e i r p r o b l e m s 1 0 1 I U h u m 1 0 2 R' w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m a n d p o o l t h e i r i d e a s o n h o w t h e y ' v e o v e r c o m e t h e s e p r o b l e m s . . . 1 0 9 I A n d y o u ' v e l e a r n e d i d e a s f r o m t h e m , d i d y o u ? 1 1 0 R Y e s , I d i d I I l e a r n e d a f e w i d e a s , I t h i n k I c o n t r i b u t e d s o m e i d e a s t h a t I n o t i c e d o t h e r p e o p l e p i c k e d u p a n d w e r e w r i t i n g d o w n , i t ' s a l s o t h e s u p p o r t 9 1 1 1 1 I U h u m 1 1 2 R t h a t y o u ' r e n o t a l o n e i n y o u r p r o b l e m . I C 2 T a l k h a d a p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . I t p r o v i d e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n , f u r t h e r e d k n o w l e d g e , a n d g a v e s u p p o r t . I t a l s o f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s p e o p l e h a d . B e c a u s e i t s h a p e d p e o p l e s ' e x p e r i e n c e a n d a l s o c o n f i r m e d i t , t a l k m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e i n e x p e r i e n c e d c h a n g e . o f c h a n g e i s t h e i n f l u e n c e ' s u p p o r t ' . S u p p o r t i n c l u d e d t h e a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s f e l t h e l p e d t h e m i n d e a l i n g w i t h w i t h t h e n e w p r o g r a m ; o t h e r t e a c h e r s ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ) , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d d i s t r i c t s t a f f p r o v i d e d t h i s s u p p o r t . T e a c h e r s a p p r e c i a t e d e m p a t h i c i n d i v i d u a l s a n d a n y o n e w h o c o u l d s u p p l y a n e w i d e a o r a n a l t e r n a t e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y w h e n r e q u i r e d . I t w a s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h i s s u p p o r t c o m i n g f r o m s o m e o n e w h o h a d t h e t i m e t o s i t a n d d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r , a n d w h o f o r c e r t a i n p u r p o s e s w a s n o t b u r d e n e d w i t h t h e d a i l i n e s s o f t e a c h i n g . S u p p o r t C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t a l k i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e 2 0 2 2 0 3 2 0 4 1 9 8 R R R I t h e o t h e r p e o p l e t h a t w e r e h e l p f u l u m w o u l d b e o u r d i s t r i c t u m c u r r i c u l u m p e o p l e . . . t h e y ' v e b e e n v e r y o p e n t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d y o u k n o w w h a t w e c a n d o a n d t h e y ' r e l o o k i n g a t t h e p r o g r a m c r i t i c a l l y a n d s o r t o f s t r u g g l i n g a l o n g w i t h u s . U h u m . Y o u f e e l t h e y ' r e i n i t w i t h y o u t h e n . Y e s 9 2 2 0 5 I t h e y ' r e s o r t o f n o t t h e e x p e r t s o n t h i s t h i n g . 2 0 6 R V e r y d e f i n i t e l y 2 0 7 I R i g h t . Y o u f i n d t h e m a p p r o a c h a b l e 2 0 8 R V e r y d e f i n i t e l y , t h e y ' r e v e r y , t h e y ' r e p a r t o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e . I B 1 1 0 1 I W h a t t h i n g s h a v e y o u f o u n d h e l p f u l o t h e r t h a n s h a r i n g w i t h y o u r c o l l e a g u e s ? 1 0 2 R U m , I t h i n k h a v i n g , a c t u a l l y h a v i n g L a n g u a g e A r t s f a c i l i t a t o r s a t t h i s , d u r i n g t h i s y e a r - - i t s b e e n v e r y g o o d . 1 0 3 I W h a t k i n d s o f t h i n g s h a v e t h e y b e e n d o i n g ? 1 0 - 4 R A h , w e l l t h e y ' v e b e e n , o n e o f t h e m i n p a r t i c u l a r i s v e r y d o w n t o e a r t h , v e r y u m u m p r a c t i c a l t y p e p e r s o n a n d u m y o u c a n , I f o u n d t h a t t h a t - i f y o u h a d a p r o b l e m o r i f y o u ' r e g e t t i n g u m f e d u p w i t h s o m e t h i n g o r , i f y o u n e e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n u m t h e y ' r e t h e r e . I A 1 2 2 8 I W h a t a b o u t u m w i t h y o u r o w n e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h - t h e w h o l e c h a n g e p r o c e s s . W e r e t h e r e p e o p l e o r e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d t h a t w e r e h e l p f u l t o y o u ? 2 2 9 R I n o u r d i s t r i c t s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e h a v e b e e n t w o u m f a c i l i t a t o r s o f t h e p r o g r a m o n i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d t h e a n d t h e p r i m a r y u m f a c i l i t a t o r s 2 3 0 I U h u m 2 3 1 R U m , w h o h a v e b e e n h i r e d b y t h e b y t h e b o a r d t o h e l p p e o p l e h e l p e v e r y b o d y i n o u r d i s t r i c t i n u h s t a r t t h e p r o g r a m 2 3 2 I U h um 2 3 3 R a n d i f t h e r e ' s a n y p r o b l e m s t h e y h a v e u h t a l k t o t h e m , p h o n e t h e m u p s a y , h e r e ' s t h e p r o b l e m I ' m h a v i n g , a n d t h i s i s w h a t t h e y ' r e d o i n g f u l l t i m e s o t h e y c a n s p e n d s o m e t i m e l o o k i n g , r e v i e w i n g , r e s e a r c h i n g i t , a n d c o m i n g t o c l a s s a n d s a y i n g , w e l l , y e a h t h i s i s , t h i s i s t h e p r o b l e m s o t h o s e p e o p l e h a v e h e l p e d a l o t . 2 3 4 I H a v e y o u f o u n d t h e m p e r s o n a l l y h e l p f u l ? 2 3 5 R Y e s , I h a v e , I ' v e t a l k e d t o t h e m . 9 3 2 3 6 I W h a t s o r t o f t h i n g s h a v e t h e y d o n e o r s a i d t h a t h a v e b e e n h e l p f u l ? 2 3 7 R U m , s h o w e d m e w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t a p r o b l e m u h s h o w i n g me u h s i t t i n g w i t h t h e m f o r h a l f a n h o u r o r a n h o u r m a k i n g a m a k i n g a a d e c i s i o n 2 3 8 I U h um 2 3 9 R a s t o w h a t t o d o a n d t h e n s a y i n g , b e i n g h o n e s t a n d f r a n k r e a l l y . I B 2 1 5 4 I S o i t w a s r e a s s u r i n g t h e n t h a t e v e n t h o u g h y o u w e r e h a v i n g p r o b l e m s , t h e p e r s o n w h o w a s t h e f a c i l i t a t o r i n t h e g r o u p t h e n , s o m e o n e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t 1 5 5 R y e s 1 5 6 I w a s s a y i n g t o y o u , d o n ' t g e t h u n g u p o n i t . 1 5 7 R E x a c t l y . I I B 2 -2 7 3 R T h e p e o p l e w h o a r e i n c h a r g e I g u e s s a t t h e b o a r d l e v e l a r e a r e v e r y v e r y g o o d p e o p l e a n d u m t h e y ' r e v e r y e a s y t o t a l k t o 2 7 4 I U h u m 2 7 5 R U m , a n d v e r y h e l p f u l , w i l l i n g t o g i v e y o u a n y h e l p a t a l l u m s p e n d a n y a m o u n t o f t i m e - - i t ' s n o t m o r e p e r s o n a l , i t ' s j u s t d i f f e r e n t . 2 7 6 I R i g h t 2 7 7 R I t ' s j u s t a d i f f e r e n t , y o u c a n s p e n d m o r e t i m e t a l k i n g w i t h t h e m w h e r e a s w i t h a t e a c h e r i n t h e h a l l t h e o n l y s o r t o f s u p p o r t y o u ' l l g e t a s I m e n t i o n e d y o u k n o w 2 7 8 I U h u m 2 7 9 R j u s t k e e p p l u g g i n g a w a y , w i t h t h e m , i t ' s u h w e l l , h o w a r e y o u r g r o u p s d o i n g w h a t a r e y o u d o i n g ? u h 2 8 0 I S o r t o f m o r a l s u p p o r t v e r s u s t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t 2 8 1 R E x a c t l y 2 8 2 I Y e a h 2 8 3 R Y o u ' r e d o i n g i t r i g h t u h d o n ' t w o r r y a b o u t t h a t p r o b l e m i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e c a u s e w e k n o w t h i s c h i l d a l r e a d y a n d h e ' s b e e n a p r o b l e m . I B 2 T h e p r i n c i p a l , t o o , w a s a n i m p o r t a n t s u p p o r t T e a c h e r s n e e d e d t o k n o w t h a t h e o r s h e u n d e r s t o o d 9 4 a n d s u p p o r t e d w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g . 2 0 8 R H e [ p r i n c i p a l ] b e l i e v e s t h a t u h t h a t I k n o w w h a t I ' m d o i n g 2 0 9 I U h um 2 1 0 R a n d t h e s a m e w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , t h a t i f I s a i d w e l l I ' m g o i n g s o s l o w - - a n d u h w e l l a r e y o u w o r r i e d ? N o I ' m n o t w o r r i e d b u t u h I ' m s t i l l g o i n g s l o w w e l l s o w h a t ? S o r t o f y o u k n o w . 2 1 1 I Y e s , s o t h a t ' s b e e n r e a s s u r i n g t h e n 2 1 2 R Y e s . I I C 1 1 2 4 R W e l l , I t h i n k t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t 1 2 5 I U h u m 1 2 6 R i n u h w h e n e v e r a c h a n g e i s f o r t h c o m i n g , I f e e l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s t o b e b e h i n d i t 1 0 0 % . 1 2 7 I Y o u w o u l d f e e l m o r e c o n f i d e n t w i t h i t i n t h a t s e n s e ? 1 2 8 R Y e s , y e a h m o r e s u p p o r t i v e i n t h a t u m I f e e l t h a t i f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s g o i n g t o a l l o w t h e c h a n g e t o b e m a d e - - l i k e t h e t e a c h e r s t o h a v e t h e s a y - - i n i t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s a c h a n g e t o b e m a d e t h e n - - t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e b e h i n d t h a t c h a n g e 1 0 0 % . 1 2 9 I Y o u w o u l d h a v e f o u n d t h i s h e l p f u l . 1 3 0 R I w o u l d h a v e . I I A 1 I n - c l a s s - V a l i d a t i o n A t e a c h e r ' s m a i n f o r m o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n v o l v e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . H o w s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d e d , i n f l u e n c e d h o w t h e t e a c h e r s s t r u c t u r e d s u b s e q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a n d a l s o i n f l u e n c e d h o w t h e y f e l t a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m . 1 5 3 I S o t h i s t h e n w a s o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f b e g i n n i n g t h i s w a s t h a t t h a t y o u w e r e u s e d t o s e e i n g t h e m l e a r n c e r t a i n w a y s . 1 5 4 R T h e y w e r e b l e n d i n g a s s u c h a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e L a n g u a g e P a t t e r n s . 9 5 1 5 5 I T h e i n d i c a t o r s w e r e n ' t q u i t e t h e s a m e t o y o u a s t h e y w e r e i n t h e p a s t . 1 5 6 R N o t a t a l l . I I B 1 1 1 1 I I s e e . S o w a s i t t h e n u h i f I c a n j u s t b a c k u p a l i t t l e b i t , y o u w e r e a p p r o a c h i n g i t a s y o u p e r h a p s h a d a p p r o a c h e d t h e N e l s o n a n d f o u n d t h a t t h i s w a s l a c k i n g i n t h e d e c o d i n g a s p e c t s o t h e n y o u b a c k e d u p a b i t a n d y o u b r o u g h t t h i s i n a n d m o d i f i e d i t . 1 1 2 R U h u m 1 1 3 I a n d w a s i t t h e w a y t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e p r o g r e s s i n g a n d s o o n t h a t g a v e y o u t h e i n d i c a t o r s t h a t t h i s i s w h a t y o u n e e d e d t o d o ? 1 1 4 R Y e s , i t i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e N e l s o n u h s u p p l e m e n t e d b y t h e W o r k i n g w i t h L e t t e r s 1 1 5 I U h u m 1 1 6 R w o r k b o o k , t h e y w e r e n ' t r e a d i n g a s q u i c k l y a n d t h e y w e r e n ' t d e c o d i n g w o r d s 1 1 7 I U h u m 1 1 8 R a s q u i c k l y a n d i t w a s , y o u f e l t l i k e o h y o u k n o w w e ' r e n o t g o i n g t o m a k e i t 1 1 9 I Y e a h 1 2 0 R a n d w e ' r e w a s t i n g t i m e . 1 2 1 I Y e a h , i t s e e m s t h e n y o u w e r e f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o g r a m t o a d e g r e e a n d t h e n i t w a s n ' t w o r k i n g a s i t h a d w o r k e d i n t h e p a s t o r t h e p r o g r e s s d i d n ' t a p p e a r l i k e i t w a s i n t h e p a s t • 1 2 2 R U h u m 1 2 3 I s o y o u t h e n d i d y o u r o w n t h i n g w i t h i t . 1 2 4 R U h u m . I B 1 A s t h e t e a c h e r s w o r k e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o g r a m , t h e y n o t o n l y b e c a m e m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , b u t a l s o w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s . T e a c h e r s a d a p t e d a c c o r d i n g t o p e r c e i v e d c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g a l l t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f c h a n g e - a c t u a l u s e , t i m e a n d i n f l u e n c e s : u s i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e d 96 f u r t h e r a c t i o n w h i c h c r e a t e d n e w o r m o d i f i e d k n o w l e d g e , a n d i n t h i s c a s e t h e s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n f l u e n c e d t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a c q u i r e d . 1 0 2 R I t f e l t , w e l l t h e r e w a s t h i s g o o d . s t u f f a n d I y o u k n o w I j u s t h a v e t o d o t h i s , u m l a t e r I I f e l t w e l l , n o t h e y d o n ' t n e e d t h o s e p h o n i c s b e c a u s e t h e y k n o w t h e m , u m w e ' l l j u s t m a k e , c h e c k t h a t o u t t o a s m a l l e x e r c i s e t o p r o v e t h a t , y e s , t h e y d o h a v e t h o s e a n d y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o s p e n d t i m e g o i n g o v e r t h e p h o n i c s e l e m e n t s t h e r e . 1 0 3 I S o y o u ' r e s a y i n g t h e n w h e n y o u f i r s t l o o k e d a t t h e p r o g r a m , y o u l o o k e d a t e v e r y t h i n g i n i t a n d t h o u g h t , w o w , y o u k n o w , t h i s l o o k s ' g o o d , b u t i t w a s a b i t b o g g l i n g b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s s o m u c h . B u t t h e n i t s e e m s t h a t a s y o u g o t t o k n o w t h e c h i l d r e n a n d w h a t t h e i r n e e d s w e r e , y o u s t a r t e d l o o k i n g a t t h e p r o g r a m a g a i n , a n d s o r t i n g a n d s i f t i n g a n d p i c k i n g w h a t y o u w o u l d u s e . I s t h a t c o r r e c t ? 1 0 4 R R i g h t . I I D 1 1 6 5 R I t h i n k t h a t t h e m a k e u p o f t h e c l a s s h a s a t r e m e n d o u s a m o u n t u h t o d o w i t h - - h o w I w e n t a b o u t t e a c h i n g t h e p r o g r a m o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e b o o k . 1 6 6 I U h u m 1 6 7 R W h a t e v e r y o u l i k e u m u m y o u r t y p e o f c h i l d y o u h a v e a n d a n d t h e n u m b e r o f k i d s i n e a c h g r o u p a n u h - - i t ' s c h a n g e d t h a t ' s s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s r e a l l y c h a n g e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r a n d y o u ' v e , w e ' v e r e a l l y h a d t o b e u m f l e x i b l e . I B 2 2 1 0 R a n d a l o t o f t h e w o r k t h a t ' s d o n e o n s k i l l s i n t h e G i n n p r o g r a m I l e a v e o u t b e c a u s e - - I d o n ' t t h i n k my c h i l d r e n n e e d t h e m d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c h i l d , s o m e n e e d t h e m f o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t b u t I ' v e t a u g h t m o s t o f t h e m a l r e a d y b e f o r e t h e y e v e r g e t t o t h e m i n t h e G i n n . I A 3 9 7 2 3 0 R I t a k e a l o t o f t h e i d e a s a n d I l o o k a t t h e g r o u p I ' v e g o t a n d I u s e , a n d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g r o u p t h e r e I a m my o w n j u d g e . I A 3 2 9 1 R I ' m n o w a t t h e s t a g e w h e r e I f e e l m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e a n d s a y , t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t I d o n ' t f e e l t h i s g r o u p n e e d s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e a t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a g e i n t h e s k i l p a k , s o I ' m m o r e s e l e c t i v e . 2 9 2 I W h a t h a s c a u s e d y o u t o h a v e t h a t f e e l i n g o f b e i n g c o m f o r t a b l e e n o u g h t o b e s e l e c t i v e ? 2 9 3 R K n o w i n g my c h i l d r e n 2 9 4 I U h u m 2 9 5 R b e t t e r " t h a n I d i d i n S e p t e m b e r . I I B 2 6 2 R T h a t ' s r i g h t , a n d u h I t h i n k t h a t I ' m b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t o o t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n a c l a s s r o o m t h a t t u r n t h e c h i l d r e n o n a n d c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t d o n ' t s o I w i l l l e a v e t h e t h i n g s a l o n e , I k n o w t h e c h i l d r e n b e t t e r . 6 3 I Y e s , s o t h a t t h a t c o m e s i n t o i t . T h i s w a s o n e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s t h e n t h a t m a d e y o u m a k e t h e d e c i s i o n s y o u d i d t h a t s o m e t h i n g s w e r e a p p e a l i n g t o t h e k i d s a n d o t h e r t h i n g s p e r h a p s w e r e n o t a n d a l s o t h a t y o u w e r e c o v e r i n g c e r t a i n s k i l l s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f y o u r p r o g r a m a n d y o u k n e w t h a t y o u w e r e t a k i n g c a r e o f t h i n g s a n d s o o n . 6 4 R T h a t ' s r i g h t . O n e e x a m p l e i f I c o u l d g i v e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t y o u d o a l o t o f w o r d g a m e s a n d I r e a l i z e t h e r e a r e g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n t h a t h a n d l e w o r d g a m e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d o t h e r g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n g e t c o m p l e t e l y c a r r i e d a w a y . 6 5 I U h u m I C 2 A s t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d c l a s s r o o m s u c c e s s , a n d s a w t h e m s e l v e s " f i t t i n g i n t o " t h e p r o g r a m w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t s , f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m b e c a m e , m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e 9 8 a n d p o s i t i v e . I t w a s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t e a c h e r s w e r e a b l e s e e t h e b e n e f i t f o r s t u d e n t s i n a c t i o n . 2 1 1 R - - i t g i v e s y o u a g o o d f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y ' r e t h e y ' r e w h e r e t h e y s h o u l d b e . 5 8 I D o y o u f e e l i t s g e t t i n g t h e s a m e k i n d s o f r e s u l t s ? 5 9 R N o 6 0 I T h a t y o u h a d i n t h e p a s t 6 1 R N o , I d o n ' t I t h i n k b y t h i s t i m e o f t h e y e a r m o s t o f t h e G r a d e l ' s w o u l d b e a b l e t o r e a d j u s t a b o u t a n y t h i n g 62 I A n d y o u f e e l t h e y c a n ' t d o t h i s ? 6 3 R N o , t h e y c a n ' t t h e y ' r e v e r y l i m i t e d b y w h a t t h e y ' v e l e a r n e d . I C I 1 7 5 R I f t h e y w e r e l e a r n i n g t h e n I f e e l g o o d a b o u t i t t h e n I g o t i n t o t h e o t h e r p r o b l e m w h e n t h e y h a d t o s i n g l e o u t t h e s e s o u n d s t h e n I g o t d e p r e s s e d a b o u t i t a n d t h e n l a t e l y t h e y ' v e b e e n d o i n g m u c h b e t t e r a n d I ' m f e e l i n g b e t t e r a b o u t i t . I C I 2 6 2 R U m , b u t I ' m a l s o f e e l i n g v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h m y s e l f t h a t I ' m b a c k n o w t o t h e e n r i c h m e n t a s p e c t 2 6 3 I A n d y o u ' r e d o i n g t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t y o u l i k e t o d o . 2 6 4 R T h a t ' s r i g h t , a n d m a y b e w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i s t h a t t h e g r o u p s t h a t h a v e d i v i d e d a n d s e p a r a t e d a n d w h a t n o t — g i v e s m e t h e f e e l i n g t h a t y e s , t h e s e c h i l d r e n h a v e c o v e r e d t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m , t h e r e f o r e g o a h e a d , d o t h i s . I C 3 7 2 R I j u s t t h i n k t h e y ' r e a l l r e a d i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h e y d i d b e f o r e s o i t ' s i t ' s w o r t h i t t o m e t o m a k e a l l t h e n e w l e s s o n a i d e s . I f e e l g o o d a b o u t i t , I ' m n o t s t u g g l i n g w i t h t h e m . T h e y ' r e e n j o y i n g r e a d i n g . T h e y c o m e h a p p i l y t o a r e a d i n g g r o u p . T T R l 9 9 3 9 6 R I s t a r t e d t o f e e l o k a y I r e a l l y l i k e t h i s p r o g r a m . I c a n s e e w h e r e t h e k i d s a r e g o i n g . I t h i n k i t s r i g h t f o r t h e m . 3 9 7 I U h u m 3 9 8 R I s t a r t e d t o f e e l y e a h , q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . I I B 1 2 4 2 R I j u s t s e e m e d t o r e l a x a n d u h I d o n ' t k n o w w h a t i t w a s j u s t u h m a y b e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s e e m e d t o b e d o i n g — a l o t b e t t e r — t h a t w a s u h y o u k n o w a s t h e y r e a c t I r e a c t 2 4 3 I Y e a h 2 4 4 R a n d a s I r e a c t , t h e y r e a c t . I I F 1 A l l a s p e c t s o f ' i n f l u e n c e s ' p o i n t o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a m o n g s t r u c t u r e s o f c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s . I t w a s t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a n d b e l i e f s t h a t s h a p e d a n t i c i p a t i o n s a n d i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r s . T a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n f l u e n c e d o n g o i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e s u p p o r t t h e y p e r c e i v e d o r a c t u a l l y r e c e i v e d h a d i m p a c t o n t h e i r f e e l i n g s a n d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r o g r a m . W i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e d i r e c t i o n s t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d u p o n w a s s h a p e d b y t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m . A p a r t f r o m a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s , i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o i s o l a t e a c t u a l u s e , t i m e , a n d i n f l u e n c e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s i n e x p e r i e n c e s . S o m e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e m o r e d o m i n a n t f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t t y p i c a l l y a l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p r e l a t e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f c h a n g e . 1 0 0 C h a p t e r I V C O N C L U S I O N S A N D I M P L I C A T I O N S T h e i d e a l t y p e p o r t r a y e d i n C h a p t e r I I I p r e s e n t s o n e v i e w o f a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s v i e w i s b a s e d o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s a s t h e y w o r k e d w i t h a n e w c u r r i c u l u m . C o n c l u s i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n t h e s e e x p e r i e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e . B e c a u s e i n s e r v i c e d o e s p r o v i d e a n i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g y f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i t i s h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s . T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e a s p o r t r a y e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , s u g g e s t s a r e a s w h e r e i n s e r v i c e c o u l d b e h e l p f u l . I n s e r v i c e i n c l u d e s t h e f o r m a l w o r k s h o p s a n d m e e t i n g s d e s i g n e d t o b r o a d e n t e a c h e r s ' a w a r e n e s s o r t o d e v e l o p t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n s o m e a r e a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , a d i s c u s s i o n o f i n s e r v i c e a l s o w i l l i n c l u d e i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s o r u s e o f t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m , e n c o m p a s s i n g s t a f f m e e t i n g s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h c o l l e a g e s , o r i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s a n d s u p p o r t s t a f f o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l . T h i s c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s e a c h s t r u c t u r e a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I I I i n o r d e r t o s u g g e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s e r v i c e . A l s o , s o m e g u i d e l i n e s f o r i n s e r v i c e r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e a r e p r o p o s e d . 101 As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I , t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d two main p a t t e r n s when they began ' a c t u a l use' of the c u r r i c u l u m : f o l l o w i n g i t c l o s e l y , or making i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n s . Although they d i f f e r e d i n i t i a l l y , both groups adapted t h e i r p r a c t i c e and the c u r r i c u l u m through c o n t i n u e d use. Teachers who i n i t i a l l y f o l l o w e d the c u r r i c u l u m c l o s e l y d i d so because of t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y , l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y , or a d e s i r e t o be thorough w i t h the e n t i r e c u r r i c u l u m . In t h i s approach, they moved s l o w l y ; some f e l t a sense of s e c u r i t y and o t h e r s f e l t somewhat r e s t r i c t e d . Some f r u s t r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s approach when time moved s l o w l y as t e a c h e r s were not sure about the p r o g r e s s they were making. T h e r e f o r e , when p l a n n i n g i n s e r v i c e , some t e a c h e r s may b e n e f i t by h e a r i n g very e a r l y d u r i n g use or even b e f o r e a c t u a l use what the c u r r i c u l u m might look l i k e i n p r a c t i c e ; pacing of l e s s o n s ; how c h i l d r e n have t y p i c a l l y responded; how "p r o g r e s s " appears i n p r a c t i c e . T h i s i n v o l v e s some c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the new c u r r i c u l u m as w e l l as a comparison w i t h past p r a c t i c e . As t h i s f i r s t group of t e a c h e r s l e a r n e d more about u s i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m , they r e a l i z e d how past and present p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d . Follow-up i n s e r v i c e meetings were needed to address the t r a n s i t i o n s t e a c h e r s were making to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r use of the c u r r i c u l u m . The c r i t i c a l n o t i o n i s t h a t such f o l l o w - u p 102 m e e t i n g s n e e d t o b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t e a c h e r s w h o m a d e i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y w a n t e d t o w o r k w i t h a n d l e a r n a b o u t o n e a s p e c t a t a t i m e . T h e y w e r e g u i d e d b y t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a n d b e l i e f s i n m a k i n g t h e s e s e l e c t i o n s . F o r t h e s e t e a c h e r s , i n s e r v i c e w o u l d b e h e l f p u l a s i t w o u l d c l a r i f y t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s s o t h a t d e c i s i o n s c o u l d b e a s i n f o r m e d a s p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r , b e c a u s e b e l i e f s i n f l u e n c e d t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n s , i n s e r v i c e c o u l d m a k e t h e m a w a r e o f h o w t h e i r b e l i e f s a r e a m e d i a t i n g i n f l u e n c e . S o m e o f t h e t e a c h e r s w h o m a d e i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n s d i d n o t a l t e r t h e i r t e a c h i n g s t y l e u n t i l t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . S u c h t e a c h e r s w o u l d l i k e l y n e e d f u r t h e r f o l l o w - u p i n s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s t o h e l p t h e m m o d i f y t e a c h i n g s t y l e o r t o o v e r c o m e e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . B o t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e w e r e a d a p t e d a n d c h a n g e d t h r o u g h a c t u a l u s e . A s t h i s o c c u r r e d , t e a c h e r s n e e d e d t o d i s c u s s t h e s e c h a n g e s a n d t o h e a r i d e a s f r o m o t h e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w o r k s h o p s a t t e n d i n g t o a d a p t i v e u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m w o u l d g i v e t e a c h e r s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n f r o m a n d s h a r e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r w h i l e a c t u a l l y u s i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h r e e p h a s e s o f ' t i m e ' w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s : a n t i c i p a t o r y t i m e , t r i a l t i m e a n d n o r m a l 103 t i m e . E a c h p h a s e w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y v a r i o u s e v e n t s a n d f e e l i n g s a m o n g t h e t e a c h e r s . ' A n t i c i p a t o r y t i m e ' ( b e f o r e a c t u a l u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ) o c c u r r e d a s t e a c h e r s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d b e c a m e a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t . T i m e f o r i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n w a s h e l p f u l t o m o s t , e v e n t h o u g h s o m e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e t i m e b u r d e n s o m e . T h e i r i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y m e e t i n g s o r g a n i z e d b y d i s t r i c t s t a f f , i n f l u e n c e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f t i m e . H o w e v e r , t e a c h e r s d i d f i n d v a l u e i n t a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r s , r e v i e w i n g m a t e r i a l s , p l a n n i n g , a n d g e n e r a l l y h a v i n g t i m e t o o r i e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o u s i n g a n e w c u r r i c u l u m . D u r i n g ' a n t i c i p a t o r y t i m e ' t h o s e w h o o r g a n i z e m e e t i n g s s h o u l d k e e p i n m i n d t h a t t e a c h e r s h a v e n o t y e t a c t u a l l y u s e d t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m , a n d t h e r e f o r e m a y n e e d t i m e t o v a l u e i t , t o c l a r i f y t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t , a n d t o h e a r w h a t t h i s c u r r i c u l u m i s " a l l a b o u t " . T o o m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e m a y h a v e a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t u p o n t h e t e a c h e r s ' s u b s e q u e n t u s e . T o o l i t t l e t i m e s p e n t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n r e l a t e d t o f e e l i n g s a n d v a l u e s , m a y l e a v e t h e t e a c h e r s a t o d d s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , a n d a l s o i m p e d e t h e i r s e n s e o f t i m e a n d u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e c l a s s . r o o m . ' T r i a l t i m e ' w a s a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d h a s s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s e r v i c e . ' T r i a l t i m e ' b e g a n w i t h a c t u a l u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d g e n e r a l l y w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' u s u a l s e n s e o r u s e o f t i m e ; 104 l e s s o n s m o v e d s l o w l y , t h e new c u r r i c u l u m s e e m e d t o b e t a k i n g t o o much t i m e , t e a c h e r s s e n s i n g t h e r e was " s o much t o d o " , a n d t i m e f o r o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e c r e a s e d i n o r d e r t o c o m p e n s a t e . T e a c h e r s f e l t f r u s t r a t e d a n d t a l k e d w i t h o t h e r s t o s h a r e f e e l i n g s , o r t o s e e k a d v i c e , i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d s u p p o r t . B e c a u s e o f t h i s d i s r u p t i v e a n d u n c o m f o r t a b l e s e n s e o f t i m e , i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s n e e d t o be s e n s i t i v e p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t e a c h e r s ' f e e l i n g s , a n d s h o u l d s p e n d t i m e d e a l i n g w i t h t h a t a s p e c t o f c h a n g e . F o r t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l g r o u p c o n s u l t a t i o n may p r o v i d e m o r e p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t t h a n w o u l d a w o r k s h o p e x p e r i e n c e . When t e a c h e r s r e t u r n e d t o a s e n s e o f c o m f o r t a b l e u s e o f t i m e , a n d t o a f e e l i n g o f c o m p e t e n c y , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o s p e n d t h e i r t i m e b e i n g m o r e c r e a t i v e a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n t e a c h i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d i n p l a n n i n g f o r i t s f u t u r e u s e . I n s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f n o r m a l t i m e c o u l d a t t e n d t o c o n c e r n s a b o u t " b r a n c h i n g o u t " w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m ; i d e a s f o r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s ; r e - a r r a n g i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m ; a n d l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g . T e a c h e r s n e e d t i m e t o g e t t o g e t h e r a n d t o s h a r e t h e s e i d e a s b o t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l s e t t i n g a s w e l l a s w i t h o t h e r s o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l . T h e ' i n f l u e n c e s ' a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I I I may h o l d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . T h e t e a c h e r s ' a c t u a l u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , a n d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t i m e , w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r 105 b e l i e f s , t a l k w i t h o t h e r s , p e r c e p t i o n s o f s u p p o r t a n d b y w h a t h a p p e n e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I t i s c r i t i c a l t h a t t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s b e a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h i n s e r v i c e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i m p a c t o n s h a p i n g t h e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s . B e l i e f s a r e a d i f f i c u l t i n f l u e n c e t o a t t e n d t o t h r o u g h i n s e r v i c e , a n d y e t i t i s a n e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e . F e e l i n g s , d e c i s i o n s , a n d d a i l y p r a c t i c e w e r e i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y b y b e l i e f s . T h e r e f o r e t o c l a r i f y a n e w c u r r i c u l u m a n d t e a c h e r b e l i e f s b e f o r e o r d u r i n g i n i t i a l u s e , m a y o v e r c o m e s o m e p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . E x a m i n e t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r i t s a s s u m p t i o n s , s e e w h e r e t h e s e p a r a l l e l t e a c h e r b e l i e f s , a n d h e l p t e a c h e r s b e c o m e a w a r e o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s a p r o c e s s o f d i a l o g u e s o t h a t t h e s e a w a r e n e s s e s c a n b e m a d e e x p l i c i t . B e l i e f s a l s o m a y n e e d a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g a c t u a l u s e w h e n t h e y c o m e i n t o q u e s t i o n a n d m a y b e m o d i f i e d . T a l k e m e r g e d a s a p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e a n d h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s e r v i c e . I t o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s , w i t h w o r k s h o p l e a d e r s - , a n d w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d t h o u g h t a l k c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e , i t w a s a n o n g o i n g c o m p o n e n t o f t h e c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e . T a l k w a s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l a n d s u p p o r t i v e m e c h a n i s m f o r t e a c h e r s t o s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , a i r c o n c e r n s , c l a r i f y f e e l i n g s , a n d l e a r n m o r e a b o u t t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m . I t a l s o s h a p e d h o w t h e t e a c h e r s " s a w " t h e i r * " e x p e r i e n c e s ; t h e y w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y w h a t t h e y h e a r d , a n d w h e r e t h e y h e a r d i t . B e c a u s e t h e f o r m a n d s u b s t a n c e o f t a l k w a s c r u c i a l t o t h e 106 e x p e r i e n c e of change, i n s e r v i c e needs to be o r g a n i z e d around t a l k t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the t e a c h e r ' s needs. Support s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d c r e a t e c l i m a t e s where t a l k can be open and p o s i t i v e ; i n which t e a c h e r s can f r e e l y d i s c u s s t h e i r immediate concerns. A l s o , t e a c h e r s may need a v a r i e t y of arenas where t a l k can take p l a c e , so t h a t v a r i o u s k i n d s of needs can be met. Support from other people was a l s o important to the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e , and t h i s suggests p o s s i b l i t i e s f o r i n s e r v i c e . At t i m e s , empathic u n d e r s t a n d i n g and support was needed, and at o t h e r times the need was f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . R e g a r d l e s s of i t s source ( f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o n s u l t a n t s ) , t e a c h e r s r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y to and were h e l p e d by support -they f e l t " a t home" w i t h . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n - r e l a t e d i n s e r v i c e i s more than s h a r i n g e x p e r t i s e about c o n t e n t or t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of a c u r r i c u l u m ; i t r e q u i r e s a l s o d e a l i n g w i t h f e e l i n g s and p e r c e i v e d c o n f l i c t s . Support s t a f f need s k i l l s i n h a n d l i n g these k i n d s of concerns. T r a i n i n g i n process s k i l l s as w e l l as l e a r n i n g about the new c u r r i c u l u m may f a c i l i t a t e t h i s change. Working w i t h the s t u d e n t s was a d a i l y i n f l u e n c e i n the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . Student responses i n l e s s o n s p r o v i d e d ongoing feedback about "how the c u r r i c u l u m was go i n g " . Sometimes these i n d i c a t o r s were m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by the t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t e a c h e r s were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the new c u r r i c u l u m . At these t i m e s , 1 0 7 t e a c h e r s n e e d t o c l a r i f y a n d d i s c u s s t h e s e c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s . Some G u i d e l i n e s f o r I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I n s e r v i c e To s u m m a r i z e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s o c c u r r i n g o v e r t i m e . I t i n v o l v e s v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n i n g how t o d e a l w i t h a new c u r r i c u l u m , a n d s h a r i n g what t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g w i t h o t h e r s so t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e c o m e s a p a r t o f a c c u s t o m e d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s h a v e b e e n t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y , a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ( c o n s u l t a n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s t u d e n t s ) m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d when d i s c u s s i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s e r v i c e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h , a n d i n f l u e n c e u p o n , t e a c h e r s ' v i e w s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y , s u g g e s t some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n s e r v i c e . Some may be d i s t r i c t m e e t i n g s a n d i n v o l v e c o n s u l t a n t s o r h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s , some may t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n s c h o o l s i n v o l v i n g o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , and some may be j u s t among t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s . ( A c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i s t , by n e c e s s i t y , w o u l d i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f e v e r y o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s o r p e r s p e c t i v e s i n an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s ) : - C l a r i f y t h e c u r r i c u l u m b e f o r e u s e o r e a r l y d u r i n g a c t u a l u s e ; - S t r u c t u r e e a r l y t e a c h e r m e e t i n g s t o a t t e n d t o v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a l s t y l e s o f u s e ; - D i s c u s s d i s c r e p e n c i e s b e t w e e n p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e 108 and t e a c h e r b e l i e f s a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m ; - M o n i t o r t e a c h e r s b e f o r e d e s i g n i n g w o r k s h o p s s o t h a t c o n t e n t s c a n be r e l e v a n t a n d p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e ; - I n c l u d e p r i n c i p a l s , c o u n s e l l o r s , a n d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s i n w o r k s h o p s e s s i o n s ; - P l a n i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s b o t h w i t h i n s c h o o l s a n d on a d i s t r i c t - w i d e b a s i s ; - P r o v i d e s u p p o r t s t a f f who a r e f r e e t o v i s i t s c h o o l s a n d s p e n d t i m e w i t h t e a c h e r s ; - Use f l e x i b l e t i m e - l i n e s f o r v a r i o u s i n s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s t o a c c o m o d a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s and n e e d s ; - D e s i g n a t e l i a s o n p e o p l e w i t h i n s c h o o l s who a r e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e a n d who may p r o v i d e more i n t e n s i v e i n s e r v i c e . B e c a u s e t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h a n g e , i m p l e m e n t o r s s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e when d e s i g n i n g i n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s . As t e a c h e r s a r e a b l e t o r e f l e c t upon t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a n d s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , u n c e r t a i n t i e s , o r p r o b l e m s a s t h e y e m e r g e , t h e n t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i r own c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e i s e n l a r g e d ( A p p e n d i x F ) . T h i s i m p l i e s a f o c u s f o r i n s e r v i c e t h a t g o e s b e y o n d t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f a new c u r r i c u l u m . R a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n s f o r t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e new c u r r i c u l u m , i n s e r v i c e p r o g r a m s 109 engage t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , d e v e l o p e r s , and c o n s u l t a n t s i n a r e f l e x i v e p r o c e s s where everyone examines t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the change. Workshop l e a d e r s or r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e s k i l l s i n working w i t h people and h e l p i n g them to uncover f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s d u r i n g the change. The f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s are not meant t o be s e p a r a t e from those l i s t e d above, but they do h i g h l i g h t e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d to i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s e r v i c e : - P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s to share t h e i r concerns and ideas w i t h one another; - Ensure t h a t d i a l o g u e h e l p s people to share u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t h e i r own and o t h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s ; - Ensure t h a t workshop l e a d e r s , c o n s u l t a n t s and o t h e r support s t a f f have s k i l l s to f a c i l i t a t e r e f l e c t i o n on e x p e r i e n c e ; - P r o v i d e i n s e r v i c e and support t h a t can adapt to new s i t u a t i o n s and emerging needs. C u r r i c u l u m implementation i s a process t h a t cannot r e l y upon a b s t r a c t models, s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s , or r i g i d r u l e s . E x p e r i e n c e d change i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y grounded, and i n s e r v i c e d e a l i n g w i t h these e x p e r i e n c e s must be f l e x i b l e and s e n s i t i v e to d e a l w i t h concerns and events as they emerge through everday a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s study r a i s e s some complex q u e s t i o n s about c u r r i c u l u m change. As t e a c h e r s embark upon 110 implementation of new c u r r i c u l a w i t h changed g o a l s , m a t e r i a l s , or approaches to t e a c h i n g , they are i n f l u e n c e d by what happens, and they are guided by the meanings they g i v e to these e x p e r i e n c e s . However, i t i s a d m i t t e d l y d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y and c l a r i f y the b e l i e f s and assumptions t h a t guide the t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . Examining these b e l i e f s , and how they are h e l d , are important t a s k s f o r anyone who wants to understand c u r r i c u l u m implementaton. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed on b e l i e f s so they can be i d e n t i f i e d , e v a l u a t e d , j u s t i f i e d , and even changed i n the c o n t e x t of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I l l BIBLIOGRAPHY Apple, M.W. "Relevance and C u r r i c u l u m : A Study i n Phenomenological S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge." Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1970. Berger, P. and H. K e l l n e r . "Marriage and the C o n s t r u c t i o n of R e a l i t y . " i n B.R. C o s i n , J . Dale, G. E s l a n d , D. S w i f t , eds. Sc h o o l and S o c i e t y ; London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1971. 23-31. Berger, P. and T. Luckmann. The S o c i a l - C o n s t r u c t i o n o f - R e a l i t y . New York: Anchor Books, 1967. B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , S c i e n c e and Technology, C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch. 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"The Design and U t i l i z a t i o n of a Concerns Based S t a f f Development Program." paper presented at AERA conf e r e n c e 1980. Psathas, G. Phenomenological S o c i o l o g y : I s s u e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1973. R e i d , W.A. and D. F. Walker, eds. C a s e • S t u d i e s • i n • C u r r i c u l u m C h a n q e ^ G r e a t - B r i t a i n a n d ^ t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1975. Schatzman, L. and A. S t r a u s s , F i e l d -Research :•• S t r a t e g i e s f o r • a • N a t u r a l • S o c i o l o g y . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 19/3. Schutz, A. C o l l e c t e d - Papers - I. E d i t e d and i n t r o d u c t e d by Maurice Natanson, The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1973. 113 Sc h u t z , A. C o l l e c t e d • P a p e r s I I . E d i t e d and i n t r o d u c e d by A r v i d Broderson, rhe Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1971. Sc h u t z , A. C o l l e c t e d P a p e r s - I l l . E d i t e d and i n t r o d u c e d by I . Schutz and Aaron Ge u r w i t c h , The Hague: M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , 1971. Schutz, A. T h e P h e n o m e n o l o g y o f t h e S o c i a l W o r l d . t r a n s l a t e d by George Walsh and F. L e h n e r t . Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Sc h u t z , A. "The S t r a n g e r : An Essay i n S o c i a l Psychology," i n S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y : A S o c i o l o g i c a l R e a d e r . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1971, 32-38. Schutz, A. and T. Luckmann. T h e S t r u c t u r e s o f t h e L i f e w o r l d Evanston: Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. van Manen, M. "Toward a C y b e r n e t i c Phenomenology of I n s t r u c t i o n . " Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1973. W i l l i s , G., ed., Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1978. Wagner, H., ed. A l f r e d S c h u t z : On-Phenomenology a n d - S o c i a l  R e l a t i o n s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1970. Werner, W. "A Study o f P e r s p e c t i v e i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s . " Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S p r i n g , 1977. Werner, W. "Implementation: The Role of B e l i e f . " i n M. D a n i e l s and I . Wright, eds. Implementation  V i e w p o i n t s . Vancouver: Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980, 54-67. Werner, W. " R e c i p r o c i t y and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : O b s e r v a t i o n s on the Impact of Research L i t e r a t u r e . " i n J . B e r n i e r and G. Tomkins, eds. C u r r i c u l u m - C a n a d a - I I . Vancouver: Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Quebec: Departments de Mesure et E v a l u a t i o n et de D i d a c t i g u e , U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1980, 145-154. W i l s o n , S. "The Use of Et h n o g r a p h i c Techniques i n E d u c a t i o n a l Research." R e v i e w o f - E d u c a t i o n a l Research; v o l . 47, no. 1, W i n t e r , 1977, 2 4 5 - 2 4 5 . Young, M. " C u r r i c u l u m Change: L i m i t s and P o s s i b i l i t i e s . " E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s , v o l . 1, no. 2, 1975. 129-138. Young, M., ed. Knowledge and C o n t r o l . London: C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n , 1971. 115 A p p e n d i x B T h e O p e n - E n d e d l n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e I N T E R V I E W Q U E S T I O N S I ' d b e i n t e r e s t e d t o k n o w h o w y o u f i r s t l e a r n e d t h a t a c h a n g e w o u l d b e t a k i n g p l a c e . W h e n y o u f i r s t k n e w a b o u t t h e c h a n g e , d i d y o u a n t i c i p a t e w h a t i t w o u l d b e l i k e ? H o w a b o u t p l a n n i n g f o r t e a c h i n g - w h a t k i n d s o f t h i n g s d i d y o u a n t i c i p a t e t h e n ? H o w d i d y o u r a n t i c i p a t i o n s m a t c h y o u r a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e ? W h a t k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d y o u r e x p e r i e n c e o f c h a n g e ? W h a t d i d y o u d o t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s ? W h a t k i n d s o f t h i n g s h a v e y o u f o u n d h e l p f u l d u r i n g y o u r c h a n g e e x p e r i e n c e ? W h a t a b o u t p e o p l e w h o w e r e h e l p f u l ? I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e h e l p f u l ? W a s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n e d i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e c i s i o n s y o u m a d e a b o u t u s i n g t h e n e w p r o g r a m ? W h a t a b o u t o u t s i d e y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? D i d y o u f e e l a t a n y t i m e t h a t y o u s h o u l d b e d o i n g t h i n g s i n a p a r t i c u l a r w a y ? I ' d b e i n t e r e s t e d t o k n o w a b o u t y o u r f e e l i n g s d u r i n g t h i s w h o l e p e r i o d o f c h a n g e . W a s t h e r e s o m e t i m e a l o n g t h e w a y w h e n y o u r e a l l y f e l t t h a t y o u w e r e ' a t h o m e ' w i t h t h e n e w p r o g r a m ? W a s t h e r e a t i m e w h e n y o u f e l t y o u w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a m u c h g r e a t e r a m o u n t o f c h a n g e ? H o w w o u l d y o u c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n e w p r o g r a m a n d t h e o n e y o u p r e v i o u s l y u s e d ? I s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e o f c h a n g e t h a t h a s n ' t b e e n t o u c h e d o n ? 116 Appendix •  G • • • S i x • S t r u c t u r e s • o f C u r r i c u l u m  Change•Experienced by • Teachers * TIME f o r d e c i s i o n s f o r p r e p a r a t i o n to d e a l w i t h f e e l i n g s and c o n f l i c t s t h a t were a r i s i n g to change h a b i t s and ways of doing t h i n g s LEARNING i s a g r a d u a l process to g a i n knowledge occurs through use i s i n f l u e n c e d by c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t a l k w i t h o t h e r s h e l p s develop a sense of ownership TALK occu r s more d u r i n g e a r l y use p r o v i d e s support c l a r i f i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n f l u e n c e s the l e a r n i n g process can c r e a t e f e l t e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n f l u e n c e s d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e to needs c r e a t e s f e e l i n g s about the c u r r i c u l u m 117 i n v o l v e s m a t e r i a l s , p e o p l e , meetings and i n s e r v i c e - i s important from r e s o u r c e people SUPPORT -. should r e l a t e to ongoing needs take d i f f e r e n t forms; e.g. i d e a s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , d e c i s i o n making i s p e r c e i v e d as d i f f e r e n t from d i f f e r e n t people i s guided by t e a c h e r and student i n t e r e s t s does occur through use ADAPTATION - does occur a c c o r d i n g to p e r c e i v e d c h i l d r e n ' s needs i s i n f l u e n c e d by past experience' i s i n f l u e n c e d by t a l k w i t h o t h e r s i s both program and t e a c h e r changes i n f l u e n c e f e e l i n g s about the i n n o v a t i o n BELIEFS - i n f l u e n c e what i s used and valued guide ongoing use of the c u r r i c u l u m r e l a t e to c h i l d r e n and t h e i r l e a r n i n g * The statements t h a t f o l l o w each of the s i x s t r u c t u r e s are a summary of the t r a n s c r i p t d a t a . However, these statements are not meant to stand on t h e i r own, but were i n t e n d e d to be a focus f o r d i s c u s s i o n between r e s e a r c h e r and each t e a c h e r . 118 A p p e n d i x - D - • V a l i d a t i o n • R e c o r d i n g S h e e t T e a c h e r : D a t e : S T R U C T U R E C O M M E N T S T I M E L E A R N I N G T A L K S U P P O R T A D A P T A T I O N B E L I E F S 119 A p p e n d i x E - Q n e S a m p l e l n t e r v i e w T r a n s c r i p t * ( * i o t a i number of t r a n s c r i p t s were f o u r t e e n ) I n t e r v i e w e e (R) : Mrs. N., a primary t e a c h e r I n t e r v e i w e r ( I ) : Margaret P i k e L o c a t i o n : C Elementary s c h o o l Date : A p r i l 9, 1980 I'd be i n t e r e s t e d to um know how you f i r s t heard about the f a c t t h a t a change was going to be t a k i n g p l a c e . I t h i n k t h i s was b a s i c a l l y j u s t announced i n the s t a f f r o o m that' we were going to have a new -- um r e a d i n g c u r r i c u l u m . Uh um. Did you have any f e e l i n g s about i t at t h a t time? Not r e a l l y , I , i f a n y t h i n g I t h i n k I was probably g l a d t h a t we were going to have something p o s i t i v e t o go on because when I came i n t o do the language a r t s l a s t y e a r , I -- I wasn't g i v e n any g u i d e l i n e s . Uh um. I, b a s i c a l l y choose your own r e a d e r , choose your own program, what do you want t o use, and the reason t h a t I chose the Language P a t t e r n s i s I t a l k e d to the t e a c h e r t h a t had the c h i l d r e n b e f o r e and found out what program they were u s i n g and decided to c o n t i n u e on f o r the Grade 3 i n the Language P a t t e r n s because i t would g i v e them a primary e x p e r i e n c e i n one p a r t i c u l a r --uh -- one p a r t i c u l a r book. So you were f e e l i n g then when you f i r s t heard t h a t t h e r e was going to be a new program t h a t you were g l a d of t h i s t h a t you wanted to know some k i n d of g u i d e l i n e s and Yes, I t h i n k so, uh e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e I had a s p l i t 3 - 4 Uh um because I was u s i n g one k i n d of program f o r 120 G r a d e 3 a n d g o i n g o n t o a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m f o r G r a d e 4, a n d u h I I d i d n ' t s e e a n y c o n t i n u i t y i n w h a t I w a s d o i n g o t h e r t h a n j u s t my o w n my o w n i n p u t a n d m y o w n I s u p p o s e c r e a t i v i t y , t h a t w a s t h e t h a t w a s t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t , s o I w a s I w a s r a t h e r g l a d a n d I h a d h o p e d a c t u a l l y t h a t w e w o u l d n ' t i f w e h a d a n e w p r o g r a m i t w o u l d n ' t b e i n j u s t o n e o f t h e g r a d e s I w a s t e a c h i n g , I w a n t e d i t i n b o t h g r a d e s a n d t h a t w a s m y o w n f e e l i n g a b o u t i t . W e l l , t h e n t h e c o n t i n u i t y w a s a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t O h y e s . U h , d i d y o u h a v e a n y a n t i c i p a t i o n s a b o u t w h a t i t w o u l d b e l i k e t o u s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m o t h e r t h a n t h e c o n t i n u i t y ? U h h h , o n e o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t b o t h e r e d m e w h e n I w h e n w e w e r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , e v e r y b o d y k e p t s t r e s s i n g a t y p e o f a m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m a n d t h e r e w o u l d b e a l o t o f a p a p e r w o r k f o r t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h i s t h i s u h b o t h e r e d m e , I w a s n o t a n t i c i p a t i n g a v e r y p l e a s a n t t i m e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t a s p e c t o f i t . W h a t a b o u t t h e m a n a g e m e n t w a s b o t h e r i n g y o u ? K e e p i n g a l o t o f r e c o r d s a n d u h i t s e e m e d t o b e a l o t o f p a p e r w o r k t h a t y o u h a v e y o u k n o w y o u h a v e t o d o t h e s e t h i n g s , a n d I - - I I g u e s s I h a v e a l w a y s f e l t t h a t y o u c a n , y o u k n o w y o u r s t u d e n t s a n d y o u c a n p r o b a b l y p u t d o w n o n p a p e r a l o t a b o u t y o u r s t u d e n t s b u t t o a c t u a l l y p u t i t d o w n a s a m a r k U h u m i t ' s l i k e g i v i n g t h e c h i l d a l e t t e r g r a d e o n t h e P R c a r d s . a n d t h i s w a s a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e t h i n g f o r y o u ? v e r y m u c h s o , a l e t t e r g r a d e d o e s n ' t u m - - i t ' s n o t t h e p a r a g r a p h o r t w o t h a t t e l l s w h y t h e 121 c h i l d i s at t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and I t h i n k t h a t was probably b o t h e r i n g me a l i t t l e b i t . I see, so t h i s i s something b e f o r e you r e a l l y l ooked at the program you j u s t heard t h a t t h e r e was t h i s p a r t i c u l a r management system.. What about when you um f i r s t s t a r t e d l o o k i n g through the t e a c h e r ' s guides and f a m i l i a r i z i n g y o u r s e l f w i t h i t , d i d you have any a n t i c i p a t i o n s at *that time what i t would be l i k e you know what t h i s program would look l i k e i n your classroom? W e l l , I thought the c h i l d r e n would be p r e t t y t urned on by the books. What was i t about t h a t ? Oh, they were c o l o u r f u l and they were c o l o u r f u l and b r i g h t and new and any c h i l d i s r e a l l y e x c i t e d about u s i n g something new uh um and I c o u l d see myself b u i l d i n g t h i s up i n the c l a s s r o o m , t h i s i s a t o t a l l y new program and are n ' t we l u c k y i n our d i s t r i c t to do something new and be the f i r s t people to do i t . I c o u l d see approaching i t t h a t way and I t h i n k the c h i l d r e n would be f a i r l y e x c i t e d about i t uh myself l o o k i n g through the books -- I r e a l l y d i d n ' t -- I d i d n ' t get a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t they were too easy or t o o hard or would be too d i f f i c u l t , I j u s t d i d n ' t have a s t r o n g f e e l i n g about the change i t s e l f . Uh um, i t seemed l i k e t h i n g s you've done b e f o r e you mean? Yes, I I , to me any r e a d i n g program I I guess I was t h i n k i n g I r e a l l y wouldn't have to do t h i n g s too d i f f e r e n t l y . Uh um and any r e a d i n g program would, I would take the r e a d i n g program and proceed the way I nor m a l l y 122 w o u l d . T h a t w a s my i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n , i t d i d n ' t r e a l l y m a t t e r w h a t t h e b o o k s w e r e . W h e n y o u s a y y o u w o u l d p r o c e e d t h e w a y y o u o r d i n a r i l y w o u l d , d o e s t h i s m e a n y o u w o u l d m o d i f y i t t o s u i t y o u r s t y l e o f t e a c h i n g o r w h a t ? U h , I p r o b a b l y u h i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n my m i n d I f e l t I w o u l d d o t h a t . U h u m I d o n ' t k n o w i f t h a t ' s r i g h t o r n o t , I k n e w t h e r e w o u l d b e c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t I w o u l d h a v e t o d o a n d I I I w a s t h i n k i n g a g a i n t h e c o n t i n u i t y f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e , t h e r e w o u l d b e c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t m u s t b e c o v e r e d U h u m b u t I a l s o k n e w I I c o u l d n ' t t a k e a m a n u a l a n d d o s t e p b y s t e p w h a t w a s s a i d , I r e m e m b e r y o u t a l k i n g a b o u t a n t i c i p a t i o n , l o o k i n g a t t h e m a n u a l a n d s e e i n g n o w w r i t e t h i s w o r d o n t h e b o a r d , n o w d o t h i s , I k n e w I c o u l d n ' t d o t h a t , i t w o u l d h a v e t o b e m o r e s p o n t a n e o u s . Y o u f e l t y o u ' d p u t y o u r o w n p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s t y l e O h y e s , o h y e s i n t o t h i s . I d i d . W h a t a b o u t w h e n y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d y o u k n o w d a y o n e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d a l i t t l e f u r t h e r o n f r o m t h e r e , d i d y o u r a n t i c i p a t i o n s m a t c h w h a t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w a s ? I I t h i n k I I p r o b a b l y a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d f l o w f a i r l y s m o o t h l y a n d I w a s a b i t s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e t i m e d i s a p p e a r e d o n m e . U h u m I d i d n ' t h a v e e n o u g h t i m e t o d o e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w a s i n t h e m a n u a l o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t I w a n t e d t o d o . D o y o u a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o a n y t h i n g ? 123 Probably because i n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program there was j u s t so much t h a t they suggested t h a t you do Uh um and I t h i n k I was very c o n s c i e n c i o u s about c o v e r i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was suggested. You a l s o s a i d t h a t i t looked l i k e i t was neat and t h a t looked l i k e a good i d e a and so on, and uh d i d you f i n d when you a c t u a l l y s t a r t e d u s i n g i t t h a t i t perhaps was a b i t more c o m p l i c a t e d or time consuming than i t looked l i k e on paper? W e l l , yes, very much so um a c r e a t i v i t y i d e a was put f o r t h but to a c t u a l l y develop t h i s c r e a t i v i t y i d e a took much l o n g e r than 10 or 15 minutes, which, i f you were going to to a n a l y z e a a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y you probably would spend much more than t h a t . You mentioned t h a t i n i n s t a r t i n g to use the program you r e a l i z e d t h a t perhaps i n p r a c t i c e i t was a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t than what i t looked l i k e when you were j u s t p l a n n i n g and time seemed to be one of the t h i n g s . Uh tim e , time was a r e a l l y b i g f a c t o r i n the b e g i n n i n g i n b r i n g i n g i n t h a t program, not j u s t time i n the classroom but i f I can go i n t o t h i s my own p r e p a r a t i o n time. Uh um The amount of time I used to prepare a new program was phenomenal. Did you uh t h i n k at t h i s time t h a t I'm t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s was i n i t i a l l y what we're speaking of r i g h t now, t h a t your p r e p a r a t i o n time was g r e a t e r than i t would be f u r t h e r down the road. For i n s t a n c e , now are you spending as much time i n p r e p a r a t i o n and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g as you d i d at f i r s t ? 124 N o , I ' m n o t . U h I t h i n k p a r t o f i t i s I ' m n o w l e a r n i n g m y s e l f t o t o p i c k a n d c h o o s e w h a t I ' m g o i n g t o d o U h u m i n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o c o v e r e v e r y t h i n g . I ' m a l s o r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s o m e t h i n g s I c o v e r i n o t h e r a s p e c t s t h a t I d o n ' t n e e d t o c o v e r a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . Y o u m e a n i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m ? I n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . I s e e . T h a t ' s r i g h t , a n d u h I t h i n k t h a t I ' m b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t o o t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n a c l a s s r o o m t h a t t u r n t h e c h i l d r e n o n a n d c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t d o n ' t s o I w i l l l e a v e t h e t h i n g s a l o n e , I k n o w t h e c h i l d r e n b e t t e r . Y e s , s o t h a t t h a t c o m e s i n t o i t . T h i s w a s o n e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s t h e n t h a t m a d e y o u m a k e t h e d e c i s i o n s y o u d i d t h a t s o m e t h i n g s w e r e a p p e a l i n g t o t h e k i d s a n d o t h e r t h i n g s p e r h a p s w e r e n o t a n d a l s o t h a t y o u w e r e c o v e r i n g c e r t a i n s k i l l s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f y o u r p r o g r a m a n d y o u k n e w t h a t y o u w e r e t a k i n g c a r e o f t h i n g s a n d s o o n . T h a t ' s r i g h t . O n e e x a m p l e i f I c o u l d g i v e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t y o u d o a l o t o f w o r d g a m e s a n d I r e a l i z e t h e r e a r e g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n t h a t h a n d l e w o r d g a m e s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d o t h e r g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n g e t c o m p l e t e l y c a r r i e d a w a y . U h um S o , d e p e n d i n g o n w h i c h g r o u p I ' m u s i n g I w o u l d d o w o r d g a m e s w i t h t h e m . O t h e r w i s e I w o u l d a p p r o a c h t h e m w i t h a v e r y v e r y b a s i c w o r d l i s t . U h u m . S o y o u b r o u g h t y o u r o w n k i n d s o f i d e a s a n d t h i n g s t h a t h a d w o r k e d f o r y o u i n t o c o p i n g 125 w i t h some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s or some of the d i f f e r e n c e s . Oh yes, yes I t h i n k so. Uh um A f t e r i n i t i a l l y too I t h i n k I was t r y i n g very hard to do what the manual s a i d and now I I t h i n k the program has probably become more mine and I'm doing what I want t o do w i t h i t . I see. Were t h e r e any other k i n d s of problems t h a t you i n i t i a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h i t ? Um, w e l l the time i s a very very l a r g e f a c t o r , the m a t e r i a l s , we d i d not have the m a t e r i a l s . We were b r i n g i n g i n a program and yet the m a t e r i a l s were not here to teach the program, um we were, we had the books f o r the c h i l d r e n but no manual f o r the t e a c h e r so I s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g a program u s i n g t e x t books i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and p u t t i n g i n you know a n a l y z i n g i t myself from a t e a c h e r ' s p o i n t of view what I f e l t were you know was necessary to do at t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and c o n t i n u e d on but w i t h the management system the c h i l d r e n must w r i t e u n i t t e s t s , so I would g i v e the u n i t t e s t o n l y t o r e a l i z e t h a t they were t e s t i n g t h i n g s t h a t I had not covered because I d i d n ' t f e e l they were t h a t i m p o r t a n t . This must have been very f r u s t r a t i n g . Very much so, very much so. Uh as a matter of f a c t we have found i n the s c h o o l t h a t you know t h e r e are s e v e r a l -- groups of c h i l d r e n on the same l e v e l and not enough m a t e r i a l s to go around, so some of the c h i l d r e n have been put i n b a s i c a l l y a h o l d i n g stage u n t i l the m a t e r i a l s a r r i v e d . Have you um shared these k i n d s of e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h your c o l l e a g u e s ? 1 2 6 O h y e s , t h i s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n d e p t h , i t h a s b e e n , t h e m o s t f r u s t r a t i n g a s p e c t i s i s t h e l a c k o f m a t e r i a l s . U h u m T h e m a t e r i a l s a r e n o t h e r e w h e n w e n e e d t h e m . W e ' r e a l w a y s r u n n i n g a r o u n d a t t h e l a s t m o m e n t t r y i n g t o f i n d , a s I s a y w e ' r e s u p p o s e d t o w r i t e a u n i t t e s t a n d w h e r e a r e t h e u n i t t e s t s u m n o t o n l y t h a t b u t y o u k n o w t h e r e h a v e b e e n s o m e e r r o r s i n p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g . T h e c h i l d r e n w r i t e t h e u n i t t e s t b u t t h e m a n u a l i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t e s t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e w r i t i n g u h u m s o i t i t h a s b e e n , t h e a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s t h e m s e l v e s u h h a v e b e e n v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g . H a v e y o u f o u n d y o u r c o l l e a g u e s h e l p f u l i n u m y o u k n o w w h e n y o u ' r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e k i n d s o f t h i n g s , i t s e e m s y o u a l l h a v e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , U h u m D o y o u t a l k a b o u t t h a t a s p e c t o f i t o t h e r t h a n j u s t f i n d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s , d o y o u t a l k a b o u t w h a t y o u r f e e l i n g w i t h i t , w h a t y o u ' r e d o i n g i n y o u r o w n c l a s s r o o m ? Y e s , I I t h i n k w e w e r e a l l y d o t a l k a b o u t i t , I ' m f i n d i n g r i g h t n o w t h a t - - my c o l l e a g u e s a r e p r e t t y w e l l f e d u p w i t h y o u k n o w t h e n e w p r o g r a m a n d w h e n e v e r y o u m e n t i o n i t t h e y t e n d t o t h r o w t h e i r a r m s u p a n s a y a h h h h y o u k n o w , I d o n ' t e v e n w a n t t o h e a r a b o u t i t a n y m o r e a n d I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t d o e s a n y g o o d . U h u m I , i f I h a v e a c o n c e r n w i t h a p r o g r a m I ' d r e a l l y l i k e t o s i t d o w n a n d t a l k t o s o m e b o d y a b o u t i t . H a v e y o u b e e n a b l e t o d o t h a t a t a l l ? Y " e s , I ' v e g o n e b e y o n d o u r c o l l e a g u e s U h u m 127 about t h i s because I'm not t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e to the program and i f you're t a l k i n g to c o l l e a g u e s t h a t are t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e a l l you're doing i s c o m p l a i n i n g and you're not g e t t i n g any uh um, so you've so I've gone beyond t h a t , I have gone to our language a r t s uh l i a s o n people our c o - o r d i n a t o r s and d i s c u s s e d some problems w i t h them and t h a t has been, they have been very good, t h a t ' s been t e r r i f i c um. They have giv e n me the f e e l i n g t h a t you are the t e a c h e r , the book i s t h e r e f o r you to use, but i t ' s not the t e a c h e r , you're the te a c h e r I see and have g i v e n me the c o n f i d e n c e t h a t , y e t , go ahead use your own i d e a s . Sounds l i k e the s o r t of support and guidance has been very r e a s s u r i n g , I t h i n k i t has, I t h i n k i t ' s been very good um we have had work shops, to go along w i t h the program. I haven't found the work shops t h a t u s e f u l because the phonics work shops, t h i s s o r t of t h i n g , I t h i n k the reason f o r the work shops, now I'm speaking from an i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s p o i n t of view, the reason f o r the work shops was to f i l l i n i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s background t h a t they may not have had i n t h i s developmental process Uh um of r e a d i n g . What s o r t s of t h i n g s i n work shops would you l i k e to have seen t h a t c o u l d have been h e l p f u l ? I t h i n k -- one of the t h i n g s t h a t t h a t was h e l p f u l and I'd l i k e to c o n t i n u e on w i t h t h i s i s -- g e t t i n g t e a c h e r s t o g e t h e r to d i s c u s s t h e i r problems Uh um 128 102 R w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r program and p o o l t h e i r i d e a s on how they've overcome these problems uh one of the work shops turned i n t o t h i s at the end and we j u s t s a t around f o r about 40 minutes or an hour j u s t d i s c u s s i n g the problem of time, i t was t a k i n g too long to complete a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t or l e v e l . 103 I How do you t h i n k the group f e l t a f t e r h a v i n g t h a t s e e s i o n ? 104 R I t h i n k very good. -I I r e a l l y t h i n k i t , I t h i n k you have to go beyond your own s c h o o l 105 I Uh um 106 R Uh, because people i n your s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s s c h o o l , i t ' s a very s m a l l s c h o o l so t h e r e a r e n ' t very many people t h a t a r e , t h a t may be e x p e r i e n c i n g my f r u s t r a t i o n . 107 I Uh um 108 R There, they would have f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h the new program but perhaps on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , so to get t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s who are i n the same same a r e a , I found t h a t very h e l p f u l . 109 I And you've l e a r n e d ideas from them, d i d you? 110 R Yes, I d i d I I l e a r n e d a few i d e a s , I t h i n k I c o n t r i b u t e d some i d e a s t h a t I n o t i c e d o t h e r people p i c k e d up and were w r i t i n g down, i t ' s a l s o the support 111 I Uh um 112 R t h a t you're not alone i n your problem.(laugh) 113 I That's a good f e e l i n g I'm sure . 114 R Yes, i t i s . 115 I So, these were some s o r t of i n f l u e n c e s then t h a t you had a chance to t a l k w i t h people both i n s c h o o l and o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n your c l a s s r o o m , you mentioned a l i t t l e w h i l e ago t h a t the c h l d r e n were showing an i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , was t h e r e a n y t h i n g 1 2 9 e l s e i n your c l a s s r o o m t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the k i n d s of d e c i s i o n s you made about what you would do or how you would do i t ? 116 R W e l l , I t h i n k the c h i l d r e n themselves. The c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y 117 I Uh um 118 R d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d how I would approach t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program. 119 I What d i d you do i n t h a t way? 120 R Uh, many more c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s or independent — um r e a d i n g 121 I You have c h i l d r e n t h a t were q u i t e c a p a b l e ? 122 R p r o j e c t s , yes, I have a whole range of c h i l d r e n from the very very b a s i c you know s t r u g g l i n g uh rea d e r s to very very b r i g h t r e a d e r s and I I t h i n k uh knowing the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d the way t h a t I was u s i n g t h a t program. I t h i n k t h a t was one one t h i n g . The o t h e r t h i n g i s the make up of the c l a s s , now we're t a l k i n g about c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y but we're a l s o t a l k i n g about the h o l i s t i c aspect of the c l a s s the the makeup of the c l a s s and the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s such a phenomenal range, you can do o n l y so much. 123 I Uh um 124 R I t ' s a very r e a l i s t i c 125 I Uh um 126 R approach and I -- p e r s o n a l l y I'm t e n d i n g to go to perhaps the the more c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n and I -- my own f e e l i n g s tend t o go t o enrichment so I had t o r e a l l y make myself slow down w i t h the the um b e g i n n i n g readers who were doing a whole new program because they d i d need more time. 127 I Uh um 128 R I had to be very c a r e f u l i n t h a t way, I found t h a t f r u s t r a t i n g . 130 129 I Reading the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s then was the i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r t h e r e . 130 R Uh um, very much so, the o t h e r t h i n g t h a t threw me o f f too was t h a t t h i s i s a new program i n the d i s t r i c t so o b v i o u s l y none of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t had i t but some c h i l d r e n then had moved i n from another d i s t r i c t were t e s t e d out, put on a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l , and found out t h a t they had done h a l f of t h a t program i n another d i s t r i c t , t h a t was very f r u s t r a t i n g . They weren't ready to go on to another program 131 I Uh um 132 R and yet we were going to do t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program s o l e l y so uh I found t h a t very d i f f i c u l t , what do I do, do they redo t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program, am I going to take one c h i l d out to do something t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r f i v e or s i x months? That t h a t was a d e c i s i o n t h a t I had to make. 133 I Did you f e e l at any time i n making these k i n d s of d e c i s i o n s t h a t you were expected to perform i n a c e r t a i n way wit h the program? 134 R Uh hum, the only way I f e l t t h a t I was r e a l l y expected to perform was i n the management ar e a . I was expected to keep r e c o r d s , and I expected to go -- w e l l , to keep these r e c o r d s and to get these c h i l d r e n through these v a r i o u s stages and when they had completed t h i s , they would then move on. 135 I And you had a l l the r e c o r d keeping and so on t h a t was hooked i n t o t h a t . 136 R Yes, but t h a t was the only way I f e l t I was r e a l l y expected to do i t , I d i d n ' t f e e l the p r e s s u r e though, I was expected to do v o c a b u l a r y i n t h i s way or I was expected to do comprehension i n t h i s way. 131 137 I You had to g i v e your own i n p u t i n t o t h i s s t y l e of t e a c h i n g but you f e l t you were supposed to do a c e r t a i n amount to get them t o c e r t a i n l e v e l s . 138 R Yes 139 I Where d i d t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n come from? 140 R Hum, p r o b a b l y i n i n people j u s t t a l k i n g about the program, the management system of the program, now I know 141 I Were these d i s t r i c t people? 142 R Yes, d i s t r i c t people and our own s t a f f , but I do know t h a t o t h e r people f e l t from l i s t e n i n g to them, more p r e s s u r e t o proceed through each l e s s o n the way the manual s a i d you s h o u l d . I was a l i t t l e s u r p r i s e d t h a t people would f e e l t h a t p r e s s u r e . 143 I Why do you t h i n k they got to f e e l t h a t way? 144 R I t h i n k an i n s e c u r i t y about a new program. 145 I Uh um 146 R And y e t uh i n l o o k i n g at the program I p e r s o n a l l y d i d n ' t f e e l i t was t h a t d i f f e r e n t 147 I Uh um 148 R than any oth e r program. 149 I J u s t the management seems t o have 150 R the management system yes 151 I Did you have any p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s about — you know f e e l i n g s you sh o u l d do t h a t ? That I sh o u l d do the management system and keep a l l the r e c o r d s , d i d t h a t bother you at a l l ? 152 R No, I I f e l t t h a t i t was s o r t of busy 153 I Uh um 154 R and y e t , you know, at f i r s t I was s o r t o f t h i n k i n g oh dear you know a l l these r e c o r d s t h a t I have t o keep I hope I keep them a c c u r a t e l y , I I guess I have these f e e l i n g s t h a t I have to r i s e to c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t o o . Uh a c t u a l l y now t h a t I I'm doing them and I'm i n t o i t , I'm g l a d 132 Uh um t h a t the r e c o r d s are t h e r e . Is i t going more smoothly now then? Oh yes, I t h i n k so, and i t ' s not as b i g a job as I thought i t would be, I thought i t would be a t e r r i b l y b i g job and I I r e a l i z e now i t ' s not t h a t b i g a d e a l . I t was j u s t something of an unknown and you had to get used to i t . That's r i g h t , t h a t ' s r i g h t , yeah r e a l l y Uh, we t a l k e d a l i t t l e b i t about uh you know when you f i r s t s t a r t e d u s i n g i t t h e r e was t i m e , commitment, and i t was a l i t t l e s t r a n g e at f i r s t , do you f e e l t h a t you've gone through v a r i o u s stages w i t h t h i s at a l l ? Yes, I t h i n k so um -- now l e t ' s see i f I can s o r t of -- c a p s u l i z e i t , at f i r s t i t was t o t a l l y new and I was spending a l o t of time on i t and I t h i n k i t was a f f e c t i n g my o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m . In what way was t h a t ? W e l l , i t was t a k i n g the time i n o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m and I would do something i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program t h a t meant b e i n g , we're t a l k i n g about the language, t h i s s h o u l d have been covered i n the in. the language area and perhaps wasn't b e f o r e so i t was a f f e c t i n g was my development of of o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m . I t h i n k t h a t was the f i r s t stage and I t r i e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t approaches to i n t e g r a t e the r e s t of the c u r r i c u l u m i n t h i s program. Uh uh I wasn't s a t i s f i e d , I I f e l t t h a t I was I was doing a h i t and miss job at f i r s t Uh um i n the o t h e r -- areas of the c u r r i c u l u m so I t r i e d d i f f e r e n t approaches and f i n a l l y I , t h a t would be the second stage s o r t of t r y i n g the 133 d i f f e r e n t approaches and I t h i n k the t h i r d stage I r e a l i z e d t h a t I have to do what works f o r me. 167 I Uh um 168 R And so I'm I'm now at t h a t stage and I'm f e e l i n g much more c o m f o r t a b l e 169 I So you s e t t l e d i n with i t and you're m o d i f y i n g i t i n your own way 170 R Oh yes, yes 171 I and you f i n d your k i d s are s t i l l p r o g r e s s i n g i n the way you f e l t t h a t they s h o u l d be. 172 R I'm hoping so, I hope so, I t h i n k -- when I was f l a i l i n g around i n s o r t of the second stage t r y i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h i s i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m I t h i n k the c h i l d r e n f e l t t h a t . 173 I Uh um 174 R I I t h i n k they they kept a s k i n g w e l l when, they were used to b l o c k s o f p e r i o d , t h i s r e a d i n g , t h i s i s language, t h i s i s s p e l l i n g , t h i s i s , an they would ask f o r t h i n g s l i k e w e l l , when do we do language? 175 I Uh um 176 R And they were doing language but because i t was so t o t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r e a d i n g they weren't tuned i n t o the f a c t t h a t t h a t was language. 177 I Did t h i s c r e a t e any f e e l i n g s w i t h i n you when t h i s was a l l happening? 178 R Yes, I'm a very o r g a n i z e d i n d i v i d u a l t h a t ' s p r o b a b l y one of my problems, I am super o r g a n i z e d , and I f e l t I wasn't i n c o n t r o l 179 I Uh um 180 R and t h a t bothered me. 181 I Uh um 182 R And I I knew I had t o get myself i n c o n t r o l of the program and the o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m b e f o r e I c o u l d ever f e e l I was conveying t h i s to the c h i l d r e n . 134 183 I What do you t h i n k um happened t h a t got you over t h a t hump of f e e l i n g a l i t t l e i n s e c u r e because of not being i n c o n t r o l and then now you're o b v i o u s l y f e e l i n g much b e t t e r w i t h i t . Was th e r e something i n your c l a s s r o o m or i n j u s t your own growth or perhaps o t h e r people t h a t may have s a i d or done something t h a t h e l p e d you w i t h t h a t ? 184 R W e l l , I I'm t h i n k i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m t h a t i t tu r n e d out t h a t were were doing so many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s at one time t h a t ( i n t e r r u p t i o n i n tape) what made me de c i d e to change, I d i d n o t i c e t h a t t h a t i n the c l a s s r o o m we had um so many people doing d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s and I f e l t t h a t as they were doing these t h i n g s , the -- one group were doing an a c t i v i t y t h a t wouldn't take very long and I would j u s t get another group s t a r t e d i n an a c t i v i t y and they would be f i n i s h e d and ready t o go on to the next a c t i v i t y , I f e l t i t has to be very t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d w i t h a l l these d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s going on at one time 185 I Uh um 186 R because i f these were, i f they were t i e d i n t o the .reading program uh a l o t of i t was, w e l l , i t was an independent p r o j e c t what the c h i l d r e n were d o i n g , i t was a c t u a l l y a l e s s o n b e i n g taught from the manual and I f e l t t h a t the c h i l d r e n had too much f r e e time and we have always had t h i n g s t h a t the c h i l d r e n do d u r i n g t h e i r f r e e time but when they have so much of i t , you know they might have f o u r , f i v e minutes between t h e i r next a c t i v i t y , w e l l t h a t wasn't r e a l l y enough time to get i n t o an independent a c t i v i t y or p r o j e c t . 187 I You s t a r t e d then m o d i f y i n g and doing t h i n g s then w i t h the independent a c t i v i t i e s and changing i t 135 around. I t h i n k b e f o r e we were i n t e r r u p t e d t h e r e you were t a l k i n g about uh at f i r s t you were, you know s o r t of doing the whole t h i n g the way i t should be done and then you s t a r t e d f e e l i n g more c o m f o r t a b l e l a t e r on and p a r t of t h a t was t h a t you m o d i f i e d the independent a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t k i n d of t h i n g and the enrichment, i s t h a t what you were s a y i n g ? 188 R No, no, the uh the uh independent a c t i v i t i e s and enrichment came a l i t t l e b i t l a t e r on. 189 I I see. 190 R I found t h a t was the answer, t h a t was b e t t e r 191 I Uh um 192 R Uh, no, I found t h a t the t h i n g t h a t made me change was t h a t the c h i l d r e n were doing so many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s based on t h e i r l e v e l s or u n i t s t r y i n g to t i e i t i n t o the r e s t of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t I would have f i v e d i f f e r e n t language-programs going on at one time and t h a t was t h a t was j u s t an i m p o s s i b i l i t y f o r me. 193 I Uh um 194 R An uh I r e a l i z e d t h a t I I had to b r i n g t h a t c l a s s t o g e t h e r as a whole. 195 I I see 196 R That was a very very b a s i c d e c i s i o n . 197 I So you changed your management s t r a t e g i e s . 198 R Oh very much so, yes, very much so, I r e a l i z e d t h a t uh. Oh the o t h e r t h i n g to t h a t I t h i n k t h a t a f f e c t e d t h a t was t h a t a l l these a c t i v i t i e s were going on, the n o i s e l e v e l was i n c r e a s i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m , and t h a t t h a t was b o t h e r i n g me and I f e l t t h a t i t was b o t h e r i n g the c h i l d r e n as w e l l . T h e i r work h a b i t s were s l i p p i n g , 199 I Uh um 200 R t h e i r independent work h a b i t s . So I knew t h a t somewhere along the l i n e we had to come back t o g e t h e r . The o t h e r t h i n g too was t h e r e were 1 3 6 t h e r e was some uh t h e r e were some u n d e r c u r r e n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m as f a r as p e r s o n a l i t y problems and l i t t l e groups forming and c l i g u e s and I d i d n o t i c e they were r e l a t e d to groups i n t h i s new program and I f e l t t h a t when t h i s happens you've got t o get h o l d of t h i s and so the c l a s s needed to come t o g e t h e r 201 I Uh um 202 R and i t had to come t o g e t h e r as a whole. 203 I You s t a r t e d then f e e l i n g more c o m f o r t a b l e once you were doing t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g . 204 R Oh yes, yes 205 I I t helped you w i t h your p r o c e s s . 206 R Yes, yes, we needed to come back t o g e t h e r and take and b r e a t h e r and do something t o g e t h e r and then go on wit h another aspect of the program 207 I And t h i s i s now you're s o r t of working w i t h i t now. 208 R Very much so, I have my own uh uh I'm u s i n g the program but I do my own t h i n g , I b r i n g the c h i l d r e n back t o g e t h e r f o r ten minutes or so to do something i n the program but t h a t we w i l l a l l do t o g e t h e r . 20*9 I I see. Is t h i s um c o n t r i b u t i n g to you f e e l i n g more at home w i t h i t ? 210 R Oh very much so. 211 I Would you say you are f e e l i n g at home w i t h i t now? 212 R Yes, I t h i n k so. 213 I Uh um 214 R I t h i n k so, I I don't, I never d i d mind the program. 215 I Yeah, i t not s o r t of a p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e t h i n g but then j u s t the f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n and then you rearranged some of your management and some of the types of a c t i v i t i e s the c h i l d r e n have done 216 R Yes. 137 217 I Did you f e e l t h e r e was a time anywhere along the way when you were e x p e r i e n c i n g a g r e a t e r amount of change, whether i t was i n i t i a l l y or someway down the road? 218 R Do you mean i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program? 219 I I guess what I mean by t h a t i s uh we t a l k e d about you know what you thought i t would be l i k e to work w i t h the program you know when you were p l a n n i n g and j u s t h e a r i n g about i t and then you s t a r t e d and maybe t h a t d i d n ' t h o l d up c o m p l e t e l y , i t was a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t , and then you went some way. down the road and you were m o d i f y i n g and making i t work f o r you w i t h your own s t y l e , was t h e r e a n y t h i n g about any of those stages t h a t seemed to be a g r e a t e r amount of change happening w i t h i n you and what you were doing about i t ? 220 R Probably two t i m e s , I t h i n k , one time when I got i n t o i t and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was a l o t t o be done -- I f e l t t h a t I was changing my own s t r a t e g i e s , my own t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s — and t r y i n g some new t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r people had suggested t h a t t h a t was a change f o r me. 221 I Are you s a y i n g t h a t the types of t h i n g s you t r i e d out were t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r people had suggested you t r y ? 222 R Yes, t h a t would be, I t h i n k t h a t would be s o r t of the second stage of the program f o r me where • I was -- f l a i l i n g around and I I needed some uh some id e a s and so I was t r y i n g some new i d e a s , t h i n g s t h a t perhaps I hadn't t r i e d b e f o r e , and a l s o t r y i n g some new management 223 I Uh um 224 R as p e c t s i n the cl a s s r o o m . 225 I So t h a t what I hear you s a y i n g I t h i n k then i s t h a t you t r i e d going with t h i s a c c o r d i n g to the book and then you had what you say you f l a i l i n g a b i t 138 226 R Yes 227 I you went and asked people f o r i d e a s 228 R Uh um 229 I or t h e i r o p i n i o n s or whatever, 230 R R i g h t 231 I then you s t a r t e d changing q u i t e a b i t then. 232 R Yes I d i d , I I t h i n k uh i n my second stage o f , I see I see i t as s o r t o f f o r me r i g h t now t h r e e stages or the program 233 I Uh um 234 R and i n my second stage uh where I I found t h a t I was g e t t i n g i n t o i t and t h e r e was much more i n the program than I than I had expected uh I was -- uh t r y i n g to get new i d e a s yes, I was changing then, I was changing m y s e l f , I was changing my own methods of t e a c h i n g too. 235 I Was t h a t a more d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d ? 236 R I t h i n k so, I t h i n k I t h i n k i t r e a l l y was, I t h i n k I was so busy and I spent so many hours of p r e p a r a t i o n t r y i n g to implement new methods of t e a c h i n g , I would spend -- f o r t h r e e hours i n the c l a s s r o o m , I found t h a t I was spending e a s i l y t h r e e hours o f p r e p a r a t i o n at home and t h i s i s j u s t one one program. 237 I You a t t r i b u t e t h i s to changing your s t y l e and implementing t h i n g s t h a t you know were d i f f e r e n t f o r you as a t e a c h e r . 238 R Yes, Yes, and a c t u a l l y r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g i n t o the program, I f e l t t h a t I , see we d i d n ' t have the m a t e r i a l s b e f o r e the program was brought i n t h a t we c o u l d read up on the program 239 I Uh um 240 R so, I am d i s c o v e r i n g the program as I'm going through i t , I I s t i l l have no t , you know, sat down and read the e n t i r e program through. 241 I Uh um 242 R I f i n d t h a t i t t a k e s a l l of my time to proceed w i t h the program. 139 243 I So w i t h your i n c r e a s e d knowledge then t h e r e seems to be, or at l e a s t at the second stage t h a t you t a l k about, t h a t as your knowledge i n c r e a s e d w i t h the program 244 R I had more work to do. 245 I You had more work to 246 R Oh yes 247 I because your awareness was growing w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and a l s o 248 R yes 249 I of the change i n y o u r s e l f . 250 R My own changes i n s t r a t e g i e s , i n t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , then the t h i r d stage I f e l t t h a t I e x p e r i e n c e d change again because at t h a t stage I now f e e l I'm making the d e c i s i o n as to what I w i l l do. 251 I I see 252 R So t h a t t h a t ' s a change a g a i n , I t h i n k I have gone f u l l c i r c l e . 253 I Uh um 254 R I t h i n k I'm back now to to f e e l i n g um more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h my own t e a c h i n g methods. 255 I Do you f e e l your t e a c h i n g methods have changed though? 256 R Some of them yes, I t h i n k , I t h i n k some of the methods have changed. • I t h i n k I'm probably doing more group work now, more n o t i c e a b l e group work, than I d i d b e f o r e . 257 I But you're c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t . 258 R Yes, I I am c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t , I I've done group work b e f o r e but i t hasn't been as s t r u c t u r e d . 259 I Uh um 260 R Now I'm doing -- doing more group work and i t i s d e f i n i t e l y , d e f i n i t e l y more s t r u c t u r e d . 261 I Uh um 140 262 R Um, but I'm a l s o f e e l i n g very c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h myself t h a t I'm back now to the enrichment aspect 263 I And you're doing the k i n d s of t h i n g s t h a t you l i k e to do. 264 R That's r i g h t , and maybe what's happening i s t h a t the groups t h a t have d i v i d e d and s e p a r a t e d and what not -- g i v e s me the f e e l i n g t h a t yes, these c h i l d r e n have covered t h i s aspect o f the program, t h e r e f o r e go ahead, do t h i s . 265 I Uh um 266 R You know, and I'm a l s o making a d e c i s i o n t h a t these c h i l d r e n have not covered t h i s aspect of the program but t h a t doesn't r e a l l y matter --maybe they don't need t h a t at t h i s stage i n t h e i r development. 267 I W e l l , b e f o r e we c l o s e down, I'm j u s t wondering i f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g t h a t you have e x p e r i e n c e d or t h a t does seem important to you t h a t perhaps we haven't touched on. 268 R I t h i n k one of the t h i n g s t h a t I might have mentioned i s the f a c t t h a t I am wondering i n the new program whether people put so much s t r e s s and complain so much about a new program t h a t i t becomes a b i g g e r t h i n g than the program r e a l l y i s . 269 I Uh um. The f l a p p i n g you mean t h a t goes on w i t h . Do you t h i n k i t ' s a n x i e t y t h a t causes t h i s k i n d of c o m p l a i n i n g ? 270 R Yes, I t h i n k so and maybe a l o t of i t i s t h a t people don't l i k e change. Maybe people f e e l very c o m f o r t a b l e doing uh something t h e y ' r e f a m i l i a r w i t h . 271 I Uh, i t ' s the u n f a m i l i a r i t y perhaps t h a t causes them not to l i k e change. 272 R Yes, I t h i n k so, I a l s o have a f e e l i n g t h a t a l o t of of my c o l l e a g u e s um don't l i k e the change because they d i d n ' t have a say i n i t . 141 273 I Uh I see. 274 R Somebody e l s e has made the d e c i s i o n f o r them and t h e r e f o r e I wonder i f they r e a l l y l i k e the program but a r e n ' t w i l l i n g to say t h a t they l i k e the program. 275 I Perhaps i t ' s been clouded over you mean. 276 R One of the t h i n g s t h a t I have s a i d I was l o o k i n g forward to a good c o n t i n u i t y through grades and I f e l t t h a t t h i s might be a good t h i n g . I'm b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e may never be a c o n t i n u i t y because as the c h i l d r e n are proceeding through a new program I f e e l t h a t they are d e v e l o p i n g i n many d i f f e r e n t ways 277 I Uh um 278 R and i t ' s not t h a t necessary t h a t the c o n t i n u i t y w i l l be t h e r e . Some c h i l d r e n w i l l never proceed i n a c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n . They w i l l j u s t they they may do something and then f i n d t h a t they j u s t jump s e v e r a l s t a g e s ahead. 279 I Uh um 280 R Somewhere along the l i n e they've p i c k e d i t up. Whether i t ' s b e i n g i n the c o n t i n u o u s process or not, they they've j u s t p i c k e d i t up and they know i t , so I'm b e g i n n i n g to change my mind a l i t t l e b i t about t h a t . I haven't worked w i t h i t l ong enough to say t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d n ' t be a c o n t i n u o u s program or t h e r e s h o u l d 281 I R i g h t . 282 R but I am b e g i n n i n g to r e a l i z e t h a t i t may not be t h a t n e c e s s a r y . 283 I R i g h t , good enough. Thank you very much. 142 A p p e n d i x F - • • R e s e a r c h e r ' s • E x p e r i e n c e s My e x p e r i e n c e s as r e s e a r c h e r began when I f i r s t s t a r t e d to f o r m u l a t e a problem. "What was i n t e r e s t i n g ? " "How c o u l d I approach i t ? " "What would I l e a r n ? " I t was d i f f i c u l t at f i r s t not to p r e c l u d e what the outcomes of the study might be; I had my own t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and some rea d i n g s to r e l a t e t o . My a n t i c i p a t i o n s f o c u s s e d more, however, on how I would c a r r y out t h i s p r o j e c t ; "how would I get at what o t h e r s had e x p e r i e n c e d ? " T a l k i n g w i t h the two c o u n s e l l o r s proved t o be very h e l p f u l and I gained c o n f i d e n c e l i s t e n i n g t o them c o n c e r n i n g how they checked what o t h e r s were s a y i n g , and how they " f l o w e d " w i t h comments. I r e a l i z e d at t h i s time, j u s t how c e n t r a l to the i n t e r v i e w s my p a r t i c i p a t i o n was to be. I sensed t h a t even my g e s t u r e s (as w e l l as a c t u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n ) may have an i n f l u e n c e . My f i r s t i n t e r v i e w i n the p i l o t proved to be r i c h e r than I had a n t i c i p a t e d . During the a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w I f e l t a n x i e t y about doing the " r i g h t " t h i n g as an i n t e r v i e w e r . Not u n t i l we reviewed the tape and I had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i s t e n and extend our comments, d i d I r e a l i z e how complex t h i s person's e x p e r i e n c e had been. I a l s o began to be aware t h a t her u n s o l i c i t e d comments added a r i c h n e s s t h a t I hadn't counted on, and made me r e a l i z e the v a l u e of keeping the i n t e r v i e w as c o n v e r s a t i o n a l as p o s s i b l e . 143 I f e l t more "at home" with the task d u r i n g the second i n t e r v i e w of the p i l o t . As we began the i n t e r v i e w , I found myself f e e l i n g much e a s i e r about " g e t t i n g through" the q u e s t i o n s . We laughed and shared anecdotes and I f e l t the person b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d was c o m f o r t a b l e about d i s c u s s i n g her e x p e r i e n c e s . I wondered at t h i s time i f I would f e e l t h i s way w i t h o t h e r s , or i f i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to approach the i n t e r v i e w i n a c a s u a l manner. As we reviewed the tape, however, the i n t e r v i e w e r s comments made me f e e l t h a t t h i s c a s u a l approach was a p p r o p r i a t e . We laughed a l o t about her comments and she shared more of what her e x p e r i e n c e s had been. I f e l t t h e r e was more openness t h i s time. I a l s o became aware t h a t r e v i e w i n g the tape caused the i n t e r v i e w e e (both t h i s one and the p r e v i o u s one) to expand upon t h e i r o r i g i n a l comments. Talk seemed to be an i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e to get them t h i n k i n g about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . F o l l o w i n g the t h i r d p i l o t i n t e r v i e w , I began to a n t i c i p a t e the process of i n t e r v i e w i n g i n the study. The woman who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w was l e s s open than the f i r s t two had been. She f e l t the q u e s t i o n s were c l e a r enough, but d i d n ' t t h i n k they r e a l l y h i t upon her e x p e r i e n c e . I pursued t h i s n o t i o n , and through our c o n v e r s a t i o n , she began to suggest more and more about her e x p e r i e n c e s , ( I ' d wished i t had happened on the tape) and I began to see t h a t i t wasn't so much the a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t seemed i r r e l e v a n t , but the s t r a n g e n e s s she f e l t about r e f l e c t i n g on her e x p e r i e n c e . I t a l k e d w i t h her about 144 t h i s , and she suggested t h a t being a b l e to focus ahead of time on the q u e s t i o n s , would have hel p e d her to t h i n k more deeply about what she had done. The i n t e r v i e w was the f i r s t face to face v i s i t I exp e r i e n c e d w i t h each t e a c h e r . I had c o n t a c t e d them i n d i v i d u a l l y by telephone to arrange an appointment f o r the i n t e r v i e w and to answer any q u e s t i o n s they might have c o n c e r n i n g my i n t e n t . I f e l t t h a t some t a c h e r s were a l i t t l e apprehensive about the natu r e of the study and the taped i n t e r v i e w . Some asked me q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to what I wanted to know about and what would be done w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n . Some expressed a c u r i o s i t y about the k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s I would ask. Because I p e r c e i v e d some a n x i e t y and a l s o a l a c k of c l a r i t y r e g a r d i n g whether I was i n v e s t i g a t i n g Ginn 720 per se or e x p e r i e n c e s of change, I decide d to send each person a l e t t e r c o n f i r m i n g the i n t e r v i e w appointment as w e l l as a copy o f the f o c u s s i n g q u e s t i o n s to be used. I hoped to e s t a b l i s h something of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between each t e a c h e r and myself and to g i v e them an o p p o r t u n i t y to r e f l e c t as the t e a c h e r i n the p i l o t had mentioned. T h i n k i n g back, I f e l t t h i s s h o u l d have been b u i l t i n t o the o r i g i n a l p l a n . Some of these p e r c e p t i o n s were confirmed when I met w i t h i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . They thanked me f o r sending the i n f o r m a t i o n and some remarked t h a t the q u e s t i o n s had s t a r t e d them t h i n k i n g about what they had been do i n g . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w went smoothly. I i n t e r v i e w e d a teac h e r who was r e l a x e d and f r i e n d l y and very open about 145 s h a r i n g her e x p e r i e n c e s . I was concerned d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w about a t t e n d i n g to her remarks and drawing enough from her statements through f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n s . As the i n t e r v i e w s p r o g r e s s e d from one person to the n e x t , each t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d me w i t h u n a n t i c i p a t e d remarks, and yet w i t h each i n t e r v i e w I f e l t more ready to accept and respond to those unknown a s p e c t s . G e n e r a l l y , the t e a c h e r s were very f r i e n d l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e i n the t a s k . What I began to enjoy were the c o n v e r s a t i o n s we had a f t e r the taped i n t e r v i e w was over. The t e a c h e r s were e s p e c i a l l y c u r i o u s about what was to be done w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n I had g a t h e r e d . T h i s gave us an o p p o r t u n i t y t o go beyond the l i m i t s of the taped s e s s i o n . I sensed a r a p p o r t growing between each t e a c h e r and m y s e l f . The exchanges were becoming i n f o r m a l and " c h a t t y " . I t seemed to me t h a t t h i s was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the s e s s i o n . I t was d u r i n g the f o l l o w - u p v i s i t s t h a t I r e a l i z e d how c e n t r a l my r o l e as r e s e a r c h e r was. While r e v i e w i n g the t r a n s c r i p t s w i t h each t e a c h e r , they o f f e r e d many more comments; t h i n g s t h a t had not o c c u r r e d to them when we f i r s t met. They began t o t a l k about t h e i r c l assrooms i n g e n e r a l , t h e i r b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n . We spent a good p o r t i o n o f these second v i s i t s " j u s t c h a t t i n g " . I f e l t t h a t the t a l k we shared helped me know more about each te a c h e r and they, i n t u r n , l e a r n e d more about themselves. The t h i r d v i s i t w i t h each t e a c h e r proved i n t e r e s t i n g . We spent time d i s c u s s i n g the i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t emerged from the data a n a l y s i s . As i n the 146 second v i s i t , the t e a c h e r s r e c a l l e d more of t h e i r e x p e r e i e n c e s and commented about remembering events or f e e l i n g s t h a t , at f i r s t , had not come to mind. A l s o , many expressed a c u r i o s i t y about how o t h e r t e a c h e r s had f e l t or what they had e x p e r i e n c e d . T h i s l e d t o f u r t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n . S e v e r a l of the t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d wanted to v i s i t a f t e r the study was completed and even get t o g e t h e r as a group. I was i n t e r e s t e d by one t e a c h e r who brought me a newspaper a r t i c l e r e l a t e d to c u r r i c u l u m t h a t she thought might r e l a t e to my s t u d y . A f t e r these s e r i e s of meetings w i t h each t e a c h e r , I f e l t I had l e a r n e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount about t h e i r f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c u r r i c u l u m change. What I found e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g was t h a t s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s mentioned t h a t f o c u s s i n g as they d i d over t h i s p e r i o d of time and t h a t t a l k i n g w i t h me had caused them to do more t h i n k i n g and t a l k i n g about what they were e x p e r i e n c i n g ; and t h i s helped them b e t t e r understand why t h i n g s went as they d i d . The t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f i n a l v a l i d i t y check had not had t h i s same o p p o r t u n i t y to r e l e c t upon these e x p e r i e n c e s . I was meeting these t e a c h e r s f o r the f i r s t time and wondering how they would "see" the i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Each t e a c h e r I met was c u r i o u s about the s t r u c t u r e s , and we spent a good amount o f our time d i s c u s s i n g the f e a t u r e s of each s t r u c t u r e . The t e a c h e r s were a b l e to r e c o g n i z e t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s i n the s t r u c t u r e s . They were c u r i o u s about how these s t r u c t u r e s had been d e r i v e d , so again t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount 147 of c o n v e r s a t i o n . S u r p r i s i n g to me, t h r e e of these t e a c h e r s were very open about problems they had encountered. They wanted to t a l k about them and f i n d out what o t h e r s had done i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . In summary, my e x p e r i e n c e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the study became pa r t of the t e a c h e r s ' change e x p e r i e n c e . T a l k i n g , and t a k i n g the time to r e f l e c t upon t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of change. The s t r u c t u r e s of change t h a t emerged i n the i d e a l t y p e , i n p a r t , were r e l a t e d to the process o f the study i t s e l f . 

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