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Academic secondary education in the federal prisons of British Columbia : the guidelines for an alternative… Swift, Richard Anthony 1986

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ACADEMIC SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL PRISONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE  GUIDELINES FOR AN ALTERNATIVE PROGRAM TO THE GENERAL EQUIVALENCY DIPLOMA PROGRAM by RICHARD ANTHONY SWIFT  B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Centre f o r C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October,  1986  g> R i c h a r d Anthony S w i f t , 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  Library  shall  f o r reference  and  study.  I  for extensive copying of  that  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada  V6T  / a n  1Y3  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  ii Abstract The  primary purposes of t h i s  existing  secondary e d u c a t i o n program,  program (GED), o f f e r e d to inmates t r u l y e d u c a t i o n a l , and s e c o n d , a viable, level  thesis are, f i r s t ,  alternative  to argue t h a t  the G e n e r a l E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma  i n the F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  that  there  s t u d e n t s i n the F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y system o f B r i t i s h the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s  that  P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e has h i s t o r i c a l l y h e l d numerous f a l s e the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . the secondary l e v e l , (Writing s k i l l s , is  For example,  the G . E . D . ,  Reading s k i l l s ,  despite  its  Social Studies,  simply a b a t t e r y of f i v e  'drilling'  and not e d u c a t i o n ;  its  it  the  Canadian  assumptions  While the G . E . D .  following reasons:  own sake;  Columbia.  is  it  capabilities student  it  i s not f l e x i b l e  of some inmates;  is  inadequate f o r content  for post-secondary  area t e s t s ;  it  i s not thought and i d e a s ;  enough t o take i n t o account the  it  is  'cognitive academic  does not adequately prepare the  education.  T h e r e f o r e an a l t e r n a t i v e needed.  the  ' t r a i n i n g ' or t o be more a c c u r a t e  substance  and i t  content,  does have some  not s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as to promote u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a perspective',  about  Mathematics and S c i e n c e ) ,  f o r some s t u d e n t s ,  i s not worthwhile f o r i t s  design  secondary  seemingly academic  value and c o u l d be u s e f u l is  not  the most commonly used program at  not d i r e c t e d towards e d u c a t i o n a l ends.  it  is  c l e a r l y e x i s t s the need t o  academic e d u c a t i o n program f o r p o t e n t i a l  A comprehensive survey o f  the  e d u c a t i o n program at the secondary l e v e l  In o r d e r t o d e s i g n an a l t e r n a t i v e  e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n s have t o be i d e n t i f i e d .  is  program any i n h i b i t o r s t o These i n h i b i t o r s are noted and  in  are taken i n t o account education  program.  T h i s program i s  found t o be d e f e n s i b l e educational  grounds.  i n the g u i d e l i n e s  f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e  based on a set  of  academic  p r i n c i p l e s which a r e  i n r e l a t i o n t o the needs of s t u d e n t s and on  iii i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  ii  List  iv  of Figures  Acknowledgment  v  Chapter One:  Introduction  1  Chapter Two:  A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f C o r r e c t i o n a l Models and Academic E d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h Canada from the E i g h t e e n t h Century t o the Present  5  Pre-industrial  5  1700-1830 1830-1867  Pre-Confederation Post-Confederation Rehabilitation  1867-1938  Chapter F o u r : Chapter F i v e :  .  1938-1970 1 938-1947  . . . . . . ' . . . . . : . : •:  1947-1970  . . j : ; . . ; . ; . ; . . . : . . . . . . . . . .  Reparations-Reintegration Chapter T h r e e :  6  1970 t o the p r e s e n t  Academic education—what i s  it?  The G e n e r a l E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma Program: A Critique F a c t o r s t h a t F a c i l i t a t e and I n h i b i t E d u c a t i o n Programs I.  i n Federal  The O f f i c e  o f the  23  Factors  c)  Director  of Education,  Personal  Development  Economics  f)  Penitentiary  36 37  37  The Commissioner  e)  14  Solicitor  b)  The G e n e r a l  11  Academic  General o f Canada  d)  10 10  17  Penitentiaries  E x t e r n a l A c t o r s and E n v i r o n m e n t a l a)  .'.'.'.'  8  of Corrections  39  T r a i n i n g and  Public  41 42 42  System Bureaucracy  44  V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I I . I n t e r n a l . Actors, and. Environmental.. Factors.  45,  a)  I n s t i t u t i o n a l . Heads/Wardens  45,  b)  The.Classification.Officer  46  c)  The. Prison. Educator.  47  d)  Prison.Facilities  51  e)  Endemic. Tensions  52.  f)  The Prison Environment.  53  g)  Inmates - . t h e i r . a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s ....  57  h)  Related. Teaching Problems.  59  Chapter S i x : Program.Guidelines  64  A.  I n h i b i t o r s to Program.  64  B.  Program. Guidelines  72  a)  Beginners Level.  74  b)  Advanced Level.  76  P r i n c i p l e s . of Program.  76  Conclusion:..  86  Bibliography:  88  vi LIST, OF, FIGURES Page. Figure 1 :  C o n c e p t u a l framework  of  program  73  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I am e s p e c i a l l y  g r a t e f u l t o D r . Ian Wright f o r h i s s u p p o r t ,  encouragement, g u i d a n c e , and g e n e r o s i t y ; infinite Dr.  wisdom i n matters  to D r . Stephen Duguid f o r  p e r t a i n i n g t o the t h e s i s and t o l i f e ;  D.. Thomas of my graduate committee f o r h i s s h a r i n g o f  his  and t o  knowledge,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . S p e c i a l thanks goes to a l l my mentors and t u t o r s f o r t h e i r services;  t o my f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s  whose beauty s h a l l l a s t  to the end o f  invaluable  f o r t h e i r k i n d n e s s ; and t o my mother time.  1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  Although t h e r e are a few b r i g h t s p o t s f o r example, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where a unique u n i v e r s i t y degree program has been d e v e l o p e d , p e n i t e n t i a r y e d u c a t i o n has been m a i n l y thought of e i t h e r as a t i m e - f i l l i n g a c t i v i t y whose purpose i s t o r e l i e v e boredom and soothe the c o n s c i o u s s t a t e , or as a means of p r o v i d i n g s k i l l - t r a i n i n g f o r the employment market, a l t h o u g h no r e l a t i o n s h i p has yet been d i s c o v e r e d between c r i m i n a l i t y and e m p l o y a b i l i t y . Even academic e d u c a t i o n i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i s l a r g e l y a matter of skill training.... • ••(Cosman, 1980, p . 46) Historically,  t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n have been an i n t e g r a l p a r t of  Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y system.  However, i n the t w e n t i e t h  emphasis has been on t r a i n i n g and not on e d u c a t i o n ;  it  century  self,  the f u l l  development  the development  of the  of the human p e r s o n a l i t y , powers of the  man as an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n , and the society.  While t h e r e  work, t h e r e  is  intellect,  development  evidence  that  geared  the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the development  of  of a man as a member of  n o t h i n g u n d e s i r a b l e i n h e l p i n g inmates  exists l i t t l e  the  has been on  e d u c a t i o n aimed towards u t i l i t y and work as opposed to e d u c a t i o n towards  shows a p o s i t i v e  attain  correlation  between t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n aimed towards the attainment  of  work, and f i n d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g work ( B l u m s t e i n ,  1974;  Duguid,  1984).  A l t h o u g h , t r a i n i n g can indeed be an i n t e g r a l f a c e t  of e d u c a t i o n ,  and on  many o c c a s i o n s s h o u l d never towards  the  the two concepts do o v e r l a p , e d u c a t i o n  be used s i m p l y as a t r a i n i n g v e h i c l e attainment  correct in asserting  of employment.  that:  McCarthy  the  is  not o n l y , and  directed  specifically  (1985, p p . 441-442)  is  2  The p h i l o s o p h y of any e d u c a t i o n a l program, i f i t i s t r u l y to be c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l , must be based on the assumption t h a t , as an a c t i v i t y , l e a r n i n g i s undertaken s o l e l y f o r the sake o f l e a r n i n g i t s e l f . Education i s not a process w i t h u t i l i t a r i a n purpose; nor i s i t a means to an end, except the end of d e v e l o p i n g the mind. But even i f ,  at the u t i l i t a r i a n l e v e l ,  one g o a l of a p a r t i c u l a r program, i t 'educated' both the  would seem s e l f - e v i d e n t  as opposed to a ' t r a i n e d ' student  p e r s o n a l and academic q u a l i t i e s  m a i n t a i n employment. to p e r f o r m i n g the only operate abilities  a lathe,  Originally,  i n a complex w o r l d .  and how one s h o u l d r e l a t e  education in p e n i t e n t i a r i e s inmate.  By the  c e n t u r y v a r i o u s r e f o r m e r s were s u c c e s s f u l in prison.  Education, i . e .  t o i n c o r p o r a t e moral as w e l l with i t s  relatively  intact  u n t i l well  could  the would  about how one s h o u l d  t o s o c i e t y at  large.  was intended to promote a latter  h a l f of the  nineteenth  i n a d d i n g a new dimension to  B i b l e r e a d i n g and s t u d y ,  as s p i r i t u a l r e f o r m a t i o n .  r e l i a n c e on d i s c i p l i n e ,  be l i m i t e d  a lathe operator  These a b i l i t i e s  t o make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s  reawakening i n the  education  needed i n o r d e r t o f i n d and  he/she was t r a i n e d i n , i . e .  to l i v e  an  would have developed more than  an educated employee would have developed  i n c l u d e those n e c e s s a r y conduct o n e ' s l i f e ,  that  Whereas a t r a i n e d employee would g e n e r a l l y  areas  necessary  spiritual  employment was m a i n t a i n e d as  This  hard-work and punishment,  i n t o the t w e n t i e t h  was  expanded  orientation,  would remain  century.  F o l l o w i n g World War Two, b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n t i s t s were s u c c e s s f u l  in  i n t r o d u c i n g and a c h i e v i n g the dominance of the medical-model which would become the  principal  t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n  component of what J . W . Cosman (1985) terms (known more commonly as  'Rehabilitation').  total  3  Specifically,  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n had t h r e e major components:  the c e l l ,  the  workshop, the m e d i c a l - d i s e a s e and one minor component, academic e d u c a t i o n . D u r i n g the  1960s and e a r l y 1970s, when the m e d i c a l - d i s e a s e component  dominated, academic e d u c a t i o n assumed, i n a r a t h e r s u b s e r v i e n t  manner,  a d u a l r o l e o f p r e p a r i n g inmates f o r work and f o r a i d i n g i n the process.  In f a c t ,  therapeutic  the d u a l r o l e s were r e a l l y o n l y one f o r , as can best be  d e t e r m i n e d , the e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s , which i n i t s e l f  was p e r c e i v e d as a type  of t h e r a p y , would p r o v i d e the c u r e d o f f e n d e r w i t h the means, i . e .  steady  employment, t h a t would r e i n f o r c e and m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e r a p y w h i l e he/she was on the o u t s i d e .  Thus e d u c a t i o n had s i m p l y become j u s t one o f many  t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l s used t o ' c u r e '  an inmate o r m a i n t a i n t h a t  'cure'  upon  r e l e a s e o f an i n m a t e . By the l a t t e r  h a l f of the 1970s i t had become q u i t e c l e a r t h a t  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model was a major f a i l u r e . officials  As a r e p l a c e m e n t ,  the  prison  l a t c h e d on t o something termed the O p p o r t u n i t i e s m o d e l .  Simply  s t a t e d , the m e d i c a l - d i s e a s e component, w i t h i t s f o c u s on t h e r a p y and c u r e , was r e p l a c e d by a system where a l l s o r t s o f programs or o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be o f f e r e d t o inmates t o the end o f e n s u r i n g the s a f e t y o f s o c i e t y . However, the m o d e l ' s a u t h o r s (Wakabayashi, A . , B r a i t h w a i t e , . J . , Pisapio,  L . , & M e r e d i t h , H . , 1977) were r a t h e r vague when i t came t o  o u t l i n i n g the means, t o r e a c h such an end.  ( o t h e r then t o o f f e r  inmates l o t s o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) ,  F u r t h e r m o r e , the f o u r o r i g i n a l components were  m a i n t a i n e d as the main v e h i c l e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n m a t e s .  Even though  academic e d u c a t i o n was no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d as a minor t h e r a p e u t i c aimed d i r e c t l y at the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the i n m a t e , i t s t i l l  tool  retained  its  4 r o l e as the means f o r helping inmates obtain the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a vocation. In the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia v i s i b l e proof of the vocational o r i e n t a t i o n of academic education programs can be seen at both the  elementary and secondary l e v e l .  Both the basic s k i l l s  development  programs at the elementary l e v e l and the General Equivalency Diploma program offered students at the secondary l e v e l are b a s i c a l l y oriented towards providing students with the s k i l l s needed to obtain and maintain a vocation.  (Goodall, 1978; McCarthy, 1985; Cosman, 1985; F i e l d s , 1986).  While academic education at the elementary l e v e l i n Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n need of a comprehensive study, given that my expertise l a y with academic education at the secondary l e v e l , the  primary purpose of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be to argue that the e x i s t i n g  education program (termed the General Equivalency Diploma Program), i s not t r u l y educational.  And second, my purpose i s to provide guidelines f o r  an a l t e r n a t i v e academic program f o r p o t e n t i a l secondary l e v e l students i n the  Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y system of B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to accomplish t h i s task I w i l l : 1. '"  expand upon the h i s t o r y of education i n Canada p r i o r to World War Two and B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r World War Two;  2.  a s c e r t a i n the necessary conditions f o r c a l l i n g something 'education';  3.  provide a comprehensive c r i t i q u e of the present academic high school equivalency program offered inmates i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia;  4.  discuss i n d e t a i l the major i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s of an academic education program i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y ; and,  5.  present the p r i n c i p l e s f o r , and an o u t l i n e of, an appropriate a l t e r n a t i v e academic secondary education program.  5  CHAPTER TWO A Brief  H i s t o r y of C o r r e c t i o n a l models and Academic E d u c a t i o n  i n E n g l i s h Canada from the E i g h t e e n t h Century to the  Present  In t h i s chapter the h i s t o r y of c o r r e c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be reviewed.  It w i l l be argued that most of what has o c c u r r e d i n the name o f  'education'  would more p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d  'training'.  Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984) view c o r r e c t i o n s e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o the p r e s e n t , each of which can be d e f i n e d  as moving through s i x d i s t i n c t  1)  Punishment  (pre-Confederation) (post-Confederation)  (pre-Industrial) 1830-1867; 3)  The p e r i o d s a r e  1700-1830; 2)  Punishment and  Penitence  Penitence  1867-1938; 4) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 1938-1970;  Period 1  present.  P r e - I n d u s t r i a l 1700-1830  In the  pre-Industrial, pre-penitentiary  p e r i o d , crime was seen as  endemic i n s o c i e t y and punishment was designed  to d e t e r  both the  who was p e r c e i v e d o f as a d e v i a n t and h a d , " . . . c o n s c i o u s l y they knew to be wrong, crimes,  (Griffiths,  and to act  1978,  as a d e t e r r e n t  p. 23),"  chosen  to p o t e n t i a l  ( 1 9 7 7 - c i t e d i n Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s ,  1984,  criminal, behaviour  from committing any criminals.  C o n d i t i o n s i n the l o c a l g a o l s and workshops were h a r s h . Baehre  identified  Punishment and  5) R e i n t e g r a t i o n 1970-1978; and, 6) R e p a r a t i o n 1978 t o the  further  periods  i n terms of how those concerned w i t h  c r i m i n a l i t y viewed the purpose of c o r r e c t i o n s . as:  i n Canada, from the  p.  A c c o r d i n g to  22):  The group of t w e n t y - f i v e p r i s o n e r s i n t e r n e d at York i n c l u d e d t h r e e l u n a t i c s under r e s t r a i n t , nine d e b t o r s ,  6 one of whom has c o h a b i t a t e d w i t h him i n the gaol h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n , and a motley assortment o f criminals. The l u n a t i c s were c o n f i n e d i n the basement 'dungeon''from which i n c e s s a n t h o w l i n g s , g r o a n s , and ' d i s a g r e e a b l e ' s m e l l s were c a r r i e d t o the o t h e r f l o o r s . I n d i s c r i m i n a t e m i x i n g among p r i s o n e r s c o n v i c t e d o f c a p i t a l crimes and those with misdemeanors was permitted.... There was l i t t l e s o a p , and l i n e n was changed i n f r e q u e n t l y . One inmate complained t h a t he had not been washed i n s i x to e i g h t months. D u r i n g the p r e - I n d u s t r i a l e r a the o n l y known k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n or training offered local  p a s t o r or  the  priest.  Period 2 The  Pre-Confederation 1830-1867 first  I t was i n t h i s that  p e n i t e n t i a r y i n Upper Canada was b u i l t at K i n g s t o n i n penitentiary  the s e c u l a r  inmate t o the H.C.  inmate i n a g a o l or workshop was B i b l e t r a i n i n g from a  and e c c l e s i a s t i c  code o f the  Thomson, the  (which u n t i l  p r o p r i e t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g  the s e l e c t  31-32)."  i n Upper Canada,  states  to the  i n h i s address  to  lead  ( E k s t e d t and G r i f f i t h s , 1 9 8 4 ,  (1984) also  p o i n t out t h a t ,  "...the  p e n i t e n t i a r y was punishment and the emphasis was on  hard l a b o u r and s o l i t a r y confinement discipline  deviant  "A p e n i t e n t i a r y . . . s h o u l d be a p l a c e t o  Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s  primary t a s k o f the  According  committed t o c o n s i d e r  a man t o r e p e n t h i s s i n s and amend h i s l i f e pp.  to i n t r o d u c e the  work e t h i c .  a penitentiary  the House o f Assembly i n 1 8 3 1 ,  was p r o v i n c i a l l y operated)  came t o g e t h e r  Protestant  chairman o f  1867  1835.  ( E k s t e d t and G r i f f i t h s ,  e n f o r c e d by a s t r i c t  1984,  p.  182)."  code o f  And Weir  (1973, p. 3 9 )  that: The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e l t i t f i t t i n g t o p r o v i d e f o r an e x h a u s t i n g t e n - h o u r workday o f manual l a b o r , s c a r c e l y augmented by a meagre s t a r c h y d i e t , w i t h the r e m a i n i n g f o u r t e e n hours spent i n s o l i t a r y confinement. The  l a t t e r p e r i o d was t o p r o v i d e ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m e d i t a t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n , and h o p e f u l l y r e p e n t a n c e , thus b u i l d i n g up the i n n e r p e r s o n a l man t o the p o i n t where he was r e a d y , as a t r a n s g r e s s o r , t o s t a r t h i s j o u r n e y down the l o n g hard r o a d t o t o t a l r e d e m p t i o n . To make t h i s j o u r n e y more m e a n i n g f u l , the warden imposed a h a r s h and p u n i t i v e code of d i s c i p l i n e which c a l l e d f o r c o r p o r a l punishment and r e s t r i c t e d d i e t f o r the most t r i v i a l misdemeanor. Even though b a s i c inmates  following  programs,  l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g programs were developed  the r e p o r t from the  Brown Commission i n 1848,  " . . . w e r e c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the r e l i g i o u s  penitentiary  (Ibid.,  1984,  p.  182)."  McCarthy  efforts  in  (1985, p . 442)  for the the  points  out  that: The p h i l o s o p h y of t h i s program viewed e d u c a t i o n as a p r o c e s s l e a d i n g to s p i r i t u a l r e f o r m . I t was not concerned with e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s own s a k e . Instead, was thought t h a t , i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a n d ' w r i t e , inmates c o u l d d i s c o v e r the B i b l e and d i s c o v e r God. In design inmates  and implementation  the e a r l y e d u c a t i o n  at K i n g s t o n was e q u a l l y r e s t r i c t i v e  in  it  program o f f e r e d  that:  The c u r r i c u l u m was l i m i t e d t o c o u r s e s i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , the B i b l e being the main t e x t , and the C h a p l a i n the o n l y t e a c h e r . E d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d o n l y to inmates who had been i n c a r c e r a t e d f o r t h r e e months and who were noted f o r good c o n d u c t . Moreover, the program was s t r u c t u r e d on a c e l l u l a r model of i n s t r u c t i o n which l i m i t e d inmate i n t e r a c t i o n and forbade n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l communication between teacher and s t u d e n t . Thus, penal e d u c a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d more by reform than by e d u c a t i o n . (McCarthy, 1985, p . 442) However,  t h a t reform p l a y e d o n l y a secondary r o l e t o the punishment and  p e n i t e n c e of  the  inmate.  8 Period 3  P o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n 1867-1938  Following Confederation, j u r i s d i c t i o n for p e n i t e n t i a r i e s between the p r o v i n c i a l sentence o f  i n that  This a p p l i e d to a l l offenders  F u r t h e r m o r e , once a person was sentenced l e n g t h o f the s e n t e n c e ,  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g age or  t o a p e n i t e n t i a r y no  he would have t o serve  p.  44).  of  y o u t h f u l and o l d e r o f f e n d e r s ;  Three o f  agreements  its  ( E k s t e d t and G i f f i t h s ,  major p r o v i s i o n s were: 2)  procedures f o r F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l  on the t r a n s f e r of p r i s o n e r s ; a n d , 3)  'good time'  by o f f e n d e r s  strengthen  in provincial  the c o n t r o l apparatus of the  l i f e more amenable t o those w i t h i n i t s  prisons  the e a r n i n g o f (Ibid.,  penal system, walls.  d i s c i p l i n e d , c o n t r o l l e d and b r u t a l .  c i t e d i n E k s t e d t and G r i f f i t h s ,  1984,  1) the mandatory s e p a r a t i o n  1984,  While these were improvements, they were improvements i n t e n d e d  -  time  i n 1886 when P a r l i a m e n t passed the Act  R e s p e c t i n g P u b l i c and Reformatory P r i s o n s .  austere,  a l l his  penitentiary.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n would change  or  penitentiary,  who r e c e i v e d a sentence over two years would go to  Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y .  matter what the  split  An o f f e n d e r who r e c e i v e d a  two years l e s s a day would go t o a p r o v i n c i a l  w h i l e an o f f e n d e r  gender.  and F e d e r a l governments.  was  1984,  p.  remission p.  44).  to  not t o make p r i s o n  P r i s o n l i f e remained A c c o r d i n g t o MacGuigan  46):  Punishments i n c l u d e d : h o s i n g o f inmates by a powerful stream o f c o l d water (used u n t i l 1913); b a l l and c h a i n as they worked (used u n t i l 1 9 3 3 ) ; ' h a n d c u f f i n g t o bars from 8 a.m. t o noon, and 1 p . m . t o 5 p . m . (used i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s ) ; ' d u n k i n g i n a t r o u g h ' o f i c e and s l u s h , used as a ' c u r e ' f o r mental d e f e c t i v e s ( a b o l i s h e d i n the 1930's)  (1977  9 B a s i c a l l y the p r i s o n e r was s t i l l d i s c i p l i n e and punishment i n order be more a c c u r a t e of the n i n e t e e n t h incorporate  hisspiritual century,  i n need o f  t o assure h i s s p i r i t u a l reform.  Or t o  and moral r e f o r m f o r by t h e , " . . . l a t t e r  the r e f o r m i s t view o f e d u c a t i o n  the ides of education  s p i r i t u a l reformation  viewed as a d e v i a n t  (Foucault,  half  was e n l a r g e d t o  as a t e c h n i q u e f o r moral as w e l l as 1979; I g n a t i e f f , 1978; Rothman, 1980;  c i t e d i n McCarthy, 1985, p. 443)."  McCarthy (1985, p. 443) s t a t e s  that: T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e expanded the s p i r i t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n and argued that e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be concerned w i t h demonstrating the wrongness o f the inmates' ways through moral as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n i n g thereby r e a l i z i n g a more complete a m e l i o r a t i o n . Despite education  the i n t e n t i o n s and e f f o r t s o f those who supported  prison  r e f o r m , t h e r e were few, i f any, changes made p r i o r t o World War I  i n the way e d u c a t i o n  was handled i n the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s o f Canada.  McCarthy  (1985, p. 443) p o i n t s out t h a t the authors o f the 1914 Report o f the Royal Commission on P e n i t e n t i a r y , "...advocated changing the penal system because they found i t h i g h l y r e p r e s s i v e learning."  Weir  (1973, p. 43) a l s o notes  education  and non-conducive t o  that:  The p u b l i c a t i o n o f the j u s t i c e m i n i s t e r ' s Report o f P e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n 1879 p r o v i d e s a t r u e p i c t u r e o f the approach o f the time towards c o r r e c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n : the " r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r s c h o o l " encouraged the enforcement o f s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e and a l l o w o n l y those c o n v i c t s noted f o r good conduct a f t e r a minimum o f t h r e e months i n p r i s o n t o take p a r t i n c l a s s e s . The o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t e n d s c h o o l was c o n s i d e r e d one o f the h i g h e s t rewards t h a t c o u l d be bestowed on c o n v i c t s . Generous use was made o f inmat'e m o n i t o r s i n p r i s o n ' schools. S u b j e c t s taught i n c l u d e d French and E n g l i s h , r e a d i n g ; w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , geography, and  10 grammar-all of these s u b j e c t s , except w r i t i n g , was be taught with the s t u d e n t s s t a n d i n g ! Even though t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e inmates the  by the  latter  increase  to  i n the number of s u b j e c t s  h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h  century,  the manner o f ,  purpose f o r , t e a c h i n g those s u b j e c t s was the same as i t had been  taught, and since  1835.  Period 4  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 1938-1970 (1938  1947)  There were no o s t e n s i v e moves t o change the e d u c a t i o n system i n penitentiaries when,  "In 1938,  u n t i l well  i n t o the  t h i r d decade of  the t w e n t i e t h  the members of the Royal Commission on P r i s o n s r e l e a s e d  Archambault Report which c a l l e d f o r a complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g of system and the cultural  century  the  the  school  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a c u r r i c u l u m based on academic e d u c a t i o n and  enrichment  Cosman (1980, p . 46)  (Weir, 1965 argues  that  - cited  i n McCarthy,  1985,  these recommendations  p.  443)."  came about  because: . . . t h e Royal Commission was a p p a l l e d by the p e r f u n c t o r y manner i n which the l i m i t e d elementary academic programs were being conducted i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and by the s m a l l number of inmates exposed t o any o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l advancement, and i t c a l l e d f o r a complete r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system. Despite  a l l the r h e t o r i c s u r r o u n d i n g the r e p o r t ,  e d u c a t i o n a l recommendations, 1985, the  p.  443)."  however,  "None of the  have been implemented  report's  (McCarthy,  The f a i l u r e t o r e f o r m e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n i s made c l e a r by  Gibson Report of  1947 whose authors i n c l u d e d , "the  same o b s e r v a t i o n s  of  11 the negative aspects of penal education and reaches the same conclusion as that of the Archambault authors ( I b i d . , 1985, p. 443)." Rehabilitation (1947-1970) By the 1950s, the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model seems to have been i n place i n most Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n Canada and a l l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In order to achieve the goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , post World War  Two p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s  incorporated or developed and a p p l i e d the  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model which according to Cosman (1985, p. 3) a p p l i e d an approach termed t o t a l t r a i n i n g or 'education'.  Specifically:  What was intended f o r the prisoner was a process of 'learning', a t o t a l t r a i n i n g to be provided by the thoroughgoing d i s c i p l i n e of the p r i s o n m i l i e u governing i n d e t a i l a l l aspects of l i f e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , and to be based on three technologies: the c e l l , the workshop, and i n c r e a s i n g l y with the development of the behavioural sciences, "treatment" according to a medical-disease concept of c r i m i n a l behaviour. B a s i c a l l y , the c e l l component, apart from i t s u t i l i t y as a securing agent, was used, "as a means of submission and as an instrument of reform, sometimes to h a b i l i t a t e prisoners to prescribed r u l e s of conduct, sometimes to evoke s t i r r i n g s of conscience...(Ibid., 1985, p. 6)."  The workshop was  the means by which the inmate was given basic working s k i l l s f o r s u r v i v a l on the o u t s i d e .  Through various s k i l l s development or t r a i n i n g programs,  i . e . woodwork, metalwork, automotives, and so on, the inmate was t r a i n e d i n the "...habits of work, order and obedience, to the end of preparing him for  paid employment ( I b i d . , 1985, p. 7)."  And f i n a l l y  there i s the  medical-disease component which considers c r i m i n a l i t y to be, "symptomatic  12 of m e n t a l , offender rectify  p h y s i c a l , emotional a n d / o r s o c i a l  ( C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e of Canada,  p.  11),"  m e d i c a l model was to t u r n the criminality.  conflicts  that  o t h e r words,  1984,  drove them to c r i m e .  the  criminal  literacy,  11)."  resolve  "The  the the  component l i s t  disease underlying  or as a i d s t o  In  entered  cured ( r e h a b i l i t a t e d )  therapists  to  Bartolas  (who had a d i s e a s e c a l l e d c r i m i n a l i t y )  (who were seen as e i t h e r  number s k i l l s ,  p.  C r i m i n a l s would then be c u r e d . "  t o get  the  ' t h e r a p y ' and  states that,  The t h e r a p i s t was t o h e l p o f f e n d e r s  to the end o f becoming a h e a l t h y To t h i s  p . 50)  part of  and s e t s out  p r i s o n i n t o a h o s p i t a l to t r e a t  (which had become a h o s p i t a l )  prison staff  1983,  S e r v i c e o f Canada,  ( 1 9 8 1 - c i t e d i n E k s t e d t and G r i f f i t h s ,  prison  1981,  or remedy the malady by p r o v i d i n g , " . . . e x t e n s i v e  'treatment'....(Correctional  of  adjustment on the  by a  therapists)  citizen.  I would add e d u c a t i o n programs, i . e .  and so on that  basic  were, much l i k e t r a i n i n g programs,  " . . . o r i e n t e d t o meeting the r e q u i r e m e n t s of some k i n d of work (Cosman, 1985,  p.  7)."  T h e r e f o r e by the penitentiaries,  skills  system/model  the c e l l - d i s c i p l i n e  (based upon the f o l l o w i n g  and s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n ;  to the end o f work; the m e d i c a l - d i s e a s e  and academic t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n — b a s i c work), aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y A c c o r d i n g to the (1949-1950),  1960s and 1970s many F e d e r a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n B r i t i s h Columbia, would o p e r a t e  w i t h i n a comprehensive components:  1950s and throughout the  the  four  workshop-trade  component-therapy and c u r e ;  literacy skills  oriented  towards  at r e a l i z i n g the g o a l of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  1949 Annual Report of  "Continued p r o g r e s s  the Commission of  Penitentiaries  has been made i n the development  of  13 facilities  necessary  to c a r r y out an e f f e c t i v e  i n the Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s Griffiths, Strategic  1984,  p.  49)."  (Annual R e p o r t - C i t e d i n Ektedt and  And, the r e v i e w e r s  "Many of the developments  d u r i n g the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s i l l u s t r a t e ideal....  late  total  1970s i t  this  t r a i n i n g or  p r o b a t i o n , p a r o l e , attendance  to a i d the  p.  the  (1983) Service  rehabilitative  13)."  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n model  process  the g o a l  of  by i n t r o d u c i n g ,  community based programs,  centre  d i v e r s i o n , temporary absence,  o p t i o n and r e s t i t u t i o n .  1983,  ' e d u c a t i o n ' had f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e  r e i n t e g r a t i o n factor/component,  pre-trial  commitment t o the  was q u i t e apparent t h a t  inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e s p i t e e f f o r t s  i.e.  i n the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y  ( C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e o f Canada,  By the  with i t s  of the T h i r d Report of  P l a n n i n g Committee t o the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e o f Canada  state that,  with i t s  programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  programs, b a i l  supervision,  community based c e n t r e s ,  A c c o r d i n g to Cosman (1985) i t  failed  fine  because,  " . . . t h e methods or penal approaches t h a t have been used are based on at l e a s t four very questionable  assumptions  about the e d u c a t i o n a l  process."  These a r e : 1)  That e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of d i s c i p l i n e which i s a c h i e v e d through c o n t r o l . The modern p r i s o n has governed i n d e t a i l a l l a s p e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l l i f e . I t has had almost t o t a l power over p r i s o n e r s , w i t h i t s own mechanisms of r e p r e s s i o n and punishment. I t has sought t o achieve r e f o r m a t i o n through enforcement, through r e s t r a i n t , through imposing new ways of t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g and a c t i n g .  2)  That the i n d i v i d u a l can e x i s t and develop by h i m s e l f alone. The modern p r i s o n has r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the p r i n c i p l e of i s o l a t i o n , o f i s o l a t i n g p r i s o n e r s not o n l y from the e x t e r n a l world but a l s o from each o t h e r .  u 3)  That the aim of education i s the t r a i n i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l i n habits of work, order and obedience, to the end of preparing him f o r paid employment. That aim has determined the nature of most t r a i n i n g i n the modern prison.  4)  That the process of education or c o r r e c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s a mechanical process. Most of the s o - c a l l e d treatment programs i n the modern prison have been based on the assumption that c r i m i n a l behaviour can be explained i n terms of some psychopathological condition r e q u i r i n g cure through various forms of therapy. The extension of the mechanistic conception of the p h y s i c a l world to the non-physical world i n the seventeenth century r e s u l t e d i n due course i n the f l o w e r i n g of the behavioural sciences, which have tended to reduce man, i n a l l h i s a c t i v i t i e s , to a conditioned and behaving animal. This seems to eliminate some genuine elements of human experience, for example, i n s i g h t , imagination, c r e a t i v i t y , freedom. (Cosman, 1985, pp. 5, 6, 7)  Period 5-6  Reparations  Reintegration  1970 to the Present The f a i l u r e of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model (even with the a d d i t i o n of the previously mentioned community based programs), caused p r i s o n administrators to develop new ways of t h i n k i n g about the purposes of prisons.  According to Cosman (1985) the three most common trends i n penal  t h i n k i n g are:  1) Change the o b j e c t i v e s so as to de-emphasize  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as an e s s e n t i a l purpose of p r i s o n ; 2) Hold the Community responsible f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and, 3) Hold the prisoner responsible for h i s own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Therefore, not only was  rehabilitation  de-emphasized but the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada assumed a r o l e of sharing t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with s o c i e t y and the  inmate.  In order to achieve t h e i r new goals, c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s extended community based programming and introduced r e p a r a t i o n programs,  15 i.e.  Victim-Offender Reconciliation Services  aimed at  achieving r e s t i t u t i o n ,  and v i c t i m .  Program, and P r o j e c t  Restore,  a n d / o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the  offender  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e i r s u c c e s s has been l i m i t e d .  community-based programming, Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s that,  "...no  c o n s i s t e n t evidence  by proponents Reparations  ( S e r v i c e t o V i c t i m s ) programs i t  restitution  seems t o be a r e a s o n a b l e  incomplete  that  while  it  is  difficult  c o u l d atone f o r the t h e f t of  these are not the o n l y a r e a s ,  to  millions  a l l of which a r e actions,  and or i s ,  of  In 1984 the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e o f Canada m o d i f i e d  O p p o r t u n i t i e s model.  Simply s t a t e d ,  contact  members and o f f e n d e r s  between s t a f f  b u s i e r and more a c t i v e  the m o d i f i c a t i o n c a l l e d f o r and f o r keeping the  by p r o v i d i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  1 9 8 4 - c i t e d i n Cosman, 1985,  its  the  i d e a and has shown some s u c c e s s ,  a m b i g u i t y , c o n f u s i o n or vagueness was,  common o c c u r r e n c e .  inmates  can be argued t h a t  w i t h i n the O p p o r t u n i t i e s model, where i n a p p r o p r i a t e ideas,  out  of d o l l a r s , or r e p l a c e the l o s s of a human l i f e .  Interestingly, encompassed  point  Further concerning  crimes a r e of a p e t t y n a t u r e ,  imagine any form of r e s t i t u t i o n or even thousands  (1984, p . 226)  e x i s t s t o s u p p o r t many of the c l a i m s made  of community b a s e d - f a c i l i t i e s . "  p a r t i c u l a r l y where the  C o n c e r n i n g the  p.  15).  and more inmate a c t i v i t i e s  proponents are extremely  W h i l e more c o n t a c t  inmates  between s t a f f  are t o be s u p p o r t e d , the  o f the F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y .  comprehensive s u r v e y of the Report on The Statement  extended  (Task F o r c e ,  vague i n how these adjustments  a c h i e v e d both w i t h i n or o u t s i d e  the  problem i s are to  and that  be  A  o f CSC V a l u e s ,  1984,  w r i t t e n by the members of the Task Force on the M i s s i o n and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Development of the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e o f Canada, e x p l a i n s  n o t h i n g about  16 how one  c o u l d a c h i e v e the new m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  correct  to b o l d l y e x c l a i m ,  to  participate!  "Extend c o n t a c t !  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model,  effect....  implementation is  the  Keep them busy!  (Cosman,  1985,  p.  16)."  In o t h e r words,  proven i n e f f e c t u a l  the r e l i a n c e  four.questionable  assumptions about  the  the e d u c a t i o n a l  it  past,  model. programs, at  least  process can be seen i n  inmates i n the  W h i l e on one hand we have  Federal the  new U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a / S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y program which  both c o g n i t i v e  i n n a t u r e and has shown some s u c c e s s i n  and e d u c a t i o n a l  development  hand we have the o l d e r secondary  education  i n the  and i n e f f e c t i v e  programs o f f e r e d  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  t r u l y educational  (G.E.D.)  and d e s p i t e  upon an approach t h a t n a t u r a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s  the type of academic e d u c a t i o n  is  effective  to  mainly  or c o n t i n u a t i o n o f new programs that may or may not work,  T h i s patchwork of o l d and new,  relatively  the  penal t e c h n o l o g i e s are assumed  which c o n t i n u e s to dominate w i t h i n the O p p o r t u n i t i e s  penitentiaries  of  to be p r a c t i c e d i n v a r y i n g forms,  the o l d standby s t r a t e g y , which has  plus  is  M o t i v a t e them  c l a i m e d abandonment  "...the traditional  o n l y ones and continue  without  15)  In anything?"  Furthermore, and n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g  be the  Cosman (1985, p .  level  in its  increasing  s t u d e n t s , on the  G e n e r a l E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma Program  w h i c h , as w i l l be argued elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s ,  is  clearly  and o f f e r s l e s s than what c o u l d be gained from t a k i n g an  a p p r o p r i a t e academic secondary  other  education  program.  not  17  CHAPTER THREE Academic education—what Given t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n the  the focus  of t h i s  t h e s i s i s academic secondary  program o f f e r e d  E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma program ( G . E . D . ) ,  it  assumption i s  and as S o l t i s  barrage o f d e f i n i t i o n s ,  frequently hidden.  25)  concurs w i t h S o l t i s  That i s ,  a c t i v i t y or p r o c e s s .  and adds t h a t ,  Rather i t  p r o c e s s e s must conform."  lays  the  the  General  to  and ' a c a d e m i c ' .  however,  determine of  However,  (1 968,  p.  2)  a very c r u c i a l  we assume t h a t  d e f i n i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n or the d e f i n i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . " p.  level  This w i l l r e q u i r e a l i s t  'education'  there-.are a P l e t h o r a o f e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s "Under t h i s  inmates i s  would seem s e n s i b l e  program i s t r u l y ' e d u c a t i o n a l ' .  c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i n g the concepts  points out,  it?  F e d e r a l p r i s o n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and g i v e n t h a t  o n l y academic h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l  whether t h i s  is  there i s Peters  a  (1972,  "It p i c k s out no p a r t i c u l a r  down c r i t e r i a t o which a c t i v i t i e s  Peters s u c c e s s f u l l y  argues t h a t the  three  c r i t e r i a of education are: 1)  t h a t ' e d u c a t i o n ' i m p l i e s the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f what worthwhile t o those who become committed t o i t ;  is  2)  t h a t ' e d u c a t i o n ' must i n v o l v e knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g and some k i n d o f c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , which are not e n e r t ;  3)  t h a t ' e d u c a t i o n ' at l e a s t r u l e s out some procedures o f t r a n s m i s s i o n , on the grounds that they l a c k the w i t t i n g n e s s and v o l u n t a r i n e s s on the p a r t o f the learner. ( P e t e r s , 1972, p . 45)  or  18 (J984, p . 42) t r a n s l a t e P e t e r ' s c r i t e r i a t o r e a d as  Simpson and Jackson follows:  . . . w e t h i n k of e d u c a t i o n as b e i n g worthwhile f o r i t s own sake (as w e l l as i n s t r u m e n t a l l y v a l u a b l e ) , broadening our u n d e r s t a n d i n g or " c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e " , d e v e l o p i n g a sense o f commitment to v a l u a b l e t h i n g s , r e q u i r i n g awareness on the p a r t of the l e a r n e r , and t a k i n g many d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . In essence e d u c a t i o n i s much l i k e r e f o r m i n t h a t no p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y or process built  is  i n t o them t h a t something worth w h i l e s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d  1972, p . 25)."  Despite  does not i m p l y , l i k e state of is  p i c k e d out and, "both concepts have the  their similarities,  ' r e f o r m ' , that  they d i f f e r  clearly differs  both concepts are s i m i l a r i n t h a t  they d i f f e r  in a morally acceptable  i n that way.  Reform can be c a r r i e d out i.e.  it  they  imply t h a t  is  Reform i s  It While  something worth w h i l e positive  is  changes w i l l does so  not bound by such a noble s t a n d a r d .  i n various morally unacceptable of  conditioning,  to reach morally acceptable  ends.  ways, c o u l d or would be  T h e r e f o r e any n o t i o n  of r e f o r m or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be set  aside  "...implies  being or has been  that  "Education  1972, p . 25)"  o n l y e d u c a t i o n which always  b e h a v i o u r a l therapy a l o n g the l i n e s  used i n an attempt  in that,  from t h a t of e d u c a t i o n .  b e i n g or has been i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d and t h a t take p l a c e ,  (Peters,  a man s h o u l d be brought back from a  t u r p i t u d e i n t o which he has l a p s e d ; . . . . ( I b i d . ,  the manner of r e f o r m t h a t  criterion  something worth w h i l e i s  f o r e d u c a t i o n which, intentionally  19 transmitted in a morally acceptable  manner.  (Ibid.,  1972, p . 25)."  While the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n may seem e n l i g h t e n i n g t o some unanswered q u e s t i o n s ,  i.e.  What i s  A c c o r d i n g t o Kazepides  (1984) knowledge  be t o l d t h a t  i s worth w h i l e  constitutes  knowledge knowledge.  the d e f i n i t i o n of "...justified (McNiel,  courses persons,  knowledge,  belief,  1985, p.  such knowledge,  the  or content  Despite  worth w h i l e ? ,  i s worthwhile.  it  begs the  it  How do we know?  While f r u i t f u l  to  q u e s t i o n as t o what  t h e s i s knowledge  w i l l be d e f i n e d  as  as opposed t o i g n o r a n c e , mere o p i n i o n , or guesses  5 9 ) . " F u r t h e r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o prepare the s t u d e n t curriculum, areas:  "...must  mathematics, arts,  be made up o f the  following  physical sciences,  knowledge  morals, r e l i g i o n , philosophy  1985, p . 59)" and the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H i s t o r y ( K a z e p i d e s , One can f u r t h e r ask why these s u b j e c t s , value.  led  the l o n g s t a n d i n g debate which surrounds  in this  l i t e r a t u r e and the f i n e  educational  has o n l y  and not o t h e r s  A c c o r d i n g t o Kazepides  for  of (Ibid.,  1984, p . 7 ) .  are accorded  (1984, p . 7 ) :  . . . t h e answer t o that q u e s t i o n i s t h a t i t i s through these d i s c i p l i n e s of thought and a c t i o n — a n d o n l y through them—that we can make sense of a world and our lives. I t i s o n l y through these d i s c i p l i n e s — a n d not through t y p i n g and the l i k e — t h a t we can develop the minds and the c h a r a c t e r of the young and enable them to g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i t means t o be human and make the most of being human. There are no s h o r t c u t s i n e d u c a t i o n , no p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r i c k s or magic p o t i o n s that can produce the educated man. The young must come g r a d u a l l y t o see and examine themselves through these , forms of knowledge, and t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and c h o i c e s must be e n l i g h t e n e d by such knowledge and : understanding.  20 During t h i s  brief  opposed t o o t h e r s ,  discussion,  i t was noted t h a t c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s ,  were i d e n t i f i e d and presented as d e v e l o p i n g or l e a d i n g  to knowledge which was deemed w o r t h w h i l e . one of it  the s u b j e c t s i s  A quick s u r v e y r e v e a l s  that  commonly c a t e g o r i z e d as academic i n n a t u r e .  was made c l e a r why they are of e d u c a t i o n a l  educational  as  value,  the  value and academic seems vague at b e s t .  therefore  the d i s c u s s i o n  this  termed "academic" and what c r i t e r i a would c l e a r l y  concept  a l o n g the l i n e s  between  seems i m p e r a t i v e t h a t illusive  continues  While  connection  As such i t  each  of what  is  make a program or course academic as opposed t o say v o c a t i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l in nature. The D i c t i o n a r y of E d u c a t i o n (1973) p. " . . . p e r t a i n i n g t o the f i e l d s economics,  mathematics,  d e f i n i t i o n by s t a t i n g not the of  and s c i e n c e ; . . . "  that,  substance  that,  thought  and d i s t i n g u i s h e d  training....(Ibid., education,  1982,  Hawes and Hawes  scholarly,  and i d e a s :  from t e c h n i c a l p. 3)."  Hawes and Hawes d e f i n e  as,  history, (1982) add t o  (Ibid.,  f o r example,  arts,  philosophy,  the history,  and v o c a t i o n a l "Term l o o s e l y  as d i s t i n g u i s h e d  " . . . P r o g r a m s i n secondary and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  applied to  from s t u d i e s  p . 2 2 7 ) , " and the l a t t e r  the l e a r n e r f o r employment i n a s p e c i f i c  and  and v o c a t i o n a l  the former as a ,  1982,  the  traditionally consists  or i n the l i b e r a l  As f o r t e c h n i c a l  s t u d i e s i n p r a c t i c a l or a p p l i e d f i e l d s academic d i s c i p l i n e s ,  'academic'  f o r e i g n languages,  an 'academic c o u r s e '  "are c l a s s i c a l ,  of which i s  defines  "academic' has t o do w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l  p r a c t i c a l . . . " and that  courses  English,  of E n g l i s h ,  3.  in  as,  e d u c a t i o n designed  t o prepare  o c c u p a t i o n or i n d u s t r y by  21 coursework i n f i e l d s  l i k e a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , automotive e d u c a t i o n ,  beauty c u l t u r e e d u c a t i o n  (Ibid.,  1982,  p.  242)."  There i s s t i l l one more task t h a t must be performed p r i o r p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the That t a s k i s  to  c r i t i q u e o f the General E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma program.  to determine the d i f f e r e n c e  This i s  a necessary  what i s  t r u l y education.  extent,  if  s t e p i f one i s  between e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g .  to come t o a b e t t e r  Furthermore, i t  any, the G . E . D .  Peters  or  (1972, p . 34)  is  s h o u l d a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t o what  an ' e d u c a t i o n '  argues  understanding of  program.  that:  . . . t h e concept o f ' t r a i n i n g ' has a p p l i c a t i o n when a s k i l l or competence has to be a c q u i r e d which i s to be e x e r c i s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a s p e c i f i c end or f u n c t i o n or i n accordance w i t h the canons of some s p e c i f i c mode o f t h o u g h t , or p r a c t i c e . I f i t i s s a i d t h a t a person i s ' t r a i n e d ' the q u e s t i o n s 'To do w h a t ? ' , 'For w h a t ? , ' ' A s w h a t ? ' , ' I n what?' are a p p r o p r i a t e ; f o r a person cannot be t r a i n e d i n a g e n e r a l s o r t o f w a y . . . W i t h ' e d u c a t i o n ' , however, the matter i s very d i f f e r e n t ; " f o r a person i s never d e s c r i b e d as "educated" i n r e l a t i o n t o any s p e c i f i c e n d , f u n c t i o n , or mode o f t h o u g h t . Furthermore,  "To say t h a t  the n e g a t i v e  point that  respect  of h i s  thought  (Ibid.,  it  competence 1972,  p.  'education i s  o f the whole'  i s not something t h a t  is  at l e a s t t o make  p e r t a i n s to a person i n  i n any s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l ,  activity,  or mode of  35)."  A c c o r d i n g t o Archambeault and Archambeault ( 1 9 8 2 - c i t e d i n E k s t e d t and Griffiths,  1984,  p.  170)  the d i f f e r e n c e  between t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n  . . . t r a i n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s p e c i f i c j o b - o r i e n t e d knowledge or s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n which prepares a person t o work i n a g i v e n j o b i n a g i v e n agency or type o f agency. E d u c a t i o n , on the other  22  hand, r e f l e c t s a l i b e r a l a r t s o r i e n t a t i o n and i s d e f i n e d as d e v e l o p i n g a p e r s o n ' s g e n e r a l knowledge and power.... And l a s t but not l e a s t Cosman (1985, p . 22) sees the d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n as  thus:  To educate i s not j u s t t o t e a c h f a c t s and s k i l l s and r u l e s of conduct. E d u c a t i o n i s not p r i m a r i l y a m a t t e r of memory and s u b m i s s i o n . E d u c a t i o n i s not j u s t a matter o f t r a n s m i t t i n g t o p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s a g i v e n c u l t u r a l and moral t r a d i t i o n . E d u c a t i o n i s not j u s t a matter o f s c h o o l i n g or t r a i n i n g . E d u c a t i o n , aimed a t t h e " f u l l development o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y , " i s a matter o f d e v e l o p i n g the c a p a c i t i e s o f the s t u d e n t f o r dynamic i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y and a c t i v e moral j u d g m e n t — p o t e n t i a l i t i e s capable of e i t h e r being d e v e l o p e d or b e i n g l e f t i n a undeveloped s t a t e . E d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e must p r o v i d e a method and an environment which w i l l s t i m u l a t e and e n a b l e the s t u d e n t t o f a s h i o n the i n s t r u m e n t s o f l o g i c a l thought and o f moral r e a s o n i n g , i n the f o r m a t i o n o f which the s t u d e n t must c o l l a b o r a t e . Such c o l l a b o r a t i o n cannot take p l a c e i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n atmosphere o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral r e s t r a i n t . . . Therefore,  based upon the p r e c e d i n g , t o be c o n s i d e r e d both academic and  e d u c a t i o n a course or program must meet the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1.  The c o u r s e s o f f e r e d must p e r t a i n t o the c l a s s i c a l , s c h o l a r l y or the l i b e r a l a r t s d i s c i p l i n e s , i . e . p h i l o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , e c o n o m i c s , mathematics and s c i e n c e s ;  2.  The s u b s t a n c e o f each course o r program must be thought ideas;  3.  Each course or program must be s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as t o promote u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a ' c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e ' , and a l l o w i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a c q u i r e w o r t h w h i l e knowledge;  4.  The course or program i s not p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o p r e p a r e the l e a r n e r f o r employment i n a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n or i n d u s t r y .  and  23  CHAPTER FOUR The  General  Equivalency.Diploma,Program; .A . C r i t i q u e  The .General E q u i v a l e n c y .Diploma Program .or  (G.E..D.) was o r i g i n a l l y  developed i n 1966 by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army t o p r o v i d e p o t e n t i a l  draftees,  who had e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , .with the r e q u i r e m e n t s to meet .Army standards exact  (Smith, Archer,  date  is  and K i d d ,  1970;  Goodall,  1978).  Although the  d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n , the G.E..D. d i d e v e n t u a l l y , w i t h few  modifications,  find  major p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  its  way i n t o the P e n i t e n t i a r y system o f Canada and most  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A c c o r d i n g to  Goodall:  Students must pass f i v e s e p a r a t e examinations i n o r d e r to r e c e i v e the G . E . D . There are exams i n Grammar, L i t e r a t u r e , Math; S c i e n c e and S o c i a l S t u d i e s . A l l of the exams are o f the m u l t i p l e c h o i c e v a r i e t y . (Goodall, The  1)  G . E . D . was o r i g i n a l l y designed as an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program.  has been s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d at some p e n i t e n t i a r i e s treat  1978,'. p .  the c l a s s  l i k e Matsqui where, "We  as a group most of the time and a l l s t u d e n t s must w r i t e  exams d u r i n g the s p e c i f i e d exam p e r i o d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 weeks a f t e r b e g i n n i n g of the c o u r s e .  (Ibid.,  1978,  p.  It  the  the  1).  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the v a l u e o f a group approach and some major advantages official  such as:  ease o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s ,  r e c o g n i t i o n by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n the form o f a d i p l o m a ,  a v a l i d p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y programs ( e x c l u d i n g S.F.U.  and U . B . C ) ,  increased a b i l i t i e s  B.C.I.T,  immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n , a sense o f s u c c e s s , and i n s i m p l e mathematics and r e a d i n g s k i l l s ,  the  program  is  severely  flawed and does not come c l o s e t o b e i n g academic e d u c a t i o n  has been d e f i n e d  earlier.  B a s i c a l l y a l l that get  is  through s u c c e s s f u l l y  Both the manner example t e s t s ) specifically, educational  r e q u i r e d o f the  i n s t r u c t o r and the student  a s e r i e s or b a t t e r y of f i v e  (rote-memorization)  and matter  t o a c c o m p l i s h i n g the aforementioned  programs have t e s t s , is  not the o n l y t h i n g t h a t  area t e s t s .  W h i l e most  program i s  programs, i t  does.  To do so would c l e a r l y d i m i n i s h the v a l u e of the program. that  a good h i g h s c h o o l  s i m p l y r e l i e d upon the  (1972, p p . 39-40) c o r r e c t l y  teacher  methodological  approach known as r o t e - m e m o r i z a t i o n would c l e a r l y not be Peters  test  i n some modern day h i g h  school  F u r t h e r m o r e , any t e a c h e r  solely  program s i m p l y a b a t t e r y o f  While ' t e a c h i n g t o t e s t ' may be p r e v a l e n t is  to  dedicated  task.  no t r u e e d u c a t i o n a l an e d u c a t i o n a l  content  is  ( b o o k l e t s of p r e v i o u s or  of the program r e v o l v e a r o u n d , or are  o r i e n t e d , nor f o r t h a t matter tests.  as  'teaching'  which  argues:  i s a complex a c t i v i t y which u n i t e s t o g e t h e r p r o c e s s e s , such as i n s t r u c t i n g and t r a i n i n g , by the o v e r a l l i n t e n t i o n of g e t t i n g p u p i l s not o n l y t o a c q u i r e knowledge, s k i l l s , and modes of c o n d u c t , but t o a c q u i r e them i n a manner which i n v o l v e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f the r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g them. They would, at most,  be o n l y  'drilling'  their  students.  While most classroom t e s t s are v a r i e d i n f o r m a t , s h o r t answer,  paragraphs, essays,  i n the  level  recall  of s p e c i f i c  i.e.  multiple-choice,  and so o n , and i n most cases are v a r i e d  of l e a r n i n g outcomes they measure f a c t s and d a t a t o h i g h l e v e l  t e s t s use a s i m p l e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  1  (a range from low understanding)  format t o measure o n l y low  2  level the  level  G.E.D.  25 outcomes. recognize 1978,  p.  The m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e format o n l y r e q u i r e s i t s the 2)."  users,  "...to  c o r r e c t answer from a s m a l l range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s Thus s t u d e n t s may guess at some o f the answers,  may not a c c u r a t e l y measure t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .  Further,  (Goodall, and the exam  s t u d e n t s may not  t o l e a r n the m a t e r i a l as t h o r o u g h l y i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i z e a c o r r e c t as they do t o r e c a l l i t , because  the task  3  and b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s may not be  i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y , and they may r e c e i v e  i n t r i n s i c reward from j u s t , the  c o r r e c t answer  (Ibid.,  In a d d i t i o n i t  "filling 1978,  seems that  s t u d e n t ' s t e s t mark i s  p.  i n a blank spot  1978,  a l l five  therefore,  g a i n a f e e l i n g o f success from t h i s  tests.  for Studies  course.  that  can be argued t h a t the G . E . D .  one who takes the  program r e c e i v e s  school equivalency c e r t i f i c a t e some s o r t  1979,  p.  "...may, (Ibid.,  While a s t u d e n t may  indeed.  i n Education reviewers,  as  even h a v i n g  procedure, to s a c r i f i c e  (Report t o the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , While i t  correctly  may pass without  i n such a manner i s r a t h e r c a l l o u s  peers)  Thus a s t u d e n t ,  performance i s not demanded the e d u c a t i o n a l process value  little  compared and ranked w i t h the marks of h i s  Many s t u d e n t s ,  Ontario Institute  no or  exams are n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d (a  mastered the b a s i c content r e q u i r e m e n t s of the  achievement  challenged  beneath the number o f  have answered o n l y 50% o f the exam q u e s t i o n s  p . 3)-"  answer  2)."  opposed t o c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d (mastery) however,  have  academic  According to "If  will  the  quality be o f l i t t l e  real  114)."  has some i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e  (upon s u c c e s s f u l  completion)  t h a t may a l l o w the r e c i p i e n t to e n t e r  of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program or q u a l i f y f o r some j o b s ,  it  in  a high into is  26 not, and  i n keeping w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d thus cannot be c o n s t r u e d as  criteria,  five  it  is  i s l a b e l e d an academic e d u c a t i o n  n e i t h e r e d u c a t i o n nor academic.  Simply b e i n g a b a t t e r y o f  t e s t s t h a t happen t o t e s t f i v e academic content areas does not make  the G . E . D .  academic because:  n e i t h e r thought nor i d e a s ; the t h e o r e t i c a l ; successful the means  1) the substance o f each t e s t  2) each t e s t i s  completion i s  perspective*  worth i n the G . E . D . ,  i.e.  in its  is  that  students.  it  its  which i s  p l a c e i n a coherent cognitively adrift  "...without  is  1972,  p.  students  does not promote  doing w h i l e s t u d y i n g f o r student  seeing i t s  pattern of l i f e .  (Peters,  and some o f the the G . E . D .  In other words, a G . E . D .  be working away at the G . E . D . , else,  t o promote  i n c r e a s e d r e a d i n g and mathematics s k i l l s and a  p r o b a b l y do c a r e somewhat about i t ,  w r i t i n g the t e s t s .  to a t t a i n a v o c a t i o n .  While t h e r e may be something o f  a wide r a n g i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f what the student and  not  subsequent  completely f a i l s  diploma r e c o g n i z e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , who take i t  clearly  p r i m a r i l y d e d i c a t e d to p r o v i d i n g the l e a r n e r w i t h  (a h i g h s c h o o l e q u i v a l e n c y c e r t i f i c a t e )  'cognitive  is  geared towards the p r a c t i c a l  a n d , 3) the b a t t e r y o f t e s t s and t h e i r  Another c r i t i c i s m o f the G . E . D . a  own sake  education.  Furthermore, even though the G . E . D . program,  worthwhile f o r i t s  could d i l i g e n t l y  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h much  For him i t  i s an a c t i v i t y  31)."  F u r t h e r evidence o f the G . E . D . s i n a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e a d e q u a t e l y as a r e g u l a r academic h i g h s c h o o l program i s study  presented i n a r e c e n t l y  (1986) conducted at and by the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n .  released Even though  the G . E . D .  T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , a d m i n i s t e r e d by the American C o u n c i l on  Education,  claims that  its  examinations a l l o w people "to demonstrate a  27 level  of e d u c a t i o n a l achievement  graduates,  comparable t o t h a t of r e g u l a r  (American C o u n c i l of E d u c a t i o n - c i t e d i n F i e l d s ,  the W i s c o n s i n study r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g s t a r t l i n g  1986, p . 3 0 ) ,  results:  1)  t h a t . . . 6 2 per cent of the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n freshmen w i t h G . E . D . ' s i n 1983-84 had dropped out w i t h i n a year;  2)  of the 2 3 8 who earned t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s a f t e r 1 9 7 8 , 5 6 s c o r e d below the n i n t h grade l e v e l and 20 at the s i x - g r a d e l e v e l or below; and,  3)  at the Milwaukee T e c h n i c a l C o l l e g e , from 1 9 8 0 through 1 9 8 3 , o n l y 8 per cent of G . E . D . - h o l d e r s e n r o l l e d i n two-year programs completed them, compared to 1 0 per cent f o r dropouts with no c e r t i f i c a t e and 30 per cent of high-school graduates. In one year programs, 3 8 per cent of the G . E . D . - h o l d e r s f i n i s h e d , compared to 31 per cent of the dropouts and 5 9 per cent of h i g h - s c h o o l graduates.  While i t must be conceded t h a t purpose o f a h i g h - s c h o o l  post-secondary  e d u c a t i o n program, i t  when used as a measuring r o d o f f e r s worth of a program. is  high-school  quite r i g h t  evaluators  preparation is  not the o n l y  i s one important purpose and a very good i n d i c a t o r of  L o i s Q u i n n , one of the two c o o r d i n a t o r s of the  in asserting  the  study,  that:  The f i n d i n g s c a l l i n t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n the p r a c t i c e i n W i s c o n s i n and many other s t a t e s of encouraging a t - r i s k youth or o l d e r a d u l t s to e n r o l l i n two t o t h r e e month G . E . D . - p r e p c l a s s e s as a way to 'complete h i g h s c h o o l ' . ( Q u i n n - c i t e d i n F i e l d s , 1986, p . 3 0 ) . Even though i t might be argued t h a t the s t u d e n t / i n m a t e  who takes the G . E . D . ,  t h e r e c l e a r l y i s some worth f o r the program f a l l s  far short  what c o u l d be a t t a i n e d by t a k i n g a t r u l y academic e d u c a t i o n program. o n l y would t h i s program p r o v i d e the student  with the s k i l l s  needed  to  of Not  28 achieve  instrumental benefits,  but i t would p r o v i d e h i m / h e r with a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f both s u b j e c t Cosman (1985, p .  and s e l f .  better  According  to  20):  . . . t h e n a t u r e of e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t someone becomes someone o f q u a l i t y or value by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f q u a l i t y or v a l u e i n t o h i s or her b e i n g . The more v a l u e an item h a s , the more being i t h a s . A person has numerous p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . The more e d u c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f these p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , the more a human b e i n g he or she w i l l be. The more a person r e a l i z e s o n e s e l f , the more one makes of o n e s e l f , the more v a l u a b l e person one becomes. While these aims are l a u d a t o r y , g i v e n a l l the w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the modern p e n i t e n t i a r y aims. or  s y s t e m , they would be U t o p i a n  F u r t h e r m o r e , one would have t o be e i t h e r  both t o even suggest the n o t i o n t h a t  could achieve  these aims e s p e c i a l l y  i n h i b i t o r s found both  a single  extremely  egocentric,  naive  academic program or  course  as most e d u c a t i o n a l  programs at  the  elementary and secondary l e v e l s are o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n (three or f o u r months). The s i m p l e f a c t attempt  to r e a l i z e  that  a t r u l y academic e d u c a t i o n program would at  these aims would auger w e l l with most  w i t h the w e l l - b e i n g ,  and d i g n i t y o f the  Even though the arrow f a l l s traverse  some h i t h e r t o f o r e  achievement, G.E.D.  f a r s h o r t of  its  target, i.e.  a l o n g the way i t  a l l these  or any o t h e r such  " . . . c a n be a u s e f u l  'drill'  The  regions. oriented individualized  a n c i l l a r y for i n - c l a s s  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r slower l e a r n e r s  does  intellectual  a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , and r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making.  While the G . E . D .  homework,  concerned  inmate i n a F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y . *  untouched r e g i o n s ,  c o u l d never c o n c e i v a b l y c r o s s  program,  people  least  (Ayers,  quizzes 1979,  p.  and f o r 5),"  or  it  29 might be s u i t a b l e pre-requisites  as a program f o r those inmates whose academic  are at a very low l e v e l  (particularly i f  program at a h i g h e r academic and thus more d i f f i c u l t  to o f f e r  level  could lead  f r u s t r a t i o n and an abandonment of a l l e d u c a t i o n programs), the far  to  G.E.D.  falls  s h o r t of b e i n g an adequate academic secondary program f o r inmates  the F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s g i v e n above, that  the G . E . D .  of many inmates  Federal  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Besides  the o t h e r  o p e r a t e s at an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l  that  who opt t o take a h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l  is  in  reasons  well  below  program i n a  penitentiary.  In pp.  them a  1979,  (Waksman and her a s s o c i a t e s - c i t e d i n McCarthy  449-450) r e l e a s e d  c o n t r a d i c t e d the  the f i n d i n g s  1985,  of t h e i r study which c o n v i n c i n g l y  l o n g h e l d assumption t h a t most  inmates  were  intellectually  i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g o t h e r more a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g than those o f f e r e d G.E.D.  t o inmates  clearly reflects inmates.  by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . capable of h a n d l i n g more i s  a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  participants.  that  is  well  the academic c a p a b i l i t i e s  below the  While the G . E . D . may have i t s  more must be o f f e r e d  if  one wants t o ,  capabilities place,  at l e a s t ,  it  is  S o l i c i t o r General,  1979,  e d u c a t i o n program would c l e a r l y o f f e r , counterforce  t o the  i l l effects  operating  its  not enough and  insure that,  p . 76)."  of many  is  of  not worse o f f when he emerges than he was at the time of  (Report t o the  the  unwarranted, unsound and  S u r e l y n o t h i n g good can come out of a program t h a t  at an academic l e v e l  is  As s u c h , s i m p l y o f f e r i n g  "...the  inmate  admittance  Whereas a t r u e  academic  and be more than s i m p l y a  of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  not minimize the importance of any program t h a t  on inmates,  could possibly  one  should  contribute  30 to,  or a i d i n n e u t r a l i z i n g , the  Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s the o f f e n d e r attendant  i l l e f f e c t s of  (1984, p . 220)  becomes s o c i a l i z e d  b e h a v i o u r a l and a t t i t u d i n a l  l i k e the O . I . S . E .  as,  " . . . t h e process  i n t o inmate s o c i a l  Even though I am not s a t i s f i e d G.E.D.,  define  ' p r i s o n i z a t i o n ' , which  reviewers  system,  by which  with  its  prescriptions."  w i t h , and thus do not f a v o u r I,  "...do  believe  that  the  modest  arguments can be made f o r the e x i s t e n c e of a t o t a l range o f  educational  opportunities  inmate  based on the  informed v o l u n t a r y c h o i c e o f the  (Report to the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , 1979, that  there  learners,  is  J.  70)."  As s u c h ,  indeed both a p l a c e and need f o r the  as homework, and so o n , as w e l l  alternative, offered  p.  i.e.  by the  G.E.D.,  i t would seem i.e.  as f o r some v i a b l e  with  slower  academic  f o r those capable o f h a n d l i n g much more than  that  G.E.D.  Ayers (1979) i d e n t i f i e d such an a l t e r n a t i v e ,  of which p a r t has  been  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a / S i m o n F r a s e r u n i v e r s i t y program, when he wrote  'A Model f o r P r i s o n E d u c a t i o n Programs and  Guidelines for their Operation'.  Simply s t a t e d the a l t e r n a t i v e was  allow a l l p r i s o n e r s w i t h the a b i l i t y t o r e a d , i . e . equivalent courses  of 9.0  on s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s ,  i n the humanities  Even though t h i s is  is  and s o c i a l  a valid alternative  c l e a r l y not the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e  school s c h o l a s t i c  to,  (Ayers,  a grade  "pursue 1979,  university p.  6)."  f o r some s t u d e n t / i n m a t e s ,  f o r many inmates  it  at the academic h i g h  level.  While some inmates deficiencies  sciences  achieve  to  have been a b l e t o overcome t h e i r  via their l i f e  experiences  educational  and s e l f - e d u c a t i o n ,  many have  not,  31 and are c l e a r l y i n need of a program t h a t t o do s o .  F u r t h e r m o r e , even i f  t h e r e are s t i l l many t h i n g s l e a r n e d from t a k i n g a w e l l While the G . E . D .  c o u l d a i d them i n t h e i r  an i n d i v i d u a l  had educated  that  may s a t i s f y  slower l e a r n e r s ,  student,  i s a c a d e m i c a l l y s u i t e d or s a t i s f i e s betwixt  and the  given that only four p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  alternative  the needs of  the  t h e r e seems t o be no program  the needs of a great many inmates  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  offer  or above average  the S . F . U .  offered  Furthermore,  u n i v e r s i t y program,  s t u d e n t s who c l e a r l y have no  but t o take the inadequate G . E . D .  v o c a t i o n a l or t r a i n i n g program. states  S.F.U.  and between the two academic a l t e r n a t i v e s  s t u d e n t s i n the F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s  t h e r e are many g i f t e d  t h a t can be  designed academic e d u c a t i o n program.  possibly self-educated  who are p r e s e n t l y  him/herself,  (both i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c )  u n i v e r s i t y program, where a v a i l a b l e , c l e a r l y s a t i s f i e s more g i f t e d ,  attempt  or opt f o r some other  Ayers (1979, p p . 5-6)  is  c o r r e c t when he  that: The most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the type o f s t u d e n t s that predominate i n p r i s o n s i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l and type o f c h a l l e n g e . There s h o u l d be a broad range of programs and procedures between that which f r u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l student because o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s a n d / o r f e a r o f f a i l u r e and t h a t which d u l l s h i s i n t e r e s t because o f b o r e d o m . . .  Even though an academic h i g h s c h o o l  program based upon sound e d u c a t i o n a l  p r i n c i p l e s would c l e a r l y d e a l w i t h both the h i g h and low a c h i e v e r , that  t h e s e two groups are a l r e a d y o f f e r e d  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i g h academic a c h i e v e r ) ,  viable  given  alternatives,  the academic h i g h s c h o o l  level  32 program should be focused upon and d e d i c a t e d t o those who a r e o f f e r e d  less  or more than what they p r e s e n t l y need and a r e c l e a r l y c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g . While i t advocated  is  has not as yet  been f o r m a l l y s t a t e d ,  o v e r a l l , what i s  being  an academic l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n a l n a t u r e .  This  type of e d u c a t i o n has v a r i o u s academic s u b j e c t s t h a t have been and a r e , " . . . d i r e c t e d t o a broadening and deepening o f the mind and i m a g i n a t i o n and they have combined with methods of discussion,  that  i n s t r u c t i o n , depending h e a v i l y on  t r e a t e d the student  as though he were a l r e a d y an a d u l t  (Report t o the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , 1979, p . 78)." S p e c i f i c a l l y : . . . t h e emphasis was not on the age of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , but i n the ends of the e d u c a t i o n , which were t o p r o v i d e t h a t type of e x p e r i e n c e and l e a r n i n g t h a t h e l p e d the i n d i v i d u a l to achieve the h i g h e s t standards of a d u l t behaviour. ( I b i d . , 1979, p . 77) It  is  this  focus  upon the student  as or as becoming an a d u l t  augers w e l l f o r l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n the Columbia.  A c c o r d i n g t o the O . I . S . E .  penitentiaries  of  that  British  reviewers:  I f one combines t h i s view with the somewhat s t a r t l i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the age o f most inmates, and the t r a n s i t i o n which seems t o occur i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s , some p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. The type of e d u c a t i o n advocated i n t h i s c a s e , t h a t i s the " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n " , o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the m a t u r i n g t h a t seems t o l e a d to a r e d u c t i o n i n c r i m i n a l behaviour t o occur e a r l i e r than i t does i f l e f t to other i n f l u e n c e s i n the community, i n c l u d i n g those t o be found i n the prison. (Report t o the What g r e a t e r have the  S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , 1979, pp.77~78)  argument can be made f o r any p r i s o n program than t h a t  chance of r e d u c i n g the  n o t h i n g e l s e a program, t h a t  criminal  behaviour of  its  at l e a s t attempts to achieve  i t may  participants. a  If  33  self-actualized,  and more mature a d u l t , would seem t o be a worthy and much  needed a l t e r n a t i v e  t o the d r i l l  o r i e n t e d General E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma  program p r e s e n t l y o f f e r e d  inmates at the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l  penitentiaries  Columbia.  of B r i t i s h  i n the  Federal  34  Summary In t h i s  chapter i t  has been argued t h a t  S e r v i c e has never been committed t o e d u c a t i o n  the Canadian  Penitentiary  in prisons.  Rather t h e r e  has  been an emphasis on t r a i n i n g d e d i c a t e d t o a s p i r i t u a l re-awakening or a vocation.  Whereas e d u c a t i o n has to do w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f what  worthwhile t o those who are committed t o  it,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and some k i n d o f  perspective,  procedures of t r a n s m i s s i o n , f u n c t i o n or mode of activities,  it  is  and i s  thought,  -  the G . E . D . ,  Social Studies,  is  p r i s o n system,  end,  scope t o p a r t i c u l a r  seemingly  academic  at the secondary  i n o r d e r t o attempt  that  the  content  not geared t o e d u c a t i o n a l ends.  The next chapter w i l l review the the  out some  Even the most commonly used program at  argued f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons  program i s n e c e s s a r y  rules  limited in its  despite i t s  etc.),  knowledge,  not l i m i t e d t o some s p e c i f i c  training is  usually vocational.  secondary l e v e l (English,  cognitive  involves  is  a l i b e r a l , academic  Thus  education  level. i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s  found i n  t o a s c e r t a i n the f e a s i b i l i t y  of  implementing an academic secondary e d u c a t i o n program i n the F e d e r a l p r i s o n s of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  35  END NOTES I t should be noted that i t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t o imply that the G.E.D. would be more acceptable given a d i f f e r e n t methodological approach, ' ' i . e . i n q u i r y teaching, and so on, but t o point out that G.E.D. teachers need only ' d r i l l ' not 'teach' t h e i r students. " '' I am not attempting to claim that a l l high school t e s t s measure the higher order l e a r n i n g outcomes as discussed i n Benjamin Bloom's book Taxonomy of Education Objectives: The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Educational goals. Handbook I : Cognitive Domain (1956). What I am claiming i s that most high school t e s t s are constructed i n such a way as t o at l e a s t attempt t o get beyond the low l e v e l r e c a l l of s p e c i f i c f a c t s . Goodall (1978) i s c l e a r l y and c o r r e c t l y suggesting that the t e s t s simply require a'response (recognize) as opposed t o some form of simple thought ( r e c a l l ) . In other words, the t e s t s are and act as agents of c o n d i t i o n i n g . This may be acceptable f o r animals but not for humans.  36  CHAPTER FIVE Factors that f a c i l i t a t e  and i n h i b i t  e d u c a t i o n programs i n F e d e r a l  Before d e s i g n i n g the for  inmates  not  consider  program,  identified,  is  imperative that  one c l e a r l y c o n s i d e r s  which impinge upon e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n .  the f a c t o r s  then t h i s  penitentiaries  c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l program  in prison, i t  p l e t h o r a of f a c t o r s  which c o u l d i n h i b i t the  program i s  then the  these may be used t o  l i k e l y to f a i l .  them.  If  If  materials  being o f s t u d e n t s , this  facets  t r y t o a v o i d them,  i.e.,  that  then  teacher-student  economics,  impinge on an relationship,  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  resource  c h a p t e r w i l l focus on those f a c t o r s  p e r t a i n to education i n p r i s o n . t h a t of  key i n h i b i t o r s a r e  advantage.  program i n any s e t t i n g  and so o n ,  I f one does  t h e r e a r e major f a c i l i t a t o r s ,  Whereas t h e r e are v a r i o u s and complex f a c t o r s  physical well  the  implementation o f any new  program must, where p o s s i b l e ,  counter them, or e l i m i n a t e  educational  academic  According to Boshier  inmate p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n ,  that  directly  (1983), one problem,  has t h r e e f a c e t s .  are: (1) person and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c i l i t a t o r s and i n h i b i t o r s that impel inmates i n t o and away from e d u c a t i o n programmes; (2) changes i n m o t i v a t i o n and behaviour a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programmes; and (3) l o n g - t e r m impact of p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n . ( B o s h i e r , 1983, p . 10)  These  37 Notwithstanding  the  importance of a l l t h r e e f a c e t s ,  be concerned  d i r e c t l y w i t h f a c e t number one i . e . ,  facilitators  and  will  environmental  person and  will  only  environmental  inhibitors.  In order t o p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z e d inhibitors  t h i s chapter  be a n a l y z e d  factors  p o r t r a y a l , the  facilitators  under two main h e a d i n g s :  i.e.,  The O f f i c e of  the  and  1) E x t e r n a l and  S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , The  Commissioner o f C o r r e c t i o n s ; D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n , T r a i n i n g and  Personal  Development;  System  The G e n e r a l P u b l i c ; Economics;  Bureaucracy; and (2) Institutional  Heads/Wardens;  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Endemic T e n s i o n s ;  I n m a t e s — t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s ,  E x t e r n a l A c t o r s and Environmental (a)  The O f f i c e  of  the  a c c o r d i n g to s e c t i o n 2,  Department  1983-84)."  of  the  Officer;  i.e.,  The P r i s o n  The P r i s o n Environment;  and R e l a t e d Teaching  Problems.  Factors  clearly  a major e x t e r n a l  s u b s e c t i o n 2 of  General , " . . . h o l d s o f f i c e  factors  S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l of Canada  The S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i s  of the  Penitentiary  I n t e r n a l a c t o r s and environmental  Educator; Prison F a c i l i t i e s ;  I.  and the  An Act r e s p e c t i n g  during pleasure Solicitor-General  Furthermore, s e c t i o n 4 of  factor  the  and has  the  Solicitor-  the management  (Solicitor-General Act  who,  Act,  reads:  The d u t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i n Canada extend to and i n c l u d e a l l matters over which the Parliament o f Canada has j u r i s d i c t i o n , not by law a s s i g n e d to any o t h e r department, branch or agency o f the Government o f Canada r e l a t e d to (a) (b)  reformatories, prisons, p a r o l e and r e v i s i o n s ;  penitentiaries;  direction  38 (c) (d)  the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e ; and, the Canadian S e c u r i t y I n t e l l i g e n c e S e r v i c e . ( S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l A c t , S e c t i o n 4 - 1966-67, s.4; 1983-84, c . 2 1 , s.95)  The S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i s cabinet  also responsible  f o r p r o v i d i n g P a r l i a m e n t and the  w i t h a r e p o r t , " . . . s h o w i n g the o p e r a t i o n s  S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l f o r the f i s c a l and f o r a p p o i n t i n g , " o f f i c e r s  year  c.25,  of the department of  ( S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l Act, Section  A l l o f the above c l e a r l y suggest that  one can review the r e c e n t  reasons,  or i n h i b i t e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n . conflict  contracts  in  c l a i m i n g economic  between u n i v e r s i t i e s  and the  (Boshier,  1983,  29)." D e s p i t e the  inmates,  1983  concerted e f f o r t s  the S o l i c i t o r — G e n e r a l d i d not s o f t e n  (a f u l l  n i n e months a f t e r  issued a c a l l  post-secondary 190)."  f o r b i d s from u n i v e r s i t i e s  p.  when, " . . . the p.  190)" a n d ,  a c r o s s Canada f o r  programs i n each r e g i o n o f the c o u n t r y ( I b i d ,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , inmates were now r e q u i r e d t o ,  190)."  and  h i s stand u n t i l November  (Duguid & Hoekema, 1985,  d i r e c t l y to the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e ; 1985,  former and present  the o r i g i n a l announcement)  government announced a compromise "...  of many people e . g . ,  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t , r e p o r t e r s , newspaper e x e c u t i v e s ,  educators,  p.  As e v i d e n c e ,  The c o n f l i c t s t a r t e d  C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e o f Canada would not be renewed p.  the  between the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l and the  1983 when the Honourable Robert K a p l a n ,  "announced t h a t  5(1)."  the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l has  proponents of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n s . January o f  5),"  of the S e r v i c e t o be known as D i r e c t o r s of  D i v i s i o n s and R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s ( P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t , S e c t i o n  power t o e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e  the  1985,  "pay a minimum fee  $20 per f o u r month course  T h i s p r o v i s i o n caused the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a  (Ibid., to  39  withdraw from the n e g o t i a t i o n s . Solioitor-General  Interestingly,  as they withdrew,  announced another compromise which was,  were t o be deducted from inmates'  compulsory s a v i n g s  their  1985,  'disposable'  income  (Ibid.,  p.  190)."  "that  incomes  to pay f o r the  courses.  F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , a second n e g o t i a t i n g Solicitor-General though the  to run the  university  c r e a t e d by the  the  fees  o n l y , r a t h e r than from  F u r t h e r m o r e , the  S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l o f f e r e d to p r o v i d e l o a n s t o those inmates insufficient  the  Thus,  with  in April  of  1984,  p a r t y , s i g n e d an agreement  with  u n i v e r s i t y program i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  program was c o n t i n u e d ,  Solicitor-General's decision,  in retrospect, and i t s  the  possible  phenomenon t h a t  i n t e r n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  external  (b)  'system'  variables  (Boshier,  1983,  p.  Even  reversal,  that  of  the  uncertainty  s e r v e s t o remind p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s stems from i n t e r a c t i o n s  Simon  they are d e a l i n g with a  30).  The Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s  Even though the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s i s a p p o i n t e d by the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n C o u n c i l and r e c e i v e s d i r e c t i o n from the General,  this  'on-line'  correctional officer  i n h i b i t education in p r i s o n . Act,  has the power t o f a c i l i t a t e  According to section  the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s , " . . . . h a s  the S e r v i c e and a l l matters  4,  1960-1961,  to  implement or support or condemn or d i s c o n t i n u e  s.4,  given more weight by the duty any o f f i c e r  etc.)."  fact  that  within  4 of the  Penitentiary  (Penitentiary  Act,  F u r t h e r m o r e , the Commissioner's  he/she has the  or employee of the s e r v i c e  or  the c o n t r o l and management  of  c.53,  connected  Solicitor-  who i s  an e d u c a t i o n a l power t o ,  Section decision  program i s  "suspend from  under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n  40 (Penitentiary "...a  A c t , Section 8(3),  person t o  1960-61, c . 5 3 ,  e t c . ) , " and t o  i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t upon any matter a f f e c t i n g  o p e r a t i o n of the S e r v i c e a n d , f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , all  the  powers of a c o m m i s s i o n e r . . .  1960-61)."  In o t h e r words,  he/she a l s o has the  power t o i n v e s t i g a t e and take a c t i o n .  any e d u c a t i o n a l  subsection  1 of  12, titular  Not o n l y does he/she give o r d e r s but  has the  power t o  As s u c h ,  duties  and powers,  the  i n v e s t i g a t e and  program i n a F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the aforementioned 4,  person a p p o i n t e d has  (Penitentiary Act, Section  Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s or h i s o f f i c e  section  the  the  the Commissioner i s f a r from being the  head of the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e .  thus e f f e c t  appoint,  i n Canada.  according to  the P e n i t e n t i a r y A c t :  The p o r t i o n of the s t a f f of the N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board known as the N a t i o n a l P a r o l e S e r v i c e s h a l l be under the c o n t r o l and management of the Commissioner who, i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s d u t i e s under s e c t i o n 4, i s r e s p o n s i b l e , under the d i r e c t i o n of the M i n i s t e r , f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of cases of p a r o l e and the s u p e r v i s i o n o f inmates t o whom p a r o l e has been g r a n t e d , or who have been r e l e a s e d on mandatory s u p e r v i s i o n pursuant t o the Parole A c t . (1960-61, c . 5 3 , 3.37) One example of  how the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s may i n a d v e r t e n t l y  i n h i b i t education in prison i s  i n not c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p  p a r o l e and e n t r y i n t o an e d u c a t i o n program. Act,  it  is  A c c o r d i n g t o the  between  Penitentiary  the Commissioner o f C o r r e c t i o n who oversees p a r o l e , which  important t o most  inmates  s e r v i n g time i n a F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y .  Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies  i n Education reviewers  inmate the most powerful i n c e n t i v e to h i s r e l e a s e . (Report to the  state,  is  The  "For every  next t o merely s u r v i v i n g w i l l be r e l a t e d  Nothing can compare w i t h t h a t S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , 1979,  p.  i n power of  109)."  attraction  Unfortunately,  neither  41 the Commissioner nor the The O . I . S . E .  (1979, p .  P a r o l e Board make e x p l i c i t  109)  reviewers  state  the terms of  parole.  that:  However, t h e r e i s much o b s c u r i t y r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r o l e . T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y , shared by inmates and some o f f i c i a l s , a p p l i e s not o n l y t o g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs but a l s o t o what view the P a r o l e Board may or may not take of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r program. It  is  this  uncertainty that  game w i t h the  t u r n s the whole a f f a i r i n t o a cat and mouse  inmate t r y i n g v i g o r o u s l y t o f i g u r e out what importance  Commissioner or P a r o l e Board p l a c e on e d u c a t i o n a l  the  programs i n r e l a t i o n  to  parole.  (c)  Director of  E d u c a t i o n , T r a i n i n g and P e r s o n a l  Another major p l a y e r i n the Education,  of academic e d u c a t i o n ,  1980,  p. 45),"  and a c h i e f  the D i r e c t o r of  of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n  and whose primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  e d u c a t i o n i n the the  is  T r a i n i n g and P e r s o n a l Development who d i r e c t l y o v e r s e e s ,  chief  of  Correctional Service  Development  Federal penitentiaries  Penitentiary Service  is  of Canada.  "a  (Cosman,  to d i r e c t a l l f a c e t s  of  According to s e c t i o n  7  Regulation:  D i r e c t o r s of D i v i s i o n s may, under the a u t h o r i t y of the Commissioner, i s s u e i n s t r u c t i o n s , t o be known as D i v i s i o n a l S t a f f I n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the matters that are t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and those i n s t r u c t i o n s s h a l l set out the procedures by which p o l i c y i s t o be given e f f e c t . Even though t h i s Solicitor-General  individual is (as  perform such d u t i e s Corrections,  are a l l c o r r e c t i o n a l s t a f f  as a r e f o r m a l l y d e l e g a t e d  (Penitentiary  problem may a r i s e  is  ultimately responsible  to  the  mem'bers) and tend t o  only  by the Commissioner of  Service Regulations,  S e c t i o n 4,  1978), where a  i n how a p a r t i c u l a r D i r e c t o r i n t e r p r e t s and  42 subsequently (1)  c a r r i e s out the Commissioner's d i r e c t i v e s .  A d i r e c t o r may  s e l e c t or favour one mode or type o f e d u c a t i o n a l program over  and (2)  promote or n e g l e c t any e x i s t i n g  penitentiary. pleasure,  Considering this  (d)  latitude,  become a major f a c i l i t a t o r  or e d u c a t i o n programs i n the  educational  another;  program i n a p a r t i c u l a r  the D i r e c t o r c o u l d , at  or i n h i b i t o r of any or a l l  F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y system of  his/her education  Canada.  The General P u b l i c  Another e x t e r n a l  factor  corrections education. the exact numbers, i t  is  a g e n e r a l l a c k o f p u b l i c support  While d i f f i c u l t , is  c l e a r that  programs i n F e d e r a l  S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l (1979, p p . 1-2)  minds o f o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s ,  runs deep (quote c i t e d i n W r i g h t ,  determine  states that,  et.al.,  1980,  on the p.  general  penitentiaries.  the a d m i s s i o n of a p r i s o n e r ' s r i g h t  e d u c a t i o n does not f o l l o w w i t h b l u n t e v i d e n c e ;  (e)  to  t h e r e are some members of the  p u b l i c who are opposed t o e d u c a t i o n a l The Report t o the  i f not i m p o s s i b l e ,  for  contrary,  "...in  the  to resistance  18)."  Economics  Economics c l e a r l y p l a y s an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t u r e o f the e d u c a t i o n a l funding, without  the e d u c a t i o n a l the  While the Federal  enterprise  in Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s .  Without adequate  e n t e r p r i s e would w i t h e r away and d i e .  b a s i c f u n d i n g , t h e r e would e x i s t no e d u c a t i o n a l  former as opposed t o the l a t t e r  p e n i t e n t i a r y system,  seems t o be the  In  fact,  enterprise.  case i n the  i t was not t o o l o n g ago when a h i g h r a n k i n g  43 Correctional Service o f f i c i a l previously noted, attempted,  attempted  the l a t t e r .  In 1983,  as was  the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , the Honourable Robert K a p l a n ,  f o r economic r e a s o n s ,  component of the e d u c a t i o n a l  to e l i m i n a t e  enterprise  altogether  one major  - the u n i v e r s i t y program.  As  Kaplan s t a t e d d u r i n g the January 24th Commons debate: . . . . T h e s e programs c o s t $3,500 per inmate per y e a r . T h i s i s a h i g h amount. My hope i s that p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n can s t i l l be brought t o them by s e l f - h e l p , by group s e s s i o n s and by correspondence c o u r s e s . I b e l i e v e t h a t , i f those inmates r e a l l y want t o have the b e n e f i t of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , they can develop i t i n some way t h a t w i l l c o s t the taxpayer l e s s money. ( K a p l a n ' s statement c i t e d i n Duguid & Hoekema, 1985, ' p . 200) Even though a compromise was f o u n d , the bottom l i n e was R e l a t e d t o both economics  and p u b l i c economic support i s  loosely  termed p u b l i c economic s u p p o r t .  p.  "In Canada, o n l y four per cent of C . C . S .  18),  educational  purposes."  economics.  This is  a factor  A c c o r d i n g t o Wright e t . a l .  a relatively  expenditures  is  small percentage,  (1980,  devoted  to  and Roberts  (1971) q u i t e c o r r e c t l y s t a t e s : As i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o prove t h a t e d u c a t i o n can be j u s t i f i e d i n terms of r e c i d i v i s m and 'good c i t i z e n s h i p ' , e d u c a t i o n a l programs are v u l n e r a b l e t o the c r i t i c i s m that they a r e a waste of t a x p a y e r s ' money as they merely produce b e t t e r educated c r i m i n a l s . ( R o b e r t s , 1971, c i t e d i n W r i g h t , e t . a l . , 1980, p p . 18-19) While i t  is  education,  true that  it  is  difficult  quantitatively  a s s e s s the worth o f  p a r t i c u l a r l y i f r e c i d i v i s m and 'good c i t i z e n s h i p '  i n d i c a t o r s of a program's s u c c e s s , made.  to  First,  little  evidence  is  e d u c a t i o n programs l e a d to b e t t e r  there are s e v e r a l  presented educated  points  t o defend the criminals.  are the major t h a t s h o u l d be  charge  That one,  that or a few  44 inmates  who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e d u c a t i o n programs, r e t u r n e d to  activities  upon r e l e a s e ,  does not warrant the  criminal  general charge.  This  argument commits the f a l l a c y o f h a s t y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Second, t h e r e  some evidence  borne out by the  t h a t r e c i d i v i s m can be r e d u c e d .  e v a l u a t i o n study of 1980), r e s u l t s e v a l u a t i o n of educational  long process  the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a  program guarantees  research.  Third,  i n p a r t , the e d u c a t i o n a l  and to expect any e d u c a t i o n a l  that  endeavour  his  any  to  Education i s (especially  a  life  one of  to demand too much.  P e n i t e n t i a r y System Bureaucracy  A f i n a l major problem, one t h a t system,  to i n s i s t  enterprise.  et.al.,  (1980) i n  a reduction in recidivism is  s h o r t term d u r a t i o n ) t o reduce r e c i d i v i s m i s  (f)  Program ( A y e r s ,  w h i c h , i n the main, a r e supported by Ross the Ayers e t . a l .  misunderstand,  This is  is  has t o do w i t h the  bureaucracy.  attitude  A c c o r d i n g to Cosman  runs throughout the  penitentiary  and s t a t u s of the e x i s t i n g  penitentiary  (1985), p . 3 0 :  P r i s o n s today have a h i g h l y ambiguous s t a t u s . On the one hand, they a r e c r e a t e d t o a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e , p e n a l j u s t i c e , a j u s t i c e based on p u n i s h m e n t . . . On the other hand, they a r e expected to p l a y a r o l e ' i n the p r i s o n e r ' s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The ambivalent s i t u a t i o n  i s made worse  bureaucracy i s made up almost  because,  e n t i r e l y of  "The e x i s t i n g  penitentiary  people who are e x p e r i e n c e d  i n the  45 established  penal p r a c t i c e s ,  o r i e n t e d t o the  t r a i n e d i n the o l d approaches,  c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom, and e m o t i o n a l l y  s t a t u s quo ( I b i d . ,  1985, p .  intellectually  committed t o  the  31)." Furthermore:  There are very few e d u c a t o r s i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y system. And what makes the prospect seem h o p e l e s s i s t h a t the F e d e r a l government does not have a v a i l a b l e t o i t e i t h e r the n e c e s s a r y body of knowledge, i n s i g h t and t r a d i t i o n i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n or a r e s o u r c e pool of people t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h a t f i e l d . . . ( I b i d . , 1985, p:'3D Thus a m b i g u i t y , a l a c k of t r a d i t i o n i n o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l experts i n p r i s o n education, characterizes  few  and an o v e r - b u r e a u c r a t i z e d system  the F e d e r a l Government's f o r a y i n t o e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n s .  Having i d e n t i f i e d s u r v e y of  programs,  the major e x t e r n a l  actors  and f a c t o r s ,  we t u r n t o a  i n t e r n a l a c t o r s and v a r i a b l e s which impinge on e d u c a t i o n  in  prison.  II.  International (a)  A c t o r s and Environmental F a c t o r s  Institutional  Heads/Wardens  A ma^jor i n t e r n a l f a c t o r Federal  penitentiary.  the o r d e r s they r e c e i v e officers  is  the  institutional  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the f a c t  head or warden o f a  t h a t wardens must  follow  from the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s , they a r e  who c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e  or i n h i b i t e d u c a t i o n a l  A c c o r d i n g t o s e c t i o n 5, s u b s e c t i o n  1, of  the  programs i n  Penitentiary  prisons.  Service  Regulations: The i n s t i t u t i o n a l head i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i r e c t i o n of h i s s t a f f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n , s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y o f h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and the c o r r e c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g of a l l inmates c o n f i n e d t h e r e i n . ( P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e R e g u l a t i o n s , S e c t i o n 5, S u b s e c t i o n  1)  46 While i t could be argued that most wardens attempt to ensure both s e c u r i t y and s a f e t y , there i s l i t t l e evidence to show that education i s high on t h e i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s . As Shea (1980, pp. 42-43) points out: Prison a u t h o r i t i e s are often negative i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward school. The more conservative o f f i c i a l s regard school as part of the trend toward being too s o f t . School i s not punitive enough - i t i s a form of babying the i n d i v i d u a l . Furthermore, where educational programs are offered and supported i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , the purpose behind that support i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the main purpose of education. may  Despite the f a c t that t r a i n i n g the inmate f o r work  be a noble endeavour, to equate c o n t r o l and s e c u r i t y , d i s c i p l i n e , work,  and i s o l a t i o n with academic education i s a c l e a r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and v i o l a t i o n of the term and most assuredly acts as a major i n h i b i t o r of academic education i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y .  (b)  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Officer  A c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r that may  i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e an educational  program i s the placement or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r .  In B r i t i s h Columbia, a  judge determines the offenders' length of sentence and a placement or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r makes the f i n a l determination of where the offender w i l l reside i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y system.  According to Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s  (1984, p. 179), "The predominant f a c t o r at t h i s stage of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the s e c u r i t y requirements of the offender, although assignment to a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n may  be a f f e c t e d by a v a i l a b l e bedspace."  Although  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r i s o f f i c i a l l y bound by the benchmark system,  1  the  he/she  47 still  has some o p t i o n s .  officer  determines  At the  i n t e r v i e w and needs assessment s t a g e ,  whether the o f f e n d e r  needs t r a i n i n g , t r e a t m e n t ,  s e c u r i t y or a combination o f two or a l l t h r e e . Griffiths officer  (1984, p .  179),  "The o f f e n d e r  who makes a needs a n a l y s i s ,  s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s of the As has j u s t actions  facilitator  officer  or d e c i d e not t o ,  such a program. limit this  but t h i s  officer  and  is  l i m i t e d i n any  c o u l d c l e a r l y become a major  Second, t h i s  First,  the  officer  offender  could either  decide  send the o f f e n d e r t o an i n s t i t u t i o n which o f f e r e d  While the  Benchmark system and the needs a n a l y s i s may  who makes the f i n a l  made by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  officer,  it  is  d e c i s i o n and as such c o u l d c l e a r l y a i d or  h i n d e r e d u c a t i o n or any e d u c a t i o n a l  (c)  i n c l u d i n g the t r a i n i n g , t r e a t m e n t ,  c o u l d e i t h e r suggest or not suggest t o the  the scope of any d e c i s i o n s officer  i n t e r v i e w e d by a placement  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r  a p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n program. to,  A c c o r d i n g t o E k s t e d t and  or i n h i b i t o r t o any e d u c a t i o n program.  classification  'tight'  offender."  been n o t e d ,  he or she t a k e s ,  is  the  program.  The P r i s o n Educator  G e n e r a l l y , most e d u c a t o r s ,  whether o u t s i d e / c o n t r a c t  l a c k enough t r a i n i n g f o r d e a l i n g w i t h inmates T h i s seems t r u e d e s p i t e  the constant  w i t h inmates i n the person s e t t i n g , many o u t s i d e  educators.  contact  or r e g u l a r  in a penitentiary regular staff  Methodology without  et.al.  setting.  teachers  have  or the t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by experience  or v i c e - v e r s a  c l e a r l y not enough when d e a l i n g w i t h inmates i n a F e d e r a l According to Wright,  staff,  (1980, p .  19),  is  penitentiary.  " T h i s person must be w e l l  48 t r a i n e d , must be cognizant of the prison environment, must be committed to education, and must have teaching a b i l i t i e s which are superior."  This  l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n i s j u s t i f i e d on the basis that: Teaching i n a prison i s not the same as teaching i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s . Whatever the teaching s i t u a t i o n , teachers need s p e c i a l " t r a i n i n g i n order t o understand the background and s p e c i a l problems associated with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r student population (Campbell, 1974; Horan, 1975). Even assuming that teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y outside contract ones, could be given adequate t r a i n i n g or appropriate o r i e n t a t i o n , they would probably s t i l l be confronted with the problem of being resented by both i n s i d e teachers and regular c u s t o d i a l s t a f f .  While there may be many reasons f o r  t h i s h o s t i l i t y on the part of the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f i . e . , unsurping t e r r i t o r i a l a u t h o r i t y and threatening s e c u r i t y and c o n t r o l , one of the main reasons seems t o be a resentfulness or envy on the part of some members of the regular s t a f f .  Some seem to f e e l that teachers are o f f e r i n g inmates  something neither they nor t h e i r f a m i l y can a f f o r d t o a t t a i n .  According t o  Shea (1980, p. 43), "...some prison workers also resent the opportunity that inmates have, and are jealous of the access that they have t o school facilities."  Related t o t h i s i s the perception of many regular s t a f f  members that contract teachers tend t o side with the inmate instead of with themselves.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there are some inmates who suspect that the  reverse i s true.  According to one anonymous prison educator, " . . . I found  i t very d i f f i c u l t when I s t a r t e d , since both s t a f f and inmates tended t o c i r c l e around me speculating whose side I would be on... p. 17)."  (Duguid, 1985,  49 Thus,  the t e a c h e r  regular staff  e n t e r s an environment where both p a r t i e s ,  and inmates,  "them and us".  may r e q u i r e the t e a c h e r  A c c o r d i n g t o Duguid (1985, p p .  the  t o make a c h o i c e  between  15-16):  In the l i t e r a t u r e on p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n t h e r e i s a r e c u r r i n g theme which a t t e s t s to the d i f f i c u l t y or even i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ' o u t s i d e ' i n s t r u c t o r s m a i n t a i n i n g a middle p o s i t i o n between p r i s o n e r / s t u d e n t s and the demands of the p r i s o n r e g i m e . Whether p u l l e d toward i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h or being o v e r l y sympathetic towards e i t h e r s i d e i n the e q u a t i o n , the p r e v a i l i n g consensus seems to be t h a t the m i d d l e ground i s untenable i n the long r u n . Therefore, difficult.  it  seems apparent t h a t h o l d i n g a middle ground p o s i t i o n  Interestingly,  Duguid t o o f f e r  their  a few anonymous t e a c h e r s  anonymous t e a c h e r s , s h o u l d favour the invite  conflict  words, the of  the  prisoner in a direct educational posture.  with the  prison authority  both s i d e s without  (Ibid., is  1985,  p.  these  to e i t h e r  'us-them'  s i d e o f the  situation  17)."  by t e a c h e r s  i.e.,  a t t e n d i n g t o o n e ' s o f f i c i a l j o b (the  or t a k i n g a s i d e out of f e a r or p r e f e r e n c e ,  t r y i n g to teaching could  custodial staff  c r e d i t a b i l i t y that  educators  A  please of  'fire-up'  e x i s t s between inmates  the f r a g i l e  needs  construed  conflict.  a l r e a d y uncomfortable r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t and d e s t r o y  In other  c o u l d be  'us-them'  but  T h i s does not  to serve the e d u c a t i o n a l  and do n o t h i n g more or l e s s t h a t  or dangerous  m i s r e a d i n g of the  A c c o r d i n g t o one o f  in  "This p o s i t i o n s h o u l d not be a ' m i d d l e ' p o s i t i o n  prisoner/student  students),  dilemma.  i d e a l p o s i t i o n o f the teacher  as o f f e n s i v e  who were asked by  i d e a s and knowledge on inmates and e d u c a t i o n  p r i s o n seem to have s o l v e d the  is  the  and  some very good  have p a i n s t a k i n g l y c r e a t e d and are a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n .  50 Another major problem f o r the p r i s o n educator i s institutions  nor the endemic t e n s i o n s that  While some i n s t i t u t i o n s of h o s t i l i t y other  all  e x i s t w i t h i n them are the  same.  have few d i s r u p t i o n s and t h e r e e x i s t s the minimum  between the s t a f f  institutions.  t h a t not  and inmates,  A c c o r d i n g t o Duguid  the p i c t u r e i s  reversed  in  (1985):  At Mountain I n s t i t u t i o n the h o s t i l i t y between p r i s o n e r s a n d ' s t a f f appears v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t , w h i l e at W i l l i a m s Head i t i s at l e a s t s e v e r e l y muted. At Kent and Matsqui I n s t i t u t i o n s , on the other hand; the c o n f l i c t appears t o be q u i t e r e a l . (Duguid, 1985, p . 16) Thus, the dilemma i s t w o f o l d f o r the p r i s o n e d u c a t o r . institutions differ  are t e n s i o n  depending on the  First,  as not  f i l l e d , a p r i s o n e d u c a t o r ' s approach w i l l placement;  and, second,  all  have  to  where t e n s i o n s are h i g h ,  the teacher must come t o a very quick u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f them and thus a v o i d real  problems before  attempting to teach t h e i r  Another problem that  c o u l d q u i c k l y face the classroom t e a c h e r ,  unresolved could i n h i b i t education i n p r i s o n s , "...fluctuations  p.  43)  1978,  points  is  the  constant,  cited  classifications,  i n Wright, e t . a l . ,  1980,  p . 20)."  interviews As Shea  (1980,  out:  . . . o n e problem which e x i s t s at C o l l i n s Bay I n s t i t u t i o n , and I presume i n many other i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s the t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . Many inmates do not f i n i s h s c h o o l programs thorough no f a u l t of t h e i r own. They may be t r a n s f e r r e d , p a r o l e d , or r e a c h the end'of t h e i r s e n t e n c e . . . . More w i l l  and i f  i n c l a s s s i z e due t o dropouts and inmate t r a n s f e r and  absences f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s — v i s i t s , (Griffin,  program.  be s a i d about the above mentioned problems i n Chapter  6.  51 The f a c t  that  p r i s o n educators subjects, "...if  inmates a r e i n d i v i d u a l s with c e r t a i n needs, and most  are o n l y s k i l l e d i n t e a c h i n g one o r , at  l e a d s to yet  another problem.  (McCollum, would  w i l l have t o o f f e r  1973,  cited  an almost  i n Wright,  et.al.,  two  A c c o r d i n g t o McCollum  programs are t o meet the needs of a l l  institutions  best,  inmates,  corrections  u n i v e r s a l range of 1980,  (1973),  p . 21)."  opportunities  This,  of  course,  create: ...problems for prison i n s t r u c t o r s . E i t h e r because of economic r e s t r a i n t s or r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers of s t u d e n t s i n any g i v e n c o u r s e , i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l have t o teach s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s , a n d / o r they w i l l have t o e n c a p s u l a t e t h e i r courses i n t o a s h o r t time p e r i o d . Most i n s t r u c t o r s at the a d u l t l e v e l are s p e c i a l i s t s i n a subject area. U s u a l l y , they have been t r a i n e d to teach t h e i r s u b j e c t and not o t h e r s , and they may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o develop a c u r r i c u l u m which has t o be implemented i n a ' s h o r t c o u r s e ' s i t u a t i o n . (Wright,  (d)  e d u c a t i o n program, i t  is  t e a c h and s t u d e n t s l e a r n proper r e s e a r c h s k i l l s .  one r e a d e r - o n e student Duguid  1980,  p.  21)  Prison F a c i l i t i e s  In o r d e r t o run an adequate teacher  et.al.;  (1985, p . 6)  are h o p e f u l l y gone f o r good.  imperative that The days of  Unfortunately,  notes:  D e s p i t e e f f o r t s over years t o b u i l d r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s i n the p r i s o n s , i t i s obvious from t h e i r student comments t h a t much more needs t o be done i f these s t u d e n t s are t o develop s k i l l s i n t h i s a r e a . W h i l e r e s e a r c h s k i l l s are weak f o r s t u d e n t s on campus as w e l l , the i n s t r u c t o r s note t h a t the absence of " r e a l " l i b r a r i e s with a proper r e f e r e n c e system makes i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r the s t u d e n t s i n the p r i s o n t o overcome t h i s d e f i c i e n c y .  as  the  a  52  As W r i g h t , library.  et.al.  (1980, p .  21)  I t can be argued that  p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n than i n  points out,  library facilities  'outside'  education.  have access to a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s ,  (e)  "One of the f a c i l i t i e s  the  are even more v i t a l  Regular s t u d e n t s  inmates  is  in  usually  do n o t . "  Endemic Tensions  Endemic t e n s i o n s are c l e a r l y an i n h i b i t o r t o e d u c a t i o n i n F e d e r a l penitentiaries.  In o r d e r t o  in i n h i b i t i n g education  understand the r o l e p l a y e d by these t e n s i o n s  in prisons,  one must d e a l w i t h the  are these t e n s i o n s i n a F e d e r a l P e n i t e n t i a r y ? " full staff  account,  the  f o l l o w i n g should s u f f i c e .  q u e s t i o n , "What  While d i f f i c u l t  On one s i d e are the  who are under an e x t r a - o r d i n a r y amount of p r e s s u r e .  authors of the Report t o P a r l i a m e n t by the sub-committee P e n i t e n t i a r y System  to g i v e a prison  According to  the  on the  (1977):  P r e s s u r e and t e n s i o n are constant on s t a f f ; the f e a r of making a mistake which c o u l d r e s u l t i n an e s c a p e , a h o s t a g e - t a k i n g s i t u a t i o n , or some o t h e r form of v i o l e n c e , i s always p r e s e n t . Threats are r e g u l a r l y r e c e i v e d by s t a f f — s o m e t i m e s from f r i e n d s of inmates or former inmates, sometimes from f e l l o w s t a f f members. Many of them keep weapons at home and have u n l i s t e d ' telephone numbers. Reported i n c i d e n t s are r a r e but those t h a t have o c c u r r e d were s e r i o u s . (Report, 1977, c i t e d i n AVER, 1981, p . 26) On the o t h e r s i d e a r e the inmates who, d e s p i t e t h e i r t o commit crimes  (Duguid, 1981;  to choose once the s t e e l Enright,  Duguid,  1985),  l o s e much o f  bars c l o s e behind them.  i n h i s a r t i c l e H a l l s of Anger, (AVER,  conscious their  According to  1981):  When a man i s consigned t o p e n i t e n t i a r y , he becomes a member of a c l o s e d but f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l s o c i e t y ,  choice  ability  Michael  53  independent of e v e r y t h i n g h e ' s known b e f o r e , with i t s own code of b e h a v i o u r , i t s own system of j u s t i c e and punishment and i t s own set of v a l u e s . He becomes a target i n d i v i d u a l , forced to conform'to a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of which he has no working knowledge. I f he i s f r i e n d l y w i t h the g u a r d s , he becomes the o b j e c t of h a t r e d or even v i o l e n c e by h i s f e l l o w inmates. I f he conforms too r e a d i l y t o h i s p e e r s , he opens h i m s e l f up t o harassment from the guards and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This constant,  never ending t e n s i o n weighs heavy on both groups and  may cause them to perform a c t i o n s d e s p i t e the f a c t  that  which a r e abnormal.  both groups are caught  Interestingly,  i n the same t r a p ,  neither  group seems to know how t o come t o g e t h e r and a m e l i o r a t e t h e i r common tribulation. security feeling 1981,  As E n r i g h t s t a t e s ,  prison's  is  the constant  t h a t everyone on the  p.  (f)  "Hanging i n the a i r i n Canada's maximum aura o f  inside,  incipient  violence.  guard and inmate,  is  There i s a  at r i s k  (Ibid.,  24)."  The P r i s o n Environment  Another major i n h i b i t o r i s  the  p r i s o n environment.  have been some major changes made by, or because o f , better  l i v i n g conditions,  points  out,  "Despite  architectural  the  facades,  conjugal v i s i t s , best i n t e n t i o n s  Even though  prison reformers  10-11)."  A l l this  of p r i s o n r e f o r m e r s ,  improved l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s ,  is  no amount of  or c o n j u g a l v i s i t s  r e i n f o r c e d by Ayers (1976) who s t a t e s  pragmatic custody and c o n t r o l . . . and l a c k s any o f required for i n t e l l i g e n t ,  can  1984,  that,  " . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r i s o n appears t o have no a i m , purpose o r i d e a l  experience  i.e.,  and so o n , as Duguid (1984)  d i m i n i s h the p u n i s h i n g and d e g r a d i n g q u a l i t y o f the p r i s o n (Duguid, pp.  there  beyond  the elements of  s o c i a l or moral growth ( A y e r s ,  1976,  54 c i t e d i n Duguid,  1984,  p. 7)."  In other words, the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r y  seems to be a p l a c e where t h e r e e x i s t s much c o n f u s i o n or d a r k n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o ex-inmate  Andrea Schroeder i n Shaking It Rough:  P r i s o n i s a huge l i g h t l e s s room, f i l l e d w i t h hundreds of b l i n d , g r o p i n g men, p e r p l e x e d and apprehensive and c e r t a i n t h a t the w o r l d i s f u l l o f n o t h i n g but enemies at whom they must f l a i l and k i c k each time they brush a g a i n s t them i n the d a r k . P r i s o n i s a bare and b e w i l d e r i n g market p l a c e ' i n which s e l l e r s and buyers m i l l about i n c o n f u s i o n , n e i t h e r h a v i n g the remotest i d e a o f what t o buy and s e l l . ( S c h r o e d e r , c i t e d i n AVER, 1981, p . 24) Notwithstanding i t s  a e s t h e t i c and p h y s i c a l h a r s h n e s s ,  p e n i t e n t i a r y poses other problems f o r the e d u c a t o r . regulations especially  the genre o f  As o r d e r and  are the two o p e r a t i v e words i n a F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y , the movements or a c t i o n s  A c c o r d i n g t o Orlando  o f the inmate,  the  is  nothing,  taken f o r g r a n t e d .  (1975):  A p r i s o n i s many t h i n g s , but most i m p o r t a n t l y i t i s a p l a c e where r u l e s of behavior a r e p r e s c r i b e d i n minute d e t a i l f o r every aspect o f l i f e . The most i n t i m a t e d e t a i l s of l i v i n g i n a p r i s o n are r e g u l a t e d not by the inmate but by the s t a f f . The a s p e c t s o f l i f e l e f t t o the i n m a t e ' s c h o i c e a r e s o s m a l l as to be n o n - e x i s t e n t . The inmate man i s reduced t o the inmate c h i l d , who must ask and r e c e i v e p e r m i s s i o n b e f o r e he can do a n y t h i n g , and the inmate i s c o n s t a n t l y warned t h a t f a i l u r e to adhere r i g i d l y t o the system of c h i l d l i k e r e q u e s t and r e s p o n s e , or to obey any o r d e r , can have the most d i r e consequences. (Orlando, All  this  1975,  c i t e d i n AVER,  1981,  r e g i m e n t a t i o n i n , "The p r i s o n s p o i l the s t u d e n t s .  them not t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l i v e s — t h e y work to s u r v i v e .  p. It  25) encourages  d o n ' t have  to  So, we have a f l o c k o f boys swarming around our a n k l e s ,  t u g g i n g at our s k i r t s f o r a t t e n t i o n  and h e l p ,  i n s t e a d of  self-sufficient  55 men (Quote from an anonymous e d u c a t o r , as another anonymous educator  c i t e d i n Duguid,  1985,  p.  12)."  Or,  states:  One of the primary i n f l u e n c e s o f the p r i s o n environment i s that i t d e p r i v e s the inmate o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his actions. S i n c e the p r i s o n i s r e g i m e n t e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the inmate t o make almost no d e c i s i o n s and thus be r e g u l a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a l o n e . . (Quote from an anonymous e d u c a t o r , c i t e d i n Duguid, 1985, p p . 12-13) As s u c h , one can see  that  lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p.  the environment has t h e ,  dependency,  "Tendency t o i n s t i l l a  and anger i n s t u d e n t s  (Duguid,  12)." It  is  the l a t t e r  of t h e s e , a n g e r , which l e a d s  to yet  another problem.  Given the h a r s h environment and atmosphere t h a t e x i s t s i n the it  1985,  is  no s m a l l wonder t h a t  the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f , "The most p e r v a s i v e  inmates  educators, q u a l i t y of  become angry and l a s h out at  and s o c i e t y .  contempt most o f them have f o r the a v e r a g e ,  [criminal],  stepped o n . . .  themselves,  A c c o r d i n g t o Duguid  the c r i m i n a l world view i s  Such people are r e g a r d e d as weak,  penitentiary,  honest,  (1981).  the o f f  'straight'  handed  citizen.  t o be p i t i e d , and among the most hardened  (Duguid, 1981,  p.  3)-"  Or t o E n r i g h t ,  " . . . Some  inmates make a p r a c t i c e o f throwing bags o f excrement  into guard's  (quote  p. 24)."  from " H a l l s o f Anger",  teachers,  cited in Prisons,  a c c o r d i n g t o Shea (1980),  Conning i s  a way o f l i f e  "are f a i r  1981,  faces...  And even  game as much as anyone  f o r c r i m i n a l s , and p r i s o n e r s r e i n f o r c e  this  a c t i v i t y as a means o f d e a l i n g w i t h the s y s t e m . . .  (Shea,  Unfortunately,  t o yet another problem.  As Shea  this  latter  (1980, p . 43)  "taken" once or t w i c e ,  inmate behaviour l e a d s  states,  "The r e s u l t  is  1980,  else.  p.  43)."  t h a t t e a c h e r s may e a s i l y  and they then become s u s p i c i o u s  or n e g a t i v e  be  in a l l  56 dealings with inmates."  Nothing i s l e s s conducive to education and the  l e a r n i n g process than a s i t u a t i o n where, "teachers have d i f f i c u l t y developing t r u s t between themselves and students i n an atmosphere that f o s t e r s s u s p i c i o n and hatred ( I b i d . , 1980, p. 42)." Although the previous evidence shows the prison environment i s a major i n h i b i t o r to education programs i n p r i s o n , there i s a l s o some evidence to suggest that that very same environment can become f a c i l i t a t i v e as w e l l . As Duguid (1985, p. 13)  points out:  Perhaps l e s s to be expected were comments which h i g h l i g h t e d the more p o s i t i v e aspects of the prison environment's impact on the education program. These ranged from the somewhat u t i l i t a r i a n idea that the students had more time t o study and more motivation because of the boredom of the p r i s o n , to the more complex notion of the u n i v e r s i t y program as a sanctuary from the p r i s o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t i s the negative aspects of the prison environment which inadvertently f a c i l i t a t e s education programs i n p r i s o n .  2  According to an  anonymous- prison teacher f o r the Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y program: The students often wish to escape prison mentality or the r e p e t i t i v e complaints that t y p i f y l i f e i n p r i s o n , and they see i n the academic centre, quite r i g h t l y , a refuge from prison p o l i t i c s , parole board, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n complaints, etc... The education program provides as normal an environment as possible. I t m i n i s t e r s to t h e i r psychological problems i n d i r e c t l y by changing the terms of t h e i r l i v e s and values i n a manner that i s e n t i r e l y u n o f f i c i a l and unstated... The Academic Centre, i n s h o r t , serves as an a l t e r n a t i v e c u l t u r e w i t h i n the prison; i t i s as close to the normal world of s o c i a l expectations as anything i n the p r i s o n environment. (Quote from an anonymous teacher, c i t e d i n Duguid, 1985, p. 14)  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most e d u c a t i o n programs are not a f f o r d e d t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n a l space which may make the program a prime i n h i b i t o r t o  education  in prison. Another f a c i l i t a t o r educational  programs.  the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c l a s s s i z e s found i n most  This allows  and v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e (1979) found evidence  is  f o r more i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r  teaching s t r a t e g i e s .  that,  g r o s s o v e r - c r o w d i n g i n the  t o the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , 1979,  p.  underuse w i t h i n those s c h e d u l e s  (Ibid.,  (g)  105),  Inmates - t h e i r a t t i t u d e s  The inmate  is  and  As such i t  is  and l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s  1979,  inmates,  i.e.  television,  shops a r e more a t t r a c t i v e are b e t t e r  (Shea,  1980,  inhibit  attitudes  are g i v e n a b r i e f  review.  (1983) who found the  o v e r a l l many inmates of the  weigh  prison  1) a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s  cards, films, than s c h o o l ,  p . 42)";  few academic or v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , employment e x p e r i e n c e s  both t h e i r  Compounding the d u l l i n g e f f e c t s  and environment a r e :  or  (a pseudonym f o r an inmate  the burdens of e d u c a t i o n ,  cost i n reverse.  atmosphere  105)."  by Roger B o s h i e r i n E d u c a t i o n I n s i d e ,  b e n e f i t s outweighed  "...of  abilities  towards e d u c a t i o n and t h e i r g e n e r a l a b i l i t i e s  the  p.  2)  sports,  especially  the f a c t  offered  a n d , "Even some p r i s o n if  that,  the wages or bonuses "most o f f e n d e r s  and most are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  and a p a t h e t i c  are  (Report  they a l s o found e v i d e n c e ,  imperative that  While t h e r e a r e inmates l i k e Fred  reviewers  where t h e r e  c l e a r l y a major a c t o r who co'uld f a c i l i t a t e  education in p r i s o n .  interviewed  W h i l e the O . I . S . E .  "there are some i n s t i t u t i o n s academic a r e a s ,  attention  work a t t i t u d e s  (Ibid.,  1980,  have  unstable p.  42)";  58 and,  3) many inmates,  "...have  who have p r e d i c t a b l e a t t i t u d e s  i n some way or another f a i l e d at s c h o o l and to any f u r t h e r attempts at  education  (Report to the S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , 1979, p . 3 5 ) . " Furthermore, Shea p.  42) p o i n t s  (1980,  out:  Most inmates have dropped out of s c h o o l at an e a r l y age and, because of the h i g h value our s o c i e t y p l a c e s on e d u c a t i o n , q u i t t i n g s c h o o l does much t o form a f a i l u r e identity. I t i s not at a l l s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t o f i n d a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l and e v e r y t h i n g f o r which i t s t a n d s . Schools are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s , the work e t h i c , and s t r a i g h t s o c i e t y . They e p i t o m i z e what most p r i s o n e r s have r e j e c t e d . 'This i s the s i t u a t i o n t h a t p r i s o n t e a c h e r s f a c e , an atmosphere t h a t i s f o r e i g n t o l e a r n i n g , and p u p i l s who are t u r n e d o f f s c h o o l . Fortunately,  "...there  d i s t r i b u t e d amongst (O.I.S.E.  Report,  is  evidence  inmates much as  it  that is  intelligence  i n the  than  ' r e g u l a r ' students  are more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y overall the  i s s u e but i f  curious  (Marken,  (Laird,  "be aware o f  the argument t h a t  Furthermore,  the O . I . S . E .  institutions  they v i s i t e d ,  education reviewers  forces,  (Wright, e t . is  in a positive  many inmates  indeed p o s s i b l e  and o f f i c i a l s  1979, p . 73)." And, "Many inmates  manner, inmate  in prison. i n the m a j o r i t y of  regarded the  (Report t o the  1979, p.  73)."  school  Solicitor  who had chosen o t h e r  (Ibid.,  the  a l . , 1980, p . 23)," and  (1979) found t h a t ,  about the s c h o o l . . . .  inmate s t u d e n t s  T h i s makes p r o b l e m a t i c  as " . . . a source of s t i m u l a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n  spoke p o s i t i v e l y  inmate s t u d e n t s may be more  the complex backgrounds of  students i n order to teach e f f e c t i v e l y  General,  population  1974); and t h a t  1972).  c o r r e c t l y understood,  prison instructor to,  supports  be  1979);" t h a t inmates can l e a r n (Yochelson and Samenow,  1976; Waksman, S i l v e r m a n and Weber, 1979); that energetic  general  seems t o  activities  59 (h)  R e l a t e d Teaching Problems  Even though the  s i t u a t i o n would be i d e a l , g e n e r a l l y the  e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n does not end when the  problems with  inmate d e c i d e s t o take an  e d u c a t i o n program and from then on m a i n t a i n a r e g u l a r attendance The f i r s t have d i f f e r e n t market,  needs,  i.e.  and so o n .  "...the practicalities i m p o s s i b l e at t i m e s , i n d i v i d u a l needs Second, the Forster  class.  problem i s one of t e a c h i n g a group of men or women who may d e v e l o p i n g the a b i l i t y t o compete  e l i m i n a t i n g boredom, d e v e l o p i n g  self-esteem,  in  to  This requires  i n the  basic l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ,  increasing  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n when,  of p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n make i t  difficult,  if  i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n , and account  (Wright, e t .  al.,  job  1980, p.  not  for  23)."  p r e s s u r e o f the classroom may l e a d t o major problems.  ( 1 9 7 6 , p . 31) s t a t e s : . . . t h e r e are f e a t u r e s of the e d u c a t i o n a l scene which, a l t h o u g h common t o both the i m p r i s o n e d and the f r e e s t u d e n t , may be p e r c e i v e d much more c l e a r l y i n p r i s o n because the extreme n a t u r e o f p r i s o n b r i n g s them i n t o sharper r e l i e f . A s t r i k i n g example of t h i s i s the degree o f s t r e s s f e l t by an a d u l t when exposed t o academic assessment of any s o r t and the accompanying sense o f exposure: a prime problem with the inmate s t u d e n t , t h i s c o u l d be a much g r e a t e r problem o u t s i d e than appears at f i r s t .  Third, i.e.  as the inmate r e c e i v e s f u r t h e r exposure  psychology of  deviant  "There may be an i n c r e a s e broadened, but the facilities,  i.e.  b e h a v i o u r , law,  Social Studies,  i n f e e l i n g s of i s o l a t i o n  inmate i s  i n the  (Wright, e t .  and so o n ,  i n t h a t h o r i z o n s may be  c o n f i n e d both i n terms of  l i b r a r y resources  humanities,  al.,  p h y s i c a l space and  1980, p.  24)."  60 And l a s t l y ,  because the average inmate age range i s  between  19-34  it  puts them i n an h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d when d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g approaches were offered  them at the s c h o o l s  to s a t i s f y  a l l t h e i r demands w i l l ,  institutional  and student  i n s t r u c t i o n but a l s o 1974-cited  they a t t e n d e d ,  i n Wright,  "...have  and thus the t e a c h e r , t o be c o g n i z a n t o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not o n l y i n t h e i r a c t u a l  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s et.  i n order  al.,  1980,  p.  24)."  (Sackett,  61  SUMMARY The primary purpose o f  this  chapter was to i d e n t i f y and present  many i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s o f academic e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n . some f a c i l i t a t o r s time'  f o r the  i.e.  inmate, s m a l l c l a s s s i z e s ,  self-betterment, of  were i d e n t i f i e d ,  opportunity for  the boredom i n the p r i s o n , the evidence  penitentiaries. economics;  t e n s i o n s between s t a f f of some t e a c h e r s atmosphere;  space;  and more m o t i v a t i o n  i f not a l l ,  o f c o r r e c t i o n a l managers, o f f i c e r s  and s t a f f ;  the  and inmate; the l a c k o f t r a i n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g the p r i s o n environment and  to e d u c a t i o n ;  the l a c k o f  proper f a c i l i t i e s  the F e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y ; p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s h a v i n g at l e a s t  some inmates*  Federal  of:  an u n c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what e d u c a t i o n would do f o r the  very q u e s t i o n a b l e  because  suggests t h a t t h e r e a r e many  to e d u c a t i o n i n most,  (both c o n t r a c t and s t a f f ) ;  numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s  'easy  inmate  Some o f the major i n h i b i t o r s l a y i n the realms  the a c t i o n s  While  the p e r c e i v e d p o s s i b i l i t y o f  more study time f o r inmates,  more i n h i b i t o r s than f a c i l i t a t o r s  the  assumptions  about the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ;  h o s t i l i t y towards any e d u c a t i o n a l  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l the  inmate; or study four  and l a s t l y  program.  i n h i b i t o r s , the s i t u a t i o n  i s not so bleak as  t o make i m p o s s i b l e the maintenance o f e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n programs and the d e s i g n and implementation o f an a p p r o p r i a t e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l e d u c a t i o n program.  For example,  academic  the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a / S i m o n  Fraser  program has c l e a r l y been a b l e to o p e r a t e w i t h some s u c c e s s w i t h i n f o u r B r i t i s h Columbian p r i s o n s d e s p i t e ,  or i n s p i t e  of,  a l l the i n h i b i t o r s .  62 Furthermore,  it  w i l l be argued elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s t h a t  to d e a l w i t h some of  the  the F e d e r a l P e n i t e n t i a r y  it  is  possible  i n h i b i t o r s to e d u c a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n programs i n System of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  63  END NOTES  1  The Benchmark system i s a system t h a t l a b e l s each as to s u i t one o f the seven s e c u r i t y l e v e l s which i n s t i t u t i o n s , i . e . an o f f e n d e r found t o be i n the category" i s a s s i g n e d t o an a p p r o p r i a t e S-6 l e v e l  o f f e n d e r i n such a way identify various "high escape r i s k institution.  2  I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t o argue f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of the p r i s o n environment, but t o p o i n t out t h a t t h a t environment may i n a d v e r t e n t l y a i d e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n p r i s o n .  64  CHAPTER SIX Program G u i d e l i n e s A.  I n h i b i t o r s to Program When d e s i g n i n g an academic e d u c a t i o n program at the secondary  for adult students i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y , considers  a l l the  possible  program.  While the  i n h i b i t o r s to the  it  imperative that  p l e t h o r a of i n h i b i t o r s t o such a program were  d i r e c t l y affect  it  one  implementation o f such a  at l e n g t h e a r l i e r , and a l l of them c o u l d a f f e c t few t h a t  is  level  the  discussed  program, t h e r e are a  and thus need t o be o u t l i n e d i n more  specific  terms. A major problem that may a r i s e  is  that  not a l l educators  would be  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h , or be a b l e to h a n d l e , an approach t h a t r e q u i r e s a multitude of envision  i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques.  a scenerio  inexperience  of  I t would not be too d i f f i c u l t  where a r e a s o n a b l y sound program f a i l e d  the t e a c h e r  a n d / o r teacher  seem t o be an i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a p o t e n t i a l have taken a teacher  resistance. teacher  because of  I t would  of the  program:  w i t h a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s  activities  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d u l t l e a r n e r s ;  be s u i t e d ,  w i l l i n g and capable of u n d e r t a k i n g some s o r t  o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g program. outside  teachers  This e n t a i l s  either  the  therefore 1) would  t r a i n i n g program at a r e c o g n i z e d u n i v e r s i t y ;  have p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  to  2)  would  or 3)  would  and  of a p p r o p r i a t e  the h i r i n g o f  qualified  or p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g courses  regular prison staff  teachers.  W h i l e both a l t e r n a t i v e s  would seem to be more s a t i s f a c t o r y  to u t i l i z e  outside  have some m e r i t ,  contract  teachers  to it  65 because  of t h e i r experience  activities.  w i t h v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and  F u r t h e r they a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o be  'contaminated'  by the  p r i s o n environment; and would not be p e r c e i v e d by the inmates t o be a member of the 'as one of  prison establishment;  or t o put i t  i n more c o l l o q u i a l terms,  them'.  Another problem that fluctuation  could c l e a r l y affect  i n c l a s s s i z e due to  absences f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , interviews,  sickness  this  program i s  the  constant  p a r o l e , d r o p - o u t s , inmate t r a n s f e r s and  i.e.  visits  by lawyers and r e l a t i v e s ,  and so o n .  While no one as yet has documented the d e f i n i t i v e  reasons  as to why  s t u d e n t s d r o p - o u t o f e d u c a t i o n programs, one can at l e a s t surmise t h a t relevance  o f the programs, t h e i r n a t u r e , and the manner i n which they  p r e s e n t e d are a l l p l a u s i b l e r e a s o n s . designed s p e c i f i c a l l y teaching techniques  for a c e r t a i n target  and a c t i v i t i e s ,  h a v i n g undergone some s o r t many o f the needs, its  students,  eliminated. yet  Given t h a t  a plethora of  be taught by t e a c h e r s ,  who,  of adequate t r a i n i n g program, would be aware o f  attitudes,  dispositions,  and e d u c a t i o n a l background of  the d r o p - o u t r a t e s h o u l d be minimized a l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y not I t would be r a t h e r presumptuous t o make such a c l a i m f o r an as  u n t r i e d program. Although a problem, the matter of t r a n s f e r s  c o u l d be d e a l t w i t h by  i n i t i a t i n g such a program i n a l l or most F e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . transferred  As such any  inmate would have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o complete the program i n  the new i n s t i t u t i o n . far  are  the proposed program i s  population, offers  and w i l l  the  C o n t i n u i t y of programs among i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n e l i m i n a t i n g the problems posed by inmate  transfers.  would go  66 A second s o l u t i o n would be to a l l o w open e n t r y i n t o the program. though o p e n - e n t r y c o u l d pose a problem f o r the classroom teacher students,  i f handled c o r r e c t l y (and t h i s  comes i n f o r c l a s s r o o m management s k i l l s  is  Even  and the  where a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n i n g  are v i t a l )  s h o u l d not d e t e r i o r a t e t o such a s t a t e as to  become  the c l a s s r o o m  situation  completely  unmanageable and t o t a l l y unconducive t o l e a r n i n g . Any a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d teacher two i n t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m .  Of c o u r s e ,  would have t o be informed o f where, c l a s s was a t ,  could c l e a r l y deal with a l a t e  and the p o s s i b l e  though i t  is  the student  s h o u l d a student  difficulties  academic content by a student  of c a t c h i n g u p .  officer,  who makes the f i n a l  is  i n the l a s t  important, i t  the teacher  could,  Overall  u n l e s s t h e r e s i m p l y i s no course.  i s not the o n l y t h i n g t h a t  who takes an e d u c a t i o n a l program.  t a k i n g any e d u c a t i o n a l program i n the  before  d e c i s i o n and on no account  week or two of the  f o r whatever r e a s o n wants t o take the c o u r s e ,  the  While  i n making the c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n .  be t u r n e d away from a c l a s s ,  room, or the c l a s s i s  the new s t u d e n t ( s )  or at what s t a g e i n the c o u r s e ,  t h i s might be done by a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or upon e n t r y , a i d the student  in a l l fairness,  e n t r y or  While can be l e a r n e d  To t u r n a student may t u r n o f f  the  away, who  inmate  from  future.  Another r e l a t e d problem concerns a s t u d e n t s i n a b i l i t y t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the program. requirements of the  Should any s t u d e n t  program or t o be more s p e c i f i c ,  r e q u i r e m e n t s of any course i n the program, attendance,  quizzes,  examination),  the  fail  (i.e.  t o complete  fails  class  essays, research papers, readings,  the  to complete  the  performance, r e g u l a r or a  final  inmate would be a l l o w e d t o r e t a k e the c o u r s e .  The  67 t e a c h e r would be r e q u i r e d t o allow them the chance t o Also,  keep s t u d e n t s u p - t o - d a t e  on t h e i r  improve on one or more o f t h e i r  deficiencies.  where a p p r o p r i a t e , a quick l e a r n e r or above average student  g i v e n the o p t i o n o f t u t o r i n g or mentoring slower available, program. request  opt,  with f u l l  learners,  the a i d of some past  This l a t t e r of the  knowledge  and e x p e r t i s e  a teacher may  or undergraduates or  f o r a number of r e a s o n s .  program, i t would a l l o w them t o u t i l i z e  s t u d e n t s or graduates  by p r e s e n t i n g  would b e n e f i t  it  University  because they would have the o p p o r t u n i t y and would i n t u r n l e a r n  from h a v i n g to assume a p o s i t i o n of m e n t o r / t u t o r or t e a c h e r .  brought c l o s e r educational  the h i g h s c h o o l  in prison.  And l a s t l y  made by the t e a c h e r (particularly i f  because the  the  students  and academics.  The problem of absences s h o u l d be no problem i f initiates,  operating guidelines,  fragmented  both a c a d e m i c a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h  program graduates  a i d of the s t u d e n t s )  Furthermore,  presently  Teachers would b e n e f i t  a d d i t i o n a l h e l p would l i g h t e n t h e i r w o r k l o a d . would c l e a r l y b e n e f i t  something  and u n i v e r s i t y program would be  t o g e t h e r which would a i d i n u n i t i n g the  enterprise  For  their acquired  to needy s t u d e n t s .  their educational s k i l l s  by t h e i r very p r e s e n c e ,  education  students.  o p t i o n would be b e n e f i c i a l  graduates  to a p p l y some o f  program graduates  c o u l d be  or where  c r e d i t a t i o n , t o take the u n i v e r s i t y  F u r t h e r m o r e , where a v a i l a b l e and a c c e p t a b l e ,  graduate u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l  past  p r o g r e s s and  d u r i n g the  procedures and r u l e s .  the t e a c h e r  (with  i n i t i a l c l a s s meeting, W h i l e every e f f o r t  to u p - d a t e the missed l e s s o n f o r the  they were absent through no f a u l t  the  some  s h o u l d be  student,  of t h e i r own),  given  68 t h a t the s t u d e n t i s  and must be t r e a t e d as an a d u l t , some onus must be  p l a c e d on them as w e l l . The problem of l e s s o n s t r u c t u r e can be broached at the procedures m e e t i n g .  initial  How l e s s o n s a r e s t r u c t u r e d can be l e f t ,  to the d i s c r e t i o n o f the s t u d e n t s .  t o an e x t e n t ,  They must bear some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  the program hopes t o o p e r a t e as an a d u l t o r i e n t e d program.  Given t h a t  o p e r a t i n g r u l e s of a p e n i t e n t i a r y may d i m i n i s h inmate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , meeting,  the this  i f a p p r o p r i a t e l y conducted, c o u l d be l i k e a b r e a t h o f f r e s h a i r  for students  who are c o n s t a n t l y t r e a t e d as l e s s than a d u l t s .  t h i s may not always be the case and where some s t u d e n t s , reason, refuse responsibility, that  if  f o r whatever  t o take p a r t i n s e t t i n g the r u l e s , or where they want no t h e i r wishes s h o u l d be acknowledged and r e s p e c t e d .  no two c l a s s e s nor s t u d e n t s  collective  Of course  are the same, the i d e o s y n c r a c i e s o f  as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l  q u i t e a t a s k f o r the t e a c h e r ,  it  Given  s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d .  While t h i s  the is  i s one t h a t must be u n d e r t a k e n , o t h e r w i s e  the atmosphere of the c l a s s r o o m may soon come t o resemble t h a t o f  the  prison.  the major  While some t e a c h e r s may r e s e n t  s t a k e h o l d e r i n the c l a s s students  is  t h i s approach, given that  the s t u d e n t ,  t h e r e i s no r e a l  s h o u l d not have some i n p u t i n t o how they w i l l  By 'some i n p u t ' I mean t h a t i t  is  argument why any  be e d u c a t e d .  the t e a c h e r who must have the  u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . i m p e r a t i v e because some s t u d e n t s may take advantage o f the Given t h a t the t a s k at hand i s role  This  is  situation.  the e d u c a t i o n o f the s t u d e n t ,  the  teachers'  becomes one of making s u r e t h a t the c l a s s remains on t a s k and does not  end up merely becoming a d e b a t i n g s o c i e t y o r s o c i a l  group.  69 One problem t h a t a r i s e s or t r a n s f e r student established it  is  its  from a l l t h i s  is  and how he/she would f i t  the p o s i t i o n o f the new, i n t o a c l a s s that  own working r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s .  As i n most  late  had a l r e a d y classrooms,  the onus of a l l newcomers to f i n d out and abide by the working  arrangements t h a t have a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d the r u l e s  i n the c l a s s r o o m .  or o p e r a t i o n a l procedures s h o u l d not and would not  proposed program) be so i n f l e x i b l e s t u d e n t s to f i t  as t o make i t  i n t o the c l a s s r o o m .  Also,  the o p e r a t i o n a l procedures would  Cell  both the p a r t i c u l a r  teacher.  Another problem concerns setting.  the l a c k o f study f a c i l i t i e s  in a prison  b l o c k s or d o r m i t o r i e s a r e n o i s y and l i b r a r i e s , where  exist,  may have very r e s t r i c t i v e  effect  these i n h i b i t o r s have on the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ,  utilitarian  this  i m p o s s i b l e f o r most  be p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed and u p - d a t e d so as t o s u i t s t u d e n t s and the  (in  Further,  level  they  hours of o p e r a t i o n .  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the  pose immense b a r r i e r s f o r a student  complete a p r e s c r i b e d e d u c a t i o n a l assignment.  they  at  the  r e q u i r e d to  I t would be l i k e t r y i n g to  r e a d or w r i t e at a r o c k c o n c e r t or t o t r y t o w r i t e an essay without supplemental m a t e r i a l s . say the  The odds f o r s u c c e s s would be r a t h e r minimal  to  least.  Ayers  (1979, p p . 4-5)  argues  that  this  " . . . b y h a v i n g l i b r a r i e s open i n the evenings a l t e r n a t i v e l y , where a t i e r  and on weekends,  or  or d o r m i t o r y can be made r e a s o n a b l y  s t u d e n t s c o u l d be housed t o g e t h e r , Although A y e r s '  s i t u a t i o n may be c o r r e c t e d ,  with p r o v i s i o n made f o r study  p r o p o s a l s have m e r i t ,  them i n a l l F e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  quiet,  i t might not be f e a s i b l e  S e c u r i t y , l a c k of space,  to  areas." implement  and s t a f f  70  o b j e c t i v e s may be r e a s o n s why such p r o p o s a l s would be r e j e c t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l administrators.  by  As s u c h , t e a c h e r s i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s  would  not be a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h out of c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s or projects.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s c o u l d l e a d t o a s i t u a t i o n where s t u d e n t s i n  one i n s t i t u t i o n would be r e c e i v i n g a more comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s unacceptable  i n another  institution.  this  s i t u a t i o n c o u l d be c i r c u m n a v i g a t e d , t o some e x t e n t ,  c l a s s time i n a more p r o d u c t i v e manner. the t e a c h e r might i n c o r p o r a t e a f t e r research  Fortunately,  papers,  package  by u s i n g  To c i t e but a few p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  class a c t i v i t i e s , i . e .  readings,  and so o n , i n t o the a l l o t t e d time frame e s t a b l i s h e d  each c l a s s r o o m p e r i o d or he/she c o u l d s e t  a s i d e one o r two c l a s s r o o m  p e r i o d s a week f o r such a c t i v i t i e s or p r o j e c t s . s e r v e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , as a f a c i l i t y assume the r o l e s o f i n s t r u c t o r ,  for  Thus the c l a s s r o o m would  f o r s t u d y and the t e a c h e r would  l i b r a r i a n or r e s o u r c e  person.  This i s  g e n e r a l l y what a good t e a c h e r does anyway. Another problem concerns the p r i s o n e n v i r o n m e n t .  G e n e r a l l y , as was  noted e a r l i e r , the p r i s o n environment would not be c o n d u c i v e t o proposed e d u c a t i o n program. things,  the  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s i n c e , among o t h e r  the proposed program a t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and  moral i s s u e s  i n a way t h a t the outcome would not be a more r e f l e c t i v e  c r i m i n a l but a more mature and e t h i c a l a d u l t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . the p r i s o n e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h i t s a u t h o r i t a r i a n  Given that  infra-structure,  i s not  c o n d u c i v e and would not s u p p o r t such an a i m , i t would seem t h a t one p l a u s i b l e avenue would be t o d e s i g n an a l t e r n a t i v e  environment.  According  t o Duguid ( 1 9 8 1 , p p . 8 - 9 ) , "The environment most c o n d u c i v e t o t h i s  kind of  71  program has been d e s c r i b e d by K o h l b e r g and S c h a r f as a ' j u s t '  or  ' d e m o c r a t i c ' community, a community run a c c o r d i n g to democratic norms w i t h p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e  as g u i d e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among s t u d e n t s and between  s t u d e n t s and s t a f f . "  Although Duguid has been a b l e t o set  community f o r h i s Federal  u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s at Matsqui p r i s o n , g i v e n t h a t  institutions  do not and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can not set  community, the next best t h i n g would be t o t r y and set version of  the  alternative  up such a  "Just Community" i n the  as a s e p a r a t e ,  classroom.  semi-autonomous  up a s c a l e d down  W h i l e not as good an  be a s t e p i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and would be much b e t t e r  c o m p l e t i o n o f each l e s s o n ,  prison regulations  situation operate  it  i s recommended t h a t  the  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , upon would f o r c e each student  teachers  or student  graduates,  is  of the  particular institution.  needs of the s t u d e n t s but a c t principles  enacted  Now t h a t  i n the  classroom p e r i o d s f o r each  depending on the  and f e a s i b l e  staffed  by  two hours  g i v e n the s e c u r i t y needs  T h i s would not o n l y s a t i s f y as f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t  the  of the  academic  democratic  classroom.  the major i n h i b i t o r s to the  the model.  this  course  F u r t h e r m o r e , the c l a s s r o o m ,  program has been o u t l i n e d i n more s p e c i f i c detail  'soften'  to remain open f o r a minimum of  or l o n g e r each evening where p o s s i b l e  to  hostile,  To r e c t i f y or at l e a s t  f o r a minimum of two hours a day or n i g h t  p a r t i c u l a r l y needs of the s t u d e n t s .  least,  than a classroom  depart the democratic environment of the c l a s s r o o m f o r the n o n - d e m o c r a t i c domains of the p r i s o n .  up such a  community, i t would, at  with a t r a d i t i o n a l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n environment.  most  proposed academic terms i t  is  education  time t o d e s c r i b e  in  72 B.  Program G u i d e l i n e s Specifically,  the program i s  s e n i o r secondary l e v e l  (Grades ten t o t w e l v e ) .  elementary or j u n i o r h i g h l e v e l s , but because Furthermore,  the focus  concerned w i t h academic e d u c a t i o n at  of t h i s  not because  thesis is  I will  not d i s c u s s  the  the  these are not o f i m p o r t a n c e ,  on academic secondary e d u c a t i o n .  as was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e i s  c l e a r l y a need f o r an  a p p r o p r i a t e academic s e n i o r secondary program i n the F e d e r a l  penitentiaries  of B r i t i s h Columbia. The program w i l l Studies  have f o u r academic content  ( H i s t o r y , Geography, E t h i c s ,  (Algebra,  Geometry and C a l c u l u s ) ,  area subjects:  and Western C i v i l i z a t i o n ) ,  were chosen because,  perspective',  the chance t o a c q u i r e worthwhile knowledge, d e v e l o p i n g the s t u d e n t ' s S c i e n c e are u s e f u l  (See  Figure 1 ) .  as noted e a r l i e r , they a r e  concerned w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l and not j u s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a ' c o g n i t i v e  Mathematics  General S c i e n c e and E n g l i s h  (Communications, C o m p o s i t i o n , Grammar and L i t e r a t u r e ) . These s u b j e c t s  Social  mind and c h a r a c t e r .  the p r a c t i c a l ,  collectively  they promote  they a l l o w t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s and they are concerned with I n d i v i d u a l l y , Mathematics and  f o r t e a c h i n g l o g i c a l thought and r e a s o n i n g and E n g l i s h  and H i s t o r y - s u b j e c t s g e n e r a l l y concerned w i t h a r g u m e n t a t i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , law,  ethics,  development pp.  9-10).  and the a n a l y s i s of d a t a and i d e a s are u s e f u l t o o l s f o r of c r i t i c a l  t h i n k i n g and moral r e a s o n i n g  (Duguid, 1 9 8 1 ,  the  73  FIGURE 1 Conceptual  Beginners  Program  Level  S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11 E t h i c s , Geography History  Advanced  Framework o f  General Science 1 0  Mathematics 11 Algebra/ Geometry  E n g l i s h 11 Grammar,' Communication and Composition  Mathematics 1 2  English 12 Literature and Composition  Level:  Western Civilization 12  74  Specifically,  the program and a l l of  w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t complexity.  its  p a r t s are designed  l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e at s u c c e s s i v e g r a d i a t i o n s  A l t h o u g h a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n may warrant a  o r g a n i z a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y the  program w i l l  be,  p . 71)."  include:  learning hierarchies All level  (Ibid.,  four subject  1985,  areas w i l l  part;  pp.  different  development....  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s that  s i m p l e to complex; whole to  of  "...organized in a linear  f a s h i o n based on some p r o v i s i o n f o r p r o g r e s s i v e 1985,  i n keeping  guide t h i s  (McNiel, development  c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i o n ; and  71-72).  have two components  parts:  a)  Beginners  and b) Advanced l e v e l . a) All  four l e v e l  periods w i l l days a weeks. at the  courses  Beginners  Level  w i l l r u n f o r a t h r e e month t e r m .  be two hours i n d u r a t i o n and w i l l Each s u b j e c t  grade e l e v e n  operate f o r four or  a r e a at the b e g i n n e r s l e v e l  (or ten f o r S c i e n c e )  of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  level  The c l a s s r o o m  deals  established  with  by the  five content Ministry  ( S o c i a l Studies Curriculum Guide,  1984).  No inmate o f a F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y would be e x c l u d e d from e n t e r i n g a beginners  component i n any s u b j e c t  be d e a l t w i t h by t h i s student  component w i t h i n the program.  skills  development  program.  will  However, a p o t e n t i a l  who c o u l d not r e a d , w r i t e or compute at a grade nine l e v e l  asked t o undergo a b a s i c s k i l l s student  a r e a s i n c e some b a s i c l e v e l  If possible  might be the  would be a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d c o n c u r r e n t l y both programs.  Furthermore, a student may opt t o take a l l four s u b j e c t components  at the same time or take j u s t one or two.  Also,  area  beginners  a student  who  75 completes  the beginners  component i n one  the advanced e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l (after  and s t a r t another  a t h r e e month w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) i n another  c o u l d a l s o be at a beginners l e v e l level  s u b j e c t a r e a may  i n another  i n one  beginners  component(s)  subject area.  A student  s u b j e c t area and a t an advanced  subject area.  Each classroom  teacher w i l l  have the l i b e r t y t o d e s i g n h i s / h e r  classroom  assignments t o a maximum f i f t y  remaining  fifty  Examinations.  opt t o by-pass  per cent w i l l This l a t t e r  come from  per cent of the c o u r s e . the B r i t i s h Columbia  component w i l l  own  The  Departmental  s a t i s f y the g u i d e l i n e s as  e s t a b l i s h e d f o r grade ten by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . Even though a departmental  examination,  p a r t i c u l a r l y one  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e s t f o r a knowledge of c o n t e n t , may who  i n t e n d s t o develop the mind  ( t h i n k i n g s k i l l s ) and  t h a t i s designed  i n h i b i t an character  instructor (moral  development) of h i s / h e r s t u d e n t s , g i v e n t h a t the t e a c h e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r fifty  per cent of the course  content and  grade, he/she c o u l d o r g a n i z e each  l e s s o n so t h a t both a knowledge of content and the more ' l o f t i e r ' c o u l d be r e a l i z e d w i t h i n the two t e a c h e r might spend the f i r s t  hour classroom  hour d e a l i n g w i t h the t o p i c  manner, (which would d e a l a d e q u a t e l y the second  in a didactic  (which would develop  as l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g , r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , and  an i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d approach, skills).  For example, the  with c o n t e n t , f a c t s , d a t a , e t c . ) and  hour u s i n g e i t h e r an i n q u i r y approach  cognitive s k i l l s  period.  aims  (which c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e normative  so on)  such or  reasoning  76 b) The t h r e e advanced l e v e l i n that  Advanced L e v e l courses  a r e much l i k e the beginners  they a r e o r g a n i z e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n based on some p r o v i s i o n s  progressive  development  and t h e i r s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e  B r i t i s h Columbia Departmental e x a m i n a t i o n .  However they d i f f e r  of academic s k i l l s l e a r n e d , the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n the amount of focus Simply s t a t e d ,  o f the  course  p l a c e d upon the v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l  Expository i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l  the advanced l e v e l content  courses  than i t  the i n the  type  content,  and  techniques.  p l a y a l e s s important r o l e  d i d at the beginners  level.  for  While  at  course  and the r e i n f o r c e m e n t of b a s i c s k i l l s a r e i m p o r t a n t , the former can  be met by an I n q u i r y approach and the l a t t e r other b a s i c s k i l l  development  courses  s h o u l d have been met e i t h e r  or by the beginners  component o f  by  this  program.  P r i n c i p l e s of As was noted e a r l i e r , the focus  Program  of t h i s  thesis is  on academic  e d u c a t i o n at the secondary l e v e l .  A l t h o u g h the proposed e d u c a t i o n program  i n c o r p o r a t e s f o u r academic s u b j e c t  areas,  Social Studies, will  be undertaken w i t h a focus on S o c i a l S t u d i e s .  other  E n g l i s h and  the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f the program  chosen because my e x p e r t i s e  l a y with t h i s  subject  S o c i a l Studies  is  a r e a as opposed t o  the  disciplines. The program i s  1.  Mathematics, S c i e n c e ,  guided by the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s :  The program f o c u s e s on b e i n g a l i b e r a l ,  academic e d u c a t i o n  program.  77 2.  The program i n c o r p o r a t e s a v a r i e t y of courses  3.  The program has two component  4.  The program, courses and l e s s o n s are g e n e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n based on a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n f o r development.  5.  The content of each s u b j e c t a r e a w i l l f o l l o w the g u i d e l i n e s by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n .  6.  The program w i l l develop the B a s i c s k i l l s , i . e . r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e a k i n g , and computing, t o a s e n i o r secondary l e v e l .  7.  The program w i l l develop  8.  The program w i l l use a v a r i e t y o f  P r i n c i p l e One:  arts,  or the  courses  social  arts,  17),  defines a l i b e r a l  h a v i n g as i t s  n a t u r a l and s o c i a l  needed t o a t t a i n  or  purpose the c u l t u r a l the  skills  sciences,  r a t h e r than j u s t  attempts simply  intellect,  l i b e r a l education  c h a r a c t e r i n the s t u d e n t .  "A l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , . . . ,  concerned w i t h the  of  intellect."  the  clearly  gap between thought and conduct t o the end o f  and i s  to  employment.  a p a r t from d e v e l o p i n g the  formation of a p o s i t i v e  us:  p.  education.  Thus a l i b e r a l , academic e d u c a t i o n program, v i a academic  c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  states that,  1984,  or n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ,  attempts to b r i d g e the  the  t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s or a p p r o a c h e s .  r a t h e r than the o c c u p a t i o n a l improvement of  vocational s k i l l s Also,  established  " . . . t h e o r g a n i z e d study of some p a r t of the h u m a n i t i e s  i n the h u m a n i t i e s ,  develop the  and advanced.  c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s .  ( 1 9 7 7 - c i t e d i n Duguid,  and i n t e l l e c t u a l individual."  beginners  The program f o c u s e s on l i b e r a l , academic  Harrington education as,  parts:  and i n s t r u c t o r s .  formation of  T h i s i s necessary  can a f f e c t  Duguid (1984, p .  the 15)  both thought and conduct  c h a r a c t e r as w e l l  as the  f o r as Duguid ( I b i d . , p .  development 14)  warns  78 Given the unique q u a l i t i e s o f the s t u d e n t s , e d u c a t i o n must a t t a c k the core o f the problem. I t s h o u l d not merely produce educated c r i m i n a l s . I t must be a c i v i l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e , which s t r e t c h e s e x i s t i n g t h i n k i n g and encourages a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f v a l u e s . Such academic courses as Mathematics, S c i e n c e , s u i t e d f o r r e a l i z i n g these aims because effective  the former two d i s c i p l i n e s  that  "...address  themselves  impulsiveness  develop c r i t i c a l  1981,  p.  t h i n k i n g or c o g n i t i v e  skills  i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p a t t e r n s o f c r i m i n a l s  10)."  The program i n c o r p o r a t e s a v a r i e t y of courses and instructors.  The program has a v a r i e t y of courses and i n s t r u c t o r s . this  ideas  is  that  it  offers,  (Duguid, 1981,  p.  " . . . a wide range o f v e h i c l e s  10)."  Furthermore,  because  s e v e r a l courses at a time over s e v e r a l terms, i n s t r u c t o r s and w i t h d i f f e r e n t instructor such,  is  that,  d i r e c t l y t o the problems o f e g o c e n t r i c i t y and  key f a c t o r s  P r i n c i p l e Two:  of  are  t o o l s f o r l o g i c a l thought and the l a t t e r two are broad based  disciplines  (Duguid,  H i s t o r y and E n g l i s h are  f o r the d e l i v e r y o f  the s t u d e n t ,  "takes  i n t e r a c t i n g with d i f f e r e n t  groups of s t u d e n t s , . . . n o  the key t o the development  The advantage  process  (Ibid.,  one course or 1981,  p . 10)."  As  "the e d u c a t i o n program as a whole i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r whatever  development takes each student  place and the primary cause or change agent may v a r y w i t h  i n the program ( I b i d . ,  P r i n c i p l e Three:  p.  10)."  The program has two component p a r t s : advanced  beginners and  level.  As was mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s b e g i n n e r s and advanced l e v e l . are i n the types  1981,  program w i l l  have two component  The major d i f f e r e n c e s  o f academic s k i l l s  between the two  parts; levels  taught and the type and d i f f i c u l t y  l e v e l o f the course content  or s u b j e c t matter p r e s e n t e d the  students.  F u r t h e r m o r e , d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n may be used at more r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s the b e g i n n e r s l e v e l topic,  concept,  than at the advanced l e v e l .  Although the  and so o n , and the academic a b i l i t i e s  of the  s h o u l d determine t o what e x t e n t d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l either  particular students  be n e c e s s a r y  at  level.  The r e a s o n t h a t of  at  grades t e n ,  the terms  e l e v e n or twelve  'beginners' is  and 'advanced' are used  because the courses  w i t h i n each  component have been m o d i f i e d and as such a r e not e x a c t l y l i k e c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l .  instead  While the courses  their  w i t h i n these  two components are s i m i l a r t o t h e i r r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h a t they s a t i s f y i.e.  the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n  focus on s i m i l a r academic s k i l l s  content,  development,  and so o n , they are d i f f e r e n t  guidelines,  a p p l y the same course  i n t h a t they d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y  a d u l t l e a r n e r s , the o p e r a t i o n a l hours and l e n g t h o f each course has modified for s u i t a b i l i t y i n a Federal  penal i n s t i t u t i o n and a  t h i n k i n g component has been added to each c o u r s e . the l a t t e r  difference  P r i n c i p l e Four:  Generally, notion that  elsewhere  in this  been  critical be s a i d about  thesis.  The program, courses and l e s s o n s are g e n e r a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n based on a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n f o r development. a l l f a c e t s o f the program a r e o r g a n i z e d i n keeping w i t h the  l e a r n i n g takes  place at s u c c e s s i v e  The developmental process s t a r t s on the f i r s t beginners l e v e l  More w i l l  with  course and s h o u l d r e a c h i t s  g r a d i a t i o n s of day a student  complexity.  takes a  p i n n a c l e when he/she has  completed a l l o f the beginners and advanced l e v e l  courses.  Like pieces  to  80 a p u z z l e , each s u c c e s s i v e concepts,  ideas,  or t o p i c s  In t h i s way the s t u d e n t helps discover the f o r m e r ,  that were i n t r o d u c e d i n the p r e c e d i n g l e s s o n s .  i s e i t h e r p r e s e n t e d with ( d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n ) or  courses or t o i n t r o d u c e or d e a l w i t h some t o p i c s ,  i t s h o u l d have l i m i t e d use,  the l e s s o n ( s )  i.e.  students  is  will  i n t e r p r e t the i d e a s  and where p o s s i b l e  as  This i s  ideas,  i t s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f one aim  be a b l e to d e f i n e and a n a l y z e the term 'democracy' and behind and p r a c t i c e s o f democracy, but t o i.e.  develop the s t u d e n t ' s  develop  mind and  well.  Principle Five:  The content of each s u b j e c t a r e a w i l l guidelines Education.  T h i s program w i l l  follow  the  e s t a b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f  f o l l o w the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s t h a t have been  e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . is  the  to not o n l y develop e x t r i n s i c e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes,  i n t r i n s i c e d u c a t i o n outcomes, character,  Although  d i d a c t i c a p p r o a c h , may be of v a l u e i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f  c o m p l e t e l y by the I n q u i r y a p p r o a c h . of  problems,  ( I n q u i r y approach) a l l the p i e c e s of the p u z z l e .  beginners l e v e l etc.,  l e s s o n s h o u l d b u i l d upon the themes,  t h a t these g u i d e l i n e s  One major r e a s o n f o r t h i s  promote the p r i n c i p l e t h a t l e a r n i n g takes  g r a d i a t i o n s of c o m p l e x i t y .  Another r e a s o n i s  most o f the a i m s / g o a l s o f t h i s  that  proposed program.  it  choice  place  deals adequately with  And l a s t l y ,  any program  that adheres to these g u i d e l i n e s would be l i k e l y t o be g r a n t e d a c c r e d i t a t i o n by the M i n i s t r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s Principle Six:  at  of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g .  The program w i l l develop the B a s i c s k i l l s , i . e . r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , s p e a k i n g , and computing, t o a s e n i o r secondary level.  81 A major aim o f t h i s  program i s  the s e n i o r secondary l e v e l . previously discussed follows effort  the development of the b a s i c s k i l l s  Even though i t  will  not be easy g i v e n  i n h i b i t o r s , the aim can be a c h i e v e d i f  the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s , t o e s t a b l i s h a c l a s s r o o m atmosphere t h a t i s  these s k i l l s , activities journals,  a class  P r i n c i p l e Seven:  The program w i l l  Ennis  i.e.  weekly d e b a t e s ,  (1984, p .  develop c r i t i c a l  1) d e f i n e s  is  thinking s k i l l s .  thinking c r i t i c a l l y as,  or a b i l i t i e s ,  reasons total  (Ibid.,  The development of  i.e.  d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e meanings, a n a l y z i n g  t o do s o , 1984,  included,  and so o n , and have c e r t a i n  critical  reveals  seek r e a s o n s ,  pp.  Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . c u r r i c u l u m guides  beliefs  tendencies,  take or change a p o s i t i o n when the evidence and  are s u f f i c i e n t  situation  In o r d e r t o r e a l i z e r a t i o n a l  a student must have developed c e r t a i n  arguments, r e c o g n i z i n g f a l l a c i e s , open-mindedness,  Thus a  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as one who holds r a t i o n a l  and makes r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s .  and make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s  i.e.  class  program i s t o develop a student who can t h i n k  c r i t i c a l l y t h i n k i n g student  competencies  developing  d e s i g n and promote  " . . . r e a s o n a b l y g o i n g about d e c i d i n g what t o b e l i e v e or d o . "  beliefs  teacher(s)  newspaper or magazine, weekly speeches, and so o n .  One aim o f t h i s critically.  develop the s k i l l s ,  the  make a c o n c e r t i v e  conducive t o  and h e l p , w i t h the a i d o f the s t u d e n t s ,  that w i l l  the  to  and take i n t o account  1-6). t h i n k i n g i s a l s o an aim o f the While a s u r v e y o f the  the f a c t  that  critical  British  Ministry's  thinking is  indeed  as can best be d e t e r m i n e d , t h a t i d e a l i s t o be r e a c h e d or  emerge through a process of  the  'osmosis'.  This fact  is  quite evident  will i n the  82 S o c i a l Studies specifically  c u r r i c u l u m guide where t h e r e a r e no t o p i c s  on the t e a c h i n g or development  focused  of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s .  ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n S o c i a l S t u d i e s  C u r r i c u l u m Guide,  1984). Despite  the need f o r more r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  the approach i d e n t i f i e d recent  evidence  by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  suggests that  a,  "mastery o f  thinking s k i l l s  a u t o m a t i c a l l y emerge from the s t a n d a r d c u r r i c u l u m . Therefore,  given that  curriculum,  this  program i s  it  Columbia,  does not 1984,  p.  6)."  based upon such a s t a n d a r d  (although m o d i f i e d f o r s u i t a b i l i t y  institution),  (Focus,  of  i n a F e d e r a l penal  would seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n t r o d u c e a more r o b u s t  approach. P r i o r t o o f f e r i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e reasons  are g i v e n t o j u s t i f y  approach, i t  the i d e a l of  t h r e e such r e a s o n s .  The f i r s t  teaching.  Siegel  argues t h a t  a c c o r d w i t h the  13)  c r i t i c a l manner."  f a c e t which r e q u i r e s the t e a c h e r students, of  view,  w i t h the r e s p e c t  "manner ought  to  Such an approach has  built into i t  a  "...treat  p.  Second, by o r g a n i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l of  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , the student  evidence,  seeks and s c r u t i n i z e s  i d e a s as w e l l as o t h e r s Thus the student  a l l persons,  including  h a v i n g , from the moral p o i n t  15)." activities  a c c o r d i n g t o the  becomes an i n d i v i d u a l who,  alternatives,  (Scheffler,  (1980)  a teachers,  to,  1980,  Siegel  some  has to do w i t h the manner of  due them as persons  human worth ( I b i d . ,  imperative that  c r i t i c a l thinking.  identifies  (1980, p .  is  and i s  "...looks  for  c r i t i c a l of t h e i r own  1973-cited i n S i e g e l ,  becomes a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  dictates  1980,  t h i n k e r which s h o u l d  p.  16)."  'free'  83 him/her,  " . . . f r o m the unwarranted c o n t r o l of u n j u s t i f i e d  unsupported a t t i t u d e s ,  and p a u c i t y of a b i l i t i e s  person from competently p.  which can prevent  t a k i n g charge of h i s or her own l i f e  that  (Siegel,  1980,  16)." And l a s t l y ,  education  is  the development  l a r g e l y a matter  traditions,  i.e.  on,  "...such  and i f ,  appreciate reasons p.  beliefs,  17)."  the  science,  of  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s necessary  if  i n i t i a t i n g s t u d e n t s i n t o the r a t i o n a l  literature,  history,  the a r t s ,  mathematics  and so  i n i t i a t i o n c o n s i s t s i n p a r t i n g e t t i n g the s t u d e n t s  standards  (ibid.,  to  of r a t i o n a l i t y which govern the assessment of  (and so p r o p e r l y judge) Siegel  of  p.  17)  i n each t r a d i t i o n . . . ( I b i d ,  1980,  continues:  C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , . . . . r e c o g n i z e s the importance o f g e t t i n g s t u d e n t s t o ' u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e the r o l e of r e a s o n s i n r a t i o n a l endeavour, and of d e v e l o p i n g i n s t u d e n t s those t r a i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and d i s p o s i t i o n s which encourage the s e e k i n g of r e a s o n s f o r grounding judgement. U n d e r s t a n d i n g the r o l e o f reasons i n the s e v e r a l r a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s i s c r u c i a l to being s u c c e s s f u l l y i n i t i a t e d i n t o those t r a d i t i o n s . A sound approach would d i r e c t l y i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n the s u b j e c t  incorporate c r i t i c a l thinking  matter  area.  Critical  t h i n k i n g would thus  become an i n t e g r a l f a c e t of most classroom a c t i v i t i e s . approach would develop those a b i l i t i e s critically.  levels.  attempts t o develop One reason f o r  development  needed f o r a person t o  think  A l l the above would a p p l y t o classroom a c t i v i t i e s  advanced and beginners that  Furthermore, t h i s  of  its  This strategy i s  at  c l e a r l y superior to  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g through a process of superiority is,  as has  been noted above,  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g would no l o n g e r  both  be l e f t  the  one  'osmosis'. that  t o chance.  the And  84 another r e a s o n i s (although that with,  that  liberty is  the d i s p o s i t i o n s ,  capabilities prison),  it  allows  the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r  subject  attitudes,  of the s t u d e n t ,  liberty,  to the p a r t i c u l a r content as w e l l  as,  the a b i l i t i e s  being or  t h i n k i n g i n a v a r i e t y of  s e n s e ' — p r o v i d i n g student  thinking in either,  w i t h o n l y the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s  "the  (Focus,  d i s t o r t the r e a s o n i n g o f everyone  1984, p . 5 ) " .  I n s t r u c t i o n i n the  including  'strong sense'  2-3) d e f i n e s  'weak  egocentric  themselves.  i s necessary  one wants to a v o i d the major p i t f a l l of s o p h i s t r y which Paul pp.  with  of p h i l o s o p h i c a l  i n q u i r y , " or i n the " s t r o n g sense'—making s t u d e n t s aware o f the that  in  ways.  approach would p r o v i d e the classroom teacher  the freedom t o t e a c h or develop c r i t i c a l  proclivities  dealt  and the numerous i n h i b i t o r s to e d u c a t i o n  t o t e a c h or develop c r i t i c a l  Furthermore, t h i s  the  if  (1983,  as:  the student u n w i t t i n g l y l e a r n s t o use c r i t i c a l concepts and t e c h n i q u e s to m a i n t a i n h i s most deep-seated p r e j u d i c e s and i r r a t i o n a l h a b i t s o f thought by masking them i n more " r a t i o n a l " form and by d e v e l o p i n g some f a c i l i t y i n p u t t i n g h i s opponent on the d e f e n s i v e . Thus the approach t o implementing c r i t i c a l flexible  t h i n k i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m  and can take i n t o account the content  knowledge  and a b i l i t i e s  Principle Eight:  and the  being c o v e r e d , the  i n s t r u c t o r ' s teaching  The program w i l l  is  student's  style.  use a v a r i e t y of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and  approaches. First, Second,  it  this  principle satisfies  the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s .  takes i n t o account the many i n h i b i t o r s to e d u c a t i o n i n p r i s o n .  For example,  s h o u l d a t e a c h e r want to a p p l y an I n q u i r y approach f o r  with a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , problem, concept,  dealing  or i d e a , but the environment of  85 the  particular institution  he/she would, because of e i t h e r modify the  this  not conducive because of a l a c k of open-ended  freedom,  p r i n c i p l e , have the o p t i o n  to  I n q u i r y approach (a common p r a c t i c e among e d u c a t o r s )  use an a l t e r n a t i v e eliminate  is  approach.  a particular topic  Thus the t e a c h e r  or  would not have t o abandon or  because h e / s h e was l o c k e d i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r  approach. Third, i n t o account example,  this the  p r i n c i p l e g i v e s classroom t e a c h e r s attitudes  i f a teacher,  and d i s p o s i t i o n s  the l a t i t u d e  of t h e i r s t u d e n t s .  to  take  For  who was l o c k e d i n t o a E x p o s i t o r y a p p r o a c h , were t o  t r y such an approach on s t u d e n t s who needed t o express o p i n i o n s and t h r i v e d on r e s e a r c h ,  the r e s u l t s  And l a s t l y , teachers  would be l e s s than  as was noted e a r l i e r ,  the f l e x i b i l i t y  particular topic area.  to a l t e r  this  desirable. p r i n c i p l e allows  classroom  t h e i r approach t o d e a l adequately w i t h a  86  CONCLUSION' In t h i s  t h e s i s I have argued t h a t  the present  (General E q u i v a l e n c y Diploma Program) i s the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : it  it  is  i s not worthwhile f o r i t s  more a c c u r a t e not thought  'drilling'  and i d e a s ;  it  inadequate.  own sake;  it  i s merely  and not e d u c a t i o n ;  its  perspective';  prepare the s t u d e n t  T h e r e f o r e an a l t e r n a t i v e  it  of some inmates;  atmosphere;  the u n s t a b l e  o f each t e s t  is  and i t  enough to  does not  education.  However, t o p r o v i d e an These were  and inmate; the a c t i o n s  the l a c k o f  identified  of c o r r e c t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  and t e n s i o n f i l l e d p r i s o n environment and  an u n c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what e d u c a t i o n would do f o r the  the numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s  to e d u c a t i o n ;  inmate;  the l a c k of proper f a c i l i t i e s  study space;  the F e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y ; p r i s o n a u t h o r i t i e s  questionable  assumptions  hostility  area t e s t s ;  secondary e d u c a t i o n program i s needed i n the  i n h i b i t o r s be n o t e d .  managers and s t a f f ;  some t e a c h e r s ;  for  ' t r a i n i n g ' or t o be  i s not f l e x i b l e  for post-secondary  the t e n s i o n s between s t a f f  officers,  inadequate  content  substance  F e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y system o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  as:  is  i s not s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as to promote  take i n t o account the c a p a b i l i t i e s  a l t e r n a t i v e r e q u i r e s that  It  simply a battery of f i v e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a ' c o g n i t i v e  adequately  secondary program  about the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ;  towards any e d u c a t i o n a l program; and l a s t l y ,  D e s p i t e a l l t h e s e i n h i b i t o r s , i t was noted t h a t  and  h a v i n g f o u r very some inmates'  economics.  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  V i c t o r i a / S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y program has been a b l e t o operate w i t h some s u c c e s s w i t h i n f o u r B r i t i s h Columbia p r i s o n s .  As s u c h , these i n h i b i t o r s  87 can  be overcome to an extent that would not make impossible the design and  implementation of the proposed academic education program The proposed program would be guided by the f o l l o w i n g :  the program  focuses on being a l i b e r a l , academic education program; the program incorporates a v a r i e t y of courses and i n s t r u c t o r s ; the program has two component parts: are  beginners and advanced; the program, courses and lessons  generally organized i n a l i n e a r fashion based on a l o g i c a l progression  for development; the content of each subject area w i l l follow the guidelines established by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education; the program w i l l develop the basic s k i l l s , i . e . reading, w r i t i n g , speaking, and computing, to a senior secondary l e v e l ; the program w i l l develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s ; and, the program w i l l use a v a r i e t y of teaching s t r a t e g i e s or approaches. Having argued that these guidelines are defensible the next step would be the development of the s p e c i f i c s of the program.  This would e n t a i l  research i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s o r t s of questions: 1.  In each of the d i s c i p l i n e s recognized as academic what knowledge and s k i l l s are most appropriate at the beginners and advanced levels?;  2.  What knowledge and s k i l l s are required f o r entry i n t o the program?;  3.  What would be the most appropriate teaching techniques f o r inmate learners?;  4.  In what capacity would the G.E.D. f i t i n t o t h i s new program?; and,  5.  How can c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s be incorporated i n t o academic education programs?  88  Bibliography A s s o c i a t i o n f o r V a l u e s E d u c a t i o n and Research (AVER). (1981).. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education.' ' "  Prisgns.  Archambeault, W . J . & Archambeault, B . J . (1982). 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