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Academic secondary education in the federal prisons of British Columbia : the guidelines for an alternative.. 1986

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ACADEMIC SECONDARY EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL PRISONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE GUIDELINES FOR AN ALTERNATIVE PROGRAM TO THE GENERAL EQUIVALENCY DIPLOMA PROGRAM by RICHARD ANTHONY SWIFT B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre f o r Curriculum and Ins t r u c t i o n a l Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1986 g> Richard Anthony Swift, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 / a n i i Abstract The primary purposes of t h i s thes i s are , f i r s t , to argue that the e x i s t i n g secondary education program, the General Equivalency Diploma program (GED), o f fered to inmates i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i s not t r u l y e d u c a t i o n a l , and second, that there c l e a r l y e x i s t s the need to design a v i a b l e , a l t e r n a t i v e academic education program for p o t e n t i a l secondary l e v e l students i n the Federal pen i t en t iary system of B r i t i s h Columbia. A comprehensive survey of the l i t e r a t u r e revea l s that the Canadian Pen i t en t iary Service has h i s t o r i c a l l y he ld numerous f a l s e assumptions about the educat ional process . For example, the most commonly used program at the secondary l e v e l , the G . E . D . , despite i t s seemingly academic content, (Writ ing s k i l l s , Reading s k i l l s , S o c i a l S tudies , Mathematics and Sc ience ) , i s not d i r e c t e d towards educat ional ends. While the G . E . D . does have some value and could be usefu l for some students , i t i s inadequate for the fo l lowing reasons: i t i s simply a bat tery of f i v e content area t e s t s ; i t i s not worthwhile for i t s own sake; i t i s ' t r a i n i n g ' or to be more accurate ' d r i l l i n g ' and not educat ion; i t s substance i s not thought and ideas; i t i s not s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as to promote understanding and a ' cogni t ive p e r s p e c t i v e ' , i t i s not f l e x i b l e enough to take into account the academic c a p a b i l i t i e s of some inmates; and i t does not adequately prepare the student for post-secondary educat ion . Therefore an a l t e r n a t i v e education program at the secondary l e v e l i s needed. In order to design an a l t e r n a t i v e program any i n h i b i t o r s to education i n prisons have to be i d e n t i f i e d . These i n h i b i t o r s are noted and in are taken into account i n the gu ide l ines for an a l t e r n a t i v e academic education program. This program i s based on a set of p r i n c i p l e s which are found to be defens ib le i n r e l a t i o n to the needs of students and on educat ional grounds. i i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i L i s t of Figures i v Acknowledgment v Chapter One: Introduct ion 1 Chapter Two: A B r i e f H i s t o r y of C o r r e c t i o n a l Models and Academic Education i n E n g l i s h Canada from the Eighteenth Century to the Present 5 P r e - i n d u s t r i a l 1700-1830 5 Pre-Confederat ion 1830-1867 6 Post-Confederat ion 1867-1938 . 8 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 1938-1970 10 1 938-1947 . . . . . . ' . . . . . : . : • : .'.'.'.' 10 1947-1970 . . j : ; . . ; . ; . ; . . . : . . . . . . . . . . 11 Reparat ions-Reintegrat ion 1970 to the present 14 Chapter Three: Academic education—what i s i t ? 17 Chapter Four: The General Equivalency Diploma Program: A C r i t i q u e 2 3 Chapter F i v e : Factors that F a c i l i t a t e and I n h i b i t Academic Education Programs i n Federal P e n i t e n t i a r i e s 3 6 I . External Actors and Environmental Factors 37 a) The O f f i c e of the S o l i c i t o r General of Canada 37 b) The Commissioner of Correc t ions 39 c) D i r e c t o r of Educat ion, T r a i n i n g and Personal Development 41 d) The General Publ ic 42 e) Economics 42 f) Pen i tent iary System Bureaucracy 44 V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I I . Internal. Actors, and. Environmental.. Factors. 45, a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l . Heads/Wardens 45, b) The.Classification.Officer 46 c) The. Prison. Educator. 47 d) P r i s o n . F a c i l i t i e s 51 e) Endemic. Tensions 52. f) The Prison Environment. 53 g) Inmates -.their.attitudes and a b i l i t i e s .... 57 h) Related. Teaching Problems. 59 Chapter Six: Program.Guidelines 64 A. Inhibitors to Program. 64 B. Program. Guidelines 72 a) Beginners Level. 74 b) Advanced Level. 76 Principles. of Program. 76 Conclusion:.. 86 Bibliography: 88 v i LIST, OF, FIGURES Page. Figure 1 : Conceptual framework of program 73 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to Dr. Ian Wright for h i s support , encouragement, guidance, and generos i ty; to Dr . Stephen Duguid for h i s i n f i n i t e wisdom i n matters p e r t a i n i n g to the thes i s and to l i f e ; and to Dr . D.. Thomas of my graduate committee for h i s sharing of knowledge, understanding and profes s iona l i sm. Spec ia l thanks goes to a l l my mentors and tu tors for t h e i r inva luable s e r v i c e s ; to my f r i ends and col leagues for t h e i r kindness; and to my mother whose beauty s h a l l l a s t to the end of t ime. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Although there are a few br ight spots for example, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where a unique u n i v e r s i t y degree program has been developed, p e n i t e n t i a r y education has been mainly thought of e i ther as a t i m e - f i l l i n g a c t i v i t y whose purpose i s to r e l i e v e boredom and soothe the conscious s t a t e , or as a means of prov id ing s k i l l - t r a i n i n g for the employment market, although no r e l a t i o n s h i p has yet been discovered between c r i m i n a l i t y and employab i l i t y . Even academic education i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i s l a r g e l y a matter of s k i l l t r a i n i n g . . . . • • • - (Cosman, 1980, p . 46) H i s t o r i c a l l y , t r a i n i n g and education have been an i n t e g r a l part of the Canadian Pen i t en t iary system. However, i n the twentieth century the emphasis has been on t r a i n i n g and not on education; i t has been on education aimed towards u t i l i t y and work as opposed to education geared towards the f u l l development of the human p e r s o n a l i t y , the r e a l i z a t i o n of s e l f , the development of the powers of the i n t e l l e c t , the development of man as an h i s t o r i c a l person, and the development of a man as a member of s o c i e t y . While there i s nothing undesirable i n he lp ing inmates a t t a i n work, there ex i s t s l i t t l e evidence that shows a pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i o n between t r a i n i n g or education in pr i son aimed towards the attainment of work, and f i n d i n g and mainta ining work (Blumstein, 1974; Duguid, 1984). Although, t r a i n i n g can indeed be an i n t e g r a l facet of educat ion , and on many occasions the two concepts do o v e r l a p , education i s not o n l y , and should never be used simply as a t r a i n i n g veh ic le d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y towards the attainment of employment. McCarthy (1985, pp. 441-442) i s correc t i n a s s e r t i n g that: 2 The philosophy of any educat ional program, i f i t i s t r u l y to be c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n a l , must be based on the assumption tha t , as an a c t i v i t y , l e a r n i n g i s undertaken s o l e l y for the sake of l e a r n i n g i t s e l f . Education i s not a process with u t i l i t a r i a n purpose; nor i s i t a means to an end, except the end of developing the mind. But even i f , at the u t i l i t a r i a n l e v e l , employment was maintained as one goal of a p a r t i c u l a r program, i t would seem s e l f - e v i d e n t that an 'educated' as opposed to a ' t r a i n e d ' student would have developed more than both the personal and academic q u a l i t i e s needed i n order to f i n d and maintain employment. Whereas a t r a i n e d employee would general ly be l i m i t e d to performing the areas he/she was t ra ined i n , i . e . a lathe operator could only operate a l a t h e , an educated employee would have developed the a b i l i t i e s necessary to l i v e i n a complex world . These a b i l i t i e s would inc lude those necessary to make r a t i o n a l dec i s ions about how one should conduct one's l i f e , and how one should r e l a t e to soc i e ty at l a r g e . O r i g i n a l l y , education in p e n i t e n t i a r i e s was intended to promote a s p i r i t u a l reawakening i n the inmate. By the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century various reformers were success fu l i n adding a new dimension to education i n p r i s o n . Educat ion, i . e . B ib l e reading and study, was expanded to incorporate moral as wel l as s p i r i t u a l re format ion . This o r i e n t a t i o n , with i t s r e l i a n c e on d i s c i p l i n e , hard-work and punishment, would remain r e l a t i v e l y i n t a c t u n t i l wel l in to the twentieth century. Fol lowing World War Two, behavioural s c i e n t i s t s were success fu l in in troduc ing and ach iev ing the dominance of the medical-model which would become the p r i n c i p a l component of what J .W. Cosman (1985) terms t o t a l t r a i n i n g or education (known more commonly as ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ' ) . 3 S p e c i f i c a l l y , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n had three major components: the c e l l , the workshop, the med ica l -d i s ea se and one minor component, academic e d u c a t i o n . Dur ing the 1960s and e a r l y 1970s, when the med ica l -d i s ea se component dominated, academic educa t ion assumed, i n a r a t h e r subse rv i en t manner, a dual r o l e o f p repa r ing inmates for work and for a i d i n g i n the t h e r a p e u t i c p rocess . In f a c t , the dua l r o l e s were r e a l l y o n l y one f o r , as can best be determined, the educa t ion p rocess , which i n i t s e l f was pe rce ived as a type of therapy , would p rov ide the cured offender w i t h the means, i . e . s teady employment, that would r e i n f o r c e and ma in t a in that therapy w h i l e he/she was on the o u t s i d e . Thus educa t ion had s imply become j u s t one of many t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l s used to ' c u r e ' an inmate or ma in t a in that ' c u r e ' upon r e l e a s e of an inmate. By the l a t t e r h a l f of the 1970s i t had become qu i t e c l e a r that the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model was a major f a i l u r e . As a replacement , p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s l a t c h e d on to something termed the O p p o r t u n i t i e s model . Simply s t a t e d , the med ica l -d i s ea se component, w i th i t s focus on therapy and c u r e , was r ep l aced by a system where a l l s o r t s of programs or o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be o f f e r e d to inmates t o the end of ensur ing the s a f e ty of s o c i e t y . However, the model ' s authors (Wakabayashi, A . , B r a i t h w a i t e , . J . , P i s a p i o , L . , & M e r e d i t h , H . , 1977) were r a the r vague when i t came to o u t l i n i n g the means, (other then to o f f e r inmates l o t s of o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) , to reach such an end. Furthermore, the four o r i g i n a l components were mainta ined as the main v e h i c l e s for d e a l i n g w i t h inmates . Even though academic educa t ion was no longer pe rce ived as a minor t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l aimed d i r e c t l y at the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the inmate, i t s t i l l r e t a i n e d i t s 4 role as the means for helping inmates obtain the prerequisites for a vocation. In the penitentiaries of B r i t i s h Columbia v i s i b l e proof of the vocational orientation of academic education programs can be seen at both the elementary and secondary l e v e l . Both the basic s k i l l s development programs at the elementary l e v e l and the General Equivalency Diploma program offered students at the secondary l e v e l are ba s i c a l l y oriented towards providing students with the s k i l l s needed to obtain and maintain a vocation. (Goodall, 1978; McCarthy, 1985; Cosman, 1985; F i e l d s , 1986). While academic education at the elementary l e v e l i n Federal penitentiaries i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n need of a comprehensive study, given that my expertise lay with academic education at the secondary l e v e l , the primary purpose of t h i s thesis w i l l be to argue that the ex i s t i n g education program (termed the General Equivalency Diploma Program), i s not t r u l y educational. And second, my purpose i s to provide guidelines for an alternative academic program for potential secondary l e v e l students i n the Federal penitentiary system of B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to accomplish t h i s task I w i l l : 1. expand upon the history of education in Canada prior to World War '" Two and B r i t i s h Columbia after World War Two; 2. ascertain the necessary conditions for c a l l i n g something 'education'; 3. provide a comprehensive c r i t i q u e of the present academic high school equivalency program offered inmates i n the Federal penitentiaries of B r i t i s h Columbia; 4. discuss in d e t a i l the major i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s of an academic education program i n a Federal penitentiary; and, 5. present the principles for, and an outline of, an appropriate alternative academic secondary education program. 5 CHAPTER TWO A B r i e f His tory of C o r r e c t i o n a l models and Academic Education in Eng l i sh Canada from the Eighteenth Century to the Present In t h i s chapter the h i s t o r y of c o r r e c t i o n a l education w i l l be reviewed. It w i l l be argued that most of what has occurred i n the name of 'educat ion' would more proper ly be c a l l e d ' t r a i n i n g ' . Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984) view correc t ions i n Canada, from the eighteenth century to the present , as moving through s i x d i s t i n c t periods each of which can be defined i n terms of how those concerned with c r i m i n a l i t y viewed the purpose of c o r r e c t i o n s . The periods are i d e n t i f i e d as: 1) Punishment ( p r e - I n d u s t r i a l ) 1700-1830; 2) Punishment and Penitence (pre-Confederation) 1830-1867; 3) Punishment and Penitence (post-Confederat ion) 1867-1938; 4) R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 1938-1970; 5) Re integrat ion 1970-1978; and, 6) Reparation 1978 to the present . Period 1 P r e - I n d u s t r i a l 1700-1830 In the p r e - I n d u s t r i a l , p r e - p e n i t e n t i a r y p e r i o d , crime was seen as endemic i n soc i e ty and punishment was designed to deter both the c r i m i n a l , who was perceived of as a deviant and had, " . . . c o n s c i o u s l y chosen behaviour they knew to be wrong, ( G r i f f i t h s , 1978, p . 23)," from committing any further cr imes, and to act as a deterrent to p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l s . Condi t ions i n the l o c a l gaols and workshops were harsh . According to Baehre (1977-cited i n Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p . 22): The group of twenty-f ive pr i soners interned at York included three l u n a t i c s under r e s t r a i n t , nine debtors , 6 one of whom has cohabitated with him i n the gaol h i s wife and c h i l d r e n , and a motley assortment of c r i m i n a l s . The l u n a t i c s were confined i n the basement 'dungeon''from which incessant howlings, groans, and 'd i sagreeable ' smells were c a r r i e d to the other f l o o r s . Indiscr iminate mixing among pr i soners convicted of c a p i t a l crimes and those with misdemeanors was p e r m i t t e d . . . . There was l i t t l e soap, and l i n e n was changed i n f r e q u e n t l y . One inmate complained that he had not been washed i n s i x to eight months. During the p r e - I n d u s t r i a l era the only known kind of education or t r a i n i n g o f fered the inmate i n a gaol or workshop was B i b l e t r a i n i n g from a l o c a l pastor or p r i e s t . Period 2 Pre-Confederat ion 1830-1867 The f i r s t p e n i t e n t i a r y i n Upper Canada was b u i l t at Kingston i n 1835. It was i n t h i s pen i t en t iary (which u n t i l 1867 was p r o v i n c i a l l y operated) that the secular and e c c l e s i a s t i c came together to introduce the deviant inmate to the code of the Protestant work e t h i c . According to H . C . Thomson, the chairman of the se l ec t committed to consider the p r o p r i e t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a pen i t en t iary i n Upper Canada, i n h i s address to the House of Assembly in 1831, "A p e n i t e n t i a r y . . . s h o u l d be a place to lead a man to repent h i s s ins and amend h i s l i f e (Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, pp. 3 1 - 3 2 ) . " Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984) a l so point out t h a t , " . . . t h e primary task of the p e n i t e n t i a r y was punishment and the emphasis was on hard labour and s o l i t a r y confinement enforced by a s t r i c t code of d i s c i p l i n e (Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p . 1 8 2 ) . " And Weir ( 1 9 7 3 , p . 39) states that: The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e l t i t f i t t i n g to provide for an exhausting ten-hour workday of manual l a b o r , s carce ly augmented by a meagre s tarchy d i e t , with the remaining fourteen hours spent i n s o l i t a r y confinement. The l a t t e r period was to provide ample opportunity for medi tat ion , r e f l e c t i o n , and hopefu l ly repentance, thus b u i l d i n g up the inner personal man to the point where he was ready, as a t ransgressor , to s t a r t h i s journey down the long hard road to t o t a l redemption. To make t h i s journey more meaningful , the warden imposed a harsh and puni t ive code of d i s c i p l i n e which c a l l e d for corpora l punishment and r e s t r i c t e d d ie t for the most t r i v i a l misdemeanor. Even though basic l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g programs were developed for inmates fo l lowing the report from the Brown Commission i n 1848, the programs, " . . .were c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the r e l i g i o u s e f f o r t s i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y ( I b i d . , 1984, p . 182)." McCarthy (1985, p . 442) points out that : The philosophy of t h i s program viewed education as a process l ead ing to s p i r i t u a l reform. It was not concerned with education for i t s own sake. Instead, i t was thought tha t , i n l e a r n i n g to read and 'wr i t e , inmates could discover the B ib l e and discover God. In design and implementation the e a r l y education program offered inmates at Kingston was equal ly r e s t r i c t i v e i n that : The curr icu lum was l i m i t e d to courses i n reading and w r i t i n g , the B ib le being the main t ex t , and the Chaplain the only teacher. Education was provided only to inmates who had been incarcerated for three months and who were noted for good conduct. Moreover, the program was s t ruc tured on a c e l l u l a r model of i n s t r u c t i o n which l i m i t e d inmate i n t e r a c t i o n and forbade non-educat ional communication between teacher and student . Thus, penal education was charac ter i zed more by reform than by educat ion . (McCarthy, 1985, p . 442) However, that reform played only a secondary r o l e to the punishment and penitence of the inmate. 8 Period 3 Post-Confederat ion 1867-1938 Fol lowing Confederat ion, j u r i s d i c t i o n for p e n i t e n t i a r i e s was s p l i t between the p r o v i n c i a l and Federal governments. An offender who rece ived a sentence of two years l e ss a day would go to a p r o v i n c i a l p e n i t e n t i a r y , while an offender who rece ived a sentence over two years would go to Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . This appl ied to a l l offenders notwithstanding age or gender. Furthermore, once a person was sentenced to a pen i t en t iary no matter what the length of the sentence, he would have to serve a l l h i s time i n that p e n i t e n t i a r y . This s i t u a t i o n would change i n 1886 when Parliament passed the Act Respecting Publ ic and Reformatory Pr i sons . (Ekstedt and G i f f i t h s , 1984, p . 44). Three of i t s major provis ions were: 1) the mandatory separat ion of youthful and older of fenders; 2) procedures for F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l agreements on the t rans fer of pr i soners ; and, 3) the earning of remiss ion or 'good time' by offenders in p r o v i n c i a l prisons ( I b i d . , 1984, p . 44). While these were improvements, they were improvements intended to strengthen the contro l apparatus of the penal system, not to make pr i son l i f e more amenable to those wi th in i t s w a l l s . Prison l i f e remained austere , d i s c i p l i n e d , c o n t r o l l e d and b r u t a l . According to MacGuigan (1977 - c i t e d i n Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p . 46): Punishments inc luded: hosing of inmates by a powerful stream of co ld water (used u n t i l 1913); b a l l and chain as they worked (used u n t i l 1933); 'handcuff ing to bars from 8 a.m. to noon, and 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. (used i n the 1 930's) ; 'dunking i n a trough'of i ce and s l u s h , used as a ' cure ' for mental defect ives (abol ished i n the 1930's) 9 B a s i c a l l y the prisoner was s t i l l viewed as a deviant i n need of d i s c i p l i n e and punishment i n order to assure h i s s p i r i t u a l reform. Or to be more accurate his s p i r i t u a l and moral reform for by the, " . . . l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century, the reformist view of education was enlarged to incorporate the ides of education as a technique for moral as well as s p i r i t u a l reformation (Foucault, 1979; I g n a t i e f f , 1978; Rothman, 1980; c i t e d i n McCarthy, 1985, p. 443)." McCarthy (1985, p. 443) states that: This perspective expanded the s p i r i t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n and argued that education should be concerned with demonstrating the wrongness of the inmates' ways through moral as well as r e l i g i o u s reasoning thereby r e a l i z i n g a more complete amelioration. Despite the intentions and e f f o r t s of those who supported prison education reform, there were few, i f any, changes made prior to World War I i n the way education was handled i n the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of Canada. McCarthy (1985, p. 443) points out that the authors of the 1914 Report of the Royal Commission on Penitentiary, "...advocated changing the penal education system because they found i t highly repressive and non-conducive to lear n i n g . " Weir (1973, p. 43) also notes that: The p u b l i c a t i o n of the j u s t i c e minister's Report of Pen i t e n t i a r i e s i n 1879 provides a true picture of the approach of the time towards c o r r e c t i o n a l education: the "rules and regulations for school" encouraged the enforcement of s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e and allow only those convicts noted for good conduct a f t e r a minimum of three months i n prison to take part i n classes. The opportunity to attend school was considered one of the highest rewards that could be bestowed on convicts. Generous use was made of inmat'e monitors i n prison' schools. Subjects taught included French and English, reading; w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , arithmetic, geography, and 10 grammar-all of these subjec t s , except w r i t i n g , was to be taught with the students s tanding! Even though there was a d e f i n i t e increase i n the number of subjects taught, inmates by the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century, the manner of , and the purpose f o r , teaching those subjects was the same as i t had been s ince 1835. Period 4 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n 1938-1970 (1938 1947) There were no ostensive moves to change the education system i n p e n i t e n t i a r i e s u n t i l wel l into the t h i r d decade of the twentieth century when, "In 1938, the members of the Royal Commission on Prisons re leased the Archambault Report which c a l l e d for a complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the school system and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a curr icu lum based on academic education and c u l t u r a l enrichment (Weir, 1965 - c i t e d i n McCarthy, 1985, p . 443)." Cosman (1980, p. 46) argues that these recommendations came about because: . . . t h e Royal Commission was appal led by the perfunctory manner i n which the l i m i t e d elementary academic programs were being conducted i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and by the small number of inmates exposed to any o p p o r t u n i t i e s for educat ional advancement, and i t c a l l e d for a complete r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the educat ional system. Despite a l l the r h e t o r i c surrounding the r e p o r t , "None of the r e p o r t ' s educat ional recommendations, however, have been implemented (McCarthy, 1985, p. 443)." The f a i l u r e to reform education in pr i son i s made c lear by the Gibson Report of 1947 whose authors i n c l u d e d , "the same observations of 11 the negative aspects of penal education and reaches the same conclusion as that of the Archambault authors (Ibid., 1985, p. 443)." Rehabilitation (1947-1970) By the 1950s, the Rehabilitation model seems to have been in place i n most Federal penitentiaries in Canada and a l l penitentiaries i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In order to achieve the goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , post World War Two prison o f f i c i a l s incorporated or developed and applied the Rehabilitation model which according to Cosman (1985, p. 3) applied an approach termed t o t a l t r a i n i n g or 'education'. S p e c i f i c a l l y : What was intended for the prisoner was a process of 'learning', a t o t a l t r a i n i n g to be provided by the thoroughgoing d i s c i p l i n e of the prison milieu governing in d e t a i l a l l aspects of l i f e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , and to be based on three technologies: the c e l l , the workshop, and increasingly with the development of the behavioural sciences, "treatment" according to a medical-disease concept of criminal behaviour. Ba s i c a l l y , the c e l l component, apart from i t s u t i l i t y as a securing agent, was used, "as a means of submission and as an instrument of reform, sometimes to h a b i l i t a t e prisoners to prescribed rules of conduct, sometimes to evoke s t i r r i n g s of conscience...(Ibid., 1985, p. 6)." The workshop was the means by which the inmate was given basic working s k i l l s for survival on the outside. Through various s k i l l s development or t r a i n i n g programs, i. e . woodwork, metalwork, automotives, and so on, the inmate was trained in the "...habits of work, order and obedience, to the end of preparing him for paid employment (Ibid., 1985, p. 7)." And f i n a l l y there i s the medical-disease component which considers c r i m i n a l i t y to be, "symptomatic 12 of mental , p h y s i c a l , emotional and/or s o c i a l adjustment on the part of the offender (Correc t iona l Service of Canada, 1981, p . 11)," and sets out to r e c t i f y or remedy the malady by p r o v i d i n g , " . . . e x t e n s i v e ' therapy' and ' t r e a t m e n t ' . . . . ( C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada, 1 9 8 3 , p . 11)." Barto las (1981-cited i n Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p . 50) s tates tha t , "The medical model was to turn the pr i son in to a h o s p i t a l to treat the disease of c r i m i n a l i t y . The therap i s t was to help offenders reso lve the underly ing c o n f l i c t s that drove them to cr ime. Cr imina l s would then be cured ." In other words, the c r i m i n a l (who had a disease c a l l e d c r i m i n a l i t y ) entered pr i son (which had become a h o s p i t a l ) to get cured ( r e h a b i l i t a t e d ) by a pr i son s t a f f (who were seen as e i ther therap i s t s or as a ids to therap i s t s ) to the end of becoming a healthy c i t i z e n . To t h i s component l i s t I would add education programs, i . e . basic l i t e r a c y , number s k i l l s , and so on that were, much l i k e t r a i n i n g programs, " . . . o r i e n t e d to meeting the requirements of some kind of work (Cosman, 1985, p . 7 ) ." Therefore by the 1950s and throughout the 1960s and 1970s many Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those in B r i t i s h Columbia, would operate wi th in a comprehensive system/model (based upon the fo l lowing four components: the c e l l - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n ; the workshop-trade s k i l l s to the end of work; the medical -disease component-therapy and cure; and academic t r a i n i n g or educat ion—basic l i t e r a c y s k i l l s or iented towards work), aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at r e a l i z i n g the goal of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . According to the 1949 Annual Report of the Commission of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s (1949-1950), "Continued progress has been made i n the development of 13 f a c i l i t i e s necessary to carry out an e f f e c t i v e programme of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n in the Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s (Annual Report -Ci ted i n Ektedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p. 49)." And, the reviewers of the T h i r d Report of the S t r a t e g i c Planning Committee to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada (1983) s ta te tha t , "Many of the developments i n the Canadian Pen i t en t iary Service during the e a r l y seventies i l l u s t r a t e t h i s commitment to the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e i d e a l . . . . ( C o r r e c t i o n a l Serv ice of Canada, 1983, p. 13)." By the l a t e 1970s i t was quite apparent that the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n model with i t s t o t a l t r a i n i n g or 'educat ion' had f a i l e d to achieve the goal of inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n despite e f f o r t s to a i d the process by i n t r o d u c i n g , with i t s r e i n t e g r a t i o n factor/component, community based programs, i . e . probat ion , p a r o l e , attendance centre programs, b a i l s u p e r v i s i o n , p r e - t r i a l d i v e r s i o n , temporary absence, community based centres , f ine opt ion and r e s t i t u t i o n . According to Cosman (1985) i t f a i l e d because, " . . . t h e methods or penal approaches that have been used are based on at l eas t four very questionable assumptions about the educat ional process ." These are: 1) That education i s e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of d i s c i p l i n e which i s achieved through c o n t r o l . The modern pr i son has governed i n d e t a i l a l l aspects of i n d i v i d u a l l i f e . It has had almost t o t a l power over p r i s o n e r s , with i t s own mechanisms of repress ion and punishment. It has sought to achieve reformation through enforcement, through r e s t r a i n t , through imposing new ways of th ink ing and f e e l i n g and a c t i n g . 2) That the i n d i v i d u a l can ex i s t and develop by himsel f a lone . The modern pr i son has r e l i e d heav i ly on the p r i n c i p l e of i s o l a t i o n , of i s o l a t i n g pr i soners not only from the external world but a l so from each o ther . u 3) That the aim of education i s the t r a i n i n g of the individual in habits of work, order and obedience, to the end of preparing him for paid employment. That aim has determined the nature of most train i n g in the modern prison. 4) That the process of education or correctional t r a i n i n g i s a mechanical process. Most of the so-called treatment programs i n the modern prison have been based on the assumption that criminal behaviour can be explained i n terms of some psychopathological condition requiring cure through various forms of therapy. The extension of the mechanistic conception of the physical world to the non-physical world i n the seventeenth century resulted i n due course i n the flowering of the behavioural sciences, which have tended to reduce man, in a l l his a c t i v i t i e s , to a conditioned and behaving animal. This seems to eliminate some genuine elements of human experience, for example, insight, imagination, c r e a t i v i t y , freedom. (Cosman, 1985, pp. 5, 6, 7) Period 5-6 Reparations Reintegration 1970 to the Present The f a i l u r e of the Rehabilitation model (even with the addition of the previously mentioned community based programs), caused prison administrators to develop new ways of thinking about the purposes of prisons. According to Cosman (1985) the three most common trends i n penal thinking are: 1) Change the objectives so as to de-emphasize r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as an essential purpose of prison; 2) Hold the Community responsible for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and, 3) Hold the prisoner responsible for his own r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Therefore, not only was r e h a b i l i t a t i o n de-emphasized but the Correctional Service of Canada assumed a r o l e of sharing the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with society and the inmate. In order to achieve their new goals, correctional o f f i c i a l s extended community based programming and introduced reparation programs, 15 i . e . Vict im-Offender R e c o n c i l i a t i o n Serv ices Program, and Project Restore, aimed at achiev ing r e s t i t u t i o n , and/or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the offender and v i c t i m . Unfortunate ly t h e i r success has been l i m i t e d . Concerning the community-based programming, Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984, p . 226) point out t h a t , " . . . n o consistent evidence e x i s t s to support many of the claims made by proponents of community b a s e d - f a c i l i t i e s . " Further concerning the Reparations (Service to Vic t ims) programs i t can be argued that while r e s t i t u t i o n seems to be a reasonable idea and has shown some success , p a r t i c u l a r l y where the crimes are of a petty nature , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine any form of r e s t i t u t i o n that could atone for the thef t of m i l l i o n s or even thousands of d o l l a r s , or rep lace the los s of a human l i f e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these are not the only areas , a l l of which are encompassed wi th in the Opportuni t ies model, where inappropriate a c t i o n s , incomplete ideas , ambiguity, confusion or vagueness was, and or i s , of common occurrence. In 1984 the C o r r e c t i o n a l Serv ice of Canada modified the Opportuni t ies model. Simply s ta ted , the modi f i ca t ion c a l l e d for extended contact between s t a f f members and offenders and for keeping the inmates busier and more ac t ive by prov id ing more o p p o r t u n i t i e s . (Task Force , 1984-cited i n Cosman, 1985, p. 15). While more contact between s t a f f and inmates and more inmate a c t i v i t i e s are to be supported, the problem i s that i t s proponents are extremely vague i n how these adjustments are to be achieved both wi th in or outside of the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . A comprehensive survey of the Report on The Statement of CSC Values , 1984, wr i t t en by the members of the Task Force on the Miss ion and Organiza t iona l Development of the C o r r e c t i o n a l Serv ice of Canada, expla ins nothing about 16 how one could achieve the new m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Cosman (1985, p . 15) i s correc t to bo ld ly exc la im, "Extend contact! Keep them busy! Motivate them to p a r t i c i p a t e ! In anything?" Furthermore, and notwithstanding the claimed abandonment of the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n model, " . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n a l penal technologies are assumed to be the only ones and continue to be p r a c t i c e d i n varying forms, mainly without e f f e c t . . . . (Cosman, 1985, p. 16)." In other words, and despite the implementation or cont inuat ion of new programs that may or may not work, i t i s the o l d standby s t ra tegy , which has proven i n e f f e c t u a l i n the past , which continues to dominate wi th in the Opportuni t ies model. This patchwork of o l d and new, e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e programs, plus the r e l i a n c e upon an approach that n a t u r a l l y incorporates at l ea s t four .ques t ionable assumptions about the educat ional process can be seen i n the type of academic education programs of fered inmates i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. While on one hand we have the r e l a t i v e l y new U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a / S i m o n Fraser U n i v e r s i t y program which i s t r u l y educat ional i n nature and has shown some success i n increas ing both cogni t ive and educat ional development i n i t s s tudents , on the other hand we have the o lder secondary l e v e l General Equivalency Diploma Program ( G . E . D . ) which, as w i l l be argued elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s , i s c l e a r l y not education and o f f er s l e s s than what could be gained from taking an appropriate academic secondary education program. 17 CHAPTER THREE Academic education—what i s i t ? Given that the focus of t h i s thes i s i s academic secondary l e v e l education i n the Federal prisons of B r i t i s h Columbia, and given that the only academic high school l e v e l program of fered inmates i s the General Equivalency Diploma program ( G . E . D . ) , i t would seem sens ib le to determine whether t h i s program i s t r u l y ' e d u c a t i o n a l ' . This w i l l r e q u i r e a l i s t of c r i t e r i a for de f in ing the concepts 'educat ion' and 'academic' . However, there-.are a P l e t h o r a of e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s and as S o l t i s (1 968, p . 2) points out , "Under t h i s barrage of d e f i n i t i o n s , however, a very c r u c i a l assumption i s f requent ly hidden. That i s , we assume that there i s a d e f i n i t i o n of education or the d e f i n i t i o n of educat ion." Peters (1972, p. 25) concurs with S o l t i s and adds tha t , "It p icks out no p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y or process . Rather i t lays down c r i t e r i a to which a c t i v i t i e s or processes must conform." Peters s u c c e s s f u l l y argues that the three c r i t e r i a of education are: 1) that 'educat ion' impl ies the transmiss ion of what i s worthwhile to those who become committed to i t ; 2) that 'educat ion' must involve knowledge and understanding and some kind of cogni t ive perspec t ive , which are not enert; 3) that 'educat ion' at l ea s t r u l e s out some procedures of t ransmiss ion , on the grounds that they lack the witt ingness and vo luntar iness on the part of the l e a r n e r . (Peters , 1972, p . 45) 18 Simpson and Jackson (J984, p . 42) t r a n s l a t e Pe ter ' s c r i t e r i a to read as fo l lows : . . .we think of education as being worthwhile for i t s own sake (as wel l as ins trumenta l ly v a l u a b l e ) , broadening our understanding or "cognit ive perspect ive" , developing a sense of commitment to valuable th ings , r e q u i r i n g awareness on the part of the l e a r n e r , and tak ing many d i f f e r e n t forms. In essence education i s much l i k e reform i n that no p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y or process i s picked out and, "both concepts have the c r i t e r i o n b u i l t in to them that something worth while should be achieved (Peters , 1972, p . 25)." Despite t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s , they d i f f e r i n t h a t , "Education does not imply , l i k e ' r e f o r m ' , that a man should be brought back from a s tate of turpi tude in to which he has l a p s e d ; . . . . ( I b i d . , 1972, p . 25)" I t i s the manner of reform that c l e a r l y d i f f e r s from that of educat ion . While both concepts are s i m i l a r i n that they imply that something worth while i s being or has been i n t e n t i o n a l l y transmit ted and that p o s i t i v e changes w i l l take p lace , they d i f f e r i n that i t i s only education which always does so i n a moral ly acceptable way. Reform i s not bound by such a noble s tandard. Reform can be c a r r i e d out i n various moral ly unacceptable ways, i . e . behavioural therapy along the l i n e s of c o n d i t i o n i n g , could or would be used i n an attempt to reach moral ly acceptable ends. Therefore any not ion of reform or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be set aside for education which, " . . . i m p l i e s that something worth while i s being or has been i n t e n t i o n a l l y 19 transmit ted in a moral ly acceptable manner. ( I b i d . , 1972, p . 25)." While the preceding d i scuss ion may seem enl ighten ing i t has only l ed to some unanswered quest ions , i . e . What i s worth whi le? , How do we know? According to Kazepides (1984) knowledge i s worthwhile. While f r u i t f u l to be t o l d that knowledge i s worth while i t begs the question as to what cons t i tu tes knowledge. Despite the long standing debate which surrounds the d e f i n i t i o n of knowledge, i n t h i s thes i s knowledge w i l l be defined as " . . . j u s t i f i e d b e l i e f , as opposed to ignorance, mere o p i n i o n , or guesses (McNiel , 1985, p. 59)." Furthermore, i n order to prepare the student for such knowledge, the curr i cu lum, " . . .must be made up of the fo l lowing courses or content areas: mathematics, phys ica l s c i ences , knowledge of persons, l i t e r a t u r e and the f ine a r t s , morals , r e l i g i o n , phi losophy ( I b i d . , 1985, p. 59)" and the S o c i a l Sciences and H i s t o r y (Kazepides, 1984, p . 7). One can further ask why these subjec t s , and not others are accorded educat ional va lue . According to Kazepides (1984, p . 7): . . . t h e answer to that question i s that i t i s through these d i s c i p l i n e s of thought and act ion—and only through them—that we can make sense of a world and our l i v e s . It i s only through these d i s c i p l i n e s — a n d not through typ ing and the l i k e — t h a t we can develop the minds and the character of the young and enable them to gain an understanding of what i t means to be human and make the most of being human. There are no short cuts i n educat ion , no psycho log ica l t r i c k s or magic potions that can produce the educated man. The young must come gradua l ly to see and examine themselves through these , forms of knowledge, and t h e i r dec is ions and choices must be enl ightened by such knowledge and : understanding. 20 During t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n , i t was noted that c e r t a i n subjec t s , as opposed to o thers , were i d e n t i f i e d and presented as developing or l ead ing to knowledge which was deemed worthwhile. A quick survey revea l s that each one of the subjects i s commonly categor ized as academic i n nature . While i t was made c l ear why they are of educat ional va lue , the connection between educat ional value and academic seems vague at best . As such i t therefore seems imperative that the d i scuss ion continues along the l i n e s of what i s t h i s i l l u s i v e concept termed "academic" and what c r i t e r i a would c l e a r l y make a program or course academic as opposed to say vocat iona l or t e c h n i c a l i n nature . The Dic t ionary of Education (1973) p. 3. defines 'academic' as , " . . . p e r t a i n i n g to the f i e l d s of E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n languages, h i s t o r y , economics, mathematics, and s c i e n c e ; . . . " Hawes and Hawes (1982) add to the d e f i n i t i o n by s t a t i n g tha t , "academic' has to do with the t h e o r e t i c a l and not the p r a c t i c a l . . . " and that an 'academic course' t r a d i t i o n a l l y cons i s t s of courses tha t , "are c l a s s i c a l , s c h o l a r l y , or i n the l i b e r a l a r t s , the substance of which i s thought and ideas: for example, phi losophy, h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , and d i s t ingu i shed from t e c h n i c a l and vocat ional t r a i n i n g . . . . ( I b i d . , 1982, p . 3) ." As for t e c h n i c a l and vocat iona l educat ion, Hawes and Hawes define the former as a , "Term loose ly app l i ed to s tudies i n p r a c t i c a l or appl ied f i e l d s as d i s t ingu i shed from studies i n academic d i s c i p l i n e s , ( I b i d . , 1982, p. 227)," and the l a t t e r as, " . . .Programs i n secondary and post-secondary education designed to prepare the l earner for employment i n a s p e c i f i c occupation or industry by 21 coursework i n f i e l d s l i k e a g r i c u l t u r a l educat ion , automotive educat ion , or beauty c u l t u r e education ( I b i d . , 1982, p . 242)." There i s s t i l l one more task that must be performed p r i o r to proceeding with the c r i t i q u e of the General Equivalency Diploma program. That task i s to determine the d i f f erence between education and t r a i n i n g . This i s a necessary step i f one i s to come to a better understanding of what i s t r u l y educat ion . Furthermore, i t should a i d in determining to what extent , i f any, the G . E . D . i s an 'educat ion' program. Peters (1972, p . 34) argues that: . . . t h e concept of ' t r a i n i n g ' has a p p l i c a t i o n when a s k i l l or competence has to be acquired which i s to be exerc ised i n r e l a t i o n to a s p e c i f i c end or func t ion or i n accordance with the canons of some s p e c i f i c mode of thought, or p r a c t i c e . I f i t i s sa id that a person i s ' t r a i n e d ' the questions 'To do what?' , 'For what? , ' 'As what?' , ' In what?' are appropr ia te ; for a person cannot be t r a i n e d i n a general sort of way . . .Wi th ' educat ion ' , however, the matter i s very d i f f e r e n t ; " f o r a person i s never described as "educated" i n r e l a t i o n to any s p e c i f i c end, f u n c t i o n , or mode of thought. Furthermore, "To say that 'education i s of the whole' i s at l e a s t to make the negative point that i t i s not something that perta ins to a person i n respect of h i s competence i n any s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l , a c t i v i t y , or mode of thought ( I b i d . , 1972, p . 35)." According to Archambeault and Archambeault (1982-cited i n Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s , 1984, p. 170) the d i f ference between t r a i n i n g and education . . . t r a i n i n g i s genera l ly considered to be s p e c i f i c j o b - o r i e n t e d knowledge or s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n which prepares a person to work i n a given job i n a given agency or type of agency. Educat ion, on the other 22 hand, r e f l e c t s a l i b e r a l a r t s o r i e n t a t i o n and i s de f ined as deve lop ing a pe r son ' s genera l knowledge and p o w e r . . . . And l a s t but not l e a s t Cosman (1985, p . 22) sees the d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a i n i n g and educa t ion as thus : To educate i s not j u s t t o teach f a c t s and s k i l l s and r u l e s of conduct . Educat ion i s not p r i m a r i l y a matter of memory and submiss ion . Educa t ion i s not j u s t a matter of t r a n s m i t t i n g to pass ive r e c i p i e n t s a g iven c u l t u r a l and moral t r a d i t i o n . Educa t ion i s not j u s t a matter of s c h o o l i n g or t r a i n i n g . Educa t ion , aimed at t h e " f u l l development of the human p e r s o n a l i t y , " i s a matter of deve lop ing the c a p a c i t i e s of the s tudent fo r dynamic i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y and a c t i v e moral j u d g m e n t — p o t e n t i a l i t i e s capable o f e i t h e r being developed or being l e f t i n a undeveloped s t a t e . Educa t ion the re fo re must p rov ide a method and an environment which w i l l s t i m u l a t e and enable the s tudent to f a s h i o n the ins t ruments of l o g i c a l thought and of moral r e a s o n i n g , i n the fo rmat ion of which the s tudent must c o l l a b o r a t e . Such c o l l a b o r a t i o n cannot take p lace i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n atmosphere of i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral r e s t r a i n t . . . There fo re , based upon the p reced ing , to be cons idered both academic and educa t ion a course or program must meet the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1 . The courses o f f e r ed must p e r t a i n t o the c l a s s i c a l , s c h o l a r l y or the l i b e r a l a r t s d i s c i p l i n e s , i . e . p h i l o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n languages , economics, mathematics and s c i e n c e s ; 2. The substance of each course or program must be thought and ideas ; 3. Each course or program must be s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as t o promote unders tand ing , a ' c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e ' , and a l l o w i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s to a c q u i r e wor thwhi le knowledge; 4. The course or program i s not p r i m a r i l y designed to prepare the l e a r n e r for employment i n a s p e c i f i c occupa t ion or i n d u s t r y . 23 CHAPTER FOUR The General Equivalency.Diploma,Program; .A . C r i t i q u e The .General Equivalency .Diploma Program .or (G.E..D.) was o r i g i n a l l y developed i n 1966 by the United States Army to provide p o t e n t i a l dra f tees , who had educat ional d e f i c i e n c i e s , .with the requirements to meet .Army standards (Smith, Archer , and Kidd , 1970; G o o d a l l , 1978). Although the exact date i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n , the G.E. .D. d i d e v e n t u a l l y , with few m o d i f i c a t i o n s , f i n d i t s way in to the Pen i t en t iary system of Canada and most major p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. According to Gooda l l : Students must pass f i v e separate examinations i n order to rece ive the G . E . D . There are exams i n Grammar, L i t e r a t u r e , Math; Science and S o c i a l S tudies . A l l of the exams are of the m u l t i p l e choice v a r i e t y . (Goodal l , 1978,'. p . 1) The G . E . D . was o r i g i n a l l y designed as an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program. It has been s l i g h t l y modified at some p e n i t e n t i a r i e s l i k e Matsqui where, "We t r e a t the c lass as a group most of the time and a l l students must wri te the exams during the s p e c i f i e d exam period approximately 12 weeks a f ter the beginning of the course. ( I b i d . , 1978, p . 1). Notwithstanding the value of a group approach and some major advantages such as: ease of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s , o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n by the M i n i s t r y of Education i n the form of a diploma, a v a l i d p r e - r e q u i s i t e for some post-secondary programs (excluding B . C . I . T , S . F . U . and U . B . C ) , immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n , a sense of success, and increased a b i l i t i e s i n simple mathematics and reading s k i l l s , the program i s severe ly flawed and does not come c lose to being academic education as has been defined e a r l i e r . B a s i c a l l y a l l that i s required of the i n s t r u c t o r and the student i s to get through s u c c e s s f u l l y a s er i e s or bat tery of f i v e content area t e s t s . Both the manner (rote-memorization) and matter (booklets of previous or example t e s t s ) of the program revolve around, or are dedicated s p e c i f i c a l l y , to accomplishing the aforementioned task . While most educat ional programs have t e s t s , no true educat ional program i s s o l e l y t e s t o r i e n t e d , nor for that matter i s an educat ional program simply a battery of t e s t s . While ' teaching to t e s t ' may be prevalent i n some modern day high school programs, i t i s not the only th ing that a good high school teacher does. To do so would c l e a r l y d iminish the value of the program. Furthermore, any teacher that s imply r e l i e d upon the methodological approach known as rote-memorization would c l e a r l y not be ' t eaching ' which Peters (1972, pp. 39-40) c o r r e c t l y argues: i s a complex a c t i v i t y which unites together processes , such as i n s t r u c t i n g and t r a i n i n g , by the o v e r a l l i n t e n t i o n of ge t t ing pupi l s not only to acquire knowledge, s k i l l s , and modes of conduct, but to acquire them in a manner which involves understanding and eva luat ion of the r a t i o n a l e under ly ing them. They would, at most, be only ' d r i l l i n g ' t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 1 While most classroom tes ts are var ied i n format, i . e . m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e , short answer, paragraphs, essays, and so on, and i n most cases are var ied i n the l e v e l of l earn ing outcomes they measure (a range from low l e v e l r e c a l l of s p e c i f i c f ac t s and data to high l e v e l understanding) 2 the G . E . D . t es ts use a simple m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e format to measure only low l e v e l 25 outcomes. The m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e format only r e q u i r e s i t s users , " . . . t o recognize the correct answer from a small range of a l t e r n a t i v e s (Goodal l , 1978, p. 2 ) ." Thus students may guess at some of the answers, and the exam may not accurate ly measure t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . Further , students may not have to l e a r n the mater ia l as thoroughly i n order to recognize a correct answer as they do to r e c a l l i t , 3 and br ighter students may not be chal lenged because the task i s r e l a t i v e l y easy, and they may rece ive no or l i t t l e i n t r i n s i c reward from j u s t , " f i l l i n g i n a blank spot beneath the number of the correc t answer ( I b i d . , 1978, p. 2) ." In add i t i on i t seems that a l l f ive exams are norm-referenced (a s tudent 's t e s t mark i s compared and ranked with the marks of h is peers) as opposed to c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d (mastery) t e s t s . Thus a student , " . . . m a y , however, have answered only 50% of the exam questions c o r r e c t l y ( I b i d . , 1978, p . 3)-" Many students , there fore , may pass without even having mastered the bas ic content requirements of the course. While a student may gain a f e e l i n g of success from t h i s procedure, to s a c r i f i c e academic achievement i n such a manner i s rather c a l l o u s indeed. According to the Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education reviewers , "If q u a l i t y performance i s not demanded the educat ional process w i l l be of l i t t l e r e a l value (Report to the S o l i c i t o r Genera l , 1979, p . 114)." While i t can be argued that the G . E . D . has some instrumental value i n that one who takes the program rece ives (upon success fu l completion) a high school equivalency c e r t i f i c a t e that may al low the r e c i p i e n t to enter into some sort of vocat iona l t r a i n i n g program or qua l i fy for some j o b s , i t i s 26 not , i n keeping with the es tabl i shed c r i t e r i a , worthwhile for i t s own sake and thus cannot be construed as educat ion . Furthermore, even though the G . E . D . i s l abe led an academic education program, i t i s nei ther education nor academic. Simply being a battery of f i v e t es t s that happen to t e s t f i v e academic content areas does not make the G . E . D . academic because: 1) the substance of each tes t i s c l e a r l y ne i ther thought nor ideas; 2) each t e s t i s geared towards the p r a c t i c a l not the t h e o r e t i c a l ; and, 3) the bat tery of tes ts and t h e i r subsequent success fu l completion i s p r i m a r i l y dedicated to prov id ing the l earner with the means (a high school equivalency c e r t i f i c a t e ) to a t t a i n a vocat ion . Another c r i t i c i s m of the G . E . D . i s that i t completely f a i l s to promote a ' cogn i t ive perspective* in i t s s tudents . While there may be something of worth i n the G . E . D . , i . e . increased reading and mathematics s k i l l s and a diploma recognized by the M i n i s t r y of Educat ion , and some of the students who take i t probably do care somewhat about i t , the G . E . D . does not promote a wide ranging conception of what the student i s doing while s tudying for and w r i t i n g the t e s t s . In other words, a G . E . D . student could d i l i g e n t l y be working away at the G . E . D . , " . . . w i t h o u t seeing i t s connection with much e l s e , i t s place in a coherent pattern of l i f e . For him i t i s an a c t i v i t y which i s c o g n i t i v e l y a d r i f t (Peters , 1972, p . 31)." Further evidence of the G . E . D . s i n a b i l i t y to operate adequately as a regular academic high school program i s presented i n a r e c e n t l y re leased study (1986) conducted at and by the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin. Even though the G . E . D . Test ing S e r v i c e , administered by the American Counc i l on Educat ion , claims that i t s examinations allow people "to demonstrate a 27 l e v e l of educat ional achievement comparable to that of regu lar h igh-school graduates, (American Counc i l of Educa t ion -c i t ed i n F i e l d s , 1986, p . 3 0 ) , the Wisconsin study revealed the fo l lowing s t a r t l i n g r e s u l t s : 1) t h a t . . .62 per cent of the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin freshmen with G . E . D . ' s i n 1983-84 had dropped out w i th in a year; 2) of the 238 who earned t h e i r c e r t i f i c a t e s a f ter 1978, 56 scored below the n inth grade l e v e l and 20 at the s ix -grade l e v e l or below; and, 3) at the Milwaukee Technica l C o l l e g e , from 1980 through 1983, only 8 per cent of G . E . D . - h o l d e r s e n r o l l e d i n two-year programs completed them, compared to 10 per cent for dropouts with no c e r t i f i c a t e and 30 per cent of h igh-school graduates. In one year programs, 38 per cent of the G . E . D . - h o l d e r s f i n i s h e d , compared to 31 per cent of the dropouts and 59 per cent of h igh-school graduates. While i t must be conceded that post-secondary preparat ion i s not the only purpose of a h igh-school education program, i t i s one important purpose and when used as a measuring rod o f fers evaluators a very good i n d i c a t o r of the worth of a program. Lois Quinn, one of the two coordinators of the s tudy, i s quite r i g h t i n a s ser t ing that : The f ind ings c a l l in to ser ious question the p r a c t i c e i n Wisconsin and many other states of encouraging a t - r i s k youth or o lder adul t s to e n r o l l i n two to three month G . E . D . - p r e p c lasses as a way to 'complete high s c h o o l ' . (Quinn-c i ted i n F i e l d s , 1986, p . 3 0 ) . Even though i t might be argued that there c l e a r l y i s some worth for the student/inmate who takes the G . E . D . , the program f a l l s far short of what could be at ta ined by taking a t r u l y academic education program. Not only would t h i s program provide the student with the s k i l l s needed to 28 achieve instrumental bene f i t s , but i t would provide him/her with a better understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of both subject and s e l f . According to Cosman (1985, p . 20): . . . t h e nature of education i s that someone becomes someone of q u a l i t y or value by the incorporat ion of q u a l i t y or value into h i s or her being. The more value an item has, the more being i t has. A person has numerous p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . The more education contr ibutes to the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of these p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , the more a human being he or she w i l l be. The more a person r e a l i z e s onese l f , the more one makes of onese l f , the more valuable person one becomes. While these aims are laudatory , given a l l the i n h i b i t o r s found both wi th in and outside the modern p e n i t e n t i a r y system, they would be Utopian aims. Furthermore, one would have to be e i ther extremely egocentr ic , naive or both to even suggest the not ion that a s i n g l e academic program or course could achieve these aims e s p e c i a l l y as most educat ional programs at the elementary and secondary l e v e l s are of short durat ion (three or four months). The simple fact that a t r u l y academic education program would at l e a s t attempt to r e a l i z e these aims would auger wel l with most people concerned with the w e l l - b e i n g , and d i g n i t y of the inmate i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . * Even though the arrow f a l l s f a r short of i t s t arge t , along the way i t does traverse some h i t h e r t o f o r e untouched reg ions , i . e . i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement, aes thet i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , and r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. The G . E . D . could never conceivably cross a l l these reg ions . While the G . E . D . or any other such ' d r i l l ' or i ented i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program, " . . . c a n be a useful a n c i l l a r y for i n - c l a s s quizzes and for homework, p a r t i c u l a r l y for slower l earners (Ayers, 1979, p . 5) ," or i t 29 might be s u i t a b l e as a program for those inmates whose academic p r e - r e q u i s i t e s are at a very low l e v e l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i f to o f fer them a program at a higher academic and thus more d i f f i c u l t l e v e l could lead to f r u s t r a t i o n and an abandonment of a l l education programs), the G . E . D . f a l l s far short of being an adequate academic secondary program for inmates i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Besides the other reasons given above, the G . E . D . operates at an educat ional l e v e l that i s wel l below that of many inmates who opt to take a high school l e v e l program i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . In 1979, (Waksman and her a s s o c i a t e s - c i t e d i n McCarthy 1985, pp. 449-450) re l eased the f ind ings of t h e i r study which convinc ing ly contrad ic ted the long he ld assumption that most inmates were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y incapable of handl ing other more academical ly or iented types of l e a r n i n g than those o f fered by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . As such, simply o f f e r i n g the G . E . D . to inmates capable of handl ing more i s unwarranted, unsound and c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s a misunderstanding of the academic c a p a b i l i t i e s of many inmates. Surely nothing good can come out of a program that i s operat ing at an academic l e v e l that i s wel l below the c a p a b i l i t i e s of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . While the G . E . D . may have i t s p lace , i t i s not enough and more must be o f fered i f one wants to , at l e a s t , insure t h a t , " . . . t h e inmate i s not worse o f f when he emerges than he was at the time of admittance (Report to the S o l i c i t o r General , 1979, p . 76)." Whereas a true academic education program would c l e a r l y o f f e r , and be more than simply a counterforce to the i l l e f fec t s of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s on inmates, one should not minimize the importance of any program that could poss ib ly contr ibute 30 t o , or a i d i n n e u t r a l i z i n g , the i l l e f f ec t s of ' p r i s o n i z a t i o n ' , which Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984, p . 220) def ine as , " . . . t h e process by which the offender becomes s o c i a l i z e d in to inmate s o c i a l system, with i t s attendant behavioural and a t t i t u d i n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s . " Even though I am not s a t i s f i e d with , and thus do not favour the G . E . D . , l i k e the O . I . S . E . reviewers I , " . . . d o bel ieve that modest arguments can be made for the existence of a t o t a l range of educat ional opportun i t i e s based on the informed voluntary choice of the inmate (Report to the S o l i c i t o r General , 1979, p . 70)." As such, i t would seem that there i s indeed both a place and need for the G . E . D . , i . e . with slower l e a r n e r s , as homework, and so on, as wel l as for some v iab l e academic a l t e r n a t i v e , i . e . for those capable of handling much more than that of fered by the G . E . D . J . Ayers (1979) i d e n t i f i e d such an a l t e r n a t i v e , of which part has been incorporated in to the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a / S i m o n Fraser u n i v e r s i t y program, when he wrote 'A Model for Pr i son Education Programs and Guide l ines for t h e i r O p e r a t i o n ' . Simply s ta ted the a l t e r n a t i v e was to allow a l l pr i soners with the a b i l i t y to r e a d , i . e . achieve a grade equivalent of 9.0 on s tandardized reading t e s t s , t o , "pursue u n i v e r s i t y courses i n the humanities and s o c i a l sciences (Ayers, 1979, p . 6) ." Even though t h i s i s a v a l i d a l t e r n a t i v e for some student/ inmates , i t i s c l e a r l y not the only a l t e r n a t i v e for many inmates at the academic high school s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l . While some inmates have been able to overcome t h e i r educat ional d e f i c i e n c i e s v i a t h e i r l i f e experiences and s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , many have not , 31 and are c l e a r l y i n need of a program that could a i d them i n t h e i r attempt to do so . Furthermore, even i f an i n d i v i d u a l had educated h i m / h e r s e l f , there are s t i l l many things (both i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c ) that can be learned from taking a we l l designed academic education program. While the G . E . D . may s a t i s f y slower l e a r n e r s , and the S . F . U . u n i v e r s i t y program, where a v a i l a b l e , c l e a r l y s a t i s f i e s the needs of the more g i f t e d , poss ib ly se l f -educated student , there seems to be no program that i s academical ly su i t ed or s a t i s f i e s the needs of a great many inmates who are present ly betwixt and between the two academic a l t e r n a t i v e s o f fered students in the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Furthermore, given that only four p e n i t e n t i a r i e s o f f er the S . F . U . u n i v e r s i t y program, there are many g i f t e d or above average students who c l e a r l y have no a l t e r n a t i v e but to take the inadequate G . E . D . or opt for some other vocat iona l or t r a i n i n g program. Ayers (1979, pp. 5-6) i s correc t when he s tates that : The most important s i n g l e requirement for success fu l l earn ing experiences with the type of students that predominate i n pr isons i s in determining the appropriate l e v e l and type of chal lenge . There should be a broad range of programs and procedures between that which f r u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l student because of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and/or fear of f a i l u r e and that which d u l l s h i s i n t e r e s t because of boredom.. . Even though an academic high school program based upon sound educat ional p r i n c i p l e s would c l e a r l y deal with both the high and low achiever , given that these two groups are a lready of fered v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the high academic a c h i e v e r ) , the academic high school l e v e l 32 program should be focused upon and dedicated to those who are offered less or more than what they present ly need and are c l e a r l y capable of handl ing . While i t has not as yet been formal ly s t a t e d , o v e r a l l , what i s being advocated i s an academic l i b e r a l education of a t r a d i t i o n a l nature . This type of education has various academic subjects that have been and a r e , " . . . d i r e c t e d to a broadening and deepening of the mind and imagination and they have combined with methods of i n s t r u c t i o n , depending h e a v i l y on d i s c u s s i o n , that treated the student as though he were already an adul t (Report to the S o l i c i t o r General , 1979, p . 78)." S p e c i f i c a l l y : . . . t h e emphasis was not on the age of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , but i n the ends of the educat ion , which were to provide that type of experience and l e a r n i n g that helped the i n d i v i d u a l to achieve the highest standards of adult behaviour. ( I b i d . , 1979, p . 77) It i s t h i s focus upon the student as or as becoming an adul t that augers wel l for l i b e r a l education i n the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. According to the O . I . S . E . reviewers: I f one combines t h i s view with the somewhat s t a r t l i n g observations regarding the age of most inmates, and the t r a n s i t i o n which seems to occur i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s , some poss ib le conclusions can be drawn. The type of education advocated i n t h i s case, that i s the " l i b e r a l education", o f f er s an opportuni ty for the maturing that seems to l ead to a reduct ion i n c r i m i n a l behaviour to occur e a r l i e r than i t does i f l e f t to other inf luences i n the community, i n c l u d i n g those to be found i n the p r i s o n . (Report to the S o l i c i t o r Genera l , 1979, pp.77~78) What greater argument can be made for any pr i son program than that i t may have the chance of reducing the c r i m i n a l behaviour of i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . I f nothing e l se a program, that at l ea s t attempts to achieve a 33 s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d , and more mature a d u l t , would seem to be a worthy and much needed a l t e r n a t i v e to the d r i l l or iented General Equivalency Diploma program present ly of fered inmates at the high school l e v e l i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 34 Summary In t h i s chapter i t has been argued that the Canadian Pen i t en t iary Service has never been committed to education i n p r i s o n s . Rather there has been an emphasis on t r a i n i n g dedicated to a s p i r i t u a l re-awakening or a voca t ion . Whereas education has to do with the transmiss ion of what i s worthwhile to those who are committed to i t , involves knowledge, understanding and some kind of cogni t ive perspec t ive , ru les out some procedures of t ransmiss ion , and i s not l i m i t e d to some s p e c i f i c end, funct ion or mode of thought, t r a i n i n g i s l i m i t e d i n i t s scope to p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , u s u a l l y v o c a t i o n a l . Even the most commonly used program at the secondary l e v e l - the G . E . D . , despite i t s seemingly academic content ( E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S tudies , e t c . ) , i s not geared to educat ional ends. Thus i t i s argued for a v a r i e t y of reasons that a l i b e r a l , academic education program i s necessary at the secondary l e v e l . The next chapter w i l l review the i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s found i n the pr i son system, i n order to attempt to a s c e r t a i n the f e a s i b i l i t y of implementing an academic secondary education program i n the Federal prisons of B r i t i s h Columbia. 35 END NOTES It should be noted that i t i s not my intention to imply that the G.E.D. would be more acceptable given a different methodological approach, ' ' i.e . inquiry teaching, and so on, but to point out that G.E.D. teachers need only ' d r i l l ' not 'teach' their students. " ' ' I am not attempting to claim that a l l high school tests measure the higher order learning outcomes as discussed i n Benjamin Bloom's book Taxonomy of Education Objectives: The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (1956). What I am claiming i s that most high school tests are constructed i n such a way as to at least attempt to get beyond the low l e v e l r e c a l l of s p e c i f i c facts. Goodall (1978) i s c l e a r l y and correctly suggesting that the tests simply require a'response (recognize) as opposed to some form of simple thought ( r e c a l l ) . In other words, the tests are and act as agents of conditioning. This may be acceptable for animals but not for humans. 36 CHAPTER FIVE Factors that f a c i l i t a t e and i n h i b i t academic education programs in Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s Before des igning the conceptual framework for an educat ional program for inmates i n p r i s o n , i t i s imperative that one c l e a r l y considers the p le thora of f a c t o r s which impinge upon education i n p r i s o n . I f one does not consider the f a c t o r s which could i n h i b i t the implementation of any new program, then t h i s program i s l i k e l y to f a i l . I f key i n h i b i t o r s are i d e n t i f i e d , then the program must, where p o s s i b l e , t r y to avoid them, counter them, or e l iminate them. I f there are major f a c i l i t a t o r s , then these may be used to advantage. Whereas there are various and complex fac tors that impinge on an educat ional program i n any s e t t i n g i . e . , teacher-student r e l a t i o n s h i p , p h y s i c a l wel l being of students , economics, a v a i l a b i l i t y of resource mater ia l s and so on, t h i s chapter w i l l focus on those fac tors that d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n to education i n p r i s o n . According to Boshier (1983), one problem, that of inmate p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n pr i son educat ion, has three f a c e t s . These facets are: (1) person and environmental f a c i l i t a t o r s and i n h i b i t o r s that impel inmates in to and away from education programmes; (2) changes i n motivat ion and behaviour assoc iated with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n programmes; and (3) long-term impact of pr i son educat ion. (Boshier , 1983, p . 10) 37 Notwithstanding the importance of a l l three f a c e t s , t h i s chapter w i l l only be concerned d i r e c t l y with facet number one i . e . , person and environmental f a c i l i t a t o r s and i n h i b i t o r s . In order to provide an organized p o r t r a y a l , the f a c i l i t a t o r s and i n h i b i t o r s w i l l be analyzed under two main headings: 1) External and environmental fac tors i . e . , The Of f i ce of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , The Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s ; D irec tor of Educat ion, T r a i n i n g and Personal Development; The General P u b l i c ; Economics; and the Pen i t en t iary System Bureaucracy; and (2) Internal ac tors and environmental f a c t o r s i . e . , I n s t i t u t i o n a l Heads/Wardens; The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r ; The Pr i son Educator; Pr i son F a c i l i t i e s ; Endemic Tensions; The Pr i son Environment; Inmates—their a t t i tudes and a b i l i t i e s , and Related Teaching Problems. I . External Actors and Environmental Factors (a) The Of f i ce of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l of Canada The S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i s c l e a r l y a major ex terna l f a c t o r who, according to s ec t i on 2, subsect ion 2 of An Act respect ing the S o l i c i t o r - General , " . . . h o l d s o f f i c e during pleasure and has the management d i r e c t i o n of the Department of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l ( S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l A c t , 1983-84)." Furthermore, s ec t ion 4 of the Act reads: The dut ies and funct ions of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i n Canada extend to and include a l l matters over which the Parliament of Canada has j u r i s d i c t i o n , not by law assigned to any other department, branch or agency of the Government of Canada r e l a t e d to (a) r e formator i e s , p r i s o n s , p e n i t e n t i a r i e s ; (b) parole and r e v i s i o n s ; 38 (c) the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e ; and, (d) the Canadian Secur i ty I n t e l l i g e n c e S e r v i c e . ( S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l Ac t , Sect ion 4 - 1966-67, c .25 , s .4 ; 1983-84, c .21, s.95) The S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l i s a l so respons ib le for prov id ing Parliament and the cabinet with a r e p o r t , " . . . showing the operations of the department of the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l for the f i s c a l year ( S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l Ac t , Sect ion 5) ," and for appo int ing , "o f f i cer s of the Service to be known as D i r e c t o r s of D i v i s i o n s and Regional D i r e c t o r s (Pen i tent iary Ac t , Sect ion 5(1) ." A l l of the above c l e a r l y suggest that the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l has the power to e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e or i n h i b i t education i n p r i s o n . As evidence, one can review the recent c o n f l i c t between the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l and the proponents of u n i v e r s i t y education in pr i sons . The c o n f l i c t s t a r t e d in January of 1983 when the Honourable Robert Kaplan, c la iming economic reasons, "announced that contracts between u n i v e r s i t i e s and the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service of Canada would not be renewed (Boshier , 1983, p . 29)." Despite the concerted e f f o r t s of many people e . g . , former and present inmates, Members of Parl iament, r e p o r t e r s , newspaper execut ives , and educators , the Sol ic i tor—General d id not soften h i s stand u n t i l November 1983 (a f u l l nine months a f ter the o r i g i n a l announcement) when, " . . . the government announced a compromise (Duguid & Hoekema, 1985, p . 190)" and, " . . . i ssued a c a l l for bids from u n i v e r s i t i e s across Canada for post-secondary programs i n each reg ion of the country ( I b i d , 1985, p. 190)." Unfortunate ly , inmates were now r e q u i r e d t o , "pay a minimum fee d i r e c t l y to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Serv ice ; $20 per four month course ( I b i d . , 1985, p . 190)." This prov i s i on caused the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a to 39 withdraw from the nego t ia t ions . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , as they withdrew, the S o l i o i t o r - G e n e r a l announced another compromise which was, "that the fees were to be deducted from inmates' compulsory savings o n l y , ra ther than from t h e i r 'd i sposab le ' income ( I b i d . , 1985, p . 190)." Furthermore, the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l o f fered to provide loans to those inmates with i n s u f f i c i e n t incomes to pay for the courses . Thus, i n A p r i l of 1984, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , a second negot ia t ing par ty , signed an agreement with the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l to run the u n i v e r s i t y program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Even though the u n i v e r s i t y program was cont inued, i n r e t r o s p e c t , the uncerta inty created by the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l ' s d e c i s i o n , and i t s poss ib le r e v e r s a l , serves to remind p a r t i c i p a t i o n researchers that they are dea l ing with a phenomenon that stems from i n t e r a c t i o n s of i n t e r n a l psycho log ica l and ex terna l 'system' v a r i a b l e s (Boshier , 1983, p. 30). (b) The Commissioner of Correct ions Even though the Commissioner of Correct ions i s appointed by the Governor-General i n Counc i l and rece ives d i r e c t i o n from the S o l i c i t o r - Genera l , t h i s ' o n - l i n e ' c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r has the power to f a c i l i t a t e or i n h i b i t education in p r i s o n . According to sec t ion 4 of the Pen i t en t iary A c t , the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s , " . . . . h a s the c o n t r o l and management of the Service and a l l matters connected within (Peni tent iary Ac t , Sect ion 4, 1960-1961, c .53, s .4 , e t c . ) . " Furthermore, the Commissioner's dec i s ion to implement or support or condemn or discont inue an educat ional program i s given more weight by the fac t that he/she has the power t o , "suspend from duty any o f f i c e r or employee of the s erv i ce who i s under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n 40 (Pen i tent iary Ac t , Sect ion 8(3), 1960-61, c .53 , e t c . ) , " and to appoint , " . . . a person to inves t igate and report upon any matter a f f e c t i n g the operat ion of the Service and, for that purpose, the person appointed has a l l the powers of a commiss ioner . . . (Pen i tent iary Ac t , Sect ion 12, 1960-61)." In other words, the Commissioner i s f a r from being the t i t u l a r head of the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e . Not only does he/she give orders but he/she a lso has the power to inves t iga te and take a c t i o n . As such, the Commissioner of Correct ions or h i s o f f i c e has the power to inves t iga te and thus e f fec t any educat ional program i n a Federal pen i t en t iary in Canada. Notwithstanding the aforementioned duties and powers, according to s ec t i on 4, subsect ion 1 of the Pen i t en t iary Act: The por t ion of the s t a f f of the Nat iona l Parole Board known as the Nat ional Parole Service s h a l l be under the contro l and management of the Commissioner who, in a d d i t i o n to h i s duties under s ec t i on 4, i s r e spons ib l e , under the d i r e c t i o n of the M i n i s t e r , for the preparat ion of cases of parole and the superv i s ion of inmates to whom parole has been granted, or who have been re leased on mandatory superv i s ion pursuant to the Parole A c t . (1960-61, c .53, 3.37) One example of how the Commissioner of Correct ions may inadvertent ly i n h i b i t education in pr i son i s i n not c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parole and entry in to an education program. According to the Pen i t en t iary A c t , i t i s the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n who oversees paro le , which i s important to most inmates serv ing time i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . The Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education reviewers s t a t e , "For every inmate the most powerful incent ive next to merely s u r v i v i n g w i l l be r e l a t e d to h i s r e l e a s e . Nothing can compare with that in power of a t t r a c t i o n (Report to the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , 1979, p . 109)." Unfortunate ly , ne i ther 41 the Commissioner nor the Parole Board make e x p l i c i t the terms of paro le . The O . I . S . E . (1979, p . 109) reviewers s tate that : However, there i s much o b s c u r i t y regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p to paro l e . This uncer ta in ty , shared by inmates and some o f f i c i a l s , app l i e s not only to general p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educat ional programs but a lso to what view the Parole Board may or may not take of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r program. It i s t h i s uncerta inty that turns the whole a f f a i r into a cat and mouse game with the inmate t r y i n g v igorous ly to f i gure out what importance the Commissioner or Parole Board place on educat ional programs i n r e l a t i o n to paro l e . (c) D irec tor of Educat ion, Tra in ing and Personal Development Another major player i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l Service i s the D irec tor of Educat ion , T r a i n i n g and Personal Development who d i r e c t l y oversees , "a ch ie f of academic educat ion , and a ch i e f of vocat iona l education (Cosman, 1980, p . 45)," and whose primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to d i r e c t a l l facets of education i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of Canada. According to s ec t i on 7 of the Pen i t en t iary Service Regulat ion: D i r e c t o r s of D i v i s i o n s may, under the a u t h o r i t y of the Commissioner, issue i n s t r u c t i o n s , to be known as D i v i s i o n a l S t a f f Ins truct ions concerning the matters that are t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and those i n s t r u c t i o n s s h a l l set out the procedures by which p o l i c y i s to be given e f f e c t . Even though t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s u l t i m a t e l y respons ib le to the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l (as are a l l c o r r e c t i o n a l s t a f f mem'bers) and tend to only perform such dut ies as are formal ly delegated by the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s , (Pen i tent iary Service Regulat ions , Sect ion 4, 1978), where a problem may a r i s e i s in how a p a r t i c u l a r D i r e c t o r i n t e r p r e t s and 42 subsequently c a r r i e s out the Commissioner's d i r e c t i v e s . A d i r e c t o r may (1) s e l ec t or favour one mode or type of educat ional program over another; and (2) promote or neglect any e x i s t i n g educat ional program i n a p a r t i c u l a r p e n i t e n t i a r y . Cons ider ing t h i s l a t i t u d e , the D irec tor c o u l d , at h i s / h e r p leasure , become a major f a c i l i t a t o r or i n h i b i t o r of any or a l l education or education programs in the Federal pen i t en t iary system of Canada. (d) The General Publ ic Another external fac tor i s a general lack of p u b l i c support for correc t ions educat ion . While d i f f i c u l t , i f not imposs ib le , to determine the exact numbers, i t i s c l ear that there are some members of the general pub l i c who are opposed to educat ional programs i n Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The Report to the S o l i c i t o r General (1979, pp. 1-2) states that , " . . . i n the minds of ord inary c i t i z e n s , the admission of a p r i s o n e r ' s r i g h t to education does not fol low with blunt evidence; on the contrary , re s i s tance runs deep (quote c i t e d i n Wright , e t . a l . , 1980, p. 18)." (e) Economics Economics c l e a r l y plays an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n determining the nature of the educat ional en terpr i se i n Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Without adequate funding , the educat ional enterpr i se would wither away and d i e . In f a c t , without the basic funding, there would e x i s t no educat ional e n t e r p r i s e . While the former as opposed to the l a t t e r seems to be the case i n the Federal pen i t en t iary system, i t was not too long ago when a high ranking 43 C o r r e c t i o n a l Serv ice o f f i c i a l attempted the l a t t e r . In 1983, as was prev ious ly noted, the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , the Honourable Robert Kaplan, attempted, for economic reasons, to e l iminate a l together one major component of the educat ional enterpr i se - the u n i v e r s i t y program. As Kaplan s tated during the January 24th Commons debate: . . . . T h e s e programs cost $3,500 per inmate per year. This i s a high amount. My hope i s that post-secondary education can s t i l l be brought to them by s e l f - h e l p , by group sessions and by correspondence courses . I be l i eve t h a t , i f those inmates r e a l l y want to have the benef i t of post-secondary educat ion , they can develop i t i n some way that w i l l cost the taxpayer l e s s money. (Kaplan's statement c i t e d i n Duguid & Hoekema, 1985, ' p . 200) Even though a compromise was found, the bottom l i n e was economics. Related to both economics and pub l i c economic support i s a fac tor l o o s e l y termed p u b l i c economic support . According to Wright e t . a l . (1980, p. 18), "In Canada, only four per cent of C . C . S . expenditures i s devoted to educat ional purposes." This i s a r e l a t i v e l y small percentage, and Roberts (1971) quite c o r r e c t l y s ta tes : As i t i s d i f f i c u l t to prove that education can be j u s t i f i e d i n terms of r e c i d i v i s m and 'good c i t i z e n s h i p ' , educat ional programs are vulnerable to the c r i t i c i s m that they are a waste of taxpayers' money as they merely produce better educated c r i m i n a l s . (Roberts, 1971, c i t e d i n Wright , e t . a l . , 1980, pp. 18-19) While i t i s true that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y assess the worth of educat ion, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f r e c i d i v i s m and 'good c i t i z e n s h i p ' are the major i n d i c a t o r s of a program's success , there are several points that should be made. F i r s t , l i t t l e evidence i s presented to defend the charge that education programs lead to better educated c r i m i n a l s . That one, or a few 44 inmates who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n education programs, returned to c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s upon r e l e a s e , does not warrant the general charge. This argument commits the f a l l a c y of hasty g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . Second, there i s some evidence that r e c i d i v i s m can be reduced. This i s borne out by the eva luat ion study of the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a Program (Ayers, e t . a l . , 1980), r e s u l t s which, i n the main, are supported by Ross (1980) i n h i s eva luat ion of the Ayers e t . a l . r e search . T h i r d , to i n s i s t that any educat ional program guarantees a reduc t ion i n r e c i d i v i s m i s to misunderstand, i n p a r t , the educat ional e n t e r p r i s e . Education i s a l i f e long process and to expect any educat ional endeavour ( e s p e c i a l l y one of short term durat ion) to reduce r e c i d i v i s m i s to demand too much. (f) Pen i tent iary System Bureaucracy A f i n a l major problem, one that runs throughout the pen i t en t iary system, has to do with the a t t i t u d e and status of the e x i s t i n g p e n i t e n t i a r y bureaucracy. According to Cosman (1985), p . 30: Prisons today have a h i g h l y ambiguous s ta tus . On the one hand, they are created to administer j u s t i c e , penal j u s t i c e , a j u s t i c e based on punishment . . . On the other hand, they are expected to play a r o l e ' i n the p r i s o n e r ' s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The ambivalent s i t u a t i o n i s made worse because, "The e x i s t i n g pen i tent iary bureaucracy i s made up almost e n t i r e l y of people who are experienced i n the 45 es tab l i shed penal p r a c t i c e s , t r a i n e d i n the o l d approaches, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y or i ented to the conventional wisdom, and emotional ly committed to the s tatus quo ( I b i d . , 1985, p . 31)." Furthermore: There are very few educators i n the pen i t en t iary system. And what makes the prospect seem hopeless i s that the Federal government does not have a v a i l a b l e to i t e i ther the necessary body of knowledge, ins ight and t r a d i t i o n i n the f i e l d of education or a resource pool of people t r a i n e d and experienced i n that f i e l d . . . ( I b i d . , 1985, p:'3D Thus ambiguity, a lack of t r a d i t i o n i n o f f e r i n g educat ional programs, few experts i n pr i son educat ion, and an over-bureaucrat ized system charac ter i zes the Federal Government's foray into education i n p r i s o n s . Having i d e n t i f i e d the major external actors and f a c t o r s , we turn to a survey of i n t e r n a l ac tors and v a r i a b l e s which impinge on education in p r i s o n . I I . In ternat iona l Actors and Environmental Factors (a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l Heads/Wardens A ma ĵor i n t e r n a l fac tor i s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l head or warden of a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . Notwithstanding the fac t that wardens must fo l low the orders they rece ive from the Commissioner of C o r r e c t i o n s , they are o f f i c e r s who could f a c i l i t a t e or i n h i b i t educat ional programs i n p r i s o n s . According to s ec t ion 5, subsect ion 1, of the Pen i t en t iary Service Regulat ions: The i n s t i t u t i o n a l head i s respons ib le for the d i r e c t i o n of h i s s t a f f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n , safety and s e c u r i t y of h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and the c o r r e c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g of a l l inmates confined t h e r e i n . (Pen i t en t iary Service Regulat ions , Sect ion 5, Subsection 1) 46 While i t could be argued that most wardens attempt to ensure both security and safety, there i s l i t t l e evidence to show that education i s high on thei r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s . As Shea (1980, pp. 42-43) points out: Prison authorities are often negative i n their attitude toward school. The more conservative o f f i c i a l s regard school as part of the trend toward being too s o f t . School i s not punitive enough - i t i s a form of babying the i n d i v i d u a l . Furthermore, where educational programs are offered and supported in i n s t i t u t i o n s , the purpose behind that support i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the main purpose of education. Despite the fact that t r a i n i n g the inmate for work may be a noble endeavour, to equate control and security, d i s c i p l i n e , work, and i s o l a t i o n with academic education i s a clear misinterpretation and v i o l a t i o n of the term and most assuredly acts as a major i n h i b i t o r of academic education i n a Federal penitentiary. (b) The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Officer A correctional o f f i c e r that may i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e an educational program i s the placement or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r . In B r i t i s h Columbia, a judge determines the offenders' length of sentence and a placement or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r makes the f i n a l determination of where the offender w i l l reside i n the penitentiary system. According to Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984, p. 179), "The predominant factor at t h i s stage of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the security requirements of the offender, although assignment to a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n may be affected by available bedspace." Although the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r i s o f f i c i a l l y bound by the benchmark system, 1 he/she 47 s t i l l has some opt ions . At the interview and needs assessment stage, the o f f i c e r determines whether the offender needs t r a i n i n g , treatment, ' t i g h t ' s e c u r i t y or a combination of two or a l l three . According to Ekstedt and G r i f f i t h s (1984, p . 179), "The offender i s interviewed by a placement o f f i c e r who makes a needs a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g the t r a i n i n g , treatment, and s e c u r i t y requirements of the of fender ." As has j u s t been noted, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r i s l i m i t e d i n any ac t ions he or she takes , but t h i s o f f i c e r could c l e a r l y become a major f a c i l i t a t o r or i n h i b i t o r to any education program. F i r s t , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r could e i t h e r suggest or not suggest to the offender a p a r t i c u l a r education program. Second, t h i s o f f i c e r could e i t h e r decide t o , or decide not t o , send the offender to an i n s t i t u t i o n which of fered such a program. While the Benchmark system and the needs a n a l y s i s may l i m i t the scope of any dec i s ions made by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r , i t i s t h i s o f f i c e r who makes the f i n a l dec i s ion and as such could c l e a r l y a i d or hinder education or any educat ional program. (c) The Pr ison Educator G e n e r a l l y , most educators, whether out s ide / contrac t or regular s t a f f , l ack enough t r a i n i n g for dea l ing with inmates i n a pen i t en t iary s e t t i n g . This seems true despite the constant contact regular s t a f f teachers have with inmates i n the person s e t t i n g , or the teacher t r a i n i n g rece ived by many outs ide educators . Methodology without experience or v i c e - v e r s a i s c l e a r l y not enough when dea l ing with inmates i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y . According to Wright , e t . a l . (1980, p . 19), "This person must be we l l 48 trained, must be cognizant of the prison environment, must be committed to education, and must have teaching a b i l i t i e s which are superior." This l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n i s j u s t i f i e d on the basis that: Teaching in a prison i s not the same as teaching i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s . Whatever the teaching s i t u a t i o n , teachers need spe c i a l " t r a i n i n g i n order to understand the background and special problems associated with their particular student population (Campbell, 1974; Horan, 1975). Even assuming that teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y outside contract ones, could be given adequate t r a i n i n g or appropriate orientation, they would probably s t i l l be confronted with the problem of being resented by both inside teachers and regular custodial s t a f f . While there may be many reasons for th i s h o s t i l i t y on the part of the custodial s t a f f i . e . , unsurping t e r r i t o r i a l authority and threatening security and control, one of the main reasons seems to be a resentfulness or envy on the part of some members of the regular s t a f f . Some seem to f e e l that teachers are offering inmates something neither they nor their family can afford to at t a i n . According to Shea (1980, p. 43), "...some prison workers also resent the opportunity that inmates have, and are jealous of the access that they have to school f a c i l i t i e s . " Related to t h i s i s the perception of many regular s t a f f members that contract teachers tend to side with the inmate instead of with themselves. Interestingly, there are some inmates who suspect that the reverse i s true. According to one anonymous prison educator, " . . . I found i t very d i f f i c u l t when I started, since both s t a f f and inmates tended to c i r c l e around me speculating whose side I would be on... (Duguid, 1985, p. 17)." 49 Thus, the teacher enters an environment where both p a r t i e s , the regu lar s t a f f and inmates, may r e q u i r e the teacher to make a choice between "them and us". According to Duguid (1985, pp. 15-16): In the l i t e r a t u r e on pr i son education there i s a r e c u r r i n g theme which a t t e s t s to the d i f f i c u l t y or even i m p o s s i b i l i t y of 'outs ide ' i n s t r u c t o r s mainta ining a middle p o s i t i o n between pr i soner / s tudents and the demands of the pr i son regime. Whether p u l l e d toward i d e n t i f y i n g with or being over ly sympathetic towards e i t h e r s ide i n the equat ion, the p r e v a i l i n g consensus seems to be that the middle ground i s untenable i n the long r u n . Therefore , i t seems apparent that ho ld ing a middle ground p o s i t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a few anonymous teachers who were asked by Duguid to o f fer t h e i r ideas and knowledge on inmates and education i n pr i son seem to have solved the dilemma. According to one of these anonymous teachers , "This p o s i t i o n should not be a 'middle' p o s i t i o n but should favour the prisoner i n a d i r e c t educat ional posture . This does not i n v i t e c o n f l i c t with the pr i son au thor i ty ( I b i d . , 1985, p . 17)." In other words, the i d e a l p o s i t i o n of the teacher i s to serve the educat ional needs of the pr i soner / s tudent and do nothing more or l e s s that could be construed as offensive or dangerous to e i ther s ide of the 'us-them' c o n f l i c t . A misreading of the 'us-them' s i t u a t i o n by teachers i . e . , t r y i n g to please both s ides without at tending to one's o f f i c i a l job (the teaching of s tudents ) , or tak ing a s ide out of fear or preference, could ' f i r e - u p ' the already uncomfortable r e l a t i o n s h i p that ex i s t s between inmates and c u s t o d i a l s t a f f and destroy the f r a g i l e c r e d i t a b i l i t y that some very good educators have pa ins tak ing ly created and are attempting to mainta in . 50 Another major problem for the pr i son educator i s that not a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s nor the endemic tensions that ex i s t wi th in them are the same. While some i n s t i t u t i o n s have few d i srupt ions and there e x i s t s the minimum of h o s t i l i t y between the s t a f f and inmates, the p i c ture i s reversed i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s . According to Duguid (1985): At Mountain I n s t i t u t i o n the h o s t i l i t y between pr i soners a n d ' s t a f f appears v i r t u a l l y non-ex i s tent , while at Wil l iams Head i t i s at l ea s t severely muted. At Kent and Matsqui I n s t i t u t i o n s , on the other hand; the c o n f l i c t appears to be quite r e a l . (Duguid, 1985, p . 16) Thus, the dilemma i s twofold for the pr i son educator. F i r s t , as not a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s are tension f i l l e d , a pr i son educator's approach w i l l have to d i f f e r depending on the placement; and, second, where tensions are h igh , the teacher must come to a very quick understanding of them and thus avoid r e a l problems before attempting to teach t h e i r program. Another problem that could qu ick ly face the classroom teacher, and i f unresolved could i n h i b i t education i n p r i s o n s , i s the constant, " . . . f l u c t u a t i o n s i n c lass s i z e due to dropouts and inmate t rans fer and absences for various p u r p o s e s — v i s i t s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , interviews ( G r i f f i n , 1978, c i t e d i n Wright , e t . a l . , 1980, p . 20)." As Shea (1980, p. 43) points out: . . . o n e problem which e x i s t s at C o l l i n s Bay I n s t i t u t i o n , and I presume i n many other i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s the t r a n s i e n t nature of the populat ion . Many inmates do not f i n i s h school programs thorough no f a u l t of t h e i r own. They may be t r a n s f e r r e d , paro led , or reach the end'of t h e i r s e n t e n c e . . . . More w i l l be sa id about the above mentioned problems i n Chapter 6. 51 The fac t that inmates are i n d i v i d u a l s with c e r t a i n needs, and most pr i son educators are only s k i l l e d i n teaching one o r , at best , two subjec t s , leads to yet another problem. According to McCollum (1973), " . . . i f programs are to meet the needs of a l l inmates, correc t ions i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to o f fer an almost u n i v e r s a l range of oppor tun i t i e s (McCollum, 1973, c i t e d i n Wright , e t . a l . , 1980, p . 21)." T h i s , of course, would create : . . .problems for pr i son i n s t r u c t o r s . E i t h e r because of economic r e s t r a i n t s or r e l a t i v e l y small numbers of students in any given course, i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l have to teach severa l d i f f e r e n t courses , and/or they w i l l have to encapsulate t h e i r courses into a short time p e r i o d . Most i n s t r u c t o r s at the adul t l e v e l are s p e c i a l i s t s i n a subject area . U s u a l l y , they have been t r a i n e d to teach t h e i r subject and not o thers , and they may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to develop a curr icu lum which has to be implemented i n a 'short course' s i t u a t i o n . (Wright, e t . a l . ; 1980, p . 21) (d) Pr i son F a c i l i t i e s In order to run an adequate education program, i t i s imperative that a teacher teach and students l e a r n proper research s k i l l s . The days of the one reader-one student are hopefu l ly gone for good. Unfortunate ly , as Duguid (1985, p . 6) notes: Despite e f f o r t s over years to b u i l d research l i b r a r i e s in the p r i s o n s , i t i s obvious from t h e i r student comments that much more needs to be done i f these students are to develop s k i l l s i n t h i s a r e a . While research s k i l l s are weak for students on campus as w e l l , the i n s t r u c t o r s note that the absence of "rea l" l i b r a r i e s with a proper reference system makes i t v i r t u a l l y impossible for the students in the pr i son to overcome t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . 52 As Wright , e t . a l . (1980, p . 21) points out , "One of the f a c i l i t i e s i s the l i b r a r y . It can be argued that l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s are even more v i t a l i n pr i son education than i n 'outs ide ' educat ion . Regular students usua l ly have access to a v a r i e t y of resources , inmates do not ." (e) Endemic Tensions Endemic tensions are c l e a r l y an i n h i b i t o r to education i n Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . In order to understand the r o l e played by these tensions i n i n h i b i t i n g education i n pr i sons , one must deal with the quest ion , "What are these tensions i n a Federal Pen i tent iary?" While d i f f i c u l t to give a f u l l account, the fo l lowing should s u f f i c e . On one s ide are the pr i son s t a f f who are under an e x t r a - o r d i n a r y amount of pressure . According to the authors of the Report to Parliament by the sub-committee on the P e n i t e n t i a r y System (1977): Pressure and tension are constant on s t a f f ; the fear of making a mistake which could r e s u l t i n an escape, a hostage-taking s i t u a t i o n , or some other form of v i o l e n c e , i s always present. Threats are r e g u l a r l y rece ived by staff—sometimes from fr i ends of inmates or former inmates, sometimes from fe l low s t a f f members. Many of them keep weapons at home and have u n l i s t e d ' telephone numbers. Reported inc idents are r a r e but those that have occurred were s e r i o u s . (Report, 1977, c i t e d i n AVER, 1981, p . 26) On the other s ide are the inmates who, despite t h e i r conscious choice to commit crimes (Duguid, 1981; Duguid, 1985), lose much of t h e i r a b i l i t y to choose once the s t e e l bars c lose behind them. According to Michael E n r i g h t , i n h i s a r t i c l e H a l l s of Anger, (AVER, 1981): When a man i s consigned to p e n i t e n t i a r y , he becomes a member of a c losed but f u l l y opera t iona l s o c i e t y , 53 independent of everything he's known before, with i t s own code of behaviour, i t s own system of j u s t i c e and punishment and i t s own set of values . He becomes a target i n d i v i d u a l , forced to conform'to a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of which he has no working knowledge. If he i s f r i e n d l y with the guards, he becomes the object of hatred or even v io lence by h i s fe l low inmates. I f he conforms too r e a d i l y to h i s peers, he opens himsel f up to harassment from the guards and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . This constant , never ending tens ion weighs heavy on both groups and may cause them to perform act ions which are abnormal. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , despite the fac t that both groups are caught i n the same t r a p , ne i ther group seems to know how to come together and ameliorate t h e i r common t r i b u l a t i o n . As Enright s ta t e s , "Hanging i n the a i r in Canada's maximum s e c u r i t y prison's i s the constant aura of i n c i p i e n t v i o l e n c e . There i s a f e e l i n g that everyone on the i n s i d e , guard and inmate, i s at r i s k ( I b i d . , 1981, p . 24)." (f) The Pr i son Environment Another major i n h i b i t o r i s the pr i son environment. Even though there have been some major changes made by, or because of , pr i son reformers i . e . , better l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , conjugal v i s i t s , and so on, as Duguid (1984) points out , "Despite the best in tent ions of pr i son reformers , no amount of a r c h i t e c t u r a l facades, improved l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , or conjugal v i s i t s can d iminish the punishing and degrading q u a l i t y of the pr ison (Duguid, 1984, pp. 10-11)." A l l t h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by Ayers (1976) who states tha t , " . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n a l pr i son appears to have no aim, purpose or i d e a l beyond pragmatic custody and c o n t r o l . . . and lacks any of the elements of experience requ ired for i n t e l l i g e n t , s o c i a l or moral growth (Ayers, 1976, 54 c i t e d i n Duguid, 1984, p. 7 ) ." In other words, the Canadian Pen i t en t iary seems to be a place where there ex i s t s much confusion or darkness. According to ex-inmate Andrea Schroeder i n Shaking It Rough: Pr i son i s a huge l i g h t l e s s room, f i l l e d with hundreds of b l i n d , groping men, perplexed and apprehensive and c e r t a i n that the world i s f u l l of nothing but enemies at whom they must f l a i l and kick each time they brush against them i n the dark. Pr i son i s a bare and bewildering market p l a c e ' i n which s e l l e r s and buyers m i l l about in confusion, ne i ther having the remotest idea of what to buy and s e l l . (Schroeder, c i t e d i n AVER, 1981, p . 24) Notwithstanding i t s aes the t i c and phys i ca l harshness, the genre of the pen i t en t iary poses other problems for the educator. As order and regula t ions are the two operative words i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y , nothing , e s p e c i a l l y the movements or ac t ions of the inmate, i s taken for granted. According to Orlando (1975): A pr i son i s many th ings , but most important ly i t i s a place where r u l e s of behavior are prescr ibed i n minute d e t a i l for every aspect of l i f e . The most int imate d e t a i l s of l i v i n g i n a pr i son are regulated not by the inmate but by the s t a f f . The aspects of l i f e l e f t to the inmate's choice a r e s o small as to be non-ex i s tent . The inmate man i s reduced to the inmate c h i l d , who must ask and rece ive permission before he can do anything , and the inmate i s constant ly warned that f a i l u r e to adhere r i g i d l y to the system of c h i l d l i k e request and response, or to obey any order , can have the most d i re consequences. (Orlando, 1975, c i t e d i n AVER, 1981, p . 25) A l l t h i s regimentation i n , "The pr i son s p o i l the s tudents . It encourages them not to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own l i v e s — t h e y don't have to work to s u r v i v e . So, we have a f l o c k of boys swarming around our ankles , tugging at our s k i r t s for a t t en t ion and he lp , instead of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t 55 men (Quote from an anonymous educator, c i t e d i n Duguid, 1985, p . 12)." Or, as another anonymous educator s ta tes : One of the primary inf luences of the pr i son environment i s that i t deprives the inmate of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for h i s a c t i o n s . Since the pr i son i s regimented, i t i s poss ib le for the inmate to make almost no dec is ions and thus be regulated by i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements a l o n e . . (Quote from an anonymous educator, c i t e d i n Duguid, 1985, pp. 12-13) As such, one can see that the environment has the, "Tendency to i n s t i l l a lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , dependency, and anger i n students (Duguid, 1985, p. 12)." It i s the l a t t e r of these, anger, which leads to yet another problem. Given the harsh environment and atmosphere that e x i s t s i n the p e n i t e n t i a r y , i t i s no small wonder that inmates become angry and l a s h out at themselves, the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f , educators , and s o c i e t y . According to Duguid (1981). "The most pervasive q u a l i t y of the c r i m i n a l world view i s the o f f handed contempt most of them have for the average, honest, ' s t r a i g h t ' c i t i z e n . Such people are regarded as weak, to be p i t i e d , and among the most hardened [ c r i m i n a l ] , stepped o n . . . (Duguid, 1981, p . 3)-" Or to E n r i g h t , " . . . Some inmates make a p r a c t i c e of throwing bags of excrement in to guard's f a c e s . . . (quote from "Halls of Anger", c i t e d in Pr i sons , 1981, p. 24)." And even teachers , according to Shea (1980), "are f a i r game as much as anyone e l s e . Conning i s a way of l i f e for c r i m i n a l s , and pr isoners r e i n f o r c e th i s a c t i v i t y as a means of dea l ing with the s y s t e m . . . (Shea, 1980, p . 43)." Unfortunate ly , t h i s l a t t e r inmate behaviour leads to yet another problem. As Shea (1980, p . 43) s ta t e s , "The r e s u l t i s that teachers may e a s i l y be "taken" once or twice , and they then become susp ic ious or negative in a l l 56 dealings with inmates." Nothing i s less conducive to education and the learning process than a s i t u a t i o n where, "teachers have d i f f i c u l t y developing trust between themselves and students i n an atmosphere that fosters suspicion and hatred (Ibid., 1980, p. 42)." Although the previous evidence shows the prison environment i s a major inh i b i t o r to education programs i n prison, there i s also some evidence to suggest that that very same environment can become f a c i l i t a t i v e as w e l l . As Duguid (1985, p. 13) points out: Perhaps less to be expected were comments which highlighted the more positive aspects of the prison environment's impact on the education program. These ranged from the somewhat u t i l i t a r i a n idea that the students had more time to study and more motivation because of the boredom of the prison, to the more complex notion of the university program as a sanctuary from the prison. Interestingly, i t i s the negative aspects of the prison environment which inadvertently f a c i l i t a t e s education programs i n prison. 2 According to an anonymous- prison teacher for the Simon Fraser University program: The students often wish to escape prison mentality or the r e p e t i t i v e complaints that t y p i f y l i f e i n prison, and they see i n the academic centre, quite r i g h t l y , a refuge from prison p o l i t i c s , parole board, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n complaints, etc... The education program provides as normal an environment as possible. It ministers to their psychological problems i n d i r e c t l y by changing the terms of their l i v e s and values i n a manner that i s e n t i r e l y u n o f f i c i a l and unstated... The Academic Centre, i n short, serves as an alternative culture within the prison; i t i s as close to the normal world of s o c i a l expectations as anything i n the prison environment. (Quote from an anonymous teacher, cited i n Duguid, 1985, p. 14) Unfortunate ly , most education programs are not afforded t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n a l space which may make the program a prime i n h i b i t o r to education i n p r i s o n . Another f a c i l i t a t o r i s the r e l a t i v e l y small c lass s i zes found i n most educat ional programs. This al lows for more i n d i v i d u a l teacher a t t e n t i o n and various a l t e r n a t i v e teaching s t r a t e g i e s . While the O . I . S . E . reviewers (1979) found evidence tha t , "there are some i n s t i t u t i o n s where there are gross over-crowding i n the academic areas , and long wai t ing l i s t s (Report to the S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l , 1979, p . 105), they a l so found evidence, " . . . o f underuse wi th in those schedules ( I b i d . , 1979, p . 105)." (g) Inmates - t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s The inmate i s c l e a r l y a major actor who co'uld f a c i l i t a t e or i n h i b i t education in p r i s o n . As such i t i s imperative that both t h e i r a t t i tudes towards education and t h e i r general a b i l i t i e s are given a b r i e f review. While there are inmates l i k e Fred (a pseudonym for an inmate interviewed by Roger Boshier i n Education Inside , (1983) who found the benef i ts outweighed the burdens of educat ion , o v e r a l l many inmates weigh the cost i n r e v e r s e . Compounding the d u l l i n g e f f ec t s of the pr i son atmosphere and environment are: 1) a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of fered inmates, i . e . t e l e v i s i o n , cards , f i l m s , s p o r t s , and, "Even some pr i son shops are more a t t r a c t i v e than schoo l , e s p e c i a l l y i f the wages or bonuses are better (Shea, 1980, p . 42)"; 2) the fac t t h a t , "most offenders have few academic or vocat iona l s k i l l s , and most are charac ter i zed by unstable employment experiences and apathet ic work a t t i t u d e s ( I b i d . , 1980, p . 42)"; 58 and, 3) many inmates, " . . . h a v e i n some way or another f a i l e d at school and who have p r e d i c t a b l e a t t i tudes to any further attempts at education (Report to the S o l i c i t o r General , 1979, p . 35)." Furthermore, Shea (1980, p. 42) points out: Most inmates have dropped out of school at an e a r l y age and, because of the high value our soc i e ty places on educat ion , q u i t t i n g school does much to form a f a i l u r e i d e n t i t y . It i s not at a l l s u r p r i s i n g , then, to f i n d a negative a t t i t u d e toward school and everything for which i t s tands. Schools are i d e n t i f i e d with middle c lass va lues , the work e t h i c , and s t r a i g h t s o c i e t y . They epitomize what most pr isoners have r e j e c t e d . 'This i s the s i t u a t i o n that pr i son teachers face , an atmosphere that i s fore ign to l e a r n i n g , and pupi l s who are turned o f f s choo l . For tunate ly , " . . . t h e r e i s evidence that i n t e l l i g e n c e seems to be d i s t r i b u t e d amongst inmates much as i t i s i n the general populat ion ( O . I . S . E . Report, 1979);" that inmates can l e a r n (Yochelson and Samenow, 1976; Waksman, Silverman and Weber, 1979); that inmate students may be more energet ic than ' r e g u l a r ' students (Marken, 1974); and that inmate students are more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y curious ( L a i r d , 1972). This makes problematic the o v e r a l l issue but i f c o r r e c t l y understood, f o r c e s , i n a p o s i t i v e manner, the pr i son i n s t r u c t o r t o , "be aware of the complex backgrounds of inmate students i n order to teach e f f e c t i v e l y (Wright, e t . al., 1980, p . 23)," and supports the argument that education i s indeed poss ib le i n p r i s o n . Furthermore, the O . I . S . E . reviewers (1979) found tha t , i n the major i ty of i n s t i t u t i o n s they v i s i t e d , many inmates and o f f i c i a l s regarded the school as " . . . a source of s t imula t ion and s a t i s f a c t i o n (Report to the S o l i c i t o r Genera l , 1979, p . 73)." And, "Many inmates who had chosen other a c t i v i t i e s spoke p o s i t i v e l y about the s c h o o l . . . . ( I b i d . , 1979, p. 73)." 59 (h) Related Teaching Problems Even though the s i t u a t i o n would be i d e a l , genera l ly the problems with education in pr i son does not end when the inmate decides to take an education program and from then on maintain a regular attendance i n c l a s s . The f i r s t problem i s one of teaching a group of men or women who may have d i f f e r e n t needs, i . e . developing the a b i l i t y to compete i n the job market, e l i m i n a t i n g boredom, developing basic l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , increas ing se l f -esteem, and so on. This requires i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n when, " . . . t h e p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of pr i son education make i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible at t imes, to i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n , and account for i n d i v i d u a l needs (Wright, e t . a l . , 1980, p . 2 3 ) . " Second, the pressure of the classroom may lead to major problems. Forster (1976, p . 31) s ta tes : . . . t h e r e are features of the educat ional scene which, although common to both the imprisoned and the free student , may be perceived much more c l e a r l y in pr ison because the extreme nature of pr i son brings them into sharper r e l i e f . A s t r i k i n g example of t h i s i s the degree of s tress f e l t by an adult when exposed to academic assessment of any sor t and the accompanying sense of exposure: a prime problem with the inmate student , t h i s could be a much greater problem outside than appears at f i r s t . T h i r d , as the inmate rece ives fur ther exposure i n the humanit ies , i . e . psychology of deviant behaviour, law, S o c i a l S tud ies , and so on, "There may be an increase i n f ee l ings of i s o l a t i o n i n that horizons may be broadened, but the inmate i s confined both i n terms of phys i ca l space and f a c i l i t i e s , i . e . l i b r a r y resources (Wright, e t . a l . , 1980, p . 24)." 60 And l a s t l y , because the average inmate age range i s between 19-34 i t puts them i n an h i s t o r i c a l period when d i f f e r e n t teaching approaches were of fered them at the schools they attended, and thus the teacher , i n order to s a t i s f y a l l t h e i r demands w i l l , " . . .have to be cognizant of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s not only i n t h e i r a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n but a lso i n the preparat ion of curr iculum mater ia l s (Sackett , 1974-cited i n Wright , e t . a l . , 1980, p. 24)." 61 SUMMARY The primary purpose of t h i s chapter was to i d e n t i f y and present the many i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s of academic education i n p r i s o n . While some f a c i l i t a t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d , i . e . the perceived p o s s i b i l i t y of 'easy time' for the inmate, small c la s s s i z e s , opportunity for inmate se l f -bet terment , more study time for inmates, and more mot ivat ion because of the boredom i n the p r i s o n , the evidence suggests that there are many more i n h i b i t o r s than f a c i l i t a t o r s to education i n most, i f not a l l , Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Some of the major i n h i b i t o r s lay i n the realms of: economics; the act ions of c o r r e c t i o n a l managers, o f f i c e r s and s t a f f ; the tensions between s t a f f and inmate; the lack of t r a i n i n g and understanding of some teachers (both contract and s t a f f ) ; the pr i son environment and atmosphere; an unclear p i c ture of what education would do for the inmate; numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s to education; the lack of proper f a c i l i t i e s or study space; the Federal bureaucracy; pr i son a u t h o r i t i e s having at l e a s t four very quest ionable assumptions about the educat ional process; and l a s t l y some inmates* h o s t i l i t y towards any educat ional program. Notwithstanding a l l the i n h i b i t o r s , the s i t u a t i o n i s not so bleak as to make impossible the maintenance of e x i s t i n g education programs and the design and implementation of an appropriate high school l e v e l academic education program. For example, the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a / S i m o n Fraser program has c l e a r l y been able to operate with some success wi th in four B r i t i s h Columbian prisons desp i te , or i n s p i t e of , a l l the i n h i b i t o r s . 62 Furthermore, i t w i l l be argued elsewhere i n t h i s thes i s that i t i s poss ib le to deal with some of the i n h i b i t o r s to education and education programs i n the Federa l Pen i t en t iary System of B r i t i s h Columbia. 63 END NOTES 1 The Benchmark system i s a system that l a b e l s each offender i n such a way as to s u i t one of the seven s e c u r i t y l e v e l s which i d e n t i f y various i n s t i t u t i o n s , i . e . an offender found to be i n the "high escape r i s k category" i s assigned to an appropriate S-6 l e v e l i n s t i t u t i o n . 2 I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n to argue for the cont inuat ion of the negative aspects of the pr i son environment, but to point out that that environment may inadver tent ly a i d educat ional programs i n p r i s o n . 64 CHAPTER SIX Program Guide l ines A. I n h i b i t o r s to Program When designing an academic education program at the secondary l e v e l for adul t students i n a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y , i t i s imperative that one considers a l l the poss ib le i n h i b i t o r s to the implementation of such a program. While the p le thora of i n h i b i t o r s to such a program were discussed at length e a r l i e r , and a l l of them could a f f ec t the program, there are a few that d i r e c t l y a f f ec t i t and thus need to be o u t l i n e d i n more s p e c i f i c terms. A major problem that may a r i s e i s that not a l l educators would be acquainted wi th , or be able to handle, an approach that requ ires a mult i tude of i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. It would not be too d i f f i c u l t to env is ion a scenerio where a reasonably sound program f a i l e d because of the inexperience of the teacher and/or teacher r e s i s t a n c e . It would therefore seem to be an imperative that a p o t e n t i a l teacher of the program: 1) would have taken a teacher t r a i n i n g program at a recognized u n i v e r s i t y ; 2) would have previous experience with a v a r i e t y of teaching techniques and a c t i v i t i e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those appropriate for adul t l e a r n e r s ; or 3) would be s u i t e d , w i l l i n g and capable of undertaking some sor t of appropriate o r i e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g program. This e n t a i l s e i ther the h i r i n g of q u a l i f i e d outs ide teachers or prov id ing appropriate education or t r a i n i n g courses to regular pr i son s t a f f teachers . While both a l t e r n a t i v e s have some m e r i t , i t would seem to be more s a t i s f a c t o r y to u t i l i z e outs ide contract teachers 65 because of t h e i r experience with various teaching s t r a t e g i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Further they are less l i k e l y to be 'contaminated' by the pr i son environment; and would not be perceived by the inmates to be a member of the pr i son establishment; or to put i t i n more c o l l o q u i a l terms, 'as one of them'. Another problem that could c l e a r l y a f f ec t t h i s program i s the constant f l u c t u a t i o n in c l a s s s i ze due to paro le , drop-outs , inmate t r a n s f e r s and absences for various reasons, i . e . v i s i t s by lawyers and r e l a t i v e s , in terv iews , s ickness and so on. While no one as yet has documented the d e f i n i t i v e reasons as to why students drop-out of education programs, one can at l e a s t surmise that the relevance of the programs, t h e i r nature , and the manner i n which they are presented are a l l p l a u s i b l e reasons . Given that the proposed program i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y for a c e r t a i n target popula t ion , o f f e r s a p le thora of teaching techniques and a c t i v i t i e s , and w i l l be taught by teachers , who, having undergone some sort of adequate t r a i n i n g program, would be aware of many of the needs, a t t i t u d e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and educat ional background of i t s s tudents , the drop-out rate should be minimized although probably not e l i m i n a t e d . It would be rather presumptuous to make such a c la im for an as yet untr i ed program. Although a problem, the matter of t rans fers could be deal t with by i n i t i a t i n g such a program in a l l or most Federal i n s t i t u t i o n s . As such any t r a n s f e r r e d inmate would have the opportuni ty to complete the program i n the new i n s t i t u t i o n . C o n t i n u i t y of programs among i n s t i t u t i o n s would go far i n e l i m i n a t i n g the problems posed by inmate t r a n s f e r s . 66 A second s o l u t i o n would be to allow open entry in to the program. Even though open-entry could pose a problem for the classroom teacher and the s tudents , i f handled c o r r e c t l y (and t h i s i s where appropriate t r a i n i n g comes i n for classroom management s k i l l s are v i t a l ) the classroom s i t u a t i o n should not d e t e r i o r a t e to such a s tate as to become completely unmanageable and t o t a l l y unconducive to l e a r n i n g . Any adequately t r a i n e d teacher could c l e a r l y deal with a l a t e entry or two in to t h e i r classroom. Of course, i n a l l f a i r n e s s , the new student(s) would have to be informed of where, or at what stage i n the course, the c lass was a t , and the poss ib le d i f f i c u l t i e s of catching up. While t h i s might be done by a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r , the teacher cou ld , before or upon entry , a i d the student i n making the correc t d e c i s i o n . O v e r a l l though i t i s the student who makes the f i n a l dec i s i on and on no account should a student be turned away from a c l a s s , unless there simply i s no room, or the c l a s s i s i n the l a s t week or two of the course. While academic content i s important, i t i s not the only th ing that can be learned by a student who takes an educat ional program. To turn a student away, who for whatever reason wants to take the course , may turn o f f the inmate from tak ing any educat ional program i n the f u t u r e . Another r e l a t e d problem concerns a students i n a b i l i t y to meet the requirements of the program. Should any student f a i l to complete the requirements of the program or to be more s p e c i f i c , f a i l s to complete the requirements of any course i n the program, ( i . e . c lass performance, regular attendance, qu izzes , essays, research papers, readings , or a f i n a l examination) , the inmate would be allowed to retake the course. The 67 teacher would be r e q u i r e d to keep students up-to-date on t h e i r progress and allow them the chance to improve on one or more of t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s . A l s o , where appropr ia te , a quick l earner or above average student could be given the opt ion of t u t o r i n g or mentoring slower l e a r n e r s , or where a v a i l a b l e , opt , with f u l l c r e d i t a t i o n , to take the u n i v e r s i t y education program. Furthermore, where a v a i l a b l e and acceptable , a teacher may request the a i d of some past program graduates or undergraduates or graduate u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s tudents . This l a t t e r opt ion would be b e n e f i c i a l for a number of reasons. For graduates of the program, i t would al low them to u t i l i z e t h e i r acquired knowledge and expert i se by presenting i t to needy s tudents . U n i v e r s i t y students or graduates would benefit because they would have the opportuni ty to apply some of t h e i r educat ional s k i l l s and would i n turn l e a r n something from having to assume a p o s i t i o n of mentor/tutor or teacher . Furthermore, by t h e i r very presence, the high school and u n i v e r s i t y program would be brought c lo ser together which would a i d i n u n i t i n g the present ly fragmented educat ional enterpr i se i n p r i s o n . Teachers would benef i t because the a d d i t i o n a l help would l i g h t e n t h e i r workload. And l a s t l y the students would c l e a r l y benef i t both academical ly and personal ly by i n t e r a c t i n g with past program graduates and academics. The problem of absences should be no problem i f the teacher (with the a i d of the students) i n i t i a t e s , dur ing the i n i t i a l c l a s s meeting, some operat ing g u i d e l i n e s , procedures and r u l e s . While every e f f o r t should be made by the teacher to up-date the missed lesson for the student , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they were absent through no f a u l t of t h e i r own), given 68 that the student i s and must be treated as an a d u l t , some onus must be placed on them as w e l l . The problem of lesson s t ruc ture can be broached at the i n i t i a l procedures meeting. How lessons are s t ruc tured can be l e f t , to an extent , to the d i s c r e t i o n of the s tudents . They must bear some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i f the program hopes to operate as an adul t or iented program. Given that the operat ing r u l e s of a pen i t en t iary may diminish inmate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h i s meeting, i f a p p r o p r i a t e l y conducted, could be l i k e a breath of f re sh a i r for students who are constant ly treated as l e ss than a d u l t s . Of course t h i s may not always be the case and where some s tudents , for whatever reason, refuse to take part i n s e t t i n g the r u l e s , or where they want no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e i r wishes should be acknowledged and respected . Given that no two c lasses nor students are the same, the ideosyncracies of the c o l l e c t i v e as wel l as the i n d i v i d u a l should be respec ted . While t h i s i s quite a task for the teacher , i t i s one that must be undertaken, otherwise the atmosphere of the classroom may soon come to resemble that of the p r i s o n . While some teachers may resent t h i s approach, given that the major stakeholder i n the c l a s s i s the student , there i s no r e a l argument why any students should not have some input in to how they w i l l be educated. By 'some input ' I mean that i t i s the teacher who must have the u l t imate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y . This i s imperative because some students may take advantage of the s i t u a t i o n . Given that the task at hand i s the education of the student , the teachers ' r o l e becomes one of making sure that the c la s s remains on task and does not end up merely becoming a debating s o c i e t y or s o c i a l group. 69 One problem that a r i s e s from a l l t h i s i s the p o s i t i o n of the new, l a t e or t r a n s f e r student and how he/she would f i t in to a c lass that had a lready e s tab l i shed i t s own working r u l e s and procedures. As i n most classrooms, i t i s the onus of a l l newcomers to f i n d out and abide by the working arrangements that have already been es tab l i shed i n the classroom. F u r t h e r , the ru le s or operat iona l procedures should not and would not ( in t h i s proposed program) be so i n f l e x i b l e as to make i t impossible for most students to f i t in to the classroom. A l s o , the opera t iona l procedures would be p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed and up-dated so as to s u i t both the p a r t i c u l a r students and the teacher . Another problem concerns the lack of study f a c i l i t i e s i n a pr i son s e t t i n g . C e l l blocks or dormitor ies are noisy and l i b r a r i e s , where they e x i s t , may have very r e s t r i c t i v e hours of operat ion . Notwithstanding the e f fec t these i n h i b i t o r s have on the o v e r a l l educat ional process , at the u t i l i t a r i a n l e v e l they pose immense b a r r i e r s for a student required to complete a prescr ibed educat ional assignment. It would be l i k e t r y i n g to read or wri te at a rock concert or to t r y to wri te an essay without supplemental m a t e r i a l s . The odds for success would be ra ther minimal to say the l e a s t . Ayers (1979, pp. 4-5) argues that t h i s s i t u a t i o n may be c o r r e c t e d , " . . . b y having l i b r a r i e s open i n the evenings and on weekends, or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , where a t i e r or dormitory can be made reasonably q u i e t , students could be housed together , with p r o v i s i o n made for study areas ." Although Ayers' proposals have mer i t , i t might not be f e a s i b l e to implement them i n a l l Federal i n s t i t u t i o n s . S e c u r i t y , l ack of space, and s t a f f 70 o b j e c t i v e s may be reasons why such proposals would be r e j e c t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . As such , teachers i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s would not be ab l e to p rov ide t h e i r s tudents w i t h out of c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s or p r o j e c t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s cou ld l ead to a s i t u a t i o n where s tudents i n one i n s t i t u t i o n would be r e c e i v i n g a more comprehensive e d u c a t i o n a l package than t h e i r coun te rpar t s i n another i n s t i t u t i o n . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s unacceptable s i t u a t i o n cou ld be c i r cumnav iga ted , t o some e x t e n t , by u s i n g c l a s s t ime i n a more p roduc t ive manner. To c i t e but a few p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the teacher might i nco rpo ra t e a f t e r c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . r e a d i n g s , research papers , and so on , i n t o the a l l o t t e d t ime frame e s t a b l i s h e d for each classroom pe r iod or he/she cou ld set as ide one or two classroom per iods a week fo r such a c t i v i t i e s or p r o j e c t s . Thus the c lassroom would s e rve , among other t h i n g s , as a f a c i l i t y f o r s tudy and the teacher would assume the r o l e s of i n s t r u c t o r , l i b r a r i a n or resource person . This i s g e n e r a l l y what a good teacher does anyway. Another problem concerns the p r i s o n environment. G e n e r a l l y , as was noted e a r l i e r , the p r i s o n environment would not be conducive t o the proposed educa t ion program. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue s i n c e , among other t h i n g s , the proposed program attempts to address c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and moral i s sues i n a way that the outcome would not be a more r e f l e c t i v e c r i m i n a l but a more mature and e t h i c a l a d u l t dec i s ion -make r . Given that the p r i s o n environment, w i t h i t s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e , i s not conducive and would not support such an a im, i t would seem tha t one p l a u s i b l e avenue would be to design an a l t e r n a t i v e environment . Accord ing t o Duguid ( 1 9 8 1 , pp. 8 - 9 ) , "The environment most conducive t o t h i s k ind of 71 program has been described by Kohlberg and Scharf as a ' j u s t ' or 'democratic ' community, a community run according to democratic norms with p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e as guides for i n t e r a c t i o n among students and between students and s t a f f . " Although Duguid has been able to set up such a community for h i s u n i v e r s i t y students at Matsqui p r i s o n , given that most Federal i n s t i t u t i o n s do not and t h e i r adminis trators can not set up such a community, the next best th ing would be to t r y and set up a sca led down vers ion of the "Just Community" i n the classroom. While not as good an a l t e r n a t i v e as a separate , semi-autonomous community, i t would, at l e a s t , be a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n and would be much better than a classroom with a t r a d i t i o n a l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n environment. Unfortunate ly , upon completion of each l e s son , pr i son regula t ions would force each student to depart the democratic environment of the classroom for the h o s t i l e , non-democratic domains of the p r i s o n . To r e c t i f y or at l ea s t ' so f t en ' t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t i s recommended that the classroom periods for each course operate for a minimum of two hours a day or night depending on the p a r t i c u l a r l y needs of the s tudents . Furthermore, the classroom, s ta f f ed by teachers or student graduates, i s to remain open for a minimum of two hours or longer each evening where poss ib le and f e a s i b l e given the s e c u r i t y needs of the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n . This would not only s a t i s f y the academic needs of the students but act as further reinforcement of the democratic p r i n c i p l e s enacted i n the classroom. Now that the major i n h i b i t o r s to the proposed academic education program has been o u t l i n e d i n more s p e c i f i c terms i t i s time to describe i n d e t a i l the model. 72 B. Program Guidel ines S p e c i f i c a l l y , the program i s concerned with academic education at the senior secondary l e v e l (Grades ten to twelve) . I w i l l not discuss the elementary or j u n i o r high l e v e l s , not because these are not of importance, but because the focus of t h i s thes i s i s on academic secondary educat ion . Furthermore, as was discussed e a r l i e r , there i s c l e a r l y a need for an appropriate academic senior secondary program i n the Federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. The program w i l l have four academic content area subjec t s : S o c i a l Studies ( H i s t o r y , Geography, E t h i c s , and Western C i v i l i z a t i o n ) , Mathematics (Algebra, Geometry and C a l c u l u s ) , General Science and E n g l i s h (Communications, Composit ion, Grammar and L i t e r a t u r e ) . (See Figure 1 ) . These subjects were chosen because, as noted e a r l i e r , they are c o l l e c t i v e l y concerned with the t h e o r e t i c a l and not j u s t the p r a c t i c a l , they promote understanding and a ' cogni t ive p e r s p e c t i v e ' , they allow t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s the chance to acquire worthwhile knowledge, and they are concerned with developing the s tudent 's mind and charac ter . I n d i v i d u a l l y , Mathematics and Science are usefu l for teaching l o g i c a l thought and reasoning and E n g l i s h and H i s t o r y - s u b j e c t s genera l ly concerned with argumentation, phi losophy, law, e t h i c s , and the a n a l y s i s of data and ideas are usefu l t o o l s for the development of c r i t i c a l th ink ing and moral reasoning (Duguid, 1981, pp. 9-10). 73 FIGURE 1 Conceptual Framework of Program Beginners Level S o c i a l Studies 11 E t h i c s , Geography H i s t o r y Advanced Level : Western C i v i l i z a t i o n 12 General Science 10 Mathematics 11 Algebra / Geometry Mathematics 12 Engl i sh 11 Grammar,' Communication and Composition Eng l i sh 12 L i t e r a t u r e and Composition 74 S p e c i f i c a l l y , the program and a l l of i t s parts are designed i n keeping with the not ion that l e a r n i n g takes place at successive gradiat ions of complexity. Although a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n may warrant a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , genera l l y the program w i l l be, " . . . o r g a n i z e d i n a l i n e a r fashion based on some p r o v i s i o n for progress ive deve lopment . . . . (McNiel , 1985, p . 71)." The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s that guide t h i s development inc lude : simple to complex; whole to part ; chrono log i ca l n a r r a t i o n ; and l earn ing h i e r a r c h i e s ( I b i d . , 1985, pp. 71-72). A l l four subject areas w i l l have two components parts : a) Beginners l e v e l and b) Advanced l e v e l . a) Beginners Level A l l four l e v e l courses w i l l run for a three month term. The classroom periods w i l l be two hours i n durat ion and w i l l operate for four or f ive days a weeks. Each subject area at the beginners l e v e l deals with content at the grade eleven (or ten for Science) l e v e l e s tab l i shed by the M i n i s t r y of Education in B r i t i s h Columbia. ( S o c i a l Studies Curriculum Guide, 1984). No inmate of a Federal p e n i t e n t i a r y would be excluded from enter ing a beginners component i n any subject area s ince some basic l e v e l s k i l l s w i l l be dea l t with by t h i s component wi th in the program. However, a p o t e n t i a l student who could not read , wri te or compute at a grade nine l e v e l might be asked to undergo a bas ic s k i l l s development program. I f poss ib le the student would be allowed to attend concurrent ly both programs. Furthermore, a student may opt to take a l l four subject area beginners components at the same time or take j u s t one or two. A l s o , a student who 75 completes the beginners component i n one subject area may opt to by-pass the advanced educational l e v e l and s t a r t another beginners component(s) (after a three month waiting period) in another subject area. A student could also be at a beginners l e v e l i n one subject area and at an advanced l e v e l i n another subject area. Each classroom teacher w i l l have the l i b e r t y to design his/her own classroom assignments to a maximum f i f t y per cent of the course. The remaining f i f t y per cent w i l l come from the B r i t i s h Columbia Departmental Examinations. This l a t t e r component w i l l s a t i s f y the guidelines as established for grade ten by the B r i t i s h Columbia Mini s t r y of Education. Even though a departmental examination, p a r t i c u l a r l y one that i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to t e s t for a knowledge of content, may i n h i b i t an i n s t r u c t o r who intends to develop the mind (thinking s k i l l s ) and character (moral development) of his/her students, given that the teacher i s responsible for f i f t y per cent of the course content and grade, he/she could organize each lesson so that both a knowledge of content and the more ' l o f t i e r ' aims could be r e a l i z e d within the two hour classroom period. For example, the teacher might spend the f i r s t hour dealing with the t o p i c in a d i d a c t i c manner, (which would deal adequately with content, f a c t s , data, etc.) and the second hour using either an inquiry approach (which would develop such cognitive s k i l l s as l o g i c a l reasoning, research techniques, and so on) or an issues-oriented approach, (which could f a c i l i t a t e normative reasoning s k i l l s ) . 76 b) Advanced Level The three advanced l e v e l courses are much l i k e the beginners courses i n that they are organized i n a l i n e a r fashion based on some prov i s ions for progress ive development and t h e i r students are requ ired to wri te the B r i t i s h Columbia Departmental examination. However they d i f f e r i n the type of academic s k i l l s l earned , the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the course content, and i n the amount of focus placed upon the various i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques . Simply s ta ted , Exposi tory i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l play a l e s s important r o l e at the advanced l e v e l than i t d id at the beginners l e v e l . While course content and the reinforcement of bas ic s k i l l s are important, the former can be met by an Inquiry approach and the l a t t e r should have been met e i ther by other bas ic s k i l l development courses or by the beginners component of t h i s program. P r i n c i p l e s of Program As was noted e a r l i e r , the focus of t h i s thes i s i s on academic education at the secondary l e v e l . Although the proposed education program incorporates four academic subject areas , Mathematics, Sc ience , Eng l i sh and S o c i a l S tudies , the fo l lowing d i scuss ion of the p r i n c i p l e s of the program w i l l be undertaken with a focus on S o c i a l S tud ies . S o c i a l Studies i s chosen because my expert i se l a y with t h i s subject area as opposed to the other d i s c i p l i n e s . The program i s guided by the fo l lowing p r i n c i p l e s : 1. The program focuses on being a l i b e r a l , academic education program. 77 2. The program incorporates a v a r i e t y of courses and i n s t r u c t o r s . 3. The program has two component parts : beginners and advanced. 4. The program, courses and lessons are genera l ly organized i n a l i n e a r fashion based on a l o g i c a l progress ion for development. 5. The content of each subject area w i l l fo l low the gu ide l ines es tabl i shed by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Educat ion . 6. The program w i l l develop the Basic s k i l l s , i . e . r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , speaking, and computing, to a senior secondary l e v e l . 7. The program w i l l develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . 8. The program w i l l use a v a r i e t y of teaching s t ra teg ie s or approaches. P r i n c i p l e One: The program focuses on l i b e r a l , academic educat ion . Harrington (1977-cited i n Duguid, 1984, p . 17), defines a l i b e r a l education as, " . . . t h e organized study of some part of the humanities or a r t s , or the s o c i a l or n a t u r a l sc iences , having as i t s purpose the c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l ra ther than the occupat ional improvement of the i n d i v i d u a l . " Thus a l i b e r a l , academic education program, v i a academic courses i n the humanit ies , a r t s , na tura l and s o c i a l sc iences , attempts to develop the c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s rather than j u s t s imply the vocat iona l s k i l l s needed to a t t a i n employment. A l s o , apart from developing the i n t e l l e c t , l i b e r a l education c l e a r l y attempts to bridge the gap between thought and conduct to the end of the formation of a p o s i t i v e character i n the s tudent . Duguid (1984, p . 15) s tates tha t , "A l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , . . . , can a f fec t both thought and conduct and i s concerned with the formation of character as wel l as the development of the i n t e l l e c t . " Thi s i s necessary for as Duguid ( I b i d . , p . 14) warns us: 78 Given the unique q u a l i t i e s of the s tudents , education must attack the core of the problem. It should not merely produce educated c r i m i n a l s . I t must be a c i v i l i z i n g experience, which s tretches e x i s t i n g t h i n k i n g and encourages a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of va lues . Such academic courses as Mathematics, Science , H i s t o r y and E n g l i s h are su i t ed for r e a l i z i n g these aims because the former two d i s c i p l i n e s are e f f e c t i v e t o o l s for l o g i c a l thought and the l a t t e r two are broad based d i s c i p l i n e s that develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g or cogni t ive s k i l l s that , " . . . a d d r e s s themselves d i r e c t l y to the problems of e g o c e n t r i c i t y and impulsiveness key fac tors i n the decis ion-making patterns of c r i m i n a l s (Duguid, 1981, p . 10)." P r i n c i p l e Two: The program incorporates a v a r i e t y of courses and i n s t r u c t o r s . The program has a v a r i e t y of courses and i n s t r u c t o r s . The advantage of t h i s i s that i t o f f e r s , " . . . a wide range of veh ic les for the d e l i v e r y of ideas (Duguid, 1981, p. 10)." Furthermore, because the student , "takes severa l courses at a time over severa l terms, i n t e r a c t i n g with d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t o r s and with d i f f e r e n t groups of s t u d e n t s , . . . n o one course or i n s t r u c t o r i s the key to the development process ( I b i d . , 1981, p . 10)." As such, "the education program as a whole i s re spons ib le for whatever development takes place and the primary cause or change agent may vary with each student i n the program ( I b i d . , 1981, p . 10)." P r i n c i p l e Three: The program has two component parts : beginners and advanced l e v e l . As was mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s program w i l l have two component par t s ; beginners and advanced l e v e l . The major d i f ferences between the two l e v e l s are i n the types of academic s k i l l s taught and the type and d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the course content or subject matter presented the students . Furthermore, d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n may be used at more regu lar i n t e r v a l s at the beginners l e v e l than at the advanced l e v e l . Although the p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , concept, and so on, and the academic a b i l i t i e s of the students should determine to what extent d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be necessary at e i ther l e v e l . The reason that the terms 'beginners' and 'advanced' are used instead of grades t en , eleven or twelve i s because the courses within each component have been modif ied and as such are not exact ly l i k e t h e i r counterparts i n the regu lar high s c h o o l . While the courses wi th in these two components are s i m i l a r to t h e i r regular high school counterparts i n that they s a t i s f y the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education g u i d e l i n e s , i . e . focus on s i m i l a r academic s k i l l s development, apply the same course content, and so on, they are d i f f e r e n t i n that they deal s p e c i f i c a l l y with adul t l e a r n e r s , the opera t iona l hours and length of each course has been modified for s u i t a b i l i t y i n a Federal penal i n s t i t u t i o n and a c r i t i c a l th ink ing component has been added to each course. More w i l l be s a i d about the l a t t e r d i f f erence elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s . P r i n c i p l e Four: The program, courses and lessons are genera l ly organized in a l i n e a r fashion based on a l o g i c a l progress ion for development. Genera l ly , a l l facets of the program are organized i n keeping with the not ion that l e a r n i n g takes place at successive gradiat ions of complexity . The developmental process s t a r t s on the f i r s t day a student takes a beginners l e v e l course and should reach i t s pinnacle when he/she has completed a l l of the beginners and advanced l e v e l courses. Like pieces to 80 a puzz le , each success ive lesson should b u i l d upon the themes, problems, concepts, ideas , or top ics that were introduced i n the preceding lessons . In t h i s way the student i s e i ther presented with ( d i d a c t i c i n s t r u c t i o n ) or helps discover (Inquiry approach) a l l the pieces of the puzz le . Although the former, d i d a c t i c approach, may be of value i n the e a r l y stages of the beginners l e v e l courses or to introduce or deal with some t o p i c s , ideas , e t c . , i t should have l i m i t e d use, and where poss ib le i t should be replaced completely by the Inquiry approach. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i f one aim of the lesson(s) i s to not only develop e x t r i n s i c educat ional outcomes, i . e . students w i l l be able to define and analyze the term 'democracy' and i n t e r p r e t the ideas behind and prac t i ce s of democracy, but to develop i n t r i n s i c education outcomes, i . e . develop the s tudent 's mind and charac ter , as w e l l . P r i n c i p l e F i v e : The content of each subject area w i l l fo l low the gu ide l ines e s tab l i shed by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Educat ion . This program w i l l fo l low the curr iculum gu ide l ines that have been e s tab l i shed by the M i n i s t r y of Educat ion . One major reason for t h i s choice i s that these gu ide l ines promote the p r i n c i p l e that l e a r n i n g takes place at gradiat ions of complexity . Another reason i s that i t deals adequately with most of the aims/goals of t h i s proposed program. And l a s t l y , any program that adheres to these guide l ines would be l i k e l y to be granted a c c r e d i t a t i o n by the M i n i s t r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher l e a r n i n g . P r i n c i p l e S ix : The program w i l l develop the Basic s k i l l s , i . e . r ead ing , w r i t i n g , speaking, and computing, to a senior secondary l e v e l . 81 A major aim of t h i s program i s the development of the bas ic s k i l l s to the senior secondary l e v e l . Even though i t w i l l not be easy given the prev ious ly discussed i n h i b i t o r s , the aim can be achieved i f the teacher(s) fo l lows the M i n i s t r y of Education curr icu lum g u i d e l i n e s , make a concert ive e f f o r t to e s t a b l i s h a classroom atmosphere that i s conducive to developing these s k i l l s , and he lp , with the a i d of the s tudents , design and promote a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l develop the s k i l l s , i . e . weekly debates, c lass j o u r n a l s , a c lass newspaper or magazine, weekly speeches, and so on. P r i n c i p l e Seven: The program w i l l develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . One aim of t h i s program i s to develop a student who can think c r i t i c a l l y . Ennis (1984, p . 1) defines th ink ing c r i t i c a l l y as , " . . . r e a s o n a b l y going about dec id ing what to be l i eve or do." Thus a c r i t i c a l l y t h i n k i n g student i s charac ter i zed as one who holds r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s and makes r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . In order to r e a l i z e r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s and make r a t i o n a l dec is ions a student must have developed c e r t a i n competencies or a b i l i t i e s , i . e . determining appropriate meanings, ana lyz ing arguments, recogn iz ing f a l l a c i e s , and so on, and have c e r t a i n tendencies , i . e . open-mindedness, take or change a p o s i t i o n when the evidence and reasons are s u f f i c i e n t to do so, seek reasons, and take in to account the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n ( I b i d . , 1984, pp. 1-6). The development of c r i t i c a l th ink ing i s a lso an aim of the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Educat ion . While a survey of the M i n i s t r y ' s curr iculum guides reveals the fact that c r i t i c a l th ink ing i s indeed inc luded , as can best be determined, that i d e a l i s to be reached or w i l l emerge through a process of 'osmosis ' . This fac t i s quite evident i n the 82 S o c i a l Studies curr icu lum guide where there are no t o p i c s focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on the teaching or development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education S o c i a l Studies Curr iculum Guide, 1984). Despite the need for more research p e r t a i n i n g to the e f fec t iveness of the approach i d e n t i f i e d by the M i n i s t r y of Education in B r i t i s h Columbia, recent evidence suggests that a , "mastery of th ink ing s k i l l s does not automat ica l ly emerge from the standard c u r r i c u l u m . (Focus, 1984, p . 6) ." Therefore , given that t h i s program i s based upon such a standard c u r r i c u l u m , (although modified for s u i t a b i l i t y i n a Federal penal i n s t i t u t i o n ) , i t would seem appropriate to introduce a more robust approach. Pr ior to o f f e r i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e approach, i t i s imperative that some reasons are given to j u s t i f y the i d e a l of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . S i ege l (1980) i d e n t i f i e s three such reasons. The f i r s t has to do with the manner of teaching . S iege l (1980, p . 13) argues that a teachers , "manner ought to accord with the c r i t i c a l manner." Such an approach has b u i l t i n t o i t a facet which requ ires the teacher t o , " . . . t r e a t a l l persons, i n c l u d i n g students , with the respect due them as persons having, from the moral point of view, human worth ( I b i d . , 1980, p . 15)." Second, by organ iz ing educat ional a c t i v i t i e s according to the d i c ta te s of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , the student becomes an i n d i v i d u a l who, " . . . l o o k s for evidence, seeks and s c r u t i n i z e s a l t e r n a t i v e s , and i s c r i t i c a l of t h e i r own ideas as wel l as others ( S c h e f f l e r , 1973-cited i n S i e g e l , 1980, p . 16)." Thus the student becomes a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t th inker which should ' f r e e ' 83 him/her , " . . . f r o m the unwarranted c o n t r o l of u n j u s t i f i e d b e l i e f s , unsupported a t t i t u d e s , and pauci ty of a b i l i t i e s which can prevent that person from competently tak ing charge of h i s or her own l i f e ( S i e g e l , 1980, p. 16)." And l a s t l y , the development of c r i t i c a l th ink ing i s necessary i f education i s l a r g e l y a matter of i n i t i a t i n g students in to the r a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s , i . e . s c i ence , l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y , the a r t s , mathematics and so on, and i f , " . . . s u c h i n i t i a t i o n cons i s t s in part in ge t t ing the students to appreciate the standards of r a t i o n a l i t y which govern the assessment of reasons (and so proper ly judge) i n each t r a d i t i o n . . . ( I b i d , 1980, p. 17)." S iege l ( i b i d . , p . 17) cont inues: C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , . . . . r e c o g n i z e s the importance of ge t t ing students to'understand and appreciate the r o l e of reasons i n r a t i o n a l endeavour, and of developing in students those t r a i t s , a t t i t u d e s , and d i s p o s i t i o n s which encourage the seeking of reasons for grounding judgement. Understanding the r o l e of reasons i n the severa l r a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s i s c r u c i a l to being s u c c e s s f u l l y i n i t i a t e d in to those t r a d i t i o n s . A sound approach would d i r e c t l y incorporate c r i t i c a l th ink ing i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n the subject matter a r e a . C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g would thus become an i n t e g r a l facet of most classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Furthermore, t h i s approach would develop those a b i l i t i e s needed for a person to th ink c r i t i c a l l y . A l l the above would apply to classroom a c t i v i t i e s at both the advanced and beginners l e v e l s . This s trategy i s c l e a r l y super ior to one that attempts to develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g through a process of 'osmosis ' . One reason for i t s s u p e r i o r i t y i s , as has been noted above, that the development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g would no longer be l e f t to chance. And 84 another reason i s that i t allows the classroom teacher the l i b e r t y , (although that l i b e r t y i s subject to the p a r t i c u l a r content being dea l t wi th , the d i s p o s i t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , as wel l as, the a b i l i t i e s or c a p a b i l i t i e s of the student , and the numerous i n h i b i t o r s to education i n p r i s o n ) , to teach or develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n a v a r i e t y of ways. Furthermore, t h i s approach would provide the classroom teacher with the freedom to teach or develop c r i t i c a l th ink ing i n e i t h e r , "the 'weak sense '—prov id ing student with only the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n q u i r y , " or i n the "strong sense'—making students aware of the egocentr ic p r o c l i v i t i e s that d i s t o r t the reasoning of everyone i n c l u d i n g themselves. (Focus, 1984, p . 5)". I n s t r u c t i o n i n the 's trong sense' i s necessary i f one wants to avoid the major p i t f a l l of sophis try which Paul (1983, pp. 2-3) defines as: the student unwit t ing ly l earns to use c r i t i c a l concepts and techniques to maintain h i s most deep-seated prejudices and i r r a t i o n a l habi ts of thought by masking them i n more " r a t i o n a l " form and by developing some f a c i l i t y in put t ing h i s opponent on the defens ive . Thus the approach to implementing c r i t i c a l th ink ing i n the classroom i s f l e x i b l e and can take in to account the content being covered, the s tudent 's knowledge and a b i l i t i e s and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s teaching s t y l e . P r i n c i p l e E i g h t : The program w i l l use a v a r i e t y of teaching s t r a t e g i e s and approaches. F i r s t , t h i s p r i n c i p l e s a t i s f i e s the M i n i s t r y of Education g u i d e l i n e s . Second, i t takes in to account the many i n h i b i t o r s to education i n p r i s o n . For example, should a teacher want to apply an Inquiry approach for deal ing with a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c , problem, concept, or idea , but the environment of 85 the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n i s not conducive because of a lack of freedom, he/she would, because of t h i s open-ended p r i n c i p l e , have the opt ion to e i t h e r modify the Inquiry approach (a common p r a c t i c e among educators) or use an a l t e r n a t i v e approach. Thus the teacher would not have to abandon or e l iminate a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c because he/she was locked into a p a r t i c u l a r approach. T h i r d , t h i s p r i n c i p l e gives classroom teachers the l a t i t u d e to take into account the a t t i tudes and d i s p o s i t i o n s of t h e i r s tudents . For example, i f a teacher , who was locked in to a Exposi tory approach, were to t r y such an approach on students who needed to express opinions and t h r i v e d on research , the r e s u l t s would be l ess than d e s i r a b l e . And l a s t l y , as was noted e a r l i e r , t h i s p r i n c i p l e allows classroom teachers the f l e x i b i l i t y to a l t e r t h e i r approach to deal adequately with a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c a r e a . 86 CONCLUSION' In t h i s thes i s I have argued that the present secondary program (General Equivalency Diploma Program) i s inadequate. It i s inadequate for the fo l lowing reasons: i t i s simply a battery of f i v e content area t e s t s ; i t i s not worthwhile for i t s own sake; i t i s merely ' t r a i n i n g ' or to be more accurate ' d r i l l i n g ' and not educat ion; i t s substance of each t e s t i s not thought and ideas; i t i s not s t ruc tured i n such a way as to promote understanding and a ' cogn i t ive perspec t ive ' ; i t i s not f l e x i b l e enough to take in to account the c a p a b i l i t i e s of some inmates; and i t does not adequately prepare the student for post-secondary educat ion. Therefore an a l t e r n a t i v e secondary education program i s needed i n the Federal pen i t en t iary system of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, to provide an a l t e r n a t i v e requ ires that i n h i b i t o r s be noted. These were i d e n t i f i e d as: the tensions between s t a f f and inmate; the ac t ions of c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s , managers and s t a f f ; the lack of t r a i n i n g and understanding of some teachers; the unstable and tens ion f i l l e d pr i son environment and atmosphere; an unclear p i c ture of what education would do for the inmate; the numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s to educat ion; the lack of proper f a c i l i t i e s and study space; the Federal bureaucracy; pr i son a u t h o r i t i e s having four very questionable assumptions about the educat ional process; some inmates' h o s t i l i t y towards any educat ional program; and l a s t l y , economics. Despite a l l these i n h i b i t o r s , i t was noted that the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a / S i m o n Fraser U n i v e r s i t y program has been able to operate with some success wi th in four B r i t i s h Columbia pr i sons . As such, these i n h i b i t o r s 87 can be overcome to an extent that would not make impossible the design and implementation of the proposed academic education program The proposed program would be guided by the following: the program focuses on being a l i b e r a l , academic education program; the program incorporates a variety of courses and instructors; the program has two component parts: beginners and advanced; the program, courses and lessons are generally organized i n a li n e a r fashion based on a l o g i c a l progression for development; the content of each subject area w i l l follow the guidelines established by the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education; the program w i l l develop the basic s k i l l s , i . e . reading, w r i t i n g , speaking, and computing, to a senior secondary l e v e l ; the program w i l l develop c r i t i c a l thinking s k i l l s ; and, the program w i l l use a variety of teaching strategies or approaches. 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