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Analysis of gender differences in art education : rates of participation and academic achievement in… Imms, Wesley David 1997

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ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ART EDUCATION: RATES OF PARTICIPATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE ART AND DESIGN EDUCATION. by WESLEY DAVID IMMS B.Ed., University of South Australia, 1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum Studies)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the requiredvstandard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1997  © Wesley David Imms, 1997  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University  of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia,  of  the  requirements  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  her  an  purposes may be  representatives.  It  is  permission for extensive  granted by the understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  advanced  I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that copying  for  head of my copying  or  my written  11  Abstract The purpose of t h i s study was to determine i f gender differences existed i n rates of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and academic achievement i n art education. Parametric and non-parametric s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses  were conducted on data representing the f i n a l a r t grades of 2,231 students from 59 countries, assessed by the International Baccalaureate Organization during the 1995/96 school year. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t results indicated that rates of academic achievement, rates of participation, and choices of syllabus were gender-oriented population.  i n this  Boys, i n comparison with g i r l s , were found to  be less l i k e l y to undertake art, to choose less academically oriented syllabuses and to be out-performed academically i n a r t . It was concluded that boys displayed a lassitude towards a r t education that was consistent with a more generalized educational trend, currently the focus of neomasculinist discussion. Implications of the findings of t h i s study were discussed i n reference to boys' l e v e l of v i s u a l l i t e r a c y , the relevancy of a r t curriculum to boys' s p e c i f i c  Xll  educational needs, the extent of a "feminine" stereotype of art, and factors within a r t education which impact on  how  boys determine "masculinity". Implementation of "relational" research was urged to investigate the impact of art education on boys' formation of concepts of masculinity, and the potential role of art education i n neo-masculinist discussion currently exploring theories of multiple masculinities.  iv Table of Gpntents Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  *  iv  L i s t o f Tables  vi  L i s t of Figures  .  vii  Acknowledgments  Chapter I .  viii  Statement o f the Problem  1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  1.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study  2  1.3 Research Questions  6  Chapter I I . L i t e r a t u r e Review 2.1 H i s t o r i c a l Background.  9  2.2 Schooling and Gender  12  2.3 Boys and Schooling.  15  2.4 Boys' P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Academic i n A r t Education  Achievement ..17  Chapter I I I . Method 3.1 Data Source  i  21  3.2 Design of the Study  25  3.3 Procedure  29  3.4 Data A n a l y s i s  32  V  3.5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  32  Chapter IV. R e s u l t s and Conclusions 4.1 P a r t i c i p a t i o n  35  4.2 Achievement  40  4.3 Summary of F i n d i n g s  49  Chapter V. D i s c u s s i o n 5.1 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f F i n d i n g s f o r A r t Education  53  5.2 Suggested F u r t h e r Research  61  References  64  Appendices. Appendix A; Countries Represented i n the Data  73  Appendix B; D e s c r i p t i o n o f the I.B.D. S y l l a b u s  74  Appendix C; Assessment C r i t e r i a o f the I.B.D. Art Syllabus  76  Appendix D; C a l c u l a t i o n o f Familywise E r r o r Rate....82 Appendix E; C a l c u l a t i o n o f E f f e c t S i z e . . .  83  Appendix F; Correspondence with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Baccalaureate O r g a n i s a t i o n  84  vi L i s t of Tables  Table 1; Relative Frequencies of G i r l s ' and Boys' Participation i n I.B.O. and I.B.D. Art  35  Table 2; Frequency of Student Participation i n Art, by Gender  38  Table 3; Contingency Table of Relative Frequency of Student Participation i n Art by Gender  39  Table 4; Distribution of Grades (Gender and Syllabus Combined).  ...  40  Table 5; Summary of Means; Grades, by Syllabus Level and Gender  43  Table 6; Summary Table for 2x3 (Gender x Syllabus) Randomized Groups ANOVA  46  vii L i s t of Figures  Figure 1; Diagram of the Curriculum Structure of the International Baccalaureate Diploma  22  Figure 2; Frequency Polygon of Participation Levels, Gender by Syllabus  37  Figure 3; Histogram of Distribution of Grades, Gender and Syllabus Combined  41  Figure 4; Bar Chart of Distribution of Grades by Syllabus  42  Figure 5; Polygon of Frequency of Award of Each Grade, Value by Gender.  44  Figure 6; Bar Chart of Boys' and G i r l s ' Mean Art Scores, by Syllabus  45  Figure 7; Plot of S i g n i f i c a n t Interaction E f f e c t ; Grades, by Syllabus Level and Gender  48  V11X  Acknowledgments  This project i s one of many achievements that have stemmed from two years of family adventure. Without Christine's generosity, support, enthusiasm and valued advice; and Tyson and Phoebe's wonderful acceptance of a d i f f e r e n t way of l i f e , i t would never have come to fruition. I would l i k e to acknowledge the Assessment Centre of the International Baccalaureate, Cardiff, Wales; and i t ' s Chief Examiner for art/design, Dr. Doug Boughton, f o r access to the raw data used i n this study. From the Faculty of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia I would l i k e to thank my committee members -  Dr.  Ron MacGregor and Dr. Don A l l i s o n f o r t h e i r generous advice and supervision.  I would also l i k e to thank Dr. Graeme  Chalmers f o r his assistance and continued interest i n t h i s project. I am especially grateful to Dr. Anna Kindler, Chair of my thesis committee f o r her generous allocation of time to t h i s project, the wise counsel she provided and most importantly, her friendship and support over the past two years.  I look forward to continuing to learn under her  mentorship.  1  Chapter I. Statement of the Problem  1.1 Introduction. A decade ago on a warm spring afternoon i n a southern Australian school, I sat i n a s t a f f meeting l i s t e n i n g with interest to a discussion concerning the students being awarded the annual academic prizes.  Coming at the end of  my f i r s t year of teaching, i t was a new experience for me, but a colleague s i t t i n g beside me whispered that a similar conversation occurred each year.  The names being reviewed  were not the concern; each was worthy of the honour. Rather, i t was the fact that they were v i r t u a l l y a l l g i r l s - again.  "Where are the boys?" the bewildered P r i n c i p a l  asked. More than ten years l a t e r , Pat Clarke, an o f f i c i a l i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation, asked exactly the same question.  "Where are the boys?" (Clarke, 1997).  While reviewing that province's high school academic awards he noticed that boys were conspicuously absent.  In  discussing t h i s phenomena, he lamented a seeming lack of purpose displayed by boys and posited that, i n trying to be "manly", boys were surrendering to a n i h i l i s t i c male subculture characterized by poor academic achievement and avoidance of s o c i a l or educational challenge.  2  My experiences with Clarke.  as an art educator inclined me to agree  Since that s t a f f meeting early i n my teaching  career, I became conscious of consistent gender differences i n my art classes; boys seemed less l i k e l y than g i r l s to choose art and when they did, were not as academically successful.  Over the years my observation of boys'  avoidance and poor academic performance i n art was so consistent i t was seen by me to constitute a worrying trend.  But was this trend a generalized phenomena?  If i t  was, did i t constitute an educational concern?  1.2 Rationale for the Study Unfortunately, the queries raised above could not be answered from current l i t e r a t u r e .  Very l i t t l e has been  written about boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement i n art education, p r i n c i p a l l y because gender discussion i n this f i e l d had t r a d i t i o n a l l y followed limited topics of conversation within which boys' issues rarely featured (Packard and Zimmerman, 1977; Pariser and Zimmerman, 1990). This has been, however, characteristic of education as a whole.  Since the early 1970s i t had been convincingly  argued that curriculum was boy-oriented; the construction of curriculum, the focus of texts, pedagogical strategies and academic streaming have been centered on masculinist  3  meritocracy (Askew and Ross, 1988).  Consequently i t was  research on g i r l s and t h e i r problems that warranted particular attention.  U n t i l recently no rationale had been  established that j u s t i f i e d discussion s p e c i f i c to males. As a result very l i t t l e i s now known about boys' experiences generally i n education (Bushweller, 1995). Why Should We Look at Boys' Schooling? Within the l a s t few years a re-examination of conventional parameters of gender discussion has occurred, prompted by evidence of increased s o c i a l , genderinteraction and schooling problems of boys. Some worrying s o c i a l trends have emerged.  Boys have  been shown to be four times as l i k e l y as g i r l s to commit suicide, be murdered by high school age and twice as l i k e l y to be victims of assault or robbery (Bushweller, 1995). They now form the majority (up to 75%) of behavioural and emotional disorder diagnoses (Soderman and P h i l l i p s , 1986), the majority of truancies, sexual misconduct and assaults (Jackson and Salisbury, 1996). Boys' impact on the schooling of g i r l s has increasingly become an issue.  Inappropriate behaviour by  some boys i n class i s observed to demand disproportionate amounts of teachers time and l i m i t g i r l s ' academic achievement (Sadker and Sadker, 1994).  In addition, some  4  boys' sexist attitudes are considered to affect g i r l s ' levels of self-esteem and l i m i t t h e i r personal and s o c i a l potential (Gray, 1987). Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t - and recent - trend has been the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of some worrying academic problems for boys.  They now form the majority (up to 75%) of  special education enrollments i n both the U.S.A. (Bushweller, 1996) and the United Kingdom (Sbderman and P h i l l i p s , 1986).  They are disproportionately represented  i n retention rates between classes (Lee and Bryck,  1986)  and have lower academic success and lower expectations than g i r l s of future career prospects (Pascal and Bertram, 1995).  Clarke (1997) notes that i n a number of school  d i s t r i c t s i n the Canadian province of B r i t i s h Columbia, boys i n the 1995/96 school year were 5 times as l i k e l y as g i r l s to drop out of school; they achieved 80% of the f a i l i n g grades, 80% of the suspensions, only 20% of academic honour awards and one t h i r d of d i s t r i c t and provincial scholarships. Clarke (1997) and Duffy (1996) also note the decrease i n male enrollments i n undergraduate courses from 60% i n the 1970s to 40% i n the 1990s. Facts such as these highlight a perceived c r i s i s with boys.  Boys appear to be giving up on t h e i r schooling,  rapidly becoming what Clarke (1997) refers to as a new  5  "social underclass", or what the Economist magazine  (Men,  tomorrow's second sex, 1997).terms the "newest a t - r i s k section of our community." These concerns have resulted i n the emergence of a rationale that argues boys problems are becoming so c r i t i c a l , the paucity of research that exists must be immediately addressed.  Subsequently, an increasing body of  writing has concentrated largely on subject-specific research. 1995;  Academic subjects such as English (Martino,  Nilan, 1995;  Gilbert, 1995)  Jackson and Salisbury, 1995;  and Social Science (Smith, 1995)  to correlate boys' s o c i a l , gender-interaction  Gilbert and have begun  and  schooling  problems with perceptions of what boys consider "manly" behaviour. Art education has been largely under-represented i n this discussion and w i l l continue to be limited i n i t s a b i l i t y to o f f e r subject-specific dialogue on this issue u n t i l i t can establish a construct describing the nature of boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the v i s u a l arts.  The questions  posed i n the introduction, therefore, are timely relevant.  and  The observed phenomena w i l l be of educational  concern as they w i l l indicate the degree to which boys' lassitude towards education, as outlined i n recent gender discussion, applies to art.  This w i l l be achieved through  6  documentation of trends within a large international population of boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s , academic achievement and syllabus selections. This study w i l l provide foundation data which further studies might u t i l i z e to b u i l d a discussion concerning the interplay of boys, a r t and masculinity.  1.3 Research Questions The research question for t h i s study asked: In the International Baccalaureate population, are boys' levels of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and academic achievement, and t h e i r choice of syllabuses, s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to g i r l s ' ? In addressing t h i s query, s p e c i f i c s t a t i s t i c a l tests were used to explore the effects of the dependent variables of grade and p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the independent variables of 1  gender and syllabus l e v e l . Two question clusters were u t i l i s e d .  The f i r s t  cluster aimed at determining i f gender differences existed i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art, and i f those rates of participation were consistent between a l l International Baccalaureate Diploma (hereafter I.B.D.) art/design syllabus l e v e l s . The second cluster focused on achieved Within t h i s context, "grade" refers to the academic mark assigned to students work u t i l i s i n g normal assessment procedures. 1  7  grade, attempting to determine i f gender differences existed i n academic results i n I.B.D. a r t , and whether those academic results were consistent i n a l l syllabus levels. Question cluster 1• In the I.B.D., i s boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to that of g i r l s ' ? findings consistent across syllabus  Are these  levels?  1.1 Does s i g n i f i c a n t difference exist i n boys' overall participation i n the I.B.O. program compared to g i r l s ' overall participation i n the I.B.O. program? 1.2 What i s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of students undertaking I.B.O. art compared to o v e r a l l student participation i n the I.B.O. program? 1.3 What i s the proportion of boys within the I.B.O. program who study art, compared to the proportion of g i r l s within the I.B.O. program who study art? 1.4  Is the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art of boys  s i g n i f i c a n t l y different than for g i r l s ? 1.5  Is the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art for a l l  students (boys and g i r l s ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between the three syllabuses u t i l i s e d i n the International 611 or 612)?  Baccalaureate Art/Design program (610,  8  1.6  Is the rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art i n any of the  three (610, 611 or 612) syllabuses s i g n i f i c a n t l y different for boys than for g i r l s ? Question cluster 2. In the International Baccalaureate, i s boys' academic achievement i n art s i g n i f i c a n t l y different to that of girls?  Are these findings consistent across the 610,  611  or 612 syllabus levels? 2.1  Is achievement i n a r t , as measured by standard  grading practices, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for boys than for g i r l s ? 2.2  Is achievement, as measured by standard grading  practices for a l l students (boys and g i r l s ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y different between any of the three syllabuses? 2.3  Is achievement i n art i n any of the three  syllabuses, as measured by standard grading practices, s i g n i f i c a n t l y different for boys than for g i r l s ?  9  Chapter I I . Literature Review.  2.1 H i s t o r i c a l Background. Traditional Histories of Gender i n Education Traditionally, histories of gender debate i n education have concentrated on the three decades of transformative s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l changes witnessed during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s i n many Western societies (Askew and Ross, Gray, 1987).  1988;  During t h i s time a gender-oriented power  imbalance i n schools has been i d e n t i f i e d and continues to be addressed.  Of concern has been an inequality of  educational opportunity, an inequality of employment opportunity, sexist orientations of teachers curriculum and texts, and sex-role stereotyping; a l l to the  disadvantage  of g i r l s . Subsequent research focused on the following key themes of discussion; the advantages of co-education to provide more equitable educational and career opportunities (Dale, 1969, 1971,  1974; Austin, 1977a, 1977b), strategies  to encourage g i r l s ' participation i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y maleoriented academic subjects (Byrne, 1978), the empowerment of g i r l s to lead (Graham, 1974), to aspire to professional careers (Tidball and Kistiakowsky, 1976) and the negating of sex-role stereotyping through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  10  modification of sexist texts and teaching practices (Taylor, 1981).  As a result g i r l s ' subject choices were  extensively examined and boys domination of the classroom and schooling environment was e f f e c t i v e l y challenged (Weiner, 1985). Feminism and Gender i n Education The source of the gender-equity related strategies which culminated from these research agendas have been widely attributed to radical feminist ideology of the early 1970s (Gray, 1987; Soerensen, 1992; Smith, 1995). Women were committed to addressing poor academic achievement by g i r l s , r e s t r i c t i v e role stereotypes, lower career expectations, female submisiveness and a lack of assertive s k i l l s by g i r l s i n the classroom.  By the 1980s s i g n i f i c a n t  l e g i s l a t i o n i n many countries had resulted i n the focus of gender work i n education concentrating on the empowerment of g i r l s through an "equal opportunities" approach (Jackson and Salisbury, 1996). The rewards for g i r l s from these efforts have been so s i g n i f i c a n t that Anne Soerensen, a feminist academic, wrote i n 1992 "...we are now witnessing a breakdown of the former educational pyramid. Women as a whole, but especially the young generation, have achieved a more equal position and  11  they have moved into many former male dominated subjects and areas." (p.2 01) . Such has been the domination of the debate and the advances made by feminists, the term 'gender issues' i n education i s how often seen as synonymous with women' s issues (Sacca, 1989). The Emergence of Neo-Masculinism . 2  Some contemporary interpretations of the history of gender work i n education now recognize that, with the predominance of feminist ideology, an educational paradigm too s p e c i f i c to allow gender work with boys was created (Connell, 1989; Martino, 1995; Jackson and Salisbury, 1996).  While acknowledging a considerable debt to feminist  struggles since the 1970s, neo-masculinist authors describe the h i s t o r i c a l domination of the feminist perspective i n gender discussion as d e b i l i t a t i n g for the development of a dialogue concerning male identity (Smith, 1995).  I t has  not allowed room for men to discuss issues related to boys (Jackson and Salisbury, 1996).  The resulting discussion,  emerging only i n the l a s t few years, has been t o examine the interplay of feminism and the emerging neo-masculinity The term "neo-masculinism" and "neo-masculinity" have not received wide usage i n gender l i t e r a t u r e but are considered useful within t h i s discussion as representing those writers whose philosophy endorses a re-interpretation of masculinity from the t r a d i t i o n a l "unitary" to a more p l u r a l i s t "multiple" d e f i n i t i o n . 2  12  movement i n terms of a re-interpretation of definitions of masculinity.  Martino (1995) recognized how,  historically,  feminist domination of discussion i n gender led to the u t i l i z a t i o n of a "unitary" d e f i n i t i o n of masculinity which stereotyped males as patriarchal and hegemonic.  Jackson  and Salisbury (1996) observed a similar h i s t o r i c a l trend, and questioned how boys could be encouraged to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own change when this d e f i n i t i o n allowed them such l i t t l e room to move, and awarded such l i t t l e credit for efforts boys make to question perceptions of masculinity. Connell (1989) examined the d e b i l i t a t i n g effect of feminist ideology on boys' classroom discussion of gender issues, resulting i n a subsequent suppression of a male-led mandate to effect masculine change.  3.2 Schooling and Gender The neo-masculinist perspective has gained an element of acknowledgment within gender debate.  Although some  feminist authors, such as P a l l o t t a - C h i a r o l l i (1990), Burgess (1990) and Bailey (1996) appeared reticent to abandon ideologies that had gained so many advantages with such hard work, more generalist feminist opinions coincided with neo-masculinist theories to create a post-modern paradigm within gender debate i n education  (Soerensen,  13  1992).  This perspective questioned, after years of  f r u i t f u l service, the continued appropriateness  of  "equality of opportunity" measures. Anne Soerensen (1992) argued a re-examination of the h i s t o r i c a l development of gender work i n schools would only further feminist interests and f a c i l i t a t e future development i n that same direction.  She posited that, i n retrospect, r a d i c a l and  l i b e r a l feminism appeared to have developed ideologies that were not p l u r a l i s t .  In contrast  post-feminism i s , from a theoretical viewpoint challenging the former concepts, maintaining that we have to leave the essential thinking and  absolute  strategies of the 197 0s i n order to open up a f i e l d of research to p l u r a l i t y and a constructive uncertainty, (p.  201)  Soerensen (1992), Reay (1990b), Kruse (1992) and  others  have re-focused, to some extent, feminist debate on boys. Central to post-feminist philosophy i s a recognition of the need to include a greater understanding of what makes boys behave as they do (Reay, 1990b).  These researchers  recognize boys schooling as a previously ignored variable i n gender equity debate; "...with the advent of neomasculinism feminist perspectives have been forced to  14  reconsider their most fundamental question: Who are the losers and who are the winners?" (Soerensen, 1992; p, 209) However t r a d i t i o n a l themes i n gender discussion s t i l l constitute a majority of writing.  Single-gender schooling  and segregated classes have enjoyed a renaissance as a arena to discuss g i r l s ' improved academic performance (Jiminez and Lockheed, 1989), a venue for interventionist pedagogical strategies with boys (Gray, 1987; Kruse,  1992;  Reay, 1990b), and a s i t e for anti-sexist, anti-gender stereotyping pedagogies  (Riordan, 1990; Burgess, 1990).  Within art education, the most recent gender publication i n North America - Gender issues i n art education: Content, contexts and strategies (Collins & Sandell, 1996) - continues to focus on concerns with g i r l s schooling i n art education; topics such as "Art C r i t i c i s m from a Feminist Point of View" (Congdon, 1996), "Teaching Feminist Art and Social Activism" (Wryick, 1996)  and  "Feminist Interventions i n Teaching Art History" (Attenborough, 1996) point to where the emphasis l i e s i n art education.  While the editors of this work claim a  wider sphere of contexts are now being represented within gender discussion i n art education, these contexts remain limited to "...the recent and dramatic evolution of  15  concerns related to women, art and education." Sandell, 1996;  (Collins and  p.xi).  This exclusion of masculine issues within art education i s inconsistent with generalised trends i n education.  Gender research i s now being seen as emerging  from two decades dominated by feminist oriented "equality of opportunity" discussion, into a phase of discussion more representative of contemporary theories of pluralism (Soerensen, 1992).  A p l u r a l i s t paradigm has been created  within the topic of schooling and gender discussion, part of which acknowledges the unique problems boys face i n today's educational environment, and the r e l a t i o n a l aspects of those problems to g i r l s ' needs.  2.3 Boys and Schooling Within this new construct of gender discussion i n education, studies such as this one obtain t h e i r v a l i d i t y . Establishing a sense of boys academic p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement i s a necessary precursor for further investigation of the complex causes of boys' actions i n schools (Martino, 1993).  This study w i l l , through the  vehicle of boys' levels of l i t e r a c y i n art education, point to directions the f i e l d ought to take i f pluralism i s to be achieved.  Without this knowledge art education, with i t s  16  limited history of research s p e c i f i c to boys, i s handicapped i n i t s a b i l i t y to participate i n current discussion concerning boys and schooling. The nature of this discussion i d e n t i f i e s the complex socio-cultural influences on boys' perceptions of masculinity as i m p l i c i t to t h e i r levels of l i t e r a c y . Alloway, Davies, G i l b e r t and G i l b e r t (1996) summarised the consensus of opinions of many authors when they stated "...we can't understand boys' l i t e r a c y problems unless we understand boys' developing sense of masculinity and how l i t e r a c y f i t s within t h i s . " (p. 6).  The parameters for  contemporary discussion concerning boys and t h e i r schooling are established within the concept that boys' academic performance i s primarily influenced by s o c i a l , rather than psycho-biological, e f f e c t s .  Contemporary research i n t h i s  f i e l d i s beginning to concentrate primarily on the interplay of boys' perceptions of gender and academic worth.  Connell (1989) presented the theory of "multiple  masculinities".  Noting that i n the 1980s a variety of  types of masculinity existed -  "cool guys", "swots" or  "wimps" - into which boys were streamed according to preexisting mores constructed by the school, society and youth sub-cultures.  Often this streaming was fought by the  youths but such was the influence of peer pressure and the  17  s o c i a l constructs of school and home, t h e i r e f f o r t s were seen to be i n vain (Jackson & Salisbury, 1996; Smith, 1995).  Connell's analysis of boys struggling within  l i m i t i n g interpretations of masculinity has become the pivotal theme of neo-masculinist  discussion.  (1994, 1995) and Nilan (1995) u t i l i z e  Martino  de-construction/re-  constructionalist pedagogies to investigate l i m i t i n g gender stereotypes within English education and o f f e r s i m i l a r analyses i n r e l a t i o n to instruction i n Social Science (Smith, 1995).  Mac an G h a i l l (1994) also used the theory  of multiple masculinities to explore t h e i r potential to negate boys' marginalization of sexual (homosexual) ethnic and disadvantaged masculinities.  2.3 Boys' P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Academic Achievement i n Art Education. Literature concerning boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement i n art i s very limited. Art education's t r a d i t i o n a l l y narrow perspective when researching genderrelated topics (Helgadottir, 1991) has resulted i n data on t h i s topic being limited to appendant information i n larger, more generalized studies. majority of these have concentrated  Unfortunately, the on limited subject  areas - usually mathematics, English, and science (MacCann,  18  1995) - with l i t t l e i f any information being gathered and discussed relevant to a r t . Standardized tests, available through national s t a t i s t i c a l archives, have been shown to be inconsistent i n t h e i r results; g i r l s perform poorly compared to boys on standardized tests while outperforming them i n the classroom (Sadker, Sadker and Steindam, 1989). MacCann (1995) conducted a comprehensive analysis of examination and assessment results of the New South Wales (Australia) Higher Schools C e r t i f i c a t e .  A section,  s p e c i f i c to art, with a sample of n = 8,478 found a disproportionate representation of g i r l s i n art (68%). Academically, g i r l s outperformed boys i n a l l areas of the art assessment, with the exception of the 90th and 95th percentiles i n the examination section where boys marginally outperformed g i r l s .  Overall, boys showed a  wider standard deviation; s i g n i f i c a n t l y so i n the lower end of the distributions. Gender differences i n participation i n art education were included as inconclusive appendant information i n studies concerning subject preferences i n co-educational and single-gender schools by Omerod (1975), Lee and Bryck (1986), Trickett, Castro, Trickett and Schaffner (1982), and Stables (1990).  Of interest from these studies was a  consistent observation of polarization tendencies of the  19  subject categories within which art was represented. polarization,  By  i t i s meant the tendency for gender  differences i n subject choice to be accentuated  i n co-  educational schools (Department of Education and Science, 1975).  No studies were located that s p e c i f i c a l l y  investigated gendered differences i n choice of art as a subject of study.  This could be seen to form part of the  "vacuum of knowledge" noted by Pariser and Zimmerman (1990), who c a l l e d for " . . . t r a d i t i o n a l research to undergird [the] conjectures..." (p.5) evident i n art education research i n gender issues. In summary, i t i s conceded that a study examining participation and achievement i n r e l a t i o n to gender w i l l inevitably and unavoidably be challenged to discuss i t s results i n terms of a diversity of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and socio-cultural  issues.  gender-stereotyping  These issues, such as sexism,  or equality of opportunity have  h i s t o r i c a l l y been discussed within education from a predominately feminist perspective.  With a growing  awareness of the compounding problems of boys i n contemporary schooling, the t r a d i t i o n a l feminist constructs of gender are being viewed - both by some feminists and other academics - as too l i m i t i n g iri t h e i r interpretations of masculinity.  As a result, post-feminism and  neo-  20  masculinism are advocating a more p l u r a l i s t approach towards issues of gender.  This approach allows studies  such as t h i s to work from the rationale that boys may well be disadvantaged by factors within schooling.  The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these factors, and the development of strategies to address t h e i r impact on boys' inappropriate behaviour and sexist gender-concepts w i l l ultimately serve the needs of both boys and g i r l s .  21  Chapter I I I . Method.  For the purpose of this study, a large sample was required of male and female students from a population of art students with a homogeneous syllabus and assessment method.  3.1 Data Source. A primary source of data which f u l f i l l e d  these  c r i t e r i a was obtained through the International Baccalaureate Organization, Cardiff, Wales (hereafter I.B.O.).  The I.B.O. provided scores of 2,231 male and  female students from 59 countries (Appendix A) who were examined i n t h e i r art/design program during the 1995/96 school year.  This number represented the f u l l I.B.O.  art/design population assessed i n the Northern Hemisphere for that year. The data was obtained through negotiations with the I.B.O. The data was compiled by I.B.O. s t a f f from a l i s t of requirements supplied by the researcher (see Appendix F).  It was supplied i n computer printout format for  transcription to data f i l e and s t a t i s t i c a l computer analysis by the author.  22  The I.B.O. Program. The I.B.O. o f f e r s a 2 year program c u l m i n a t i n g i n the award of an I.B. Diploma (I.B.D.).  The I.B.D. i s a p r e -  t e r t i a r y award, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized as a u n i v e r s i t y entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  Strong r e s u l t s i n the I.B.D. are  seen t o ensure entrance t o major u n i v e r s i t i e s worldwide (Anderson, 1994). Group !  Group 1  LANGUAGE B / A2  EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCES  Extended Essay Group 3  LANGUAGE A l  Theory of Knowledge  Group 4  INDIVIDUALS & SOCIETIES  Creativity, Action & Service  Group 6  THE ARTS / SIXTH SUBJECT  Group 5  One more subject from groups I -4 or Advanced Mathematics SI. or Art / Design, Music, Classical Languages, Computing Studies  MATHEMATICS  a School Based Svllabu  F i g u r e 1.  Diagram of the c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e of the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Baccalaureate Diploma.  23  The program constitutes a comprehensive, multid i s c i p l i n a r y course of study, operating within a schoolbased curriculum development model and u t i l i z i n g moderated, criteria-based assessment procedures. Students study 6 subjects over a two year period - 3 at the Higher Level, or H.L., or S.L.  (see Figure 1).  and 3 at the Subsidiary Level  The levels of study are  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by contact hours - 240 for the H.L.,  120 for  the S.L. - and also by curriculum content which i s seen as encompassing a greater commitment and range of s k i l l s development within the  H.L.  In addition to studying the s i x subjects, f u l l diploma students are expected to complete an extended essay, follow a course i n the theory of knowledge, and undertake extracurricular activities.  I t i s also possible for students to  study one or two individual I.B.D. subjects, for which they can be awarded individual c e r t i f i c a t e s (Chalmers, 1988). Art within the I.B.D. Art/Design i s included within the sixth group together with 6 other options.  The aims of  the art/design component of the I.B.D. encompass the development of high quality, personally meaningful, aesthetic, imaginative and creative s k i l l s with a p l u r a l i s t emphasis on the developing of v i s u a l l i t e r a c y s k i l l s (Chalmers, 1988).  24  Its curriculum i s offered as three syllabuses; the H.L. with a studio/research curriculum, the S.L. or the S.L. The H.L.  (studio)  (research); of which the students choose one.  syllabus encompasses a combination of studio and  research components. Students are required to develop a personal focus to visual art production through the d i s c i p l i n e s of c r i t i c i s m , art production and art history (Blaikie, 1994).  Appendix B provides an outline of the  course and the c r i t e r i a for the studio and  research  components. Assessment procedures for I.B^D. art/design.  An  externally assessed, p o r t f o l i o display/interview method of assessment i s u t i l i z e d .  An external examiner - usually a  practicing art educator - conducts an interview with each student, assessing the work through discussion, review of the research workbook, and examination of the p o r t f o l i o . Students may present a research workbook, or a p o r t f o l i o of studio work for assessment at either of the subsidiary 612 or 611 syllabuses.  Appendix C provides  the  c r i t e r i a on which assessments are made. Grades are awarded on a 1 to 5 ordinal scale for each of the 6 c r i t e r i a with 5 being the highest possible score. Scores are weighted by the I.B.O. (see Appendix C) to give proportional credit to "imaginative and creative thinking"  25  (studio component) and "independent research" (research component).  A f i n a l grade award on a 0 (failure) to 7  (excellent) ordinal scale i s produced.  3.2 Design of the study; Because a l l data was obtained from existing f i l e s of past art students within the I.B.O. program, a nonexperimental, ex post facto design was u t i l i z e d .  The  intention was to address the research questions u t i l i z i n g both descriptive and i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s . I n i t i a l l y , the subjects represented by the data were treated as a population on the basis that they represented the entire c o l l e c t i o n of events i n which we were interested (Howell, 1997, p2).  This allowed a descriptive analysis of  data to answer some research questions using d i s t r i b u t i o n tables, means and standard deviations. Secondly, gender differences i n rates of participation and academic achievement scores were tested for significance u t i l i z i n g the i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c models of chi-square ( x ) and f a c t o r i a l analysis of variance (ANOVA). 2  D i f f e r i n g i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c models were considered necessary for analysis of significance of data on participation and achievement.  26  Choice of S t a t i s t i c a l Models Participation.  The data concerning participation  rates was presented as the frequency of participation occurring within the categories of gender (boys and g i r l s ) and syllabus (610, 611, 612). The appropriate nonparametric s t a t i s t i c a l test for these conditions was considered to be an independent-samples chi-square test (Howell, 1997).  This test allowed questions to be answered  that concerned associations or relationships of 2 or more populations based on frequencies of observations i n categories (Schumacher and McMillan, 1993). When analysis of participation data concerning one independent variable was required, the appropriate s t a t i s t i c was considered to be the goodness-of-fit chi-square t e s t . Achievement.  The data on achievement grades was  presented as the means of factors with two or more l e v e l s . Traditionally, comparison of means has been undertaken u t i l i z i n g a variety of parametric s t a t i s t i c a l tests.  Of  those relevant to the types of variables being analyzed, the use of multiple independent sample t tests, or multiple one-way ANOVAs were considered inappropriate due to the  27  higher probability of familywise e r r o r  3  ( a ^ = .15),  (Appendix D). F a c t o r i a l analysis, on the other hand, allowed for analysis of more than two independent variables, each with more than two levels with no danger of familywise error. The 2-way ANOVA required for t h i s study enabled a l l three questions to be answered i n one test; two concerning main effects, and one concerning interactions. S t a t i s t i c a l Designs Design of the chi-square.  An independent-samples,  2  x 3 (gender x syllabus) chi-square design was u t i l i z e d for tests conducted with 2 factors with more than two l e v e l s . The dependent variable was frequency of enrollment.  The  independent variables were gender - with i t ' s two levels, boys and g i r l s - and syllabus, which contained three levels - 610 = high; 611 = subsidiary syllabus, studio based; and 612 = subsidiary syllabus, research based. Goodness-of-fit chi-square tests were conducted for analyses concerning only one factor. Assumptions.  Each observation (subject) was  represented i n only one category, independent sampling was assured, and sample sizes were well above the minimum "Familywise error" describes the tendency for incorrect findings to be compacted by repeated t e s t i n g . 3  28  required of a 5 (Glenburg, 1987).  The assumptions were  considered to be met. Design of the ANOVA.  A 2 x 3 (gender x syllabus)  f a c t o r i a l analysis of variance (ANOVA), randomized groups design, was u t i l i z e d .  The dependent variable was grade  represented on a 0 ( f a i l ) to 7 (high) ordinal scale. The independent variables were gender, with two levels (male and female) and syllabus with three levels (610 = high; 611 = subsidiary syllabus, studio based; and 612 = subsidiary syllabus, research based). Tukey's Honestly Significant Different post-hoc comparisons (hereafter Tukey's HSD) were implemented on the independent variable of syllabus l e v e l t o identify syllabus effect. Assumptions.  S t a t i s t i c a l conventions have  t r a d i t i o n a l l y required the meeting of data, sample and population assumptions before ANOVA results can be considered v a l i d (Cone and Foster, 1996). Data assumptions required the use of i n t e r v a l or r a t i o scales of measurement-  The data for t h i s study was not  interval or r a t i o ; rather, i t was presented on an eight point ordinal scale.  However, recent l i t e r a t u r e has  convincingly argued the robustness of ANOVA when u t i l i z i n g ordinal data (Howell, 1997; Boneau, 1960 c i t e d i n Howell,  29  1997; Box, 1953, 1954a, 1954b c i t e d i n Howell, 1997; Bradley, 1964 c i t e d i n Howell, 1997).  This assumption was  considered met. Sampling assumptions required the use of independent sampling.  Independent sampling requires that each subject  be represented only once within the data. This assumption was considered met. Population assumptions required normal distributions and comparable variances (Glenburg, 1986).  Both  distributions were reasonably symmetrical i n d i s t r i b u t i o n and variances reasonably homogeneous. Furthermore these requirements have been somewhat n u l l i f i e d by recent l i t e r a t u r e which has convincingly argued ANOVA's robustness to non-conformity and non-normality (Boneau, 1960; c i t e d i n Howell, 1997).  These assumptions were considered to be  met.  3.3 Procedure. Variables Within the Obtained Data Set. The I.B.O. supplied, for each student, data concerning gender, f i n a l academic grade i n art, syllabus l e v e l iri which the art score was obtained - given as both a category and syllabus number - the participant's school code number, the schooling type (singler-gender of co-educational), the  30  t o t a l students (by gender) i n each school enrolled i n the I.B.O. program and the country i n which the school  was  situated. Variables chosen.  The independent variables chosen  from t h i s l i s t for t h i s study were gender, syllabus l e v e l , and t o t a l of students (by gender) studying i n the I.B.O. program.  These were selected on the grounds that the  primary objective of t h i s study was an investigation of boys p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement i n a r t .  Supplementary  variables were rejected i f perceived to confound the s t a t i s t i c a l v i a b i l i t y of t h i s objective. Variables rejected.  Although some interest existed i n  possible differences i n art scores between countries, the variable of country was eventually rejected.  This was done  because 1) the I.B.O. data contained a large degree of representation of ex-patriate students studying i n international schools that could negate the true 'international' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s variable; 2) widely disparate sample numbers (see Appendix A) between countries would make s t a t i s t i c a l conclusions suspect, and 3) a 2 x 3 x 59 (gender x syllabus x country) ANOVA would not be able to successfully compute higher order interactions with the existence of empty c e l l s i n some syllabuses from some countries.  31  The variable of schooling type was of considerable interest; the representation of boys and t h e i r achievement in single-gender schools i n comparison to co-educational schools was s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of current neo-masculinity discussion.  However, with only one boys' single-gender  school i n the data the v a l i d i t y of any findings was 4  questionable. The variable representing the three s p e c i f i c syllabuses (610,611,612) was chosen i n favour of the variable representing the two categorical levels (High or Subsidiary).  The choice of t h i s variable allowed an  interpretation of trends i n boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n studiooriented or research-oriented art education curriculum, and boys academic achievement i n those orientations r e l a t i v e 1  to g i r l s .  If required, descriptive s t a t i s t i c s could s t i l l  be u t i l i z e d to examine trends concerning the categorical levels by simply combining the 611 and 612 data. Treatment of 'N' and 'P' grades. A number of scores were presented i n the data as  'N'  ( f a i l e d to adequately meet c r i t e r i a ) and 'P.' (pending; absent from assessment, f a i l e d to meet c r i t e r i a ) .  On  The I.B.O. data i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d at least one all-boys school as 'mixed', leading to the conclusion that more errors i n the data might e x i s t . A reasonable sample might be possible f o r future studies. 4  32  advice from the I.B.O. these scores were interpreted as a f a i l , and awarded an '0' rating.  3.4 Analysis of Data. Data was analyzed using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences  (SPSS).  Alpha Level. Traditionally, convention i n s t a t i s t i c s i n the Social Sciences has accepted an alpha l e v e l of a = .05 as an appropriate l e v e l of significance (Howell, 1997). It allows a low probability (.05) of Type I errors (a) while retaining a reasonable power (1-B) to detect Type II errors (6).  This alpha l e v e l was adopted for this study.  Power Analysis. With a two-tailed test, an a = .05, an e f f e c t size (Appendix E) of d  = .40, and a sample size of >n ~ 750,  Cohen's (1988) Power Table indicated the study demonstrated a power of >.99,  or a >99% probability of correctly  rejecting a false n u l l hypothesis.  3.5 Limitations of the study Generalization of the Results; Results from the descriptive s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were applicable only to the population of students assessed i n  33  the Northern Hemisphere I.B.O. art program i n 1995/96. Inferential s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of participation ( c h i square) and achievement (ANOVA) was generalized only to students i n the I.B.O. program i n other years including those from the Southern Hemisphere population. Any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t results could not be assumed to be indicative of the whole art education population; p r i n c i p a l l y because the data c o l l e c t i o n did not f u l f i l l the required assumptions for randomized sampling to allow generalization.  In as much as the purpose of t h i s  study was to explore i f the phenomena concerning the researcher's classroom observations of boys p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement rates was more generalized, l i m i t i n g the conclusions to the 2,231 I.B.O. art students more than f u l f i l l e d this objective. However, i t should be recognized that the I.B-O. data provided a comprehensive source of art education data.  The  sample size was very large. Data was obtained from art students i n a range of school grades (10, 11 and 12). I t represented students from over 200 schools - private and public, co-educational and single-gender, church and nonchurch.  The schools represented a wide range of countries  - 59 i n a l l - from each of the f i v e continents. was obtained using homogeneous methods; i d e n t i c a l  The data  34  curriculum and assessment c r i t e r i a were used and moderation procedures were u t i l i z e d to assure homogeneity i n assessment procedures. As such, findings from the I.B.O. data can be interpreted as representative of a wide, a r t education population.  Results from this study could be viewed as  indicative of important trends i n a r t education. Causation The s t a t i s t i c a l analysis from t h i s study was not appropriate to be used to interpret causation of i d e n t i f i e d trends.  I t i d e n t i f i e d a situation; further s p e c i f i c  quantitative or qualitative studies are needed to investigate why any trends i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s study e x i s t .  35  Chapter IV. Results and Conclusions.  4.1 Participation. Considerable gender differences concerning student participation were detected i n both the overall I.B.O. program and within the a r t program (Table 1). Boys and g i r l s were not evenly represented i n the overall I.B.O. assessments f o r the 1995/96 school year; of the 24,252 students assessed, g i r l s constituted 53.45%  Table 1. Relative Frequency of G i r l s ' and Boys' Participation i n I.B.O. and I.B.D. i n A r t .  Girls  Boys  Enrollment  I.B.O.  %  n  11,289  .4655  12,963  .5345*  793  .3554  1,438  .6445**  Art (I.B.D.)  *  x = (1/ N = 24,252) = 115.54 p<.005 2  ** x = (If N - 2,231) 2  %  n  = 186.47 JK.005  36  (12,963) and boys 46.55% (11,289) ( x = [1, N = 24,252] = 2  115.54 p<.005).  In answering question 1.1, i t was  concluded that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed i n the o v e r a l l representation of boys i n the I.B.O. program, compared to the overall representation of g i r l s . Question 1.2 and 1.3 asked what proportion of the overall I.B.O. population undertook art and the proportion represented i n that figure of g i r l s and boys. that 2,231  or 9.20%  I t was  found  chose art as the optional subject  within the sixth group.  1,438  (11.09%) of g i r l s chose a r t ,  while 793 (7.02%) of boys chose a r t . Question 1.4 asked i f the differences i n enrollments of g i r l s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y different to the enrollment of boys.  G i r l s were found to s i g n i f i c a n t l y over-represent  boys i n art ( x = [1, N = 2,231] = 186.47 p<.005).  They  2  accounted for 1,438  or 64.5% of art enrollments compared to  boys' 793 or 35.5% of art enrollments. Overall participation decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the higher and lower syllabuses (see Figure 2).  1,257  students (56.3%) were assessed i n the higher 610 syllabus, 778 (34.9%) and 196 (8.8%) were assessed i n the lower 611 and 612 syllabuses respectively.  In answering question 1.5  - does p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i f f e r within the syllabuses -  37  significance difference was  found ( x = [2, N = 2,231] 2  759.25 rj<.005) . 1000  Gender Boys Girls 610  611  612  Syllabus levels  Figure 2.  Frequency Polygon of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Levels;  Gender x Syllabus.  Question 1.6 asked i f s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences occurred i n any of the three syllabuses.  In addition to an  overall (boys and g i r l s combined) decrease i n numbers across the three syllabuses, s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences were also detected i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates.  Figure 2 and  Table 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n t drop i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates between the syllabuses by both genders (x^  38  [2,N=2,231] = 17.38 p_<.005) and boys s i g n i f i c a n t underrepresentation i n each syllabus (610 syllabus, x [1,N=1,257] = 142.35 p<.005; 611 syllabus, x =42.58 p_<.005; 612 syllabus, x  2  2  2  [1,N=778]  [1,N=196] = 8.16 p<.005).  An interaction between syllabuses was also evident - boys were more l i k e l y to study i n the 611 and 612 syllabuses.  Table 2. Frequency of Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Art, by Gender.  syllabus  Gender  Male Female  *  n  610*  611**  612***  793  417  298  78  1,438  840  480  118  X = [1* N = 1,257] = 142.35, p<.005 2  ** X - [1/ N = 778] =42.58, p<.005 2  ***X = [1, N = 196] = 8.16, p<.005 2  This can be seen i n Table 3, where the r e l a t i v e (%) frequency of boys p a r t i c i p a t i o n compared to g i r l s was found to be greater i n the lower, 611 and 612 syllabuses.  In  39  comparison to g i r l s , boys showed a trend of lower proportional participation i n the higher syllabus, a s i g n i f i c a n t trend towards proportionately higher participation i n the lower syllabuses, and a tendency to study the studio-oriented rather than research-oriented lower syllabus.  Table 3. Contingency Table of Relative Frequency of Student Participation i n Art, by Gender.  syllabus  Gender  610  611  612  Male  .526  .376  .098  Female  .584  .334  .082  Overall, g i r l s c l e a r l y over-represented  boys i n  participation rates i n this assessment of the I.B.O. art program by nearly 2 to 1.  In addition, gendered  enrollments d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between syllabuses, leading to the conclusion that not only did fewer boys  40  study art, t h e i r choice (proportionately) of which syllabus to study d i f f e r e d from that of g i r l s .  4.2 Achievement. Disparate gender differences were also found i n achievement levels i n a r t within the I.B.O. program.  Table 4. Distribution of Grades, (Gender and Syllabus Combined).  Score  Frequency  %  Cumulative %  0  120  5.4  5.4  1  13  0.6  6.0  2  54  2.4  8.4  3  156  7.0  15.4  4  436  19.5  34.9  5  607  27.2  62.1  6  594  26.6  88.7  7  251  11.3  100.0  When combined, the f i n a l grades for a l l students i n a l l syllabuses (N = 2,231) were distributed around a  41  population mean of u, = 4.791, and a population  standard  deviation of a = 1.675. A s l i g h t bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores was seen i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades (Table 4) with the proportion of students scoring "0" higher than students scoring "1" and "2".  This trend was not s i g n i f i c a n t (measure of kurtosis =  1.466).  A mean of M = 4.791, median of 5.00 and mode of  5.00 resulted i n a negative skew to the d i s t r i b u t i o n .  This  700  6001  500  400  300  200  100  Std. Dev = 1.67  •111  M e a n = 4.8 _  0 0.0  .  1.0  -| *  2.0  I  -  3.0  N = 2231.00 4.0  5.0  6.0  7.0  grade Combined for gender, syllabus. Normal distribution curve superimposed.  Figure 3. Histogram of D i s t r i b u t i o n of Grades, Gender and Syllabus Combined.  skew was not seen as s i g n i f i c a n t (measure of skewedness = -1.188).  The resultant histogram of d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades  42  (Figure 3) i n d i c a t e d that a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades c o u l d be assumed. Grades were i n i t i a l l y analyzed  by s y l l a b u s , with  gender combined, t o determine the p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l courses and t o compare scores between syllabuses. syllabuses  The bar c h a r t of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of grades by (Figure 4) i n d i c a t e d roughly  normal  d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n each of the s y l l a b u s e s with the t r e n d of a  610  Figure 4.  611  612  Bar Chart of D i s t r i b u t i o n of Grades, by  Syllabus.  negative  skew more pronounced i n the 610  syllabus.  It also  i l l u s t r a t e d a t r e n d of c o n s i s t e n t l y decreasing mean scores  43  from the 610 to the 612 syllabuses, the mean of scores being M = 5.09, M = 4.42, M = 4.37 for the 610, 611 and 612 syllabuses respectively. Variances increased as means decreased between the syllabuses, with standard  deviations  being found of SD = 1.53, SD = 1.77, SD = 1.86 for the 610, 611 and 612 syllabuses respectively. Gender differences were apparent i n overall art scores when examined with the syllabuses combined. 1.64)  G i r l s , with a mean of M = 4.87 (SD =  out-performed boys i n overall art scores.  Boys  scored an overall mean of M = 4.66 (SD = 1.73).  Table 5. Summary of means. Grades, by Syllabus Level and Gender.  Males  Syllabus  n  M . -  1  i  Females  n  1  M V  610  417  4.91  840  5.18  611  298  4.49  480  4.37  612  78  3.94  118  4.65  When examined by syllabus, g i r l s out-performed boys i n two of the three syllabuses.  G i r l s showed a higher mean  44  score than boys i n the 610 s y l l a b u s and 612 s y l l a b u s . showed a higher mean score than g i r l s i n the 611 (see Table 5.).  Boys  syllabus  A study of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t u a l scores  v a l u e s by gender (see F i g u r e 5) i n d i c a t e d a d i s p a r i t y o f a l l o c a t i o n o f grades i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Boys appeared  t o be more l i k e l y t o score lower grades - a t the 2/3  level  - and g i r l s more l i k e l y t o score h i g h e r grades at the  6/7  level. 30  / 7 V  20  \ \\ •NANA  /' //  10  / / y  c: <d  r  V  Gender Boys  o *  0  D-  Girls  0N/P  Grade  F i q u r e 5.  Polygon of Frequency of Award of Each Grade,  Value, by Gender.  45  A summary of this data on achievement by s y l l a b u s and 5  gender i s shown i n Figure 6.  G i r l s c l e a r l y out-performed  boys i n two of the three syllabuses, and maintained a reasonably high mean score i n a l l three syllabuses. Boys 5.4i '5.2 5.0 4.8  k-**i'W3  4.6 4.4  \  o o  (0  4.01  Gender  CO  c  3.8  Boys  ca  3.6  Girls 610  611  612  Syllabus levels  Figure 6.  Bar Chart of Boys and G i r l s Mean Art Scores, by  Syllabus  To r e i t e r a t e , the syllabuses consist of: 610 = 240 hours of study, with both studio and research .components; 611 = 120 hours of study, studio component only; 612 = 120 hours of study, research component only. 5  46  achieved a higher mean than g i r l s i n only the 611 syllabus, and displayed a lower mean score i n the 610 syllabus and, i n particular, the 612 syllabus. A 2 x 3 (gender x syllabus) f a c t o r i a l analysis of variance (ANOVA), randomized groups design, was conducted to investigate i f these gender differences were significant.  The test was conducted using an alpha l e v e l  of a = .05. A Tukey HSD post-hoc procedure was performed against s i g n i f i c a n t results on the variable of syllabus.  Table 6. Summary Table for the 2 x 3 (Gender x Syllabus) Randomized Groups ANOVA  S.S.  d.f.  M.S.E.  24.548  1  24.548  211.563  2  105.781  G xS  32.258  2  16.129  Error  5950.566  2225  2.674  Source  Gender (G) Syllabus (S)  * 2 = <-002,  ** 2 = <.001  F  9.179* 39.553** 6.031*  47  Results from the analysis (Table 6) indicated that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences i n academic performance i n art within the I.B.O. program existed. A s i g n i f i c a n t main effect for gender was mean of a l l art scores of boys (M = 4.66)  found.  The  differed  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the mean of a l l art scores of g i r l s (M = 4.87), (F [1, 2225]=9.179, jo <.002).  In answering question  2.1 - Is academic achievement i n art s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for boys than for g i r l s ? - i t was concluded that boys achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower overall art scores than g i r l s . A s i g n i f i c a n t main effect for syllabus l e v e l found. 5.09;  was  Means for the three syllabuses (610 syllabus M = 611 syllabus M = 4.42;  612 syllabus M =  4.37)  differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F [2, 2225]=39.553, p. <.001). Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD procedure revealed s i g n i f i c a n t differences for students' grades achieved for the 610 syllabus compared to the 611 and syllabuses.  612  Students i n the 610 syllabus achieved  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades than students i n the 611 612 syllabuses.  and  Grades i n the 611 and 612 syllabuses did  not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  In answering question 2.2 - Is  achievement for a l l students s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  between the syllabuses? - i t was concluded that students i n  48  the higher syllabus scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades than students i n the lower 2 syllabuses. A s i g n i f i c a n t 2-Way interaction was found (see Figure 7) between gender and syllabus, (F[2,2225]=6.031, jo <.002) This indicated that, s t a t i s t i c a l l y , the differences between boys' scores i n some or a l l of the three syllabuses- and g i r l s ' scores i n some or a l l of the syllabuses were large  Gender Boys Girls 610  611  .612  Syllabus level  Figure 7. Plot of S i g n i f i c a n t Interaction E f f e c t . Grades, by Syllabus Level and Gender.  enough to conclude true differences did e x i s t . To determine which boys' scores i n which syllabuses were s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from g i r l s ' scores, a Tukey HSD  49  post-hoc comparison was run. means of the 610 4.65,  Mtoyg  (Mg  i r l s  This test indicated that the  = 5.18,  U  b a y s  = 4.91) and 612  (Mg  i r l B  =  = 3.94) syllabuses d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y for the  genders while performance on syllabus 611  (Mg  i r l s  = 4.37,  = 4.49) was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In answering question 2.3 - Is achievement i n any of the three syllabuses s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for boys than for g i r l s ? i t was concluded that boys scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than g i r l s i n the 610 and 612 syllabuses.  Although g i r l s scored  s l i g h t l y lower i n the 611 syllabus i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The ANOVA analysis indicated that s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences existed i n performance i n a r t .  G i r l s performed  at a higher l e v e l i n the academically oriented syllabuses the higher 610 syllabus and the research-oriented 612 syllabus - while boys performed better than g i r l s i n the lower studio-oriented syllabus.  4.3 Summary of Findings The s i g n i f i c a n t main effects for syllabus and gender, and the s i g n i f i c a n t 2-way interaction for syllabus by gender indicated that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of academic achievement and p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates was not equitable between boys and g i r l s within the I.B.O. data.  A definite,  gendered difference existed i n favour of g i r l s higher  50  academic achievement.  In addition, s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  numbers of g i r l s participated i n I.B.D. art/design; these differences existed across the three syllabuses, although proportionately g i r l s were found to be more l i k e l y to study the more academically challenging higher syllabus (610)  and  the research oriented lower syllabus (612)i It was noteworthy that s i g n i f i c a n t chi-square findings on participation rates coincided with s i g n i f i c a n t ANOVA findings concerning achievement rates.  The syllabuses  favoured by g i r l s (in comparison to boys) i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n were also the syllabuses i n which they achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher r e s u l t s .  Similarly, boys'  favoured (in comparison to g i r l s ) syllabus was the syllabus i n which they out-performed g i r l s . The choice of syllabuses was also of interest.  For  g i r l s , the favoured syllabus was the more academically rigorous higher studio syllabus (610).  The boys' preferred  syllabus (in comparison to g i r l s ) was the less demanding studio syllabus (611).  The syllabus i n which boys were  proportionately least inclined to study (612) was also the syllabus i n which they performed the worst. Standard deviations were of interest.  Boys showed  wider variations i n academic scores compared to g i r l s .  As  the syllabuses became less academically challenging, boys  51  scores varied further from the mean.  In comparison, g i r l s  presented a smaller standard deviation than boys i n a l l syllabuses. The s t a t i s t i c a l findings from t h i s study supported the trend i d e n t i f i e d by the researcher through classroom experience; boys (at least within the I.B.O. program) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y under-represented i n art and achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower academic scores than g i r l s .  I t also  supported findings by MacCann (1995) which indicated g i r l s i n the New South Wales (Australia) C e r t i f i c a t e of Education were twice as l i k e l y as boys to study art, they achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher grades than boys, and that boys had a wider variance i n art scores - a phenomena p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n the lower d i s t r i b u t i o n s . This study demonstrated that there i s evidence of gender-orientation i n participation rates and academic achievement i n art education among students participating i n the I.B.D. program.  Evidence also exists of a  "lassitude", or laziness towards academic performance by boys i n art/design within the I.B.D. This i s indicated by t h e i r appearance to avoid academic challenge through the choice of less demanding syllabuses, and a wider variance of scores than g i r l s i n a l l syllabuses.  In addition, t h e i r  academic results indicated either a lower a b i l i t y i n art  52  compared to g i r l s and/or an unwillingness to be seen as successful i n the subject.  53  Chapter V. Discussion.  5.1 Implications of findings for art education.  This study i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t gender differences existing within the I.B.O. art program i n terms of boys' rates of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and academic achievement. In discussing the implications to art education of those findings, attention should f i r s t be given to three questions.  Were the detected differences s i g n i f i c a n t  enough to be able to conclude that current I.B.D. a r t curriculum i n some way disadvantages boys?  Could i t be  possible the differences are an isolated aberration?  Are  the differences simply indicative of "natural" gender preferences i n subject selection? Eisner (1988) stressed the v i s u a l arts should play a core role within the wider school curriculum due to i t s a b i l i t y to f a c i l i t a t e perception and v i s u a l l i t e r a c y skills.  Recognition of the importance of t h i s element  within the h o l i s t i c academic experience of education has slowly and painstakingly been b u i l t to the degree that i t has achieved status i n national standards documents i n B r i t a i n , the United States, and A u s t r a l i a . The results of this study suggests these benefits, considered important by  54  art educators, are not being enjoyed equally between boys and g i r l s .  Using this rationale art educators must admit  that these results from the I.B.O. program indicate boys are exiting compulsory schooling deficient i n levels of v i s u a l l i t e r a c y i n comparison to g i r l s ; an educational disadvantage only compounded by adding similar arguments for creative and technical s k i l l s developed through a r t . Boys are being disadvantaged by being limited i n t h e i r exposure to the v i s u a l arts. Are the detected differences an aberration? Limited studies suggest they are hot.  While very l i t t l e empirical  research has examined boys' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement rates i n art education, s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s can be seen between the present findings and those from MacCann's (1995) study which also found s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower participation by boys i n art education, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower overall academic grades and a tendency for boys' scores to display a wider variance i n the lower sections of that State's art program.  However, further research i s required  to more widely generalize the detected trends. Are the findings simply the r e s u l t of "natural" gender-preference i n choice of subject?  Some studies  indicate differences i n boys representation i n s p e c i f i c subjects may be the result of socio-cultural, rather than  55  psycho-biological or innate differences.  Omerod (1975),  Stables (1990) and Lee and Bryck (1985) note genderpreferences i n subject choice are polarized i n co-education indicating that under single-gender conditions boys are more l i k e l y to study "feminised" subjects such as a r t . Boys appear to wish to study a r t , but complex socioc u l t u r a l factors within the co-educational schooling environment appear to confound that wish. The results of the study indicates that the underrepresentation and academic under-achievement of boys should constitute a s i g n i f i c a n t educational concern.  In  recognizing these phenomena, the results of this study require subsequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of potential causes and suggestions for further research to examine more f u l l y t h e i r impact on art education.  Current neo-masculinist  discussion provides one framework for such a discussion. It posits that boys' under-representation and lack of academic success are the r e s u l t of at least three factors; 1) boys misguided concepts of what constitutes "manly" behaviour, 2) r e s t r i c t i v e definitions of masculinity by schools and society, and 3) a schooling system unresponsive - or not used to boys' unique needs.  56  An examination of these factors i n reference to art may provide some directions to more f u l l y explain boys' inconsistencies i n achievement and participation i n art education i n comparison to g i r l s .  Art Education and Boys' Concepts of Masculinity. Thompson (1986) notes boys' academic and behavioural decisions are often strongly influenced by inappropriate concepts of gender.  That i s , whenever boys make conscious  or sub-conscious decisions - whether i t be choice of academic subjects or attitudes towards appropriate or inappropriate behaviour - they show a reticence to choose any option with perceived "feminine" t r a i t s .  Unfortunately  her argument leads to a d e f i n i t i o n a l stereotype of boys as inherently hegemonic and homophobic.  Her point i s worth  considering, however. Boys' decisions may be strongly influenced by sexist concepts and art education may be a victim of this phenomena. Some limited empirical evidence supports this notion. Stables (1990) and Omerod (1975) f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t gender orientations i n some academic subjects. subjects hold gender-oriented  They posit many  popular culture stigmas.  Within that construct art i s often categorized as belonging to the 'feminine' domain, leading to the assumption that  57  participation levels are affected because boys may not view art as a 'manly' subject.  Interestingly, they i s o l a t e  gender-specific schooling as a s i g n i f i c a n t variable i n this phenomena. Both boys and g i r l s , they say, are more l i k e l y to study subjects of the d i f f e r i n g gender 'orientation' i n single-gender schools; a position supported by Burgess (1990) who states that: Educated together, g i r l s and boys f e e l the need to assert t h e i r sexual identity, and define themselves by means of behaviour and subject choice; thus subjects acquire a masculine/feminine  connotation which i n effect, r e s t r i c t s  the individual's freedom of choice, (p.92) The impact of gender-specific schools on art curriculum and consequent participation and achievement levels has received v i r t u a l l y no attention from art research i n the past.  As a possible avenue to explore the  cause of disparate gender differences i n art education enrollment, research on single-gender schooling may constitute a r i c h f i e l d for a better understanding gender differences i n the subject.  of  The p o s s i b i l i t y exists  that boys avoidance of art may be representative of misguided ideas about what "real men" the culture of co-educational schools.  do, perpetuated  by  58  Restrictive Definitions of Masculinity Two rationales exist that o f f e r explanations of boys avoidance of academic success as a consequence of t h e i r perceptions of masculinity. s o c i a l l y constructed  The f i r s t views gender as  (Scott, 1988; Connell, 1987). A l l  children are born "the same" but sexist attitudes within society i n s t i l l values i n children that, consequently, dictate gender-preferences.  As a consequence boys learn  through stereotypes reinforced by society, the home, schools, teachers and texts that one form of masculinity exists - characterized by patriarchal, hegemonic, mysogonistic values.  I f s p e c i f i c subjects - art as an  example - are not represented within that masculine stereotype boys w i l l subsequently avoid i t . Art and the theory of "multiple masculinities". Neomasculinism views this interpretation as a "unitary" d e f i n i t i o n (Martino, 1995) and concedes i t as being the dominant d e f i n i t i o n of masculinity existing i n current educational theory.  But i t points out that not a l l boys  agree with t h i s "machismo" interpretation; many a c t i v e l y fight such constraints (Connell, 1987, 1989) but are given l i t t l e credit for t h e i r e f f o r t s (Jackson and Salisbury, 1996).  A second, more p l u r a l i s t rationale posits that  "multiple" - rather than singular - types of masculinity  59  exist within youth culture (Martino, 1995).  Boys recognize  a variety of ways of being a man, whether i t be i n alternative sexualities (Mac an G h a i l l , 1994), academic success (Connell, 1989), or any number of other forms. Their efforts are n u l l i f i e d by the dominating effect of the "unitary" concept of manhood reinforced by society. r e - d e f i n i t i o n recognising the presence of  With a  multiple types -  or forms - of masculinity, c u l t u r a l stereotypes of manhood that r e s t r i c t boys' choices are challenged.  In an e f f o r t  to more widely reinforce this concept, s i g n i f i c a n t , subject s p e c i f i c , work on "multiple masculinities" has been performed i n English and Social Science, u t i l i z i n g a deconstructionist/re-constructionist pedagogy (Martino, 1995; Nilan, 1995; Jackson and Salisbury, 1996). Similar strategies within a r t education would allow boys to be more generous i n t h e i r acceptance of art as a worthwhile "manly" pursuit. There i s some indication that art possesses unique characteristics which would f a c i l i t a t e a "multiple masculinity" approach to pedagogical strategies.  Collins  (1977, 1978) used Beauvoir's (1949, c i t e d i n C o l l i n s ,  1977)  immanence and transcendence models to indicate the existence of gender-differences i n art production. However, Flannery and Watson (1995) observed the sex of the  60  a r t i s t does not necessarily denote the style, or model, the student w i l l u t i l i z e i n making art.  Sex of the a r t i s t does  not necessarily c l a s s i f y the gender style of the a r t work i n art boys can acceptably produce a r t with "feminine" (or immanent) characteristics, and vice-versa. Art does not need to fight r e s t r i c t i v e gender styles to allow boys to explore alternative forms of masculinity through production. School's Poor Response to Boys' Unique Needs. Connell (1989) suggested the indirect effects of schooling were most i n f l u e n t i a l on boys' masculinity development: rather than curriculum content, the manner i n which schools patterned authority and streamed academically directed boys performance and behaviour.  The consequence,  he noted, was a need to inculcate "masculinity education" into a l l facets of schooling rather than just the t r a d i t i o n a l "personal development" programs. Implementing masculinity programs within a r t carries attendant problems associated with the h i s t o r i c a l l y narrow perspectives of gender discussion i n education.  Schools  have been unresponsive to boys unique needs f o r some time. Bushweller (1996) believes that schools, i n attempting to recognize the special needs of g i r l s have ignored the boys. He argued that boys are different than g i r l s ; more  61  hyperactive, they often make bad f i r s t impressions, show off to gain respect from peers, act tough to mask feelings, grow bored and take a long time to invest trust i n teachers.  Pascal & Bertram (1995) and Soderman & P h i l l i p s  (1986) hypothesize that boys learn to f a i l e a r l i e r than g i r l s ; they have slower i n t e l l e c t u a l development ( c i t i n g P a v l i d i s , 1986) and the predominantly female teachers at elementary level do not tolerate t h e i r natural robust behaviour resulting i n the early development of perceived behaviour and learning problems.  These observations serve  to i l l u s t r a t e that the gendered differences i n a f t education i n terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and achievement detected by t h i s study may not be the f a u l t of the art cufriculum or methods of art instruction - rather, a symptom of more complex socio-cultural issues associated with schooling i t s e l f .  5.2 Suggested Further Research This study indicates that art education i s not excluded from the s o c i a l and schooling problems boys are facing; rather, i n some undefined way, i t i s a participant i n the set of circumstances that now see boys - i n general - avoiding academic challenge. Boys are under-represented i n art, they perform less successfully i n academic  62  comparison to g i r l s at art related tasks, and they appear to take an "easy way out" through choosing less demanding syllabuses and "giving up" i n t h e i r studies. It seems imperative that this subject begin to explore the factors which affect boys' performance and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n art education. Given the paucity of research i n t h i s area case studies and quantitative/qualitative studies are needed that aim to b u i l d a greater understanding of boys i n art education.  It i s important that such research should  concentrate on 'relational' studies (Connell, 1995).  By  r e l a t i o n a l , i t i s meant that boys' issues should not be viewed as isolated from g i r l s ' educational concerns - there does i n fact exist strong correlation between the two f i e l d s (Haywood & Mac an G h a i l l , 1996).  To investigate  boys' problems as influenced by and influencing on g i r l s ' problems, helps to circumvent fears of "boys' studies" constituting a backlash against women i n schooling (Mac an G h a i l l , 1996). f  Future studies should investigate i f art offers boys goals that are worthwhile to masculine needs.  In doing so  studies should seek to develop a rationale - stressing the academic importance of art - that attempts to capture those elements most l i k e l y to appeal to boys.  They should  63  continue to investigate how the genders d i f f e r i n t h e i r relationship to art (Chalmers, 1977; Neperud, 1986) asking the question; does the p o s s i b i l i t y exist that boys perceive art as a "feminine" subject?  If t h i s i s the case, i s i t  possible to look to de-constructionist/re-constructionist pedagogies similar to those articulated by Martino (1995) and Nilan (1995) to combat t h i s .  Such e f f o r t s could lead  to wider socio-cultural studies addressing boys' development of t h e i r concepts of gender and how schooling through art education - could influence a more equitable gender interpretation by boys.  Within t h i s context, a  comparative examination of art education curriculum content, structure and organisation i n single-gender and co-educational schools may isolate c u r r i c u l a r and pedagogical strategies which are s p e c i f i c to boys' development of appropriate concepts of "manly" behaviour F i n a l l y , future studies should attempt to build a new philosophical basis for gender discussion within art education which recognizes boys as having unique educational needs.  64  References. Alloway, N., Davies, B., Gilbert, P., Gilbert, R., King, D. (1996). Boys and Literacy: meeting the challenge. Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth A f f a i r s . Canberra, Australia. Anderson, T. (1994) The International Baccalaureate model of content-based art education. Art Education 47 (2) 19-24. Attenborough, D. (1996). Feminist interventions i n teaching art history. In G. C o l l i n s and R. Sandell (Eds.) 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Theory and Research i n Social Education, 24, (1) 54-70. Soderman, A. & P h i l l i p s , M. (1986). The early education of males: Where are we f a i l i n g them? Educational Leadership, 44, (3) 70-72. Soerensen, A. (1992). The question of representation: Research i n gender and education i n Scandinavia. Gender and Education, 4, (3) 201-212. Stables, A. (1990). Differences between students from mixed and single sex schools i n t h e i r enjoyment of school subjects and i n t h e i r attitude to science and school. Educational Review, 42, (3) 221-230. Taylor, S (1981) School organization and sexdifferences and change i n adolescent self-esteem. Inquiry and Action i n Education; Papers presented at the 1981 AARE Annual Conference (N.S.W., A u s t r a l i a ) . Thompson, D.C. (1986). A new v i s i o n of masculinity. Educational Leadership, 43, 53-56. T i d b a l l , M., & Kistiakowsky, V. (1976). Baccalaureate origins of American s c i e n t i s t s and scholars. Science, 193, 646-652. Trickett,E., Castro, J . , Trickett, P. & Schaffner, R. (1982). The independent schools experience: Aspects of the normative environments of single sex and co-educational secondary schools. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, (3) 374-38.  72  Weiner, G. (1985). B r i t a i n : Milton Keynes.  Just a bunch of g i r l s .  Great  Wyrick, M. (1996). Teaching feminist a r t and s o c i a l activism. In G. C o l l i n s and R. Sandell (Eds.) (pp.126133) Gender issues i n art education: Content, contexts and strategies. V i r g i n i a : The National Art Education Association.  73  Appendix A.  Countries Represented i n the Data. Europe Switzerland Germany U.K. Netherlands Belgium Austria France Italy Greece Denmark  ( ^countries  ( 57) ( 55) (159) ( 54)  ( ( ( ( ( (  South America Colombia ( Venezuela ( Ecuador ( Brazil ( Bolivia (  33) 36) 55) 26) 20) 17)  (^countries 77) 12) 34) 20) 5)  (^countries  Asia Singapore ( Japan ( Taiwan ( China ( Jordan ( Oman ( Untd Arab E ( Thailand (  (^countries  Others Tanzania Kenya S r i Lanka Morocco Lesotho  59) 22) 4) 16)  5) 3) 8)  su  10,  4,  Canada Mexico  n  16,  9,  j  615)  11) 25)  ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (  s u l D  2) 1) 7) 3) 2) 19) 16) e c  ,  t s  202)  12)  ( ( 1) ( 4) ( 4) ( 33)  ^subjects (122) ( 66) n  s u  Indonesia Philippines Malaysia Hong Kong Bahrain Syria India South Korea ( ^countries  ( 14) ( 14) ( 12) ( 1) ( 3)  n tj jects ( 17)  Chile Argentina Guam Peru Uruguay  North America Untd S t a t e s ( 8 4 5 ) E l Salvador ( 14) 22)  20/  Spain Ireland Portugal Poland Hungary R u s s i a n Fed Czech Rep Finland Norway Sweden  n  s u b  Australia Sth. A f r i c a Malta Egypt  jjj  ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( j  e c t s  1,047)  290)  19) 44) 12) 43) 25)  0) 7) 1)  e c t s  ( 1) ( 6) ( 5) ( 21)  77)  74  Appendix B.  Description of the I.B.D. Syllabus. ART/DESIGN S Y L L A B U S :  HIGHER A N D SUBSIDIARY L E V E L  (Extract from the General Guide to the International 5th edition. 1985)  Baccalaureate,  Nature of the Subject Artistic expression is common to all cultures. From earliest times, human beings have displayed a basic need to make statements in a variety of graphic terms and to create objects which are aesthetically pleasing. This urge to create has produced a vast tradition of experiential learning, which often defies precise definition. In no way doea this diminish the value of the artistic experience as a learning process. Part of the process of formulating a visual statement is the obligation to discover and to master techniques appropriate for the expression of that statement. Good design involves a search for a synthesis of aesthetic values and functional requirements, and should reflect some understanding of the complex language of visual symbols which form part of every society. Art is not merely for pleasure or entertainment. Students may observe and personally experience how the arts can illustrate and comment on the human condition and on nature. Furthermore, the inspiration engendered by creative activity often becomes a driving-force in other studies and throughout life. Stimulated by a knowledge of the rich artistic heritage of many cultures, s t u dents are aware that in this subject there is the freedom to create an intensely personal view of the world. In this special way, engagement in the arts p r o motes a sense of self-worth, and may make a significant contribution to the development of the harmonious person. Aims The  aims of the programme in A r t / D e s i g n are to:  1.  provide students with the opportunities to develop the imaginative and creative faculties;  2.  stimulate and train visual awareness, of various cultures;  3.  enable students to discover, develop and enjoy means of creative visual expression in the studio and elsewhere, which are suited to their temperament and capabilities;  <.  encourage the pursuit of quality, through training, individual experiment and persistent endeavour;  5.  exemplify and encourage a lively, e n q u i r i n g and informed attitude art and design in all. its forms, both In history and today.  aesthetic,  perception and criticism of the arts  towards  Performance Criteria A.  Studio (Practical) Work Students will be expected to demonstrate:  B.  1.  an inquiring' attitude towards a variety of visual phenomena, expressed in persistent research and regular studio work;  2.  imaginative, creative thinking and feeling;  3.  a sensitive appreciation of the medium in hand, and of its expressive potential;  4.  a feeling for the fundamentals of design;  5.  a comprehension of the aesthetic and technical problems encountered in studio practice;  6.  the acquisition of sufficient technical skill to produce some works of quality;  7.  an ability to select and present their own work appropriately.  P.esearch Workbook (Appreciation and History of Art/Design) Students should be able to: 1.  demonstrate clearly in verbal and graphic terms how personal research has led to an understanding of the topics or concepts under consideration;  2.  analyse critically the formal, technical and aesthetic qualities of the art forma studied;  3.  relate this material to its cultural, historical and/or social context;  4.  (at Higher Level) demonstrate the interrelationship between the personal research (Part B) and the studio work (Part. A ) .  Programme Outline Teachers will design their own programme, with reference to three factors: the cultural background and personal needs of the student the location of the school and the influences, of indigenous culture the teacher's own training and special skills. Because these factors vary considerably from school to school, the precise programme content will not be specified. In accordance with the Alms and Performance Criteria listed, each programme will reflect the distinctive multi-cultural perspective of the International Baccalaureate in * different way. Teachers will avoid a programme which is based on merely one national or t r a ditional concept of the visual arts.  76  Appendix C.  Assessment C r i t e r i a f o r the..I.B.D.^Art-Syllabus P A R T A: STUDIO (PRACTICAL) W O R K For both Higher and Subsidiary Level there are six assessment criteria: 1.  IMAG  Imaginative and creative thinking and expression.  35%  2.  PERS  Persistence in research.  20%  3.  TECH  Technical skill.  15%  4.  MED.  Understanding of the characteristics and function of the chosen media  10%  5.  DES  Understanding of the fundamentals of design.  10%  6.  GROW Ability to evaluate own growth and development  10%  P A R T B: R E S E A R C H W O R K B O O K S For both Higher and Subsidiary Level there are four assessment criteria: 1.  IND  Independent research.  2.  CRfT  Critical appreciation of the formal, technical  35%  and aesthetic qualities of the art form studied.  25%  3.  AWA.  Awareness of cultural/historical/social context  25%  4.  ESR  Experimental Studio Research.  15%  In order to determine the degree to which the candidate has fulfilled each of the criteria five levels of achievement - ranging from 5 (high) to 1 (low) - have been identified and described.under each heading.  PART A: STUDIO (PRACTICAL) WORK  and expression (IMAG. Level  Descriptor The work shows that the student h a s worked only u n d e r supervision, showing little interest or empathy for the projects. T h e work is mundane, derivative and without imagination. The student h a s worked ir, a m a n n e r which i s largely derivative a n d not very inventive. Nevertheless, the work contains s o m e imaginative elements. The work tends t o be mundane, but the student h a s investigated a n d found ways of expressing ideas a n d feelings with s o m e imagination a n d with varying s u c c e s s . There is an individual approach to the work; w h i c h is sometimes rich in imagination. T h e work shows that the candidate has searched for n e w ideas a n d h a s found some original ^solutions. The work reveals a consistently imaginative approach, a creative response a n d a n unusual ability to develop ideas with intelligence a n d originality.  P e r s i s t e n c e In r e s e a r c h (PERS)Level 1  Descriptor The amount of work presented is insufficient s h o w s a limited n u m b e r of ideas, a f e w of which may be pursued to a satisfactory conclusion.  2  A limited amount of work reflects s o m e development of personal lines of research but there are few innovative ideas a n d m u c h work is unresolved.  3  A satisfactory volume of work has been produced. T h e candidate h a s researched a number of personal projects in different media a n d s o m e of t h e m have b e e n brought to a • satisfactory conclusion.  4  A g o o d volume of work s h o w s a n interesting range of ideas, a n d projects a r e p u r s u e d in a variety of m e d i a M a n y of these are well followed through to a s u c c e s s f u l conclusion.  5  A considerable body of work reflects a n independent a n d original pursuit of a wide variety of ideas in different media. The research.is personal a n d adventurous a n d projects are seen right through to a successful conclusion. • . •  Technical Skill (TECH) Level 1  Descriptor There is n o evidence of the acquisition of technical skill. T h e work is badly executed a n d n o n e o f it is satisfactorily completed.  2  •  ,  T h e r e is s o m e evidence of the acquisition o f skill but this has not been sufficiently developed to produce works of technical quality.  3  T h e r e is evidence of sufficient skill having been acquire;; t c enable the student to develop a n d express some ideas effectively and occasionally to produce work of technical quality.  4  T h e r e is evidence of skills having been acquired which enable the student to develop a n d express most ideas effectively a n d to produce work of g o o d technical quality.  5  There is evidence of considerable skill having been acquired, enabling the student to develop a n d express ideas effectively, resulting in work of consistently high technical quality.  U n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and functions of the chosen media (MED) Level 1  Descriptor T h e work shows that the candidate does not have any understanding of the characteristics of the m e d i a  2  T h e work shows that there is s o m e understanding of the characteristics of the m e d i a  3  T h e work shows s o m e understanding of the characteristics of the chosen media a n d there is a n attempt to relate it to its appropriate function.  4  The work shows the various characteristics of the c h o s e n media have been considered a n d appropriate choices have b e e n made.  5  T h e m e d i u m is handled with great confidence a n d is appropriate to form and function.  79  Understanding of the fundamentals of design (PES) In view of the persistently shifting a n d conflicting definitions of the term "design" in art education internationally, w e propose the following, for the purposes of this assessment: An understanding the significance elements  so  artisfs/designets of design  of the fundamentals of elements  as  to  such  achieve  intention and  may be applied  of design is the ability (intuitive or learnt) to  as colour, line. tone. form, and to anange  harmony,  pattern  contrast  to the function of the product  in different ways, according  rhythm,  recognise  or relate these  appropriate  The fundamental  to  the  principles  to various cultural traditions.  Level  Descriptor  1  T h e work shows little understanding of the significance of the elerrisnts cf design (eg line, colour, texture). The principles of design, (eg rhythm, contrast harmony) have not been applied.  2  T h e work shows a n understanding of s o m e of the fundamentals of design but this is not well applied.  3  Most of the work demonstrates a n understanding of the fundamentals of design although these might have been applied quite mechanically.  4  In most of the work the candidate has successfully integrated the elements and principles of d e s i g n  5  T h e elements and principles of d e s i g n are an integral a n d consistent part of the candidate's work.  E v a l u a t i o n of o w n growth a n d d e v e l o p m e n t (GROW)' Level 1  Descriptor T h e candidate is unable to identify o w n strengths a n d w e a k n e s s e s , or to discriminate between degrees of quality in o w n work.  2  T h e candidate needs a s s i s t a n c e to identify o w n strengths a n d weaknesses, to discriminate b e t w e e n degrees of quality in o w n work.  3  T h e candidate is usually able to recognise o w n strengths a n d w e a k n e s s e s and therefore c a n to s o m e extent select work a n d discuss own d e v e l o p m e n t  4  T h e candidate is able to r e c o g n i s e o w n strengths a n d w e a k n e s s e s a n d to select a n d d i s c u s s o w n work. He/she is able to identify works of varying quality and. in most c a s e s , c a n explain independently the reasons for his/her personal development.  5  The candidate has a clear understanding of the reasons for his/her development a n d is able to justify the selection of o w n work. He/she is able to identify o w n works of varying quality a n d to discuss their relationship within this development.  ' if the candidate cannot present his/her work personally, and has to send a portfolio to the nearest IB examiner, this must include a taped interview (cassette) of the candidate by the teacher, w h o will ask the sort ol questions s u g g e s t e d in the Subject G u i d e (page 13).  80  PART B: RESEARCH WORKBOOKS Independent Research  (IND)  Level  Descriptor  1  There is no evidence of personal research or interest The minimal material presented is unoriginal a n d the purpose of the workbook h a s not been understood.  '  2  A workbook may be filled, but it is derivative and has been compiled unimaginatively. There is little evidence of the personal research that would lead to a n understanding of the topics/concepts under consideration.  3  Sufficient relevant material has been selected a n d recorded. T h e workbooks reveal a n understanding of the topics/concepts under consideration, but they may lack depth or may be dependent on convenient sources.  4  T h e workbooks demonstrate a consistently g o o d standard of personal research a n d a s o u n d understanding of the topics/concepts under consideration.  5  T h e workbooks show the u s e of appropriate sources a n d means to research the topics/concepts under consideration. Written a n d graphic material is c o m b i n e d to p r o d u c e original a n d imaginative journals.  Critical appreciation of the formal, technical and aesthetic qualities of the art forms studied ( C R I Level  Descriptor  1  T h e material demonstrates that the' candidate is unable to describe the forms a n d characteristics of the material studied.  2  T h e material demonstrates a n ability to describe the formal characteristics of the material studied but not to analyse them.  3  T h e material demonstrates a developing critical appreciation a n d s o m e understanding o l formal aspects of the material studied.  4  T h e material demonstrates a n ability to analyse a n d discuss the comparative values of different works of art with some ease and shows a critical understanding of their aesthetic qualities expressed in a considered opinion.  5  A critical vocabulary has been developed a n d effectively employed. A n understanding of form, technique and aesthetic qualities enables the candidate to organise a n d analyse the material studied in written a n d graphic terms a n d to arrive at personal a n d original conclusions.  Awareness of the cultural/hlstorlcal/soclal context (AWA) Level  Descriptor  1  The workbook' is a scrapbook of unrelated material.  2  There h a s b e e n s o m e attempt to relate the studies cuttural/historical/social context with varying s u c c e s s . .  3  The studies of art/design are generally related to the cuttural/historical/social context, but in a rather conventional manner a n d without consistency.  4  A consistent effort h a s b e e n made to relate the cultural/historical/social context in a n individual manner.  5  The material s h o w s a consistent awareness of the relationship of the art/design studies to various cuttural/historical/social contexts.  studies  of  of  art/design  art/design  to  to  the  the  Experimental S t u d i o R e s e a r c h ( E S R ) Level  Descriptor  1  The experimental studio research has been very erratic a n d only minimally related to the verbal and visual content of the workbook.  2  There is a balance of verbal and visual material, a n d a few creative ideas have been explored through experimental studio research.  3  There is evidence of frequent experimental studio research, although it may not be related to the verbal a n d visual content of the workbook.  4  There is evidence that the candidate has made consistent attempts to relate a substantial body of experimental studio research to the v e r b a l a n d visual content of the workbooks.  5  There is a natural, consistent a n d close relationship between experimental studio research and the verbal a n d visual content of the w o r k b o o k s .  82  Appendix D.  Calculation of Familywise Error Rate. For the purpose of t h i s study, three questions were being assessed for significance; two main effects  (gender  and syllabus) and one two-way interaction (gender x syllabus). With the necessary three t r i a l s ( ) NT  and an alpha of a  = .05, a-FW = 1 - (1 - a p c ) = 1 - (1 - .95) =  N T  3  >.15  There existed a .15 (15%) probability that one of the s i g n i f i c a n t results had incorrectly rejected a n u l l hypothesis (that i s , committed a Type I e r r o r ) .  83  Appendix E.  Calculating Effect Size A p r i o r i power analysis for this stiudy required estimation of a population standard deviation (o), and e f f e c t size (d). Population standard deviation. Based on the l i m i t i n g range of an 8 point scale for grade, a  a = 1.50  was  considered appropriate. Effect size.  Howell (1996) stipulated that an  approximation of effect size was preferable to a r b i t r a r i l y assigning one of Cohen's (1988) three levels of d.  It was  considered that on a score range of 0 - 7 a difference of ±.6 between boys' and g i r l s ' mean scores would represent a considerable difference i n grades. calculated using the formula,  A Cohen's d = .40  was  d = u - JU? L  o This effect size conformed roughly to Cohens' (1988) "middle" size; larger effect sizes would have increased the danger of Type II errors, while a smaller e f f e c t size would have allowed for s i g n i f i c a n t results to be found that would not, i n practice, be taken seriously.  Appendix F.  Correspondence with the International Baccalaureate Organisation.  

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