UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ideology of content in social studies texts Murray, Valerie Mary 1986

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IDEOLOGY OF CONTENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTS By VALERIE MARY MURRAY B . A . , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES C e n t r e f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1986 (c) V a l e r i e Mary M u r r a y , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department ofC^AJT^B fo/C7^i£ 31 Ubj Of Cui£&CUW<H/9AJ/) The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ((U>M^ > f f £ ; 3E-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the i d e o l o g y of content i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g Canadian s o c i e t y i l l u s t r a t e s d i v e r s e p o i n t s of view which need to be addres sed through s c h o o l i n g . A major v e h i c l e f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g views of s o c i e t y i s found i n the content of s o c i a l s t u d i e s . E x a m i n a t i o n of p e r s p e c t i v e s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o o l and s o c i e t y r e v e a l s the need f o r c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of assumptions c o n t a i n e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s . c o n t e n t . C i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a c e n t r a l purpose of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s . T h i s presumes t h a t s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s are promoted through the content of s c h o o l i n g . The view of s o c i e t y t h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d to s tudents o r i e n t s the premises of s c h o o l i n g and d e f i n i t i o n s of c i t i z e n s h i p . Two views r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e and needs of s o c i e t y are d e s c r i b e d as consensus and p l u r a l i s m . I n t e r p r e t e d as e d u c a t i o n a l a ims , these s o c i a l views c o r r e s p o n d to a d a p t i v e and r e c o n s t r u c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s to c u r r i c u l u m . P o s t u l a t e d as an e x t e n s i o n of the r e c o n s t r u c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n , the s tudy d e v e l o p s a c o n c e p t u a l framework r o o t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . T h i s framework employs t h r e e d imens ions of c o n t e n t r e f e r r e d to* as s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e and s o c i a l knowledge. R e s u l t s of the s tudy i n d i c a t e t h a t the t h r e e d imens ions of the framework are a d e q u a t e l y addressed i n the f i v e t ex tbooks o f the s t u d y . In p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s , however, the t e x t s tend t o suppor t a consensus view of s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y where i d e a l s c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l p r o g r e s s , s o c i a l membership and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n are c o n c e r n e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the s tudy e x p l o r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r work ing c r e a t i v e l y w i t h q u e s t i o n s and concerns of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . The s tudy suggests t h a t i f the c e n t r a l purpose of Canadian s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , then the c o n t e n t of s c h o o l i n g must r e f l e c t t e n s i o n s t h a t r e s u l t from a p l u r a l i t y of i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . i i i T a b l e of Content s ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v CHAPTER 1 THE STUDY EXPLAINED 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 1 Problem of the Study 4 Purpose of the Study 5 Method of the Study 6 2 TENSIONS IN CANADIAN SOCIETY 11 Sources of S o c i a l T e n s i o n 11 P o l i c y Response to S o c i a l T e n s i o n 15 E d u c a t i o n a l Response to S o c i e t a l Concerns 1.9 I n t e n t s of S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n 20 3 EDUCATIONAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY 22 R e l a t i o n s h i p of S c h o o l and S o c i e t y 22 Views of S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 23 C u r r i c u l u m as a V e h i c l e f o r C o n c e p t i o n s o f S o c i e t y . 25 Treatment o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t 28 Nature o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e 31 O r g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Knowledge 34 4 ANALYSIS OF TEXTS 40 Procedures 40 The A n a l y s i s ' 42 C o n c l u d i n g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 75 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 79 I m p l i c a t i o n s 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 APPENDICES A C r i t e r i a f o r A n a l y z i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s Content 92 B Q u e s t i o n s Used f o r the A n a l y s i s of S o c i a l S t u d i e s T e x t s . . 96 i v Acknowledgements A number of people have a s s i s t e d me i n the development and c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . D r . Donald C . W i l s o n , Chairman of my t h e s i s committee , has g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d e d both guidance and i n s p i r a t i o n throughout my graduate work. H i s t h o u g h t f u l d i s c u s s i o n and c a r e f u l c r i t i c i s m encouraged me to c o n c e p t u a l i z e a d i f f e r e n t set of q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s c h o o l and Canadian s o c i e t y . C a r o l L a n g f o r d , G e n e r a l E d i t o r o f Douglas & M c l n t y r e and Rob Greenaway, A s s i s t a n t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of P r e n t i c e - H a l l E d u c a t i o n a l Book D i v i s i o n , s u p p l i e d compl imentary c o p i e s of the t e x t b o o k s . T h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the a n a l y s i s of t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l f o r the p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f my husband, Gordon. H i s s t r o n g support throughout my graduate program has been i n v a l u a b l e p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . v Chapter One THE STUDY EXPLAINED I n t r o d u c t i o n The f i e l d of s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n h e r i t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e share of s c h o o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the concerns of s o c i e t y . D e s c r i b e d as c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f r e q u e n t l y becomes a t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n among and between e d u c a t o r s and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . What o f t e n m o t i v a t e s the debate are d i f f e r i n g views of s o c i e t y and p o s i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g how s c h o o l s shou ld bes t c a r r y out t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Many s c h o l a r s express concern about the content o f s c h o o l i n g , p a r t l y because they f e e l i t does not r e f l e c t what they h o l d to be a s i g n i f i c a n t view of s o c i e t y . In f a c t , i t appears t h a t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s have been major f o r c e s throughout c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g i n Canadian s o c i e t y (Tomkins , 1979) . E s s e n t i a l l y , the concerns focus on some i d e a l as to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l and s o c i e t y ( F e i n b e r g & S o l t i s , 1985) . P o i n t s of view c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i d e a l d i r e c t the n a t u r e of s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . S e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have examined the n a t u r e of Canadian s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . H o d g e t t s ' (1968) c r o s s - C a n a d a i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s g e n e r a l s tudent apathy toward the s tudy of 2 Canada and l i t t l e p r i d e or r e s p e c t i n a common c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The f i n d i n g s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n are l i n k e d to s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s which p o r t r a y a "bland consensus v e r s i o n " of Canadian r e a l i t i e s . Hodgetts observes t h a t Canadian s tudents are f u t u r e c i t i z e n s w i t h o u t deep r o o t s , l a c k i n g i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and o n l y d i m l y aware of Canadian t r a d i t i o n s t h a t have by no means o u t l i v e d t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . C o n t r a r y to s t a t e d n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s t h a t look so good on p a p e r , the s tudents have a b u i l t - i n apathy toward Canadian h i s t o r y which tends to i n f l u e n c e a d v e r s e l y t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward modern Canada; they h o l d c o m p a r a t i v e l y s t r o n g p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e s ; they are p o o r l y in formed about the f u n c t i o n i n g of the f e d e r a l government; and they a r e u n r e a s o n a b l y d i s t r u s t f u l of p o l i t i c i a n s and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . (p . 85) Another work, a c r i t i q u e of s o c i a l s t u d i e s content i n p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a , r a i s e s concerns w i t h r e s p e c t to the t rea tment of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l ways of l i f e as ' g i v e n s ' from a dominant c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e (Werner, Connors , A o k i , & D a h l i e , 1977) . In a survey of s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a , L o r i m e r (1984) c o n c l u d e s t h a t a l t h o u g h Canadian content has become more a focus of s o c i a l s t u d i e s programs, the e d u c a t i o n a l view of Canada and Canadians l a c k s s e n s i t i v i t y t h a t i s r o o t e d i n a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e . The most r e c e n t p r o v i n c i a l survey of s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a a c r o s s Canada i d e n t i f i e s a t r e n d toward b r o a d e n i n g the scope and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l s t u d i e s programs. Cont inuous rev iew and r e v i s i o n s , the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s and p r e j u d i c e through a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and course supplements , b e t t e r 3 e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and s h a r i n g o f m a t e r i a l s emerge as major d i r e c t i o n s . The survey c o n c l u d e s : The major g o a l of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s programs of a l l the p r o v i n c e s appears to be to p r o v i d e s tudent s w i t h the knowledge, s k i l l s , v a l u e s and thought p r o c e s s e s which w i l l enable them to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y and r e s p o n s i b l y i n the e v e r - c h a n g i n g environment of t h e i r community, t h e i r c o u n t r y and t h e i r w o r l d . The approach s t r e s s e s i n q u i r y and d i s c o v e r y by s t u d e n t s , r a t h e r than p a s s i v e r e c e p t i o n of knowledge or memor iza t ion of f a c t s . ( C o u n c i l of M i n i s t e r s o f E d u c a t i o n , Canada, 1982, p . 4) C o n c u r r e n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g debate over the c o n t e n t o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n i s a growing number of assessments and d i s c u s s i o n gu ides r e l a t e d to the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n c l a s s r o o m s . I t i s apparent t h a t r e s o u r c e s are of major importance to what i s taught i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c las srooms ( A o k i , L a n g f o r d , W i l l i a m s , & W i l s o n , 1977) and t h a t t ex tbooks c o n t i n u e t o be the dominant mode of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s o c i a l s t u d i e s (Hodget t s , 1968; W i l e y , 1977; Stake & E a s l e y , 1978; Wei s s , 1978; Anderson & Tomkins , 1983). Consc ious at tempts to i n c u l c a t e s p e c i f i c knowledge, s k i l l s and v a l u e s are l i k e l y t o o c c u r through the s t r u c t u r i n g o f c u r r i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s makes p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s a major s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the s c h o o l l i v e s o f young peop le ( P r a t t , 1975) . The q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n of Canadian s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a f f e c t e d by how the f i n d i n g s of these assessments are t r e a t e d . R e v i s i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a has l e d to the a d o p t i o n of two textbook s e r i e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r the 4 s tudy of Canada i n i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . In some i n s t a n c e s , t e a c h e r s have a c h o i c e as to the t e x t s t h a t they may use . Content w i t h i n each s e r i e s has been screened a c c o r d i n g to s e l e c t i o n procedures which examine a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , r e a d a b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , c u r r i c u l u m match and b i a s ( C u r r i c u l u m Development B r a n c h , 1979) . Ins tances of b i a s i n v o l v i n g r a c e , r e l i g i o n , sex, age and p h y s i c a l and mental c a p a c i t i e s are p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s . Textbook a n a l y s e s concerned w i t h o m i s s i o n s of content ( L o r i m e r , 1984; Reck, Reck , & K e e f e , 1986), w i t h c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e (Werner, et a l . , 1977) and w i t h a spec t s of b i a s ( A s f a r , 1984) are b e i n g addressed i n s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n . However, t h e r e are few textbook a n a l y s e s t h a t have been conducted i n terms of the s o c i a l v a l u e s and i d e o l o g i e s t h a t are c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y m a n i f e s t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s content ( T a x e l , 1978-79; Osborne , 1984). T h i s r a i s e s a number of q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e of content i n t e x t b o o k s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t e n s i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Problem of the Study G i v e n t h a t two s e r i e s of s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s have been commissioned f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e s tudy of Canada, a q u e s t i o n to be a d d r e s s e d concerns the view of Canadian s o c i e t y t h a t i s b e i n g p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s . The assumptions c o n t a i n e d i n t ex tbooks 5 r e f l e c t a f i l t e r i n g system of v a l u e s and b e l i e f s which form an i d e o l o g y of c o n t e n t . These assumptions form i m p r e s s i o n s about i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y and d i r e c t e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f t ex tbooks a r e r e g a r d e d as the p r i m a r y medium of i n s t r u c t i o n , then the s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and a t t i t u d e s i m p l i e d i n content deserve c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s . Without such a n a l y s i s , the o r i e n t a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s content may s t r e n g t h e n the i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l v a l u e s which s tudent s t a c i t l y e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r n a l i z e ( A p p l e , 1979). The s tudy suggests t h a t an e d u c a t i o n a l purpose s h o u l d be to q u e s t i o n taken f o r g r a n t e d assumptions and to work c r e a t i v e l y w i t h s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s and t e n s i o n s . Purpose of the Study The purpose of the s tudy i s t o examine the i d e o l o g y of c o n t e n t i n f i v e p r e s c r i b e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s . The s tudy employs a framework of q u e s t i o n s and c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from c o n c e p t i o n s r o o t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . T h i s t r a d i t i o n c r i t i q u e s assumptions u n d e r l y i n g a consensus i d e o l o g y and o f f e r s another way of l o o k i n g a t content concerned w i t h s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s tudy makes s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n as an i d e o l o g i c a l concern i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c h o o l and s o c i e t y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y i s r o o t e d i n 6 assumptions c o n c e r n i n g the ways t h a t c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e w i t h i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These assumptions are r e f l e c t e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . The s tudy addresses t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : 1 . To what ex ten t does s o c i a l t e n s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e Canadian s o c i e t y ? 2. What does c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y r e v e a l about the i d e o l o g y of s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t ? 3. Does a consensus view of s o c i e t y dominate s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s ? Method of the Study 1 . Concept ions The s tudy argues t h a t p r o l i f e r a t i n g s o c i a l concerns i n Canada r e q u i r e e d u c a t o r s to pose d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o o l and s o c i e t y . The s tudy contends t h a t these q u e s t i o n s must be framed i n terms of c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s , r e f e r r e d to as p l u r a l i s m , r a t h e r than i n terms of s o c i a l i d e a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a consensus i d e o l o g y . A b a s i s f o r forming these q u e s t i o n s i s r o o t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y , which i s d e r i v e d from European s o c i a l t h e o r y and the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. The term " c r i t i c a l " r e f e r s to the human p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , 7 s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the q u e s t i o n i n g o f p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o r g a n i z e s o c i a l a c t i v i t y (van Manen, 1975). A c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of t h i s i n q u i r y i s to encourage awareness o f the k i n d s of human and s o c i a l l i f e t h a t are produced and r e p r o d u c e d through s c h o o l i n g ( S o l t i s , 1984) . Moreover , Anyon (1981) , Apple (1981), G i r o u x -(1984) , Popkewitz (1984) and Cherryholmes (1985) have extended t h i s c r i t i q u e to a n a l y z e the e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t messages of s c h o o l i n g . T h i s i n q u i r y p o s i t s a b e l i e f i n a c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p and s o c i a l change through e d u c a t i o n . Consensus and p l u r a l i s m are c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y t h a t d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t views of s o c i e t y . Apple (1979) contends t h a t the n o t i o n of a consensus i d e o l o g y i s drawn from a systems view of s c i e n c e which e x c l u d e s the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e of i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and c o n c e p t u a l c o n f l i c t i n s o c i a l p r o g r e s s and achievement . On the o t h e r hand, p l u r a l i s m r e p r e s e n t s an a l t e r n a t e view of s o c i e t y which r e c o g n i z e s compet ing i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s and suggests a d i f f e r e n t approach to a d d r e s s i n g t e n s i o n s ( H a m i l t o n , 1979). 2. Development of the- Framework The framework c o n s i s t s of q u e s t i o n s and c r i t e r i a drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . I t addresses t h r e e d imens ions of content r e f e r r e d to as the treatment o f s o c i a l 8 c o n f l i c t , the n a t u r e of s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l knowledge. The framework makes r e f e r e n c e to the ends-means model of d e c i s i o n making. T h i s metaphor of s o c i a l a c t i o n i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the model of the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s i n which a g o a l i s i d e n t i f i e d and the means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h a t g o a l become the r e s e a r c h prob lem. The model assumes t h a t a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f s o c i a l g o a l s , as w i t h those of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , can be a r r i v e d a t through s c i e n t i f i c methods of a n a l y s i s . As an approach to o r g a n i z i n g c o n t e n t , the ends-means model i s termed r e c o n s t r u c t e d l o g i c . T h i s p l a n n i n g model r e l i e s on the e n g i n e e r i n g of means to r e a l i z e s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l ends . On the o t h e r hand, l o g i c - i n - u s e r e f e r s to the q u e s t i o n i n g o f s t r u c t u r e s or p r i n c i p l e s a c h i e v e d by f o c u s i n g on s i t u a t i o n s or c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are f o l l o w e d through t h e i r n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n . 3. Textbook S e l e c t i o n A n a l y s i s of the s tudy i s based on two s e r i e s of s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s p r e s c r i b e d f o r use i n i n t e r m e d i a t e B r i t i s h Columbia c l a s s r o o m s . The s e r i e s c o n s i s t of f i v e t e x t s which p r o v i d e a c h o i c e f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n s t r u c t i o n . The s tudy o f f e r s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t ex tbooks t h a t can p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r audiences concerned w i t h the n a t u r e of s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . 9 4. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The study i s l i m i t e d to p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e c l a s s r o o m s . I t i n c l u d e s a l l q u e s t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s , e x p l a n a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s i n the s tudent t e x t s . I t does not address t e a c h e r gu ides o r o t h e r a u t h o r i z e d m a t e r i a l s . The s tudy focuses on the ways i n which s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t r e f l e c t s and shapes assumptions about Canadian s o c i e t y . I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y extend to o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l and p e d a g o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s have r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n i n s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g the purposes and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s c h o o l i n g . The i n t e n t o f t h i s s tudy i s to examine the n a t u r e of content which i s d i r e c t l y p r e s c r i b e d f o r c o n v e y i n g s o c i a l knowledge, s k i l l s and v a l u e s to i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s . I t does not i n c l u d e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f , or i n t e r v i e w s w i t h , t e a c h e r s . The s tudy i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . As s u ch , the d imens ions of c o n t e n t are not i n t e n d e d to be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . T h e i r purpose i s to p r o v i d e a framework f o r a n a l y z i n g i d e o l o g y of c o n t e n t . The s tudy o f f e r s a d e s c r i p t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of each of the t e x t s , however no judgements are made of the textbook s e r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r beg ins w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of t e n s i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Chapter two a r t i c u l a t e s a set of c o n t i n u i n g concerns t h a t c i t i z e n s are expected to d e a l w i t h i n t h e i r s o c i a l 10 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t p r e s e n t s commission and ta sk f o r c e r e p o r t s , l i t e r a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on the n a t u r e of Canadian s o c i e t y . I t a l s o s e t s out the degree to which c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s p r e c i p i t a t e s o c i a l concerns and p o l i c y a c t i o n s . Chapter t h r e e c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c h o o l and s o c i e t y from a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r c u r r i c u l u m content t h a t i d e n t i f i e s s o c i e t y as a source of e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n are examined. Three d imens ions of c o n t e n t , which form the b a s i s f o r the a n a l y t i c a l framework of the s t u d y , a r e then p r e s e n t e d . Chapter f o u r addresses the a n a l y s i s of t e x t b o o k s . Chapter f i v e p r e s e n t s c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t u d y . 11 Chapter Two TENSIONS IN CANADIAN SOCIETY T h i s c h a p t e r argues t h a t t e n s i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y are a f u n c t i o n of the way the c o u n t r y i s o r g a n i z e d p h y s i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . I t a l s o c o n s i d e r s c o n c e p t u a l t e n s i o n s which are a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of. t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i s s u e s generated by these t e n s i o n s are m a g n i f i e d due to i n c r e a s i n g p o l a r i t y and q u e s t i o n i n g of s o c i a l v a l u e s . Over t i m e , i s s u e s become c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l concerns t h a t are addressed th rough i n t e r e s t groups and p o l i c y a c t i o n . The response of e d u c a t i o n to the concerns of s o c i e t y i s c o n s i d e r e d a t the end of the c h a p t e r . Sources of S o c i a l T e n s i o n V a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g Canadian s o c i e t y are s o l i d l y r o o t e d i n compet ing i n t e r e s t s . They are an outgrowth of d i f f e r e n t views of s o c i e t y and c o n f l i c t i n g p r i o r i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l g o a l s . S o c i a l t e n s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , are d e f i n e d as s u s t a i n e d c o n f l i c t between p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s which c r e a t e i s s u e s of c o n t i n u i n g concern to s o c i e t y . Canada i s a r e l a t i v e l y "new" n a t i o n t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d independence i n the form of a p a t r i a t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n . S o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s contend t h a t the s t r u g g l e to a r t i c u l a t e a 1 2 unique c u l t u r a l and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i s g r e a t l y m a g n i f i e d i n a s o c i e t y t h a t has been l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the c h o i c e s and f e e l i n g s of m i g r a t i o n (Conway, 1974; Bacchus , 1981) . Canadian c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s are i n f u s e d w i t h d i v e r s e o u t l o o k s which demand r e c o g n i t i o n . They p r o v i d e a c o n s t a n t source of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e to adapt to changing needs and i n t e r e s t s . Monet (1982) d e s c r i b e s i t t h i s way: Canada i s p r o b a b l y unique among major peop le s of the w o r l d today because we have e v o l v e d a type o f c i t i z e n s h i p based n e i t h e r on a homogeneous n a t i o n a l i t y nor a r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l . . . i t i s a n a t i o n a l i t y i n which no one p o i n t of view or way of l i f e has a monopoly over the o t h e r s . (p . 7) T e n s i o n between a p o l i t i c a l sense of u n i t y and an i m a g i n a t i v e sense of l o c a l i t y perhaps b e s t d e s c r i b e s the essence of what i t means to be Canadian ( F r y e , 1982) . I t i s a c o n c e p t u a l t e n s i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i n Canada. The d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l i s one of e q u a l i t y , where everyone has the same r i g h t s b e f o r e the law, but n o t , except i n d i r e c t l y , one of freedom. I t t r i e s to p r o v i d e the c o n d i t i o n s of freedom, but freedom i t s e l f i s an e x p e r i e n c e , not a c o n d i t i o n , and o n l y the i n d i v i d u a l can e x p e r i e n c e i t . So f o r freedom t h e r e has to be some t e n s i o n between s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l . ( F r y e , 1982, p . 188) Democracies m a i n t a i n t h i s t e n s i o n , i n e f f e c t s p u r r i n g s o c i a l movement towards l o c a l i t i e s which cohere around d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n s . As communit ies become more a r t i c u l a t e , the t e n s i o n grows. N a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s p u l l e d between n o t i o n s o f " u n i t y , " t h a t are r e f e r e n c e d to a n a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l 1 3 description of the country, and " i d e n t i t y , " which are associated with regional, l o c a l and c u l t u r a l concerns. This tension within Canadian society fosters a national consciousness b u i l t upon diverse l o c a l and regional perspectives rather than a single n a t i o n a l i s t i c outlook. Armour ( 1 9 8 1 ) argues that a c r i s i s of community exists i n Canada. He contends that public acceptance, which legitimizes s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s reaching i t s l i m i t s of tolerance and approaching a f a m i l i a r i t y with disorder that i s more common than uncommon. He states: A l l t h i s i s there on the surface for everyone to see. But our tendency to authorize c o n f l i c t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s goes a good deal deeper than the mere creation of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . And our own c r i s i s of community cannot be grasped i f we do not dig a l i t t l e deeper. E s s e n t i a l l y , our problem has to do with the way i n which the community i s associated with a central culture and variety of sub-cultures. (p. 1 7 ) Armour suggests that to create a context of sharing, i n which a l l l i v e s and visions r e t a i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t q u a l i t i e s , requires that p o l i t i c a l power and possessiveness simply not be p r i o r i t i e s i n s o c i a l organization. But one must not imagine that such a shared culture needs to be homogeneous. Indeed, i t i s precisely i n the acceptance of variance that one develops a culture in which power i s not a value. For the acceptance of variance e n t a i l s that the power to press others to conformity i s not acceptable. In a p l u r a l i s t i c society, i n a society which recognizes both communities and individuals, there i s never an end to the tensions. But that should surprise no one. (Armour, 1 9 8 1 , p. 1 4 2 ) 1 4 S t r o n g r e g i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y r e v o l v e around d i f f e r e n c e s of language , e t h n i c i t y , employment, r e s o u r c e management and income d i s t r i b u t i o n . S o c i a l i s s u e s are c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g as a r e s u l t of these d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h every group p r e f e r r i n g to have t h e i r own v a l u e s r e f l e c t e d i n s o c i a l p o l i c y and a c t i o n . However, r e c o g n i t i o n of some concerns i n e v i t a b l y c i r c u m s c r i b e s the freedom of c h o i c e expected by those who a s c r i b e t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g o a l s . A s o c i a l c l e a v a g e p e r s p e c t i v e i s advanced as b e i n g the most mean ingfu l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the "normal" s t a t e of Canadian s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s ( Z u r e i k & P i k e , 1975). The f requency w i t h which i n d i v i d u a l s advance, t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s , as b e i n g the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g the whole c o u n t r y , i n d i c a t e s the v a r i a n c e i n p o i n t s of view t h a t are brought to bear on s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s . The Task F o r c e on Canadian U n i t y (1979) was commissioned to examine and r e p o r t upon problems r e l a t i n g to d i s u n i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . They were a s t o n i s h e d by the a r r a y of g r i e v a n c e s and i s o l a t e d p o i n t s o f view t h a t they d i s c o v e r e d . They r e p o r t : Sometimes the c o u n t r y seemed to us to be composed of a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s o l i t u d e s , i s l a n d s of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a c t i v i t y and d i s c o u r s e d i s c o n n e c t e d from t h e i r ne ighbours and t r a g i c a l l y unaware o f the whole which c o n t a i n e d them a l l . When one spoke, the o t h e r s d i d not l i s t e n ; i n d e e d , they b a r e l y seemed to h e a r . (p . 6) The r e a l i t i e s of s i z e , r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c a l boundar i e s c r e a t e p h y s i c a l t e n s i o n s w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y t h a t support c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l 1 5 c o n c e r n s . They r e i n f o r c e l o c a l l y shared agreement r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l consensus . P o l i c y Response to S o c i a l T e n s i o n C u l t u r a l t e n s i o n s have l o n g been a d i v i s i v e f a c t o r i n the c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f Ottawa and Quebec over s o v e r e i g n t y and language r i g h t s . The R o y a l Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m (1965) i s o f f i c i a l f e d e r a l p o l i c y d e c l a r i n g Canadian s o c i e t y to be two o f f i c i a l languages and no s i n g l e o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e . P o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s w i t h i n a system of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n making t h a t l ends i t s e l f t o c o n f r o n t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i s s u e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , l i a b i l i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . Canadian s o c i e t y i s e x p e r i e n c i n g deep t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f the s o c i a l i s s u e s and c o n t i n u i n g concerns generated by these t e n s i o n s . E v e r y s o c i a l i s s u e has m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t form c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s of v i ew. A common concern f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the Canadian environment d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t o heated d i s c u s s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f i n a n c i a l management of p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . Whi l e the causes and e f f e c t s of a c i d r a i n a r e w e l l documented, s o l u t i o n s remain e v a s i v e due to d i f f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have a s take i n the i s s u e . A r e c e n t f e d e r a l government s tudy recommends t h a t Ottawa s u r r e n d e r the enforcement of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n measures to the p r o v i n c e s 1 6 ("Environment Changes ," 1986). T h i s would reduce the i n f l u e n c e of n a t i o n a l s tandards and enforcement of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l debate f u e l s p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s between f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t s t r o n g l y i l l u s t r a t e s a p r i o r i t y o f i n t e r e s t s . R e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l l a n d c l a i m s r a i s e s many of the same d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e s o l v i n g c u l t u r a l t e n s i o n s . I t i s another source of a g g r a v a t i o n between l e v e l s o f government. Land s e t t l e m e n t and compensat ion i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but i s a l s o a mat ter f o r n e g o t i a t i o n between n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l governments where a c t u a l management of r e s o u r c e s i s a t s t a k e . I t i s a c o n t e n t i o u s d i s p u t e from the p o i n t s of view of f i s h e r m a n , l o g g e r s and n o n - n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s who share an i n t e r e s t i n the same r e s o u r c e . Whi le a l l groups r e c o g n i z e the need f o r c o l l e c t i v e management, they a r e a t odds over the form t h a t such management sh ou l d t a k e . The 1978 James Bay Se t t l ement i n Quebec i n s p i r e s o t h e r n a t i v e c l a i m s t o e x c l u s i v e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r i g h t s . The 1987 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l conference on n a t i v e r i g h t s h o l d s s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the entrenchment of n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s i n Canada. A s i m i l a r s c e n a r i o i s o c c u r r i n g i n p r o p o s a l s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y South Moresby 17 I s l a n d . The a r e a c o n c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e s the i n t e r e s t s o f m i n i n g , f i s h i n g , l o g g i n g , and n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . The W i l d e r n e s s A d v i s o r y Committee (1986) recommends p r o t e c t i o n of the South Moresby , g i v i n g a p p r o v a l o n l y to l o g g i n g o u t s i d e n a t i o n a l park boundar i e s proposed by the committee . The Haida I n d i a n s are opposed to any such compromise i n v o l v i n g t h e i r a n c e s t r a l l a n d s . The Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n (1981) i s a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s tatement g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t every i n d i v i d u a l i s equa l b e f o r e the law. I t l e g i s l a t e s a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n based on r a c e , n a t i o n a l or e t h n i c o r i g i n , c o l o u r , r e l i g i o n , sex, age or mental o r p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y . I t r e c o g n i z e s the r i g h t o f every person i n Canada to take up r e s i d e n c e or seek employment i n any p a r t of the c o u n t r y they choose . T h i s e f f o r t on the p a r t of the f e d e r a l government to extend m o b i l i t y and freedom to a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i s o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of r i g h t s and d i f f e r e n c e s . In some ways i t compounds the p r e s s u r e s o f i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n , s c a r c i t y o f employment and r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t y . The s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are e t h n i c a l l y and r e g i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c , as d e t a i l e d i n the r e p o r t o f the S p e c i a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s i n Canadian S o c i e t y (1984) e n t i t l e d E q u a l i t y Now! F e d e r a l response to the e i g h t y recommendations o f t h a t r e p o r t c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s a p e r s u a s i v e , r a t h e r than c o e r c i v e , p o l i c y a p p r o a c h . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c a u t i o u s w i t h r e s p e c t to those i tems which touch on mat ters " w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , " or 18 which "address the p r i v a t e s e c t o r " (Canada, House o f Commons, 1984) . J u s t i c e f o r a l l members of Canadian s o c i e t y i s a fundamental c o n c e r n u n d e r l y i n g the Canadian C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms. The fundamental freedoms of a l l Canadian c i t i z e n s a r e : (1) freedom of c o n s c i e n c e and r e l i g i o n ; (2) freedom of thought , b e l i e f , o p i n i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g freedom of the p r e s s and o t h e r media o f communicat ion; (3) freedom of p e a c e f u l assembly; and (4) freedom of a s s o c i a t i o n . (Canada, House of Commons, 1981, p . 3) F a i r n e s s o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s the focus of one r e c e n t r o y a l commission r e p o r t ( A b e l l a , 1984) . The r e p o r t open ly c r i t i c i z e s the i n e p t n e s s of v o l u n t a r y measures i n a s s u r i n g e q u i t a b l e h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . I t proposes a form of enforcement agency i n the w o r k p l a c e . A major c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g Canadian s o c i e t y i n the 1980s i s whether the economy w i l l s u r v i v e as a s i n g l e e n t i t y or whether i t w i l l s p l i n t e r under the p r e s s u r e s of c o n f l i c t i n g r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s . One i s s u e o f p r e s s i n g s o c i e t a l concern i s f r e e t r a d e between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Recent moves toward p r o t e c t i o n i s m by American l o b b y i s t s , and subsequent t a r i f f r e p r i s a l s by the Canadian f e d e r a l government, i l l u s t r a t e the c o m p l e x i t y of r e l a t i o n s i n these economic n e g o t i a t i o n s . The Macdonald commission on the economy (1985), as i t i s commonly known, s t r o n g l y endorses a major r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f economic and p r o v i n c i a l systems. T h i s i n c l u d e s the g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n of t r a d e b a r r i e r s between p r o v i n c e s and n a t i o n s . I n t e g r a t i n g the Canadian economy w i t h t h a t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s poses s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r j o b p r o s p e c t s , s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g , r e g i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and c u l t u r a l i n t e g r i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Growing o p p o s i t i o n from r e s o u r c e and c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , u n i o n i s t s and n a t i o n a l i s t s , r e p r e s e n t s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f l i c t between i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . E d u c a t i o n a l Response to S o c i e t a l Concerns Two r e c e n t s o c i a l s t u d i e s assessments b r i n g i n t o focus the e f f o r t s of e d u c a t i o n to d e a l w i t h the concerns o f Canadian s o c i e t y . The S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n A l b e r t a Assessment (1975) notes t h a t i t i s r e a s o n a b l e f o r programs t o advance the h i s t o r i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l and s o c i a l bases of the homeland to young c i t i z e n s . I t a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the tendency towards a n a t i o n a l i s t i c , c h a u v i n i s t i c and " e n c y c l o p e d i c knowledge" emphasis i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the fundamental g o a l s of s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n . A c o n c l u d i n g thought of the s tudy i s t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n of a p l u r a l i t y of p o s i t i o n s and v a l u e s must not be l e f t to chance i n e i t h e r methodology or c o n t e n t . The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment (1977) i n c o r p o r a t e s d e s c r i p t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from d i v e r s s o u r c e s . I t o f f e r s an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g s i n s c h o o l programs and i n s t r u c t i o n . I t a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t c o n c e r n to have s tudents become b e t t e r Canadians by a c q u i r i n g knowledge about t h e i r c o u n t r y appears a worthy c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However: The l a c k o f a focus i n s c h o o l programs on the e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y of the l o c a l community c o u l d be viewed as an attempt by s c h o o l s to s o c i a l i z e s tudents i n t o Canadian l i f e w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the o f t e n espoused i d e a l s o f a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . (Aoki e t a l . , 1977, p . 25) Recommendations a r i s i n g from these assessments have been v a r i o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The A l b e r t a S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m (1981) i s p r i m a r i l y based upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n of competing v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s . I t examines a l l a s p e c t s of p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m (1983) c l e a r l y acknowledges the need f o r g r e a t e r Canadian content and i n q u i r y i n t o i s s u e s , which i t d e f i n e s as s i g n i f i c a n t d i sagreements i n v o l v i n g mat t er s of f a c t , meaning or v a l u e s . I n t e n t s of S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m have always been expected to serve the mora l and c u l t u r a l purposes of the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e (Tomkins , 1986) . I t i s s c h o o l i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the s o c i a l s t u d i e s , t h a t i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p a r t i n g s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which enhances c u l t u r a l and n a t i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . S o c i a l concerns w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y are c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g . F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments are c l e a r l y a t t e m p t i n g t o address the t e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g Canadian s o c i e t y . 21 The r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c due to l a c k o f agreement over whose c u l t u r e , whose i n t e r e s t s , which i s s u e s and what image of s o c i e t y to t r a n s m i t to young c i t i z e n s . Some view Canadian s o c i e t y as a p o l i t i c a l community s u s t a i n e d through c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f c i t i z e n s i n p u b l i c l i f e (Hodgetts & G a l l a g h e r , 1978) . Others view i t as a s t r u g g l e between dominant and m i n o r i t y p e r s p e c t i v e s and the s t r i v i n g o f c i t i z e n s to i n t e r p r e t the i n f l u e n c e s t h a t shape t h e i r own and o t h e r s ' v a l u e p o s i t i o n s (Werner, e t a l . , 1977) . I t i s seen as a network of s o c i e t a l i s s u e s t h a t emerges from human i n t e r e s t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s ( W i l s o n , 1982). I t i s d e s c r i b e d as a s o c i a l o r d e r i n which the s e l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of knowledge, through s c h o o l i n g , may o p e r a t e to m a i n t a i n dominant i n t e r e s t s ( F i s h e r , 1983) . In o r d e r t o make the r o l e of s c h o o l i n g p r o a c t i v e , r a t h e r than r e a c t i v e , i t s c o n t e n t must r e f l e c t a c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the p r i n c i p l e s which o r g a n i z e s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Chapter Three EDUCATION AND CRITICAL INQUIRY Issues i n s o c i e t y i n e v i t a b l y r a i s e q u e s t i o n s o f purpose r e g a r d i n g the r o l e and c o n t e n t of s c h o o l i n g . T h i s c h a p t e r argues t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s an i n t e r p r e t i v e e n t e r p r i s e t h a t r e f l e c t s assumptions about the n a t u r e and needs of s o c i e t y . I t o f f e r s a c r i t i q u e of p o s i t i v i s t a s sumpt ions , the f o u n d a t i o n o f a consensus i d e o l o g y , and p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r an a n a l y t i c a l framework of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Schoo l and S o c i e t y S o c i e t y i s a major source f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n which has e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p as i t s c e n t r a l p u r p o s e . The n o t i o n t h a t the aims o f e d u c a t i o n are s e p a r a t e from those of o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s appears to s e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n and p o l i t i c s i n Western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d democrac ies ( F i s h e r , 1983) . There e x i s t s a f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of s c h o o l i n g to r e p a i r problems i n the wider s o c i e t y , as though i t were an i m p a r t i a l c o n d u i t f o r w i d e l y shared agreement. A number of s c h o l a r s contend t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s set w i t h i n a complex web of f o r c e s which c a t e g o r i z e and s t r a t i f y the knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e s to which s t u d e n t s are exposed . They contend t h a t s c h o o l i n g p r o v i d e s a c e n t r a l mechanism f o r the s o r t i n g of members of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s ( A p p l e , 1979; Anyon, 1981; F i s h e r , 1983) . Two views of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which have a s t r o n g b e a r i n g on t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e r e f e r r e d to as consensus and p l u r a l i s m . Inherent i n the n o t i o n of p l u r a l i s m i s the ne twork ing of autonomous a s s o c i a t i o n s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to mutual needs , v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s which change over t i m e . A c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of consensus i s s y s t e m s - o r i e n t e d , i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to m a j o r i t y r u l e and c e n t r a l i z e d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e m a i n t a i n e d over t i m e . These views of s o c i e t y are a l t e r n a t e approaches to p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n and the premises and content of s c h o o l i n g . Views of S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n A consensus view of s o c i e t y r e s t s on the assumpt ion t h a t g o a l s and c r i t e r i a can be agreed upon and t h a t the w e l f a r e o f s o c i e t y can be r e p r e s e n t e d by s u r r o g a t e i n t e r e s t groups composed of e x p e r t s who are knowledgeable i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s ( H a m i l t o n , 1979) . The r o l e of e x p e r t i s e s s e n t i a l to a consensus v i ew. I t r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the elements of r a t i o n a l i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y which form the fundamental f a c t / v a l u e d i s t i n c t i o n of the p o s i t i v i s t t r a d i t i o n . A consensus i d e o l o g y i s s t r o n g on t e c h n o l o g y and s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , t h a t i s , "the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l / l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s between what i s and what (we a l l agree) ought to be" ( H a m i l t o n , 1979, p . 342) . I t assumes t h a t shared v a l u e s are more s i g n i f i c a n t than d i s c r e p a n t v a l u e s . I t f u r t h e r assumes t h a t areas of s o c i a l antagonism a r e p r a g m a t i c a l l y r e s o l v a b l e through the system of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy. A p l u r a l i s t view of s o c i e t y r e c o g n i z e s the c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e of d i v e r s e v a l u e systems and i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . I t assumes t h a t d i f f e r e n t s tandards are l i k e l y to be h e l d by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . I t makes p r o b l e m a t i c the consensus view t h a t a u n i f o r m i t y of s tandards i s a t t a i n a b l e , o r even d e s i r a b l e , i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ( H a m i l t o n , 1979). A p l u r a l i s t view of s o c i e t y assumes t h a t f a c t s and v a l u e s are i n s e p a r a b l e e lements i n the unique mix of i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e and i n t e r e s t s which shape a t t i t u d e s and i n f l u e n c e c h o i c e s . MacDonald (1976) argues t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l models are t i e d to i d e o l o g y and assumptions about s o c i e t y . He contends they a r e " i d e o l o g i c a l models harnessed to a p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n " (p . 130) . MacDonald suggests t h a t o b j e c t i v e s models which assume g o a l consensus to be s i m p l y a mat ter of " c l a r i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than r e c o n c i l i a t i o n " are i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t h a t i n h e r e n t l y v a l u e d i v e r s i t y and c o n f l i c t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . He s t a t e s : In a s o c i e t y such as o u r s , e d u c a t i o n a l power and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y are w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d , and s i t u a t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i o n . I t i s a l s o q u i t e c l e a r t h a t our s o c i e t y c o n t a i n s . g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s who e n t e r t a i n d i f f e r e n t , even c o n f l i c t i n g , n o t i o n s of what c o n s t i t u t e s e d u c a t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e . (p . 129) H a m i l t o n (1979) extends t h i s l i n k a g e between e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , i d e o l o g y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l i f e . He argues t h a t the emergence of p l u r a l i s t t h e o r i e s i n e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l c r i s i s i n the rea lm of s o c i a l v a l u e s which m o t i v a t e s g r e a t e r concern f o r i s s u e s , r a t h e r than s o l u t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r than c o n f i r m a t i o n . P l u r a l i s t approaches , t h e r e f o r e , are s t r o n g on " c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s and incomple te c l o s u r e " (p. 342) . T h i s i s a r e s u l t of t h e i r ' r e a d i n g ' of how s o c i e t y does or ought to p r o c e e d . C u r r i c u l u m as a V e h i c l e f o r C o n c e p t i o n s of S o c i e t y C o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i a l needs generate d i f f e r e n t g u i d e l i n e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. Two c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n s t h a t l o c a t e s o c i e t y as a s o u r c e , but r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t premises f o r s c h o o l i n g , are i d e n t i f i e d as S o c i a l A d a p t a t i o n and S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( E i s n e r , 1979) . An a d a p t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m d e r i v e s i t s content from a p e r c e i v e d s o c i e t a l need f o r an o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r f o r c e t h a t f u r t h e r s the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . The e x p e c t a t i o n p l a c e d on e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t the s y s t e m a t i c s e t t i n g , t e s t i n g and r e s o l v i n g of s o c i a l problems w i l l o c c u r through the r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l a g e n c i e s of s c h o o l i n g . The i n t e n t i o n i s to r a i s e the c o n s c i o u s n e s s l e v e l o f s tudents to the w o r l d of work as i t e x i s t s , r a t h e r than encourage s tudents "to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s to work as i t i s now g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d o r to s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n the premises and v a l u e s t h a t g i v e work such a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n our l i v e s " ( E i s n e r , 1979, p . 63) . In c o n s i d e r i n g the importance of e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i e t y , T y l e r (1978) o b s e r v e s : As our s o c i e t y c o n t i n u e s to u t i l i z e s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y , and as the n a t i o n c o n t i n u e s to r a i s e i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s , the e d u c a t i o n a l requ irements f o r most people to p a r t i c i p a t e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y , t o remain s o c i a l l y m o b i l e , and to f u l f i l l themselves are h i g h e r , (p . 122) A s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t o r i e n t a t i o n to c u r r i c u l u m assumes t h a t c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s among s tudent s i s o f major c o n c e r n to b u i l d i n g a h e a l t h i e r and more j u s t s o c i a l o r d e r . I t focuses on s o c i a l and s t r u c t u r a l change and the use and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power as a major element i n t h a t change. Content i s drawn from c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d to the impact and consequences o f t e c h n o l o g y , changing r e l a t i o n s i n the workplace and s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d i s s u e s . The purpose o f s c h o o l i n g i s to i n q u i r e i n t o consequences , d i v e r s e v a l u e commitments, the form and c o n s t r a i n t s of knowledge and the t o o l s o f c r i t i c i s m . On the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i o n i n a r a p i d l y chang ing s o c i e t y , Duguid (1985) argues t h a t c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s a p o l i t i c a l a c t which v a l u e s the human p o t e n t i a l t o shape h i s t o r y . He contends : F o r the next g e n e r a t i o n to have a chance to r e a l i z e t h a t p o t e n t i a l , i t must be g i v e n the c r i t i c a l , e t h i c a l , and s u b s t a n t i v e t o o l s e s s e n t i a l f o r a p p r o p r i a t i n g t e c h n o l o g y from the t e c h n o c r a t s , and the w i l l t o 27 b e l i e v e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s , not machines or the f o r c e s beh ind machines , de termine our f u t u r e . (p . 23) An e x t e n s i o n o f the r e c o n s t r u c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y , the h e a r t o f which i s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . T h i s i n q u i r y poses broader q u e s t i o n s f o r s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s tudy by f o c u s i n g on the ways i n which assumptions about s o c i e t y d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n toward p a r t i c u l a r ends , w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r whose i n t e r e s t s or b e l i e f s are b e i n g r e p r o d u c e d . The p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m assumes: The language and i n t e n t of such ( c r i t i c a l ) t h e o r y i s p o l i t i c a l — t o c o n s i d e r the moments o f d o m i n a t i o n , i d e o l o g y , hegemony and e m a n c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l l i f e and s o c i a l change. The purpose o f s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m i s not s o l e l y one of o p p o s i t i o n to s o c i a l economic s t r u c t u r e . Making p r o b l e m a t i c the n a t u r e of words , customs and t r a d i t i o n i n our everyday l i f e i s t o i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y of human agency i n p r o v i d i n g f o r a s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t c r e a t e s new s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and emancipatory c o n d i t i o n s . (Popkewi tz , 1984, p . 17) Fundamental to the t r a d i t i o n of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y i s the b e l i e f t h a t i d e o l o g i e s are s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i d e o l o g i e s are most l i k e l y to be r e f l e c t e d through a s p e c t s of s c h o o l i n g which are d i r e c t e d toward s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . G i l b e r t (1985) emphasizes the p o i n t t h a t an a c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the human c o n d i t i o n r e q u i r e s c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y i n t o the knowledge, the e x p l a n a t i o n s , the c h o i c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t people encounter w i t h r e f e r e n c e to s o c i a l g o a l s , problems and c o n f l i c t s . To t h i s end , t h e r e are t h r e e a s p e c t s of s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g which c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s i d e n t i f y as e s s e n t i a l to the a n a l y s i s of i d e o l o g y i n c o n t e n t . 28 These a r e d e s c r i b e d as : the t rea tment o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , the n a t u r e o f s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l knowledge. Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t Ideo logy i s d e s c r i b e d as "a dynamic c o n s t r u c t t h a t r e f e r s to the ways i n which meanings a r e p r o d u c e d , med ia ted , and embodied i n knowledge forms , s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , and c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s " ( G i r o u x , 1984, p . 35) . I t i s a f i l t e r i n g system of v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t forms c o n c e p t u a l l e n s e s which mediate human and s o c i a l c o n d u c t . Over t i m e , these i m p r e s s i o n s permeate e d u c a t i o n a l language and p r a c t i c e t o form commonsense assumptions about the s o c i a l w o r l d . The n o t i o n t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are s i m i l a r to the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s i s i d e o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e (Popkewitz , 1984). I t assumes a s c i e n c e o f human conduct t h a t r e q u i r e s s c h o o l i n g to implement t e c h n o l o g i e s , r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r the moral i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the use and d i s t r i b u t i o n of power. A s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e of consensus i d e o l o g y i s the focus on a w e l l -o r d e r e d w o r l d which v a l u e s common s o c i a l g o a l s and r e j e c t s s o c i a l c o n f l i c t as d y s f u n c t i o n a l . The t e n s i o n between i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h y i s i g n o r e d where such l o g i c dominates . The h idden c u r r i c u l u m i s a power fu l t o o l f o r the i m p l i c i t t e a c h i n g of norms and v a l u e s r e l a t e d to the w o r l d of work, r a c e , c l a s s and gender . Treatment o f c o n f l i c t i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m p o s i t s a network of assumptions which r e i n f o r c e b a s i c r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g l e g i t i m a t e b e h a v i o u r . How s o c i a l problems are a d d r e s s e d and how s t r u c t u r e s of a u t h o r i t y are r e g a r d e d may be i m p l i c i t l y t r a n s m i t t e d . T h i s i s accompl i shed not so much by e x p l i c i t i n s t a n c e s showing the n e g a t i v e v a l u e of c o n f l i c t , but through the v i r t u a l absence of i n s t a n c e s showing the importance o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and normat ive c o n f l i c t i n s o c i a l and s c i e n t i f i c growth ( A p p l e , 1971). In an e x a m i n a t i o n of the s o c i a l s t u d i e s f i e l d , App le suggests t h a t s c h o o l s both m i r r o r and f o s t e r an i d e o l o g y t h a t i s o r i e n t e d to a s t a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e c o n c e r n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y and the f u n c t i o n s of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . The t a c i t r u l e s conveyed to s tudent s e s t a b l i s h a t t i t u d e s toward a u t h o r i t y and l e g i t i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s of q u e s t i o n i n g and a c t i v i t y . They a r e e x p l i c i t l y t i e d to a n o t i o n of t r u s t t h a t i m p l i c i t l y o r g a n i z e s s o c i a l a c t i v i t y around c e r t a i n s o c i a l p r o c e d u r e s . Where i n s t a n c e s of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t are c o n s i s t e n t l y i g n o r e d , or not p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n , the view of s o c i e t y t h a t i s g e n e r a l i z e d may r e i n f o r c e q u i e s c e n t a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . App le makes v e r y c l e a r t h a t d e p i c t i n g s o c i e t y as an e s s e n t i a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e system i s not an e m p i r i c a l s t a t e m e n t — i t i s a v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t determines which q u e s t i o n s are asked and which channe l s are s e l e c t e d f o r s tudent c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The a t t i t u d e e x h i b i t e d toward the creation o f new v a l u e s and customs and the v a l u e p l a c e d on an o r d e r l y , n o n c o n f l i c t i n g w o r l d seems to be i n d i c a t i v e of a more c o n s t i t u t i v e se t o f assumptions c o n c e r n i n g consensus and s o c i a l l i f e . ( A p p l e , 1971, p . 34) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t as a b a s i c d imens ion of s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t c e r t a i n assumptions be made about the v a l u e o f con t inuous change i n the elements and s t r u c t u r a l form of s o c i a l sys tems. I t must be assumed t h a t men and women a r e c r e a t o r s , not r e c i p i e n t s , o f v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t must be assumed t h a t c o n f l i c t between d i s p a r a t e v a l u e frameworks tends to l e a d to p r o g r e s s . I t needs to be acknowledged t h a t t h i s type of c o n f l i c t has u t i l i t y i n s t i m u l a t i n g awareness of the b a s i c r u l e s and h i d d e n i m p e r a t i v e s which govern the human c o n d i t i o n . Acceptance of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s seeks to r e v e a l more a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e s which perhaps s t r e n g t h e n both p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the bonds o f s o c i a l membership through the r e d e f i n i n g of needs and i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n a group or community. In o r d e r to examine the t reatment of c o n f l i c t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s , t h r e e q u e s t i o n s are a d d r e s s e d : (a) How a r e s o c i a l problems p r e s e n t e d and r e s o l v e d ? (b) What r e f e r e n c e i s made to v a l u e frameworks i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change? (c) In what ways i s s o c i a l membership d e f i n e d ? 31 Nature o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e D i s c o u r s e r e f e r s to the f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n of a s u b j e c t i n e i t h e r speech or w r i t i n g . In t h i s c a s e , i t i s the means by which knowledge of s o c i e t y i s t r a n s m i t t e d through d e s c r i p t i o n , c o n v e r s a t i o n or e x p l a n a t i o n i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . G i r o u x (1984) contends t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l language of s c h o o l i n g r e f l e c t s a m e c h a n i s t i c w o r l d view which assumes a s c i e n t i f i c l o g i c of ends and means. T h i s form of d i s c o u r s e focuses on i s s u e s of e f f i c i e n c y and c o n t r o l . I t d i r e c t s s c h o o l s t o meet the p r o j e c t e d needs of i n d u s t r i a l and economic p r o d u c t i v i t y . I t a l s o f o s t e r s modes of t h i n k i n g t h a t emphasize t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than c r i t i c a l l i t e r a c y and a c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p . The p o i n t i s expanded by Cherryholmes (1983) who suggests t h a t p a r t i c u l a r power r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r e s o c i a l s t u d i e s d i s c o u r s e to determine what i s s a i d , what i s not s a i d , and upon what a u t h o r i t y . He argues t h a t knowledge c l a i m s and power r e l a t i o n s i n t e r p e n e t r a t e . T h i s i s r e a d i l y comprehended when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t knowledge c l a i m s are p r o d u c t s of d i s c o u r s e and d i s c o u r s e i s s t r u c t u r e d by r u l e s and power r e l a t i o n s . . F u r t h e r m o r e , what we c l a i m to know i s o f t e n used i n a t tempts to l e g i t i m i z e o r c o n t e s t e x i s t i n g power r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (p . 345) Apple (1975) p o i n t s out t h a t the language of s c h o o l i n g i s permeated w i t h the l o g i c o f c l i n i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s e s . Such language b r i n g s w i t h i t assumptions about the human condition that develop out of s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l frameworks and sit u a t i o n s . Applied i n an educational context, categories of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o g i c operate to sort, c l a s s i f y and label behaviours that operate outside of accepted norms. Apple c r i t i c i z e s modes of discourse that are manipulative and deterministic i n th e i r approach to s o c i a l and educational problems. He contends that such modes of discourse eliminate elements of surprise and diverse points of view which encourage new perspectives. Rather, they are aimed at bringing student action into l i n e with sedimented s o c i a l expectations. He suggests that the problem i s not with attempts to foster c r e a t i v i t y i n the schools: indeed, educators have noted t h i s issue for years. Rather the problem l i e s behind t h i s - - i n a fundamental ethic that a l l important modes of human action can be known i n advance by educators and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ; that certainty i n int e r a c t i o n among people i s of primary import; and, underlying a l l of these, that the primary aspects of thought and sentiment of students should be brought under i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d control. (Apple, 1975, p. 120) The p r e s c r i p t i v e q u a l i t i e s of forms of communication are rare l y considered. Cherryholmes (1985) questions why i t i s that the underlying rules of s o c i a l studies discourse remain largely unexamined i n terms of why we speak of the things that we do rather than something else e n t i r e l y . He proposes that i f "human interests and human knowledge go together" (p. 398), then language i s an inter p r e t i v e expression of values and commitments which represent p a r t i c u l a r views of the s o c i a l world. Of the so c i a l studies, he claims: What i s found are selective descriptive and explanatory accounts of s o c i a l phenomena—historical and current, about our society and that of others--that are "appropriate" i n terms of dominant views of society. Labor, minority and feminist history and p o l i t i c s . . . are excluded. (p. 397) Human beings make sense of the world through t h e i r interactions with i t . To a large extent, these interactions are structured by a conceptual system of metaphors derived from ind i v i d u a l experiences with s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . Knowledge of s o c i a l l i f e cannot exist without language or speech. The assumption that language and speech are neutral tools that e x i s t independently of a s o c i a l context i s associated with a consensus ideology. Discourse i s considered a form of action displaying p a r t i c u l a r power arrangements which Cherryholmes (1985) describes as a "material s o c i a l p r a c t i c e " (p. 396). Achieving understanding i s a normative concept. The purpose of c r i t i c a l discourse i s to question the values that permeate language and to encourage an openness toward challenging statements about s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . The intent of t h i s approach i s to achieve what Cherryholmes (1980) defines as a r a t i o n a l consensus. I t i s distinguished from t r a d i t i o n a l consensus i n that i t questions the methods and content of discourse used to transmit p a r t i c u l a r knowledge, s k i l l s and values to students. The question posed by Cherryholmes (1985) i s "what and whose v a l u e s are embedded i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s education?" (p. 396). By way of answering the q u e s t i o n , he contends: The argumentation determines when a r a t i o n a l consensus has been achieved. There are no d e c i s i o n r u l e s to i n d i c a t e when a consensus i s reached; there are only p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s , norms t h a t s p e c i f y open, symmetrical communication p e r m i t t i n g the d i s c o u r s e to proceed, (p. 133) A c r i t i c a l approach to s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e r e q u i r e s t h a t : 1) i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s be r e p r e s e n t e d with equal s t a t u s and power; 2) a l l a s s e r t i o n s are open to q u e s t i o n and argument; and 3) d i s c o u r s e does not become s t r a t e g i c through c o n t e s t or judgements of winning and l o s i n g which a c t to circumvent the emergence of the best argument (Cherryholmes, 1985). The nature of d i s c o u r s e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s i s a p p l i e d to d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s of human and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Questions to be addressed r e g a r d i n g t h i s dimension of content a r e : (a) How are the i n t e r e s t s of c h a r a c t e r s portrayed? (b) Are d e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y openly d i s c u s s e d ? (c) What c o n c l u s i o n s i s the reader d i r e c t e d to r e g a r d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s of human and s o c i a l phenomena? O r g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Knowledge In s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m , the expanding h o r i z o n s model i s f r e q u e n t l y used to o r g a n i z e knowledge f o r elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s programs. I t o f f e r s a convenient framework f o r s e q u e n c i n g a g i v e n body o f knowledge, i n s p i t e of t h e l a c k o f " e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t o r n o r m a t i v e j u s t i f i c a t i o n " f o r use of such a model (C h e r r y h o l m e s , 1985, p. 396). S c h o l a r s who contend t h a t w o r l d v i e w s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h knowledge c l a i m s which p r e d i s p o s e s t u d e n t s toward p a r t i c u l a r e x p l a n a t i o n s of s o c i e t y and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t e n d t o r e j e c t a s e q u e n t i a l approach t o a c h i e v i n g good c i t i z e n s h i p . To assume t h a t t h e way t h i n g s a r e can be o b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d t o d i r e c t t h e way s o c i a l s t u d i e s s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d r e p r e s e n t s a f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t may l e a d t o c o n f o r m i t y , obedience and c o m p l i a n t b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t of s t u d e n t s . Knowledge i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r t o o t h e r forms of c a p i t a l . I t s s e l e c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n b e n e f i t s c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s . The t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e of s t u d y i n g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d body o f knowledge l e a d s G i r o u x (1984) t o c o n c l u d e : Steeped i n t h e l o g i c o f t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y , t h e p r o b l e m a t i c of t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y and s c h o o l i n g c e n t e r s on q u e s t i o n s about t h e most tho r o u g h o r most e f f i c i e n t way t o l e a r n s p e c i f i c k i n d s of knowledge, t o c r e a t e moral consensus, and t o p r o v i d e modes of s c h o o l i n g t h a t r e p r o d u c e t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y , (p. 36) Knowledge and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s k i l l s and v a l u e s t o "the way l i f e r e a l l y i s " p l a y s an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n s h a p i n g awareness of human and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n i n g o f why and how c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h e c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r e a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t e n t of s c h o o l i n g r a i s e s t h e p o i n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge r e p r e s e n t s s y m b o l i c p r o p e r t y f a v o u r i n g some s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t o t h e r s . Apple (1979) contends t h a t : The knowledge t h a t ge t s i n t o s c h o o l — t h o s e ' l e g i t i m a t e p r i n c i p l e s , i d e a s , and c a t e g o r i e s ' — g r o w s out of a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r y and a p a r t i c u l a r economic and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y . I t needs to be unders tood by s i t u a t i n g i t back i n t o t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t , (p . 157) I n f o r m a t i o n about s o c i e t y and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s i n i t i a l l y d e c i d e d from a wide f i e l d of c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g what i s , or i s n o t , c o n s i d e r e d to be i m p o r t a n t knowledge. On t h i s b a s i s , t r u t h c l a i m s r o o t e d i n the f a c t / v a l u e d i s t i n c t i o n cannot be advanced as p l a u s i b l e c r i t e r i a f o r p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r view of s o c i e t y ( A p p l e , 1971). I n s t e a d , d e c i s i o n s are made w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a and knowledge i s shaped w i t h i n a framework of s o c i a l v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s . A c r i t i c a l approach to s o c i a l knowledge suggests t h a t human and s o c i a l phenomena must be i n t e r p r e t e d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t h e r than o b j e c t i f i e d f o r p r e d i c t i o n . D i s t i n c t i o n s between f a c t and v a l u e must be l i n k e d w i t h a c r i t i c a l examinat ion o f how knowledge i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . Knowledge i s i n i t i a l l y a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t t h a t i s f i l t e r e d through the i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f r e c e i v e r s . Once the s u b j e c t i v e d imens ion of knowing i s l o s t , the purpose of knowledge becomes one of a c c u m u l a t i o n and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ( G i r o u x , 1979) . The s k i l l s w i t h which i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d can t e a c h s o c i a l i n q u i r y as i t i s c o n s t r u c t e d through t h e o r i e s and concepts o f the 37 d i s c i p l i n e s , or they can encourage questions as to why a p a r t i c u l a r form of s o c i a l c o l l e c t i v i t y e x i s t s , how i t i s maintained and who benefits from i t (Apple, 1979). The relationship between s o c i a l knowledge and c i t i z e n s h i p education raises a central question concerning'what decision-making s k i l l s students need i n order to increase i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l effectiveness i n a democratic society. Cherryholmes (1980) argues: The ends-means analysis, the fragmentation of s o c i a l phenomena, the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of society, and the fact/value d i s t i n c t i o n - - a l l are furthered by l i n e a r models of decision making and c i t i z e n s h i p education. Citizenship education from a c r i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l perspective would be much more h o l i s t i c , p o l i t i c a l , i n t e r p r e t i v e , and fundamentally c r i t i c a l . (p. 138) Englund (1986) contends that school knowledge i s a manifestation of ideology which i s sustained through s o c i a l studies content. His analysis of the forms that c i t i z e n s h i p education takes, with regard to p a r t i c u l a r conceptions of society and knowledge, focuses on the power relations implied i n that content. He concludes that the alternative to a s c i e n t i f i c -r a t i o n a l conception l i e s i n a t r u l y democratic conception of c i t i z e n s h i p education. He states: The democratic conception e n t a i l s e x p l i c i t c r i t i c i s m of the c r i t e r i a formerly applied regarding the selection and nature of school knowledge, based on a narrow interpretation of o b j e c t i v i t y , a one-sided view of science, "value-freedom," a suppression of c o n f l i c t i n descriptions of r e a l i t y , and so on. (p. 328) 38 A c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p i s a c o m m i t m e n t t o a m o r e j u s t s o c i e t y . I t i s a c o m m i t m e n t t o q u e s t i o n i n g t h e o r i g i n s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f k n o w l e d g e . I t r e q u i r e s a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c r i t i q u e t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g u i d e a n d c o n s t r a i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m c h o i c e s . F o u r q u e s t i o n s w i l l b e a d d r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s : ( a ) How i s t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t s s t r u c t u r e d ? ( b ) Wha t i s c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l k n o w l e d g e ? ( c ) On w h a t b a s i s a r e t r u t h c l a i m s a d v a n c e d ? ( d ) What k i n d s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t e x t s ? T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a n d c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y h a s p r o c e e d e d i n t e r m s o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . T h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s T r e a t m e n t o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t , N a t u r e o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l K n o w l e d g e . The d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x A a n d t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e x t b o o k s w h i c h f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r f o u r . S u b - h e a d i n g s w h i c h a p p e a r w i t h i n e a c h d i m e n s i o n i d e n t i f y t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f e a c h o f t h e p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h i n t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t r e f e r r e d t o a s T r e a t m e n t o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t , t h e s u b - h e a d i n g " S o c i a l p r o b l e m s " r e f e r s t o t h e probing question, "How are social problems presented and resolved?". Chapter Four ANALYSIS OF TEXTS P r o c e d u r e s T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s the a n a l y s i s of content i n f i v e s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . In o r d e r to de termine the n a t u r e o f c o n t e n t , i t was n e c e s s a r y to d e s i g n a framework t h a t was s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n t v iews of s o c i e t y from a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The t a s k s under taken by the s tudy a r e : 1. To i d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a t h a t w i l l gu ide the a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . S p e c i f i c p o i n t s of the c r i t e r i a used i n the s tudy are d e r i v e d from d i s c u s s i o n o f the d imens ions o f c o n t e n t i n c h a p t e r t h r e e . The c r i t e r i a are o u t l i n e d as t h r e e t a b l e s i n Appendix A . 2. To f o r m u l a t e key q u e s t i o n s t h a t address s p e c i f i c concerns w i t h i n the c r i t e r i a . The focus o f each q u e s t i o n appears as a s u b - h e a d i n g which o r g a n i z e s major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i t h i n each d imens ion o f c o n t e n t . Q u e s t i o n s used f o r a n a l y s i s are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix B . 3. To conduct a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of each tex tbook i n i t s e n t i r e t y , p r o c e e d i n g from grade f o u r t o grade f i v e i n each s e r i e s . Notes are made throughout the f i r s t r e a d i n g i n a l l areas where concerns of the c r i t e r i a appear to be a d d r e s s e d . 41 4. To conduct a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of each textbook through a second r e a d i n g . N o t a t i o n s of the p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s a r e expanded to i n c l u d e page numbers, r e l e v a n t q u o t a t i o n s from c o n t e n t and o b s e r v a t i o n s as to the way i n which t h a t a r e a of the c r i t e r i a i s a d d r e s s e d . I n d i v i d u a l n o t a t i o n s f o r every t ex tbook are then c o l l a t e d by sub-head ing to p r o v i d e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each a r e a w i t h i n the t h r e e d imens ions o f c o n t e n t . 5. To s y n t h e s i z e the a n a l y s e s of a l l t ex tbooks i n t o c o n c l u d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the content o f the t e x t s . The s y n t h e s i s i s r e p o r t e d a c c o r d i n g to the sequence of q u e s t i o n s used i n Appendix B . T o g e t h e r , they comprise an e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . \ 42 The A n a l y s i s T e x t : A u t h o r : P u b l i s h e r : S e r i e s : P u b l i c a t i o n Date Grade: Pages: The Haida and the I n u i t : People of the Seasons Heather Smith S i s k a Douglas & M c l n t y r e ( E d u c a t i o n a l ) L t d . E x p l o r a t i o n s . , A Canadian S o c i a l S t u d i e s Program f o r E lementary S c h o o l s . 1 984 4 1 74 Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t Three i n s t a n c e s of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t appear i n the t e x t . In two of these i n s t a n c e s , the problem of w a r f a r e between n e i g h b o u r i n g t r i b e s appears as an u n a v o i d a b l e c o n c e r n t h a t o c c u r s between groups of people who l i v e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y and a r e t r a d i n g p a r t n e r s . L i k e people everywhere , the Ha ida and t h e i r ne ighbours d i d not always get a l o n g . Sometimes they d i s a g r e e d about t h i n g s t h a t were owned or t h i n g s t h a t were s a i d and done. (p . 23) An i n s t a n c e of c o n f l i c t t h a t i s r e s o l v e d w i t h i n a s o c i a l group i n v o l v e s an a c t of s t e a l i n g w i t h i n the I n u i t c u l t u r e . The ment ion of t h i s seems to i l l u s t r a t e a moral c o n c e r n i n g the importance of h o n e s t y . I t d i r e c t s s tudent s to e v a l u a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the punishment r e c e i v e d by the t h i e f ("Why was s t e a l i n g a s e r i o u s cr ime i n the n o r t h of l ong ago? Do you t h i n k the p e o p l e ' s way of p u n i s h i n g the young man was a good one?" The t e x t touches upon ways i n which s o c i a l change may o c c u r through unexpected t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n group l i f e . F o r example, (p . 147 ) ) . 43 the d e v a s t a t i n g impact t h a t o c c u r s on I n u i t l i f e when t h e i r r e g u l a r p a t t e r n s of h u n t i n g are i n t e r r u p t e d i s v e r y c l e a r l y p o r t r a y e d . The c a r i b o u had not come to t h a t c r o s s i n g . The f a m i l i e s had no meat. They grew weak and the o l d peop le d i e d . No one had energy to b u i l d snow houses . Hunters went out s e a r c h i n g f o r f o o d , but they had no s t r e n g t h . When t h e i r dogs were gone, the hunters d i e d t o o . The people l e f t b e h i n d a t the r i v e r c r o s s i n g c o u l d not s u r v i v e . There was no f o o d . There was no f a t f o r lamps. The peop le c o u l d not keep warm and they c o u l d not mel t snow t o d r i n k . Only hunger , c o l d and dea th remained . (p . 125) There are f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s to ways of l i f e which p o r t r a y e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . The t e x t seems to d i s p l a y a p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i n knowledge about a s o c i a l w o r l d c o n s i s t i n g of w e l l d e f i n e d r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . They were people of the p o t l a t c h . T h e i r l i v e s would go o n , f o l l o w i n g the seasons of the y e a r . Many c h i e f s would g i v e many c e l e b r a t i o n s . One day , i n the way of h i s p e o p l e , S g u n d i i would have h i s t u r n . (p . 80) Nature o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e The t e x t p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s who r e p r e s e n t members of the c u l t u r e under s t u d y . These c h a r a c t e r s appear to t y p i f y the s o c i a l r o l e s of t h e i r c u l t u r e . They share s i m i l a r a s p i r a t i o n s and a d e s i r e to emulate t h e i r heroes and l e a d e r s . The h y p o t h e t i c a l thought p r o c e s s e s and c o n s i s t e n t n a t u r e o f the c h a r a c t e r s appears to remove them from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s by i n v i t i n g the r e a d e r to s p e c u l a t e upon and p r e d i c t t h e i r thoughts and f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n the t e x t a r e d i r e c t e d toward d e f i n i t i v e c h o i c e s . Use of the word " l i k e , " i n r e f e r e n c e to p a r a l l e l s a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s e t t i n g s , sugges ts common s o c i a l g o a l s which may o v e r r i d e the i m p e r a t i v e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n d i v e r s e v a l u e frameworks. The t e x t emphasizes t h a t a l l n a t i v e c u l t u r e s are p a r t of a s p e c i a l Canadian f a m i l y . I t r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e t h a t the sum of the c o u n t r y ' s s t r e n g t h l i e s i n the b r i d g i n g o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . I t r e i n f o r c e s an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t a l e n t s by i d e n t i f y i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s as in terwoven w i t h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s of the r e a d e r . The h i s t o r y of the n a t i v e people i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f our Canadian h e r i t a g e . The I n d i a n s and the I n u i t were the f i r s t t o l i v e i n Canada. The c u l t u r e s o f those e a r l y people se t an example f o r a l l o f u s . T h e i r l i v e s were not easy . I t took g r e a t s t r e n g t h and courage to s u r v i v e . (p . 11) The t e x t i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between people are l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f where they l i v e and the m a t e r i a l s they have a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l , r a t h e r than an i n n a t e d i s c r e p a n c y i n w o r l d v i e w s . The message appears to be t h a t a l l Canadians have the same needs underneath and t h a t s o c i a l harmony can be a c h i e v e d through p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communicat ion . 45 O r g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Knowledge The c o n t e n t of the t e x t i s s t r u c t u r e d s e q u e n t i a l l y through an i n t r o d u c t i o n , a p o r t r a y a l o f events throughout c o n s e c u t i v e seasons as they are l i v e d by the Haida and the I n u i t and a c o n c l u s i o n summing up what has been d i s c o v e r e d . The events are n a r r a t e d from the p o i n t of view of two .young c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g the ways of t h e i r p e o p l e , as i n t e r p r e t e d by the author of the t e x t . Each s e c t i o n opens w i t h a q u e s t i o n about s o c i a l a c t i v i t y t h a t i s subsequent ly answered i n the t e x t . Chapters conc lude w i t h b r i e f comparisons between pas t and modern ways of l i f e . References to p r e s e r v i n g the s k i l l s and c r a f t s m a n s h i p o f c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e appear to i n d i c a t e t h a t knowledge i s a commodity which can be " l o s t . " H i s t o r y seems to be a body of i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h d e f i n a b l e b o u n d a r i e s , t o be c o l l e c t e d and added to over t i m e . The c u l t u r e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as homogeneous e n t i t i e s . Statements about them appear to be e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s r a t h e r than v a l u e commitments. F o r example, "Haida people have always been a r t i s t s , " (p . 22) and of the I n u i t , "They were a happy, f r i e n d l y p e o p l e , " (p . 9 5 ) . Use o f "we" and "they" tends toward an o b s e r v e r s tance t h a t a s s i g n s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c c u r a c y i n e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . The t e x t c l e a r l y emphasizes s i m i l a r i t i e s between p e o p l e s . I t p r e s e n t s the s t r e n g t h s , wisdom and i n g e n u i t y o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s i n a h i g h l y p o s i t i v e , p o s s i b l y i d e a l i z e d , l i g h t . I t appears to 46 suggest t h a t to emulate the b e s t v a l u e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s would be s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l to the l i v e s of Canadians today and i n the f u t u r e . Those who f i r s t l i v e d i n t h i s l a n d were people o f s t r e n g t h and s p i r i t . They s t r u g g l e d and s u f f e r e d , but they s u r v i v e d . They were proud people who depended upon themselves and upon each o t h e r . Together they found ways to be happy w i t h v e r y l i t t l e . They shared w i t h one another and c e l e b r a t e d t o g e t h e r the i m p o r t a n t events i n t h e i r l i v e s . There i s much t h a t we can l e a r n from Canada's n a t i v e p e o p l e . T h i n k about what you have l e a r n e d about the Haida and the I n u i t . T h i n k about the f e e l i n g s they had towards the l a n d , the an imal s and each o t h e r . Are the b e l i e f s they h e l d l o n g ago impor tant f o r us to remember i n our l i v e s today? Some day i n the f u t u r e , s tudents i n another c l a s s r o o m may be s t u d y i n g how we l i v e . Do you t h i n k they w i l l be p l e a s e d w i t h what they d i s c o v e r ? (p. 164) The t e x t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Ha ida and I n u i t people have a f l u i d means o f r e c o r d i n g t h e i r own h i s t o r y through s t o r y t e l l i n g , songs , games, dances and symbol i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s method i s v a l i d f o r n a t i v e peop le and h i g h l y v a l u a b l e , though not v e r i f i e d through documented h i s t o r y . No one knows f o r sure how l o n g n a t i v e peop le have l i v e d h e r e . We do know t h a t i t has been f o r thousands of y e a r s . The n a t i v e peop le speak of i t as " f o r e v e r " , (p . 7) The t e x t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r u t h i s i n some ways r e l a t i v e to v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s but does not appear to extend the i n q u i r y . I t t ends towards an acceptance o f the f a c t / v a l u e d i s t i n c t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . D e c i s i o n making t h a t i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the t e x t touches many l e v e l s of t h i n k i n g s k i l l s t h a t i n v o l v e p r e d i c t i n g , s p e c u l a t i n g , p r e t e n d i n g and a p p l y i n g o f f e e l i n g s . Some q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n toward a c o r r e c t answer ( e . g . , "Why do you t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t f o r n a t i v e peop le to keep the o l d ways?" (p . 1 0 ) ) . A number of q u e s t i o n s i n v i t e s tudents to p l a c e themselves i n the p o s i t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s , r e p l i c a t i n g t h e i r v a l u e s or t r a n s f e r r i n g p e r s o n a l ones , t o a r r i v e a t c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f e e l i n g s , p h i l o s o p h i e s or s i t u a t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , h a v i n g rushed h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of bow and arrows and e x p e r i e n c e d f a i l u r e , a young I n u i t h u n t e r l e a r n s the l e s s o n of p a t i e n c e and p r a c t i s e : "How do you t h i n k Ootek w i l l c a r e f o r h i s bow and h i s arrows? Why w i l l he t r e a t them t h a t way?" (p . 141) . Many of the q u e s t i o n s seem d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the i n f o r m a t i o n of the t e x t , u s i n g thought p r o c e s s e s which r e t r i e v e and a p p l y a body of i n f o r m a t i o n . 48 T e x t : A u t h o r : P u b l i s h e r : S e r i e s : The E x p l o r e r s : C h a r t i n g the Canadian W i l d e r n e s s E r n e s t L a n g f o r d Douglas & M c l n t y r e ( E d u c a t i o n a l ) L t d . E x p l o r a t i o n s . A Canadian S o c i a l S t u d i e s Program f o r E lementary S c h o o l s . P u b l i c a t i o n Date: 1984 Grade: 4 Pages: 207 Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t I n s t a n c e s o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the t e x t are i n i t i a l l y a l l u d e d to w i t h r e f e r e n c e to b a t t l e s between the V i k i n g s and I n d i a n s . They a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i n terms of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s between the I n d i a n s and e x p l o r e r s , p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of n a i v e t e and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s which are r e s o l v e d through p r o p e r t r a n s l a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The t e x t does not appear to c o n c e n t r a t e on E u r o p e a n - N a t i v e c o n f l i c t as b e i n g connected to i s s u e s o f power o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The i s s u e o f f a i r n e s s i s r a i s e d i n r e l a t i o n to l ands which C a r t i e r c l a i m e d f o r F r a n c e t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y been o c c u p i e d by n a t i v e p e o p l e s . The t e x t seems to focus on communicat ion as a r e s o l u t i o n to s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change are c o n s i d e r e d i n the t e x t . Reference i s made, s u b t l y , t o ways i n which v a l u e p o s i t i o n s o r i n t e r e s t s may have i n f l u e n c e d the s e t t l e m e n t o f Canada. The Hudson's Bay Company d i d not want to t r a v e l a l o n g way to t r a d e w i t h the I n d i a n s . The company l i k e d the I n d i a n s to come to the f o r t s . As a r e s u l t , i t was many y e a r s b e f o r e another e x p l o r e r j o u r n e y e d from Hudson Bay t o the p r a i r i e s . (p . 57) Interdependence and c o o p e r a t i o n s u r f a c e as s t r o n g themes of the t e x t . The h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between I n d i a n s and e x p l o r e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the b e n e f i t of the e x p l o r e r s , i s c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r e s s e d . The v a l u e s of d e p e n d a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a r e o f t e n h i g h l i g h t e d . Groups are d e p i c t e d as s h a r i n g common g o a l s and v a l u i n g a u n i t y o f e f f o r t s . M r . Mackenzie has an amazing e f f e c t on u s . How does he do i t ? Maybe he makes us f e e l we are tw ice as b i g and s t r o n g as we r e a l l y a r e . T h a t ' s why the voyageurs admire h im. They r e s p e c t peop le who have the s t r e n g t h and courage to t r y the i m p o s s i b l e . They are l i k e t h a t themse lves . (p . 170) The i m p l i c a t i o n seems to be t h a t s o c i a l membership i s a c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e between peop le who s p e c i a l i z e w e l l i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y where l e a d e r s h i p i s c o n c e r n e d . Nature o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e Much of the content of the t e x t i n c l u d e s f i c t i o n a l d i a r y and j o u r n a l accounts o f i n d i v i d u a l s who i n some way a s s i s t e d the paths o f e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . Some of the accounts seem to d i s p l a y assumptions about the c h a r a c t e r s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f e a r l y a d v e n t u r e r s . A young i n t e r p r e t e r f o r Champlain a p p a r e n t l y c i t e s : I enjoyed e x p l o r i n g most of a l l . A f t e r t h a t I l i k e d f e a s t i n g and d a n c i n g . I d e c i d e d I c o u l d get a l o n g w i t h o u t f i g h t i n g b a t t l e s . Perhaps the I n d i a n s f e l t t h a t way, t o o . (p. 35) 50 The t e x t focuses on e x c i t e m e n t , adventure and knowledge o f new l a n d s as m o t i v a t i o n f o r e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . The ways i n which bonds a r e formed as a r e s u l t o f a l i gnment between v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s does not appear to be h i g h l i g h t e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , the need t h a t Champlain had f o r the h e l p o f c e r t a i n I n d i a n groups i n e x p l o i t i n g new areas o f f u r r e s o u r c e s i s a l l u d e d t o . However, C h a m p l a i n ' s p r i m a r y mot ive f o r s u p p o r t i n g these p a r t i c u l a r groups a g a i n s t t h e i r enemies seems to be p r e s e n t e d i n terms of the t i e s of f r i e n d s h i p . Each c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h v i g n e t t e s t h a t d e a l w i t h d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i ew. These passages o f f e r i n t e r p r e t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o the un ique mix o f v a l u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s which d i f f e r e n t peop le a s s i g n to the a n i m a l s , the l a n d , to t r a v e l o r customs. The B l a c k f o o t l i v e d on the p r a i r i e s f o r a l o n g t i m e . They depended on the p r a i r i e a n i m a l s . Then the f u r t r a d e r s came. They saw the same a n i m a l s , but they d i d n ' t f e e l the same way the B l a c k f o o t f e l t about them. The B l a c k f o o t and the f u r t r a d e r s l ooked a t the an imal s from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of v i ew. (p . 84) A p a r a l l e l i s drawn between the way e a r l y e x p l o r e r s l ooked a t the ocean and the way t h a t space i s viewed t o d a y . S e v e r a l o t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , or w o r l d v i e w s , appear l e s s open to d i s c u s s i o n . S tudents are i n v i t e d to put c l o s u r e on a s p e c t s of e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n by r a n k i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p a r t i c u l a r jobs and a c t i v i t i e s . 51 Use of comparat ive a n a l y s e s i n the t e x t tends to compartmenta l i ze w o r l d views i n t o s m a l l e r segments t h a t can be s t u d i e d more e f f i c i e n t l y and o b j e c t i v e l y . A q u e s t i o n a s k i n g how the customs of I n d i a n s and Engl i shmen were the same or d i f f e r e n t , f o r example, encourages human and s o c i a l phenomena to be reduced to common denominators . The q u a l i t i e s o f b r a v e r y , courage , p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d as requ irements f o r sound l e a d e r s h i p . S tudents are d i r e c t e d t o admire and r e s p e c t r a t h e r than a n a l y z e and d e b a t e . The tendency appears to r e i n f o r c e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a common base o f v i r t u e s or s k i l l s which peop le need to be s u c c e s s f u l , p a r t i c u l a r i n c a t e g o r i e s o f work. What makes a person a good l e a d e r on a j o u r n e y ? (p . 47) What k i n d o f person makes the bes t e x p l o r e r ? (p . 98) Do you t h i n k P e t e r Puget would be a good commander o f the Chatham? (p. 132) O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Knowledge The content o f the t e x t b u i l d s upon the p r e v i o u s t e x t i n the s e r i e s . Each c h a p t e r i s s t r u c t u r e d around s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s which comprise "what l i e s ahead" and "what have we l e a r n e d . " Review i s a c o n s i s t e n t f e a t u r e , w i t h i n each c h a p t e r and as a c u m u l a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n a t the end of each c h a p t e r . The o v e r a l l scheme of the t e x t r e f l e c t s a g e o g r a p h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , moving from E a s t to West a l o n g e x p l o r a t i o n r o u t e s o f Canadian r e g i o n s . Each s e c t i o n opens w i t h photographs and a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a r e a under s t u d y . I t then moves back i n t ime to when the a r e a was f i r s t b e i n g s e t t l e d and e x p l o r e d . F r e q u e n t c o n n e c t i o n s between events and the f e e l i n g s t h a t events evoke i n people i n d i c a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n u n c o v e r i n g the p e r s o n a l meanings t h a t e x p l o r e r s and n a t i v e peop le s e x p e r i e n c e d . F o r the most p a r t , the t e x t appears to l e g i t i m i z e knowledge t h a t i s s o c i a l l y u s e f u l . H i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d as a s e r i e s o f c u m u l a t i v e s t e p p i n g s tones c o n c e i v e d i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n (t ime l i n e ) moving from p a s t to p r e s e n t t ime frames . As the e x p l o r e r s moved a c r o s s the c o u n t r y , they l e a r n e d about i t s many d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . Each e x p l o r e r added a new r e g i o n to the map of Canada. (p . 16) T r u t h c l a i m s appear to be advanced on the b a s i s o f h i s t o r y documented through j o u r n a l s and d i a r i e s or f i c t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s u c h . The t e x t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r u t h c l a i m s can be d e c i d e d and v e r i f i e d through correspondence to e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e . Two examples a r e : L a t e r he wrote a book about h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s i n Canada, and t h a t i s how we know what happened. (p . 31) Henday kept a j o u r n a l t e l l i n g of h i s t r a v e l s , and t h a t i s how we know what happened. (p . 63) D e c i s i o n making seems to c o n c e n t r a t e on i m a g i n i n g , c o n j e c t u r i n g and p r e d i c t i n g based upon i n f o r m a t i o n about c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s as they a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the t e x t . F a c t u a l r e c a l l of knowledge i s apparent to a l e s s e r e x t e n t . There i s a s t r o n g emphasis i n the t e x t on b r i n g i n g h i s t o r y to l i f e , p u t t i n g s tudent s i n the p l a c e of e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and emphas iz ing d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s of c h a r a c t e r . T r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s are apparent i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on in terdependence between peop le s to a c h i e v e common g o a l s . C o n f l i c t i s m i n i m i z e d but p o i n t s o f view are h i g h l i g h t e d . 54 A u t h o r s : P u b l i s h e r : S e r i e s : T e x t : E x p l o r i n g Canada: L e a r n i n g from the P a s t , L o o k i n g to the F u t u r e V i v i e n Bowers and Diane Swanson Douglas & M c l n t y r e ( E d u c a t i o n a l ) L t d . E x p l o r a t i o n s . A Canadian S o c i a l S t u d i e s Program f o r E lementary S c h o o l s . P u b l i c a t i o n Date : 1985 Grade: 5 Pages: 386 Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t The t e x t probes d i f f e r e n t v a l u e bases from which people o p e r a t e i n t h e i r approaches to s o c i a l prob lems . I t acknowledges t h a t c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l problems i n Canada have r e s u l t e d from c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . R e s o l u t i o n of s o c i a l problems appears to r e s i d e l a r g e l y i n the a b i l i t y o f an e l e c t e d or a p p o i n t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o l i s t e n t o s e v e r a l v iews and choose the bes t s o l u t i o n f o r the m a j o r i t y good. C o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s o f view a r e probed to the e x t e n t t h a t areas o f agreement can be de termined and worked towards . In one such i n s t a n c e : The people i n S p r u c e v i l l e had d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s about the f o r e s t . Yet they a l l agreed on one t h i n g . They a l l thought the f o r e s t was v a l u a b l e , f o r one reason o r a n o t h e r . (p . 63) The emphasis seems to be on agreement through m a j o r i t y a p p r o v a l and r e s o l u t i o n through a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . D e c i d i n g what i s b e s t f o r the m a j o r i t y i s a key concept i n the s o c i a l message of the t e x t . The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f forming one c o u n t r y from s e v e r a l c o l o n i e s e n t e r t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t needs , ideas and i n t e r e s t s i s c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e d . However, these needs are 55 p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g r e s o l v e d through b e t t e r communicat ion , b e t t e r government and improved communicat ions systems. E v e n t u a l l y a l l the c o l o n i s t s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n one c o u n t r y so t h a t they c o u l d h e l p each o t h e r . T o g e t h e r , they c o u l d do t h i n g s they c o u l d n ' t e a s i l y do a l o n e . C o n f e d e r a t i o n gave the people one government f o r the whole c o u n t r y . (p . 229) The t e x t opens w i t h r e f e r e n c e to changes t h a t are o c c u r r i n g i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and c o u n t r i e s . S tudents are asked to c o n s i d e r how p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s have changed i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e and how they w i l l change i n the f u t u r e . They a r e a l s o d i r e c t e d to c o n s i d e r how and why s o c i a l changes take p l a c e . A c o u n t r y such as Canada i s a l s o changing a b i t e v e r y y e a r . F o r i n s t a n c e , somebody b u i l d s a f a s t - f o o d r e s t a u r a n t where t h e r e was once an empty l o t . A new f a m i l y moves i n t o your ne ighbourhood . A new mine opens and h i r e s many w o r k e r s . In s m a l l ways, these t h i n g s change Canada. (p . 7) The p h y s i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a f f e c t i n g r e s o u r c e - b a s e d towns seem t o be addressed to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . L i m i t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s of cause and e f f e c t s appear to suggest t h a t peop le are the r e c i p i e n t s o f events t h a t happen to them, a lmost beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . A c o n v e r s a t i o n between an e l d e r l y woman and a young g i r l r e v e a l s : The F r e n c h , the E n g l i s h and o t h e r Europeans f i r s t came t o Canada f o r the r e s o u r c e s . They came because they h e a r d t h a t the c o u n t r y was r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Some bought f u r s from the I n d i a n s ; some came to c a t c h f i s h . Some came to cu t the t a l l t r e e s , and o t h e r s went l o o k i n g f o r m i n e r a l s , l i k e g o l d . Some s e t t l e r s began f a r m i n g . Towns s t a r t e d to grow up near the r e s o u r c e s , (p . 21) D u r i n g the g o l d r u s h thousands of people went to B r i t i s h Columbia to l o o k f o r g o l d . Boom towns were q u i c k l y b u i l t f o r the miners and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . There 56 were s t o r e s , banks , r e s t a u r a n t s , s c h o o l s — j u s t l i k e any town. Then the g o l d r a n out and everyone moved away. Now t h e r e i s n o t h i n g l e f t but empty b u i l d i n g s . Those a r e ghost towns. (p . 22) E f f e c t i v e s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to s c i e n t i f i c achievements and i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y due to t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance . I t appears t h a t people p r i m a r i l y have to pursue competence i n a changing workplace by a c c u m u l a t i n g n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . M a i n t a i n i n g o r d e r i n s o c i a l change seems of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance i n the t e x t , p a r t i c u l a r l y where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of good c i t i z e n s h i p are c o n c e r n e d . I f people want good government, they must be good c i t i z e n s . People must always choose t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a r e f u l l y and watch government a c t i o n s c l o s e l y . They must always support the a c t i o n s they agree w i t h and speak a g a i n s t the a c t i o n s they d o n ' t , (p . 276) The impact of t e c h n o l o g y i s r e c o g n i z e d i n terms of f e a r s t h a t people have c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s of t e l e v i s i o n and computers on l i f e s t y l e s . The t e x t acknowledges t h a t : Whether t h i s new t e c h n o l o g y w i l l a c t u a l l y improve our l i v e s depends on how we use i t . The messages we communicate a r e as i m p o r t a n t as how f a r , how f a s t o r how e a s i l y we can send them. (p . 184) S e v e r a l methods of changing government d e c i s i o n s are o u t l i n e d , i n c l u d i n g p r o t e s t groups which are d e s c r i b e d i n terms of c i t i z e n s j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r to p r o t e s t a p u b l i c i s s u e or government d e c i s i o n through s y s t e m a t i c means. P r o t e s t groups are d e s c r i b e d as an a l t e r n a t e form of s o c i a l a c t i o n which peop le must 57 c o l l e c t i v e l y engage i n to p r e c i p i t a t e change i n c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y d e c i s i o n s . P u b l i c p r o t e s t s are u s u a l l y more s u c c e s s f u l i f they i n v o l v e l o t s o f p e o p l e . The government cannot p l e a s e everybody . I f i t i s g o i n g to make changes , i t must f e e l t h a t many peop le want them. (p . 260) Technology appears to compensate f o r human e r r o r and l a c k of f o r e s i g h t i n the e x h a u s t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Background as to why t h i s d e p l e t i o n o c c u r s i s open ly d i s c u s s e d but the emphasis appears to be on a r t i f i c i a l l y r e c r e a t i n g p r o d u c t s f o r which t h e r e i s c o n t i n u e d demand. D e s c r i p t i o n s of b e t t e r and f a s t e r methodology suggest a smooth cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t r e l i e s on a c c u m u l a t i o n of d a t a to remedy s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s . S o c i a l membership i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n terms of the needs and w e l l - b e i n g of a l l C a n a d i a n s . The content of the t e x t focuses on b e n e f i t s t h a t the whole s o c i e t y c o l l e c t i v e l y r e c e i v e s from f o r e s t r y , communicat ions , government s e r v i c e s and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l groups who immigrate to Canada. S o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p e a c e f u l c o - e x i s t e n c e are s t r e s s e d . Your f u t u r e i n Canada w i l l be shared w i t h many o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . Some of them w i l l have always l i v e d h e r e . O t h e r s w i l l be new immigrants to Canada. Working t o g e t h e r , you w i l l shape the m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y you s h a r e . The immigrants o f the f u t u r e , l i k e the immigrants of the p a s t , w i l l b e n e f i t a l l C a n a d i a n s . I t i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to h e l p them make Canada t h e i r home. (p . 366) The m e r i t s of b e l o n g i n g to the Canadian system of government and o r d e r a r e emphasized. The importance of o b s e r v i n g laws and r u l e s a r e j u s t i f i e d on the b a s i s t h a t Canadians share the 58 s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by government and , l i k e a f a m i l y , must comply w i t h what i s bes t f o r the common good. Laws are r u l e s made by governments . Laws h e l p you get a l o n g w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . In a f a m i l y , r u l e s about mealt imes and chores h e l p peop le l i v e t o g e t h e r . Governments make laws f o r the same r e a s o n . Laws h e l p you get a l o n g w i t h o t h e r C a n a d i a n s . Laws both l i m i t and p r o t e c t your freedom. Laws are f o r everybody . Even the most i m p o r t a n t or power fu l peop le i n Canada must obey the laws . (p . 200) Communicat ion, f r i e n d s h i p and working t o g e t h e r through e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n appears t o p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r s o c i a l membership. V e n t u r i n g i n t o the web of human d i f f e r e n c e s proceeds o n l y so f a r as to i d e n t i f y common g o a l s , v a l u e s and areas o f agreement. Nature of S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e U n i t themes are i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d through the eyes o f young people who are l a t e r r e - i n t r o d u c e d as s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n s i n the p u b l i c community. The p r a c t i c e o f t y p i f y i n g i n t e r e s t s o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y , as the a c t i o n s o f a few s tand f o r the a c t i o n s o f many. Everybody i n Canada i s r e p r e s e n t e d by an M . P . , so a s i t t i n g o f the House o f Commons r e a l l y i n v o l v e s a l l C a n a d i a n s . (p . 239) Government s e r v i c e s are d e p i c t e d as b e n e v o l e n t , p r o t e c t i v e and n e c e s s a r y . V i s u a l d i s p l a y s suppor t t h i s p r e m i s e , as does the n o t i o n of t r u s t t h a t i s conveyed through e x p l a n a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g 59 the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s and the system of government. F o r i n s t a n c e : When you grow up, the government w i l l l i k e l y p r o v i d e you w i t h some of the same s e r v i c e s i t does now. J u s t as i t has i n the p a s t , the government w i l l a l s o change some s e r v i c e s and p r o v i d e new ones . The government p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s to meet your changing needs , (p . 252) The language of the t e x t d i r e c t s r e a d e r s to conc lude t h a t the human c o n d i t i o n has c o n s i d e r a b l y improved over t ime and t h a t t e c h n o l o g y i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s . Working t o g e t h e r i s a c o n s i s t e n t theme throughout the t e x t , advanc ing the premise t h a t the w e l f a r e of a l l Canadians r e l i e s on the a c t i o n s o f young people i n assuming t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n l a t e r a d u l t l i f e . The government p r o v i d e s you w i t h many s e r v i c e s t h a t you cannot e a s i l y p r o v i d e y o u r s e l f . But good s e r v i c e s cannot happen wi thout good c i t i z e n s . Canadians must be p r e p a r e d to pay taxes and t e l l the government what they need . (p . 263) There i s a d i r e c t cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p drawn between f l u c t u a t i o n s i n l a r g e i n d u s t r y and the happiness or sadness of people who d e s i r e c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s i n t h e i r l i v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s suggested t h a t we are a l l p a r t of a g l o b a l v i l l a g e , a l l w i s h i n g to a v o i d l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i v e o f communicat ions t e c h n o l o g y f o r enhanc ing u n d e r s t a n d i n g s between peop le over g r e a t d i s t a n c e s . Communication i s i m p o r t a n t to a l l p e o p l e , whether they can hear or n o t . Communication i s what makes human be ings s p e c i a l . No o t h e r an imal s use language f o r speak ing and w r i t i n g l i k e we d o . Only peop le can share so many t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s and i d e a s . Communication l i n k s us t o g e t h e r i n t h i s w o r l d . (p . 174) The t e x t appears to suggest t h a t communications t e c h n o l o g y i n h e r e n t l y promotes s h a r i n g and u n i t y o f i d e a s , t h o u g h t s , i n f o r m a t i o n and f e e l i n g s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Knowledge The t e x t i s o r g a n i z e d around f o u r themes t h a t are advanced as c e n t r a l to the p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e growth and development o f Canada: the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e , communicat ions , government and i m m i g r a t i o n . Each theme i s e x p l o r e d as a u n i t o f s tudy d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . Each c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a s t o r y , from a c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f v i ew, as w e l l as the p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e o f each t o p i c . Each c h a p t e r opens w i t h a q u e s t i o n which i s s u b s e q u e n t l y answered i n the c o n t e n t of the c h a p t e r and then rev iewed i n a c h a p t e r checkup. Growth r i n g s on a t r e e r e p r e s e n t a l i n e a r p o r t r a y a l of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . L e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l knowledge appears to be r o o t e d p r i m a r i l y i n documented sources and , to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s . Where do you get a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n you need? Some o f i t comes from your t e a c h e r . Some i n f o r m a t i o n i s w r i t t e n i n t e x t b o o k s . You p r o b a b l y a l s o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from books i n the l i b r a r y , from maps, from f i l m s , from t e l e v i s i o n , from newspapers, from f i e l d t r i p s , from guest speakers and even from computer programs. Your i n f o r m a t i o n comes from many s o u r c e s , (p . 167) 61 There i s a s t r o n g emphasis on knowledge t h a t i s s o c i a l l y u s e f u l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n comparison to what i s seen as a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n the pas t due to i n f e r i o r t e c h n o l o g y . New methods of communicat ion make i t e a s i e r to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . S c h o o l s need l o t s of i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n your s c h o o l you use i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t e x p l a i n s how to add and s u b t r a c t f r a c t i o n s . You use i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t d e s c r i b e s how people l i v e d i n the p a s t . I n f o r m a t i o n l i k e t h i s h e l p s you l e a r n new t h i n g s . (p . 167) Knowledge of the p a s t , b u i l d i n g on the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s and a p p l y i n g t h a t knowledge to c u r r e n t concerns i s a v e r y s t r o n g theme of the t e x t . F o r example: When you unders tand your c o u n t r y ' s p a s t , you w i l l be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o meet the c h a l l e n g e s Canada faces i n the f u t u r e . As you head o f f on your voyage o f e x p l o r a t i o n , you can b u i l d on the e x p e r i e n c e of the peop le who went b e f o r e , y o u . (p . 10) The c l u e s t o f u t u r e success seem t o l i e i n the p a s t . An i m p o r t a n t assumpt ion i n the t e x t appears to be t h a t i f Canadians use the knowledge o f the p a s t and a p p l y i t p r o p e r l y , then waste and mismanagement w i l l be a v o i d e d . The t e x t seems to c o n c e n t r a t e p r i m a r i l y on t r u t h c l a i m s t h a t a r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n terms of what i s o c c u r r i n g i n s o c i e t y and what has happened i n the p a s t . The t e x t does acknowledge t h a t a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s o f view w i l l l i k e l y d i r e c t people to a t t a c h d i f f e r e n t importance to c e r t a i n i tems of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t l i n k s " r e p o r t i n g " the f a c t s w i t h " c r e a t i n g " i n t e r e s t i n g news and sugges ts t h a t consumers have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s o r t through 62 messages f o r themse lves . T r u t h c l a i m s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e appear to be shaped by the i n t e r e s t s o f s o c i a l a c t o r s . Each u n i t c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s e c t i o n s . They proceed through a p r o c e s s whereby the t e a c h e r poses a p r o b l e m , encourages d i s c u s s i o n by the s tudent s and conc ludes w i t h a group d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g a common course of a c t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s appear to generate awareness o f p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s such as c o n s e r v a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , use of spare t i m e , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s and e x t e n d i n g cour teous a t t i t u d e s towards new i m m i g r a n t s . A l l of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e c h o i c e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . However, they are i n i t i a t e d and c o n c l u d e d by a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e and they r e l y on a common course o f a c t i o n . The t e x t a l l o w s f o r c o n t e n t i o n between p o i n t s of view but appears to i n d i c a t e t h a t d e c i s i o n s are made when a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n i s as sembled . Moreover , d e c i s i o n s appear to be based on the common s o c i a l good. T e x t : A u t h o r s : P u b l i s h e r : S e r i e s : P u b l i c a t i o n Date : Grade: Pages: N a t i v e People and E x p l o r e r s o f Canada D a n i e l C . G . Conner and Doreen Bethune-Johnson P r e n t i c e - H a l l Canada I n c . I d e n t i t y S o c i a l S t u d i e s S e r i e s 1984 4 339 Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t The t e x t p o r t r a y s s o c i a l problems i n terms of a b l e n d of economic and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . R e s o l u t i o n s to s o c i a l problems appear to be i n t e r n a l to the v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the peop le i n v o l v e d . A young I n u i t g i r l o b s e r v e s : Annanak says we need to go out on the l a n d because when we l i v e i n town a l l year we can l o s e touch w i t h n a t u r e , (p . 12) We can hunt and f i s h f o r o n l y a few days because the a d u l t s have to go back to t h e i r j o b s . We cannot w a i t too l o n g a t L o c k e r P o i n t and when the i c e f l o e s do not move we s t a r t f o r home. (p . 16) Our h u n t i n g t r i p h e l p s us to lower food c o s t s . We pay about f o u r t imes as much as peop le i n the south f o r f r e s h meat and c h i c k e n because these foods have to be sh ipped to us by p l a n e . (p . 17) F a t h e r u s u a l l y goes h u n t i n g on weekends. A f t e r work on a F r i d a y n i g h t he checks over h i s snowmobile and packs h i s equipment on h i s s l e d c a l l e d an a l l i a k . (p . 24) The t e x t appears to l a y the groundwork f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l t e n s i o n s . The manner i n which i t d e s c r i b e s s o c i a l c o n f l i c t seems to focus on p o i n t s o f view t h a t compri se d i f f e r e n t ideas of the w o r l d . F o r example, of the B r i t i s h , the Nootka s a i d : Our songs s a i d t h a t t h i s i s our l a n d and sea as f a r west as the h o r i z o n and as f a r eas t as the mounta ins . 64 We s a i d t h a t they were welcome to our l a n d as our g u e s t s . (p . 199) Of the Nootka , the B r i t i s h s a i d : We went to ga ther g r a s s f o r the few goats and sheep we had on b o a r d . Twelve peop le s a i d t h a t the g r a s s was t h e i r s so I p a i d them w i t h p i e c e s o f m e t a l . I t seemed t h a t t h e r e was a s e p a r a t e owner f o r every b l a d e o f g r a s s . Very soon my pockets were empty. I have never met peop le who b e l i e v e so s t r o n g l y t h a t they own e v e r y t h i n g around them. (p . 233) There i s a c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y between pas t and p r e s e n t i n the t e x t . The R i v e r o f Canada i s now the S t . Lawrence and Mt . R o y a l i s now M o n t r e a l . S o c i a l changes are o f t e n r e f l e c t e d through memories t h a t o l d e r c h a r a c t e r s have of t h e i r y o u t h . The n o t i o n t h a t pas t and p r e s e n t o v e r l a p to form new d i r e c t i o n s i s a v e r y s t r o n g theme of the t e x t . A Copper I n u i t g i r l o b s e r v e s : We make up new c o n t e s t s f o r our N a t t i k Days . F i r s t we l o o k a t the way our peop le l i v e d i n the pas t to see i f we can make up c o n t e s t s to t e s t the s k i l l , s t r e n g t h , and s tamina we would have needed l o n g ago. Then we add modern c o n t e s t s t h a t we t h i n k o f o u r s e l v e s . Sometimes we t r y to use a modern o b j e c t l i k e a p i l l o w , pop c a n , o r b i c y c l e t i r e to make new c o n t e s t s . (p . 65) I t i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t e x t t h a t ways e v o l v e through exchange o f goods and i d e a s and t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s and v a l u e s shape w o r l d v i e w s . A v i l l a g e e l d e r o b s e r v e s : We have g i v e n them t h i n g s t h a t they want, e s p e c i a l l y f u r s . In r e t u r n they have brought us w e a l t h . We now have many meta l t o o l s , guns , and ornaments . We do not need these t h i n g s f o r we can f i n d a l l we need on the l a n d and i n the s e a . But they a r e u s e f u l to us and i t i s always good to make new f r i e n d s . (p . 246) In terchange between two sons o f an I r o q u o i s c h i e f and the F r e n c h e x p l o r e r s and the Canadian A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n and the I n u i t a r e f u r t h e r i n s t a n c e s i l l u s t r a t i n g how a s h a r i n g o f knowledge and b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s a f f e c t s a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o c i a l membership i s c o n s i s t e n t l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y of needs and uses f o r p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e s or m a t e r i a l s . L i n k a g e between human knowledge and human i n t e r e s t s appears to be emphas ized. What i s i m p o r t a n t i n one p a r t i c u l a r t ime and p l a c e , be i t b u f f a l o , c e d a r , b e r r i e s or d e e r , i s r e l a t i v e to the needs and i n t e r e s t s of people who c o n s i d e r t h a t knowledge most v a l u a b l e . Nature of S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e The s t o r y o f the t e x t i s r e l a t e d from p o i n t s of view of c h a r a c t e r s who l i v e d the e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s p r i m a r i l y i n the p r e s e n t tense or through the memories of l i v i n g p e o p l e . The t e x t i l l u s t r a t e s d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t a s i m i l a r custom o r a r t i c l e can be v iewed from d i f f e r e n t v a l u e p o s i t i o n s . Something t h a t i s i n v a l u a b l e i n one c o n t e x t may be r e l a t i v e l y w o r t h l e s s i n a n o t h e r . On the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f e i t h e r a gun or a bow and arrow, two Cree h u n t e r s a l t e r n a t e l y sugges t : A gun i s v e r y u s e f u l . I can shoot f a r t h e r w i t h my gun than w i t h my bow and arrow. My gun i s a l s o more a c c u r a t e . When my gun i s o l d I can t u r n the meta l i n t o handles f o r my s c r a p e r and c h i s e l . (p . 160) You cannot r e l y on a gun. I f your powder i s wet, or i f you r u n out o f s h o t , or l o s e your f l i n t , the gun i s u s e l e s s . Guns make you depend on the f u r t r a d e r f o r 66 gunpowder, s h o t , and spare p a r t s . I p r e f e r to t r a d e my f u r s f o r o t h e r i t e m s . (p . 160) D e s c r i p t i o n s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y appear to be open ended, s i t u a t e d i n the p r e s e n t and r e f l e c t i n g on the p a s t . S tudents a r e f r e q u e n t l y asked to observe p i c t u r e s and photographs as though they p r o v i d e i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e from t h e i r own p o i n t o f view or the i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e of another g r o u p . The t e x t d i r e c t s r e a d e r a t t e n t i o n to a f a m i l y album i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l l i f e . I t r e f l e c t s an i m p r e s s i o n o f h i s t o r y t h a t i s d i r e c t e d by human c o n c e r n s . There i s a s t r o n g theme i n the t e x t t h a t the f o r c e s o f the pas t r e f o r m u l a t e to become d i r e c t i o n s of the p r e s e n t . O l d and new a r e c o n s t a n t l y b l ended w i t h r e f e r e n c e to human and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and a n c i e n t and modern customs. The content of the t e x t appears to suggest t h a t dilemma i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f human and s o c i a l phenomena. C o n f l i c t s and consequences are d i s c u s s e d i n terms of c h o i c e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s f a c e when p r i o r i t i e s come i n t o q u e s t i o n . The t e x t a l s o addresses p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n as t o o l s o f r e s o l u t i o n and acknowledges t h a t i s s u e s o f t e n change to become o t h e r than what they o r i g i n a l l y were. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Knowledge The content of the t e x t beg ins and ends i n p r e s e n t tense and i s sequenced c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y through f i v e u n i t s d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f s u b - h e a d i n g s . Each s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h v o c a b u l a r y words, content r e c a l l and a p p l i c a t i o n o f i d e a s . The c o n t e n t r e l e c t s con t inuous i n t e r a c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s through a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 y e a r s o f E u r o p e a n - N a t i v e c o n t a c t . The t e x t c o n c e n t r a t e s on ways i n which p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p a s t . H i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d as l i v i n g i n modern ways of l i f e , i n p l a c e names and customs t h a t have t h e i r r o o t s i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t but t h e i r p r a c t i c e i n the p r e s e n t . H i s t o r y i s p r e s e n t e d as p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h y se t w i t h i n unique norms and b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s o c i a l h i s t o r y are e v i d e n t , as i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: To c o l l e c t more f u r s , The Hudson's Bay Company h i r e d workers to b u i l d f o r t s on Hudson Bay and to t r a d e t h e r e a l l year r o u n d . They even o f f e r e d j o b s to c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n worked on the s h i p s t h a t p i c k e d up f u r s from the f o r t s . They a l s o worked a t the f o r t s to l e a r n about the f u r t r a d e . (p . 141) L e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l knowledge i n the t e x t appears to be the v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s , m o t i v a t i o n s and b e l i e f s o f peop le w i t h i n t h e i r own t ime and s o c i a l c o n t e x t . The t e x t e x p l o r e s the p r o c e s s e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e meaning. T r u t h c l a i m s appear to be advanced i n terms of the w o r l d views t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s assemble from t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t s o f r e a l i t y . R e a l i t y appears to be i n t e r p r e t e d from e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e , a g a i n r e i n f o r c i n g the i d e a t h a t t h i n g s are not always 68 as they appear . What i s a p p r o p r i a t e o r t r u e i s r e l a t i v e to needs and i n t e r e s t s . Jacques C a r t i e r o b s e r v e s : These peop le are c a l l e d I r o q u o i s and t h e i r name f o r t h i s r e g i o n i s Honguedo which means sea of f i s h . At f i r s t we thought the I r o q u o i s were poor and had no homes because they l i v e d under t h e i r o v e r t u r n e d canoes . L a t e r we l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s was j u s t t h e i r f i s h i n g camp. They come here each year to f i s h f o r m a c k e r e l . (p . 88) D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the t e x t a r e l a r g e l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to p e r s o n a l dilemmas e x p e r i e n c e d by the c h a r a c t e r s . They i l l u s t r a t e a range o f p r i o r i t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and consequences which i n f l u e n c e people i n the c h o i c e s t h a t they make. 69 T e x t : A u t h o r : P u b l i s h e r : S e r i e s : P u b l i c a t i o n Date: Grade: Pages: Canada: B u i l d i n g Our N a t i o n D a n i e l C . G . Conner P r e n t i c e - H a l l Canada I n c . I d e n t i t y S o c i a l S t u d i e s S e r i e s 1 985 5 449 Treatment o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t I s sues of power and c o n t r o l appear to be a f o c a l p o i n t of the t e x t . F e a r o f a t t a c k on B . C . by the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s u l t s i n New Westminster becoming the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r a t h e r than F o r t L a n g l e y . The consequences of t h a t d e c i s i o n f o r merchants are c o n s i d e r e d . S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s are c i t e d o f n a t i v e / w h i t e d i s p u t e s over r i g h t s and ownersh ip , which seem to l a y f u r t h e r groundwork f o r i s s u e s t h a t have s i n c e e v o l v e d and a r e o f c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n i n Canadian s o c i e t y . S o c i a l problems between miners and F r a s e r R i v e r I n d i a n bands r a i s e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g c l a i m s to lands and f i s h i n g r i g h t s . The i s s u e r e g a r d i n g the r o u t e of the r a i l w a y a c r o s s B l a c k f o o t t e r r i t o r y r e s u l t s i n a t r e a t y w i t h the Canadian government. I t i s i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d : The B l a c k f o o t had come to t a l k about a t r e a t y because they c o u l d no l o n g e r hunt enough b u f f a l o to feed t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Hunters w i t h r i f l e s had k i l l e d so many b u f f a l o t h a t the l a r g e herds were a lmost gone. The government promised to pay the B l a c k f o o t f o o d , s u p p l i e s and money i f they would g i v e some of t h e i r l a n d to s e t t l e r s to b u i l d farms . (p . 241) Disagreements between the B l a c k f o o t and the Canadian government proceed through a d e s c r i p t i o n of the prob lem, a 70 compromise, a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a r e s t a t i n g o f the p r o b l e m . They i l l u s t r a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n , p e r s u a s i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y the s u s t a i n i n g o f the l a r g e r power's d e c i s i o n . However, the i s s u e s u r f a c e s a g a i n w i t h C h i e f Crowfoot a p p r o a c h i n g S i r John A . Macdonald r e g a r d i n g f i r e s caused by t r a i n sparks b u r n i n g crops growing near the t r a c k . S i m i l a r l y , the i s s u e o f s t r i k e on the r a i l w a y i s approached from the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f w o r k e r s , an eng i neer o b s e r v i n g the p r o c e s s , a r a i l w a y i n s p e c t o r and the manager of the CPR. T h i s approach to s o c i a l problems seems to emphasize t h a t many p a r t i e s have s takes i n an i s s u e which r e f l e c t t h e i r v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s and the v a l u e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r d e c i s i o n making . V a l u e frameworks appear to p l a y a r o l e i n the development of s o c i a l change and p r o g r e s s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications seem to be i n i t i a l l y p o r t r a y e d as responses t o , r a t h e r than p r o d u c t s o f , t e c h n o l o g y . The t e x t impar t s a sense t h a t Canada was b u i l t from the changing needs and i n t e r e s t s of p e o p l e . New r a i l w a y s were b u i l t i n each p r o v i n c e so t h a t s e t t l e r s c o u l d r e a c h areas to the n o r t h of the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . Most U k r a i n i a n immigrants chose homesteads i n the p a r k l a n d s . They chose t h i s h i l l y , w e l l - w a t e r e d r e g i o n because i t was much more l i k e the l a n d i n Western U k r a i n e than the d r y , t r e e l e s s p r a i r i e f u r t h e r s o u t h . (p . 307) The t e x t emphasizes ways i n which events i n t e r c o n n e c t , o f t e n u n e x p e c t e d l y , to produce success or f a i l u r e , a booming b u s i n e s s o r a b u s t . The element of s u r p r i s e p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the t e x t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l change. F o r i n s t a n c e , the 71 f i r s t B r i t i s h s teamship i n t r o d u c e d on the northwest coas t o f N o r t h America e f f e c t i v e l y t u r n s around power arrangements between B r i t i s h and American i n t e r e s t s i n New C a l e d o n i a : Fewer and fewer American s h i p s r e t u r n e d to t r a d e f o r f u r s a l o n g the c o a s t o f New C a l e d o n i a . Without c o m p e t i t i o n the f u r t r a d e r s a t F o r t L a n g l e y were a b l e to r a i s e the p r i c e s of t h e i r t r a d e goods and p r o f i t s began to i n c r e a s e once more. (p . 10) P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s are a s t r o n g theme of the t e x t . The t e x t e x p l o r e s the concept of p a r t n e r s h i p from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s , such as between e i g h t s t r a n g e r s forming a min ing company and the r i s k s they might assume, between p r o v i n c e s j o i n i n g c o n f e d e r a t i o n though s e p a r a t e d by g r e a t d i s t a n c e s and between people working t o g e t h e r to b e n e f i t t h e i r own needs . The t e x t e x p l o r e s i n d i v i d u a l h a r d s h i p s , e x p e r i e n c e s and d i v e r s e ways t h a t people have met t h e i r needs throughout the development and e x p l o r a t i o n of Canada. In the l a r g e r s o c i a l p i c t u r e , the t e x t seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n through l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s u l t i m a t e l y bes t meets the needs of a l l C a n a d i a n s . Two young Vietnamese re fugees observe : C h i Tac and Thuy Chan t r i e d to count how many ways each d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of government h e l p s them each day . As they walked home from C i t i z e n s h i p c l a s s , they made a l i s t of a l l the government s e r v i c e s they c o u l d see . (p . 402) 72 Nature o f S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e The t e x t anchors i t s s t o r y l i n e i n the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s of peop le i n v o l v e d i n the events o f a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . P r i m a r y s o u r c e s , p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n and case s tudy are u s e d . Most d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y are approached from m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s and a p p l y s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f view t o a s i n g l e t o p i c . There are s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f peop le i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to working c o n d i t i o n s , wages, f e l l o w w o r k e r s , company or government p o l i c y and f a m i l y l i f e . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are open ly d i s c u s s e d . Some i n s t a n c e s appear l e s s 1 open t o q u e s t i o n as they r e q u i r e t h a t the b e h a v i o u r or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s be commented upon from an o u t s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e . S tudents a r e d i r e c t e d to c o n s i d e r what would be expected o f people o c c u p y i n g p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l r o l e s ( i . e . , a survey e n g i n e e r , a c o l o n e l , a p r o s p e c t o r , the wives o f a p i o n e e r d o c t o r and a prime m i n i s t e r , a paddlewhee ler c a p t a i n , an i n s p e c t o r of r a i l w a y p a t r o l , e a r l y immigrants to Canada, a governor g e n e r a l , a p o l i t i c a l c a n d i d a t e and two judges from d i f f e r e n t eras i n Canadian h i s t o r y ) . A s t r o n g theme of the t e x t i s t h a t people face c h a l l e n g e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways—by r u n n i n g , b a t t l i n g , conced ing or w i n n i n g . In t h i s r e g a r d , c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g human and s o c i a l phenomena seem to be t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , i n t e r e s t s and i n f o r m a t i o n must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n t h e i r own s o c i a l c o n t e x t . 73 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Knowledge The content of the t e x t i s o r g a n i z e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y through 19th and 20th c e n t u r y e x p l o r a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t o f Canada. The t e x t i s compri sed o f f i v e u n i t s i n v o l v i n g the f u r t r a d e , g o l d r u s h , r a i l w a y e x p a n s i o n , e a r l y s e t t l e r s and i m m i g r a t i o n . C h a p t e r s w i t h i n each u n i t are i d e n t i f i e d by sub-head ings and conc lude by r e c a l l i n g the p a s t , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p r e s e n t and p r e d i c t i n g the f u t u r e . The s t y l e of the t e x t i s b i o g r a p h i c a l , through o r a l or w r i t t e n a c c o u n t s . The t e x t r e l a y s h i s t o r y through the n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e of s t o r y t e l l i n g . I t appears to suggest t h a t l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l knowledge i s t h a t which i s p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . The t e x t reads l i k e a n o v e l w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n , foreshadowing , c l i m a x and c o n c l u s i o n . Unexpected events and elements of s u r p r i s e are f r e q u e n t l y a l l u d e d to as o p e r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s i n a t u r n o f e v e n t s . The t e x t o f t e n appears to suggest t h a t h i s t o r y cannot be s e p a r a t e d from the e x p e r i e n c e o f those who l i v e i t . The case h i s t o r y of one U k r a i n i a n f a m i l y from the S p r i n g o f 1898 to the F a l l o f 1901 i s a case i n p o i n t . F o l l o w i n g the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s r e f l e c t s a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n making sense o f human r e l a t i o n s . There a r e , however, i n s t a n c e s where t r a n s f e r r i n g o r assuming v a l u e s a c r o s s s o c i a l s e t t i n g s seems to suggest an o r g a n i z i n g , o b s e r v e r s t a n c e . In a d d i t i o n , immigrant groups c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as d e s e r v i n g p r e f e r r e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n because they v a l u e Canadian freedom and d e l i b e r a t e l y pursue knowledge of the c o u n t r y to g a i n c i t i z e n s h i p s t a t u s . P a r a l l e l s drawn between i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g l e v e l s o f government and the c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t t h a t they r e p r e s e n t f o r a l l c i t i z e n s seem to encourage acceptance o f the way s o c i e t y i s c u r r e n t l y o r g a n i z e d . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s appear to s t r e s s competing v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s where p e r s o n a l dilemmas i n v o l v i n g c o n f u s i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t are c o n c e r n e d . However, s e c t i o n s of the t e x t emphasize a l i n e a r p roced u re o f r e c a l l i n g the p a s t , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p r e s e n t and p r e d i c t i n g the f u t u r e . T h i s seems to be p a t t e r n e d on a s o c i a l s c i e n c e approach t h a t l eans toward o b j e c t i v i t y and d e d u c t i o n s drawn from premises e s t a b l i s h e d i n the t e x t . S e v e r a l " P r e d i c t i n g the F u t u r e " s e c t i o n s appear to suggest t h a t g e n e r a l i z i n g i s a l o g i c a l outcome of a s c i e n t i f i c approach to problem s o l v i n g . The t e x t i s concerned w i t h p o i n t o f v i ew , c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s , i n d i v i d u a l and unique cases w i t h i n the s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f Canada and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t s t h a t shape w o r l d v i e w s . In some i n s t a n c e s i t a l s o appears to d i r e c t s tudent s toward a c c u m u l a t i n g , a p p l y i n g and p r e d i c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g human and s o c i a l phenomena. 75 C o n c l u d i n g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t A l l o f the t e x t s address some form of c o n f l i c t w i t h i n or between members o f s o c i a l g r o u p s . Three o f the t e x t s p o r t r a y c o n f l i c t more as a b y - p r o d u c t of human r e l a t i o n s t h a t i s r e s o l v e d through p o l i c y , d e m o c r a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or p r o p e r communicat ion and i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g sources of d i s a g r e e m e n t s . They tend to focus on areas o f common agreement. Two of the t e x t s r e c o g n i z e s o c i a l problems as i s s u e s of power and c o n t r o l . They acknowledge p a r t i a l r e s o l u t i o n through p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i s s u e s change and emerge to become new s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . A l l of the t e x t s address the impact of change on a way of l i f e . Two of the t e x t s p a r t i c u l a r l y view p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change from m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s and i n terms of the consequences t h a t r e s u l t from exchange between goods , s e r v i c e s and b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . Three of the t e x t s p o r t r a y t e c h n o l o g y and s c i e n t i f i c advance as l e a d i n g the d i r e c t i o n o f p r o g r e s s through an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d a t a . They seem to c o n c e n t r a t e on an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f pas t and p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u t u r e growth . The p l a c e of normat ive and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t i n i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l change does not appear to be e x p l i c i t l y advanced . Whi l e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s are r e c o g n i z e d i n the growth of Canadian s o c i e t y , and concerns r e g a r d i n g the impact o f t e c h n o l o g y a r e advanced , t h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t u n d e r l y i n g f o r c e s o f p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y from human a c t i v i t y . Four of the t e x t s c o n s i d e r p o i n t s o f view as sources o f d i s p a r a t e a t t i t u d e s and examine these i n terms of i n f l u e n c e s t h a t shape those v i e w s . A l l of the t e x t s appear to r e f l e c t themes of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p e a c e f u l c o - e x i s t e n c e . They seem to h i g h l i g h t government s e r v i c e s and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p f o r the c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t o f a l l members of s o c i e t y . Nature of S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e Three o f the t e x t s s e l e c t members of s o c i a l groups to r e p r e s e n t p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r s upon which s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are drawn. In a l l cases these c h a r a c t e r s p o r t r a y p o s i t i v e r o l e models who become s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i n the l e g i t i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Two of the t e x t s tend to p o r t r a y c h a r a c t e r s from i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s i n s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . A l l of the t e x t s seem to draw out' s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s of c h a r a c t e r , or w o r k - r e l a t e d s k i l l s , t o i l l u s t r a t e the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l placement w i t h i n s o c i e t y . Two of the t e x t s tend toward more r e l a t i v e , d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y but a l l appear to be o r i e n t e d toward an acceptance of the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i e t y . Two of the t e x t s focus on ways i n which peop le i n unique s i t u a t i o n s f a c e c h a l l e n g e s and respond to change i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l i v e s . They suggest t h a t human and s o c i a l phenomena are i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l customs, v a l u e s and c o n f l i c t i n g ends and p u r p o s e s . Three of the t e x t s p a r t i c u l a r l y appear to o r i e n t r e a d e r a t t e n t i o n toward acceptance of o t h e r ways of l i f e and r e s p e c t f o r these as v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to a l l of Canadian s o c i e t y . Each o f the t e x t s suggests g e n e r i c c i t i z e n s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t form the b a s i s f o r a p e a c e f u l , c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y . O r g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Knowledge A l l of the t e x t s i n some way s t r u c t u r e content to r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e o f the pas t upon p r a c t i c e s o f the p r e s e n t . The s t r u c t u r e of the t e x t s g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t s a l i n e a r or s e q u e n t i a l framework of themes, geography and c h r o n o l o g y . Two t e x t s make r e f e r e n c e to unique s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are f o l l o w e d through the o r a l and w r i t t e n accounts of peop le who l i v e d the h i s t o r y b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . Three t e x t s employ i n t e r p r e t i v e accounts of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . References to cause arid e f f e c t are e v i d e n t i n s e q u e n t i a l b u i l d i n g between events of the p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . 78 A l l of the t e x t s r e f l e c t a degree of i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l knowledge t h a t i s p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . Three t e x t s i n t e r p r e t h i s t o r y as a body of i n f o r m a t i o n to be p r e s e r v e d , t r a n s m i t t e d and a p p l i e d . Two t e x t s t r e a t h i s t o r y as s y m b o l i c p r o p e r t y se t w i t h i n unique norms and b e l i e f s t h a t make sense of how knowledge e v o l v e s i n t o new i n f o r m a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . Four t e x t s appear to suggest t h a t t r u t h or r e a l i t y i s i n some ways c o n s t r u c t e d from p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e p o s i t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e . Two of the t e x t s p a r t i c u l a r l y acknowledge the d i v e r s e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t shape p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . Each o f the t e x t s u l t i m a t e l y seem to r e l y on the premise t h a t t r u t h c o r r e s p o n d s to what i s documented as o c c u r r i n g i n s o c i e t y . A l l o f the t e x t s encourage empathy f o r the s i t u a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r s who a r e i n t r o d u c e d to the r e a d e r . One t e x t seems to c o n c e n t r a t e on methods of m e d i a t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s of view i n o r d e r to a r r i v e a t common s o l u t i o n s f o r the m a j o r i t y good. Three t e x t s i l l u s t r a t e how c o n f l i c t i n g l o y a l t i e s , p r i o r i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s . A l l o f the t e x t s appear to r e l y on a s c i e n t i f i c approach to d e c i s i o n making where the i n d i v i d u a l i n a wider s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t i s c o n c e r n e d . Chapter F i v e CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS T h i s s tudy has deve loped and a p p l i e d a framework, r o o t e d i n c o n c e p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y , t o examine the c o n t e n t o f f i v e s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . The i n t e n t o f the s tudy i s to i d e n t i f y a se t of q u e s t i o n s t h a t address the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c h o o l and s o c i e t y as i t i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the c o n t e n t o f t e x t b o o k s . T h i s s tudy generates a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and awareness about s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s c o n t a i n e d i n t e x t b o o k s , as opposed to a c c e p t i n g or r e j e c t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o d u c t s . There are s e v e r a l ways o f s t u d y i n g the content o f t e x t s . Most s t u d i e s address p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of content and seek t o i d e n t i f y whether those a s p e c t s are i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d . . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s s tudy argues t h a t i t i s a view of s o c i e t y which o r i e n t s the premises o f s c h o o l i n g and the n a t u r e o f c o n t e n t t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s . D e f i n e d as c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l and s o c i e t y o c c u p i e s a prominent r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e s made a v a i l a b l e to Canadian s t u d e n t s . In terms of a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , s e l e c t e d t ex tbooks of the s tudy r e f l e c t areas where the concerns o f the c r i t e r i a a r e a d d r e s s e d , as w e l l as o t h e r areas w i t h i n each d imens ion where a consensus view o f s o c i e t y appears to be dominant . 80 T h i s s tudy r e v e a l s s e v e r a l e n c o u r a g i n g f e a t u r e s i n the t e x t s . D i f f e r i n g p o i n t s o f view are c l e a r l y b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d , i n some i n s t a n c e s to the p o i n t where c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e p o s i t i o n s o f f e r p o t e n t i a l f o r examining c o n t i n u i n g concerns i n Canad ian s o c i e t y . I s sues o f power and c o n t r o l are to some e x t e n t a l s o b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d . The t e x t s a r e c l e a r l y making an e f f o r t to b r i n g Canadian h i s t o r y to l i f e by p o r t r a y i n g d i f f e r e n t needs and i n t e r e s t s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d to the growth of the c o u n t r y . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the t e x t s address many of the concerns of e d u c a t o r s c i t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s tudy who c a l l e d f o r more a t t e n t i o n to e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , t o i n s p i r a t i o n a l p o r t r a y a l s o f Canadian e x p e r i e n c e and to a p l u r a l i t y o f p o s i t i o n s and v a l u e s from an i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e . W i t h i n the content o f the t e x t s are a l s o areas where the s tudy r e v e a l s an o r i e n t a t i o n toward a consensus view of s o c i e t y . These areas appear to suppor t an a d a p t i v e premise f o r s c h o o l i n g by f u r t h e r i n g i d e a l s o f shared v a l u e s and assumptions c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l p r o g r e s s and c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n a c e n t r a l i z e d network of s t r u c t u r e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the t e x t s seem to r e f l e c t assumptions u n d e r l y i n g a consensus view of s o c i e t y w i t h r e g a r d to how e x p l a n a t i o n s o f human and s o c i a l phenomena are a c h i e v e d and how s o u r c e s of knowledge p r o v i d e s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . Assuming t h a t people must a c q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s t o a c h i e v e m o b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y and the workplace i s based on an 81 acceptance o f dominant s o c i a l norms. I t tends to r e i n f o r c e the w o r l d o f work and q u e s t i o n the p o t e n t i a l of i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y r a t h e r than make the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t o r g a n i z e s o c i a l a c t i v i t y p r o b l e m a t i c . T h i s approach tends not to q u e s t i o n the p o l i t i c a l arrangements which u n d e r l i e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n s t e a d , the emphasis i s on acceptance of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l i a n c e on methods o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to mediate s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . The t e x t s r e f l e c t acceptance of c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y d e c i s i o n making , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t v a l u e s tandards can be agreed upon i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . They do not appear to address the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f normat ive and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t i n i n i t i a t i n g p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change. They do appear to c o n c e n t r a t e on ways i n which a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d a t a p r o v i d e s the b a s i s upon which f u t u r e p r o g r e s s i s b u i l t . T h i s generates a view o f s o c i e t y which s e p a r a t e s t e c h n o l o g y from human a c t i v i t y . I t tends to f o s t e r the n o t i o n t h a t , g i v e n the p r o p e r knowledge, man can s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e n g i n e e r h i s e n v i r o n m e n t s , manage h i s r e s o u r c e s and c r e a t e a network of communications to produce a h i g h l y aware, in formed s o c i e t y . Assuming t h a t s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s and shared v a l u e s can be agreed upon may l e a d to the p r a c t i c e o f t y p i f y i n g p o s i t i v e r o l e models and h i g h l i g h t i n g g e n e r i c q u a l i t i e s of good c h a r a c t e r or c i t i z e n s h i p . I t suggests t h a t a common base u n d e r l i e s human and s o c i a l phenomena from which types and g e n e r a l i t i e s can be drawn, 82 p o s s i b l y to be a p p l i e d a c r o s s s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . The s o c i a l message i n h e r e n t i n t h i s assumpt ion i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who comply w i t h expected s o c i a l norms w i l l be rewarded as s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n s i n l a t e r a d u l t l i f e . I f taken f o r g r a n t e d , the n o t i o n may l e a d to q u i e s c e n t s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and p a s s i v e acceptance o f s o c i a l r o l e s . I n v e s t i g a t i n g s o c i a l problems i n terms of l i m i t e d cause and e f f e c t encourages the p r a c t i c e o f p r e d i c t i o n based upon e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . On the o t h e r hand, examinat ions o f s o c i a l problems which r e c o g n i z e m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s tend to encourage c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y and r e f l e c t i o n . A consensus o r i e n t a t i o n toward s o c i e t y r e l i e s on c e r t a i n t y i n v e s t e d i n e x p e r t sources o f knowledge. P o r t r a y i n g t r u t h and r e a l i t y as e m p i r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , r a t h e r than v a l u e commitments, r e i n f o r c e s the view t h a t what i s o c c u r r i n g i n s o c i e t y can be o b j e c t i v e l y de termined to d i r e c t what ought to be o c c u r r i n g i n s c h o o l i n g . From a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the i s / o u g h t dilemma i s p r o b l e m a t i c as i t i g n o r e s the c o m p l e x i t y of human v a l u e s and s o c i a l t e n s i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s T h i s s tudy r a i s e s s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s aud iences concerned w i t h the n a t u r e o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o n t e n t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s address c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t o r s , f o r 83 i n s t r u c t o r s o f p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s , f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , p u b l i s h e r s and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . E d u c a t o r s need to be aware o f t h e i r own taken f o r g r a n t e d assumpt ions about human and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y when c h o o s i n g to adopt p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . They need to be aware t h a t s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s t r a n s m i t p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , c o m p r i s i n g a system of v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t form an i d e o l o g y of c o n t e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be encouraged to express t h e i r own views of Canadian s o c i e t y and a r t i c u l a t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f those views f o r c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n . E x p l o r a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e are a p p r o p r i a t e t o p i c s to be d i s c u s s e d through e d u c a t i o n a l workshops and p r o f e s s i o n a l d a y s . A second r e l a t e d i m p l i c a t i o n f o r e d u c a t o r s concerns the use o f t ex tbooks as a dominant mode of s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n s t r u c t i o n . There i s a need to document s t r e n g t h s and concerns p e r t a i n i n g to i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n terms of the view of Canadian s o c i e t y and the premises o f s c h o o l i n g t h a t they sugges t . A second aud ience f o r whom t h i s s tudy has i m p l i c a t i o n s i s those e d u c a t o r s who work w i t h p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s . P r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s who themselves a r e s u b j e c t to taken f o r g r a n t e d assumptions about mat ters c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l g o a l s , v a l u i n g , knowledge and the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g human and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , may not r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h e s . They may u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e f l e c t the assumptions of the dominant 84 c u l t u r e i n t h e i r own t e a c h i n g o f s t u d e n t s . The t a s k f o r i n s t r u c t o r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i s t o c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o o l and s o c i e t y t h a t they are t r a n s m i t t i n g to p r e s e r v i c e t e a c h e r s through t h e i r own as sumpt ions . They need to r a i s e q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g what i s i m p o r t a n t to t each about s o c i e t y and how t o o r g a n i z e s o c i a l knowledge, as w e l l as how to a c c o m p l i s h the t e c h n i q u e s o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s tudy f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s are t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s about Canad ian s o c i e t y need to be rev iewed i n terms of how s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n f l u e n c e n a t i o n a l growth . In a s o c i e t y t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e n s i o n on s e v e r a l l e v e l s , d e v e l o p e r s of e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure t h a t the content o f t ex tbooks p r o v i d e s a b a l a n c e d view of s o c i e t y . They a l s o need to c o n s i d e r f u r t h e r ways i n which c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l concerns i n Canada can be p o r t r a y e d through the use o f case s tudy and i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s . Second, c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s need to r e a l i z e t h a t the framework of c o n t e n t a l s o t r a n s m i t s s o c i a l v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g the bes t way f o r s tudent l e a r n i n g to p r o c e e d . They need to be aware o f the n o r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s which o r g a n i z e the way content i s s t r u c t u r e d and encourage a l t e r n a t e approaches to p r e s e n t i n g s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s to s t u d e n t s . L i k e w i s e , p u b l i s h e r s have c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l i n d e c i d i n g which i d e a s about s o c i e t y , about t e c h n o l o g y , about t e n s i o n s and s o c i a l v a l u e s to i n c l u d e i n 85 t e x t b o o k s . The view of s o c i e t y and the view of knowledge t h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d through s o c i a l s t u d i e s content e n t e r t a i n s a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e t h a t i s worthy o f t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s tudy a l s o acknowledge the s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o f c o n t e n t i n t ex tbooks and the ways i n which r e s e a r c h can i n f o r m c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s need to address the image Canadian s tudent s are d e v e l o p i n g o f themselves as c i t i z e n s and of t h e i r f u t u r e s o c i a l r o l e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o b i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , u s i n g s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s , q u e s t i o n s and c r i t e r i a o f s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , are n e c e s s a r y . A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h i s the ex t en t to which d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r between s o c i a l i d e a l s t r a n s m i t t e d through s o c i a l s t u d i e s content and the view of s o c i e t y t h a t i s g a i n e d from p e r s o n a l s tudent e x p e r i e n c e . The r o l e of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g a r d i s v i t a l i n p r o v i d i n g s t i m u l u s , i n c e n t i v e and a forum f o r debate among s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t o r s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s need f o r f u r t h e r c r i t i c a l examinat ion o f c o n t e n t t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s tudy i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , i t r e v e a l s some u n d e r l y i n g assumptions c o n t a i n e d i n content t h a t deserve examinat ion i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o t h e r than t e x t b o o k s . Moreover , t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l to be l e a r n e d about u s i n g the t o o l s o f c r i t i c i s m i n c l a s s r o o m s . The p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m r e q u i r e s a n a l y s i s and d e b a t e . 8 6 The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c h o o l and s o c i e t y i s a v a l u a b l e source f o r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e to c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . F o r a l l audiences c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e i s a need to address the q u e s t i o n s and concerns of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y i n o r d e r t h a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r Canadian s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n be f u l l y r e a l i z e d . 87 B i b l i o g r a p h y A b e l l a , R. S. (1984). Report of the commission on e q u a l i t y i n  employment. Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada. A n d e r s o n , R. M . , & Tomkins , G. S. ( E d s . ) . (1983). 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The s t a t u s of p r e - c o l l e g e s c i e n c e , mathematics and s o c i a l s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n : 1955-1975 ( V o l . 3 ) . Washington, DC: N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n . W i l s o n , D. C . ( E d . ) . (1982) . T e a c h i n g p u b l i c i s s u e s i n a  Canadian c o n t e x t . . T o r o n t o : O I S E . Z u r e i k , E . , & P i k e , R. M. ( E d s . ) . (1975) . S o c i a l i z a t i o n and  v a l u e s i n Canadian s o c i e t y (2 v o l s . ) . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S tewart . 92 Appendix A C r i t e r i a f o r A n a l y z i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s Content Table 1: Treatment of Social ConfTict Consensus Theory Critical Inquiry Social Problems Progress and Social Change Social Membership Are traced to social conditions, examined in concrete terms with reference to social ideals and formal structures. Systems view, static perspective. Problems resolved through policy and representative democracy leading to cooperation and maintenance of the social order. Cause and effect reinforce the boundaries of legitimate behaviour. Occurs through accumulation of data, building block format. Technology directs social progress. Humans are recipients of values, institutions and procedures. Oriented toward maintaining and furthering the existing social order. Relies on conformity to established norms and principles through specialization and division of labour. Sustained conflict seen as dysfunctional. Majority rule protects the common social goals of a well-ordered world. Organized around the notion of trust and collective benefits. Are traced to socio-economic, historical influences and constraints with reference to internal criteria. Dialectic view, dynamic perspective. Problems are resolved through argument, persuasion and negotiation leading to an understanding of power arrangements in society. Inherent differences generate social concerns. Occurs through normative and intellectual conflict, attention to anomaly, surprise, exceptions to expected patterns. Technology is a response to human interests. Humans create and recreate values and institutions. Oriented toward new awareness leading to fundamental change. Relies on differentiation, questioning the organizing principles of society. Sustained conflict is a resource to be tapped. Minority interests surface in absence of majority domination. Organized around notion of autonomy to identify diverse points of view. Table 2: Nature of Social Di Consensus Theory Portrayal of Is selective, people or events Interests represent the social interactions under study. Generic, outsider perspective. Eliminates disparate perspectives of society. Descriptions of Social Activity Legitimize existing power relationships, support social institutions that currently exist. Efficient, directed toward labeling and categorization. Prescriptive language leaning toward definitive statements. Social stability, generalizable solutions. Human and Social Phenomena Share a common base that can be determined through objective study. Citizenship characteristics are a set of virtues to be attained for successful adult l i fe . rse Critical Inquiry Is presented by ordinary people with conflicting points of view. Unique, specific, insider perspective of personal experience. Encourages inquiry into unique forms of social understanding. Contest existing power relationships, question the tensions between individual freedom and social constraints. Probes point of view. Descriptive language leaning toward multiple interpretations, possibilities and arenas. Social relevance, contextual resolutions. Are situated within diverse social constructs. Are the outgrowth of interpretation between social customs, traditions and beliefs. Citizenship characteristics are a topic for analysis and debate. Table 3: Organization of Social Knowledge Consensus Theory C r i t i c a l Inquiry Structure of Content Legitimate Social Knowledge Truth Claims Decision-Making Processes Reconstructed logic: formulation of goals, engineering of planned experiences, evaluation of outcomes. Ends specify means. Chronological sequencing of events. Is rooted in theories and concepts of the disciplines. Knowledge that organizes social relations is useful in application across social situations. History is a body of information documented through records of the past. The function of knowledge is to gather, generalize and predict. Ontology question: What is? Knowledge and truth are questions of correspondence to an external reality validated by empirical evidence. Fact and value are separate through methodology. Problems for consideration are identified and investigated according to scientific inquiry. Reliance on method, objectivity, setting of goals to achieve specified results. Prediction based on cause and effect. Logic-in-use: begins with situation, follows circumstances as they naturally progress. Ends and means interact. Focus on issues, concerns, developments. Is rooted in personal experience. Knowledge that makes sense of human relations is useful in understanding the idiosyncracies of social contexts. History is symbolic property set within unique norms and values. The function of knowledge is to question, situate and clarify. Epistemology question: How do we come to know what is? Human interests and human knowledge go together in constructing reality. Fact and value operate in conjunction with world views. Problems for consideration are an outgrowth of perspective and proceed according to a questioning of the interests and value positions involved. Reliance on interpretation, intuition. Probes why a condition exists, how i t is maintained and who benefits. Personal values direct choices. vo Appendix B Questions Used for the Analysis of Social Studies Texts 97 A . Treatment of S o c i a l C o n f l i c t : 1 . How a r e s o c i a l problems p r e s e n t e d and r e s o l v e d ? 2. What r e f e r e n c e i s made to v a l u e frameworks i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r o g r e s s and s o c i a l change? 3. In what ways i s s o c i a l membership d e f i n e d ? B . Nature of S o c i a l D i s c o u r s e : 1 . How are the i n t e r e s t s of c h a r a c t e r s p o r t r a y e d ? 2. Are d e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y openly d i s c u s s e d ? 3. What c o n c l u s i o n s i s the r e a d e r d i r e c t e d to r e g a r d i n g human and s o c i a l phenomena? C . O r g a n i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Knowledge: 1 . How i s the content of the t e x t s s t r u c t u r e d ? 2. What i s c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l knowledge? 3. On what b a s i s are t r u t h c l a i m s advanced? 4. What k i n d s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s are i d e n t i f i e d i n the t e x t s ? 

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