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The development of childrens' personal landmarks : an indication of spatial awareness White, Janet Ann 1986

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDRENS' PERSONAL LANDMARKS: AN INDICATION OF SPATIAL AWARENESS By JANET ANN B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  WHITE  o£ B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department o f E d u c a t i o n ,  We a c c e p t to  this  Curriculum  t h e s i s as  t h e requ  STUDIES and I n s t r u c t i o n )  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1986 ©  J a n e t Ann W h i t e , 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree that  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  understood that for  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  shall  not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada  V6T  Columbia  1Y3  Date  g y ^ / ^  Id*  11*6  of  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  written  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y examines geographical Such or  one o f t h e major  e x p l o r a t i o n and l e a r n i n g ,  e x p l o r a t i o n and l e a r n i n g  i n the l o c a l  neighbourhood.  potential,  landmarks  that  i s , i n childhood.  c a n o c c u r i n and a r o u n d Children  know a b o u t a p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i r Different  periods of  own  and a d u l t s n e e d t o  environment.  may h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t  affective  and o v e r t i m e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c o u l d  developmental change. t o d e t e r m i n e which  t h e home  be s u b j e c t t o  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  landmarks  primary c h i l d r e n  s p o n t a n e o u s l y and know and u s e i n t h e i r t h i s way t h e y c a n , p e r h a p s ,  recognize  local  environment.  l o c a t e themselves i n a  In  comples  world. A c h i l d ' s development t h e framework i n w h i c h tool  of spatial  images  was t h a t o f a s a m p l e  concepts i s related to  are received.  o f twenty  and a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y  environmental feature.  shown a s e r i e s o f t h e landmark o r  In a second p a r t o f t h e study,  mapped p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o u t e s t h e y f o l l o w e d child  and compared.  an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f s p a t i a l the  local  landmarks.  environment  g a i n e d by an a b i l i t y  Consideration  Each  landmarks  S c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h  In the c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e s u l t s  children  to school.  was a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e on a map t h e r e l e v a n t  t h e y o b s e r v e d en r o u t e .  research  c h i l d r e n , approximately  s e v e n y e a r s o f a g e , who were i n d i v i d u a l l y c o l o u r photographs  The b a s i c  tasks  are discussed i n competence  within  to identify  i s also given t o the question of  whether such taught  competence  t o young c h i l d r e n  is a skill  that could, or should,  w i t h i n t h e normal p r o c e s s  education.  iii  of  be  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  ix  CHAPTER 1.  SPATIAL COGNITION:  THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . .  Introduction Cognitive  1  Maps  11  Landmark and R o u t e Knowledge 2.  3.  15  METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS  26  Introduction  26  Procedure  29  ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION  TEST  . . .  Introduction The  to Recognition  R e s p o n s e s : The H i g h e s t  . . . .  and t h e L o w e s t  . .  Summary  32 45 49  ANALYSIS OF THE ROUTE TO SCHOOL MAPS . . . . . . . Introduction  5.  32 32  Relation of Proximity  Exact  4.  1  and E v a l u a t i v e  Criteria  51 51  Findings  53  Discussion  59  CONCLUSION  AND  Perception Geography  IMPLICATIONS  62  and t h e S p a t i a l  Framework  i n the Elementary Curriculum  Implications  f o r Further  A Role f o r Parents  Research  62 64 65 66  iv  Summary  68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  70  APPENDICES A B  PHOTOGRAPHS AND LOCATIONS OF LANDMARKS USED IN THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION TEST  75  THE CHILDREN'S ROUTE TO SCHOOL MAPS  89  v  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table I II III IV  Individual Test  Scores  on  the Photograph  Recognition 33  R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n Exact Responses  Test:  R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n Accurate Suggestions  Test:  34 36  C h i l d r e n w i t h t h e H i g h e s t and L o w e s t F r e q u e n c y o f E x a c t R e s p o n s e s on t h e P h o t o g r a p h Recognition Test . . . . . . . . . .  46  V  Home t o S c h o o l  53  VI  C o m p a r a t i v e T a b l e o f I n d i v i d u a l Map and Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t Scores  Map  Scores  vi  54  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1.  2.  3. 4.  Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the development g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t o p o l o g i c a l representation  of 6  Three r e f e r e n c e systems f o r c h i l d r e n ' s o r i e n t a t i o n in the landscape  19  R e s u l t s of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : of exact responses  number 35  R e s u l t s of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : of accurate suggesstions  number 37  Photograph 1.  2.  3. 4. 5. 6.  7.  8.  9.  The P and A S u p e r m a r k e t , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No. 2 Road, s o u t h e a s t corner  76  Richmond F i r e D e p a r t m e n t , F i r e h a l l No. 2, a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No. 2 Road, s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r  76  The W i n d s o r Pub, a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and R a i l w a y Avenue, n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r . .  77  A u s t i n H a r r i s S c h o o l , on looking north  77  Moncton S t r e e t , v i e w e d  The S t e v e s t o n M a r t i a l A r t s C e n t r e , on S t r e e t , viewed l o o k i n g n o r t h e a s t A r t Knapps G a r d e n S p o t , S t e v e s t o n Highway and corner  Moncton 78  at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of No. 1 Road, s o u t h w e s t 7S  London Farm House, on t h e Dyke Road, a l o n g t h e s o u t h arm o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , v i e w e d l o o k i n g north  79  S t e v e s t o n Museum and P o s t O f f i c e , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Moncton S t r e e t and F i r s t northwest corner  79  S t e v e s t o n Government Wharf, a l o n g t h e s o u t h the F r a s e r R i v e r , viewed l o o k i n g e a s t  vii  Avenue, arm  of 80  10. S o u t h Arm U n i t e d C h u r c h , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No. 3 Road, s o u t h w e s t corner  80  11. S e a f a i r Community I c e R i n k , a t t h e west end o f F r a n c i s Road, v i e w e d l o o k i n g s o u t h e a s t  81  12. The Dyke, v i e w e d l o o k i n g o f F r a n c i s Road  81  s o u t h f r o m t h e w e s t end  13. Richmond F i r e D e p a r t m e n t , F i r e h a l l N o . l a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G r a n v i l l e Avenue and G i l b e r t Road, n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r  82  14. M i n o r u A q u a t i c C e n t r e , a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue and Minoru B o u l e v a r d , viewed 15. M i n o r u A t h l e t i c  looking  Track, located  16. M i n o r u C h a p e l , l o c a t e d  southeast . . .  i n Minoru Park.  i n Minoru Park  82  . .  83  . . . . . .  83  17. F i n n S l o u g h , l o c a t e d a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f No. 4 Road, v i e w e d l o o k i n g west 18. Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f W e s t m i n s t e r Highway and G i l b e r t Road, S o u t h e a s t corner 19. Richmond Gateway T h e a t r e , l o c a t e d on G i l b e r t between G r a n v i l l e Avenue and W e s t m i n s t e r Highway, v i e w e d l o o k i n g n o r t h w e s t  84  84  Road 85  20. F a n t a s y G a r d e n s , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No. 5 Road, n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r . . . .  85  21. Richmond N a t u r e P a r k , l o c a t e d on W e s t m i n s t e r Highway, west o f No. 5 Road, v i e w e d l o o k i n g north  86  22. Lansdowne P a r k S h o p p i n g C e n t r e , l o c a t e d on No. 3 Road, between Lansdowne Road and A l d e r b r i d g e Way, v i e w e d l o o k i n g s o u t h e a s t  86  23. B u d d i s t Temple, l o c a t e d on S t e v e s t o n Highway between No. 3. Road and No. 4 Road, v i e w e d l o o k i n g west  87  24. M c D o n a l d ' s R e s t a u r a n t , on No. 3 Road a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue, v i e w e d l o o k i n g s o u t h e a s t  87  25. Highway 99, l o o k i n g s o u t h t o w a r d s t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e G e o r g e Massey T u n n e l  88  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am v e r y their For  grateful  t o D r . D. M i l b u r n  and Dr. E. Goetz f o r  a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e  their  principal Richmond  willing  cooperation,  and c h i l d r e n  o f Westwlnd  where t h e r e s e a r c h was  I would a l s o encouragement  like  I would  like  of this  study.  t o thank t h e  Elementary  School i n  conducted.  t o t h a n k my husband f o r h i s s u p p o r t and  throughout  the duration of t h i s  ix  study.  CHAPTER 1 SPATIAL COGNITION: A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE  I t i s n o t a l o n e t h e d e s i r e t o t r y and u s e h i s power t h a t p r o m p t s t h e boy a t t h i s age t o s e e k a d v e n t u r e h i g h and low, f a r and w i d e , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p e c u l i a r i t y and need o f h i s u n f o l d i n g i n n e r m o s t life, the d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l the d i v e r s i t y o f t h i n g s , t o see i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i n t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a whole, b r i n g n e a r t h a t w h i c h i s r e m o t e , t o comprehend ( t h e outer world) i n i t s extent, i t s d i v e r s i t y , i t s i n t e g r i t y ; i t i s the d e s i r e t o extend h i s scope step by s t e p . ( F r o e b e l , 103)  Introduction T h r o u g h o u t h i s book. The 1 8 2 6 ) , seems t o be children child  and  life  it.  Young c h i l d r e n  their  has  (Froebel, young  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the p h y s i c a l  i n t o t h i s world  his  o f Man  aware o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y u r g e o f  of t h e i r  i s born  Education  and  w i t h i n the f i r s t  world.  decade, o f  e x p l o r e d much o f t h e r i c h n e s s t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n use  their  environment, t o l e a r n  vivid  imaginations to  a b o u t i t , and  explore  t o b r i n g meaning  to  it. In  o r d e r t o a c h i e v e competency  be a b l e t o d e v e l o p qualities. journeys  to  establish  In h i s e a r l y  i n the  f r i e n d s ' and  and  "spatial  relatives'  o t h e r towns and  i n the world  a child  a knowledge o f h i s  years a c h i l d  experiences  s e n s e " - - b e t w e e n home and homes, t o s h o p p i n g  cities.  From t h e s e  experiences  the c h i l d  develops  sets of  encountered  as w e l l as the s p a t i a l  and  must  spatial many  school, to  c e n t r e s , sometimes  many and  varied  i d e a s o f what w i l l temporal  relations  be  A  2 between c e r t a i n p l a c e s and developing the  a map  spatial It  has  in recent  explain  Piaget  t h a t much o f t h e  Inhelder's  <1956>, i n w h i c h like  Considerable  c o g n i t i o n should and  other  by  current  "The  the  through  of s p a t i a l  study,  help  in children's established in  with  of  Space"  concepts,  the  h i s development  focused  c o g n i t i o n which u t i l i z e d  to r e f l e c t  to  c a u s a l i t y , are  with  early research  on  the  small  table  top  to i n v e s t i g a t e  s p a c e . However, s i n c e S i e g e l  considerable  of  It is  research  models o f v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s i n o r d e r children's ability  psychology  interaction  Piaget's  1982).  study  become  C h i l d ' s Conception  (Liben.  them.  spatial  demonstrated t h a t s p a t i a l  child  together  i n the  has  cognition.  change q u a l i t a t i v e l y  W h i t e ' s 1975  of  have i t s r o o t s f i r m l y  study,  i t was  research  behavioural  e n v i r o n m e n t and  processes  study  c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , number, and  constructed  to piece  is  t o make s e n s e o f  t h a t the  development of s p a t i a l  appropriate spatial  i n order  years  i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l and  the  begins  become a semi-autonomous s u b f i e l d  c o g n i t i v e development. available  In h i s mind t h e c h i l d  o r s e t s o f maps a s he  p a r t s of h i s world  i a only  cognition  events.  research  has  focused  on  and  the  N  c h i l d ' s knowledge o f  l a r g e - s c a l e environments.  A t t h i s p o i n t some d i s t i n c t i o n spatial  c o g n i t i o n and  frequently  i n the  spatial  literature.  modes o f k n o w i n g , t h a t reasoning,  judging,  and  should  perception, Cognition  be as  made between both terms  includes a l l of  i s , perceiving, thinking, remembering.  occur the  imagining,  In e a r l y i n f a n c y ,  because  3 the  reflective  stands  alone;  inextricably  aspects but  o f knowing do  in later  not  childhood,  l i n k e d to the  other  the  successive direct  figurative,  and  which i n t e r v e n e  world  form o f f i g u r a t i v e As  percepts  the  operative,  p a r t s of the  two  one  images o f  o r schemas.  a v a i l a b l e to the  individual  therefore,  are  two  separate  Cognitive  world  of a t t e n t i o n . S p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n but  the  and  is  one  operative  becomes  influence perceptual  leads to a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  by  into  Visual perception  mental p r o c e s s e s .  by  the  s t a t e s and  k n o w i n g ; c o g n i t i o n i s b a s e d on  to higher  world  related to  world  development proceeds, p e r c e p t i o n  subordinated  fields  Piaget  includes  between s u c c e s s i v e  subject transforms  reconstructable patterns  which  is  s t a t e s o r momentary c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f t h e  operations  aspect.  perception  r e l a t e d to the  immediate c o n t a c t ;  which t h e  perception  modes o f k n o w i n g .  (1963) s u g g e s t s t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e aspects:  exist,  structures  selectivity  through s e l e c t e d spatial  cognition,  r e c i p r o c a l processes  (Hart,  1979).  It  i s believed that Piaget  that a c h i l d the  does develop the  geometric s p a t i a l  research  with  in  the  concluded  development o f s p a t i a l  topological  s p a c e was  representation topological  t o be  his colleagues  ability  demonstrated  to abstract q u a l i t i e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f o b j e c t s . From  c h i l d r e n , which  experiments, Piaget  and  the  involved  interviews  that there  was  concepts.  He  earliest  form of  his  and  a definite proposed  order  that  spatial  d e v e l o p e d . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on  p r o p e r t i e s were made f a i r l y  of  early in  the  the  basis  of  4 pre-operational  period,  and  t h e n most t o p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s  became i n t e g r a t e d  into stable operations  age.  space i s concerned with  Topological  r e l a t i o n s of proximity, does not  In o r d e r  order,  enclosure,  able  t o do  space are  a t about ten  years  a child  o f age.  is,  large-scale spatial  1 or  2  of routes are  not  built,  u n c o o r d i n a t e d , and  are  related directly  organized  separateness.  the  t o each  the  an  environments, states that  c h i l d ' s responses  t o h i s own  His  actions.  that  are  descriptions Landmarks  objective, spatial  whole.  in  the  a  He  route  direction.  In s t a g e 3a  the  within c l u s t e r s of  child  exhibits limited  the  child  i s able  between c l u s t e r s , t o r e p r e s e n t to re-arrange  natural conclusion  coordination  landmarks, r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  c l u s t e r s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s are  In s t a g e 3b  and  and  i n Stages  a l s o u n a b l e t o r o t a t e maps o r m o d e l s o r t o c o n s t r u c t  across  other.  equilibrium  is  reverse  nor  to a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y  irreversible.  i n t e r m s o f any  It  whole space;  achieving  of h i s f a m i l i a r  o f age)  of  concepts of p r o j e c t i v e  cognition, Piaget  (below s e v e n y e a r s  egocentric,  the  With r e s p e c t  t o produce r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  notions  to r e l a t e objects  this,  gradually  within  of  internal  the  c o n t i n u i t y , and  l o c a t i o n of objects  system a l l o w t o be  Euclidian  the  i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s emphasizing  permit  does t h i s  around seven years  a rotated  map  of Piaget's  developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  generally to  routes  correct;  that  but  haphazard.  integrate within f o r w a r d s and  and  backwards,  o r model c o r r e c t l y . s t u d i e s , and  so  those of  The other  i s t h a t young c h i l d r e n d i d  not  5 have w e l l d e v e l o p e d  spatial  concepts.  (See  More r e c e n t l y , however, r e s e a r c h e r s other  tasks to assess  but  possess  t h a t he  b e c a u s e he  very  have begun t o  the  theory  t h a t a young c h i l d  not  meet t h e  such task  use  may  good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f h i s s p a t i a l  i s unable to demonstrate these can  1.)  a c h i l d ' s knowledge o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n .  T h e s e t a s k s a r e b a a e d on actually  Figure  tasks.  One  ability  o f a young c h i l d  demands o f t h e  that relates  mountains experiment.  representations Piagetian-type  specifically  to the  i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the  A brief  world  spatial  three  analysis i s included at  this  point.  In The 1956)  the  C h i l d ' s Conception  theory  particular  o f Space  of the development o f s p a t i a l  a p p l i c a t i o n of Piaget's general  framework o f  intellectual  development.  into three parts corresponding of s p a t i a l Euclidian  an  concepts: space.  P i a g e t was  theoretical study  i s divided types  concerned about the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y t o imagine  solving  various spatial  commonly known a s  objects  is a  While t h e o r i z i n g about p r o j e c t i v e space,  subsequent a b i l i t y  the  concepts  t o p o l o g i c a l s p a c e , p r o j e c t i v e , and  child's  test  The  Inhelder,  to h i s notion of the three  o b j e c t might appear from d i f f e r e n t  ability  ( P i a g e t and  t o make use  problems.  One  the t h r e e mountains,  to coordinate child's  viewpoints  spatial  ability  spatial  the  phenomenon i n  particular  experiment,  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  perspectives.  to recognize  i a a f u n c t i o n of the  of t h i s  and  I t was  t h a t the position  how  child's  designed  appearance from which  of they  to  6  SI  Si IV  Formal operational space  •a £ ra o  MIB  Concrete operational space  MIA  MB  Preoperational space  1  JZ.  8  HA '  Sensorimotor space o CL  c vt  LEVELS OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATION  Fig.  1  T Y P E S OF R E F E R E N C E S Y S T E M S AND TOPOGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS  Schematic representation  of the  development o f g e o g r a p h i c a l  o r i e n t a t i o n and  topological  (Hart  1971).  representation.  and  Moore,  7 are  observed. Piaget's observation of a child's a b i l i t y  t o complete t h e  tasks associated  with t h e t h r e e mountains experiment  to conclude that  a young c h i l d  imagination. illusion'  He s u g g e s t s t h a t  a s soon  t o 'decentre' i n  he i s bound by t h e ' e c o o g e n t r i c  a s he i s c a l l e d  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some v i e w Piaget  i s unable  upon t o f o r m  a  mental  w h i c h he had n o t a c t u a l l y  further believes that  t h e young c h i l d  lives  o f t h e moment, n o t b o t h e r i n g w i t h how t h i n g s were n o r how t h e y w i l l  d i s p u t e s P i a g e t ' s f i n d i n g s from  mnountains experiment  previously  using walls,  policemen,  and a  developed  i s asked  p o s i t i o n s t o meet s p e c i f i c  doll. t o those  to place the doll i n  spatial  criteria.  s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h a s u c c e s s r a t e o f over 85* t h e  r e s u l t s a r e markedly difficulty  claim  experiment.  the three  strategies similiar  by P i a g e t : t h e c h i l d  Donaldson  h i s t h r e e mountains  I n s t e a d o f mountains they used  The  i n the state  (1978), Margaret  In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h M a r t i n Hughes s h e r e p l i c a t e d  Donaldson  seen.  be i n t h e f u t u r e .  I n h e r book. C h i l d r e n ' s M i n d s  certain  l e a d him  t h e p o i n t o f view  under seven  t h o s e a c h i e v e d by P i a g e t .  y e a r s i a weak a t a p p r e c i a t i n g  o f some o t h e r p e r s o n  i n the l i t e r a l  sense o f  t o f i g u r e o u t what t h e o t h e r p e r s o n c a n s e e .  suggests that the "policemen" makes s e n s e  from  i a then t o r e c o n c i l e these r e s u l t s with P i a g e t ' s  that a c h i l d  being unable  different  to the c h i l d ;  experiment  the motives  i s a situation  She  which  and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e  characters i n the task are q u i t e comprehensible.  The t a s k  s requires the child makes s e n s e do  t o a c t i n a human way, t o h i d e , and t h u s  t o the c h i l d .  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  difficulty.  He u n d e r s t a n d s  performs  what i t i s he h a s t o  the required task  without  C o n v e r s e l y , however, P i a g e t ' s ' m o u n t a i n ' t a s k i s  incomprehensible  to the child;  personal  o f any k i n d t o make i t m e a n i n g f u l  motives  Donaldson argues psychologically  that  therefore,  totally  Such e v i d e n c e significantly a child.  sense  feelings,  suggests  important  the child  t h a t t h e use o f language i s  i n any d e a l i n g s o r t a s k s c o n c e r n e d  can bring  g i v e n t a s k c a n be c o m p e t e n t l y r e f e r e n c e and l a n g u a g e  of  he was t e s t i n g , t o complete  o f t h e language  with  step t o  used t o appropriate to  The t a s k must be e x p l a i n e d d i n s u c h a meaning t o i t .  g i v e n a frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t  failure  from  and e n d e a v o u r s and i s ,  o f a t a s k and t o u s e l a n g u a g e  t h e age o f t h e c h i l d .  children  i t i s separate  I t w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , a p p e a r t o be a l o g i c a l  e x p l a i n procedures  of  i n that  in a  cold-blooded.  assess the c h i l d ' s understanding  way t h a t  t o him.  t h e mountain t a s k i s a b s t r a c t  important  b a s i c human p u r p o s e s ,  t h e r e i s no i n t e r p l a y o f  I f the child i s  i t can manipulate,  completed.  then the  Perhaps P i a g e t ' s frame  a r e t o o a d u l t f o r t h e age o f t h e w h i c h may h a v e r e s u l t e d  t h e mountain experiment  in their  with a high  degree  accuracy.  It  was much l a t e r ,  "these techniques  i n 1981, t h a t S i e g e l  suggested  ( f o r example, s k e t c h maps, s m a l l  models) t e n d t o l e a d t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e s  that  scale  of children's  spatial  9 competence b e c a u s e externalizing loads" been  they confound s p a t i a l  ability  and o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l l y  ( p . 1 9 0 ) . As a r e s u l t  to infer  non-relevent task  o f s u c h i d e a s one a p p r o a c h h a s  a child's spatial  move t h r o u g h s p a c e i n d i r e c t getting  knowledge w i t h  c o g n i t i o n from h i s a b i l i t y t o  locomotive tasks,  f o r example,  f r o m home t o s c h o o l .  Siegel  and White's  1975 s t u d y o f t h e s p a t i a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l a r g e - s c a l e environments suggests t h a t a child  p r o g r e s s e s from  learning  f e a t u r e s on t h e t e r r a i n , landmarks, overall termed  configurational  Siegel,  to learning  to integrating  representation,  and F u r l o n g  configurational  landmarks,  which  knowledge.  Following  like  a map b u t i s  this  study,  Curtis,  i n 1981 p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t  knowledge improves d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y i n  environment,  a n d r o u t e knowledge,  shows f e w e r a g e r e l a t e d  cognition  ina  differences.  has a l s o  been  f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e s on t a s k s t h a t do n o t t h e m s e l v e s  require the direct representation. children  r o u t e s which c o n n e c t t h e s e  i s something  Knowledge o f a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l derived  i s , distinctive  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t r o u t e s t o f o r m an  e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h landmark familiar  that  p r o d u c t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d  T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d  a r e a s k e d t o make r a n k  distances of objects. then a p p l i e d  by t a s k s i n w h i c h  judgements  Multi-dimensional  spatial  about t h e r e l a t i v e  scaling  techniques are  t o t h e c h i l d ' s r a n k - o r d e r e d judgements  derived  map i s t a k e n a s a model o f t h e c h i l d ' s  spatial  cognition  <Liben  1982).  and t h e  underlying  L i b e n , however, warns o f t h e  10  danger t h a t reflect  the inferred representation  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  the c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l i z e d representation  also that  o f s p a c e , and  not a l l locomotive behaviours tap s p a t i a l  representation.  Piaget in  (1956) a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t  the a b i l i t y  t o act/move  space does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t  the a b i l i t y  to  space.  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between p r a c t i c a l  capacity  t o a c t i n s p a c e , and c o n c e p t u a l  capacity  t o represent  act  space.  i n space does n o t imply  contrary  position i s that  Piaget  space, which  the child's a b i l i t y  i n d i c a t i v e of underlying  representation.  Acredolo,  been d r o p p e d .  representation.  1.  through  (1975) t o o k  e n v i r o n m e n t s and l a t e r  of the c h i l d  However, t h i s  point  spatial  to return  to these  d e p e n d s t o some e x t e n t  representation.  Liben  on  (1981)  main u s e s o f t h e t e r m : observable,  external  example, s k e t c h represent 2.  t o move  A  was t a k e n a s a measure o f s p a t i a l  what i s meant by t h e t e r m suggests three  space.  t o p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s where some k e y s  The a b i l i t y  locations accurately  i athe  spatial  and O l s e n  on a walk t h r o u g h v a r i o u s  a s k e d them t o r e t u r n had  Pick,  i s the  the a b i l i t y to  to represent  space i s indeed  pre-schoolers  space, which  states that  an a b i l i t y  represent  spatial  products, f o r  maps and s c a l e m o d e l s  thought which i s c o n s c i o u s is, spatial  layouts  of a kitchen  knowledge  knowledge t h a t can  r e f l e c t e d upon o r m a n i p u l a t e d ,  imagining  that  space;  about space; t h a t be  spatial  f o r example,  or l i v i n g  room;  11 3.  spatial stored does  storage--knowledge  about space t h a t i s  i n some f o r m b u t t o w h i c h  n o t have i m m e d i a t e  access.  the researcher (One c a n i n f e r ,  however, t h a t c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n  about  must be s t o r e d t o e n a b l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l acted One c o n c r e t e research For  example o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s p a c e would  but  must h a v e s t o r e d some i n f o r m a t i o n  that  i s , he must have s t o r e d  precise pieces of information  reaches the mail to the right. interpreting space.  identical  indicators of spatial not  by o t h e r s ,  when he  he knows t h a t he h a s t o t u r n i s c o r r e c t , then the c h i l d i s representation of  b e h a v i o u r s may be t a k e n a s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by some r e s e a r c h e r s , b u t  because  recognition or s p a t i a l  Cognitive  a b o u t t h e two  a series of isolated  a c o g n i t i v e and c a r t o g r a p h i c  Therefore,  indicates  s o t h a t , f o r example,  box on t h e c o r n e r  I f t h i s assumption  be t o  o f moving f r o m home t o s c h o o l .  t o go s u c c e s s f u l l y f r o m home t o s c h o o l  that the child locations;  t o have  i n a c e r t a i n way.)  c h i l d r e n i n the process  a child  space  of different  interpretations of spatial  representation.  Maps  Considerable  debate i n the l i t e r a t u r e  has focused  on t h e  u s e o f t h e term c o g n i t i v e map, a s a synonym f o r s p a t i a l cognition.  The t e r m c o g n i t i v e map i s , i t c a n be a r g u e d , a  misnomer a s i t d o e s cartographic  sense.  not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r Downs and S t e a  t o a map i n t h e  (1973) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e  t e r m map be u s e d a s a f u n c t i o n a l a n a l o g u e and t h a t model o r  12 schemata  could  be u s e d a s a l t e r n a t i v e s .  t h a t a c o g n i t i v e map which  a young  child  w h i c h he i s b o r n . considerable  The  spatial  Milburn  is,  (1983) n o t e s t h a t a c h i l d  cognition,  into  draws  physical  o f such a c t i v i t y ,  technically  o c c u r s o n l y when s a t i s f a c t o r y  created.  frames  As e x p e r i e n c e and a w a r e n e s s  of  grow, t h e f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e a r e complemented o f a c o g n i t i v e map  i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  o r schema w i t h i n  of the c h i l d ' s r e a l  the  world.  It  however, n e c e s s a r y t o remember t h a t maps a r e d e s i g n e d f o r  specific  p u r p o s e s and  t o a degree a l l are  representations of the r e a l extremely suit  perception of the  internalization  by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t mind--this  construct,  u s e s when making s e n s e o f t h e w o r l d  o f r e f e r e n c e have been the environment  be s u g g e s t e d  a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n p u t f r o m h i s own  environment. called  be v i e w e d  I t could  personal:  particular  w o r l d . C o g n i t i v e o r m e n t a l maps a r e  t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d by e a c h  purposes o r needs.  purpose; another mentioned  by L y n c h  i n The  fear  m e n t a l l y mapping o u r e n v i r o n m e n t  we  Recent  make o u r w o r l d a  By little  r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d on w a y - f i n d i n g a s a r e a s o n f o r  r e s e a r c h has r e s u l t e d  i n a continuing  c o m p e t e n c i e s o f young  cognition.  environments.  measurement o f d i s t a n c e s and  Such  Hart believes  such  underestimation of the  children,  conducted i n l a b o r a t o r y  naturalistic  City  safe.  spatial  h a s been  lost.  to  such  Image o f t h e  of getting  c o g n i t i v e mapping and  spatial  individual  W a y - f i n d i n g i s one  (i960) r e s u l t s from our n a t u r a l  more s e c u r e and  distorted  because  the  research  s e t t i n g s r a t h e r than i n r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d on  their  integration  into  the  projective  13 and  Euclidian  conventions, angularity,  c o o r d i n a t i o n , p r o p o r t i o n s , and s y m b o l i c t h a t i s , space  and p e r s p e c t i v e .  o r g a n i z e more complex can  select  t h a t i s concerned  information i n the r e a l  world  and u s e p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t l a n d m a r k s ;  experimental  meaningful  reasons  boundaries,  Hart b e l i e v e s t h a t a c h i l d can  explore extensive large-scale areas through  with  environments;  f o r mentally  b e c a u s e he  he c a n f r e e l y  instead of being  lead  and he, t h e r e f o r e , h a s good,  mapping h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . I f ,  when t e a c h i n g t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n s c h o o l , t h e content  i s meaningful  express  a desire to learn.  a meaningful  way, t h e n  an  to learn.  inability  experiments aseptic, differ  I f the content  a child  fails  Similarly,  those  learn  achieved  i s not presented i n  t o l e a r n o r demonstrates  i fa child  i n research  tasks i nthe  by t h e same c h i l d  meaningful  tasks  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e environment  i n f l u e n c e on t h e a b i l i t y  of a child  (Hart  itself  enable  the c h i l d  1982).  may a l s o h a v e some  t o represent space.  importance  cognitively (Acredolo  of bodily  h i s study  others that  locomotion  ( H a r t 1979, L y n c h i n learning  an e n v i r o n m e n t h a s a l s o r e c e n t l y  1977, Herman, and S i e g e l  new a s i t was f i r s t  Some  t o u s e them a s a r e f e r e n c e f o r o t h e r  p l a c e s o r o b j e c t s i n t h e environment The  will  i n a natural,  e n v i r o n m e n t s may be s o much more i m a g e a b l e t h a n they  or a t least  environment o f a l a b o r a t o r y t h e r e s u l t s  known e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h  The  he w i l l  i s confronted with meaningless  unnatural  from  t o the c h i l d  hypothesized  1978).  I960).  t o map  been  considered  T h i s concept  i s not  by L e e (1963) a s a r e s u l t o f  on t h e e f f e c t s o f b u s i n g on c h i l d r e n  i n an a r e a o f  14 Devon, E n g l a n d s c h o o l . He their  where a l l t h e c h i l d r e n  suggested  world  i n t o a space  a r t i c u l a t e through environment. their  own  As a r e s u l t  which i n t u r n Lee's  bodily  from  produced  had  them  walked  felt  physical  no o p p o r t u n i t y t o  separated  the from  expressions of  anxiety during d i f f i c u l t  suggestion that bodily  to  beyond  locomotion through  the c h i l d r e n  home, and  previously  journey took  t h a t t h e y had  their  mother, from  security,  t h a t t h e bus  had  times  at  school.  to  " a r t i c u l a t e t h e schema" c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f  the development o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l therefore,  purposefully  In  we  find  direct  (Hart  i f we  their  developmental  own  to freely  movements i n an  and  experimental  i t becomes a p p a r e n t  that  p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e become aware o f t h e  real  of space  from  ( H a r t 1982,  Hart s t r o n g l y  laboratory  research to a  A c r e d o l o 1977,  suggests that  that  control  has  Experiments  n o t had  Siegel  i n a l l the experiments  has been e x c l u d e d .  i s the c h i l d ,  some  child's  Herman and  d a t e t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  process.  Hart,  1982).  problems o f g e n e r a l i z i n g  1978).  allow children  reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e  cognition  b a s i s o f knowing.  r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n : "What i m p r o v e m e n t s i n c o g n i t i v e  mapping m i g h t  setting?"  movement i s n e c e s s a r y  over the  to  The s u b j e c t ,  decision-making  t o study the development o f  spatial  c o g n i t i o n h a v e become more i n g e n i o u s o v e r t h e y e a r s , r e a c h i n g a s t a g e where t h e y a r e a b l e t o compare a c h i l d ' s a c t i v e passive  learning  a crucial developing  of a route  variable, spatial  (Berzok  1980).  Movement, a l t h o u g h  i s n o t t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r cognition.  Perhaps  versus  in  more i m p o r t a n t t o a  15 child,  a n d i n d e e d t o an a d u l t ,  decision can  t o move o r n o t move i n a p a r t i c u l a r  then ask: I s i t s o l e l y  that a c h i l d the a  by c o n t r o l l i n g  develops h i s s p a t i a l  t o make t h e direction-  that  cognition  c h i l d want t o l e a r n  intertwined  Moore's  spatial  cognition  internal and  i n this  thesis:  or cognitive representation  relations  reflection Stea  used  reflects  o f space;  cognition  to i t .  <Siegel  of the structure,  entities  internalized < Downs and  t h e development o f s p a t i a l continue  C o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n g e n e r a l and  c o g n i t i v e mapping i n p a r t i c u l a r embedded  " t h e knowledge and  i s a p a r t o f c o g n i t i v e development and w i l l  be l i n k e d  Hart  t h e main p r e m i s e o f  i n o t h e r words, t h e  By n e c e s s i t y ,  i s so  However,  and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s p a c e i n t h o u g h t "  1973 p . 2 4 8 ) .  does  representation  o f t h e term cannot s u f f i c e .  (1973) d e f i n i t i o n  Uhat  purpose?  cognition  w i t h c o g n i t i v e mapping a n d s p a t i a l  t h a t one d e f i n i t i o n and  t h e term s p a t i a l  t o move  and knowledge o f  a b o u t p l a c e s and f o r what  would seem t h a t  One  decision  e n v i r o n m e n t ? The answer must l i e w i t h t h e c h i l d .  It  to  i a the a b i l i t y  i n the larger  social  should  be v i e w e d a s p r o c e s s e s  ecology of the c h i l d ' s  world  1982).  Landmark a n d r o u t e  knowledge  A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e cognition  on s p a t i a l  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e use o f landmarks i n t h e  development o f a c h i l d ' s importance.  spatial  V e r y few p e o p l e  some m y s t e r i o u s  'instinct';  c o m p e t e n c e i s o f some  learn  to find  their  there i s , instead,  way t h r o u g h  a consistent  16 organization  and  use  of d e f i n i t e cues from the  Lynch s t a t e d  i n h i s 1960  s t u d y The  environment.  Image o f t h e  As  City  . . . t o become c o m p l e t e l y l o s t i s p e r h a p s a r a t h e r r a r e e x p e r i e n c e f o r most p e o p l e . We a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r s and by s p e c i a l w a y - f i n d i n g d e v i c e s : maps, s t r e e t numbers, r o u t e s i g n s , bus placards. But l e t t h e m i s h a p o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n o n c e o c c u r and t h e s e n s e o f a n x i e t y and even t e r r o r t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s i t r e v e a l s t o us how c l o s e l y i t i s l i n k e d t o our s e n s e o f b a l a n c e and w e l l - b e i n g <p. 4 ) . Perhaps the  earliest  distinctive  landmarks i n the  or  man-made f e a t u r e s .  child gain  spatial  first  level  (1976) i d e n t i f i e s  knowledge t h a t  placement of other  level,  landmarks can  experiences. greatest  become an  i s a linear  constructed,  two  natural as  a  be  and  i t has  the  child  l a n d m a r k s can  of  around  be  that  past  t o become s p a t i a l l y  i s e s s e n t i a l to t h i s process.  shows  the  years.  years that  of a large  competent, Some  a  scale  integrated,  If a child  landmark?  this  future  spatially  landmarks.  r a i s e d : what i s a good/bad  facilitate  childhood  over the  a second  i s , at  and  probably  some p a r t and  The  used t o  events; that  acknowledged f a c t  representation  knowledge.  been s e e n b e f o r e .  used t o o r g a n i z e  organized  landmark  identification--knowing  I t becomes t e m p o r a l l y  learning  t h e n be  they help  l e v e l s of  l a n d m a r k s and  c o g n i t i v e maps i n o r d e r  can  do  I t i s t h i s knowledge t h a t  environment.  route  How  developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  I t has route  environment, e i t h e r  are  competence?  i s r e c o g n i t i o n or  i s the  c h i l d r e n use  What h a p p e n s t o t h e s e f e a t u r e s  landmark i s f a m i l i a r , t h a t  the  local  becomes f a m i l i a r w i t h them?  Siegel The  environmental cues t h a t  forms  then  questions How  does a  17 child  use  work by  landmarks t o c o n s t r u c t a c c u r a t e  S i e g e l and  with  the  n o t i c i n g of  n o d e s t h a t become l i n k e d i n memory by  intra-cluster  spatial  more q u i c k l y t h a n between c l u s t e r coordinate  properly  separate  landmarks or  development p r o c e s s . knowledge o f t h e  In o r d e r  primary  a c t i o n sequences  called  coordination.  marks t h e  Familiarity relative  for a child  r e l a t i o n s proceding  with  final the  that  allows  Hart  and  the  Moore  prefer to c a l l  child  p o s i t i o n s of  to attain  categories of reference  from a study  children's spatial  system.  The  knowldge.  The  egocentric  simple  and  as  the  the affects  landmarks.  spatial  i s necessary,  to the  one  environment. they  They i n d i c a t e t h a t  development reference  briefly  system the  i n space.  evolved of  systems,  described  system of r e f e r e n c e  body a s  things  difficulty  in  t h a t of others  three  are  limited  u s e s h i s own ordering  and  account of the  which d e v e l o p from e a r l y y e a r s , 1.  to  systems e x l s t - - e g o c e n t r i c , f i x e d ,  Their research  of Piaget's  ability  t o such a s t r a t e g y or--as  i t - - a reference  coordinated.  step  some d e g r e e o f  to adjust himself  <1976) r e f e r  The  with  much  environment  c o m p e t e n c e i t would seem t h a t some s t r a t e g y  and  the  clusters within a large-scale  o b j e c t i v e frame o f r e f e r e n c e  three  Recent  These landmark-route combinations form c l u s t e r s ,  knowledge o f  the  maps?  a s s o c i a t e s s u g g e s t s t h a t knowledge o f  environment begins  routes.  route  is a  i n which the only  here:  system  very child  for  This presents  some  f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n because  child  moves so d o e s t h e  system  of  18 references. 2.  The f i x e d  system o f r e f e r e n c e  as the c h i l d  environment Piaget  elements  and c a n , t h e r e f o r e , v i e w h i s f r o m many d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s .  could r e l a t e places  routes.  "Route  at t h i s  stage.  Piaget  s p a c e beyond  visually  space u n t i l  coordinate  independent journeys The c o o r d i n a t e d the  fixed freely  routes  child  Hart  viewpoints.  of reference  spatial  y>cant.  d e p e n d s on points or  relations to a  ¥-©*MU**g. need  Thift n o t be  three-way  2.) reference  system i s  s y s t e m s may e x i s t  e g o c e n t r i c and t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o o r d i n a t e d  Whatever s y s t e m  i s used, t h e c h i l d  maps:  t o use roads o r r i v e r s as  (See F i g u r e  points out that t h i s  child  he i s a b l e t o  a s u s e d on c a r t o g r a p h i c  e l e m e n t a r y and t h a t many d i f f e r e n t the  that a  t h e immediate  system o f r e f e r e n c e  may d e c i d e  coordinates.  or  f o r reading  compass d i r e c t i o n the  as evidence  from a s e r i e s o f f i x e d  tjran&JFenables  coordinated  cited  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  system  transition  particular  hypothesized  cannot represent  system  in clusters  or along  maps" h a v e been  present  this  t o each o t h e r  around c e r t a i n landmarks  3.  i nthe  found t h a t c h i l d r e n using  logically  efficient  i s now a b l e t o o r i e n t a t e h i m s e l f i n  space i n terms o f f i x e d environment,  i s more  between system.  b e g i n s t o use landmarks t o  Fig.  2  Three r e f e r e n c e  orientation 1971) .  i n the  systems f o r c h i l d r e n ' s  landscape.  (Hart  and  Moore,  20 anchor, organize, cognitive  and c o o r d i n a t e  h i s s p a t i a l knowledge o r  map.  Moving t h r o u g h s p a c e t o a c q u i r e only  involve  t h e u s e o f some f o r m o f r e f e r e n c e  a way o f ' r o u t e l e a r n i n g ' . involves spatial  s p a t i a l c o m p e t e n c e may n o t system but a l s o  Way-finding, or route  the a q u i s i t i o n of information  a b o u t t h e t e m p o r a l and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s ;  essentially  a matter o f sequence l e a r n i n g  (Allen  Becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h a r o u t e means b e c o m i n g  route.  Gibson  perceptual  (1969) r e g a r d s r o u t e  learning;  The a b i l i t y  visual  features  visual  search e f f i c i e n c y (Blsanz  integral  and R e s n l c k ,  learning  learning.  and c o g n i t i v e  a powerful technique.  a s a form o f f o r some  environmental features  1978) and  1978)--all are  The u s e o f l a n d m a r k s i n a mapping a b i l i t y  B o t h an a d u l t  t h e m s e l v e s t o new s u r r o u n d i n g s . use  that  t o make u s e o f d i s t i n c t i v e  ( M a n d l e r and R o b i n s o n  processes i n route  distinctive  along  among s t i m u l i i m p r o v e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y , a a d o e s  memory  c h i l d ' s route  1982).  as such i t has formed t h e b a s i s  developmental research.  recognition  learning  i t is  'unconfused'  a b o u t t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f e a t u r e s  as  learning,  and a c h i l d  i s viewed refer to  when f a m i l i a r i z i n g  The a b i l i t y  landmarks presupposes c e r t a i n s k i l l s  t o recognize  ( P i c k and  and  Rieser  1982):  1.  an a b i l i t y  t o simply  associate  t h e m a r k e r and t h e  destination; 2.  the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e capacity  t o s e l e c t as  21 landmarks f e a t u r e s perceptually locale 3.  that  are  distinctive  available within  a particular  v e r s u s t h o s e which are  some knowledge o f s p a t i a l  and  not;  c o n c e p t s so  that  a l t e r n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s between landmark destination Rieser's that  the  location similar She  (1979) s t u d y o f  be  remembered and  s i x month-old  emerges e a r l y discriminate  child  in l i f e .  Acredolo  c a p a c i t i e s i n the  given  a choice  and  (1979)  older  more p e r m a n e n t l y p l a c e d  destination.  Therefore,  fixed Pick  features and  Rieser  a progression  adjacent  t o the  features  The  at a greater  distance  discriminate  between f e a t u r e s  that are  t o make use  permanently  destination. may  result  permanently  Allan's of the  landmarks i s the  ability  distinctive  (1979) s t u d y f o u n d  p o t e n t i a l landmark v a l u e  detect  b a s i s of t h i s p o t e n t i a l  the  within  that  precedes developmentally the  on  of  relatively  environmental features features  the  environment.  of  ability  an  the  i n preference  landmarks  t o a f f e c t i v e use  context.  years).  landmarks,  (1982) n o t e t h a t t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n  of the  (3-7  closer to  from the  key  particular  child  destination, to  from a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g t o s e l e c t as fixed  studied  landmarks appears t o e x i s t , from  moveable f e a t u r e s  expected  i n p o s i t i o n , whereas a  s e l e c t s t h o s e moveable f e a t u r e s  u s e d as  suggests  more r e m o t e f r o m  younger c h i l d  features  the  of d i s t i n c t i v e  s e l e c t s those features  destination  used.  infants  s i m p l e a s s o c i a t i o n between m a r k e r and  surmised that,  older  can  and  to a  the of ability  information  to  22 value. link  These f i n d i n g s ,  Allen  hypothesized,  between t h e a r e a o f m a c r o - s p a t i a l  development as a whole. o f e v o c a t i o n and (1970) s t u d y select  The  utilization,  of the  either  deficiency. distance  by  the  o f mnemonics.  concepts  Flavell's  A failure  t h e most u s e f u l s p a t i a l  t o make u s e  judgement s i t u a t i o n  therefore,  i s provided  cognitive  may  be  that i s , a mediation  concludes  that the  of s p a t i a l  deficiency. and  production  a problem  like  other  developmentally route  memory s t a t e g i e s , t h e s e  utilization  i n an  learning i t s e l f  which e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n and  How maps?  o r d e r l y manner. and,  with  does a c h i l d  This question  improve  they  can  low-effort, spatial  o t h e r s were r a i s e d been i n d i c a t e d  by  Siegel  accuracy  that repeated  above q u e s t i o n a b o u t c h i l d r e n  are developmental Kirasic,  studies.  and  and  Herman  In  t o see  d i f f e r e n c e s i n what makes a good Siegel,  of  use spatial  increases  o f r o u t e maps o f l a r g e - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t s .  t o answer t h e  Allen,  perceptual experience  (1979) c o n d u c t e d  route  <1981>.  that adults  landmarks as o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t and  learn  landmarks t o c o n s t r u c t a c c u r a t e  From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t has  events  about  not.  use and  useful,  of  routes  Children learn  experience,  features afford  w h i c h do  skills  in  Allen,  l a n d m a r k s e m b o d i e s a mnemonic f o r l e a r n i n g r e a l - w o r l d and,  be  cues i n a  considered  selection  to  c u e s may  as a problem o f e v o c a t i o n o r as a  A failure  utilization,  c o g n i t i o n and  t e r m s i n t r o d u c e d by  c h i l d ' s use  landmarks u t i l i z i n g  interpreted  link  f o r m an e m p i r i c a l  the order  i f there  landmark further  23 The  research  used p h o t o g r a p h i c s i m u l a t i o n s o f  environmental routes ranking  followed  by m u l t i p l e  Multidimensional  or distances  a s e t of procedures  interrelationships young c h i l d ,  representations environments. integrated Also,  portrays  among o b j e c t s .  an o l d e r  child,  construct  experience with  latter  distance  route  large-scale  and s p a t i a l l y  around d i s t i n c t i v e  l e a r n i n g a s e r i e s o f landmarks along  calibrating  proximities  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a  are temporally  and a r e o r g a n i z e d  as input,  s p a t i a l l y the  and an a d u l t  from p e r c e p t u a l The r o u t e s  that  among a s e t o f o b j e c t s  a t t e m p t s t o r e d u c e t h e complex m a t r i x o f s u c h  to a simple p i c t u r e that  by  distance  dimension s c a l i n g a n a l y s i s .  scaling involves  takes proximities and  and t h e t e c h n i q u e o f o r d i n a l  landmarks.  a route  i s followed  r e l a t i o n s among t h e l a n d m a r k s ;  p r o c e s s i m p r o v e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y and o v e r  this  repeated  experience. The but  maps o f a c h i l d  the underlying  and an a d u l t  sequential  probably d i f f e r  development  i s t h e same:  landmarks--route m a p a — c o n f i g u r a t i o n s or survey  (the point  are integrated  Configurational  mapping i s most u s e f u l when one n e e d s t o know  one's p o s i t i o n . superordinate To are  a child, arranged  child  an o v e r a l l  maps  a t which r o u t e s  a l t e r n a t e ways o f r e a c h i n g  within  in detail  a number o f p l a c e s  Siegel f u r t h e r suggests that  framework).  or to  re-evaluate  routes are  t o landmarks b u t s u b o r d i n a t e t o c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . landmarks a r e prominent and, t h e r e f o r e , a r o u n d them.  and t h e a d u l t  route  maps  Additional experiences allow the  t o s c a l e and m e t r i c i z e  the distances  24 between l a n d m a r k s , r e s u l t i n g Finally,  with  reference, or survey  the development o f a c o o r d i n a t e d frame o f  r o u t e s s h o u l d become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o  the e f f e c t  be  Acredolo,  a s good a s any have d i f f e r e n t  P i c k , and with  everyday  Olsen  other.  Different  affective  i s best explored  investigates  changes.  landmark i s  landmarks  potential  What l a n d m a r k s d o e s a c h i l d environment?  (1975)  l a n d m a r k s , where one  s u b j e c t to developmental  be a s k e d :  this  by  of f a m i l i a r i t y  t o be  therefore, may  configurational  maps.  Research  taken  i n more a c c u r a t e r o u t e maps.  The  and  even  may, these  q u e s t i o n can  spontaneously  use  then  i n the  Hart b e l i e v e s t h a t a q u e s t i o n such  as  naturalistically.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t would a p p e a r t h a t landmark k n o w l e d g e route learning  develop  along p a r a l l e l  knowledge e v o l v e s from  such  goes from  knowledge can  ia  be  been s e e n ,  useful.  knowing t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r  a particular  heading,  a s s o c i a t e d i n time  Route knowledge  landmark i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h landmarks  with a sequence o f headings.  In  in early  of a higher order evolves developmentally of temporal  integration  to  similarly  t o knowing t h a t a s e q u e n c e o f  a s s o c i a t i o n s are present  capability  been s e e n ,  to a recognition  instances the processes of landmark-recognition heading  Landmark  knowing t h a t s o m e t h i n g has  knowing where t h a t s o m e t h i n g has that  courses.  and  and  both  landmark-  c h i l d h o o d . Knowledge as i n c r e a s e d  permits,  not only  a  meta-knowledge o f l a n d m a r k s , b u t a l s o t h e c o n v e r s i o n  of  landmarks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h headings  spatial  i n t o temporal  and  25  sequences g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d Spatial  c o g n i t i o n i s very  everyday a c t i v i t i e s . different  routes. b a s i c to people i n  S p a t i a l c o n c e p t s and  s i t u a t i o n s are  f r e q u e n t l y used  their  properties  of  i n attempting  to  u n d e r s t a n d , t o remember, o r t o communicate.  Route l e a r n i n g i s  one  information.  example o f a l i n e a r  linearity  is reflected  mode o f r e p r e s e n t i n g in a temporal-spatial  ordering  of  ( A l l e n e t a l . 1979).  Linearly  organized  environmental features information activities given and  representations and  i n the  first  manipulating  linear  orders,  linear  study  child  orders  familiar  with  o f how  utilized  can  actively  routes  t h a t he  provide  the  recognizable  Many o f t h e  of school the  1982).  However, e v e n  has  alphabet  k n o w l e d g e o f and  travels frequently.  further insight  ability.  tasks  involve learning  such as  knowledge i s a c q u i r e d ,  The  a wider sense i s complex.  environment  i n many c o g n i t i v e  and a  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n experiences  s e n s e he  route  years  (Allen  i n the  child's spatial  illustrate  important  as problem s o l v i n g a i d s .  m a t h e m a t i c a l number l i n e  in  are  to a c h i l d  pre-school  becomes Thus  organized,  i n t o the  with  the  and  development of  subsequent o r g a n i z a t i o n of Chapter 2 w i l l  attempt  to determine t h e i r  landmarks.  use  and  a  space  to  awareness o f a group of c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r  i n order  Its  knowledge  local of  £6 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGICAL  CONSIDERATIONS  . . . o f t e n a new s p a t i a l competence i s g a i n e d by i d e n t i f y i n g l a n d m a r k s and e n v i s a g i n g t h e ways t h e y are l o c a t e d with r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r . Even v e r y young s t u d e n t s a p p r e c i a t e t h i s f a c t b e c a u s e t h a t i a how t h e y have l e a r n e d t o f i n d t h e i r own way t o school ( Y i - F u Tuan 1 9 8 3 ) .  Introduction A review  of the l i t e r a t u r e  demonstrates t h a t a c h i l d ' s  on s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n  a b i l i t y to represent  p r o p e r t i e s h a s g e n e r a l l y been i n v e s t i g a t e d rather  than  i n the f i e l d  of the child's  spatial  i n the abstract,  personal  experience.  If  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e development o f a c h i l d ' s  of  h i s everyday  to  be a need t o g r o u n d a s much r e s e a r c h a s p o s s i b l e i n  environment  observations of the c h i l d  All  beings,  a p e r s o n a l way. him  child  i s t o be r e a c h e d ,  t h e r e would seem  i n h i s l o c a l , n a t u r a l environment.  and a d u l t , e x p e r i e n c e  As a c h i l d  t h e environment i n  e x p l o r e s , so t h e environment  e x p a n d s i n e x t e n t and i n d e g r e e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ;  individual  p l a c e s may d e v e l o p  p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l  Such e x p l o r a t i o n becomes a n e c e s s a r y experience Hart  knowledge  o f each i n d i v i d u a l  (1979) s u g g e s t s  describing the c h i l d child's  and t h e l a n d s c a p e  many  meanings.  part of the lived  and t h u s  part of h i s l i f e  t h a t t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l u n i t  the environmental  around  behaviour  of the c h i l d  story.  o f study i n s h o u l d be  w h i c h e x i s t s f o r him, t h a t i s , t h e  phenomenal l a n d s c a p e .  Because such  a  landscape  27 evolves as the c h i l d should  be d i f f e r e n t  environmental relationship serving for  Interacts with i t , f o r each c h i l d .  images  Lynch  help t o e s t a b l i s h  (I960) p r o p o s e s  an e m o t i o n a l l y  between a p e r s o n and h i s t o t a l  as o r g a n i z e r s of a c t i v i t y  common memories w h i c h  b i n d a group  i s a key f a c t o r  as m a t e r i a l  together,  and a s s p a t i a l  i n the unity  o f human e x p e r i e n c e  t o go beyond  a child's  i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t a more  account o f t h e development  safe  Knowledge o f t h e  and a s s u c h t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a need basic cognitive a b i l i t y  that  e n v i r o n m e n t by  and knowledge,  r e f e r e n t s f o r a sense o f f a m i l i a r i t y . environment  theoretically, i t  complete  of a c h i l d ' s experience of the  environment.  T h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o be e x p l o r a t o r y highly  specific  and s t r u c t u r e d .  spatially  i s n o t based s o l e l y  b u t i s more d e p e n d e n t explore freely teaching it  and a b i l i t y  on i n t e l l e c t u a l  to represent  development  on f a c t o r s s u c h a s t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o  t h e environment  that occurs during  was n o t e d t h a t  than  The h y p o t h e s i s f o r i t i s t h a t  a c h i l d ' s knowledge o f h i s environment it  rather  landmarks  travel  through i t .  l e a r n i n g and In Chapter 1  a r e used as o r g a n i z i n g  within the context of s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h landmarks  and t h e s p a t i a l  e v e n t s and t h a t r e p e a t e d  generally  leads t o the construction  o f r o u t e maps. T h e r e f o r e , a b a s i c q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : of o b j e c t s does a c h i l d  features-  use f o r landmarks  What t y p e s  a s he e x p e r i e n c e s t h e  environment? However, a s s t a t e d  above,  i t i s also the intent  i n this  28 project  to consider  conscious teaching child  the notion  development logical  learning  competent  and k n o w l e d g e a b l e  about  P i a g e t e t a l . (I960) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e  of a child's  knowledge i s n o t t h e r e s u l t  manipulation but the cumulative r e s u l t  experiences,  and t h e  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a t u r e s must o c c u r i f a  i s t o become s p a t i a l l y  h i s environment.  that s p a t i a l  a l t h o u g h i t was a l s o s t a t e d  of h i s  of direct  that:  . . . t h e g r o w t h o f k n o w l e d g e i s n o t a m a t t e r o f more a c c u m u l a t i o n , and w h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t between t h e a g e s o f f o u r and t e n c h i l d r e n c o l l e c t a good d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r d i s t r i c t , they a l s o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e p i c t u r e , w h i c h i s an i n f i n i t e l y more complex p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( P i a g e t I 9 6 0 : p . 2 4 ) . I t would development  seem p o s s i b l e t h a t P i a g e t ' s n o t i o n t h a t a c h i l d ' s  of spatial  of h i s l o c a l  knowledge o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e e x p l o r a t i o n  environment  the c l i n i c a l l y  i s p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e t h a n many o f  based r e s e a r c h  mainly c o g n i t i v e  statements which  i n character.  I t would  t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e o f a c h i l d ' s everyday geographic environment ability  to represent  environment. necessary  spatial  the c h i l d  vary g r e a t l y ,  influence  i nthe  and knowledge o f t h a t t h e n i t would  appear  p a r e n t s assume by a l l o w i n g  to explore h i s local  a s does t h e e x t e n t o f a c h i l d ' s  The  environment spatial  Do many o f t o d a y ' s c h i l d r e n  neighbourhood  or a r e they c o n s t a n t l y  actually driven  must  ranges  t o d a y more t h a n e v e r , h i s mode o f l o c o m o t i o n t h r o u g h  environment. their  that  that  with h i s  t o experience h i s environment.  opportunities f o r a child  and,  i s the greater  I f t h i s statement i s c o r r e c t ,  to consider the role  and h e l p i n g  seem, however,  interaction  details  t e n d t o be  walk  that  through  t h r o u g h i t en  29 r o u t e f r o m one whether  activity  t o another?  I t might  p a r e n t s a r e e v e n aware o f t h e i r  enough t o h e l p t h e i r  children  environment  make o b s e r v a t i o n s  s o f o r m r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a c e s . environment  local  be q u e s t i o n e d  Will  and  the teaching  of the  become a n e c e s s a r y component o f w a y - f i n d i n g ?  Procedure  I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a d u l t s t o i m a g i n e how c h i l d r e n o r i e n t a t e themselves mentally to the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and d e v e l o p a f u n c t i o n a l framework o f reference during the period p r i o r to t h e i r capacity t o r e a d maps. We have p r o b a b l y l o n g s i n c e f o r g o t t e n how we b u i l t up o u r own o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t u a l framework o r m o d e l s , t h a t i s , t h e m o d e l s we h a b i t u a l l y u s e when t r a v e l l i n g over f a m i l i a r ground ( R o b e r t s , as c i t e d i n C a l l a n d , 1973: p. 3 8 ) . This project t h e awareness local  i s an a t t e m p t  and  personal  a s s e s s whether  selected  the c h i l d r e n  to study  as c o l o u r e d  to  their  k n o w l e d g e and u s e o f  aspect of the p r o j e c t  i s to  perception of the live  and go t o s c h o o l  recognition of s p e c i f i c  from t h e environment.  These  landmarks  could  landmarks  are presented  photographs of a v a r i e t y  of  landmarks.  The t w e n t y students  One  t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  through t h e i r  to the c h i l d r e n familiar  to explore their  landmarks.  s u r r o u n d i n g s i n which be r e v e a l e d  way  o f a group o f primary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  environment  strategic  i n an e m p i r i c a l  children  (7-8 y e a r s ) ,  Richmond, B.C..  The  o f Richmond, w i t h i n  used  i n t h e s t u d y were G r a d e  attending school  a public  i s situated  a residential  Two  elementary school i n i n the southwest  subdivision  that i s  area  30 approximately  twelve years o l d .  mainly o f s i n g l e f a m i l y All  and g e n e r a l l y  The  first  recognition  task  test.  selected  presented  within  lens.  initially  r a n g i n g from w i t h i n  Each c h i l d  a half mile of the  features  i n Richmond  T w e n t y - f i v e p h o t o g r a p h s were w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n and d e v e l o p e d  p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n a t v a r i o u s  o r two t h a t  townhouses.  t o t h e c h i l d r e n was t h e landmark  10 x 7.6 cm (4x3 i n c h e s ) c o l o u r e d  school, one  a n d condominium  Photographs o f v a r i o u s  t o be u s e d  consists  walk o r b i c y c l e t o t h e s c h o o l .  were t a k e n w i t h a 50 mm.  The  dwellings  t h e c h i l d r e n e x c e p t one l i v e  school  into  The s u b d i v i s i o n  .8 km  p r i n t s numbered distances  1 - 25.  from t h e  (.5 m i l e ) o f t h e s c h o o l t o  a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 km  (three  miles)  distant.  was shown t h e p h o t o g r a p h s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s a n d  asked t o :  1.  give  t h e name o f t h e landmark  or  2.  make a s u g g e s t i o n a b o u t t h e landmark  or  3.  suggest a p o s s i b l e  or  4.  state  i f t h e y had no i d e a  possible The  children's  recorder.  l o c a t i o n o f t h e photograph  location  r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d  At a f u r t h e r  session  on a g r i d  will  a n d on a t a p e  t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were shown  a g a i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n and open d i s c u s s i o n encouraged.  o f t h e landmark o r  a b o u t them was  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h r e c o g n i t i o n  task  follow. At  a l a t e r t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o draw a map o f  31 their  'Route From Home To  information of the  shown on  personal  the  were a s k e d  t o mark any  A brief  activity  to consider  that  the  they completed the  had  pen  their  maps  the  their  taken place  i t .  way  before  From t h e  t i m e and  drawings.  one  on  the  was  no  this the  t o be  of  of a l l the landmarks.  conscious that motor s k i l l s I t was  c r e a t i o n of  a  most of The  f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n as  there  and  their  Throughout would  graphic  a l s o noted t h a t  map.  maps,  features  a d e g r e e o f commitment t o e a c h e l e m e n t to the  the  children's point  Upon c o m p l e t i o n a list  and  to  i s " s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s n ' t move".  v a r i a t i o n i n the  which i s u n s u i t e d  some  the  discussion  p a r t i c i p a t i n g students. bring  in  with  they considered  t h i s mapping a c t i v i t y  of the  identify  most o f  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o w r i t e  considerable  On  that  term, landmark, as  unlimited  their  a r o u n d them t h a t  and  environment.  t h a t emerged f r o m  a landmark  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n  to  significant  t h e y p a s s e d by  discussion  definition that  d r a w i n g s would h e l p  of the  s t u d e n t s were u n f a m i l i a r  v i e w was  hoped  t o name s t r e e t names i f t h e y knew them,  features  school.  realistic  I t was  landmarks which are  children's perception children  School'.  be  ability pencil  drawn  32 CHAPTER  3  ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION  TEST  Introduction Out  of a t o t a l  o f 500 p o s s i b l e r e c o g n i t i o n s on t h e  landmark r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , t o have been r e c o g n i z e d : l a n d m a r k s were made.  272  that  <54.4 p e r c e n t ) i s , accurate  were  suggestions  When t h e number o f e x a c t  were e x t r a c t e d t h e t o t a l  considered  o f 272 was r e d u c e d  of the  recognitions  t o 145  (29.29  percent).  The  general  t r e n d t h a t was t o be e x p e c t e d  i n such a task  a s t h i s would be a d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n a s t h e s u b j e c t away f r o m t h e s c h o o l b a s e , w i t h within  a circle  radius,  analysis, reflect  The  lies  1.6 t o 2.4 km  where t h e s c h o o l  this  expected  Group A.  i s situated.  miles) On  trend.  to Recognition  T h o s e l a n d m a r k s w i t h i n a 0.8 t o 1.5 km  (.5 t o  r a d i u s o f t h e s c h o o l , d i s p l a y e d t h e h i g h e s t number o f  accurate  suggestions  of exact  r e s p o n s e s were d e t e r m i n e d t h i s  45.  (1 t o 1.5  t h e r e s u l t s o f p h o t o g r a p h g r o u p s A, B, and C do  Relation of Proximity  1 mile)  a concentration of recognition  of approximately  whose c e n t r e  moves  o f l a n d m a r k s , 80, a l t h o u g h  A l l the c h i l d r e n i n the test  when t h e number  f i g u r e was r e d u c e d  group r e c o g n i z e d  Supermarket; s e v e r a l r e f e r r e d t o i t as t h e "corner 13 p r o v i d e d  the t e s t e r with  i t s exact  name.  to  the P & A s t o r e " and  P h o t o g r a p h 5, t h e  Table I I n d i v i d u a l Scores on Photograph  R e c o g n i t i o n Teat  Studenta  Photographs  T o t a l Exact Responses  1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Peter Jennifer Paul Lisa Kim F. Donnie Lara Michelle Gavin Yuni Daina Michelle Kin N. Jennifer Matthew Garson Michael Brian Alison Sean  /  C.  /  X X X X / /  J.  X X X  M.  /  X  N.  /  X /  X X X X  / /  0 0  X X X  / /  /  • • /  /  X X X  0  • •  0 0 0 0 X / / / /  0 X 0 o 0 X X 0 • / 0 0 / X 0 X 0 0 0 / • X • X 0 X 0 / / X 0 0 / X 0 0 • X / 0 / X / X 0 X /  X X  X X  X X  / /  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • / 0 X 0 0 0 X • X X 0 0 0 X X / 0 / 0 0 • X • X X • / X X X X / • X X • 0 X 0 X X / 0 0 X X X / 0 X X 0 0 X 0 X • 0 X X X / / 0 0 X 0 0 0 / X X / / 0 0 / • X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 / / 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 • 0 X X / 0 • / / / / 0 X 0 X 0 0 0 X X / 0 0 / • 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 X / / 0 X / / / 0 0 X X 0 X 0 0 • 0 / 0 0 / • 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • / 0 0 / X / / 0 0 0 / X X 0 X X / • X X X / / 0 X / • • / 0 / / / 0 X / • • 0 0 0 0 • 0 / 0 X / / • • / / X o • X 0 • X / 0 X 0 • X 0 X X X • 0 X 0 • / 0 0 X • / 0 0 X 0 • X 0 X 0 0 0 • 0 X • X 0 X X X X 0 0 X 0 0 0 / X X / 0 0 / • 0 X 0 • X X / X /  X  0  0 0 0 0 /  /  X  / /  X  X  /  /  X / / / / / / / / / / / /  X X / /  X  0 0  X  0  X X  • •  0 0 0 0  / /  / /  /  / / /  /  X  X  /  0 0 0  X  X  X X X X  • o 0 0  / / /  0  4 4 10 13 12 7 6 0 7 4 10 2 7 9 3 6 12 8 12 11  X  0 0 /  /  X  0 0 X X X X X /  • X  0  •  0  Mean  29*  6.75  Key X  Exact name  /  Accurate Suggestion  •  Inaccurate Suggestion  0  No  idea  (li  CO  34 TABLE I I  R e s u l t s o f t h e Photograph  Photograph Group  Recognition  Possible Recognitions  Test: Exact  Responses  Exact Recognitions  Percent  A  120  45  37.5  %  B  80  25  31.25%  C  60  11  18.33%  D  80  31  38.75%  E  160  33  20 . 625*  Total  500  145  29.29%  35  20 18 16 d  0 14 a a  V  12  7",  /I  •rt i o ti o a •M 3 o u • n 6 e 3  17  "0 1 2 I  3  A  4  5  6  7 •  < —  0.8-1.6  8 9 IO 11 12 23 13 14 13 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 25 - B »< C •« D •« E  1.6-2.4  (0.5-1.0)  2.4-3.2  (1.0-1.5) (1.5-2.0)  3.2-4.0 (2.0-2.5)  Radius In km ( m i l e s ) from t h e c h i l d ' s F i g . 3.  over  4.0  (over 2.5) school  R e s u l t s o f t h e photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number o f e x a c t  • Number o f photograph  responses.  36 Table I I I  R e s u l t s o f t h e Photograph Suggestions  Photograph Group  Recognition  Possible Recognitions  Test:  Accurate Recognitions  Accurate  Percent  A  120  80  66.67%  B  80  47  58.75*  C  60  15  25.00%  D  80  66  82.505  E  160  64  40.005  Total  500  272  54.40%  37  0.8-1.6  1.6-2.4  <0.5-1.0)  2.4-3.2  <1.0-1.S) (1.3-2.0)  3.2-4.0  o v e r 4.0  <2.0-2.3)  (over 2.3)  Radius i n kn ( m i l e s ) from t h e c h i l d ' s F i g . 4.  school  R e s u l t s o f t h e photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number o f a c c u r a t e  suggestions. • Number o f photograph  38 Steveston  Martial  children,  however, d i d r e c o g n i z e t h e b u i l d i n g  Steveston  a s t h e s e comments t a k e n  indicate:  "it's  in  Steveston".  Arts Centre  name o f t h e  Farm  known by  1.6  t h e s c h o o l , 47  any  i t was  t o 2.4  km  just  25  children  7), situated  along  "by  Two  children  l a n d m a r k m i g h t be,  the dyke".  one  It  reason  c o u l d be  correctly direct  were a b l e t o  i s driving  "Historic  contrast to this  Landmark" and  season,  was  It i s  a l o n g t h e dyke  b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d by  photograph,  the  road  the students.  o f many a d u l t s  landmark i s e x t r e m e l y  last  open  i s situated  Steveston.  or walking  s t a t e d that the p r o b a b i l i t y this  to  suggested  o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , hence  f o r i t s not  identifying  not  that i t  just  give  London  d i d attempt  stating  t h e c o r e a r e a s o f Richmond and  a d j a c e n t t o t h e S o u t h Arm probable  the  London Farm, a l t h o u g h a d v e r t i s e d  n e w s p a p e r s a s an  o n l y i f one  provide  mile)  t h e Dyke Road, was  t o t h e p u b l i c d u r i n g t h e summer t o u r i s t  visible  (1 - 1.5  the dyke", w h i l e the o t h e r c h i l d  in local  away f r o m  were a b l e t o  accurate suggestions of  of the c h i l d r e n .  " t h e house by  widely  fertilizer  names o f t h e f o u r l a n d m a r k s i n t h i s g r o u p .  g u e s s a t what t h e  that  Spot  landmark.  I n Group B,  (Photograph  place  as the f o l l o w i n g  "the  Five children  l a n d m a r k s were p r o v i d e d , b u t the exact  the Chinese  children  "the p l a n t s t o r e " ,  "the garden p l a c e " .  r a d i u s from  "it's  r e c o g n i z e d by  indicate:  few  the taped d i s c u s s i o n  was  10  A  as a p l a c e i n  p h o t o g r a p h o f A r t Knapp's G a r d e n  suggestions  Group B.  from  1 child.  The  6)  the exact  named by o n l y  t h e k a r a t e p l a c e " , and  (Photograph  place",  was  t h e one  low.  In  showing  the  39 Steveston with  Museum  and P o s t O f f i c e  18 a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s  Similarly,  (Photograph  and 15 e x a c t names g i v e n .  a h i g h e r number o f t h e s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t l y  the photograph o f t h e docks a t Steveston generally  with the a s s o c i a t i o n  the f i s h i n g in  provide i t s exact  Group C. recognition  many o f t h e c h i l d r e n  o n l y one c h i l d  12 was c o r r e c t l y  was a b l e t o  r e c o g n i z e d by 7  The S e a f a i r  Community  11 was known o n l y t o two c h i l d r e n ,  " I go t o h o c k e y t h e r e . " Highway  architectural  places  a p a r t o f t h e "dyke" t h a t surrounds t h e  (Photograph  years, but i t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e  The B u d d h i s t 23) was b u i l t  I c e Arena i n  one o f whom Temple on  only  i n recent  landmark b e c a u s e o f i t s  s t y l e and b e c a u s e o f t h e p u b l i c i t y  One c h i l d  who r e c o g n i z e d  i treferred  i t has t o i t as "that  Church".  Group D. d i s t a n c e from the r e s u l t s within  Finally  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t o n l y 18.3 p e r c e n t o f  g r e a t e r p a r t o f Richmond.  Chinese  from  were a b l e t o  were a b l e t o g i v e t h e e x a c t names o f t h o s e  as being  received.  fish  W i t h t h e l a n d m a r k s i n Group C t h e d e c l i n e i n  photographed. Photograph  Steveston  fresh  name a n d l o c a t i o n .  continued  the c h i l d r e n  stated  (Photograph 9 ) ,  of purchasing  r e c o g n i z e P h o t o g r a p h 10 a s a c h u r c h ,  Photograph  identified  b o a t s d o c k e d t h e r e a t t h e Government Wharf.  t h i s group, although  children  8) was r e c o g n i z e d  However, t h e d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n a s t h e t h e s h o o l was i n c r e a s e d r e v e r s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y a s  i n Group D i n d i c a t e ;  a 3.2 t o 4.0 km  t h a t i s , the photographs  (2 t o 2.5 m i l e ) r a d i u s f r o m  taken  the school.  40 The  percentage  o f a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n i n c r e a s e d t o 82.5  percent, although  t h a t o f t h e e x a c t named r e s p o n s e s  t o 38.75 p e r c e n t . pattern  T h i s apparent  i s t o be q u e s t i o n e d .  d e v i a t i o n from  increased  the expected  I n o r d e r t o do t h i s t h e t o p i c s o f  t h e f o u r p h o t o g r a p h s i n Group D must be c o n s i d e r e d : Photograph  13 - Richmond F i r e  Photograph  14 - M i n o r u A q u a t i c  Photograph  15 - M i n o r u A t h l e t i c  P h o t o g r a p h 24 - M c D o n a l d ' s As a l l o f t h e s e  Department H a l l Centre Track  Restaurant  l a n d m a r k s r e c e i v e d h i g h s c o r e s on t h e  number o f a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s  made a b o u t them, i t would  to i n d i c a t e that these are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t children. all  A factor  No. 1  common t o t h e s e  appear  places toa l l  landmarks i s t h a t they a r e  located i n close proximity t o the central  business area or  downtown c o r e o f Richmond. The  Aquatic Centre,  which p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y  swimming p o o l s i n Richmond, i s u s e d for  recreational  Granville, site An  restaurant,  swimming  l o c a t e d on No. 3 Road, j u s t  a m a j o r component o f t h i s  The  south o f  M c D o n a l d ' s t o be l o c a t e d i n B r i t i s h  playground,  students  lessons.  one o f two M c D o n a l d ' s i n Richmond, i s b u i l t  of the f i r s t  outdoor  f r e q u e n t l y by many  swimming and o r g a n i z e d  McDonald's R e s t a u r a n t  indoor  on t h e Columbia.  popular  was t h e f e a t u r e w h i c h became d o m i n a n t d u r i n g t h e  c h i l d r e n ' s d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e l a n d m a r k . When t h e c h i l d r e n were a s k e d  i f they  c o u l d i n d i c a t e w h i c h M c D o n a l d ' s was shown i n  the photograph t h e i r one  with  responses  the playground",  i n c l u d e d t h e s e comments: " t h e  " t h e one w i t h t h e t o y s " , and " i t ' s  41  the  one  with a l l those r i d e s " .  p o s s i b l e t o see the  why  Aquatic  Minoru A t h l e t i c Track Centre.  It i s highly  in  Richmond a t t e n d  the  summer t e r m .  the  largest f i r e  west s i d e o f situated  on  Avenue and  the  is significant  to  an  H a l l No. hall  i t during  a l l elementary  and  the  field  Again  the  schools  meet t h e r e  Richmond F i r e  municipality,  track.  close to  during  Department,  i s located  i t i s highly  on  the  visible,  within  pre-school  well  walking  c h i l d r e n mentioned t h a t  which i s s t r u n g  No.  I t was  r e s p o n s e s and  from the  school,  These f o u r  that  Because the  they  children  landmarks are a l l of  Richmond,  3 Road between G r a n v i l l e Avenue significant  accurate  that  both the  suggestions rose  this point,  thus i n t e r r u p t i n g the  recognition  that  had  children.  main downtown s h o p p i n g c o r e  along  Way.  there.  they  outings.  known t o t h e  distance  driven  c l o s e t o the  Alderbridge  Several  data c o l l e c t e d i t i s p o s s i b l e to suggest  would have t o be  exact  1 of  i n the  athletic  t h e s e landmarks are  located  visible:  annual t r a c k  G i l b e r t Road.  visited  not  i s s i t u a t e d very  a m a j o r i n t e r s e c t i o n i n Richmond a t G r a n v i l l e  From t h e  are  p a r t i c u l a r landmark  quite  children. The  had  this  It i s , therefore,  been a p p a r e n t  pattern i n the  number  dramatically  of general three  and of at  decline  in  previous  groups. The o f 4 km  final (2.5  group o f photographs, those taken a t  m i l e s ) or  more f r o m t h e  school,  again  distances exhibited  a  42 significant, decrease the l e v e l  reached  i n recognition,  i n Group C.  but they d i d n o t drop t o  W i t h i n t h i s group  p h o t o g r a p h - - N o . 17 o f F i n n S l o u g h - -  d i d n o t r e c e i v e any  s u g g e s t i o n s a s t o what o r where i t m i g h t tidal  backwater  located  people is  Island.  Finn Slough  I t i s quite accessible  by r o a d ;  live  t h e r e on r a t h e r  d e l a p i d a t e d houseboats.  a little  o f f t h e "beaten  track"--not a location  Although  many c h i l d r e n  Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l , few  r e c o g n i z e d t h e Minoru  from  several However, i t where many  t o on t h e weekend.  r e c o g n i z e d t h e photograph i t was i n t e r e s t i n g  Chapel  of the  t o note t h a t  o r t h e Gateway T h e a t r e ,  o f which a r e a d j a c e n t t o t h e h o s p i t a l . hospital  isa  i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r known a s  f a m i l i e s would d r i v e o r b i c y c l e  Twelve c h i l d r e n  very  both  knew t h e  by i t s e x a c t name, one boy o b v i o u s l y remembering i t  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a s he commented: "My b r o t h e r g o t  stitches at that  Although Minoru its  be.  a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f No. 4 Road  adjacent t o a small island Whitworth  one  Chapel,  hospital".  nine children  suggested  t h a t Photograph  was a c h u r c h , o n l y one c h i l d  e x a c t name. Comments a b o u t  t h e c h u r c h where y o u g e t m a r r i e d n e a r c h u r c h b e s i d e where t h e o l d l a d i e s geriatric short  ground  floor  d i s t a n c e from  the chapel.)  indicated a  f o r example, " i t ' s  t h e Gateway" and " a  live  i n the hospital".  wing o f t h e h o s p i t a l  Gateway T h e a t r e c o r r e c t l y  was a b l e t o g i v e  the chapel c e r t a i n l y  s e n s e o f i t s p l a c e and u s e i n g e n e r a l t e r m s ,  16,  i s located  The two g i r l s  (The  just a  who named t h e  were p r o b a b l y a b l e t o do s o a s t h e y  43 b o t h have been i n v o l v e d therefore  possessed  recognize  that  i n p e r f o r m a n c e s i n t h e t h e a t r e and  personal  experience of the place: "I  b e c a u s e I had t o go t a p t h e r e  f o r t h e show".  A n o t h e r comment d i d i n d i c a t e some k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a t i o n : " a place  by t h e h o s p i t a l " .  P h o t o g r a p h 22 was i m m e d i a t e l y  recognized  Department S t o r e  by a l l t h e s t u d e n t s ,  could  i t was l o c a t e d  state that  a s Woodward's  but only  five  o f them  i n t h e Lansdowne P a r k  C e n t r e , t h e newest and l a r g e s t s h o p p i n g c e n t r e  Shopping  i n Richmond.  L o c a t e d on No. 3 Road between Lansdowne Road and  Alderbridge  Way, Woodward's i s one o f t h e two a n c h o r s t o r e s o f t h e c e n t r e , the  other  being  the  distinctive  most l i k e l y  Eaton's.  In t h e photograph  i t c a n be s e e n  Woodward's name i s q u i t e c l e a r l y  contributed  t o i t s high  recognition  visible,  that  known by o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e s t u d e n t s .  that  the l o c a t i o n s o f shopping malls  t h a n by t h e name o f t h e m a l l this  might  patterns, store  this  within  One c h i l d  i n the Mall  them,  i s due t o t h e f a c t  on  the outside  rather  I t m i g h t be shopping  s t a t e they a r e going t o a p a r t i c u l a r  rather  it  indicate  did refer to  i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the parents'  who p r o b a b l y  was  a r e m a i n l y known by t h e  p h o t o g r a p h a s "Woodward's S h o p p i n g M a l l " .  suggested t h a t  the  This  are located  itself.  that the  i s , Lansdowne P a r k ,  only  names o f t h e m a j o r s t o r e s t h a t  which  factor.  However, i t would a p p e a r t o be somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t name o f t h e w h o l e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e ,  that  then t o t h e Mall  that  itself.  the large, highly  o f t h e shopping malls  Or, perhaps  visible  neon names  a r e almost always those o f  l a r g e anchor s t o r e s and a r e , t h e r e f o r e ,  more  easily  44  imprinted  on t h e young c h i l d ' s  P h o t o g r a p h 20 i s F a n t a s y  memory.  G a r d e n s , l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h e a s t  c o r n e r o f No. 5 Road and S t e v e s t o n  Highway. O r i g i n a l l y  known a s B o t a  G a r d e n s when i t f i r s t  approximately  five  photograph,  years ago.  instantly  seemed t h a t , a l t h o u g h  an  accurate  suggestion  the gardens, they noticed "the  opened t o t h e p u b l i c  One boy r e c o g n i z e d t h e  recalling  It  i t was  t h a t i t had been B o t a  n e i t h e r o f t h e two c h i l d r e n  Gardens. who made  a b o u t t h e landmark had a c t u a l l y  visited  were a b l e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e y had  i t when p a s s i n g b y , a s i n d i c a t e d  f l o w e r p l a c e by a g a s s t a t i o n " :  by t h e i r  comments:  "we s e e i t when we go t o  my g r a n d p a ' s , b u t I d o n ' t know what i t ' s c a l l e d . "  The  p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e Richmond N a t u r e P a r k , P h o t o g r a p h 21, was purposely name.  taken  so t h a t t h e l e a f y  Because t h e Nature Park  Richmond, i t was f e l t visited  i tat least  t r e e s obscured  i s a popular  most o f t h e  attraction in  t h a t many o f t h e c h i l d r e n  would  have  on one, and p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  T h i s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be s o , however, a s o n l y f o u r  children  were a b l e t o name a c c u r a t e l y t h e l a n d m a r k , one comment "Is t h a t a park?  being  I ' v e been t h e r e o n c e when I was i n  Kindergarten".  P h o t o g r a p h 25, i s o f a v i e w l o o k i n g s o u t h 99  a s i t d e s c e n d s i n t o t h e G e o r g e Massey T u n n e l  Tunnel). road,  Of t h e e l e v e n c h i l d r e n  e i g h t were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y  to the tunnel.  who s u g g e s t e d i tcorrectly  along  Highway  (Deaa I s l a n d t h a t i t was a as the entrance  Discussion revealed that s e v e r a l of these  45 children had  r e c o g n i z e d the view as a s e c t i o n  physically  familiar  c o u s i n ' s house";  I t was,  " i t g o e s t o where my  comment a l l u d e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l  itself: to  a l o n g a t sometime.  "Going  nature  i n the tunnel with the  whom t h e p h o t o g r a p h o f Highway 99  lights".  "how  Grandma  of the  their  m i n d s ; i t was  knew t h e y  Exact  travelled  These  children  f o r m e d a p a r t o f a known  responses  along to reach  Highest  who  produced  (See  Table  individual  accurate responses  and  their  own  who  was  to  visit  outings.  in  they  destination.  considered  i n terms o f  had  the  lowest  exact  number o f  exact  IV.)  Lisa,  She  who  of d e f i n i t e  recognized thirteen Lisa  b u s i n e s s , a gas  cheerful station  child.  out of  the  siblings in  Both p a r e n t s  in central  active aerobics instructor.  n e a r b y r e l a t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y and  and  l i v e s within three  i s t h e e l d e r o f t h e two  i s a bright,  t h e mother i s an  a certain  with the highest t o t a l  blocks of the s c h o o l .  at  had  Lowest  p o s s i b l e t w e n t y - f i v e photographs.  t h e f a m i l y and  that  t h a t they  t h e h i g h e s t number o f  compared t o t h o s e  responses. The  c o g n i t i v e map  t a b u l a t e d r e s u l t s were t h e n  children  lives".  a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e whole r o u t e t h a t  R e s p o n s e s : The The  those  had  you  tunnel  r o u t e , c o n c e i v a b l y , were a b l e t o o r i e n t a t e p h y s i c a l l y photograph as p a r t o f a l a r g e r  they  therefore,  t o them a s t h e f o l l o w i n g comments i n d i c a t e :  g e t t o my One  travelled  of a route that  t o go  Vancouver,  The  work and  f a m i l y tend  on f a m i l y  46 T a b l e IV C h i l d r e n w i t h t h e H i g h e s t and L o w e s t F r e q u e n c y o f E x a c t R e s p o n s e s on t h e P h o t o g r a p h R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t  Highest  Frequency  Lowest Frequency  Rank  Name  Number o f Exact Responses  1  Lisa  13  1  Michelle J .  0  2  Kim F .  12  2  M i c h e l l e M.  2  3  Michael  12  3  Matthew  3  4  Alison  12  4  Peter  4  4  J e n n i f e r C.  4  4  Yumi  4  Rank  Name  Number o f Exact Responses  47 Michael, of  together with  Kim a n d A l i s o n ,  t h e t w e n t y - f i v e photographs.  two  siblings.  In t h e classroom  travels  participates  Alison siblings.  Michael  i s a bright,  i n boys' c l u b s and s p o r t s  her.  child,  on a r o u n d h i m .  Alison participates  time  Kim i s an o n l y c h i l d  t o be a c h i l d  school  a n d , a s w i t h many s i n g l e c h i l d r e n ,  setting  i n and  that i s keenly  after  she probably  a variety  around  while  i n many a c t i v i t i e s  t o and f r o m  In t h e classroom  spends  of placee  with  Kim i s a b r i g h t ,  student.  Consideration recognized  both  whose mother s t a y s a t home  w o r k s . Kim a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s  c o n s i d e r a b l e time d r i v i n g  positions i n  t h a t a r e happening  father  observant  He  of three  i n many a c t i v i t i e s ,  and k n o w l e d g e a b l e o f e v e n t s  her p a r e n t s .  child  activities.  t h e middle  B o t h p a r e n t s work a t f u l l  out o f s c h o o l ; she appears observant  observant  i n town on t h e weekends w i t h h i s f a t h e r a n d  i s an i n t e l l i g e n t  Vancouver.  i s the older of  w h i l e mother r e m a i n s a t home w i t h t h e y o u n g e r  who i s q u i t e aware o f a l l t h a t i s g o i n g often  twelve  H i s f a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y t r a v e l s o u t o f town on  business t r i p s , daughter.  Michael  recognized  h a s been g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d r e n  the least  number o f p h o t o g r a p h s .  who  One g i r l  was n o t  a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a c c u r a t e l y any o f t h e l a n d m a r k s . M i c h e l l e J . , the younger s i b l i n g  of a single  parent  family, generally  r e t u r n s t o an empty townhouse e a c h day a f t e r finished. sports,  She d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o p a r t i c i p a t e  or g i r l s '  c l u b s , but tends  school i s i n any team  t o p l a y i n and a r o u n d t h e  48 townhouae complex w i t h is  a lonely child  difficulties  who  with  activities.  recognized  last  familiar lived  i n the  the other the  September  with  two  peers.  two  had  t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a s she area  since birth,  children.  I t was,  Temple on  she  the school before c l o s e t o the  which  her  Two  Road.  back on  and of  the No.  was  by  a  from  perhaps not  i s the case  with  most  to note  did recognize  were o f  o f Highway 99  o f which a r e  along  daily  family relocated to their  only t h r e e out  His family of f i v e  as  she of that the  leading the  from Surrey present  he  take  lives  of the  to  home  twenty-five  i n a small  difficulty  house on  academically  part  i n any  team s p o r t s o r  tends to play  i n the  agricultural  the f i r s t  Firehall,  Two  outside  followed  t o h i s f a m i l y ' s back g a r d e n . Matthew had  recognizing  full  school.  does not  Instead  little  m i g h t have been had  Highway and  Matthew e x p e r i e n c e s  s c h o o l and  she  would have t r a v e l l e d  Matthew r e c o g n i z e d photographs.  mother works  however, i n t e r e s t i n g  Steveston  most l i k e l y  frequent  photographs a c c u r a t e l y .  ( f i v e months a g o ) ,  i n t o t h e G e o r g e Maasey t u n n e l , b o t h route  Her  Michelle J.  o n l y moved t o Richmond  p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t M i c h e l l e M.  Buddhist  experiencing  M i c h e l l e J . was  only  However, b e c a u s e M i c h e l l e M. Surrey  her  friends.  t h e f a m i l y ; t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  or other  second g i r l  older brother's  i n the classroom,  socializing  time to support visiting  her  Road and  two  as they  photographs--the P & A are both  Steveston  in  clubs.  lands no  that  difficulty  Supermarket  l o c a t e d at the  Highway, l e s s t h a n  No.  intersection  one  hundred  49 y a r d s from dyke, as hunting  h i s home.  he  girls  and  a boy out  an  lives  child  who  driven child  that  l i v e s a b o u t 0.8  i s , out  t o and  from  of the  school  does not  t o home, v i s i t i n g playing  with her  a block  of the  siblings.  e a c h day.  mother.  her  lives  in close  school,  are  the  home; t h e r e  The  she  the is  quiet  insecure.  proximity, both  live  both c h i l d r e n  seem t o be  close and  within  three  t o home p l a y i n g  parents of  is  States.  appears to stay  Yumi who  of  father  i s a shy,  middle c h i l d r e n of  does not  school-Steveston  Her  n e r v o u s and and  P e t e r and  basis.  Jennifer  catchment area, Jennifer  quite  frog  not  m i l e s ) away f r o m  clubs  cousins.  do  a regular  twenty-five.  (0.5  B o t h seem t o r e m a i n c l o s e  the  from the  km  a u n t , who  dykes  l o w e s t number  b e l o n g t o any  neighbourhood c h i l d r e n . outside  next  the  southeastern United  school's  whose mother t e n d s t o be  Jennifer  the  possible  i n the  12,  his family  Richmond on  a l o n e with her  a permanent b a s i s  Because J e n n i f e r school,  Matthew and  recognized  of the  Photograph  h i s time near the  to other areas of  photographs, four  works on  recognized  nearby d i t c h e s .  appear t o t r a v e l  only  also  seems t o s p e n d much o f  i n the  Two  He  with  the  work  much movement away  area.  Summary Although t h i s  analysis  i s i n no  socioeconomic d e s c r i p t i o n of it  has  become a p p a r e n t t h a t  between t h e recognitions  four of  meant t o p r o v i d e  t h e s e c h i l d r e n and there  c h i l d r e n who the  way  are  scored  l a n d m a r k s and  several the  their  families,  distinctions  highest  number  those s i x c h i l d r e n  a  who  of  50 received  the  interesting  lowest  scores.  These d i s t i n c t i o n s  area f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , but  area of focus w i t h i n the  parameters of t h i s  would be  i t will paper.  not  be  an an  51 CHAPTER  ANALYSIS OF Introduction  and  Data used  THE  Evaluation  in this  ROUTE TO  Each c h i l d  section  manila drawing paper c r a y o n s , and which  felt  following 1.  t o show t h e i r  a b l e t o u s e one and  T h e r e was  derived  a n a l y s i s was  o r more s h e e t s o f  a variety  no p r e - s e t  of  pencils,  time l i m i t their  The d r a w i n g was  The  primarily  even though  the  pictorial,  w i t h no  f e a t u r e s such as  The  a map;  which  a map  exhibited  f e a t u r e s were c o r r e c t l y sequence that it  route.  well organized  with  identifiable  spatial  related  o r d e r ; and  along a  and w i t h some s e n s e o f s p a t i a l  i s , the r e l a t i v e  could  i t was  the  c o n n e c t i o n s between a r e a s .  drawing resembled  landmarks  buildings  schematic i n the sense that  drawing resembled  The  spatial  are l o g i c a l l y represented.  d r a w i n g was  with c l e a r  be u s e d f o r o r i e n t a t i o n  (1981) s u g g e s t s t h a t  the  linear organization;  l o c a t i o n s were a c c u r a t e s o i n the (From  Hart  maps.  p e r f o r m e d on t h e maps b a s e d on  e l e m e n t s a r e c o n n e c t e d by a known p a t h o r  4.  within  criteria:  and h o u s e s  3.  from  r o u t e s f r o m home  were e x p e c t e d t o have c o m p l e t e d  organization  2.  o f t h e p a p e r was  (46 x 30 cm)  pens.  the c h i l d r e n  A qualitative  was  SCHOOL MAPS  Criteria  t h e maps drawn by t h e c h i l d r e n to school.  4  area.  Hart  1981)  there are points along a  that  52 continuum d e s i g n e d organization insights  to describe  expressed  i n t o understanding the  a t each  From a s s o c i a t e d s t r e e t s are  According singling It  not  t o Lynch out  involves  of  the  local  literature  r e g a r d e d as  (1960) t h e  use  of  are  be  may  features  landmarks t o the  of  may  route  The  g i v i n g one a.  the  not  be  point actual  of  who  of  the  things  local  as  to the  that  and  b.  the  number o f  c.  the  number o f f e a t u r e s  as  those  any  value  them on  school notice  and on  his  to  as map.  draw  include  y o u r way  i n the  to  following  features:  map s t r e e t s c o r r e c t l y named shown  have  c h i l d r e n were " t o  you  or  reference".  r e l a t e d t o each other  on  the  children  s t r e e t s shown, p r o v i d e d  and  maps.  "unique  the  having  maps were t h e n s c o r e d  number o f  houses  possibilities. are  included  f o r each of these  were c o n n e c t e d  relation  l a n d m a r k s on  maps drawn by  f r o m y o u r house t o t h e  completed  from  Those elements t h a t  perceived  were g i v e n  and  in  tenuous d i s t i n c t i o n  particular child  i t as many p l a c e s  school". way  the  obtained  landmarks i n v o l v e s  "points  a rather  instructions that  a map on  be  termed  valuable  influence  are  element from a m u l t i t u d e  landmarks i n the  The  moat  s e l e c t i o n o f some a s p e c t s t h a t  may  spatial  i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t  been d e t e r m i n e d a s  particular  a map  of  environment.  memorable" i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t .  However, t h i s  The  f a c t o r s which  s p a c e on  generally  o f one  those that  extent  individual child's representation  t o h i s knowledge o f t h e  and  t y p e and  i n c h i l d r e n ' s maps.  children's representation looking  the  in  they reality  53  Findings The and  lowest  analyzed their are  maps o f t h e t e n c h i l d r e n who  and t h e i r  scores  shown  Table  scores  had a c h i e v e d  the highest  on t h e p h o t o g r a p h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t map  r e s u l t s were t h e n t a b u l a t e d  on t h e p h o t o g r a p h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t .  were  against The  results  i n the following tables:  V  Home t o S c h o o l  Scores  Top Scores on Photo. Test  Map  No. o f streets  Student  Street names  Features  Total  Lisa  3  3  2  S  Michael  2  1  3  6  Alison  1  1  2  4  Kim  4  4  2  10  4  1  2  7  Matthew  2  0  0  2  Peter  2  2  2  6  Yumi  1  0  0  1  Jennifer  4  1  6  11  Michelle Low Scores on Photo. Test *  Scores  M.  • M i c h e l l e J . was u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e a  map  54 In the  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e the  set against the  exact  scores  photograph r e c o g n i t i o n Table  t h a t they  achieved  on  have been  the  test:  of  I n d i v i d u a l Map  and  Photograph  Recognition  Scores  Scores  Student  Top Scores on Photo. Test  Map  Low Scores on Photo. Test  8  13  Michael  6  12  Alison  4  12  10  12  M i c h e l l e M.  7  2  Matthew  2  3  Peter  6  4  Yumi  1  4  11  4  0  0  Jennifer Michelle J.  Jennifer outside the by  score of  highest  The  car.  Recognition Test Scores  Scores  Lisa  Kim  day  scores  VI  Comparative Table Test  c h i l d r e n ' s map  She  is  the only  school Her  11 i n  the  child  attained  among t h e g r o u p t h a t  catchment area;  map  map a n a l y s i s was  quite clearly  she  lives  i s driven to school  i n d i c a t e s the  route  that  each was  55  followed  from her  which her other  h o u s e was  s i t u a t e d , but  streets travelled  highest mail  home t o s c h o o l .  number o f o t h e r  box,  a pub,  information  was  and  Jennifer,  however, was  at d i s t i n c t i v e of the  photograph r e c o g n i t i o n  achieved  recognition a score  test;  o f 8.  identified  and  l o o k i n g and  Drive  and  are.  Instead  d r a w i n g and  score  test  r o a d s on  Lisa  saw  of  she  own  was  the  added t o t h e  Matthew and  sign,  that  has  on  the the  low  on  photograph third  highest,  A l t h o u g h she  correctly  map,  i s inward  the  map  a small  main c o n n e c t i n g  individually  area  in  the  Trumpter  roads that  connected to  connection.  On  her  map  also carefully  her  s c h o o l , a c a r , and  pictorial  were b o t h  low  of detail  drawn a f r u i t drew i n  map.  s c o r e r s on  or  the  a person.  dimension o f her  way  o f some  i n much more  correctly  they  each  d e l i b e r a t e l y made a p o i n t  house. L i s a  Yumi, who  a  was  scored  a house w h i c h seems t o be  i n f r o n t of the  the  This  unable to v i s u a l i z e  two  has  She  13  only  c o l o u r i n g t h a t h o u s e on house.  route  scored  her  using  them a s  as she  blossom t r e e b e s i d e  details  map  p a s s e s by  importance t o her  a stop  c h i l d r e n who  walks t o s c h o o l .  paper.  Lisa  map:  the  p o i n t s , mainly i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  as p a r t o f a l a r g e r s p a t i a l  to school,  crosswalk  the  K i n g f i s h e r as the  not  than her  on  highest  named t h e  she  her  of  test.  quite localized,  middle of the  other,  the  Lisa  u n a b l e t o name any  r e l a t e d t o the  one  s t r e e t on  Jennifer also included  f e a t u r e s on  definitely  occuring  Lisa  was  a second elementary s c h o o l .  followed,  the  along.  J e n n i f e r named t h e  the  These  56 photograph r e c o g n i t i o n  test,  drew maps t h a t were t h e  pictorial.  Yumi l i v e s on  the  road  edge o f t h e  school  her  map  just  has  school.  t o walk a c r o s s  and  followed.  and  the  the  On  school,  the  d i d not  interesting  provide  Alison score  of  only  12  on  4 on  the  any  the  his  field.  map  reflects  the  she  has  features  that  she  p a s s e s by  h o u s e and  the  Perhaps because of the map, in  that  lies  Kim  detail.  She  near the  scored  also  rear  high  on  five  pains  the  entrance to the  both the  map  the  drew house.  school to  school  The  major  stand  include these  on  the  her  houses  playground  school.  a n a l y s i s and  Her  field.  colour  adventure  a  short  school.  features  t o draw and  included  Puffin  test.  houses t h a t  entrances to the  lack of other  A l i s o n went t o g r e a t great  the  school,  map.  extremely  t o walk t o r e a c h t h e are  that  a n a l y s i s compared t o  boundary o f  that  he  t h a n h i s own  photograph r e c o g n i t i o n  distance  could with  that  2 Road t o  northern  between h e r  section  large f i e l d  the  her  h i s map  route  house i s s i t u a t e d a l o n g Accordingly,  more  Matthew c a r e f u l l y  r o a d s on  map  of  i n f r o n t of the  i n more d e t a i l  name o f  the  a much l o n g e r ,  true  u s e s f r o m No.  she  to reach  centre  the  to note t h a t  Court  the  scored  The  crosswalk he  field  sections  conform t o the  'cut-through' that I t was  O n l y two  western  indicates that  2 Road, has  Matthew i n c l u d e d  houses around the  higher  No.  the  in reality.  does not  h i s map  behind the  Court.  He  followed  acute turns  lies  on  borders the  clearly  r o a d and  walk t o s c h o o l .  aligned  its  one  Matthew, l i v i n g  complicated be  field;  that  most  57 photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . the s t r e e t be  used f o r o r i e n t a t i o n  roads has  p a t t e r n t h a t she  t h a t Kim  Hummingbird, and school.  One  to school are  others besides  l a r g e t r e e and  scored  disjointed  Court,  i s not  6 on  seen as  four times  being  i t is.  the  a day  left  other  school.  s i d e of the M i c h e l l e M.,  The  on  which her  in detail  and  scored  line  from  no  Kim  on  to  the  additional  who  on  h i s map  is a  l i v e s on.  Cormorant  to Kingfisher Drive  on  t h e map  school. of the  t h a t i s seen  which M i c h a e l However,  walks  Michael  s c h o o l and  moved i n t o t h e  street  drawn on  h o u s e s on  colour.  the  analysis.  area at the  She  t h e map  being  M i c h e l l e ' s was  school f i e l d  was  smaller  than  and  a  and  clearly  h i s r o u t e t o s c h o o l map  map  most  mostly  were c o n n e c t e d  end  produced a  h e r f r i e n d ' s h o u s e were t h e  However, t h e r o a d s  higher  but  o t h e r s were i n d i c a t e d .  t h e map  t h e w e s t e r n edge o f t h e  Peter  houses,  entrance  A l a r g e b l a c k h o u s e was  dominant f e a t u r e s , o t h e r  to  a l l the  t h a t t h e r e were some t o w n h o u s e s t o  7 on  house and  map.  probably  house  f l o w e r s were  i s the sidewalk,  the c h i l d  September, s c o r e d  pictorial  with  a green  t h a t he  connected  s c h o o l , but  of  lacking  own,  analysis,  in front  also indicated  of the  map  t o and  include the crosswalk he  lined  beside the  colourful  the  l e a d i n g t o Cormorant Court  lights;  her  as the c u l - d e - s a c  which, i n r e a l i t y ,  did  p o r t r a y a l of  map.  little  along  an a c c u r a t e  follows to school, could  a b l u e house j u s t  elements i n her  Michael  map,  purposes i n the area. Although  walks along  o n l y shown two  Her  the  route  visible. he  did  58 on  the  photograph r e c o g n i t i o n  concisely  drawn; t h e  including  h i s own,  that and  Peter  drawn a l o n g  Michelle recognition After  paper, put  was  One,  that  exercise  and  to the  unable to score  When h e r  be  hoping that  one  Or,  spatially  the  houses are  the  peak o f t h e  i n the  other  drawn a s  chimney.  the  had  route  to  been i n c l u d e d  possible  maps.  His  own  h o u s e i s l a b e l l e d , as  her  or  attempts  have been mind  drew h i s  On line  map  s e c t i o n as Garson's  a map  representing  square i n d i c a t i n g the  s t r e e t names p r o v i d e d  ways.  the  i n her  in this  a small  information.  totally  paper.,  c l a s s , G a r s o n , who  and  environmental  been  to school  k n o w l e d g e on  her  I  might simply  roof  no  up  retrieved, i t  i n two  squares with a centre  are  exercise.  alternate  act of destroying  more p i c t o r i a l  however, t h e r e  an  p a p e r was  Michelle the  not  photograph  of having t o complete  spatial  boy  comparison with the  the  found  interpreted  afraid  a s v i e w e d f r o m a b o v e ; i t has  of the  on  q u i e t l y crumpled  w a s t e b a s k e t and  was  roads  school.  a t t e m p t s she  then t r a n s f e r t h a t T h e r e was  two  h o u s e s were  action could  unable to organize  The  unnamed, and  a l l a t t e m p t s t o draw a map  was  drawn,  r o a d was  would r e m a i n u n n o t i c e d .  and  attractively.  and  marked, named,  w h i c h t o work.  Michelle  neat  a l s o unable t o complete t h i s  repeated  This  was  were c l e a r l y  was  i t i n t o the  on  map  to school  whole r o u t e  t e s t , was  found t h a t  erased.  coloured  J . , who  several  activity  and  A cross  the  His  h o u s e s were a l l i d e n t i c a l l y  walks along  connected.  test.  i s the extra  location school;  59 Discussion  Such c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m t h e s e tentative.  Those c h i l d r e n  recognition test  lower  children  achieved  test,  o n l y two  interesting  map  test  every  day  further put  was and  on  scored  was  scored  g e n e r a l l y , with  considerably who  who  t h e map low  achieved had  s c o r e s on  t h e one  the f a r t h e s t  away f r o m t h e s c h o o l  more i n f o r m a t i o n on  i n the  o f Kim,  t o her  h i g h e r on  girl  map,  of  those  t h e map  highest overall  had  scored  the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n  who  t o come.  she  be  photograph  exercise. Similarly,  t h a t the  by  high  the exception  significantly  t o note  comments must  was  teat.  s c o r e on  driven to  P e r h a p s by  scoring  the  school  living  a better opportunity thus  It  to  additional  points. Generally, movements a l o n g s c a l e o f any  i t seems a l l t h e c h i l d r e n a route to the  kind.  s h a p e ; some b e i n g sheet,  The  school without  while others spread any  concise u t i l i z i n g t o two  their  relation  maps t h e m s e l v e s d i f f e r  s m a l l and  Most o f t h e h o u s e s on  mapped  considerably in the c e n t r e of  or three sheets  particular  map  of  which corresponds  that children  t o show t h i n g s t h a t  important that  only to the  i s meaningful One  aspect  the c h i l d r e n  had  to  tend  person  who  has  the  paper.  a p p e a r t o have been  drawn f r o m t h e same v i e w p o i n t , a t t h i s age  to a  drawn t h e  to the  map  idea  are and  in a  way  him.  t h a t was  noted  indicated  any  i n a l l t h e maps was environmental  t h a t none o f  f e a t u r e s or  l a n d m a r k s t h a t were away f r o m t h e r o u t e t h a t was  taken  to  60 s c h o o l . However, t h i s t h a t were g i v e n their  route  to the  of the  been p r e s e n t e d  adjoining  children,  the o r i g i n a l  to the  landscape  wider aspect  local  instructions  w h i c h were " t o draw a map  f r o m home t o s c h o o l " r a t h e r t h a n  representation had  d i d comply w i t h  area.  t o draw a  Perhaps i f the  children,  latter  more f e a t u r e s o f  o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge o f t h e by  the  task  may  a p p e a r t o be  a s k e d t o do recall  were n o t  orientated.  relatively  simple,  techniques,  observations, to organize  reference with  to plot  data  draw f r o m t h e i r  previously  s u c h maps t h e  own  perceptions  Although  I t can  only occur  been c r e a t e d and  advanced than  such  more d e v e l o p e d  quietly  local  1982).  i n p u t which c h i l d r e n  known a s  becomes  spatial have  to solve s p a t i a l  problems.  t h a t some c h i l d r e n ' s  e n v i r o n m e n t on  a map  i s more  t h e whole t a s k  abandoned i t , w h i l e  b i r d ' s - e y e view.  of  i n p u t t h a t becomes  utilized  s t r e e t s and  to  to give points  i f frames of r e f e r e n c e  local  a  original  of the environment  o t h e r s . M i c h e l l e J . found  o v e r w h e l m i n g and the  their  using  (Milburn  t o f o r m what i s t e c h n i c a l l y  to represent  visualize  by  amount o f  From s u c h maps i t a l s o becomes e v i d e n t ability  related  t h e c h i l d r e n were  i n s p a c e , and  It i s this considerable  internalized  data  some d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y  From s t u d y i n g  cognition.  area.  a number o f t h i n g s a l l a t o n c e : t o o b s e r v e ,  their  evident.  correctly  a  resemble  maps i n t h a t t h e r o a d s were g e n e r a l l y t o p o l o g i c a l l y even i f they  tapping  local  children did  idea  the  m i g h t have been i n c l u d e d , t h e r e b y  Most o f t h e d r a w i n g s c o m p l e t e d  of  G a r s o n was  h o u s e s i n h i s own Between t h e s e  two  just able  mind f r o m extremes  too to the  61 were many v a r y i n g  stages,  c h i l d r e n ' s concepts of vary  widely  process  of  i n t h a t the  reference  which they a r e  developmental  and  as  a b l e t o use  i s , one the  a simple  routes  this  logical  manoeuvres w h i c h a r e (landmarks).  later  and  next can period  the  be  spatial anticipated,  system  Coordination  development  stage space i s manipulated concrete,  that  stages  <7-8years) i n  reference  landmarks.  by  egocentric  i n which the  fixed  landmarks b e g i n s with At  i t  indicated  s p a c e i n w h i c h an  operational  thinking.  objects  i t is a  l a n d m a r k and  lateral  real  also that  developmental stages  concrete  uncoordinated  such routes  to represent  c h i l d r e n were moving f r o m t h e  r e l a t i o n s between one  b a s e d on  ability  i s used; t h a t  the  that  their  or p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l  system  entering  and  idea  Piaget.  a l s o f o l l o w s the  intuitive  and  s p a c e and  age,  as s t a t e d by  It Piaget  at t h i s  i n d i c a t i v e of the  of  of through  i s , dependent  on  62 CHAPTER CONCLUSION AND Perceptions An  and  the  in  an  S p a t i a l Framework  spatial  to accrue  activity quality  spatial  ability  the  t r a n s a c t i o n s with  the  level  develops the spatial  are  to explore  environment can  and  longer,  d e g r e e and  become an  important  his colleagues  ability  to  nature the  of  are  some  i t i s possible to child's  utility  of  of the  features.  The the  ability.  demonstrated t h a t a  to abstract q u a l i t i e s  areas  child's  Though t h e r e  the  the  his  intellectual  r e l a t i o n s h i p of environmental  represent  Hart's  environments f r e e l y .  r a n g e and  the  more d i s t a n t  variations in a  different  spatial  spatial  to suggest that  t h i s p o i n t of view,  great  The  influence  phenomena.  l a n d s c a p e t h a n by  i n accepting  information  everyday  freedom of t h i s  ( L i b e n e t a l . 1981).  of a c h i l d ' s  Piaget  in his  him  an  been e s t a b l i s h e d  of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y  to co-ordinate  concede t h a t t h e r e  extent  ability  (1978) e n a b l e d  the  increases  o f one's b i r t h .  of d i f f e r e n t  England  more i n f l u e n c e d by  opportunity  spatial  extent  relatedness  of a c h i l d  differences  day  seen as r e l e v a n t f o r c e s which  i n New  intellectual  environment  mass o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  v a r i a t i o n s i n the  as w e l l as  research  was  are  the  from the  development of a c h i l d ' s e n v i r o n m e n t and  of the  framework w h i c h has  attempt t o o r g a n i z e  which b e g i n s  the  IMPLICATIONS  i n d i v i d u a l ' s perception  awareness of the  5  child geometric  However,  63 spatial  cognition  s u c h a s t h i s c a n n o t be assumed t o f o r m t h e  whole o f h i s s p a t i a l space; f r e q u e n t l y being  i n t h e world  successfully  experience.  there  use  locate oneself  to structure and o t h e r  way i n t h e l o c a l  many d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e s  intuitive is  i s a need t o a b s t r a c t  i n order  In f i n d i n g t h e i r  way r a t h e r  frequently  that  oneself  i t so that  one may  phenomena w i t h i n i t .  environment, a c h i l d  may  t h a n u s e one o r two k e y l a n d m a r k s ,  which  i n t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h .  A child  may  and o r i e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s  f o r a p a r t i c u l a r task  demands o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  The o n l y  or f o r t h e unique  way t o f i n d  o u t i s t o ask  child. As  a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t philosopher,  what i s t h o u g h t t o be r e a l  Piaget  also believed  i s a construction  o f thought, a  p r o d u c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a c h i l d between m a t u r a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  rather  In t h i s b e l i e f  critics  than with t h e content o f thought. of this  Susan I s a a c s  Piaget  thought  T h e r e a r e many  l a c k o f c o n c e r n w i t h c o n t e n t , one o f whom i s  <1966> who s u g g e s t s t h a t  i t i s necessary t o  i n v e s t i g a t e a c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e development t o g e t h e r ability  that  and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ,  was more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s  be  from  i n an  have a v a r i e t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  the  and a c t i n  r e i n f o r c e each other  proposed  which a r e s e l e c t e d  A l l people l i v e  to construct  the world  logically;  that  with h i s  i s , one  should  c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c h i l d ' s own i n t e r e s t s i n t h e w o r l d .  Criticism  such as t h i s  isstill  many a r e a s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n  valid;  profession.  i tcould  be a p p l i e d t o  64 Geography I n t h e E l e m e n t a r y  Curriculum  In Canada i t a p p e a r s t h a t g e o g r a p h y a s a s u b j e c t i n elementary  schools  i s almost  unknown.  As  Milburn  hypothesizes: G e o g r a p h y , t h e r e f o r e , i s o n l y a s m a l l component o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n Canadian Schools i n g e n e r a l . Though g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e n t may be d e f i n e d i n t h e curriculum guide, there i s often l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of t h e d e p t h t o w h i c h i t w i l l be t a u g h t . I t c a n be g i v e n a c u r s o r y r e v i e w , and i t may be t a u g h t by t e a c h e r s with v e r y l i t t l e geography i n t h e i r own b a c k g r o u n d . . . (1984: p . 8 ) . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t h e c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m development  i s b a s e d on  with  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i f any,  little  t h e s t r u c t u r e and  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d ' s own interests, primary own  and  thoughts.  grades,  individual  misunderstood  by  and on  experiences,  the classroom developers  c h i l d r e n ' s own  their  of  have.  between t h e  There should  experiences, especially  "own  which are  be  understanding investigators,  of the c h i l d . building  inside  observation of t h e i r  an  children  their  perhaps  fact  the school c o u l d be  interactive,  the geographic  Teachers  their  the  curriculum",  aware o f t h e  experiences  s e t c u r r i c u l u m and  in  teacher.  should  be  geography  spontaneous  that  situation  used as a  which t o c o n s t r u c t t h e knowledge t h a t e d u c a t o r s  should  The  Young c h i l d r e n ,  l e a r n o u t s i d e as w e l l as  that the  f o r the  geographic  to school with  lived  Curriculum children  go  content  feel  ongoing  they  process  interests  m i g h t become  and  the  t e a c h i n g u n i t s o r themes upon and  their  r o l e of c h i l d r e n ' s geographical  spontaneous  experience  base  i s an  the  questions. area  65 requiring city,  further research, according  suburban, o r v i l l a g e  visual  media t h e y  been g i v e n  i n terms o f environmental  has  explanations.  Research Denise  Piche  (1982),  following  r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s g e o g r a p h y , s u g g e s t s  childrens'  understanding  simultaneously  o f p r o x i m a t e and d i s t a n t  i s necessarily related  area  o f r e s e a r c h t h a t c o u l d be f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r  t o a conception  a brief  conversation, the late  landmarks a r e a form o f s e c u r i t y  adults.  i n an u n f a m i l i a r e n v i r o n m e n t .  environment.  observed  c h i l d r e n and  have a f e a r o f b e i n g  A further  interesting  D r . S c a r f e was t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r e v e n t s  landmarks, e i t h e r  an  to explore  Dean S c a r f e  t o both  T h i s m i g h t be s o b e c a u s e p e o p l e  comment f r o m  s p a c e be  o f elsewhere",  c h i l d r e n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s g e o g r a p h y b e y o n d t h e home  During  that  i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r "a c o r r e c t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f  here  lost  ina  e n v i r o n m e n t ; t o what a c c e s s t o  Subsequent t o t h i s thought,  that  live  have h a d ; a n d t o what p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e  Implications f o r Further  her  t o whether they  i n the physical or psychological  make  sense.  While these  two i d e a s a r e n o t a p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h a s p e c t o f  this  they  study,  do b e a r  t h e b a s i s f o r an a r e a nature  development o f c h i l d r e n .  ranges o f c h i l d r e n  between p a r e n t  could  form  o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The i n t e r a c t i v e  of the child-parent relationship  in the s p a t i a l spatial  c o n s i d e r a b l e merit; they  and c h i l d  are a product  c a n assume a m a j o r Hart  suggests  role  that the  of direct negotiation  ( S a a r i n e n e t a l . 1984).  66 A Role  f o r Parents  If travel  i ti s believed that spatial  occurs  cycling,  or driving,  then  the degree t o which a c h i l d ' s specific  i t c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d  attention  i s drawn  p a r t s o f t h e environment d u r i n g t r a v e l  considerable directed  importance.  toward n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s such  or highways. I f a c h i l d specific  i s also  r o u t e s t o be t a k e n ,  more f o c u s e d  that  towards i s of  I t i s i m m a t e r i a l whether t h e a t t e n t i o n as r i v e r s ,  m o u n t a i n s , o r t o w a r d man-made phenomena l i k e  If  during  t h o u g h an e n v i r o n m e n t , w h e t h e r t h e mode o f t r a v e l i s  walking,  is  learning  waterfalls,  buildings,  dams,  involved i n the decision  then  spatial  learning  about  becomes e v e n  and p r a c t i c a l .  one f o l l o w s t h i s t r a i n  consider the p o s s i b i l i t y to raise a c h i l d  o f thought  o f whether i t i s f e a s i b l e f o r  who i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  makes a c o n s c i o u s , c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t with t h e c h i l d , environmental  t o help develop  features, to talk  while t r a v e l l i n g  i ti s conceivable to  competent.  t o share  skills  parents  I f a parent  route decisions  of observation of  continually  with the c h i l d  between p l a c e s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e  curiosity  about p l a c e s and landmarks i n t h e environment, then  a child  s h o u l d grow up w i t h a d e g r e e o f c o m p e t e n c e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l and spatial child,  knowledge.  Such c o n s c i o u s t r a i n i n g  however, must c o n s t i t u t e  educational  philosophy  receive a practical to p a r t i c i p a t e  of a b i l i t i e s  ina  a part of the d i s t i n c t  o f the parents  who w i s h  their  child to  w e l l r o u n d e d e d u c a t i o n and who a r e w i l l i n g  i n the process  themselves.  67 There i s a p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n length of the  h o m e - s c h o o l b a s e and  landmarks a r e r e c o g n i z e d . decline  the  d i s t a n c e o f 3.2  unsupported.  t o 4 km  <2  This area  relevance  i n the continuance  punctuated  as they  When t h e c h i l d r e n  arrive  the  i n t h a t i t forms p a r t little  suburban roads  traffic  them  in light  The way  they  through, little be  of t h e i r  lights at  i n Richmond,  intersections.  i n the core area they  children  personal  appear  t o r e c o g n i z e the  p o s s i b l y because along  i n the  way  of s i g n i f i c a n t  a considerable discrepancy  children  started  and  w h i c h he  landmarks.  adult alike,  where s p a c e must seem  l a n d m a r k s a r e needed e v e n more. suburbia  i s apparently  make s p a t i a l  devoid  orientation  There appeared  i n the  the  photographs.  i n space.  In a  t o young  However, much o f  relevant.  to  to  r e q u i r e s landmarks  of noteworthy  the  there i s  were a b l e  infinite  on  travelling  between t h e p l a c e where  i s able to orientate himself  suburban a r e a  are  Richmond's r o a d s  t h e p l a c e where t h e y  and  meaningful  landmarks, but  space they  r e c o g n i z e s e v e r a l landmarks r e p r e s e n t e d Everyone, c h i l d r e n  to  experience.  recognize the e s s e n t i a l  are unable  a  photograph  know a l l t h e r e l e v a n t l a n d m a r k s a s p l a c e s t h a t a r e to  the  home-school  There i s seemingly  a r e o n l y by do  s c o r e s on  of the  that  landmarks l o c a t e d a t  i s notable  t h e main c o r e o f Richmond.  the n o t i o n  m i l e s ) from the  higher  which  d i s t a n c e away f r o m  The  t o 2.5  area received s i g n i f i c a n t l y recognition test.  distances at  In t h i s study  i n r e c o g n i t i o n increases with  h o m e - s c h o o l b a s e was  of  between t h e i n c r e a s i n g  from flat, children,  today's  landmarks t h a t  can  68 From t h i a p a r e n t s who the c h i l d  r e s e a r c h i t c o u l d be  i n d i c a t e points along  about the r o u t e taken  suggested  a r o u t e , who  may  r o u t e knowledge.  that  those  converse  w e l l s t i m u l a t e an  in  l a n d m a r k s and  in  the development o f the c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l  research also  perceived children  environmental had  had  a n e g a t i v e way  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  theatre).  some  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e most images were t h o s e  clearly  with which  kind of personal experience,  ( f o r example, p e r f o r m i n g  on  the whether i n  stage at  I t t h e r e f o r e seems t h a t a d i s t i n c t  a particular  landmark, o r a r e p e t i t i v e  images o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o r i m p r i n t e d on  w h i c h he  competence  ( f o r example, s t i t c h e s a t t h e h o s p i t a l ) o r  p l e a s u r a b l e way  easily  assist  attainable.  The  enables  interest  T h i s knowledge s h o u l d  f u r t h e r awareness so t h a t a degree o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l m i g h t be  with  in a  the  association  experience  with  with i t ,  landmark t o become more  the c h i l d ' s mental p i c t u r e of the space  in  exists.  Summary As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , s p a t i a l orientation  t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and  i t s a s s o c i a t e d landmarks  be  education.  know an e n v i r o n m e n t , t o e x p e r i e n c e  investigation,  r e c o r d i n g and  by  and  might p o s s i b l y To  reinforced  perception  skill  training  interrelating  in geographical  the f e a t u r e s  (whether n a t u r a l o r man-made) w i t h i n i t , must h e l p children live.  l o c a t e themselves  Images o f t h e i r  i n t h e complex w o r l d  local  i t through  environment w i l l  young  i n which  help to  they  provide  69 the  perceptual  framework  c o n c e p t s c a n be d e v e l o p e d together  to organize  w i t h i n w h i c h c o g n i t i v e images and so t h a t t h e s e  reality.  d i s c r e t e p a r t s come  BIBLIOGRAPHY  71 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A c r e d o l o , L.P. " D e v e l o p m e n t a l Changes i n t h e A b i l i t y t o C o - o r d i n a t e P e r s p e c t i v e s of a L a r g e - S c a l e Space." D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y 13 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 1-8. "Frames o f R e f e r e n c e u s e d by C h i l d r e n F o r O r i e n t a t i o n i n U n f a m i l i a r S p a c e s . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Knowing. E d s . G. Moore and R. G o l l e d g e . S t r o u d s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a : Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and R o s s , 1976. A c r e d o l o , L.P., H.L. P i c k , and M.C. O l a e n . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l D i f f e r e n t a t i o n and F a m i l i a r i t y a s D e t e r m i n a n t s o f C h i l d r e n ' s Memory f o r S p a t i a l L o c a t i o n . " D e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y 11 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 495-500. Allen,  G.L. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R o u t e Knowledge." C h i l d r e n ' s C o n c e p t i o n s o f S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . E d . R. Cohen. 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A d v a n c e s i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t and B e h a v i o r . V o l . 10. New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1975. Tuan, Y i - F u , " O r i e n t a t i o n : An A p p r o a c h To Human G e o g r a p h y . " J o u r n a l o f G e o g r a p h y . V o l . 82 No. 1 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 11-14.  75  APPENDIX  A  76  P h o t o g r a p h 2.  Richmond  F i r e Department, F i r e h a l l  No. 2, a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n No.  2 Road.  o f S t e v e s t o n Highway  an  77  P h o t o g r a p h 4. Street.  Austin  Harris School,  on  Moncton  78  Photograph  6.  intersection  A r t Knappa G a r d e n S p o t , a t t h e o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No.  1 Road.  79  P h o t o g r a p h 8.  Steveston  at the i n t e r s e c t i o n Avenue.  Museum and P o s t  o f Moncton S t r e e t  and  Office, First  80  Photograph the  9.  S t e v e a t o n Government Wharf, a l o n g  s o u t h arm o f t h e F r a s e r  River.  I  Photograph  10.  intersection  S o u t h Arm U n i t e d  Church,  o f S t e v e s t o n Highway and No.  at the 3 Road.  81  Photograph  11.  S e a f a i r Community  west end o f F r a n c i s  Photograph Road.  12.  Ice Rink, a t the  Road.  The Dyke a t t h e west end o f  Francis  82  Photograph No.  13.  Richmond F i r e D e p a r t m e n t , F i r e h a l l  1, a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G r a n v i l l e  Gilbert  Road.  Avenue and  Photograph Minoru  15.  Minoru A t h l e t i c  Track, located  in  Park.  <=  Photograph  16.  Minoru Chapel, l o c a t e d  i n Minoru  84  Photograph  17.  Finn Slough, located  at the  s o u t h e r n end o f No. 4 Road.  Photograph  18.  intersection Road.  Richmond G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l ,  o f W e s t m i n s t e r Highway  and  a t the  Gilbert  85  Photograph  20.  Steveston  Fantaay Gardens,  at the i n t e r s e c t !  Highway and No. 5 Road.  Photograph Westminster  Photograph located  21.  Richmond N a t u r e P a r k ,  Highway  22.  west o f No.  Landsdowne  located  5 Road.  Park Shopping  on No. 3 Road, between Lansdowne  Alderbridge  Way.  on  Centre, Road  and  87  P h o t o g r a p h 23.  Buddhist  Temple, l o c a t e d  S t e v e s t o n Highway between No.  P h o t o g r a p h 24.  3 Road and No.  McDonald's R e s t a u r a n t ,  Road a t G r a n v i l l e  Avenue.  on  on No.  4 Road.  3  P h o t o g r a p h 25.  Highway  99, l o o k i n g  t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e G e o r g e Massey  south  Tunnel.  towards  89  APPENDIX B  93  98  

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