UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development of childrens' personal landmarks : an indication of spatial awareness White, Janet Ann 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 W47.pdf [ 7.67MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055183.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055183-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055183-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055183-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055183-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055183-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055183-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055183-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055183.ris

Full Text

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDRENS' PERSONAL LANDMARKS: AN INDICATION OF SPATIAL AWARENESS By JANET ANN WHITE B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o£ B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Education, Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1986 © Janet Ann White, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date g y ^ / ^ Id* 11*6 ABSTRACT T h i s study examines one of the major p e r i o d s o f ge o g r a p h i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n and l e a r n i n g , t h a t i s , i n c h i l d h o o d . Such e x p l o r a t i o n and l e a r n i n g can occur i n and around the home or i n the l o c a l neighbourhood. C h i l d r e n and a d u l t s need t o know about a p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i r own environment. D i f f e r e n t landmarks may have s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t i v e p o t e n t i a l , and over time they themselves c o u l d be s u b j e c t t o developmental change. The purpose of t h i s study i s , t h e r e f o r e , to determine which landmarks primary c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e spontaneously and know and use i n t h e i r l o c a l environment. In t h i s way they can, perhaps, l o c a t e themselves i n a comples world. A c h i l d ' s development of s p a t i a l concepts i s r e l a t e d t o the framework i n which images are r e c e i v e d . The b a s i c r e s e a r c h t o o l was t h a t o f a sample of twenty c h i l d r e n , approximately seven years of age, who were i n d i v i d u a l l y shown a s e r i e s o f c o l o u r photographs and asked t o i d e n t i f y the landmark or environmental f e a t u r e . In a second p a r t of the study, c h i l d r e n mapped p e r c e p t i o n s o f the r o u t e s they f o l l o w e d t o s c h o o l . Each c h i l d was asked t o i n d i c a t e on a map the r e l e v a n t landmarks they observed en r o u t e . Scores were o b t a i n e d f o r both t a s k s and compared. In the c o n c l u s i o n , the r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n an attempt t o determine the degree of s p a t i a l competence w i t h i n the l o c a l environment gained by an a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y landmarks. C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n t o the q u e s t i o n of whether such competence i s a s k i l l t h a t c o u l d , or should, be taught t o young c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the normal process of e d u c a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x CHAPTER 1. SPATIAL COGNITION: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C o g n i t i v e Maps 11 Landmark and Route Knowledge 15 2. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 26 I n t r o d u c t i o n 26 Procedure 29 3. ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION TEST . . . 32 I n t r o d u c t i o n 32 The R e l a t i o n o f P r o x i m i t y t o R e c o g n i t i o n . . . . 32 Exact Responses: The Highest and the Lowest . . 45 Summary 49 4. ANALYSIS OF THE ROUTE TO SCHOOL MAPS . . . . . . . 51 I n t r o d u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a 51 F i n d i n g s 53 D i s c u s s i o n 59 5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS 62 P e r c e p t i o n and the S p a t i a l Framework 62 Geography i n the Elementary Curriculum 64 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 65 A Role f o r Parents 66 i v Summary 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 APPENDICES A PHOTOGRAPHS AND LOCATIONS OF LANDMARKS USED IN THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION TEST 75 B THE CHILDREN'S ROUTE TO SCHOOL MAPS 89 v LIST OF TABLES Table I I n d i v i d u a l Scores on the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n Test 33 II R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t : Exact Responses 34 I I I R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t : Accurate Suggestions 36 IV C h i l d r e n with the Highest and Lowest Frequency of Exact Responses on the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n Test . . . . . . . . . . 46 V Home to School Map Scores 53 VI Comparative Table of I n d i v i d u a l Map and Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t Scores 54 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the development of g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t o p o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 6 2. Three r e f e r e n c e systems f o r c h i l d r e n ' s o r i e n t a t i o n i n the landscape 19 3. R e s u l t s of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number of exact responses 35 4. R e s u l t s of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number of a c c u r a t e s u g g e s s t i o n s 37 Photograph 1. The P and A Supermarket, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 2 Road, southeast corner 76 2. Richmond F i r e Department, F i r e h a l l No. 2, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 2 Road, southwest corner 76 3. The Windsor Pub, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and Railway Avenue, n o r t h e a s t corner . . 77 4. A u s t i n H a r r i s S c h o o l , on Moncton S t r e e t , viewed l o o k i n g n o r t h 77 5. The Steveston M a r t i a l A r t s Centre, on Moncton S t r e e t , viewed l o o k i n g n o r t h e a s t 78 6. A r t Knapps Garden Spot, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 1 Road, southwest c o r n e r 7S 7. London Farm House, on the Dyke Road, along the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , viewed l o o k i n g n o r t h 79 8. Steveston Museum and Post O f f i c e , a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Moncton S t r e e t and F i r s t Avenue, northwest corner 79 9. Steveston Government Wharf, along the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , viewed l o o k i n g e a s t 80 v i i 10. South Arm United Church, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 3 Road, southwest corner 80 11. S e a f a i r Community Ice Rink, a t the west end of F r a n c i s Road, viewed l o o k i n g southeast 81 12. The Dyke, viewed l o o k i n g south from the west end of F r a n c i s Road 81 13. Richmond F i r e Department, F i r e h a l l No.l a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G r a n v i l l e Avenue and G i l b e r t Road, n o r t h e a s t corner 82 14. Minoru A q u a t i c Centre, a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue and Minoru Boulevard, viewed l o o k i n g southeast . . . 82 15. Minoru A t h l e t i c Track, l o c a t e d i n Minoru Park. . . 83 16. Minoru Chapel, l o c a t e d i n Minoru Park . . . . . . 83 17. F i n n Slough, l o c a t e d a t the southern end of No. 4 Road, viewed l o o k i n g west 84 18. Richmond General H o s p i t a l , a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Westminster Highway and G i l b e r t Road, Southeast corner 84 19. Richmond Gateway Theatre, l o c a t e d on G i l b e r t Road between G r a n v i l l e Avenue and Westminster Highway, viewed l o o k i n g northwest 85 20. Fantasy Gardens, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 5 Road, n o r t h e a s t corner . . . . 85 21. Richmond Nature Park, l o c a t e d on Westminster Highway, west of No. 5 Road, viewed l o o k i n g north 86 22. Lansdowne Park Shopping Centre, l o c a t e d on No. 3 Road, between Lansdowne Road and A l d e r b r i d g e Way, viewed l o o k i n g southeast 86 23. Buddist Temple, l o c a t e d on Steveston Highway between No. 3. Road and No. 4 Road, viewed l o o k i n g west 87 24. McDonald's Restaurant, on No. 3 Road a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue, viewed l o o k i n g southeast 87 25. Highway 99, l o o k i n g south towards the entrance t o the George Massey Tunnel 88 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D. Milburn and Dr. E. Goetz f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. For t h e i r w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank the p r i n c i p a l and c h i l d r e n of Westwlnd Elementary School i n Richmond where the r e s e a r c h was conducted. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my husband f o r h i s support and encouragement throughout the d u r a t i o n of t h i s study. i x CHAPTER 1 SPATIAL COGNITION: A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE I t i s not alone the d e s i r e t o t r y and use h i s power t h a t prompts the boy a t t h i s age t o seek adventure high and low, f a r and wide, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the p e c u l i a r i t y and need of h i s u n f o l d i n g innermost l i f e , the d e s i r e to c o n t r o l the d i v e r s i t y o f t h i n g s , t o see i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s i n t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n with a whole, b r i n g near t h a t which i s remote, t o comprehend (the o u t e r world) i n i t s e x t e n t , i t s d i v e r s i t y , i t s i n t e g r i t y ; i t i s the d e s i r e t o extend h i s scope step by s t e p . ( F r o e b e l , 103) I n t r o d u c t i o n Throughout h i s book. The E d u c a t i o n of Man ( F r o e b e l , 1826), seems t o be aware of the e x p l o r a t o r y urge of young c h i l d r e n and of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the p h y s i c a l world. A c h i l d i s born i n t o t h i s world and w i t h i n the f i r s t decade, of h i s l i f e has e x p l o r e d much of the r i c h n e s s t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n i t . Young c h i l d r e n use t h e i r v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n s t o e x p l o r e t h e i r environment, t o l e a r n about i t , and t o b r i n g meaning to i t . In o rder t o achieve competency i n the world a c h i l d must be a b l e to develop and e s t a b l i s h a knowledge of h i s s p a t i a l q u a l i t i e s . In h i s e a r l y y ears a c h i l d e x p e r i e n c e s many journeys i n the " s p a t i a l sense"--between home and s c h o o l , t o f r i e n d s ' and r e l a t i v e s ' homes, t o shopping c e n t r e s , sometimes to o ther towns and c i t i e s . From these many and v a r i e d e x periences the c h i l d develops s e t s of i d e a s of what w i l l be encountered as w e l l as the s p a t i a l and temporal r e l a t i o n s 2 between c e r t a i n p l a c e s and events. In h i s mind the c h i l d i s developing a map or s e t s of maps as he begins t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r the s p a t i a l p a r t s of h i s world i n order to make sense of them. I t i a o n l y i n r e c e n t years t h a t the study of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n has become a semi-autonomous s u b f i e l d i n the study o f c o g n i t i v e development. C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has become a v a i l a b l e i n developmental and b e h a v i o u r a l psychology t o help e x p l a i n the development of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t much of the c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n should have i t s r o o t s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r ' s study, "The C h i l d ' s Conception of Space" <1956>, i n which i t was demonstrated t h a t s p a t i a l concepts, l i k e other concepts of time, number, and c a u s a l i t y , are c o n s t r u c t e d by the c h i l d through i n t e r a c t i o n with the environment and change q u a l i t a t i v e l y with h i s development ( L i b e n . 1982). P i a g e t ' s e a r l y r e s e a r c h focused on the processes of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n which u t i l i z e d s m a l l t a b l e top models of v a r i o u s environments i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e f l e c t space. However, s i n c e S i e g e l and White's 1975 study, c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has focused on the N c h i l d ' s knowledge of l a r g e - s c a l e environments. At t h i s p o i n t some d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n and s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n , as both terms occur f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e . C o g n i t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l of the modes of knowing, t h a t i s , p e r c e i v i n g , t h i n k i n g , imagining, reasoning, judging, and remembering. In e a r l y i n f a n c y , because 3 the r e f l e c t i v e a s p e c t s of knowing do not e x i s t , p e r c e p t i o n stands alone; but i n l a t e r c h i l d h o o d , p e r c e p t i o n i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o the other modes of knowing. P i a g e t (1963) suggests t h a t knowledge of the world i n c l u d e s two a s p e c t s : the f i g u r a t i v e , r e l a t e d t o the p e r c e p t s one images o f s u c c e s s i v e s t a t e s or momentary c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the world by d i r e c t immediate c o n t a c t ; and the o p e r a t i v e , r e l a t e d t o the o p e r a t i o n s which i n t e r v e n e between s u c c e s s i v e s t a t e s and by which the s u b j e c t transforms p a r t s o f the world i n t o r e c o n s t r u c t a b l e p a t t e r n s or schemas. V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i s one form o f f i g u r a t i v e knowing; c o g n i t i o n i s based on the o p e r a t i v e a s p e c t . As development proceeds, p e r c e p t i o n becomes subordinated t o higher mental proc e s s e s . C o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a v a i l a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l i n f l u e n c e p e r c e p t u a l s e l e c t i v i t y which lea d s t o a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the world through s e l e c t e d f i e l d s of a t t e n t i o n . S p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n and s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , are two separate but r e c i p r o c a l processes (Hart, 1979). I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t P i a g e t and h i s c o l l e a g u e s demonstrated t h a t a c h i l d does develop the a b i l i t y t o a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the geometric s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of o b j e c t s . From h i s r e s e a r c h with c h i l d r e n , which i n v o l v e d i n t e r v i e w s and experiments, P i a g e t concluded t h a t t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e order i n the development of s p a t i a l concepts. He proposed t h a t t o p o l o g i c a l space was the e a r l i e s t form of s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o be developed. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on the b a s i s of t o p o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s were made f a i r l y e a r l y i n the 4 p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l p e r i o d , and then most t o p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s became i n t e g r a t e d i n t o s t a b l e o p e r a t i o n s around seven years of age. T o p o l o g i c a l space i s concerned with the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s emphasizing the n o t i o n s of p r o x i m i t y , o r d e r , e n c l o s u r e , c o n t i n u i t y , and separateness. I t does not permit l o c a t i o n of o b j e c t s w i t h i n the whole space; nor does t h i s system allow a c h i l d t o r e l a t e o b j e c t s t o each o t h e r . In order t o be a b l e t o do t h i s , the concepts of p r o j e c t i v e and E u c l i d i a n space are g r a d u a l l y b u i l t , a c h i e v i n g an e q u i l i b r i u m a t about ten years of age. With r e s p e c t t o a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o produce r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of h i s f a m i l i a r environments, t h a t i s , l a r g e - s c a l e s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n , P i a g e t s t a t e s t h a t i n Stages 1 or 2 (below seven years of age) the c h i l d ' s responses are e g o c e n t r i c , uncoordinated, and i r r e v e r s i b l e . His d e s c r i p t i o n s of r o u t e s are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o h i s own a c t i o n s . Landmarks are not o r g a n i z e d i n terms of any o b j e c t i v e , s p a t i a l whole. He i s a l s o unable t o r o t a t e maps or models or t o c o n s t r u c t a r o u t e i n the r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n . In stage 3a the c h i l d e x h i b i t s l i m i t e d c o o r d i n a t i o n so t h a t w i t h i n c l u s t e r s of landmarks, r e l a t i o n s h i p s are c o r r e c t ; but a c r o s s c l u s t e r s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s are g e n e r a l l y haphazard. In stage 3b the c h i l d i s a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e w i t h i n and between c l u s t e r s , t o r e p r e s e n t r o u t e s forwards and backwards, and t o re-arrange a r o t a t e d map or model c o r r e c t l y . The n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n of P i a g e t ' s s t u d i e s , and those of other developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s , i s t h a t young c h i l d r e n d i d not 5 have w e l l developed s p a t i a l concepts. (See F i g u r e 1.) More r e c e n t l y , however, r e s e a r c h e r s have begun t o use other t a s k s to a s s e s s a c h i l d ' s knowledge of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . These t a s k s are baaed on the theory t h a t a young c h i l d may a c t u a l l y possess very good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of h i s s p a t i a l world but t h a t he i s unable t o demonstrate these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s because he can not meet the demands of the P i a g e t i a n - t y p e t a s k s . One such task t h a t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the s p a t i a l a b i l i t y of a young c h i l d i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the t h r e e mountains experiment. A b r i e f a n a l y s i s i s i n c l u d e d a t t h i s p o i n t . In The C h i l d ' s Conception of Space ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956) the theory of the development of s p a t i a l concepts i s a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of P i a g e t ' s g e n e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework of i n t e l l e c t u a l development. The study i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o h i s n o t i o n of the t h r e e types of s p a t i a l concepts: t o p o l o g i c a l space, p r o j e c t i v e , and E u c l i d i a n space. While t h e o r i z i n g about p r o j e c t i v e space, P i a g e t was concerned about the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y t o imagine how an o b j e c t might appear from d i f f e r e n t viewpoints and the c h i l d ' s subsequent a b i l i t y t o make use of t h i s phenomenon i n s o l v i n g v a r i o u s s p a t i a l problems. One p a r t i c u l a r experiment, commonly known as the t h r e e mountains, i n v e s t i g a t e d the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e s p a t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . I t was designed t o t e s t the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the appearance of o b j e c t s i a a f u n c t i o n of the s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n from which they 6 SI Si IV Formal operational space MIB MIA MB Concrete operational space 1 JZ. 8 Preoperational space HA ' Sensorimotor space o c CL vt •a £ ra o LEVELS OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATION TYPES OF REFERENCE SYSTEMS AND TOPOGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS F i g . 1 Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the development o f g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t o p o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . (Hart and Moore, 1971). 7 are observed. P i a g e t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o complete the t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d with the t h r e e mountains experiment l e a d him t o conclude t h a t a young c h i l d i s unable t o 'decentre' i n im a g i n a t i o n . He suggests t h a t he i s bound by the ' e c o o g e n t r i c i l l u s i o n ' as soon as he i s c a l l e d upon t o form a mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some view which he had not a c t u a l l y seen. P i a g e t f u r t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the young c h i l d l i v e s i n the s t a t e of the moment, not b o t h e r i n g with how t h i n g s were p r e v i o u s l y nor how they w i l l be i n the f u t u r e . In her book. C h i l d r e n ' s Minds (1978), Margaret Donaldson d i s p u t e s P i a g e t ' s f i n d i n g s from h i s t h r e e mountains experiment. In c o n j u n c t i o n with M a r t i n Hughes she r e p l i c a t e d the t h r e e mnountains experiment u s i n g w a l l s , policemen, and a d o l l . Instead of mountains they used s t r a t e g i e s s i m i l i a r t o those developed by P i a g e t : the c h i l d i s asked t o p l a c e the d o l l i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s t o meet s p e c i f i c s p a t i a l c r i t e r i a . Donaldson suggests t h a t with a success r a t e o f over 85* the r e s u l t s are markedly d i f f e r e n t from those achieved by P i a g e t . The d i f f i c u l t y i a then t o r e c o n c i l e these r e s u l t s with P i a g e t ' s c l a i m t h a t a c h i l d under seven years i a weak a t a p p r e c i a t i n g the p o i n t o f view o f some oth e r person i n the l i t e r a l sense o f being unable t o f i g u r e out what the other person can see. She suggests t h a t the "policemen" experiment i s a s i t u a t i o n which makes sense t o the c h i l d ; the motives and i n t e n t i o n s o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n the ta s k are q u i t e comprehensible. The task s r e q u i r e s the c h i l d t o a c t i n a human way, t o hi d e , and thus makes sense t o the c h i l d . He understands what i t i s he has t o do and consequently performs the r e q u i r e d task without d i f f i c u l t y . C onversely, however, P i a g e t ' s 'mountain' task i s incomprehensible t o the c h i l d ; t h e r e i s no i n t e r p l a y o f pe r s o n a l motives of any k i n d t o make i t meaningful t o him. Donaldson argues t h a t the mountain task i s a b s t r a c t i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y important sense i n t h a t i t i s sep a r a t e from b a s i c human purposes, f e e l i n g s , and endeavours and i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o t a l l y c o l d - b l o o d e d . Such evidence suggests t h a t the use of language i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y important i n any d e a l i n g s or t a s k s concerned with a c h i l d . I t would, t h e r e f o r e , appear t o be a l o g i c a l s t e p t o assess the c h i l d ' s understanding o f the language used t o e x p l a i n procedures of a task and t o use language a p p r o p r i a t e t o the age of the c h i l d . The task must be exp l a i n e d d i n such a way t h a t the c h i l d can b r i n g meaning t o i t . I f the c h i l d i s give n a frame of r e f e r e n c e t h a t i t can manipulate, then the gi v e n task can be competently completed. Perhaps P i a g e t ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e and language are too a d u l t f o r the age o f the c h i l d r e n he was t e s t i n g , which may have r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r f a i l u r e t o complete the mountain experiment with a hi g h degree of accuracy. I t was much l a t e r , i n 1981, t h a t S i e g e l suggested t h a t "these t e c h n i q u e s ( f o r example, sketch maps, smal l s c a l e models) tend t o l e a d t o underestimates of c h i l d r e n ' s s p a t i a l 9 competence because they confound s p a t i a l knowledge with e x t e r n a l i z i n g a b i l i t y and other t h e o r e t i c a l l y n o n-relevent task l o a d s " (p. 190). As a r e s u l t of such ide a s one approach has been t o i n f e r a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n from h i s a b i l i t y t o move through space i n d i r e c t locomotive t a s k s , f o r example, g e t t i n g from home t o s c h o o l . S i e g e l and White's 1975 study o f the s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l a r g e - s c a l e environments suggests t h a t a c h i l d p r o g r e s s e s from l e a r n i n g landmarks, t h a t i s , d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s on the t e r r a i n , t o l e a r n i n g r o u t e s which connect these landmarks, t o i n t e g r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about r o u t e s t o form an o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , which i s something l i k e a map but i s termed c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l knowledge. F o l l o w i n g t h i s study, C u r t i s , S i e g e l , and Furl o n g i n 1981 p r o v i d e evidence t h a t c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l knowledge improves developmentally i n elementary s c h o o l , although landmark and rou t e knowledge, i n a f a m i l i a r environment, shows fewer age r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s . Knowledge of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n has a l s o been d e r i v e d from performances on t a s k s t h a t do not themselves r e q u i r e the d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by t a s k s i n which c h i l d r e n a re asked t o make rank judgements about the r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e s o f o b j e c t s . M u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g techniques are then a p p l i e d t o the c h i l d ' s rank-ordered judgements and the d e r i v e d map i s taken as a model of the c h i l d ' s u n d e r l y i n g s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n <Liben 1982). L i b e n , however, warns of the 10 danger t h a t the i n f e r r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space, and a l s o t h a t not a l l locomotive behaviours tap s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . P i a g e t (1956) a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t the a b i l i t y t o act/move i n space does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t space. He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between p r a c t i c a l space, which i s the c a p a c i t y t o a c t i n space, and conceptual space, which i a the c a p a c i t y t o r e p r e s e n t space. P i a g e t s t a t e s t h a t the a b i l i t y t o act i n space does not imply an a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t space. A c o n t r a r y p o s i t i o n i s t h a t the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o move through space i s indeed i n d i c a t i v e o f u n d e r l y i n g s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A c r e d o l o , P i c k , and Olsen (1975) took p r e - s c h o o l e r s on a walk through v a r i o u s environments and l a t e r asked them t o r e t u r n t o p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s where some keys had been dropped. The a b i l i t y of the c h i l d t o r e t u r n t o these l o c a t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y was taken as a measure o f s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . However, t h i s p o i n t depends t o some ex t e n t on what i s meant by the term s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . L i b e n (1981) suggests t h r e e main uses of the term: 1. o b s e r v a b l e , e x t e r n a l s p a t i a l p r o d u c t s , f o r example, sketch maps and s c a l e models t h a t r e p r e s e n t space; 2. s p a t i a l thought which i s c o n s c i o u s knowledge about space; t h a t i s , s p a t i a l knowledge t h a t can be r e f l e c t e d upon or manipulated, f o r example, imagining l a y o u t s of a k i t c h e n or l i v i n g room; 11 3. s p a t i a l storage--knowledge about space t h a t i s s t o r e d i n some form but t o which the r e s e a r c h e r does not have immediate a c c e s s . (One can i n f e r , however, t h a t c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about space must be s t o r e d t o enable the i n d i v i d u a l t o have acted i n a c e r t a i n way.) One c o n c r e t e example of the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f space would be t o r e s e a r c h c h i l d r e n i n the process o f moving from home t o s c h o o l . For a c h i l d t o go s u c c e s s f u l l y from home t o s c h o o l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c h i l d must have s t o r e d some i n f o r m a t i o n about the two l o c a t i o n s ; t h a t i s , he must have s t o r e d a s e r i e s of i s o l a t e d but p r e c i s e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t , f o r example, when he reaches the mail box on the corner he knows t h a t he has t o t u r n t o the r i g h t . I f t h i s assumption i s c o r r e c t , then the c h i l d i s i n t e r p r e t i n g a c o g n i t i v e and c a r t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space. T h e r e f o r e , i d e n t i c a l behaviours may be taken as i n d i c a t o r s o f s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by some r e s e a r c h e r s , but not by o t h e r s , because of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s p a t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n or s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o g n i t i v e Maps Co n s i d e r a b l e debate i n the l i t e r a t u r e has focused on the use of the term c o g n i t i v e map, as a synonym f o r s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . The term c o g n i t i v e map i s , i t can be argued, a misnomer as i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r t o a map i n the c a r t o g r a p h i c sense. Downs and Stea (1973) suggest t h a t the term map be used as a f u n c t i o n a l analogue and t h a t model or 12 schemata c o u l d be used as a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t c o u l d be suggested t h a t a c o g n i t i v e map be viewed as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t , which a young c h i l d uses when making sense of the world i n t o which he i s born. M i l b u r n (1983) notes t h a t a c h i l d draws c o n s i d e r a b l e i n p u t from h i s own p e r c e p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l environment. The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of such a c t i v i t y , t e c h n i c a l l y c a l l e d s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n , o ccurs o n l y when s a t i s f a c t o r y frames of r e f e r e n c e have been c r e a t e d . As experience and awareness of the environment grow, the frames of r e f e r e n c e are complemented by the development of a c o g n i t i v e map or schema w i t h i n the mind--this i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d ' s r e a l world. I t i s , however, necessary t o remember t h a t maps are designed f o r s p e c i f i c purposes and t o a degree a l l are d i s t o r t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the r e a l world. C o g n i t i v e or mental maps are extremely p e r s o n a l : they are designed by each i n d i v i d u a l t o s u i t p a r t i c u l a r purposes or needs. Way-finding i s one such purpose; another mentioned by Lynch i n The Image of the C i t y (i960) r e s u l t s from our n a t u r a l f e a r of g e t t i n g l o s t . By mentally mapping our environment we make our world a l i t t l e more secure and s a f e . Recent r e s e a r c h has focused on way-finding as a reason f o r c o g n i t i v e mapping and s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . Hart b e l i e v e s such r e s e a r c h has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n t i n u i n g u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n of the s p a t i a l competencies of young c h i l d r e n , because the r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s r a t h e r than i n n a t u r a l i s t i c environments. Such r e s e a r c h has focused on the measurement of d i s t a n c e s and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o p r o j e c t i v e 13 and E u c l i d i a n c o o r d i n a t i o n , p r o p o r t i o n s , and symbolic conventions, t h a t i s , space t h a t i s concerned with boundaries, a n g u l a r i t y , and p e r s p e c t i v e . Hart b e l i e v e s t h a t a c h i l d can orga n i z e more complex i n f o r m a t i o n i n the r e a l world because he can s e l e c t and use p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t landmarks; he can f r e e l y e x p l o r e e x t e n s i v e l a r g e - s c a l e areas i n s t e a d of being l e a d through experimental environments; and he, t h e r e f o r e , has good, meaningful reasons f o r mentally mapping h i s surro u n d i n g s . I f , when t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m i n s c h o o l , the content i s meaningful t o the c h i l d he w i l l l e a r n or a t l e a s t express a d e s i r e t o l e a r n . I f the content i s not presented i n a meaningful way, then a c h i l d f a i l s t o l e a r n or demonstrates an i n a b i l i t y t o l e a r n . S i m i l a r l y , i f a c h i l d i n r e s e a r c h experiments i s c o n f r o n t e d with meaningless t a s k s i n the a s e p t i c , u n n atural environment of a l a b o r a t o r y the r e s u l t s w i l l d i f f e r from those achieved by the same c h i l d i n a n a t u r a l , known environment with meaningful t a s k s (Hart 1982). The s t r u c t u r e o f the environment i t s e l f may a l s o have some i n f l u e n c e on the a b i l i t y of a c h i l d t o r e p r e s e n t space. Some environments may be so much more imageable than o t h e r s t h a t they enable the c h i l d t o use them as a r e f e r e n c e f o r other p l a c e s or o b j e c t s i n the environment (Hart 1979, Lynch I960). The importance o f b o d i l y locomotion i n l e a r n i n g t o map c o g n i t i v e l y an environment has a l s o r e c e n t l y been c o n s i d e r e d (Acredolo 1977, Herman, and S i e g e l 1978). T h i s concept i s not new as i t was f i r s t h ypothesized by Lee (1963) as a r e s u l t of h i s study on the e f f e c t s o f busing on c h i l d r e n i n an area o f 14 Devon, England where a l l the c h i l d r e n had p r e v i o u s l y walked t o s c h o o l . He suggested t h a t the bus journey took them beyond t h e i r world i n t o a space t h a t they had had no o p p o r t u n i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e through t h e i r own b o d i l y locomotion through the environment. As a r e s u l t the c h i l d r e n f e l t s eparated from t h e i r mother, from home, and from p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s of s e c u r i t y , which i n t u r n produced a n x i e t y d u r i n g d i f f i c u l t times a t s c h o o l . Lee's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t b o d i l y movement i s necessary to " a r t i c u l a t e the schema" corresponds with P i a g e t ' s theory of the development of the o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s of knowing. Hart, t h e r e f o r e , r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n : "What improvements i n c o g n i t i v e mapping might we f i n d i f we allow c h i l d r e n t o f r e e l y and p u r p o s e f u l l y d i r e c t t h e i r own movements i n an experimental s e t t i n g ? " (Hart 1982). In r e viewing the l i t e r a t u r e i t becomes apparent t h a t some developmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s have become aware of the r e a l problems of g e n e r a l i z i n g from l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h t o a c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i o n of space (Hart 1982, Acredolo 1977, Herman and S i e g e l 1978). Hart s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t i n a l l the experiments to date the most important f a c t o r has been excluded. The s u b j e c t , t h a t i s the c h i l d , has not had c o n t r o l over the decision-making process. Experiments t o study the development of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n have become more ingenious over the y e a r s , r e a c h i n g a stage where they are a b l e t o compare a c h i l d ' s a c t i v e versus p a s s i v e l e a r n i n g of a r o u t e (Berzok 1980). Movement, although a c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e , i s not the most important f a c t o r i n developing s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . Perhaps more important t o a 15 c h i l d , and indeed t o an a d u l t , i a the a b i l i t y t o make the d e c i s i o n t o move or not move i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n - One can then ask: Is i t s o l e l y by c o n t r o l l i n g t h a t d e c i s i o n t o move t h a t a c h i l d develops h i s s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n and knowledge of the environment? The answer must l i e with the c h i l d . Uhat does a c h i l d want t o l e a r n about p l a c e s and f o r what purpose? I t would seem t h a t the term s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n i s so i n t e r t w i n e d with c o g n i t i v e mapping and s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t one d e f i n i t i o n o f the term cannot s u f f i c e . However, Hart and Moore's (1973) d e f i n i t i o n r e f l e c t s the main premise o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s : "the knowledge and i n t e r n a l or c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e , e n t i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s of space; i n other words, the i n t e r n a l i z e d r e f l e c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f space i n thought" < Downs and Stea 1973 p. 248). By n e c e s s i t y , the development of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n i s a p a r t o f c o g n i t i v e development and w i l l c o ntinue t o be l i n k e d t o i t . C o g n i t i v e development i n ge n e r a l and c o g n i t i v e mapping i n p a r t i c u l a r should be viewed as processes embedded i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l ecology of the c h i l d ' s world <Siegel 1982). Landmark and route knowledge A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of the l i t e r a t u r e on s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the use of landmarks i n the development of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l competence i s of some importance. Very few people l e a r n t o f i n d t h e i r way through some mysterious ' i n s t i n c t ' ; t h e r e i s , i n s t e a d , a c o n s i s t e n t 16 o r g a n i z a t i o n and use of d e f i n i t e cues from the environment. As Lynch s t a t e d i n h i s 1960 study The Image of the C i t y . . . t o become completely l o s t i s perhaps a r a t h e r r a r e experience f o r most people. We are supported by the presence of o t h e r s and by s p e c i a l way-finding d e v i c e s : maps, s t r e e t numbers, rou t e s i g n s , bus p l a c a r d s . But l e t the mishap of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n once occur and the sense of a n x i e t y and even t e r r o r t h a t accompanies i t r e v e a l s to us how c l o s e l y i t i s l i n k e d t o our sense of balance and w e l l - b e i n g <p. 4 ) . Perhaps the e a r l i e s t environmental cues t h a t c h i l d r e n use are d i s t i n c t i v e landmarks i n the l o c a l environment, e i t h e r n a t u r a l or man-made f e a t u r e s . What happens to these f e a t u r e s as the c h i l d becomes f a m i l i a r with them? How do they help a c h i l d g ain s p a t i a l competence? S i e g e l (1976) i d e n t i f i e s two l e v e l s of landmark knowledge. The f i r s t i s r e c o g n i t i o n or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - - k n o w i n g t h a t a landmark i s f a m i l i a r , t h a t i t has been seen b e f o r e . The second l e v e l i s the knowledge t h a t landmarks can be used to f a c i l i t a t e the placement of other landmarks and events; t h a t i s , a t t h i s l e v e l , landmarks can be used to o r g a n i z e past and f u t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s . I t i s t h i s knowledge t h a t probably shows the g r e a t e s t developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c h i l d h o o d y e a r s . I t has become an acknowledged f a c t over the years t h a t a r o u t e i s a l i n e a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some p a r t of a l a r g e s c a l e environment. I t becomes tem p o r a l l y and s p a t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , c o n s t r u c t e d , and o r g a n i z e d around landmarks. I f a c h i l d forms c o g n i t i v e maps i n order t o become s p a t i a l l y competent, then route l e a r n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s p r o c e s s . Some q u e s t i o n s can then be r a i s e d : what i s a good/bad landmark? How does a 17 c h i l d use landmarks to c o n s t r u c t a c c u r a t e r o u t e maps? Recent work by S i e g e l and a s s o c i a t e s suggests t h a t knowledge of the environment begins with the n o t i c i n g of landmarks or primary nodes t h a t become l i n k e d i n memory by a c t i o n sequences c a l l e d r o u t e s . These landmark-route combinations form c l u s t e r s , with knowledge of i n t r a - c l u s t e r s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s proceding much more q u i c k l y than between c l u s t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n . The a b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e p r o p e r l y s e p a r a t e c l u s t e r s w i t h i n a l a r g e - s c a l e o b j e c t i v e frame o f r e f e r e n c e marks the f i n a l s t e p i n the development p r o c e s s . F a m i l i a r i t y with the environment a f f e c t s the knowledge of the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of landmarks. In order f o r a c h i l d t o a t t a i n some degree of s p a t i a l competence i t would seem t h a t some s t r a t e g y i s necessary, one t h a t a l l o w s the c h i l d t o a d j u s t h i m s e l f t o the environment. Hart and Moore <1976) r e f e r t o such a s t r a t e g y or--as they p r e f e r t o c a l l i t - - a r e f e r e n c e system. They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of r e f e r e n c e systems e x l s t - - e g o c e n t r i c , f i x e d , and c o o r d i n a t e d . T h e i r r e s e a r c h and t h a t of o t h e r s evolved from a study of P i a g e t ' s account of the development of c h i l d r e n ' s s p a t i a l knowldge. The t h r e e r e f e r e n c e systems, which develop from e a r l y y e a r s , are b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d here: 1. The e g o c e n t r i c system of r e f e r e n c e i s a very simple and l i m i t e d system i n which the c h i l d uses h i s own body as the only system f o r o r d e r i n g t h i n g s i n space. T h i s p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y f o r n a v i g a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n because as the c h i l d moves so does the system o f 18 r e f e r e n c e s . 2. The f i x e d system of r e f e r e n c e i s more e f f i c i e n t as the c h i l d i s now a b l e t o o r i e n t a t e h i m s e l f i n space i n terms of f i x e d elements i n the environment, and can, t h e r e f o r e , view h i s environment from many d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . P i a g e t found t h a t c h i l d r e n u s i n g t h i s system c o u l d r e l a t e p l a c e s t o each other i n c l u s t e r s around c e r t a i n landmarks or along p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e s . "Route maps" have been c i t e d as evidence a t t h i s stage. P i a g e t hypothesized t h a t a c h i l d cannot r e p r e s e n t space beyond the immediate v i s u a l l y present space u n t i l he i s a b l e t o l o g i c a l l y c o o r d i n a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the independent journeys or view p o i n t s . 3. The c o o r d i n a t e d system of r e f e r e n c e depends on the t r a n s i t i o n from a s e r i e s o f f i x e d p o i n t s o r f i x e d r o u t e s f o r r e a d i n g s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s t o a f r e e l y tjran&JFenables y>cant. ¥-©*MU**g. Thift c o o r d i n a t e d system of r e f e r e n c e need not be compass d i r e c t i o n as used on c a r t o g r a p h i c maps: the c h i l d may decide t o use roads or r i v e r s as c o o r d i n a t e s . (See F i g u r e 2.) Hart p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s three-way r e f e r e n c e system i s elementary and t h a t many d i f f e r e n t systems may e x i s t between the e g o c e n t r i c and the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o o r d i n a t e d system. Whatever system i s used, the c h i l d begins t o use landmarks t o F i g . 2 Three r e f e r e n c e systems f o r c h i l d r e n ' s o r i e n t a t i o n i n the landscape. (Hart and Moore, 1971) . 20 anchor, o r g a n i z e , and c o o r d i n a t e h i s s p a t i a l knowledge or c o g n i t i v e map. Moving through space t o a c q u i r e s p a t i a l competence may not only i n v o l v e the use of some form of r e f e r e n c e system but a l s o a way of 'route l e a r n i n g ' . Way-finding, or rou t e l e a r n i n g , i n v o l v e s the a q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the temporal and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among environmental f e a t u r e s ; i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of sequence l e a r n i n g ( A l l e n 1982). Becoming f a m i l i a r with a r o u t e means becoming 'unconfused' about the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among f e a t u r e s along t h a t r o u t e . Gibson (1969) regards r o u t e l e a r n i n g as a form of p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g ; as such i t has formed the b a s i s f o r some developmental r e s e a r c h . The a b i l i t y t o make use of d i s t i n c t i v e v i s u a l f e a t u r e s among s t i m u l i improves developmentally, aa does v i s u a l search e f f i c i e n c y (Blsanz and Resnlck, 1978) and r e c o g n i t i o n memory (Mandler and Robinson 1 9 7 8 ) - - a l l a re i n t e g r a l p rocesses i n rou t e l e a r n i n g . The use of landmarks i n a c h i l d ' s r o u t e l e a r n i n g and c o g n i t i v e mapping a b i l i t y i s viewed as a powerful technique. Both an a d u l t and a c h i l d r e f e r t o d i s t i n c t i v e environmental f e a t u r e s when f a m i l i a r i z i n g themselves t o new surro u n d i n g s . The a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e and use landmarks presupposes c e r t a i n s k i l l s ( P i c k and R i e s e r 1982): 1. an a b i l i t y t o simply a s s o c i a t e the marker and the d e s t i n a t i o n ; 2. the d i s c r i m i n a t i v e c a p a c i t y t o s e l e c t as 21 landmarks f e a t u r e s t h a t are d i s t i n c t i v e and p e r c e p t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e versus those which are not; 3. some knowledge of s p a t i a l concepts so t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e r e l a t i o n s between landmark and d e s t i n a t i o n can be remembered and used. R i e s e r ' s (1979) study of s i x month-old i n f a n t s suggests t h a t the simple a s s o c i a t i o n between marker and the expected l o c a t i o n emerges e a r l y i n l i f e . Acredolo (1979) s t u d i e d s i m i l a r d i s c r i m i n a t e c a p a c i t i e s i n the o l d e r c h i l d (3-7 y e a r s ) . She surmised t h a t , g i v e n a c h o i c e of d i s t i n c t i v e landmarks, an o l d e r c h i l d s e l e c t s those f e a t u r e s more remote from the d e s t i n a t i o n and more permanently p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n , whereas a younger c h i l d s e l e c t s those moveable f e a t u r e s c l o s e r t o the d e s t i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a p r o g r e s s i o n i n p r e f e r e n c e of f e a t u r e s used as landmarks appears t o e x i s t , from r e l a t i v e l y moveable f e a t u r e s adjacent t o the d e s t i n a t i o n , t o permanently f i x e d f e a t u r e s a t a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the d e s t i n a t i o n . Pick and R i e s e r (1982) note t h a t t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n may r e s u l t from a c h i l d ' s l e a r n i n g to s e l e c t as landmarks permanently f i x e d f e a t u r e s of the environment. The key t o a f f e c t i v e use of landmarks i s the a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between f e a t u r e s t h a t are d i s t i n c t i v e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . A l l a n ' s (1979) study found t h a t the a b i l i t y t o make use of the p o t e n t i a l landmark value of environmental f e a t u r e s precedes developmentally the a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t f e a t u r e s on the b a s i s of t h i s p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n 22 v a l u e . These f i n d i n g s , A l l e n hypothesized, form an e m p i r i c a l l i n k between the area of m a c r o - s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n and c o g n i t i v e development as a whole. The l i n k i s provided by the concepts of e v o c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n , terms i n t r o d u c e d by F l a v e l l ' s (1970) study of the c h i l d ' s use of mnemonics. A f a i l u r e t o s e l e c t landmarks u t i l i z i n g the most u s e f u l s p a t i a l cues may be i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as a problem of e v o c a t i o n or as a p r o d u c t i o n d e f i c i e n c y . A f a i l u r e t o make use of s p a t i a l cues i n a d i s t a n c e judgement s i t u a t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d a problem i n u t i l i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , a mediation d e f i c i e n c y . A l l e n , t h e r e f o r e , concludes t h a t the s e l e c t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f landmarks embodies a mnemonic f o r l e a r n i n g r e a l - w o r l d r o u t e s and, l i k e o ther memory s t a t e g i e s , these s k i l l s improve developmentally i n an o r d e r l y manner. C h i l d r e n l e a r n about ro u t e l e a r n i n g i t s e l f and, with experience, they can l e a r n which environmental f e a t u r e s a f f o r d u s e f u l , l o w - e f f o r t , s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and which do not. How does a c h i l d use landmarks t o c o n s t r u c t a c c u r a t e r o u t e maps? T h i s q u e s t i o n and o t h e r s were r a i s e d by S i e g e l <1981>. From p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d u l t s use landmarks as o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of s p a t i a l events and t h a t repeated p e r c e p t u a l experience i n c r e a s e s the accuracy of r o u t e maps of l a r g e - s c a l e environments. In order t o answer the above q u e s t i o n about c h i l d r e n and to see i f t h e r e are developmental d i f f e r e n c e s i n what makes a good landmark A l l e n , K i r a s i c , S i e g e l , and Herman (1979) conducted f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . 23 The r e s e a r c h used photographic s i m u l a t i o n s o f environmental r o u t e s and the technique o f o r d i n a l d i s t a n c e r a n k i n g f o l l o w e d by m u l t i p l e dimension s c a l i n g a n a l y s i s . M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g i n v o l v e s a s e t of procedures t h a t takes p r o x i m i t i e s or d i s t a n c e s among a s e t of o b j e c t s as i n p u t , and attempts t o reduce the complex matrix of such p r o x i m i t i e s to a simple p i c t u r e t h a t p o r t r a y s s p a t i a l l y the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among o b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a young c h i l d , an o l d e r c h i l d , and an a d u l t c o n s t r u c t r o u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e with l a r g e - s c a l e environments. The r o u t e s are tem p o r a l l y and s p a t i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d and are or g a n i z e d around d i s t i n c t i v e landmarks. A l s o , l e a r n i n g a s e r i e s o f landmarks along a rou t e i s f o l l o w e d by c a l i b r a t i n g d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s among the landmarks; t h i s l a t t e r process improves developmentally and over repeated experience. The maps of a c h i l d and an a d u l t probably d i f f e r i n d e t a i l but the u n d e r l y i n g s e q u e n t i a l development i s the same: landmarks--route m a p a — c o n f i g u r a t i o n s or survey maps (the p o i n t a t which r o u t e s are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n an o v e r a l l framework). C o n f i g u r a t i o n a l mapping i s most u s e f u l when one needs t o know a l t e r n a t e ways of r e a c h i n g a number of p l a c e s or t o r e - e v a l u a t e one's p o s i t i o n . S i e g e l f u r t h e r suggests t h a t r o u t e s a re su p e r o r d i n a t e t o landmarks but su b o r d i n a t e t o c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . To a c h i l d , landmarks are prominent and, t h e r e f o r e , r o u t e maps are arranged around them. A d d i t i o n a l e xperiences a l l o w the c h i l d and the a d u l t t o s c a l e and m e t r i c i z e the d i s t a n c e s 24 between landmarks, r e s u l t i n g i n more a c c u r a t e r o u t e maps. F i n a l l y , with the development of a c o o r d i n a t e d frame of r e f e r e n c e , r o u t e s should become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l or survey maps. Research by Acredolo, P i c k , and Olsen (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e s the e f f e c t of f a m i l i a r i t y with landmarks, where one landmark i s taken t o be as good as any o t h e r . D i f f e r e n t landmarks may, t h e r e f o r e , have d i f f e r e n t a f f e c t i v e p o t e n t i a l and even these may be s u b j e c t t o developmental changes. The q u e s t i o n can then be asked: What landmarks does a c h i l d spontaneously use i n the everyday environment? Hart b e l i e v e s t h a t a q u e s t i o n such as t h i s i s best e x p l o r e d n a t u r a l i s t i c a l l y . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t would appear t h a t landmark knowledge and r o u t e l e a r n i n g develop along p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s . Landmark knowledge e v o l v e s from knowing t h a t something has been seen, t o knowing where t h a t something has been seen, t o a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t such knowledge can be u s e f u l . Route knowledge s i m i l a r l y goes from knowing t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r landmark i s a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r heading, t o knowing t h a t a sequence of landmarks i a a s s o c i a t e d i n time with a sequence of headings. In both i n s t a n c e s the processes of landmark-recognition and landmark-heading a s s o c i a t i o n s are present i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . Knowledge of a higher order e v o l v e s developmentally as i n c r e a s e d c a p a b i l i t y of temporal i n t e g r a t i o n permits, not o n l y a meta-knowledge of landmarks, but a l s o the c o n v e r s i o n of landmarks a s s o c i a t e d with headings i n t o temporal and s p a t i a l 25 sequences g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d r o u t e s . S p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n i s very b a s i c to people i n t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s . S p a t i a l concepts and p r o p e r t i e s of d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y used i n attempting to understand, t o remember, or t o communicate. Route l e a r n i n g i s one example o f a l i n e a r mode of r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s l i n e a r i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n a t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l o r d e r i n g of environmental f e a t u r e s ( A l l e n e t a l . 1979). L i n e a r l y o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are important i n many c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and as problem s o l v i n g a i d s . Many of the t a s k s g i v e n t o a c h i l d i n the f i r s t years of s c h o o l i n v o l v e l e a r n i n g and manipulating l i n e a r o r d e r s , such as the alphabet and mathematical number l i n e ( A l l e n 1982). However, even a p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n e x p e r i e n c e s with l i n e a r o r d e r s i n the sense he has knowledge o f and becomes f a m i l i a r with r o u t e s t h a t he t r a v e l s f r e q u e n t l y . Thus the study o f how r o u t e knowledge i s a c q u i r e d , o r g a n i z e d , and u t i l i z e d can p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the development of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l a b i l i t y . The subsequent o r g a n i z a t i o n of space i n a wider sense i s complex. Chapter 2 w i l l attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e the awareness of a group of c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r l o c a l environment i n order t o determine t h e i r use and knowledge of r e c o g n i z a b l e landmarks. £6 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS . . . o f t e n a new s p a t i a l competence i s gained by i d e n t i f y i n g landmarks and e n v i s a g i n g the ways they are l o c a t e d with r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r . Even very young students a p p r e c i a t e t h i s f a c t because t h a t i a how they have lea r n e d t o f i n d t h e i r own way t o sc h o o l (Yi-Fu Tuan 1983). I n t r o d u c t i o n A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n demonstrates t h a t a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t s p a t i a l p r o p e r t i e s has g e n e r a l l y been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the a b s t r a c t , r a t h e r than i n the f i e l d of the c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . I f an understanding o f the development of a c h i l d ' s knowledge of h i s everyday environment i s to be reached, t h e r e would seem to be a need t o ground as much r e s e a r c h as p o s s i b l e i n o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the c h i l d i n h i s l o c a l , n a t u r a l environment. A l l b eings, c h i l d and a d u l t , experience the environment i n a per s o n a l way. As a c h i l d e x p l o r e s , so the environment around him expands i n extent and i n degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; many i n d i v i d u a l p l a c e s may develop p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l meanings. Such e x p l o r a t i o n becomes a necessary p a r t of the l i v e d e xperience of each i n d i v i d u a l and thus p a r t o f h i s l i f e s t o r y . Hart (1979) suggests t h a t the most fundamental u n i t o f study i n d e s c r i b i n g the environmental behaviour of the c h i l d should be the c h i l d and the landscape which e x i s t s f o r him, t h a t i s , the c h i l d ' s phenomenal landscape. Because such a landscape 27 ev o l v e s as the c h i l d I n t e r a c t s with i t , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , i t should be d i f f e r e n t f o r each c h i l d . Lynch (I960) proposes t h a t environmental images help t o e s t a b l i s h an e m o t i o n a l l y s a f e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a person and h i s t o t a l environment by s e r v i n g as o r g a n i z e r s of a c t i v i t y and knowledge, as m a t e r i a l f o r common memories which b i n d a group t o g e t h e r , and as s p a t i a l r e f e r e n t s f o r a sense of f a m i l i a r i t y . Knowledge of the environment i s a key f a c t o r i n the u n i t y of human experience and as such t h e r e appears t o be a need t o go beyond a c h i l d ' s b a s i c c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n order t o c o n s t r u c t a more complete account of the development of a c h i l d ' s experience of the environment. T h i s study i s intended t o be e x p l o r a t o r y r a t h e r than h i g h l y s p e c i f i c and s t r u c t u r e d . The hy p o t h e s i s f o r i t i s t h a t a c h i l d ' s knowledge of h i s environment and a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t i t s p a t i a l l y i s not based s o l e l y on i n t e l l e c t u a l development but i s more dependent on f a c t o r s such as the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o ex p l o r e f r e e l y the environment and the s p a t i a l l e a r n i n g and te a c h i n g t h a t o c c u r s d u r i n g t r a v e l through i t . In Chapter 1 i t was noted t h a t landmarks are used as o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s -w i t h i n the co n t e x t of s p a t i a l events and t h a t repeated experiences with landmarks g e n e r a l l y leads t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of route maps. T h e r e f o r e , a b a s i c q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : What types of o b j e c t s does a c h i l d use f o r landmarks as he experiences the environment? However, as s t a t e d above, i t i s a l s o the i n t e n t i n t h i s 28 p r o j e c t t o c o n s i d e r the n o t i o n t h a t s p a t i a l l e a r n i n g and the conscious t e a c h i n g o f environmental f e a t u r e s must occur i f a c h i l d i s t o become s p a t i a l l y competent and knowledgeable about h i s environment. P i a g e t e t a l . (I960) suggests t h a t the development of a c h i l d ' s knowledge i s not the r e s u l t of h i s l o g i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n but the cumulative r e s u l t of d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s , although i t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t : . . . the growth of knowledge i s not a matter of more accumulation, and while i t i s t r u e t h a t between the ages of f o u r and ten c h i l d r e n c o l l e c t a good d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r d i s t r i c t , they a l s o c o - o r d i n a t e the p i c t u r e , which i s an i n f i n i t e l y more complex process of development ( P i a g e t I960: p.24). I t would seem p o s s i b l e t h a t P i a g e t ' s n o t i o n t h a t a c h i l d ' s development of s p a t i a l knowledge occurs through the e x p l o r a t i o n of h i s l o c a l environment i s perhaps more ac c u r a t e than many of the c l i n i c a l l y based r e s e a r c h statements which tend t o be mainly c o g n i t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r . I t would seem, however, t h a t the nature and degree of a c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n with h i s everyday geographic environment i s the g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e i n the a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t s p a t i a l d e t a i l s and knowledge of t h a t environment. I f t h i s statement i s c o r r e c t , then i t would appear necessary t o c o n s i d e r the r o l e t h a t parents assume by a l l o w i n g and h e l p i n g the c h i l d t o experience h i s environment. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c h i l d t o e x p l o r e h i s l o c a l environment must vary g r e a t l y , as does the extent of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l ranges and, today more than ever, h i s mode of locomotion through t h a t environment. Do many of today's c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y walk through t h e i r neighbourhood or are they c o n s t a n t l y d r i v e n through i t en 29 route from one a c t i v i t y t o another? I t might be questioned whether parents are even aware of t h e i r l o c a l environment enough t o help t h e i r c h i l d r e n make o b s e r v a t i o n s and so form r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a c e s . W i l l the t e a c h i n g of the environment become a necessary component of way-finding? Procedure I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a d u l t s t o imagine how c h i l d r e n o r i e n t a t e themselves mentally to the p h y s i c a l environment and develop a f u n c t i o n a l framework of r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d p r i o r t o t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o read maps. We have probably long s i n c e f o r g o t t e n how we b u i l t up our own o r i g i n a l c o nceptual framework or models, t h a t i s , the models we h a b i t u a l l y use when t r a v e l l i n g over f a m i l i a r ground (Roberts, as c i t e d i n C a l l a n d , 1973: p. 38). T h i s p r o j e c t i s an attempt i n an e m p i r i c a l way to study the awareness of a group of primary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r l o c a l environment and t o e x p l o r e t h e i r knowledge and use of s t r a t e g i c p e r s o n a l landmarks. One aspect of the p r o j e c t i s t o assess whether the experience and p e r c e p t i o n o f the surroundings i n which the c h i l d r e n l i v e and go to s c h o o l c o u l d be r e v e a l e d through t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n of s p e c i f i c landmarks s e l e c t e d from the environment. These landmarks are presented t o the c h i l d r e n as c o l o u r e d photographs of a v a r i e t y of f a m i l i a r landmarks. The twenty c h i l d r e n used i n the study were Grade Two students (7-8 y e a r s ) , a t t e n d i n g a p u b l i c elementary s c h o o l i n Richmond, B.C.. The s c h o o l i s s i t u a t e d i n the southwest area of Richmond, w i t h i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n t h a t i s 30 approximately twelve years o l d . The s u b d i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s mainly o f s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and condominium townhouses. A l l the c h i l d r e n except one l i v e w i t h i n a h a l f m i l e of the scho o l and g e n e r a l l y walk or b i c y c l e t o the s c h o o l . The f i r s t t ask presented t o the c h i l d r e n was the landmark r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . Photographs of v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s i n Richmond were taken with a 50 mm. l e n s . Twenty-five photographs were s e l e c t e d t o be used i n i t i a l l y with the c h i l d r e n and developed i n t o 10 x 7.6 cm (4x3 inches) c o l o u r e d p r i n t s numbered 1 - 25. The photographs were taken a t v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e s from the s c h o o l , r anging from w i t h i n .8 km (.5 mile) of the sc h o o l t o one or two t h a t are approximately 5 km (three m i l e s ) d i s t a n t . Each c h i l d was shown the photographs on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s and asked t o : 1. g i v e the name of the landmark or 2. make a suggestion about the landmark or 3. suggest a p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n o f the photograph or 4. s t a t e i f they had no idea of the landmark or p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n The c h i l d r e n ' s responses were recorded on a g r i d and on a tape r e c o r d e r . At a f u r t h e r s e s s i o n the photographs were shown again t o the c h i l d r e n and open d i s c u s s i o n about them was encouraged. An a n a l y s i s of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n task w i l l f o l l o w . At a l a t e r time the students were asked t o draw a map of 31 t h e i r 'Route From Home To S c h o o l ' . I t was hoped t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n shown on the drawings would help to i d e n t i f y some of the p e r s o n a l landmarks which are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the environment. On t h e i r maps the c h i l d r e n were asked to name s t r e e t names i f they knew them, and t o mark any f e a t u r e s t h a t they passed by on t h e i r way t o s c h o o l . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n had taken p l a c e before t h i s a c t i v i t y t o c o n s i d e r the term, landmark, as most of the students were u n f a m i l i a r with i t . From the d i s c u s s i o n the most r e a l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n t h a t emerged from the c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t of view was t h a t a landmark i s "something t h a t doesn't move". The students were given u n l i m i t e d time and no f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n as they completed t h e i r drawings. Upon completion of t h e i r maps, the students were asked t o w r i t e a l i s t of a l l the f e a t u r e s around them t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d t o be landmarks. Throughout t h i s mapping a c t i v i t y one was c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e r e would be c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the motor s k i l l s and g r a p h i c a b i l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s . I t was a l s o noted t h a t p e n c i l and pen b r i n g a degree of commitment t o each element drawn which i s u n s u i t e d t o the c r e a t i o n of a map. 32 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOGRAPH RECOGNITION TEST I n t r o d u c t i o n Out of a t o t a l of 500 p o s s i b l e r e c o g n i t i o n s on the landmark r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , 272 <54.4 percent) were c o n s i d e r e d t o have been r e c o g n i z e d : t h a t i s , a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s of the landmarks were made. When the number of exact r e c o g n i t i o n s were e x t r a c t e d the t o t a l of 272 was reduced t o 145 (29.29 p e r c e n t ) . The general t r e n d t h a t was t o be expected i n such a task as t h i s would be a d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n as the s u b j e c t moves away from the sc h o o l base, with a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n a c i r c l e of approximately 1.6 to 2.4 km (1 to 1.5 miles) r a d i u s , whose c e n t r e l i e s where the sc h o o l i s s i t u a t e d . On a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t s o f photograph groups A, B, and C do r e f l e c t t h i s expected t r e n d . The R e l a t i o n o f P r o x i m i t y t o R e c o g n i t i o n Group A. Those landmarks w i t h i n a 0.8 t o 1.5 km (.5 to 1 mile) r a d i u s o f the s c h o o l , d i s p l a y e d the h i g h e s t number of accurate s u g g e s t i o n s of landmarks, 80, although when the number of exact responses were determined t h i s f i g u r e was reduced t o 45. A l l the c h i l d r e n i n the t e s t group r e c o g n i z e d the P & A Supermarket; s e v e r a l r e f e r r e d t o i t as the "corner s t o r e " and 13 provided the t e s t e r with i t s exact name. Photograph 5, the Table I Individual Scores on Photograph Recognition Teat Studenta Photographs Total Exact Responses 1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Peter / / 0 0 • • 0 X X 0 0 0 0 X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 0 / 0 4 Jennifer C. / / • / 0 0 0 / 0 / / X / / • / 0 X 0 0 0 / 0 X X 4 Paul X X / X X X • X X 0 0 0 / X X / 0 / 0 0 • X • / 0 10 L i s a X X / X / X • X X • / X X X X / • X X • 0 / 0 X 0 13 Kim F. X X • X / X 0 X X / 0 0 X X X / 0 X X 0 0 / • X / 12 Donnie X / / 0 / X 0 X • 0 X X X / / 0 0 X 0 0 0 / 0 / / 7 Lara / X 0 X / / / X X / 0 0 / • X 0 0 0 0 0 0 / 0 / X 6 Michelle J . / / 0 o 0 0 0 / / 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 / 0 / 0 0 Gavin X X X 0 • • 0 X X / 0 • / / / / 0 X 0 X 0 / 0 / 0 7 Yuni X / 0 0 / 0 0 X X / 0 0 / • 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 / / / X 4 Daina X X 0 X 0 0 0 X / / 0 X / / / 0 0 X X 0 X / / X X 10 Michelle M. / 0 0 / • 0 0 • 0 / 0 0 / • 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 / X / X 2 Kin N. X X • X 0 0 0 0 • / 0 0 / X / / 0 0 0 / X / 0 X X 7 Jennifer N. / X 0 / / X 0 X X / • X X X / / 0 X / • • / 0 / X 9 Matthew X X 0 0 / / 0 / / / 0 X / • • 0 0 0 0 • 0 / 0 / / 3 Garson / X 0 0 • / 0 X / / • • / / X o • X 0 • X X • / • 6 Michael X X / 0 / / 0 X 0 • X 0 X X X • 0 X 0 • / X X X X 12 Brian X X / X 0 0 0 X • / 0 0 X 0 • X 0 X 0 0 0 / o X 0 8 Alison X X X X / • 0 X • X 0 X X X X 0 0 X 0 0 0 / 0 X • 12 Sean X X X X / / X X / 0 0 / X / • 0 X 0 • X X 0 X 0 11 Key X Exact name / Accurate Suggestion • Inaccurate Suggestion 0 No idea Mean 6.75 29* (li CO 34 TABLE I I R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t : Exact Responses Photograph Group P o s s i b l e R e c o g n i t i o n s Exact R e c o g n i t i o n s Percent A 120 45 37.5 % B 80 25 31.25% C 60 11 18.33% D 80 31 38.75% E 160 33 20 . 625* T o t a l 500 145 29.29% 35 20 18 16 d 0 14 a a V 12 •rt i o ti o a •M 3 o u • -n 6 e 3 " 0 7", /I 17 1 2 3 4 I A 5 6 7 • < — 8 9 IO 11 12 23 13 14 13 24 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 - B » < C • « D • « E 25 0.8-1.6 1.6-2.4 2.4-3.2 3.2-4.0 over 4.0 (0.5-1.0) (1.0-1.5) (1.5-2.0) (2.0-2.5) (over 2.5) Radius In km (miles) from the c h i l d ' s school F i g . 3. Results of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number of exact responses. • Number of photograph 36 T a b l e I I I R e s u l t s of the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t : Accurate Suggestions Photograph Group P o s s i b l e R e c o g n i t i o n s Accurate R e c o g n i t i o n s Percent A 120 80 66.67% B 80 47 58.75* C 60 15 25.00% D 80 66 82.505 E 160 64 40.005 T o t a l 500 272 54.40% 37 0.8-1.6 1.6-2.4 2.4-3.2 3.2-4.0 over 4.0 <0.5-1.0) <1.0-1.S) (1.3-2.0) <2.0-2.3) (over 2.3) Radius i n kn (miles) from the c h i l d ' s school F i g . 4. Results of the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : number of accurate suggestions. • Number of photograph 38 Steveston M a r t i a l A r t s Centre was named by o n l y 1 c h i l d . A few c h i l d r e n , however, d i d r e c o g n i z e the b u i l d i n g as a p l a c e i n Steveston as these comments taken from the taped d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e : " i t ' s the k a r a t e p l a c e " , and " i t ' s the Chinese p l a c e i n S teveston". The photograph of A r t Knapp's Garden Spot (Photograph 6) was r e c o g n i z e d by 10 c h i l d r e n as the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s i n d i c a t e : "the p l a n t s t o r e " , "the f e r t i l i z e r p l a c e " , "the garden p l a c e " . F i v e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o p r o v i d e the exact name of the landmark. Group B. In Group B, 1.6 t o 2.4 km (1 - 1.5 mile) r a d i u s from the s c h o o l , 47 a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s of the landmarks were pr o v i d e d , but j u s t 25 c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o g i v e the exact names of the f o u r landmarks i n t h i s group. London Farm (Photograph 7 ) , s i t u a t e d along the Dyke Road, was not known by any of the c h i l d r e n . Two c h i l d r e n d i d attempt t o guess at what the landmark might be, one s t a t i n g t h a t i t was "the house by the dyke", while the other c h i l d j u s t suggested t h a t i t was "by the dyke". London Farm, although a d v e r t i s e d widely i n l o c a l newspapers as an " H i s t o r i c Landmark" and open t o the p u b l i c d u r i n g the summer t o u r i s t season, i s s i t u a t e d away from the core areas of Richmond and Steveston. I t i s v i s i b l e only i f one i s d r i v i n g or walking along the dyke road adjacent t o the South Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r , hence the probable reason f o r i t s not being r e c o g n i z e d by the s t u d e n t s . I t c o u l d be s t a t e d t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of many a d u l t s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s landmark i s extremely low. In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h i s l a s t photograph, the one showing the 39 Steveston Museum and Post O f f i c e (Photograph 8) was re c o g n i z e d with 18 a c c u r a t e suggestions and 15 exact names g i v e n . S i m i l a r l y , a hig h e r number of the students c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the photograph of the docks a t Steveston (Photograph 9 ) , g e n e r a l l y with the a s s o c i a t i o n of purchasing f r e s h f i s h from the f i s h i n g boats docked t h e r e a t the Government Wharf. F i n a l l y i n t h i s group, although many of the c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o re c o g n i z e Photograph 10 as a church, o n l y one c h i l d was a b l e t o pr o v i d e i t s exact name and l o c a t i o n . Group C. With the landmarks i n Group C the d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n continued t o the extent t h a t o n l y 18.3 percent o f the c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o g i v e the exact names of those p l a c e s photographed. Photograph 12 was c o r r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e d by 7 c h i l d r e n as being a p a r t o f the "dyke" t h a t surrounds the g r e a t e r p a r t of Richmond. The S e a f a i r Community Ice Arena i n Photograph 11 was known only t o two c h i l d r e n , one of whom s t a t e d "I go t o hockey t h e r e . " The Buddhist Temple on Steveston Highway (Photograph 23) was b u i l t only i n r e c e n t years, but i t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e landmark because of i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and because of the p u b l i c i t y i t has r e c e i v e d . One c h i l d who r e c o g n i z e d i t r e f e r r e d t o i t as " t h a t Chinese Church". Group D. However, the d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n as the d i s t a n c e from the shool was i n c r e a s e d r e v e r s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y as the r e s u l t s i n Group D i n d i c a t e ; t h a t i s , the photographs taken w i t h i n a 3.2 to 4.0 km (2 t o 2.5 mile) r a d i u s from the s c h o o l . 40 The percentage o f a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s given i n c r e a s e d t o 82.5 percent, although t h a t o f the exact named responses i n c r e a s e d to 38.75 per c e n t . T h i s apparent d e v i a t i o n from the expected p a t t e r n i s t o be questioned. In order t o do t h i s the t o p i c s of the f o u r photographs i n Group D must be c o n s i d e r e d : Photograph 13 - Richmond F i r e Department H a l l No. 1 Photograph 14 - Minoru A q u a t i c Centre Photograph 15 - Minoru A t h l e t i c Track Photograph 24 - McDonald's Restaurant As a l l o f these landmarks r e c e i v e d high s c o r e s on the number of ac c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s made about them, i t would appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t these are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e s t o a l l c h i l d r e n . A f a c t o r common t o these landmarks i s t h a t they a re a l l l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s area or downtown core o f Richmond. The A q u a t i c Centre, which p r o v i d e s the only indoor swimming pools i n Richmond, i s used f r e q u e n t l y by many students f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l swimming and orga n i z e d swimming l e s s o n s . The McDonald's Restaurant l o c a t e d on No. 3 Road, j u s t south o f G r a n v i l l e , one of two McDonald's i n Richmond, i s b u i l t on the s i t e o f the f i r s t McDonald's t o be l o c a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. An outdoor playground, a major component of t h i s popular r e s t a u r a n t , was the f e a t u r e which became dominant d u r i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s d i s c u s s i o n s about the landmark. When the c h i l d r e n were asked i f they c o u l d i n d i c a t e which McDonald's was shown i n the photograph t h e i r responses i n c l u d e d these comments: "the one with the playground", "the one with the t o y s " , and " i t ' s 41 the one with a l l those r i d e s " . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o see why t h i s p a r t i c u l a r landmark i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the c h i l d r e n . The Minoru A t h l e t i c Track i s s i t u a t e d very c l o s e t o the Aquatic Centre. I t i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e : a l l elementary s c h o o l s i n Richmond atte n d an annual t r a c k and f i e l d meet t h e r e d u r i n g the summer term. H a l l No. 1 of the Richmond F i r e Department, the l a r g e s t f i r e h a l l i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , i s l o c a t e d on the west s i d e of the a t h l e t i c t r a c k . Again i t i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e , s i t u a t e d on a major i n t e r s e c t i o n i n Richmond a t G r a n v i l l e Avenue and G i l b e r t Road. S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n mentioned t h a t they had v i s i t e d i t d u r i n g p r e - s c h o o l o u t i n g s . From the data c o l l e c t e d i t i s p o s s i b l e t o suggest t h a t these landmarks are w e l l known t o the c h i l d r e n . Because they are not w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e from the s c h o o l , the c h i l d r e n would have t o be d r i v e n t h e r e . These f o u r landmarks are a l l l o c a t e d c l o s e t o the main downtown shopping core of Richmond, which i s s t r u n g along No. 3 Road between G r a n v i l l e Avenue and A l d e r b r i d g e Way. I t was s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t both the number of exact responses and a c c u r a t e s u g g e s t i o n s rose d r a m a t i c a l l y a t t h i s p o i n t , thus i n t e r r u p t i n g the p a t t e r n of g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t had been apparent i n the t h r e e p r e v i o u s groups. The f i n a l group of photographs, those taken a t d i s t a n c e s of 4 km (2.5 m i l es) or more from the s c h o o l , again e x h i b i t e d a 42 s i g n i f i c a n t , decrease i n r e c o g n i t i o n , but they d i d not drop t o the l e v e l reached i n Group C. Within t h i s group one photograph--No. 17 of F i n n Slough-- d i d not r e c e i v e any suggestions as t o what or where i t might be. Finn Slough i s a t i d a l backwater l o c a t e d a t the southern end of No. 4 Road adjacent t o a smal l i s l a n d i n the F r a s e r R i v e r known as Whitworth I s l a n d . I t i s q u i t e a c c e s s i b l e by road; s e v e r a l people l i v e t h e r e on r a t h e r d e l a p i d a t e d houseboats. However, i t i s a l i t t l e o f f the "beaten t r a c k " - - n o t a l o c a t i o n where many f a m i l i e s would d r i v e or b i c y c l e t o on the weekend. Although many c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e d the photograph o f the Richmond General H o s p i t a l , i t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t very few r e c o g n i z e d the Minoru Chapel or the Gateway Theatre, both of which are adjacent t o the h o s p i t a l . Twelve c h i l d r e n knew the h o s p i t a l by i t s exact name, one boy o b v i o u s l y remembering i t from p e r s o n a l experience as he commented: "My bro t h e r got s t i t c h e s a t t h a t h o s p i t a l " . Although nine c h i l d r e n suggested t h a t Photograph 16, Minoru Chapel, was a church, o n l y one c h i l d was a b l e t o g i v e i t s exact name. Comments about the chapel c e r t a i n l y i n d i c a t e d a sense o f i t s p l a c e and use i n gen e r a l terms, f o r example, " i t ' s the church where you get married near the Gateway" and " a church beside where the o l d l a d i e s l i v e i n the h o s p i t a l " . (The g e r i a t r i c ground f l o o r wing of the h o s p i t a l i s l o c a t e d j u s t a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from the chapel.) The two g i r l s who named the Gateway Theatre c o r r e c t l y were probably a b l e t o do so as they 43 both have been i n v o l v e d i n performances i n the t h e a t r e and t h e r e f o r e possessed p e r s o n a l experience o f the p l a c e : "I re c o g n i z e t h a t because I had t o go tap t h e r e f o r the show". Another comment d i d i n d i c a t e some knowledge of l o c a t i o n : " a pl a c e by the h o s p i t a l " . Photograph 22 was immediately r e c o g n i z e d as Woodward's Department St o r e by a l l the students, but onl y f i v e of them c o u l d s t a t e t h a t i t was l o c a t e d i n the Lansdowne Park Shopping Centre, the newest and l a r g e s t shopping c e n t r e i n Richmond. Located on No. 3 Road between Lansdowne Road and A l d e r b r i d g e Way, Woodward's i s one of the two anchor s t o r e s o f the c e n t r e , the other being Eaton's. In the photograph i t can be seen t h a t the d i s t i n c t i v e Woodward's name i s q u i t e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e , which most l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s high r e c o g n i t i o n f a c t o r . However, i t would appear t o be somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the name of the whole shopping c e n t r e , t h a t i s , Lansdowne Park, was only known by one-quarter of the s t u d e n t s . T h i s might i n d i c a t e t h a t the l o c a t i o n s of shopping m a l l s are mainly known by the names of the major s t o r e s t h a t are l o c a t e d w i t h i n them, r a t h e r than by the name of the mall i t s e l f . One c h i l d d i d r e f e r t o t h i s photograph as "Woodward's Shopping M a l l " . I t might be suggested t h a t t h i s i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the p a r e n t s ' shopping p a t t e r n s , who probably s t a t e they are going t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e i n the M a l l r a t h e r then t o the M a l l i t s e l f . Or, perhaps i t i s due to the f a c t t h a t the l a r g e , h i g h l y v i s i b l e neon names on the o u t s i d e of the shopping m a l l s are almost always those of the l a r g e anchor s t o r e s and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , more e a s i l y 44 imprinted on the young c h i l d ' s memory. Photograph 20 i s Fantasy Gardens, l o c a t e d on the n o r t h e a s t corner o f No. 5 Road and Steveston Highway. O r i g i n a l l y i t was known as Bota Gardens when i t f i r s t opened t o the p u b l i c approximately f i v e years ago. One boy re c o g n i z e d the photograph, i n s t a n t l y r e c a l l i n g t h a t i t had been Bota Gardens. I t seemed t h a t , although n e i t h e r o f the two c h i l d r e n who made an accurate s u g g e s t i o n about the landmark had a c t u a l l y v i s i t e d the gardens, they were a b l e t o acknowledge t h a t they had n o t i c e d i t when p a s s i n g by, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r comments: "the f l o w e r p l a c e by a gas s t a t i o n " : "we see i t when we go t o my grandpa's, but I don't know what i t ' s c a l l e d . " The photograph of the Richmond Nature Park, Photograph 21, was purposely taken so t h a t the l e a f y t r e e s obscured most of the name. Because the Nature Park i s a popular a t t r a c t i o n i n Richmond, i t was f e l t t h a t many of the c h i l d r e n would have v i s i t e d i t a t l e a s t on one, and p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . T h i s d i d not appear t o be so, however, as onl y f o u r c h i l d r e n were ab l e t o name a c c u r a t e l y the landmark, one comment being " I s t h a t a park? I've been t h e r e once when I was i n Kin d e r g a r t e n " . Photograph 25, i s of a view l o o k i n g south along Highway 99 as i t descends i n t o the George Massey Tunnel (Deaa I s l a n d Tunnel). Of the eleve n c h i l d r e n who suggested t h a t i t was a road, e i g h t were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i t c o r r e c t l y as the entrance t o the t u n n e l . D i s c u s s i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t s e v e r a l of these 45 c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e d the view as a s e c t i o n of a r o u t e t h a t they had p h y s i c a l l y t r a v e l l e d along a t sometime. I t was, t h e r e f o r e , f a m i l i a r t o them as the f o l l o w i n g comments i n d i c a t e : "how you get t o my c o u s i n ' s house"; " i t goes t o where my Grandma l i v e s " . One comment a l l u d e d to the p h y s i c a l nature of the t u n n e l i t s e l f : "Going i n the t u n n e l with the l i g h t s " . These c h i l d r e n to whom the photograph of Highway 99 formed a p a r t of a known ro u t e , c o n c e i v a b l y , were a b l e t o o r i e n t a t e p h y s i c a l l y t h a t photograph as p a r t of a l a r g e r c o g n i t i v e map t h a t they had i n t h e i r minds; i t was a s m a l l p a r t of the whole ro u t e t h a t they knew they had t r a v e l l e d along to reach a c e r t a i n d e s t i n a t i o n . Exact Responses: The Highest and Lowest The t a b u l a t e d r e s u l t s were then c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of those c h i l d r e n who produced the h i g h e s t number of exact responses compared t o those who had the lowest number of exact responses. (See Table IV.) The i n d i v i d u a l with the h i g h e s t t o t a l of d e f i n i t e and a c c u r a t e responses was L i s a , who r e c o g n i z e d t h i r t e e n out of the p o s s i b l e t w e n t y - f i v e photographs. L i s a l i v e s w i t h i n t h r e e b l o c k s of the s c h o o l . She i s the e l d e r of the two s i b l i n g s i n the f a m i l y and i s a b r i g h t , c h e e r f u l c h i l d . Both parents work at t h e i r own b u s i n e s s , a gas s t a t i o n i n c e n t r a l Vancouver, and the mother i s an a c t i v e a e r o b i c s i n s t r u c t o r . The f a m i l y tend to v i s i t nearby r e l a t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y and to go on f a m i l y o u t i n g s . 46 Table IV C h i l d r e n with the Highest and Lowest Frequency of Exact Responses on the Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n T e s t Highest Frequency Lowest Frequency Rank Name Number of Exact Responses Rank Name Number of Exact Responses 1 2 3 4 L i s a Kim F. Michael A l i s o n 13 12 12 12 1 M i c h e l l e J . 0 2 M i c h e l l e M. 2 3 Matthew 3 4 Peter 4 4 J e n n i f e r C. 4 4 Yumi 4 47 M i c h a e l , together with Kim and A l i s o n , r e c o g n i z e d twelve of the t w e n t y - f i v e photographs. Michael i s the o l d e r of two s i b l i n g s . H i s f a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y t r a v e l s out of town on business t r i p s , while mother remains a t home with the younger daughter. In the classroom Michael i s a b r i g h t , observant c h i l d who i s q u i t e aware o f a l l t h a t i s going on around him. He o f t e n t r a v e l s i n town on the weekends with h i s f a t h e r and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n boys' c l u b s and s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . A l i s o n i s an i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d , the middle o f t h r e e s i b l i n g s . Both parents work a t f u l l time p o s i t i o n s i n Vancouver. A l i s o n p a r t i c i p a t e s i n many a c t i v i t i e s , both i n and out of s c h o o l ; she appears t o be a c h i l d t h a t i s keenly observant and knowledgeable of events t h a t are happening around her. Kim i s an onl y c h i l d whose mother s t a y s a t home while f a t h e r works. Kim a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n many a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r s c h o o l and, as with many s i n g l e c h i l d r e n , she probably spends c o n s i d e r a b l e time d r i v i n g t o and from a v a r i e t y of p l a c e e with her p a r e n t s . In the classroom s e t t i n g Kim i s a b r i g h t , observant s t u d e n t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n has been gi v e n t o the c h i l d r e n who recogn i z e d the l e a s t number of photographs. One g i r l was not able t o r e c o g n i z e a c c u r a t e l y any of the landmarks. M i c h e l l e J . , the younger s i b l i n g o f a s i n g l e parent f a m i l y , g e n e r a l l y r e t u r n s t o an empty townhouse each day a f t e r s c h o o l i s f i n i s h e d . She does not appear t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n any team s p o r t s , or g i r l s ' c l u b s , but tends t o p l a y i n and around the 48 townhouae complex with her o l d e r b r o t h e r ' s f r i e n d s . M i c h e l l e J . i s a l o n e l y c h i l d i n the classroom, e x p e r i e n c i n g f r e q u e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s s o c i a l i z i n g with her peers. Her mother works f u l l time to support the f a m i l y ; t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e o u t s i d e v i s i t i n g or o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . M i c h e l l e J . was f o l l o w e d by a second g i r l who r e c o g n i z e d o n l y two photographs a c c u r a t e l y . However, because M i c h e l l e M. had o n l y moved to Richmond from Surrey l a s t September ( f i v e months ago), she was perhaps not as f a m i l i a r with the m u n i c i p a l i t y as she might have been had she l i v e d i n the area s i n c e b i r t h , which i s the case with most of the other c h i l d r e n . I t was, however, i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the two photographs t h a t M i c h e l l e M. d i d r e c o g n i z e were of the Buddhist Temple on Steveston Highway and of Highway 99 l e a d i n g i n t o the George Maasey t u n n e l , both of which are along the r o u t e she most l i k e l y would have t r a v e l l e d d a i l y from Surrey t o the s c h o o l b e f o r e her f a m i l y r e l o c a t e d t o t h e i r present home c l o s e t o the s c h o o l . Matthew r e c o g n i z e d only t h r e e out of the t w e n t y - f i v e photographs. H i s f a m i l y of f i v e l i v e s i n a s m a l l house on No. Two Road. Matthew experiences d i f f i c u l t y a c a d e m i c a l l y i n s c h o o l and does not take p a r t i n any team s p o r t s or c l u b s . Instead he tends t o p l a y i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l lands t h a t back on to h i s f a m i l y ' s back garden. Matthew had no d i f f i c u l t y r e c o g n i z i n g the f i r s t two photographs--the P & A Supermarket and the F i r e h a l l , as they are both l o c a t e d a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of No. Two Road and Steveston Highway, l e s s than one hundred 49 yards from h i s home. He a l s o r e c o g n i z e d Photograph 12, the dyke, as he seems t o spend much of h i s time near the dykes f r o g hunting i n the nearby d i t c h e s . Matthew and h i s f a m i l y do not appear to t r a v e l t o other areas of Richmond on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Two g i r l s and a boy r e c o g n i z e d the next lowest number of photographs, f o u r out of the p o s s i b l e t w e n t y - f i v e . J e n n i f e r i s an only c h i l d who l i v e s alone with her mother. Her f a t h e r works on a permanent b a s i s i n the s outheastern United S t a t e s . Because J e n n i f e r l i v e s about 0.8 km (0.5 miles) away from the s c h o o l , t h a t i s , out of the s c h o o l ' s catchment area, she i s d r i v e n to and from sc h o o l each day. J e n n i f e r i s a shy, q u i e t c h i l d whose mother tends t o be q u i t e nervous and i n s e c u r e . J e n n i f e r does not belong to any c l u b s and appears t o s t a y c l o s e t o home, v i s i t i n g her aunt, who l i v e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , and p l a y i n g with her c o u s i n s . Peter and Yumi who both l i v e w i t h i n a block of the s c h o o l , are the middle c h i l d r e n of t h r e e s i b l i n g s . Both seem t o remain c l o s e to home p l a y i n g with the neighbourhood c h i l d r e n . The parents of both c h i l d r e n work o u t s i d e the home; t h e r e does not seem to be much movement away from the s c h o o l - S t e v e s t o n a r e a . Summary Although t h i s a n a l y s i s i s i n no way meant t o p r o v i d e a socioeconomic d e s c r i p t i o n of these c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , i t has become apparent t h a t t h e r e are s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the f o u r c h i l d r e n who scored the h i g h e s t number of r e c o g n i t i o n s of the landmarks and those s i x c h i l d r e n who 50 r e c e i v e d the lowest s c o r e s . These d i s t i n c t i o n s would be an i n t e r e s t i n g area f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , but i t w i l l not be an area of f o c u s w i t h i n the parameters of t h i s paper. 51 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF THE ROUTE TO SCHOOL MAPS I n t r o d u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n C r i t e r i a Data used i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the paper was d e r i v e d from the maps drawn by the c h i l d r e n t o show t h e i r r o u t e s from home to s c h o o l . Each c h i l d was a b l e t o use one or more sheets of manila drawing paper (46 x 30 cm) and a v a r i e t y of p e n c i l s , crayons, and f e l t pens. There was no p r e - s e t time l i m i t w i t h i n which the c h i l d r e n were expected to have completed t h e i r maps. A q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was performed on the maps based on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. The drawing was p r i m a r i l y p i c t o r i a l , with no s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n even though f e a t u r e s such as b u i l d i n g s and houses are l o g i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . 2. The drawing was schematic i n the sense t h a t the elements are connected by a known path or r o u t e . 3. The drawing resembled a map; i t was w e l l o rganized with c l e a r c o n n e c t i o n s between a r e a s . 4. The drawing resembled a map with i d e n t i f i a b l e landmarks which e x h i b i t e d s p a t i a l o r d e r ; and the f e a t u r e s were c o r r e c t l y r e l a t e d along a l i n e a r sequence and with some sense of s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t h a t i s , the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s were a c c u r a t e so t h a t i t c o u l d be used f o r o r i e n t a t i o n i n the a r e a . (From Hart 1981) Hart (1981) suggests t h a t t h e r e are p o i n t s along a 52 continuum designed to d e s c r i b e the type and extent of s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n expressed i n c h i l d r e n ' s maps. The moat v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o understanding the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space on a map are obtained from l o o k i n g a t each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s knowledge of the l o c a l environment. From a s s o c i a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i t becomes apparent t h a t houses and s t r e e t s are not g e n e r a l l y regarded as landmarks on maps. According t o Lynch (1960) the use of landmarks i n v o l v e s the s i n g l i n g out of one element from a m u l t i t u d e of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t i n v o l v e s the s e l e c t i o n of some a s p e c t s t h a t are "unique or memorable" i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . Those elements t h a t have been determined as landmarks i n the maps drawn by the c h i l d r e n are those t h a t may be termed " p o i n t s of l o c a l r e f e r e n c e " . However, t h i s may be a r a t h e r tenuous d i s t i n c t i o n as those p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s may not be p e r c e i v e d as having any v a l u e as landmarks t o the p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d who i n c l u d e d them on h i s map. The i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t were given t o the c h i l d r e n were "to draw a map of the r o u t e from your house t o the s c h o o l and t o i n c l u d e on i t as many p l a c e s and t h i n g s t h a t you n o t i c e on your way to s c h o o l " . The completed maps were then scored i n the f o l l o w i n g way g i v i n g one p o i n t f o r each of these f e a t u r e s : a. the a c t u a l number of s t r e e t s shown, pro v i d e d they were connected and r e l a t e d t o each other i n r e a l i t y and on the map b. the number of s t r e e t s c o r r e c t l y named c. the number of f e a t u r e s shown 53 F i n d i n g s The maps of the ten c h i l d r e n who had achieved the h i g h e s t and lowest s c o r e s on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t were analyzed and t h e i r map r e s u l t s were then t a b u l a t e d a g a i n s t t h e i r s c o r e s on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . The r e s u l t s are shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s : Table V Home t o School Map Scores No. of S t r e e t Scores Student s t r e e t s names Features T o t a l L i s a 3 3 2 S Top Scores Michael 2 1 3 6 on Photo. A l i s o n 1 1 2 4 Tes t Kim 4 4 2 10 M i c h e l l e M. 4 1 2 7 Low Scores Matthew 2 0 0 2 on Photo. Peter 2 2 2 6 Test * Yumi 1 0 0 1 J e n n i f e r 4 1 6 11 • M i c h e l l e J . was unable t o complete a map 54 In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e the c h i l d r e n ' s map s c o r e s have been s e t a g a i n s t the exact s c o r e s t h a t they achieved on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t : Table VI Comparative Table of I n d i v i d u a l Map and Photograph R e c o g n i t i o n Test Scores R e c o g n i t i o n Scores Student Map Scores T e s t Scores L i s a 8 13 Top Scores Michael 6 12 on Photo. A l i s o n 4 12 T e s t Kim 10 12 M i c h e l l e M. 7 2 Low Scores Matthew 2 3 on Photo. Peter 6 4 Test Yumi 1 4 J e n n i f e r 11 4 M i c h e l l e J . 0 0 The h i g h e s t s c o r e of 11 i n the map a n a l y s i s was a t t a i n e d J e n n i f e r She i s the o n l y c h i l d among the group t h a t l i v e s o u t s i d e the s c h o o l catchment area; she i s d r i v e n t o s c h o o l each day by c a r . Her map q u i t e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the r o u t e t h a t was 55 f o l l o w e d from her home t o s c h o o l . J e n n i f e r named the s t r e e t on which her house was s i t u a t e d , but was unable t o name any of the other s t r e e t s t r a v e l l e d a l o n g . J e n n i f e r a l s o i n c l u d e d the h i g h e s t number of other f e a t u r e s on her map: a stop s i g n , a mail box, a pub, and a second elementary s c h o o l . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o the r o u t e t h a t was f o l l o w e d , o c c u r i n g a t d i s t i n c t i v e p o i n t s , mainly i n t e r s e c t i o n s . J e n n i f e r , however, was one of the c h i l d r e n who scored low on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . L i s a achieved the h i g h e s t s c o r e of 13 on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t ; on the map t e s t she scored the t h i r d h i g h e s t , a s c o r e of 8. L i s a walks t o s c h o o l . Although she c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d and named the roads on her map, the map i s inward l o o k i n g and q u i t e l o c a l i z e d , u s i n g only a s m a l l area i n the middle of the paper. L i s a was unable to v i s u a l i z e Trumpter D r i v e and K i n g f i s h e r as the two main connecting roads t h a t they a r e . Instead she saw them as i n d i v i d u a l l y connected t o each other, not as p a r t of a l a r g e r s p a t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . On her way t o s c h o o l , L i s a passes by a house which seems t o be of some importance t o her as she has d e l i b e r a t e l y made a p o i n t of drawing and c o l o u r i n g t h a t house on her map i n much more d e t a i l than her own house. She has a l s o c a r e f u l l y drawn a f r u i t or blossom t r e e beside the house. L i s a c o r r e c t l y drew i n the crosswalk i n f r o n t of the s c h o o l , a c a r , and a person. These d e t a i l s added t o the p i c t o r i a l dimension of her map. Matthew and Yumi, who were both low s c o r e r s on the 56 photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , drew maps t h a t were the most p i c t o r i a l . Yumi l i v e s on the road t h a t borders the western edge o f the s c h o o l f i e l d ; her map c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t she j u s t has t o walk a c r o s s one road and the f i e l d t o reach the s c h o o l . Matthew, l i v i n g on No. 2 Road, has a much longer, more complicated walk to s c h o o l . Only two s e c t i o n s of h i s map c o u l d be a l i g n e d and f o l l o w e d i n r e a l i t y . The c e n t r e s e c t i o n with i t s acute t u r n s does not conform t o the t r u e r o u t e t h a t he f o l l o w e d . On h i s map Matthew i n c l u d e d the l a r g e f i e l d t h a t l i e s behind the s c h o o l , the crosswalk i n f r o n t of the s c h o o l , and the 'cut-through' t h a t he uses from No. 2 Road t o P u f f i n Court. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Matthew c a r e f u l l y drew the houses around the Court i n more d e t a i l than h i s own house. He d i d not p r o v i d e the name of any roads on h i s map. A l i s o n scored only 4 on the map a n a l y s i s compared t o a higher s c o r e of 12 on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . Her house i s s i t u a t e d along the northern boundary of the s c h o o l f i e l d . A c c o r d i n g l y , her map r e f l e c t s the extremely s h o r t d i s t a n c e t h a t she has t o walk t o reach the s c h o o l . The major f e a t u r e s t h a t she passes by are the f i v e houses t h a t stand between her house and the entrances t o the s c h o o l f i e l d . Perhaps because of the l a c k of other f e a t u r e s t o i n c l u d e on her map, A l i s o n went t o g r e a t p a i n s to draw and c o l o u r these houses i n great d e t a i l . She a l s o i n c l u d e d the adventure playground t h a t l i e s near the r e a r entrance t o the s c h o o l . Kim scored high on both the map a n a l y s i s and the 57 photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . Her map, an a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l of the s t r e e t p a t t e r n t h a t she f o l l o w s to s c h o o l , c o u l d probably be used f o r o r i e n t a t i o n purposes i n the area. Although a l l the roads t h a t Kim walks along to s c h o o l are l i n e d with houses, Kim has o n l y shown two o t h e r s b e s i d e s her own, a green house on Hummingbird, and a blue house j u s t b eside the entrance t o the s c h o o l . One l a r g e t r e e and c o l o u r f u l f l o w e r s were a d d i t i o n a l elements i n her map. Michael scored 6 on the map a n a l y s i s , but h i s map i s a l i t t l e d i s j o i n t e d as the c u l - d e - s a c t h a t he l i v e s on. Cormorant Court, i s not seen as being connected to K i n g f i s h e r D r i v e which, i n r e a l i t y , i t i s . The l i n e on the map t h a t i s seen l e a d i n g t o Cormorant Court i s the sidewalk, which Michael walks along f o u r times a day t o and from s c h o o l . However, Michael d i d i n c l u d e the crosswalk i n f r o n t of the s c h o o l and s t r e e t l i g h t s ; he a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were some townhouses t o the l e f t o f the s c h o o l . A l a r g e b l a c k house was drawn on the other s i d e of the s c h o o l , but no o t h e r s were i n d i c a t e d . M i c h e l l e M., the c h i l d who moved i n t o the area a t the end of September, scored 7 on the map a n a l y s i s . She produced a map on which her house and her f r i e n d ' s house were the most dominant f e a t u r e s , other houses on the map being s m a l l e r and l a c k i n g i n d e t a i l and c o l o u r . M i c h e l l e ' s was mostly a p i c t o r i a l map. However, the roads were connected and the r o u t e t o the western edge of the s c h o o l f i e l d was c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . Peter s c o r e d higher on h i s r o u t e t o s c h o o l map than he d i d 58 on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . His map was neat and c o n c i s e l y drawn; the houses were a l l i d e n t i c a l l y drawn, i n c l u d i n g h i s own, and c o l o u r e d a t t r a c t i v e l y . The two roads t h a t Peter walks along t o s c h o o l were c l e a r l y marked, named, and connected. A c r o s s road was unnamed, and houses were not drawn along the whole route t o the s c h o o l . M i c h e l l e J . , who was unable t o s c o r e on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , was a l s o unable t o complete t h i s e x e r c i s e . A f t e r s e v e r a l repeated attempts she q u i e t l y crumpled up her paper, put i t i n t o the waste basket and found an a l t e r n a t e I a c t i v i t y on which t o work. When her paper was r e t r i e v e d , i t was found t h a t a l l attempts t o draw a map had been t o t a l l y e r ased. T h i s a c t i o n c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n two p o s s i b l e ways. One, t h a t M i c h e l l e was a f r a i d of having t o complete the e x e r c i s e and was hoping t h a t the a c t of d e s t r o y i n g her attempts would remain u n n o t i c e d . Or, M i c h e l l e might simply have been unable t o o r g a n i z e s p a t i a l l y the r o u t e to s c h o o l i n her mind and then t r a n s f e r t h a t s p a t i a l knowledge on t o paper., There was one boy i n the c l a s s , Garson, who drew h i s map as viewed from above; i t has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n as a comparison with the other more p i c t o r i a l maps. On Garson's map the houses are drawn as squares with a c e n t r e l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g the peak of the r o o f and a small square i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a t i o n of the chimney. Hi s own house i s l a b e l l e d , as i s the s c h o o l ; however, th e r e are no s t r e e t names pro v i d e d or e x t r a environmental i n f o r m a t i o n . 59 D i s c u s s i o n Such c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from these comments must be t e n t a t i v e . Those c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d high i n the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t g e n e r a l l y , with the e x c e p t i o n of Kim, scored c o n s i d e r a b l y lower on the map e x e r c i s e . S i m i l a r l y , of those c h i l d r e n who achieved low s c o r e s on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , only two s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the map t e a t . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the h i g h e s t o v e r a l l s c o r e on the map t e s t was achieved by the one g i r l who was d r i v e n t o s c h o o l every day and had the f a r t h e s t t o come. Perhaps by l i v i n g f u r t h e r away from the s c h o o l she had a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o put more i n f o r m a t i o n on to her map, thus s c o r i n g a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s . G e n e r a l l y , i t seems a l l the c h i l d r e n mapped t h e i r movements along a r o u t e t o the s c h o o l without r e l a t i o n t o a s c a l e of any k i n d . The maps themselves d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n shape; some being s m a l l and c o n c i s e u t i l i z i n g the c e n t r e of the sheet, while o t h e r s spread to two or t h r e e sheets of paper. Most of the houses on any p a r t i c u l a r map appear t o have been drawn from the same viewpoint, which corresponds t o the i d e a t h a t c h i l d r e n a t t h i s age tend to show t h i n g s t h a t are important o n l y t o the person who has drawn the map and i n a way t h a t i s meaningful t o him. One aspect t h a t was noted i n a l l the maps was t h a t none of the c h i l d r e n had i n d i c a t e d any environmental f e a t u r e s or landmarks t h a t were away from the r o u t e t h a t was taken to 60 s c h o o l . However, t h i s d i d comply with the o r i g i n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t were gi v e n t o the c h i l d r e n , which were "to draw a map of t h e i r route from home t o s c h o o l " r a t h e r than t o draw a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l o c a l a r e a . Perhaps i f the l a t t e r i d e a had been presented t o the c h i l d r e n , more f e a t u r e s of the a d j o i n i n g landscape might have been i n c l u d e d , thereby t a p p i n g a wider aspect of the c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge of the l o c a l a r e a. Most of the drawings completed by the c h i l d r e n d i d resemble maps i n t h a t the roads were g e n e r a l l y t o p o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d even i f they were not c o r r e c t l y o r i e n t a t e d . Although such a task may appear t o be r e l a t i v e l y simple, the c h i l d r e n were asked t o do a number of t h i n g s a l l a t once: t o observe, t o r e c a l l t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , t o p l o t data by u s i n g o r i g i n a l t echniques, t o o r g a n i z e data i n space, and t o g i v e p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e with some degree of accuracy (Milburn 1982). From s t u d y i n g such maps the amount of i n p u t which c h i l d r e n draw from t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s of the environment becomes e v i d e n t . I t i s t h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n p u t t h a t becomes i n t e r n a l i z e d t o form what i s t e c h n i c a l l y known as s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . I t can o n l y occur i f frames of r e f e r e n c e have p r e v i o u s l y been c r e a t e d and u t i l i z e d t o s o l v e s p a t i a l problems. From such maps i t a l s o becomes e v i d e n t t h a t some c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r l o c a l environment on a map i s more advanced than o t h e r s . M i c h e l l e J . found the whole task j u s t too overwhelming and q u i e t l y abandoned i t , while Garson was a b l e t o v i s u a l i z e the l o c a l s t r e e t s and houses i n h i s own mind from the more developed b i r d ' s - e y e view. Between these two extremes 61 were many v a r y i n g stages, i n d i c a t i v e of the idea t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s concepts of space and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t i t vary widely a t t h i s age, and a l s o t h a t i t i s a developmental process as s t a t e d by P i a g e t . I t a l s o f o l l o w s the developmental stages as i n d i c a t e d by P i a g e t i n t h a t the c h i l d r e n were moving from the l a t e r stages of i n t u i t i v e or p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l space i n which an e g o c e n t r i c r e f e r e n c e system i s used; t h a t i s , one i n which the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s between one landmark and the next can be a n t i c i p a t e d , and e n t e r i n g the c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l p e r i o d <7-8years) i n which they are a b l e t o use a simple f i x e d r e f e r e n c e system based on uncoordinated r o u t e s and landmarks. C o o r d i n a t i o n of such r o u t e s and landmarks begins with the development of l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g . At t h i s stage space i s manipulated through l o g i c a l manoeuvres which are c o n c r e t e , t h a t i s , dependent on r e a l o b j e c t s (landmarks). 62 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Pe r c e p t i o n s and the S p a t i a l Framework An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the environment i n c r e a s e s an awareness of the s p a t i a l framework which has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n an attempt t o o r g a n i z e the mass of environmental i n f o r m a t i o n which begins t o accrue from the day of one's b i r t h . The development of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l a b i l i t y i n h i s everyday environment and v a r i a t i o n s i n the freedom of t h i s s p a t i a l a c t i v i t y are seen as r e l e v a n t f o r c e s which i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y as w e l l as the extent of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t the s p a t i a l r e l a t e d n e s s of d i f f e r e n t phenomena. Hart's r e s e a r c h i n New England (1978) enabled him t o suggest t h a t the a b i l i t y of a c h i l d t o c o - o r d i n a t e l o n g e r , more d i s t a n t areas was more i n f l u e n c e d by the degree and nature of h i s t r a n s a c t i o n s with the landscape than by the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l (Liben e t a l . 1981). Though th e r e are some d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c c e p t i n g t h i s p o i n t of view, i t i s p o s s i b l e to concede t h a t t h e r e are g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i n a c h i l d ' s o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t environments f r e e l y . The extent of a c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l range and the u t i l i t y of the environment can become an important i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . P i a g e t and h i s c o l l e a g u e s demonstrated t h a t a c h i l d develops the a b i l i t y t o a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the geometric s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of environmental f e a t u r e s . However, 63 s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n such as t h i s cannot be assumed to form the whole of h i s s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e . A l l people l i v e and a c t i n space; f r e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a need t o a b s t r a c t o n e s e l f from being i n the world i n order t o s t r u c t u r e i t so t h a t one may s u c c e s s f u l l y l o c a t e o n e s e l f and other phenomena w i t h i n i t . In f i n d i n g t h e i r way i n the l o c a l environment, a c h i l d may use many d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n c e s t h a t r e i n f o r c e each other i n an i n t u i t i v e way r a t h e r than use one or two key landmarks, which i s f r e q u e n t l y proposed i n t h e o r i e s and r e s e a r c h . A c h i l d may have a v a r i e t y of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and o r i e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which are s e l e c t e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r task or f o r the unique demands of the environment. The only way t o f i n d out i s t o ask the c h i l d . As a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h e r , P i a g e t a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t what i s thought t o be r e a l i s a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f thought, a product of the i n t e r a c t i o n between a c h i l d and h i s environment, between maturation and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In t h i s b e l i e f P i a g e t was more concerned with the s t r u c t u r e of c h i l d r e n ' s thought r a t h e r than with the content o f thought. There are many c r i t i c s o f t h i s l a c k o f concern with content, one of whom i s Susan Isaacs <1966> who suggests t h a t i t i s necessary t o i n v e s t i g a t e a c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e development t o g e t h e r with h i s a b i l i t y t o c o n s t r u c t the world l o g i c a l l y ; t h a t i s , one should be concerned with a c h i l d ' s own i n t e r e s t s i n the world. C r i t i c i s m such as t h i s i s s t i l l v a l i d ; i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o many areas o f the educa t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . 64 Geography In the Elementary C u r r i c u l u m In Canada i t appears t h a t geography as a s u b j e c t i n elementary s c h o o l s i s almost unknown. As Milburn h y p o t h e s i z e s : Geography, t h e r e f o r e , i s o n l y a s m a l l component of s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n Canadian Schools i n g e n e r a l . Though g e o g r a p h i c a l content may be d e f i n e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide, t h e r e i s o f t e n l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f the depth t o which i t w i l l be taught. I t can be g i v e n a c u r s o r y review, and i t may be taught by t e a c h e r s with very l i t t l e geography i n t h e i r own background. . . (1984: p.8). A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of the c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l u m development i s based on the s t r u c t u r e and content of geography with l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i f any, f o r the spontaneous development of the c h i l d ' s own geographic experiences, i n t e r e s t s , and thoughts. Young c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the primary grades, go t o s c h o o l with t h e i r "own c u r r i c u l u m " , t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s , which are perhaps misunderstood by the classroom t e a c h e r . Curriculum developers should be aware of the f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n o u t s i d e as w e l l as i n s i d e the s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n and t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be used as a base on which to c o n s t r u c t the knowledge t h a t educators f e e l they should have. There should be an i n t e r a c t i v e , ongoing process between the s e t c u r r i c u l u m and the geographic i n t e r e s t s and understanding of the c h i l d . Teachers might become the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , b u i l d i n g t h e i r t e a c h i n g u n i t s or themes upon the o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r spontaneous q u e s t i o n s . The r o l e of c h i l d r e n ' s g e o g r a p h i c a l experience i s an area 65 r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , a c c o r d i n g t o whether they l i v e i n a c i t y , suburban, or v i l l a g e environment; t o what access t o v i s u a l media they have had; and t o what p a r e n t a l guidance has been given i n terms of environmental e x p l a n a t i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research Subsequent t o t h i s thought, Denise Piche (1982), f o l l o w i n g her r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous geography, suggests t h a t c h i l d r e n s ' understanding o f proximate and d i s t a n t space be sim u l t a n e o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r "a c o r r e c t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f here i s n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o a con c e p t i o n of elsewhere", an area o f r e s e a r c h t h a t c o u l d be f o l l o w e d i n order t o e x p l o r e c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous geography beyond the home environment. During a b r i e f c o n v e r s a t i o n , the l a t e Dean S c a r f e observed t h a t landmarks are a form of s e c u r i t y t o both c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . T h i s might be so because people have a f e a r o f being l o s t i n an u n f a m i l i a r environment. A f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g comment from Dr. S c a r f e was t o q u e s t i o n whether events make landmarks, e i t h e r i n the p h y s i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense. While these two i d e a s are not a p a r t of the r e s e a r c h aspect o f t h i s study, they do bear c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t ; they c o u l d form the b a s i s f o r an area of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The i n t e r a c t i v e nature of the c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p can assume a major r o l e i n the s p a t i a l development of c h i l d r e n . Hart suggests t h a t the s p a t i a l ranges of c h i l d r e n are a product of d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n between parent and c h i l d (Saarinen e t a l . 1984). 66 A Role f o r Parents I f i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t s p a t i a l l e a r n i n g occurs d u r i n g t r a v e l though an environment, whether the mode of t r a v e l i s walking, c y c l i n g , or d r i v i n g , then i t c o u l d be suggested t h a t the degree t o which a c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n i s drawn towards s p e c i f i c p a r t s of the environment d u r i n g t r a v e l i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. I t i s immaterial whether the a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s such as r i v e r s , w a t e r f a l l s , mountains, or toward man-made phenomena l i k e b u i l d i n g s , dams, or highways. I f a c h i l d i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n about s p e c i f i c r o u t e s t o be taken, then s p a t i a l l e a r n i n g becomes even more focused and p r a c t i c a l . I f one f o l l o w s t h i s t r a i n o f thought i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of whether i t i s f e a s i b l e f o r parents t o r a i s e a c h i l d who i s en v i r o n m e n t a l l y competent. I f a parent makes a co n s c i o u s , c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t t o share r o u t e d e c i s i o n s with the c h i l d , t o he l p develop s k i l l s of o b s e r v a t i o n of environmental f e a t u r e s , t o t a l k c o n t i n u a l l y with the c h i l d w hile t r a v e l l i n g between p l a c e s and t o encourage c u r i o s i t y about p l a c e s and landmarks i n the environment, then a c h i l d should grow up with a degree of competence i n environmental and s p a t i a l knowledge. Such c o n s c i o u s t r a i n i n g o f a b i l i t i e s i n a c h i l d , however, must c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t o f the d i s t i n c t e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy o f the parents who wish t h e i r c h i l d t o r e c e i v e a p r a c t i c a l w e l l rounded e d u c a t i o n and who are w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process themselves. 67 There i s a p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n c r e a s i n g l e n g t h of the home-school base and the d i s t a n c e s a t which landmarks are r e c o g n i z e d . In t h i s study the n o t i o n t h a t d e c l i n e i n r e c o g n i t i o n i n c r e a s e s with d i s t a n c e away from the home-school base was unsupported. The landmarks l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e of 3.2 to 4 km <2 to 2.5 m i l e s ) from the home-school area r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher s c o r e s on the photograph r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t . T h i s area i s n o t a b l e i n t h a t i t forms p a r t of the main core of Richmond. There i s seemingly l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e i n the continuance of the suburban roads i n Richmond, punctuated as they are only by t r a f f i c l i g h t s a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . When the c h i l d r e n do a r r i v e i n the core area they appear t o know a l l the r e l e v a n t landmarks as p l a c e s t h a t are meaningful to them i n l i g h t of t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The c h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e the e s s e n t i a l landmarks, but on the way they are unable t o r e c o g n i z e the space they are t r a v e l l i n g through, p o s s i b l y because along Richmond's roads t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the way of s i g n i f i c a n t landmarks. There appeared t o be a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between the p l a c e where the c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d and the p l a c e where they were a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e s e v e r a l landmarks represented i n the photographs. Everyone, c h i l d r e n and a d u l t a l i k e , r e q u i r e s landmarks from which he i s a b l e t o o r i e n t a t e h i m s e l f i n space. In a f l a t , suburban area where space must seem i n f i n i t e t o young c h i l d r e n , landmarks are needed even more. However, much of today's suburbia i s a p p a r e n t l y devoid of noteworthy landmarks t h a t can make s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e l e v a n t . 68 From t h i a r e s e a r c h i t c o u l d be suggested t h a t those parents who i n d i c a t e p o i n t s along a r o u t e , who converse with the c h i l d about the r o u t e taken may w e l l s t i m u l a t e an i n t e r e s t i n landmarks and r o u t e knowledge. T h i s knowledge should a s s i s t i n the development of the c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u r t h e r awareness so t h a t a degree of environmental competence might be a t t a i n a b l e . The r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t the most c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d environmental images were those with which the c h i l d r e n had had some k i n d of p e r s o n a l experience, whether i n a negative way ( f o r example, s t i t c h e s a t the h o s p i t a l ) or i n a p l e a s u r a b l e way ( f o r example, performing on stage a t the t h e a t r e ) . I t t h e r e f o r e seems t h a t a d i s t i n c t a s s o c i a t i o n with a p a r t i c u l a r landmark, or a r e p e t i t i v e experience with i t , enables images of the environment or landmark t o become more e a s i l y i m printed on the c h i l d ' s mental p i c t u r e of the space i n which he e x i s t s . Summary As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n t o the environment and i t s a s s o c i a t e d landmarks might p o s s i b l y be r e i n f o r c e d by s k i l l t r a i n i n g i n g e o g r a p h i c a l e d u c a t i o n . To know an environment, t o experience i t through i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e c o r d i n g and i n t e r r e l a t i n g the f e a t u r e s (whether n a t u r a l or man-made) w i t h i n i t , must help young c h i l d r e n l o c a t e themselves i n the complex world i n which they l i v e . Images of t h e i r l o c a l environment w i l l h e lp to p r o v i d e 69 the p e r c e p t u a l framework w i t h i n which c o g n i t i v e images and concepts can be developed so t h a t these d i s c r e t e p a r t s come together t o o r g a n i z e r e a l i t y . BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY Acredolo, L.P. "Developmental Changes i n the A b i l i t y t o Co-ordinate P e r s p e c t i v e s of a Large-Scale Space." Developmental Psychology 13 (1977): 1-8. "Frames of Reference used by C h i l d r e n For O r i e n t a t i o n i n U n f a m i l i a r Spaces." Environmental Knowing. Eds. G. Moore and R. G o l l e d g e . Stroudsburg, P e n n s y l v a n i a : Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1976. Acredolo, L.P., H.L. P i c k , and M.C. Olaen. "Environmental D i f f e r e n t a t i o n and F a m i l i a r i t y as Determinants of C h i l d r e n ' s Memory f o r S p a t i a l L o c a t i o n . " Developmental  Psychology 11 (1975): 495-500. A l l e n , G.L. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Route Knowledge." C h i l d r e n ' s  Conceptions of S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ed. R. Cohen. San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1982. A l l e n , G.L., K.C. K i r a s i c , A.W. S i e g e l , and J.F. Herman. "Developmental Issues i n C o g n i t i v e Mapping: The S e l e c t i o n and U t i l i z a t i o n of Environmental Landmarks." C h i l d Development 5Q C1979): 1062-1070. Berzok, M. C h i l d r e n ' s C o g n i t i o n of the School Bus Journey. New York: C i t y U n i v e r s i t y , 1980. Bisnaz, J . and L.B. Resnick. "Changes With Age i n Two Components of V i s u a l Search Speed." J o u r n a l of  Experimental C h i l d Psychology 25 (1978): 129-142. C a l l a n d , A.R. "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Images Held by A Small Sample of Primary School C h i l d r e n of T h e i r L o c a l Environment." (M. A. d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of London, England. 1973). Cohen, R. ed. C h i l d r e n ' s Conceptions of S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . San F r a n c i s c o : Josssey-Bass, 1982. C u r t i s , L.E., A.W. S i e g e l . and N.E. F u r l o n g . "Developmental D i f f e r e n c e s i n C o g n i t i v e Mapping: C o n f i g u r a t i o n a l Knowledge of F a m i l i a r L a r ge-Scale Environments". J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology 31 (1981): 456-469. Donaldson, M. C h i l d r e n ' s Minds. Glasgow, S c o t l a n d : Fontana/ C o l l i n s , 1978. Downs, R.M. and D. Stea, eds. Image and Environment. Chicago: A l d i n e , 1973. 72 F l a v e l l , J.H. "Developmental S t u d i e s of Mediated Memory". Advances i n C h i l d Development and Behavior. Eds. H.W. Reese and L.P. L i p s i t t . 5 v o l s . New York: Academic Press, 1970. Gibson, E . J . P r i n c i p l e s of P e r c e p t u a l Learning and Development. New York: Appleton-Century C r o f t s , 1969. Hart, R.A. C h i l d r e n s ' Experience of P l a c e . New York: I r v i n g t o n , 1979. " C h i l d r e n ' s S p a t i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Landscape." S p a t i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Behavior Across the L i f e  Span. Eds. L.S. L i b e n , A.H. P a t t e r s o n , and N. Newcombe. New York: Academic Press, 1981. Hart, R.A. "The Geography of C h i l d r e n and C h i l d r e n ' s Geographies." Environmental P e r c e p t i o n and Behavior:  An Inventory and P r o s p e c t . Ed. Thomas Saar i n e n , Davia Seamon, and James S e l l . Chicago : Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1984. Hart, R.A. and M. Berzok. " C h i l d r e n ' s S t r a t e g i e s For Mapping the Geographic S c a l e Environment". S p a t i a l A b i l i t i e s :  Development and P h y s i o l o g i c a l Foundations. Ed. M. P o t e g a l . New York: Academic P r e s s , 1982. Hart, R.A. and G.T. Moore. The Development of S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n : A Review. P l a c e P e r c e p t i o n Research Report  No 7. Worchester, Massachusetts: Graduate School of Geography, C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1971. Hart, R.A. and G.T. Moore. "The Development of S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n of L a r g e - S c a l e Environments." Image and Environment. Ed. R.M. Downs and D. Stea. Chicago: A l d i n e , 1973. Herman, J.F. and A.W. S i e g e l . "The Development of C o g n i t i v e Mapping of the Large-Scale Environment." J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d Psychology 26 (1978): 389-401. I s s a c s , S. I n t e l l e c t u a l Growth i n Young C h i l d r e n . 1930. New York: Schoken Books, 1966. L i b e n , L.S. " C h i l d r e n ' s Large S c a l e S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n : Is The Measure The Message?" C h i l d r e n ' s Conceptions of S p a t i a l  R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ed. R. Cohen. San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1982. " S p a t i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and B e h a v i o r - - M u l t i p l e P e r s p e c t i v e s . " S p a t i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Behavior  Across the L i f e Span. Eds. L.S. Liben, A.H. P a t t e r s o n , and N. Newcombe. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1981. 73 Lynch, K. The Image of the C i t y Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Pr e s s , 1960. Mandler, J.M. and C A . Robinson. "Developmental Changes i n P i c t u r e R e c o g n i t i o n . " J o u r n a l of Experimental C h i l d  Psychology 16 (1978):127-136. Marsden, W.E. ed. "Teacher Education: Models i n Geography. D. Milburn e t a l . , Geography and Teacher T r a i n i n g i n  Canada. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geographical Union: Commission on Geographical Education, Western Michigan U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1984, pp. 23-35. Milburn, D. " C h i l d r e n In Time and Space." A Canadian S o c i a l  S t u d i e s . Ed. J . Parsons, G. Milburn and M. van Manen, 1982. Newcombe, N. "Development of S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n and C o g n i t i v e Development." C h i l d r e n ' s Conceptions of S p a t i a l  R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ed. R. Cohen. San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1982. Parsons, J . , D. M i l b u r n and M. von Manen. A Canadian S o c i a l  S t u d i e s . Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1983. P i a g e t , J . The Psychology of I n t e l l i g e n c e 1947. New J e r s e y : L i t t l e f i e l d Adams, 1963. P i a g e t , J . , B. Inhel d e r , and A. Szeminska. The C h i l d ' s Conception of Geography. New York: B a s i c Books, I960. The C h i l d ' s Conception of Space. New York: Norton, 1956. Piche, D. "Spontaneous Geography of the Urban C h i l d . " Geography and the Urban Environment. Eds. D. Herbert and R.G. Johnson. New York: Wiley, 1982. P i c k , H.L. and J . J . R i e s e r . " C h i l d r e n ' s C o g n i t i v e Mapping." S p a t i a l A b i l i t i e s Development and P h y s i o l o g i c a l  Foundations. Ed. M. P o t e g a l . New York: Academic Press, 1982. R i e s e r , J . "Reference Systems and the S p a t i a l O r i e n t a t i o n of Si x Month Old I n f a n t s . " C h i l d Development. 50 (1979): 1078-1087. Roberts, M. S p a t i a l Concepts--Some Experiments i n Tasmania. F r o e b e l J o u r n a l . June 1967. S i e g e l , A.W. "The E x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of C o g n i t i v e Maps by C h i l d r e n and A d u l t s . " S p a t i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and Behavior  Across the L i f e Span. Eds. L.S. L i b e n , A.H. P a t t e r s o n and N. Newcombe. New York: Academic Press, 1981. 74 S i e g e l , A.W. and S.H. White. "The Development o f S p a t i a l R e presentations of L a r g e - S c a l e Environments." Advances i n C h i l d Development and Behavior. V o l . 10. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1975. Tuan, Y i - F u , " O r i e n t a t i o n : An Approach To Human Geography." J o u r n a l of Geography. V o l . 82 No. 1 (1983): 11-14. 75 APPENDIX A 76 Photograph 2. Richmond F i r e Department, F i r e h a l l No. 2, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway an No. 2 Road. 77 Photograph 4. A u s t i n H a r r i s School, on Moncton S t r e e t . 78 Photograph 6. A r t Knappa Garden Spot, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 1 Road. 79 Photograph 8. Steveston Museum and Post O f f i c e , a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Moncton S t r e e t and F i r s t Avenue. 80 Photograph 9. Steveaton Government Wharf, along the south arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r . I Photograph 10. South Arm United Church, a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Steveston Highway and No. 3 Road. 81 Photograph 11. S e a f a i r Community Ice Rink, a t the west end of F r a n c i s Road. Photograph 12. The Dyke at the west end of F r a n c i s Road. 82 Photograph 13. Richmond F i r e Department, F i r e h a l l No. 1, at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of G r a n v i l l e Avenue and G i l b e r t Road. Photograph 15. Minoru A t h l e t i c Track, l o c a t e d i n Minoru Park. <= Photograph 16. Minoru Chapel, l o c a t e d i n Minoru 84 Photograph 17. Finn Slough, l o c a t e d a t the southern end of No. 4 Road. Photograph 18. Richmond General H o s p i t a l , a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Westminster Highway and G i l b e r t Road. 85 Photograph 20. Fantaay Gardens, a t the i n t e r s e c t ! Steveston Highway and No. 5 Road. Photograph 21. Richmond Nature Park, l o c a t e d on Westminster Highway west of No. 5 Road. Photograph 22. Landsdowne Park Shopping Centre, l o c a t e d on No. 3 Road, between Lansdowne Road and A l d e r b r i d g e Way. 87 Photograph 23. Buddhist Temple, l o c a t e d on Steveston Highway between No. 3 Road and No. 4 Road. Photograph 24. McDonald's Restaurant, on No. 3 Road at G r a n v i l l e Avenue. Photograph 25. Highway 99, l o o k i n g south towards the entrance t o the George Massey Tunnel. 89 APPENDIX B 93 98 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055183/manifest

Comment

Related Items