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Two approaches to curriculum criticism Menzies, Sandra 1981

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TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM C R I T I C I S M by SANDRA MENZIES B.A.  (English)  University  of A l b e r t a ,  E d m o n t o n , 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Studies)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA November, 1981 ©  Sandra Menzies  i  In  presenting  this  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  Columbia,  I  i t  freely  available  for  permission  f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  purposes or her  agree  may  that  the  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  of  this  It thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  is  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canda V6T 1W5  October  thesis  for  understood financial  agree  for  1 , 1 981  that  that  scholarly  Columbia  copying  or  g a i n s h a l l n o t be  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Date  further  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s  representatives.  publication  make  Studies  ABSTRACT  Curriculum c r i t i c s traditions  of  b o r r o w many o f  criticism  and  inquiry  transform these i n t o approaches  to  their  concepts  outside  curriculum  from  e d u c a t i o n , and description  and  evaluation.  Though t h e s e j u d g e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c u r r i c u l u m ,  each approach  differs  from o t h e r s .  The l i t e r a t u r e  c r i t i c i s m has not focussed e x p l i c i t l y elucidated  the  commonalities developed  similarities.  and  substance  processes,  used:  investigate emphasizes personal presence  nature of  the  literature  of  the  of  investigates  two  the q u a l i t i e s  in the  finished  and  the  Pinar.  terms  data,  of  form their  methodological  critique,  and  the  application  of  of a v i d e o t a p e d l e a r n i n g reached  the  two  material.  were: A l t h o u g h  o f a c u r r i c u l u m e x c h a n g e , one  both  approach  emphasizes  the  i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m exchange, t h e r e c o r d of a  different  direction  methodology i n each approach  the i n t e n t of the c r i t i c because  one  Although the process i n both n e c e s s i t a t e s the  of the c r i t i c  Accordingly,  some  approaches,  t h e c o n n o i s s e u r ' s v o i c e , one a p p r o a c h voice.  or  Two s o u r c e s f o r d a t a were  the  conclusions  the e x p e r i e n c e f o l l o w s  approach,  approach  t o the c r i t i q u i n g  Some  between  with reader acceptance.  selected  approaches  thesis  differences  study i n v e s t i g a t e s the purpose,  each  the  qualities  difficulties  this  of  presuppositions,  these  E i s n e r , a n d one by W i l l i a m  Specifically, and  This  differences  by E l l i o t  on  on c u r r i c u l u m  the  i s different. reader  in  each  differs  Furthermore,  mediates  the  case. beccause in  one  disclosures,  s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n and r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy a r e  stressed;  iii  in  the  other,  because  disclosures, personal  personal  e x p e r i e n c e and  discovery voice are  validates  stressed.  the  iv TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  1  TABLE OF CONTENTS  1  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  1  I INTRODUCTION The  1  Problem  2  Definitions  4  Curriculum  Criticism  4  Critic  II  .  4  O r g a n i z a t i o n Of The T h e s i s  5  Limitations  5  Footnotes  7  C R I T I C I S M AS THE DISCLOSURES OF A CONNOISSEUR  8  Presuppositions  8  Curriculum  8  Connoisseurship  10  Criticism  12  S o u r c e s Of C r i t i c i s m  14  S u b s t a n c e Of C r i t i c i s m  16  N a t u r e Of The Datum  16  Methodological  17  Process  Fieldwork  17  Description  19  Interpretation  20  Evaluation  21  Q u a l i t i e s Of The F i n i s h e d D i f f i c u l t i e s With Reader  Critique  Acceptance  24 28  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Selective  Perception  28  Epistemic  Contradictions  30  Distrust  Of The C r i t i c  Victimization  31  Of T e a c h e r s  Materials Criticism  ...35  Honouring C h i l d r e n  37  Footnotes III  34  39  C R I T I C I S M AS PERSONAL DISCLOSURE Presuppositions Curriculum  Of C u r r e r e  As C u r r e r e  44 44 44  C r i t i c i s m As C u r r e r e  46  A u t o b i o g r a p h y As C u r r e r e  49  S o u r c e s Of C r i t i c i s m  50  .  S u b s t a n c e Of C r i t i c i s m  53  N a t u r e Of Datum  53  Methodological  Process  56  Text  56  D i s c e r n m e n t Of Themes  58  Biographic  58  Present  Analysis  59  Synthesis  60  Qualities  Of The F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e  D i f f i c u l t i e s W i t h Reader A c c e p t a n c e Critic  Vulnerability  61 66 66  Respondent V u l n e r a b i l i t y  67  Atheoretical  72  Thinking  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Ahistorical Apolitical  Thinking  .  Thinking  73 ....73  Footnotes  77  I V EXAMPLES OF C R I T I C I S M Criticism  As  The  83 Disclosures  Of  A  Connoisseur:  V a u d e v i l l e K i t s c h As D i d a c t i c i s m  84  Description  85  Interpretation  90  Evaluation  93  The V i d e o t a p e As I n t e n t i o n a l  •  93  The V i d e o t a p e As A r t f u l  95  The V i d e o t a p e As U s e f u l  97  Criticism  As P e r s o n a l  D i s c l o s u r e : F i n d i n g Courage  Themes T h a t L i n k The C h o s e n P a s s a g e s  98 99  P o l a r i z a t i o n And I s o l a t i o n R e v e a l e d  100  Words And G e s t u r e s N o t E x a m i n e d  104  Puzzles.  106  Critic's  Own B i o g r a p h i c  Present  110  Analysis  118  Synthesis  124  Conclusion  125  Footnotes  127  V CONCLUSIONS  128  Critic  As W r i t e r And C r i t i c  As R e a d e r :  Purpose  E x p e r i e n c e Of The D e s i g n And E x p e r i e n c e Of The Form  128 Journey: 132  vii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page C o m p a r i s o n Of P r o c e s s : Subjectivity  Substance  And O b j e c t i v i t y :  Users  136  Implications For P o t e n t i a l 138  Some F i n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  142  Footnotes  145  BIBLIOGRAPHY  147  vi i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To  my  scholarliness  advisor, i n guiding  Walt me  Werner, through  f o r h i s g e n t l e n e s s and the production  of  this  thesis. To  my  committee  Dennis Milburn f o rt h e i r  members, P e t e r R o t h e , Don W i l s o n , a n d dialogue  that  helped  to  clarify  task. To my c h i l d r e n a n d my f r i e n d s  for being.  With  love.  my  1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION In c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , other  paradigms  of  a r e a s o f human i n q u i r y have been b o r r o w e d a n d  i n t o t h e o r i e s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r d i s c l o s i n g curricula.  W i l l i a m P i n a r and E l l i o t  have d e v e l o p e d a p p r o a c h e s t o high the  profile  the nature  For experience a  of  E i s n e r a r e two a u t h o r s  who  criticism.  William  method  Both  Pinar,  i t is  events.  f o r working  collects,  are  prolific  essential  Curriculum  their  "coming  own to  research  through  intellectually,  authentically For are  offer  is  experiences,  are  participant.  i s for  socially.  the personal  for this belief  k i n d of a n a l y s i s , that  researcher  l i k e balance, render  like  "curriculum  i f  to others."  artistic  Curriculum  roots  i t i s to 1  phenomena, a n d  critics,  They e x p l o r e  they  the  therefore, curriculum  t o d i s c l o s e (encourage) the p e r c e p t i o n  a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e sensory  and  on t h e  E i s n e r , e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena, i n t h a t  as a work o f a r t i n o r d e r  closure,  t o focus  p s y c h i c a l l y , and  such a p o s s i b i l i t y  be c r i t i q u e d a c c o r d i n g l y .  characteristics  in  l e g a c y an  the  the  i n some ways a r e l i k e a r t c r i t i c s .  and  writers  the educational  The r e a s o n  emancipate  Elliott  wholistic  should  behavior.  consciousness",  must  are  throughout  criticism  I n t h a t way, c u r r i c u l u m p a r t i c i p a n t s c a n f i n d of  Both  of t h e i r c o n c e p t s and c a s e s .  of e d u c a t i o n a l  individual  the q u a l i t i e s  curriculum  present.  from  transformed  theoreticians in curriculum literature,  1970's i n t o t h e  explicating  him  criticism  them  p a r t i c u l a r s o f i t . They e x a m i n e rhythm, development t o c l i m a x and  intelligible  to  the  potential  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m a s o b j e c t  d'art  2  i s meant t o be r e v e l a t o r y . of  the  reveal such  aesthetic  interaction  s y m b o l i c meanings being  event, or o b j e c t  came  into  curriculum  as  the "an  of  can  uncover  practitioners. inward  In  environing  which  importance  of  t o those a s p e c t s of the  create  curriculum  work  credited essay  2  ,  of  meaning.  choices  art" He  giving  interprets  the  boundary  discusses  of t h e  how by  curriculum),  the  developers  and  by  F u r t h e r m o r e , he s t a t e s t h a t  the  way.  inquiry  with  Mann  made  critic  has  curriculum  in this thesis.  The  Problem  purpose of t h i s  thesis i s to c l a r i f y  to  c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p e d by E l l i o t  curriculum  William Pinar.  to  knowledge, i n a d i s c i p l i n e d  I n s h o r t , Mann i m p l i e s t h e two  c r i t i c i s m s that are analyzed  approaches  that  (the design  the  to  is  t o h i s or her personal  imaginative  The  He  3  term.  examining those boundaries  way:  The  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f J o h n S. Mann's  Criticism".  to  definitions  critic  approaches  f o c u s i n 1968 w i t h  definition  and  pointers  and o b j e c t can  t h a t a r e i n some way s i g n i f i c a n t  in critical  essay "Curriculum  and  critic  particulars  which otherwise might escape n o t i c e . Interest  turn  between  transmitted.  r e v e l a t i o n i s t o "provide  situation, and  A n a l y s i s of t h e sensory  The p r o b l e m i s  focussed  in  a n d compare t h e  the  Eisner  following  3  Question:  What a r e t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s  b e t w e e n t h e two a p p r o a c h e s In order between  them,  to  to curriculum criticism?  find  these  the  two  commonalities  modes  of  and  curriculum  differences  c r i t i c i s m are  examined under t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1.  What a r e t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ? 1.1 What i s c u r r i c u l u m ? 1.2 What i s c r i t i c i s m ? 1.3 What a r e t h e s o u r c e s ?  2.  What i s t h e s u b s t a n c e ? 2.1 What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e datum? 2.2 What i s t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s ? 2.3 What  are  the  qualities  of  the  finished  critique? 3.  What a r e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s These  with reader  discriminators  were  acceptance?  chosen  b e c a u s e o f what t h e  e d i t o r s o f C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y saw a s an  arena  development.  issue:  problems  of  criticism  They the  wrote  purpose,  problem  1979  form,  of "purpose"  of t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of  difficulties addressed  a  and  substance  h a s been o f c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t  The  problem  in  "form",  and  in  of each approach;  by q u e s t i o n t w o .  and  "The  threefold  of  materials  t o the e d i t o r s ofC I . "  i s subsumed i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n  substance  the  f o r debate  of  examination the  problem  each  approach;  the  of t h e s u b s t a n c e and of  "substance"  is  4  Literature  by  Elliot  Eisner, Elizabeth Vallance, Gail  M c C u t c h e o n a n d Thomas B a r o n e were s p e c i f i c of  one a p p r o a c h  Madeleine other of  Grumet  (Chapter  a  3).  4) .  seminar  specific  by  sources  f o r the study  William  Pinar  implications  b o t h were u s e d t o c r i t i q u e a v i d e o t a p e education  package  and  f o r the study of the  A l s o , i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e some  continuing  (Chapter  2); l i t e r a t u r e  were  each approach,  from  day  (Chapter  sources  called  segment  Women M o v i n g Up  T h i s package i s a c u r r i c u l u m designed  for a  two  f o r management p e r s o n n e l . Def i n i t i o n s  Throughout  the  curriculum c r i t i c i s m , examined  shapes  may be h e l p f u l Curriculum  thesis,  are i n constant use.  these  a  experience  t o begin here  Each of the  authors  However, i t  with a general d e f i n i t i o n  of each.  criticism  critic  is a  the c r i t i c  judgement  on  function  and a c u r r i c u l u m . has  with  d i s c l o s u r e of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . and  and t h e p h r a s e  t e r m s t o h i s own p r e m i s e s .  Curriculum c r i t i c i s m between  t h e word c r i t i c ,  the  the  of  the  relation  I t s t a r t s with the actual curriculum.  It  involves  I t demands t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  experience,  through  some  conceptual  framework. Critic A curriculum c r i t i c qualities  of  a  framework,  aesthetic,  i s an  curriculum,  educator  through  personal,  social  a  who  discloses  selected or  the  conceptual  political.  Such  5  disclosure  demands  the c r i t i c .  sensitivity,  These s k i l l s  creativity,  of d i s c l o s u r e  are  and l i t e r a c y developed  from  through  practice. O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e T h e s i s Chapters investigation.  two  and  three  Specifically,  report chapter  presuppositions,  substance,  approach;  three discriminates,  Pinar  chapter  approach.  Chapter  and  from  allowing  the  two  four  critiques This  E i s n e r approach;  Chapter  five  from  the  with the E i s n e r regard,  videotape  videotape  then  the  the  from a  is  critiqued  the Pinar  approach;  the substance  of each  summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e p r e c e d i n g  t h r e e c h a p t e r s , d i s c u s s i n g some b e t w e e n t h e two  a  of  discusses  i n t h e same  the researcher t o further c l a r i f y  approach.  results  difficulties  b u s i n e s s management c u r r i c u l u m . first  the  commonalities  and  differences  approaches. Limitations  There these  is a  substantial  body o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n i n g  two a p p r o a c h e s t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m .  limitations,  this  study  does  S p e c i f i c s , p o s s i b l y of i n t e r e s t For example, t h i s occurred  not  analyze  Because the  of  whole of i t .  to other readers, are neglected.  study does not c o n s i d e r t h e changes t h a t  i n any o f t h e a u t h o r s ' t h i n k i n g o v e r  h i g h l i g h t s some d e t a i l s , static presentation.  as  time  though  the  time.  literature  have  Rather, i t were  one  6  Also,  although  approach  has  explicate  them.  h i s or  each her  writer  f o l l o w i n g one o r t h e o t h e r  variations,  this  study  does  not  Rather, i t t a k e s a broad view of the l i t e r a t u r e  f r o m w h i c h t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Another  limitation  of  this  thesis  i s t h a t t h e r e i s no  a t t e m p t t o e x p l i c a t e t h e l i n e s o f argument t h a t from  their  approaches  primary  sources  to  the  to curriculum c r i t i c i s m .  lead the authors  development  Only a b r i e f  of  their  d e s c r i p t i o n of  those sources a r e presented. A terms  fourth  limitation  isdifficult,  i s that precision  particularly  i n the Pinar  many d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l s o u r c e s a r e u s e d . in  this  thesis  to  not  to  critics.  limitation  some  No a t t e m p t was made  i s t h a t the purpose  of  the  of t h e t h e s i s  is  concerning the u s e f u l n e s s of these  n o r t o d i s c u s s p o t e n t i a l abuse  Only  because  approach.  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  criticisms,  approach  examine t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s  u s e d by t h e a u t h o r s o f e a c h Another  of d e f i n i t i o n of  o f e i t h e r a p p r o a c h by  presuppositions,, substance,  r e a c t i o n of readers are d i s c u s s e d .  and  7  Footnotes  William F. Pinar, " N o t e s on The Curriculum 1978", E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 9:9:9, S e p t , 1978. 1  Field  Elliot York: MacMillan 2  E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (New P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. T97.  John S. Mann, "Curriculum Criticism", Qualitative Evaluation, ed. George W i l l i s (Berkeley, C a l i f : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1978), pp 7290. 3  Editors, "Postcript", Curriculum Inquiry, 9:3:229, F a l l , 1979, n. In t h e two a p p r o a c h e s u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n c r i t i c i s m i s considered relevant to a l l kinds of curriculum m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , not j u s t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . 4  M a r i o n M i l n e r , On Not B e i n g A b l e t o P a i n t L o n d o n : W i l l i a m Heinmann L t d , 1957) , p~. Ti~. 5  ed;  (2nd  8  Chapter 2 C R I T I C I S M AS THE DISCLOSURES OF A CONNOISSEUR  This chapter to of  Art  and  foundation critics  Education  is  at Stanford University.  "Aesthetic Criticism"  in  Eisner, a  the  philosophy  professor  Oftentimes  because a p a r t  of  this  of i t s  a r t and t h e p r a c t i c e o f  i n the arts. The  chapter  main  sources  of  information  a r e some w r i t i n g s o f E l l i o t  former s t u d e n t s ,  Elizabeth  methodological the  major  (1)  presuppositions,  (3)  difficulties  with reader  the  enumerated  divisons (2)  this  McCutcheon,  T h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n of  be e x a m i n e d w i t h i n  questions  in  E i s n e r , and t h e w r i t i n g s of  V a l l a n c e , and R o b e r t Donmoyer.  Accordingly,  presented  e s p e c i a l l y Thomas B a r o n e , G a i l  curriculum c r i t i c i s m w i l l the  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a p p r o a c h  c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p e d by E l l i o t  approach i s c a l l e d  his  analyzes  of  in  of  of  chapter  one.  chapter  are  criticism,  and  this  substance  framework  acceptance.  Presuppositions Presupposed curriculum, sources  of  in  this  approach  connoisseurship,  from which these  and  are of  definitions  criticism,  of  a n d some  n o t i o n s h a v e come.  Curriculum There a r e three They a r e t h e e x p l i c i t ,  The  explicit:  kinds of c u r r i c u l a a c c o r d i n g the i m p l i c i t ,  and t h e n u l l .  to  Eisner.  The school offers to the community e d u c a t i o n a l menu of s o r t s ; i t a d v e r t i s e s what it prepared to provide. From this advertised li s t u d e n t s have, at least in principle, an array o p t i o n s from which t o choose.  an is st, of  1  The  implicit: Schools socialize children to a set of expectations that some a r g u e are profoundly more powerful and l o n g e r - l a s t i n g t h a n what i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t o r what t h e e x p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m of the school publicly provides. 2  Schools prepare most p e o p l e f o r p o s i t i o n s and c o n t e x t s t h a t i n many r e s p e c t s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o what they e x p e r i e n c e d in school as students: hierarchial organization, one-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r o u t i n e ; i n s h o r t , c o m p l i a n c e t o p u r p o s e s s e t by a n o t h e r . 3  The  null: What s c h o o l s do n o t t e a c h . In identifying the null c u r r i c u l u m t h e r e a r e two m a j o r d i m e n s i o n s t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d . One i s t h e intellectual process that s c h o o l s e m p h a s i z e and n e g l e c t . The o t h e r i s t h e c o n t e n t or subject a r e a s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t and a b s e n t i n s c h o o l curricula. ' The c r i t e r i a t h a t are employed for assessing intellectual c o m p e t e n c e must o f n e c e s s i t y f o c u s on t h e f o r m s of t h i n k i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e and salient. Thus, not only does the n e g l e c t or absence f r o m s c h o o l p r o g r a m s of n o n d i s c u r s i v e f o r m s of knowing skew what can be known and e x p r e s s e d i n s c h o o l s , i t a l s o biases the c r i t e r i a t h r o u g h w h i c h human c o m p e t e n c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e are appraised. 5  We t e a c h what we t e a c h l a r g e l y o u t of h a b i t , and i n t h e p r o c e s s n e g l e c t a r e a s of s t u d y t h a t could prove to be exceedingly u s e f u l to students. Take as an example economics. 6  10  In  criticism,  implicit, the  or  null  the  characteristics  c u r r i c u l a are revealed  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and ( i m ) b a l a n c e s  together  of  the  explicit,  t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y of  among them.  A l l three  f o r m t h e w o r k , a s i n work o f a r t . Interrelationships  implicit,  and n u l l  performance.  balances  have t h r e e a s p e c t s :  thematic,  the  explicit,  c o n t e x t u a l , and  of  the  work  (curriculum)  intent  of  the  users  and/or  the  p r o d u c e r s o f i t . The c o n t e x t u a l a s p e c t s  are  those  subtle  and  not a  as  thematic  among  aspect  manifests  The  and  the  applied  s o s u b t l e p a r t i c u l a r s o f a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t bound movement i n curriculum.  I t i n c l u d e s t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e f u r n i t u r e , and  human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s writes regarding  like  respect  the contextual  and s a r c a s m .  Thomas  Barone  aspect:  Landscape i s n o t m e r e l y t h e sum o f t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t comprise t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment, but rather a fictive - i . e . , fashioned - p i c t u r e of the human and m a t e r i a l surroundings that help shape a n d ( s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e s c o n t a i n and a c t i v e as w e l l as p a s s i v e e l e m e n t ) a r e s h a p e d by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l lives of the children. ~~ 1  The aspect.  movement w i t h i n This  a  performance  curriculum aspect  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , continuous,  energizing.  is  is  always  personal.  It  character  movement o f t h e p l a y e r s and p l a y t h i n g s . teachers  a n d l e a r n e r s and m a t e r i a l s .  is of  the  performance  curriculum  The p e r f o r m a n c e and  plot.  is  aspect  I t i s the  I t i s t h e a c t i v i t i e s of  Connoi s s e u r s h i p A t h e s i s of t h i s requires  approach  connoisseurship.  appreciation.  is  that  Connoisseurship  Connoisseurs,  therefore,  particular  human  endeavour.  According  Dictionary,  t o a p p r e c i a t e means t o be f u l l y  critical  argument  is  the  a r t of  appreciate  some  t o W e b s t e r ' s New W o r l d or s e n s i t i v e l y  aware  o f , a n d t o n o t i c e w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . To a p p r e c i a t e comes f r o m the  Latin  verb  connoisseurs  appret iare  are  fully  meaning  to  appraise.  open t o an i n t i m a t e e x p e r i e n c e  work s o t h a t t h e y may d i s t i n g u i s h t h e p a r t i c u l a r s its  uniqueness;  other  plus  adjudge  i t s significance  in  with the terms  of  in relation to  human e n d e a v o u r s i n t h e same a r e a . Connoisseurship  work, l i k e involves newness  mature her  r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e t a i l s of t h e  colour, line,  of  and  an  encounter,  choreography.  tuned,  connoisseurship  three a t t r i b u t e s ,  experience  perceptions  requires  appreciation.  that are s a t i s f y i n g the  underlies the p a r t i c u l a r s single detail, of  As  blend,  in  attentions  i s appreciation  i t  to the  of  i t s  n a m e l y an awakened s e n s i b i l i t y , a  (for connoisseurship)  Regarding importance  in  Since  open s e n s i t i v i t y  background, and a s u s t a i n e d m o t i v a t i o n  necessarily  meanings  voice,  exploration with finely  practitioner  or  That i s ,  these  attributes  the connoisseur  enjoys  themselves. of  connoisseurship,  of the q u a l i t y  of a work.  for enlarging h i s  of r e l a t e d n e s s  of that  The component q u a l i t y , t h e  cannot s i g n i f y o u t s i d e the  structured  t h e f o r m o f t h e work a s e x p e r i e n c e d .  field  of  It signifies  1 2  only  in relation  patterns  to  which  the  govern  e x c h a n g e between d e t a i l s It  signifies  articulated.  Developed  one's  qualities,  values how  background,  of  and  with  such  the b e t t e r .  to  of  t h e new e n c o u n t e r .  to  his field  e a c h new e n c o u n t e r  the  unalterable.  or  meaning, i t is  and d i s c i p l i n e d  insight  therefore  the  Maintaining a selective allows that  experiences.  At t h i s  past point  a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e how a n d why o f t h e  a t t e n d t o t h e work u n d e r s t u d y  appreciation  of  what  experience  work's e x i s t e n c e , as t h e c o n n o i s s e u r expression  whom  judgements;  to i l l u m i n a t e the present  sophistication,  or  o f permanence, o r d e r ,  sense of c o n t i n u i t y w i t h one's p a s t experience  terms  The m e a n i n g o f an  single,  sensitivities  t o make  in  combination.  i s not f i x e d ,  upon  allow the connoisseur richer  their  different  harmony, d e p e n d i n g  other  seeks  to  understand  The c o n n o i s s e u r ' s i s sustained  by  the  motivation  his  growing  o f s t u d y a n d by h i s d e s i r e t o make  intelligible.  Criticism Criticism the  i s the p u b l i c d i s c l o s i n g  connoisseur  experiences.  interpretative act.  The  the  interpreted  curriculum  is  or s u p p o r t s interactions  rendering  critic/connoisseur's  between t h e  is  experience  f o r the reader's  c r i t i c i s m portrays the interaction curriculum.  This  or rendering of  benefit.  critic  and  what an with The the  T h i s p o r t r a y a l c r e a t e s a new f o r m o f a n t i c i p a t i o n , a current hypothesis of t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  f o r the reader,  regarding  I t aims t o e n l a r g e  the  perceptions  1 3  of  previously  unrecognized  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Criticism experience  of  relationships  the  curriculum.  is  empirical.  the c r i t i c  w i t h the  It  is  within  based  curriculum.  on  Eisner  the  the  actual  writes,  C r i t i c i s m i s an e m p i r i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g . The word e m p i r i c a l comes f r o m t h e L a t i n e m p i r i c u s , m e a n i n g "open to experience." Criticism is empirical in the significant sense that the qualities the critic d e s c r i b e s o r r e n d e r s must be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g l o c a t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r of t h e c r i t i c i s m . 8  Qualities  portrayed  Selected  details  comparison critics  with  place  experience creates  the  are  can the  selected according be  empirically  curriculum  themselves  to  curriculum,  and  verified,  subject  to  Criticism  requires  that  actively  and  sympathetically  t h e n r e c r e a t e what t h e  experience  f o r them. Criticism  is  disclosure  imaginative  reconstruction.  livingness  of,  multiple  for  l a y e r s and  propositional w r i t i n g advised "thick  subtle  l a n g u a g e may  different  the  gesture  connections ignore.  The  experience,  that  "Thick  impressions  and  texture  among  Criticism  organic  discloses  determined according  the  up  why.  conception implies,  from p r e f e r a b l y  s t r u c t u r e of t h e significant.  The  that  interpretative style  t o what, i n the c r i t i c ' s  h a p p e n i n g and  the  suggests  qualities  description"  that p i l e  through  emphasizes  i s borrowed from C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' s  d i r e c t i o n s , the  what i s n o t  of  Language  example,  description".  a c c u m u l a t i o n of  and  itself.  t o what t h e c a s e i s .  basis  of of by  several  experience.  Significance is  view, i s happening of  the  critical  1 4  argument  is  experienced thematic,  the  discrimination  illumination  meaning of t h e q u a l i t y of r e l a t e d n e s s , c o n t e x t u a l , and p e r f o r m a n c e a s p e c t s .  E i s n e r reminds the reader path  and  of  meaning  that there  through  the  of  the  j u d g e m e n t t h e c r i t i c i s m p o r t r a y s comes t h r o u g h and  p r o j e c t i o n of the c r i t i c ' s  the  through  the  In t h i s  i s more t h a n  ways  of  one  regard, possible  curriculum. the  The  realization  perceptions.  I n d e e d , we should a n t i c i p a t e that c r i t i c s with d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s w i l l find i n s i t u a t i o n s as phenomenologically dense as classrooms d i f f e r e n t things to describe, i n t e r p r e t , and evaluate." 9  The  properties  that c r i t i c s  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  I f the  emphasize s u s t a i n t h e i r  evidence  they  present  judgements  corroborates,  t h e i r conclusions are authenticated. S o u r c e s of C r i t i c i s m Eisner writes regarding  h i s concept of c r i t i c i s m :  It i s instructive t o note t h a t t h e type of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e type of c r i t i c i s m I am d e s c r i b i n g does n o t h a v e a f i r m or well-developed tradition i n schools of education. Such t r a d i t i o n s do exist i n highly s o p h i s t i c a t e d forms in literature, drama, t h e v i s u a l a r t s , p o e t r y a n d m u s i c . 1 0  Background J o h n Dewey, Stephen  sources David  Pepper,  C l i f f o r d Geertz,  f o r t h i s n o t i o n of c r i t i c i s m were p r i m a r i l y Ecker,  writers  Max in  Kozloff, the f i e l d  Susanne  of a e s t h e t i c  an e t h n o g r a p h e r , was a l s o  one.  between  The e x p e r i e n c e  the begins  critic  and  criticism.  influential.  I n t h e a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m o f t h e above relationship  Langer,  mentioned,  a n d t h e work i s an  the  important  w i t h sensuous d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of  the  15  immediate Max  p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e e n c o u n t e r between  K o z l o f f d e s c r i b e s the c o m p l e x i t y  of t h i s  critic  and  work.  exchange.  The v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a e s t h e t i c experience, therefore, a r e t h e work, t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and emotional response, and whatever appropriate information he can b r i n g t o bear a l l of which w i l l a f f e c t t h e m u t u a l s h a p i n g o f o b j e c t and s u b j e c t . 1 1  The  r e c o r d of the exchange  is  a  rendering  of  sensations  images, u s i n g the language of "innuendo, nuance, because  what  is  often central  to a p i c t o r i a l  stress  is  between  the c r i t i c  its  on  the  are c o n t i n u a l l y structures  they  The  description"  experience of of  trying  to  pick  import  writing  The  1 2  exchange  coherence  disclosure  is  towards  experience.  their  way  implication".  1 3  the  researchers  through  "piled-up  They a i m  "to f e r r e t  o f t h i n g s " . " Then t h e y d i s c l o s e  what  1  "thick description".  the researcher  of  the g r e a t e r the  ethnography of C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ,  the unapparent by  the  realizaton  o f i n f e r e n c e and  find  s i n c e i t i s the l i v e d  significance  the f u l l e s t  In  i t s meaning".  and t h e work t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e richer  hypothesis,  statement i n language i s  e n c o u n t e r on  experience,  The  value.  actualizing  out  the  disclosure.  aesthetic  p e r i p h e r a l to d i r e c t  and  and  In w r i t i n g  "thick  i s , according to Geertz,  T r y i n g to read ( i n the sense of "construct a reading of") a manuscript f o r e i g n , faded, f u l l of ellipses, i n c o h e r e n c i e s , s u s p i c i o u s emendations, and tendentious commentaries, but written not in conventionalized graphs of sound but in transient examples of shaped b e h a v i o u r . 1 5  The  only  attaining a  possibility total  idea  of m a i n t a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t o t a l i t y , of  the  situation,  is  to  view  of the  16  situation explains  as  a  s e r i e s of views through time.  i t this  Clifford  Geertz  way:  The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a b o u t the anthropologist's findings is their complex specificness, ther circumstantiality. I t i s with the kind of material produced by l o n g - t e r m , m a i n l y ( t h o u g h n o t e x c l u s i v e l y ) qualitative, highly participative, and almost obsessively fine-comb field study i n confined context t h a t the mega-concepts . . . c a n be g i v e n t h e s o r t o f sensible actuality t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k n o t o n l y r e a l i s t i c a l l y a n d c o n c r e t e l y a b o u t them, b u t , what is more important, creatively and i m a g i n a t i v e l y w i t h them. 1 6  Substance of C r i t i c i s m  Substance concerns the premises that advise of  the  datum, t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  the  finished  process,  the  nature  and t h e q u a l i t i e s of  critique.  N a t u r e o f t h e Datum Eisner type  of  would p r e f e r  study.  difference.  His  t h e u s e o f t h e word  source,  Stephen  Danda a r e o b s e r v a t i o n s  Pepper w r i t e s  in this  danda  Pepper,  in  this  explains  the  structurally  corroborated.  regard,  A e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l by t h e a r t i s t o f h i s m a t e r i a l s is essentially of t h e s t r u c t u r a l type. He makes h i s p o e t i c w o r d , o r h i s c h o r d , o r h i s l i n e a r shape more a n d more a e s t h e t i c a l l y p r e c i s e by h i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f o t h e r words, c h o r d s , and shapes i n i t s c o n t e x t . 1 7  The  n a t u r e o f t h e danda  curriculum  which  pervasiveness.  is  impress  that the  The i n f e r e n c e s  they  are  signals  critic  with  their  the c r i t i c  makes  from  the  s a l i e n c e or  regarding  the  17  value  of  the  variables  are  not  r e p e t i t i o n of those v a r i a b l e s .  drawn  from n o t i c i n g  S i g n i f i c a n c e i s drawn  p l a c e m e n t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s among one a n o t h e r . exhibits  a  particular  impression,  properties producing that structural  organization  underlying delimits they  of  their  meanings.  by  the  bits  are  dynamic  of  organization The datum  The  or  the  dandum  chosen  is  appreciates.  to  support  In  the  -Methodological  with  which  curriculum,  be  is  for  is  it."  1  8  example,  on t h e p a r t i c u l a r the  structural  t h e datum.  also define  evidence  critic's  with  of case,  t h e datum.  what the  impressions grounded  The  the c r i t i c  as  evidence  is  and judgements, in  the  actual  the curriculum.  C r i t i c i s m begins as a f i e l d w o r k  what G e e r t z c a l l s  extremely  them  Process  Fieldwork. involving  the  that  constitute  Thus,  defines  a l t h o u g h t h e e v i d e n c e must a l w a y s experience of the c r i t i c  of  whole  (classrooms,  emphasis  i n t e n t i o n s of the c r i t i c  a  that  organization.  of the c u r r i c u l u m  connoisseur weighted  the  the  variables,  organization  create  evidence  can change  structures),  regularities  certain  The danda t h e n a r e g a t h e r e d so t h a t  of  Although the organization  possess  component  " e s t a b l i s h l i n k s that eventually  supported  the  These p r o p e r t i e s a r e  the  q u a l i t y of r e l a t e d n e s s .  from  I f the curriculum  i t must  impression.  simple  small  "exceedingly  matters".  1 9  The  assignment,  extended  acquaintances  critic  engages  spending time becoming a q u a i n t e d w i t h  i t i n order  the to  18  overcome its  the  specifics.  observation videotapes involve and  barriers  of  of  contact  and  unfamiliarity  is  done  classrooms  and  through the c a r e f u l v i e w i n g  life".  observation  2  "through  I t does n o t ,  0  schedule,  the  with  Fieldwork  of c l a s s r o o m  an  first  Eisner  direct of  cautions,  with pre-defined relationships  ordering, One of t h e reasons why i t i s important for someone f u n c t i o n i n g as an e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c t o have an e x t e n d e d c o n t a c t w i t h an e d u c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n i s to be able to recognize events or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are atypical. One n e e d s s u f f i c i e n t t i m e i n a situation to know w h i c h q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e i t and w h i c h do n o t . 2 1  It It  involves  a t t e n t i o n to the  involves questions,  answers  to  those  which support One  between  begins  to  through  his  own  i t .  to. to  . . ." the  2 2  of  or  what  ground  the  argument  i n order  always and  potential  looks  himself.  to  find  at  the  But  participant.  he If  may the  f o r o t h e r s , he must l e a r n t o t h i n k i n H o w e v e r , he must n e c e s s a r i l y  As G e e r t z  our  own  they  Nevertheless,  actual  critic  t h e o r e t i c b a c k g r o u n d and  really  of  a n s w e r s become t h e  curriculum  intellectual perspective. are  The  the  speak  t h e i r premises.  constructions  ordering  conclusions.  actual  t e r m s of  data  The  the  o f what h a p p e n s .  t o spend time w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m  a l s o r o l e p l a y an  our  involves  questions.  there with  relationship  critic  it  the c r i t i c ' s  has  one's p l a c e  and  sensuous content  of  the  emotional  " t h a t what  c o n s t r u c t i o n s of o t h e r  and  these  notes,  h i s own  their  compatriots  constructs should experience  as  do  we  and call  people's are  s t a y as is  this  up close  possible.  19  Referential  adequacy,  empirical  approach to c u r r i c u l u m  criticism.  Description.  The  proof,  write-up  s t e p s w h i c h , as E i s n e r p o i n t s o u t , They  work  together  to  thought.  D e s c r i p t i o n , the  critic's  impression  to  the c h a r a c t e r  critic  of t h e  The  are  reveal  what  first  step,  educational  (including  critic  experience  and  s h a p e s them w i t h t h e  in  to  convey  order  writes  in this  an  not  is  at  a  in  a l l  this  separate.  rendering  experience,  what  the  in  the use  the reader  inconsistencies)  imaginative  and  of  the  to  from  three  perceived  I t accesses  details  impression  must  the c r i t i c  the  selects  a  o f t h e c r i t i c i s m has  of t h e c u r r i c u l u m .  appreciates  curriculum.  is  the  fieldwork  of  language,  of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e .  Eisner  regard,  H e r e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c has a task similar to his counterpart dealing with live theatre. The c r i t i c ' s task i n each case i s to provide a vivid rendering so that others might l e a r n to see what transpires. 2  The  critic  reader's  3  attempts to b r i n g into imagination,  sensitivities, curriculum.  the For  the  feelings this  concrete  colours, that  vividness, the  were  reason,  the  ornamental  rhetoric  That i s , the c r i t i c  happening  as  aspect The  he  the  The  felt  does not  communicates  s e n s e of not  in  of  writer  so much d e f i n e  the  the  critical  d e t a c h e d f r o m any  e s t a b l i s h e s what i s h a p p e n i n g .  a r t i c u l a t e s the  criticism  movements,  language  i s , i n part,, o r n a m e n t a l r h e t o r i c .  instruct.  the  exhibited  description  is essentially  in  using  desire  to  what  is  The  ornamental  curriculum  exchange.  by c o d i n g  ideas  into  abstract  20  propositional  language but  real experience.  This aspect  the  excitement" "  that  is  while  2  in  r a t h e r by  some  recreating  of t h e f o r m  an  emotionally  says E i s n e r  "generates  a t t h e same t i m e p r e s e r v i n g t h e  degree  verifiable.  The  curriculum  truth critic  describes  h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n f o r m t h e r e a d e r , so t h a t  when  reader  the  understanding  of  encounters i t will  Interpretation. description  of  cultural  be  a  similar  event,  his  or  her  enhanced.  In t h i s  second  analysis,  step, similar  the  critic  to Geertz'  s o r t s out  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e . C u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s ( o r s h o u l d be) g u e s s i n g at m e a n i n g s , a s s e s s i n g t h e g u e s s e s , and d r a w i n g e x p l a n a t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s from the better guesses. 2 5  The  critic  orders his discoveries.  combination and  of  one's b e s t e s t i m a t e of a n o t h e r ' s  f r o m o n e ' s own  e m o t i o n a l and  critic  c o n s i d e r s how  then,  as  pattern.  p o i n t of  view,  intellectual perspective.  The  t h e c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e was  interpreter, The  T h i s o r d e r i n g i s done w i t h a  shapes  following excerpt  the p a r t i c u l a r s from a  critique  constituted into, a of  and  thematic  Vallance's  illustrates. The p a t t e r n of grand sweep and d e t a i l i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r h y t h m and p a c i n g of t h e m a t e r i a l s . An e n e r g e t i c and m o v i n g r h y t h m i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e study guide, w h i c h , we can g a t h e r , i s t h e f i r s t component t h e s t u d e n t e m b a r k s upon. The e n e r g y i s conveyed by the strong sense of purpose and commitment of the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n s here; the text p o r t i o n s of the study, guide p r o v i d e g r a n d sweep, t h e y d e f i n e t h e b r o a d c o n t o u r s , they e s t a b l i s h the outlines of a bold and complex p a t t e r n and a l l o w us t o see where we a r e g o i n g . They establish a sense of anticipation. They i n v i t e . .• . .  21  But t h e e n e r g y l e v e l e v e n w i t h i n t h e s t u d y g u i d e drops shortly a f t e r t h a t , when we s t e p i n t o t h e w e l t e r of d e t a i l s on t h e m e c h a n i c s , c o m p o n e n t s , t h e i r purposes and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a l l t h e r e s t . This section i s slow, i n t i m i d a t i n g . . . , 2 6  The  rhetoric  organizing criteria.  the The  particular  comes  at  the  presumably  of  i s in  part,  persuasive,  the l e n s of the c r i t i c ' s subject  wanting  t o o . The c r i t i c d o e s  not  own  matter  the reader  value  from  a  t o go i n  necessarily  exclude  e n t r y i n t o t h e s u b j e c t , b u t one d i r e c t i o n  The  corroborating this  through  critic  directions  predominates.  In  data  direction,  that d i r e c t i o n , other  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  details  are  organized  to  establish  c o n d i t i o n s f o r an a p p r a i s a l o f v a l u e s t o be made.  regard Eisner advises the c r i t i c ,  T h e r e a r e many t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l excellence and an e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h them . . . The e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c needs t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e what was n e g l e c t e d o r r e j e c t e d a s w e l l a s what was a c c e p t e d when a t e a c h e r u s e s a p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h in a c l a s s r o o m . 2 7  Evaluat ion. explain analyze and  relevance  in  step  three,  evaluation,  their  meaning to  by  relating  the  internal  the e x t e r n a l values of s o c i e t y .  i n t e r p r e t i v e aspects  the  conclusions.  are  illustrative.  the  terms of e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a .  t h e how o f t h e s o c i a l m e a n i n g s , d e t e r m i n i n g  curriculum and  In  critics They may  their  values  ground of  the  The d e s c r i p t i v e  s u b s t a n t i a t e the e v a l u a t i v e , which  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s f r o m a B a r o n e  are  critique  22  Some o f  the  words  that  describe  the  homes  of the  district, The  lush well-tended haughtily maintain a distance l a v i s h houses - thoroughbred stallions schoolroom,  - i n v i t e s me - e n g u l f s me - o m n i p r e s e n t words p e r v a d e t h e room The  children, -  l o t s of E r i c s and C h r i s e s and Heathers and crawl tickles amorphous g r o u p s bask clump t o g e t h e r p u t o u r arms a r o u n d o u r work  Some s e n t e n c e s  that order Barone's  Lisas  impressions,  - What do we do a l l d a y ? W e l l , l o t s o f t h i n g s , b u t mainly reading a n d math. They're very important, sitting at the tip-top o f o u r c o n t r a c t s . Why e l s e w o u l d t h e s m i l e s o f o u r t e a c h e r s become s o b r o a d when we have finished them? You c a n t e l l i t f r o m t h e o m n i p r e s e n c e o f t h e w o r d s a n d numbers t h a t decorate the room, a n d b e c a u s e when y o u go t o s e e t h e t e a c h e r , i t ' s a l m o s t a l w a y s t o l e a r n r e a d i n g a n d math. - Mr. S u l l i v a n d i d n ' t w r i t e t h e b o o k s upon the shelf, so they a r e n ' t a l l c h o p p e d up. I f y o u know how, a n d i f you l e t y o u r s e l f , you can get a very d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f r e w a r d f o r r e a d i n g them. A r e w a r d f r o m i n s i d e t h e books and i n s i d e y o u r s e l f . - h i s a n s w e r was so p o i n t e d t h a t i t s t u c k me - digested i t w i t h amazing speed and n e v e r once paused to savour i t  23  - f e e l i n g vaguely l i k e a t o o l - even one t h i n g — d o n ' t you t h i n k ? - - i f i t really sparkles; c a n be g r e a t e r t h a n f o u r t e e n t h a t h a v e no luster - We a r e m a i n l y l e a r n i n g how t o r e a d , I t e l l y o u . . . and l e a r n i n g how t o c o u n t . T h o s e words a r e o u r t o o l s . When we u s e them we l e a r n t o t h i n k a c e r t a i n way. We l i n e them up, and o u r w o r l d l i n e s up w i t h them. The w o r d s a r e t o o l s f o r s t r a i g h t n i n g o u t o u r w o r l d so we can use our number-tools t o measure i t . . . - What a b o u t t h e g l o r y o f s o u n d s a n d s h a p e s a n d c o l o u r s ? I s i t n o t a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o l e a r n how t h e y c a n play upon e a c h o t h e r ? How we c a n a r r a n g e them i n o u r dreams? Some o f h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , - S c o t t a n d L i s a and a l l my f r i e n d s a r e s a i l i n g t o t h e i r h o u s e s now, t h e r e t o a c t o u t t h e i r l i v e s a s s o n s a n d daughters, I am s u r e . And I am t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s o l d a g a i n a s I i n s t r u c t my c a r t o t a k e me t o my other home. B u t on my way I s t i l l h e a r t h e w o r d s o f b a b e s as t h e y echo t h r o u g h t h e s e h i l l s . I glance again at these h o u s e s a n d now I think I understand t h e i r smugness. F o r I h a v e b e f r i e n d e d t h e i r future, and know that they can w e l l afford their airs of nonchalance. T h e i r w e l l groomed h e i r s are returning in a l i t t l e y e l l o w s c h o o l b u s . They c a r r y w i t h them t h e i r w e l l - h o n e d s k i l l s a n d e a c h a p i e c e o f t h e warmth i n w h i c h t h e y p a s s e d t h e d a y . ( T h e r e a r e much, much w o r s e ways t o l i v e a l i f e i n s c h o o l ! ) But I s i g h s o f t l y t o m y s e l f , f o r I s t i l l don't know i f anyone w i t h i n t h e s e houses ever sees these fluffy hills, w i t h t h e i r f u r now c h a n g i n g t o a tawny brown. Who c a t c h e s t h e s c e n t o f e u c a l y p t u s t r e e s as it mingles with the sunlight? Or who c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h o s e d i s t a n t l i v e s - i n much, much d a r k e r places lives c r u n c h e d upon e a c h o t h e r l i k e j a g g e d , r u s t y t i n c a n s i n a g a r b a g e heap? Who f e e l s t h e e x c i t e m e n t t h a t t h r o b s i n s i d e m a j e s t i c works of a r t ? F o r whom a r e books t h e t u n n e l s t o i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s t h a t n e v e r were b e f o r e a n d y e t have a l w a y s b e e n ? As I w h i z on my way, I n o t i c e t h a t many o f t h e apricot b l o s s o m s have f a l l e n now, l y i n g s h r i v e l e d on the road. J u s t before they a r e pressed beneath the insistent w h e e l s o f my a u t o m o b i l e m a c h i n e , i n a f l a s h I wonder i f my good p a l s S c o t t a n d L i s a will forever gaze past them - s t r a i g h t a h e a d . Or w i l l t h e y l e a r n to see t h e i r c o l o r s ? T h a t w o u l d be g r e a t . 2 8  24  The  critic  interpretive the  implications  the  why  l e v e l s of a p p r e c i a t i o n ,  of  the  experienced  projected  C r i t i c i s m must p r e s e n t  case.  that  two  d o c u m e n t a t i o n of t h e  curriculum. is  w o r k s on  Normative s o c i a l  is  Evaluation  the  per  asked to serve presenting,  case  se  is  and  of  a verifiable  what  will  the  and  intrude to  the  s i n c e the  exchange which the  what  suggest  the  the change w h i c h the c r i t i c i s m  on  of  p i c t u r e of  o u g h t t o be  rhetorical discourse  as m e d i a t o r of t h e  curriculum  consequences  theory  and/or  on  case.  reader  is  critic  is  functions  to  suggest. Q u a l i t i e s of t h e F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e The form  of  finished critique  it  the  reader.  i s n a r r a t i o n and The making  communicative  themselves  by  I t does t h i s  of s e e i n g . the  of  since,  as  language."  The  critique  the  they are  curriculum  form  ways.  They  so t h a t  contextual,  interaction.  The  and  it  writes,  descriptions  involve  documents  performance selected  are  recollection fictions  " s o m e t h i n g made", " s o m e t h i n g  i s fashioned  thematic,  The  two  The  form i s  i s more p r e c i s e t h a n  Critical  2 9  Eisner  r e c r e a t i o n , t h a t become i n t h e m a k i n g f i c t i o n s , that  The  reader.  in essentially  i n e f f a b l e , nothing  interpretations.  sense  event.  It  i t i s argument.  the  use  way  considered  form i s n a r r a t i v e  public  artistic  a  e x p r e s s e s the c r i t i c ' s  a l s o what i s r e c e i v e d and affects  is  in  "for the in and the  fashioned". with  aspects  movements  3 0  accuracy of of  the the  25  interaction of  are  the context,  criticism  educational  Thick of  the a  Eisner critic  with  metaphor,  i t , are  colour  a  form  contrast,  of  to  The  observed.  substantiate  linguistic  artistry  redundancy, and e m p h a s i s . "  behaviour as i t occurs i n a c u l t u r a l  emotive.  What  3 2  cannot  Rich  be  description" repetitions  3 1  saturated  with  i s s u g g e s t e d and  The l a n g u a g e i s e v o c a t i v e .  The f o r m i s  d e t a i l converges from s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s r e l a y i n g  has  been  whole e x p e r i e n c e  in spite  to  Sometimes  "thick  mean r e d u n d a n t so t h a t t h e  s i n g l e q u a l i t y i s that pervades the  of  from a c r i t i q u e  Donmoyer f a v o u r s  impressions.  adapted  r e v e a l what t h a t  Some e x c e r p t s  network  grasped l i t e r a l l y  s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the c r i t i c ' s  -  presented.  a b o u t what t h e c r i t i c with  longitudes  a b o u t t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d , "What t h e  employs i s  presented a n a l o g i c a l l y .  The  saw  story  writes  the l a t i t u d e s and  d e s c r i p t i o n aims a t d e s c r i b i n g t h e meaning o r s i g n i f i c a n c e  meaning.  and  critic  incidents are portrayed  theme.  replete  as  circulates  Indicator the  p r e s e n t e d so t h a t  l i f e l e s s past  variations by Donmoyer  and  inconsistencies.  illustrate.  participles.  are valued were r e c o n s t i t u t e d i s ordered are prized i s barren i s disconnected i s victimized w e l l prepared i s controlled  verbs i n the present tense that  he u s e s a r e n o t p r e t t y .  26  - victimizes - c h e c k i n g and r e c o r d i n g - checking a n d r e c h e c k i n g a n d c h e c k i n g o u t and c h e c k i n g in - p a r c e l s out - stared He d e s c r i b e s the- t e a c h e r a s an a u t o m a t o n .  -  mechanized p r e c i s i o n face remains immobile g r e a t economy o f movement a n d g e s t u r e a m a r i o n e t t e whose s t r i n g s a r e t o o t i g h t shocking beige stared emptily . . . In a v o i c e v o i d ... an i n q u i r y . - n o n d e s c r i p t l y made - empty He  describes  the  classroom  as  a  of  caricature  of  feeling  the l a r g e r  soc i e t y . The  disconnected unjoined labels compliantly dutifully gradual e n c u l t u r a t i o n absence of p a s s i o n and e n t h u s i a s m well prepared f o r l i f e t o e f f a c e themselves w e l l t r a i n e d f o r a s o c i e t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c cubicles, assembley l i n e s , and s e c r e t a r i a l p o o l s like B i g Macs . . . a l l precooked, prepackaged, a r t i f i c i a l l y flavoured carbon paper efficiency the dotted l i n e 3 3  form  says  E i s n e r " d i r e c t s our a t t e n t i o n  k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e c a n be h a d . " A l s o , t h e form pervade  the  3 4  i s argument.  curriculum  so t h a t a c e r t a i n  Important  qualities  that  being c r i t i q u e d pervade the c r i t i c i s m .  27  A s s u m p t i o n s a r e embedded i n t h e examined this  from  a  approach  personal  language.  does  not  exhibit  p o i n t of v i e w s o l e l y .  a r e more d i r e c t l y ( h a b i t u a l l y )  in  has  concern  the  with  the  the  grounded  of a n o t h e r  critic's attempts  (others)  i n the e x p e r i e n c e .  Although  identity, especially  critic  is  not,  the  it  cannot  is  who The  dressed  i f the student  assumption  is  form of  been t h e r e a s a s p o n t a n e o u s p a r t i c i p a n t  a r e l a t i o n of  and  But  T h i s k i n d of c r i t i c i s m  t h e g u i s e of s t u d e n t , p e r h a p s .  be  curriculum  v e r y p e r s o n a l p o i n t of v i e w .  a l s o to approximate the p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y  critic  The  possibly is a child  that  there  is  Eisner writes in t h i s regard,  "My  i  intersubjective  correlation.  point  simply  here  is  intersubjective  agreement  There i s a c o n n e c t i o n curriculum The  as  criticism  they  use,  surround critic  the  from  a  a  c o m m u n i t y of and  function  the  with.  other  affect,  There i s  a  participants  the  opinion  separation or p o t e n t i a l  the c r i t i c  f o r m of t h i s  approach  draws  performance,  c o n t e x t u a l , and  These d e t a i l s c o n v e r g e i n  a  happening.  sees people forth thematic rhythm  with  and  the  the  words  materials between  they the  participants, ( i n terms  (connoisseurship) to  what i s n o t  3 5  understanding.  c o n s c i o u s l y i n c l u d e s h i s educated  criteria)  what  they  of  believers."  t h e n a t i v e s of  s t r i v e s f o r empathetic  mannerisms  what i s h a p p e n i n g and drawn  among  is  l o o k s a t what o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s mean by  s i n c e the c r i t i c educational  Objectivity  between the c r i t i c  the c r i t i c  themselves and  this:  of  distinguish  Conclusions  are  things doing.  The  careful  detail  the  a s p e c s of t h e c u r r i c u l u m . that  distills  a  way  of  28  thinking reader  about  the  curriculum.  may d i s a g r e e .  The  The c r i t i c i s m welcomes  D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Reader  There i s a  difficulty  common  selective  perception.  There  namely,  transformation  of a e s t h e t i c s c r i t i c i s m  namely e p i s t e m i c this  regard  victimization regarding  contradiction.  which of  prompt teachers.  the relevance  i s argument.  The  dialogue.  Acceptance  to  review  literature,  is difficulty to educational  with the criticism,  There a r e a l s o d i f f i c u l t i e s  distrust  of t h e c r i t i c  Lastly,  of c r i t i c i s m  of h o n o u r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e Selective  form  there  are  in  and f e a r of questions  i n t h i s mode a n d t h e a s p e c t  of c h i l d r e n . '  Perception  Eisner  writes  in this  regard,  " I n s o f a r as t h e p r o d u c t s  of man a r e t o have e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s , t h e f i t b e t w e e n t h e a u d i e n c e a n d t h e message n e e d s t o be t a k e n criticism Eisner  is a  message a b o u t a c u r r i c u l u m .  sees three p o t e n t i a l  different  readers than t h e i r  selective, privatized,  W i t h t h a t message  is inappropriate audience listening  f o r the t o i t or  s so u n p r e p a r e d t o p e r c e i v e t h a t educational program f o r that sic)  distrust own.  The  3 6  problems:  - poor c r i t i c a l t a l k , - critical talk that competencies of the reading i t , or - because t h e audience i a much more p o w e r f u l a u d i e n c e i s needed. ( Sometimes  into account."  3 7  an  approach  simply  because i t i s  Someone e l s e ' s a p p r o a c h a p p e a r s  random.  F o r example, E i s n e r  notes  to.be that  29  those  researchers  corroboration  will  who  are  be  able  not  secure  only  in  multiplicative  to accept c r i t i c i s m  as  a  valid  f o r m of i n q u i r y . The specter of h a v i n g t o c o n s i d e r f o r p u r p o s e s of educational evaluation a v a r i e t y of educational criticisms i s l i k e l y t o f r i g h t e n some p e o p l e . There i s often the temptation to seek simple, clear-cut, unambiguous answers to complex problems. Having to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s , to d e a l w i t h dilemmas, to r e s o l v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t o t h i n k i n a c o m p l e x way a b o u t complex issues may seem t o be more of a c h a l l e n g e t h a n some a r e w i l l i n g to t a k e . 3 8  There criticism  are  as  a  also valid  those,  though,  f o r m of c u r r i c u l u m  p a r a d i g m t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y w i s h t o do  There  ways of b o t h  is  between  attending  phenomena.  to  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s are he  appreciates  has  difficulty  the  phenomena  not  with  believe  language  Michael  of  social  in  ordering  those  Eisner approach i s that  willfully  political.  Although  what t h e a p p r o a c h d o e s o f f e r as c a s e s t u d i e s , with  i t s l a c k of  the  Apple a d i f f e r e n c e i n  and  the  in  i n q u i r y ; however,  E i s n e r and  Apple's d i f f i c u l t y  do  i t is different.  A p p l e , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d p r e f e r t o use critique.  who  he  relational analysis:  This f a i l u r e to search f o r connections between the dynamics w i t h i n one p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s t u d y and t h e l a r g e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of economic, political, or even cultural i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a weakness i n n e a r l y a l l t h e s e studies. 3  9  E i s n e r ' s a p p r o a c h does not economic critical  analysis  of  go  the  enough, because i t  educational  theory  rather  " f a r e n o u g h i n one's p o l i t i c a l  s e t t i n g being is  done  than being  examined.'"'  within  the  0  I t i s not  confines  r e l a t e d to the  or  forces  of of  30  h i s t o r y or economics. Epistemic  Contradictions  In a review, educational  Harold  go-between""  ambivalence towards  a  1  the  Pearse r e f e r r e d phrase  Eisner  to  which  approach.  Eisner  suggests He  as  "an  Pearse's  concludes  his  review: Ultimately, i n aiming at a rational, logical e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n e f f a b l e t h r o u g h v e r b a l means t o an audience presumably c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f t h o s e who p e r p e t u a t e t h e m y t h s a n d v a l u e s he i s c r u s a d i n g a g a i n s t , Eisner f i n d s himself i n a curious predicament. He i s up a g a i n s t a b r i c k w a l l t r y i n g t o use those b r i c k s as h i s only weapons a n d means o f d e f e n c e . Fortunately, the m o r t a r h a s begun t o c r u m b l e , some b r i c k s a r e l o o s e , a n d E i s n e r ' s a i m i s t r u e , a t l e a s t some o f t h e t i m e . " 2  In  this  curious mixture  "curious of p a s s i o n  t a l k s of the c r i t i c curriculum,  the  educational  meanings  background  criteria.  in this  the  Eisner  experienced  s e n s e h a s t o do  with  the  harmony, m e a n i n g , s i g n i f i c a n c e .  the  h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y  necessary f o r the c r i t i c  suggests  evaluations  of  I s E i s n e r ' s e m p h a s i s on t h e c r i t i c  because i t i s necessary  disclose  With passion  a p p e a s e m e n t he t a l k s o f w o r t h w h i l e n e s s i n t e r m s o f  is  McCutcheon  writes with a  of w h i c h a r e n e i t h e r t r u e nor f a l s e ,  Value  a background i n e d u c a t i o n a l  it  and appeasement.  of wholeness, o r d e r ,  With  Eisner  e s t a b l i s h i n g the sense  they a r e as p e r c e i v e d . rendering  predicament",  that  perceptions  f o r the the of  as c o n n o i s s e u r ?  critic  critics's a  because  as role  connoisseur,  arbiter?  having such Or, i s Gail  i s not only t o but  also  the  o f an a r b i t e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h e word e v a l u a t i o n "has  31  such a psychometric  connotation  these  days."*  3  She h a s s a i d ,  I t h i n k c r i t i c i s m serves a couple of f u n c t i o n s . One i s a s a v e h i c l e f o r l e a r n i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h r o u g h vicarious experiences; b u t i t a l s o makes y o u c o n s i d e r the m e r i t s or l a c k of m e r i t s of those materials. That is evaluation. 4 4  Wells  Foshay,  others, expresses suggests  that  in  conversation  h i s confusion  in  4 5  McCutcheon  regard.  he s e e s e v a l u a t i o n a s t h e " c l i m a x "  Then he goes on t o s a y t h a t o t h e r s role  this  with  of a  he  of c r i t i c i s m .  c o u l d emphasize  a  a n d g i v e s an e x a m p l e o f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m  interpretation  First,  and  different  as mostly the  connoisseur,  T r i l l i n g deals almost exclusively with . . . how t h e work e n g a g e s T r i l l i n g . T r i l l i n g was no o r d i n a r y man a n d t h e way i t e n g a g e s h i m i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n i t s e l f , and i t ' s not e v a l u a t i o n . I think i n our o r d i n a r y discourse we've thought of c r i t i c i s m as evaluation primarily. T h a t ' s o n l y p a r t o f i t and maybe n o t i n d e e d t h e m a i n p a r t i n a n y g i v e n work o f c r i t i c i s m . 4 6  Is  Eisner's  criticism  a  call  for evaluation  main  p a r t of t h i s approach t o c r i t i c i s m ,  thrown i n as appeasement? It also worries  others,  Somehow  according  to  i t s presentation  educational or i s i t confuses.  f o r whom s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n  i s not  enough j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Distrust  of t h e C r i t i c There  is  what  Eisner c a l l s  "poor c r i t i c a l  Thomas B a r o n e , a p r a c t i t i o n e r  of t h e E i s n e r approach,  two  thought:  examples of poor c r i t i c a l  thought".  4 7  enumerates  32  P o o r l y d o c u m e n t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , d i s t o r t i o n of events t o f i t a c e r t a i n w r i t i n g s t y l e or b e l i e f system, and rash general statements t h a t attempt to stand w i t h o u t any b u t t r e s s i n g by r e a l - w o r l d r e f e r e n t s a l l t e n d t o f o c u s our a t t e n t i o n more on t h e m e n t a l i t y of t h e author t h a n on t h e e m p i r i c a l phenomena of t h e c l a s s r o o m suposedly being revealed. . . . The aim is characterization, not caricature. Reducing a complex personality to a stereotype, p r e s e n t i n g him or h e r , f o r example, only i n terms of t r a i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s or group, i s indeed a form of reductionism. Reductionism i n t h i s k i n d of qualitative holistic approach is especially dangerous, for there is advertisement of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of complex, emiprical "reality". The readers may be drawn into such a false or f a c i l e characterization, their c r i t i c a l faculties blunted by the highly d e t a i l e d a p p e a r a n c e of r e a l i t y b e i n g s h o v e d forth. I t i s t h e r e p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e a u t h o r t o a t t e m p t to a v o i d such r e d u c t i o n i s m . " 8  Elizabeth Vallance, evocative  writing  " t r i p p i n g o u t on  another not  really  appears to the reader  practitioner,  being taken  Munby  can  disdain  t h a t the c r i t i c  "the e f f o r t  5 0  Wells  has  reader  t u r n e d h i s or her  back  I f t h i s a p p a r e n t l y happens,  of c r i t i c i s m  Foshay,  her  T h i s c o u l d happen i f i t  9  fostering  r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o r t of a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t  deserves." this  see  about  s e r i o u s l y , about the  nice writing"."  w h i l e communing w i t h o n e s e l f .  worries  however,  then  something good  like  criticism  answers V a l l a n c e ' s  worry  way, There i s such a t h i n g as critical theory and there is criticism one reads f o r i t s own s a k e . For e x a m p l e , I'm a great admirer of Andrew P o r t e r and Pauline Kael i n the New Y o r k e r . Some of t h e m u s i c r e v i e w e d I've n e v e r h e a r d and am u n l i k e l y t o h e a r and I rarely see films anymore, y e t I e n j o y r e a d i n g P a u l i n e Kael. So t h e e f f e c t of t h a t k i n d o f good w r i t i n g is upon my general s e n s i b i l i t y . C a n ' t we draw a p a r a l l e l here? 5 1  E i s n e r , too, would probably  see  that effect  upon  the  reader's  33  general  sensibility  as  the  art  of  the  connoisseur  coming  through. There  is  justification.  also  Ed  Vallance critique  some  agonizing  Wachtman  expresses  "Scanning Horizons  over  the  need  h i s discomfort  and L o o k i n g  for  with the  a t Weeds",  How do y o u j u s t i f y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s are as e x c i t i n g as you p o r t r a y them? I think the weakness of t h e paper i s i n i t s l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of this i s s u e ; but what's t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e a r t of the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c ? I don't know i f there i s any, except t h e f a c t they a r e s t i l l i n t h e f i e l d w h i l e o t h e r s have been weeded o u t . How do y o u j u s t i f y y o u r s e n s e o f the e x p e r i e n c e , your p o r t r a y a l of t h a t experience to other people? I t h i n k t h a t t h a t i s a p r o b l e m any o f us who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a r e a a r e g o i n g t o have t o deal with.  Maybe t h e q u e s t i o n and say that necessary. 5  o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s one we c a n b y p a s s justification in this sense isn't  2  Stephen Pepper, a p r o f e s s o r probably  assuage  of p h i l o s o p h y  Wachtman's  unease  and a e s t h e t i c s , with  the  would  following  proposition: I t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c work of a r t i s n o t r e a l i z e d i n any c a s u a l p e r c e p t i o n b u t i s a perceptive s e r i e s and i n v o l v e s a p e r c e p t u a l grasp. Normally c o n s t i t u t e d men b r o u g h t up i n t h e same c u l t u r e may a p p r o a c h a work o f a r t f r o m q u i t e d i f f e r e n t initial p e r c e p t i o n s , but as they e n l a r g e t h e i r p e r c e p t i v e s e r i e s and b u i l d up t h e t o t a l p e r c e p t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e work o f a r t , t h i s t o t a l s t r u c t u r e i s bound t o become more a n d more n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l f o r t h e v a r i o u s m e n . 53  Barone q u o t i n g assurance:  from  Tom  Wakefield  would  give  Watchman  this  34  Such r e p o r t i n g i s ' i m a g i n a t i v e ' not because the author has d i s t o r t e d the f a c t s , but because he h a s presented them in a full i n s t e a d o f a n a k e d manner, brought o u t t h e s i g h t s , sounds, and f e e l i n g surrounding t h e s e f a c t s , a n d c o n n e c t e d them by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r f a c t s o f h i s t o r y , s o c i e t y , a n d l i t e r a t u r e i n an a r t i s t i c manner that does n o t d i m i n i s h b u t g i v e s g r e a t e r d e p t h and d i m e n s i o n t o t h e f a c t s . " 5  Validity  i n these  witness  and/or i n the c o n s i s t e n c y  the  cases  relies  e l a b o r a t i o n o f meaning Even s o , d i s t r u s t  levels,  namely,  the  upon  the  credibility  of  the  of t h e evidence presented  and  rendered. of t h e  potential  critic  reaches  there  even  harsher  i s f o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n of  teachers. Victimization  of Teachers  Harold  Pearse expresses  this distrust  t h i s way:  What w o u l d happen i f e d u c a t i o n a l criticism, i f p a r a l l e l w i t h a r t c r i t i c i s m , were c a r r i e d t o i t s l o g i c a l conclusion? Do we w i s h t o t r a n s p o r t i n t o t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a n d p e r p e t u a t e t h e k i n d o f m o n o p o l y a n d power some a r t c r i t i c s e n j o y ? Do we want c r i t i c s t o make o r break teacher's careers? Is this k i n d . of abuse avoidable? 5  Here,  5  Pearse  displays  basically  paradigm c h o s e n , and sees c r i t i c s cavillers. "poetically  Michael  Apple  or e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y  in  a  the  suggests  distrust  arts that,  as for  of  the  essentially criticisms  recounted",  . . . t o assume t h a t even individual teachers • exist unrelated to larger s t r u c t u r a l forces that i n part determine t h e i r sense of a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , teacher r o l e , e t c . , i s merely to continue educations' long h i s t o r y of blaming t h e v i c t i m . " 5 6  Apple  assumes  inherent  this  potential  i n t h e a p p r o a c h f o r two  forvictimization reasons:  of teachers i s  35  Many p e o p l e now e n g a g e d i n q u a l i t a t i v e research have h a d t o l e a r n how t o do i t t h e m s e l v e s . There i s l i t t l e c u m u l a t i v e r e s e a r c h a s y e t , so t h e q u e s t i o n s one asks will tend t o be d e s c r i p t i v e , t a x o n o m i c , a n d i n t e r n a l i s t i c m e r e l y t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s e upon w h i c h t o stand. Another reason i s probably j u s t as important, i f not more s o . This h a s t o do w i t h t h e p o l i t i c s o f knowledge d i t r i b u t i c n . The t o o l s a n d t r a d i t i o n s of a critical " e x t e r n a l i s t " a n a l y s i s of schools that i s , the e v a l u a t i o n of s c h o o l experience that r e l a t e s the day-to-day life i n c l a s s r o o m s t o t h e unequal economic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a n d u n e q u a l c o n t r o l o f i n s t i t u t i o n s outside i t i s usually unavailable to educators. 5 7  Materials  Criticism  There i s unease about c r i t i c i s m materials  only,  isolation  from  that their  i s , as being  being  u s e d on c u r r i c u l u m  self-contained  used.  artifacts  in  Maxine Greene e x p r e s s e s  that  worry: I do n o t s e e how one c a n e v e r be s u r e o f what exper iences a r e made p o s s i b l e by c u r r i c u l a . I am s k e p t i c a l o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e l i v e d w o r l d c a n be controlled. To f i n d a way t o d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and packages i s t o do one kind of t h i n g ; t o hazard guesses as t o t h e impact t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e on d i v e r s e human b e i n g s i s another, quite another. The " e x p e r i e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s " , I am s a y i n g , a r e i n t h e m a t e r i a l s ; t h e y c a n n o t be p r e s u m e d t o be i n t h e l i v e d w o r l d s o f c h i l d r e n . 5 8  If,  however, c r i t i c s  a r e l o o k i n g a t a c u r r i c u l u m package not as  a thing i n i t s e l f  but as a t h i n g i n terms of  is,  c u r r i c u l u m as a performing  looking  at  defended as doing G a i l McCutcheon  what J o e l W e i s s c a l l s elaborates:  performance  (that  a r t ) , t h e y c o u l d be  "envisioning the score".  36  I n a way i t ' s a q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r curriculum is a performing a r t . Can y o u l o o k a t a c u r r i c u l u m script (material) and say whether or not i t has potential f o r developing i n t o something. I t w o u l d be equivalent to choosing a play for a specific theater troupe t o choosing a play f o r a s p e c i f i c season of p e r f o r m a n c e , knowledge of t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e t r o u p e and t h e a t e r , t h e a u d i e n c e ' s t a s t e , a n d so f o r t h . Surely a c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c ( o r drama manager) c a n e n v i s i o n t h a t some p r o g r a m s ( o r s c r i p t s ) have more p o t e n t i a l t h a n others. 5 9  If  i t is  materials it  that the c o n n o i s s e u r / c r i t i c can e n v i s i o n the  i n terms of p e r f o r m a n c e , a t l e a s t  would  thing  agreed  presumably  as  a  criticism  criticism  is  criticism  also  for-granted  aspect  of  organizer."  can  playfulness intent.  It  6 0  i n regards,  "We  is  the  Materials  script.  speculative.  package.  theory  even  have  what  has  in  Materials  Perhaps,  been  to  something  general  i s a k i n d of  i s an  the  neglected."  important  advance  as a base f o r c r e a t i v e developer's  work a s a s e t o f c u e s t h a t  e n v i s i o n i n g c a n be a c c e p t e d still  "criticism  value  f o r example,  use t h e c r i t i c ' s  to perceive of  i s n o t t h e same  performance.  score,  purely  the  j u s t as  there  the  live  herself,  i t can l e a d t o a s e r i o u s r e a p p r a i s a l of the taken-  advance o r g a n i z e r ,  concept  the  as e n v i s i o n i n g i s  some r e a d e r s ,  us  be a g r e e d t h a t t h a t  of  criticizing  f o r him or  6 1  Even  enable  though  in materials missing.  solemn  the  criticism,  Hugh  Munby  elaborates: Generally, the information gathered i n these ways t e l l s more o f what we c a n e x p e c t t h e c u r r i c u l u m to do f o r i t s teachers and t h e i r teaching and of t h e b e l i e f s and a s s u m p t i o n s that undergird t h e program's s t r u c t u r e than i t t e l l s of t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e and how t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o be c h a n g i n g t h e m . 6 2  37  Performance what B a r o n e c a l l s curriculum the  expansions.  can The  be p l a y e d critic  critic  there  with  discover  do t h i s  sense  are e l l i p s e s ,  in  that  terms  of  the  the  the f o u r - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of  characters.  of the "played-out" in  the  compressions, on  different  Indeed, m a t e r i a l s  of  package  intent.  the c u r r i c u l u m c a n , drawing  some  nor  hand, i s c r i t i q u i n g  out simultaneously  by d i f f e r e n t  interacting  envisioned  Honouring  Within  out incongruously,  potentialities the  6 3  curriculum,  the stage  experience,  in  out".  Things are played  of  on t h e o t h e r  four-dimensionality, i n  i s "played  played-out  parts  criticism,  these  actualities  curriculum. played-out  from and  However, n e i t h e r c u r r i c u l u m can the  from a c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view.  Children  Hugh concern.  Munby  and  Maxine  Greene  have  expressed  this  Others have, t o o , f o r example:  Roger S i m o n : Does t h a t mean i f we a s a d u l t c r i t i c s respond c r i t i c a l l y t o a s e t of m a t e r i a l s , i t s application i s l i m i t e d t o t h e a d u l t w o r l d , o r does t h e a d u l t ' s sense of a e s t h e t i c and meaning c r o s s o v e r ? G a i l McCutcheon: I t r e a l l y doesn't. Some o f my s t u d e n t s worked on t h a t problem last semester. They asked children which r e a d i n g s e r i e s t h e y p r e f e r r e d by h a v i n g t h e k i d s r a n k them a f t e r e x a m i n i n g v a r i o u s s e r i e s . They found t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n agreed w i t h each other quite a bit, even though they were doing the ranking independently. They d i d n ' t agree, however, w i t h t h e a d u l t s who a l s o r a n k e d t h e b o o k s . " 6  What  does  children  prevent  understanding  i s that there  familiarity  with  materials criticism  the  of  i s what G e e r t z  what would  imaginative universe"  this contact  with the  is call 6 5  happening "a  for  lack  of  of c h i l d r e n .  In  imaginative  universe  38  of  children  impressions  may and  be  impossible,  unless  one  i s recording  their  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , as Munby n o t e s :  . . . The puzzle becomes one of finding adequate ways t o r e p r e s e n t a c u r r i c u l u m when t h e b e s t way, t h a t of d e s c r i b i n g t h e c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n i t , i s l o s t to u s . 6 6  However, e v e n critic  in  is neither  observer.  Even  motivations  of  one  criticizing  the  other  the  connoisseur, adults  practices,  but  critics  e d u c a t o r s do  (e.g.  Len  following  curriculum,  can  Berk); recorded  one  i n the  can  curriculum  t h e o r i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n use  c o p e w i t h what i s h a p p e n i n g ?  and  performed  a g e n u i n e p a r t i c i p a n t ( n a t i v e ) nor i f , as  appreciate  the  Critics  they appreciate  others  not do  care  can  the  unbiased  identify  the  setting,  can  to re-invent,  observe  their  Joel  Weiss).  Some  distinctions Witness  conversation:  Len B e r k : I t seems t o me the essence of the thing i s that one i s drawing the k i d s i n a c e r t a i n direction. There i s something peculiar about the children's literature and what's p e c u l i a r about i t i s t h a t i t ' s not meant m e r e l y t o a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n , but t o a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n i n s u c h a way so as to draw them t o w a r d an a p p r e c i a t i o n of what w i l l be t h e b e s t i n a d u l t literature. It i s a l l very w e l l t h a t k i d s get i n t o Superman. I t does n o t , however, thrill me that they become attached to i t . I would far rather find something t h a t might appeal to them e q u a l l y and draw them more c l e a r l y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of s o m e t h i n g I want them t o be a t t a c h e d t o . J o e l Weiss: I t h i n k t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n h e r e , Len, that some b o o k s , for e x a m p l e , t h a t you m i g h t e n j o y and g e t s o m e t h i n g out o f , happen t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e enjoyment of your kids. But, are t h e r e books which c h i l d r e n get s o m e t h i n g out of t h a t you w o u l d n ' t ? 6 7  or  social  fine distinctions?  about these f i n e  (e.g.  an  the  the  Footnotes  (New  York:  Macmillan  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  2  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  75.  3  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  77.  0  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  83.  5  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  84.  6  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  88.  1 9 7 9 ) , p.  75.  Thomas E. Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g Experienced Curriculum: Clues from the J o u r n a l i s m ' " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:46, 1980. 7  8  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  191.  9  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  217.  the 'New  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On t h e U s e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g Classroom Life", Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 78:3:354, February, 1 977. 1 0  1 1  Schuster, 1 2  Max K o z l o f f , R e n d e r i n g s 1 9 6 8 , ) , p. 306. Eisner,  1 3  (New  York:  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  York  :  Simon  26.  1 5  G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p.  10.  1 6  G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p.  23.  and  203.  Clifford G e e r t z , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 7.  G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p.  1  "  (New  Cultures  S t e p h e n C. P e p p e r , The B a s i s of C r i t i c i s m i n t h e A r t s ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p. 7. 1 7  1 8  Eisner, Imagination,  1 9  Geertz,  20  Eisner, Imagination,  P.  195.  21  Eisner, Imagination,  P-  218.  22  Geertz,  C u l t u r e s , p.  C u l t u r e s , p.  p. 21  18. •  9.  23  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On t h e U s e s C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g Classroom L i f e " , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 78:3:352, F e b r u a r y 1977. 2ft  E i s n e r , Imaginat i o n ,  2 5  Geertz,  C u l t u r e s , p.  p.  201.  20.  e Elizabeth Vallance, "Scanning Horizons and L o o k i n g a t Weeds: A C r i t i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n o f 'The G r e a t P l a i n s E x p e r i e n c e ' " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), pp. 154-155. 2  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On t h e U s e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g Classroom L i f e " , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 78:3:354, F e b r u a r y 1977. 2 7  Thomas B a r o n e , "Of S c o t t a n d L i s a a n d O t h e r Friends", cited in Elliot Eisner, The E d u c a t i o n a l Imagination (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 240-245. 2 8  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l Imagination, (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 2 7 2 9  Clifford Geertz, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. TW. 3 0  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On t h e U s e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g Classroom L i f e " , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 7 8 : 3 : 3 5 2 , F e b r u a r y 1977. 3 1  3 2  78:3:353  Eisner,  "Connoisseurship  and C r i t i c i s m " ,  TCR,  R o b e r t Donmoyer, " S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y R e v i s i t e d : An E d u c a t i o n a l C r i t i c i s m o f M i s s Hill's Fourth Grade Classroom", cited in Elliot Eisner, The E d u c a t i o n a l 3 3  41  I m a g i n a t i o n (New Y o r k : pp. 229-240.  Macmillan  P u b l i s h i n g Co.,  3 4  E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  201.  3 5  E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  214.  3 6  78:3:353. 3 7  78:3:355. 3 8  Eisner,  " C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m " ,  E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  Criticism",  1979),  TCR, TCR,  218.  M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y a n d Form i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , p. 504. 3 9  Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 504. 4 0  and  Harold Pearse, "Reviews", E d u c a t i o n , 5:3:112, 1980 4 1  4 2  Pearse,  Form",  Qualitative  Canadian Jo'urnal of  " R e v i e w s " , C J E , 5:3:112, 1980.  G a i l McCutcheon, c i t e d i n Roger I . Simon, ed. "Aesthetic Criticism and Curriculum Description", C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 7:2:114, Summer, 1977. 4 3  4 4  7:12:113.  McCutcheon, c i t e d  i n "Aesthetic Criticism", CI,  n. " I do t h i n k c r i t i c a l t h e o r y c a n h e l p us here! I ' l l use t h e example of Purves's a n a l y s i s of literary criticism t o which there are four general parts" ("Aesthetic Criticism and Curriculum D e s c r i p t i o n " , CI_, 7 : 2 : 1 1 4 ) . 4 5  Wells 7:2: 114. 4 6  CI,  4 7  78:3:355.  Foshay, c i t e d  i n "Aesthetic Criticism",  E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s u e r s h i p and  Criticism",  TCR,  Thomas E. B a r o n e , " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g t h e Experienced Curriculum: Clues from the 'New J o u r n a l i s m ' " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:51-52, 1980. 4 8  Elizabeth Vallance, C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:111.  cited  4 9  in  "Aesthetic  Hugh Munby, "Philosophy for Children: An E x a m p l e o f C u r r i c u l u m R e v i e w and C r i t i c i s m " , Curriculum I n q u i r y , 9:3:247. 5 0  Wells Foshay, c i t e d 7:2:113  in  5 1  CI,  Ed Wachtman, c i t e d , 7:2:110-111. 5 2  5 3  the A r t s 167.  "Aesthetic  in "Aesthetic  Criticism",  Criticism",  CI_  Stephen C. P e p p e r , The B a s i s o f C r i t i c i s m i n ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 ) , p7  * Thomas E. Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g the E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m : C l u e s f o r t h e 'New Journalism'", C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:51. 5  Harold Pearse, "Reviews", Canadian J o u r n a l E d u c a t i o n , 5:3:115. 5 5  of  M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George Willis ( B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 502. 5 6  5 7  Evaluation,  Apple, "Ideology p. 504.  Maxine Greene, c i t e d "Aesthetic Criticism and C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 7:2:117, 5 8  5 9  "Aesthetic  J o e l W e i s s and C r i t i c i s m " , CI,  and  Form",  i n Roger I . Curriculum 1977.  Qualitative Simon, ed., Description",  Gail McCutcheon, 7:2:120.  cited  in  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (NewYork: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 216. 6 0  6 1  Eisner,  I m a g i n a t i o n , p.  216.  Hugh Munby, "Philosophy for Children: An Example of C u r r i c u l u m R e v i e w and C r i t i c i s m " , Curriculum I n q u i r y , 9:3:247. 6 2  6 3  Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y  Roger Simon and "Aesthetic C r i t i c i s m " , CI, 6 4  Critiquing",  CI,  10:1:36.  Gail McCutcheon, 7:2:115.  cited  Clifford Geertz, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1 973) , p~i TT! 6 5  6 6  Munby, " P h i l o s o p h y  Cultures  f o r C h i l d r e n " , C I , 9:3:247.  Len B e r k and J o e l W e i s s , C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:116. 6 7  in  cited  in  "Aesthetic  44  Chapter  3  C R I T I C I S M AS PERSONAL DISCLOSURE  This approach  chapter  analyzes  some  t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m developed  the U n i v e r s i t y of Rochester,  term  an  by W i l l i a m P i n a r ,  of  i s the L a t i n  t h e word c u r r i c u l u m i s d e r i v e d . i n the following  of  F a c u l t y of Education.  c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m c u r r e r e , which which  characteristics  He c a l l s h i s  infinitive  from  He e x p l a i n s h i s c h o i c e o f  paragraph:  Instead of examining o n l y t h e c o u r s e of s t u d y , o r one's i n t e n t i o n s i n d e s i g n i n g t h e c o u r s e t o be r u n , i n c u r r e r e we focus on t h e r u n n i n g of t h e c o u r s e . The c o u r s e becomes subsumed i n , t h o u g h n o t r e d u c e d t o , the e x p e r i e n c e of the runner. T h i s runner i s the teacher or the student (or whoever comes . i n c o n t a c t with c u r r i c u l a ) , although i n t h i s present study he i s a student ( t h a t i s t o s a y , he h a s a d o p t e d t h e a t t i t u d e o f a student).... 1  Sources are  some  Madeleine the  f o r the information presented  writings Grumet.  scrutiny  c h a p t e r one.  of  William  Pinar,  and  this  chapter  of h i s c o l l e a g u e ,  T h e s e w r i t i n g s on c u r r e r e a r e e x a m i n e d the  methodological  The m a j o r s u b d i v i s i o n s  presuppositions, difficulties  of  in  (2)  substance  w i t h reader  questions of  of  the  under  enumerated i n  chapter  criticism,  are and  (1) (3)  acceptance.  P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of Currere Presupposed  in this critical  curriculum, c r i t i c i s m , sources  from which  and  approach  autobiography  a r e d e f i n i t i o n s of  and  some  t h e s e n o t i o n s have been t a k e n a n d  particular developed.  45  Curriculum  as  Currere  Pinar  and  Grumet l o o k  a b s t r a c t i o n and as a l i v e d Curriculum events  that  school  boards  and  attention  the  lived  teachers  teaching/learning therefore, together, the  school  the  Curriculum  the  experience  Pinar-Grumet  i t , use  cultural  i t . "  3  The  possibilities;  is,  external  abstraction  into  abstraction,  of  that  that  are  approach.  In  learners  encounter, valued  and  terms  of  the  is artifice.  We  must  e m p h a s i s i s on t h e r e m a k i n g o f t h e  as l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e  this  definition  uses  the  t h r o u g h them.  Pinar  curriculum  teachers  the  experience t h r o u g h and  is  the  on t h e  symbols of the a b s t r a c t writes  that  component,  cortical"  is  i s a v i r t u a l universe  focusses  l e a r n e r , and h i s or h e r e x p e r i e n c e ,  nuclear  contain,  p r o d u c t as p r e s e n t e d . Curriculum  learner  of  definition  as  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , Grumet w r i t e s , " C u r r i c u l u m shape  This  as t h e c o n v e n t i o n t h a t b r i n g s  of  the  buildings 2  but i t i s the emerging q u a l i t i e s  emphasized i n  order  structures that are external  transforming  actions.  potentialities  grand  i n the classroom, that  of  i s recognized  "the  organize".  on e d u c a t i o n a l  process  is  finance,  to the learner's experience to  i n two ways, as an  experience.  a s an a b s t r a c t i o n  t h e o r i s t s analyze focusses  at curriculum  4  germ  nourished  , that by  "the and  comes the  ways  in  curriculum  individual  the  implying  attention  that  on  the  which  the  a n d moves  becomes  disciplines the  of  and  the the  student's  t o form, as i t s t r u g g l e s  surrounding  medium.  More  46  specifically, course"  a  curriculum  (currere)  relation  In P i n a r * s  between  structure  the  educational  context  runs  context  governing runner  i t , and  wields  the  experience  (the  run).  i n which the in  two  i n the  being  does  runner  sense  of of  run  i s what t h e  Curriculum criticism  establish  the  proceeds. in  the  running the  The  through  itself  "out  runningi t .  Curriculum  there".  the  runner  s e n s e of  object.  the  external  environment, becoming  the  established  the  through  The  The the as  course  experience,  e x a m i n a t i o n of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e ,  through c u r r e r e .  In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n ,  are  Curriculum  reciprocal.  and  with  a  " I " makes of i t .  is  through  t o do  of  external structure i s  senses:  presentation  not  runner) The  a g e n t f o r i t s i m p r i n t , as w e l l as experience  i s a "running  l a n g u a g e , t h i s has  self  (the course being  that  as  curriculum  and  that  and is  criticism  is currere; curriculum c r i t i c i s m i s  currere. Criticism  as  Currere  Criticism experienced (the running  focusses  (the governing through).  primarily  o f ) and  on  Grumet w r i t e s  on  curriculum  curriculum in this  as  as  experiencing  regard:  Curriculum criticism requires, t h e n , not o n l y c r i t i c i s m of t h e c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s s p r e a d out before us, but a l s o c r i t i c i s m of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t d w e l l s i n o u r own h a b i t s and a n t i c i p a t i o n s . 5  In o t h e r  words, the c r i t i c  curriculum. experience;  To and  do  so,  aims to u n d e r s t a n d the  experience  of  the  h i s or h e r  own  critic  describes  i n t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n uncovers the  nature  of,  and  47  perhaps the  reasons f o r , that  The forms  process  (the  of  reviewed  reconceptualized curriculum  deepened As  curriculum,  it  creation.  It  patterns.  experience, my.  search  is  a  has  f o r new  journey  t o do  with  The  that,  one's  of  in  self  towards purpose  as g i v e n  which  on  and  with  the  to  words,  case  one  within  forms of c o n s c i o u s n e s s discovery,  a of  and  Grumet's  In  6  s t r u g g l e s and  Grumet i l l u s t r a t e s  rootedness  and  the c u r r i c u l u m so  from e x t e r n a l  internal  situation."  for  the  to  curriculum.  i s to take  agency  a shift  autobiography),  of  becomes  curriculum.  old  through  criticism  situation  creates  curriculum)  notion  change i t t o a 1 i v e d "the  c u r r e r e demands  abstracted  (experience  experience.  the about  assertion,  c a p a c i t i e s to  and break  following analogy:  What we seek when we e x a m i n e o u r experience of curriculum i s discrepancy, a l i d t h a t won't q u i t e f i t t h e p o t and l e t s a l i t t l e s t e a m e s c a p e t o t e l l us w h a t ' s cooking i n s i d e . 7  Curriculum  criticism  as c u r r e r e  is dialectical  pedagogy.  Grumet e x p l a i n s : I t p r o p o s e s t o p r o v i d e a p l a c e and a method for s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t h o s e m e a n i n g s t h a t t h e y draw f r o m their e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and t o f i n d them c o n f i r m e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o assume a static and brittle selfconcept, s u c h as t h o s e t h a t may be drawn f r o m t h e g r a b bag of f a m i l i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l a s s r o l e s . 8  Very  importantly,  learner, unravels away  the  by  the  currere  i s from  learner.  the c r i t i c ' s theatrical  The  prescribed props  the  point  critic  of  is  identity.  b e h i n d w h i c h he  view  student. It or  tends she  of  the  Currere to  hides.  take The  48  critic's  point  situation  to  o f v i e w moves f r o m estrangement,  unexamined a c c e p t a n c e her  documentation  from  familiar  to reclaimation  of  the  given  interpretation  or  of the s i t u a t i o n as h i s or  own. Curriculum  Pinar  and  reconceptualized  Grumet  call  metaphor from J e r z y where i t i s f e l t  currere  curriculum.  Grotowski's celebration  They of  "poor"  is  what  borrow the theatre,  regarding:  Use o f F u r n i t u r e They  "poor"  through  Scenery  obstruct.  One l i e s on them, h i d e s b e h i n d them, b l e n d s i n f r o n t o f them . . . The a c t o r f i n d s h i m s e l f c a m o u f l a g e d like a modern c a n n o n on t h e edge o f a f o r e s t . Use o f Costume Costume i s p o r t a b l e s c e n e r y , l i k e t h e s h e l l o f a t u r t l e . The animal may be feline. Who w i l l e v e r know? H i s action i s a l l within. Use o f P r o p s The more p r o p s t h e a c t o r h a n d l e s , t h e l e s s he i s l i k e l y to be p a r t i c u l a r a b o u t his acting. He i s i n n o c e n t because h i s hands a r e f u l l . Use o f L i g h t i n g The p u r p o s e To f o l l o w strips  the analogy  the  camouflages certain  of l i g h t i n g  i s to obscure.  through,  curriculum  as  criticism  encountered  o f d o i n g what one i s t o l d  manner  because  one  to  9  as  possibilities  similarly  o f t h e d i s t r a c t i o n s and do,  of  i s expected t o .  e x a m i n e s t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s reclaim  currere  so  of e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i o n .  acting  in  In c r i t i c i s m that  one  Critics  a  one may  become  49  p a r t i c u l a r about t h e i r  c u r r i c u l u m , and  b e c a u s e t h e i r hands a r e Autobiography  cannot  claim  full.  as C u r r e r e  Autobiography  i s an a r t f o r m .  In c u r r e r e i t i s used  the v e h i c l e  f o r examining  curriculum  a s t h e y meet i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  autobiography life,  the i n t e r a c t i o n of the  d i r e c t s one's a t t e n t i o n  autobiography  i s more t h a n t h e v e h i c l e  of  energy  the s e l f life  and  direction  process  happenings  t o one's s e l f ,  the  recall,  and  one's  that  the c r i t i c  who  1 0  what  the  "source  story  and  It is a telling writer  such  In autobiography,  I t i s the l i f e  does  the  o f what  with  those  becomes t h e m a i n method and s o u r c e o f wants t o u n d e r s t a n d  f o r , h i s or her p a r t i c u l a r  Writing allows reflection present  i t i s a l s o the  c r e a t e d the s t o r y . of  and a s  a t t h e moment he o r she r e c r e a t e s them.  for  reasons  for currere,  f o r the j o u r n e y . "  Thus a u t o b i o g r a p h y  they  and  Using  i s more t h a n r e c a l l ,  c r e a t e s and i s c r e a t e d .  h a p p e n e d and a t e l l i n g  data  self  as  t h r o u g h t h e medium o f w r i t i n g . However,  it  innocence  situation  meet  in  t h e n a t u r e o f , and  experience with a curriculum.  upon t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n t h e " I " i n  and t h e " I " i n p a s t and f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s curriculum.  c o n s c i o u s n e s s of o n e ' s s e l f  This  interface  in situation.  Grumet  emerges explicates:  T h u s , we a r e p r o p o s i n g t h a t t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l process be moved t o the very center of humanities e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e i t i s w i t h i n t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e knower t o t h e known t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s h u m a n i z i n g . It is not merely c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s are w r i t t e n by s i g n i f i c a n t men, f o r t h a t s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t h a t withdraws from t h e immediacy of e x p e r i e n c e , from  as as  50  the opaque d e p o s i t s o f p a s t e v e n t s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s may be t h e v e r y s o u r c e o f t h o s e a c h i e v e m e n t s a n d e x p e r i e n c e , as w e l l a s t h e s o u r c e of t h e i r history. Self-report provides an a t t i t u d e , a s w e l l a s a p r o c e s s , t h a t may p r o t e c t us f r o m b e c o m i n g t h i n g l i k e , o b s e s s e d w i t h b e i n g , m i s t a k i n g i t f o r an o b j e c t . 1 1  Sources  of C r i t i c i s m Grumet w r i t e s o f t h e s o u r c e s o f c u r r e r e :  The t h e o r y b a s e of c u r r e r e ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of educational experience is drawn from humanistic p h i l o s o p h y , p h e n o m e n o l o g y ' s e m p h a s i s on t h e r e c i p r o c i t y of subjectivity and objectivity i n t h e dynamic c o n s t i t u t i o n on t h e d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o his s i t u a t i o n . 1 2  Pinar  writes:  Searching f o r conceptual tools t o excavate existential experience, I returned to Sartre, Kierkegaard, N i e t z s c h e , Heidegger, read s e r i o u s l y f o r the f i r s t time H u s s e r l and M e r l e a u - P o n t y , returned to Jung and F r e u d a g a i n . 1 3  These  sources  f o r many  difficult  to  diverse,  representing  always choose  understand  of  Pinar's  because many  the  and  literature  of  a u t h o r s and t r a d i t i o n s .  c l e a r how P i n a r a n d Grumet u s e t h i s to interpret  Grumet's  the borrowed  concepts.  literature,  ideas are each  is  I t i s not how  they  A source that  Pinar  c l a i m s f o r h i s n o t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e and meaning a r e a u t h o r s  in  the  of  phenomenological  responsibility  tradition,  and freedom,  and  existentialism.  how t h e work o f c u r r e r e p r o c e e d s p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and autobiography.  f o r h i s notions Grumet  emphasizes  through t h e double metaphors of  51  From is,  the  experience)  p o i n t of view of phenomenology,  reality  i s m u l t i p l e , and h e n c e " k n o w l e d g e o f  r e q u i r e s knowledge of s e l f - a s - k n o w e r - o f - t h e - w o r l d " . this  tradition  experience.  is  the  importance  Grumet c i t e s  of  t h e words o f  the  world  Central to  1 0  reflection Alfred  (that  upon  Schutz  one's  in  this  regard: Meaning does not l i e i n e x p e r i e n c e . Rather, those experiences are meaningful which are grasped reflectively. The m e a n i n g i s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e Ego regards i t s experience. The meaning lies in the attitudes o f t h e Ego t o w a r d t h a t p a r t o f i t s s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s which has a l r e a d y f l o w e d b y . 1 5  What i s g r a s p e d  reflectively  consciousness;  that  subject's  i s , they  intentionality.  recipient  of  i s that a l l objects are objects  not  passive,  the  sense i m p r e s s i o n s , but i s the r e c i p r o c a l  exchange  attempts  Consciousness  i t  is  an  act  or  receptive  To  look  things  "bracketing."  genesis.  describe".  phenomenological  differently call  If i tis  Phenomenology,  of t h e " I " and  and the  d e s c r i p t i o n s , one h a s t o one  estrangement  to the researcher  subjectivity 1 6  this  than  not  is  wont  to  from everyday  do; vision  T h i s b r a c k e t i n g of t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d w o r l d o f  p e r c e p t i o n s "extends his  i s n o t dumb,  t o d e s c r i b e t h e immediacy of i n t e n t i o n  produce  phenomenologists  not  of i n t e n t i o n .  f r e s h n e s s of r e c e p t i o n of the encounter  object.  that  is  by t h e passive  i t i s passive  at  constituted the  reactive,  therefore,  been  Consciousness  b e t w e e n t h e " I " and t h e O b j e c t . inert,  have  of  transforms  the  artist's  any o b j e c t i v i t y  awareness i t seeks t o  B r a c k e t i n g a l l o w s one " t o see t h e f a m i l i a r  with the  52  f r e s h n e s s and i m m e d i a c y o f t h e v i s i o n first  time"  1 7  so t h a t one may  of t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d  source  of  1 8  "man  this  dialectic,  determined  a source  i s conceived  there  the  our  of as the r a d i a t i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man  " I " is  the  to situation.  i s an u n e a s y p a r a d o x .  and o f s e l f - i n - t h e - w o r l d .  The w o r l d i s the  conscious  However, t h e w o r l d i s  of knowledge, a m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n  f o r and w r e s t l e s w i t h .  before  i n t h e w o r l d where  by t h e " I " i n - t h e - w o r l d : t h e  c r e a t o r of s e l f  for  foundations  the world e x i s t s  Existence i s being  e m p h a s i s i s on t h e d i a l e c t i c a l In  seeing  r e v e a l to oneself the  philosophy,  i t , but  of m e a n i n g . "  is  forms.  In e x i s t e n t i a l conception  that  t h a t one b o t h  extends  Grumet e l u c i d a t e s :  Existentialism recognizes c u l t u r e as t h e g i v e n situation, with a l l i t s f a c t i c i t y , through which the individual e x p r e s s e s h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y , embodied i n a c t s in the world. Awareness of s e l f develops not i n hermitic introspection but in the response of subjectivity to o b j e c t i v i t y . 1 9  H i s t o r y , whether p e r s o n a l or p u b l i c , surpassed.  The  emphasis  is  on  is  an  objectivity  situation  to  be  and a c t i o n i n t h e  world. The dialogue  practice  between  The d i a l o g u e  present  now  concerned  with  by q u e s t i o n s and i s a l l o w e d t o f l o w  claim  one's  seeks the connections  latent content  is  of one's s i t u a t i o n and t h e p a s t .  A s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t have  mind  Psychoanalysis the  psychoanalysis  i s precipitated  associatively. conscious  the  of  been  conscious  between  o f human e x p e r i e n c e .  neglected  the  in  the  attention. manifest  and  The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t  53  manifest actions are latent  i n the unconscious.  the analysand and  exteriorized  for  present  situations  comes a new  in  Substance  Nature  examines?  is  the  situations  her l i f e .  freedom  where  allows  With the  that  person  in situations.  t h a t a d v i s e t h e how o f  of the f i n i s h e d  the  methodological  critique.  that  the  critic  generates  and  I n g e n e r a l , i n c u r r e r e " t h e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t o f t h e  datum,  as  2 0  Pinar  i s , self  experience,  they  is  personal  experience  is  i n q u i r y down t o t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l  researcher  running  self  The c r i t i c ' s  scales  of the i n d i v i d u a l  research the course, that  or  the premises  datum  inquiry are i d e n t i c a l " .  field  visible  o f Datum What  the  experience  completed  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e datum,  p r o c e s s , and t h e q u a l i t i e s  lived  of C r i t i c i s m  concerns  including  for  his  sense of  becomes t h e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a g e n t  Substance  of  Making l a t e n t b e l i e f  to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  responsibility  currere,  forms  in situation.  research  Critics  do n o t  the  runner-of-the-course,  the c u r r i c u l u m .  In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of  object,  place,  and  agent,  as  Grumet  explains: Self-as-object emerges in the study of subjectivity; self-as-place emerges i n the study of objectivity; s e l f - a s - a g e n t emerges i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e discipline, for i t i s within i t s particular forms and s i g n s t h a t . . . one a c t s . 2 1  Generation narrative  of is  the  datum  self-reflexive  i s conducted and  self-rememberedly.  self-critical.  Currere  The uses  54  self  r e p o r t and s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , t h a t  one's e d u c a t i o n a l  life  i s , an a u t o b i o g r a p h y  t o g e n e r a t e t h e datum.  2 2  of  Why?  The biographic past? I t i s usually ignored. Ignored but not absent. The biographic past exis-ts presently, complexly c o n t r i b u t i v e to the biographic present. W h i l e we s a y i t c a n n o t be h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t , the e x t e n t t o which i t i s ignored is p r o b a b l y t h e e x t e n t i t d o e s a c c o u n t f o r what i s p r e s e n t . 2  3  Autobiography the  provides  encounter  autobiography,  as  the  documentary evidence;  remembered.  describes  James  the aspect  Olney,  a  and i t f i x e s theorist  in  of s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n .  The " I " . . . c o m i n g awake t o i t s own b e i n g shapes and d e t e r m i n e s t h e n a t u r e of the autobiography and in so doing half discovers, half creates itself. . . . * 2  The datum o f t h e c r i t i c ' s The  initial  datum  is  i n q u i r e r ' s consciousness curriculum biographic initial  text  or  present.  that  which  i n terms  project  experience  and  is  of  presents  of  the  in  itself  encounter  terms  P i n a r has d i s c o v e r e d  two  kinds. to  the  with  the  o f h i s o r h e r own  from  generating  this  datum t h a t :  T h o u g h t and f e e l i n g , o f t e n s t a c c a t o i n s u r f a c i n g to awareness, a r e r e g u l a r l y not i n i t i a l l y intelligible, but a l m o s t always sensically r e l a t e d t o and u s u a l l y c o n t r i b u t i v e t o w a r d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b i o g r a p h i c ' p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . 2 5  Although  the  initial  datum  remembered and i n t e r p r e t e d e x p e r i e n c e object, critic's  plus  the  is  present,  the  critic's  of the c u r r i c u l u m event or  stream-of-consciousness  own b i o g r a p h i c  always  recording  of  l a t e r datum i s r e f l e c t i o n  the upon  55  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the  datum  is  not  so  much  initial a  self-report.  gathering  This  of i n f o r m a t i o n  second  as i t i s a  s e c o n d l o o k a t what h a s been g a t h e r e d i n t h e i n i t i a l datum.  The  s e c o n d datum a r i s e s f r o m t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e x t u a l themes and  the  free  Reflection  associations  upon  this  of  A taught  suppress  unreflectedly, are  Pinar  their  intentions,  problematic  believes  of c u r r e r e .  A hope o f c u r r e r e  self  to  currere  for  that  to a c r i t i c a l  critical himself  for  curriculum  p e r s o n s have been to  channel that  i s s u e s by a d h e r e n c e  i s not very  other  the  the  and  persons rules. from  practice  understanding  with others.  narration  to  them  t h a n datum  useful in  i s that c r i t i c a l  a c t i o n of s e l f in  or  that anything  own e x p e r i e n c e  discovered  between  a r e used  preferred behaviours,  the c r i t i c ' s  leads  These c o n n e c t i o n s  i s that schooled  into socially  taught to decide  Therefore,  experience.  and, e v e n t u a l l y , s e l f - d i s c o v e r y .  premise of c u r r e r e  to  present  j u x t a p o s i t i o n reveals connections  them, m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e c r i t i c . self-examination  one's  of  Pinar  has  exposition  of  a c t i o n moves f r o m a p o s i t i o n o f n a i v i t e  a t t i t u d e , and t h e n ?  I am a s k e d how i s i t that one travels from knowledge of t h e i n d i v i d u a l apparently i d i o s y n c r a t i c s e l f t o knowledge of the g e n e r a l ? The r e l a t i o n between the individual and t h e u n i v e r s a l e x i s t s a l t h o u g h I cannot c l a i m t o understand i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I do know t h a t a s I t r a v e l i n w a r d , I t e n d t o be f r e e d f r o m i t , a n d h e n c e more s e n s i t i v e and r e c e p t i v e t o what i s e x t e r n a l . It i s as i f b e c a u s e I c a n see more o f m y s e l f i n i t s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , I am a l s o a b l e t o see more o f o t h e r s . I t i s a s i f a f t e r one t r a v e l s f o r a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e i n the realm of the i d i o s y n c r a t i c , one gets t o t h e r o o t s o f t h a t r e a l m , and t h e s e r o o t s become what i s c o l l e c t i v e . That i s , w h i l e these roots are  56  apparently common idiosyncratically.  to  us  a l l , they  are  manifested  2 6  Methodological  Process  There a r e v a r i a t i o n s Pinar  and  Grumet  methodological in  find  that  the f o l l o w i n g  way  Text  other-produced  i s a specific  demands i t s own  or  out'  . . .  If i t is passages  is  for  t o him or h e r .  autobiographical. a  self-produced  event  It  may  other-produced, which  from t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e t e x t "  i t  two p a r t d e s i g n ,  c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l or  self-produced.  i d e n t i f i e s what i s s i g n i f i c a n t self-produced,  described  the researcher's a t t e n t i o n .  " u n d e r l i n e s or s t a r s  'stand  situation  Though  paragraphs.  which i s used t o d i s c i p l i n e  the c r i t i c  each  currere.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s , t h e e s s e n t i a l method i s  Text.  be  i n t h e method o f  If  2 7  in  and  the  some  thereby text  P i n a r has s u g g e s t e d  text,  which  he  is a  calls  "regressive-progressive". With capture captures  the  "regressive",  i t a s i t was the past  ...  "one  as i t hovers  returns over  to the past, to  the p r e s e n t . "  i n t h e w r i t t e n remembrance o f i t . The  r e c o n s t r u c t s the schooled past.  2 8  One  critic  Pinar elucidates:  It i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t one r e t u r n t o t h e s c h o o l e d b e g i n n i n g , t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y y e a r s , t o w h e n e v e r one i s able to reach. Enter again the classroom, watch the t e a c h e r s , y o u r s e l f and y o u r c l a s s m a t e s , what you d i d . More i m p o r t a n t l y , how y o u d i d i t . From t h e s t a r t d i d you absent y o u r s e l f i n f a n t a s y ? D i d these absences coincide with particular l e s s o n s ( l i k e g e o g r a p h y ) and with p a r t i c u l a r teachers?  57  On t h r o u g h t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s into junior and senior high s c h o o l , k e e p i n g t h e o b s e r v e r ' s f o c u s on t h e s e l f . The s e l f , i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m , w i t h t h a t t e a c h e r , these subjects, this response to that teacher, the i n t e r v e n t i o n of p a r e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h a t s i t u a t i o n , and one's response. One's a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e s e s u b j e c t s , t o t h o s e t e a c h e r s ; one's d i s i n t e r e s t i n t h a t f i e l d , one's d i s l i k e of t h i s t e a c h e r . A t h l e t i c i n t e r e s t s i f any and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon one's studies. E r o t i c i n t e r e s t s as t h e y i m p i n g e d upon one's s t u d i e s . The i m p o r t a n c e of p u b l i c c o n c e p t i o n s of status. T h i s c o l l e g e o r t h a t ? The s e l f a m i d s t i t a l l , e v o l v i n g t h i s way, leaving those friends, taking on t h e s e , h a v i n g these academic i n t e r e s t s , then t h o s e .  Summer jobs. Building houses i n the suburbs, reading Bertrand R u s s e l l during lunch breaks. What was on the s u b j e c t s ' s mind t h o s e m o n t h s ? What mood, n o t v i s i b l e t h e n , k e p t him e n c a p s u l a t e d , b l u r r i n g h i s view? 2  In  9  the  recollection,  biography words  the  critic  experiences  as t h e p r e s e n t r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e s  and  significant With  the  sequence  t o him the  of  o r h e r and  the  narrative  t h u s become t h e  "progressive",  P i n a r d e s c r i b e s the task  i t .  one  h i s or her The  choice  identify  own of  what i s  text.  records  anticipations.  thusly:  Sit a l o n e , p e r h a p s i n a s l i g h t l y d a r k e n e d room, i n a c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r w i t h a w r i t i n g t a b l e and a pen. Close the eyes, p l a c e t h e a t t e n t i o n on t h e b r e a t h i n g . Take a few s l o w d e e p b r e a t h s a s t h e s e are comfortable. The p o i n t of these minutes i s r e l a x a t i o n . A f t e r one i s r e l a x e d ( i f t h e s u b j e c t has e m p l o y e d any of currently available meditative techniques, s/he knows the d e s i r a b l e s t a t e ) , one t h i n k s of t h e f u t u r e , o r t o m o r r o w , of n e x t week, of the next few m o n t h s , of the next a c a d e m i c y e a r , of t h e n e x t t h r e e y e a r s and so o n . Since our interest i s what we are calling educational e x p e r i e n c e , g e n t l y b r i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n back to matters a s s o c i a t e d w i t h your i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t , your c a r e e r ,  58  and a l l o w y o u r m i n d t o work f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e l y . R e c o r d what comes . . . ( I t i s important to free associate, and a v o i d use of t h e r a t i o n a l c r i t i c a l a s p e c t . . . )  Return to the c h a i r and t h e d w e l l i n g i n f u t u r e s t a t e s s e v e r a l t i m e s on d i f f e r e n t d a y s o v e r a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l d a y s o r weeks o r m o n t h s . 3 0  The  images t h a t are  will  s o u n d e d become t h e  critics  is significant,  To  this,  do  choosing  the  l a n g u a g e of any  critics  are  discipline  advised  chosen  frame,  to  this  been r e c o r d e d as  abstracting of  as  conscious  soften  the  of  a c c o u n t of t h e the  critic's  emotional  describes  the  and  3 1  whether  Present.  r e p o r t i n g of the  hence  or  aspects  own  semiotics.  the  some  But  to  their  "tunnel  vision  self-created  the  situation.  biographic  the or  aloofness. of  of  the  example  Aware o f a t t a c h m e n t s ,  part  life  for  attachments of  their  i n terms of  them,  entirely  with  This  current  sensual  to  possibility  s o m e t h i n g b r a n d - n e w , and Biographic  procedure and  f r a m e of  criticism,  t o be  text,  the  text,  themes  interest  literary  approaches the  of  t o d i s c e r n among t h e p a r t i c u l a r s .  t h a t c o n s t r i c t s the c o g n i t i v e l e n s " . critic  part  impose a c o n c e p t u a l  text,  psychology,  In  i n order  critics will  upon  Jungian  themes.  e x a m i n e what has  what  not,  critic  respond. D i s c e r n m e n t of  the  t e x t t o which the  one's present  procedure It  i s an  describes  life.  Pinar  thusly:  The t h i r d s t e p has been t o w r i t e a more o r less novelistic account of my c u r r e n t b i o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n . Where I am living, with whom, what emotional and intellectual issues I am apparently facing. In t h i s  59  s e c t i o n I w i l l t r y to give t h i s data a r t f u l form, both to cultivate an a t t i t u d e of giving pleasing and i n s t r u c t i v e form t o the f o r m l e s s , one p r e r e q u i s i t e of m a k i n g s e n s e of o n e ' s s i t u a t i o n , and, by u s i n g a s t r e a m o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t e c h n i q u e , t o t r y t o get u n d e r n e a t h the f o r m s s u p e r - i m p o s e d by t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e . 3 2  Grumet  describes  minding". events device is  methodology  It is a narrative  3 3  that  to  the  flow  and  half-conscious  permissive  are  spectrum  scenes  of  sense  is  and  intent  impression,  memories,  which  of  It is a  Its  It refers c r i t i c s  what P i n a r c a l l s o n e ' s " l i f e - w o r l d "  kind  represented.  impressions,  He  a l l  of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  random t h o u g h t a s s o c i a t i o n s .  m a k i n g s e n s e of c u r r i c u l u m .  "a  wherein  i m p i n g e on c o n s c i o u s n e s s  capture and  as  method  f o r d e s c r i b i n g the p r o c e s s  conscious and  the  feelings, to s e l f ,  the  ground  to for  writes:  In a sense this process can be l i k e n e d to s t u d y i n g t h e sun by e x a m i n i n g i t s l i g h t on the ground. The ground i s the life-world, and as I attempt to g l i m p s e t h i s w o r l d , t h e p l a c e o f t h e i n t e l l e c t , and its a c a d e m i c e x p r e s s i o n , become v i s i b l e . 3 4  Analysis. the  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between t h e  associations to  T h i s p a r t of t h e p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s s t u d y  use  of  the b i o g r a p h i c  distancing,  abstention  themes  of  present. from  in  order  the  The  images t h a t r e f l e c t  the  context.  text  tension.  themes  and  What was  familiar, juxtaposed.  when  the  t o n o t i c e and  the b i o g r a p h i c  strange  The  t o one's  biographic  text  critic  habitual  generalizations, new  the  back and  In the a n a l y t i c s t e p , the  and  task  i s advised and  details  forth  now  in  among  reveal postures  understanding  present  the  attitudes  appreciate  present  and  of  of  becomes  the  t e x t themes  are  is  to  and  create  60  work  with  unrealized illustrates  estrangement assumptions from her  from  the  familiar,  and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  work w i t h s t u d e n t  to  become  alert  curriculum.  to  Grumet  teachers:  An essential focus of the p r a c t i c e of c u r r e r e f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s was d i s t a n c i n g , drawing back from the a c c o u n t s of e x p e r i e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n the j o u r n a l s and essays in order to prevent hasty and premature crystallizations of self from forming around rigid attitudinal poles. 3 5  If a student asserted that t h e a t r i c a l experience was the a c t i n g out of f a n t a s i e s of m a s t e r y , I i n d i c a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s r a t h e r p r i v a t e conception be measured against the i d e a of t h e a t r e as c o m m u n i c a t i o n between p l a y e r s and a u d i e n c e . If the concept offered was the drama of c a r a c c i d e n t s and h i j a c k i n g s , I a s k e d the w r i t e r t o c o n s i d e r the r o l e of a r t i f i c e , of action relegated to the realm of the u n r e a l r a t h e r than the w o r l d of d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e . I f t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was identified as expression of emotion, I suggested reception of e m o t i o n . If the w r i t e r a s s o c i a t e d i t w i t h l o s i n g h i m s e l f i n a group p r o j e c t , I asked him how it d i f f e r e d from team s p o r t s . 3 6  In  the  analytic  omissions,  or  immersed,  and  the  critic  r i t u a l i s t i c patterns has,  currere  one  it.  demands  It  step,  faces  therefore,  one's  history  withdrawal  encounter  discrepancies,  i n which oneself not  as  been  though  able one  to  has see.  does  not  become Through  belong  from  complete  identification  Synthetical  activity  is  to  with  oneself. Synthesis. evident  i n the  process  that  become  has  witness  synthesize, hindered  w r i t e - u p of still to  critics  their  it  to  currere. be  and  have  f i n d i n g out  It  is  experienced, write  to "why  about  consider what  the  necessarily part  of  the  before  the  critic  it.  In  order  to  contingencies  that  those  might  not  have  happened  can  never  61  happened". the  At  3 7  forms  this  and  ownership  habits  the  w a n t e d , and  s t e p comes t h e  critic  to take  of can  curriculum.  responsibility  for  script  fact  our  its  synthesis, t o be  content  the c r i t i c  In  owns  recognizing  this  t h e n work t o t u r n away f r o m t h o s e  i n v o l v e s a l t e r i n g one's l i f e of  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one  for  those  i n order  "to present  experience".  p r e p a r e s f o r new  maintained.  In  3 8  a c t i o n and  not It  another  the a c t  f o r new  of  texts  written.  Q u a l i t i e s of t h e F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e As t h a t the  a  preliminary  w r i t e r of c u r r e r e  the c u r r e r e .  However, t h e  to  this  s e c t i o n , i t should  i s a l s o , and reader  may  always,  a l s o be  the  be  noted  reader  anyone e l s e ,  of other  than the w r i t e r . The revealed. currere  the  form  of  the  finished  It is autobiographical. reader  consequential  critique Through  is the  a  portrayal  r e c e i v e s a s e n s e of what t h e c r i t i c  information.  Pinar writes  life-style  in this  of  considers  regard:  The meaning of our study must be a " d i f f e r e n t i a l " , as M e r l e a u - P o n t y w o u l d c a l l i t . It is in f a c t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e "Common B e l i e f s " and t h e c o n c r e t e i d e a o r a t t i t u d e of t h e p e r s o n s t u d i e d , t h e way i n w h i c h t h e b e l i e f s a r e enriched, made concrete, d e v i a t e d , e t c . , w h i c h , more t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e , i s g o i n g t o e n l i g h t e n us w i t h r e s p e c t t o our o b j e c t . 3 9  Grumet e l u c i d a t e s f u r t h e r on  the  c o n s e q u e n c e s of  criticism:  The story then i s the t h e s i s ; i t s reading, a d i a l e c t i c t h a t p r o v i d e s an a n t i t h e s i s and permits the narrator to imagine a new chapter that will fall somewhere between t h o s e two p o l e s . " 0  The  criticism  reveals  the  critic  producing  autobiographical  62  information  and r e f l e c t i n g  In the p r o d u c t i o n biographic  recognized  remembered situations,  live  the  of  to  a recorded  tensions  surround the c r i t i c ' s that  that  From  i t is  the  of the c r i t i c ' s  of  those  realization as  do  field".* the  incident that are generative  Pinar,  "We  "perceptual  limitations,  habits.  related  our  regarding  hidden from c o n s c i o u s  -  n e g a t i v e l y or  t o the c r i t i c  terms  that  i n the c r i t i c ' s  curriculum  i s able  h i s or  critic,  one's sums  It  of  t o see  than and some  This i s  U n d e r s t a n d i n g may  her  attachments by  rather  attachments.  as reader.  1  tensions  presentation  upon t h e s e i n c i d e n t s , t h e r e a d e r  in  upon  are attached  reader  explicitly.  important  not  We  t h e n dawn f o r t h e c r i t i c  emotional  reflection  These t e n s i o n s  the  the subtle connections  especially  the  and  attachment.  apparent  incident  reflection  curriculum  t o that which enters  surrounding  information  Regarding attachments, Pinar w r i t e s  without  positively, becomes  in  In  generative  are revealed.  attachments. not  life.  possibly  life,  consequential  by t h e w r i t e r a s s i m u l t a n e o u s o r i n t e g r a l  to h i s or her educational datum,  information.  o f datum, t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t e x t u a l themes and  associations reveals  previously  initial  upon t h e i m p o r t o f t h a t  own  conceptual  w h i c h have been intellectual up  one  and  of h i s  realizations: The i n t e g r a t i v e t a s k was t h e c o h e r i n g of the self-experienced-at-the university and the selfexperienced-at-home. The f o r m e r was primarily an intellectual, cerebral self, the l a t t e r a physicalspiritual and p r i m a r i l y n o n c o n c e p t u a l self. (This dissociation of i n t e l l e c t from body a n d s p i r i t i s , i n t e r e s t i n g l y , what I s t i l l am q u i c k to discern in  63  others a n d i n t h e i r w o r k . ) I n t h e l a s t two a n d o n e - h a l f y e a r s t h e r e h a s been considerable movement on these issues, or through these i s s u e s . At the u n i v e r s i t y , I experience s t i l l , though d e c i d e d l y less intensely, a s e l f more c e r e b r a l , more r u s h e d , t h a n I do a t home. Y e t t h e body i s more p r e s e n t a t t h e o f f i c e , a n d my i n t e l l e c t more fluidly operative a t home. The c o n t i n u u m , w i t h i n t e l l e c t a t one end a n d b o d y - s p i r i t a t t h e o t h e r , i s a shorter one. I e x p e r i e n c e m y s e l f as l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o my generational contemporaries a n d t o my academic colleagues. The f u n d a m e n t a l issue (another form of w h i c h i s : what i s t h e s p i r i t u a l s t a t u s o f my academic work, a n d what i s t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f my s p i r i t u a l w o r k ) r e m a i n s , b u t i s much d i m i n i s h e d i n i n t e n s i t y , and o t h e r i s s u e s c o m p r i s e my p r e s e n t . * 2  The currere,  continuing  and  manifested  of  one's a t t a c h m e n t s .  further  J o h n S. Mann curriculum  of  effect 1968  criticism,  accuracy  springboard curriculum.*  for 3  a new  on  and  the  at  one's  form of first  accessed f o r further  currere  i t does not  situation, action  stop  curriculum  would c a l l i n that  to  in  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e  i s t o u s e t h e new i n f o r m a t i o n  for  static  as  i s t o overcome t h e t e n d e n c y  realization critic  work,  but  situations.  The  a d i s c l o s u r e model of merely  discloses  for  growth  picture stasis  with as  reconceptualizing  Grumet w o r k s w i t h h e r s t u d e n t s  of c u r r e r e  the  in this  way: personal  In Deborah's first essay, h i s t o r y were a b u n d a n t :  connections  Leaping into that g r e a t b e d ( w h i c h I now j u s t s i t on) was a t r e m e n d o u s p h y s i c a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w h i c h gave me great pride and j o y . I can identify with t h a t f e e l i n g now i n my r i d i n g o f horses or running f o r long d i s t a n c e s . I love to know t h a t I ' v e met m y s e l f , p u s h e d myself to a beatiful state o f p e r f e c t i o n . By p e r f e c t i o n I mean t h a t w h i c h i s my u t m o s t , beyond best, i n  a  to  64  terms of t i m i n g and c o n t r o l and c o n c e n t r a t i o n . From t h e p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d f r o m s u c h p e r f o r m a n c e s I o b t a i n e d a s e c r e t k n o w l e d g e t h a t I know how t o have my body work i t s e l f , that i t always has more e n e r g y t o b u r n f o r me, a b e l i e f ( t h o u g h i t has o f t e n been t h r e a t e n e d or beaten) that my body can do a n y t h i n g t h a t I ask of i t . Rather than requesting more c o n n e c t i o n s to e x p e r i e n c e , my r e s p o n s e p u r s u e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e s i d i n g i n the d e t a i l s of her p r o s e :  personal already  There are many ideas hovering around this d e s c r i p t i o n of p e r f e c t i o n t h a t you m i g h t want t o examine. Stress, pain, testing also something private, secret, as i f the p u b l i c w o r l d demands some k i n d o f c o m p r o m i s e . A r e you drawing a g e n e r a l assumption from t h i s t h a t o n l y through stress that tests capacity, can i t s dimensions be revealed? What are the pedagogical i m p l i c a t i o n s here?"* The student  following  w i t h P i n a r and  personal  power,  excerpt  by  Stephen  Grumet, d i s c l o s e s a  where  d i s c o v e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s , new  through  the  Somers, a sense  process  potentialities  of of  graduate awakening  currere  for action within  situation: The s t u d e n t s s t r a y e d on a c o n t i n u u m b e t w e e n the hostile rejection I felt in 1972 and my current equanimity. I was e s p e c i a l l y concerned about those whose skepticism was palpable. Bewildered by the exacting theories and threatened by the humiliating postures, one student seemed to be on t h e v e r g e of premature retirement. In responding to Brian's potential crisis, I solidified my commitment to Madeleine, Bill and Education 231. I empathized extravagantly on h i s b e h a l f , o f f e r i n g him a g a l l e y s e a t on our l i t t l e s h i p o f f o o l s . I made h i s d o u b t s c r e d i b l e by c o n n e c t i n g them t o my own, w h i l e a s s u r i n g him t h a t he would a r r i v e at h i s d e s t i n a t i o n simply because I had three years e a r l i e r . I t o l d h i m t h a t our c a p t a i n , B i l l , felt as awkward as he d i d , b u t t h a t c u r r e r e g a v e him a  he the  65  d i s t a n c e i n w h i c h he c o u l d bask i n h i s own personal sunlight. Y e s , r u n n i n g w i t h c u r r e r e was e x h a u s t i n g , b u t it paid i t s dividends. I t o l d him a n y t h i n g j u s t t o g e t him back on b o a r d . B u t , damn, d i d I f e e l v u l n e r a b l e as he trampled over t h e b r i d g e my c a j o l i n g and p o s t u r i n g p r o v i d e d f o r him. The investment proved to be the Waterloo of my a r r o g a n c e ; I c o u l d no l o n g e r p r e t e n d t o be above i t a l l . The c o n v e r s i o n made a b e l i e v e r o u t of the c o n v e r t e r . A subsequent c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h another student d e a l t my a m b i v a l e n c e i t s final blow. Jack objected strenuously t o my c r i t i c i s m of h i s f i r s t p a p e r . ( I had commented that his self-report evoked a smooth, rehearsed quality. I t was l i k e t r y i n g t o h o l d on t o an icicle.) " I mean, I d o n ' t l i k e making," Jack c h a l l e n g e d . "And  what was  "That i t was  that?"  the  implication  .  . .  are  I queried h e s i t a n t l y .  a dishonest  statement."  "Now w a i t a m i n u t e ; t h a t ' s y o u r s t o r y . mean t o impugn y o u r h o n e s t y . I j u s t d i d n ' t say "Well, shit, s t e a m , c o n f i d e n c e and  you  I didn't that."  what d i d you say t h e n ? " Gathering t h e sympathy o f h i s p e e r s .  " W e l l , I o n l y meant t h a t i t seemed o v e r l y E v e r y t h i n g seemed r e s o l v e d . "  smooth  " C r a p , i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g wrong w i t h that, with feeling t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n of problems?". By t h e n , I was e n j o y i n g t h e exchange, (Sarte's need t o be n e e d e d ? ) . " T h a t ' s an i n t e r e s t i n g p e d a g o g i c a l possibility, but i t seems f r o m y o u r p a p e r t h a t you have r e s o l v e d a l l your problems. . . . While I don't mean to get personal, that's p r e t t y god damn i n c r e d i b l e ! . . . That a s i d e , I simply wanted to emphasize the p r o c e s s , not the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . " "Yeah, w e l l ,  I am  aware o f t h a t . "  Others began to enter the c o n v e r s a t i o n , but b e f o r e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n became d i l u t e d , i t gave J a c k a chance t o e x a m i n e h i s a s s u m p t i o n s . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he e x p r e s s e d h i s h o s t i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n t u r n i n g away w i t h  66  the e s t r a n g e d arrogance senior year.  I  had  fallen  prey  to  in  my  I emerged from t h e c l a s s i n a s t a t e of s u s p e n d e d excitation. I had g a i n e d i n s i g h t i n t o my r o l e and my p e d a g o g y . As an instructor, I c o u l d no longer be satisfied as a p a s s i v e o r p r i v a t e f o o t b r i d g e . As an e d u c a t o r , I r e a l i z e d t h a t I must shake up assumptions and d i s a l l o w f a c i l e c o m p l i a n c e . " 5  The  reader  of  c u r r e r e observes  r e s i s t a n c e t o what i s which  is tied  working and  contained  to concrete action  through  the in  critic the  see  form,  in concrete situations.  While  r e s i s t a n c e s , the c r i t i c  interest will  the  critic  gaining  i s u s i n g what i s w r i t t e n The  reader  self-knowledge.  of  currere  The  i s c a p t u r e d by t h e s e e m e r g i n g q u a l i t i e s ,  probably  through  autobiographic  what i s b e i n g w r i t t e n as r e s o n a n c e .  can  working  reader's  whose  effect  t r a n s c e n d t h e moment o f a w a r e n e s s r e v e a l e d i n t h e  critique. D i f f i c u l t i e s With Reader T h i s approach of  currere.  apolitical,  It and  has  has  has  Acceptance  o c c a s i o n e d d i a l o g u e i n the  been l a b e l l e d a t h e o r e t i c a l ,  been a c c u s e d  literature ahistorical,  of m a k i n g t h e r e a d e r and  critic  feel vulnerable. Critic  Vulnerability An  encounter  uncomfortable.  It  disconcerting. recollection Grumet.  He  The of  with can  oneself be  may  be  agonizing.  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t w r i t t e n by  his  participation  r e l a t e s h i s f e e l i n g s of  complex It  is Pinar  i n a g r o u p l e d by discomfort  and  and always  is  his  Madeleine dismay  in  67  situation.  Through  ambiguity  of h i s  c u r r e r e he  recognizes  t h e p a r a d o x and  the  feelings.  A g a i n , back i n t h i s p l a c e : I c a n ' t shake you. I can't. I have t o t r e a t where you a r e w i t h respect. I know t h a t ' s pedagogical principle. I know t h a t ' s t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l law. You won't move u n l e s s I e n d o r s e where you a r e . Then you f e e l s a f e e n o u g h t o p r o b e . Damn the fear. There's no t i m e t o p r o b e . You seem l o s t t o me, and o n l y a s h o c k has a c h a n c e . I make m y s e l f shocking, mildly r e t u r n you g i v e me a n g e r and d i s t r u s t . tell  me.  shocking.  In  The last seminar, just before Christmas, You d i d n ' t t r u s t me. You d i d n ' t t r u s t me.  you  I d i d n ' t t r u s t you e i t h e r . But I r e f u s e t o l e t i t s i l e n c e me. I know I'm o l d e r , I know my r o l e ; y o u ' r e right. I s t h e r e no way out of h e r e ? It's i m a g i n e I can In the  M a r c h s i x t h and c o l d say t h i s t o y o u . *  n e x t e x c e r p t , Grumet w r i t e s o f  s e n s e of  and  gray,  and  I  can't  6  her  student's  expressed  vulnerability.  One student spoke of the vulnerability she experienced when she reread the thoughts she had committed, to paper. What she saw t h e r e n e v e r q u i t e m e a s u r e d up t o h e r i m a g i n e d s e l f - c o n c e p t . The critical mirror sent back a harsh l i g h t . F o r o t h e r s t h e r e was too great a discrepancy between their experience and t h e i r a b i l i t y to a r t i c u l a t e it.* 7  Respondent  Vulnerability  The vulnerability  Tanners,  for  example,  i n t h e o p e n i n g of t h e i r  they  call  Pinar's  us,  the  era  reveal five-page  their  Left  l i k e a f o r e i g n c o n t r y , and  i d e o l o g y , and  of  r e s p o n s e t o what  "reconceptualist prescription".  of New  sense  "For most  of  campus c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s  f o r many t h e d i s t a n c e  is  agreeable."  68  They  4 8  analysis".* is  irony  their  accuse 3  Pinar  Following,  in their paper,  of  "rhetoric  rather  than  rigorous  i s a s t r i n g of t h e i r accusations.  There  v i t u p e r a t i o n s , i n t h a t , out of the context some  of  these  phrases  may  be  of  considered  complimentary. - r a d i c a l c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l r h e t o r i c of the l a t e  1960's  - leftist anti-technology theme . . . a backlash against scientific scholarship in policy-relevant f ields - radical critics - paranoid phraseology suffuses - rhetoric . . . is reflective of . . . psychopathology - i s a r a d i c a l , not a reformer - diffuse intellectualism - mystical illumination - promiscuous enthusiasm -  r e d u c t i o n i s t scheme r a d i c a l c r i t i c i s m i n t h e guise of " c r i t i c a l transcendental-existential levitation m y s t i c a l alchemy an i n v e n t i o n t o s u i t h i s own p u r p o s e s  theory"  - fact and fantasy are deliberately blurred interchanged to f i t convenient categories - new a l c h e m i s t s - concierges  of c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l  An e p i t h e t t h e T a n n e r s f a v o u r sloppy  research  is  as  "radical".  and  5 0  being  indicative  The d e f i n i t i o n  they  of  Pinar's  apparently  use i s : A c o r r e l a t e of the r a d i c a l l e f t ' s disavowal of the political s y s t e m was t h e b e l i e f that American h i s t o r y was composed of legends that j u s t i f i e d the status quo. Thus one c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d e v e n t s o n l y by looking beneath the surface f o r purposely obscure patterns, and both Freudian and M a r x i s t analyses provided the i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s f o r doing so. Whether the "real" reason f o r some e v e n t was p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r e c o n o m i c , i t seemed t h a t t h i n g s were n e v e r what they  69  appeared . . . (they are quoting R a v i t c h ' s The R e v i s i o n i s t R e v i s e d )  here  from  D.  5 1  According to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , approach  is radical.  they are q u i t e r i g h t .  I t i s "a p r o c e d u r e o f  Finkelstein  and  Williams  engaged i n t h e development the  mainstream".  P i n a r ' s approach Pinar's  language  in  Although  c u r r e r e does  Tanners  are  his  theoretical  showiness it  demystify,  out  the  t h a t may,  may  be  the  Tanner  and a s  the language  in  such,  of i t .  and p r o c e d u r a l w r i t i n g s and d o e s ,  allowed  language  5 2  that Pinar " i s  mainstream,  is unsettling, especially  possesses a c e r t a i n readers.  point  of  o f i d e a s w h i c h compete w i t h t h o s e  The  5 3  Pinar  demystification".  I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e wounded and w o u n d i n g l a n g u a g e article,  The  befuddle  his  t h a t the p r o c e s s of a used  to  describe  the  c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t e n d o e s t h e o p p o s i t e . Following to  the  similar  Pinar  i s a n o t h e r example of respondent  approach  to curriculum  but t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  inquiry.  vulnerability  The  response i s  is different.  W h i l e t h e p a p e r s were u n i f o r m l y good and four were s u p e r b , they also became a s o u r c e of p r o f o u n d disquietude. Higher c o n s c i o u s n e s s does not make a comfortable home f o r most A m e r i c a n s , even t h o s e a t a c o n f e r e n c e where h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e p r e s e n t s t h e main theme. E a c h p a p e r c o n f r o n t e d t h e members o f t h i s s m a l l g r o u p w i t h songs o f m y s t e r y and r e v o l u t i o n , songs that, however winsome o r c o m p e l l i n g , l e d down p a t h s u n c h a r t e d t o w o r l d s l a r g e l y unknown. F o r s a f e t y ' s s a k e , men i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s o f t e n return home, and so i t seemed, d i d t h e members o f t h i s g r o u p . 5 4  This  opening  Tanners,  was  written  b u t t h e same a n a l o g y  being a l i e n ,  four years e a r l i e r i s used about  the  and m a k i n g p e o p l e u n c o m f o r t a b l e .  t h a n t h a t of Pinar  the  approach  The f e a r , however, o n l y p a r t i a l l y grew o u t of fear of the unknown. I t was also nurtured by a s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e p u r s u i t o f h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s meant the end of teachers, s c h o o l s , and c u r r i c u l u m s as now constituted, and maybe e v e n the end of curriculum theory.  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e g e n e r a l s e s s i o n s , where t h e t h e o r i s t s set f o r t h t h e i r i d e a s , t h e s m a l l g r o u p became a home t o i t s members. I n t h a t s e t t i n g , names were a t t a c h e d to faces, and faces gained personalities and p o i n t s of view.  A f t e r l e a r n i n g e a c h o t h e r ' s names, and a f t e r t h e leader of the g r o u p had proposed that i t s p u r p o s e was t o d i s c o v e r a way of c o n t r i b u t i n g more s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , someone a s k e d what the conference was a l l about. A t o u c h of s h a r p n e s s i n t h e q u e s t i o n e r ' s v o i c e c o n v e y e d somewhat more m e a n i n g than the words s p o k e n . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e c o n f e r e n c e t h i s q u e s t i o n r e t u r n e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t guises, though not a l w a y s f r o m t h e same s o u r c e . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e s o u r c e , h o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n seemed implicitly to suggest that h i s c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y c o n f e r e n c e had been t a k e n o v e r by heretics. C e r t a i n l y i t was not like curriculum theory c o n f e r e n c e s back home. I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t was too p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and, i f not that, certainly the poets and philosophers of higher c o n s c i o u s n e s s sang v e r y d i f f e r e n t songs from those the g r o u p was u s e d t o . H i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s f a r e seemed t o make s t r a n g e p h i l o s o p h i c a l grounding for curriculum theory.  By implication, moreover, they had challenged c o n v e n t i o n a l b e l i e f s about control. The small group remained committed to control, and, while this commitment s u r f a c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o practical problems, the d i f f e r e n c e ran deeper than t h i s . What seemed t o be a t s t a k e were b a s i c b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e of man and the conditions required for c i v i l i z e d living; but c o n c e r n f o r the p r a c t i c a l c a p t u r e d the a t t e n t i o n of the group. Admittedly, the advertised subject of the c o n f e r e n c e was c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , a n d , w h i l e t h a t has a place, t h o s e back home c l a i m t o p r e f e r t h e p r a c t i c a l t o the t h e o r e t i c a l . 5 5  71  Osborne others  at  ( w r i t e r o f t h e a b o v e ) saw t h e i d e a s o f P i n a r a n d  the  philosophical  1974  and  Rochester  theoretical  p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e s c r i b e d 'college  types'  form  Conference  as  being  f o r t h e mainstream, even  by a n o t h e r g r o u p l e a d e r  education  echoed t h e concerns of Osborne,  faculties". and  5 6  Finklestein  a b o u t how P i n a r ' s t h e o r i z i n g c h a l l e n g e s  as  Van  though "mostly  Manen h a s  and  conventional  too  Williams  beliefs.  Huebner, Macdonald, Pinar, and other reconceptualist authors invite us t o v e n t u r e into traditions of t h i n k i n g t h a t o n l y r e c e n t l y have.begun t o open up i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n social science. Whereas Huebner, Macdonald, P i n a r , Greene, and Apple appear w e l l versed i n these traditions, I think the idea of t r a d i t i o n and paradigm s h i f t i n curriculum theorizing can e a s i l y be o v e r s i m p l i f i e d . I am n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the authors just cited are guilty of such oversimplifications. But t h e i s s u e of paradigm s h i f t s h o u l d be r a i s e d since most of the r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t authors make frequent and substantive use of phenomenological, hermeneutic, and critical theory sources. Using a d i f f e r e n t i n q u i r y paradigm, such as phenomenology, is not as unproblematic as the metaphorical analogue of changing g l a s s e s . Sometimes different paradigms a r e simply seen as different "perspectives" o r " m o d e l s " ( l i k e "models o f t e a c h i n g " ) t h a t make y o u s e e t h i n g s e i t h e r t h i s way o r t h a t way. For example, a direct consequence of e x p l o r i n g alternative paradigms (the p o s i t i v i s t i c against the phenomenological) i s the perceived contrast between i n n e r and o u t e r a s p e c t s of c u r r i c u l u m d a t a . Whereas t h e outer aspects are associated with the measurables, the behavior, t h e c a u s a l , and t h e o b j e c t i f i a b l e ; t h e i n n e r components r e f e r t o t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l , t h e " l i v e d " , or the existential meaning structures of t h e t e a c h i n g learning process. Y e t , i n order t o s h i f t paradigms from the behavioral toward the phenomenological, f o r i n s t a n c e - one d o e s n o t a u s p i c i o u s l y s t r a d d l e a fence, now u s i n g t h i s p a r a d i g m a n d t h e n t h a t p a r a d i g m . Rather, the d i f f e r e n c e between using t h e b e h a v i o u r a l and t h e phenomenological paradigm i n v o l v e s indeed a difficult step, requiring serious intellectual i n v e s t m e n t s and moral commitments. I do n o t w i s h t o o v e r d r a m a t i z e this  72  point, but I t h i n k t h e metaphor f o r s h i f t i n g paradigms more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e p r o c e s s o f g a i n i n g m e m b e r s h i p i n a d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y , w h i c h h a s i t s own h i s t o r y , l a w s , r u l e s , e t c . The u s e r o f a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l o r c r i t i c a l theory paradigm becomes an i n i t i a t e , a member o f a community o f s c h o l a r s , w h i c h i s s t e e p e d i n knowledge, t r a d i t i o n s , w h i c h h a s i t s own l a n g u a g e , a n d i t s own v i e w of t h e w o r l d , o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d o f t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s . 5 7  Atheoretical This by  charge  i s h u r l e d by t h e T a n n e r s , a n d p e r h a p s  them, "A new c u r r i c u l u m  educational not  Thinking  phenomena.  meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n .  most d e f i n i t e l y , Curriculum  theory  theory It  must  have  applications  i s clear that reconceptualism  . . ,"  5 8  Currere  only to does  does have a p p l i c a t i o n ,  t o e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena, s o what do t h e y mean? should  aim t o reform,  they s a y .  As R a v i t c h h a s p o i n t e d o u t , " t h e r e f o r m e r i s one who g r a p p l e s and s e e k s solutions," while the r a d i c a l remains "aloof from t h e s y s t e m a n d f r o m any u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s success or f a i l u r e " . 5 9  Pinar's intention i s to  grapple  s o c i a l problems, l e a d i n g t o reform freedom aloof  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  with  than  self) scale.  political  and  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s n o t i o n of  H i s approach does, however, remain  from " t h e system" i n terms of  (larger  personal  changing  i t on  a  global  I n response t o t h e Tanner a d j e c t i v e  a t h e o r e t i c a l , F i n k l e s t e i n and W i l l i a m s have t h i s  rebuttal:  If these critics were to bracket their presuppositions, they would d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i r c e n t r a l concern i s with how a t h e o r y c a n be empirically validated. They w o u l d s e e t h a t t h e y h a v e made e m p i r i c a l validation the sole basis f o r determing a theory's w o r t h i n e s s as v a l i d knowledge. B u t , most importantly, they would be f o r c e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r d i s r e g a r d f o r the a c t of t h e o r i z i n g the act of linking  73  observations By the  to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  borrowing  Pinar-Grumet  eclecticism  from  various  language  must  6 0  in  epistemological  theorizing  of those t r a d i t i o n s borrowed.  readers,  and o f f e n d s  Pinar  f o r the confuses  some.  Apple  does  not  views  c u r r e r e as a h i s t o r i c a l , b e l i e v i n g  seem  to  recognize  and  i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t h e f o r m of  encrustations  of  currere."Being  ahistorical  dependence  This c e r t a i n l y  This  Thinking  Michael that  eclectic.  n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a l a c k of r e g a r d  totality  Ahistorical  is  traditions,  on  capitalism  things  implies  a  and  conventions.  dependence  Pinar writes  in this  in  upon  historical  conditioning  t h a t a r e presumed t o b e " .  avowed i n t e n t i o n and a p p a r e n t outcome conditioning  total  the  and  However, t h e  6 1  currere  is  presumed  to  break  historical  regard:  P a r t o f what i s u n c o v e r e d d u r i n g this work i s the individual's participation i n mainstream c u l t u r e , h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of p r e s e n t economic and political structures. Release from biographic s i t u a t i o n p e r m i t s r e l e a s e from h i s h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , e2  Apolitical  Thinking  Apple  is  supportive  c u r r e r e and a p p r e c i a t e s writes:  of  the  the p o l i t i c a l  affiliative seeds  i t  may  quality  of  sow.  He  74  I can a p p r e c i a t e p a r t of the program behind the work of t h o s e who want to focus on individual experience. They seek t o r e c a p t u r e the b i o g r a p h i c a l r o o t s o f k n o w l e d g e , t o make d i s p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e s whole a g a i n , by e n a b l i n g p e o p l e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s into t h e i r selves-. T h i s marks, i n f a c t , the b e g i n n i n g s of p o l i t i c a l awareness. 6 3  They g i v e w r i t e r and r e a d e r a feeling of connection. The words call forth "emotive" responses, perhaps a feeling of oneness with each o t h e r and the early existential tradition. T h i s f e e l i n g c a n be, o d d l y , t h e f i r s t s t e p toward ending the isolation of individual experience t h a t I mentioned as a s e r i o u s problem i n the phenomenological approach. I do n o t t h i n k i t i s enough t o o v e r c o m e t h e p o l i t i c a l l o g i c of t h e f o r m i t s e l f , howeverT ( u n d e r l i n i n g i s the researcher's) 5-5  However,  the  p o l i t i c a l _ logic  expresses t h i s concern in  is  not a g r e e a b l e t o A p p l e .  the f o l l o w i n g  He  ways:  The f o c u s on t h e u n c o n n e c t e d individual, with his or her p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as the metaphor f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n q u i r y , i s n o t an a c c u r a t e assessment of one's r e a l p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i e t y . 6 5  It embodies the self as something l i k e the classical novelistic hero, without inquiring deeply enough i n t o the economic f u n c t i o n s of such a c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f . 6 6  One o f t h e m a j o r categories of thought that economic c o n t r o l r e q u i r e s i n o u r s o c i e t y i s t h a t of t h e private individual ... i t may also r e p r e s e n t an ideological configuration through which people are s e p a r a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . 6 7  The individualistic position in curriculum evaluation, with i t s f o c u s on the " g r o w t h " of e a c h s p e c i f i c p e r s o n , f a i l s t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e ways i n w h i c h a model of thoroughgoing individualism is itself symptomatic of the p r o b l e m . 6 8  Although  c u r r e r e may  which Apple political  speaks, analysis.  indeed i t The  may  be also  datum  symptomatic be  a  of the p r o b l e m  seminal  of  ground  for  source i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c .  The  75  p r o c e s s i s a p e r s o n a l a c t i o n o f autonomy. solitary  search, p a r t i c u l a r l y  for Pinar.  It And  is this  certainly  a  i n d e e d may  be  a w e a k n e s s , w h i c h he a d m i t s t o , t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i c e o f The  following excerpt  currere.  illustrates:  I know my m i s t a k e . Expectation. I m p o s i n g my s t a n d a r d s . You moved; you exerted. Your papers indicate i t . Madeleine observed i t . S t e p h e n s a i d l e s s , and I sensed skepticism. To l e t go o f y o u . To l e t go o f c u r r e r e . To o f f e r i t t o y o u , and n o t p r e d e t e r m i n e what you s h o u l d make o f i t . To abandon my point of view and enter yours. Now I c a n s e e , on y o u r s c a l e n o t m i n e , what work y o u do, what movement y o u make. Then I d i s c o v e r y o u d o n ' t i n t e r e s t me. V e r y few o f you i n t e r e s t me, and t h e n o n l y a little. Is it because y o u ' r e so y o u n g , j u s t t w e n t y - o n e ? Is i t because I c a n ' t be f a t h e r l y ? I n s t e a d I am y o u r o l d e r b r o t h e r , s e v e n y e a r s o l d e r , and I f e e l i m p a t i e n c e . I t a k e you s e r i o u s l y , u t t e r l y ; you a r e my contemporary. I can't bear t o watch you play u n d e r g r a d u a t e , not e a r n e s t , not w h o l e h e a r t e d , not b e l i e v i n g your time, my time, matters absolutely. I want t o t e l l Mom and Dad on you. I want t o s h a k e you i n t h e i r a b s e n c e .  I c a n work w i t h g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . We meet on d i f f e r e n t ground. I don't f a l l i n t o c a j o l i n g you. Somehow I c a n o f f e r s i m p l y , w i t h o u t the emotion of b o n d a g e , what I have. You t a k e , you d o n ' t ; i t i s okay w i t h me. It's a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t , and a l l I c a n t h i n k o f i s a g e . "I d o n ' t l i k e t o work w i t h u n d e r g r a d u a t e s " I end up saying and I know i t ' s n o t t r u e . M o s t e a s i l y I c a n work w i t h me . . . So I o f f e r you what I can through p r i n t , through theory that i s also practice. T h i s b r i n g s me satisfaction. Your response, through l e t t e r s , at meetings, i s i n s t r u c t i v e , e9 G r u m e t , on t h e  other  journey  with currere.  theatre  and  student  hand, She  has  taken  a  somewhat  w o r k s w i t h o t h e r s on  teaching  as  text.  different  i t , using their  Apple  notes  the  76  difference: Grumet comes a bit closer, I think, to a realization of the problems. She obviously sees personal understanding as an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e process t h a t i s o f t e n dependent, i n the microcosm she reports, on g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n , p a s t h i s t o r i e s , and t h e s t r u c t u r e of power w i t h i n a s i t u a t i o n . 7 0  On  this  chooses  private  ground  his  her  or  of  own  organizing  path,  or the  p a t h has  writer  been c h o s e n , i n  i s the  travelling  regard,  could  r e s p o n d h e r e t o G r e e n e ' s c h i d i n g of some o f  Pinar's early analogies She  says,  marginal  "I tend  effect."  schools. R.  D.  Laing  explicit  and  for  and  was  has  been  her  otherwise.  Pinar. life  It one  standards.  He  did  murder.  comparatively experience  not  idly  material.  in  to  external  allows the  to  external  internal  examine  " t o r e t r i e v e f r e e - f l o a t i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s from  oppressive  'existence'" society  to  one  and  reference,  that  does  lives  not  within.  s t a g e of P i n a r ' s a p p r o a c h t o c u r r i c u l u m of  currere's  seemingly  critical  intends  c o l l e c t i v e and correlative."  7  reading  so.  individual, 3  "The  choose  b a s e d upon an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  to  He  of  is  Currere  7 2  this  Currere  submits  alert  and  have a lived  In  obedience,  suggests,  become  is  madness  schools  D a v i d Cooper f o r r e a d i n g  one's e d u c a t i o n a l goals  That  lebenswelt.  schooling with  to believe that  7 1  Pinar's  of  the  each  that, currere one  of  currere,  two  matter  of  forget,  internal  as  Presumably the criticism will  the  orders and  and  society  one's  reified Apple second  arise  within.  out He  of l i b e r a t i v e work consciousness  are  Footnotes  William F Pinar, "Currere; A Case S t u d y " , Qualitative Evaluation, ed. George W i l l i s (Berkely: M c u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 318. 1  William F. Pinar, " P r e f a c e " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , e d s . W i l l i a m F. Pinar and M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet fSubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t Publishing Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. i i i . 2  3  Merely 1 978.  M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r : Players", Curriculum Inquiry, 8:1:44, Spring,  W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " S e l f and O t h e r s " , T o w a r d a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m F. P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e R~. Grumet (Dubuque, I o w a : K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976) , p. 21. 4  M a d e l i n e R. G r u m e t , "Songs a n d S i t u a t i o n s : The Figure/Ground Relation i n a C a s e S t u d y Of C u r r e r e " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s (Berkeley: M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 296. 5  Grumet, "Songs E v a l u a t i o n , p. 296. 6  Grumet, "Songs E v a l u a t i o n , p. 287. 7  Madeline F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Pinar and M a d e l e i n e Kendall/Hunt Publishing 8  and and  Situations", Qualitative Situations",  Qualitative  R. Grumet, "Psychoanalytic P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , e d s . W i l l i a m F. R. Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 135.  Jean Dorcy, The Mime, t r a n s l a t o r s Robert S p e l l e r , J r . And P i e r r e de F o n t n o u v e l l e (New York: R o b e r t S p e l l e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 83-84, c i t e d i n M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet "Curriculum as Theater: Merely Players", C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8:1:49, S p r i n g , 1978. 9  Pinar, "Self C u r r i c u l u m , p. 11. 1 0  and  Others",  Toward a P o o r  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Toward A Poor C u r r i c u l u m " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , e d s . W i l l i a m F. Pinar and Madeleine R. Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 74-75. 1 1  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 35. 1 2  William F. Pinar, "Political-Spiritual D i m e n s i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 106. 1 3  " Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 35. 1  Alfred Shcultz cited " E x i s t e n t i a l and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 37. 1 5  i n Madeleine Grumet, F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 42. 1 6  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 42. 1 7  1 8  Pinar,  " P r e f a c e " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m ,  p.  45., Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 45. 1 9  Madeline R. Grumet, "Psychoanalytic F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 20. 2 0  Grumet, "Toward P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 74. 2 1  A P o o r C u r r i c u l u m " , Toward a  G r u m e t , " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 112. n. This i s what Grumet c a l l s t h e d o u b l e m e t a p h o r o f autobiography, that i s , the combination of self-report and e x a m i n a t i o n of t h a t self-report. 2 2  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 56. 2 3  James O l n e y e d . , A u t o b i o g r a p h y ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J. : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 24. 2fl  P i n a r , " P o l i t i c a l - S p i r i t u a l D i m e n s i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 105. 2 5  P i n a r , "The M e t h o d " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m ,  2 6  p.  62.  W i l l i a m F. Pinar, "The Abstract and t h e Concrete i n Curriculum Theorizing" (paper w r i t t e n i n r e s p o n s e t o M i c h a e l A p p l e ' s c r i t i q u e of a u o t b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h ) , n.d., p. 14. 2 7  2 8  P i n a r , "The M e t h o d " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m ,  p.  2 9  P i n a r , "The M e t h o d " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m ,  pp.,  55. 58-  59. 3 0  P i n a r , "The M e t h o d " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m ,  p p . , 58-  59. Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p.. 121. 3 1  3 2  Curriculum,  Pinar, "Self p. 20.  and  Others",  Toward a  Toward a P o o r  M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Qualitative Evaluation ed. George W i l l i s (Berkeley: M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 299. 3 3  * William F. Pinar, "Life History and Educational Experience", J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g , 2:2:180, Summer, 1980. 3  Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 136. 3 5  Toward a  Madeleine R. G r u m e t , "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , pp. 298-299. 3 6  M a d e l i n e R. Grumet, "Curriculum as Theater: P l a y e r s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8:1:54, 1978.-  3 7  Merely  80  3 6  Grumet,  " C u r r i c u l u m a s T h e a t e r " , C I , 8:11:61.  William F. Pinar, " C u r r e r e : A Case S t u d y " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George Willis (Berkeley: M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 329. 3 9  G r u m e t , " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 134. 4 0  W i l l i a m F. Pinar, "Currere: A Case S t u d y " , Qualitative Evaluation, ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 411. 4 1  Pinar, 338-339.  Qualitative  Evaluation,  John S. Mann "Curriculum Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George Willis M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 8.5.  Criticism", (Berkeley:  4 2  pp.  "Case  Study",  4 3  M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " A n o t h e r V o i c e " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 158. 4 4  S t e p h e n Somers, "An A s s i s t i n g V o i c e " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 172-173. 4 5  W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "March S i x t h , A Fragment", Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 176. 4 6  M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Songs Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , p. 310. 4 7  and  Situations",  Daniel Tanner and Laurel N. Tanner, "Emancipation from Research: The Reconceptualist Prescription", Educational Researcher, 8:6:8, J u n e , 1 979. 4 8  4 9  T a n n e r and T a n n e r , " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER,  5 0  T a n n e r and T a n n e r , " E m a n c i p a t i o n " ,  5 1  T a n n e r and T a n n e r , " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER,  ER,  8:6:9. 8:6:8-  12. 8:6:9.  81  Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 141. 5 2  Foundations",  James H. F i n k l e s t e i n a n d C. the E d i t o r " , E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 1 979. 5 3  Toward a  Ray W i l l i a m s , "To 8:9:24, October,  R o b e r t L. O s b o r n , "An A l l - A m e r i c a n S m a l l G r o u p in Search o f an E l e c t r i c Kool-Aid Acid Theory of Curriculum", Heightened Consciousness, C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r y , ed. William Pinar ( B e r k e l e y : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 132. 5 4  Osborn, " A l l - A m e r i c a n C o n s c i o u n e s s , pp. 13 3-135. 5 5  Small  Group",  Heightened  W i l l i a m T. Lowe, "Some R e a c t i o n s " , H e i g h t e n e d C o n s c i o u s n e s s , C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Theory ~ ed. W i l l i a m P i n a r (Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing C o r p . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 144. 5 6  Max v a n Manen, "Reconceptualist Thought: A Review of Recent Literature", I n q u i r y , 8:4:369-370, W i n t e r 1978. 5 7  Curriculum Curriculum  Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:10. n. In response t o t h e word reconceptualism, Pinar w r o t e , " I have n e v e r u s e d t h i s t e r m . . . . T h e r e i s no reconceptualism." ("Reply t o My C r i t i c s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:2:200, Summer, 1980) 5 8  5 9  Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " ,  6 0  Finkelstein  8:9:24. 6 1  8:9:25.  ER, 8:6:9.  a n d W i l l i a m s , "To t h e E d i t o r " ,  ER,  F i n k e l s t e i n a n d W i l l i a m s , "To t h e E d i t o r " , ER,  W i l l i a m F. Pinar, "The A b s t r a c t and t h e Concrete i n Curriculum T h e o r i z i n g " , (paper w r i t t e n i n response t o M i c h a e l Apple's c r i t i q u e of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h ) , n.d., p. 2 8 . 6 2  M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y a n d Form i n C u r r i c u l u m Evaluation", Q u a l i t a t i v e Research, ed. George Willis ( B e r k e l y : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 5 0 9 . 6 3  * Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 514. 6  Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 510. 6 5  6 6  Evaluation,  Apple, "Ideology p. 511.  Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 508. 6 7  Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 509. 6 8  6 9  176-177.  Pinar,  "March  and and and and and  Sixth",  Apple, "Ideology E v a l u a t i o n , p. 513.  Form", Form", Form", Form",  Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative Qualitative  Poor C u r r i c u l u m ,  pp.  Form",  Qualitative  M a x i n e G r e e n e , "To the E d i t o r " , R e s e a r c h e r , 8:9:25, O c t o b e r , 1979.  Educational  7 0  7 1  and  Form",  7 2  Pinar,"The  A b s t r a c t and t h e C o n c r e t e " , p.  29.  7 3  P i n a r , " T h e A b s t r a c t and t h e C o n c r e t e " , p.  13.  83  Chapter  4  EXAMPLES OF C R I T I C I S M  In  this  chapter,  t h e methods d e s c r i b e d by E i s n e r a n d  P i n a r , and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , a r e a p p l i e d videotape c a l l e d  "Women M o v i n g Up."  to  a  segment  of  a  The c r i t i q u e s c o n t a i n e d i n  1  t h i s c h a p t e r a r e two e x a m p l e s o f how t h i s  r e s e a r c h e r would  (1)  a c o n n o i s s e u r , and (2)  criticism  criticism  as  researcher The  as  the d i s c l o s u r e s  personal  a  better  disclosure. sense  The  Application  of the substance  c r i t i q u e s a r e i n c l u d e d here  interpretation  of  to  gave  of each  exemplify  apply  the  the  approach.  researcher's  of E i s n e r and P i n a r . videotape  being  critiqued  i s from  a  management c u r r i c u l u m , a l s o e n t i t l e d Women M o v i n g Up. package  (including  tests,  and  l e a d e r ' s manual,  videotapes)  management men a n d women.  worksheets,  was d e s i g n e d  business The t o t a l  pre-and  post-  f o r a two-day seminar f o r  The two o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m  were t o make management more aware o f ( d a y o n e ) a n d more  skilled  in  between  (day two) h a n d l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t e n s i o n encountered  men a n d women w o r k i n g The seminar. time is  together  segment b e i n g c r i t i q u e d This  part  of  o f 25.56 m i n u t e s , time-out,  purposes  i n management  about  positions.  i s u s e d on d a y  one  of the  t h e v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l has a r u n n i n g  excluding the stop-start midway  i n the running  of d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  by  interval  which  of t h e tape, f o r the persons  who  segment b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s  with  w o u l d be v i e w i n g t h e t a p e . The  on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r , P e t e r Walker,  a d v i s i n g theviewer  "observe,  can learn  analyze,  and  s e e what  we  from  to  Joanne's  84  experience." leader. this  Joanne Walker  i s the  She a n d P e t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d  segment,  situations  dramatization  i n an  the characters  secretaries,  one  a r e : Joanne  five are  introduction,  skits  in  Within  Walker,  to  the  a  woman  management;  and  manager;  Louise,  an  two  older  i n management; Chuck D a i l e y , a n o t h e r  management f r o m a b r a n c h Peter's  i n a dramatization  setting.  staff  In  named s i m p l y M a r g o , a n d one s i m p l y n o t  named; Ken B e n s o n , a s a l e s m a n established  discussion  a s a h u s b a n d - w i f e team.  office  r e c e n t l y promoted from t h e c l e r i c a l  woman,  on-tape  Joanne a l s o p l a y s t h e h e r o i n e  of p r o b l e m a t i c  women  other  office;  John B l a c k w e l l , t h e boss.  the dramatization begins,  moving  t h e s p a c e o f one b u s i n e s s d a y . A f t e r  run, Joanne Walker a d v i s e s t h e v i e w e r s  with:  " F o l k s , i t ' s time  broad,  the s u b t l e , the e x p l i c i t ,  man i n With through  the s k i t s  to turn off the s e t ,  now f o r y o u t o d i s c u s s what we saw, t h e the i m p l i c i t ,  a s we c o n t i n u e t o  become more a n d more a w a r e " . When t h e t a p e discussing t o what t h e y  the  i s t u r n e d back o n , J o a n n e  and  Peter  are  r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f women i n management, a c c o r d i n g  saw on t h e v i d e o t a p e .  Visual  flashbacks  t o the  d r a m a t i z a t i o n a r e c o n s t a n t l y used. The would  use  f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m s a r e e x a m p l e s o f how t h i s the video  d i s c l o s u r e s of disclosure. a  a  segment  connoisseurship  Although  these  to  apply  and  criticism  criticism  as  writer as the  personal  c r i t i q u e s a r e s h o r t t h e y do p r e s e n t  f l a v o u r of t h i s w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e methods.  85  C r i t i c i s m as t h e D i s c l o s u r e s of a C o n n o i s s e u r : V a u d e v i l l e as D i d a c t i c i s m  This handicraft  critique of  human  views  the  talent.  videotape  kitsch  material  I t has t h e m a t i c ,  as  a  c o n t e x t u a l , and  p e r f o r m a n c e a s p e c t s i n i t s make-up a s a w h o l e o b j e c t , w h i c h  the  following  and  critique  interpretation. as  aims  to  reveal  In the e v a l u a t i o n ,  one w o u l d a s c r i p t  or a score.  in  w r i t e r viewed  through the leader's to  critique  teaching  The c r i t i c  i t s place  artifact  tape  tries  considered to envision  and theme. several  guide t o the workshop.  times,  assist.  having minimal  and  read  No a t t e m p t was made  i n the workshop f o r which t h i s  m a t e r i a l or l e a r n i n g  contained be  the  description  the videotape i s  i t s performance w i t h i n a l a r g e r context This  the  Since  i t is  tape i s a a  self-  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r use, i t could  used i n a s e p a r a t e s i t u a t i o n from t h e r e s t  of  the  workshop  package. Description After  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n t o v i e w e r s ,  t a p e moves i n t o t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n . music,  gaily  anticipatory  The b l o u s y  then  mournfully  tones  fades  heroine,  into  enters  matter-of-fact  the  clatter  stage r i g h t . shoes,  of  navy-blue b l a z e r , a primly  typewriters.  Joanne wears t h e  no-nonsense knotted,  hoisery, perky  organ  expectant, set the  mood f o r t h e s t a g e s o f v a u d e v i l l e o r t h e t e l e v i s i o n music  of  the  soaps.  The  Joanne, our  executive  look:  grey A - l i n e  skirt,  scarf  covering  the  86  open  neck  groomed. stage  of  She s t o p s  left  converse. One,  her  shirt,  the  secretaries  They a r e l e a n i n g i n t o  Trying".  hair  t o look a t her m a i l .  where  Margo, s a y s ,  Really  tailored  The  have  each  and face camera  stopped  other  flawlessly moves  to  typing,  to  conspiratorially.  "Here comes How t o S u c c e e d i n B u s i n e s s The  other,  who  remains nameless  Without  throughout  ( p e r h a p s b e c a u s e a t t h i s p o i n t she a p p e a r s t o h a v e no a s p i r a t i o n beyond t h e t y p i n g p o o l ) we're  Mary  snipers. and  Tyler  counters  Moore".  former-office-mate,  between Joanne, t h e  a t one p o i n t , " I h a v e n ' t  Confusion.  changed.  What d o e s t h a t s t a t e m e n t mean? So  does  the  The s c e n e e n d s w i t h J o a n n e s t o m p i n g s t i f f - l e g g e d l y o u t  She  behaves as t h e a g g r i e v e d  her  c h i l d r e n , with nothing  larger  executive  c a u g h t b e t w e e n h e r o l d r o l e a n d h e r new.  of t h e r e c e p t i o n a r e a , a n g r i l y p r o m i s i n g  loss  women i n t h e o f f i c e a r e  s e c r e t a r i e s o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e she's f u d g i n g .  viewer.  Today  a n d t h e two s e c r e t a r i e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t  " L o o k " , she s a y s e x a s p e r a t e d l y My j o b h a s c h a n g e d . "  "Check t h e o u t f i t .  Aha, other  The s u b s e q u e n t d i a l o g u e  Joanne i s uncomfortably  The  with  parent left  to "talk  t o you l a t e r " .  caught i n a power-play  to fight  with  w i t h but v i o l e n c e , and  s i z e , a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r v e r b a l abuse, and t h r e a t s of of  privilege.  She's  management,  now,  after a l l .  Management i s p a r e n t a l . Scene then suspense. of L o u i s e . on  lips,  change.  More  The m u s i c f a d e s  organ this  music p r o m i s i n g  time i n t o t h e peevish  The c a m e r a comes i n on an o l d e r woman w i t h no  neck,  and  a crepey,  first fun,  sour  face.  voice  painted-  H e r manner  with  87  Joanne  i s q u e r u l o u s , "You  r e a d y and t h e y d i d n ' t and .  insinuating, . . .  Never  "Don't  ready.  y o u know how  " T h a t ' s what  situation,  Bully  The where  f o r you,  organ music  Joanne  singing  again.  i s embarrassed  cheerily  y o u l o v e me". Joanne ear.  "Having  He,  brushes  Back  to find,  my  him  distress  "Do  you view  my  L o u i s e , do y o u want  me  to the  secretaries'  w i t h Ken  from the s e c r e t a r i e s ,  upstairs.  Enter  Ken  baby i s s u c h a n i c e way  The "Joanne  She  As t h e s c e n e e n d s , confusion  Benson.  fine  Benson  of  saying  Lothario.  position.  my  career  path leads r i g h t  the  camera  holds  on  her  r u e f u l l y a p o l o g i z e s t o the other  on  to h i s  her  evident  the t u r n of e v e n t s i n her  exchange  music  Chuck".  It  introduces is  He  the  the f i r s t  b e t w e e n o u r h e r o i n e and a n o t h e r , even bad news.  that  She's been b u l l i e d w i t h b o y i s h c h a r m .  organ  and  room,  o f f a s she w o u l d a g n a t b u s s i n g a r o u n d  "Unfortunately,  and  for.  prepares to  i t becomes a p p a r e n t , i s t h e o f f i c e  i s u n a b l e t o s a y "no".  door."  the  Joanne  M a r g o , t h e s e c r e t a r y , h o w e v e r , i s i n a one-down  secretary,  her  paid  Joanne.  h e r work i s b e i n g d o u b l e - c h e c k e d  She  getting  o l d w a r r i o r w i t h an i n s i n u a t i o n o f h e r own,  fail?"  employees?  t o o , b u t t h e n she t u r n s t o c o n f r o n t  p r o m o t i o n a s some k i n d o f t h r e a t t o you? to  . . . .  t o handle the  you're  account  Why?"  t h e e a s y h o w - t o - d o . . . ."  stomp o u t o f t h i s the  them t o have t h e Weasoner  seem t o have i t  and c h u r l i s h ,  mind about  told  next  skit  entitled  n o n - t h r e a t i n g exchange  t h o u g h Chuck h a s  to  hand  ends t h e i n t e r v i e w by c o m p l i m e n t i n g J o a n n e  j o b she's d o i n g .  She  first  rejects his  compliment  on by  88  shrugging  o f f a "thanks", t o y i n g w i t h her p e n c i l ,  Chuck, however, i n s i s t s  on b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d .  and w o r r y i n g .  They have  met  as  equals. That  music  again,  over the t i t l e  " t h e m e e t i n g " , w h i c h c o u l d more C r a p Game a t Dead-Pan C a s i n o " . affecting  casualness,  someone f r o m whether  he  doesn't  branch and  but  she  r i s e again, at a signal Blackwell, paternal. errs,  He  There hands.  the  is The  the boss, e n t e r s ,  at  replies,  tensing  then  or  beginning  rolling  h e r t h a t she has  sits,  the p a r t .  then  the  other  jovial,  Bid.  hand job  He  characters.  certainly  who  prompt  She, hip,  or  I  still  am  to h i s safe he  assures  Fold. innocently  cliched  responses  has t h e b l a n d demeanour o f a There  is  one  of  i s the fan over  who  g e t s up f o r t h e c o f f e e , J o a n n e  i s "after a l l ,  and  to  c r o u p i e r d e a l i n g the cards w i t h a p p a r e n t l y x-ray eyes.  men,  He  moving  ex c a m e r a ,  Counter-bid.  from  the  two  well-trained.  on B l a c k w e l l h a n d l e s t h e m e e t i n g ,  t h e s h u f f l e o v e r who  Joanne  she has c o m p l e t e d .  Later,  that  other  but  over  i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he  back,  engineering several situations the  so  confusion  He h a r r u m p h s and moves away and b a c k  c h a i r a t t h e head of the t a b l e .  From  group  perhaps,  " J o h n , do I i n d e e d have t h i s new  auditioning?"  some  slightly  Joanne get t o g e t h e r t o review a f i r i n g shoulders  "The  Benson.  i s well-meaning,  i n camera,  entitled  Joanne i s i n t r o d u c e d t o  Benson d o e s n ' t ,  from  be  section  o l d boys s t a n d or s i t around  importance.  shake  i m m e d i a t e l y , so Ken  graphically The  office.  f o r the next  closer".  There  or  89  helps is  Margo hand o u t t h e p a p e r s , J o a n n e o r one o f t h e men,  "after  high  a l l , closer".  T h e r e i s Ken B e n s o n b r a s h l y  a t t h e approach of Margo, t h e s e c r e t a r y ,  brightest  day  Blackwell's obviously  i n any  man's  life.  an i n t e r r u p t i o n .  winning  F o r Ken  deal  from t h e bottom o f t h e deck w i t h ,  and  has  kids."  breathes f r e e l y again. that as  Benson,  lowest p r i o r i t y .  Joanne  "What?!  calls  Also, at this  Women a g a i n s t  activity  women  are  She's  married  table,  Joanne  although  finds  out  p u t t i n g h e r work This  obviously  embarassing  group around Joanne.  for  She h a s been  by an o u t s i d e r . The  studio  Ken i s  h i m on i t , a n d e v e r y o n e  women a g a i n .  revealed,  e v e r y o n e , draws t h e e x e c u t i v e hustled  And,  Benson c h o k e s a n d t r i e s t o  t h e s e c r e t a r i e s h a v e been s a b o t a g i n g h e r ,  dishonourable  Ken".  the  J o a n n e t h r o w s i n what she c o n s i d e r s  h a n d , h e r new a s s i s t a n t .  three  "Here's  t a k i n g t h e game s e r i o u s l y enough o r he w o u l d n o t  h a v e made s u c h an o u t r a g e o u s move.  a  bidding  H e l l o , Gorgeous!!"  d i s g r u n t l e d "Oh, f o r h e a v e n ' s s a k e , not  definitely  with  who  music of v a u d e v i l l e and t h e soaps a g a i n .  and  Joanne and P e t e r .  v i e w e r s may d i s c u s s  They d e c i d e t o s t o p  a n d a n a l y z e what t h e y have s e e n .  Return  to  tape so t h a t The  organ  m u s i c t a k e s us away. When the  studio  dramatization replays emphasis  the  tape i s s t a r t e d again  discussing, i n which  organizing Joanne  as they r e c a l l v a r i o u s of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n  was  themes  Joanne and P e t e r  their  impression  are i n of the  the heroine.  They employ  relevant  them.  to  The  i s on t h e p r o b l e m s f r o m J o a n n e ' s  90  point  of  view.  Any  Sometimes  Joanne  and P e t e r  analysis,  thus  characters  discussion one  mirroring  in  consciousness,  side  the  issues  are  discarded. i n their  the  of  self-consciousness  dramatization.  of  that  a r e solemn, sometimes c u t e  of the c h a r a c t e r s  leaders,  to  Such  the  consummate  i n the s k i t s ,  of  the  selfon-tape  t h e m u s i c , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t o p i c was  w i t h w h i c h no one was  comfortable.  Interpretation The  t a p e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s .  dramatization  of  interpretation The  tape  this  tape  only  Neither  produced,  workshop i n which of  is  more  or  women  moving  foridentifying  specific  men a n d women i n management p o s i t i o n s .  the  phenomenon  distractions incidental However,  on  women  t h e work  moving  place of  that  Each  in  through  the  this  workshop  problems f o r both skit  up  portrays  are present.  Every i n c i d e n t as  every  f o r the producers incidents  prompted  a  so t h a t o n l y t h e d i s t r a c t i o n s of  out i n r e l i e f .  t h e placement  intentional focusses  of  stand to  transformed  that  i n t o management i n t h e  as  situation,  problem-solving.  i s raised  I t i s used s p e c i f i c a l l y  limiting  i s an  a t l e a s t chosen f o r use i n t h e  s a l a r i e d work w o r l d . a learning assist  second  The i s s u e  i t i s contained,  many  The  is a  t o s p e c i f y p r o b l e m s by e n a c t m e n t a n d by  o f them i n t o a s c h e m a t a . being  actuality  situations.  of the p o r t r a y a l .  serves  organization  problem  The f i r s t  of  make  portrayed  a task-oriented incidental this  These is  situation.  incident  is  videotape.  The t a p e  the protagonists  nervous,  91  nervous The  because  incidents  characters  t h e y do n o t know what t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o d o . portrayed  because  they  are  limiting  to  the  are  l i m i t i n g people t o assigned  role  b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h somehow d o n ' t f i t sense of s o c i a l d i s - e a s e  situations  anymore.  The t a p e p r e s e n t s a  i n t h e work p l a c e b e c a u s e men a n d women  do n o t know how t o a c t w i t h a woman i n management. that the producers believe that in s i t u  of  these  incidents  people a r e used t o o p e r a t i n g thoughtful within  way.  that  confuses persons.  i n an a s s i g n e d way  example,  i t i s unlikely  than  a  comfortable  result  from  non-  that the other  women i n t e n d c o n s c i o u s l y t o  sabotage  error  u n e n d i n g l y i n a s e r i e s o f momentary  succeed  experiences.  sly  i s Joanne's  There  i s Chuck  in slightly  ease i n d e a l i n g w i t h snickering  other  There  affectations. manifested  each  of  the  Joanne.  That i s ,  rather  No one i n t h e s e s c e n a r i o s i s q u i t e  For  appears  i t i s t h e lack of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y  the contextual misunderstandings that  intentionality.  It  dis-ease, and  Bob  gun-shy b e h a v i o u r . the  office  lech.  manifested  Frazier's  in  dis-ease,  There i s Margo's There  and  i s the  dissnide  s e c r e t a r i e s b e h i n d Joanne's back, and t h e i r  s a b o t a g i n g o f h e r work a s s i g n m e n t s .  meanness  Aberration  of Louise, the o l d - l i n e  There i s t h e  lady boss.  power demeanour o f t h e a v u n c u l a r M r .  cavilling  There i s t h e bland  Blackwell.  There  i s Ken  Benson who a l w a y s h a s t o make an i s s u e o f someone b e i n g a woman. There absurdity wickedness  of of  are  juxtapositions  the  situations.  Ken B e n s o n ,  that There  Louise,  keep  one aware o f t h e  i s , f o r example,  and t h e s e c r e t a r i e s ,  the which  92  serves, rides  f o r one t h i n g , t o p u t a w h i t e h o r s e u n d e r J o a n n e a s i n t o town.  There  b e s i d e t h e bad g u y s .  she  a r e o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e good g u y s s e t  The women, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n  of  Joanne,  t h e h e r o i n e , a r e a l l b a d , w h e r e a s t h e men, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Ken  Benson,  t h e " O i l Can H a r r y " , a r e a l l good i n t h e i r  e f f o r t s a t rapprochement. "Joanne  and  Another  example i s t h e s k i t  Joanne  uses  this  to  excerpt  address later  t e a c h i n g d e v i c e , when she and P e t e r i n s t r u c t it  all.  Another  secretaries  wide-eyed Without  is  and  to  really  in  innocent. Really  Joanne.  In  prepared  one  Trying"  implies  that  case  and  smell  appellation  like  "We're Mary  vulnerability, rather  than  management,  and  Tyler  is  Moore  there  now  on  today"  of  that  she i s a  in  Business  has  walk,  of  i s the  machinations  Joanne  t h a t she i s w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d from  meaning  Succeed  f o l l o w e d t h e r u l e book, has l e a r n e d how t o  explicit  s l u r s that the  the other i s the i m p l i c a t i o n to  an  i n the  f o r the  The e p i t h e t . "How  relationship  as  example i s i n t h e c o n s p i r a t o r i a l  attach  s u g g e s t i o n she management,  entitled  Chuck" w h i c h c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p i e c e ,  i n a p p e a r i n g t o be a m o d e l f o r p e o p l e tensions.  fumbling  ruthlessly  talk, her  dress,  way.  suggest  from h a b i t ,  The  Joanne's perhaps,  any r e a l c o n v i c t i o n , o r f r o m any r e a l  design  either. The m u s i c tuned,  there's  happens next  at the i n t e r v a l s more  to  come,  i s more o f t h e same.  i s a cultural what  will  What t h e  b o t h s e c t i o n s ) i s so t r u e and y e t so f a l s e .  to  stay  happen n e x t ?  What  tape  sign  presents  (in  The v i e w e r w a n t s t o  93  groan,  boo,  and  h i s s at the v i l l a i n y  h e a v y - h a n d e d , i t i s a l s o warm and squirms i n d i s c o m f o r t . is  one  Joanne  of  social from  becoming  an  accepted  about her  connections  section  of  a  the  that  them ( w o r k e r s )  sticky  over-all  lonely  so  Although  that  s e n s e t h a t one  almost  member  the  viewer  that  interprets  her  watches  team.  the  But  one  of us  i s a succesful solution.  to what  office?  The  dramatizations  In the d i s c u s s i o n , there  becoming  with  position  w i t h t h e o t h e r women i n t h e tape  i t is  is left  untenable  of t h e e x e c u t i v e  t h i s untenableness.  affirmation  it a l l .  d i s c o m f o r t , s o c i a l d i s - e a s e , a s one  moving  reiterates  The  of  is  no  (management) a g a i n s t  Thank g o o d n e s s .  Evaluat ion The the  e v a l u a t i o n has  intentionality,  been s u b d i v i d e d  t h e a r t f u l n e s s , and  i n order  to  consider  t h e u s e f u l n e s s of  this  videotape. The guide,  videotape  this  identifying  as  videotape specific  management.  The  intentional. is  associated  of  synonymous  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  The  d r a m a t i z a t i o n of J o a n n e i n t h e b u s i n e s s  d i s c u s s i o n b e t w e e n J o a n n e and p r o b l e m s , by p r i o r i t i z i n g made  aware  of  The  with  definition  situation  replication  Peter presents  The  day,  seems  of  identifies  a definition  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on  to  problems.  is didactic.  way.  in in  first  Awareness  them i n a p a r t i c u l a r  stereotypes.  leaders'  women  t h e w o r k s h o p on t h e  i s used, i s awareness.  replication.  to the  u s e d as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t  be  t h e p r o b l e m s by  with  be  problems  objective  when t h i s v i d e o t a p e  to  According  The of  the  Viewers  are  this  video  94  tape belong t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n s of melodrama.  The c h a r a c t e r s a r e  objectified  i n the f a c t i c i t i e s  of  gait,  language.  For  viewer  don't  are  at  count  a l l  polarized  example,  the  gesture,  dress,  knows who t h e p e o p l e  and who  t h e y do n o t h a v e l a s t names, one h a s no name  t h e s e c r e t a r i e s and L o u i s e .  Also, the characters are  as  women,  good  or  b a d , men  or  management  or  subordinate. In  dramatizing  types  and  cliches  the  producers are  s e n d i n g messages about t h o s e t y p e s and c l i c h e s .  The  are  this  highly  stylized.  p r e s e n t a t i o n appears and  role  i n a Salon or Saloon Without  be  that  i s unproblematic. conditioned  Any P a n a c h e "  circumstances  changed.  changed",  My  j o b has  c h a r a c t e r s have t o make s e n s e  or  people  that  Joanne  her  with  the role.  situations.  with  haven't  the other  i n the r o l e . and  role  That i s , confuse  The t a p e d e f i n e s t h i s c o n f l i c t by  t h e awkward a n d t h e s t a t i c  limiting  "I  and  i s not t o take f o rgranted the person,  responses  I t i s t h e s t o r y o f a woman i s o l a t e d  with  conflict  of t h e o l d t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d  j o b as s e p a r a t e from t h e p e r s o n  abstracting it.  then  situation,  I f t h e r e i s more, i t  I f i t i s indeed true  him  conventions,  How  unmapped c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  the problem  of  I f t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n i s o n l y a "Mary T y l e r Moore  to  the  genre  form  tape  then the case presented  of  in  However, t h a t c a n ' t be a l l t h i s  Succeed  appears  viewer's  t o be t o r e c o g n i z e t h e  t o r e a d them a s s u c h .  i s about. to  The  movements  It  associated with  i n her c o n f r o n t a t i o n s  i s t h e s t o r y o f how t h e o t h e r  she w o r k s w i t h a r e a l s o l i m i t e d  by t h o s e  same c o n d i t i o n s .  95  The  characters are one-dimensional.  the heroine  troubling.  i n town.  'madam'  'stranger  i s a breach of everyday expectancies.  problematic, 'gun'  As a  The  The ' g i r l s '  i s tough l i k e  old  are sassy,  The  incidents that eventually topple videotape  instructed to  watch  to  a r e wary o f t h e new Louise,  John B l a c k w e l l i s t h e  plot  is a  piling  up  The  listen.  viewers These  have are  the  simple  i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e v i d e o t a p e .  The w o r k s h o p  could  others,  direct  attention. the  On t h e t a p e ,  stop-start live  leaders present The  suggestion  good  to  more  specifically  intentionality  confusion,  i s open-ended.  After  d i s c u s s i o n i n t e r l u d e , the on-tape d i s c u s s i o n  i s that that  i s t h e i r way n o t t h e way, w h i c h i s a  the  tape does best  i s portray the discomfort, the  and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t d i s t a s t e e v e r y o n e c o n c e r n e d  co-partners  in  surrounding  the world  t h e i s s u e o f men a n d women  o f s a l a r i e d work.  m e d i o c r e a n d t h e mean i n t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n solemnity  of  and of  the  being of the  cuteness  I f i t d i s q u i e t s , t h i s w o u l d be a good  f o r discussion to begin.  effective  The s u r f e i t  feels  t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does d i s q u i e t t h e v i e w e r .  It could also discourage.  an  the viewers'  one way o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e t h e m e ( s ) o f t h e drama.  with the confusion  place  leader  suggestion. What  and  of  been  introductory give  the  over.  as a r t f u l . and  town',  She i s 'new',  even n a s t y .  o l d meat i s t o u g h .  head honcho a l a L o m e Greene.  The  'boys'  in  teaching material.  I n t h a t way, t h i s  tape c o u l d  be  96  The social Ken  Benson  voices  Joanne  collective Joanne  the  out  of  is  it  that to  stand-up  comic.  a  of  the  sense  of  possibility grasped  carve so  is  means  ideas.  be  an  that  important  women p r e s u m i n g new  as The  obsolescence  that  no one  is  the  could  maybe  i n s t a b i l i t y i n the ill-at-ease the  as  issue  roles  is  phenomenon  the  that  viewer arising  challenge as  left and the  a  to  the  reasons  accept  seeing  one-liner  because  of,  environment  of  workshop of  and t o  one  them  to  take  it.  does  situation.  group for  using taking  the  This of  the  receive  portrayed.  It  allows  i n management  video  appreciate  is the  may  be  tape  is  to  the  discomfort in  so  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  its  No s o l u t i o n s tape  to  participants.  this  some  their  life,  stuff  that  woman  as  office  f r o m women b e c o m i n g m a n a g e m e n t ,  limiting to  the  the  vaudeville  this  of  miss  irresolution  purpose  appears  saw  graffiti  essentially or  p r o d u c t i o n of  evidently  It  to  women  built-in  this  the  existence It  in stone  Even so,  that  and c o n f u s i o n doing  of  a n d a p p r o p r i a t e d by  challenge  towards  assumes  to  of  people.  represents  same  that  producers  straining-for-effect  that  tape,  of  i n management  appears  aspect  the  in relief  sense  thing  the  This  the  positive  opportunity set  of  attitude  Ken Benson  Detroit.  impediments  innovation.  The kitsch  a new  that  the  depersonalizing  a taken-for-granted  new m o d e l h a s  producers  permanent  the  represents  the  self-consciously  and  thinking  as  anything for  abstract  conditioning  things.  a  skits  to  are  decide  responsibility  for  and  presented. the  ways  the  and  given  97  s i t u a t i o n and o v e r c o m i n g The tape  passive acceptance  v i d e o t a p e a s u s e f u l . The  depends  on how  of  will  pull  the  viewer-participants  p o s s i b l e that the viewer w i l l she  identifies  characters,  by  with  dramatization. their  own  significant Walker it  first one  From  theme  could  be  or  the workshop l e a d e r i s viewers.  out  to  more  of  w i t h one  the  on.  What similar  obviously different.  tape  t o do t h e i r  interpretation  videotape format. In  i s done.  The  interpretations  an  a-symmetry  of  what P a u l o F r e i r e w o u l d  In  it  assure p a r t i c i p a n t s than  their  own  significant. by  what  the  in  the  draw  out  decide  as  will  Peter or  p r o d u c e r s of  the  instructing  the  before  the  f e a t u r e of  interpretation,  o f t h e v i d e o t a p e have d e v e l o p e d and  event  o r more of  symmetrical;  This i s a positive  viewing audience this  or  onthe  It allows for participation.  t h e c a s e of  producers  he  that  t o what J o a n n e and  t a p e have a l l o w e d f o r v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by viewer-participant  is  viewers  i t c o u l d even be e n t i r e l y  quite  It  situations  the  themes  examine?  viewer-participants  work  What  o r g a n i z e the problems  be s l i g h t l y  come up w i t h ;  the  identifying  there  to  could  w o r t h w h i l e n e s s of the v i d e o  thoroughly familiar  w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s  of i t .  would  be  call  p r e s e n t e d to the a  hinged  Otherwise,  they  consider  responsibility  for their  themes,  or  more  ( 1 ) t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s may expert own  theme.  important t h a t the workshop l e a d e r  t h a t t h e h i n g e d theme i s no more  discovered  the  opinion,  problem  and  awareness;  significant  likely be  not  as  intimidated  will and  not (2)  take the  98  workshop leader  as  educator w i l l  be  guilty  of c o l l u s i o n w i t h  the  given. The the  skills  w o r t h w h i l e n e s s of of t h e  presents  leader  by  the  also  the  the  examine t h e  own  themes.  assure  the  The  group  discrepancies  between t h e  e x p e r i e n c e s and t o be  i s nothing,  the  t a p e d e p e n d s on  group  producer.  of  not  only  of t h o s e s i g n i f i e r s as  done  latterly  the  organization  of  their  own  examine  the  their  own  the also  material  significance prompt on  them  the  of to  tape  and  In which case t h i s v i d e o t a p e tool. The  I n and  seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s  teaching  material.  The  value  u s e r more t h a n upon t h e  I , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d use like  the  assumption  do  that  women i s more d e s t r u c t i v e t h e n t h e  could itself,  import with  of  i t ,  d e p e n d s upon intentionality  i t t o examine  rivalry  h e l p l e s s boss or male c o - w o r k e r .  of  educational  postures  of t h e  does  workshop  dramatization,  for-granted of  The  a  that  e x c i t i n g teaching  the  secondly,  not  what t h e  i s t r u e of any  itself  but  a r e f l e c t o r , perhaps.  intentionality  of t h e  the  of  e d u c a t o r , as w o r k s h o p l e a d e r , must  discoveries.  it  which  situations;  l e a d e r s , and  must  a very  and  problems posed.  organization  he/she  t u r n out  tape i n  s i t u a t i o n s c o d i f i e d i n the  discoveries,  the  posing  s i g n i f i e r s of  on-tape d i s c u s s i o n  of t h e i r only  problem  The  must n e c e s s a r i l y e n s u r e t h a t  recognize they  workshop l e a d e r .  firstly,  s c h e m a t i c of the  t h i s v i d e o t a p e d e p e n d s l a r g e l y on  the  parental  takensibling neglect  99  C r i t i c i s m as P e r s o n a l  This personal  growth.  significant The  critique The  lines  "themes" a r e  associatively, present" that  visual  aside,  videotape  and  verbal  while  her "biographic  i s juxtaposed  as  catalyst  messages for  with  the  present".  critic  that are  the  critique. The " t e x t "  writes,  Next, the  t h e "themes t h a t  link  for  free  "biographic  the t e x t " ,  t h e c r i t i c may w r i t e an " a n a l y s i s " o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between them.  rests,  reflects,  After w r i t i n g the " a n a l y s i s " , the  considering  e d u c a t o r , and f i n a l l y The  reader  co-existant  listed  sources  and  biographic to things  for  of  reader Like  than the r e c i p i e n t .  i n currere,  initial  datum.  t h i s viewer  apperceived.  that  critic  growth as  as  there First,  are  the l i n e s  significant  Next,  this to  two  are  critic's  association  R e f l e c t i o n upon t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f  the  initial  sections  of t h i s  datum become b a s i c  gift  i n the  critique.  i s a l s o reminded t h a t c u r r e r e  any o t h e r  so  "synthesis".  i s r e c o u n t e d from i m p r e s s i o n  and s y n t h e t i c The  oneself.  sources  the  struck  half-remembered.  two  analytic  writes a  thematically  present  new a v e n u e s f o r p e r s o n a l  i s reminded t h a t  from t h e v i d e o t a p e t h a t  these  the  Courage  a r e then t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k e d .  set  surface  an  views  t o t h e c r i t i c become t h e " t e x t "  catalytic  and  Disclosure: Finding  is  a  gift  i t may t o u c h t h e l i v e s o f  to  others  100  Themes T h a t L i n k The most,  I  the Chosen  l i n e s of d i a l o q u e  divided  rightly  be c a l l e d  labels.  Within  into  themes. these  from the  three  tape  groups,  They  are,  i n the  (2) w o r d s and  The  s u b - t h e m e s t h a t weave t h r o u g h t h e s e  the  five  not  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e v e r b " h a n d l e " ,  that  strain  the  hidden  l a n g u a g e and  f o r e f f e c t , appear f a l s e ,  sub-themes The  e x a m i n e d , and  the  s e t t i n g of c o m p e t i t i o n ,  P o l a r i z a t i o n and  with  three  puzzles.  c a t e g o r i e s are  ( i i ) those or are  that  isolation  (3)  player  (i)  actions  unconvincing, ( i i i )  s l u r s a g a i n s t women, ( i v ) t h e a b s o r p t i o n  suggested disappointment  p o w e r , and  within  sex,  (v)  the the  men.  isolation  f o l l o w i n g a r e e x a m p l e s of d i a l o g u e particularly  categorization  (1) p o l a r i z a t i o n and  revealed,  me  I t h i n k , cannot  rather, five  affected  larger categories.  'themes' o r c a t e g o r i e s a r e gestures  that  which,  three c a t e g o r i e s are  sometimes c r o s s each o t h e r large  Passages  revealed.  Immediately  from the v i d e o t a p e  to which I  responded.  LOUISE. " T h a t ' s what y o u ' r e getting paid for. N e v e r m i n d a b o u t t h e e a s y how t o do i t . Do i t . Make a d e c i s i o n and d o n ' t l o o k b a c k . T h i s i s no p l a c e f o r t h e w e a k - k n e e d and' w i s h y - w a s h y . This job g i v e s p o w e r , and y o u ' v e g o t t o l e a r n how t o use t h a t power".  PETER. "And i f t h e y j u s t show a l i t t l e confidence, real confidence, w e l l maybe t h a t ' s why Betsy went b a c k t o h e r o l d j o b " . JOANNE. "Of c o u r s e i t i s . No one ever showed an ounce o f c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r . P l u s , she n e v e r had  101  any training. She w a s n ' t promoted. She was seduced and abandoned". PETER. " T r a i n i n g ? What s o r t o f t r a i n i n g " ? JOANNE. "The s o r t o f t r a i n i n g t h a t e v e r y man g e t s " . PETER. "Oh, t h a t s o r t " . JOANNE. "Yes, that s o r t " . PETER. "She r e a l l y d i d n ' t have an e q u a l c h a n c e t o succeed". JOANNE. "Or f a i l " . PETER. "Wuh"?  JOANNE. " P e t e r , do y o u know what I l i k e a b o u t y o u ? " PETER. "What?" JOANNE. "Sometimes y o u t h i n k j u s t l i k e a woman." PETER. (looking startled and then pleased) "Thanks."  The this  polarization,  video  rather  tape  and subsequent  i s o l a t i o n , revealed  concern p a r t i c u l a r l y the opposing  than the s y n t h e s i z i n g p o t e n t i a l s ,  simplicity  i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the masculine p r i n c i p l e the  giver-receiver.  power  human  acquirer;  Conflict,  psyche.  feminine  principles  as  the  the  potentials,  masculine  imaged  of  of  society,  humanity the  cannot  feminine  causes  since  be r e a l i z e d . principle  and i s o l a t i o n r e s u l t  d i s t o r t i o n of  form  the integration  in  be  been  in  of t h e two, one's  suppressed.  i t s eventual  from  principles  In the business world,  is/has  shall  the feminine p r i n c i p l e , as the  insecurity,  without  and  For purposes of  t h e s e p a r a t i o n a n d o v e r - e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e s e two our  in  generally, Suppression  expression.  For  e x a m p l e , Ken Benson a n d L o u i s e r e p r e s e n t p e r s o n s e x t e r i o r i z i n g a suppressed  feminine  principle.  Benson's s e p a r a t i o n from  i t is  102  manifested another Louise  i n h i s preoccupation  sex, as i s revealed  wishy-washy. scared, are  personal  her  suppression horror  there  feelings.  of  of  women  of the feminine i n t h e weak-kneed  i s no room f o r d i f f u s e ,  In her world,  as  this  and  scary or  i s war, and t h e r e  o n l y winners and l o s e r s .  Benson  example  and from  apparently,  that  Frazier,  on  management. Betsy  the  misinterpretation, i sblack).  leader,  i s found  in  t h e exchange  Chuck F r a z i e r where t h e y  withdrawal  way,  The  i n her near  For  Another Ken  alien.  w i t h and treatment  other as  hand,  Betsy's  withdrawal  i s ,  she w a s n ' t a man.  recognizes  an i n j u s t i c e e v e n  Betsy's  supposition  discovered  L a t e r on i n t h e t a p e ,  explains  are discussing  Benson's  finally  between  this  as  (Chuck F r a z i e r ,  Joanne, as  a  by t h e  co-discussion  i n terms of her i s o l a t i o n :  t h a t b e c a u s e s h e was o b v i o u s l y a woman no one e l s e i n management w o u l d come n e a r h e r . the  She was a p a r i a h b e c a u s e  t u n e o f a d i f f e r e n t drummer.  considered  2  Ironically,  b e n e a t h c o n t e m p t , s h e was  she  marched  although  expected  to  be  to  s h e was perfect,  more p e r f e c t i n p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n a n y man i n management.  Because  of t h e o v e r - e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e m a l e p r i n c i p l e a n d i t s s e p a r a t i o n from  the  female  principle,  Betsy  was, t o u s e J o a n n e ' s w o r d s ,  seduced and abandoned. T h a t p h r a s e , " s e d u c e d a n d a b a n d o n e d " , s u g g e s t s t h e theme of p o l a r i z a t i o n suggests  and i s o l a t i o n ,  isolation.  usual connotation  She  too.  That  was b a n n e d .  she  was  abandonded  The word s e d u c e d i n i t s  suggests the o b j e c t i f y i n g  o f one p e r s o n  in a  103  sexual  exchange.  It  also  suggests  the  h a p p e n s when p o w e r - a q u i s i t i o n - o v e r - o t h e r  unhappy  unmix t h a t  i s p o u r e d i n t o t h e same  p i t c h e r as s e x - g i v i n g - r e c e i v i n g . Another example i s found that  there  is  such  training  i n Joanne's repeated  no management t r a i n i n g  f o r "peach-faced  f o r women, when t h e r e i s  young e x e c u t i v e s " ( h e r words).  possible  i m p l i c a t i o n of that s i t u a t i o n  vaguely  recognizes  but  complaint  i s that  her  t h a t what women have t o o f f e r  corporation i s different,  t h a t t h e y d o n ' t know how, o r what t o do w i t h i t .  they  ignore t h i s o f f e r i n g , hoping  A  Therefore,  by some m a g i c i t w i l l  assert  itself. In  the  discussion  part  i n t e r p l a y between t h e o p p o s i n g feminine  principles.  the masculine  of  the  tape,  p o t e n t i a l s of t h e  t h e r e i s some masculine  Joanne r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o s i t i v e aspect of  i n t h a t she i s w o r k i n g  t o come t o t e r m s  n a r r o w down, t o f o c u s on h e r p r o b l e m s i n t h e b u s i n e s s Peter  represents  the p o s i t i v e aspect  by b e i n g a c c o m o d a t i n g , c o n c e r n e d , supportive.  manifested adherence especially The know  what  of the feminine  understanding,  Peter  could  i n corniness. to  attitudes,  i n response tape I  l i k e a woman."  be  Joanne  accused could  in  Peter  situation. principle  of  the  two  accused her  of  rigid  uptightness,  to Peter's corniness.  ends w i t h Joanne t e l l i n g  like  to  of s e n t i m e n t a l i t y ,  be  manifested  with,  p e r c e p t i v e , and  Each a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a n e g a t i v e a s p e c t  principles.  and  a b o u t you? i s at f i r s t  . . .  P e t e r , " P e t e r , do  you  Sometimes y o u t h i n k  just  s t a r t l e d , and  then  genuinely  1 04  moved.  He knows h e ' s been  complimented.  Words a n d g e s t u r e s n o t e x a m i n e d . are  examples  particularly  of  dialogue  from  Immediately  the videotape  following  to  which  responded.  OTHER SECRETARY. "You know i t ' s r e a l l y h a r d g e t t i n g used t o h a v i n g Joanne a s a b o s s " . MARGO. " Y e h , a n d by t h e t i m e we g e t u s e t o i t , s h e ' l l probably leave. . . pregnant". OTHER SECRETARY. "Ha, h a " .  LOUISE. "Don't employees"?  you  know  how  to  handle  the  MARGO. "Dinner? Listen, why c a n ' t we j u s t t a l k about i t a t lunch"? KEN BENSON. "Why d o n ' t we make a n i g h t of i t ? I mean I c a n g i v e y o u y o u r f i r s t l e s s o n i n how a salesman, how a s a l e s p e r s o n , entertains a customer. I mean, t h e r e ' s no r e a s o n i t h a s t o be a l l b u s i n e s s i s t h e r e " ? MARGO. "Huh, n o , no I g u e s s n o t " .  KEN  BENSON (SINGING). " H a v i n ' my b a b y , what a lovely way t o t e l l me t h a t y o u l o v e me. H i , Chuck". CHUCK D A I L Y . " H i " . KEN BENSON. "That's a g r e a t song i s n ' t i t " ? MARGO. "Yeh, a n d a f t e r s h e h a s h i s baby, maybe s h e c a n go o u t a n d r e n t one f o r h e r s e l f " .  JOANNE. "Oh many a r e . As f o r t h e o t h e r s , I d o n ' t e x c u s e i t , b u t I do u n d e r s t a n d i t , a n d t h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s . Women a r e u s e d t o c o m p e t i n g with  I  105  each other jobs."  f o r men  and •  The  following  context,  that  notice the  to  tape.  are  Since  played  know  how  t o h a n d l e the that  jars.  porcupines,  but  not  respectful.  being  one  y o u t h , but  i n c i d e n t s t h a t were l e f t  i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n  examined i n the in context  whining challenge employees?"  d o e s not One  can  bring  discussion part  I t i s the  may,  of  should  script.  word  h a n d l e p e b b l e s , one  and  in  t o J o a n n e , "Don't  handle people. can  to  perhaps they  t h e y went i n t o t h e  One  not  •  t h e y were h i d d e n  i s Louise's  t h i s context  •  out  a n d / o r not  have been e x a m i n e d b e f o r e One  •  some d i a l o g i c a l  i s , not  them,  b e a u t y and  I f one  you  'handle' may  in  handle  d o e s , one  however, handle or  is not  handle w e l l s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g people. Another intentions  of  women ( o r t h e with we  issue the  that  is  obscured  scriptwriter  leave  unwitting  For  example,  feminine p r i n c i p l e ) .  u s e d t o i t [ H a v i n g Margo  as  . . .  other  harsh laugh.  p r e g n a n t " , and Or  the  the  i s the  more t h a n a h i n t of b i t t e r n e s s s a y s ,  get  by  a  "Yeh,  boss], secretary  f o r e x a m p l e , where J o a n n e  presenting slurs  and  against  where by  she'll  Margo  the  time  probably  colludes with  aggrievedly  a  retorts  to Benson's s i n g i n g  ( a l b e i t c o n s t a n t l y ) , " H a v i n g my  baby i s s u c h  a  you  has  nice  maybe she of that  way can  t o say go  v o i c e , of t h e  out  and  l o v e me," r e n t one  presentation  i n d i c a t e s these are  and  . . .  " A f t e r she  for herself." of  h i s baby  I t i s the  t h e comment e a c h  s l u r s , that having babies,  tone  receives,  at l e a s t  in  106  some c o n t e x t s ,  i sa discreditable  Another of  t h i n g t o do.  u n e x a m i n e d message i s i n t h e m i x o f t h e c o n c e p t  p o w e r - o v e r - o t h e r s and sex, and concept of  example,  where  Joanne,  gesturing  in excitation  herself  s a y s , "Women a r e u s e d t o c o m p e t i n g  youth,  but  compete  exactly,  i s that  training,  i n t h i s new a r e n a o f j o b s .  to  For  express  f o r men, b e a u t y ,  not f o rjobs", the i m p l i c a t i o n  m a t t e r o f t i m e , o r more  competition.  and  i ti s only a  before  women  The c o m p e t i t i o n i d e a  can  itself  i s not questioned. Another Joanne, his does  i s found  B e n s o n ' s come-ons a r e m i n o r  behaviour as being t o o b l a t a n t admit  though t h a t  does n o t e l a b o r a t e s i n c e the  problems  a problem  sexual  irritations.  t o be t a k e n  hierarchy.  i n t h i s videotape the  i n management.  I t would,  up  i n a one-down p o s i t i o n ,  with  that  of  I s u s p e c t , be her i n  where  " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , my  f o l l o w i n g a r e examples  of  responded.  t h e p a r t o f t h e t a p e where J o a n n e  dramatizations.  Benson,  t o h i s door".  from t h e v i d e o t a p e t o which I p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  organization  f o r Margo i s , a s she r u e f u l l y comments t o t h e o t h e r  P u z z l e s . Immediately  from  She  One b i g r e a s o n why B e n s o n ' s a p p r o a c h t o women i s  career path leads right  all  seriously.  f o r M a r g o , B e n s o n i s a p r o b l e m , b u t she  s e c r e t a r y , a f t e r an u n s u c c e s s f u l e n c o u n t e r ended  For  She d i s m i s s e s  f o r h e r i f B e n s o n were someone h i g h e r up t h a n  harrassment  she  innuendos.  i s a c c o r d i n g t o what i s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r J o a n n e , a s  a woman, i n h e r new r o l e  the  i n Benson's  dialogue These a r e  and P e t e r d i s c u s s e d  JOANNE WALKER. "Oh, b u t i t ' s n o t t h a t e a s y , Peter. I want t o e s t a b l i s h my own management s t y l e . I d o n ' t want t o be l i k e a man, a n d I c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t want t o be l i k e L o u i s e " . PETER WALKER. "Who i s a bad i m p e r s o n a t i o n o f a man" .  JOANNE. "But i t ' s v e r y h a r d t o b e l i e v e i n y o u r s e l f when, I d o n ' t know i f I'm g o i n g t o s a y t h i s r i g h t , b u t when a l o t o f men r e a l l y d o n ' t think t h a t women a r e g o i n g t o make i t " . PETER. "Oh, J o a n n e " . JOANNE. " P e t e r , I'm s e r i o u s . Oh s u r e , women a r e p r o m o t e d , a n d ' l i s t e n e d t o ' , b u t what a l o t o f men a r e t h i n k i n g i s , 'Well this, too, shall pass.'" Deep down w i t h i n them, t h a t ' s what they're thinking. L o o k , management n e e d s what women h a v e t o o f f e r , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y know i t y e t , so t h e y d o n ' t t a k e i t very seriously. Oh s u r e , t h e y go t h r o u g h t h e m o t i o n s , e x p e n s i v e motions, e l a b o r a t e motions, but I r e a l l y don't think they believe i t , which d o e s n ' t make a whole h e l l of a l o t o f sense. Does i t ? "  JOANNE. "Oh, b u t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s . Try this one f o r resentment. A l o t o f women feel threatened i f another women s u c c e e d s , because she i s getting closer t o the inner c i r c l e of man's w o r l d . And t h o s e a r e j u s t some o f t h e reasons".  JOANNE. " W e l l , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g s u b t l e a b o u t o l d Ken is there, actually he was g o i n g t o s a y , ' S h e t h i n k s l i k e a man'." PETER. "Oh t h a t ' s m i n o r . Something of a compliment really". JOANNE. "Oh P e t e r , s i t down, y o u ' r e having a relapse, honestly, men d o n ' t know how t o c o m p l i m e n t a women on p e r f o r m a n c e . Oh, t h e y ' r e  108  terrific when i t comes t o y o u r h a i r , o r y o u r clothes or your legs, but not on your performance. What I want t o know i s what anyone w a n t s t o know. How am I d o i n g ? Do y o u know, t h a t s i n c e my p r o m o t i o n Chuck D a i l y i s t h e only one that's levelled w i t h me. He t o l d me some p r o b l e m s I had t h a t I d i d n ' t know a b o u t and he t a l k e d t o me d i r e c t l y a b o u t my w o r k " .  JOANNE. "That doesn't mean I accept only c o m p l i m e n t s , o f c o u r s e n o t . But somebody p l e a s e evaluate my performance. T a l k t o me as a person. Am I g o o d , bad o r i n d i f f e r e n t ? I want t o know. T e l l me".  A t one p o i n t J o a n n e support She  of  says  hostility) feel  the female support s t a f f , that  one  i s that  reason  for  reasons that  their  for  i s , the  of man's  I s i t t h a t Joanne,  other side, w i l l  did  Louise?  may  n e v e r come back  the  non-  secretaries.  non-support  (or  even  some women f e a r o t h e r women, "A l o t o f women  to the inner c i r c l e  f e a r come from?  but  giving  t h r e a t e n e d i f a n o t h e r woman s u c c e e d s b e c a u s e  closer  the  is  world."  I s i t that they cannot t o them.  n o t t o go i n a d i r e c t i o n  u n i o n i n t o management?  will  use h e r i n s i d e k n o w l e d g e  i s getting does  will  that  go o v e r t o  i m i t a t i o n o f a man"  she  L i k e p a r e n t s t h e y have r a i s e d  her,  u n c h a r t e d by them.  fear  The  s e t her  in  their  fear that  against  free,  as  because  t h a t t u r n s c o - w o r k e r s away f r o m one from  Where  f o r example,  become a n o t h e r "bad  she  them?  I s i t the  ranks  who  somehow t h e  moves  defector  109  At  another  expresssing  her  point  in  the  discussion,  bewilderment that although corporations  s p e n d t i m e a n d money t o p r o m o t e women t h a t , are  thinking  them,  sensitivity basic does  i s 'Well  that's  what  this,  too,  they're  feel  disinterest?  on  that  thinking."  Perhaps,  quite  thick.  Benson's Peter's  saying,  puzzling don't  am I d o i n g ? the  only  not  understand  i t  intended  Something  of  Perhaps,  surface  a  perturbed.  of her p e r t u r b a t i o n :  levelled  the  does  contributes  Perhaps the  is  t h e i r own  compliment  What  I  find  "Honestly,  men  job  not  w i t h me  . . .  recognize her  her  . . .  How  s i n c e my p r o m o t i o n Chuck D a i l e y i s . . .  somebody  t o me a s a p e r s o n . "  through  meaning,  is  J o a n n e ' s r e a c t i o n t o Ken  being  a c o m p l i m e n t on p e r f o r m a n c e .  that  non-commitment  t h a t J o a n n e t h i n k s l i k e a man, a n d  her  Do y o u know t h a t  Talk  her  s h e i s p i c k i n g up a  how t o c o m p l i m e n t a woman on p e r f o r m a n c e  about  performance.  level.  "Oh, t h a t ' s m i n o r .  one t h a t ' s  directly  that  i s surrounding  i s her explanation  know  men  "deep down", t h e y must be i n t e r e s t e d .  l a s t puzzle  I  for  their disinterest i s studied.  near s l i p of s a y i n g  really."  Allowing  B u t , even i f t h e y a r e n o t i n t o u c h w i t h  feminine p r i n c i p l e , The  of  o f h e r male c o - w o r k e r s , why  down"  their d i s i n t e r e s t i sat surface  (male)  "What a l o t  i s , that  the part  "deep  is  s h a l l p a s s . ' Deep down w i t h i n  and i n t u i t i v e n e s s , t h a t  non-commitment she  Joanne  he  talked  please  She o b j e c t s  to  me  evaluate  my  that  i tis  I w o u l d presume t h a t  she means  the  what  woman-self.  subsequent  uniqueness  of  But, i f that  she  i s her  a m p l i f i c a t i o n o b s c u r e s more  1 10  than c l a r i f i e s . of  what  She u s e s h e r e x c h a n g e w i t h Chuck a s an  she w a n t s , a n d c a l l s  performance  evaluation  prescription  exchange  i t "performance e v a l u a t i o n . "  is a  technical  and measurement, t h u s  t h i s moment t h i n k i n g  l i k e t h e men.  "levelling",  example  which  phrase  suggesting  indicating  she i s i n d e e d , i n  But,  also  she  more l i k e l y  calls  w i t h e y e - l e v e l concern  people  advised  of  the  delineated. associative  Present  Now  sequence. the  The  reader  description  of  step, the  will the  be  plunged  critic's  thoughts reader  roam so f r e e l y ,  have gone o f f t o is  point,  to  in  a  free  associations dip  the  freely  Because a s s o c i a t i o n s  t h e r e a d e r may f e e l  f o r these  The Chosen P a s s a g e s " .  ate long ago).  wrong  that  those  pasture.  The  I f the reader  r u m i n a t i o n s was "The (The r e s t came f r o m  will  be  t h i s biographic present, the a n a l y s i s  will  provide  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s o u r c e  of the connections  Themes T h a t L i n k The C h o s e n P a s s a g e s "  Biographic Present".  In the f i n a l  in  s t u f f she step  following  patient,  Themes  the  immediately a  into  r e m i n d e d , t h e n , t h a t , however u n r e c o g n i z a b l e a t t h i s  some o f t h e f o d d e r Link  graze  is  biographic present.  i n t o t h e p a s t , t h e f u t u r e , and everywhere. allowed  reader  t e x t a n d i t s themes h a v e been  Because i t i s f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e , thought  "The  eye  f o r each o t h e r , and f o r t h e o t h e r  Before beginning a p e r u s a l of t h i s  That  at  involved.  C r i t i c ' s Own B i o g r a p h i c  are  that  d e s c r i b e s b e t t e r what  she w a n t s , t h a t i s , t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e j o b a s two p e o p l e level,  But  step  between  and t h e " C r i t i c ' s of  the  process,  Own the  111  synthesis,  what h a s begun t o emerge f r o m t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h o s e  connections, i s presented. T h i s i s t h e second critique.  The  isolation  from  bewildered  first  the  time  I  time, although  rest  of  this  section  readers f e l t  the c r i t i q u e ,  by i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n  the v i d e o t a p e .  write  i s a woman i n a  women  d o e s my l i f e management  position,  o f f e n d e d me.  Her i s o l a t i o n  portrayed  is  as  i t somehow  I  been, w i l l bothered  mean?  Why  and  laughs  neat  implied  am  mannerisms  of  the  a  woman  be a g a i n .  me.  were  Why  in a  were  the  other  portrayed  as  against  t h a t s h e h a s two o p t i o n s , t o be a  with  way.  repressed  She  Her p o r t r a y a l  t h e men  her  a n d t i d y b u s i n e s s way.  in a controlled  videotape,  Why, even t h o u g h J o a n n e r a i l s  non-woman l i k e L o u i s e , p e t u l a n t in a  the  have w i t h h e r s , a s d e p i c t e d ?  t o k e n woman, p r e t t y b u t g i v e n t o f o o t - s t o m p i n g  dresses  upset,  t o t h e thematic a p p e r c e p t i o n of  position.  have  b e n e f i c e n t but h e l p l e s s ? it,  were  I t h a d s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y f o r me.  connection  management  i t s import i n  they  J o a n n e , t h e h e r o i n e o f t h e m e l o d r a m a on what  of the  These  power  and sarcasm,  co-workers?  Joanne  She w a l k s  are  the  acquirer.  or a  and t a l k s  exteriorized They  a r e not  attractive. The what  opening  follows.  paragraph  will  write  connect a  introduction  I hope i t h a s m e l l o w e d my r e a d e r s  f o l l o w , b e c a u s e what f o l l o w s i s my does  s e r v e a s an  biographic  f o r what i s t o  present  f o r me w i t h t h e t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n .  biographic  present  that  the  reader  to  and i t  I tried to  would  grasp  1  immediately. not  a  It felt someone  i n the r a i n me.  n o t a b o u t me.  juxtaposition.  alive. that  I t was  like  It  I was  was  e l s e a s k e d me  an e x p a n s i o n .  writing  mountain t o p .  The  this  forest  I t d i d not  from d i g g i n g  I t made  no  thesis  ---  the " I " of t h e wind d r o p p i n g t o a b s o l u t e  was one,  out from c e n t r e a g a i n .  children  silent, and  this  this over  is  or  the  stars  I weep, and my collar  bone and  his first  s e v e n and a  t r i p ) and  excitement.  t i m e a t camp.  The  quietly  She  tense,  'can h a r d l y b e l i e v e  good-bye.  is  This  i s an a d v e n t u r e .  This  packed.  a  wrist.  in  Quinn grade  uncertainty  She was  to  come  so  maturity  morning  and to  o n e - n i g h t s t a y away, i n t h e woods. awake a t two a.m.  Heard her g i v i n g Quinn  have I , " s a i d Quinn. aids  melt  she's g o i n g ,  say  himself,  tears  layering  p h o n e d h e r dad and L i n n t h i s  hurt  the  e x c i t e m e n t and  knows s h e ' l l m i s s me',  a.m.  or  C o u r t e n a y i s a s s u r e d (She's i n grade t h r e e ,  i s her t h i r d  a t 6:30  to  stillness,  half,  n i g h t and e a r l y m o r n i n g dampened by  t h e unknown.  her  He's  and  o r an RCMP  h a v e gone o f f t o camp t h i s m o r n i n g .  worried-looking.  bravado of l a s t of  to myself,  c h e e k s , and d r o p c o l d on my My  hole  sense  ranger o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t s ,  wind.  down my  a  the l o n e l i n e s s of the  Elsewise I talk  then w h i r l i n g  feel  me.  helicopter. I am  I t was  t o d i g f o r the sake of d i g g i n g ,  t o make t h e work e x t r a h a r d .  am  about Joanne.  d r o w n i n g i n mud  What f o l l o w s makes s e n s e t o I  I t was  12  And t h e n a g a i n  i n s t r u c t i o n s about  ' i f he  t o h e r , she h a s b a n d - a i d s p a c k e d . '  I d i d n ' t know t h a t e i t h e r  one  had  "So  band-  1  J a c k came l a s t  n i g h t , and  garden i n g l o r i o u s f u l l  today I f e e l open, l i k e a  bloom, b e f o r e  death,  I have a l u n c h e o n d a t e t o d a y . with  someone  i n the  field  I want t o do  And  I  from  him  possibilities It  is  important  do  to  to  my  c l a r i f y my work  that  tight  in  Little  c a r , a 1969  things socket  job d e s c r i p t i o n .  is  beliefs,  him  about  ethically that  and  I do  i s so  strong  fat,  not feel  that  and  in  acne.  r e t r e a t s i n t o f a u l t l e s s grooming  are  Volvo, falling  i s rusted.  eccentricity  and  is  bit  by  o f f , the  I wonder  where  carelessness,  d e p e n d e n t on spend  a car's  the  whenever  Uptightness.  good s e n s e .  money, but I  hear  Miserliness,  p o w e r - a c q u i r e r gone amok.  and  say  falling  and  stinginess,  rear  line  is  between  relying  on  Velma's  being  irresponsibly  that excuse.  i t .  apart.  i s b e n t , one  excuse i s that  I don't l i k e  anyone  the  between  My  bit  tie-rod  (Velma, the V o l v o ) proven r e l i a b i l i t y ,  me,  advice  i s c r a z y - m a k i n g , where I  s t y l e , my  the v i d e o t a p e ,  to t e l l  t h e s i s i s done.  I t i s important  that  luncheon  gestures. My  to  own  t o s u r v i v e , I must r e t r e a t i n t o s i l e n c e ,  Joanne,  I'm  suggestions,  me.  in a situation  resistance  light  I  pleasing  become l o c k e d  order  h e l p me  that  I t i s a business  work-wise a f t e r the  guidance,  that w i l l  aesthetically  the  want  rose  vulnerable.  development o f f i c e .  what i t i s t h a t  13  I d o n ' t want It  Tightness, control.  offends again.  Repressed  1 1 4  Why  d i d I come back  teaching? still  place  of  is  (though  security.  recognition  I h a v e no  Maybe I'm  marks a r e  not  that  as h i g h as  academically  women, have s t r o n g I don't.  Nor  were  disdainful  do a  of  presentations grad  years,  are  no  teacher  The  He  can Why  for  my  and  have  received  good a t , was  what  they  I told was  say  I am  i s that?  that  Why  Regularly,  teacher  due,  " I may  talking  and  I talk  I do  I f you  read  or  imagination  do,  to  we'll  say. setting, there  something a I  am  t o anyone e l s e a b o u t ,  but  on  and  any  topic.  i s t h a t I know t h a t as  made t h o u g h t f u l , I l i k e But  in these start  thing to  w i t h anybody  f o r me  Oral  P a r t l y because I  rather  me.  secure i n t h i s  i s that?  attention  of  one  right  something  abilities.  I have been  s a i d , "That's a l r i g h t .  still  do  love w r i t i n g papers.  and  the  friends  academic  library.  T h a t was  my  my  them, e s p e c i a l l y t h e  many o f  presentation  moved t o t e a r s . my  t h a t was  and  want t o p u k e .  being  quit  All  teachers,  of o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s besides  I  i s what I'm  t o c l a s s , nor  I t ' s never anything  l a u g h t e r , and that  my  my  I  peoples'.  h a t e the  a hug."  a l w a y s e f f e c t s any  listener,  do  of  says c a p t u r e s  horror  I,  I  t h e day  I  out.  i n s e c u r i t i e s about t h e i r  make me  bosses.  involved. it  than  some  g i v e you  even.  most  game.  on  Yet, assured  did  However, I r e c e n t l y r e a l i z e d t h a t  I love going  hyper-ventilate." s t o p and  Why  d e s i r e t o come back a g a i n ) a  growing  as a s t u d e n t  I s a i d when someone a s k e d .  Exams  university?  I came back t o u n i v e r s i t y b e c a u s e f o r me  even  better  to  t o be moved  I don't have the  a u d i e n c e , b e c a u s e I f e a r my  own  courage  a to to  vulnerability.  1  As a t e a c h e r  of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e ,  would r i s k , being  f o r e x a m p l e , t e a r s c r a c k i n g my  a t e a c h e r was  the o n l y time,  I risked  rage.  I was  amazed.  children  are  amazed.  My  c u r r e n t man women do,  i s stunned  friends  are  t r u s t me.  and  my  don't  My  My  men,  and  The  stammers My  a  know w h e t h e r I am  were was  lot,  neither.  especially I  and  left  age  It  hard.  least  the t e n s i o n  they  and  My  is  laughter,  teaching drained  I t was  because  classroom.  lonely.  My  my  children  students  more  and  it  assured persons  I was on  were,  dependent  uneasy.  rest.  tears  were  there  and Not  for.  were a l l e a g e r me.  somehow  I was  always  staff.  one  They  I am are  or  both  potent,  dissipated  of  in springing for i t .  loans.  I was  education  And  to  t h e r e , and because,  j o u r n a l i s m , my  scared besides.  the  youngest  to  co-student-teachers  t o get out  interested  situations.  appeared  They a l l w a n t e d  in  my  Even t h e o t h e r s a r o u n d  teachers,  The  w a n t e d t o go down E a s t t o s t u d y  And  escapes.  away i n j o c k e y i n g f o r power  p r a c t i c u m c l a s s were t h e same. teachers,  My  a crazy, possibly destructive force,  a p p e a r e d t o have a m i s s i o n a s  what  frightened.  s t u d e n t s d i d , and so s u r e .  My  i f they are c l e a n , or c l e a n s i n g .  energies. I t was  Rage,  amazed.  and  a s t r o n g l y r o o t e d t r e e i n whose shade t h e y c a n and  Furthermore,  a l t e r n a t e l y p r o t e c t i v e o f and  t o o , but  courage,  I became a m o t h e r , t h a t  husband  were/are not  are,  'til  the  voice.  students  first  relieved.  men  children  upon me.  s o m e t i m e s I had  15  be  know in  Wasn't i t bad  heard  my  English  take over  a  although  I  f a t h e r wasn't  I'd never  my  of  too  student  enough t h a t  I'd  1 16  studied English l i t e r a t u r e pre-dentistry. Practical child?  My  stuff. And  demand. one  The  else  sister  was  Where had  they  b e s i d e s , Don  wanted a w i f e ,  for three years?  namely,  had  in  first  gone  And  brother  year  wrong  graduated,  me.  My  t o o , and  me,  I  was  this  had  And  "over-qualified".  first  a job,  and  were  in  teachers  government even p a i d one's t u i t i o n .  wanted  in  physiotherapy.  with  besides,  was  lastly,  And  I  no felt  helpless. Shaving  cream!  I d i d n ' t want t o be a c l a s s r o o m  Teachers weren't people. through  some  genuinely subject, was  not  certain  thirty  loved did  t i e d up  work,  their  and  became t e a c h e r s , e r g o , However,  Power s u b v e r t e d success.  gave w e r e , you  really was,  F i n i s h e d my program d e v e l o p e r ,  Mostly  convinced god  means  perhaps four they  was  doing  loved  students.  that  know y o u r  students  s u b j e c t and  y o u ' r e not c o n t r o l l i n g  luncheon. with s k i l l s  a  Most I saw  as  By  never going  Although  their  emanated  the l a t t e r .  I was  who  self-esteem  well,  a coward, ergo,  control.  school,  the  t h a t o n l y d u l l a r d s and  h e l p me,  compliments  common c o m p l a i n t  s t r a t e g i e s , and  I  into  The  which  warmth f o r t h e i r  g r a d e t w e l v e , I was  teacher.  public  I encountered  students'  c o l d , or c r u e l , and/or s t u p i d . of  y e a r s of  c a r e a b o u t exams, t h a t i s , t h e i r  in  respect  twelve  teachers,  their  not  I n my  teacher.  cowards  to  I became a  end  be  a  teacher.  I  did  manage  some  on  several occasions  you're s i n c e r e .  The  enough.  What I want t o be  i s a free-lance  in instructional design, learning  c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e d i a and  technology.  The  latter  1  are mostly with  tripe,  those  balderdash.  things.  I  I have a n o d d i n g  c e n t r e o f my l e a r n i n g .  is, it  d e s i g n , they have  problem  and  B u t a l s o "Why?"  the problem-solving  i s what I want t o d o . entity  wanting  cowardice  to  (and  freelance.  process  five  working  I  powerful.  that one  living,  the  bravery)  fear  comes  becoming  W i t h i n a group  were,  f o r me,  faceless entities,  Coerciveness.  person  I don't f e e l  than  Facelessness both  as  o r t h e enemy.  For example, l i f e single  breathing  I'd  into  locked feel  that  i t , in  into  and,  powerless.  size  I  say twentyI  can  feel  The b r a v e r y  i t , I suppose, i n d a r i n g t o stand a l o n e , but r e a l l y  has a unique f a c e .  control.  there  There i s g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g .  i s e a s i e r when one j_s a l o n e , o r i n a v e r y  staffs  the  I t h a s t o . The  I t d e p e n d s on t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e g r o u p .  into  from  w i t h s m a l l groups of d e c i s i o n m a k e r s ,  t o t h i r t y people.  comes  and w o r k i n g  is a  t h e r e f o r e , a l i e n a t e d w i t h i n a system. enjoy  at  F i n d i n g t h e c e n t r e of  Implementation  has t o a l l o w t h a t .  The  been  n o t o n l y , "What i s  and grows a c c o r d i n g t o i t s e n v i r o n m e n t .  developer  not  C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m has been, t h a t  a s k i n g o n e s e l f and t h e s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t y o u want t o d o ? "  acquaintanceship  have s t u d i e d a l l , b u t s i n c e I c o n s i d e r  them i n c i d e n t a l t o some g r a n d e r the  17  a  s m a l l g r o u p where  frightens  me.  s t u d e n t , and as a t e a c h e r ,  Them a g a i n s t u s .  Abusiveness.  Teaching  Struggle f o r  Isolation.  h a s been e a s i e r f o r me t o  face  i t e v e r was f o r me a s a m a r r i e d p e r s o n .  t h a t I h a v e t o be t h a t w h i c h I am n o t .  I c a n be t h a t who I am  both  I feel  bad and good, b o t h w i l d l y  as  a Now  that crazy  1  (inside)  and  practical, member  eminently  sane, both  b o t h an e c c e n t r i c  of  and  i n c r e d i b l y n a i v e and  an  upstanding,  firmly  contributing  the community, h a v i n g both a garden of c r a b g r a s s  u g l y l a w n f u r n i t u r e and  18  a s t a i n e d g l a s s window i n t h e  and  bathroom.  Analysis I can  see  from w r i t i n g t h i s c r i t i q u e  f i g h t i n g much of my h e l p l e s s and own,  I'm  t h e two with  adult l i f e  helpful  when, I ' v e  neither,  things.  this  of m y s e l f  both  d i s c o v e r e d and  Women, g e n e r a l l y ,  same  been  vision  i n her c l i c h e d  handing-out  i s responding  stiff-mannered  of  I  believe,  self.  t h e sum  are  t o c o f f e e s e r v i n g and  i n the merely with  helpful  image r o l e .  t h e s e c r e t a r i e s , and  she's  helpless  image.  however, resist  doing  she  a  fine  j o b , she  In her e n c o u n t e r s fights  w i t h those  being  characters  i s responding  with  either.  Louise It  because  with a  and  In  i n her her  merely  Blackwell,-  i s e a s i e r f o r her  they  are  so  (or a u t h o r i t a r i a n ) , a l t h o u g h B l a c k w e l l i s b e n i g n l y  I,  have  aroused looks  found  in situation, like  he/she  that i f the can  it  i s easier to fight  other  person  can  take  care  of  true.  that  situation  Because a  I also person  t o o t h e r s d o e s n o t mean t h a t he o r  him/herself.  so.  insecurities  take c a r e of h i m / h e r s e l f , which  know i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y , p e r h a p s n e v e r , d o e s n o t have s e n s i t i v i t y  in  to  obviously  malignant too,  the  paper-  s o m e t i m e s c o y manner w i t h , f o r e x a m p l e , Chuck when.he t e l l s that  of  struggling  J o a n n e , t h e h e r o i n e of  responses  exchange  as  have begun t o  o r b o t h , b u t c e r t a i n l y more t h a n  videotape,  her  i s the v i s i o n  t h a t what I ' v e  she  I n f a c t , as I r e m i n i s c e i t i s  1 19  p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y a r e t h e ones themselves. anyone  Certainly,  else.  whatever  With  the  complaining,  they  persons  presenting  in  I  least  person,  the  to  take  care  of  able t o take care of  consider  behaviours,  weak  and  helpless,  whether a u t h o r i t a r i a n or That  i s , i f  i t i s an  I become h e l p l e s s ; i f i t i s a c o m p l a i n i n g  I become h e l p f u l .  Joanne,  are  able  I back down, back away.  authoritarian person,  least  And  videotape,  I  don't  reacts  like  i t either  similarly,  becoming  way. either  brassy or t i m i d . Helpful, Helpless.  Double Jeopardy.  p a p e r I w r o t e came t o m i n d and I s e a r c h e d  Words f r o m  another  them o u t .  Woman becomes c o n s c i o u s o f h e r s e l f a s she i s an o b j e c t f o r the o u t s i d e s p e c t a t o r . Suddenly her sense of self i s outside herself. She i s f o r h e r s e l f o n l y a s she i s pure reference f o r the other. 3  I,  t o o , l o s e myself  I n so d o i n g , well.  I transform the other  others  person  into  an  object  as  The o t h e r becomes an o b j e c t o f f e a r (my h e l p l e s s n e s s ) o r  an o b j e c t o f p i t y fear  when I become p u r e r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e o t h e r .  will as  especially  (my h e l p f u l n e s s ) .  well  as  that  which  they  h a p p e n s i n work s i t u a t i o n s , the  heroine  s e c r e t a r i e s , her former Later,  wants t o d e v e l o p statement  facelessness  e n g u l f me i s i s t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y  Joanne,  changed."  That  she  that  I  t h a t I p r o j e c t on t o  present i n school  to  me.  This  situations.  of t h e v i d e o t a p e , p r o t e s t s t o t h e  mates, " I haven't changed. vehemently  a management s t y l e  implies  that  My  job  has  p r o f e s s e s t o P e t e r t h a t she of  her  own.  The  latter  t h e " I " a n d t h e j o b r o l e a r e t o become  120  one.  The  former  d e f e n d s them as  statement  separate,  (to  and  it  is.  her,  i n s o f a r as  will  provide  against  It will  and  p r o g r a m i s what she  in  her  That  is,  her  training,  must  she  a l l  she  will  already person  worked her  happily  protect  and  herself  is way  Furthermore,  she  resembles nothing principle  of  suppression  the  power-aquirer  aspects  a  is  protect other  management to  handle  to  others.  Surely  hasn't,  her she  corporation's  the  in  'drag'.  The  she work  cannot mores. who  masculine  been d i s t o r t e d by  society  power-aquirer.  I could  in  o p e n l y and i n the a c t  Be  smart  too  but  not  kind.  the  work  it  the  helped  this  when a d u l t s g o t  too  she  can  b u l l y i n g even.  But  not  for  ranks.  when i t has  girl-child  of  p r i n c i p l e as a c h i l d  On  it  i n d a n g e r of b e c o m i n g a n o t h e r L o u i s e ,  is controlling,  but  by  so much as a man  G r o w i n g up suppress  If  And  can  directions  through the  invasion  is  i s behind  some s e n s e of how  giving up  she  (recurring)  have  supportively. from  and  what  style.  t h o u g h t a b o u t what w h i c h management b e h a v i o u r more  needs,  she  know  w a n t s so t h a t  expressed d e s i r e  s i t u a t i o n s where one After  she  d e v e l o p m e n t of a p e r s o n a l  hand, r e a g r d i n g  She  corporation  (formulated) that  management, as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , herself  are.  to develop c e r t a i n s k i l l s .  a resistance  around.  however,  they p r e s e n t l y  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  i t wants her  f o r her  secretaries),  obviously  t h i n k s t h a t a management t r a i n i n g maybe  the  honestly i t was  smart.  Above a l l , be  Be  only  demanded satisfy  with  my  f r i g h t e n i n g and  gay  adult.  but  not  Yuck.  too But  gay.  I  that  peers.  confusing. Be  kind  I did i t . I  121  was  twenty-eight at e i g h t e e n . I  always was  remember as a c h i l d  appointing  always  first  because  was  responsibilities bothered Stiles  me  was  is  player  I t was  I  picked  but  parents getting I guess you  the a d u l t , c o n t r o l l i n g . as  Or a  can  I  now  Joanne,  in  and  also  I found  took  my  not.  that.  never  What  I  I became  much  liked  supreme.  was  They  seldom  d i d not have t h e  same  sense  in  the  as  of  the  protective  and  parents Even  helplessness. to post  business  sown way  I write this, back t h e n ,  by  situation  Initially,  I actually  i t was  t h e e x c h a n g e , t h e g i v i n g and  enjoyed  receiving.  t h a t t h e s e e d of  i n grade s c h o o l .  o r h e l p i n g them p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s ,  t e a c h e r , but  was  too.  help other students.  them,  that  facelessness  realize,  b e i n g a t e a c h e r was  It  " W e l l , i f Sandra  I hated I've  I got  i n the community, b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d .  inside with  awakened t h a t f e e l i n g  to  often,  the v i d e o t a p e b e i n g b u f f e t e d from p i l l a r  thoughtlessness  I  I  i n c l u d i n g academic a b i l i t i e s ,  well-known  I c h o k e up  as  Although  w a t c h e d t h o s e who  t h a t I had,  were  go."  captain  leader.  g r o u p , were c o n t r o l l e r s  overt  who  just  teachers.  They were a b u s i v e .  colouring  teacher  the best p l a y e r .  i n on t h e a c t .  were c o e r c i v e . victim,  whichever  neighbourhood  seriously,  They,  by  n o t b e c a u s e I was  the  going  teachers.  the  b o y s a s team c a p t a i n s f o r b a s e b a l l games.  the f i r s t  choice.  in junior highschool  my  way  from  of  I used  protecting  t h e a n g e r of  the p r o c e s s .  my  I  the  enjoyed  122  I  was a t some p o i n t t a l k i n g  I have o f b e i n g management.  I have  any  have  teacher  activites taking  has  had.  I  of o t h e r a d u l t s .  What  t o l o o k down on t h o s e  becomes  controlling.  third  person  i s h a r d t o own  One  library  work.  Went  Curious,  isn't  into  what  as  being  no  a  i s run.  I cannot  of v i t a l  there,  student  concern  being  be p r e s i d e n t ?  and  to put  solicit  else  would  Study  the  It  like  bear  having  to  a  I shrank  anything.  as  a  in education. me.  Got  s a y i n how  t o s i t back and  t o me.  community  classroom  - but s t i l l  let  an  others  I became v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , manager.  However,  i n h o r r o r , I was  Would afraid tape,  As p a r t o f t h e g r o u p , I c a n  and e n c o u r a g e m e m b e r s h i p p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  honcho, I c o u l d n ' t .  using  journalism,  i n v o l v e d , i t began t o happen a g a i n .  do  then  myself  i f I became head h o n c h o , l i k e B l a c k w e l l , on t h e v i d e o one  One  about m y s e l f .  Withdraw from  y e s , but not the  Boss-lady.  one  self.  Got o u t o f  I  and t h e n weight.  i t ? T h o s e o t h e r o p t i o n s were open work.  is  talking  or a r c h i t e c t u r e .  back  starts  N o t i c e I am  Get o u t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m .  treasurer, decisionmakers,  that  one  away r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  When I am  community  organization  their  i t away f r o m .  I t worked f o r a w h i l e .  teacher.  you  that  t o c h a n g e began w i t h a r e f u s a l  science,  managing,  s u p e r v i s o r of the  is  pulling  takes  pronoun.  in that s i t u a t i o n .  run  been  happens  t h e u g l i n e s s i n one  My e f f o r t s  back  experiences  also  not  d e n i g r a t e s t h o s e one h a s t a k e n  or  had  more t h a n o n e ' s s h a r e of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  starts  the  a b o u t management, t h e f e a r s  I have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  I f I were  head  i n asking people  to  123  help  me.  T h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e a b i t o f t h e p r i m a donna i n  my s o u l . Joanne in  I start  i n the video  her p o s i t i o n ,  don't  t h i n k i n g i f I'm t h e  want  tape  I'm  the  was e n j o y i n g h e r p r o m o t i o n .  I would f e e l  my  leader,  sick  I f I were  t o my s t o m a c h w i t h  u r g e t o power s u b v e r t e d  group.  fear.  i n t o c o n t r o l over  I  other  persons. G r o w i n g up i n t h i s disrespected. denigrated. little  Moreover,  think  and  little  side  listening  girls  their  out  But those  ways.  h a v e n ' t we? of  the  to this  in girls told  side?  little  to  suppressed  are  What do  off  to  the  emerge,  ins l y ,  by t h e empty  showiness  W e l l , J o a n n e , we've been s u p r i s e d a l l o u r  H e l p l e s s i n our bewilderment.  persona  girls  They a r e b e w i l d e r e d .  desires  J o a n n e was b e w i l d e r e d  do  giving-  of boys.  shunt  are  boys i s  t o shunt t h e i r The  told  in  i s , t o o . What  socialization  t h i n k when t h e y ' r e  of h e r m a l e c o - h o r t s . life,  the  Children  principle  desires for power-aquisition?  They s u p p r e s s . underhanded  they're  off to  easy.  feminine  principle  when  receiving qualities  the  the  The m a s c u l i n e  boys  watching  s o c i e t y i s not  of  surprise  and  Time  to  bewilderment  step  and h e l p  ourselves. J o a n n e moves t h r o u g h , what s h e i n t u i t i v e l y her,  recognizes  and  Even  flounders  a s a c e r e m o n y o f bad f a i t h .  t h e management t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m r e p r e s e n t s  faith.  o r one w i l l  in For  an o f f e r o f good  s o , she must k e e p h e r w i t s a b o u t h e r .  program i s only a l i f e - r a f t , it,  r a i l s against,  one must n o t b u i l d o n e ' s  A  training house  be c o n s t a n t l y b u f f e t e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g  on  winds.  124  The  r o l e and  the  disappear.  I  self know.  t h e ceremony o f bad those  rafts  will  become one,  I t h a p p e n e d t o me,  faith,  thrown  out  t o me.  t h e o u t h o u s e s of o t h e r  t o l e r a t e my  ever  But  the  almost.  that I couldn't  therefore, that I couldn't in  that i s ,  self I  build  recognized  my  house  f o r many y e a r s  b u i l d a house.  p e o p l e s e s t a t e s and  will  I  decided,  I'd have t o hope  on  they  live would  shantytown.  Synthesis Helplessness. educational  Helpfulness.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these  Shantytown.  images?  What i s t h e  P i n a r has  written,  I t s e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e has t o do w i t h the following: (a) i t g i v e s me w o r d s f o r what has h i t h e r t o been v a g u e and n a m e l e s s , (b) i t i l l u m i n e s an a r e a of my social relations that I was not e x a m i n i n g ; ( c ) i t t h e r e f o r e w i d e n s ( t h e image I h a v e i s o f a window) my intellectual ' g e s t a l t ' , a l l o w i n g me t o see more of what i s a t s t a k e i n t h e w o r l d , i n my l i f e . * The  qualities  of  (a) and  this  critique,  part,  l o o k i n g a t what i s a t s t a k e  even c a r e  but  (b) have been  what t o do w i t h  t o know what my  touched (c) ?  i n my  intellectual  on  This  life. gestalt  already  i s the  in  hardest  I d o n ' t know, is.  It  nor  sounds  l i k e a p a r l o u r game. But and  what i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  helpfulness  the bathroom? educational  and  house, another,  otherwise?  believe  that.  Aha,  I  playing  Facelessness,  b e c a u s e even I know  h o u s e on a r i v e r - r a f t .  helplessness  s h a n t y t o w n , w i t h a s t a i n e d g l a s s window i n  What p a r l o u r game am and  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  you  i t ' s coming.  I want t o b u i l d my  with  my  a n o t h e r key shouldn't  life,  word.  build  I t ' s coming.  h o u s e on a r i v e r - r a f t ,  No your  I don't plus I  125  want t o b u i l d to  take f u l l  the r a f t .  the b u s h e l . I am  f o r t h e whole  and  wild  If I feel helpless,  helpful.  again.  ride.  Courage  courageous, not a  near  I f shantytown  If I feel  b u r n s down and t h e  the rubble  into  the  from  stained  ground  and  i s a l l i t t a k e s , raw, b l a t a n t c o u r a g e . I want t o  I be  controlling. postscript,  seem t h a t I have l e f t  r e g a r d i n g t h e word s h a n t y t o w n ,  t h e word u n e x a m i n e d ,  tones  of  word.  I t s u g g e s t s a freedom  opprobrium.  Maybe  does  now  I like  the  t h a t o t h e r a b o d e s do n o t .  It  I have;  t o me  t h a n what i s r i g h t l y m i n e . responsibility,  since  i t may  i t  a l s o h a s t o do w i t h t h e f e a r o f a s s u m i n g  the  I am  I am h e l p l e s s .  want t o t e a c h m y s e l f t h a t and e v e n t u a l l y , o t h e r s .  As  I ' l l have  o t h e r w i s e I ' l l have t o come o u t  g l a s s window m e l t s , I ' l l p l o w start  wicket.  point.  Educationally  helpful,  there's a sticky  responsibility  tears at t h i s  under  Now  but r i g h t  responsibility  When I assume more t h a n my  I g e t s c a r e d , t h e n I become  have  f o r more share  of  controlling.  Courage. Conclusion  Although f o r m and different  both c r i t i q u e s  s u b s t a n c e of each d i f f e r . in  each case.  The  critic's  purpose  U s i n g the E i s n e r approach, the  v i e w e d t h e v i d e o t a p e as a r t i f a c t , it.  were w r i t t e n by one c r i t i c ,  A c t i n g as a p a r t i c i p a n t  responding  the was  critic  knowledgeably  w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m , the c r i t i c ,  to in  126  terms of her c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , "played-out"  in  a  seminar.  the c u r r i c u l u m , the c r i t i c they  were  corroborative.  viewed the videotape organized account  as  a  which  became  i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r being  In d i s c l o s i n g  arranged Using  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of  her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s so  object,  and  thematically  Then she w r o t e o f h e r own l i f e , t h e an  P l a c i n g h e r s e l f between t h e s e  object  upon  which  two o b j e c t s , t h e c r i t i c  to reflect. disclosed  some o f h e r own e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t s , a n d t h e n c o n s i d e r e d she  that  the Pinar approach, the c r i t i c  personal  i t s significance. of  envisioned  m i g h t do w i t h t h o s e d i s c o v e r i e s .  what  Footnotes  "Joanne i n B u s i n e s s S i t u a t i o n " , Women M o v i n g up (Eden P r a r i e , M i n n : W i l s o n L e a r n i n g C o r p . " 1976) . N. The t i t l e o f t h e v i d e o t a p e i s a l s o t h e t i t l e o f t h e two-day w o r k s h o p i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d . 1  2  Drummers classes.  n. P a r i a h was an I n d i a n word meaning drummer. were members o f one o f t h e l o w e s t s o c i a l  S a n d r a M e n z i e s , " C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n : My O r i e n t a t i o n Towards I t " ( u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , UBC, 1 9 7 9 ) . 3  " William Pinar, "Currere: A Case Study", Qualitative Evaluation, ed. George W i l l i s (Berkeley: M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 328.  Chapter  128  5  CONCLUSIONS  This  chapter  differences and  in  Pinar  discusses  purpose, form,  approaches  reference  to  what  to  each  (1)  curriculum  chapter  critic  experience  as  concludes  of  i s f o c u s s e d under  writer  design  and and  critic  makes  doing or  w i t h some  final  users.  the as  experience  process:  and  may o f f e r a p e r s o n  The c h a p t e r  and  between t h e E i s n e r  criticism,  considerations forpotential  The  commonalities  and substance  approach  reading these approaches. comparative  some  following  reader: of  substance,  headings:  purpose,  journey:  comparison  of  (4)  objectivity:  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p o t e n t i a l  (2)  form,  (3)  subjectivity  and  u s e r , and  (5)  some  final considerations.  view  Critic  as W r i t e r and C r i t i c  Pinar  writes  . . .  express  makes me an a r t i s t .  in  experience."  publicly 1  is  that  communicable  basic  idea  experiential,  educational  restricted found  language,  what  of  science  artistic, "There  is  attitude  no  3  P e r h a p s he f i n d s t h i s  criticisms,  inquiry:  "Another  i n t h e work o f t h o s e  f o r he from  of  who i n q u i r e  we  imperative."  experimental. is  to  i t is I  area  paradigm  2  Eisner of  e p i t o m i z e s t h e q u a l i t a t i v e more t h a n what  do when t h e y w o r k . " for  c u r r e r e , "This e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l I e x p e r i e n c e , and I attempt  introduces curriculum c r i t i c i s m , inquiry  Purpose  He a l s o w r o t e t h a t : "The e x p e r i m e n t a l  associate with the Currere  regarding  as Reader:  human artists  too  open  g o e s on t o c h o o s e a more qualitative  inquiry  is  i n t o t h e work o f a r t i s t s ,  129  namely the a r t c r i t i c s . "  * F u r t h e r m o r e , he  goes on  t o say  that:  C r i t i c i s m i s an e m p i r i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g . The word empirical comes f r o m t h e L a t i n e m p i r i c u s , m e a n i n g "open to experience". Criticism is empirical in the significant sense that the qualities the critic d e s c r i b e s o r r e n d e r s must be c a p a b l e of b e i n g l o c a t e d i n the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of the c r i t i c i s m . 5  The  Eisner  approach i s a e s t h e t i c , e x p e r i e n t i a l , e m p i r i c a l .  The (Pinar)  are  approach. critical  qualifiers references  The  This to  the  critical  object  of  of  the  The  be  artistic  distinction This  distinction  grounded.  what  is  e m p h a s i s on  experiment  to a p a r t i c u l a r  Autobiography v a l i d a t e s . substance, both  clarifies,  i n the or  at  But  very  the  r e f l e c t i o n s that  approaches there  s e n s e of t h o s e the  be  refers  because the p o r t r a y a l i s  experiential.  the  described  inquiry.  two  to  Descriptive,  remembrances and  and  each  u n d e r s t u d y must  unique according  is  claim a  fine  descriptions.  least,  makes  the  larger.  Both approaches r e q u i r e some  refers  I t i s the  between the  chapter  experimental  t h e method of  empiricism  recognize  at a p a r t i c u l a r time,  open t o c r i t i c a l  and  of  curriculum  Pinar  I n f o r m , p u r p o s e , and to  validity on  p o r t a y a l being  study.  (Eisner)  referentially  reader w i l l  is its validation. the  the  emphasis  evidence  so t h a t  practitioner  are  Eisner  to  d e s c r i p t i o n being  corroborative given  empirical  artistic  sense.  of the  critic,  Both h i g h l i g h t the  Both a p p l a u d a s p e c u l a t i v e mind. w o r k s f r o m some c o n c e p t u a l  frame.  imagination,  i m p o r t a n c e of  B o t h assume  that  the  and  detail. critic  1 30  Both and  approach, c r i t i c s  educated  aspects  of  a  c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e n s o r y moment  of  the  sensory  so  that  they  connoisseur.  interactions appears  and  to  configurations. on  empathized i n order  to discover  with  are  what  they  For  the  of m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m ,  given.  The  the c r i t i c  the  P i n a r a p p r o a c h , on t h e o t h e r  and  identify  the  lived  antennae  will  perceives instance,  the  be t h o s e  appreciate. i n terms of the  critic  experience  as  participants  do/will  critic  accompanies  here  situation;  or, in  do  the  case  role-plays a participant. hand, c r i t i c s  intention  of  the  In  are participants curriculum  upon  critic  surrenders  t o t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s and  r e f l e c t i o n s of " I " .  In t h i s  surrender,  t h e view of  is  self.  The o u t w a r d c u r r i c u l u m  inward  through  to the  possibilities experience  The  In the  disclose  they  curriculum  what  p a r t i c i p a n t s through the curriculum  participants.  that  i s what t h e c o n n o i s s e u r  concentrate  can  The c u r r i c u l u m  of t h e m a t e r i a l s or performance  significance  moment.  p a r t i c i p a t e with the f u l l - o u t  perceptions  appreciations  Its  are  with the reconstruction  Eisner of  approaches  the  inward  journey.  f o r new  The  interpretations  criticism of  the  critic  i s possessed discloses  the c r i t i c ' s  lived  of c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n s .  B o t h a p p r o a c h e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e moment t h e r e a d e r r e c e i v e s t h e message  of  the  reconstruction.  The  difference  b e t w e e n t h e two i s i n t h e e m p h a s i s on r e c e p t i o n by whom.  131  In the  E i s n e r a p p r o a c h , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on  of  t h e message by o t h e r s .  and  r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy are  firm  step  in  curriculum some  the  T h a t i s why  normative  structural  stressed.  Also,  Eisner approach.  i n t e r m s of a s p e c i f i c theory  in  the  education.  corroboration  evaluation  Evaluation  conceptual  framework,  The  critic  those  i l l u m i n a t e the p r e s e n t  experience critic  for others,  has  may  e s p e c i a l l y those  intervened,  as  message a b o u t a c u r r i c u l u m . intervention. decode the  As  other,  the  signification  the  In the self  is  important.  necessarily a c t u a l step  written with  to the  self  has  i n the  and  of  an  educational  is  one life,  step,  has  self  as  intentional,  f o r the  situation.  an  to r e l a y a  mediates  That  to  one's  is,  it  not is  i t i s not  necessarily  since  has  it  i n process,  directing  them  to  do  of  the  toward  a c t i o n s of  mediates.  The  one's  step  of  l i v e d process towards i n t e g r a t i o n  t o t h e p r o c e s s of c u r r e r e . i n n e r and The  this  immanent, b u t  hence t h e  reader  The  responsibility  gained  and  c o n s c i o u s n e s s and  is integral  responsibility  i t .  order  Pinar approach.  understanding  In t h i s case the is  a  that  portrayed.  Synthesis  i n one's e d u c a t i o n a l  synthesis of  critic  has  i n t o t h e c r i t i q u e as a f i n a l  transformation life.  reader  a  curriculum  in  as o t h e r ,  f u n d a m e n t s of c u r r e r e , but  t a k i n g the  forces  reader,  in  so  P i n a r a p p r o a c h , r e c e p t i o n of t h e message by  more  central  specialist, The  usually  experiences  immersed  a the  maintains  curriculum  experiences  is  deals with  s e l e c t i v e c o n t i n u i t y with past past  reception  outer  message may  texture  of  Critics  take  their  own  afford opportunity  for  1 32  dialogue  with others In  familiar  i n t h e same  either  approach,  situation.  the  reader  with a s i t u a t i o n or m a t e r i a l s being  consider  t h i n g s t h a t one h a s n e g l e c t e d  before;  he/she  apperceptions, inner  may,  can  becoming  dialogue  reactive.  respond  that  a  to  Experience  critic's  sees  filled  with  obstacles case,  o f t h e J o u r n e y ; Form  first the  currere, course  increasingly  These  be  object.  difficult  explicit,  implicit,  curriculum  The c r i t i c persons,  obstacles". or n u l l .  as  dramatizes  activities,  live  6  In whichever  performance  or  the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the  and  artifacts.  Critics  observe t h e c u r r i c u l u m as immediate and o b v i o u s ( i n c l u d i n g implicit  evaluate, The  curriculum,  i t a m e t a p h o r f o r a r a c e t r a c k , w h i c h i s "a  may  p a r t i c u l a r s of  reader's  itself.  t h e e m p h a s i s i s on  emotive  The  i s e x t e n d e d a n d w r i t t e n , i t may  o f t h e D e s i g n and E x p e r i e n c e  in  about  p e r c e p t i o n s and  him/herself.  E i s n e r examines t h e L a t i n root of and  see and  e n s u e s may be e x p l o r a t o r y , i n s i g h t f u l , o r  I f t h i s contemplation  become a c r i t i c i s m  critiqued,  t o see or t o t h i n k  the  critic  especially i f  and t h e n u l l ) ,  disciplining  coherence  of  then they  the a n a l y s i s with  the  critical  critic  significance,  i s detached  from  the  E i s n e r , t h e r e f o r e , asks c r i t i c s  i n t e r p r e t , and  empirical  writing  c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f what i s a p p r e c i a t e d Regarding  describe,  references.  i s i n the s t r u c t u r a l  as s i g n i f i c a n t .  the  assumption  habitual t o wonder  modes at  is  that  the  of p e r c e p t i o n .  trifles,  and  to  133  work  towards  underlying  expanded  awareness,  q u a l i t i e s that are  immersed i n t h e detachedly  curriculum.  their  d e t a i l s that are connected,  and  own  that  revelatory.  dissimilar  significant. writings  That i s , t h e i r  perceive to  someone  to  observe  especially considering  versa.  critical  t h e y may  C r i t i c s are a l s o asked  apparently vice  that  n e c e s s a r i l y evident  perceptions,  i d i o s y n c r a s i e s t h a t are appears  not  so  but  which  Critics  thus  are  really  illuminate  In the E i s n e r approach  on  curriculum  i n t e n t i s " t o draw  are  back  valued the  from the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s or p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s e y e s . look  at  the  pedagogic  situations.  interactions present In  i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e  in  absolute.  the  look  t e r m s o f how  e f f e c t i s , and  a way  They  s t r u c t u r e s and at  and  t h e y got  t o be  what t h e p o s s i b l e  consequence  as  Critics  personnel  t h a t way,  it  veil"  appreciate  w r i t i n g s i n t h i s approach r e v e a l the  Eisner  those  of the  what will  the be.  t r a n s i t o r y as  writes:  The a r t i s t , l i k e t h e educational critic, does not write about everything that e x i s t s in a s i t u a t i o n but r a t h e r a b o u t what he o r she b r a c k e t s , what he o r she c h o o s e s t o a t t e n d t o . T h i s b r a c k e t i n g of p e r c e p t i o n and i t s i n c i s i v e r e n d e r i n g i n an e x p r e s s i v e medium a l l o w t h e p e r c i p i e n t of t h e a r t i s t ' s o r c r i t i c ' s work t o see, in p a r t , t h r o u g h t h e b r a c k e t what t h e a r t i s t has c r e a t e d . 7  Pinar  examines  metaphor f o r the  running  t h e L a t i n r o o t of c u r r i c u l u m of a c o u r s e .  He  describes  and  sees a  i t this  I t i s a c t i v e . And i t i s n o t . The t r a c k around which I r u n may be i n a l t e r a b l y f o r c e d , but t h e r a t e a t w h i c h I r u n , t h e q u a l i t y of my running, my sensualintellectual-emotional experience of moving bodily t h r o u g h s p a c e and t i m e : a l l t h e s e a r e my c r e a t i o n s ; t h e y a r e my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 8  way:  134  For  him,  i t appears t h a t the  insofar  as  coherence  it of  is  the  remembrances  of  a  curriculum  referent  critical the  as  f o r the  writing  curriculum  given  learner  comes  as  is  (critic).  from  lived.  present The  associative  In  currere,  one  s t u d i e s t h e s e r e m e m b r a n c e s , t h r o u g h a g l a s s d a r k l y , as  it  identifying  essences,  themes,  analyzing.  The  capturing  e m p h a s i s i s on  possibilities.  the  " t h o u g h t s , images, f e e l i n g s ,  situation  are  and  Through the  the  associations  to  encourage  of  consciousness: curriculum there.  the  shift,  to  the  spirit,  self  through  experience,  in a  curriculum  to  of  being  familiarly  i t can true  or  f i t . And,  what one  perhaps  reality  the c r i t i c  of h i s o r h e r  of  expanded  place  possibilities  the  to l i s t e n  towards  in  for  comes  t h a t connect the  that  what  one  as  strange,  not  the  being through  familiar  When, t h r o u g h c u r r e r e ,  so a n y m o r e ; i t i s an saw  happens  (and  consciousness  happen  i s not  static  work  other  it  reflections-upon-the-  Grumet ask  i n one's r e c o l l e c t i o n s .  another look,  does not  from  and  realization  takes  it  and  realization  realization  This  strange  of t h e  common-sense  P i n a r and  towards  and  a  r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s the  9  experience,  such r e a l i z a t i o n s ,  associations  situation.  asides  reveries"  o p e n i n g of  attachments  curriculum  of the  universe  realized.  critic's  stagnant)  study  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e  Regarding the that  biographic  c u r r i c u l u m as a v i r t u a l  of  potentialities  the  were,  accepted  and one as  anachronism, accepted  as  135  true,  one  may  from the  now  c l a i m as o n e ' s own.  autobiographical  "precipitates reading  of  of a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s  and  revisiting  consequence." life-world  process  The  The  1 0  of  one's  critic  of t h e s t u d e n t  w r i t i n g s t h a t emerge  currere are  valued  as  i n which the t e l l i n g  and  own  stories  is  of  most  i n the P i n a r approach looks at  who  situation.  i s self  w i t h i n the  the  pedagogic  The  critic,  then,  than  a l o n g s i d e , the c u r r i c u l u m .  Currere  is  the  structures  of  i s within,  rather  personal  story,  a  t h e c o l l e c t i v e v a l u e of w h i c h i s d e f e n d e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n there and  b e i n g a communal e x p e r i e n c e ,  which l i e s  c o h e r i n g t h e d e t a i l s of p e r s o n a l Therefore,  concentrates  in  on  the  the  of  anticipated this,  one  fuse  first  configuration, larger  b u t more.  coloured of  with  one's  and  then  As one  i n hues and  one  the one  as  to  focusses, a  mandala  run,  remembered  s e n s e of how  i n order  critic has  it is.  see  the  f o c u s s e s so t h a t one  may  pattern  i n t e n s i t i e s which i n d i c a t e the  To  focussing  on  the  interesting  parameters of the c o n t e x t . that  the  runner.  details,  T h a t i s why  c o n t e x t , a s what i s a c t u a l l y  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  journey considered as ;  as  it  A danger  influences  the there the  one  do  see  not  emerges,  significance  is can  critic  or  larger  r e l a t i o n s between the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of the c o u r s e  t h e s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e  is  tracks  details  felt  distances oneself  approach, the  e d u c a t i o n a l l y or o t h e r w i s e , so t h a t  below, n o u r i s h i n g  experience.  Pinar  circle  of  that lose  is  and in the  advised  i n the c u r r i c u l u m , journey,  and  i t i n f l u e n c e s the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t .  the  136  In  the  concentrates  Eisner  on  details  pattern, especially situation.  The  appreciate  One  that  of  this  characteristic defect  of  a  revelatory  is  t h a t ' the c r i t i c  intent  little.  of  see and  the  whole  i s t h a t , i f one d o e s n o t T h a t i s why  the  critic  t h i s a p p r o a c h i s c a u t i o n e d t o use t h e o r y as t h e framework f o r  focussing  one's  Eisner  sees t h i s  critic  responds  engineer.  other  interactions  such  w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m under  theory as a design as  an  Otherwise,  standardize  or b l u e p r i n t  architect these  perception  in  frames  the  approaches  alternates  of a p a r t i c i p a n t . Eisner  same  the  regiment  and  way t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n a n d  Substance  interaction.  In  b e t w e e n t h e r o l e o f an a u d i e n c e  the  role  of  approaches the c r i t i c  asks  (2)  the  observe  role  (1)  could  The d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e  emphasizes  emphasizes  which  i n s t r u m e n t s do.  Both critic  to  study.  r a t h e r than as a s t r u c t u r a l  Comparison of P r o c e s s :  In  in  configuration  this  h a v e a f o c u s , one may s e e v e r y in  configurate  the subtle p a r t i c u l a r s that c h a r a c t e r i z e the  intent  the  context.  a p p r o a c h , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c r i t i c  What  values  object  portray?  of  the c r i t i c  critic  as  both,  the  and t h e r o l e  emphasis  on  role.  as w i t n e s s .  Pinar  participant.  In  both  two q u e s t i o n s : does  this  What v a l u e s am I r e s p o n d i n g  curriculum  event  or  with?  t h e E i s n e r a p p r o a c h t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n , What v a l u e s d o e s  this  137  curriculum  event or object  emphasis  is  critical  description,  describes  on,  What  portray?  values in  the curriculum  In the Pinar approach,  am I r e s p o n d i n g w i t h ?  the  Pinar  situation  approach,  the  Regarding  the  critic  both i n terms of t h e t e x t or  p r o j e c t and i n t e r m s o f t h e c r i t i c ' s  own b i o g r a p h y .  The t a s k i s  to surrender  t o t e x t or p r o j e c t as i t e n v e l o p s one, and t o s e l f -  reflection.  Grumet e x p r e s s e s i t t h i s way, "He ( t h e c r i t i c )  digest  i t s (theproject  possession  of  or  text)  inorganic  i t for himself."  t o t h e appearance of t h i n g s , and inward t o t h e sense of  things.  Thematic apperception  depth  describes aspects  of  examines  another d i s c i p l i n e ,  psychology. the  In  the  curriculum  the  that  t h e s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r  place,  i n order  for  participants. feelings  experience  The t a s k by  artistic  Regarding  approach,  in  are  that  The c r i t i c  of t h e s a l i e n t The  critic  and t o make i t v i s i b l e sounds,  by r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e will  give  depth  and  then connects these  with  impressions.  interpretation,  both  analytically  They d i f f e r  critic  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e p e o p l e and  manner  t r a n s l a t e the  framework.  terms  the  criticism  the  presented.  the curriculum,  s u b t l y as they d e s c r i b e , and conceptual  f o r example l i t e r a r y Eisner  both  perhaps  i s t o b r i n g out the s i g h t s ,  dimension t o the p o r t r a y a l . theories that w i l l  participant,  framework,  t o see t h e c u r r i c u l u m  evoked  i n an  a  situation  curriculum  the  and  has  the  presentation  outward  or  of  take  the  of  response  written  and  records  language  associative  The  1 1  nature  must  approaches within  greatly in their  interpret  some  chosen  final  steps.  138  The  end s t e p of t h e E i s n e r  entirely  approach i s e v a l u a t i v e .  s e p a r a t e from t h e other  they a r e used structural  as  evidence  of  corroboration.  steps  i n the process,  referential  attitude  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  approach,  on t h e o t h e r  sit  there  attempt  mode.  The end s t e p  hand, i s s y n t h e t i c a l .  (thematic  and b i o g r a p h i c a l )  f a l l o w f o r some t i m e , synthesis.  One  a  temporally  has t o l i v e  definable.  of  I t could  a  evaluative the  Pinar  I t c a n n o t be done  One h a s t o  l e t the  and a n a l y t i c a l  writings  a n d t h e n one may come  w h i l e , a n d l e t them t o u c h one's l i f e . not  the language  The mood c h a n g e s f r o m  i n t h e a f t e r m a t h of t h e s t e p s .  descriptive  step  and f o r  i n an a e s t h e t i c mode t o one u s i n g  principles  immediately  although  adequacy  In the e v a l u a t i v e  changes from metaphoric t o d i s c u r s i v e . critical  I t i s almost  back  and  w i t h one's i n s i g h t s f o r a Moreover,  "a  be a few d a y s .  while"  is  I t c o u l d be  few y e a r s .  S u b j e c t i v i t y and O b j e c t i v i t y : I m p l i c a t i o n s Using the Eisner of what t h e p r o d u c e r s  approach, the c r i t i c  (developers  curriculum  consider  the  approach, c r i t i c s  Eisner  f o r P o t e n t i a l Users  of v a l u e ,  and/or  gains  implementors)  of  including the inconsistencies. indwell the curriculum  In  as a s o r t of  spirit,  curriculum  s i t u a t i o n a s one w o u l d u s e c l a y , i f one were a p o t t e r  has  to  handle  i n order  i t .  i n v o l v e d and c o n n e c t e d  i t , constructing  the  animating  or s c u l p t o r , s i n c e  fashioning  an a w a r e n e s s  t o get the f e e l  The c r i t i c  of  i t . They u s e t h e  something,  one  h a s t o c h o o s e , p a r t i c i p a t e , be  i n the s i t u a t i o n .  In t h i s approach,  the  139  r e f e r e n c e of t h e p o r t r a y a l i s t h e a c t u a l l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e , the  critic  r e - i n v e n t s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a shared  believers. relate  When c r i t i c s  enter  a  t o i t as i t i s presented  curriculum  t o them.  of a c u r r i c u l u m connoisseur  view  since  mirror,  l o o k i n g over vision.  i t  experiences,  the  by  those  immersed  satisfying  than  existing  i t . The  and p r o b l e m a t i c  The  events  other  critic's  beliefs  and  ignored  i s a more f o r m a l e x e r c i s e  a game,  where  the  where t h e c r i t i c  tries  expertise.  do  take  care  to  appreciation aspect  of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p ,  they  become  with  In  which  not  critic  tries to  to predict  There i s p o t e n t i a l danger i n the  rules.  of  previous  r u l e s , where t h e c r i t i c  framework.  critics  than  i s on t h e e x p o s u r e o f  get caught i n  the  rear-  conceptual  this exercise, i f critics If  a  field  the  focus  It i s like  player,  within a certain  as  issues.  p e r f o r m s an e x e r c i s e by c e r t a i n the  i s used  of the c u r r i c u l u m  E i s n e r approach i n process  the P i n a r approach.  outguess  of  may s e e a s p e c t s  in  r e l a t i o n , the  A l s o , i t e n l a r g e s one's  mirror  expectations,  frameworks, the c r i t i c  they  i s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , a n d s a f e r ,  one's s h o u l d e r .  Through  community of  situation,  In t h i s  s e n s o r y memory  which  case,  they  bracket  of  their  emphasize the engrossed  do n o t l i s t e n  t o the  n u a n c e s ( w h i c h may be t h e newness o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e ) , a n d s i m p l y r e j e c t what d o e s n o t f i t . appreciate  what  he  or  accepts w i t h i n educational  Thus E i s n e r c a u t i o n s t h e she  critic  "to  r e j e c t s a s w e l l a s what he o r she  practice."  1 2  1 40  Besides  being  is consequential the  Eisner  approach  constraint  artless  mode  can  also  of  a  be  i n q u i r y , and  a  i t may  materials criticism,  to  the  reader,  and  critiqued.  Like  semblance of  the  adequacy.  However,  to  like  per  se.  has  critics  should  be  of  approach,  have f a l l e n In  i s an  an  This  a model f o r  alternative  (autonomous) the  the  to  t o have  art,  the  own  of  retains  referential portrayal  In t h i s their  is the  respect,  autonomous  from the c u l t u r a l  ambience  That i s , they  should  becoming a s i g n p o i n t i n g t o  itself.  artful  existed.  being  I t becomes  autonomy.  of t h e d a n g e r  value  thing  portrayal  independent e n t i t y .  researcher,  this  a s n a r e t h a t p o s s i b l y some o f  the  Pinar of  a  approach,  the  group or t h e o r y  P i n a r ' s word, naked, except f o r are  form.  i s a hazard  of  itspractitioners  into.  representative  values  art  than  art,  abstract  curriculum  critique  Because the c r i t i c this  critic,  its  be c o g n i z a n t  the  to  as  a r t becoming too a b s t r a c t e d  wary  technique,  developed  I t must, i n o r d e r  object  original  an  in  I t provides  the  as an  It  of  by  what  critic  support.  representative object.  consider  t h e o r i e s , the  i s of more i n t r i n s i c  conceived  which the  need t o  happen t h a t t h e c r i t i q u e , e s p e c i a l l y  consciously  in  critic  T h i s a p p r o a c h was  of  the  i s a l s o more c o n s t r a i n e d  in  work  by  i n t e r m s of e d u c a t i o n a l  w r i t e w i t h i n the  guidance.  constrained  their  autobiographical.  m a t e r i a l o r p r o j e c t as  catalyst,  critics per own  Critics choosing  se.  do  not  They a r e ,  experience. take  the  those  feel to  use  Their  curriculum abstractions  141  contained  therein  with those  as  puzzles.  situation  in  they The  terms  of  a r e p u z z l i n g t o them, a n d w r e s t l i n g critic  self.  relates After  to  the  curriculum  awareness s u r f a c e s , the  critic  h a s t o come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n  is  labour,  a  process  rather  is  more  unrestrictedly  t h a n an e x e r c i s e . experimental.  (relatively  provides  the  impetus  self in  in situation.  images, of t h e experience.  situation.  The c u r r i c u l u m  but  object  unintegrated,  about  certain associations situation  by t h e c r i t i c .  inherent  order  or  disorder  The w r i t i n g o f t h e c r i t i q u e  relevance  objective  i n t h i s approach i s i m a g i s t i c , i n broken  moves s l o w l y a n d a l e r t l y their  the  about a c u r r i c u l u m  and n e g l e c t e d  portrayal  responds  s o m e t h i n g y e t unknown, o r t o  known  of the c r i t i c  unrecognized  The  to  The p o r t r a y a l p r e s e n t s  the consciousness  previously  critic  speaking)  to discover  demonstrate p o s s i b l y something  The P i n a r a p p r o a c h i n  The  l i m i t a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n .  i t . It  of  the  f e e l s c r e a t i v e , a s one  through t h e broken images,  and q u e s t i o n i n g  critic's  the relevance  questioning  of the c u r r i c u l u m  I n t h e work o f t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e c r i t i c  feels  his  o r h e r own p o t e n t i a l i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n more t h a n he o r she  thinks  others.  about t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h e c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n f o r  There a r e s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l dangers  The  critic  self  in situation,  to  i s i n danger of m i m i c k i n g s e l f ,  gets  this  process.  or of r o m a n t i c i z i n g  or of becoming e n g r o s s e d i n t h e i n n e r  t h e e x c l u s i o n of t h e outward journey.  critic  in  caught  in  the bracket  In  which  journey  case,  the  of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , a l t h o u g h  142  that  i s not the expressed  currere,  as  the  running  p e r f e c t e d human b e i n g s , r a t h e r than being Readers thesis,  i n t e n t of P i n a r and of  course,  where b e i n g  have  I t may  i s towards a race of  human  implies  a  be  the  more  common  common  language  to  confusion  of  educational  the  study  e m p h a s i s on i n d i v i d u a l i s m .  ensure  (subjectivity  encounter". curriculum facticity  In  1 3  i s ) " t h e judgement  using  situation  p s y c h o l o g y and i t s Pinar  approach  from  t h i s approach, the c r i t i c  dwells  and  sees  the  critic's  own  V l a d i m i r Nabokov i t s worst  is  i t as  factitious.  lebenswelt.  use  in  their  t h a t window  made  common." '  recollections becomes  a  i n the  without  then i s ,  As t h e l e b e n s w e l t i s the  light  of  what  "Commonsense a t  drawing  judgements,  and r e f l e c t i o n s  a s a window,  1  1  mirror  themselves.  Seeing  themselves provides  to e x t r i c a t e  themselves from s i t u a t i o n  In  that  But the  The f a c t i c i t y  once w r o t e a b o u t commonsense.  sense  The  i s no  drawn  common s e n s e , i t i s e x a m i n e d i n c u r r e r e  until  there  becomes t h e c o a t i n g on t h e back o f t h e m i r r o r  part,  critics  curriculum  through encounter with the  w h i c h t h e g l a s s w o u l d o n l y be a window. in  more,  studies.  that  The e m p h a s i s i n t h e  on t h e d i s c o v e r y o f s u b j e c t i v i t y ,  world:  of  to religious  be  is  being  problem w i t h t h e language of t h e P i n a r  r e a s o n f o r t h e l a n g u a g e may with  Rather,  less.  s i n c e i t i s not  studies.  a  Grumet.  in  which  they  can see  them w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y i f they  want t o .  i s concerned w i t h the l i b e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Currere  143  Some F i n a l Why either  would  of t h e s e  modes?  some c r e a t i v i t y appeal  to  one  those  f r o m a new  critique, in  the  personal  critic, may, her  qualities  provoke the  perspective.  reader  that  critiquethe  to read c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i n  B e c a u s e b o t h demand some s e n s i t i v i t y  he  or  reader  However,  i s someone w i t h s i m i l a r  then,  serve  place  questions  in  to enlarge  the  similar  approaches, then,  to  curriculum, to  can  the be  to consider with  have.  may  Moreover,  a  curriculum  Eisner  style  a distance  from  With a Pinar  style  he  illuminative,  other  than  with curriculum.  s c o p e and since  ones  an  benefit,  experiences  the  reader.  I t provides  does not  most l i k e l y  both  and  t o b e n e f i t i s someone immersed  critiqued. she  critique,  i n the  reader  most l i k e l y  the c u r r i c u l u m being  situation  choose  i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e  s u c h s t i m u l a t i o n may issue  Considerations  the It  i m p o r t a n c e of h i s o r  the  critic  is  o r ' she  has  asked.  enriching  the  asking Both  reader's  perceptions. Why either  would  of t h e s e  one  modes?  choose to w r i t e c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i n Both  offer  a  critic  articulate  (to  open f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) e x p e r i e n c e  situation.  Both allow that i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  are concerned w i t h the p e r s o n a l The a  t o be  responsibility  the  chance  in a  curriculum  artful.  of t h e i r  b e n e f i t w i t h the E i s n e r approach i s t h a t c r i t i c s chance  to  disclose their  connoisseurship.  t h e P i n a r a p p r o a c h i s t h a t c r i t i c s may  take  the  The  are  to  Both readers. offered  benefit  opportunity  with to  144  discover  what i t i s t h e y r e a l l y Why  is  Either could  highly  potentiality.  readable, One  happening or could  both  specifically outsider's  one  liked  t h e idea of the c u r r i c u l u m  art,  whether a l i v e performance o r choose  contract  have the  perspective  on  difficulties  Eisner  what  is  especially i f  b e i n g t r e a t e d a s a work o f  an  evocative  object.  curriculum,  especially  i t is  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s  One  i f one  writer  both approaches a r e u s e a b l e and u s e f u l f o r c u r r i c u l u m further  that  p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view.  Finally,  A  critique  t h e P i n a r a p p r o a c h i f one w a n t e d an  i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w on t h e wanted a t r u l y  approaches  be h a p p e n i n g w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m ,  specifically  criticism  be c h o s e n i f one w a n t e d a since  would  a p p r o a c h i f one w a n t e d an  would  curriculum.  w o u l d one c h o o s e t o c o n t r a c t a c u r r i c u l u m  i n e i t h e r mode? that  do know a b o u t t h e i r  study  could  investigate  the  of other approaches i n order t o  t h a t n e i t h e r P i n a r nor E i s n e r  offers.  inquiry.  commonalities discover  that  and  benefits  Footnotes  W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "The M e t h o d " , Toward a P o o r Curriculum, eds. William Pinar and M a d e l e i n e Grumet (Dubuque, I o w a : K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 1  54.  2  Pinar,  "The M e t h o d " , p.  55.  E l l i o t W. Eisner, The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n York: Macmillan Publishing Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) . p7 3  (New 1 90.  <l  Eisner,  Imagination  r  P .  191 .  5 Eisner, Imagination  , P.  191 .  6 Eisner, Imagination  , P-  34.  7 Eisner, Imagination  , P.  204.  William F. Pinar, "Preface", Toward a P o o r Curriculum, eds. William Pinar a n d M a d e l i n e Grumet (Dubuque, I o w a : K e n t / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. v i i 8  9  School". (Berkeley:  William F. P i n a r , " S a n i t y , Madness, and t h e Curriculum Theorizing, ed. William Pinar M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p.  360.  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Pshychoanalytic Foundations", Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , eds. William P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e Grumet (Dubuque, Fowa: Kendall/Hunt 1 0  Publishing  Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) ,  p.  116.  Madeleine R Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t r e : Merely Players", Curriculum I n q u i r y , 8 : 1 : 4 1 , 1 9 7 8 . 1 1  E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , - The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n York: Macmillan Publishing Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , pT 1 2  (New 211.  Madeleine R. Grumet, "Existential and P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a P o o r C u r r i c u l u m , p. 40. 1 3  146  1 0  Esquire,  V l a d i m i r N a b o k o v , "How t o R e a d , How S e p t e m b e r , 1980, p. 64.  to Write",  147 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Barone, Thomas E. "Effectively Critiquing the Experienced Curriculum: Clues from t h e 'New Jounralism', Curriculum Inquiry. 10:1:29-53, Summer, 1980. Dewey, J o h n . A r t a s E x p e r i e n c e , New Co., 1934.  York:  Minton,  Batch  and  Donmoyer, Robert. "The E v a l u a t o r a s A r t i s t " . The J o u r n a l o f Curriculum Theorizing. 2:2:12-26, Summer, 1980. Eisner, Elliot W. The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n : On t h e D e s i g n and E v a l u a t i o n o f S c h o o l P r o g r a m s . New York: Macmillan P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1979. E i s n e r , E l l i o t W. "On t h e U s e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n a i s s e u r s h i p and Crtitsicm f o r Evaluating Classroom L i f e . " Teachers' C o l l e g e Record. 7 8 : 3 : 3 4 5 - 3 5 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1977. F i n k e l s t e i n , James H. And C. Ray W i l l i a m s . "To t h e Educational Researcher. 8:9:24-25, O c t o b e r , 1979.  Editor."  Geertz, Clifford. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s : S e l e c t e d New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , I n c . , 1973. Green, Maxine. "To t h e 8:9:25, O c t o b e r , 1979.  Editor."  Essays.  Educational Researcher.  Grumet, Madeleine R. " A u t o b i o g r a p h y and R e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . " The J o u r n a l o f C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g . 2:2:155-158, Summer, 1980. 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" P h i l o s o p h y f o r C h i l d r e n : An E x a m p l e o f C u r r i c u l u m Review and C r i t i c i s m . " Curriculum Inquiry. 9:3:229-248, F a l l , 1979. Nabokov, V l a d i m i r . "How t o Read, 9 4 : 3 : 6 1 - 6 8 , S e p t e m b e r , 1980. Olney, James., ed. Critical. Princeton:  How  to  Write."  Esquire.  A u t o b i o g r a p h y : E s s a y s T h e o r e t i c a l and P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980.  Pearse, Harold. "Reviews: The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n by Elliot Eisner." Canadian J o u r n a l of Education. 5:3:112115, 1980. Pepper, Stephen C. The B a s i s o f C r i t i c i s m C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. Pinar, William Reconceptualists. 1975, 359-426.  F. Ed. Berkeley:  i n the Arts.  Curriculum Theorizing: the McCutchan Publishing Corp.,  Pinar, W i l l i a m F."The a b s t r a c t a n d t h e C o n c r e t e U n i v e r s i t y o f R o c h e s t e r , n.d. 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