UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Two approaches to curriculum criticism Menzies, Sandra 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 M46.pdf [ 6.89MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055182.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055182-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055182-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055182-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055182-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055182-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055182-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055182-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055182.ris

Full Text

TWO APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM CRITICISM by SANDRA MENZIES B.A. ( E n g l i s h ) U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1981 © Sandra M e n z i e s i In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canda V6T 1W5 Date October 1 , 1 981 ABSTRACT C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c s borrow many of t h e i r c o n c e p t s from t r a d i t i o n s of c r i t i c i s m and i n q u i r y o u t s i d e e d u c a t i o n , and t r a n s f o r m t h e s e i n t o approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . Though t h e s e judge the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u r r i c u l u m , each approach d i f f e r s from o t h e r s . The l i t e r a t u r e on c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m has not f o c u s s e d e x p l i c i t l y on these d i f f e r e n c e s or e l u c i d a t e d the s i m i l a r i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s some c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between two approaches, one dev e l o p e d by E l l i o t E i s n e r , and one by W i l l i a m P i n a r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the purpose, form and s u b s t a n c e of each approach i n terms of t h e i r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , the n a t u r e of the d a t a , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , q u a l i t i e s of the f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reader a c c e p t a n c e . Two so u r c e s f o r d a t a were used: s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the two approaches t o the c r i t i q u i n g of a v i d e o t a p e d l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l . Some of the c o n c l u s i o n s reached were: A l t h o u g h both i n v e s t i g a t e the q u a l i t i e s of a c u r r i c u l u m exchange, one approach emphasizes the c o n n o i s s e u r ' s v o i c e , one approach emphasizes the p e r s o n a l v o i c e . A l t h o u g h the p r o c e s s i n both n e c e s s i t a t e s the presence of the c r i t i c i n the c u r r i c u l u m exchange, the r e c o r d of the e x p e r i e n c e f o l l o w s a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n i n each c a s e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the methodology i n each approach d i f f e r s beccause the i n t e n t of the c r i t i c i s d i f f e r e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n one approach, because the reader mediates the d i s c l o s u r e s , s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n and r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy a r e s t r e s s e d ; i i i i n the o t h e r , because p e r s o n a l d i s c o v e r y v a l i d a t e s the d i s c l o s u r e s , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and v o i c e a r e s t r e s s e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1 I INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 2 D e f i n i t i o n s 4 C u r r i c u l u m C r i t i c i s m 4 C r i t i c . 4 O r g a n i z a t i o n Of The T h e s i s 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 5 F o o t n o t e s 7 I I CRITICISM AS THE DISCLOSURES OF A CONNOISSEUR 8 P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s 8 C u r r i c u l u m 8 C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p 10 C r i t i c i s m 12 Sources Of C r i t i c i s m 14 Substance Of C r i t i c i s m 16 Nature Of The Datum 16 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s 17 F i e l d w o r k 17 D e s c r i p t i o n 19 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 20 E v a l u a t i o n 21 Q u a l i t i e s Of The F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e 24 D i f f i c u l t i e s With Reader Acceptance 28 V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page S e l e c t i v e P e r c e p t i o n 28 E p i s t e m i c C o n t r a d i c t i o n s 30 D i s t r u s t Of The C r i t i c 31 V i c t i m i z a t i o n Of Teachers 34 M a t e r i a l s C r i t i c i s m ...35 Honouring C h i l d r e n 37 F o o t n o t e s 39 I I I CRITICISM AS PERSONAL DISCLOSURE 44 P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s Of C u r r e r e 44 C u r r i c u l u m As C u r r e r e 44 C r i t i c i s m As C u r r e r e 46 Au t o b i o g r a p h y As C u r r e r e 49 Sources Of C r i t i c i s m . 50 Substance Of C r i t i c i s m 53 Nature Of Datum 53 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s 56 Text 56 Discernment Of Themes 58 B i o g r a p h i c P r e s e n t 58 A n a l y s i s 59 S y n t h e s i s 60 Q u a l i t i e s Of The F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e 61 D i f f i c u l t i e s W i th Reader Acceptance 66 C r i t i c V u l n e r a b i l i t y 66 Respondent V u l n e r a b i l i t y 67 A t h e o r e t i c a l T h i n k i n g 72 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A h i s t o r i c a l T h i n k i n g . 73 A p o l i t i c a l T h i n k i n g ....73 F o o t n o t e s 77 IV EXAMPLES OF CRITICISM 83 C r i t i c i s m As The D i s c l o s u r e s Of A C o n n o i s s e u r : V a u d e v i l l e K i t s c h As D i d a c t i c i s m 84 D e s c r i p t i o n 85 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 90 E v a l u a t i o n 93 The V i d e o t a p e As I n t e n t i o n a l • 93 The V i d e o t a p e As A r t f u l 95 The V i d e o t a p e As U s e f u l 97 C r i t i c i s m As P e r s o n a l D i s c l o s u r e : F i n d i n g Courage 98 Themes That L i n k The Chosen Passages 99 P o l a r i z a t i o n And I s o l a t i o n R e v e a l e d 100 Words And G e s t u r e s Not Examined 104 P u z z l e s . 106 C r i t i c ' s Own B i o g r a p h i c P r e s e n t 110 A n a l y s i s 118 S y n t h e s i s 124 C o n c l u s i o n 125 F o o t n o t e s 127 V CONCLUSIONS 128 C r i t i c As W r i t e r And C r i t i c As Reader: Purpose 128 E x p e r i e n c e Of The D e s i g n And E x p e r i e n c e Of The J o u r n e y : Form 132 TABLE OF CONTENTS v i i Page Comparison Of P r o c e s s : Substance 136 S u b j e c t i v i t y And O b j e c t i v i t y : I m p l i c a t i o n s For P o t e n t i a l U sers 138 Some F i n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 142 Fo o t n o t e s 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my a d v i s o r , Walt Werner, f o r h i s g e n t l e n e s s and s c h o l a r l i n e s s i n g u i d i n g me thr o u g h the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . To my committee members, P e t e r Rothe, Don W i l s o n , and Dennis M i l b u r n f o r t h e i r d i a l o g u e t h a t h e l p e d t o c l a r i f y my t a s k . To my c h i l d r e n and my f r i e n d s f o r b e i n g . With l o v e . 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION In c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , paradigms of c r i t i c i s m from o t h e r a r e a s of human i n q u i r y have been borrowed and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e o r i e s and me t h o d o l o g i e s f o r d i s c l o s i n g the q u a l i t i e s of c u r r i c u l a . W i l l i a m P i n a r and E l l i o t E i s n e r a re two a u t h o r s who have dev e l o p e d approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m . Both a re h i g h p r o f i l e t h e o r e t i c i a n s i n c u r r i c u l u m l i t e r a t u r e , throughout the 1970's i n t o the p r e s e n t . Both a re p r o l i f i c w r i t e r s i n e x p l i c a t i n g the na t u r e of t h e i r c o n c e p t s and c a s e s . For W i l l i a m P i n a r , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o f o c u s on the e x p e r i e n c e of e d u c a t i o n a l e v e n t s . C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i s f o r him a method f o r working through the e d u c a t i o n a l l e g a c y an i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e c t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p s y c h i c a l l y , and s o c i a l l y . In t h a t way, c u r r i c u l u m p a r t i c i p a n t s can f i n d the p e r s o n a l r o o t s of t h e i r own b e h a v i o r . The reason f o r t h i s k i n d of a n a l y s i s , "coming t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s " , i s the b e l i e f t h a t " c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h must emancipate the r e s e a r c h e r i f i t i s t o a u t h e n t i c a l l y o f f e r such a p o s s i b i l i t y t o o t h e r s . " 1 For E l l i o t t E i s n e r , e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena, i n t h a t they are w h o l i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s , a re l i k e a r t i s t i c phenomena, and s h o u l d be c r i t i q u e d a c c o r d i n g l y . C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c s , t h e r e f o r e , i n some ways a r e l i k e a r t c r i t i c s . They e x p l o r e the c u r r i c u l u m as a work of a r t i n order t o d i s c l o s e (encourage) the p e r c e p t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n of the sen s o r y p a r t i c u l a r s of i t . They examine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i k e b a l a n c e , rhythm, development t o c l i m a x and c l o s u r e , and render them i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m as o b j e c t d ' a r t 2 i s meant t o be r e v e l a t o r y . A n a l y s i s of the sensory p a r t i c u l a r s of the a e s t h e t i c i n t e r a c t i o n between c r i t i c and o b j e c t can r e v e a l s y m b o l i c meanings b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d . The importance of such r e v e l a t i o n i s t o " p r o v i d e p o i n t e r s t o those a s p e c t s of the s i t u a t i o n , e v e n t , or o b j e c t t h a t a re i n some way s i g n i f i c a n t 2 , and which o t h e r w i s e might escape n o t i c e . I n t e r e s t i n c r i t i c a l approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y came i n t o f o c u s i n 1968 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of John S. Mann's essay " C u r r i c u l u m C r i t i c i s m " . 3 He i s c r e d i t e d w i t h g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n t o the term. In t h a t essay Mann i n t e r p r e t s c u r r i c u l u m as "an e n v i r o n i n g work of a r t " the boundary d e f i n i t i o n s of which c r e a t e meaning. He d i s c u s s e s how by examining those b o u n d a r i e s (the d e s i g n of the c u r r i c u l u m ) , the c r i t i c can uncover the c h o i c e s made by d e v e l o p e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , he s t a t e s t h a t the c r i t i c has t o t u r n inward t o h i s or her p e r s o n a l knowledge, i n a d i s c i p l i n e d and i m a g i n a t i v e way. In s h o r t , Mann i m p l i e s the two c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m s t h a t a re a n a l y z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The Problem The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o c l a r i f y and compare the approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p e d by E l l i o t E i s n e r and W i l l i a m P i n a r . The problem i s f o c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way: 3 Q u e s t i o n : What are the c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m ? In o r d e r t o f i n d the c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between them, th e s e two modes of c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m a r e examined under the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What are the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s ? 1.1 What i s c u r r i c u l u m ? 1.2 What i s c r i t i c i s m ? 1.3 What are the s o u r c e s ? 2. What i s the sub s t a n c e ? 2.1 What i s the n a t u r e of the datum? 2.2 What i s the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s ? 2.3 What are the q u a l i t i e s of the f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e ? 3. What a r e the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reader a c c e p t a n c e ? These d i s c r i m i n a t o r s were chosen because of what the e d i t o r s of C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y saw as an arena f o r debate and development. They wrote i n a 1979 i s s u e : "The t h r e e f o l d problems of the purpose, form, and substance of m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m has been of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t t o the e d i t o r s of C I . " The problem of "purpose" i s subsumed i n the e x a m i n a t i o n of the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and substa n c e of each approach; the problem of "form", i n the e x a m i n a t i o n of the substance and d i f f i c u l t i e s of each approach; the problem of " s u b s t a n c e " i s addre s s e d by q u e s t i o n two. 4 L i t e r a t u r e by E l l i o t E i s n e r , E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , G a i l McCutcheon and Thomas Barone were s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s f o r the study of one approach (Chapter 2); l i t e r a t u r e by W i l l i a m P i n a r and Made l e i n e Grumet were s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s f o r the study of the o t h e r (Chapter 3). A l s o , i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e some i m p l i c a t i o n s of each approach, both were used t o c r i t i q u e a v i d e o t a p e segment from a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n package c a l l e d Women Moving Up (Chapter 4) . T h i s package i s a c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e d f o r a two day seminar f o r management p e r s o n n e l . Def i n i t i o n s Throughout the t h e s i s , the word c r i t i c , and the phrase c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , a r e i n c o n s t a n t use. Each of the a u t h o r s examined shapes these terms t o h i s own p r e m i s e s . However, i t may be h e l p f u l t o b e g i n here w i t h a g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of each. C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i s a f u n c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between a c r i t i c and a c u r r i c u l u m . I t s t a r t s w i t h the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e the c r i t i c has w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m . I t i n v o l v e s d i s c l o s u r e of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . I t demands the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of and judgement on the e x p e r i e n c e , t h r o u g h some c o n c e p t u a l framework. C r i t i c A c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s an e d u c a t o r who d i s c l o s e s the q u a l i t i e s of a c u r r i c u l u m , t h r o u g h a s e l e c t e d c o n c e p t u a l framework, a e s t h e t i c , p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l . Such 5 d i s c l o s u r e demands s e n s i t i v i t y , c r e a t i v i t y , and l i t e r a c y from the c r i t i c . These s k i l l s of d i s c l o s u r e a r e devel o p e d through p r a c t i c e . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s C h a p t e r s two and t h r e e r e p o r t the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , c h a p t e r two d i s c u s s e s the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , s u b s t a n c e , and d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the E i s n e r approach; c h a p t e r t h r e e d i s c r i m i n a t e s , i n the same r e g a r d , the P i n a r approach. Chapter f o u r c r i t i q u e s a v i d e o t a p e from a b u s i n e s s management c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s v i d e o t a p e i s c r i t i q u e d f i r s t from the E i s n e r approach; then from the P i n a r approach; a l l o w i n g the r e s e a r c h e r t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the substance of each approach. Chapter f i v e summarizes the f i n d i n g s of the p r e c e d i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s , d i s c u s s i n g some c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the two approaches. L i m i t a t i o n s There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body of l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e two approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m . Because of time l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s s tudy does not a n a l y z e the whole of i t . S p e c i f i c s , p o s s i b l y of i n t e r e s t t o o t h e r r e a d e r s , a re n e g l e c t e d . For example, t h i s s tudy does not c o n s i d e r the changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n any of the a u t h o r s ' t h i n k i n g over t i m e . R a t h e r , i t h i g h l i g h t s some d e t a i l s , as though the l i t e r a t u r e were one s t a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n . 6 A l s o , a l t h o u g h each w r i t e r f o l l o w i n g one or the o t h e r approach has h i s or her v a r i a t i o n s , t h i s study does not e x p l i c a t e them. R a t h e r , i t t a k e s a broad view of the l i t e r a t u r e from which t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Another l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no attempt t o e x p l i c a t e the l i n e s of argument t h a t l e a d the a u t h o r s from t h e i r p r i m a r y s o u r c e s t o the development of t h e i r approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m . Only a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of those s o u r c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . A f o u r t h l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t p r e c i s i o n of d e f i n i t i o n of terms i s d i f f i c u l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the P i n a r approach because many d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l s o u r c e s a r e used. No attempt was made i n t h i s t h e s i s t o examine the c o n s i s t e n c y of the d e f i n i t i o n s used by the a u t h o r s of each approach. Another l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t the purpose of the t h e s i s i s not t o make recommendations c o n c e r n i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of the s e c r i t i c i s m s , nor t o d i s c u s s p o t e n t i a l abuse of e i t h e r approach by c r i t i c s . Only some of the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , , s u b s t a n c e , and r e a c t i o n of r e a d e r s a re d i s c u s s e d . 7 F o o t n o t e s 1 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "Notes on The C u r r i c u l u m F i e l d 1978", E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 9:9:9, Sept, 1978. 2 E l l i o t E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (New York: M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1979), p. T 9 7 . 3 John S. Mann, " C u r r i c u l u m C r i t i c i s m " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1978), pp 72-90. 4 E d i t o r s , " P o s t c r i p t " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 9:3:229, F a l l , 1979, n. In the two approaches under e x a m i n a t i o n c r i t i c i s m i s c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o a l l k i n d s of c u r r i c u l u m m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , not j u s t c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . 5 M a r i o n M i l n e r , On Not B e i n g A b l e t o P a i n t (2nd ed; London: W i l l i a m Heinmann L t d , 1957) , p~. Ti~. Chapter 2 CRITICISM AS THE DISCLOSURES OF A CONNOISSEUR 8 T h i s c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an approach t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p e d by E l l i o t E i s n e r , a p r o f e s s o r of A r t and E d u c a t i o n a t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . O f t e n t i m e s t h i s a pproach i s c a l l e d " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " because a p a r t of i t s f o u n d a t i o n i s i n the p h i l o s o p h y of a r t and the p r a c t i c e of c r i t i c s i n the a r t s . The main sources of i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e some w r i t i n g s of E l l i o t E i s n e r , and the w r i t i n g s of h i s former s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y Thomas Barone, G a i l McCutcheon, E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , and Robert Donmoyer. T h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m w i l l be examined w i t h i n the framework of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s enumerated i n c h a p t e r one. A c c o r d i n g l y , the major d i v i s o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r are ( 1 ) p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , ( 2 ) s u b s t a n c e of c r i t i c i s m , and ( 3 ) d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reader a c c e p t a n c e . P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s Presupposed i n t h i s approach are d e f i n i t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m , of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , and of c r i t i c i s m , and some so u r c e s from which these n o t i o n s have come. C u r r i c u l u m There are t h r e e k i n d s of c u r r i c u l a a c c o r d i n g t o E i s n e r . They a r e the e x p l i c i t , the i m p l i c i t , and the n u l l . The e x p l i c i t : The s c h o o l o f f e r s t o the community an e d u c a t i o n a l menu of s o r t s ; i t a d v e r t i s e s what i t i s p r e p a r e d t o p r o v i d e . From t h i s a d v e r t i s e d l i s t , s t u d e n t s have, at l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , an a r r a y of o p t i o n s from which t o choose. 1 The i m p l i c i t : S c h o o l s s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n t o a s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t some argue a r e p r o f o u n d l y more p o w e r f u l and l o n g e r - l a s t i n g than what i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y taught or what the e x p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m of the s c h o o l p u b l i c l y p r o v i d e s . 2 S c h o o l s p r e p a r e most p e o p l e f o r p o s i t i o n s and c o n t e x t s t h a t i n many r e s p e c t s are q u i t e s i m i l a r t o what they e x p e r i e n c e d i n s c h o o l as s t u d e n t s : h i e r a r c h i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , one-way communication, r o u t i n e ; i n s h o r t , c o m p l i a n c e t o purposes s e t by a n o t h e r . 3 The n u l l : What s c h o o l s do not t e a c h . In i d e n t i f y i n g the n u l l c u r r i c u l u m t h e r e are two major dimensions t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d . One i s the i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s t h a t s c h o o l s emphasize and n e g l e c t . The o t h e r i s the c o n t e n t or s u b j e c t a r e a s t h a t are p r e s e n t and absent i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . ' The c r i t e r i a t h a t are employed f o r a s s e s s i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l competence must of n e c e s s i t y f o c u s on the forms of t h i n k i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t are a v a i l a b l e and s a l i e n t . Thus, not o n l y does the n e g l e c t or absence from s c h o o l programs of n o n d i s c u r s i v e forms of knowing skew what can be known and e x p r e s s e d i n s c h o o l s , i t a l s o b i a s e s the c r i t e r i a t h r ough which human competence and i n t e l l i g e n c e are a p p r a i s e d . 5 We t e a c h what we t e a c h l a r g e l y out of h a b i t , and i n the p r o c e s s n e g l e c t a r e a s of study t h a t c o u l d prove t o be e x c e e d i n g l y u s e f u l t o s t u d e n t s . Take as an example economics. 6 10 In c r i t i c i s m , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e x p l i c i t , i m p l i c i t , or n u l l c u r r i c u l a a r e r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and ( i m ) b a l a n c e s among them. A l l t h r e e t o g e t h e r form the work, as i n work of a r t . I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and b a l a n c e s among the e x p l i c i t , i m p l i c i t , and n u l l have t h r e e a s p e c t s : t h e m a t i c , c o n t e x t u a l , and performance. The t h e m a t i c a s p e c t of the work ( c u r r i c u l u m ) m a n i f e s t s as the a p p l i e d i n t e n t of the u s e r s and/or the p r o d u c e r s of i t . The c o n t e x t u a l a s p e c t s a re those s u b t l e and not so s u b t l e p a r t i c u l a r s of a c u r r i c u l u m t h a t bound movement i n a c u r r i c u l u m . I t i n c l u d e s the a r c h i t e c t u r e , the f u r n i t u r e , and human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i k e r e s p e c t and sarcasm. Thomas Barone w r i t e s r e g a r d i n g the c o n t e x t u a l a s p e c t : Landscape i s not merely the sum of the f e a t u r e s t h a t comprise the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment, but r a t h e r a f i c t i v e - i . e . , f a s h i o n e d - p i c t u r e of the human and m a t e r i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t h e l p shape and ( s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e s c o n t a i n and a c t i v e as w e l l as p a s s i v e element) are shaped by the e d u c a t i o n a l l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n . 1 ~~ The movement w i t h i n a c u r r i c u l u m i s the performance a s p e c t . T h i s performance a s p e c t of c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , c o n t i n u o u s , e n e r g i z i n g . The performance a s p e c t i s always p e r s o n a l . I t i s c h a r a c t e r and p l o t . I t i s the movement of the p l a y e r s and p l a y t h i n g s . I t i s the a c t i v i t i e s of t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s and m a t e r i a l s . Connoi s s e u r s h i p A t h e s i s of t h i s approach i s t h a t c r i t i c a l argument r e q u i r e s c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p . C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p i s the a r t of a p p r e c i a t i o n . C o n n o i s s e u r s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p r e c i a t e some p a r t i c u l a r human endeavour. A c c o r d i n g t o Webster's New World  D i c t i o n a r y , t o a p p r e c i a t e means t o be f u l l y or s e n s i t i v e l y aware o f , and t o n o t i c e w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . To a p p r e c i a t e comes from the L a t i n v e r b a p p r e t i a r e meaning t o a p p r a i s e . That i s , c o n n o i s s e u r s are f u l l y open t o an i n t i m a t e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the work so t h a t they may d i s t i n g u i s h the p a r t i c u l a r s i n terms of i t s u n i q u e n e s s ; p l u s adjudge i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r human endeavours i n the same a r e a . C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n t o the d e t a i l s of the work, l i k e c o l o u r , l i n e , v o i c e , and choreography. S i n c e i t i n v o l v e s e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h f i n e l y tuned, open s e n s i t i v i t y t o the newness of an e n c o u n t e r , c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p r e q u i r e s of i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s , namely an awakened s e n s i b i l i t y , a mature background, and a s u s t a i n e d m o t i v a t i o n f o r e n l a r g i n g h i s or her e x p e r i e n c e i n a p p r e c i a t i o n . As t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s n e c e s s a r i l y ( f o r c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p ) b l e n d , the c o n n o i s s e u r e n j o y s p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t a re s a t i s f y i n g i n t h e m s e l v e s . R e g a r d i n g the a t t e n t i o n s of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , of importance i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of r e l a t e d n e s s t h a t u n d e r l i e s the p a r t i c u l a r s of a work. The component q u a l i t y , the s i n g l e d e t a i l , cannot s i g n i f y o u t s i d e the s t r u c t u r e d f i e l d of meanings of the form of the work as e x p e r i e n c e d . I t s i g n i f i e s 1 2 o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r q u a l i t i e s , i n terms of the p a t t e r n s which govern t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n . The meaning of an exchange between d e t a i l s i s not f i x e d , s i n g l e , or u n a l t e r a b l e . I t s i g n i f i e s d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s of permanence, o r d e r , meaning, harmony, depending upon how and w i t h whom or what i t i s a r t i c u l a t e d . Developed s e n s i t i v i t i e s and d i s c i p l i n e d i n s i g h t a l l o w the c o n n o i s s e u r t o make such judgements; t h e r e f o r e the r i c h e r one's background, the b e t t e r . M a i n t a i n i n g a s e l e c t i v e sense of c o n t i n u i t y w i t h one's p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a l l o w s t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e t o i l l u m i n a t e the p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . At t h i s p o i n t of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the how and why of the work's e x i s t e n c e , as the c o n n o i s s e u r seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d the e x p r e s s i o n of the new en c o u n t e r . The c o n n o i s s e u r ' s m o t i v a t i o n to a t t e n d t o the work under study i s s u s t a i n e d by h i s growing a p p r e c i a t i o n t o h i s f i e l d of study and by h i s d e s i r e t o make each new encounter i n t e l l i g i b l e . C r i t i c i s m C r i t i c i s m i s the p u b l i c d i s c l o s i n g or r e n d e r i n g of what the c o n n o i s s e u r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s r e n d e r i n g i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a c t . The c r i t i c / c o n n o i s s e u r ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e r p r e t e d f o r the r e a d e r ' s b e n e f i t . The c r i t i c i s m p o r t r a y s the i n t e r a c t i o n between the c r i t i c and the c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s p o r t r a y a l c r e a t e s a new form of a n t i c i p a t i o n , or s u p p o r t s a c u r r e n t h y p o t h e s i s f o r the r e a d e r , r e g a r d i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m . I t aims t o e n l a r g e p e r c e p t i o n s 1 3 of p r e v i o u s l y u n r e c o g n i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c u r r i c u l u m . C r i t i c i s m i s e m p i r i c a l . I t i s based on the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of the c r i t i c w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m . E i s n e r w r i t e s , C r i t i c i s m i s an e m p i r i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g . The word e m p i r i c a l comes from the L a t i n e m p i r i c u s , meaning "open t o e x p e r i e n c e . " C r i t i c i s m i s e m p i r i c a l i n the s i g n i f i c a n t sense t h a t the q u a l i t i e s the c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s or r e n d e r s must be c a p a b l e of b e i n g l o c a t e d i n the s u b j e c t matter of the c r i t i c i s m . 8 Q u a l i t i e s p o r t r a y e d are s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o what the case i s . S e l e c t e d d e t a i l s can be e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i e d , s u b j e c t t o comparison w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m i t s e l f . C r i t i c i s m r e q u i r e s t h a t c r i t i c s p l a c e themselves t o a c t i v e l y and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e the c u r r i c u l u m , and then r e c r e a t e what the e x p e r i e n c e c r e a t e s f o r them. C r i t i c i s m i s d i s c l o s u r e of the e x p e r i e n c e , t h r o u g h i m a g i n a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Language t h a t emphasizes the l i v i n g n e s s o f , f o r example, g e s t u r e and t e x t u r e s u g g e s t s m u l t i p l e l a y e r s and s u b t l e c o n n e c t i o n s among q u a l i t i e s t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n a l language may i g n o r e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t y l e of w r i t i n g a d v i s e d i s borrowed from C l i f f o r d G e e r t z ' s c o n c e p t i o n of " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " . "Thick d e s c r i p t i o n " i m p l i e s , by a c c u m u l a t i o n of i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t p i l e up from p r e f e r a b l y s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , the o r g a n i c s t r u c t u r e of the e x p e r i e n c e . C r i t i c i s m d i s c l o s e s the s i g n i f i c a n t . S i g n i f i c a n c e i s d e termined a c c o r d i n g t o what, i n the c r i t i c ' s view, i s happening and what i s not happening and why. The b a s i s of the c r i t i c a l 1 4 argument i s the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i l l u m i n a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n c e d meaning of the q u a l i t y of r e l a t e d n e s s , t h rough the t h e m a t i c , c o n t e x t u a l , and performance a s p e c t s . In t h i s r e g a r d , E i s n e r reminds the reader t h a t t h e r e i s more than one p o s s i b l e p a t h of meaning through the ways of the c u r r i c u l u m . The judgement the c r i t i c i s m p o r t r a y s comes through the r e a l i z a t i o n and p r o j e c t i o n of the c r i t i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . Indeed, we s h o u l d a n t i c i p a t e t h a t c r i t i c s w i t h d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s w i l l f i n d i n s i t u a t i o n s as p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y dense as c l a s s r o o m s d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d e s c r i b e , i n t e r p r e t , and e v a l u a t e . " 9 The p r o p e r t i e s t h a t c r i t i c s emphasize s u s t a i n t h e i r judgements of s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f the e v i d e n c e they p r e s e n t c o r r o b o r a t e s , t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s are a u t h e n t i c a t e d . Sources of C r i t i c i s m E i s n e r w r i t e s r e g a r d i n g h i s concept of c r i t i c i s m : I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o note t h a t the type of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and p a r t i c u l a r l y the type of c r i t i c i s m I am d e s c r i b i n g does not have a f i r m or w e l l - d e v e l o p e d t r a d i t i o n i n s c h o o l s of e d u c a t i o n . Such t r a d i t i o n s do e x i s t i n h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d forms i n l i t e r a t u r e , drama, the v i s u a l a r t s , p o e t r y and m u s i c . 1 0 Background s o u r c e s f o r t h i s n o t i o n of c r i t i c i s m were p r i m a r i l y John Dewey, D a v i d E c k e r , Max K o z l o f f , Susanne Langer, and Stephen Pepper, w r i t e r s i n the f i e l d of a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m . C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , an et h n o g r a p h e r , was a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l . In the a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m of the above mentioned, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t i c and the work i s an impo r t a n t one. The e x p e r i e n c e b e g i n s w i t h sensuous d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the 15 immediate p a r t i c u l a r s of the encounter between c r i t i c and work. Max K o z l o f f d e s c r i b e s the c o m p l e x i t y of t h i s exchange. The v a r i a b l e s i n the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , a r e the work, the s p e c t a t o r ' s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l r e sponse, and whatever a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n he can b r i n g t o bear a l l of which w i l l a f f e c t the mutual shaping of o b j e c t and s u b j e c t . 1 1 The r e c o r d of the exchange i s a r e n d e r i n g of s e n s a t i o n s and images, u s i n g the language of "innuendo, nuance, and h y p o t h e s i s , because what i s p e r i p h e r a l t o d i r e c t statement i n language i s o f t e n c e n t r a l t o a p i c t o r i a l e ncounter on i t s m e a n i n g " . 1 2 The s t r e s s i s on the e x p e r i e n c e , s i n c e i t i s the l i v e d exchange between the c r i t i c and the work t h a t p r o v i d e s the coherence of i t s d i s c l o s u r e . The r i c h e r the e x p e r i e n c e the g r e a t e r the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i s c l o s u r e i s towards a c t u a l i z i n g the f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t o n of e x p e r i e n c e . In the ethnography of C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , the r e s e a r c h e r s are c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g t o p i c k t h e i r way t h r o u g h " p i l e d - u p s t r u c t u r e s of i n f e r e n c e and i m p l i c a t i o n " . 1 3 They aim " t o f e r r e t out the unapparent import of t h i n g s " . 1 " Then they d i s c l o s e what they f i n d by w r i t i n g " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " . In w r i t i n g " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " the r e s e a r c h e r i s , a c c o r d i n g t o G e e r t z , T r y i n g t o read ( i n the sense of " c o n s t r u c t a r e a d i n g o f " ) a m a n u s c r i p t f o r e i g n , f a d e d , f u l l of e l l i p s e s , i n c o h e r e n c i e s , s u s p i c i o u s emendations, and t e n d e n t i o u s commentaries, but w r i t t e n not i n c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d graphs of sound but i n t r a n s i e n t examples of shaped b e h a v i o u r . 1 5 The o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t o t a l i t y , of a t t a i n i n g a t o t a l i d e a of the s i t u a t i o n , i s t o view the 16 s i t u a t i o n as a s e r i e s of views through t i m e . C l i f f o r d G e e r t z e x p l a i n s i t t h i s way: The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g about the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s f i n d i n g s i s t h e i r complex s p e c i f i c n e s s , t h e r c i r c u m s t a n t i a l i t y . I t i s w i t h the k i n d of m a t e r i a l produced by l o n g - t e r m , m a i n l y (though not e x c l u s i v e l y ) q u a l i t a t i v e , h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t i v e , and almost o b s e s s i v e l y fine-comb f i e l d s t udy i n c o n f i n e d c o n t e x t t h a t the mega-concepts . . . can be g i v e n the s o r t of s e n s i b l e a c t u a l i t y t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o t h i n k not o n l y r e a l i s t i c a l l y and c o n c r e t e l y about them, b u t , what i s more i m p o r t a n t , c r e a t i v e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e l y w i t h t h e m . 1 6 Substance of C r i t i c i s m Substance c o n c e r n s the premises t h a t a d v i s e the n a t u r e of the datum, the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , and the q u a l i t i e s of the f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e . N ature of the Datum E i s n e r would p r e f e r the use of the word danda i n t h i s type of st u d y . H i s s o u r c e , Stephen Pepper, e x p l a i n s the d i f f e r e n c e . Danda are o b s e r v a t i o n s s t r u c t u r a l l y c o r r o b o r a t e d . Pepper w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , A e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l by the a r t i s t of h i s m a t e r i a l s i s e s s e n t i a l l y of the s t r u c t u r a l t y p e . He makes h i s p o e t i c word, or h i s c h o r d , or h i s l i n e a r shape more and more a e s t h e t i c a l l y p r e c i s e by h i s arrangement of o t h e r words, c h o r d s , and shapes i n i t s c o n t e x t . 1 7 The n a t u r e of the danda i s t h a t they a r e s i g n a l s from the c u r r i c u l u m which impress the c r i t i c w i t h t h e i r s a l i e n c e or p e r v a s i v e n e s s . The i n f e r e n c e s the c r i t i c makes r e g a r d i n g the 17 v a l u e of the v a r i a b l e s a r e not drawn from n o t i c i n g s i m p l e r e p e t i t i o n of those v a r i a b l e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e i s drawn from the placement of the v a r i a b l e s among one a n o t h e r . I f the c u r r i c u l u m e x h i b i t s a p a r t i c u l a r i m p r e s s i o n , i t must p o s s e s s c e r t a i n p r o p e r t i e s p r o d u c i n g t h a t i m p r e s s i o n . These p r o p e r t i e s a re the s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the component v a r i a b l e s , the u n d e r l y i n g q u a l i t y of r e l a t e d n e s s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of them d e l i m i t s t h e i r meanings. The danda then a re g a t h e r e d so t h a t they " e s t a b l i s h l i n k s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y c r e a t e a whole t h a t i s sup p o r t e d by the b i t s of e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n s t i t u t e i t . " 1 8 A l t h o u g h the o r g a n i z a t i o n can change ( c l a s s r o o m s , f o r example, are dynamic s t r u c t u r e s ) , the emphasis i s on the p a r t i c u l a r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus, the s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m d e f i n e s the datum. The i n t e n t i o n s of the c r i t i c a l s o d e f i n e the datum. The datum or dandum chosen i s e v i d e n c e of what the c r i t i c as c o n n o i s s e u r a p p r e c i a t e s . In which c a s e , the e v i d e n c e i s weighted t o support the c r i t i c ' s i m p r e s s i o n s and judgements, a l t h o u g h the ev i d e n c e must always be grounded i n the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e of the c r i t i c w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m . - M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s F i e l d w o r k . C r i t i c i s m b e g i n s as a f i e l d w o r k assignment, i n v o l v i n g what G e e r t z c a l l s " e x c e e d i n g l y extended a c q u a i n t a n c e s w i t h e x t r e m e l y s m a l l m a t t e r s " . 1 9 The c r i t i c engages the c u r r i c u l u m , spending time becoming a q u a i n t e d w i t h i t i n or d e r t o 1 8 overcome the b a r r i e r s of f i r s t c o n t a c t and u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t s s p e c i f i c s . F i e l d w o r k i s done "through the d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m s and t h rough the c a r e f u l v i e w i n g of v i d e o t a p e s of c l a s s r o o m l i f e " . 2 0 I t does n o t , E i s n e r c a u t i o n s , i n v o l v e an o b s e r v a t i o n s c h e d u l e , w i t h p r e - d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o r d e r i n g , One of the reasons why i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r someone f u n c t i o n i n g as an e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c t o have an extended c o n t a c t w i t h an e d u c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n i s t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e events or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e a t y p i c a l . One needs s u f f i c i e n t time i n a s i t u a t i o n t o know which q u a l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e i t and which do n o t . 2 1 I t i n v o l v e s a t t e n t i o n to the sensuous c o n t e n t of what happens. I t i n v o l v e s q u e s t i o n s , and i t i n v o l v e s the o r d e r i n g of the answers t o those q u e s t i o n s . The answers become the argument which support the c r i t i c ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . One has t o spend time w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m i n o r d e r t o f i n d one's p l a c e t h e r e w i t h i t . The c r i t i c always l o o k s a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c u r r i c u l u m and h i m s e l f . But he may a l s o r o l e p l a y an a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t . I f the c r i t i c b e g i n s t o speak f o r o t h e r s , he must l e a r n t o t h i n k i n terms of t h e i r p r e m i s e s . However, he must n e c e s s a r i l y do t h i s t h r o ugh h i s own t h e o r e t i c background and h i s own e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . As G e e r t z n o t e s , " t h a t what we c a l l our d a t a are r e a l l y our own c o n s t r u c t i o n s of o t h e r p e o p l e ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n s of what they and t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s a r e up t o . . . . " 2 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , these c o n s t r u c t s s h o u l d s t a y as c l o s e to the a c t u a l ground of the e x p e r i e n c e as i s p o s s i b l e . 19 R e f e r e n t i a l adequacy, e m p i r i c a l p r o o f , i s a must i n t h i s approach t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m . D e s c r i p t i o n . The w r i t e - u p of the c r i t i c i s m has t h r e e s t e p s which, as E i s n e r p o i n t s o u t , a r e not a t a l l s e p a r a t e . They work t o g e t h e r t o r e v e a l what the c r i t i c p e r c e i v e d and t h o u g h t . D e s c r i p t i o n , the f i r s t s t e p , i s a r e n d e r i n g of the c r i t i c ' s i m p r e s s i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . I t a c c e s s e s the reader t o the c h a r a c t e r of the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t o what the c r i t i c a p p r e c i a t e s ( i n c l u d i n g the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ) i n the c u r r i c u l u m . The c r i t i c s e l e c t s d e t a i l s from the f i e l d w o r k e x p e r i e n c e and shapes them w i t h the i m a g i n a t i v e use of language, i n o r d e r t o convey an i m p r e s s i o n of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . E i s n e r w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , Here the e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c has a t a s k s i m i l a r t o h i s c o u n t e r p a r t d e a l i n g w i t h l i v e t h e a t r e . The c r i t i c ' s t a s k i n each case i s t o p r o v i d e a v i v i d r e n d e r i n g so t h a t o t h e r s might l e a r n t o see what t r a n s p i r e s . 2 3 The c r i t i c a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g i n t o c o n c r e t e v i v i d n e s s , i n the r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , the c o l o u r s , the movements, the s e n s i t i v i t i e s , the f e e l i n g s t h a t were e x h i b i t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m . For t h i s r e a s o n , the language of c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s , i n part,, ornamental r h e t o r i c . The w r i t e r u s i n g ornamental r h e t o r i c i s e s s e n t i a l l y detached from any d e s i r e t o i n s t r u c t . That i s , the c r i t i c does not so much d e f i n e what i s happening as he e s t a b l i s h e s what i s happening. The ornamental a s p e c t a r t i c u l a t e s the f e l t sense of the c u r r i c u l u m exchange. The c r i t i c i s m communicates not by c o d i n g i d e a s i n t o a b s t r a c t 20 p r o p o s i t i o n a l language but r a t h e r by r e c r e a t i n g an e m o t i o n a l l y r e a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s a s p e c t of the form says E i s n e r " g e n e r a t e s the e x c i t e m e n t " 2 " w h i l e a t the same time p r e s e r v i n g the t r u t h t h a t i s i n some degree v e r i f i a b l e . The c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n f o r m the r e a d e r , so t h a t when the r e a d e r e n c o u n t e r s a s i m i l a r e v ent, h i s or her u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t w i l l be enhanced. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h i s second s t e p , s i m i l a r t o G e e r t z ' d e s c r i p t i o n of c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s , the c r i t i c s o r t s out the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e . C u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s (or s h o u l d be) g u e s s i n g a t meanings, a s s e s s i n g the guesses, and drawing e x p l a n a t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s from the b e t t e r g u e s s e s . 2 5 The c r i t i c o r d e r s h i s d i s c o v e r i e s . T h i s o r d e r i n g i s done w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n of one's best e s t i m a t e of a n o t h e r ' s p o i n t of view, and from one's own e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The c r i t i c c o n s i d e r s how the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e was c o n s t i t u t e d and t h e n , as i n t e r p r e t e r , shapes the p a r t i c u l a r s i n t o , a t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from a c r i t i q u e of V a l l a n c e ' s i l l u s t r a t e s . The p a t t e r n of grand sweep and d e t a i l i s r e f l e c t e d i n the rhythm and p a c i n g of the m a t e r i a l s . An e n e r g e t i c and moving rhythm i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the study g u i d e , w h i c h , we can g a t h e r , i s the f i r s t component the s t u d e n t embarks upon. The energy i s conveyed by the s t r o n g sense of purpose and commitment of the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n s h e r e ; the t e x t p o r t i o n s of the s t u d y , guide p r o v i d e grand sweep, they d e f i n e the broad c o n t o u r s , t h e y e s t a b l i s h the o u t l i n e s of a b o l d and complex p a t t e r n and a l l o w us t o see where we a r e g o i n g . They e s t a b l i s h a sense of a n t i c i p a t i o n . They i n v i t e . .• . . 2 1 But the energy l e v e l even w i t h i n the study guide drops s h o r t l y a f t e r t h a t , when we s t e p i n t o the w e l t e r of d e t a i l s on the mechanics, components, t h e i r purposes and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and a l l the r e s t . T h i s s e c t i o n i s slow, i n t i m i d a t i n g . . . , 2 6 The r h e t o r i c of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i n p a r t , p e r s u a s i v e , o r g a n i z i n g the data through the l e n s of the c r i t i c ' s own v a l u e c r i t e r i a . The c r i t i c comes a t the s u b j e c t matter from a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n , presumably wanting the reader t o go i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n , t o o . The c r i t i c does not n e c e s s a r i l y e x c l u d e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s of e n t r y i n t o the s u b j e c t , but one d i r e c t i o n p r e d o m inates. The d e t a i l s a r e o r g a n i z e d t o e s t a b l i s h c o r r o b o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r an a p p r a i s a l of v a l u e s t o be made. In t h i s r e g a r d E i s n e r a d v i s e s the c r i t i c , There are many ty p e s of e d u c a t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e and an e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h them . . . The e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c needs t o be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e what was n e g l e c t e d or r e j e c t e d as w e l l as what was a c c e p t e d when a t e a c h e r uses a p a r t i c u l a r approach i n a c l a s s r o o m . 2 7 E v a l u a t i o n . In s t e p t h r e e , e v a l u a t i o n , the c r i t i c s e x p l a i n r e l e v a n c e i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . They may a n a l y z e the how of the s o c i a l meanings, d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r ground and t h e i r meaning by r e l a t i n g the i n t e r n a l v a l u e s of the c u r r i c u l u m t o the e x t e r n a l v a l u e s of s o c i e t y . The d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e a s p e c t s s u b s t a n t i a t e the e v a l u a t i v e , which a r e the c o n c l u s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from a Barone c r i t i q u e a re i l l u s t r a t i v e . 22 Some of the words t h a t d e s c r i b e the homes of the d i s t r i c t , - l u s h - w e l l - t e n d e d - h a u g h t i l y - m a i n t a i n a d i s t a n c e - l a v i s h houses - thoroughbred s t a l l i o n s The schoolroom, - i n v i t e s me - e n g u l f s me - omnipresent words pervade the room The c h i l d r e n , - l o t s of E r i c s and C h r i s e s and Heathers and L i s a s - c r a w l - t i c k l e s - amorphous groups - bask - clump t o g e t h e r - put our arms around our work Some sentences t h a t o r d e r Barone's i m p r e s s i o n s , - What do we do a l l day? W e l l , l o t s of t h i n g s , but ma i n l y r e a d i n g and math. They're v e r y i m p o r t a n t , s i t t i n g a t the t i p - t o p of our c o n t r a c t s . Why e l s e would the s m i l e s of our t e a c h e r s become so broad when we have f i n i s h e d them? You can t e l l i t from the omnipresence of the words and numbers t h a t d e c o r a t e the room, and because when you go t o see the t e a c h e r , i t ' s almost always t o l e a r n r e a d i n g and math. - Mr. S u l l i v a n d i d n ' t w r i t e the books upon the s h e l f , so they a r e n ' t a l l chopped up. I f you know how, and i f you l e t y o u r s e l f , you can get a v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d of reward f o r r e a d i n g them. A reward from i n s i d e the books and i n s i d e y o u r s e l f . - h i s answer was so p o i n t e d t h a t i t s t u c k me - d i g e s t e d i t w i t h amazing speed and never once paused t o savour i t 23 - f e e l i n g v a g u e l y l i k e a t o o l - even one t h i n g — d o n ' t you t h i n k ? - - i f i t r e a l l y s p a r k l e s ; can be g r e a t e r than f o u r t e e n t h a t have no l u s t e r - We a r e m a i n l y l e a r n i n g how t o r e a d , I t e l l you . . . and l e a r n i n g how t o co u n t . Those words a r e our t o o l s . When we use them we l e a r n t o t h i n k a c e r t a i n way. We l i n e them up, and our w o r l d l i n e s up w i t h them. The words are t o o l s f o r s t r a i g h t n i n g out our w o r l d so we can use our number-tools t o measure i t . . . - What about the g l o r y of sounds and shapes and c o l o u r s ? I s i t not a l s o i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o l e a r n how they can p l a y upon each o t h e r ? How we can arrange them i n our dreams? Some of h i s c o n c l u s i o n s , - S c o t t and L i s a and a l l my f r i e n d s a r e s a i l i n g t o t h e i r houses now, t h e r e t o a c t out t h e i r l i v e s as sons and d a u g h t e r s , I am s u r e . And I am t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s o l d a g a i n as I i n s t r u c t my c a r t o ta k e me t o my o t h e r home. But on my way I s t i l l hear the words of babes as they echo through these h i l l s . I g l a n c e a g a i n a t these houses and now I t h i n k I u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r smugness. For I have b e f r i e n d e d t h e i r f u t u r e , and know t h a t they can w e l l a f f o r d t h e i r a i r s of nonchalance. T h e i r w e l l groomed h e i r s a r e r e t u r n i n g i n a l i t t l e y e l l o w s c h o o l bus. They c a r r y w i t h them t h e i r w e l l - h o n e d s k i l l s and each a p i e c e of the warmth i n which they passed the day. (There a re much, much worse ways t o l i v e a l i f e i n s c h o o l ! ) But I s i g h s o f t l y t o m y s e l f , f o r I s t i l l don't know i f anyone w i t h i n these houses ever sees t h e s e f l u f f y h i l l s , w i t h t h e i r f u r now changing t o a tawny brown. Who c a t c h e s the sc e n t of e u c a l y p t u s t r e e s as i t m i n g l e s w i t h the s u n l i g h t ? Or who can u n d e r s t a n d those d i s t a n t l i v e s - i n much, much d a r k e r p l a c e s l i v e s crunched upon each o t h e r l i k e j agged, r u s t y t i n cans i n a garbage heap? Who f e e l s the e x c i t e m e n t t h a t t h r o b s i n s i d e m a j e s t i c works of a r t ? For whom are books the t u n n e l s t o i m a g i n a r y w o r l d s t h a t never were b e f o r e and y e t have always been? As I whiz on my way, I n o t i c e t h a t many of the a p r i c o t blossoms have f a l l e n now, l y i n g s h r i v e l e d on the road. J u s t b e f o r e they a r e p r e s s e d beneath the i n s i s t e n t wheels of my a u t o m o b i l e machine, i n a f l a s h I wonder i f my good p a l s S c o t t and L i s a w i l l f o r e v e r gaze p a s t them - s t r a i g h t ahead. Or w i l l t h ey l e a r n t o see t h e i r c o l o r s ? That would be g r e a t . 2 8 24 The c r i t i c works on two l e v e l s of a p p r e c i a t i o n , on the i n t e r p r e t i v e documentation of the e x p e r i e n c e d c u r r i c u l u m and on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o j e c t e d consequences of the c u r r i c u l u m . C r i t i c i s m must p r e s e n t a v e r i f i a b l e p i c t u r e of what i s the c a s e . Normative s o c i a l t h e o r y w i l l i n t r u d e t o suggest why t h a t i s the case and/or what ought t o be the c a s e . E v a l u a t i o n per se i s r h e t o r i c a l d i s c o u r s e s i n c e the r e a d e r i s asked t o s e r v e as m e d i a t o r of the exchange which the c r i t i c i s p r e s e n t i n g , and of the change which the c r i t i c i s m f u n c t i o n s t o s u g g e s t . Q u a l i t i e s of the F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e The f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e i s a communicative event. The form of i t e x p r e s s e s the c r i t i c ' s way of s e e i n g . The form i s a l s o what i s r e c e i v e d and c o n s i d e r e d by the r e a d e r . The form a f f e c t s the r e a d e r . I t does t h i s i n e s s e n t i a l l y two ways. I t i s n a r r a t i o n and i t i s argument. The form i s n a r r a t i v e s i n c e , as E i s n e r w r i t e s , " f o r making p u b l i c the i n e f f a b l e , n o t h i n g i s more p r e c i s e than the a r t i s t i c use of l a n g u a g e . " 2 9 C r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are i n themselves i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . They i n v o l v e r e c o l l e c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n , t h a t become i n the making f i c t i o n s , f i c t i o n s i n the sense t h a t they a r e "something made", "something f a s h i o n e d " . 3 0 The c r i t i q u e i s f a s h i o n e d so t h a t i t documents w i t h a c c u r a c y the t h e m a t i c , c o n t e x t u a l , and performance a s p e c t s of the c u r r i c u l u m i n t e r a c t i o n . The s e l e c t e d movements of the 2 5 i n t e r a c t i o n a re p r e s e n t e d so t h a t the l a t i t u d e s and l o n g i t u d e s of the c o n t e x t , as the c r i t i c saw i t , a r e p r e s e n t e d . The c r i t i c i s m c i r c u l a t e s a s t o r y about what the c r i t i c o b s e r v e d . I n d i c a t o r i n c i d e n t s a re p o r t r a y e d w i t h c o l o u r t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the theme. E i s n e r w r i t e s about the language used, "What the e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c employs i s a form of l i n g u i s t i c a r t i s t r y r e p l e t e w i t h metaphor, c o n t r a s t , redundancy, and e m p h a s i s . " 3 1 T h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n aims a t d e s c r i b i n g the meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e of b e h a v i o u r as i t o c c u r s i n a c u l t u r a l network s a t u r a t e d w i t h m e a n i n g . 3 2 What cannot be grasped l i t e r a l l y i s suggested and p r e s e n t e d a n a l o g i c a l l y . The language i s e v o c a t i v e . The form i s emoti v e . R i c h d e t a i l converges from s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s r e l a y i n g and s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the c r i t i c ' s i m p r e s s i o n s . Sometimes " t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n " has been adapted t o mean redundant so t h a t the r e p e t i t i o n s r e v e a l what t h a t s i n g l e q u a l i t y i s t h a t pervades the whole e x p e r i e n c e i n s p i t e of v a r i a t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . Some e x c e r p t s from a c r i t i q u e by Donmoyer i l l u s t r a t e . Donmoyer f a v o u r s l i f e l e s s p a s t p a r t i c i p l e s . - a r e v a l u e d - were r e c o n s t i t u t e d - i s o r d e r e d - are p r i z e d - i s b a r r e n - i s d i s c o n n e c t e d - i s v i c t i m i z e d - w e l l p r e p a r e d - i s c o n t r o l l e d The v e r b s i n the p r e s e n t t e n s e t h a t he uses a r e not p r e t t y . 2 6 - v i c t i m i z e s - c h e c k i n g and r e c o r d i n g - c h e c k i n g and r e c h e c k i n g and c h e c k i n g out and c h e c k i n g i n - p a r c e l s out - s t a r e d He d e s c r i b e s the- t e a c h e r as an automaton. - mechanized p r e c i s i o n - f a c e remains immobile - g r e a t economy of movement and g e s t u r e - a m a r i o n e t t e whose s t r i n g s a r e t o o t i g h t - s h o c k i n g b e i g e - s t a r e d e m p t i l y . . . In a v o i c e v o i d of f e e l i n g . . . an i n q u i r y . - n o n d e s c r i p t l y made - empty He d e s c r i b e s the c l a s s r o o m as a c a r i c a t u r e of the l a r g e r soc i e t y . - d i s c o n n e c t e d - u n j o i n e d - l a b e l s - c o m p l i a n t l y - d u t i f u l l y - g r a d u a l e n c u l t u r a t i o n - absence of p a s s i o n and ent h u s i a s m - w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r l i f e - t o e f f a c e themselves - w e l l t r a i n e d f o r a s o c i e t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c c u b i c l e s , assembley l i n e s , and s e c r e t a r i a l p o o l s - l i k e B i g Macs . . . a l l pre c o o k e d , prepackaged, a r t i f i c i a l l y f l a v o u r e d - carbon paper - e f f i c i e n c y - the d o t t e d l i n e 3 3 The form says E i s n e r " d i r e c t s our a t t e n t i o n so t h a t a c e r t a i n k i n d of e x p e r i e n c e can be h a d . " 3 4 A l s o , the form i s argument. Important q u a l i t i e s t h a t pervade the c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g c r i t i q u e d pervade the c r i t i c i s m . 27 Assumptions a r e embedded i n the language. The c u r r i c u l u m i s examined from a v e r y p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view. But the form of t h i s approach does not e x h i b i t c o n c e r n w i t h the c r i t i c ' s p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view s o l e l y . T h i s k i n d of c r i t i c i s m a t t e m p t s a l s o t o approximate the p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y of another ( o t h e r s ) who a r e more d i r e c t l y ( h a b i t u a l l y ) grounded i n the e x p e r i e n c e . The c r i t i c has been t h e r e as a spontaneous p a r t i c i p a n t d r e s s e d i n the g u i s e of s t u d e n t , perhaps. A l t h o u g h i t cannot p o s s i b l y be a r e l a t i o n of i d e n t i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f the s t u d e n t i s a c h i l d and the c r i t i c i s n o t , the assumption i s t h a t t h e r e i s i i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . E i s n e r w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , "My p o i n t here i s s i m p l y t h i s : O b j e c t i v i t y i s a f u n c t i o n of i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e agreement among a community of b e l i e v e r s . " 3 5 There i s a c o n n e c t i o n between the c r i t i c and the n a t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m as the c r i t i c s t r i v e s f o r empathetic u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The c r i t i c i s m l o o k s a t what o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s mean by the words they use, the mannerisms they a f f e c t , the m a t e r i a l s they s u r r o u n d themselves w i t h . There i s a s e p a r a t i o n between the c r i t i c and the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s or p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , s i n c e the c r i t i c c o n s c i o u s l y i n c l u d e s h i s educated ( i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a ) o p i n i o n ( c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p ) t o d i s t i n g u i s h what i s happening and what i s not happening. C o n c l u s i o n s are drawn from what the c r i t i c sees p e o p l e and t h i n g s d o i n g . The form of t h i s approach draws f o r t h w i t h c a r e f u l d e t a i l the performance, c o n t e x t u a l , and t h e m a t i c aspecs of the c u r r i c u l u m . These d e t a i l s converge i n a rhythm t h a t d i s t i l l s a way of 28 t h i n k i n g about the c u r r i c u l u m . The form i s argument. The reader may d i s a g r e e . The c r i t i c i s m welcomes d i a l o g u e . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Reader Acceptance There i s a d i f f i c u l t y common t o review l i t e r a t u r e , namely, s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . There i s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c s c r i t i c i s m t o e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , namely e p i s t e m i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n . There a re a l s o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d which prompt d i s t r u s t of the c r i t i c and f e a r of v i c t i m i z a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . L a s t l y , t h e r e a r e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l e v a n c e of c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s mode and the a s p e c t of h o n o u r i n g the e x p e r i e n c e of c h i l d r e n . ' S e l e c t i v e P e r c e p t i o n E i s n e r w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , " I n s o f a r as the p r o d u c t s of man are t o have e d u c a t i o n a l consequences, the f i t between the audien c e and the message needs t o be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . " 3 6 The c r i t i c i s m i s a message about a c u r r i c u l u m . W i t h t h a t message E i s n e r sees t h r e e p o t e n t i a l problems: - poor c r i t i c a l t a l k , - c r i t i c a l t a l k t h a t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the competencies of the au d i e n c e l i s t e n i n g t o i t or r e a d i n g i t , or - because the audience i s so unprepared t o p e r c e i v e t h a t a much more p o w e r f u l e d u c a t i o n a l program f o r t h a t a udience i s needed. ( s i c ) 3 7 Sometimes r e a d e r s d i s t r u s t an approach s i m p l y because i t i s d i f f e r e n t than t h e i r own. Someone e l s e ' s approach appears to.be s e l e c t i v e , p r i v a t i z e d , random. For example, E i s n e r notes t h a t 29 those r e s e a r c h e r s who are s e c u r e o n l y i n m u l t i p l i c a t i v e c o r r o b o r a t i o n w i l l not be a b l e t o a c c e p t c r i t i c i s m as a v a l i d form of i n q u i r y . The s p e c t e r of h a v i n g t o c o n s i d e r f o r purposes of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s i s l i k e l y t o f r i g h t e n some p e o p l e . There i s o f t e n the t e m p t a t i o n t o seek s i m p l e , c l e a r - c u t , unambiguous answers t o complex problems. Having t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s , t o d e a l w i t h dilemmas, t o r e s o l v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t o t h i n k i n a complex way about complex i s s u e s may seem t o be more of a c h a l l e n g e than some ar e w i l l i n g t o t a k e . 3 8 There a r e a l s o t h o s e , though, who do b e l i e v e i n c r i t i c i s m as a v a l i d form of c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y ; however, the paradigm through which they wish t o do i t i s d i f f e r e n t . M i c h a e l A p p l e , f o r example, would p r e f e r t o use the language of s o c i a l c r i t i q u e . There i s between E i s n e r and Apple a d i f f e r e n c e i n ways of both a t t e n d i n g t o phenomena and i n o r d e r i n g those phenomena. App l e ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the E i s n e r approach i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s a r e not w i l l f u l l y p o l i t i c a l . A l t h o u g h he a p p r e c i a t e s what the approach does o f f e r as case s t u d i e s , he has d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i t s l a c k of r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s : T h i s f a i l u r e t o s e a r c h f o r c o n n e c t i o n s between the dynamics w i t h i n one p a r t i c u l a r case study and the l a r g e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n of economic, p o l i t i c a l , or even c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a weakness i n n e a r l y a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s . 3 9 E i s n e r ' s approach does not go " f a r enough i n one's p o l i t i c a l or economic a n a l y s i s of the s e t t i n g b e i n g examined.'"' 0 I t i s not c r i t i c a l enough, because i t i s done w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y r a t h e r than b e i n g r e l a t e d t o the f o r c e s of 30 h i s t o r y or economics. E p i s t e m i c C o n t r a d i c t i o n s In a r e v i e w , H a r o l d Pearse r e f e r r e d t o E i s n e r as "an e d u c a t i o n a l go-between"" 1 a phrase which s u g g e s t s P e a r s e ' s a mbivalence towards the E i s n e r approach. He c o n c l u d e s h i s r e v i e w : U l t i m a t e l y , i n a i m i n g a t a r a t i o n a l , l o g i c a l e x p l i c a t i o n of the i n e f f a b l e t h r o u g h v e r b a l means t o an audien c e presumably c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of those who p e r p e t u a t e the myths and v a l u e s he i s c r u s a d i n g a g a i n s t , E i s n e r f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a c u r i o u s p redicament. He i s up a g a i n s t a b r i c k w a l l t r y i n g t o use those b r i c k s as h i s o n l y weapons and means of d e f e n c e . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e mortar has begun t o crumble, some b r i c k s a re l o o s e , and E i s n e r ' s aim i s t r u e , a t l e a s t some of the t i m e . " 2 In t h i s " c u r i o u s p r e d i c a m e n t " , E i s n e r w r i t e s w i t h a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e of p a s s i o n and appeasement. W i t h p a s s i o n E i s n e r t a l k s of the c r i t i c e s t a b l i s h i n g the sense of the e x p e r i e n c e d c u r r i c u l u m , the meanings of which a r e n e i t h e r t r u e nor f a l s e , they a r e as p e r c e i v e d . V a l u e i n t h i s sense has t o do w i t h the r e n d e r i n g of wholeness, o r d e r , harmony, meaning, s i g n i f i c a n c e . W i th appeasement he t a l k s of w o r t h w h i l e n e s s i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . I s E i s n e r ' s emphasis on the c r i t i c h a v i n g a background i n e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y because such background i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the c r i t i c as c o n n o i s s e u r ? Or, i s i t because i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the c r i t i c as a r b i t e r ? G a i l McCutcheon s u g g e s t s t h a t the c r i t i c s ' s r o l e i s not o n l y t o d i s c l o s e the p e r c e p t i o n s of a c o n n o i s s e u r , but a l s o the e v a l u a t i o n s of an a r b i t e r , even though the word e v a l u a t i o n "has 3 1 such a p s y c h o m e t r i c c o n n o t a t i o n t h e s e d a y s . " * 3 She has s a i d , I t h i n k c r i t i c i s m s e r v e s a co u p l e of f u n c t i o n s . One i s as a v e h i c l e f o r l e a r n i n g about something t h r o u g h v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s ; but i t a l s o makes you c o n s i d e r the m e r i t s or l a c k of m e r i t s of those m a t e r i a l s . That i s e v a l u a t i o n . 4 4 W e l l s Foshay, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h McCutcheon and o t h e r s , e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n f u s i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . F i r s t , he suggests t h a t he sees e v a l u a t i o n as the " c l i m a x " of c r i t i c i s m . Then he goes on t o say t h a t o t h e r s c o u l d emphasize a d i f f e r e n t r o l e 4 5 and g i v e s an example of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m as m o s t l y the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c o n n o i s s e u r , T r i l l i n g d e a l s almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h . . . how the work engages T r i l l i n g . T r i l l i n g was no o r d i n a r y man and the way i t engages him i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n i t s e l f , and i t ' s not e v a l u a t i o n . I t h i n k i n our o r d i n a r y d i s c o u r s e we've thought of c r i t i c i s m as e v a l u a t i o n p r i m a r i l y . That's o n l y p a r t of i t and maybe not indeed the main p a r t i n any g i v e n work of c r i t i c i s m . 4 6 I s E i s n e r ' s c a l l f o r e v a l u a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m a main p a r t of t h i s approach t o c r i t i c i s m , or i s i t thrown i n as appeasement? Somehow i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n f u s e s . I t a l s o w o r r i e s o t h e r s , f o r whom s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n i s not enough j u s t i f i c a t i o n . D i s t r u s t of the C r i t i c There i s what E i s n e r c a l l s "poor c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t " . 4 7 Thomas Barone, a p r a c t i t i o n e r of the E i s n e r a p p r o a c h , enumerates two examples of poor c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t : 32 P o o r l y documented i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , d i s t o r t i o n of events t o f i t a c e r t a i n w r i t i n g s t y l e or b e l i e f system, and r a s h g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t attempt t o s t a n d w i t h o u t any b u t t r e s s i n g by r e a l - w o r l d r e f e r e n t s a l l tend t o f o c u s our a t t e n t i o n more on the m e n t a l i t y of the author than on the e m p i r i c a l phenomena of the c l a s s r o o m s u p o s e d l y b e i n g r e v e a l e d . . . . The aim i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , not c a r i c a t u r e . Reducing a complex p e r s o n a l i t y t o a s t e r e o t y p e , p r e s e n t i n g him or h e r , f o r example, o n l y i n terms of t r a i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s or group, i s indeed a form of r e d u c t i o n i s m . R e d u c t i o n i s m i n t h i s k i n d of q u a l i t a t i v e h o l i s t i c approach i s e s p e c i a l l y dangerous, f o r t h e r e i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t of a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of complex, e m i p r i c a l " r e a l i t y " . The r e a d e r s may be drawn i n t o such a f a l s e or f a c i l e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h e i r c r i t i c a l f a c u l t i e s b l u n t e d by the h i g h l y d e t a i l e d appearance of r e a l i t y b e i n g shoved f o r t h . I t i s the r e p o n s i b i l i t y of the author t o attempt to a v o i d such r e d u c t i o n i s m . " 8 E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , another p r a c t i t i o n e r , w o r r i e s about her e v o c a t i v e w r i t i n g not b e i n g taken s e r i o u s l y , about the reader " t r i p p i n g out on r e a l l y n i c e w r i t i n g " . " 9 T h i s c o u l d happen i f i t appears t o the reader t h a t the c r i t i c has t u r n e d h i s or her back w h i l e communing w i t h o n e s e l f . I f t h i s a p p a r e n t l y happens, then Munby can see "the e f f o r t of c r i t i c i s m f o s t e r i n g something l i k e d i s d a i n r a t h e r than the s o r t of acknowledgement good c r i t i c i s m d e s e r v e s . " 5 0 W e l l s Foshay, however, answers V a l l a n c e ' s worry t h i s way, There i s such a t h i n g as c r i t i c a l t h e o r y and t h e r e i s c r i t i c i s m one reads f o r i t s own sake. For example, I'm a g r e a t admirer of Andrew P o r t e r and P a u l i n e K a e l i n the New Y o r k e r . Some of the music reviewed I've never heard and am u n l i k e l y t o hear and I r a r e l y see f i l m s anymore, ye t I e n j o y r e a d i n g P a u l i n e K a e l . So the e f f e c t of t h a t k i n d of good w r i t i n g i s upon my g e n e r a l s e n s i b i l i t y . Can't we draw a p a r a l l e l h e r e ? 5 1 E i s n e r , t o o , would p r o b a b l y see t h a t e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r ' s 33 g e n e r a l s e n s i b i l i t y as the th r o u g h . There i s a l s o some j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Ed Wachtman a r t of the c o n n o i s s e u r coming a g o n i z i n g over the need f o r e x p r e s s e s h i s d i s c o m f o r t w i t h the V a l l a n c e c r i t i q u e "Scanning H o r i z o n s and L o o k i n g a t Weeds", How do you j u s t i f y the f a c t t h a t these m a t e r i a l s a r e as e x c i t i n g as you p o r t r a y them? I t h i n k the weakness of the paper i s i n i t s l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s i s s u e ; but what's the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the a r t of the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c ? I don't know i f t h e r e i s any, except the f a c t they a r e s t i l l i n the f i e l d w h i l e o t h e r s have been weeded o u t . How do you j u s t i f y your sense of the e x p e r i e n c e , your p o r t r a y a l of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e t o o t h e r p eople? I t h i n k t h a t t h a t i s a problem any of us who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a r e a a re goi n g t o have t o d e a l w i t h . Maybe the q u e s t i o n of j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s one we can bypass and say t h a t j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s sense i s n ' t n e c e s s a r y . 5 2 Stephen Pepper, a p r o f e s s o r of p h i l o s o p h y and a e s t h e t i c s , would p r o b a b l y assuage Wachtman's unease w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n : I t must not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t the a e s t h e t i c work of a r t i s not r e a l i z e d i n any c a s u a l p e r c e p t i o n but i s a p e r c e p t i v e s e r i e s and i n v o l v e s a p e r c e p t u a l g r a s p . N o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d men brought up i n the same c u l t u r e may approach a work of a r t from q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s , but as they e n l a r g e t h e i r p e r c e p t i v e s e r i e s and b u i l d up the t o t a l p e r c e p t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the work of a r t , t h i s t o t a l s t r u c t u r e i s bound t o become more and more n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l f o r the v a r i o u s men. 5 3 Barone q u o t i n g from Tom W a k e f i e l d would g i v e Watchman t h i s a s s u r a n c e : 34 Such r e p o r t i n g i s ' i m a g i n a t i v e ' not because the aut h o r has d i s t o r t e d the f a c t s , but because he has p r e s e n t e d them i n a f u l l i n s t e a d of a naked manner, brought out the s i g h t s , sounds, and f e e l i n g s u r r o u n d i n g these f a c t s , and connected them by comparison w i t h o t h e r f a c t s of h i s t o r y , s o c i e t y , and l i t e r a t u r e i n an a r t i s t i c manner t h a t does not d i m i n i s h but g i v e s g r e a t e r depth and d i m e n s i o n t o the f a c t s . 5 " V a l i d i t y i n t h e s e cases r e l i e s upon the c r e d i b i l i t y of the w i t n e s s and/or i n the c o n s i s t e n c y of the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d and the e l a b o r a t i o n of meaning r e n d e r e d . Even so, d i s t r u s t of the c r i t i c r eaches even h a r s h e r l e v e l s , namely, the p o t e n t i a l t h e r e i s f o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . V i c t i m i z a t i o n of Teachers H a r o l d Pearse e x p r e s s e s t h i s d i s t r u s t t h i s way: What would happen i f e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , i f p a r a l l e l w i t h a r t c r i t i c i s m , were c a r r i e d t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n ? Do we wi s h t o t r a n s p o r t i n t o the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t e the k i n d of monopoly and power some a r t c r i t i c s e n j oy? Do we want c r i t i c s t o make or break t e a c h e r ' s c a r e e r s ? I s t h i s k i n d . of abuse a v o i d a b l e ? 5 5 Here, Pearse d i s p l a y s b a s i c a l l y a d i s t r u s t of the paradigm chosen, and sees c r i t i c s i n the a r t s as e s s e n t i a l l y c a v i l l e r s . M i c h a e l Apple s u g g e s t s t h a t , f o r c r i t i c i s m s " p o e t i c a l l y or e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y r e c o u n t e d " , . . . t o assume t h a t even i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s • e x i s t u n r e l a t e d t o l a r g e r s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e s t h a t i n p a r t determine t h e i r sense of a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , t e a c h e r r o l e , e t c . , i s merely t o c o n t i n u e e d u c a t i o n s ' l o n g h i s t o r y of blaming the v i c t i m . " 5 6 Apple assumes t h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n of t e a c h e r s i s i n h e r e n t i n the approach f o r two r e a s o n s : 35 Many people now engaged i n q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h have had t o l e a r n how t o do i t the m s e l v e s . There i s l i t t l e c u m u l a t i v e r e s e a r c h as y e t , so the q u e s t i o n s one asks w i l l tend t o be d e s c r i p t i v e , taxonomic, and i n t e r n a l i s t i c merely t o e s t a b l i s h a base upon which t o s t a n d . Another reason i s p r o b a b l y j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , i f not more so. T h i s has t o do w i t h the p o l i t i c s of knowledge d i t r i b u t i c n . The t o o l s and t r a d i t i o n s of a c r i t i c a l " e x t e r n a l i s t " a n a l y s i s of s c h o o l s t h a t i s , the e v a l u a t i o n of s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t r e l a t e s the day-to-day l i f e i n c l a s s r o o m s t o the unequal economic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and unequal c o n t r o l of i n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e i t i s u s u a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o e d u c a t o r s . 5 7 M a t e r i a l s C r i t i c i s m There i s unease about c r i t i c i s m b e i n g used on c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s o n l y , t h a t i s , as s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a r t i f a c t s i n i s o l a t i o n from t h e i r b e i n g used. Maxine Greene e x p r e s s e s t h a t worry: I do not see how one can ever be sure of what exper i e n c e s a re made p o s s i b l e by c u r r i c u l a . I am s k e p t i c a l of the degree t o which the l i v e d w o r l d can be c o n t r o l l e d . To f i n d a way t o d e s c r i b e the q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and packages i s t o do one k i n d of t h i n g ; t o h a z a r d guesses as t o the impact they a re l i k e l y t o have on d i v e r s e human b e i n g s i s a n o t h e r , q u i t e a n o t h e r . The " e x p e r i e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s " , I am s a y i n g , a r e i n the m a t e r i a l s ; they cannot be presumed t o be i n the l i v e d w o r l d s of c h i l d r e n . 5 8 I f , however, c r i t i c s a r e l o o k i n g a t a c u r r i c u l u m package not as a t h i n g i n i t s e l f but as a t h i n g i n terms of performance ( t h a t i s , l o o k i n g a t c u r r i c u l u m as a p e r f o r m i n g a r t ) , they c o u l d be defended as d o i n g what J o e l Weiss c a l l s " e n v i s i o n i n g the s c o r e " . G a i l McCutcheon e l a b o r a t e s : 36 In a way i t ' s a q u e s t i o n of whether c u r r i c u l u m i s a p e r f o r m i n g a r t . Can you loo k a t a c u r r i c u l u m s c r i p t ( m a t e r i a l ) and say whether or not i t has p o t e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n t o something. I t would be e q u i v a l e n t t o c h o o s i n g a p l a y f o r a s p e c i f i c t h e a t e r t r o u p e t o c h o o s i n g a p l a y f o r a s p e c i f i c season of performance, knowledge of the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the tro u p e and t h e a t e r , the a u d i e n c e ' s t a s t e , and so f o r t h . S u r e l y a c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c (or drama manager) can e n v i s i o n t h a t some programs (or s c r i p t s ) have more p o t e n t i a l than o t h e r s . 5 9 I f i t i s agreed t h a t the c o n n o i s s e u r / c r i t i c can e n v i s i o n the m a t e r i a l s i n terms of performance, a t l e a s t f o r him or h e r s e l f , i t would presumably a l s o be agreed t h a t t h a t i s not the same t h i n g as a c r i t i c i s m of the l i v e performance. M a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m i s c r i t i c i z i n g the s c o r e , the s c r i p t . M a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m as e n v i s i o n i n g i s p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . Perhaps, t o some r e a d e r s , i t can l e a d t o a s e r i o u s r e a p p r a i s a l of the t a k e n -f o r - g r a n t e d a s p e c t of the package. " c r i t i c i s m i s a k i n d of advance o r g a n i z e r , j u s t as t h e o r y i n g e n e r a l i s an advance o r g a n i z e r . " 6 0 I t can even have v a l u e as a base f o r c r e a t i v e p l a y f u l n e s s i n r e g a r d s , f o r example, the d e v e l o p e r ' s solemn i n t e n t . "We use the c r i t i c ' s work as a set of cues t h a t e n able us t o p e r c e i v e what has been n e g l e c t e d . " 6 1 Even though the concept of e n v i s i o n i n g can be a c c e p t e d i n m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m , t h e r e i s s t i l l something i m p o r t a n t m i s s i n g . Hugh Munby e l a b o r a t e s : G e n e r a l l y , the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n these ways t e l l s more of what we can expect the c u r r i c u l u m t o do f o r i t s t e a c h e r s and t h e i r t e a c h i n g and of the b e l i e f s and assumptions t h a t u n d e r g i r d the program's s t r u c t u r e than i t t e l l s of the c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e r i e n c e and how they p e r c e i v e the c u r r i c u l u m t o be c h a n g i n g t h e m . 6 2 37 Performance c r i t i c i s m , on the o t h e r hand, i s c r i t i q u i n g what Barone c a l l s f o u r - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , i n the sense t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m i s " p l a y e d o u t " . 6 3 W i t h i n the f o u r - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the p l a y e d - o u t c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e a re e l l i p s e s , c o m p r e s s i o n s , e x p a n s i o n s . T h i n g s are p l a y e d out s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the stage by d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s . Indeed, m a t e r i a l s can be p l a y e d out i n c o n g r u o u s l y , i n terms of package i n t e n t . The c r i t i c i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m c a n , drawing from e x p e r i e n c e , d i s c o v e r some of thes e a c t u a l i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the " p l a y e d - o u t " c u r r i c u l u m . However, n e i t h e r i n the e n v i s i o n e d nor i n the p l a y e d - o u t c u r r i c u l u m can the c r i t i c do t h i s from a c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view. Honouring C h i l d r e n Hugh Munby and Maxine Greene have e x p r e s s e d t h i s c o n c e r n . Others have, t o o , f o r example: Roger Simon: Does t h a t mean i f we as a d u l t c r i t i c s respond c r i t i c a l l y t o a s e t of m a t e r i a l s , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o the a d u l t w o r l d , or does the a d u l t ' s sense of a e s t h e t i c and meaning c r o s s over? G a i l McCutcheon: I t r e a l l y d o e s n ' t . Some of my s t u d e n t s worked on t h a t problem l a s t semester. They asked c h i l d r e n which r e a d i n g s e r i e s they p r e f e r r e d by h a v i n g the k i d s rank them a f t e r e x amining v a r i o u s s e r i e s . They found t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n agreed w i t h each o t h e r q u i t e a b i t , even though they were d o i n g the r a n k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . They d i d n ' t a g r e e , however, w i t h the a d u l t s who a l s o ranked the b o o k s . 6 " What does p r e v e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s happening f o r c h i l d r e n i s t h a t t h e r e i s what G e e r t z would c a l l "a l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the i m a g i n a t i v e u n i v e r s e " 6 5 of c h i l d r e n . I n m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m t h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the i m a g i n a t i v e u n i v e r s e 38 of c h i l d r e n may be i m p o s s i b l e , u n l e s s one i s r e c o r d i n g t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , as Munby n o t e s : . . . The p u z z l e becomes one of f i n d i n g adequate ways t o r e p r e s e n t a c u r r i c u l u m when the b e s t way, t h a t of d e s c r i b i n g the c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n i t , i s l o s t t o u s . 6 6 However, even i n c r i t i c i z i n g the performed c u r r i c u l u m , the c r i t i c i s n e i t h e r a genuine p a r t i c i p a n t ( n a t i v e ) nor an u n b i a s e d o b s e r v e r . Even i f , as c o n n o i s s e u r , one can i d e n t i f y the m o t i v a t i o n s of the o t h e r a d u l t s i n the c u r r i c u l u m s e t t i n g , can one a p p r e c i a t e the t h e o r i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n use t o r e - i n v e n t , or cope w i t h what i s happening? C r i t i c s can observe t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , but can they a p p r e c i a t e the f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s ? Some c r i t i c s and e d u c a t o r s do not c a r e about these f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s ( e . g . Len B e r k ) ; o t h e r s do (e.g. J o e l W e i s s ) . W i t ness the f o l l o w i n g r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n : Len Berk: I t seems t o me the essence of the t h i n g i s t h a t one i s drawing the k i d s i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n . There i s something p e c u l i a r about the c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e and what's p e c u l i a r about i t i s t h a t i t ' s not meant merely t o a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n , but t o a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n i n such a way so as t o draw them toward an a p p r e c i a t i o n of what w i l l be the best i n a d u l t l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s a l l v e r y w e l l t h a t k i d s get i n t o Superman. I t does n o t , however, t h r i l l me t h a t they become a t t a c h e d t o i t . I would f a r r a t h e r f i n d something t h a t might a p p e a l t o them e q u a l l y and draw them more c l e a r l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of something I want them t o be a t t a c h e d t o . J o e l Weiss: I t h i n k t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n h e r e , Len, t h a t some books, f o r example, t h a t you might enjoy and get something out o f , happen t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the enjoyment of your k i d s . But, are t h e r e books which c h i l d r e n get something out of t h a t you w o u l d n ' t ? 6 7 F o o t n o t e s (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), p. 75. 2 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 75. 3 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 77. 0 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 83. 5 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 84. 6 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 88. 7 Thomas E. Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g the E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m : C l u e s from the 'New J o u r n a l i s m ' " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:46, 1980. 8 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 191. 9 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 217. 1 0 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On the Uses of E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g Classroom L i f e " , Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 78:3:354, F e b r u a r y , 1 977. 1 1 Max K o z l o f f , Renderings (New York : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1968,), p. 306. 1 2 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 203. 1 3 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1973), p. 7. 1" G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 26. 1 5 G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 10. 1 6 G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 23. 1 7 Stephen C. Pepper, The B a s i s of C r i t i c i s m i n  the A r t s (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949), p. 7. 1 8 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 18. 1 9 G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 21 • 2 0 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , P. 1 9 5 . 2 1 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , P- 218. 2 2 G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 9 . 2 3 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On the Uses C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g C l a s s r o o m L i f e " , Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 78:3:352, F e b r u a r y 1977. 2 f t E i s n e r , Imaginat i o n , p. 201. 2 5 G e e r t z , C u l t u r e s , p. 20. 2 e E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , "Scanning H o r i z o n s and L o o k i n g a t Weeds: A C r i t i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n of 'The Great P l a i n s E x p e r i e n c e ' " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), pp. 154-155. 2 7 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On the Uses of E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g C l a s s r o o m L i f e " , Teachers C o l l e g e R e c o r d, 78:3:354, F e b r u a r y 1977. 2 8 Thomas Barone, "Of S c o t t and L i s a and Other F r i e n d s " , c i t e d i n E l l i o t E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l  I m a g i n a t i o n (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), p. 240-245. 2 9 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n , (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), p. 2 7 3 0 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1973), p. TW. 3 1 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , "On the Uses of E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m f o r E v a l u a t i n g C l a s s r o o m L i f e " , Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 78:3:352, F e b r u a r y 1977. 3 2 E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m " , TCR, 78:3:353 3 3 Robert Donmoyer, "S c h o o l and S o c i e t y R e v i s i t e d : An E d u c a t i o n a l C r i t i c i s m of M i s s H i l l ' s F o u r t h Grade Cl a s s r o o m " , c i t e d i n E l l i o t E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l 41 I m a g i n a t i o n (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), pp. 229-240. 3 4 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 201. 3 5 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , p. 214. 3 6 E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m " , TCR, 78:3:353. 3 7 E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m " , TCR, 78:3:355. 3 8 E i s n e r , Imaginat i o n , p. 218. 3 9 M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , p. 504. 4 0 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 504. 4 1 H a r o l d P e a r s e , "Reviews", Canadian Jo'urnal of  E d u c a t i o n , 5:3:112, 1980 4 2 P e a r s e , "Reviews", CJE, 5:3:112, 1980. 4 3 G a i l McCutcheon, c i t e d i n Roger I . Simon, ed. " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m and C u r r i c u l u m D e s c r i p t i o n " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 7:2:114, Summer, 1977. 4 4 McCutcheon, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:12:113. 4 5 n. "I do t h i n k c r i t i c a l t h e o r y can h e l p us here! I ' l l use the example of P u r v e s ' s a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t o which t h e r e a r e f o u r g e n e r a l p a r t s " ( " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m and C u r r i c u l u m D e s c r i p t i o n " , CI_, 7:2:114). 4 6 W e l l s Foshay, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , CI, 7:2: 114. 4 7 E i s n e r , " C o n n o i s s u e r s h i p and C r i t i c i s m " , TCR, 78:3:355. 4 8 Thomas E. Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g the E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m : C l u e s from the 'New J o u r n a l i s m ' " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:51-52, 1980. 4 9 E l i z a b e t h V a l l a n c e , c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:111. 5 0 Hugh Munby, " P h i l o s o p h y f o r C h i l d r e n : An Example of C u r r i c u l u m Review and C r i t i c i s m " , C u r r i c u l u m  I n q u i r y , 9:3:247. 5 1 W e l l s Foshay, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:113 5 2 Ed Wachtman, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , CI_ , 7:2:110-111. 5 3 Stephen C. Pepper, The B a s i s of C r i t i c i s m i n  the A r t s (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949), p7 167. 5 * Thomas E. Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g the E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m : C l u e s f o r the 'New J o u r n a l i s m ' " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 10:1:51. 5 5 H a r o l d P e a r s e , "Reviews", Canadian J o u r n a l of  Educat i o n , 5:3:115. 5 6 M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 502. 5 7 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 504. 5 8 Maxine Greene, c i t e d i n Roger I . Simon, ed., " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m and C u r r i c u l u m D e s c r i p t i o n " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 7:2:117, 1977. 5 9 J o e l Weiss and G a i l McCutcheon, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:120. 6 0 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (NewYork: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1979), p. 216. 6 1 E i s n e r , Imaginat i o n , p. 216. 6 2 Hugh Munby, " P h i l o s o p h y f o r C h i l d r e n : An Example of C u r r i c u l u m Review and C r i t i c i s m " , C u r r i c u l u m  I n q u i r y , 9:3:247. 6 3 Barone, " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g " , C I , 10:1:36. 6 4 Roger Simon and G a i l McCutcheon, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:115. 6 5 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s (New York: B a s i c Books, Inc . , 1 973) , p~i TT! 6 6 Munby, " P h i l o s o p h y f o r C h i l d r e n " , C I , 9:3:247. 6 7 Len Berk and J o e l Weiss, c i t e d i n " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m " , C I , 7:2:116. Chapter 3 CRITICISM AS PERSONAL DISCLOSURE 44 T h i s c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an approach t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m d e v e l o p e d by W i l l i a m P i n a r , of the U n i v e r s i t y of R o c h e s t e r , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . He c a l l s h i s c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m c u r r e r e , which i s the L a t i n i n f i n i t i v e from which the word c u r r i c u l u m i s d e r i v e d . He e x p l a i n s h i s c h o i c e of term i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h : I n s t e a d of examining o n l y the c o u r s e of s t u d y , or one's i n t e n t i o n s i n d e s i g n i n g the c o u r s e t o be r u n , i n c u r r e r e we focus on the r u n n i n g of the c o u r s e . The co u r s e becomes subsumed i n , though not reduced t o , the e x p e r i e n c e of the run n e r . T h i s runner i s the t e a c h e r or the s t u d e n t (or whoever comes . i n c o n t a c t w i t h c u r r i c u l a ) , a l t h o u g h i n t h i s p r e s e n t study he i s a studen t ( t h a t i s t o say, he has adopted the a t t i t u d e of a s t u d e n t ) . . . . 1 Sources f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e some w r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m P i n a r , and of h i s c o l l e a g u e , M a d e l e i n e Grumet. These w r i t i n g s on c u r r e r e a re examined under the s c r u t i n y of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s enumerated i n c h a p t e r one. The major s u b d i v i s i o n s of the c h a p t e r a r e (1) p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , (2) substance of c r i t i c i s m , and (3) d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h reader a c c e p t a n c e . P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of C u r r e r e Presupposed i n t h i s c r i t i c a l approach a r e d e f i n i t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m , c r i t i c i s m , and a u t o b i o g r a p h y and some p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e s from which these n o t i o n s have been taken and de v e l o p e d . 45 C u r r i c u l u m as C u r r e r e P i n a r and Grumet loo k a t c u r r i c u l u m i n two ways, as an a b s t r a c t i o n and as a l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e . C u r r i c u l u m as an a b s t r a c t i o n i s "the grand o r d e r of e v e n t s t h a t s c h o o l boards f i n a n c e , s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n , t h e o r i s t s a n a l y z e and t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z e " . 2 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t a re e x t e r n a l t o the l e a r n e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n the c l a s s r o o m , t h a t i s , e x t e r n a l t o the l i v e d p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m i n g the a b s t r a c t i o n i n t o t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g a c t i o n s . C u r r i c u l u m as a b s t r a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s r e c o g n i z e d as the c o n v e n t i o n t h a t b r i n g s l e a r n e r s t o g e t h e r , but i t i s the emerging q u a l i t i e s of t h a t e n c o u n t e r , the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a r e v a l u e d and emphasized i n the Pinar-Grumet approach. In terms of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , Grumet w r i t e s , " C u r r i c u l u m i s a r t i f i c e . We must shape i t , use i t . " 3 The emphasis i s on the remaking of the c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t as p r e s e n t e d . C u r r i c u l u m as l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e i s a v i r t u a l u n i v e r s e of p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o c u s s e s a t t e n t i o n on the l e a r n e r , and h i s or her e x p e r i e n c e , on the ways i n which the l e a r n e r uses the symbols of the a b s t r a c t c u r r i c u l u m and moves th r o u g h them. P i n a r w r i t e s t h a t "the i n d i v i d u a l becomes the n u c l e a r c u r r i c u l u m component, and the d i s c i p l i n e s and the t e a c h e r s the c o r t i c a l " 4 , i m p l y i n g t h a t the s t u d e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s the germ t h a t comes t o form, as i t s t r u g g l e s t h r o u g h and i s n o u r i s h e d by the s u r r o u n d i n g medium. More 46 s p e c i f i c a l l y , a c u r r i c u l u m as e x p e r i e n c e i s a " r u n n i n g of a c o u r s e " ( c u r r e r e ) In P i n a r * s language, t h i s has t o do w i t h the r e l a t i o n between the s e l f (the runner) and the e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e (the c o u r s e b e i n g r u n ) . The e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e i s the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which the runner p r o c e e d s . The runner runs t h a t c o n t e x t i n two s e nses: i n the sense of r u n n i n g -g o v e r n i n g i t , and i n the sense of r u n n i n g t h r o u g h i t . The runner w i e l d s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the environment, becoming the agent f o r i t s i m p r i n t , as w e l l as the o b j e c t . C u r r i c u l u m as e x p e r i e n c e does not e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f "out t h e r e " . The c o u r s e b e i n g run i s what the " I " makes of i t . C u r r i c u l u m i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h rough e x p e r i e n c e , and c r i t i c i s m t h r ough the e x a m i n a t i o n of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t i s through c u r r e r e . In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m and c r i t i c i s m a re r e c i p r o c a l . C u r r i c u l u m i s c u r r e r e ; c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i s c u r r e r e . C r i t i c i s m as C u r r e r e C r i t i c i s m f o c u s s e s p r i m a r i l y on c u r r i c u l u m as e x p e r i e n c e d (the g o v e r n i n g o f ) and on c u r r i c u l u m as e x p e r i e n c i n g (the r u n n i n g t h r o u g h ) . Grumet w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d : C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m r e q u i r e s , t h e n , not o n l y c r i t i c i s m of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s spread out b e f o r e us, but a l s o c r i t i c i s m of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t d w e l l s i n our own h a b i t s and a n t i c i p a t i o n s . 5 In o t h e r words, the c r i t i c aims t o u n d e r s t a n d the e x p e r i e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m . To do so, the c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s h i s or her own e x p e r i e n c e ; and i n t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n uncovers the n a t u r e o f , and 47 perhaps the reasons f o r , t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . The p r o c e s s of c u r r e r e demands a s h i f t from e x t e r n a l forms ( t h e a b s t r a c t e d c u r r i c u l u m ) t o i n t e r n a l r o o t e d n e s s ( e x p e r i e n c e r e v i e w e d t h r o u g h a u t o b i o g r a p h y ) , and towards a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d n o t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m . The purpose of c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i s t o t a k e the c u r r i c u l u m as g i v e n and t o change i t t o a 1 i v e d e x p e r i e n c e , so t h a t , i n Grumet's words, "the s i t u a t i o n becomes my. s i t u a t i o n . " 6 In which case one c r e a t e s deepened agency f o r one's s e l f on and w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m . As the s e a r c h f o r new forms of c o n s c i o u s n e s s about c u r r i c u l u m , i t i s a j o u r n e y of d i s c o v e r y , a s s e r t i o n , and c r e a t i o n . I t has t o do w i t h s t r u g g l e s and c a p a c i t i e s t o break o l d p a t t e r n s . Grumet i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a n a l o g y : What we seek when we examine our e x p e r i e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m i s d i s c r e p a n c y , a l i d t h a t won't q u i t e f i t the pot and l e t s a l i t t l e steam escape t o t e l l us what's c o o k i n g i n s i d e . 7 C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m as c u r r e r e i s d i a l e c t i c a l pedagogy. Grumet e x p l a i n s : I t proposes t o p r o v i d e a p l a c e and a method f o r s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t h o s e meanings t h a t they draw from t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and t o f i n d them c o n f i r m e d w i t h o u t h a v i n g to assume a s t a t i c and b r i t t l e s e l f -c o n c e p t , such as t h o s e t h a t may be drawn from the g r a b -bag of f a m i l i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and c l a s s r o l e s . 8 Very i m p o r t a n t l y , c u r r e r e i s from the p o i n t of view of the l e a r n e r , by the l e a r n e r . The c r i t i c i s s t u d e n t . C u r r e r e u n r a v e l s the c r i t i c ' s p r e s c r i b e d i d e n t i t y . I t tends t o take away the t h e a t r i c a l props b e h i n d which he or she h i d e s . The 48 c r i t i c ' s p o i n t of view moves from documentation of the g i v e n s i t u a t i o n t o estrangement, from f a m i l i a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or unexamined acceptance t o r e c l a i m a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n as h i s or her own. C u r r i c u l u m r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d through c u r r e r e i s what P i n a r and Grumet c a l l "poor" c u r r i c u l u m . They borrow the metaphor from J e r z y G r o t o w s k i ' s c e l e b r a t i o n of "poor" t h e a t r e , where i t i s f e l t r e g a r d i n g : Use of F u r n i t u r e Scenery They o b s t r u c t . One l i e s on them, h i d e s b e h i n d them, ble n d s i n f r o n t of them . . . The a c t o r f i n d s h i m s e l f camouflaged l i k e a modern cannon on the edge of a f o r e s t . Use of Costume Costume i s p o r t a b l e s c e n e r y , l i k e the s h e l l of a t u r t l e . The a n i m a l may be f e l i n e . Who w i l l ever know? H i s a c t i o n i s a l l w i t h i n . Use of Props The more props the a c t o r h a n d l e s , the l e s s he i s l i k e l y t o be p a r t i c u l a r about h i s a c t i n g . He i s i n n o c e n t because h i s hands a r e f u l l . Use of L i g h t i n g The purpose of l i g h t i n g i s t o o b s c u r e . 9 To f o l l o w the analogy t h r o u g h , c r i t i c i s m as c u r r e r e s i m i l a r l y s t r i p s the c u r r i c u l u m as e n c o u n t e r e d of the d i s t r a c t i o n s and camouflages of d o i n g what one i s t o l d t o do, of a c t i n g i n a c e r t a i n manner because one i s e x p e c t e d t o . In c r i t i c i s m one examines these i n s t r u c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s so t h a t one may r e c l a i m p o s s i b i l i t i e s of e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i o n . C r i t i c s become 49 p a r t i c u l a r about t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m , and cannot c l a i m innocence because t h e i r hands are f u l l . A u t o b i o g r a p h y as C u r r e r e A u t o b i o g r a p h y i s an a r t form. In c u r r e r e i t i s used as the v e h i c l e f o r examining the i n t e r a c t i o n of the s e l f and the c u r r i c u l u m as they meet i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . U s i n g r e c a l l , a u t o b i o g r a p h y d i r e c t s one's a t t e n t i o n t o one's s e l f , and one's l i f e , t h r o u g h the medium of w r i t i n g . However, a u t o b i o g r a p h y i s more than r e c a l l , and as such i t i s more than the v e h i c l e f o r c u r r e r e , i t i s a l s o the "source of energy and d i r e c t i o n f o r the j o u r n e y . " 1 0 In a u t o b i o g r a p h y , the s e l f c r e a t e s and i s c r e a t e d . I t i s the l i f e s t o r y and the l i f e p r o c e s s t h a t c r e a t e d the s t o r y . I t i s a t e l l i n g of what happened and a t e l l i n g of what the w r i t e r does w i t h t h o s e happenings a t the moment he or she r e c r e a t e s them. Thus a u t o b i o g r a p h y becomes the main method and source of d a t a f o r the c r i t i c who wants t o u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e o f , and reasons f o r , h i s or her p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m . W r i t i n g a l l o w s r e f l e c t i o n upon the i n t e r f a c e between the " I " i n p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and the " I " i n p a s t and f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s as they meet i n c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s i n t e r f a c e emerges as c o n s c i o u s n e s s of one's s e l f i n s i t u a t i o n . Grumet e x p l i c a t e s : Thus, we a r e p r o p o s i n g t h a t the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p r o c e s s be moved t o the v e r y c e n t e r of h u m a n i t i e s e d u c a t i o n because i t i s w i t h i n t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p of the knower t o the known t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s humanizing. I t i s not merely c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s a r e w r i t t e n by s i g n i f i c a n t men, f o r t h a t s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t h a t withdraws from the immediacy of e x p e r i e n c e , from 50 the opaque d e p o s i t s of p a s t events and achievements may be the ve r y source of those achievements and e x p e r i e n c e , as w e l l as the source of t h e i r h i s t o r y . S e l f - r e p o r t p r o v i d e s an a t t i t u d e , as w e l l as a p r o c e s s , t h a t may p r o t e c t us from becoming t h i n g l i k e , obsessed w i t h b e i n g , m i s t a k i n g i t f o r an o b j e c t . 1 1 Sources of C r i t i c i s m Grumet w r i t e s of the s o u r c e s of c u r r e r e : The t h e o r y base of c u r r e r e ' s e x p l o r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s drawn from h u m a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , phenomenology's emphasis on the r e c i p r o c i t y of s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i n the dynamic c o n s t i t u t i o n on the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of man t o h i s s i t u a t i o n . 1 2 P i n a r w r i t e s : S e a r c h i n g f o r c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s t o ex c a v a t e e x i s t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , I r e t u r n e d t o S a r t r e , K i e r k e g a a r d , N i e t z s c h e , Heidegger, read s e r i o u s l y f o r the f i r s t time H u s s e r l and M e r l e a u - P o n t y , r e t u r n e d t o Jung and Freud a g a i n . 1 3 These s o u r c e s f o r many of P i n a r ' s and Grumet's i d e a s a re d i f f i c u l t t o und e r s t a n d because the l i t e r a t u r e of each i s d i v e r s e , r e p r e s e n t i n g many a u t h o r s and t r a d i t i o n s . I t i s not always c l e a r how P i n a r and Grumet use t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , how they choose t o i n t e r p r e t the borrowed c o n c e p t s . A source t h a t P i n a r c l a i m s f o r h i s n o t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e and meaning a r e a u t h o r s i n the phenomenological t r a d i t i o n , and f o r h i s n o t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and freedom, e x i s t e n t i a l i s m . Grumet emphasizes how the work of c u r r e r e proceeds through the double metaphors of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and a u t o b i o g r a p h y . 5 1 From the p o i n t of view of phenomenology, r e a l i t y ( t h a t i s , e x p e r i e n c e ) i s m u l t i p l e , and hence "knowledge of the w o r l d r e q u i r e s knowledge of s e l f - a s - k n o w e r - o f - t h e - w o r l d " . 1 0 C e n t r a l t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n i s the importance of r e f l e c t i o n upon one's e x p e r i e n c e . Grumet c i t e s the words of A l f r e d Schutz i n t h i s r e g a r d : Meaning does not l i e i n e x p e r i e n c e . R a t h e r , those e x p e r i e n c e s a r e m e a n i n g f u l which are grasped r e f l e c t i v e l y . The meaning i s the way i n which the Ego r e g a r d s i t s e x p e r i e n c e . The meaning l i e s i n the a t t i t u d e s of the Ego toward t h a t p a r t of i t s stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s which has a l r e a d y f l o w e d b y . 1 5 What i s grasped r e f l e c t i v e l y i s t h a t a l l o b j e c t s a r e o b j e c t s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; t h a t i s , they have been c o n s t i t u t e d by the s u b j e c t ' s i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s not the p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t of sense i m p r e s s i o n s , but i s the r e c i p r o c a l exchange between the " I " and the O b j e c t . C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s not dumb, not i n e r t , not r e a c t i v e , i t i s an a c t of i n t e n t i o n . I f i t i s p a s s i v e , i t i s p a s s i v e or r e c e p t i v e g e n e s i s . Phenomenology, t h e r e f o r e , a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e the immediacy of i n t e n t i o n and the f r e s h n e s s of r e c e p t i o n of the encounter of the " I " and the o b j e c t . To produce p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , one has t o l o o k a t t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y than one i s wont t o do; phenomenologists c a l l t h i s estrangement from everyday v i s i o n " b r a c k e t i n g . " T h i s b r a c k e t i n g of the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d w o r l d of p e r c e p t i o n s "extends t o the r e s e a r c h e r the a r t i s t ' s awareness t h a t h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y t r a n s f o r m s any o b j e c t i v i t y i t seeks t o d e s c r i b e " . 1 6 B r a c k e t i n g a l l o w s one " t o see the f a m i l i a r w i t h the 52 f r e s h n e s s and immediacy of the v i s i o n t h a t i s s e e i n g f o r the f i r s t t i m e " 1 7 so t h a t one may r e v e a l t o o n e s e l f the f o u n d a t i o n s of t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d forms. In e x i s t e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h y , the w o r l d e x i s t s b e f o r e our c o n c e p t i o n of i t , but "man i s c o n c e i v e d of as the r a d i a t i n g s o u r c e of m e a n i n g . " 1 8 E x i s t e n c e i s b e i n g i n the w o r l d where the emphasis i s on the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of man t o s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s d i a l e c t i c , t h e r e i s an uneasy paradox. The w o r l d i s de t e r m i n e d by the " I " i n - t h e - w o r l d : the " I " i s the c o n s c i o u s c r e a t o r of s e l f and of s e l f - i n - t h e - w o r l d . However, the w o r l d i s a source of knowledge, a m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n t h a t one both extends f o r and w r e s t l e s w i t h . Grumet e l u c i d a t e s : E x i s t e n t i a l i s m r e c o g n i z e s c u l t u r e as the g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , w i t h a l l i t s f a c t i c i t y , through which the i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s e s h i s s u b j e c t i v i t y , embodied i n a c t s i n the w o r l d . Awareness of s e l f d e v e l o p s not i n h e r m i t i c i n t r o s p e c t i o n but i n the response of s u b j e c t i v i t y t o o b j e c t i v i t y . 1 9 H i s t o r y , whether p e r s o n a l or p u b l i c , i s an o b j e c t i v i t y t o be s u r p a s s e d . The emphasis i s on s i t u a t i o n and a c t i o n i n the w o r l d . The p r a c t i c e of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s i s concerned w i t h d i a l o g u e between the p r e s e n t of one's s i t u a t i o n and the p a s t . The d i a l o g u e i s p r e c i p i t a t e d by q u e s t i o n s and i s a l l o w e d t o f l o w a s s o c i a t i v e l y . A s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t have been n e g l e c t e d i n the c o n s c i o u s mind now c l a i m one's c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s seeks the c o n n e c t i o n s between the m a n i f e s t and the l a t e n t c o n t e n t of human e x p e r i e n c e . The assumption i s t h a t 53 m a n i f e s t a c t i o n s are e x t e r i o r i z e d forms of l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e l a t e n t i n the u n c o n s c i o u s . Making l a t e n t b e l i e f v i s i b l e a l l o w s the a n a l y s a n d t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r completed s i t u a t i o n s and f o r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n h i s or her l i f e . W i t h t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y comes a new sense of freedom where the person becomes the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s agent i n s i t u a t i o n s . Substance of C r i t i c i s m Substance concerns the premis e s t h a t a d v i s e the how of c u r r e r e , i n c l u d i n g the n a t u r e of the datum, the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , and the q u a l i t i e s of the f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e . N ature of Datum What i s the datum t h a t the c r i t i c g e n e r a t e s and examines? In g e n e r a l , i n c u r r e r e "the s u b j e c t and o b j e c t of the i n q u i r y a re i d e n t i c a l " . 2 0 The c r i t i c ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s the datum, as P i n a r s c a l e s i n q u i r y down t o the e x p e r i e n t i a l f i e l d of the i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r i n s i t u a t i o n . C r i t i c s do not r e s e a r c h the c o u r s e , they r e s e a r c h the r u n n e r - o f - t h e - c o u r s e , t h a t i s , s e l f r u n n i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e , s e l f i s o b j e c t , p l a c e , and agent, as Grumet e x p l a i n s : S e l f - a s - o b j e c t emerges i n the study of s u b j e c t i v i t y ; s e l f - a s - p l a c e emerges i n the study of o b j e c t i v i t y ; s e l f - a s - a g e n t emerges i n the study of the d i s c i p l i n e , f o r i t i s w i t h i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r forms and s i g n s t h a t . . . one a c t s . 2 1 G e n e r a t i o n of the datum i s conducted s e l f - r e m e m b e r e d l y . The n a r r a t i v e i s s e l f - r e f l e x i v e and s e l f - c r i t i c a l . C u r r e r e uses 54 s e l f r e p o r t and s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , t h a t i s , an a u t o b i o g r a p h y 2 2 of one's e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e t o generate the datum. Why? The b i o g r a p h i c p a s t ? I t i s u s u a l l y i g n o r e d . I g n o r e d but not a b s e n t . The b i o g r a p h i c p a s t e x i s - t s p r e s e n t l y , c o m p l e x l y c o n t r i b u t i v e t o the b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t . W h i l e we say i t cannot be h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e f o r the p r e s e n t , the e x t e n t t o which i t i s i g n o r e d i s p r o b a b l y the e x t e n t i t does account f o r what i s p r e s e n t . 2 3 A u t o b i o g r a p h y p r o v i d e s the documentary e v i d e n c e ; and i t f i x e s the e n c o u n t e r as remembered. James Olney, a t h e o r i s t i n a u t o b i o g r a p h y , d e s c r i b e s the a s p e c t of s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n . The " I " . . . coming awake t o i t s own b e i n g shapes and dete r m i n e s the n a t u r e of the a u t o b i o g r a p h y and i n so d o i n g h a l f d i s c o v e r s , h a l f c r e a t e s i t s e l f . . . . 2* The datum of the c r i t i c ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s of two k i n d s . The i n i t i a l datum i s t h a t which p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o the i n q u i r e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n terms of the encounter w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m t e x t or p r o j e c t and i n terms of h i s or her own b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t . P i n a r has d i s c o v e r e d from g e n e r a t i n g t h i s i n i t i a l datum t h a t : Thought and f e e l i n g , o f t e n s t a c c a t o i n s u r f a c i n g t o awareness, are r e g u l a r l y not i n i t i a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e , but almost always s e n s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o and u s u a l l y c o n t r i b u t i v e toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of b i o g r a p h i c ' p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e . 2 5 A l t h o u g h the i n i t i a l datum i s always the c r i t i c ' s remembered and i n t e r p r e t e d e x p e r i e n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m event or o b j e c t , p l u s the s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e c o r d i n g of the c r i t i c ' s own b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t , l a t e r datum i s r e f l e c t i o n upon 5 5 the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i n i t i a l s e l f - r e p o r t . T h i s second datum i s not so much a g a t h e r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n as i t i s a second lo o k a t what has been g a t h e r e d i n the i n i t i a l datum. The second datum a r i s e s from the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the t e x t u a l themes and the f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s of one's p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e . R e f l e c t i o n upon t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n r e v e a l s c o n n e c t i o n s between them, m e a n i n g f u l t o the c r i t i c . These c o n n e c t i o n s a re used f o r s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n and, e v e n t u a l l y , s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . A premise of c u r r e r e i s t h a t s c h o o l e d p ersons have been taught t o suppress t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , or t o ch a n n e l them u n r e f l e c t e d l y , i n t o s o c i a l l y p r e f e r r e d b e h a v i o u r s , t h a t p ersons are t aught t o d e c i d e p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e s by adherence t o r u l e s . T h e r e f o r e , P i n a r b e l i e v e s t h a t a n y t h i n g o t h e r than datum from the c r i t i c ' s own e x p e r i e n c e i s not v e r y u s e f u l i n the p r a c t i c e of c u r r e r e . A hope of c u r r e r e i s t h a t c r i t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e l f l e a d s t o c r i t i c a l a c t i o n of s e l f w i t h o t h e r s . P i n a r has d i s c o v e r e d f o r h i m s e l f i n the n a r r a t i o n and e x p o s i t i o n of c u r r e r e t h a t c u r r i c u l u m a c t i o n moves from a p o s i t i o n of n a i v i t e t o a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , and then? I am asked how i s i t t h a t one t r a v e l s from knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l a p p a r e n t l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c s e l f t o knowledge of the g e n e r a l ? The r e l a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the u n i v e r s a l e x i s t s a l t h o u g h I cannot c l a i m t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I do know t h a t as I t r a v e l i nward, I te n d t o be f r e e d from i t , and hence more s e n s i t i v e and r e c e p t i v e t o what i s e x t e r n a l . I t i s as i f because I can see more of m y s e l f i n i t s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , I am a l s o a b l e t o see more of o t h e r s . I t i s as i f a f t e r one t r a v e l s f o r a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e i n the realm of the i d i o s y n c r a t i c , one g e t s t o the r o o t s of t h a t r e a l m , and t h e s e r o o t s become what i s c o l l e c t i v e . That i s , w h i l e t h e s e r o o t s a r e 56 a p p a r e n t l y common t o us a l l , they a r e m a n i f e s t e d i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y . 2 6 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P r o c e s s There a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n the method of c u r r e r e . Though P i n a r and Grumet f i n d t h a t each s i t u a t i o n demands i t s own m e t h o d o l o g i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the e s s e n t i a l method i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . T e x t . Text i s a s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l or event which i s used t o d i s c i p l i n e the r e s e a r c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . I t may be o t h e r - p r o d u c e d or s e l f - p r o d u c e d . I f i t i s o t h e r - p r o d u c e d , the c r i t i c " u n d e r l i n e s or s t a r s . . . passages which i n some way 'stand out' from the remainder of the t e x t " 2 7 and th e r e b y i d e n t i f i e s what i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o him or h e r . I f the t e x t i s s e l f - p r o d u c e d , i t i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . P i n a r has suggested a two p a r t d e s i g n , f o r a s e l f - p r o d u c e d t e x t , which he c a l l s " r e g r e s s i v e - p r o g r e s s i v e " . With the " r e g r e s s i v e " , "one r e t u r n s t o the p a s t , t o c a p t u r e i t as i t was . . . as i t hovers over the p r e s e n t . " 2 8 One c a p t u r e s the p a s t i n the w r i t t e n remembrance of i t . The c r i t i c r e c o n s t r u c t s the s c h o o l e d p a s t . P i n a r e l u c i d a t e s : I t i s suggested t h a t one r e t u r n t o the s c h o o l e d b e g i n n i n g , t o the ele m e n t a r y y e a r s , t o whenever one i s a b l e t o r e a c h . E n t e r a g a i n the c l a s s r o o m , watch the t e a c h e r s , y o u r s e l f and your c l a s s m a t e s , what you d i d . More i m p o r t a n t l y , how you d i d i t . From the s t a r t d i d you absent y o u r s e l f i n f a n t a s y ? D i d the s e absences c o i n c i d e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n s ( l i k e geography) and w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r s ? 57 On t h r o u g h the p r i m a r y grades i n t o j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , keeping the o b s e r v e r ' s focus on the s e l f . The s e l f , i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m , w i t h t h a t t e a c h e r , these s u b j e c t s , t h i s response t o t h a t t e a c h e r , the i n t e r v e n t i o n of p a r e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h a t s i t u a t i o n , and one's r e s p o n s e . One's attachment t o these s u b j e c t s , t o those t e a c h e r s ; one's d i s i n t e r e s t i n t h a t f i e l d , one's d i s l i k e of t h i s t e a c h e r . A t h l e t i c i n t e r e s t s i f any and t h e i r e f f e c t s upon one's s t u d i e s . E r o t i c i n t e r e s t s as they impinged upon one's s t u d i e s . The importance of p u b l i c c o n c e p t i o n s of s t a t u s . T h i s c o l l e g e or t h a t ? The s e l f amidst i t a l l , e v o l v i n g t h i s way, l e a v i n g those f r i e n d s , t a k i n g on t h e s e , h a v i n g these academic i n t e r e s t s , then t h o s e . Summer j o b s . B u i l d i n g houses i n the suburbs, r e a d i n g B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l d u r i n g l u n c h b r e a k s . What was on the s u b j e c t s ' s mind those months? What mood, not v i s i b l e t h e n , kept him e n c a p s u l a t e d , b l u r r i n g h i s view? 2 9 In the r e c o l l e c t i o n , the c r i t i c e x p e r i e n c e s h i s or her own b i o g r a p h y as the p r e s e n t r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e s i t . The c h o i c e of words and the sequence of the n a r r a t i v e i d e n t i f y what i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o him or her and thus become the t e x t . W i th the " p r o g r e s s i v e " , one r e c o r d s a n t i c i p a t i o n s . P i n a r d e s c r i b e s the t a s k t h u s l y : S i t a l o n e , perhaps i n a s l i g h t l y darkened room, i n a c o m f o r t a b l e c h a i r w i t h a w r i t i n g t a b l e and a pen. C l o s e the eyes, p l a c e the a t t e n t i o n on the b r e a t h i n g . Take a few slow deep b r e a t h s as t h e s e are c o m f o r t a b l e . The p o i n t of these minutes i s r e l a x a t i o n . A f t e r one i s r e l a x e d ( i f the s u b j e c t has employed any of c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e m e d i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , s/he knows the d e s i r a b l e s t a t e ) , one t h i n k s of the f u t u r e , or tomorrow, of next week, of the next few months, of the next academic y e a r , of the next t h r e e y e a r s and so on. S i n c e our i n t e r e s t i s what we a r e c a l l i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , g e n t l y b r i n g the a t t e n t i o n back t o m a t t e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h your i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t , your c a r e e r , 58 and a l l o w your mind t o work f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e l y . Record what comes . . . ( I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f r e e a s s o c i a t e , and a v o i d use of the r a t i o n a l c r i t i c a l a s p e c t . . . ) R e t u r n t o the c h a i r and the d w e l l i n g i n f u t u r e s t a t e s s e v e r a l times on d i f f e r e n t days over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l days or weeks or m o n t h s . 3 0 The images t h a t are sounded become the t e x t t o which the c r i t i c w i l l respond. Discernment of themes. In t h i s p a r t of the procedure the c r i t i c s examine what has been r e c o r d e d as t e x t , and hence what i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n among the p a r t i c u l a r s . To do t h i s , c r i t i c s w i l l impose a c o n c e p t u a l frame of t h e i r own c h o o s i n g upon the t e x t , a b s t r a c t i n g themes i n terms of the language of any d i s c i p l i n e of i n t e r e s t t o them, f o r example J u n g i a n p s y c h o l o g y , l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , or s e m i o t i c s . But c r i t i c s are a d v i s e d t o be c o n s c i o u s of a t t a c h m e n t s t o t h e i r chosen frame, t o s o f t e n the p o s s i b i l i t y of the " t u n n e l v i s i o n t h a t c o n s t r i c t s the c o g n i t i v e l e n s " . 3 1 Aware of a t t a c h m e n t s , the c r i t i c approaches the t e x t , whether e n t i r e l y s e l f - c r e a t e d or n o t , as something brand-new, and w i t h some a l o o f n e s s . B i o g r a p h i c P r e s e n t . T h i s p a r t of the procedure i s an account of the c r i t i c ' s c u r r e n t l i f e s i t u a t i o n . I t d e s c r i b e s the e m o t i o n a l and s e n s u a l a s p e c t s of one's l i f e . P i n a r d e s c r i b e s the r e p o r t i n g of the b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t t h u s l y : The t h i r d s t e p has been t o w r i t e a more or l e s s n o v e l i s t i c account of my c u r r e n t b i o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n . Where I am l i v i n g , w i t h whom, what e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l i s s u e s I am a p p a r e n t l y f a c i n g . In t h i s 59 s e c t i o n I w i l l t r y t o g i v e t h i s d a t a a r t f u l form, both t o c u l t i v a t e an a t t i t u d e of g i v i n g p l e a s i n g and i n s t r u c t i v e form t o the f o r m l e s s , one p r e r e q u i s i t e of making sense of one's s i t u a t i o n , and, by u s i n g a stream-o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t e c h n i q u e , t o t r y t o get underneath the forms super-imposed by the n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e . 3 2 Grumet d e s c r i b e s the methodology as "a p e r m i s s i v e k i n d of m i n d i n g " . 3 3 I t i s a n a r r a t i v e method wherein a l l scenes and e v e n t s t h a t impinge on c o n s c i o u s n e s s are r e p r e s e n t e d . I t i s a d e v i c e f o r d e s c r i b i n g the p r o c e s s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t s i n t e n t i s t o c a p t u r e the f l o w and spectrum of sense i m p r e s s i o n , c o n s c i o u s and h a l f - c o n s c i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s , memories, f e e l i n g s , and random thought a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t r e f e r s c r i t i c s t o s e l f , t o what P i n a r c a l l s one's " l i f e - w o r l d " which i s the ground f o r making sense of c u r r i c u l u m . He w r i t e s : In a sense t h i s p r o c e s s can be l i k e n e d t o s t u d y i n g the sun by examining i t s l i g h t on the ground. The ground i s the l i f e - w o r l d , and as I attempt t o g l i m p s e t h i s w o r l d , the p l a c e of the i n t e l l e c t , and i t s academic e x p r e s s i o n , become v i s i b l e . 3 4 A n a l y s i s . T h i s p a r t of the procedure i n v o l v e s study of the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between the themes of the t e x t and the a s s o c i a t i o n s of the b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t . The c r i t i c i s a d v i s e d t o use d i s t a n c i n g , a b s t e n t i o n from h a b i t u a l a t t i t u d e s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o n o t i c e and a p p r e c i a t e d e t a i l s i n the new c o n t e x t . The images t h a t r e f l e c t back and f o r t h among the t e x t themes and the b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t r e v e a l p o s t u r e s of t e n s i o n . What was s t r a n g e t o one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g now becomes f a m i l i a r , when the b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t and the t e x t themes are j u x t a p o s e d . In the a n a l y t i c s t e p , the t a s k i s t o c r e a t e and 6 0 w o r k w i t h e s t r a n g e m e n t f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r , t o become a l e r t t o u n r e a l i z e d a s s u m p t i o n s a n d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c u r r i c u l u m . G r u m e t i l l u s t r a t e s f r o m h e r w o r k w i t h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s : A n e s s e n t i a l f o c u s o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f c u r r e r e f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s was d i s t a n c i n g , d r a w i n g b a c k f r o m t h e a c c o u n t s o f e x p e r i e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e j o u r n a l s a n d e s s a y s i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t h a s t y a n d p r e m a t u r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s o f s e l f f r o m f o r m i n g a r o u n d r i g i d a t t i t u d i n a l p o l e s . 3 5 I f a s t u d e n t a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was t h e a c t i n g o u t o f f a n t a s i e s o f m a s t e r y , I i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s r a t h e r p r i v a t e c o n c e p t i o n be m e a s u r e d a g a i n s t t h e i d e a o f t h e a t r e a s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n p l a y e r s a n d a u d i e n c e . I f t h e c o n c e p t o f f e r e d was t h e d r a m a o f c a r a c c i d e n t s a n d h i j a c k i n g s , I a s k e d t h e w r i t e r t o c o n s i d e r t h e r o l e o f a r t i f i c e , o f a c t i o n r e l e g a t e d t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e u n r e a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e w o r l d o f d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e . I f t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was i d e n t i f i e d a s e x p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n , I s u g g e s t e d r e c e p t i o n o f e m o t i o n . I f t h e w r i t e r a s s o c i a t e d i t w i t h l o s i n g h i m s e l f i n a g r o u p p r o j e c t , I a s k e d h i m how i t d i f f e r e d f r o m t e a m s p o r t s . 3 6 I n t h e a n a l y t i c s t e p , t h e c r i t i c e n c o u n t e r d i s c r e p a n c i e s , o m i s s i o n s , o r r i t u a l i s t i c p a t t e r n s i n w h i c h o n e s e l f h a s become i m m e r s e d , a n d h a s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t b e e n a b l e t o s e e . T h r o u g h c u r r e r e o n e f a c e s o n e ' s h i s t o r y a s t h o u g h one d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o i t . I t d e m a n d s w i t h d r a w a l f r o m c o m p l e t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o n e s e l f . S y n t h e s i s . S y n t h e t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e v i d e n t i n t h e w r i t e - u p o f c u r r e r e . I t i s t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s t h a t h a s s t i l l t o be e x p e r i e n c e d , b e f o r e t h e c r i t i c c a n become w i t n e s s t o i t a n d w r i t e a b o u t i t . I n o r d e r t o s y n t h e s i z e , c r i t i c s h a v e t o c o n s i d e r t h o s e c o n t i n g e n c i e s t h a t h i n d e r e d t h e i r f i n d i n g o u t "why w h a t m i g h t h a v e h a p p e n e d n e v e r 6 1 happened". 3 7 At t h i s s t e p comes the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one owns the forms and h a b i t s of c u r r i c u l u m . In r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s o w nership the c r i t i c can then work t o t u r n away from those not wanted, and t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those m a i n t a i n e d . I t i n v o l v e s a l t e r i n g one's l i f e s c r i p t i n o r d e r " t o p r e s e n t a n o t h e r f a c t of i t s c o n t e n t f o r our e x p e r i e n c e " . 3 8 In the a c t of s y n t h e s i s , the c r i t i c p r e p a r e s f o r new a c t i o n and f o r new t e x t s t o be w r i t t e n . Q u a l i t i e s of the F i n i s h e d C r i t i q u e As a p r e l i m i n a r y t o t h i s s e c t i o n , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the w r i t e r of c u r r e r e i s a l s o , and a lways, the reader of the c u r r e r e . However, the reader may a l s o be anyone e l s e , o t h e r than the w r i t e r . The form of the f i n i s h e d c r i t i q u e i s a l i f e - s t y l e r e v e a l e d . I t i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . Through the p o r t r a y a l of c u r r e r e the reader r e c e i v e s a sense of what the c r i t i c c o n s i d e r s c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . P i n a r w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d : The meaning of our study must be a " d i f f e r e n t i a l " , as M e r l eau-Ponty would c a l l i t . I t i s i n f a c t the d i f f e r e n c e between the "Common B e l i e f s " and the c o n c r e t e i d e a or a t t i t u d e of the person s t u d i e d , the way i n which the b e l i e f s a r e e n r i c h e d , made c o n c r e t e , d e v i a t e d , e t c . , which, more than a n y t h i n g e l s e , i s g o i n g t o e n l i g h t e n us w i t h r e s p e c t t o our o b j e c t . 3 9 Grumet e l u c i d a t e s f u r t h e r on the consequences of c r i t i c i s m : The s t o r y then i s the t h e s i s ; i t s r e a d i n g , a d i a l e c t i c t h a t p r o v i d e s an a n t i t h e s i s and p e r m i t s the n a r r a t o r t o imagine a new c h a p t e r t h a t w i l l f a l l somewhere between those two p o l e s . " 0 The c r i t i c i s m r e v e a l s the c r i t i c p r o d u c i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l 62 i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f l e c t i n g upon the import of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . In the p r o d u c t i o n of datum, the o p p o s i t i o n of t e x t u a l themes and b i o g r a p h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s r e v e a l s c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n not p r e v i o u s l y r e c o g n i z e d by the w r i t e r as s i m u l t a n e o u s or i n t e g r a l t o h i s or her e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e . In the r e f l e c t i o n upon t h a t i n i t i a l datum, p o s s i b l y g e n e r a t i v e t e n s i o n s i n the c r i t i c ' s remembered l i f e , i n c u r r i c u l u m and c u r r i c u l u m - r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s , a r e r e v e a l e d . These t e n s i o n s s u r r o u n d the c r i t i c ' s a t t a c h m e n t s . Regarding a t t a c h m e n t s , P i n a r w r i t e s t h a t "We do not l i v e w i t h o u t attachment. We a r e a t t a c h e d n e g a t i v e l y or p o s i t i v e l y , t o t h a t which e n t e r s our " p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d " . * 1 I t becomes apparent to the reader t h a t i t i s the t e n s i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g a r e c o r d e d i n c i d e n t t h a t a re g e n e r a t i v e r a t h e r than the i n c i d e n t e x p l i c i t l y . From the p r e s e n t a t i o n of and r e f l e c t i o n upon these i n c i d e n t s , the reader i s a b l e t o see some of the s u b t l e c o n n e c t i o n s of the c r i t i c ' s a t t a c h m e n t s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o the c r i t i c as r e a d e r . U n d e r s t a n d i n g may then dawn f o r the c r i t i c r e g a r d i n g h i s or her own c o n c e p t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s , i n terms of those attachments which have been hidden from c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n by one's i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l h a b i t s . P i n a r , as c r i t i c , sums up one of h i s r e a l i z a t i o n s : The i n t e g r a t i v e t a s k was the c o h e r i n g of the s e l f - e x p e r i e n c e d - a t - t h e u n i v e r s i t y and the s e l f -experienced-at-home. The former was p r i m a r i l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l , c e r e b r a l s e l f , the l a t t e r a p h y s i c a l -s p i r i t u a l and p r i m a r i l y n o n c o n c e p t u a l s e l f . ( T h i s d i s s o c i a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t from body and s p i r i t i s , i n t e r e s t i n g l y , what I s t i l l am q u i c k t o d i s c e r n i n 63 o t h e r s and i n t h e i r work.) In the l a s t two and o n e - h a l f y e a r s t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e movement on the s e i s s u e s , or through these i s s u e s . At the u n i v e r s i t y , I e x p e r i e n c e s t i l l , though d e c i d e d l y l e s s i n t e n s e l y , a s e l f more c e r e b r a l , more rus h e d , than I do a t home. Yet the body i s more p r e s e n t a t the o f f i c e , and my i n t e l l e c t more f l u i d l y o p e r a t i v e a t home. The continuum, w i t h i n t e l l e c t a t one end and b o d y - s p i r i t a t the o t h e r , i s a s h o r t e r one. I e x p e r i e n c e myself as l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o my g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and t o my academic c o l l e a g u e s . The fundamental i s s u e (another form of which i s : what i s the s p i r i t u a l s t a t u s of my academic work, and what i s the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s of my s p i r i t u a l work) remains, but i s much d i m i n i s h e d i n i n t e n s i t y , and o t h e r i s s u e s comprise my p r e s e n t . * 2 The c o n t i n u i n g work, as m a n i f e s t e d i n the form of c u r r e r e , i s t o overcome the tendency t o s t o p a t one's f i r s t r e a l i z a t i o n of one's a t t a c h m e n t s . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the c r i t i c i s t o use the new i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s e d f o r f u r t h e r growth and f o r f u r t h e r e f f e c t on c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n s . The John S. Mann of 1968 would c a l l c u r r e r e a d i s c l o s u r e model of c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , i n t h a t i t does not merely p i c t u r e w i t h s t a t i c a c c u r a c y a s i t u a t i o n , but d i s c l o s e s s t a s i s as a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r new a c t i o n and f o r r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m . * 3 Grumet works w i t h her s t u d e n t s of c u r r e r e i n t h i s way: In Deborah's f i r s t e s s a y , c o n n e c t i o n s t o p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y were abundant: L e a p i n g i n t o t h a t g r e a t bed (which I now j u s t s i t on) was a tremendous p h y s i c a l accomplishment which gave me g r e a t p r i d e and j o y . I can i d e n t i f y w i t h t h a t f e e l i n g now i n my r i d i n g of ho r s e s or r u n n i n g f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s . I l o v e t o know t h a t I've met m y s e l f , pushed myself t o a b e a t i f u l s t a t e of p e r f e c t i o n . By p e r f e c t i o n I mean t h a t which i s my utmost, beyond b e s t , i n 64 terms of t i m i n g and c o n t r o l and c o n c e n t r a t i o n . From the p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d from such performances I o b t a i n e d a s e c r e t knowledge t h a t I know how to have my body work i t s e l f , t h a t i t always has more energy t o burn f o r me, a b e l i e f (though i t has o f t e n been t h r e a t e n e d or beaten) t h a t my body can do a n y t h i n g t h a t I ask of i t . Rather than r e q u e s t i n g more c o n n e c t i o n s t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , my response pursued the assumptions a l r e a d y r e s i d i n g i n the d e t a i l s of her p r o s e : There are many i d e a s h o v e r i n g around t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of p e r f e c t i o n t h a t you might want to examine. S t r e s s , p a i n , t e s t i n g a l s o something p r i v a t e , s e c r e t , as i f the p u b l i c w o r l d demands some k i n d of compromise. Are you drawing a g e n e r a l assumption from t h i s t h a t o n l y t h r ough s t r e s s t h a t t e s t s c a p a c i t y , can i t s d i m e n s i o n s be r e v e a l e d ? What a r e the p e d a g o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s h e r e ? " * The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t by Stephen Somers, a graduate st u d e n t w i t h P i n a r and Grumet, d i s c l o s e s a sense of awakening p e r s o n a l power, where through the p r o c e s s of c u r r e r e he d i s c o v e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s , new p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r a c t i o n w i t h i n the s i t u a t i o n : The s t u d e n t s s t r a y e d on a continuum between the h o s t i l e r e j e c t i o n I f e l t i n 1972 and my c u r r e n t e q u a n i m i t y . I was e s p e c i a l l y concerned about those whose s k e p t i c i s m was p a l p a b l e . B e w i l d e r e d by the e x a c t i n g t h e o r i e s and t h r e a t e n e d by t h e h u m i l i a t i n g p o s t u r e s , one s t u d e n t seemed t o be on the verge of premature r e t i r e m e n t . In r e s p o n d i n g t o B r i a n ' s p o t e n t i a l c r i s i s , I s o l i d i f i e d my commitment t o M a d e l e i n e , B i l l and E d u c a t i o n 231. I empathized e x t r a v a g a n t l y on h i s b e h a l f , o f f e r i n g him a g a l l e y s e a t on our l i t t l e s h i p of f o o l s . I made h i s doubts c r e d i b l e by c o n n e c t i n g them t o my own, w h i l e a s s u r i n g him t h a t he would a r r i v e a t h i s d e s t i n a t i o n s i m p l y because I had t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r . I t o l d him t h a t our c a p t a i n , B i l l , f e l t as awkward as he d i d , but t h a t c u r r e r e gave him a 65 d i s t a n c e i n which he c o u l d bask i n h i s own p e r s o n a l s u n l i g h t . Yes, r u n n i n g w i t h c u r r e r e was e x h a u s t i n g , but i t p a i d i t s d i v i d e n d s . I t o l d him a n y t h i n g j u s t t o get him back on board. But, damn, d i d I f e e l v u l n e r a b l e as he t r a m p l e d over the b r i d g e my c a j o l i n g and p o s t u r i n g p r o v i d e d f o r him. The investment proved t o be the W a t e r l o o of my a r r o g a n c e ; I c o u l d no l o n g e r p r e t e n d t o be above i t a l l . The c o n v e r s i o n made a b e l i e v e r out of the c o n v e r t e r . A subsequent c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h another s t u d e n t d e a l t my ambivalence i t s f i n a l blow. Jack o b j e c t e d s t r e n u o u s l y t o my c r i t i c i s m of h i s f i r s t paper. (I had commented t h a t h i s s e l f - r e p o r t evoked a smooth, r e h e a r s e d q u a l i t y . I t was l i k e t r y i n g t o h o l d on t o an i c i c l e . ) "I mean, I don't l i k e the i m p l i c a t i o n you a r e making," Jack c h a l l e n g e d . "And what was t h a t ? " I q u e r i e d h e s i t a n t l y . "That i t was a d i s h o n e s t s t a t ement." "Now w a i t a minute; t h a t ' s your s t o r y . I d i d n ' t mean t o impugn your h o n e s t y . I j u s t d i d n ' t say t h a t . " " W e l l , s h i t , what d i d you say then?" G a t h e r i n g steam, c o n f i d e n c e and the sympathy of h i s p e e r s . " W e l l , I o n l y meant t h a t i t seemed o v e r l y smooth . . . E v e r y t h i n g seemed r e s o l v e d . " "Crap, i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g wrong w i t h t h a t , w i t h f e e l i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a r e s u l t of the r e s o l u t i o n of problems?". By t h e n , I was e n j o y i n g the exchange, ( S a r t e ' s need t o be needed?). "That's an i n t e r e s t i n g p e d a g o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y , but i t seems from your paper t h a t you have r e s o l v e d a l l your problems. . . . W h i l e I don't mean t o get p e r s o n a l , t h a t ' s p r e t t y god damn i n c r e d i b l e ! . . . That a s i d e , I s i m p l y wanted t o emphasize the p r o c e s s , not the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . " "Yeah, w e l l , I am aware of t h a t . " O t h e r s began t o e n t e r the c o n v e r s a t i o n , but b e f o r e the i n t e r a c t i o n became d i l u t e d , i t gave Jack a chance t o examine h i s a s s u m p t i o n s . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he e x p r e s s e d h i s h o s t i l i t y r a t h e r than t u r n i n g away w i t h 66 the e s t r a n g e d arrogance I had f a l l e n prey t o i n my s e n i o r y e a r . I emerged from the c l a s s i n a s t a t e of suspended e x c i t a t i o n . I had g a i n e d i n s i g h t i n t o my r o l e and my pedagogy. As an i n s t r u c t o r , I c o u l d no l o n g e r be s a t i s f i e d as a p a s s i v e or p r i v a t e f o o t b r i d g e . As an e d u c a t o r , I r e a l i z e d t h a t I must shake up assumptions and d i s a l l o w f a c i l e c o m p l i a n c e . " 5 The reader of c u r r e r e observes the c r i t i c w o r k i n g through r e s i s t a n c e t o what i s c o n t a i n e d i n the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c form, which i s t i e d t o c o n c r e t e a c t i o n i n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s . While working t h r o u g h r e s i s t a n c e s , the c r i t i c i s u s i n g what i s w r i t t e n and what i s b e i n g w r i t t e n as resonance. The r e a d e r of c u r r e r e can see the c r i t i c g a i n i n g s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . The r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t i s c a p t u r e d by these emerging q u a l i t i e s , whose e f f e c t w i l l p r o b a b l y t r a n s c e n d the moment of awareness r e v e a l e d i n the c r i t i q u e . D i f f i c u l t i e s With Reader Acceptance T h i s approach has o c c a s i o n e d d i a l o g u e i n the l i t e r a t u r e of c u r r e r e . I t has been l a b e l l e d a t h e o r e t i c a l , a h i s t o r i c a l , a p o l i t i c a l , and has been accused of making the reader and c r i t i c f e e l v u l n e r a b l e . C r i t i c V u l n e r a b i l i t y An encounter w i t h o n e s e l f may be complex and u n c o m f o r t a b l e . I t can be a g o n i z i n g . I t i s always d i s c o n c e r t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t w r i t t e n by P i n a r i s h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n of h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a group l e d by M a d e l e i n e Grumet. He r e l a t e s h i s f e e l i n g s of d i s c o m f o r t and dismay i n 67 s i t u a t i o n . Through c u r r e r e he r e c o g n i z e s the paradox and the a m b i g u i t y of h i s f e e l i n g s . A g a i n , back i n t h i s p l a c e : I c a n ' t shake you. I c a n ' t . I have t o t r e a t where you are w i t h r e s p e c t . I know t h a t ' s p e d a g o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e . I know t h a t ' s the p s y c h o s o c i a l law. You won't move u n l e s s I endorse where you a r e . Then you f e e l s a f e enough t o probe. Damn the f e a r . There's no time t o probe. You seem l o s t t o me, and o n l y a shock has a chance. I make myself s h o c k i n g , m i l d l y s h o c k i n g . In r e t u r n you g i v e me anger and d i s t r u s t . The l a s t seminar, j u s t b e f o r e C h r i s t m a s , you t e l l me. You d i d n ' t t r u s t me. You d i d n ' t t r u s t me. I d i d n ' t t r u s t you e i t h e r . But I r e f u s e t o l e t i t s i l e n c e me. I know I'm o l d e r , I know my r o l e ; you're r i g h t . I s t h e r e no way out of here? I t ' s March s i x t h and c o l d and g r a y , and I c a n ' t imagine I can say t h i s t o y o u . * 6 In the next e x c e r p t , Grumet w r i t e s of her s t u d e n t ' s e x p r e s s e d sense of v u l n e r a b i l i t y . One s t u d e n t spoke of the v u l n e r a b i l i t y she e x p e r i e n c e d when she r e r e a d the t h o u g h t s she had committed, t o paper. What she saw t h e r e never q u i t e measured up t o her imagined s e l f - c o n c e p t . The c r i t i c a l m i r r o r sent back a h a r s h l i g h t . For o t h e r s t h e r e was too g r e a t a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e i t . * 7 Respondent V u l n e r a b i l i t y The Tanners, f o r example, r e v e a l t h e i r sense of v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n the opening of t h e i r f i v e - p a g e response t o what they c a l l P i n a r ' s " r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t p r e s c r i p t i o n " . "For most of us, the e r a of New L e f t i d e o l o g y , and campus c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s l i k e a f o r e i g n c o n t r y , and f o r many the d i s t a n c e i s a g r e e a b l e . " 68 4 8 They accuse P i n a r of " r h e t o r i c r a t h e r than r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s " . * 3 F o l l o w i n g , i s a s t r i n g of t h e i r a c c u s a t i o n s . There i s i r o n y i n t h e i r v i t u p e r a t i o n s , i n t h a t , out of the c o n t e x t of t h e i r paper, some of t h e s e phrases may be c o n s i d e r e d c o m p l i mentary. - r a d i c a l c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l r h e t o r i c of the l a t e 1960's - l e f t i s t a n t i - t e c h n o l o g y theme . . . a b a c k l a s h a g a i n s t s c i e n t i f i c s c h o l a r s h i p i n p o l i c y - r e l e v a n t f i e l d s - r a d i c a l c r i t i c s - p a r a n o i d p h r a s e o l o g y s u f f u s e s - r h e t o r i c . . . i s r e f l e c t i v e of . . . ps y c h o p a t h o l o g y - i s a r a d i c a l , not a r e f o r m e r - d i f f u s e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m - m y s t i c a l i l l u m i n a t i o n - promiscuous enthusiasm - r e d u c t i o n i s t scheme - r a d i c a l c r i t i c i s m i n the g u i s e of " c r i t i c a l t h e o r y " - t r a n s c e n d e n t a l - e x i s t e n t i a l l e v i t a t i o n - m y s t i c a l alchemy - an i n v e n t i o n t o s u i t h i s own purposes - f a c t and f a n t a s y a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y b l u r r e d and i n t e r c h a n g e d t o f i t c o n v e n i e n t c a t e g o r i e s - new a l c h e m i s t s - c o n c i e r g e s of c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l 5 0 An e p i t h e t the Tanners fa v o u r as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e of P i n a r ' s s l o p p y r e s e a r c h i s " r a d i c a l " . The d e f i n i t i o n they a p p a r e n t l y use i s : A c o r r e l a t e of the r a d i c a l l e f t ' s d i s a v o w a l of the p o l i t i c a l system was the b e l i e f t h a t American h i s t o r y was composed of legends t h a t j u s t i f i e d the s t a t u s quo. Thus one c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d e v e n t s o n l y by l o o k i n g beneath the s u r f a c e f o r p u r p o s e l y obscure p a t t e r n s , and both F r e u d i a n and M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l t o o l s f o r d o i n g so. Whether the " r e a l " reason f o r some event was p s y c h o l o g i c a l or economic, i t seemed t h a t t h i n g s were never what they 69 appeared . . . (they are q u o t i n g here from D. R a v i t c h ' s The R e v i s i o n i s t R e v i s e d ) 5 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , they a r e q u i t e r i g h t . The P i n a r approach i s r a d i c a l . I t i s "a procedure of d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n " . 5 2 In response t o the wounded and wounding language of the Tanner a r t i c l e , F i n k e l s t e i n and W i l l i a m s p o i n t out t h a t P i n a r " i s engaged i n the development of i d e a s which compete w i t h those i n the m a i n s t r e a m " . 5 3 The Tanners a r e mainstream, and as such, P i n a r ' s approach i s u n s e t t l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the language of i t . P i n a r ' s language i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r o c e d u r a l w r i t i n g s p o s s e s s e s a c e r t a i n showiness t h a t may, and does, b e f u d d l e h i s r e a d e r s . A l t h o u g h i t may be a l l o w e d t h a t the p r o c e s s of a c u r r e r e does d e m y s t i f y , the language used t o d e s c r i b e the c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t e n does the o p p o s i t e . F o l l o w i n g i s another example of respondent v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o the P i n a r approach t o c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . The response i s s i m i l a r but the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t . W h i l e the papers were u n i f o r m l y good and f o u r were superb, they a l s o became a source of p r o f o u n d d i s q u i e t u d e . Higher c o n s c i o u s n e s s does not make a c o m f o r t a b l e home f o r most Americans, even t h o s e a t a c o n f e r e n c e where h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e p r e s e n t s the main theme. Each paper c o n f r o n t e d the members of t h i s s m a l l group w i t h songs of mystery and r e v o l u t i o n , songs t h a t , however winsome or c o m p e l l i n g , l e d down paths u n c h a r t e d t o w o r l d s l a r g e l y unknown. For s a f e t y ' s sake, men i n such s i t u a t i o n s o f t e n r e t u r n home, and so i t seemed, d i d the members of t h i s g r o u p . 5 4 T h i s opening was w r i t t e n f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r than t h a t of the Tanners, but the same a n a l o g y i s used about the P i n a r approach b e i n g a l i e n , and making peo p l e u n c o m f o r t a b l e . The f e a r , however, o n l y p a r t i a l l y grew out of f e a r of the unknown. I t was a l s o n u r t u r e d by a s u s p i c i o n t h a t the p u r s u i t of h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s meant the end of t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l s , and c u r r i c u l u m s as now c o n s t i t u t e d , and maybe even the end of c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . In c o n t r a s t t o the g e n e r a l s e s s i o n s , where the t h e o r i s t s s e t f o r t h t h e i r i d e a s , the s m a l l group became a home t o i t s members. In t h a t s e t t i n g , names were a t t a c h e d t o f a c e s , and f a c e s g a i n e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p o i n t s of v i e w . A f t e r l e a r n i n g each o t h e r ' s names, and a f t e r the l e a d e r of the group had proposed t h a t i t s purpose was t o d i s c o v e r a way of c o n t r i b u t i n g more s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the p r o c e e d i n g s of the c o n f e r e n c e , someone asked what the c o n f e r e n c e was a l l about. A touc h of sharpness i n the q u e s t i o n e r ' s v o i c e conveyed somewhat more meaning than the words spoken. D u r i n g the c o u r s e of the c o n f e r e n c e t h i s q u e s t i o n r e t u r n e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s , though not always from the same s o u r c e . R e g a r d l e s s of the s o u r c e , however, the q u e s t i o n seemed i m p l i c i t l y t o suggest t h a t h i s c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y c o n f e r e n c e had been tak e n over by h e r e t i c s . C e r t a i n l y i t was not l i k e c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y c o n f e r e n c e s back home. In the f i r s t p l a c e i t was too p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and, i f not t h a t , c e r t a i n l y the poets and p h i l o s o p h e r s of h i g h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s sang very d i f f e r e n t songs from th o s e the group was used t o . Higher c o n s c i o u s n e s s f a r e seemed t o make s t r a n g e p h i l o s o p h i c a l g r o u n d i n g f o r c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y . By i m p l i c a t i o n , moreover, they had c h a l l e n g e d c o n v e n t i o n a l b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l . The s m a l l group remained committed t o c o n t r o l , and, w h i l e t h i s commitment s u r f a c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o p r a c t i c a l problems, the d i f f e r e n c e ran deeper than t h i s . What seemed t o be a t s t a k e were b a s i c b e l i e f s about the n a t u r e of man and the c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r c i v i l i z e d l i v i n g ; but c o n c e r n f o r the p r a c t i c a l c a p t u r e d the a t t e n t i o n of the group. A d m i t t e d l y , the a d v e r t i s e d s u b j e c t of the c o n f e r e n c e was c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y , and, w h i l e t h a t has a p l a c e , those back home c l a i m t o p r e f e r the p r a c t i c a l t o the t h e o r e t i c a l . 5 5 71 Osborne ( w r i t e r of the above) saw the i d e a s of P i n a r and o t h e r s a t the 1974 R o c h e s t e r Conference as b e i n g too p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l f o r the mainstream, even though p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e s c r i b e d by another group l e a d e r as "mostly ' c o l l e g e t y p e s ' form e d u c a t i o n f a c u l t i e s " . 5 6 Van Manen has echoed the co n c e r n s of Osborne, and F i n k l e s t e i n and W i l l i a m s about how P i n a r ' s t h e o r i z i n g c h a l l e n g e s c o n v e n t i o n a l b e l i e f s . Huebner, Macdonald, P i n a r , and o t h e r r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t a u t h o r s i n v i t e us t o v e n t u r e i n t o t r a d i t i o n s of t h i n k i n g t h a t o n l y r e c e n t l y have.begun t o open up i n N o r t h American s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Whereas Huebner, Macdonald, P i n a r , Greene, and Apple appear w e l l v e r s e d i n these t r a d i t i o n s , I t h i n k the i d e a of t r a d i t i o n and paradigm s h i f t i n c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i z i n g can e a s i l y be o v e r s i m p l i f i e d . I am not s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the a u t h o r s j u s t c i t e d a r e g u i l t y of such o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s . But the i s s u e of paradigm s h i f t s h o u l d be r a i s e d s i n c e most of the r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t a u t h o r s make f r e q u e n t and s u b s t a n t i v e use of p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l , h e r m e n e u t i c , and c r i t i c a l t h e o r y s o u r c e s . U s i n g a d i f f e r e n t i n q u i r y paradigm, such as phenomenology, i s not as u n p r o b l e m a t i c as the m e t a p h o r i c a l analogue of changing g l a s s e s . Sometimes d i f f e r e n t paradigms a r e s i m p l y seen as d i f f e r e n t " p e r s p e c t i v e s " or "models" ( l i k e "models of t e a c h i n g " ) t h a t make you see t h i n g s e i t h e r t h i s way or t h a t way. For example, a d i r e c t consequence of e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e paradigms (the p o s i t i v i s t i c a g a i n s t the phenomenological) i s the p e r c e i v e d c o n t r a s t between i n n e r and o u t e r a s p e c t s of c u r r i c u l u m d a t a . Whereas the o u t e r a s p e c t s a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the me a s u r a b l e s , the b e h a v i o r , the c a u s a l , and the o b j e c t i f i a b l e ; the i n n e r components r e f e r t o the e x p e r i e n t i a l , the " l i v e d " , or the e x i s t e n t i a l meaning s t r u c t u r e s of the t e a c h i n g -l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Y e t , i n o r d e r t o s h i f t paradigms from the b e h a v i o r a l toward the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l , f o r i n s t a n c e - one does not a u s p i c i o u s l y s t r a d d l e a f e n c e , now u s i n g t h i s paradigm and then t h a t paradigm. R a t h e r , the d i f f e r e n c e between u s i n g the b e h a v i o u r a l and the phe n o m e n o l o g i c a l paradigm i n v o l v e s indeed a d i f f i c u l t s t e p , r e q u i r i n g s e r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n v e s t m e n t s and moral commitments. I do not w i s h t o o v e r d r a m a t i z e t h i s 72 p o i n t , but I t h i n k the metaphor f o r s h i f t i n g paradigms more c l o s e l y resembles the p r o c e s s of g a i n i n g membership i n a d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y , which has i t s own h i s t o r y , laws, r u l e s , e t c . The user of a phenomenological or c r i t i c a l t h e o r y paradigm becomes an i n i t i a t e , a member of a community of s c h o l a r s , which i s steeped i n knowledge, t r a d i t i o n s , which has i t s own language, and i t s own view of the w o r l d , of e d u c a t i o n , and of the p r i o r i t i e s of the f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s . 5 7 A t h e o r e t i c a l T h i n k i n g T h i s charge i s h u r l e d by the Tanners, and perhaps o n l y by them, "A new c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y must have a p p l i c a t i o n s t o e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena. I t i s c l e a r t h a t r e c o n c e p t u a l i s m does not meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n . . . ," 5 8 C u r r e r e does have a p p l i c a t i o n , most d e f i n i t e l y , t o e d u c a t i o n a l phenomena, so what do they mean? C u r r i c u l u m t h e o r y s h o u l d aim t o r e f o r m , they say. As R a v i t c h has p o i n t e d o u t , "the re f o r m e r i s one who g r a p p l e s and seeks s o l u t i o n s , " w h i l e the r a d i c a l remains " a l o o f from the system and from any u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e " . 5 9 P i n a r ' s i n t e n t i o n i s t o g r a p p l e w i t h p e r s o n a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l problems, l e a d i n g t o re f o r m of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s n o t i o n of freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . H i s approach does, however, remain a l o o f from "the system" i n terms of cha n g i n g i t on a g l o b a l ( l a r g e r than s e l f ) s c a l e . In response t o the Tanner a d j e c t i v e a t h e o r e t i c a l , F i n k l e s t e i n and W i l l i a m s have t h i s r e b u t t a l : I f these c r i t i c s were t o b r a c k e t t h e i r p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , they would d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i r c e n t r a l c oncern i s w i t h how a t h e o r y can be e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d . They would see t h a t they have made e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n the s o l e b a s i s f o r de t e r m i n g a t h e o r y ' s w o r t h i n e s s as v a l i d knowledge. But, most i m p o r t a n t l y , they would be f o r c e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r d i s r e g a r d f o r the a c t of t h e o r i z i n g the a c t of l i n k i n g 73 o b s e r v a t i o n s t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . 6 0 By b o r r o w i n g from v a r i o u s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , the Pinar-Grumet language i n t h e o r i z i n g i s e c l e c t i c . T h i s e c l e c t i c i s m must n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a l a c k of r e g a r d f o r the t o t a l i t y of those t r a d i t i o n s borrowed. T h i s c e r t a i n l y c o n f u s e s r e a d e r s , and o f f e n d s some. A h i s t o r i c a l T h i n k i n g M i c h a e l Apple views c u r r e r e as a h i s t o r i c a l , b e l i e v i n g t h a t P i n a r does not seem t o r e c o g n i z e the h i s t o r i c a l e n c r u s t a t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s m and i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n the form of c u r r e r e . " B e i n g a h i s t o r i c a l i m p l i e s a t o t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g and dependence on t h i n g s t h a t are presumed t o b e " . 6 1 However, the avowed i n t e n t i o n and apparent outcome i n c u r r e r e i s t o break c o n d i t i o n i n g and dependence upon presumed h i s t o r i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s . P i n a r w r i t e s i n t h i s r e g a r d : P a r t of what i s uncovered d u r i n g t h i s work i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n mainstream c u l t u r e , h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the maintenance of p r e s e n t economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . R e l e a s e from b i o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n p e r m i t s r e l e a s e from h i s h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , e 2 A p o l i t i c a l T h i n k i n g Apple i s s u p p o r t i v e of the a f f i l i a t i v e q u a l i t y of c u r r e r e and a p p r e c i a t e s the p o l i t i c a l seeds i t may sow. He w r i t e s : 74 I can a p p r e c i a t e p a r t of the program behind the work of those who want t o f o c u s on i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . They seek t o r e c a p t u r e the b i o g r a p h i c a l r o o t s of knowledge, t o make d i s p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e s whole a g a i n , by e n a b l i n g people t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o t h e i r selves-. T h i s marks, i n f a c t , the b e g i n n i n g s of p o l i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s . 6 3 They g i v e w r i t e r and r e a d e r a f e e l i n g of c o n n e c t i o n . The words c a l l f o r t h " e m o t i v e " r e s p o n s e s , p e r h a p s a f e e l i n g of oneness w i t h each o t h e r and the e a r l y e x i s t e n t i a l t r a d i t i o n . T h i s f e e l i n g can be, o d d l y , the f i r s t s t e p toward ending the i s o l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t I mentioned as a s e r i o u s problem i n the phenomenological approach. I do not t h i n k i t i s enough  to overcome the p o l i t i c a l l o g i c of the form i t s e l f ,  howeverT 5 - 5 ( u n d e r l i n i n g i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s ) However, the p o l i t i c a l _ l o g i c i s not a g r e e a b l e t o A p p l e . He e x p r e s s e s t h i s c o ncern i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: The f o c u s on the unconnected i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h h i s or her p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as the metaphor f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n q u i r y , i s not an a c c u r a t e assessment of one's r e a l p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i e t y . 6 5 I t embodies the s e l f as something l i k e the c l a s s i c a l n o v e l i s t i c h ero, w i t h o u t i n q u i r i n g d e e p l y enough i n t o the economic f u n c t i o n s of such a c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f . 6 6 One of the major c a t e g o r i e s of thought t h a t economic c o n t r o l r e q u i r e s i n our s o c i e t y i s t h a t of the p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l . . . i t may a l s o r e p r e s e n t an i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h r o u g h which people a r e s e p a r a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d . 6 7 The i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p o s i t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n , w i t h i t s f o c u s on the "growth" of each s p e c i f i c p e r s o n , f a i l s t o a p p r e c i a t e the ways i n which a model of t h o r o u g h g o i n g i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s i t s e l f symptomatic of the p r o b l e m . 6 8 A l t h o u g h c u r r e r e may indeed be symptomatic of the problem of which Apple speaks, i t may a l s o be a s e m i n a l ground f o r p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The datum source i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c . The 7 5 p r o c e s s i s a p e r s o n a l a c t i o n of autonomy. I t i s c e r t a i n l y a s o l i t a r y s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r P i n a r . And t h i s i ndeed may be a weakness, which he admits t o , through the p r a c t i c e of c u r r e r e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i l l u s t r a t e s : I know my m i s t a k e . E x p e c t a t i o n . Imposing my s t a n d a r d s . You moved; you e x e r t e d . Your papers i n d i c a t e i t . M a d e l e i n e observed i t . Stephen s a i d l e s s , and I sensed s k e p t i c i s m . To l e t go of you. To l e t go of c u r r e r e . To o f f e r i t t o you, and not p r e d e t e r m i n e what you s h o u l d make of i t . To abandon my p o i n t of view and e n t e r y o u r s . Now I can see, on your s c a l e not mine, what work you do, what movement you make. Then I d i s c o v e r you don't i n t e r e s t me. Very few of you i n t e r e s t me, and then o n l y a l i t t l e . I s i t because you're so young, j u s t twenty-one? I s i t because I c a n ' t be f a t h e r l y ? I n s t e a d I am your o l d e r b r o t h e r , seven y e a r s o l d e r , and I f e e l i m p a t i e n c e . I t a k e you s e r i o u s l y , u t t e r l y ; you a r e my contemporary. I c an't bear t o watch you p l a y u n d e r g r a d u a t e , not e a r n e s t , not w h o l e h e a r t e d , not b e l i e v i n g your t i m e , my t i m e , m a t t e r s a b s o l u t e l y . I want t o t e l l Mom and Dad on you. I want t o shake you i n t h e i r absence. I can work w i t h graduate s t u d e n t s . We meet on d i f f e r e n t ground. I don't f a l l i n t o c a j o l i n g you. Somehow I can o f f e r s i m p l y , w i t h o u t the emotion of bondage, what I have. You t a k e , you don't; i t i s okay w i t h me. I t ' s a l t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t , and a l l I can t h i n k of i s age. "I don't l i k e t o work w i t h u n d e r g r a d u a t e s " I end up s a y i n g and I know i t ' s not t r u e . Most e a s i l y I can work w i t h me . . . So I o f f e r you what I can through p r i n t , t h r ough t h e o r y t h a t i s a l s o p r a c t i c e . T h i s b r i n g s me s a t i s f a c t i o n . Your r e s p o n s e , through l e t t e r s , a t m eetings, i s i n s t r u c t i v e , e 9 Grumet, on the o t h e r hand, has taken a somewhat d i f f e r e n t j o u r n e y w i t h c u r r e r e . She works w i t h o t h e r s on i t , u s i n g t h e i r t h e a t r e and s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g as t e x t . A p p l e notes the 76 d i f f e r e n c e : Grumet comes a b i t c l o s e r , I t h i n k , t o a r e a l i z a t i o n of the problems. She o b v i o u s l y sees p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t i s o f t e n dependent, i n the microcosm she r e p o r t s , on group i n t e r a c t i o n , p a s t h i s t o r i e s , and the s t r u c t u r e of power w i t h i n a s i t u a t i o n . 7 0 On t h i s p r i v a t e ground of o r g a n i z i n g c u r r e r e , each w r i t e r chooses h i s or her own p a t h , or the p ath has been chosen, i n t h a t , c u r r e r e i s the t r a v e l l i n g of the l e b e n s w e l t . In t h i s r e g a r d , one c o u l d respond here t o Greene's c h i d i n g of some of P i n a r ' s e a r l y a n a l o g i e s of s c h o o l i n g w i t h madness and murder. She s a y s , "I tend t o b e l i e v e t h a t s c h o o l s have a c o m p a r a t i v e l y m a r g i n a l e f f e c t . " 7 1 That has been her l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e of s c h o o l s . P i n a r ' s was o t h e r w i s e . He d i d not i d l y choose R. D. L a i n g and D a v i d Cooper f o r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . C u r r e r e i s e x p l i c i t f o r P i n a r . I t i s based upon an assumption t h a t i n one's e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e one submits t o e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l g o a l s and s t a n d a r d s . C u r r e r e a l l o w s one t o examine one's obedience, t o become a l e r t t o the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e , " t o r e t r i e v e f r e e - f l o a t i n g a b s t r a c t i o n s from r e i f i e d o p p r e s s i v e ' e x i s t e n c e ' " 7 2 He does not f o r g e t , as Apple s u g g e s t s , t h a t s o c i e t y l i v e s w i t h i n . Presumably the second stage of P i n a r ' s approach t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m w i l l a r i s e out of c u r r e r e ' s c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g of the s o c i e t y w i t h i n . He seemingly i n t e n d s so. "The two o r d e r s of l i b e r a t i v e work c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l , matter and c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e c o r r e l a t i v e . " 7 3 F o o t n o t e s 1 W i l l i a m F P i n a r , " C u r r e r e ; A Case Study", Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l y : Mcutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 318. 2 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " P r e f a c e " , Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m F. P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet fSubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), p. i i i . 3 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r : M e r e l y P l a y e r s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8:1:44, S p r i n g , 1 978. 4 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " S e l f and O t h e r s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m F. P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e R~. Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976) , p. 21. 5 M a d e l i n e R. Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s : The F i g u r e / G r o u n d R e l a t i o n i n a Case Study Of C u r r e r e " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 296. 6 Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 296. 7 Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 287. 8 M a d e l i n e R. Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m F. P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), p. 135. 9 Jean Dorcy, The Mime, t r a n s l a t o r s Robert S p e l l e r , J r . And P i e r r e de F o n t n o u v e l l e (New York: Robert S p e l l e r , 1961), pp. 83-84, c i t e d i n M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r : M e r e l y P l a y e r s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8:1:49, S p r i n g , 1978. 1 0 P i n a r , " S e l f and O t h e r s " , Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m , p. 11. 1 1 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Toward A Poor C u r r i c u l u m " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m F. P i n a r and Madeleine R. Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), pp. 74-75. 1 2 Madeleine R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 35. 1 3 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " P o l i t i c a l - S p i r i t u a l D imensions", Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 106. 1" Madeleine R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 35. 1 5 A l f r e d S h c u l t z c i t e d i n M a d e l e i n e Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenolog i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 37. 1 6 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 42. 1 7 Madeleine R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 42. 1 8 P i n a r , " P r e f a c e " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 45., 1 9 Madeleine R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 45. 2 0 M a d e l i n e R. Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 20. 2 1 Grumet, "Toward A Poor C u r r i c u l u m " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 74. 2 2 Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 112. n. T h i s i s what Grumet c a l l s the double metaphor of a u t o b i o g r a p h y , t h a t i s , the c o m b i n a t i o n of s e l f - r e p o r t and e x a m i n a t i o n of t h a t s e l f - r e p o r t . 2 3 Madeleine R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Ph e n o m e n o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 56. 2 f l James Olney ed., A u t o b i o g r a p h y ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J. : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), p. 24. 2 5 P i n a r , " P o l i t i c a l - S p i r i t u a l D imensions", Toward  a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 105. 2 6 P i n a r , "The Method", Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 62. 2 7 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "The A b s t r a c t and the Co n c r e t e i n C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g " (paper w r i t t e n i n response t o M i c h a e l A p p l e ' s c r i t i q u e of a u o t b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h ) , n.d., p. 14. 2 8 P i n a r , "The Method", Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 55. 2 9 P i n a r , "The Method", Poor C u r r i c u l u m , pp., 58-59. 3 0 P i n a r , "The Method", Poor C u r r i c u l u m , pp., 58-59. 3 1 Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p.. 121. 3 2 P i n a r , " S e l f and O t h e r s " , Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m , p. 20. 3 3 Madeleine R. Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 299. 3 * W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " L i f e H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e " , J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g , 2:2:180, Summer, 1980. 3 5 Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 136. 3 6 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , pp. 298-299. 3 7 M a d e l i n e R. Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r : M e r e l y P l a y e r s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8:1:54, 1978.-80 3 6 Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r " , C I , 8:11:61. 3 9 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " C u r r e r e : A Case Study", Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 329. 4 0 Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 134. 4 1 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " C u r r e r e : A Case Study", Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 411. 4 2 P i n a r , "Case Study", Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , pp. 338-339. 4 3 John S. Mann " C u r r i c u l u m C r i t i c i s m " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 8.5. 4 4 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Another V o i c e " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), p. 158. 4 5 Stephen Somers, "An A s s i s t i n g V o i c e " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), pp. 172-173. 4 6 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "March S i x t h , A Fragment", Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976), p. 176. 4 7 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, "Songs and S i t u a t i o n s " , Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , p. 310. 4 8 D a n i e l Tanner and L a u r e l N. Tanner, "Emancipation from R e s e a r c h : The R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t P r e s c r i p t i o n " , E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 8:6:8, June, 1 979. 4 9 Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:9. 5 0 Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:8-12. 5 1 Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:9. 81 5 2 Grumet, " P s y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a  Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 141. 5 3 James H. F i n k l e s t e i n and C. Ray W i l l i a m s , "To the E d i t o r " , E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 8:9:24, O c t o b e r , 1 979. 5 4 Robert L. Osborn, "An A l l - A m e r i c a n S m a l l Group i n Search of an E l e c t r i c K o o l - A i d A c i d Theory of C u r r i c u l u m " , H e i g h t e n e d C o n s c i o u s n e s s , C u l t u r a l  R e v o l u t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Theory, ed. W i l l i a m P i n a r ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1974), p. 132. 5 5 Osborn, " A l l - A m e r i c a n S m a l l Group", H e i g h t e n e d  C o n s c i o u n e s s , pp. 13 3-135. 5 6 W i l l i a m T. Lowe, "Some R e a c t i o n s " , H e i g h t e n e d  C o n s c i o u s n e s s , C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Theory ~ ed. W i l l i a m P i n a r ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1974), p. 144. 5 7 Max van Manen, " R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t C u r r i c u l u m Thought: A Review of Recent L i t e r a t u r e " , C u r r i c u l u m  I n q u i r y , 8:4:369-370, Wi n t e r 1978. 5 8 Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:10. n. In response t o the word r e c o n c e p t u a l i s m , P i n a r wrote, "I have never used t h i s term. . . . There i s no r e c o n c e p t u a l i s m . " ("Reply t o My C r i t i c s " , C u r r i c u l u m  I n q u i r y , 10:2:200, Summer, 1980) 5 9 Tanner and Tanner, " E m a n c i p a t i o n " , ER, 8:6:9. 6 0 F i n k e l s t e i n and W i l l i a m s , "To the E d i t o r " , ER, 8:9:24. 6 1 F i n k e l s t e i n and W i l l i a m s , "To the E d i t o r " , ER, 8:9:25. 6 2 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "The A b s t r a c t and the Conc r e t e i n C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g " , (paper w r i t t e n i n response t o M i c h a e l A p p l e ' s c r i t i q u e of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h ) , n.d., p. 28. 6 3 M i c h a e l A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form i n C u r r i c u l u m E v a l u a t i o n " , Q u a l i t a t i v e R e s e a r c h , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 509. 6 * A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 514. 6 5 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 510. 6 6 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 511. 6 7 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 508. 6 8 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 509. 6 9 P i n a r , "March S i x t h " , Poor C u r r i c u l u m , pp. 176-177. 7 0 A p p l e , " I d e o l o g y and Form", Q u a l i t a t i v e  E v a l u a t i o n , p. 513. 7 1 Maxine Greene, "To the E d i t o r " , E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h e r , 8:9:25, Oct o b e r , 1979. 7 2 P i n a r , " T h e A b s t r a c t and the C o n c r e t e " , p. 29. 7 3 P i n a r , " T h e A b s t r a c t and the C o n c r e t e " , p. 13. 8 3 Chapter 4 EXAMPLES OF CRITICISM In t h i s c h a p t e r , the methods d e s c r i b e d by E i s n e r and P i n a r , and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , a r e a p p l i e d t o a segment of a v i d e o t a p e c a l l e d "Women Moving Up." 1 The c r i t i q u e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a re two examples of how t h i s r e s e a r c h e r would a p p l y ( 1 ) c r i t i c i s m as the d i s c l o s u r e s of a c o n n o i s s e u r , and (2) c r i t i c i s m as p e r s o n a l d i s c l o s u r e . A p p l i c a t i o n gave the r e s e a r c h e r a b e t t e r sense of the substan c e of each approach. The c r i t i q u e s a r e i n c l u d e d here t o e x e m p l i f y the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E i s n e r and P i n a r . The v i d e o t a p e b e i n g c r i t i q u e d i s from a b u s i n e s s management c u r r i c u l u m , a l s o e n t i t l e d Women Moving Up. The t o t a l package ( i n c l u d i n g l e a d e r ' s manual, w o r k s h e e t s , pre-and p o s t -t e s t s , and v i d e o t a p e s ) was d e s i g n e d f o r a two-day seminar f o r management men and women. The two o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m were t o make management more aware of (day one) and more s k i l l e d i n (day two) h a n d l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t e n s i o n encountered between men and women working t o g e t h e r i n management p o s i t i o n s . The segment b e i n g c r i t i q u e d i s used on day one of the seminar. T h i s p a r t of the v i d e o t a p e d m a t e r i a l has a r u n n i n g time of 25.56 m i n u t e s , e x c l u d i n g the s t o p - s t a r t i n t e r v a l which i s t i m e - o u t , about midway i n the r u n n i n g of the t a p e , f o r purposes of d i s c u s s i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the pers o n s who would be v i e w i n g the tape. The segment b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r , P e t e r Walker, a d v i s i n g the v i e w e r t o "obs e r v e , a n a l y z e , and see what we can l e a r n from Joanne's 84 e x p e r i e n c e . " Joanne Walker i s the o t h e r on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r . She and P e t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d as a husband-wife team. In t h i s segment, Joanne a l s o p l a y s the h e r o i n e i n a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s i n an o f f i c e s e t t i n g . W i t h i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n the c h a r a c t e r s a r e : Joanne Walker, a woman r e c e n t l y promoted from the c l e r i c a l s t a f f t o management; two women s e c r e t a r i e s , one named s i m p l y Margo, and one s i m p l y not named; Ken Benson, a salesman and manager; L o u i s e , an o l d e r woman, e s t a b l i s h e d i n management; Chuck D a i l e y , another man i n management from a branch o f f i c e ; John B l a c k w e l l , the boss. With P e t e r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the d r a m a t i z a t i o n b e g i n s , moving through f i v e s k i t s i n the space of one b u s i n e s s day. A f t e r the s k i t s a r e r u n , Joanne Walker a d v i s e s the v i e w e r s t o t u r n o f f the s e t , w i t h : " F o l k s , i t ' s time now f o r you t o d i s c u s s what we saw, the bro a d , the s u b t l e , the e x p l i c i t , the i m p l i c i t , as we c o n t i n u e t o become more and more aware". When the tape i s t u r n e d back on, Joanne and P e t e r are d i s c u s s i n g the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of women i n management, a c c o r d i n g t o what they saw on the v i d e o t a p e . V i s u a l f l a s h b a c k s t o the d r a m a t i z a t i o n a re c o n s t a n t l y used. The f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m s a r e examples of how t h i s w r i t e r would use the v i d e o segment t o a p p l y c r i t i c i s m as the d i s c l o s u r e s of a c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p and c r i t i c i s m as p e r s o n a l d i s c l o s u r e . A l t h o u g h these c r i t i q u e s a r e s h o r t they do p r e s e n t a f l a v o u r of t h i s w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the methods. 8 5 C r i t i c i s m as the D i s c l o s u r e s of a C o n n o i s s e u r : V a u d e v i l l e k i t s c h as D i d a c t i c i s m T h i s c r i t i q u e views the v i d e o t a p e m a t e r i a l as a h a n d i c r a f t of human t a l e n t . I t has t h e m a t i c , c o n t e x t u a l , and performance a s p e c t s i n i t s make-up as a whole o b j e c t , which the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i q u e aims t o r e v e a l i n the d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In the e v a l u a t i o n , the v i d e o t a p e i s c o n s i d e r e d as one would a s c r i p t or a s c o r e . The c r i t i c t r i e s t o e n v i s i o n i t s performance w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t and theme. T h i s w r i t e r viewed the tape s e v e r a l t i m e s , and read t hrough the l e a d e r ' s guide to the workshop. No attempt was made t o c r i t i q u e i t s p l a c e i n the workshop f o r which t h i s tape i s a t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l or l e a r n i n g a s s i s t . S i n c e i t i s a s e l f -c o n t a i n e d a r t i f a c t h a v i n g m i n i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r use, i t c o u l d be used i n a s e p a r a t e s i t u a t i o n from the r e s t of the workshop package. D e s c r i p t i o n A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n t o v i e w e r s , the tape moves i n t o the d r a m a t i z a t i o n . The b l o u s y tones of organ music, g a i l y a n t i c i p a t o r y then m o u r n f u l l y e x p e c t a n t , s e t the mood f o r the s t a g e s of v a u d e v i l l e or the t e l e v i s i o n soaps. The music fades i n t o the c l a t t e r of t y p e w r i t e r s . Joanne, our h e r o i n e , e n t e r s stage r i g h t . Joanne wears the e x e c u t i v e l o o k : m a t t e r - o f - f a c t shoes, no-nonsense h o i s e r y , grey A - l i n e s k i r t , n a vy-blue b l a z e r , a p r i m l y k n o t t e d , perky s c a r f c o v e r i n g the 86 open neck of her t a i l o r e d s h i r t , h a i r and fa c e f l a w l e s s l y groomed. She s t o p s t o loo k a t her m a i l . The camera moves t o stage l e f t where the s e c r e t a r i e s have stopped t y p i n g , t o co n v e r s e . They a r e l e a n i n g i n t o each o t h e r c o n s p i r a t o r i a l l y . One, Margo, s a y s , "Here comes How t o Succeed i n B u s i n e s s Without R e a l l y T r y i n g " . The o t h e r , who remains nameless throughout (perhaps because a t t h i s p o i n t she appears t o have no a s p i r a t i o n beyond the t y p i n g p o o l ) c o u n t e r s w i t h "Check the o u t f i t . Today we're Mary T y l e r Moore". Aha, o t h e r women i n the o f f i c e a r e s n i p e r s . The subsequent d i a l o g u e between Joanne, the e x e c u t i v e and f o r m e r - o f f i c e - m a t e , and the two s e c r e t a r i e s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t Joanne i s u n c o m f o r t a b l y caught between her o l d r o l e and her new. "Look", she says e x a s p e r a t e d l y a t one p o i n t , "I haven't changed. My j o b has changed." C o n f u s i o n . What does t h a t statement mean? The s e c r e t a r i e s o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e she's f u d g i n g . So does the v i e w e r . The scene ends w i t h Joanne stomping s t i f f - l e g g e d l y out of the r e c e p t i o n a r e a , a n g r i l y p r o m i s i n g t o " t a l k t o you l a t e r " . She behaves as the a g g r i e v e d p a r e n t caught i n a power-play w i t h her c h i l d r e n , w i t h n o t h i n g l e f t t o f i g h t w i t h but v i o l e n c e , and l a r g e r s i z e , a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r v e r b a l abuse, and t h r e a t s of l o s s of p r i v i l e g e . She's management, now, a f t e r a l l . Management i s p a r e n t a l . Scene change. More organ music p r o m i s i n g f i r s t f u n , then suspense. The music fades t h i s time i n t o the p e e v i s h v o i c e of L o u i s e . The camera comes i n on an o l d e r woman w i t h p a i n t e d -on l i p s , no neck, and a c r e p e y , sour f a c e . Her manner w i t h 87 Joanne i s q u e r u l o u s , "You t o l d them t o have the Weasoner account ready and they d i d n ' t seem t o have i t ready. Why?" . . . . and i n s i n u a t i n g , "Don't you know how t o handle the employees? . . . . and c h u r l i s h , "That's what you're g e t t i n g p a i d f o r . Never mind about the easy how-to-do . . . ." Joanne p r e p a r e s to stomp out of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t o o , but then she t u r n s t o c o n f r o n t the o l d w a r r i o r w i t h an i n s i n u a t i o n of her own, "Do you view my promotion as some k i n d of t h r e a t t o you? L o u i s e , do you want me t o f a i l ? " B u l l y f o r you, Joanne. The organ music a g a i n . Back t o the s e c r e t a r i e s ' room, where Joanne i s embarrassed t o f i n d , from the s e c r e t a r i e s , t h a t her work i s b e i n g double-checked u p s t a i r s . E n t e r Ken Benson s i n g i n g c h e e r i l y "Having my baby i s such a n i c e way of s a y i n g you l o v e me". He, i t becomes a p p a r e n t , i s the o f f i c e L o t h a r i o . Joanne brushes him o f f as she would a gnat b u s s i n g around her e a r . Margo, the s e c r e t a r y , however, i s i n a one-down p o s i t i o n . She i s unable t o say "no". She r u e f u l l y a p o l o g i z e s t o the o t h e r s e c r e t a r y , " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , my c a r e e r p a t h l e a d s r i g h t t o h i s door." As the scene ends, the camera h o l d s on her e v i d e n t d i s t r e s s and c o n f u s i o n on the t u r n of events i n her exchange w i t h Ken Benson. She's been b u l l i e d w i t h b o y i s h charm. The organ music i n t r o d u c e s the next s k i t e n t i t l e d "Joanne and Chuck". I t i s the f i r s t n o n - t h r e a t i n g exchange between our h e r o i n e and a n o t h e r , even though Chuck has t o hand her bad news. He ends the i n t e r v i e w by c o m p l i m e n t i n g Joanne on the f i n e j o b she's d o i n g . She f i r s t r e j e c t s h i s compliment by 88 s h r u g g i n g o f f a " t h a n k s " , t o y i n g w i t h her p e n c i l , and w o r r y i n g . Chuck, however, i n s i s t s on b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d . They have met as e q u a l s . That music a g a i n , over the t i t l e f o r the next s e c t i o n "the m e e t i n g " , which c o u l d more g r a p h i c a l l y be e n t i t l e d "The Crap Game a t Dead-Pan C a s i n o " . The o l d boys s t a n d or s i t around a f f e c t i n g c a s u a l n e s s , but i m p o r t a n c e . Joanne i s i n t r o d u c e d t o someone from branch o f f i c e . There i s some c o n f u s i o n over whether he and she shake hands. The group s i t s , but Joanne doesn't i m m e d i a t e l y , so Ken Benson d o e s n ' t , so the o t h e r two r i s e a g a i n , a t a s i g n a l from Benson. B l a c k w e l l , the boss, e n t e r s , s l i g h t l y j o v i a l , c e r t a i n l y p a t e r n a l . He i s w e l l - m e a n i n g , or perhaps, w e l l - t r a i n e d . He e r r s , i n camera, a t the b e g i n n i n g i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t he and Joanne get t o g e t h e r t o review a f i r i n g she has completed. She, s h o u l d e r s t e n s i n g then r o l l i n g back, hand moving t o h i p , r e p l i e s , "John, do I indeed have t h i s new job or am I s t i l l a u d i t i o n i n g ? " He harrumphs and moves away and back t o h i s s a f e c h a i r a t the head of the t a b l e . L a t e r , ex camera, he a s s u r e s her t h a t she has the p a r t . B i d . C o u n t e r - b i d . F o l d . From then on B l a c k w e l l h a n d l e s the m e e t i n g , i n n o c e n t l y e n g i n e e r i n g s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s t h a t prompt c l i c h e d responses from the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . He has the b l a n d demeanour of a c r o u p i e r d e a l i n g the c a r d s w i t h a p p a r e n t l y x - r a y e y e s . There i s the s h u f f l e over who g e t s up f o r the c o f f e e , Joanne or one of the men, who i s " a f t e r a l l , c l o s e r " . There i s the fan over who 8 9 h e l p s Margo hand out the p a p e r s , Joanne or one of the men, who i s " a f t e r a l l , c l o s e r " . There i s Ken Benson b r a s h l y b i d d i n g h i g h a t the approach of Margo, the s e c r e t a r y , w i t h "Here's the b r i g h t e s t day i n any man's l i f e . H e l l o , Gorgeous!!" And, B l a c k w e l l ' s d i s g r u n t l e d "Oh, f o r heaven's sake, Ken". Ken i s o b v i o u s l y not t a k i n g the game s e r i o u s l y enough or he would not have made such an outrageous move. For Ken Benson, women are d e f i n i t e l y an i n t e r r u p t i o n . Joanne throws i n what she c o n s i d e r s a w i n n i n g hand, her new a s s i s t a n t . Benson chokes and t r i e s t o d e a l from the bottom of the deck w i t h , "What?! She's m a r r i e d and has t h r e e k i d s . " Joanne c a l l s him on i t , and everyone b r e a t h e s f r e e l y a g a i n . A l s o , a t t h i s t a b l e , Joanne f i n d s out t h a t the s e c r e t a r i e s have been s a b o t a g i n g h e r , p u t t i n g her work as l o w e s t p r i o r i t y . Women a g a i n s t women a g a i n . T h i s o b v i o u s l y d i s h o n o u r a b l e a c t i v i t y r e v e a l e d , a l t h o u g h embarassing f o r everyone, draws the e x e c u t i v e group around Joanne. She has been h u s t l e d by an o u t s i d e r . The music of v a u d e v i l l e and the soaps a g a i n . R e t urn t o s t u d i o and Joanne and P e t e r . They d e c i d e t o s t o p tape so t h a t v i e w e r s may d i s c u s s and a n a l y z e what they have seen. The organ music ta k e s us away. When the tape i s s t a r t e d a g a i n Joanne and P e t e r a r e i n the s t u d i o d i s c u s s i n g , o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n of the d r a m a t i z a t i o n i n which Joanne was the h e r o i n e . They employ r e p l a y s as they r e c a l l v a r i o u s themes r e l e v a n t t o them. The emphasis of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s on the problems from Joanne's 90 p o i n t of view. Any s i d e i s s u e s t o t h a t a r e d i s c a r d e d . Sometimes Joanne and P e t e r a r e solemn, sometimes c u t e i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s , thus m i r r o r i n g the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n . Such consummate s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s , of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the s k i t s , of the on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r s , of the music, suggests t h a t the t o p i c was one w i t h which no one was c o m f o r t a b l e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The tape i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t i s a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of problem s i t u a t i o n s . The second i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o r t r a y a l . N e i t h e r i s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . The tape s e r v e s o n l y t o s p e c i f y problems by enactment and by o r g a n i z a t i o n of them i n t o a schemata. The i s s u e t h a t prompted t h i s tape b e i n g produced, or a t l e a s t chosen f o r use i n the workshop i n which i t i s c o n t a i n e d , i s r a i s e d t h r o u g h the a c t u a l i t y of many more women moving i n t o management i n the s a l a r i e d work w o r l d . I t i s used s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s workshop as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c problems f o r both men and women i n management p o s i t i o n s . Each s k i t p o r t r a y s a l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n , t r a n s f o r m e d so t h a t o n l y the d i s t r a c t i o n s of the phenomenon of women moving up are p r e s e n t . These d i s t r a c t i o n s s t a n d out i n r e l i e f . Every i n c i d e n t p o r t r a y e d i s i n c i d e n t a l t o the work p l a c e as a t a s k - o r i e n t e d s i t u a t i o n . However, the placement of ev e r y i n c i d e n t a l i n c i d e n t i s i n t e n t i o n a l f o r the p r o d u c e r s of t h i s v i d e o t a p e . The tape f o c u s s e s on i n c i d e n t s t h a t make the p r o t a g o n i s t s n e r v o u s , 91 nervous because they do not know what they a re supposed t o do. The i n c i d e n t s p o r t r a y e d a re l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n s t o the c h a r a c t e r s because they a re l i m i t i n g p eople t o a s s i g n e d r o l e b e h a v i o u r s which somehow don't f i t anymore. The tape p r e s e n t s a sense of s o c i a l d i s - e a s e i n the work p l a c e because men and women do not know how t o a c t w i t h a woman i n management. I t appears t h a t the p r o d u c e r s b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s the l a c k of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i n s i t u of these i n c i d e n t s t h a t c o n f u s e s p e r s o n s . That i s , people a re used t o o p e r a t i n g i n an a s s i g n e d way r a t h e r than a t h o u g h t f u l way. No one i n these s c e n a r i o s i s q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t u a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t r e s u l t from non-i n t e n t i o n a l i t y . For example, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the o t h e r women i n t e n d c o n s c i o u s l y t o sabotage Joanne. A b e r r a t i o n and e r r o r succeed each o t h e r u n e n d i n g l y i n a s e r i e s of momentary e x p e r i e n c e s . There i s Joanne's d i s - e a s e , m a n i f e s t e d i n a f f e c t a t i o n s . There i s Chuck and Bob F r a z i e r ' s d i s - e a s e , m a n i f e s t e d i n s l i g h t l y gun-shy b e h a v i o u r . There i s Margo's d i s -ease i n d e a l i n g w i t h the o f f i c e l e c h . There i s the s n i d e s n i c k e r i n g of the s e c r e t a r i e s b e h i n d Joanne's back, and t h e i r s l y s a b o t a g i n g of her work a s s i g n m e n t s . There i s the c a v i l l i n g meanness of L o u i s e , the o l d - l i n e l a d y boss. There i s the b l a n d power demeanour of the a v u n c u l a r Mr. B l a c k w e l l . There i s Ken Benson who always has t o make an i s s u e of someone b e i n g a woman. There a r e j u x t a p o s i t i o n s t h a t keep one aware of the a b s u r d i t y of the s i t u a t i o n s . There i s , f o r example, the wickedness of Ken Benson, L o u i s e , and the s e c r e t a r i e s , which 92 s e r v e s , f o r one t h i n g , t o put a w h i t e horse under Joanne as she r i d e s i n t o town. There are o t h e r examples of the good guys s e t b e s i d e the bad guys. The women, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Joanne, the h e r o i n e , are a l l bad, whereas the men, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Ken Benson, the " O i l Can H a r r y " , a r e a l l good i n t h e i r f u m b l i n g e f f o r t s a t rapprochement. Another example i s the s k i t e n t i t l e d "Joanne and Chuck" which c o n t r a s t s w i t h the r e s t of the p i e c e , i n a p p e a r i n g to be a model f o r peopl e t o address r e l a t i o n s h i p t e n s i o n s . Joanne uses t h i s e x c e r p t l a t e r as an e x p l i c i t t e a c h i n g d e v i c e , when she and P e t e r i n s t r u c t i n the meaning of i t a l l . Another example i s i n the c o n s p i r a t o r i a l s l u r s t h a t the s e c r e t a r i e s a t t a c h t o Joanne. In one case t h e r e i s the s u g g e s t i o n she i s r e a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r the m a c h i n a t i o n s of management, and i n the o t h e r i s the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t she i s a wide-eyed i n n o c e n t . The e p i t h e t . "How t o Succeed i n B u s i n e s s Without R e a l l y T r y i n g " i m p l i e s t h a t Joanne has r u t h l e s s l y f o l l o w e d the r u l e book, has l e a r n e d how t o walk, t a l k , d r e s s , and s m e l l l i k e management, and i s now on her way. The a p p e l l a t i o n "We're Mary T y l e r Moore today" suggest Joanne's v u l n e r a b i l i t y , t h a t she i s w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d from h a b i t , perhaps, r a t h e r than from any r e a l c o n v i c t i o n , or from any r e a l d e s i g n e i t h e r . The music at the i n t e r v a l s i s a c u l t u r a l s i g n t o s t a y tuned, t h e r e ' s more t o come, what w i l l happen next? What happens next i s more of the same. What the tape p r e s e n t s ( i n both s e c t i o n s ) i s so t r u e and y e t so f a l s e . The v i e w e r wants t o 93 groan, boo, and h i s s at the v i l l a i n y of i t a l l . A l t h o u g h i t i s heavy-handed, i t i s a l s o warm and s t i c k y so t h a t the v i e w e r squirms i n d i s c o m f o r t . The o v e r - a l l sense t h a t one i s l e f t w i t h i s one of s o c i a l d i s c o m f o r t , s o c i a l d i s - e a s e , as one watches Joanne moving from a l o n e l y almost u n t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n t o becoming an a c c e p t e d member of the e x e c u t i v e team. But what about her c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the o t h e r women i n the o f f i c e ? The s e c t i o n of the tape t h a t i n t e r p r e t s the d r a m a t i z a t i o n s r e i t e r a t e s t h i s u n t e n a b l e n e s s . In the d i s c u s s i o n , t h e r e i s no a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t her becoming one of us (management) a g a i n s t them (workers) i s a s u c c e s f u l s o l u t i o n . Thank goodness. E v a l u a t i o n The e v a l u a t i o n has been s u b d i v i d e d i n o r d e r t o c o n s i d e r the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y , the a r t f u l n e s s , and the u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s v i d e o t a p e . The v i d e o t a p e as i n t e n t i o n a l . A c c o r d i n g t o the l e a d e r s ' g u i d e , t h i s v i d e o t a p e i s t o be used as a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women i n management. The o b j e c t i v e of the workshop on the f i r s t day, when t h i s v i d e o t a p e i s used, i s awareness. Awareness seems t o be synonymous w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of problems. The d r a m a t i z a t i o n of Joanne i n the b u s i n e s s s i t u a t i o n i d e n t i f i e s the problems by r e p l i c a t i o n . The r e p l i c a t i o n i s d i d a c t i c . The d i s c u s s i o n between Joanne and P e t e r p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t i o n of the problems, by p r i o r i t i z i n g them i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. V i e w e r s a r e made aware of s t e r e o t y p e s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on t h i s v i d e o 94 tape belong t o the c o n v e n t i o n s of melodrama. The c h a r a c t e r s a r e o b j e c t i f i e d i n the f a c t i c i t i e s of g e s t u r e , g a i t , d r e s s , and language. For example, the v i e w e r knows who the people who don't count a r e they do not have l a s t names, one has no name at a l l the s e c r e t a r i e s and L o u i s e . A l s o , the c h a r a c t e r s a r e p o l a r i z e d as good or bad, men or women, management or s u b o r d i n a t e . In d r a m a t i z i n g t y p e s and c l i c h e s t he p r o d u c e r s a r e send i n g messages about th o s e t y p e s and c l i c h e s . The movements ar e h i g h l y s t y l i z e d . The v i e w e r ' s r o l e i n t h i s form of p r e s e n t a t i o n appears t o be t o r e c o g n i z e the genre c o n v e n t i o n s , and t o read them as such. However, t h a t can't be a l l t h i s tape i s about. I f the d r a m a t i z a t i o n i s o n l y a "Mary T y l e r Moore How to Succeed i n a Sal o n or Saloon Without Any Panache" s i t u a t i o n , then the case p r e s e n t e d i s u n p r o b l e m a t i c . I f t h e r e i s more, i t appears t o be t h a t c o n d i t i o n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n f l i c t w i t h unmapped c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I f i t i s inde e d t r u e t h a t "I haven't changed. My j o b has changed", then Joanne and the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s have t o make sense of the o l d t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d r o l e of the j o b as s e p a r a t e from the pers o n i n the r o l e . That i s , the problem i s not t o t a k e f o r g r a n t e d the p e r s o n , and con f u s e him or her w i t h the r o l e . The tape d e f i n e s t h i s c o n f l i c t by a b s t r a c t i n g the awkward and the s t a t i c responses a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . I t i s the s t o r y of a woman i s o l a t e d i n her c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s the s t o r y of how the o t h e r p e o p l e she works w i t h a r e a l s o l i m i t e d by those same c o n d i t i o n s . 9 5 The c h a r a c t e r s a re o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l . As a ' s t r a n g e r i n town', the h e r o i n e i s a bre a c h of everyday e x p e c t a n c i e s . She i s 'new', p r o b l e m a t i c , t r o u b l i n g . The o l d 'boys' a r e wary of the new 'gun' i n town. The ' g i r l s ' a r e s a s s y , even n a s t y . L o u i s e , the 'madam' i s tough l i k e o l d meat i s tough. John B l a c k w e l l i s the head honcho a l a L o m e Greene. The p l o t i s a p i l i n g up of i n c i d e n t s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t o p p l e o v e r . The v i d e o t a p e as a r t f u l . The v i e w e r s have been i n s t r u c t e d t o watch and t o l i s t e n . These are the si m p l e i n t r o d u c t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n s on the v i d e o t a p e . The workshop l e a d e r c o u l d g i v e o t h e r s , t o more s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t the v i e w e r s ' a t t e n t i o n . On the t a p e , i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s open-ended. A f t e r the s t o p - s t a r t l i v e d i s c u s s i o n i n t e r l u d e , the on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r s p r e s e n t one way of o r g a n i z i n g the theme(s) of the drama. The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t t h a t i s t h e i r way not the way, which i s a good s u g g e s t i o n . What the tape does be s t i s p o r t r a y the d i s c o m f o r t , the c o n f u s i o n , and the conc o m i t a n t d i s t a s t e everyone concerned f e e l s w i t h the c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the i s s u e of men and women be i n g c o - p a r t n e r s i n the w o r l d of s a l a r i e d work. The s u r f e i t of the mediocre and the mean i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n and of t h e c u t e n e s s and s o l e m n i t y of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does d i s q u i e t the v i e w e r . I t c o u l d a l s o d i s c o u r a g e . I f i t d i s q u i e t s , t h i s would be a good p l a c e f o r d i s c u s s i o n t o b e g i n . In t h a t way, t h i s tape c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l . 9 6 T h e s k i t s a b s t r a c t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y t h e i m p e d i m e n t s o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d t h e d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g o f p e o p l e . K e n B e n s o n v o i c e s a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s women a s t h i n g s . J o a n n e r e p r e s e n t s a new t h i n g i n m a n a g e m e n t i d e a s . The c o l l e c t i v e t h i n k i n g t h a t K e n B e n s o n r e p r e s e n t s a s s u m e s t h a t J o a n n e a s t h e new m o d e l h a s t h e same b u i l t - i n o b s o l e s c e n c e a s a n y t h i n g o u t o f D e t r o i t . T h i s a p p e a r s t o be a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e f o r t h e p r o d u c e r s o f t h e t a p e , t h a t women p r e s u m i n g new r o l e s i s a p e r m a n e n t i n n o v a t i o n . The p o s i t i v e a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n o f v a u d e v i l l e k i t s c h i s t h a t t h e p r o d u c e r s e v i d e n t l y saw t h i s a s t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o c a r v e i n s t o n e t h e g r a f f i t i o f o f f i c e l i f e , t o s e t i t i n r e l i e f s o t h a t no o n e c o u l d m i s s s e e i n g i t . T h i s s t r a i n i n g - f o r - e f f e c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e o n e - l i n e r s t u f f o f t h e s t a n d - u p c o m i c . E v e n s o , o r maybe b e c a u s e o f , o n e d o e s r e c e i v e a s e n s e o f t h e i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t p o r t r a y e d . I t i s t h a t s e n s e o f i l l - a t - e a s e i r r e s o l u t i o n t h a t a l l o w s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f woman i n m a n a g e m e n t may be g r a s p e d a n d a p p r o p r i a t e d b y t h e w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s v i d e o t a p e i s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e v i e w e r t o a c c e p t a n d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e d i s c o m f o r t a n d c o n f u s i o n a r i s i n g f r o m women b e c o m i n g m a n a g e m e n t , a n d i n s o d o i n g t o c h a l l e n g e t h e m t o t a k e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e a s a l i m i t i n g s i t u a t i o n . No s o l u t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d . I t i s l e f t t o t h e g r o u p u s i n g t h e t a p e t o d e c i d e t h e w a y s a n d m e a n s a n d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e g i v e n 97 s i t u a t i o n and overcoming p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e of i t . The v i d e o t a p e as u s e f u l . The w o r t h w h i l e n e s s of the v i d e o tape depends on how t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r the workshop l e a d e r i s w i t h the i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s of the v i e w e r s . What themes w i l l the v i e w e r - p a r t i c i p a n t s p u l l out t o examine? I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the v i e w e r w i l l o r g a n i z e the problems t h a t he or she i d e n t i f i e s by f i r s t i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h one or more of the c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h one or more of the s i t u a t i o n s i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n . From t h e r e v i e w e r - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l draw out t h e i r own theme t o work on. What the v i e w e r s d e c i d e as s i g n i f i c a n t c o u l d be s l i g h t l y s i m i l a r t o what Joanne and P e t e r Walker come up w i t h ; i t c o u l d even be e n t i r e l y s y m m e t r i c a l ; or i t c o u l d be q u i t e o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t . The p r o d u c e r s of the tape have a l l o w e d f o r v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by i n s t r u c t i n g the v i e w e r - p a r t i c i p a n t t o do t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s b e f o r e the on-tape i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s done. T h i s i s a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e of the v i d e o t a p e format. I t a l l o w s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In the case of an a-symmetry of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the p r o d u c e r s of the v i d e o tape have d e v e l o p e d and p r e s e n t e d t o the v i e w i n g audience what P a u l o F r e i r e would c a l l a h i n g e d theme. In t h i s event i t would be i m p o r t a n t t h a t the workshop l e a d e r a s s u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t the h i n g e d theme i s no more s i g n i f i c a n t than t h e i r own d i s c o v e r e d themes, or more l i k e l y not as s i g n i f i c a n t . O t h e r w i s e , ( 1 ) the p a r t i c i p a n t s may be i n t i m i d a t e d by what they c o n s i d e r e x p e r t o p i n i o n , and w i l l not take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own problem awareness; and ( 2 ) the 98 workshop l e a d e r as e d u c a t o r w i l l be g u i l t y of c o l l u s i o n w i t h the g i v e n . The w o r t h w h i l e n e s s of t h i s v i d e o t a p e depends l a r g e l y on the s k i l l s of the workshop l e a d e r . The tape i n and of i t s e l f p r e s e n t s f i r s t l y , problem p o s i n g s i t u a t i o n s ; s e c o n d l y , a s c hematic of the s i g n i f i e r s of the problems posed. The workshop l e a d e r must n e c e s s a r i l y ensure t h a t the group does not o n l y r e c o g n i z e the s i t u a t i o n s c o d i f i e d i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n , but t h a t they a l s o examine the o r g a n i z a t i o n of those s i g n i f i e r s as done by the on-tape d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r s , and l a t t e r l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r own themes. The e d u c a t o r , as workshop l e a d e r , must not o n l y a s s u r e the group of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r own d i s c o v e r i e s , he/she must a l s o prompt them t o examine the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the m a t e r i a l on the tape and t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and d i s c o v e r i e s . In which case t h i s v i d e o t a p e c o u l d t u r n out t o be a v e r y e x c i t i n g t e a c h i n g t o o l . In and of i t s e l f , i t i s n o t h i n g , a r e f l e c t o r , p erhaps. The e d u c a t i o n a l import of the tape depends on what the seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s do w i t h i t , which i s t r u e of any t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l . The v a l u e depends upon the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of the user more than upon the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of the p r o d u c e r . I , f o r example, would use i t t o examine t a k e n -f o r - g r a n t e d p o s t u r e s l i k e the assumption t h a t the s i b l i n g r i v a l r y of women i s more d e s t r u c t i v e then the p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t of the h e l p l e s s boss or male co-worker. 99 C r i t i c i s m as P e r s o n a l D i s c l o s u r e : F i n d i n g Courage T h i s c r i t i q u e views the v i d e o t a p e as c a t a l y s t f o r p e r s o n a l growth. The v i s u a l and v e r b a l messages t h a t a re s i g n i f i c a n t t o the c r i t i c become the " t e x t " f o r the c r i t i q u e . The c a t a l y t i c l i n e s are then t h e m a t i c a l l y l i n k e d . The " t e x t " and "themes" a r e s e t a s i d e , w h i l e the c r i t i c w r i t e s , f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e l y , her " b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t " . Next, the " b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t " i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the "themes t h a t l i n k the t e x t " , so t h a t the c r i t i c may w r i t e an " a n a l y s i s " of the c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t s u r f a c e between them. A f t e r w r i t i n g the " a n a l y s i s " , the c r i t i c r e s t s , r e f l e c t s , c o n s i d e r i n g new avenues f o r p e r s o n a l growth as an e d u c a t o r , and f i n a l l y w r i t e s a " s y n t h e s i s " . The r e a d e r i s reminded t h a t i n c u r r e r e , t h e r e a r e two c o - e x i s t a n t s o u r c e s f o r the i n i t i a l datum. F i r s t , the l i n e s from the v i d e o t a p e t h a t s t r u c k t h i s v i e w e r as s i g n i f i c a n t a re l i s t e d and t h e m a t i c a l l y a p p e r c e i v e d . Next, t h i s c r i t i c ' s b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t i s r e c o u n t e d from i m p r e s s i o n t o a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h i n g s half-remembered. R e f l e c t i o n upon the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two s o u r c e s of the i n i t i a l datum become b a s i c i n the a n a l y t i c and s y n t h e t i c s e c t i o n s of t h i s c r i t i q u e . The r e ader i s a l s o reminded t h a t c u r r e r e i s a g i f t t o o n e s e l f . L i k e any o t h e r g i f t i t may t o u c h the l i v e s of o t h e r s than the r e c i p i e n t . 100 Themes That L i n k the Chosen Passages The l i n e s of d i a l o q u e from the tape t h a t a f f e c t e d me most, I d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups, which, I t h i n k , cannot r i g h t l y be c a l l e d themes. They a r e , r a t h e r , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n l a b e l s . W i t h i n these t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s are f i v e sub-themes t h a t sometimes c r o s s each o t h e r i n the l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s . The t h r e e l a r g e 'themes' or c a t e g o r i e s are (1) p o l a r i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n r e v e a l e d , (2) words and g e s t u r e s not examined, and (3) p u z z l e s . The f i v e sub-themes t h a t weave th r o u g h these c a t e g o r i e s are ( i ) the i m p l i c a t i o n of the v e r b " h a n d l e " , ( i i ) those p l a y e r a c t i o n s t h a t s t r a i n f o r e f f e c t , appear f a l s e , or are u n c o n v i n c i n g , ( i i i ) the hidden s l u r s a g a i n s t women, ( i v ) the a b s o r p t i o n w i t h i n the language and the s e t t i n g of c o m p e t i t i o n , power, and sex, (v) the suggested d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h men. P o l a r i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n r e v e a l e d . Immediately f o l l o w i n g are examples of d i a l o g u e from the v i d e o t a p e t o which I p a r t i c u l a r l y responded. LOUISE. "That's what you're g e t t i n g p a i d f o r . Never mind about the easy how t o do i t . Do i t . Make a d e c i s i o n and don't l o o k back. T h i s i s no p l a c e f o r the weak-kneed and' wishy-washy. T h i s job g i v e s power, and you've got t o l e a r n how t o use t h a t power". PETER. "And i f they j u s t show a l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e , r e a l c o n f i d e n c e , w e l l maybe t h a t ' s why B e t s y went back t o her o l d j o b " . JOANNE. "Of c o u r s e i t i s . No one ever showed an ounce of c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r . P l u s , she never had 1 0 1 any t r a i n i n g . She wasn't promoted. She was seduced and abandoned". PETER. " T r a i n i n g ? What s o r t of t r a i n i n g " ? JOANNE. "The s o r t of t r a i n i n g t h a t e v e r y man g e t s " . PETER. "Oh, t h a t s o r t " . JOANNE. "Yes, t h a t s o r t " . PETER. "She r e a l l y d i d n ' t have an eq u a l chance t o succeed". JOANNE. "Or f a i l " . PETER. "Wuh"? JOANNE. " P e t e r , do you know what I l i k e about you?" PETER. "What?" JOANNE. "Sometimes you t h i n k j u s t l i k e a woman." PETER. ( l o o k i n g s t a r t l e d and then p l e a s e d ) "Thanks." The p o l a r i z a t i o n , and subsequent i s o l a t i o n , r e v e a l e d i n t h i s v i d e o tape concern p a r t i c u l a r l y the opposing p o t e n t i a l s , r a t h e r than the s y n t h e s i z i n g p o t e n t i a l s , of the f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e s of the human psyche. For purposes of s i m p l i c i t y i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e s h a l l be imaged as the power a c q u i r e r ; the f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e , as the g i v e r - r e c e i v e r . C o n f l i c t , i n s e c u r i t y , and i s o l a t i o n r e s u l t from the s e p a r a t i o n and o v e r - e l a b o r a t i o n of these two p r i n c i p l e s i n our s o c i e t y , s i n c e w i t h o u t the i n t e g r a t i o n of the two, one's humanity cannot be r e a l i z e d . In the b u s i n e s s w o r l d , g e n e r a l l y , the f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e i s / h a s been s u p p r e s s e d . S u p p r e s s i o n causes d i s t o r t i o n of form i n i t s e v e n t u a l e x p r e s s i o n . For example, Ken Benson and L o u i s e r e p r e s e n t p e r s o n s e x t e r i o r i z i n g a sup p r e s s e d f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e . Benson's s e p a r a t i o n from i t i s 1 0 2 m a n i f e s t e d i n h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h and treatment of women as another sex, as a l i e n . The s u p p r e s s i o n of the f e m i n i n e i n L o u i s e i s r e v e a l e d i n her near h o r r o r of the weak-kneed and wishy-washy. For her t h e r e i s no room f o r d i f f u s e , s c a r y or s c a r e d , p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s . In her w o r l d , t h i s i s war, and t h e r e are o n l y winners and l o s e r s . Another example i s found i n the exchange between Ken Benson and Chuck F r a z i e r where they a r e d i s c u s s i n g B e t s y ' s w i t h d r a w a l from management. Benson's s u p p o s i t i o n i s , a p p a r e n t l y , t h a t Betsy f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r e d she wasn't a man. F r a z i e r , on the o t h e r hand, r e c o g n i z e s t h i s as a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as an i n j u s t i c e even (Chuck F r a z i e r , by the way, i s b l a c k ) . L a t e r on i n the t a p e , Joanne, as c o - d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r , e x p l a i n s B e t s y ' s w i t h d r a w a l i n terms of her i s o l a t i o n : t h a t because she was o b v i o u s l y a woman no one e l s e i n management would come near h e r . She was a p a r i a h because she marched t o the tune of a d i f f e r e n t drummer. 2 I r o n i c a l l y , a l t h o u g h she was c o n s i d e r e d beneath contempt, she was exp e c t e d t o be p e r f e c t , more p e r f e c t i n performance than any man i n management. Because of the o v e r - e l a b o r a t i o n of the male p r i n c i p l e and i t s s e p a r a t i o n from the female p r i n c i p l e , B e t s y was, t o use Joanne's words, seduced and abandoned. That p h r a s e , "seduced and abandoned", suggests the theme of p o l a r i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n , t o o . That she was abandonded su g g e s t s i s o l a t i o n . She was banned. The word seduced i n i t s u s u a l c o n n o t a t i o n suggests the o b j e c t i f y i n g of one pers o n i n a 1 0 3 s e x u a l exchange. I t a l s o s u g g e s t s the unhappy unmix t h a t happens when p o w e r - a q u i s i t i o n - o v e r - o t h e r i s poured i n t o the same p i t c h e r as s e x - g i v i n g - r e c e i v i n g . Another example i s found i n Joanne's r e p e a t e d c o m p l a i n t t h a t t h e r e i s no management t r a i n i n g f o r women, when t h e r e i s such t r a i n i n g f o r "peach-faced young e x e c u t i v e s " (her words). A p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n of t h a t s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t her c o r p o r a t i o n v a g u e l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t what women have t o o f f e r i s d i f f e r e n t , but t h a t they don't know how, or what t o do w i t h i t . T h e r e f o r e , they i g n o r e t h i s o f f e r i n g , hoping by some magic i t w i l l a s s e r t i t s e l f . In the d i s c u s s i o n p a r t of the t a p e , t h e r e i s some i n t e r p l a y between the opposing p o t e n t i a l s of the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e s . Joanne r e p r e s e n t s the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of the m a s c u l i n e i n t h a t she i s wo r k i n g t o come t o terms w i t h , t o narrow down, t o f o c u s on her problems i n the b u s i n e s s s i t u a t i o n . P e t e r r e p r e s e n t s the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of the f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e by b e i n g accomodating, concerned, u n d e r s t a n d i n g , p e r c e p t i v e , and s u p p o r t i v e . Each a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a n e g a t i v e a s p e c t of the two p r i n c i p l e s . P e t e r c o u l d be accused of s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , m a n i f e s t e d i n c o r n i n e s s . Joanne c o u l d be accused of r i g i d adherence t o a t t i t u d e s , m a n i f e s t e d i n her u p t i g h t n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n response t o P e t e r ' s c o r n i n e s s . The tape ends w i t h Joanne t e l l i n g P e t e r , " P e t e r , do you know what I l i k e about you? . . . Sometimes you t h i n k j u s t l i k e a woman." P e t e r i s a t f i r s t s t a r t l e d , and then g e n u i n e l y 1 0 4 moved. He knows he's been complimented. Words and g e s t u r e s not examined. Immediately f o l l o w i n g a re examples of d i a l o g u e from the v i d e o t a p e t o which I p a r t i c u l a r l y responded. OTHER SECRETARY. "You know i t ' s r e a l l y h a r d g e t t i n g used t o h a v i n g Joanne as a boss". MARGO. "Yeh, and by the time we get use t o i t , s h e ' l l p r o b a b l y l e a v e . . . pregnant". OTHER SECRETARY. "Ha, ha". LOUISE. "Don't you know how t o handle the employees"? MARGO. "Dinner? L i s t e n , why can't we j u s t t a l k about i t a t l u n c h " ? KEN BENSON. "Why don't we make a n i g h t of i t ? I mean I can g i v e you your f i r s t l e s s o n i n how a salesman, how a s a l e s p e r s o n , e n t e r t a i n s a customer. I mean, t h e r e ' s no reason i t has t o be a l l b u s i n e s s i s t h e r e " ? MARGO. "Huh, no, no I guess n o t " . KEN BENSON (SINGING). "Havin' my baby, what a l o v e l y way t o t e l l me t h a t you l o v e me. H i , Chuck". CHUCK DAILY. " H i " . KEN BENSON. "That's a g r e a t song i s n ' t i t " ? MARGO. "Yeh, and a f t e r she has h i s baby, maybe she can go out and re n t one f o r h e r s e l f " . JOANNE. "Oh many a r e . As f o r the o t h e r s , I don't excuse i t , but I do u n d e r s t a n d i t , and t h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s . Women are used t o competing w i t h 1 0 5 each o t h e r f o r men and beauty and y o u t h , but not j o b s . " • • • • The f o l l o w i n g a r e some d i a l o g i c a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t were l e f t i n c o n t e x t , t h a t i s , not p l a y e d out i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n t o b r i n g n o t i c e t o them, and/or not examined i n the d i s c u s s i o n p a r t of the t a p e . S i n c e they were hidden i n c o n t e x t perhaps they s h o u l d have been examined b e f o r e they went i n t o the s c r i p t . One i s L o u i s e ' s w h i n i n g c h a l l e n g e t o Joanne, "Don't you know how t o handle the employees?" I t i s the word 'handle' i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t j a r s . One can handle p e b b l e s , one may handle p o r c u p i n e s , but one does not handle p e o p l e . I f one does, one i s not b e i n g r e s p e c t f u l . One can and may, however, handle or not handle w e l l s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e . Another i s s u e t h a t i s obscured by the p r e s e n t i n g i n t e n t i o n s of the s c r i p t w r i t e r i s the u n w i t t i n g s l u r s a g a i n s t women (or the f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e ) . For example, where Margo w i t h more than a h i n t of b i t t e r n e s s s a y s , "Yeh, and by the time we get used t o i t [Having Margo as a b o s s ] , s h e ' l l p r o b a b l y l e a v e . . . p r e g n a n t " , and the o t h e r s e c r e t a r y c o l l u d e s w i t h a h a r s h l a u g h . Or f o r example, where Joanne a g g r i e v e d l y r e t o r t s t o Benson's s i n g i n g ( a l b e i t c o n s t a n t l y ) , "Having my baby i s such a n i c e way t o say you l o v e me," . . . " A f t e r she has h i s baby maybe she can go out and r e n t one f o r h e r s e l f . " I t i s the tone of v o i c e , of the p r e s e n t a t i o n and of the comment each r e c e i v e s , t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h e s e are s l u r s , t h a t h a v i n g b a b i e s , a t l e a s t i n 106 some c o n t e x t s , i s a d i s c r e d i t a b l e t h i n g t o do. Another unexamined message i s i n the mix of the concept of p o w e r - o v e r - o t h e r s and sex, and concept of c o m p e t i t i o n . For example, where Joanne, g e s t u r i n g i n e x c i t a t i o n t o ex p r e s s h e r s e l f s a y s , "Women are used t o competing f o r men, beauty, and yo u t h , but not f o r j o b s " , the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s o n l y a matter of t i m e , or more e x a c t l y , t r a i n i n g , b e f o r e women can compete i n t h i s new arena of j o b s . The c o m p e t i t i o n i d e a i t s e l f i s not q u e s t i o n e d . Another i s found i n Benson's s e x u a l innuendos. For Joanne, Benson's come-ons are minor i r r i t a t i o n s . She d i s m i s s e s h i s b e h a v i o u r as b e i n g too b l a t a n t t o be taken s e r i o u s l y . She does admit though t h a t f o r Margo, Benson i s a problem, but she does not e l a b o r a t e s i n c e i n t h i s v i d e o t a p e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the problems i s a c c o r d i n g t o what i s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r Joanne, as a woman, i n her new r o l e i n management. I t would, I s u s p e c t , be a problem f o r her i f Benson were someone h i g h e r up than her i n the h i e r a r c h y . One b i g reason why Benson's approach t o women i s harrassment f o r Margo i s , as she r u e f u l l y comments t o the o t h e r s e c r e t a r y , a f t e r an u n s u c c e s s f u l encounter w i t h Benson, where she ended up i n a one-down p o s i t i o n , t h a t " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , my c a r e e r p a t h l e a d s r i g h t t o h i s door". P u z z l e s . Immediately f o l l o w i n g a r e examples of d i a l o g u e from the v i d e o t a p e t o which I p a r t i c u l a r l y responded. These a r e a l l from the p a r t of the tape where Joanne and P e t e r d i s c u s s e d the d r a m a t i z a t i o n s . JOANNE WALKER. "Oh, but i t ' s not t h a t easy, P e t e r . I want t o e s t a b l i s h my own management s t y l e . I don't want t o be l i k e a man, and I c e r t a i n l y don't want t o be l i k e L o u i s e " . PETER WALKER. "Who i s a bad i m p e r s o n a t i o n of a man" . JOANNE. "But i t ' s v e r y h a r d t o b e l i e v e i n y o u r s e l f when, I don't know i f I'm g o i n g t o say t h i s r i g h t , but when a l o t of men r e a l l y don't t h i n k t h a t women are g o i n g t o make i t " . PETER. "Oh, Joanne". JOANNE. " P e t e r , I'm s e r i o u s . Oh s u r e , women are promoted, and ' l i s t e n e d t o ' , but what a l o t of men are t h i n k i n g i s , 'Well t h i s , t o o , s h a l l p a s s . ' " Deep down w i t h i n them, t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e t h i n k i n g . Look, management needs what women have t o o f f e r , but I don't t h i n k they know i t y e t , so they don't take i t ve r y s e r i o u s l y . Oh s u r e , they go thr o u g h the motions, e x p e n s i v e m o t i o n s , e l a b o r a t e m o t i o n s , but I r e a l l y don't t h i n k they b e l i e v e i t , which doesn't make a whole h e l l of a l o t of sense. Does i t ? " JOANNE. "Oh, but t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s . Try t h i s one f o r resentment. A l o t of women f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i f another women succeeds, because she i s g e t t i n g c l o s e r t o the i n n e r c i r c l e of man's w o r l d . And those a r e j u s t some of the re a s o n s " . JOANNE. " W e l l , t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g s u b t l e about o l d Ken i s t h e r e , a c t u a l l y he was g o i n g t o say,'She t h i n k s l i k e a man'." PETER. "Oh t h a t ' s minor. Something of a compliment r e a l l y " . JOANNE. "Oh P e t e r , s i t down, you're h a v i n g a r e l a p s e , h o n e s t l y , men don't know how t o compliment a women on performance. Oh, t h e y ' r e 1 0 8 t e r r i f i c when i t comes t o your h a i r , or your c l o t h e s or your l e g s , but not on your performance. What I want t o know i s what anyone wants t o know. How am I doing? Do you know, t h a t s i n c e my promotion Chuck D a i l y i s the o n l y one t h a t ' s l e v e l l e d w i t h me. He t o l d me some problems I had t h a t I d i d n ' t know about and he t a l k e d t o me d i r e c t l y about my work". JOANNE. "That doesn't mean I a c c e p t o n l y compliments, of c o u r s e n o t . But somebody p l e a s e e v a l u a t e my performance. T a l k t o me as a p e r s o n . Am I good, bad or i n d i f f e r e n t ? I want to know. T e l l me". At one p o i n t Joanne i s g i v i n g reasons f o r the non-support of the female support s t a f f , t h a t i s , the s e c r e t a r i e s . She says t h a t one reason f o r t h e i r non-support (or even h o s t i l i t y ) i s t h a t some women f e a r o t h e r women, "A l o t of women f e e l t h r e a t e n e d i f another woman succeeds because she i s g e t t i n g c l o s e r t o the i n n e r c i r c l e of man's w o r l d . " Where does t h a t f e a r come from? I s i t t h a t Joanne, f o r example, w i l l go over t o the o t h e r s i d e , w i l l become another "bad i m i t a t i o n of a man" as d i d L o u i s e ? I s i t t h a t they cannot s e t her f r e e , because she may never come back t o them. L i k e p a r e n t s they have r a i s e d h e r , but not t o go i n a d i r e c t i o n u n c h a r t e d by them. I s i t the f e a r t h a t t u r n s co-workers away from one i n t h e i r ranks who moves from u n i o n i n t o management? The f e a r t h a t somehow the d e f e c t o r w i l l use her i n s i d e knowledge a g a i n s t them? 1 0 9 At another p o i n t i n the d i s c u s s i o n , Joanne i s e x p r e s s s i n g her bewilderment t h a t a l t h o u g h c o r p o r a t i o n s (male) spend time and money t o promote women t h a t , "What a l o t of men are t h i n k i n g i s 'Well t h i s , t o o , s h a l l p ass.' Deep down w i t h i n them, t h a t ' s what t h e y ' r e t h i n k i n g . " A l l o w i n g f o r her s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t u i t i v e n e s s , t h a t i s , t h a t she i s p i c k i n g up a b a s i c non-commitment on the p a r t of her male co-workers, why does she f e e l t h a t "deep down" t h a t non-commitment i s d i s i n t e r e s t ? Perhaps, t h e i r d i s i n t e r e s t i s s t u d i e d . Perhaps, t h e i r d i s i n t e r e s t i s a t s u r f a c e l e v e l . Perhaps the s u r f a c e i s q u i t e t h i c k . But, even i f they a re not i n to u c h w i t h t h e i r own fe m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e , "deep down", they must be i n t e r e s t e d . The l a s t p u z z l e i s s u r r o u n d i n g Joanne's r e a c t i o n t o Ken Benson's near s l i p of s a y i n g t h a t Joanne t h i n k s l i k e a man, and P e t e r ' s s a y i n g , "Oh, t h a t ' s minor. Something of a compliment r e a l l y . " I und e r s t a n d her b e i n g p e r t u r b e d . What I f i n d p u z z l i n g i s her e x p l a n a t i o n of her p e r t u r b a t i o n : " H o n e s t l y , men don't know how t o compliment a woman on performance . . . How am I doing? Do you know t h a t s i n c e my promotion Chuck D a i l e y i s the o n l y one t h a t ' s l e v e l l e d w i t h me . . . he t a l k e d t o me d i r e c t l y about the job . . . somebody p l e a s e e v a l u a t e my performance. T a l k t o me as a pe r s o n . " She o b j e c t s t h a t i t i s not a compliment on performance. I would presume t h a t she means t h a t i t does not r e c o g n i z e the uniqueness of what she c o n t r i b u t e s t h rough her woman-self. But, i f t h a t i s her in t e n d e d meaning, her subsequent a m p l i f i c a t i o n o b s c u r e s more 1 1 0 than c l a r i f i e s . She uses her exchange w i t h Chuck as an example of what she wants, and c a l l s i t "performance e v a l u a t i o n . " But performance e v a l u a t i o n i s a t e c h n i c a l phrase s u g g e s t i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n and measurement, thus i n d i c a t i n g she i s i n d e e d , i n t h i s moment t h i n k i n g l i k e t he men. But, she a l s o c a l l s t h a t exchange " l e v e l l i n g " , which more l i k e l y d e s c r i b e s b e t t e r what she wants, t h a t i s , they d i s c u s s e d the j o b as two people a t eye l e v e l , w i t h e y e - l e v e l concern f o r each o t h e r , and f o r the o t h e r people i n v o l v e d . C r i t i c ' s Own B i o g r a p h i c P r e s e n t B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g a p e r u s a l of t h i s s t e p , the reader i s a d v i s e d of the sequence. The t e x t and i t s themes have been d e l i n e a t e d . Now the reader w i l l be plunged i n t o a f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the c r i t i c ' s b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t . Because i t i s f r e e a s s o c i a t i v e , thought a s s o c i a t i o n s d i p f r e e l y i n t o the p a s t , the f u t u r e , and everywhere. Because a s s o c i a t i o n s are a l l o w e d t o roam so f r e e l y , the reader may f e e l t h a t those thoughts have gone o f f t o graze i n the wrong p a s t u r e . The reader i s reminded, t h e n , t h a t , however u n r e c o g n i z a b l e a t t h i s p o i n t , some of the fodder f o r the s e r u m i n a t i o n s was "The Themes That L i n k The Chosen Passages". (The r e s t came from s t u f f she a t e l o n g a g o ) . I f the reader w i l l be p a t i e n t , i n the s t e p i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t , the a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sour c e of the c o n n e c t i o n s between "The Themes That L i n k The Chosen Passages" and the " C r i t i c ' s Own B i o g r a p h i c P r e s e n t " . In the f i n a l s t e p of the p r o c e s s , the 111 s y n t h e s i s , what has begun t o emerge from the d i s c o v e r y of those c o n n e c t i o n s , i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s i s the second time I w r i t e t h i s s e c t i o n of the c r i t i q u e . The f i r s t t i m e , a l t h o u g h r e a d e r s f e l t i t s import i n i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of the c r i t i q u e , they were u p s e t , b e w i l d e r e d by i t s j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o the t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n of the v i d e o t a p e . I t had s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y f o r me. Joanne, the h e r o i n e of the melodrama on the v i d e o t a p e , what c o n n e c t i o n does my l i f e have w i t h h e r s , as d e p i c t e d ? She i s a woman i n a management p o s i t i o n . I am a woman i n a management p o s i t i o n , have been, w i l l be a g a i n . Her p o r t r a y a l o f f e n d e d me. Her i s o l a t i o n b o t h e r e d me. Why were the o t h e r women p o r t r a y e d as mean? Why were the men p o r t r a y e d as b e n e f i c e n t but h e l p l e s s ? Why, even though Joanne r a i l s a g a i n s t i t , i s i t somehow i m p l i e d t h a t she has two o p t i o n s , t o be a token woman, p r e t t y but g i v e n t o f o o t - s t o m p i n g and sarcasm, or a non-woman l i k e L o u i s e , p e t u l a n t w i t h her co-workers? Joanne d r e s s e s i n a neat and t i d y b u s i n e s s way. She walks and t a l k s and l a u g h s i n a c o n t r o l l e d way. These a r e the e x t e r i o r i z e d mannerisms of the r e p r e s s e d power a c q u i r e r . They a r e not a t t r a c t i v e . The opening paragraph w i l l s e r v e as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o what f o l l o w s . I hope i t has mellowed my r e a d e r s f o r what i s t o f o l l o w , because what f o l l o w s i s my b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t and i t does connect f o r me w i t h the t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n . I t r i e d t o w r i t e a b i o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t t h a t the re a d e r would g r a s p 1 1 2 i m m e d i a t e l y . I t was not about me. I t was about Joanne. I t was not a j u x t a p o s i t i o n . I t was an e x p a n s i o n . I t d i d not f e e l a l i v e . I t f e l t l i k e I was drowning i n mud from d i g g i n g a h o l e t h a t someone e l s e asked me t o d i g f o r the sake of d i g g i n g , and i n the r a i n t o make the work e x t r a h a r d . I t made no sense t o me. What f o l l o w s makes sense t o me. I am w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s --- the l o n e l i n e s s of the mountain t o p . The f o r e s t ranger o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t s , or an RCMP h e l i c o p t e r . E l s e w i s e I t a l k t o m y s e l f , or the s t a r s or the wind. I am the " I " of the wind d r o p p i n g t o a b s o l u t e s t i l l n e s s , then w h i r l i n g out from c e n t r e a g a i n . I weep, and my t e a r s melt down my cheeks, and drop c o l d on my c o l l a r bone and w r i s t . My c h i l d r e n have gone o f f t o camp t h i s morning. Quinn was s i l e n t , w o r r i e d - l o o k i n g . He's seven and a h a l f , i n grade one, and t h i s i s h i s f i r s t time a t camp. The e x c i t e m e n t and bravado of l a s t n i g h t and e a r l y morning dampened by u n c e r t a i n t y of the unknown. Courtenay i s a s s u r e d (She's i n grade t h r e e , so t h i s i s her t h i r d t r i p ) and q u i e t l y t e n s e , l a y e r i n g m a t u r i t y over her e x c i t e m e n t . She 'can h a r d l y b e l i e v e she's g o i n g , and knows s h e ' l l miss me', phoned her dad and L i n n t h i s morning t o say good-bye. T h i s i s a o n e - n i g h t s t a y away, i n the woods. T h i s i s an a d v e n t u r e . She was awake a t two a.m. And then a g a i n a t 6:30 a.m. Heard her g i v i n g Quinn i n s t r u c t i o n s about ' i f he h u r t h i m s e l f , t o come t o h e r , she has band-aids packed.' "So have I , " s a i d Quinn. I d i d n ' t know t h a t e i t h e r one had band-a i d s packed. 1 1 3 Jack came l a s t n i g h t , and today I f e e l open, l i k e a r o s e garden i n g l o r i o u s f u l l bloom, b e f o r e d e a t h , v u l n e r a b l e . I have a luncheon date t o d a y . I t i s a b u s i n e s s luncheon w i t h someone i n the f i e l d development o f f i c e . I'm t o t e l l him what i t i s t h a t I want t o do work-wise a f t e r the t h e s i s i s done. And from him I want g u i d a n c e , s u g g e s t i o n s , a d v i c e about p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l h e l p me c l a r i f y my own j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t I do work t h a t i s e t h i c a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g t o me. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t I do not become l o c k e d i n a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s c r a z y - m a k i n g , where I f e e l the r e s i s t a n c e t o my s t y l e , my b e l i e f s , i s so s t r o n g t h a t i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e , I must r e t r e a t i n t o s i l e n c e , f a t , and acne. Joanne, i n the v i d e o t a p e , r e t r e a t s i n t o f a u l t l e s s grooming and t i g h t g e s t u r e s . My c a r , a 1969 V o l v o , i s b i t by b i t f a l l i n g a p a r t . L i t t l e t h i n g s are f a l l i n g o f f , the t i e - r o d i s b ent, one r e a r l i g h t s o c k e t i s r u s t e d . I wonder where the l i n e i s between e c c e n t r i c i t y and c a r e l e s s n e s s , between r e l y i n g on Velma's (Velma, the V o l v o ) proven r e l i a b i l i t y , and b e i n g i r r e s p o n s i b l y dependent on a c a r ' s good sense. My excuse i s t h a t I don't want t o spend the money, but I don't l i k e t h a t excuse. I t o f f e n d s me, whenever I hear anyone say i t . T i g h t n e s s , a g a i n . U p t i g h t n e s s . M i s e r l i n e s s , s t i n g i n e s s , c o n t r o l . Repressed p o w e r - a c q u i r e r gone amok. 1 1 4 Why d i d I come back t o u n i v e r s i t y ? Why d i d I q u i t t e a c h i n g ? I came back t o u n i v e r s i t y because f o r me t h a t was and even s t i l l i s (though I have no d e s i r e t o come back a g a i n ) a p l a c e of s e c u r i t y . Maybe I'm growing o u t . I have r e c e i v e d r e c o g n i t i o n as a s t u d e n t t h a t i s what I'm good a t , was what I s a i d when someone asked. However, I r e c e n t l y r e a l i z e d t h a t my marks a r e not as h i g h as most p e o p l e s ' . A l l my f r i e n d s do b e t t e r a c a d e m i c a l l y than I , and many of them, e s p e c i a l l y the women, have s t r o n g i n s e c u r i t i e s about t h e i r academic a b i l i t i e s . I don't. Nor do I l o v e g o i n g t o c l a s s , nor l o v e w r i t i n g p a p e r s . Exams were a game. I hate the l i b r a r y . I have been r a t h e r d i s d a i n f u l of some of my t e a c h e r s , and they of me. O r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s make me want t o puke. I t o l d one t e a c h e r i n these g r a d y e a r s , on the day my p r e s e n t a t i o n was due, "I may s t a r t t o h y p e r - v e n t i l a t e . " He s a i d , "That's a l r i g h t . I f you do, w e ' l l s t o p and g i v e you a hug." That was the r i g h t t h i n g t o say. Y e t , I can s t i l l say t h a t I am s e c u r e i n t h i s s e t t i n g , a s s u r e d even. Why i s t h a t ? Why i s t h a t ? P a r t l y because t h e r e are no b o s s e s. R e g u l a r l y , something I read or something a t e a c h e r says c a p t u r e s my a t t e n t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n and I am i n v o l v e d . I t ' s never a n y t h i n g I t a l k t o anyone e l s e about, but i t always e f f e c t s any t a l k i n g I do w i t h anybody on any t o p i c . The h o r r o r of o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r me i s t h a t I know t h a t as a l i s t e n e r , b e s i d e s b e i n g made t h o u g h t f u l , I l i k e t o be moved t o l a u g h t e r , and moved t o t e a r s . But I don't have the courage t o do t h a t f o r my a u d i e n c e , because I f e a r my own v u l n e r a b i l i t y . 1 1 5 As a t e a c h e r of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , sometimes I had the courage, would r i s k , f o r example, t e a r s c r a c k i n g my v o i c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e i n g a t e a c h e r was the o n l y t i m e , ' t i l I became a mother, t h a t I r i s k e d rage. I was amazed. The s t u d e n t s were amazed. My c h i l d r e n a r e amazed. My f i r s t husband was f r i g h t e n e d . My c u r r e n t man i s stunned and stammers a l o t , and e s c a p e s . My women f r i e n d s are r e l i e v e d . My s t u d e n t s d i d , and my c h i l d r e n do, t r u s t me. My men were/are not so s u r e . My s t u d e n t s were, and my c h i l d r e n a r e , a l t e r n a t e l y p r o t e c t i v e of and dependent upon me. My men, t o o , but the t e n s i o n i s more uneasy. They don't know whether I am a c r a z y , p o s s i b l y d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e , or a s t r o n g l y r o o t e d t r e e i n whose shade they can r e s t . I am both and n e i t h e r . Rage, and l a u g h t e r , and t e a r s a r e p o t e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i f they are c l e a n , or c l e a n s i n g . I l e f t t e a c h i n g because i t somehow d i s s i p a t e d my e n e r g i e s . I t d r a i n e d away i n j o c k e y i n g f o r power s i t u a t i o n s . I t was h a r d . I t was l o n e l y . I was always one of the youngest and l e a s t a s s u r e d persons on s t a f f . Even the o t h e r s around my age appeared t o have a m i s s i o n as t e a c h e r s , appeared t o know what they were t h e r e f o r . The c o - s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n my p r a c t i c u m c l a s s were the same. They a l l wanted t o be E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s , and were a l l eager t o get out t h e r e , and t a k e over a c l a s s r o o m . Not me. I was i n e d u c a t i o n because, a l t h o u g h I wanted t o go down East t o study j o u r n a l i s m , my f a t h e r wasn't too i n t e r e s t e d i n s p r i n g i n g f o r i t . And I'd never heard of s t u d e n t l o a n s . And I was s c a r e d b e s i d e s . Wasn't i t bad enough t h a t I'd 1 16 s t u d i e d E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h r e e y e a r s ? My b r o t h e r was i n p r e - d e n t i s t r y . My s i s t e r was i n f i r s t year p h y s i o t h e r a p y . P r a c t i c a l s t u f f . Where had they gone wrong w i t h t h i s f i r s t c h i l d ? And b e s i d e s , Don had g r a d u a t e d , t o o , and had a j o b , and wanted a w i f e , namely, me. And b e s i d e s , t e a c h e r s were i n demand. The government even p a i d one's t u i t i o n . And l a s t l y , no one e l s e wanted me, I was " o v e r - q u a l i f i e d " . And I f e l t h e l p l e s s . S h a v i n g cream! I d i d n ' t want t o be a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . Teachers weren't p e o p l e . In my t w e l v e y e a r s of p u b l i c s c h o o l , through some t h i r t y t e a c h e r s , I encountered perhaps f o u r who g e n u i n e l y l o v e d t h e i r work, which means they l o v e d t h e i r s u b j e c t , d i d not c a r e about exams, t h a t i s , t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m was not t i e d up i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' d o i n g w e l l , emanated a c e r t a i n r e s p e c t and warmth f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Most I saw as c o l d , or c r u e l , and/or s t u p i d . M o s t l y the l a t t e r . By the end of grade t w e l v e , I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t o n l y d u l l a r d s and cowards became t e a c h e r s , ergo, god h e l p me, I was never g o i n g t o be a t e a c h e r . However, I was a coward, ergo, I became a t e a c h e r . Power s u b v e r t e d i n t o c o n t r o l . A l t h o u g h I d i d manage some s u c c e s s . The compliments t h a t s t u d e n t s on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s gave were, you r e a l l y know your s u b j e c t and you're s i n c e r e . The common c o m p l a i n t was, you're not c o n t r o l l i n g enough. F i n i s h e d my l u n c h e o n . What I want t o be i s a f r e e - l a n c e program d e v e l o p e r , w i t h s k i l l s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n , l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and communication media and t e c h n o l o g y . The l a t t e r 1 1 7 are m o s t l y t r i p e , b a l d e r d a s h . I have a nodding a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p w i t h those t h i n g s . I have s t u d i e d a l l , but s i n c e I c o n s i d e r them i n c i d e n t a l t o some grander d e s i g n , they have not been a t the c e n t r e of my l e a r n i n g . C u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m has been, t h a t i s , a s k i n g o n e s e l f and the s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t not o n l y , "What i s i t you want t o do?" But a l s o "Why?" F i n d i n g the c e n t r e of the problem and the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s and working from t h e r e i s what I want t o do. Implementation i s a l i v i n g , b r e a t h i n g e n t i t y and grows a c c o r d i n g t o i t s environment. I t has t o . The d e v e l o p e r has t o a l l o w t h a t . There i s g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g . The c o w a r d i c e (and the b r a v e r y ) comes i n t o i t , i n wanting t o f r e e l a n c e . I f e a r becoming l o c k e d i n t o and, t h e r e f o r e , a l i e n a t e d w i t h i n a system. I'd f e e l p o w e r l e s s . I enjo y working w i t h s m a l l groups of d e c i s i o n m a k e r s , say twenty-f i v e t o t h i r t y p e o p l e . W i t h i n a group t h a t s i z e I can f e e l p o w e r f u l . I t depends on the dynamics of the group. The b r a v e r y comes i n t o i t , I suppose, i n d a r i n g t o s t a n d a l o n e , but r e a l l y t h a t i s e a s i e r when one j_s a l o n e , or i n a v e r y s m a l l group where one has a unique f a c e . F a c e l e s s n e s s f r i g h t e n s me. Teaching s t a f f s were, f o r me, both as a s t u d e n t , and as a t e a c h e r , f a c e l e s s e n t i t i e s , or the enemy. Them a g a i n s t us. S t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l . C o e r c i v e n e s s . A b u s i v e n e s s . I s o l a t i o n . For example, l i f e has been e a s i e r f o r me t o fa c e as a s i n g l e person than i t ever was f o r me as a m a r r i e d p e r s o n . Now I don't f e e l t h a t I have t o be t h a t which I am n o t . I f e e l t h a t I can be t h a t who I am both bad and good, both w i l d l y c r a z y 1 1 8 ( i n s i d e ) and e m i n e n t l y sane, b o t h i n c r e d i b l y n a i v e and f i r m l y p r a c t i c a l , both an e c c e n t r i c and an u p s t a n d i n g , c o n t r i b u t i n g member of the community, h a v i n g both a garden of c r a b g r a s s and u g l y lawn f u r n i t u r e and a s t a i n e d g l a s s window i n the bathroom. A n a l y s i s I can see from w r i t i n g t h i s c r i t i q u e t h a t what I've been f i g h t i n g much of my a d u l t l i f e i s the v i s i o n of m y s e l f as both h e l p l e s s and h e l p f u l when, I've d i s c o v e r e d and have begun t o own, I'm n e i t h e r , or b o t h , but c e r t a i n l y more than the sum of the two t h i n g s . Women, g e n e r a l l y , I b e l i e v e , a r e s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h i s same v i s i o n of s e l f . Joanne, the h e r o i n e of the v i d e o t a p e , i n her c l i c h e d r esponses t o c o f f e e s e r v i n g and paper-handing-out i s r e s p o n d i n g i n the merely h e l p f u l image r o l e . In her s t i f f - m a n n e r e d exchange w i t h the s e c r e t a r i e s , and i n her sometimes coy manner w i t h , f o r example, Chuck when.he t e l l s her t h a t she's d o i n g a f i n e j o b , she i s r e s p o n d i n g w i t h a merely h e l p l e s s image. In her e n c o u n t e r s w i t h L o u i s e and Bl a c k w e l l , -however, she f i g h t s b e i n g e i t h e r . I t i s e a s i e r f o r her t o r e s i s t w i t h those c h a r a c t e r s because they are so o b v i o u s l y m a l i g n a n t (or a u t h o r i t a r i a n ) , a l t h o u g h B l a c k w e l l i s b e n i g n l y so. I , t o o , have found t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o f i g h t i n s e c u r i t i e s a r o u s e d i n s i t u a t i o n , i f the o t h e r person i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n l o o k s l i k e he/she can take c a r e of h i m / h e r s e l f , which I a l s o know i s not n e c e s s a r i l y , perhaps n e v e r , t r u e . Because a person does not have s e n s i t i v i t y t o o t h e r s does not mean t h a t he or she can take c a r e of h i m / h e r s e l f . In f a c t , as I r e m i n i s c e i t i s 1 1 9 p o s s i b l e t h a t they a re the ones l e a s t a b l e t o ta k e c a r e of th e m s e l v e s . C e r t a i n l y , they a re l e a s t a b l e t o take c a r e of anyone e l s e . With persons I c o n s i d e r weak and h e l p l e s s , whatever the p r e s e n t i n g b e h a v i o u r s , whether a u t h o r i t a r i a n or c o m p l a i n i n g , I back down, back away. That i s , i f i t i s an a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n , I become h e l p l e s s ; i f i t i s a c o m p l a i n i n g p e r s o n , I become h e l p f u l . And I don't l i k e i t e i t h e r way. Joanne, i n the v i d e o t a p e , r e a c t s s i m i l a r l y , becoming e i t h e r b r a s s y or t i m i d . H e l p f u l , H e l p l e s s . Double J e o p a r d y . Words from another paper I wrote came t o mind and I s e a r c h e d them o u t . Woman becomes c o n s c i o u s of h e r s e l f as she i s an o b j e c t f o r the o u t s i d e s p e c t a t o r . Suddenly her sense of s e l f i s o u t s i d e h e r s e l f . She i s f o r h e r s e l f o n l y as she i s pure r e f e r e n c e f o r the o t h e r . 3 I , t o o , l o s e myself when I become pure r e f e r e n c e f o r the o t h e r . In so d o i n g , I t r a n s f o r m the o t h e r p e r s o n i n t o an o b j e c t as w e l l . The o t h e r becomes an o b j e c t of f e a r (my h e l p l e s s n e s s ) or an o b j e c t of p i t y (my h e l p f u l n e s s ) . That f a c e l e s s n e s s t h a t I f e a r w i l l e n g u l f me i s i s t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y t h a t I p r o j e c t on t o o t h e r s as w e l l as t h a t which they p r e s e n t t o me. T h i s e s p e c i a l l y happens i n work s i t u a t i o n s , i n s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . Joanne, the h e r o i n e of the v i d e o t a p e , p r o t e s t s t o the s e c r e t a r i e s , her former mates, "I haven't changed. My j o b has changed." L a t e r , she vehemently p r o f e s s e s t o P e t e r t h a t she wants t o d e v e l o p a management s t y l e of her own. The l a t t e r statement i m p l i e s t h a t the " I " and the j o b r o l e a r e t o become 1 2 0 one. The former statement ( t o the s e c r e t a r i e s ) , however, defends them as s e p a r a t e , and o b v i o u s l y they p r e s e n t l y a r e . She t h i n k s t h a t a management t r a i n i n g program i s what she needs, and maybe i t i s . I t w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o r p o r a t i o n i s behind h e r , i n s o f a r as i t wants her t o d e v e l o p c e r t a i n s k i l l s . And i t w i l l p r o v i d e f o r her a r e s i s t a n c e ( f o r m u l a t e d ) t h a t she can work a g a i n s t and around. That i s , she w i l l know what i t i s management, as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , wants so t h a t she can p r o t e c t h e r s e l f i n her development of a p e r s o n a l s t y l e . On the o t h e r hand, r e a g r d i n g her e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e ( r e c u r r i n g ) f o r management t r a i n i n g , she must a l r e a d y have some sense of how t o handle s i t u a t i o n s where one person i s g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s t o o t h e r s . A f t e r a l l she worked her way up through the r a n k s . S u r e l y she thought about what which management be h a v i o u r h e l p e d her work more h a p p i l y and s u p p o r t i v e l y . I f she h a s n ' t , she cannot p r o t e c t h e r s e l f from i n v a s i o n by the c o r p o r a t i o n ' s mores. F u r t h e r m o r e , she i s i n danger of becoming another L o u i s e , who resembles n o t h i n g so much as a man i n 'drag'. The m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e of the p o w e r - a q u i r e r when i t has been d i s t o r t e d by s u p p r e s s i o n i s c o n t r o l l i n g , b u l l y i n g even. Growing up a g i r l - c h i l d i n t h i s s o c i e t y demanded I s uppress a s p e c t s of the p o w e r - a q u i r e r . I c o u l d s a t i s f y t h a t p r i n c i p l e as a c h i l d o p enly and h o n e s t l y o n l y w i t h my p e e r s . But when a d u l t s got i n the a c t i t was f r i g h t e n i n g and c o n f u s i n g . Be smart but not too smart. Be gay but not too gay. Be k i n d but not too k i n d . Above a l l , be a d u l t . Yuck. But I d i d i t . I 121 was t w e n t y - e i g h t at e i g h t e e n . I remember as a c h i l d i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l the t e a c h e r always a p p o i n t i n g boys as team c a p t a i n s f o r b a s e b a l l games. I was always the f i r s t p l a y e r p i c k e d by whichever c a p t a i n got f i r s t c h o i c e . I t was not because I was the b e s t p l a y e r . I t was because I was the neighbourhood l e a d e r . I took my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y , but j u s t as o f t e n , n o t . What bo t h e r e d me was p a r e n t s g e t t i n g i n on the a c t . " W e l l , i f Sandra S t i l e s i s g o i n g I guess you can go." I hated t h a t . I became the a d u l t , c o n t r o l l i n g . Or t e a c h e r s . I've never much l i k e d t e a c h e r s . They, as a group, were c o n t r o l l e r s supreme. They were c o e r c i v e . They were a b u s i v e . A l t h o u g h I was seldom the o v e r t v i c t i m , I watched those who d i d not have the p r o t e c t i v e c o l o u r i n g t h a t I had, i n c l u d i n g academic a b i l i t i e s , and p a r e n t s who were well-known i n the community, b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d . Even now I choke up i n s i d e w i t h t h a t same sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s . Joanne, i n the v i d e o t a p e b e i n g b u f f e t e d from p i l l a r t o p o s t by t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s and f a c e l e s s n e s s i n the b u s i n e s s s i t u a t i o n awakened t h a t f e e l i n g t o o . I a l s o r e a l i z e , as I w r i t e t h i s , t h a t the seed of my b e i n g a t e a c h e r was sown way back t h e n , i n grade s c h o o l . I used t o h e l p o t h e r s t u d e n t s . I n i t i a l l y , i t was my way of p r o t e c t i n g them, or h e l p i n g them p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s , from the anger of the t e a c h e r , but I found I a c t u a l l y e n j o y e d the p r o c e s s . I e n j o y e d the exchange, the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g . 1 2 2 I was at some p o i n t t a l k i n g about management, the f e a r s I have of b e i n g management. I have had e x p e r i e n c e s managing, any t e a c h e r has had. I have a l s o been s u p e r v i s o r of the a c t i v i t e s of o t h e r a d u l t s . What happens i s t h a t one s t a r t s t a k i n g more than one's share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and then one s t a r t s t o l o o k down on tho s e not p u l l i n g t h e i r w e i g h t . One becomes c o n t r o l l i n g . One t a k e s away r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and then d e n i g r a t e s those one has taken i t away from. N o t i c e I am u s i n g the t h i r d person pronoun. When I am t a l k i n g about m y s e l f . I t i s h a rd t o own the u g l i n e s s i n one s e l f . My e f f o r t s t o change began w i t h a r e f u s a l t o put myself i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . Get out of the c l a s s r o o m . Study j o u r n a l i s m , or l i b r a r y s c i e n c e , or a r c h i t e c t u r e . Withdraw from community work. I t worked f o r a w h i l e . Got out of the c l a s s r o o m as a t e a c h e r . Went back as a s t u d e n t - but s t i l l i n e d u c a t i o n . C u r i o u s , i s n ' t i t ? Those o t h e r o p t i o n s were open t o me. Got back i n t o community work. I l i k e h a v i n g a say i n how an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s run. I cannot bear t o s i t back and l e t o t h e r s run what i s of v i t a l c o ncern t o me. I became v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , t r e a s u r e r , d e c i s i o n m a k e r s , y e s , but not the manager. However, b e i n g t h e r e , b e i n g i n v o l v e d , i t began t o happen a g a i n . Would you be p r e s i d e n t ? B o s s - l a d y . I shrank i n h o r r o r , I was a f r a i d t h a t i f I became head honcho, l i k e B l a c k w e l l , on the v i d e o t a p e , no one e l s e would do a n y t h i n g . As p a r t of the group, I can s o l i c i t and encourage membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f I were head honcho, I c o u l d n ' t . I have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n a s k i n g p e o p l e t o 1 2 3 h e l p me. There i s a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e a b i t of the prima donna i n my s o u l . I s t a r t t h i n k i n g i f I'm the l e a d e r , I'm the group. Joanne i n the v i d e o tape was e n j o y i n g her p r o m o t i o n . I f I were i n her p o s i t i o n , I would f e e l s i c k t o my stomach w i t h f e a r . I don't want my urge t o power s u b v e r t e d i n t o c o n t r o l over o t h e r p e r s o n s . Growing up i n t h i s s o c i e t y i s not easy. C h i l d r e n are d i s r e s p e c t e d . Moreover, the f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e i n boys i s d e n i g r a t e d . The m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e i n g i r l s i s , t o o . What do l i t t l e boys t h i n k when t h e y ' r e t o l d t o shunt t h e i r g i v i n g -r e c e i v i n g q u a l i t i e s o f f t o the s i d e ? The l i t t l e g i r l s a r e wa t c h i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n of boys. What do the l i t t l e g i r l s t h i n k when t h e y ' r e t o l d t o shunt o f f t o the s i d e t h e i r d e s i r e s f o r p o w e r - a q u i s i t i o n ? They are b e w i l d e r e d . They s u p p r e s s . But those s u p p r e s s e d d e s i r e s emerge, i n s l y , underhanded ways. Joanne was b e w i l d e r e d by the empty showiness of her male c o - h o r t s . W e l l , Joanne, we've been s u p r i s e d a l l our l i f e , haven't we? H e l p l e s s i n our bewilderment. Time t o s t e p out of the persona of s u r p r i s e and bewilderment and h e l p o u r s e l v e s . Joanne moves t h r o u g h , r a i l s a g a i n s t , and f l o u n d e r s i n what she i n t u i t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e s as a ceremony of bad f a i t h . For h e r , the management t r a i n i n g program r e p r e s e n t s an o f f e r of good f a i t h . Even so, she must keep her w i t s about h e r . A t r a i n i n g program i s o n l y a l i f e - r a f t , one must not b u i l d one's house on i t , or one w i l l be c o n s t a n t l y b u f f e t e d by the p r e v a i l i n g winds. 1 2 4 The r o l e and the s e l f w i l l become one, t h a t i s , the s e l f w i l l d i s a p p e a r . I know. I t happened t o me, a l m o s t . I r e c o g n i z e d the ceremony of bad f a i t h , t h a t I c o u l d n ' t b u i l d my house on those r a f t s thrown out t o me. But f o r many y e a r s I d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t I c o u l d n ' t ever b u i l d a house. I'd have t o l i v e i n the outhouses of o t h e r p e o p l e s e s t a t e s and hope they would t o l e r a t e my shantytown. S y n t h e s i s H e l p l e s s n e s s . H e l p f u l n e s s . Shantytown. What i s the e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of these images? P i n a r has w r i t t e n , I t s e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e has t o do w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : (a) i t g i v e s me words f o r what has h i t h e r t o been vague and nameless, (b) i t i l l u m i n e s an a r e a of my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s - t h a t I was not e x a m i n i n g ; (c) i t t h e r e f o r e widens (the image I have i s of a window) my i n t e l l e c t u a l ' g e s t a l t ' , a l l o w i n g me t o see more of what i s at s t a k e i n the w o r l d , i n my l i f e . * The q u a l i t i e s of (a) and (b) have been touched on a l r e a d y i n t h i s c r i t i q u e , but what t o do w i t h (c) ? T h i s i s t h e h a r d e s t p a r t , l o o k i n g a t what i s a t s t a k e i n my l i f e . I don't know, nor even c a r e t o know what my i n t e l l e c t u a l g e s t a l t i s . I t sounds l i k e a p a r l o u r game. But what i s the e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of h e l p l e s s n e s s and h e l p f u l n e s s and shantytown, w i t h a s t a i n e d g l a s s window i n the bathroom? What p a r l o u r game am I p l a y i n g w i t h my l i f e , e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r w i s e ? F a c e l e s s n e s s , a n other key word. No house, a n o t h e r , because even I know you s h o u l d n ' t b u i l d your house on a r i v e r - r a f t . Aha, i t ' s coming. I t ' s coming. I don't b e l i e v e t h a t . I want t o b u i l d my house on a r i v e r - r a f t , p l u s I 1 2 5 want t o b u i l d the r a f t . Now t h e r e ' s a s t i c k y w i c k e t . I ' l l have t o take f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the whole w i l d r i d e . I am near t e a r s a t t h i s p o i n t . E d u c a t i o n a l l y and o t h e r w i s e I ' l l have t o come out from under the b u s h e l . I f I f e e l h e l p l e s s , I am h e l p l e s s . I f I f e e l h e l p f u l , I am h e l p f u l . I f shantytown burns down and the s t a i n e d g l a s s window m e l t s , I ' l l plow the r u b b l e i n t o the ground and s t a r t a g a i n . Courage i s a l l i t t a k e s , raw, b l a t a n t courage. I want t o t e a c h myself t h a t and e v e n t u a l l y , o t h e r s . I want t o be courageous, not c o n t r o l l i n g . As a p o s t s c r i p t , r e g a r d i n g the word shantytown, i t may seem t h a t I have l e f t the word unexamined, s i n c e i t does have tones of opprobrium. Maybe I have; but r i g h t now I l i k e the word. I t s u g g e s t s a freedom t o me t h a t o t h e r abodes do n o t . I t a l s o has t o do w i t h the f e a r of assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r more than what i s r i g h t l y mine. When I assume more than my share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , I get s c a r e d , then I become c o n t r o l l i n g . Courage. C o n c l u s i o n A l t h o u g h both c r i t i q u e s were w r i t t e n by one c r i t i c , the form and substance of each d i f f e r . The c r i t i c ' s purpose was d i f f e r e n t i n each c a s e . U s i n g the E i s n e r approach, the c r i t i c viewed the v i d e o t a p e as a r t i f a c t , r e s p o n d i n g knowledgeably t o i t . A c t i n g as a p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m , the c r i t i c , i n 1 2 6 terms of her c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , e n v i s i o n e d i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r b e i n g " p l a y e d - o u t " i n a seminar. In d i s c l o s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m , the c r i t i c a r r a n g e d her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s so t h a t they were c o r r o b o r a t i v e . U s i n g the P i n a r approach, the c r i t i c viewed the v i d e o t a p e as a p e r s o n a l o b j e c t , and t h e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . Then she wrote of her own l i f e , the account of which became an o b j e c t upon which t o r e f l e c t . P l a c i n g h e r s e l f between the s e two o b j e c t s , the c r i t i c d i s c l o s e d some of her own e d u c a t i o n a l attachments,and then c o n s i d e r e d what she might do w i t h those d i s c o v e r i e s . F o o t n o t e s 1 "Joanne i n B u s i n e s s S i t u a t i o n " , Women Moving up (Eden P r a r i e , Minn: W i l s o n L e a r n i n g Corp." 1976) . N. The t i t l e of the v i d e o t a p e i s a l s o the t i t l e of the two-day workshop i n which i t i s used. 2 n. P a r i a h was an I n d i a n word meaning drummer. Drummers were members of one of the low e s t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 3 Sandra Menzies, " C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n : My O r i e n t a t i o n Towards I t " ( u n p u b l i s h e d paper, UBC, 1979). " W i l l i a m P i n a r , " C u r r e r e : A Case Study", Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , ed. George W i l l i s ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978), p. 328. Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS 128 T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s some c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n purpose, form, and substance between the E i s n e r and P i n a r approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , and makes r e f e r e n c e t o what each approach may o f f e r a person d o i n g or r e a d i n g t h e s e approaches. The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h some f i n a l c o m p a r a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r p o t e n t i a l u s e r s . The c h a p t e r i s f o c u s s e d under the f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : (1) c r i t i c as w r i t e r and c r i t i c as r e a d e r : purpose, (2) e x p e r i e n c e of d e s i g n and e x p e r i e n c e of j o u r n e y : form, (3) comparison of p r o c e s s : s u b s t a n c e , (4) s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y : i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p o t e n t i a l u s e r , and (5) some f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C r i t i c as W r i t e r and C r i t i c as Reader: Purpose P i n a r w r i t e s r e g a r d i n g c u r r e r e , " T h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l view . . . makes me an a r t i s t . I e x p e r i e n c e , and I attempt t o e x p r e s s i n p u b l i c l y communicable language, what i t i s I e x p e r i e n c e . " 1 He a l s o wrote t h a t : "The e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e we a s s o c i a t e w i t h the b a s i c i d e a of s c i e n c e i s i m p e r a t i v e . " 2  C u r r e r e i s e x p e r i e n t i a l , a r t i s t i c , e x p e r i m e n t a l . E i s n e r i n t r o d u c e s c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m , "There i s no a r e a of human i n q u i r y t h a t e p i t o m i z e s the q u a l i t a t i v e more than what a r t i s t s do when they work." 3 Perhaps he f i n d s t h i s paradigm too open f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s , f o r he goes on t o choose a more r e s t r i c t e d i n q u i r y : "Another from of q u a l i t a t i v e i n q u i r y i s found i n the work of those who i n q u i r e i n t o the work of a r t i s t s , 129 namely the a r t c r i t i c s . " * F u r t h e r m o r e , he goes on t o say t h a t : C r i t i c i s m i s an e m p i r i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g . The word e m p i r i c a l comes from the L a t i n e m p i r i c u s , meaning "open t o e x p e r i e n c e " . C r i t i c i s m i s e m p i r i c a l i n the s i g n i f i c a n t sense t h a t the q u a l i t i e s the c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s or r e n d e r s must be c a p a b l e of b e i n g l o c a t e d i n the s u b j e c t m atter of the c r i t i c i s m . 5 The E i s n e r approach i s a e s t h e t i c , e x p e r i e n t i a l , e m p i r i c a l . The q u a l i f i e r s e m p i r i c a l ( E i s n e r ) and e x p e r i m e n t a l ( P i n a r ) are r e f e r e n c e s t o the v a l i d i t y of the method of each approach. The E i s n e r emphasis on e m p i r i c i s m r e f e r s t o the c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n b e i n g r e f e r e n t i a l l y grounded. D e s c r i p t i v e , c o r r o b o r a t i v e e v i d e n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m under study must be g i v e n so t h a t the reader w i l l r e c o g n i z e what i s d e s c r i b e d T h i s i s i t s v a l i d a t i o n . The P i n a r emphasis on experiment r e f e r s t o the c r i t i c a l p o r t a y a l b e i n g unique a c c o r d i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i t i o n e r a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , because the p o r t r a y a l i s the o b j e c t of s t u d y . I t i s the remembrances and r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t a r e open t o c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . A u t o b i o g r a p h y v a l i d a t e s . In form, purpose, and s u b s t a n c e , both approaches c l a i m t o be a r t i s t i c and e x p e r i e n t i a l . But t h e r e i s a f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n between the two i n the sense of those d e s c r i p t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r c l a r i f i e s , or a t the v e r y l e a s t , makes the d i s t i n c t i o n l a r g e r . Both approaches r e q u i r e of the c r i t i c , i m a g i n a t i o n , and some a r t i s t i c sense. Both h i g h l i g h t the importance of d e t a i l . B oth a p p l a u d a s p e c u l a t i v e mind. Both assume t h a t the c r i t i c works from some c o n c e p t u a l frame. 1 3 0 Both approaches are concerned w i t h the sen s o r y moment and w i t h the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the sensory moment. In the E i s n e r approach, c r i t i c s p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h the f u l l - o u t antennae of educated p e r c e p t i o n s so t h a t they can d i s c l o s e the a p p r e c i a t i o n s of a c o n n o i s s e u r . The c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be those a s p e c t s of the m a t e r i a l s or performance t h a t they a p p r e c i a t e . I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s what the c o n n o i s s e u r p e r c e i v e s i n terms of i n t e r a c t i o n s and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the c r i t i c appears t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e as empathized i n or d e r t o d i s c o v e r what p a r t i c i p a n t s d o / w i l l do w i t h what they a re g i v e n . The c r i t i c here accompanies p a r t i c i p a n t s t h r ough the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n ; o r , i n the case of m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m , the c r i t i c r o l e - p l a y s a p a r t i c i p a n t . In the P i n a r approach, on the o t h e r hand, c r i t i c s a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s and i d e n t i f y the l i v e d i n t e n t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m upon p a r t i c i p a n t s . The c r i t i c s u r r e n d e r s t o the r e c o l l e c t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s of " I " . In t h i s s u r r e n d e r , the view of the c r i t i c i s inward t o the s e l f . The outward c u r r i c u l u m i s po s s e s s e d t h r o u g h the inward j o u r n e y . The c r i t i c i s m d i s c l o s e s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the c r i t i c ' s l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e of c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n s . Both approaches a re concerned w i t h the moment the reader r e c e i v e s the message of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s i n the emphasis on r e c e p t i o n by whom. 1 3 1 In the E i s n e r approach, the emphasis i s on the r e c e p t i o n of the message by o t h e r s . That i s why s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n and r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy are s t r e s s e d . A l s o , e v a l u a t i o n i s a f i r m s t e p i n the E i s n e r approach. E v a l u a t i o n d e a l s w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m i n terms of a s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t u a l framework, u s u a l l y some nor m a t i v e t h e o r y i n e d u c a t i o n . The c r i t i c m a i n t a i n s a s e l e c t i v e c o n t i n u i t y w i t h p a s t c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e s so t h a t those p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s may i l l u m i n a t e the p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e f o r o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those immersed i n i t . The c r i t i c has i n t e r v e n e d , as s p e c i a l i s t , i n o r d e r t o r e l a y a message about a c u r r i c u l u m . The r e a d e r , as o t h e r , mediates t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n . As o t h e r , the reader has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o decode the s i g n i f i c a t i o n the c r i t i c has p o r t r a y e d . In the P i n a r a pproach, r e c e p t i o n of the message by one's s e l f i s more i m p o r t a n t . S y n t h e s i s i s an immanent, but not n e c e s s a r i l y a c t u a l s t e p i n the P i n a r approach. That i s , i t i s c e n t r a l t o the fundaments of c u r r e r e , but i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y w r i t t e n i n t o the c r i t i q u e as a f i n a l s t e p , s i n c e i t has t o do w i t h t a k i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g one has g a i n e d i n p r o c e s s , of the f o r c e s i n one's e d u c a t i o n a l l i f e , and d i r e c t i n g them toward t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and hence the a c t i o n s of one's l i f e . In t h i s case the s e l f as reader m e d i a t e s . The s t e p of s y n t h e s i s i s an i n t e n t i o n a l , l i v e d p r o c e s s towards i n t e g r a t i o n of s e l f and i s i n t e g r a l t o the p r o c e s s of c u r r e r e . C r i t i c s t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the i n n e r and o u t e r t e x t u r e of t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . The message may a f f o r d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 1 3 2 d i a l o g u e w i t h o t h e r s i n the same s i t u a t i o n . In e i t h e r approach, the reader may, e s p e c i a l l y i f f a m i l i a r w i t h a s i t u a t i o n or m a t e r i a l s b e i n g c r i t i q u e d , see and c o n s i d e r t h i n g s t h a t one has n e g l e c t e d t o see or t o t h i n k about b e f o r e ; he/she can respond t o the c r i t i c ' s p e r c e p t i o n s and a p p e r c e p t i o n s , becoming a c r i t i c h i m / h e r s e l f . The r e a d e r ' s i n n e r d i a l o g u e t h a t ensues may be e x p l o r a t o r y , i n s i g h t f u l , or r e a c t i v e . I f t h i s c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s extended and w r i t t e n , i t may become a c r i t i c i s m i t s e l f . E x p e r i e n c e of the Design and E x p e r i e n c e of the J o u r n e y ; Form E i s n e r examines the L a t i n r o o t of c u r r i c u l u m , c u r r e r e , and sees i n i t a metaphor f o r a r a c e t r a c k , which i s "a cour s e f i l l e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t o b s t a c l e s " . 6 These o b s t a c l e s may be e x p l i c i t , i m p l i c i t , or n u l l . In whichever c a s e , the emphasis i s on c u r r i c u l u m as l i v e performance or emotive o b j e c t . The c r i t i c d r a m a t i z e s the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r s of p e r s o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , and a r t i f a c t s . C r i t i c s f i r s t observe the c u r r i c u l u m as immediate and o b v i o u s ( i n c l u d i n g the i m p l i c i t and the n u l l ) , then they d e s c r i b e , i n t e r p r e t , and e v a l u a t e , d i s c i p l i n i n g the a n a l y s i s w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s . The coherence of the c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g i s i n the s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n of what i s a p p r e c i a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t . R e g a r d i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e , the assumption i s t h a t the c r i t i c i s det a c h e d from the h a b i t u a l modes of p e r c e p t i o n . E i s n e r , t h e r e f o r e , asks c r i t i c s t o wonder a t t r i f l e s , and t o 1 3 3 work towards expanded awareness, so t h a t they may p e r c e i v e u n d e r l y i n g q u a l i t i e s t h a t are not n e c e s s a r i l y e v i d e n t t o someone immersed i n the c u r r i c u l u m . C r i t i c s a r e a l s o asked t o observe d e t a c h e d l y t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g those d e t a i l s t h a t a r e a p p a r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r but which a r e r e a l l y c o n n e c t e d , and v i c e v e r s a . C r i t i c s thus i l l u m i n a t e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s t h a t are s i g n i f i c a n t . In the E i s n e r approach i t appears t h a t c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s on c u r r i c u l u m are v a l u e d as r e v e l a t o r y . That i s , t h e i r i n t e n t i s " t o draw back the v e i l " from the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s or p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t ' s eyes. C r i t i c s l o o k a t the i n t e r a c t i o n s among the s t r u c t u r e s and p e r s o n n e l of pedagogic s i t u a t i o n s . They l o o k a t and a p p r e c i a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n s i n terms of how they got t o be t h a t way, what the p r e s e n t e f f e c t i s , and what the p o s s i b l e consequence w i l l be. In a way the w r i t i n g s i n t h i s approach r e v e a l the t r a n s i t o r y as a b s o l u t e . E i s n e r w r i t e s : The a r t i s t , l i k e the e d u c a t i o n a l c r i t i c , does not w r i t e about e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i n a s i t u a t i o n but r a t h e r about what he or she b r a c k e t s , what he or she chooses t o a t t e n d t o . T h i s b r a c k e t i n g of p e r c e p t i o n and i t s i n c i s i v e r e n d e r i n g i n an e x p r e s s i v e medium a l l o w the p e r c i p i e n t of the a r t i s t ' s or c r i t i c ' s work t o see, i n p a r t , t h rough the b r a c k e t what the a r t i s t has c r e a t e d . 7 P i n a r examines the L a t i n r o o t of c u r r i c u l u m and sees a metaphor f o r the r u n n i n g of a c o u r s e . He d e s c r i b e s i t t h i s way: I t i s a c t i v e . And i t i s n o t . The t r a c k around which I run may be i n a l t e r a b l y f o r c e d , but the r a t e a t which I r u n , the q u a l i t y of my r u n n i n g , my s e n s u a l -i n t e l l e c t u a l - e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of moving b o d i l y through space and t i m e : a l l t h e s e are my c r e a t i o n s ; they a r e my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 8 1 3 4 For him, i t appears t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m as g i v e n i s p r e s e n t i n s o f a r as i t i s a r e f e r e n t f o r the l e a r n e r ( c r i t i c ) . The coherence of the c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g comes from a s s o c i a t i v e remembrances of the c u r r i c u l u m as l i v e d . In c u r r e r e , one s t u d i e s t h e s e remembrances, through a g l a s s d a r k l y , as i t were, i d e n t i f y i n g themes, c a p t u r i n g the b i o g r a p h i c e s s e n c e s , a n a l y z i n g . The emphasis i s on c u r r i c u l u m as a v i r t u a l u n i v e r s e of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Through the study of the e x p e r i e n c e , through the " t h o u g h t s , images, f e e l i n g s , r e v e r i e s " 9 of the e x p e r i e n c e , p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the s e l f i n a c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n a r e r e a l i z e d . R e g a rding the opening of such r e a l i z a t i o n s , i t happens t h a t the c r i t i c ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s - u p o n - t h e -a s s o c i a t i o n s encourage a s h i f t , from s t a t i c (and perhaps s t a g n a n t ) attachments t o the common-sense r e a l i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n . P i n a r and Grumet ask the c r i t i c t o l i s t e n t o a s i d e s of the s p i r i t , and t o work towards expanded c o n s c i o u s n e s s : towards r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s or her p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m and r e a l i z a t i o n of o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b e i n g t h e r e . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n or c o n s c i o u s n e s s comes through r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t connect the f a m i l i a r and the s t r a n g e i n one's r e c o l l e c t i o n s . When, through c u r r e r e , one t a k e s a n other l o o k , i t can happen t h a t what one a c c e p t e d as b e i n g f a m i l i a r l y t r u e i s not so anymore; i t i s an anachronism, i t does not f i t . And, what one saw as s t r a n g e , not a c c e p t e d as 1 3 5 t r u e , one may now c l a i m as one's own. The w r i t i n g s t h a t emerge from the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p r o c e s s of c u r r e r e a r e v a l u e d as " p r e c i p i t a t e s of a development p r o c e s s i n which the t e l l i n g and r e a d i n g and r e v i s i t i n g of one's own s t o r i e s i s of most c o n s e q u e n c e . " 1 0 The c r i t i c i n the P i n a r approach l o o k s a t the l i f e - w o r l d of the s t u d e n t who i s s e l f w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e s of the pedagogic s i t u a t i o n . The c r i t i c , t h e n , i s w i t h i n , r a t h e r than a l o n g s i d e , the c u r r i c u l u m . C u r r e r e i s a p e r s o n a l s t o r y , the c o l l e c t i v e v a l u e of which i s defended upon the assumption of t h e r e b e i n g a communal e x p e r i e n c e , which l i e s below, n o u r i s h i n g and c o h e r i n g the d e t a i l s of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i n the P i n a r approach, the c r i t i c c o n c e n t r a t e s on the c i r c l e of the t r a c k s one has r u n , e d u c a t i o n a l l y or o t h e r w i s e , so t h a t d e t a i l s as remembered or a n t i c i p a t e d fuse w i t h one's f e l t sense of how i t i s . To do t h i s , one f i r s t d i s t a n c e s o n e s e l f i n o r d e r t o see the l a r g e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and then one f o c u s s e s so t h a t one may see not l a r g e r but more. As one f o c u s s e s , a mandala p a t t e r n emerges, c o l o u r e d i n hues and i n t e n s i t i e s which i n d i c a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e l a t i o n s between the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of the c o u r s e and the s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of the r u n n e r . A danger i s t h a t i n f o c u s s i n g on the i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l s , one can l o s e the parameters of the c o n t e x t . That i s why the c r i t i c i s a d v i s e d t h a t the c o n t e x t , as what i s a c t u a l l y t h e r e i n the c u r r i c u l u m , i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d as i t i n f l u e n c e s the j o u r n e y , and the j o u r n e y c o n s i d e r e d ; a s i t i n f l u e n c e s the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . 136 In the E i s n e r approach, on the o t h e r hand, the c r i t i c c o n c e n t r a t e s on d e t a i l s t h a t c o n f i g u r a t e i n a r e v e l a t o r y p a t t e r n , e s p e c i a l l y the s u b t l e p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the s i t u a t i o n . The i n t e n t of t h i s i s t h a t ' the c r i t i c see and a p p r e c i a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the whole c o n t e x t . One d e f e c t of t h i s i n t e n t i s t h a t , i f one does not have a f o c u s , one may see v e r y l i t t l e . That i s why the c r i t i c i n t h i s approach i s c a u t i o n e d t o use t h e o r y as the framework f o r f o c u s s i n g one's i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the c u r r i c u l u m under s t u d y . E i s n e r sees t h i s t h e o r y as a d e s i g n or b l u e p r i n t t o which the c r i t i c responds as an a r c h i t e c t r a t h e r than as a s t r u c t u r a l e n g i n e e r . O t h e r w i s e , t h e s e frames c o u l d regiment and s t a n d a r d i z e p e r c e p t i o n i n the same way t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n and o t h e r such i n s t r u m e n t s do. Comparison of P r o c e s s : Substance Both approaches observe i n t e r a c t i o n . In b o t h , the c r i t i c a l t e r n a t e s between the r o l e of an audience and the r o l e of a p a r t i c i p a n t . The d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the emphasis on r o l e . E i s n e r emphasizes the r o l e of the c r i t i c as w i t n e s s . P i n a r emphasizes the r o l e of c r i t i c as p a r t i c i p a n t . In both approaches the c r i t i c asks two q u e s t i o n s : ( 1 ) What v a l u e s does t h i s c u r r i c u l u m event or o b j e c t p o r t r a y ? ( 2 ) What v a l u e s am I r e s p o n d i n g w i t h ? In the E i s n e r approach the emphasis i s on, What v a l u e s does t h i s 1 3 7 c u r r i c u l u m event or o b j e c t p o r t r a y ? In the P i n a r approach, the emphasis i s on, What v a l u e s am I r e s p o n d i n g w i t h ? R e g a r d i n g c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , i n the P i n a r approach, the c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n both i n terms of the t e x t or p r o j e c t and i n terms of the c r i t i c ' s own b i o g r a p h y . The t a s k i s t o s u r r e n d e r t o t e x t or p r o j e c t as i t envelops one, and t o s e l f -r e f l e c t i o n . Grumet e x p r e s s e s i t t h i s way, "He (the c r i t i c ) must d i g e s t i t s ( the p r o j e c t or t e x t ) i n o r g a n i c n a t u r e and ta k e p o s s e s s i o n of i t f o r h i m s e l f . " 1 1 The w r i t t e n p r e s e n t a t i o n r e c o r d s the a s s o c i a t i v e response of the p a r t i c i p a n t , b oth outward to the appearance of t h i n g s , and inward t o the sense of t h i n g s . Thematic a p p e r c e p t i o n has a framework, perhaps the language of another d i s c i p l i n e , f o r example l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m or depth p s y c h o l o g y . In the E i s n e r approach, the c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n i n terms of the s a l i e n t a s p e c t s of the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t a r e p r e s e n t e d . The c r i t i c examines the s t r u c t u r e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the people and the p l a c e , i n o r d e r t o see the c u r r i c u l u m and t o make i t v i s i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t a s k i s t o b r i n g out the s i g h t s , sounds, and f e e l i n g s evoked by the c u r r i c u l u m , by r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e i n an a r t i s t i c manner t h a t w i l l g i v e depth and dimensio n t o the p o r t r a y a l . The c r i t i c then c o n n e c t s t h e s e w i t h t h e o r i e s t h a t w i l l t r a n s l a t e the i m p r e s s i o n s . R e g a r d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , b oth approaches i n t e r p r e t s u b t l y as they d e s c r i b e , and a n a l y t i c a l l y w i t h i n some chosen c o n c e p t u a l framework. They d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n t h e i r f i n a l s t e p s . 1 3 8 The end s t e p of the E i s n e r approach i s e v a l u a t i v e . I t i s almost e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e from the o t h e r s t e p s i n the p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h they a re used as e v i d e n c e of r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy and f o r s t r u c t u r a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n . In the e v a l u a t i v e s t e p the language changes from metaphoric t o d i s c u r s i v e . The mood changes from a c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n an a e s t h e t i c mode t o one u s i n g e v a l u a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l mode. The end s t e p of the P i n a r a pproach, on the o t h e r hand, i s s y n t h e t i c a l . I t cannot be done im m e d i a t e l y i n the a f t e r m a t h of the s t e p s . One has t o l e t the d e s c r i p t i v e ( t h e m a t i c and b i o g r a p h i c a l ) and a n a l y t i c a l w r i t i n g s s i t t h e r e f a l l o w f o r some ti m e , and then one may come back and attempt s y n t h e s i s . One has t o l i v e w i t h one's i n s i g h t s f o r a w h i l e , and l e t them touch one's l i f e . Moreover, "a w h i l e " i s not t e m p o r a l l y d e f i n a b l e . I t c o u l d be a few days. I t c o u l d be a few y e a r s . S u b j e c t i v i t y and O b j e c t i v i t y : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P o t e n t i a l U s e r s U s i n g the E i s n e r approach, the c r i t i c g a i n s an awareness of what the p r o d u c e r s ( d e v e l o p e r s and/or implementors) of the c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i d e r of v a l u e , i n c l u d i n g the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . In the E i s n e r approach, c r i t i c s i n d w e l l the c u r r i c u l u m as a s o r t of a n i m a t i n g s p i r i t , f a s h i o n i n g i t , c o n s t r u c t i n g i t . They use the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n as one would use c l a y , i f one were a p o t t e r or s c u l p t o r , s i n c e i n or d e r t o get the f e e l of something, one has t o handle i t . The c r i t i c has t o choose, p a r t i c i p a t e , be i n v o l v e d and connected i n the s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s a p proach, the 1 3 9 r e f e r e n c e of the p o r t r a y a l i s the a c t u a l l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e , which the c r i t i c r e - i n v e n t s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a shared community of b e l i e v e r s . When c r i t i c s e n t e r a c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n , they r e l a t e t o i t as i t i s p r e s e n t e d t o them. In t h i s r e l a t i o n , the sen s o r y memory of a c u r r i c u l u m c o n n o i s s e u r i s used as a r e a r -view m i r r o r , s i n c e i t i s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and s a f e r , than l o o k i n g over one's s h o u l d e r . A l s o , i t e n l a r g e s one's f i e l d of v i s i o n . Through the m i r r o r of the c r i t i c ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s and c o n c e p t u a l frameworks, the c r i t i c may see a s p e c t s of the c u r r i c u l u m i g n o r e d by those immersed i n i t . The f o c u s i s on the exposure of s a t i s f y i n g and p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e s . The E i s n e r approach i n p r o c e s s i s a more f o r m a l e x e r c i s e than the P i n a r approach. I t i s l i k e a game, where the c r i t i c p e rforms an e x e r c i s e by c e r t a i n r u l e s , where the c r i t i c t r i e s t o outguess the o t h e r p l a y e r , where the c r i t i c t r i e s t o p r e d i c t e v e n t s w i t h i n a c e r t a i n framework. There i s p o t e n t i a l danger i n t h i s e x e r c i s e , i f c r i t i c s get caught i n the b r a c k e t of t h e i r e x p e r t i s e . I f c r i t i c s do not take c a r e t o emphasize the a p p r e c i a t i o n a s p e c t of c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p , they become engrossed w i t h the r u l e s . In which c a s e , they do not l i s t e n t o the nuances (which may be the newness of the e x p e r i e n c e ) , and s i m p l y r e j e c t what does not f i t . Thus E i s n e r c a u t i o n s the c r i t i c " t o a p p r e c i a t e what he or she r e j e c t s as w e l l as what he or she a c c e p t s w i t h i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . " 1 2 1 40 B e s i d e s b e i n g c o n s t r a i n e d by the need t o c o n s i d e r what i s c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s , the c r i t i c i n the E i s n e r approach i s a l s o more c o n s t r a i n e d by t e c h n i q u e , t o w r i t e w i t h i n the mode of a c r i t i c of an a r t form. T h i s c o n s t r a i n t can a l s o be a s u p p o r t . I t p r o v i d e s a model f o r g u i d a n c e . T h i s approach was d e v e l o p e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o a r t l e s s i n q u i r y , and i t may happen t h a t the c r i t i q u e , e s p e c i a l l y i n m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c i s m , i s of more i n t r i n s i c (autonomous) v a l u e t o the r e a d e r , and t o the c r i t i c , than the t h i n g b e i n g c r i t i q u e d . L i k e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r t , the p o r t r a y a l r e t a i n s semblance of the o b j e c t . I t must, i n o r d e r t o have r e f e r e n t i a l adequacy. However, l i k e a b s t r a c t a r t , the p o r t r a y a l i s c o n s c i o u s l y c o n c e i v e d as an independent e n t i t y . I t becomes the o b j e c t per se. I t has i t s own autonomy. In t h i s r e s p e c t , c r i t i c s s h o u l d be c o g n i z a n t of the danger of t h e i r autonomous work of a r t becoming too a b s t r a c t e d from the c u l t u r a l ambience i n which the o r i g i n a l c u r r i c u l u m e x i s t e d . That i s , they s h o u l d be wary of the c r i t i q u e becoming a s i g n p o i n t i n g t o i t s e l f . Because the c r i t i c i s an a r t f u l r e s e a r c h e r , t h i s i s a h a z a r d of t h i s approach, a snare t h a t p o s s i b l y some of i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s have f a l l e n i n t o . In the P i n a r approach, the c r i t i c s do not f e e l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a group or t h e o r y per se. They a r e , t o use P i n a r ' s word, naked, except f o r t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i r v a l u e s a r e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . C r i t i c s t a k e the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l or p r o j e c t as c a t a l y s t , c h o o s i n g those a b s t r a c t i o n s 1 4 1 c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n as they a re p u z z l i n g t o them, and w r e s t l i n g w i t h those p u z z l e s . The c r i t i c r e l a t e s t o the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n i n terms of s e l f . A f t e r awareness s u r f a c e s , the c r i t i c has t o come t o g r i p s w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n i t . I t i s a l a b o u r , r a t h e r than an e x e r c i s e . The P i n a r approach i n p r o c e s s i s more e x p e r i m e n t a l . The c r i t i c responds u n r e s t r i c t e d l y ( r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g ) t o the o b j e c t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n . The c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t p r o v i d e s the impetus t o d i s c o v e r something y e t unknown, or t o demonstrate p o s s i b l y something known but u n i n t e g r a t e d , about s e l f i n s i t u a t i o n . The p o r t r a y a l p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the c r i t i c about a c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y u n r e c o g n i z e d and n e g l e c t e d by the c r i t i c . The p o r t r a y a l i n t h i s approach i s i m a g i s t i c , i n broken images, of the i n h e r e n t o r d e r or d i s o r d e r of the c r i t i c ' s e x p e r i e n c e . The w r i t i n g of the c r i t i q u e f e e l s c r e a t i v e , as one moves s l o w l y and a l e r t l y t hrough the broken images, q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r r e l e v a n c e and q u e s t i o n i n g the r e l e v a n c e of the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n . In the work of t h i s approach, the c r i t i c f e e l s h i s or her own p o t e n t i a l i n the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n more than he or she t h i n k s about the p o t e n t i a l of the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n f o r o t h e r s . There are s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l dangers i n t h i s p r o c e s s . The c r i t i c i s i n danger of m i m i c k i n g s e l f , or of r o m a n t i c i z i n g s e l f i n s i t u a t i o n , or of becoming engrossed i n the i n n e r j o u r n e y to the e x c l u s i o n of the outward j o u r n e y . In which c a s e , the c r i t i c g e t s caught i n the b r a c k e t of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , a l t h o u g h 1 4 2 t h a t i s not the e x p r e s s e d i n t e n t of P i n a r and Grumet. R a t h e r , c u r r e r e , as the ru n n i n g of a c o u r s e , i s towards a race of p e r f e c t e d human b e i n g s , where b e i n g human i m p l i e s b e i n g more, r a t h e r than b e i n g l e s s . Readers have a problem w i t h the language of the P i n a r t h e s i s , s i n c e i t i s not the common language of c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s . I t may be more common t o r e l i g i o u s s t u d i e s . The reason f o r the language may be t o ensure t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n f u s i o n w i t h the study of e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y and i t s emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l i s m . The emphasis i n the P i n a r approach i s on the d i s c o v e r y of s u b j e c t i v i t y , t h r o u g h encounter w i t h the w o r l d : ( s u b j e c t i v i t y i s ) "the judgement drawn from t h a t e n c o u n t e r " . 1 3 In u s i n g t h i s approach, the c r i t i c d w e l l s i n the c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n and sees i t as f a c t i t i o u s . But the f a c t i c i t y becomes the c o a t i n g on the back of the m i r r o r w i t h o u t which the g l a s s would o n l y be a window. The f a c t i c i t y then i s , i n p a r t , the c r i t i c ' s own l e b e n s w e l t . As the l e b e n s w e l t i s common sense, i t i s examined i n c u r r e r e i n the l i g h t of what V l a d i m i r Nabokov once wrote about commonsense. "Commonsense a t i t s worst i s sense made common."1'1 In drawing judgements, c r i t i c s use t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n s and r e f l e c t i o n s as a window, u n t i l t h a t window becomes a m i r r o r i n which they can see th e m s e l v e s . S e e i n g themselves p r o v i d e s them w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t r i c a t e themselves from s i t u a t i o n i f they want t o . C u r r e r e i s concerned w i t h the l i b e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . 1 4 3 Some F i n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Why would one choose t o read c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i n e i t h e r of t h e s e modes? Because both demand some s e n s i t i v i t y and some c r e a t i v i t y i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c r i t i q u e , b o th may a p p e a l t o those p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i n the r e a d e r . Moreover, such s t i m u l a t i o n may provoke the reader t o c o n s i d e r a c u r r i c u l u m i s s u e from a new p e r s p e c t i v e . However, w i t h an E i s n e r s t y l e c r i t i q u e , the reader most l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t i s someone immersed i n the c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g c r i t i q u e d . I t p r o v i d e s a d i s t a n c e from s i t u a t i o n t h a t he or she does not have. W i t h a P i n a r s t y l e c r i t i q u e t h e r e ader most l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t , o t h e r than the c r i t i c , i s someone w i t h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c u r r i c u l u m . I t may, t h e n , s e r v e t o e n l a r g e the scope and importance of h i s or her p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m , s i n c e the c r i t i c i s a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s s i m i l a r t o the ones he o r ' she has asked. Both approaches, t h e n , can be i l l u m i n a t i v e , e n r i c h i n g the r e a d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . Why would one choose t o w r i t e c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i n e i t h e r of these modes? Both o f f e r a c r i t i c the chance t o a r t i c u l a t e ( t o open f o r d i s c u s s i o n ) e x p e r i e n c e i n a c u r r i c u l u m s i t u a t i o n . Both a l l o w t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o be a r t f u l . Both are concerned w i t h the p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e i r r e a d e r s . The b e n e f i t w i t h the E i s n e r approach i s t h a t c r i t i c s a re o f f e r e d a chance t o d i s c l o s e t h e i r c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p . The b e n e f i t w i t h the P i n a r approach i s t h a t c r i t i c s may t a k e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o 144 d i s c o v e r what i t i s they r e a l l y do know about t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . Why would one choose t o c o n t r a c t a c u r r i c u l u m c r i t i c i s m i n e i t h e r mode? E i t h e r c o u l d be chosen i f one wanted a c r i t i q u e t h a t i s h i g h l y r e a d a b l e , s i n c e b oth approaches have t h a t p o t e n t i a l i t y . One would s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n t r a c t the E i s n e r approach i f one wanted an o u t s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on what i s happening or c o u l d be happening w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m , e s p e c i a l l y i f one l i k e d t he i d e a of the c u r r i c u l u m b e i n g t r e a t e d as a work of a r t , whether a l i v e performance or an e v o c a t i v e o b j e c t . One would s p e c i f i c a l l y choose the P i n a r approach i f one wanted an i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view on the c u r r i c u l u m , e s p e c i a l l y i f one wanted a t r u l y p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view. F i n a l l y , i t i s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s w r i t e r t h a t both approaches a r e u s e a b l e and u s e f u l f o r c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y . A f u r t h e r study c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of o t h e r approaches i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r b e n e f i t s t h a t n e i t h e r P i n a r nor E i s n e r o f f e r s . F o o t n o t e s 1 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , "The Method", Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m P i n a r and Ma d e l e i n e Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 5 4 . 2 P i n a r , "The Method", p. 5 5 . 3 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) . p7 1 9 0 . <l E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n r P . 191 . 5 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , P. 191 . 6 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , P- 3 4 . 7 E i s n e r , I m a g i n a t i o n , P. 2 0 4 . 8 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " P r e f a c e " , Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m P i n a r and Ma d e l i n e Grumet (Dubuque, Iowa: Kent/Hunt P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. v i i 9 W i l l i a m F. P i n a r , " S a n i t y , Madness, and the S c h o o l " . C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g , ed. W i l l i a m P i n a r ( B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 3 6 0 . 1 0 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " P s h y c h o a n a l y t i c F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , eds. W i l l i a m P i n a r and M a d e l e i n e Grumet (Dubuque, Fowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1 1 6 . 1 1 M a d e l e i n e R Grumet, " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t r e : M e r e l y P l a y e r s " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 8 : 1 : 4 1 , 1 9 7 8 . 1 2 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , - The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n (New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , pT 2 1 1 . 1 3 M a d e l e i n e R. Grumet, " E x i s t e n t i a l and Phenomenological F o u n d a t i o n s " , Toward a Poor C u r r i c u l u m , p. 4 0 . 146 1 0 V l a d i m i r Nabokov, "How t o Read, How t o W r i t e " , E s q u i r e , September, 1980, p. 64. 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barone, Thomas E. " E f f e c t i v e l y C r i t i q u i n g the E x p e r i e n c e d C u r r i c u l u m : C l u e s from the 'New J o u n r a l i s m ' , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y . 10:1:29-53, Summer, 1980. Dewey, John. A r t as E x p e r i e n c e , New York: M i n t o n , B a t c h and Co., 1934. Donmoyer, R o b e r t . "The E v a l u a t o r as A r t i s t " . The J o u r n a l of  C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g . 2:2:12-26, Summer, 1980. E i s n e r , E l l i o t W. The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n : On the Design  and E v a l u a t i o n of S c h o o l Programs. New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1979. E i s n e r , E l l i o t W. "On the Uses of E d u c a t i o n a l C o n n a i s s e u r s h i p and C r t i t s i c m f o r E v a l u a t i n g C lassroom L i f e . " Teachers'  C o l l e g e Record. 78:3:345-356, F e b r u a r y , 1977. F i n k e l s t e i n , James H. And C. Ray W i l l i a m s . "To the E d i t o r . " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r . 8:9:24-25, October, 1979. G e e r t z , C l i f f o r d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1973. Green, Maxine. "To the E d i t o r . " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r . 8:9:25, Oc t o b e r , 1979. Grumet, M a d e l e i n e R. "Autobiography and R e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . " The J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g . 2:2:155-158, Summer, 1980. Grumet, M a d e l e i n e R. " C u r r i c u l u m as T h e a t e r : M e r e l y P l a y e r s . " C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y . 8:1:37-65, S p r i n g , 1978. K o z l o f f , Max. R e n d e r i n g s : C r i t i c a l E s s a ys on a Century of Modern A r t . New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1968. McCutcheon, G a i l . The Use of Ethnography and C r i t i c i s m as Methods f o r D i s c l o s i n g Classromm S e t t i n g s . Paper p r e s e n t e d at the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c , San F r a n c i s c o , A p r i l , 1976. ERIC Document ED 129 926,.1976. M e n z i e s , Sandra. " C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n : My O r i e n t a t i o n Towards I t . " Paper p r e s e n t e d i n E d u c a t i o n 562. UBC, A p r i l , 1 979. M i l n e r , M a r i o n . On Not Bein g A b l e t o P a i n t . 2d ed. London: 1 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY W i l l i a m Heinmann L t d . , 1957. Munby, Hugh. " P h i l o s o p h y f o r C h i l d r e n : An Example of C u r r i c u l u m Review and C r i t i c i s m . " C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y . 9:3:229-248, F a l l , 1979. Nabokov, V l a d i m i r . "How t o Read, How t o W r i t e . " E s q u i r e . 94:3:61-68, September, 1980. Olney, James., ed. A u t o b i o g r a p h y : E s s a y s T h e o r e t i c a l and  C r i t i c a l . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. P e a r s e , H a r o l d . "Reviews: The E d u c a t i o n a l I m a g i n a t i o n by E l l i o t E i s n e r . " Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n . 5:3:112-115, 1980. Pepper, Stephen C. The B a s i s of C r i t i c i s m i n the A r t s . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F. Ed. C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g : the R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t s . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1975, 359-426. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F."The a b s t r a c t and the C o n c r e t e i n T h e o r i z i n g . " U n i v e r s i t y of R o c h e s t e r , n.d. (X e r o x e d ) . P i n a r , W i l l i a m F . " D i a l o g u e : Reply t o My C r i t i c s . " C u r r i c u l u m  I n q u i r y . 10:2:199-205, Summer, 1980. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F., ed. Hei g h t e n e d C o n s c i o u s n e s s , C u l t u r a l  R e v o l u t i o n , and C u r r i c u l u m Theory: The P r o c e d d i n g s of the  Ro c h e s t e r C o n f e r e n c e . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1974. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F. " L i f e H i s t o r y and E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e . " The J o u r n a l of C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r i z i n g . 2:2:159-212, Summer, 1980. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F. "Notes on the C u r r i c u l u m F i e l d 1978." E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r . 7:8:5-12, September, 1978. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F. "To the E d i t o r . " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r . 8:9:23-24, Oc t o b e r , 1979. P i n a r , W i l l i a m F. And Ma d e l e i n e R. Grumet, eds. Toward a Poor  C u r r i c u l u m . Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1976. Simon, Roger I . , ed. " A e s t h e t i c C r i t i c i s m and C u r r i c u l u m D e s c r i p t i o n . " C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y . 7:2:107-120, Summer, 1977. 1 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY Tanner, D a n i e l and L a u r e l N. Tanner. "Emancipation from Re s e a r c h . " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r . 8:6:8-12, June, 1979. Van Manen, Max. " R e c o n c e p t u a l i s t C u r r i c u l u m Thought: A Review of Recent L i t e r a t u r e . " C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y . 8:4:365-374, W i n t e r , 1978. W i l l i s , George, ed. Q u a l i t a t i v e E v a l u a t i o n : Concepts and Cases  i n C u r r i c u l u m C r i t i c i s m . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1978. Women Moving Up. Eden P r a i r i e , Minn: W i l s o n L e a r n i n g Corp, 1976. ( v i d e o t a p e ) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055182/manifest

Comment

Related Items