Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Meanings about the child embodied within kindergarten teachers’ report card slogans Flodin, Nancy Marilyn 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 F56.pdf [ 5.21MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055181.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055181-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055181-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055181-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055181-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055181-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055181-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055181-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055181.ris

Full Text

MEANINGS ABOUT THE CHILD EMBODIED WITHIN KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS' REPORT CARD SLOGANS by NANCY MARILYN FLODIN B . H c , The Univers i ty of Manitoba, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum and Instruct ional Stud We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Spring 1982 (7) Nancy Mar i lyn F lod in , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s study was to iden t i f y the slogans used by kindergarten teachers when report ing student progress to parents. The meaning of these slogans was defined in terms of the teachers' assumptions about the c h i l d . The major question addressed was: What meanings about the c h i l d are embodied wi th in the socia l -emot ional slogans used by kindergarten teachers on report cards? A secondary problem a r i s i ng from the f i r s t was: What are the impl icat ions for inserv ice education and for report ing to parents? Social-emot ional slogans were i den t i f i ed and interpreted through analys is of f i f t y report cards co l lec ted from twenty-f ive kindergarten teachers wi thin one large metro school d i s t r i c t . Assumptions about the ch i l d c lustered under three headings: personal a t t r i bu tes , interpersonal re la t i onsh ips , and work hab i ts , y i e ld ing s ix slogan c lus ters in t o t a l . Six teachers were i nd i v i dua l l y interviewed to c l a r i f y and re f ine the researcher 's i n i t i a l meanings. Five addi t ional teachers par t i c ipa ted in the f i n a l va l i da t ion of the slogans and meanings. Impl icat ions were drawn for inserv ice education from the teachers' interview experience; and for report ing to parents from the teachers ' r e f l e c t i v e comments on repor t ing . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES vi i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix Chapter I PROBLEM 1 II SLOGANS AND THE GROUP 3 SLOGANS ARE SHARED BY A GROUP- 4 SLOGANS EMBODY MEANINGS i . e . ASSUMPTIONS 10 FOOTNOTES ' 15 i v III METHOD 16 SAMPLE 16 REPORT CARD ANALYSIS 17 INTERVIEWS 19 VALIDATION 21 IV SHARED MEANINGS ABOUT THE KINDERGARTEN CHILD 22 PART I: THE CHILD AS SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL BEING 24 1.0 PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES 24 1.1 Sel f -Conf ident In New Si tuat ions (Accepts Cr i t i c i sm) 24 1.2 Good, Cheerful A t t i tude Towards School, Work, S e l f , Others 28 2.0 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 32 2.1 Gets Along Well With Her Classmates, Teacher . . 32 2.2 Good Pa r t i c i pa t i on In Games, Songs, And S to r ies ; And Play 36 3.0 WORK HABITS 42 3.1 A Hard-Working, Co-operat ive, And Dependable Student 43 3.2 Works Independently And Uses Own I n i t i a t i v e . . . 47 V PART I I : THE COMPOSITE IMAGE OF THE CHILD 51 4.1 AS THE TEACHERS STATED IT 51 4.2 THE RESERACHER'S INTERPRETATION: TWO METAPHORS . . . . 57 Ch i l d As C i t i z e n 58 Ch i ld As Worker 60 FOOTNOTES 53 V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 64 TEACHERS' MEANINGS ABOUT THE KINDERGARTEN CHILD 64 IMPLICATIONS FOR INSERVICE 69 ( i ) The Interview Experience: An Inservice A c t i v i t y . . 70 ( i i ) A Study Of The Strange And Unfami l iar 72 ( i i i ) Knowing Ones Biography: An Inserv ice A c t i v i t y 74 IMPLICATIONS FOR REPORTING TO PARENTS 76 ( i ) Use Descr ip t ive Language Over Judgement About Chi ldren 81 ( i i ) Phrase Report Card Comments ' P o s i t i v e l y ' • . 81 ( i i i ) Avoid Value-Laden Language 82 ( iv) Communicate In P l a i n , Jargon-Free Language 82 IN CONCLUSION 84 vi FOOTNOTES 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 APPENDIX A Copies of Blank Report Card Types 90 APPENDIX B Sample Mat r ices , Parent-Teacher Interview Type 95 APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C lus te rs , Matr ices A-F 97 APPENDIX D Interview Schedule 103 APPENDIX E Revised Slogan/Meaning C lus te rs , Matr ices A-F 104 APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C lus te r s , TABLES I-VI 110 V I 1 LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I Sel f -Conf ident In New Si tuat ions (Accepts C r i t i c i sm) TABLE II Good, Cheerful A t t i tude Towards School , Work, S e l f , Others TABLE III Gets Along Well With Her Classmates, Teacher TABLE IV Good Pa r t i c i pa t i on In Games, Songs, And S to r i es ; And Play TABLE V A Hard-Working, Co-operat ive, And Dependable Student TABLE VI Works Independently And Uses Own I n i t i a t i v e 25 30 33 37 44 48 vi n LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I Meanings About The Chi ld Embedded Within Social-Emotional Slogans ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank Dr. Glen Dixon, Dr. Hannah Poloway, and Dr. Ann Lukasevich for the i r advice and assistance as members of my thes is committee. I p a r t i c u l a r l y wish to thank Dr. Walter Werner, my thes is superv isor . Dr. Werner provided consistent support, c r i t i q u e and insp i ra t i on as I proceeded with my work. From him I have learned the importance of c l e a r , concise expression. I a lso wish to thank Dr. Blake Ford and the Burnaby kindergarten teachers who so w i l l i n g l y gave of the i r time in order that th is research could be undertaken. F i n a l l y I wish to thank Ela ine Darnel l fo r her resourcefulness and meticulous work in typing th is manuscript. X To the memory of my mother, MARJORIE CONSTANCE HINDS My f i r s t and las t ing teacher. CHAPTER I PROBLEM Group a f f i l i a t i o n inf luences one's point of view. Everyday in teract ions and communications wi th in a group shape and re in force one's shared b e l i e f s , assumptions and thoughts on matters of common in te res t . Group members resu l tan t l y act in harmony, and unless a problem or d isrupt ion ar ises in the i r rou t ines , the i r point of view continues without quest ion. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , language used by group members moulds th i s common frame of reference. Be l i e f s about work, assumptions about soc ie ty , education and ch i l d ren , and ideas about any number of topics are a l l embedded wi th in da i l y language. Instrumental ly used to convey fee l ings and thoughts, language i s taken-for-granted by a group, and is ra re ly examined by them. By example, kindergarten teachers may share a view of the ch i l d through language used in report ing student progress to parents. The purpose of th is study was to iden t i f y the slogans used by kindergarten teachers when report ing student progress to parents. The meaning of these slogans was defined in terms of the teachers' assumptions about the c h i l d . Therefore, the major question addressed was: What meanings about the c h i l d are embodied within the socia l -emot ional slogans used by kindergarten teachers on report cards? 2 A secondary problem a r i s ing from the f i r s t was: What are the impl icat ions for inserv ice education and for report ing to parents? Because a group perspect ive on the ch i l d was the focus of th i s research, selected report card language used by a sample of teachers was analyzed for the group's meaning of the ' t y p i c a l ' ch i l d rather than the unique i n d i v i d u a l . This problem is important for two reasons. Slogans are commonly used by kindergarten teachers when re fe r r ing to ch i ldren on report cards. These slogans remain unexamined, even though they embody assumptions about ch i ld ren that stand in need of being i den t i f i ed and in terpre ted. Fur ther , such a study is important in B r i t i s h Columbia in the current period of change with the introduct ion of a revised p rov inc ia l kindergarten curr icu lum. Insights gained from th is study could contr ibute to inserv ice education that helps teachers examine the i r use of slogans. The fo l lowing terms are important in th is study: 1) . SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SLOGANS: Phrases used to t yp i f y the personal and interpersonal a t t r ibu tes of ch i l d ren . 2) . MEANINGS: Assumptions about kindergarten ch i l d ren . For purposes of c l a r i t y , the feminine pronoun is used cons is ten t l y throughout the text of t h i s manuscript. 3 CHAPTER II SLOGANS AND THE GROUP Language i s the vehic le of expression, but the words let the l i f e world shine through them.' Assumptions and be l i e f s about ch i l d ren , school ing, knowledge and knowing l i e deeply embedded within the routines and language of teaching, and normally remain unar t icu la ted; yet th is level of meaning bears considerable inf luence on teachers' on-going experiences. As a member of her ear ly childhood group, the kindergarten teacher in te rna l i zes assumptions held in common with col leagues, ra re ly invest igated in the course of rout ine events. Monica Mor r is , in her book An Excursion into Creat ive Socio logy, c la ims: "What people say, the way they say i t , and the set t ing in which they say i t provide important clues toward discover ing how what is said by people i s shaped by, and shapes, the i r soc ia l worlds. The soc ia l world is a p rac t i ca l accomplishment of ' those who act wi th in i t ; language, both verbal and wr i t ten , plays a major part in th is 2 accomplishment." This chapter invest igates how a pa r t i cu la r aspect of language, slogans, used by kindergarten teachers embody meaning about the c h i l d . It draws subs tan t ia l l y from the work of A l f red Schutz, and from contemporary wr i te rs such as Morris in the sociology of language. 4 SLOGANS ARE SHARED BY A GROUP Language brings inner thoughts, ideas and images into a publ ic form and understanding, and allows for debate and r e f l e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the external world is mediated in part to human consciousness through l i n g u i s t i c symbols and grammatical r u les . Language provides for communication and community. It i s used by a group to define the i r views and organize the i r experiences of the object ive and the inner pr ivate 3 world. Berger and Luckmann, in an essay on language and knowledge in everyday l i f e , comment on these 'semantic f i e l d s or zones of meaning1 of various occupations. B u i l t up through in teract ions among members of the occupation, these.semantic f i e l d s s e l e c t i v e l y store experiences for la ter use and order present experience. What resu l t s is a common stock of knowledge ava i lab le to a l l heirs of that occupational community. So i t is for teachers who share a frame of reference, a 'stock of knowledge', handed down by past teachers and developed in personal experience. Ready-made so lu t ions to da i l y problems are provided by th is stock of •knowledge. According to Schutz, the everyday world can be ;experienced in no other way than as an ordered, t yp i ca l one: This 's tock ' is made up of t y p i f i c a t i o n s of the commonsense wor ld . . .beings and objects are from the outset perceived t y p i c a l l y and wi th in a horizon of f a m i l i a r i t y . What is new and d i f fe ren t is recognized as unusual because i t a r ises against the background of the o rd ina ry . . . t he very texture of commonsense l i f e includes these t y p i f i c a t i o n s . . . T h i s ' s t o c k p i l i n g ' of t y p i f i c a t i o n s is endemic to commonsense l i f e . From childhood on, the ind iv idua l continues to amass a vast number of ' r ec ipes ' which then serve as techniques for understanding or at least con t ro l l i ng aspects of his experience.^ Order is brought to the s i tua t ion through these t yp i f i ca t i ons and recipes that make up one's store of p rac t i ca l knowledge. 5 More s p e c i f i c a l l y , an element of one's stock of knowledge re fers to ' t y p i f i c a t i o n s ' , ready-made categories that organize thought and ac t ion . Objects of experience are understood and handled according to these standardized schemes taken-for-granted by members of the group. Knowledge of any object through t y p i f i c a t i o n s is general and abst ract , and i d e n t i f i e s t yp i ca l cha rac te r i s t i cs or a t t r i bu tes . Interact ions also proceed in expected and typ ica l pat terns. One may hold, for example, a t y p i f i c a t i o n for ' un i ve rs i t y professor ' that shapes how one defines any person so-ca l led and how one acts towards her in various s i t ua t i ons . The meaning of t y p i f i c a t i o n i s summed up by Schutz: The w o r l d . . . i s from the outset experienced in . . .everyday l i f e in the mode of t y p i c a l i t y . The unique objects and events given to us in a unique aspect are unique within a horizon of t yp i ca l f a m i l i a r i t y and preacquaintanceship. There are mountains, t rees , animals, dogs - in pa r t i cu la r I r i sh set ters and among them, my I r i sh se t te r , Rover. Now I may look at Rover e i ther as th is unique i n d i v i d u a l , my i r rep laceable f r iend and comrade, or just as a t yp i ca l example of ' I r i s h S e t t e r ' , ' d o g 1 , 'mammal1, ' a n i m a l ' , 'o rganism' , or 'object of the outer world ' .5 In Schutz 1 example, to see Rover in the l a t t e r d e f i n i t i o n , as a " t yp i ca l example" is to see him in a t y p i f i c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , to re fer to a ch i l d with a t y p i f i c a t i o n such as ' s o c i a l l y immature' is to view the ch i l d according to genera l , t yp i ca l cha rac te r i s t i cs ascribed by the teacher group. It is not to see the unique dimensions of that c h i l d . Within th is study, t yp i f icat ions used in th is sense for the c h i l d are referred to as slogans. Slogans are standard categories for def in ing ch i ldren and ways of act ing towards them that are stock - ready-made by the group and taken-f.or-granted for understanding ch i ldren t y p i c a l l y . The seminal part that language, such as slogans, plays in the t y p i f i c a t i o n process is expanded on by Schutz: 6 Language used in da i l y l i f e . . . i s p r imar i l y a language of named things and events. Now any name includes a t y p i f i c a t i o n and i s . . . a nonessential empiricaI genera l i za t ion . . We may  in terpret the p r e s c i e n t i f i c human language as a treasure house  ot preconst i tuted types and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each oT them carry ing a long an open horizon oT unexplored t yp i ca l contents. By naming an experienced ob ject , we are re la t ing i t by i t s t y p i c a l i t y to preexperienced things of s im i la r t yp i ca l s t ruc ture , and we accept i t s open horizon re fe r r ing to future experiences of the same type, which are therefore capable of being given the same name.° It is in the act of naming an object , idea, or event, therefore, that a t y p i f i c a t i o n is applied to v i v i d experience. The object is l i n g u i s t i c a l l y designated as some-thing, as one of a s im i la r group of objects with s im i l a r t r a i t s and fam i l i a r q u a l i t i e s . What i t i s named ( i . e what meaning i t is perceived to hold) depends upon the stock of knowledge shared by the group and upon the in terest placed upon i t at the t ime. In naming, the experience is ordered according to t yp i f i ed categor ies ; in other words i t is cogn i t i ve ly placed in re la t i on to something already known wi th in the boundaries of that category. By example, the kindergarten teacher may in terpret and order the behaviour of her students according to l i n g u i s t i c t yp i f i ca t i ons ( i . e . slogans) held in common with co l leagues. Upon seeing a ch i l d playing alone for the fourth day in a row, how does she understand that behaviour? F i r s t , the behaviour is named with a slogan: is i t soc ia l immaturity, emotional i nsecu r i t y , a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, or something else? Is i t 'normal' for the c h i l d , at that age? In naming, the behaviour is categorized according to the schemes of t yp ica l explanat ion, t y p i f i c a t i o n s , that the teacher has handy for making sense of what she has observed. In the "n-aming, the c h i l d ' s h ighly personal and unique act i s typed and dealt with general ly as i t appl ies to the meanings for a l l 7 l i ke ch i ld ren in k indergarten. The s i tua t ion observed is defined and ordered by c a l l i n g at tent ion to cer ta in cha rac te r i s t i cs over others. Slogans are used as she ta lks and thinks about ch i l d ren . Typical slogans may inc lude, 'hard worker ' , 'good p a r t i c i p a n t ' , or ' l acks conf idence ' . Slogans may serve at least three purposes when used by members of the teaching group. I n i t i a l l y , slogans allow teachers to t reat ch i ld ren in t yp ica l and anonymous terms. Discussions about Sonja as a 'hard-working and co-operat ive student' c a l l to mind comments about Sonja's behaviour that f i t t yp ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Omitted are descr ip t ions about the unique, concrete i nd i v i dua l i t y of Sonja as student. In t h i s way, Sonja i s experienced in an abst ract , anonymous sense: as one of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t yp ica l 'hard-working s tudents ' . Slogans standardize the v i ss i c i t udes of i nd i v i dua l i t y and create an object ive distance between the ch i l d observed and the ch i l d l a b e l l e d . The far ther one is removed from the face- to - face experience, in f ac t , the more anonymous and general ized the slogan becomes. On the other hand, these anonymous categories are commonly understood by members of the group tomean 'something' agreed-upon. A l l have a shared, object ive sense of what a 'hard-working student' means. Any number of ch i ldren can be so defined by the slogan. Berger and Luckmann substant iate th is not ion: Language also t y p i f i e s experiences, al lowing me to subsume them under broad categories in terms of which they have meaning not only to myself but also to my fellowmen. As i t t y p i f i e s , i t also anonymizes experiences, for the t yp i f i ed experience can, in p r i n c i p l e , be dupl icated by anyone f a l l i n g into the .category in quest ion. For instance, I have a quarrel with my mother-in-law. This concrete and sub jec t ive ly unique experience is t yp i f i ed l i n g u i s t i c a l l y under the category [slogan] "mother-in-law trouble" The same t y p i f i c a t i o n . . . en ta i l s anonymity. Not only. I but anyone . . . can have "mother-in-law t roub le" .^ 8 Secondly, in terpre t ing the world through l i n g u i s t i c t y p i f i c a t i o n s f rees the actors to get on with the job at hand. Slogans provide ready-made explanations for phenomena; sor t ing out the phenomena is s i m p l i f i e d . Unquestioned by the group, these recipes are s u f f i c i e n t in many instances for making sense of the s i tua t ion and act ing wi th in i t . Slogans enable teachers to or ient themselves to ch i ldren and to the classroom with a minimum of e f f o r t . De ta i led , spec i f i c analys is of behaviour and a c t i v i t y is preempted when things can be adequately understood ' f o r a l l p rac t i ca l purposes' through t y p i f i c a t i o n s . To know a c h i l d is 'doing p u z z l e s ' , or ' d i sp lay ing se l f -con f idence ' is enough in many instances, and the teachers' at tent ion is released to focus on other aspects of her experience. In communication, slogans may enhance the p o s s i b i l i t y of understanding between members of the l i n g u i s t i c community; these stock phrases approximate shared meaning between the expressor and the in te rp re to r . For one kindergarten teacher to say to another, "the c h i l d is beginning to d isp lay se l f - con f idence" , no fur ther e laborat ion may be requi red. Both re fer to the i r stock of knowledge about t y p i f i e d ch i ld ren to f ind a su i tab le in terpre ta t ion for the slogan. Act ions and communications proceed in th is way, through the app l ica t ion of slogans owned by the group. Slogans do more than pass ive ly organize experience and inf luence how t y p i f i e d objects and behaviour are dealt with - they determine what act ion is taken and what cha rac te r i s t i cs are apprehended. In Schutz 's example of Rover, t h i s re la t ionsh ip of t y p i f i c a t i o n to act ion is expla ined: If we see a dog, that i s , i f we recognize an object as being an animal and more p rec ise ly as a dog [and so name i t ] , we an t ic ipa te a cer ta in behaviour on the part of th is dog, a 9 t yp ica l (not ind iv idua l ) way of eat ing, of running, of p lay ing , of jumping, and so on. Ac tua l l y we do not see his teeth , but having experienced before what a dog's teeth t y p i c a l l y look l i k e , we may expect that the teeth of the dog before us w i l l show the same typ ica l features though with ind iv idua l mod i f i ca t ions . ° The work of Strauss on language and iden t i t y corroborates the thes is made by Schutz in his d iscussion of t y p i f i c a t i o n : This necess i ty for any group to develop a common or shared terminology leads to an important cons iderat ion: the d i rec t ion of a c t i v i t y depends upon the pa r t i cu la r ways that objects are c l a s s i f i e d . . . . The naming of an object provides a d i rec t i ve for ac t ion , as i f the object were f o r t h r i gh t l y to announce, "you say I am t h i s , then act in the appropriate way towards me". An act of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n not only d i rec ts overt ac t ion , but arouses a set of expectations toward the object thus c l a s s i f i e d .9 In th i s sense, slogan t y p i f i c a t i o n s provide ' rec ipes for ac t ion ' that have worked in the past and are expected to hold for the fu tu re . Typical behaviours and t yp i ca l t r a i t s are an t i c ipa ted , and the namer knows what to do t y p i c a l l y i f act ion is requi red. For the ' s o c i a l l y immature c h i l d ' , teachers plan and conduct a c t i v i t i e s based on what they know is t yp ica l pract ice for deal ing with such a c h i l d . Any number of poss ib le treatments could f i t the t y p i f i c a t i o n : provide teacher comfort and ass is tance; praise the c h i l d ' s independent e f f o r t s ; f ind a conf ident , mature c h i l d to buddy with the immature one for a per iod; and so on. Poss ib le so lut ions for the p rac t i ca l problem ' s o c i a l l y immature c h i l d ' would be predicated on the expectation that such a ch i l d would behave in a cer ta in fashion - of course only un t i l immaturity passes and a new label can be assigned to her. Slogans, thus, or ient teachers to the t yp i ca l behaviour-patterns, t yp ica l motives, and t yp ica l at t i tudes of a c h i l d , and o f fe r a basis for subsequent ac t ion . To l i n g u i s t i c a l l y designate a ch i l d as ' t h i s and not that ' is to es tab l i sh a re la t ionsh ip 10 with the c h i l d , and sets a course for future ac t ion , one embedded in past pract ices and pre-given accepted knowledge of s im i l a r s i t ua t i ons . As stock phrases, therefore, slogans funct ion in various ways to inf luence the comprehending, communication and act ion among group members. To kindergarten teachers, slogans are an unquestioned legacy acquired through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of teacher t ra in ing and professional p rac t i ce . They are used in da i l y in teract ions to enable teaching to proceed with minimum d is rup t ion . Through slogan-use, ch i ldren come to be known as genera l ized, anonymous types unless i t i s relevant to probe into the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the ch i l d in order to solve a problem or to sa t i s f y some in te res t . The choice of knowing the c h i l d i nd i v i dua l l y or t y p i c a l l y i s the teacher 's in each s i t u a t i o n . SLOGANS EMBODY MEANINGS i . e . ASSUMPTIONS Stock phrases y i e l d a vast 'treasurehou-se' of the co l lec ted meanings and memories of the group and the personal , b iographical meanings of the i n d i v i d u a l . As symbols, they make i t possib le to ob jec t i f y v i v i d , present experience and make i t reclaimable to a l l who share the language. Personal experience is reconstructed and t ransmit ted. In t ime, slogans become the publ ic and pr ivate storehouse of what has been, i s , and perhaps w i l l be, meaningful for the group. C. Wright M i l l s encapsulates th i s point of view: Language, s o c i a l l y b u i l t and maintained, embodies imp l i c i t exhortat ions and soc ia l eva luat ions. By acquir ing the categories of a language, we acquire the structured 'ways' of a group...Our behavior and percept ion, our log ic and thought, come wi th in the control of a system of language 11 A vocabulary i s not merely a s t r ing of words; inherent wi th in i t are soc ie ta l textures Back of a vocabulary l i e s sets of c o l l e c t i v e act ion J O Slogans express shared or object ive meanings, publ ic and leg i t imized by the c o l l e c t i v i t y . Typ i ca l l y , these meanings are apprehended in a standard, agreed-upon form, ava i lab le to anyone wi th in the group and appl icable to anyone who f i t s the designated ' l a b e l ' . Put d i f f e r e n t l y , slogans evoke assumptions that are s o c i a l l y approved; they are taken to mean something standard, s im i la r to a l l . Of course to i nd i v i dua l s , slogans also hold a residue of personal , subject ive meaning that augments the i r common in te rp re ta t i on . For the present d i scuss ion , however, i t i s the shared meanings that slogans evoke for the group that are of i n te res t . Teachers draw on a store of meanings, c lustered under the s logan- in-use and v e r i f i e d through the i r experiences. Consequently, the ' s o c i a l l y immature c h i l d ' slogan embodies shared meanings for the teachers, perhaps: "the c h i l d as dependent person requi r ing teacher at tent ion and ass is tance" or "the ch i l d as classroom member who in terrupts and in te r fe res with others during d iscuss ions, s to r ies and group work". Appearing to be common to a l l and ever-present, slogans and the i r meanings are most often taken-for-granted and ra re ly open to r e f l e c t i o n . It i s unnatural fo r teachers to a r t i cu l a te these deeply embedded meanings. Schutz exp la ins : Now to the natural man a l l h is past experiences are present as ordered, as knowledge or as awareness of what to expect, just as the whole external world is present to him as ordered. O rd ina r i l y , and unless he is to solve a specia l kind of problem, he -does n'ot ask questions about th is ordered world. The pa r t i c u l a r patterns of order [ i . e . slogans] we are now considering are synthet ic meaning - conf igurat ions of already encountered l i ved expe r i ences . ^ 12 Pass ive ly apprehended, slogans and the i r concommitant t yp i f i ed meanings are ra re ly questioned as long as they 'work' in expressing and in terpre t ing experience. Instead the meanings are assumed and ex is t in a funct ional capaci ty to help manage and contro l da i l y events, unless as Schutz notes "he is to solve a specia l kind of problem." Indeed, the t y p i f i c a t i o n s are sustained un t i l a problem, a quest ion, or puzzlement d isrupts the ' taken-for-grantedness 1 and reawakens at tent ion to the phenomena. At such a juncture, a crack forms in the umbrella of meanings formerly unnoticed. They are tested out, re f lec ted upon and poss ib ly modified in re la t i on to the 'problemat ic ' s i t u a t i o n . For the teacher, slogans that define the i r assumptions about the ch i l d go on i m p l i c i t l y un t i l a problem or ' s u r p r i s e ' occurs demanding a c loser look at the ind iv idua l c h i l d . The t y p i f i c a t i o n assigned to the ch i l d is brought into quest ion, examined, and perhaps enlarged or changed. Imagine, for example, a s i tua t ion where the ' s o c i a l l y immature c h i l d ' volunteers to stand up in f ront of her classmates and teach them her favor i te song. Such behaviour i s unexpected from the 'immature' whose general cha rac te r i s t i c s point to dependency, d i s t rac t i on in groups, and egocentrism. The normally unnoticed t y p i f i c a t i o n is then questioned in l i gh t of new information about the c h i l d . For a moment, the ' taken-for-grantedness' is chal lenged, un t i l the problem is integrated into the rout ine perspect ive or un t i l the t yp f i ca t ion is a l te red . Indeed, i t may mean that i n i t i a l l y the ch i l d was inappropr iate ly named and typed. Eventual ly the questioned s i tua t ion w i l l return to the ebb and flow of the unquestioned. In summary, kindergarten teachers share a common set of meanings, 13 embodied wi th in l i n g u i s t i c t yp i f i ca t i ons - slogans - and used rou t ine ly to explain and in terpret the i r da i l y experiences. In conducting the i r ' bus i ness -as -usua l ' , the meanings are sustained, authent icated, and c r y s t a l l i z e d , y i e l d i ng the appearance of a stable classroom and school wor ld. Only when problems surface is th is meaning system examined and questioned. For those who do not belong to the int imate, face- to- face community of kindergarten teachers, however, meanings may not be necessar i ly shared in the same way. Such outsiders are not pr ivy to the on-going ta lk and in te rac t ion that bring substance and common understanding to behaviours observed and slogans used. Language has meaning for someone, and slogans, in th is instance, have a f u l l embodied meaning for the teachers involved. Slogans about ch i ld ren imply c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , known and i m p l i c i t y grasped by the teacher i ns ide rs . To parents, on the other hand, as non-members of the teaching group, slogans may be embued with d i f fe ren t meanings - pa r t i cu la r and perhaps, cont rad ic tory . Slogan meaning for parents ar ises from the i r b iographical experience with a c h i l d , unique and i n d i v i d u a l ; or from a t y p i f i c a t i o n for 5 year olds gleaned from books or observations of ch i ldren in the community. Consequently, a discrepancy may ex is t between the meanings teachers share for slogans and those grasped by parents. Report card communication general ly proceeds through the use of stock expressions about ch i l d ren . When meanings between teachers and parents may not over lap, the nature of what is being communicated may be brought into quest ion. Admit tedly, some form of standard language is necessary or l i t t l e to no chance of mutual understanding is poss ib le . 14 Slogan t y p i f i c a t i o n s represent a potent ia l f i e l d of l i n g u i s t i c commonality, and yet Schutz points beyond th i s capab i l i t y of t y p i f i c a t i o n s and ra ises the concern for vague communication: Typ i f i ca t i on i s indeed that form of abstract ion which leads to the more or less standardized, yet more or less vague, conceptual izat ion of common-sense th ink ing and to the necessary ambiguity of the terms of the ordinary vernacular. '2 When communication is undertaken v ia slogans, meanings are standardized leading to approximate understanding by both pa r t i es . App l ica t ion of slogans can co inc iden t l y lead to fuzzy , vague messages as the common-sense t y p i f i c a t i o n s of sender and receiver may not converge s u f f i c i e n t l y . In t h i s way, parents and teachers may see d i f fe ren t meanings about the ch i l d in report card slogans. Probing into the socia l -emot ional slogans kindergarten teachers use on report cards i l luminates the i r meanings about the c h i l d . When viewed c o l l e c t i v e l y , t h i s array of meanings point to the group's view of the t yp i ca l c h i l d ; impl icat ions for parental understanding, as ou ts iders , are r ec i p roca l l y revealed. In a succ inc t , short , c lear statement the report card portrays p u b l i c a l l y the teachers' assumptions about ch i l d ren . As i t is possib le to make an i n f i n i t e number of comments about ch i l d ren , the report- card forces the kindergarten teacher to be se l ec t i ve , to include what may be the most valued, s i g n i f i c a n t information, to exclude the i r re levant and unworthy. In preparing a report card the teacher condenses her meaning about the ' t yp i ca l ' ch i l d deeply embedded wi th in her common-sense th inking and ac t ing . 15 FOOTNOTES 1 J . B . Macdonald, "Theory - Prac t i ce and the Hermeneutic C i r c l e " , in Journal of Curriculum Theor iz ing, v o l . 3, no. 2, 1981, p. 137. 2 ' M.B. Mor r is , An Excursion into Creat ive Sociology (New York: Columbia Univers i ty Press"! 1977), pp.92-93. 3 P. Berger and T. Luckmann, The Socia l Construct ion of Rea l i t y (New York: Anchor Books, 1966), p. 41. 4 M. Natanson, " In t roduct ion" , in Col lec ted Papers I, A. Schutz (The Hague: Martinus N i jho f f , 1973), pp. XXVIII - XXIX. 5 A. Schutz, Col lec ted Papers I (The Hague: Martinus N i jho f f , 1973), p. 59. 6 ' I b id , p. 285. (Emphasis added) 7 Berger and Luckmann, op c i t . , p. 39. (Emphasis added) 8 Schutz, op c i t . , p. 282. 9 A . L . Strauss, "Language and Iden t i t y " , in Language in  Educat ion, eds. A. Cashman et al (London: Routledge and Keg an Pau I, TrTe Open Un ivers i ty Press , 1972), p. 73. !0 C.W. M i l l s , "Language, Logic and Cu l tu re " , in Language in  Educat ion, eds. A. Cashman et al (London: Routledge and Kegan Pau l , The Open Un ivers i ty Press , 1972), p. 52. ^ A. Schutz, The Phenomenology of the Socia l World, t rans la to r G. Walsh (Evanston: Northwestern Univers i ty Press , 1967), p. 81. 12 Schutz, op c i t . , p. 323. 16 CHAPTER III METHOD As the intent of t h i s research was to understand selected slogans used by kindergarten teachers from the i r point of view, no a p r i o r i hypotheses were tes ted . Analys is of report card documents, and interviews with teachers were the means of data c o l l e c t i o n . The socia l -emot ional (S/E) slogan sample, defined as phrases used to t yp i f y the personal and interpersonal a t t r ibu tes of ch i l d ren , was se lec t i ve and focussed - a pa r t i cu l a r publ ic language intended for a spec i f i c audience, and to promote parent teacher communication about an ind iv idua l c h i l d . SAMPLE From the kindergarten teacher population (n=47) of one large metro school d i s t r i c t ( D i s t r i c t 41, Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada) a random sample (n=25) was chosen under supervis ion of the d i s t r i c t research s ta f f person. This sample included novice and experienced teachers, and represented approximately 60% of the elementary schools with kindergarten c lasses (n=40). Permission to proceed with the study and a commitment to pa r t i c ipa te was obtained from the Burnaby School Board and from the selected teachers and the i r p r i n c i p a l s . Report cards wr i t ten on two ch i ld ren by each of the twenty-f ive teachers af ter the most recent report ing period (March/Apr i l , 1981) were selected randomly (n=50) under the supervis ion of the school p r i nc ipa l s 17 during June 1981. During th is report ing period none of the teachers knew about the study or that they might be selected as part of the sample. The randomly-selected report cards from schools were placed in a sealed envelope, and taken to Schou Education Centre where d i s t r i c t s ta f f copied them, deleted con f iden t ia l information from the copies, and returned the o r i g i na l s to the school . Anonymity was maintained for both the teacher and student through coding, and no teacher or student names were released to the researcher; a coded master l i s t of names was kept by the primary ass i s t i ng teacher. Teachers understood that they might be requested to continue into the c l a r i f i c a t i o n and va l ida t ion phases of the study, at which time permission to approach the teachers was sought from the d i s t r i c t research s ta f f person. REPORT CARD ANALYSIS The study invest igated S/E slogans on three types of report cards represented by the sample: an open-ended anectodal card (n=4), a check l i s t card (n= 14), and a parent-teacher interview card (n=32) (APPENDIX A) . F i r s t , the form and language were analyzed for meanings ( i . e . assumptions) about the ch i l d inherent in the blank report card types. With exception of the anecdotal type (open s t ruc ture , blank l ines only) both the check l i s t and parent-teacher interview types provided the teachers with ready-made S/E slogans. The check l i s t type also included leve ls of attainment: good, sa t i s fac to ry and needs improvement. These 18 pre-given categories served to s e l e c t i v e l y focus the teachers' comments and embodied meanings about the c h i l d . Analys is began with these ready-made S/E slogans. Secondly, wi th in each type, the S/E slogans used by the teachers were i den t i f i ed and c lustered under three headings: (1) personal a t t r i bu tes , (2) interpersonal re la t i onsh ips , and (3) work habi ts ; corresponding meanings for each slogan were determined from the context and content of the teachers' comments. For example, on 'parent-teacher interv iew' repor ts , a l l S/E slogans were i den t i f i ed and l i s t e d , and poss ib le meanings concerning the c h i l d were t a l l i e d on matrices (APPENDIX B, TWO SAMPLE MATRICES, PARENT-TEACHER INTERVIEW TYPE). In t o t a l , there were nine matrices because of the three headings for each of the three report card types. Th i rd l y , once the slogans and the i r meanings were i den t i f i ed wi thin each of the three types of report cards, these slogan/meanings were combined across report card types, and were ordered from most to least useage. This combining allowed for refinement ( i . e . e l iminat ion of dupl icates or s im i l a r vocabulary or meaning; sh i f t i ng of negative phrasing to pos i t i ve phrasing; emphasis on' c l e a r , spec i f i c terminology; and c lus te r ing around frequent commonly-used s logans). Six slogan c lus te rs were thus i d e n t i f i e d , and corresponding meanings were ordered from most to least useage on s ix matrices (APPENDIX C, MATRICES A - F ) . For example, under the heading 'personal a t t r i b u t e s ' , two slogan c lus te rs were i den t i f i ed (MATRIX B, GOOD CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCHOOL, WORK, SELF, OTHERS; and MATRIX D, SELF-CONFIDENT IN NEW SITUATIONS). 19 INTERVIEWS From each of the three report card types, two teachers were randomly selected (n=6) to c l a r i f y the researcher 's in terpre ta t ion of the slogan c l u s t e r s . The d i s t r i c t research s ta f f person gave permission to continue with th is phase of the study, and provided the names of the teachers to be interviewed. P r i o r to the in terv iews, the interview schedule (APPENDIX D) and procedure were p i lo ted for refinement. Two kindergarten teachers selected from outside the sample group par t i c ipa ted in a 60 minute taped interv iew. Each p i l o t teacher reviewed and commented on three of the s ix slogan c lus te rs ( i . e . MATRICES A ,B ,C : and MATRICES D,E ,F) . Each group of three contained one slogan/meaning c lus te r from each of the three headings: personal a t t r i bu tes , interpersonal r e l a t i onsh ips , and work hab i ts . On the basis of the p i l o t , the i n i t i a l s ix matrices (APPENDIX C) were revised s l i g h t l y (APPENDIX E) : s ix meanings were modified or added (APPENDIX E: REVISED, MATRIX B(6); MATRIX D(l) and (6); MATRIX E(6) ; MATRIX F(6)and (9,)); and minor word changes were made. The s ix teachers were interviewed i nd i v i dua l l y for 60 minutes at a time and place convenient to them. This interview took place during October/November, approximately s ix months af ter the report ing period (March /Apr i l ) . Using the revised slogan c lus te r matr ices, three teachers were presented with Matr ices A,3,C and three with D,E,F, and a ser ies of questions were asked to check the researcher 's in terpre ta t ion with the teacher 's experience. The taped interviews were t ranscr ibed, de let ing 20 a l l names ( e g . s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , s c h o o l s , e t c . ) . T r a n s c r i p t s w e r e a n a l y z e d f o r p o s s i b l e r e v i s e d o r e l a b o r a t e d m e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e c h i l d . T he t e a c h e r s w e r e i n g e n e r a l , a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f m e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e c h i l d . W h i l e t e a c h e r s e m p h a s i z e d m e a n i n g s i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h e y a c c e p t e d t h e t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n o f m e a n i n g s f o r e a c h s l o g a n as a v a l i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e p o r t c a r d comments. Some m e a n i n g s w e r e v i e w e d as more c o m p r e h e n s i v e , more t y p i c a l , w h e r e a s o t h e r s were s e e n as p o s s i b l e f o r some c h i l d r e n i n some s i t u a t i o n s . As i t was t h e c o l l e c t i v e v i e w o f t h e t y p i c a l c h i l d t h a t was s o u g h t , t h e t o t a l c l u s t e r o f m e a n i n g s were t r e a t e d as a u n i t f o r p u r p o s e s o f a n a l y s i s . Where d i s a g r e e m e n t a p p e a r e d , i t was e v i d e n c e d i n two f o r m s : ( 1 ) d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d , o r (2) d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e m e a n i n g a b o u t t h e c h i l d . Word c h a n g e s were made t o p r o d u c e t h e f i n a l M a t r i c e s (APPENDIX F and CHAPTER I V , TABLES I - V I ) : TABLE I I (MATRIX B ) ( 2 ) , d e l e t e d ' w i t h o u t r e s i s t a n c e o r c o n f l i c t i . e . p e a c e f u l l y ' ; TABLE I I I (MATRIX A ) ( l ) , c h a n g e d ' c o m p l i a n t ' t o ' r e s p e c t f u l ' ; TABLE V (MATRIX C) ( 5 ) , c h a n g e d ' i n d u s t r i o u s ' t o ' i n t e r e s t e d ' . In a d d i t i o n , i t was shown t h r o u g h a t w o - t h i r d s c o n s e n s u s by t h e t e a c h e r s t h a t c e r t a i n m e a n i n g s s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d ; (APPENDIX E) MATRIX D ( 4 ) ; MATRIX E ( 4 ) and ( 5 ) ; MATRIX F ( s l o g a n ) and ( 9 ) . Two new m e a n i n g s were a d d e d ; (APPENDIX F) TABLE I (MATRIX D ) ( 4 ) ; TABLE IV (MATRIX E ) ( 2 ) . M e a n i n g s were r e o r d e r e d t o r e f l e c t t h e t e a c h e r s ' v i e w o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . 21 VALIDATION F i v e a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r s , r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g 19 o f t h e o r i g i n a l g r o u p w e r e a s k e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e f i n a l c l u s t e r s o f s l o g a n s and m e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e c h i l d (APPENDIX F ) . E a c h t e a c h e r was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , and was a s k e d t o r e a d s i l e n t y t h r e e m a t r i c e s and t h e n t o d i s c u s s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : A r e y o u r a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e c h i l d c a p t u r e d i n t h i s p a t t e r n o f p h r a s e s and m e a n i n g s ? R e f l e c t i v e comments made by t h e t e a c h e r s were a n e c d o t a l l y r e c o r d e d a f t e r e a c h i n t e r v i e w . A l l f i v e t e a c h e r s a g r e e d w i t h t h e m e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e c h i l d . 22 CHAPTER IV SHARED MEANINGS ABOUT THE KINDERGARTEN CHILD The task of t h i s study was to iden t i f y and interpret the meanings about the ch i l d embedded within the socia l -emot ional slogans used by kindergarten teachers on report cards. Assumptions about the ch i l d c lustered under three headings: personal a t t r i bu tes , interpersonal re la t i onsh ips , and work hab i ts , each having two slogan c lus te rs associated with i t . The purpose of th is chapter is to discuss the meanings about the c h i l d interpreted from the S/E slogans (FIGURE 1). In Part I, the personal and interpersonal a t t r ibutes of the ch i l d are discussed under the three headings ' se l f - con f i den t in new s i tua t ions (accepts c r i t i c i s m ) ' , and 'good, cheerful a t t i tude towards school , work, s e l f , others ' (PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES); 'gets along well with her classmates, teacher' and 'good pa r t i c ipa t i on in games, songs, s to r ies and p lay ' (INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS); 'a hard-working, co-operat ive and dependable student' and 'works independently and uses own i n i t i a t i v e ' (WORK HABITS). In add i t ion , the composite p ic ture of the ch i l d a r i s ing from the report card slogans and meanings is presented (Part I I ) . Selected quotations from the teacher interviews are used as i l l u s t r a t i o n s that r e f l e c t the experience reported by the teachers and add credence to the researcher 's in te rp re ta t ions . 23 PART I: THE CHILD AS SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL BEING 1.0 PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES 1.1 Se l f -conf ident in new s i tua t ions (accepts c r i t i c i sm) 1.2 Good, cheerful a t t i tude towards school , work, s e l f , and others 2.0 INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 2.1 Gets along wel l with her classmates, teacher 2.2 Good pa r t i c i pa t i on in games, songs, and s to r i es ; and play 3.0 WORK HABITS 3.1 A hard-working, co-operat ive, and dependable student 3.2 Works independently and uses own i n i t i a t i v e PART I I : THE COMPOSITE IMAGE OF THE CHILD 4.1 As the teachers stated i t 4.2 The researcher 's in te rp re ta t ion : two metaphors FIGURE 1 MEANINGS ABOUT THE CHILD EMBEDDED WITHIN SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SLOGANS 24 PART I : THE CHILD AS SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL BEING. 1.0 PERSONAL A T T R I B U T E S M e a n i n g s a b o u t t h e c h i l d as i n d i v i d u a l , as a p e r s o n w i t h a s e n s e o f s e l f , w e r e e v i d e n c e d i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' s l o g a n s . C e n t r a l t o t h i s v i e w was t h e e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e c h i l d , c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f g o o d s e l f - c o n c e p t and s e l f - c o n t r o l . W i t h an 'I l i k e m y s e l f a t t i t u d e , t h e c h i l d was v i e w e d as a b l e t o be p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e i n p l a y , work and w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was c a p t u r e d i n two s l o g a n / m e a n i n g c l u s t e r s : ' s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n new s i t u a t i o n s ( a c c e p t s c r i t i c i s m ) ' and 'good, c h e e r f u l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l , w ork, s e l f , o t h e r s ' . 1.1 S e l f - C o n f i d e n t In New S i t u a t i o n s ( A c c e p t s C r i t i c i s m ) A u t o n o m o u s and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g b e h a v i o u r s w e r e p r i m e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s e l f - c o n f i d e n t c h i l d . T y p i c a l l y , t h e c h i l d was s e e n as i n c o n t r o l , e a s y - g o i n g , v e r b a l , a n d w i l l i n g t o t r y new a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t f-ear ( T A B L E I ) . S u c h c o n f i d e n c e meant a m a t u r e , r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o a c h t o w a r d s c r i t i c i s m and p o t e n t i a l l y u p s e t t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . S e c u r e w i t h i n h e r s e l f , t h e c h i l d was v i e w e d as e m o t i o n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , g e n e r a l l y n e e d i n g no one - n o t e v e n t h e t e a c h e r - f o r s u p p o r t . One t e a c h e r summed up t h i s a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t t h e c h i l d b e s t : . To me someone who i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i s a b l e t o work on t h e i r own, t o do t h i n g s by t h e m s e l v e s w i t h o u t a n y b o d y e l s e s a y i n g SELF-CONFIDENT IN NEW SITUATIONS (ACCEPTS CRITICISM) ' " U M I 1 U ^ MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d * 5 ' ^ ^ " e m o t i o n a l l y secure i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to attempt new exper iences " u ° 1 ]' llunAfJVrliUA] W U h 3 S t r 0 n 9 E G 0 - s e c u r e and t" s r^SiflenJeJ?5 aC t l V*' t i e S (a"d "UU»* 11 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to use feedback c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and reasonably to improve performance ^ 5. i s a group member able to v e r b a l l y a s s e r t h e r s e l f wi th o t h e r s a " e r i 1 3. i s an i n d i v i d u a l capable o f c u r b i n g her emotions and d i s c i p l i n i n g her behaviour to f i t s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e pa t te rns 1 4 . is an i n d i v i d u a l who is becoming more secure and outgoing in group s i t u a t i o n s TABLE I MATRIX D * For a l l Tables and Matrices (Appendix F) the meanings are ordered according to the teachers' s ign i f i cance . r r « A . r , APPENDIX F FINAL S logan /Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A - F (TABLES 1 -V I ) 26 " y o u d i d a g o o d j o b ! " o r w i t h o u t s a y i n g "Hey, l o o k a t me!" o r w i t h o u t g o i n g and h o l d i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s hand t o go somewhere. I t ' s s o m e t h i n g t h e y h a v e w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y f e e l t h e y a r e a g o o d p e r s o n and t h e y a r e a b l e t o do i t by t h e m s e l v e s . M o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n came f r o m w i t h i n , f r o m a d e s i r e t o p l e a s e h e r s e l f r a t h e r t h a n o t h e r s . T h e c h i l d i n h e r e n t i n t h i s v i e w had t a k e n a m a j o r s t e p t o w a r d s p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , h a v i n g b e g un t h e s o c i a l w e a n i n g p r o c e s s by b r e a k i n g away f r o m c o n s t a n t a d u l t c a r e . T h i s e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e c h i l d was d e s c r i b e d by t h e t e a c h e r s as t h e y t a l k e d a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g s : . F o r m y s e l f i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , i t ' s c o m p l e t e l y how t h e c h i l d a c t s i n a l l s o r t s o f d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . W h e t h e r h e / s h e b ecomes u p s e t by i t - w e l l h e r e we a r e i n t o e m o t i o n s I know -o r w h e t h e r t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i t , w i l l t r y i t . . . . . F o r e x a m p l e , y o u c a n h a v e a c h i l d who's s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n new s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . T h e y a r e n ' t c o n c e r n e d a b o u t y o u o r what y o u t h i n k o f them o r w h e t h e r y o u ' r e g o i n g t o g i v e p r a i s e t o them. I t ' s maybe n o t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h a t c h i l d . Now t h a t ' s n o t a common c h i l d , b u t t h e r e a r e k i d s who a r e l i k e t h a t . . C a u s e a c h i l d who i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n new s i t u a t i o n s d o e s n ' t n e e d t h a t t e a c h e r . T h e y ' r e n o t d e p e n d e n t on t h e t e a c h e r . T h e y ' v e g o t t h e n a t u r a l c o n f i d e n c e t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y d o n ' t n e e d t h e t e a c h e r ' s e n c o u r a g e m e n t . . . t h e y d o n ' t n e e d t h e t e a c h e r sayin.g " y o u ' r e r e a l l y good a t t h a t . K e e p g o i n g . " T h e y know t h e y a r e . T h e y f e e l t h e y a r e . So t h e y c a n do i t w i t h o u t t h a t . . . T h o s e who d o n ' t h a v e t h e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e t e a c h e r . S o m e t i m e s t h e y may l o o k l i k e t h e y h a v e a l o t o f c o n f i d e n c e , b u t t h e y ' r e w a t c h i n g t h e t e a c h e r a l l t h e t i m e . . I a l s o h a v e f o u n d k i d s t h a t " N o l i t d i d n ' t m a t t e r what y o u t h o u g h t " and i n t h e i r own r i g h t t h e y ' r e c o n f i d e n t . THE END! Not f o r a n y o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t ' s them as a p e r s o n . Not t o p l e a s e y o u , n o t l o o k i n g f o r y o u r p r a i s e , n o t d e p e n d e n t on i t . In t h e i r own r i g h t . T h e y j u s t a r e . Some c h i l d r e n a r e f u l l y c o n f i d e n t i n y o u r room. B u t t h e m i n u t e t h e y w a l k o u t s i d e y o u r room t h e y d o n ' t h a v e i t . B u t t h e o n e s who a r e m a t u r e a r e u s u a l l y c o n f i d e n t o u t s i d e y o u r r o o m - a s w e ' l l . T h e y ' r e m a t u r e e n o u g h t o t r a n s f e r i t t h e m s e l v e s . 27 One p h r a s e , ' g a i n i n g more c o n f i d e n c e 1 , e m b o d i e d a v i e w o f t h e c h i l d who h a s n o t y e t r e a c h e d a s t a t e o f f u l l s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s c h i l d was a ssumed t o be b e c o m i n g more c o n f i d e n t , d i s p l a y i n g some s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n some c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s c h i l d m a i n t a i n e d a d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s o m e t i m e s ; r e q u i r e d h e l p f r o m e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t o r s s u c h as p r a i s e and r e w a r d s ; and was t i m i d i n u n f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s . T h e c h i l d may a p p e a r c o n f i d e n t b u t was d e s c r i b e d as d r a w i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h f r o m t h e c o n s i s t e n t n u r t u r i n g and p r a i s e o f t h e t e a c h e r . I t was a s s u m e d t h a t w i t h t i m e and a s s i s t a n c e , t h e c h i l d w o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t . I w o u l d n ' t c l a s s i f y a c h i l d who's g a i n i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e as s omebody who j_s i n d e p e n d e n t and a b l e t o do t h i n g s on t h e i r own. T h e y ' r e more a b l e t o now t h a n t h e y w e r e t h e l a s t r e p o r t , b u t t h e y s t i l l , c h a n c e s a r e t h e y s t i l l n e e d h e l p . . I ' d s a y ' s o - a n d - s o ' s t i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y r e q u i r e s a d u l t s u p p o r t o r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n . So t h e p a r e n t s g e t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c h i l d i s n o t f u l l y a b l e t o c a r r y o n , b u t n e e d s a l i t t l e s m i l e h e r e and t h e r e , o r a p a t , o r a " t h i s i s g r e a t " ' s o - a n d - s o ' , o r w h a t e v e r . I f I w r o t e on a r e p o r t c a r d , ' g a i n i n g more c o n f i d e n c e ' , t o me t h a t w o u l d be one o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n who I w o u l d be . f e e l i n g , f e l t i n s e c u r e i n t h e g r o u p , d i d n ' t f e e l c o n f i d e n t t o s p e a k o u t , urn, f e l t u n e a s y a b o u t t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e g r o u p , urn, t h a t I s e n s e d f e l t u n e a s y a b o u t b e i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , i n s e c u r e a b o u t b e i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , n o t k n o w i n g r e a l l y what t o d o . . . . I w o u l d d e s c r i b e i t on a r e p o r t c a r d by s a y i n g " a p p e a r s r e l u c t a n t t o s p e a k i n g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s , has d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g what c e n t e r t o c h o o s e ; y o u know, a p p e a r s t o o f t e n n o t e n j o y t h e m o v e m e n t - k i n d o f a c t i v i t i e s and w i l l w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e g r o u p s i t u a t i o n p h y s i c a l l y and w a t c h t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n , a p p e a r s t o o b s e r v e t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n " . By d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g ( t h r o u g h t h e i r r e p o r t c a r d l a n g u a g e ) t h e c h i l d as b e i n g o r b e c o m i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , t h e t e a c h e r s were e x p l i c a t i n g a s h a r e d a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t c h i l d r e n . I t was t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c h i l d as an 28 emotional, phys i ca l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l organism who was growing towards a mature stage of development. Assuming such development to be ' na tu ra l ' or common to a l l ch i l d ren , the teachers saw a ch i l d at various stages along the path to BEING an adult or BEING at the ult imate level of funct ioning for that age. This was a fundamental assumption underpinning the teachers' report card comments. In th i s example, the natural or cha rac te r i s t i c way for a developing ' se l f - con f i den t ' ch i l d to be was dependent, insecure, reserved and perhaps qu ie t . Through growth and learning at school , the ch i l d would move out of that stage to the se l f -conf ident one. The kindergarten teacher played a major part in the c h i l d ' s evo lu t ion . This idea was expressed by one teacher. . I see a lo t . of them as that they r e a l l y need your personal ' okay ' , and your personal standby. And in f ac t , - I work r e a l l y hard at not g iv ing i t , which I f ind r e a l l y hard to do. "Is th i s good? Well how do you fee l about i t? But do you l i ke i t? We l l , do you l i ke i t ? " So I, to see that as a d i rec t co r re la t i on with se l f -conf idence, I don't necessar i ly see that , because I see that as cha rac te r i s t i c of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l f i v e year o lds . I see that as a cha rac te r i s t i c of a l l of them. They are a l l l i ke that for me. They a l l need that -your approval , and i t ' s okay with you, and whatever the teacher says i s r igh t I f ind that a r e a l l y hard ro le to get out of . L ike they r e a l l y lock you into that . 1.2 Good Cheerful At t i tude Towards School , Work, Se l f , Others The ch i l d captured within th is array of slogans and meanings was f i r s t a ch i l d who f e l t good about herse l f . In other words, she had a pos i t i ve sel f - image; enjoyed personal strengths and was able to accept any flaws with .understanding. Centred within th is inner secur i t y , the c h i l d was freed to par t i c ipa te f u l l y in school a c t i v i t i e s . Adaptation to 29 the unfami l iar kindergarten environment was done smoothly without excessive need for teacher ass is tance. When I think of good at t i tude in associat ion with school , I think most about that . Someone who's just happy within himself and wants to be there and is enthus iast ic about a l l the a c t i v i t i e s and can hardly wait to come. Accepting the ru les and routines of the classroom as necessary r e s t r i c t i o n s , th i s c h i l d seized most opportuni t ies presented as a chance to learn and to experience th ings. Joy, enthusiasm, or in the l eas t , a w i l l ingness to t r y , character ized her approach to the a c t i v i t i e s o f fe red . Such a sp i r i t ed at t i tude was also present in re la t ionsh ips with other ch i l d ren ; f r iendsh ip was valued and being with others brought enjoyment (TABLE I I ) . 'Happy' at school t yp i f i ed the personal nature of the kindergarten c h i l d portrayed in th i s slogan c l u s t e r . . We l l , yeh, I would just say a w i l l ingness to t ry th ings, and, urn, an acceptance of the s i t ua t i on , but maybe with some questions about i t , "Why do we do th is at such-and-such a time?" but not say a resent fu l quest ioning.. .urn, just a general w i l l i ngness , and urn, you know, a pos i t i ve a t t i tude towards f r i endsh ip . I would say i t ' s someone who enjoys school and was happy to learn and se l f -mot iva ted, good sel f -concept and they accepted themselves with the i r shortcomings too as being a great person. Someone that was kind to o thers . . . things l i ke that . This jus t covers everything. The stock phrase ' en thus ias t i c , eager a t t i tude towards school ' that covers an awful l o t . . .The only thing that I could poss ib ly t i e i t in with I think there I suppose is the word 'ENJOY', whether or not they appear to l i ke what they ' re doing. . Yeh, I agree with that . Urn. I t ' s someone who has adapted to the school s i tua t ion and accordingly the i r a t t i tude is a co-operat ive one. .While .-.examining- the assumptions about the ch i l d in th is c l u s t e r , some teachers i den t i f i ed the nature of the kindergarten program as an inf luence on the ch i l d ren ' s a t t i tude . By design, the program was GOOD, CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCHOOL, WORK, SELF, OTHERS MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1; is a "HAPPY" i n d i v i d u a l with an agreeable manner and p o s i t i v e outlook in most s i t u a t i o n s 6. i s a w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y who gets e x c i t e d and c u r i o u s about l e a r n i n g 3. i s a c lassroom member who c h e e r f u l l y y i e l d s to the r u l e s and expecta t ions of her c lassroom (and her teacher ) 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l who w i l l i n g l y approaches each ass ignment 4. i s a s o c i a l being who f e e l s good about h e l p i n g o thers 5. is a c l a s s r o o m member who does what she is t o l d wi th enjoyment TABLE II MATRIX B APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I -VI) 31 o r g a n i z e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e f i v e y e a r o l d c h i l d . To f o s t e r a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l t a s k s was s e e n as a m a j o r g o a l f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n . T h e r e f o r e , a l a r g e s e g m e n t o f t h e c h i l d ' s t i m e a t s c h o o l was s p e n t i n s e l f - s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d ' c e n t r e s ' . A l t h o u g h t h e r a n g e and d e g r e e o f c h o i c e v a r i e d f r o m t e a c h e r t o t e a c h e r , t h e c h i l d was n o r m a l l y a b l e t o do s o m e t h i n g t h a t p l e a s e d h e r . In s u c h a c h i l d - c e n t r e d e n v i r o n m e n t , a g o o d a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l seemed a n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e T o r t h e c h i l d . M o s t o f t e n , she c o u l d do w h a t e v e r s h e w i s h e d t o c h o o s e . I t was c h i e f l y i n t h e g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , t e a c h e r - s e l e c t e d and d i r e c t e d , t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e among c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d . R e s i s t a n c e and c o n f l i c t w e r e v i e w e d as p o s s i b l e i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s w here t h e t e a c h e r ' s w i l l met t h e c h i l d ' s . A t t i t u d e , t h e r e f o r e , was d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s i t u a t i o n - t h e amount o f i m p o s e d s t r u c t u r e v e r s u s t h e amount o f f r e e c h o i c e i n h e r e n t w i t h i n i t . O v e r a l l , t h e c h i l d ' s t a s k d u r i n g t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n y e a r was t o a d a p t t o t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f s c h o o l ( a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y a c l a s s r o o m ) w i t h a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e . By e x a m p l e , two t e a c h e r s ' comments e x e m p l i f i e d t h i s c e n t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m - a s - d e s i g n e d and t h e c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e : I t ' s an a d a p t i v e t h i n g f o r them, I mean, t h e y h a v e t o a d a p t . T h e y ' r e n o t u s e d t o b e i n g t h r o w n i n w i t h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r a c e r t a i n s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r r u l e s , o r e x p e c t a t i o n s and so t h e y ' v e had t o a d a p t t o i t i n some r e s p e c t and w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y ' v e d one i t w e l l i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t y o u c o u l d e v a l u a t e , I t h i n k . I t h i n k I w o u l d s a y , urn, y o u know, ' w i t h e a g e r n e s s ' o r ' e n j o y s t a c k l i n g a t a s k ' s a y o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t , urn...Yen, b e c a u s e o f t h e amount o f c h o i c e i n K. I t h i n k t h a t most k i d s who h a v e t h e i r c h o i c e a r e r e a l l y e a g e r a b o u t p u r s u i n g t h e i r c h o i c e , and y o u know, r e s i s t a n c e o r c o n f l i c t d o e s n ' t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h i t , u n l e s s t h e y ' r e b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o , uh, a j o b o r a t a s k by t h e t e a c h e r . 32 Y e h , as f a r as t h e c h o i c e g o e s , s a y i n c e n t r e s , I f i n d t h a t v e r y l i t t l e , u n l e s s , um, y o u know, ' s o - a n d - s o ' i s n ' t g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h ' s o - a n d - s o ' , b u t as f a r as i n i t i a t i n g , y o u know, a t a s k w i t h t h e i r c h o i c e , I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y comes i n t o i t . In some g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s , t h a t d e f i n i t e l y h a p p e n s . 2.0 INTERPERSONAL R E L A T I O N S H I P S J u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e image o f t h e c h i l d as i n d i v i d u a l was t h e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t v i e w o f t h e c h i l d as one o f a g r o u p - a s o c i a l b e i n g . T h i s ' s e n s e o f s e l f among o t h e r s ' was d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f h e r a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o - e x i s t w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n an a c c e p t a b l e and e n j o y a b l e m anner. L i v i n g up t o t h e s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u p b e h a v i o u r , t h i s c h i l d was c o n s i d e r a t e , c o n g e n i a l and h e l p f u l i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s and was g e n e r a l l y w e l l - l i k e d , i n r e t u r n . N o t o n l y had t h e t y p i c a l c h i l d c a p t u r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n l e a r n e d t h e s k i l l s t h a t a l l o w e d h e r t o mix w e l l w i t h h e r c l a s s m a t e s , b u t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s w e r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by j o y , e f f o r t , and a commitment t o d o i n g h e r p a r t f o r t h e g r o u p . S p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s s o c i a l , a c t i v e c h i l d w ere d e t a i l e d i n two s l o g a n / m e a n i n g c l u s t e r s : ' g e t s a l o n g w e l l w i t h h e r c l a s s m a t e s , t e a c h e r ' and 'good p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n games, s o n g s , s t o r i e s ; a n d p i a y 1 . 2.1 G e t s A l o n g W e l l W i t h H e r C l a s s m a t e s , T e a c h e r W i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e c h i l d i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l u s t e r b e l o n g e d t o h e r c l a s s r o o m g r o u p as a c o - o p e r a t i v e , c o n s t r u c t i v e member ( T A B L E I I I ) . A n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g a t s c h o o l w h e r e t h e r e GETS ALONG WELL WITH HER - CLASSMATES - TEACHER MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a s o c i a l be ing whose i n t e r a c t i o n s wi th o thers are c o n g e n i a l , p o l i t e , and r e s p e c t f u l 2. i s a group member w i l l i n g to g ive o thers equal o p p o r t u n i t y and equal resources to p a r t i c i p a t e 3. i s a. group member who shares and c o n s i d e r s o thers 4. is a s o c i a l be ing who ad jus ts her behavior to s u i t the r u l e s / n o r m s of her primary group (the c l a s s ) 5. is a c l a s s member who n e i t h e r h i t s o thers nor harms t h e i r th ings 5 2 3 7 2 3 2 1 2 2 13 10 10 CO TABLE III MATRIX A APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A - F (TABLES I - VI) 34 were many c h i l d r e n and p o o l e d r e s o u r c e s was l e a r n i n g t o ' g e t a l o n g ' as one o f t h e many. W i t h q u a l i t i e s t h a t t r a n s c e n d e d a p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e , t h i s c h i l d was c o n s i d e r a t e and h e l p f u l i n h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s . W h e t h e r b o i s t e r o u s and e x t r o v e r t e d , o r q u i e t and r e s e r v e d , s h e d i s p l a y e d a s e n s e o f o t h e r - d i r e c t e d n e s s , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e f e e l i n g s and n e e d s o f o t h e r s do m a t t e r . Two t e a c h e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y m e n t i o n e d t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s when d e s c r i b i n g t h e c h i l d i n t h i s c l u s t e r . . W e l l , I t h i n k o f one l i t t l e b o y i n p a r t i c u l a r , who, he had a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s p e c t f o r p e o p l e and t h e i r p r o p e r t y b u t y o u ' d n e v e r d e s c r i b e h i m as a c o m p l i a n t p e r s o n . I t was j u s t i n most t h i n g s i t had t o be h i s way and y e t , he w o u l d n e v e r - t h e way he g o t t h i n g s t o be h i s way w o u l d n e v e r harm a n y o n e e l s e o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h them, p h y s i c a l l y -. He w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y m i g h t d i s a g r e e w i t h what h e ' s d o i n g b u t he w o u l d s t i l l w ant i t t o be h i s way. I t h i n k o f p e r s o n a l i t y - w i s e . I t h i n k t h e y h a v e - maybe t h e y h a v e t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i s v e r y , v e r y o u t g o i n g , a l m o s t t o t h e p o i n t o f b o i s t e r o u s , where t h e y s p e n d - o r a r e so a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g t h a t y o u a r e s p e n d i n g a l o t o f t i m e w o r k i n g o u t ways o f h a n d l i n g t h e i r b e h a v i o u r so t h a t y o u ' r e n o t r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o u r and o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m y e t , r e a l l y l i k e them, and l i k e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e t e a c h e r r e a l l y l i k e s them t o o . T h i s c h i l d h ad l e a r n e d t h e e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l s k i l l s o f s h a r i n g and t a k i n g t u r n s w i t h h e r p e e r s ; and r a r e l y w o u l d s h e i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h a n o t h e r , e i t h e r e m o t i o n a l l y o r p h y s i c a l l y . W i t h t h e t e a c h e r as g u i d e t h e c h i l d had s u c c e s s f u l l y a d j u s t e d h e r b e h a v i o u r t o s u i t t h e r u l e s and norms o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . H e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n ' g e t t i n g a l o n g ' , b r o u g h t a c c e p t a n c e and f r i e n d s h i p f r o m h e r p e e r s . P u t s i m p l y , t h i s c h i l d was a n i c e p e r s o n t o be w i t h , r e s p e c t f u l and k i n d no m a t t e r what t h e s i t u a t i o n . . When I t h i n k o f ' g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ' w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s and w i t h t h e t e a c h e r , i t seems t o i n v o l v e s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t , t o o , s o I'm t r y i n g t o s e e i f t h a t ' s f i t i n t o any o f t h e s e . B u t t h e n I s u p p o s e i f t h e y a r e s o c i a l and c o n g e n i a l i t w o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h a t . 35 If I described a ch i l d as being 'he lp fu l to others ' that would mean to me that they ' re doing the i r part in c lean-up, say, or , uh, when someone does a puzzle, they don't say "Oh! you did i t wrong" or , urn, they ' re jus t more ready to assume the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or they ' re more easy to get along with as far as t he i r work is concerned. . Urn, urn, espec ia l l y when i t says ' f r i e n d l y , co-operat ive, and w e l l - l i k e d ' . I think ch i ld ren who harm others or the i r things are not extremely w e l l - l i k e d by the others in the c l a s s . I think tha t ' s one of the things that maybe bugs kindergarten ch i ld ren the most - is someone who w i l l s i t there and poke them or h i t them. So that f i t s , i t seems. ...maybe i t ' s just the type of c lasses I've had but I 've found the ch i ld ren are almost always eager to do that anyway -interested in what the others have to say and le t t i ng them have a chance to say and do th ings. Discussions of assumptions held wi thin th is slogan and . i t s var ia t ions began to i l luminate the teachers' commitment to teaching the ch i l d important soc ia l s k i l l s in k indergarten. Consistent with the i r be l i e f in the natural development of ch i l d ren , the teachers took successful group membership as unnatural ly or i n i t i a l l y a l ien behaviour for the c h i l d . As such, the s k i l l s that would equip the ch i l d for ul t imate performance in any soc ia l s i tua t ion had to be learned. In kindergarten, pos i t i ve ( i . e . s o c i a l l y acceptable -and .adult-approved) a t t i tudes and behaviours required to f u l l y integrate a growing human being into the r i t u a l s of her cu l tu re , were consciously developed in the novice. Learning these s k i l l s was considered as work for the c h i l d , work that in time becomes enjoyable and taken-for-granted. Teachers' in teract ions were d i rected at enhancing the young one's independence and soc ia l f inesse as a group member. The emphasis on sharing and helping others in th is c lus te r exempli f ied th is premise. One teacher 's comments •best a r t i cu la ted the c o l l e c t i v e point of view. 36 . I think they learn how to share and some ch i ldren are jus t more easy-going but I don't think sharing comes a l l that na tu ra l l y . Yeh, I think sometimes ch i ldren do get, you know, af ter a while they think i t ' s fun to share and then i t ' s not a chore, but I don' t think they would revolve around shar ing. 'Serving o t h e r s ' . I don't know. I just can ' t see - l i ke I know that ch i ld ren go through changes and, urn, you know, what was once a task or what was once a real drag to them, you know, i s n ' t that way af ter awhi le, but I don't think that they are r e a l l y purposeful ly serving others, you know, at that age l e v e l . I can see that for some k ids , urn, you know, I think some kids are more s e l f i s h in the i r behaviour and af ter a l i t t l e while in kindergarten they learn that , Hey, you know, th i s i s n ' t gonna carry too much weight here, so I better play along a l i t t l e b i t . And then, you know, maybe at f i r s t i t ' s playing along, but gradual ly they might acquire those behaviours and i t might become part of the i r behaviour without th inking about i t . L ike at f i r s t i t does take some persuasion with some ch i ld ren and then a f te r , I think i t does become more genera l ized. Because, although i t may not be so na tu ra l , at least they ' re t ry ing and they rea l i ze that there are some norms in the classroom and so they do have to get along. 2.2 Good Pa r t i c i pa t i on In Games, Songs, And S to r i es ; And Play A high degree of correspondence existed between the meanings about the ch i l d captured wi th in th is c lus te r and those associated with 'gets along w e l l ' with others. Both pictured the ch i l d as an act ive agent in a soc ia l context, doing things with other ch i ldren while considering the i r human needs. Knowing the ch i l d as a 'good pa r t i c ipan t ' went fur ther than th is to emphasize the c h i l d ' s w i l l ingness to vo lun ta r i l y get involved in classroom a c t i v i t i e s (TABLE IV). As a s p i r i t e d , interested person, the c.Ti'lti was -seen as -giving 'her best and doing her part for the good of the GOOD PARTICIPATION IN GAMES, SONGS, AND ~~STTJRILS- AffD^POY MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 6. i s an group member who i n t e r a c t s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and h a p p i l y with peers ( i . e . s u p p o r t i v e , en joys s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) 1. i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e her r e s p o n s i b l e share towards the " g r o u p ' s " a c t i v i t i e s is a s o c i a l be ing w i l l i n g to t r y group a c t i v i t i e s wi th her c lassmates ( i . e . at l e v e l ) her i s a s o c i a l be ing who s u c c e s s f u l l y adopts the r u l e s and a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l pa t te rns of her c l a s s r o o m 10 2.1 18 12 CO TAOLE IV MATRIX E APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I -VI) 33 group. While showing th is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the group as a whole, the ch i l d was cons is ten t l y viewed as happy and enjoying herse l f . Good pa r t i c i pa t i on could not be coerced; i t was s e l f - i n i t i a t e d and se l f - con t ro l l ed by the par t i c ipan t . Happy, voluntary pa r t i c i pa t i on was featured as essent ia l by two teachers. 'Good p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' impl ies enjoyment and ch i ld ren can ' t enjoy on command, or enjoy because you want them to . . Because, to me a ch i l d who i s n ' t happy i s n ' t going to take part in things and enjoy taking part in th ings. They might, but i t ' s grudgingly. They're not openly taking part and they ' re not doing the i r share. And they ' re not gett ing along with the other ch i l d ren . If they ' re not happy, they ' re e i ther bothering the others or they ' re going off by themselves. And they ' re not doing the i r par t , and they ' re not.. .Happy is a part of 'good p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' because they ' re not just standing there singing the song. They are pa r t i c i pa t i ng in singing the song and to do that they have to be enjoying doing what they ' re doing. And to enjoy i t , they ' re happy. S i m i l a r l y , the degree and type of shared involvement was dependent upon the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c h i l d . Some were c l a s s i f i e d as more or less able than others to f u l l y pa r t i c ipa te with understanding rather than obedience. This a t t i tude again t y p i f i e d the teachers' endorsement of the stages of soc ia l /emot ional development through which the ch i ldren were assumed to pass. Indiv idual ism p reva i led , as w e l l , in the overa l l in terpre ta t ion of 'good p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' , character ized by ind iv idua l contr ibut ions made with and along-side others, but not with others towards a mutually-determined goal or end. 'Doing your part ' was revered, but the part of fered was self-determined and self-measured as to i t s merit and e f f i c a c y . It appeared that the group would accept any or a l l contr ibut ions as worthy as long as they promoted the s p i r i t e d development of the a c t i v i t y . Giving hersel f to a task en thus ias t i ca l l y was the centra l qua l i t y of the 'good p a r t i c i p a n t ' . 3 9 . I'm not t ry ing to t e l l parents that they are good at fo l lowing ru les or that they obey or do what I say . . . I would be t ry ing to t e l l them that during games, songs, s to r ies and p lay, the i r ch i ld ren are involved in what we're doing, and ac t i ve l y involved in what we're doing. That 's what I would be t ry ing to communicate to them. . To me 'good pa r t i c i pa t i on in games, songs and s t o r i e s ' means that when I'm doing games or songs or s t o r i e s , they are pa r t i c i pa t i ng in them, at a level that is appropriate for them. So as fa r as I'm concerned, a level that is appropriate for ' X ' i s the fact that when we're marching with instruments, he's got an instrument and he's marching and he won't say a word during group d iscuss ion , but when we get the instruments, he's marching; when I'm reading a s tory , he's l i s t e n i n g ; when we're playing Punch ine l la , he's w i l l i n g to take his t u r n . . . F o r him, to me, tha t ' s 'good pa r t i c ipa t i on in games, songs and s t o r i e s ' . I t ' s not good pa r t i c ipa t i on during group d iscuss ions . You knowl He's not w i l l i n g to express himsel f . He's not w i l l i n g to speak alone in the group, but in the games, songs and s t o r i e s . . . S o for him, I would give him that . It i s good pa r t i c i pa t i on and he i s n ' t any of those th ings. . What is the de f i n i t i on of a ' responsib le share'? Because for me that is such an ind iv idua l th ing . What I would consider a f a i r cont r ibut ion from one, I might not consider the same from another. Do you know what I mean? l i ke there wouldn't be one meaning for me in that . But for me there 's not one here i t i s . . . t h i s is a responsible share. That would r e a l l y vary for me, from c h i l d to c h i l d . In the examination of the complex of meanings corre lated with th i s slogan and i t s va r i a t i ons , the teachers' p.erspect-ive ..on ru les and routines was i l l u s t r a t e d . Meaning (3) on the f i n a l Table IV and meanings (3 ) , (4 ) , and (5) on the interview forms (APPENDIX E, MATRIX E) brought into question the re la t ionsh ip between classroom rules and the ch i l d q u a l i t i e s assigned to good p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Was a ch i l d judged to be a par t i c ipant in good stead when she learned to obey the teacher and fo l low the ru les at work in the classroom/school? Did the a t t r ibu tes of compliance and conformity t yp i f y a ch i l d assessed as a 'good pa r t i c i pan t ' ? This assumption was met with resistance and disagreement by the teachers. The associat ion was not made between the i r 40 understandings for ac t i ve , eager pa r t i c i pa t i on and the notion of knuckling under to teacher and the ru les . Instead, teacher author i ty , r u l e s , and expected norms of behaviour were seen as necessary and unavoidable condi t ions that f a c i l i t a t e d l i v i n g together in soc ia l groups, l i ke a school c l a s s . They ass is ted in obtaining the order and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y essent ia l to co-operat ive p a r t i c i a t i o n among ind i v idua l s . As one aspect of 'good p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' in groups, the normal ch i l d in te rna l i zed these soc ia l r u les , l i ved by them, and accepted them as part of being in k indergarten. This accommodation freed her to make the most out of each s i tua t ion for hersel f and the group as a whole. In other words, learning to take turns, to put up ones hand, to wait in a l i n e , and/or to share were viewed as important soc ia l behaviours that allowed the other school tasks to proceed. For the un in i t ia ted they became a v i t a l part of t he i r school program and for a l l , an assumed, but taken-for-granted part . of acceptable p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For cer ta i 'n , the rules and threat of punishment did not motivate good p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This was indeed a separate issue for the teachers, a fact of soc ie ty . I would say that for e f f i c i e n t running of a classroom we a l l need to have ru l es , rout ines and so on but they 'should be as few as poss ib le and as reasonable as possib le and tha t ' s just the e f f i c i e n t way of handling things and the less we dwell on these th ings the bet ter . . .Handle things as they come up. If we could a l l go through the door at once, i t would be so much n icer because then no one would have to be f i r s t , l a s t ; no one would have to fee l someone has stepped in front, of them. But we can ' t - because the doorway i s n ' t big enough. So therefore we have th is system of the f i r s t person goes through and then the nex t . . . . To work ,.wel 1 in .a classroom doing these various th ings, you have to adopt the ru les - things l i ke taking your turn , putt ing your hand up, and sharing - t ha t ' s part of i t . To be able to do i t r i gh t , you have to know those are the rules ana we fo l low them. 41 If they don't obey the rules and don't l i s t en to the i r teacher then they aren ' t pa r t i c i pa t i ng properly and i f they ' re not pa r t i c i pa t i ng properly in that group, then they ' re not going to be as successful in that group. And that w i l l a f fect the i r success in school . Al luded to in the previous d iscussion (2 .1 ) , the personal i ty type of the ch i l d was considered to have l i t t l e bearing on her designation, as a 'good par t i c ipant in games, songs, and s to r i es ; and p l a y ' . Shy, quiet ch i ldren as well as out-going, t a l ka t i ve ch i ld ren were included within the assumptions inherent in th i s c l us te r . Typical meanings appeared to categorize ch i ldren within behav ioura l /soc ia l groupings rather than personal /psychological ones. Persona l i t y types were interpreted as too r e s t r i c t i v e by the teachers, thereby e l iminat ing ch i ldren who leg i t imate ly belonged within the composite of meanings. Such was the case when 'good pa r t i c i pan ts ' were i n i t i a l l y defined as 'ex t rover ted, t a l ka t i ve and conf ident ' (APPENDIX E, MATRIX E(2) ) . - because I don't think that you need to be extrover ted, t a l k a t i v e , and confident to par t i c ipa te well in games, songs, and s t o r i e s . Sure there is kids l i ke that who would f i t , but there are also kids who are not l i ke that who I would s t i l l wr i te 'good' p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' or ' pa r t i c i pa tes w e l l ' in songs, s t o r i e s , and games, who is not that kind of person. . They don't have to be extroverted, because I have ch i ld ren that j o in in i f you're ta lk ing about something. T h e y ' l l put in the i r share. But they ' re not necessar i ly r e a l l y out-going ch i l d ren . They can be quite quiet but t h e y ' l l take the i r tu rn , put up the i r hands - They're enjoying themselves but they ' re not r e a l l y out-going types. . Ta lkat ive kids are sometimes not good par t ic ipants because they don't le t the other kids have the i r share of the t ime. So to be a good par t ic ipant you've got to have that l i t t l e b i t of control to do your part but le t the others have the i r pa r t . . . t hey don't le t anyone else have a chance. 42 3.0 WORK HABITS T h i s f i n a l , d i s c r e t e g r o u p i n g o f s l o g a n s and m e a n i n g s , c a l l e d work h a b i t s , i l l u m i n a t e d t h e t e a c h e r ' s v i e w o f t h e c h i l d as p a r t i c i p a n t i n s c h o o l w o r k . T h e c h i l d ' s ' s e n s e o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o work' was c o n s c i o u s l y f o s t e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h a p l a n n e d k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h t h e c h i l d how t o work on h e r own e f f e c t i v e l y and how t o l o o k a f t e r h e r s e l f and h e r t h i n g s . S u c c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e f a v o u r a b l e work h a b i t s was s e e n as i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o l e a r n i n g a t s c h o o l and a g o o d s e l f - i m a g e . . The a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e c h i l d embedded w i t h i n t h i s c e n t r a l p u r p o s e ( a n d r e l a t e d r e p o r t c a r d l a n g u a g e ) i n c o r p o r a t e d , an a g g r e g a t e o f p e r f o r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e s s u c h as i n t e r e s t , e f f o r t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and d e p e n d a b i l i t y ; v a l u e s s u c h as w i s e u s e o f t i m e and m a t e r i a l s , and p r o d u c t i v i t y ; and s k i l l s s u c h as l i s t e n i n g , c o n c e n t r a t i n g , and f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s . In e s s e n c e , t h e c h i l d was c o n s c i o u s l y t a u g h t t h e m e a n i n g o f s t u d e n t , t h e r o l e o f g o o d w o r k e r . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e c h i l d was s e e n as an i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r a b l e t o s e l e c t and c o m p l e t e a t a s k t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d . T h e d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y r e a c h e d was c o r r e l a t e d t o h e r s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e p e r m i s s i v e n e s s o f t h e t e a c h e r - s t r u c t u r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m . M o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y , h o w e v e r , t h e c h i l d i n h e r e n t i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was s e e n as a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d o i n g s o m e t h i n g u s e f u l . To be i d l e , d i r e c t i o n l e s s , and d r e a m - l i k e was c a u s e f o r t e a c h e r c o n c e r n . I l i k e t o s e e them a l w a y s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g b u t s o m e t i m e s , l i k e t h i n k i n g , i f t h e y ' r e j u s t s i t t i n g and t h i n k i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g , t h e n t h a t ' s n o t d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t o me. As l o n g as t h e y ' r e n o t j u s t - i t b o t h e r s me t o s e e someone who's j u s t k i n d o f - y o u c a n t e l l t h a t t h e y ' r e n o t t h i n k i n g a b o u t a n y t h i n g . T h e y ' r e j u s t s o r t o f f l o a t i n g . I d o n ' t l i k e t h a t a t a l l . 43 S h a r i n g t h i s common u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t e a c h e r s a g r e e d w i t h t h e m e a n i n g s f o u n d f o r t h e two s l o g a n c l u s t e r s : 'a h a r d - w o r k i n g , c o - o p e r a t i v e , and d e p e n d a b l e s t u d e n t 1 and 'works i n d e p e n d e n t l y and u s e s own i n i t i a t i v e . ' 3.1 A H a r d - W o r k i n g , C o - o p e r a t i v e , And D e p e n d a b l e S t u d e n t T h e c o r e v a l u e s and a t t r i b u t e s t h a t e n c o m p a s s b e i n g a 'good' s t u d e n t and w o r k e r a r e c a p t u r e d w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h i s c l u s t e r . A t t h e c e n t r e o f t h i s v i e w was t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d l e a r n i n g how t o a p p l y h e r s e l f t o a t a s k and how t o work on i t u n t i l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f i n i s h e d ( T A B L E V ) . T h e q u a l i t y o f c h i l d e f f o r t ( i . e . t h e work s t y l e ) was i n i t i a l l y s e e n as more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f i n a l r e s u l t ( i . e . t h e work p r o d u c t ) . T h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o a t t e m p t a j o b was h i g h l y p r i z e d i n t h e c h i l d ; a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s work was p e r c e i v e d as more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a b i l i t y . As t h e c h i l d ' s s k i l l s i m p r o v e d s h e was e x p e c t e d t o g e t on w i t h most k i n d e r g a r t e n t a s k s w i t h m i n i m a l a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n c e . D e p e n d a b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w e r e t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d t o s u c h a c h i l d . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h i l e v a l u e d i n t h e c h i l d , was d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o h e r own t h i n g s , work o r m e s s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e t e a c h e r s ' v i e w i n c l u d e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e g r o u p / c l a s s r o o m as a w h o l e . One t e a c h e r a r t i c u l a t e d h e r m e a n i n g f o r s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h i s way. I d o n ' t t h i n k t o o many c h i l d r e n a r e r e a l l y a l l t h a t r e s p o n s i b l e when i t comes down t o w o r k i n g w i t h a g r o u p o r w i t h a t e a m . You know, some c h i l d r e n w i l l j u s t do t h e i r p a r t b u t A HARD-WORKING, CO-OPERATIVE AND DEPENDABLE STUDENT MEANINGS: assumptions ahout the c h i l d 1. is a p r o d u c t i v e worker committed to a f i n i s h e d -job 10 10 2. is a manager of l i m i t e d and v a l u a b l e t ime, mot iva ted to turn time into something use fu l 1. is a c l a s s r o o m member who can be depended on to f o l l o w through on each task with l i t t l e or no a s s i s t a n c e 3. i s a d i s c i p l i n e d person who w i l l i n g l y pays a t t e n t i o n to o thers 5. i s an i n t e r e s t e d group member who r e l i a b l y undertakes each requested task 6. is a dependent person who needs knowledgeable a d u l t s (and peers) ( i . e . t h e i r he lp and a t ten t ion ) TABLE V MATRIX C APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I -VI ) 45 t h e y won't p u t a l o t o f e f f o r t i n t o i t . T h e y won't t h i n k o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n s o much, y o u know. I f I was u s i n g t h e t e r m ' r e s p o n s i b l e ' I w o u l d u s e i t i n r e g a r d s t o , urn, s a y t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g s o r s a y a l i t t l e g i r l c h o s e t h e h o u s e c e n t r e and s h e ' s p l a y i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n b u t when t h e y do t h e i r c l e a n - u p , I ' d s a y , l i k e , s h e ' s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what s h e d i d a t t h e h o u s e c e n t r e . I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e r e ' s t o o much i n t e r a c t i o n a s , Oh g e e i U n d e r p i n n i n g , t h i s p e r p s e c t i v e on t h e c h i l d was t h e t e a c h e r s ' n o t i o n o f t i m e as a v a l u a b l e b u t l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e . I t was assumed t h a t a b u s y , i n v o l v e d c h i l d was m a k i n g b e s t u s e o f h e r t i m e a t s c h o o l ; a m e a n d e r i n g , i d l e c h i l d was w a s t i n g t i m e . P r o d u c t i v e u s e o f t i m e was l i n k e d t o s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t h a t e q u i p p e d t h e c h i l d t o l e a r n more f r o m t h e t i m e i n v e s t e d a t s c h o o l . One c a t e g o r y o f s k i l l was d e s c r i b e d a b o v e as work h a b i t s : a t t e n t i o n s p a n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , s t i c k i n g w i t h a t a s k and t i d y i n g up a f t e r o n e s e l f . T h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y was d e s c r i b e d as l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s : f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s , s i t t i n g s t i l l , and p u t t i n g up o n e ' s h a n d . B o t h s e t s o f s k i l l s were v i e w e d as e s s e n t i a l t o l e a r n i n g a t s c h o o l ; t h e y h e a d e d up t h e t e a c h e r s ' t a u g h t c u r r i c u l u m . As t h e c h i l d was t h u s ' l e a r n i n g how t o l e a r n ' s h e was r e c i p r o c a l l y a c q u i r i n g g o o d w o r k e r b e h a v i o u r o f a s p e c i f i c s t y l e . To g r a d u a t e a k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t who e n j o y e d work and. c o u l d c a p a b l y c o m p l e t e a t a s k e f f i c i e n t l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y was t h e u n d e r s t o o d g o a l s h a r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s . B e i n g a b l e t o c o m p l e t e s o m e t h i n g b e f o r e g o i n g on t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e i s i m p o r t a n t . M o s t c h i l d r e n I t h i n k h a v e t o l e a r n t o do t h a t . . . T h e r e a r e s o many s t i m u l a t i n g t h i n g s t o do t h a t t h e y h a v e t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y ' v e g o t t o c o m p l e t e one t a s k b e f o r e g o i n g on t o a n o t h e r . Q u i t e a f e w o f them n e e d t o l e a r n t h a t . I w o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f how t h e y u s e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . W h e t h e r t h e y were g o o d a b o u t u s i n g them w i s e l y o r n o t o r w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e j u s t o u t ' t o c o m p l e t e i t any w h i c h way t h e y c o u l d . 46 . T h e y ' l l ask f o r t e a c h e r h e l p i f t h e y ' r e r e a l l y s t u c k b u t t h e y ' l l do i t on t h e i r own, t o o . A t l e a s t , t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t r y i n g . t o t a k e on a t a s k on t h e i r own, w i t h o u t a l o t o f t e a c h e r h e l p . ( r e s e a r c h e r ) What a r e t h e t h i n g s c o m i n g o u t t h e r e t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r a c h i l d t o l e a r n ? . . . m a n a g i n g t h e i r t i m e ; t o l e a r n t o work, t o a c t u a l l y work a t s o m e t h i n g - t o a c t u a l l y g i v e o f y o u r s e l f t o s o m e t h i n g - and t o be a p a r t o f a g r o u p and be a b l e t o p r o d u c e s o m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e w i t h a g r o u p . . . s o r t o f an a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s work; t h e y e n j o y i t , t h e y want t o do i t . G l i m p s e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' n o t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a.s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m and t h e c h i l d s u r f a c e d i n t h i s c l u s t e r . T h e q u e s t i o n o f what i s b e s t f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n was a n s w e r e d i n p a r t by t h e i r s t r o n g commitment t o t e a c h i n g work s k i l l s and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . Know-how i n t h e s e two a r e a s was s e e n as i n v a l u a b l e t o t h e c h i l d f o r ' l e a r n i n g ' a t s c h o o l . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m was o p e n t o c h i l d i n t e r e s t s , w h i l e t h e p r o c e s s e s o f l e a r n i n g ( w o r k i n g ) w e r e c o n s c i o u s l y and u n i f o r m l y t a u g h t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e c h i l d was d e f i n e d as an a c t i v e , p u r p o s e f u l l e a r n e r r a t h e r t h a n a p a s s i v e , d e p e n d e n t o n e . T h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n w e r e a b l e t o d i r e c t and c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e d e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k s w i t h o u t h e l p , b u t i n s t e a d t h a t t h a t was t h e e x p e c t e d s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e . C h i l d r e n who were ' n o t y e t a b l e ' r e q u i r e d more t i m e t o m a t u r e e m o t i o n a l l y and more i n t e r i m a d u l t s u p p o r t . I t was t a c i t l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t a t a p l a c e c a l l e d s c h o o l t h e c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t met up w i t h c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The t e a c h e r s a c c e p t e d t h e i r r o l e as p r i m a r y a r b i t o r o f t h e n e c e s s i t a t e d c h i l d c h a n g e . T h e s e f a c e t s o f l e a r n i n g were b e s t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e comments o f two t e a c h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n m e a n i n g s ( 3 ) and ( 6 ) (APPENDIX E, MATRIX C ) . 47 . I t seems t o me t h a t t h e c h i l d has a c q u i r e d more m a t u r i t y and urn, l i k e s t o l e a r n and r e a l i z e s , y o u know, a t l e a s t some- v a l u e o f l e a r n i n g . W hereas a n o t h e r c h i l d may h a v e t h e a b i l i t y b u t t h e y , and t h e y may l e a r n i n , urn, l o t s o f ways, b u t i t may be more c a s u a l and t h e y m i g h t n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a r n i n g o r t h e v a l u e t o them o f l e a r n i n g , y o u k n o w . . . w e l l , t h e one l i t t l e b o y t h a t I'm t h i n k i n g o f , h e ' s g o t l o t s on t h e b a l l b u t h e ' s a v e r y d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r i g h t now and more t h a n a n y t h i n g , he j u s t n e e d s t o hang on t o y o u , y o u know. And urn, h e ' s n o t as w i l l i n g t o l e a r n as a n o t h e r c h i l d e v e n t h o u g h he c a n do i t and he w i l l do i t i f y o u g i v e him some d i r e c t i o n s o r y o u , y o u ' r e t h e r e w i t h h i m b u t he d o e s n ' t t a k e t o o much i n i t i a t i v e t o do i t . I was t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d and t h e s e a r e much e a s i e r t o e v a l u a t e a f t e r y o u ' v e had t h e c h i l d f o r q u i t e some t i m e . I t ' s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o - t h e s e a r e l e a r n e d . T h e y ' r e n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d comes t o s c h o o l w i t h I f e e l -some c h i l d r e n do, b u t n o t as many w o u l d come t o s c h o o l w i t h t h e s e s k i l l s . T h e y a r e s o m e t h n g t h a t y o u a r e d e f i n i t e l y t e a c h i n g and t h e y a r e , I f e e l , a l e a r n e d r e s p o n s e . 3.2 Works I n d e p e n d e n t l y And U s e s Own I n i t i a t i v e T h e c h i l d p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s c o m p o s i t e o f m e a n i n g s had r e a c h e d a s t a t e o f l i b e r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n c e . H e r d a i l y k i n d e r g a r t e n a c t i v i t i e s were u n d e r t a k e n w i t h s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T y p i c a l l y , h e r a c t i o n s w e r e e x e m p l i f i e d by f r e e d o m t o d e t e r m i n e h e r s c h o o l p r o g r a m and f r e e d o m f r o m p e e r d e p e n d e n c y . H e r i n t e r e s t s were d i v e r s e ; h e r s k i l l s a l l o w e d f l e x i b i l i t y and v a r i e t y . M o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s c h i l d was a b l e t o make d e c i s i o n s , t o t a k e c a r e o f h e r own n e e d s , and t o l i v e by t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h e r a c t i o n s ( T A B L E V I ) . I t was as t h o u g h w i t h i n d e p e n d e n c e came p r e l i m i n a r y a d u l t h o o d - a s e l f - d i r e c t e d f i v e y e a r o l d . W i t h i n t h i s t y p i c a l image o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t , i n i t i a t i n g c h i l d , n u a n c e s o f m e a n i n g s u r f a c e d . ' I n d e p e n d e n c e ' e m b o d i e d v a r i o u s q u a l i t i e s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t y p e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m and t h e c h i l d ' s s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T e a c h e r p r e f e r e n c e was g i v e n t o one m e a n i n g o v e r a n o t h e r WORKS INDEPENDENTLY AND USES OWN INITIATIVE MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a d e c i s i o n - m a k e r able to s e l f - s e l e c t a ba lanced schoo l program (from ass igned tasks) 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l able to s t a r t and f i n i s h her OWN, SELF-DESIGNED p r o j e c t s without adul t help 3. i s a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t member of her c lassroom communi ty 4. is an eager i n d i v i d u a l , c u r i o u s about new school t a s k s / a c t i v i t i e s 8. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to s t a r t and f i n i s h ASSIGNED work without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n 6. i s an i n d i v i d u a l who is i n c r e a s i n g l y able to work with l ess d i r e c t i o n from the teacher. 7. i s a group member ab le to work a l o n e , in i s o l a t i o n 5. i s a c lassroom member who handles a l l m a t e r i a l s and equipment maturely and puts th ings away a f t e r use TABLE VI MATRIX F APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I -VI) 49 ( ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) o r ( 8 ) ) . The c h i l d ' s f i e l d o f c h o i c e s were c u r t a i l e d o r e x t e n d e d i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n and p a t t e r n o f r o u t i n e s , w h e t h e r o p e n o r c l o s e d . Some p l a c e d l e s s e m p h a s i s on t h e l i m i t s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s t r u c t u r e and more on t h e c h i l d ' s s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t when d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n t h e p o s s i b l e m e a n i n g s f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . A l o n g a c o n t i n u u m o f a u t o n o m o u s b e h a v i o u r s , m e a n i n g (8 ) was v i e w e d a t t h e low e n d , m e a n i n g ( 1 ) t o w a r d s t h e c e n t r e , and m e a n i n g (2) a t t h e h i g h e n d , d e p i c t i n g t h e u l t i m a t e l e v e l o f i n d e p e n d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . W h a t e v e r t h e i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r , s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o r s e t t i n g , a l l t e a c h e r s a g r e e d t h a t w i t h i n t h i s v i e w , t h e c h i l d was a b l e t o work w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n c e and t o m a t u r e l y t a k e c a r e o f p r o p e r t y . T h i s q u a l i t y was h i g h l y p r i z e d i n a s t u d e n t . I t was e x p r e s s e d i n d e t a i l by t h e i n t e r v i e w e d t e a c h e r s . . What I mean when I s a y t h a t , i s t h a t f r o m a s e l e c t i o n o f t a s k s t h r o u g h o u t a s c h o o l week, h e / s h e c a n s e l e c t a b a l a n c e d amount o f a c t i v i t y and e n j o y d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s w i t h o u t t h e t e a c h e r h a v i n g t o s a y y o u h a v e n ' t d one t h e p a s t i n g t a b l e t h i s week o r w h a t e v e r a t t h e end o f t h e w e e k . . . a n d p o s s i b l y s o m e t i m e s s e l f - d e s i g n e d p r o j e c t s . B u t t h e r e a r e n ' t many o f t h o s e I f i n d i n my k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m . I f i n d t h a t m o s t l y I'm s e t t i n g and t h e y ' r e c h o o s i n g w i t h i n . You know, i n d e p e n d e n c e t o me means t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n make d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y a r e a b l e t o c h o o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e m e a n i n g f u l t o them and maybe t h a t i s n ' t b a l a n c e d , b u t i t ' s m e a n i n g f u l t o t h e m . . .The c h i l d who's i n d e p e n d e n t and has i n i t i a t i v e , when t h e y ' r e f i n i s h e d a t t h e News C e n t r e c a n go and c h o o s e and f i n d s o m e t h i n g e l s e t o do. T h e y ' r e n o t a t me, "What do I do now?" o r t h e y a r e n ' t a t me s a y i n g , " I s t h i s g ood? I s t h i s r i g h t ? " T h a t i n d e p e n d e n t c h i l d o f t e n d o e s n ' t n e e d t h a t . He j u s t l o o k s a f t e r h i s own n e e d s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . T h e one who d o e s h e r own i s more i n d e p e n d e n t e v e n t h a n t h e o n e s who f o l l o w what y o u s a y t o d o . L i k e y o u m i g h t h a v e an a r t .pr.oj.ect. l - t t a k e s -some i n d e p e n d e n c e t o be a b l e t o go and c o m p l e t e t h a t a r t p r o j e c t a f t e r t h e t e a c h e r ' s shown t h e c l a s s and t h e n t h a t d a y o r a n o t h e r d a y , go and be a b l e t o do i t on t h e i r own w i t h o u t a s k i n g h e l p . I t ' s s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t when 50 they have to think up the i r own and carry through on i t . So i t ' s f i gu r ing something out, your own goal and then fo l lowing through. I would take i t both ways. I think I would have i t more that they ' re able to do the assigned tasks on the i r own without asking for help. And they could go and f ind something that they wanted to do, f igure out how to do i t , and do i t . . You reach a stage where you can do what you're to ld to do on your own and you get to a stage where you can think for yoursel f what you want to do and how to do i t on your own. Included within the assumptions of the independent, i n i t i a t i n g ch i l d was the qua l i t y of ' a loneness ' , working apart from the other ch i l d ren , in i s o l a t i o n ; meaning (7) . While a major thrust of the kindergarten year focussed on ass i s t i ng the ch i l d with soc ia l s k i l l s in order that she may become a cont r ibut ing group member, th is aspect of independence appeared to mit igate against soc ia l in tegra t ion . Although i t was seen by the teachers as a necessary p o s s i b i l i t y fo r an autonomous person, not a cer ta in ty in every s i t u a t i o n , i t ra ised again the question of what is being learned by ch i ldren in an environment where ind iv idual ism and independence are sacred. What kind of soc ia l awareness and s k i l l i s adopted when s e l f - d i r e c t i o n is revered? The support for 'a lone ' behaviour was encapsulated in two teacher statements. In f a c t , i t ' s important to me. I t ' s important to me that , urn, that independent ch i l d fee ls good enough about what they've decided to pursue that they ' re going to do i t never mind what S i s doing or Y, or whoever...meeting the i r own needs. Yes, not that they always work alone but - an independent c h i l d can go and do something without depending on any other ch i l d to be there to keep them company, to help them in any way. They're not dependent on other ch i ldren to do th ings. 51 PART I I : THE COMPOSITE IMAGE OF THE CHILD Your philosophy i s no better than your metaphors and your philosophy of teaching is no better than your image of man. 1 The second major interview question asked the teachers to synthesize the i r image of the ch i l d embodied within the composite S/E slogans and meanings. Present ing a h o l i s t i c view was d i f f i c u l t and chal lenging - an a t t i tude a r t i cu la ted openly by one teacher, "That 's a hard question for me. I t ' s so complex. So important." Discussion of the teachers' stated view of the ch i l d forms the f i r s t sect ion of Part I I . A second level of analys is fo l lows with the researcher 's in terpre ta t ion of two root metaphors deeply embedded wi th in the teachers' language and meanings. 4.1 AS THE TEACHERS STATED IT . I see th is happy l i t t l e person dancing i n . . . . They're jus t a bundle of enthusiasm for everything and I think they are na tu ra l l y hard-working, they are natura l l y most of these good 'things when they come. I see th is naked l i t t l e being. This naked, warm, lov ing , s e n s i t i v e , inc red ib ly vulnerable being in my room at f i v e . To the teachers, optimism and v i t a l i t y coupled with the . defenselessness of being young and inexperienced, character ized the c h i l d . F i r s t a creature of nature, she was a f e e l i n g , growing and act ive human being. It was natural therefore to speak of the ch i l d in developmental terms: 'at that s tage ' , ' take the ch i l d from where she is 52 a t 1 , 'steps in her development', and 'don' t t ry to push her too qu ick ly ahead'. It was assumed that ch i ld ren developed towards maturi ty at the i r own pace and in the i r own s t y l e . There was unanimous agreement among the teachers that learning which respected th is natural development was normal and exc i t i ng for the f i ve year o l d . I love the i r joy for learn ing , the i r eagerness, the i r keenness, the i r openness, the i r c u r i o s i t y , the i r t h i r s t for knowledge. . And, uh, f i v e year olds I fee l are very open to learn ing. I would say that most f i ve year olds are eager and I think they ' re interested in learn ing . . I think that they a l l s tar t out being en thus ias t i c . And they - every one of them wants to learn . Another p ivo ta l notion of the c h i l d was her uniqueness among others. The sacredness of the ind iv idual* permeated the teachers' imagery. Chi ldren were seen to have ind iv idual needs and ind iv idual potent ia l to be recognized and ac t i ve l y fos tered. Some teachers bel ieved ch i ldren were capable of d i rec t ing the i r own learning based on the i r sense of what was needed next. That they came to school with so much already mastered was evidence of t he i r a b i l i t i e s . A l l agreed that developmentally, they were very egocentr ic and demanding, unaware that others existed beyond the i r ' I ' universe. This powerful metaphor of the c h i l d as unique person was centra l to the i r composite view. They a l l have the i r uniqueness about them and I think i t ' s r e a l l y - t ha t ' s the key r igh t there, they ' re a l l unique and i t ' s r e a l l y kind of dangerous to compare . I f i nd i t hard because (pause) I do see them, and i t ' s r e a l l y important to me to see them as ind iv idua ls , although I ce r ta i n l y do see some common threads in many of them. Ugh. Very egocentr ic . I, I, I, I, I. Extremely demanding. . And I have a very strong fee l ing that they are able to many times take care of the i r own needs in the classroom. 5 3 I think a lo t of ch i ldren probably depending on the i r home experience, have such d i f fe ren t a t t i tudes . L ike one ch i l d might go to th is a c t i v i t y and spend two seconds on i t . Then h e ' l l go to something e lse and you know, there 's a lot of that f l i t t i n g around. And some ch i l d might work at one a c t i v i t y for twenty minutes s t ra ight through. I think i f anything, the p ic ture you have of them is that they come with so much that they already have and so much potent ia l to be - every one of them - to be r e a l l y great and I r e a l l y bel ieve that , you know.. . . Sharply in focus, these two dominant assumptions about the ch i l d -as capable of continued natural development, as unique and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c - af fected the teachers' organizat ion of kindergarten experiences. Inex t r icab ly interwoven with the i r image of a blossoming l i v i n g creature was the i r be l i e f that the f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s at school should sp i ra l around the specia l t a l en t s , in terests and needs of the f i ve year o l d . The classroom environment was designed to cater to the varied potent ia l and a b i l i t i e s of the diverse ch i l d populat ion. In th is view, ' the c h i l d ' , not curr iculum content or ex te rna l l y -se t program needs was the organizing p r i n c i p l e , the raison d 'e t re of k indergarten. Theirs was a shared commitment to fos ter ing pos i t i ve growth, human f u l f i l l m e n t to the maximum benef i t of each c h i l d . The school was seen in th i s l i gh t to be in serv ice to ch i l d ren . Reverence to the c h i l d ' s inherent potent ia l was stated by most teachers. I t ' s r e a l l y important to le t them go on the i r own, but I don't mean that - 'cause I know that you have to structure and channel in such a way that they can. I do agree with the one where you take the ch i l d from where he is at and hopeful ly don't skip too many steps and in his development le t him go through a l l the stages and don't t ry to .push h.im too qu ick ly ahead. Urn,, yet again i f the c h i l d ' s already there, providing him with d i f fe rent tasks, a c t i v i t i e s , whatever in order for them to progress, t o o . . . . 54 . You h a v e t o p r o v i d e t h e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e a t m o s p h e r e so t h a t t h e y w i l l b e s t be a b l e t o l e a r n i n w h i c h e v e r way i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them and so t h a t i n v o l v e s a l o t o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s b e c a u s e y o u ' v e g o t s o many d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s t h a t a f i v e y e a r o l d may come t o s c h o o l w i t h . He may be r e a l l y v e r y w e l l - a d j u s t e d , e t c . , e t c . , w h i c h e v e r k i n d o f t e r m s y o u w i s h t o u s e , y o u may h a v e a c h i l d . t h a t ' s g o t t h e m e n t a l age o f a n i n e y e a r o l d t h e r e and t h e n y o u may h a v e t h o s e who come t o s c h o o l w i t h t h e m e n t a l age o f a t h r e e y e a r o l d . So a c c o r d i n g l y , y o u r k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m f o r a f i v e y e a r o l d has t o be v a r i e d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e ' n a t u r a l ' theme p e n e t r a t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , i t a p p e a r e d as i f t h e c h i l d was c o m p a r a b l e t o a s e e d ; c o n t a i n i n g W i t h i n a b l u e p r i n t t o t a k e h e r t o m a t u r i t y , r e q u i r i n g o n l y f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t o grow. F o s h a y ( 1 9 8 0 ) comments: "The i d e a t h a t c h i l d r e n grow and d e v e l o p l i k e f l o w e r s i s d e e p l y embedded i n 2 t o d a y ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n . " T h e t e a c h e r s ' p i c t u r e o f . t h e w h o l e c h i l d w o u l d r e m a i n i n c o m p l e t e i f i t s t o p p e d a t s e e i n g t h e c h i l d o n l y as a c r e a t u r e o f n a t u r e . C o m p l e m e n t a r y t o i t , was an e q u a l l y p o w e r f u l v i e w o f t h e c h i l d as s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l b e i n g . The n a t u r a l l y e g o c e n t r i c , s e l f - i n v o l v e d c h i l d met h e r f i r s t f o r m a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n among p e e r s ( o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y and o c c a s i o n a l p r e s c h o o l ) when she s t e p p e d i n t o k i n d e r g a r t e n . W i t h t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , t h e o n u s was p l a c e d on t h e c h i l d t o a d a p t t o t h e 'new' s e t o f n o r ms, r u l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and s c h o o l . T e a c h e r s saw t h e c h i l d l e a r n i n g u n f a m i l i a r s o c i a l / w o r k s k i l l s s u c h as s h a r i n g common p r o p e r t y , t a k i n g t u r n s , l i s t e n i n g , c l e a n i n g up and good work h a b i t s . None o f t h i s was n a t u r a l ; y e t s u c h b e h a v i o u r s were v a l u e d and a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e d . In o r d e r t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d w i t h t h i s a b r u p t and a c c e l e r a t e d e n t r y i n t o t h e s c h o o l s o c i e t y , t h e t e a c h e r s r e f o c u s s e d t h e i r 55 i m a g e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e n a t u r a l c h i l d , t h e y i n c l u d e d t h e c h i l d as s o c i a l c r e a t u r e , as h a v i n g o r n o t h a v i n g t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e b e h a v i o u r s i n h e r e n t i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h i n h e r c o m m u n i t y . T h r e e t e a c h e r s s t a t e d t h i s n o t i o n b e s t . I t ' s an a d a p t i v e t h i n g f o r them, I mean, t h e y h a v e t o a d a p t . T h e y ' r e n o t u s e d t o b e i n g t h r o w n i n w i t h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r a c e r t a i n s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r r u l e s , o r e x p e c t a t i o n s and s o t h e y ' v e had t o a d a p t t o i t i n some r e s p e c t . . I t ' s d i f f i c u l t f o r them, I t h i n k , a t f i v e y e a r s o l d , t o u n d e r s t a n d a n y b o d y e l s e ' s w o r l d and l i s t e n t o e a c h o t h e r . R e a l l y i n t o s e l f and w h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o them. And t h e I , I , I. A nd I work r e a l l y h a r d a t d e v e l o p i n g them as a u n i t and as a g r o u p . . B u t as f a r a s , urn, t h e team member t h i n g o r t h e g r o u p member, I t h i n k t h a t i s a l e a r n e d and a c q u i r e d k i n d o f h a b i t . I d o n ' t t h i n k i t comes t o o n a t u r a l l y a t t h a t s t a g e . I t t a k e s q u i t e a l o n g t i m e f o r a l o t o f c h i l d r e n t o a c q u i r e t h e p r o p e r b e h a v i o u r f o r s a y , m a k i n g and k e e p i n g f r i e n d s . B u t I ' d s a y a l o t o f them d o n ' t r e a l i z e t h a t i t ' s an e x p e c t e d t h i n g i n s c h o o l t h a t w h a t e v e r t a s k y o u c h o o s e y o u do c o m p l e t e t o some d e g r e e , y o u know. T h e y l e a r n t h a t a f t e r a w h i l e . C o i n c i d e n t a l . l y , l e a r n i n g a c c e p t a b l e g r o u p b e h a v i o u r s d i d n o t e r a s e t h e t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f i n f o s t e r i n g s k i l l s f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . One t e a c h e r , whose w h o l e f o c u s r e s t e d h e a v i l y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f k i d s , s u c c i n c t l y s u m m a r i z e d t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . . And I f i n d them c o m i n g i n S e p t e m b e r , urn, y o u know, j u s t a t y o u a l l o f t h e t i m e . And I work v e r y h a r d i n t h a t f i r s t c o u p l e o f m o n t h s t o make s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f me, t h a t t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s , t h a t t h e y do u n d e r s t a n d t h a t ' s t h e i r p r o b l e m and what a r e t h e y g o i n g t o do a b o u t i t ? Urn, I f i n d t h e r e i s a n e e d t o l e a r n how t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s . What do y o u do when two p e o p l e a r e f i g h t i n g ? How c a n t h e y h a n d l e t h a t t h e m s e l v e s ? 56 It would be f a l l a c i o u s to suggest that the teachers c l e a r l y a r t i cu la ted an e i t he r /o r preference for one focus, e i ther natural or soc io -cu l tu ra l c h i l d , over the other. The two, instead, co-exis ted in an integrated manner wi th in the teachers' general frame of reference. Both images shaped the i r sense of purpose and the i r da i l y in teract ions with k ids . Their composite view might better be expressed as a commitment to f a c i l i t a t i n g the c h i l d ' s easy adjustment into the c u l t u r a l / s o c i a l demands of school while preserving her natural enthusiasm and unique endowments. Emphasis between teachers varied in terms of how they defined 'successfu l adaptat ion' or 'good adjustment' to school , and how they viewed the ult imate project before them as teachers of young school ch i l d ren . This f i r s t sect ion c loses with captions of the teachers' vary ing, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c missions for k indergarten. Sa t i s fac t i on with the i r e f fo r t s to serve ch i ld ren were expressed as: ( i ) A c lose bonding between home and school . And I would see a ch i l d who l i kes to come to school , who ta lks about school at home - remembers what he/she is doing, w i l l ta lk to other fami ly members or people in .the group at home. There w i l l be a car ry-over , both at school and at home, from one type of a c t i v i t y to another - drawing out inferences, and conclusions about these areas. And a fee l ing within the ch i l d that he/she is an important pe rson . . . t he i r opinions matter. And that he/she has the confidence to go through a school day and accept such changes in rout ine thay may happen or other unforseen circumstances with a cer ta in amount of aplomb. ( i i) Ready for formal grade 1 learning . To me, that sort of ch i l d would be a very wel l -ad jus ted, happy ch i l d who's ready to go on af ter kindergarten, ready to go on into grade one. and se t t l e into the i r rout ine without problems. Ready to s i t down and learn - interested in learni ng. 57 ( i i i ) Pos i t i ve a t t i tude toward school learning . And what you're t ry ing to do of course with a f i ve year old is make sure that he has the pos i t i ve side of school , l i ke he's learning and his a t t i tude is one which is d e f i n i t e l y an agreeable one for learn ing. ( iv) I love myself and I love school I cr inge at what I see and what I hear going on often in other grades. The reason .1 decided to come back and teach kindergarten was hopeful ly I could give them a year when they f e l t good about themselves and at least knew what they were capable o f doing and could fee l 'I love school and I love to come and I'm okay as a person. ' And I'm ABLE. I can do! 4.2 THE RESEARCHER'S INTERPRETATION: TWO METAPHORS Repeatedly emphasized in the teachers' d iscussion of the ch i l d was the i r metaphor of the ch i l d as natural organism - as l i v i n g , throbbing, changing human being. Manifestat ions of th i s image were evidenced in the i r commitment to developmental progress, uniqueness, staged learn ing, and s e l f - e v o l u t i o n . Acknowledging t h i s metaphor, i t is the purpose of th is sect ion to penetrate more deeply into the image of the ch i l d as s o c i a l / c u l t u r a l being. Up to th is point i t has been treated in terms of soc ia l s k i l l s and work hab i ts . Probing into the image of a soc ia l i zed c h i l d , two d iscre te root metaphors emerge: the ch i l d as c i t i z e n and the ch i l d as worker. Neither was a r t i cu la ted as such by the teachers, but c loser examination of the i r slogans and meanings . y ie lds evidence that aspects of each metaphor are captured wi th in the substratum of the i r 1anguage. This level of in terpre ta t ion is founded upon two p r i n c i p l e s . F i r s t , language embodies layers of meaning h i s t o r i c a l l y bu i l t up through accumulated use and unnoticed in normal r e f l e c t i o n . Words used by the 58 t e a c h e r s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s l a t e n t m e a n i n g . S e c o n d l y , m e t a p h o r s i n i t i a l l y u s e d t o f i g u r a t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t an i d e a , c a n i n t i m e , become a c c e p t e d as p a r t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s p e e c h and t h u s r e m a i n b e l o w d a i l y a w a r e n e s s . When t h i s h a p p e n s , t h e s p e a k e r s t a k e t h e m e t a p h o r l i t e r a l l y a s t r u t h and i t becomes t h e w o r l d s e e n . " M e t a p h o r s u p p r e s s e s some 3 d e t a i l s , e m p h a s i z e s o t h e r s - i n s h o r t , o r g a n i z e s o u r v i e w o f [ c h i l d ] . " P r o b i n g t h i s d e e p e r l e v e l o f m e a n i n g t h r o u g h m e t a p h o r i c f i l t e r s f o c u s s e s on c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e c h i l d t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e go u n n o t i c e d ; a l l o w s c o n n e c t i o n s w h e r e b e f o r e none s t o o d . T h e f o l l o w i n g m e t a p h o r s s p r i n g f r o m t h e s u b s t r a t u m o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' own S/E s l o g a n s and d i s c u s s i o n s . C h i l d As C i t i z e n Embedded w i t h t h e s l o g a n s d e f i n i n g t h e c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( T A B L E S I , I I , I I I , and IV) was t h e m e t a p h o r : c h i l d as c i t i z e n . C i t i z e n s h i p was n e v e r e x p l i c i t l y t a l k e d a b o u t by t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t t h r o u g h d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s t h e c h i l d ' s m e a n i n g f o r c i t i z e n was l e a r n e d . A c h i l d i n t h i s image was one who a c c e p t e d t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l o r d e r ( h e r s c h o o l and c l a s s r o o m ) and a d a p t e d t o i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e r e was no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r u l e s and p a t t e r n s g o v e r n i n g l i f e i n t h a t s o c i e t y n e e d e d c h a n g i n g . R e b e l s and r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s d i d n o t make good c i t i z e n s ; c o n f l i c t was t o be a v o i d e d and d i s c o u r a g e d . Good c i t i z e n s h i p had o t h e r h a l l m a r k s . To be v a l u e d as a c i t i z e n i n g o o d s t a n d i n g m e a n t : d o i n g y o u r p a r t a l o n g w i t h t h e w h o l e c l a s s , 59 co-operat ing, sharing and taking turns. Good c i t i z e n s were support ive and considerate, f a i r and helpfu l - an ac t i ve , happy, contr ibut ing member of the group. Within th is , metaphor, the c h i l d ' s soc iety was mainly fe l low ch i ld ren of equal age and equal s ta tus . Teachers represented a higher author i ty with the power and r igh t to lead, to d i s c i p l i n e and to con t ro l . Most soc ia l learning occurred with the teacher as outs ider , ready to intervene or guide but ra re ly to par t i c ipa te as a true equal . There were d i f fe ren t standards for teacher and student. The ch i l d learned to respect others and to respect the power of author i ty . Rules were meant to be fol lowed by the ch i l d c i t i z e n . To the teacher, they were merely necessary prerequis i tes to classroom l i v i n g . In some cases, some ru les were set mutual ly, with teacher and ch i ld ren having equal vo ice . Other rules were unchallengeable, almost sacred: safety rules and those preventing harm to other people and property f e l l into th is category. Once made, the rules and regulat ions formed a s i l e n t •moral code-def in ing acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Along with r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , the ch i l d had r i gh t s . Foremost were her r ights as an i nd i v i dua l : to an education that respected her unique po ten t i a l ; to free choice from among an array of st imulat ing classroom a c t i v i t i e s ; and to learning condit ions that allowed her to work without in ter ference. In re turn, the ch i l d was expected to par t i c ipa te to the best of her a b i l i t y ; to take care of her own mess and th ings; and to get along amicably with her peers, respect ing the i r r i gh t s . In the image of c i t i z e n captured within the teachers' S/E slogans, the emphasis remained on ind iv idual or pa ra l l e l act ion towards 60 i n d e p e n d e n t e n d s . The m e a n i n g o f c i t i z e n i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o r m u t u a l i s t i c a c t i o n t o w a r d common e n d s was n o t a c t i v e l y f o s t e r e d i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s r o o m . The a c t i v i t i e s and t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n s s h a p e d a c o - o p e r a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l on a p a t h t o w a r d p e r s o n a l s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . T h e k i n d e r g a r t e n was l i k e a c o m m u n i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r i n g a common e n v i r o n m e n t . C h i l d As W o r k e r T h e m e t a p h o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c h i l d as w o r k e r was d e e p l y embedded w i t h i n t h e t e a c h e r s ' s l o g a n s and comments on work h a b i t s ( T A B L E S V and V I ) . Word c a p t i o n s t a k e n f r o m t h e two s l o g a n c l u s t e r s u n d e r t h i s h e a d i n g t y p i f i e d t h i s i m age: ' h a r d w o r k i n g , d e p e n d a b l e , r e s p o n s i b l e , p r o d u c t i v e , m a n a g e r o f t i m e , d i s c i p l i n e d , d e c i s i o n m a k e r ' . T a k e n t o g e t h e r t h e y r e f l e c t e d a work e t h i c t h a t was a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m - t h e c h i l d ' s f i r s t f o r m a l w o r k p l a c e . Work was n o t s l a v i s h , r o u t i n e d r u d g e r y f o r t h e c h i l d . I t t o o k many f o r m s and was b a s e d on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . M o s t o f a l l , work c o u l d be f u n , c h a l l e n g i n g , -and c r e a t i v e ! T o .be known as work .i-n k i n d e r g a r t e n , t h e c h i l d was g e n e r a l l y e n g a g e d i n a s p e c i f i c t a s k t h a t l e d t o a t a n g i b l e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . Some t y p e s o f p l a y were work as were c r e a t i v e a r t p r o j e c t s . In d i s c u s s i o n s and s t o r y - t i m e - t h e c h i l d was b u s y a t o r a l and l i s t e n i n g work w h e r e t h e o u t c o m e b e n e f i t t e d b o t h h e r s e l f and o t h e r s . As t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e c l a s s r o o m p r o v i d e d a r a n g e o f c h o i c e among j o b s and a s s i g n m e n t s . A l l were d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e c h i l d i n t o p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y , f o r i t was b e l i e v e d t h r o u g h a c t i o n t h e c h i l d l e a r n e d . W i t h i n l i m i t s , s h e c o u l d d e c i d e when, how, and what t o work on 61 at any pa r t i cu la r t ime. Some classrooms expected the ch i l d to select a balanced program over the course of a week; others allowed free choice based so le l y on her self-determined in terests and needs. Most h ighly, valued in the kindergarten worker was a pos i t i ve a t t i tude toward. new experiences, a w i l l ingness to do something to the best of her a b i l i t y . E f fo r t was a pr ized a t t r i bu te . Idleness and negativism were discouraged. Once busy on a task, the c h i l d was encouraged to work to an adequate standard of completion - adequate in terms of her a b i l i t y and the level of d i f f i c u l t y of the job. Therefore, two maxims acted as guides to the kindergarten c h i l d . F i r s t , choose something to do with your t ime, and give i t your best. Second, f i n i s h what you have s ta r ted . While the c h i l d was learning how to work cons t ruc t i ve ly , she was i n te rna l i z i ng a work s ty le that could carry her through school l i f e and poss ib ly into future employment. S k i l l s essent ia l to the successful app l ica t ion of th is work s ty le were openly fostered by teachers. Such s k i l l s included how to: l i s t e n , minimize -d is t rac t ions , fo l low d i r ec t i ons , s i t s t i l l , clean up af ter yourse l f , problem-solve, and make choices. A well-equipped kindergarten ch i l d had acquired a set of work habits ,that freed her to approach any school job in a rout ine , at-ease s t y l e . In t ime, the ch i l d worker was guided to become a ' s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t member of her classroom community' (TABLE VI (3) ) . At th is level of performance she was able to work independently, to make decis ions about her school program (her work), and to take care of hersel f and belongings. S e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and resourcefulness were key t r a i t s . 62 Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , th is ch i l d no longer needed a master or boss, symbolized by the teacher, to t e l l her what to do and how to do i t . She was able to get on with the business at hand without d i s t r a c t i o n , unease, or dependency. A b i l i t y to 'work without adult help, without teacher superv is ion, with less d i rec t ion from the teacher, alone' (TABLE V I , ( 2 ) , (8),(6) and (7)) was viewed as the epitome of good worker behaviour. So essent ia l were these worker t r a i t s for learning at school , the teachers gave them top ins t ruc t iona l p r i o r i t y . Without them, a ch i l d was poorly prepared for the formal academic emphasis that lay ahead in grade one. L i s t en ing , s i t t i n g s t i l l , and concentrat ing on a task were viewed as synonymous to good learning s t y l e . Knowledge at school (beyond kindergarten) most f requent ly came through teacher ta lk and c h i l d pract ice at seatwork. By focussing on th is worker metaphor, i t was possib le to see the f i t between working and school ing; and working and learning in a pa r t i cu la r way. The ch i l d was being readied to f i t into the p reva i l i ng pattern of the school system. The ch i l d 'unseen' could in return be v ic t im ized by the omissions of th is metaphor. 63 FOOTNOTES 1 D. E. Denton, Ex i s t en t i a l Ref lec t ions on Teaching (Massachusetts: The Christopher Publ ish ing House, 1972), p. 22. 2 A. Foshay, "Curriculum Ta lk" , in Considered Act ion For  Curriculum Improvement, ed. A. W. Foshay (Washington: ASCD, 1980), p. W7~ 3 M. Black, Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and  Philosophy (New York: Cornel l Un ivers i ty Press , 1962), p. 41. 64 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A v is ion of the t yp i ca l kindergarten ch i l d represented in the teachers' own report card slogans was interpreted and discussed in Chapter IV. Commonsense assumptions about the- ch i l d shared by one group of teachers were i l luminated through slogan c lus te r ana lys is , performed both d i sc re te l y and compositely. Further r e f l ec t i on with the teachers on the interview experience i t s e l f provided ins ights into report ing to parents. This chapter summarizes conclusions and impl icat ions based on both the teachers ' view of the ch i l d and the i r view of repor t ing. F i r s t , conclusions on the teachers' meanings about the ch i l d embodied within report card language are discussed with spec i f i c emphasis on impl icat ions for inserv ice education. Secondly, impl icat ions of the teachers' perceptions of report ing are examined. TEACHERS' MEANINGS ABOUT THE KINDERGARTEN CHILD A report card i s a publ ic document, a statement of what is held educat ional ly and s o c i a l l y valuable by members of the school community. Language used by teachers on report cards is selected from the universe of possib le language to convey meaning about student performance -meaning based on soc ia l l y - va lued at t i tudes and a t t r i bu tes , and school knowledge. >By choosing to comment on pa r t i cu la r aspects of the c h i l d ' s 65 soc ia l /emot ional development, the kindergarten teachers portrayed se lec t i ve meanings about the c h i l d , those most valued in school . It was no accident , therefore, that the c h i l d ' s se l f -con f idence , p o s i t i v e , happy a t t i tude , soc ia l s k i l l s , and work habits were singled out for comment by the teachers. These caption the i r taken-for-granted assumptions about what is important in a person, a c i t i z e n , and a worker who i s preparing to take her place in school l i f e and eventual ly adult l i f e . The teachers were inducting the ch i l d ren , perhaps unknowingly, into a soc ia l s t ructure that they accepted as given - the norms, ru les and code of school as an i n s t i t u t i o n . Their language embodied the t rad i t ions and customs of that point of view. Dai ly i t was leg i t imized and perpetuated through the communications and in teract ions car r ied on in the normal course of events. The teachers were busy reconstruct ing the accepted soc ia l r e a l i t y ; busy ac t i ve l y maintaining the school 's status quo. 1 Committed to g iv ing the ch i l d the best possible s t a r t , the kindergarten teachers acted as agents in the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l i z a t i o n into the p reva i l i ng myths and cer t i tudes of the school se t t i ng . Apple and King in a s im i la r study, described kindergarten as "a c r i t i c a l momemt in the process by which students become competent in the ru les , norms, values and d ispos i t ions 'necessary' to funct ion within i ns t i t u t i ona l l i f e 2 as i t now e x i s t s . " This induction process manifested i t s e l f in two ways for the teachers: meanings about the ch i l d as student and p a r a l l e l meanings about the c h i l d ' s kindergarten curr icu lum. 66 To begin with the l a t t e r , the kindergarten curr iculum was organized to cater to the c h i l d ' s substantive in terests while teaching the at t i tudes and s k i l l s defined as essent ia l to get t ing along success fu l l y at school ( i . e . to f i t t i n g into the system). Important school knowledge included: how to mix with others f a i r l y and co-operat ive ly and how to work at a task in order to complete i t on one's own. Within these two dimensions, specia l modes of behaviour were ' taught ' : for example, how to s i t s t i l l and l i s t e n ; how to clean up af ter onesel f ; how to share and take turns. The curr iculum did not mean cer ta in ' f a c t s ' to be learned as much as cer ta in at t i tudes and behaviours to be acquired, i . e . to make a happy adjustment to the classroom as i t ex is ted . One teacher summed up the soc ia l adaption process thus ly : "...maybe at f i r s t i t ' s playing along, but gradual ly they might acquire those behaviours and i t might become part of t he i r behaviour without th ink ing about i t . . . l i k e at f i r s t i t does take some persuasion with some ch i ldren and then a f te r , I think i t does become more genera l ized. Because, although i t may not be na tu ra l , at leas t they ' re t ry ing and they r ea l i ze that there are some norms in the classroom so they do have to get a long." A c r i t i c a l fac tor in reaching the curr iculum goals was the c h i l d ' s w i l l ingness to pa r t i c ipa te eagerly ana en thus ias t i ca l l y in a c t i v i t i e s . Resistance or passiveness by the ch i l d thwarted the teachers' attempts at s o c i a l i z a t i o n . It was desireable that the ch i l d adjust happi ly and move on into grade one ou t f i t t ed for formal school work. Through pa r t i c i pa t i on in kindergarten, the ch i l d gradual ly learned the meaning of student. As she adopted cer ta in expected behaviours, the 67 ro le of student emerged. A student l i s tened to her teacher, sat s t i l l , looked af ter her own th ings, solved problems, made dec is ions , and kept busy. Teachers reported on her achievement in these areas and planned a c t i v i t i e s to fos te r t he i r development. A 'good' student could work independently on sel f -chosen tasks and demanded l i t t l e specia l at tent ion from her teacher. Competing with th is view of the ch i l d as soc io -cu l tu ra l being - as student - was the equal ly important image of the ch i l d as unique i nd i v i dua l . Steeped in the i r ear ly childhood h is to ry , the teachers supported the specialness of^each c h i l d . The in terests and needs of the ch i l d were endorsed over the in terests of an external ly- imposed curr iculum of pre-determined content and s t ruc ture . Through the medium of the c h i l d ' s favour i te experiences, the socia l /emot ional curr iculum embodying soc ia l s k i l l s and work habits proceeded. Ind i v idua l i t y was preserved by al lowing the ch i l d to se lec t cer ta in tasks over others; to work at her own pace and l e v e l . Sel f -conf idence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n were seen as personal necess i t ies for surv iv ing in the school se t t i ng . A fundamental tension loomed between the teachers' meanings about the na tura l l y happy, unique c h i l d and her meanings about the c h i l d at school , as student. Their quest to help the ch i l d adapt p o s i t i v e l y (become soc ia l i zed) into the norms of school and the i r quest to contr ibute to the c h i l d ' s on-going natural development stood in suspension with one another. Whose needs does the teacher choose to serve: the system's, or the c h i l d ' s ? How does she best negotiate the 68 personal meanings of the world brought to school by the ch i l d and the dominant soc ia l meaning of the schooling i ns t i t u t i on? For the c h i l d , can invention and c rea t ion , hallmarks of a s e l f - f u l f i l l e d i n d i v i d u a l , co -ex is t with conformity and s tandard izat ion, hallmarks of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e ? And what of the subordination of c o l l e c t i v e l i v i n g to the primacy of i nd i v idua l i t y? Does r i g i d adherence to soc ia l ru les and norms breed t ru l y l ibera ted human beings who f ind meaning and purpose in what they do? Faced with the dilemma of reconc i l ing the humanly personal needs of her students with the pressures of the system, the teacher appeared to be suspended in the tensions between school ing and personal meaning, school knowledge and personal knowledge. Some f e l t the anxiety of the dilemma: human freedom up against ' f i x e d ' soc ia l r e a l i t y . One teacher had recognized the problem: "To be honest with you, my vengeance on the system is teaching kindergarten. I t ' s my vengeance on the system because I cringe at what I see and what I hear going on often in other grades. The reason I decided to come back and teach kindergarten, was hopeful ly I could give them a year when they f e l t good about themselves and at least knew what they were capable of doing and could fee l 'I love school and I love to come and I'm okay as a person ' , and ' I 'm ABLE. I can do. I'm okay ' . " Another teacher was l e f t with a quest ion: "Why does i t sound l i k e we're t ry ing to f i t the ch i l d into the system? I always thought I was doing the opposi te, f i t t i n g the system to the c h i l d . " Caught in the i r 'dai ly routines the teachers authenticated the dominant point of view, t ransmit t ing to the ch i l d the cu l tu ra l meanings 69^ most appropriate for l i f e in that soc ie ty . Yet the promise of soc ia l change and transformation was evidenced in the tension some expressed as anger or confusion over the i r purpose in teaching kindergarten. By examining meanings embedded wi th in the i r own taken-for-granted language on report cards, these teachers began to more f u l l y understand the sense of the i r da i l y school l i ves with ch i l d ren . For an i n t e r v a l , a state of wide-awakeness was experienced that appeared to open them to c r i t i c a l , new questions and de l ibe ra t ions . IMPLICATIONS FOR INSERVICE I f teachers do not bracket the i r own basic assumpt ions. . . , they do more than transmit unquestioned a t t i t udes , norms and b e l i e f s . They unknowingly may end up endorsing forms of cogni t ive and d i spos i t i ona l development that strengthen rather than chal lenge ex is t i ng forms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l oppression. Commonly accepted de f i n i t i ons about work, p lay, achievement, i n t e l l i gence , mastery, f a i l u r e , and learning are s o c i a l l y constructed categories that carry with them the weight of spec i f i c in teres ts and norms. To ignore th is important notion is to re l i nqu ish the p o s s i b i l i t y for students and teachers a l i ke to shape r e a l i t y in an image other than the one that is s o c i a l l y prescribed and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y l eg i t ima ted . 3 Assumptions that normally might have gone unnoticed . were brought into quest ion, made problematic in order to be tested .and in terpre ted. Fami l ia r slogans were found embedded with mul t ip le meanings and images about the c h i l d . By i so la t i ng the taken-for-granted slogans used as l i n g u i s t i c too ls in report ing to parents, teachers' shared meanings became v i s i b l e . A l l were able to see the i r view of the ch i l d in the slogans and meanings i d e n t i f i e d . 70 The kindergarten teachers' experience in in terpret ing the i r meanings is captured in comments recorded during the interv iews. Examination of the i r experience ra ises suggestions for i nse rv i ce . ' I n s e r v i c e ' , for th is purpose, is defined as 'planned experiences that ass is t teachers in gaining c r i t i c a l understanding of the i r commonsense meanings ( i . e . assumptions, b e l i e f s , values) that guide da i l y p rac t i ce . ' Three examples of such inserv ice a c t i v i t y fo l low. Each is i l l u s t r a t e d with selected quotations va l ida t ing the teachers' experience. ( i ) The Interview Experience: An Inservice A c t i v i t y When c l a r i f y i n g and va l ida t ing the researcher 's in terpretat ions of the slogan/meaning c l u s t e r s , the teachers were engaged in thoughtful r e f l ec t i on on the i r own experience. Pa r t i c i pa t i on in th is a typ ica l task freed them to pause and consider past experience, to test the i r stored meanings against the slogans. Dialogue with the researcher helped c l a r i f y in terpreta t ions that did not make.sense to them. Examples were often provided in order to j u s t i f y t h e i r meanings about the c h i l d . The ta lk that was shared between teacher and researcher was grounded in a tang ib le , concrete funct ion ( i . e . report ing to parents) that had purpose for the teachers. Through re f l ec t i on and t a l k , slogan t yp i f i ca t i ons and meanings were affirmed or changed for the pa r t i c i pan ts . Searching for her meaning of 'eager learner ' (MATRIX F ( 4 ) ) , one teacher i l l u s t r a t e d th i s ' ou t - loud ' r e f l e c t i v e process: It impl ies more cerebral use of - rather than a mere enjoyment of whatever i t is and then forget i t , on to something e l s e , 71 but the use or reuse or use in a d i f fe ren t way of that s k i l l . Learner to me implies a re -us ing . So that i f a ch i l d is interested in a science experiment and never speaks about i t again, and never uses that in another a c t i v i t y , in another context, then I wouldn't c a l l that c h i l d an eager learner. I'd c a l l that ch i l d a ch i l d who enjoys whatever you d i d . But learner implies re -us ing . (pause) For 'eager to l e a r n ' , what I mean is a c h i l d who can take something out of one context into another or use a s k i l l somewhere that he has learned in another pro ject . Another questioned the researcher about the use of a pa r t i cu la r phrase to describe the c h i l d ' s ' shar ing ' behaviour (APPENDIX E, MATRIX A ( 3 ) ) : Yeh, your las t phrase in there 'and serving o the rs ' ; what do you mean? It jus t sounded to me l i ke a fo l lowing phrase, not a c h i l d who is sort of standing up for the i r own i n d i v i d u a l i t y so much...I don't know i f I would go so far as putt ing that down as an assumption. Consequently, inserv ice programs which would provide teachers with time to r e f l e c t on the i r accumulated experience and compare i t to that of other teachers who share the i r in teres ts could help them f ind deeper meaning behind common words and ac t ions . Talk about the phenomena under examination appeared essent ia l in get t ing at personal and shared meanings. In th is case, slogans on report cards were s tud ied. S i m i l a r l y , other types of everyday language or t yp ica l classroom pract ices such as d iscuss ions , sand p lay, or reading exercises could provide a s ta r t i ng point to r e f l e c t i v e dialogue. Meaning embedded within each of these continues unnoticed unless teachers are inv i ted to bracket them, make them problematic for c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . Professional group meetings might o f fe r a vehic le for jus t such an inserv ice approach to begin. 72 (i i) A Study Of The Strange And Unfami l iar By pa r t i c ipa t ing in th is research, teachers engaged in an a c t i v i t y that placed f a m i l i a r , almost c l i che phrases used by them in repor t ing , in the realm of the unfami l ia r . To make something 'strange and unfami l ia r ' means: to make the i m p l i c i t , e x p l i c i t ; to break throgh the commonsense world of everyday teaching l i f e . Therefore, th inking about the meanings about the ch i l d embedded within slogans was a 'new', 's t range' experience for the teachers. Seeing ' the i r own language in th is s t a r t l i n g context seemed to awaken new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , a renewed at tent ion was given to the slogans and meanings. The rout ine , t yp ica l outlook was for a short time placed in d i sequ i l i b r ium, requi r ing thought and d iscuss ion to r ea l i gn . Just as the whole experience generated conversation among the teachers, the researcher 's . meanings that did not f i t (or f i t poorly) with the teachers' i n te rp re ta t ions , generated the most extensive and in-depth d iscuss ions . Words appeared to ja r when they seemed strange and misrepresented the teachers' meanings: for example, ' r es i s tance , c o n f l i c t , peacefu l l y , laws, bossy' were removed from the meanings af ter lengthly examination as to why they did not belong. In general , i t was the unusual and the unexpected word, meaning, or question that challenged the teachers' ready-made de f i n i t i ons and prompted them to explore fu r ther . Examples of th is experience are captured in comments made by a var ie ty of teachers: I f i nd number 3 kind of strange, ' i s a group member whose re la t ionsh ips revolve around sha r i ng ' . I f ind very few 73 kindergarten ch i ldren whose re la t ionsh ips revolve around shari n g . . . . Yeh, I think sometimes ch i ldren do get, you know, af ter awhile they think i t ' s fun to share and then i t ' s not a chore, but I don't think that they would revolve around shar ing, 'serv ing others ' I don't know. I just can ' t s e e . . . . 'compl iant '? I can think of some ch i ld ren who 'show respect for people and property' who aren ' t compliant necessar i l y though. So, that word, I wonder about that word. But, I think b a s i c a l l y , most of the t ime, with most of the ch i ld ren that would f i t . I not iced one thing on here, 'minimal material waste ' , that I never even think of that approach I was th inking when I read i t . . . o h , l i k e they ' re not us ing, you know, l i ke when they cut a l i t t l e c i r c l e out of the middle of a whole sheet of paper, and then, cut a l i t t l e c i r c l e out of the whole s h e e t . . . . When they ' re at the art centre I never say anything about wasting the paper. Therefore, teachers may benef i t from some inserv ice a c t i v i t y that aims to unset t le the i r rout ine ways of making sense of the world. Experiences planned to challenge the i r ordered views could include elements of strangeness, surpr ise , c o n f l i c t or confusion. In theresolut ion of new questions and problems, a l te rna t ive points of view might be considered, y ie ld ing new, r e v i t a l i z e d patterns of i n te rp re ta t ion . Inserv ice , in th is form, would reach beyond the u t i l i t a r i a n focus of information-providing and rote implementation of a new mate r ia l , curr icu lum, or teaching st rategy. Instead, i t would provoke the realm of purpose, meaning ( i . e . assumptions, be l i e f s ) and values buried wi th in the deep structure of the teachers' school experiences. Experiences of th is kind would need to be ca re fu l l y selected to be relevant and real problems to the teachers concerned, such as an explorat ion of .th.e. rou t ine pract ices that make up 'the work per iod ' in k indergarten. 74 ( i i i ) Knowing One's Biography: An Inservice A c t i v i t y Challenged to question and va l idate the meanings about the ch i l d caught in the i r own language, the kindergarten teachers looked back into the i r personal h i s t o r i es for explanat ions. Stor ies about ch i ldren in the v i v i d , immediate past of classroom l i f e were offered as reasons why, or why not, meanings were true for them. In other words, meanings were legi t imated or modified by everyday, proven experience with ch i l d ren . When discussing the meaning for 'good pa r t i c i pa t i on in games, songs, and s t o r i e s ' (MATRIX' E) one teacher argued: . To me 'good pa r t i c ipa t i on in games, songs and s t o r i e s ' means that when I'm doing games or songs or s t o r i e s , they are pa r t i c i pa t i ng in them, at a level that is appropriate for them. So as far as I'm concerned, a level that is appropriate fo r 'X ' is the fact that when we're marching with instruments, he's got an instrument and he's marching and he won't say a word during group d iscuss ion , but when we get the instruments, he 's marching; when I'm reading a s tory , he's l i s t e n i n g ; when we're playing Punch ine l la , he's w i l l i n g to take his tu rn . For him, to me, tha t ' s 'good pa r t i c ipa t i on in games, songs and s t o r i e s ' . Thus through r e f l e c t i o n on experience, meanings are bu i l t up. S i m i l a r l y , they may be a l tered i f past experience is ca l led for th for re in te rp re ta t ion or reconstruct ion when a 'new' quest ion, a t t i t ude , or in terest is turned towards i t . This act ive reshaping, reth inking of past experience - t h i s transformation of .meaning - was best i l l u s t r a t e d by one teacher. On several occasions during .the interview she drew on s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l events in her past that had influenced her report card w r i t i ng . Each one had caused her to re f ine her meaning of repor t ing , .her meaning of the c h i l d as student. As she recounted them in 75 the interv iew, her biography was being re to ld in the l igh t of t h i s new quest ion; meanings embedded with report card slogans. Put another way, her present was a product of her past; in r e t e l l i n g her story the past was made access ib le again. Key experiences in her past were re to ld in the interview and made v i s i b l e to both hersel f and the researcher for examination. . On teacher t ra in ing But, I don't know why. I think i t ' s because we could never use 'curbing her emotions' or never say that when I f i r s t t ra ined in wr i t ing report cards. Always very carefu l of anything to do with report ing on emotions. . On her las t p r i nc ipa l My las t p r inc ipa l would not accept on a report card anything that you hadn't seen. You could ra re ly make an assumption. He said report ing was on what you saw. Not on what you would have l i ked to have seen. Not on what you think the ch i l d may be able to do. Not what you are hopeful he w i l l be able to do. And so he always wanted report ing in the past tense. . . then i t ' s defens ib le . I thought i t over a lot and I looked at repo r t s . . . I took his point to heart . . On another teacher 's report card And af ter I saw that , i t was in teres t ing how my own report ing changed because I started to use those phrases in a place where I may have said something negative before I was now saying 'he wasn't able yet to handle things on the playground by h i m s e l f . But somehow the 'not yet ' gives the parent and the ch i l d the fee l ing that that is something that w i l l happen, because tha t ' s a natural progression. It w i l l come next. In the case of th is one teacher, reaching back into her past experience brought her c r i t i c a l awareness as to why ' today' she assumed and behaved towards report ing on young chi ldren as she d i d . 76 Because teachers' personal h i s to r i es dramat ica l ly af fect the i r current thought and ac t ion , inserv ice that addresses the i r past bears cons iderat ion. Embedded wi th in the i r biographies are memories and t rad i t i ons that have been acquired through the t r i a l - and -e r ro r process of experience. It would seem that 'new', unproven mater ials and techniques would be required to prove themselves in l igh t of the teachers' tested recipes and be l i e f s about teaching and students. Inservice aimed at change, therefore, might benef i t from f i r s t involv ing the teachers in an explorat ion of the i r current , biographically-embedded approaches. Knowing the i r personal h is tory could f ree teachers to share points of s i m i l a r i t y and d i f ference with fe l low teachers; thereby i l luminat ing common meanings and places where discrepencies e x i s t . To ignore th i s past could lead to supe r f i c i a l a l te ra t ions in pract ice and a return to what worked in the past. Proposed changes ( i . e . new curr icu lum, innovative teaching s t ra teg ies) must make sense to teachers. It is w i t h i n , t he i r accumulated h i s to r i es that meaning is stored and made ava i lab le for re in te rpre ta t ion and change. IMPLICATIONS FOR REPORTING TO PARENTS In th i s study, meanings about ch i ld ren were defined in terms of a spec i f i c context , the school , and in re la t i on to a selected teaching funct ion - report ing to parents. In p rac t i ce , therefore, in te rpre t ive d iscussions about ch i ldren contained r e f l e c t i v e comments on repor t ing . To the teachers, the s ty le of report ing was chosen to respect the i r 77 meanings about the ch i l d and be l i e f s about school ing. One teacher summed i t up: "I think how the teacher fee ls about ch i ld ren ; how she handles the report ing process that is the most important th ing . " This f i n a l sect ion of Chapter V summarizes the teachers' perspect ive on report ing as a communicative func t ion . Commonsense ru les ( i . e . assumptions)- used by the teachers to guide the i r wr i t ten report ing pract ice are also h igh l igh ted. "How d i f f i c u l t i t i s to express what you r e a l l y do mean about a spec i f i c c h i l d . That 's been in the foref ront of what I 've f e l t a l l along in looking at a l l these d i f fe ren t phrases and what we r e a l l y do mean by them." This summative statement was made by one teacher and echoed by her col leagues as they re f lec ted on the slogans and mul t ip le meanings embedded within them. Typ i ca l l y , the slogans had been used to describe the c h i l d ' s socia l -emot ional progress without question as to the varied meanings they may evoke in the teacher(s) and/or parents. Act ing as t y p i f i c a t i o n s that categorized unique c h i l d a t t r ibu tes and behaviours under . -general ized statements, slogans were used .to communicate meaningful ly to parents. The teachers' experience in d iscussing the i r S/E slogans exposed the mu l t ip le , at times divergent, meanings that slogans embody. Unanimously, they remarked on the i r new ins ight : It does make you rea l i ze how many d i f fe rent ways the same thing can be in terpreted, by d i f fe ren t people. You r e a l i z e that parents can in terpret i t t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t l y . I think d i f fe ren t in terpretat ions of a phrase, looking at ch i ld ren in d i f fe ren t ways, cause you to tend to get stuck on looking at ch i ld ren in cer ta in ways . and those key phrases do rea l l y ' " so r t of go around in your head, you know. 78 . Well even looking at these, what one teacher means when she •says ' en thus ias t i c , eager a t t i tude towards school ' or even what I mean when I wr i te that on a paper, does the parent know what I'm ac tua l l y saying? that I'm meaning that they ' re , you, know, happy and pos i t i ve and - because as I read these I thought these explained an awful lot more than jus t the comments that were up here. . I t ' s incred ib le to me to read those phrases that are wr i t ten there, that I would never associate with the meaning of your dominant phrase. That r e a l l y h i t me. Gee, you mean, some teachers wri te that and mean that . I would never wri te that and mean that . If you've gotten that many in terpreta t ions out of i t , i f I'm wr i t ing i t , does some parent think that I mean something that I don't r e a l l y . Slogans held d i f fe ren t meanings for d i f fe ren t people. Indiv idual teachers found that they brought personal understandings to some slogans shared in common with the i r col leagues. Parents, they r e a l i z e d , as outsiders to the i r professional assoc iat ion would probably have novel , divergent meanings for the stock phrases that they assumed in da i l y d iscourse. If report cards were meant to communicate, then the teachers bel ieved the slogans required c l a r i f i c a t i o n and elaborat ion for parents. Parents were not f am i l i a r with the nuances of meaning kindergarten teachers intended when they wrote 'gets along well with others ' or 'works independent ly 1 . As the receivers of the communication, parents needed to be considered - t he i r assumptions about ch i l d ren , the i r meanings for school , and the i r values. Concern for the audience of the report ing procedure was a r t i cu la ted by the teachers: . And parents found the phrasing r e a l l y d i f f i c u l t to understand a lot of t imes. And th is is just for Engl ish-speaking people, never mind the Chinese-speaking people. 79 . And there are so many d i f fe ren t n a t i o n a l i t i e s , groups, immigrant peoples - they ' re not able and why should they fee l they should wr i te a report on the i r chi ldren, when they don't understand the language. It makes them fee l inadequate which is an a t t i tude you do not want to pro ject . And tha t ' s the problem with wr i t ing report cards to parents. You can put i t down thinking your way, and they interpret i t completely opposi te, depending on how they want to take i t . I think i t ' s important for us a l l to take a look at what we're saying and to l i s t e n to what the parents have to say. . .Because I may have a parent say, "Gee, when you said th is I thought you meant something e l s e " . Recognizing the challenge of communicating a mutually-understood message, the teachers advocated two report ing techniques: one, the parent-teacher conference, and two, commonsense rules to fo l low when wr i t ing report cards. Each is discussed in sequence in th is f i n a l sec t ion . The pr inted word on report cards was viewed as i nsu f f i c i en t in school-home communication about a c h i l d . To supplement or in some cases, to replace the wr i t ten report , a l l teachers conducted parent-teacher interviews ( i . e . conferences). "I fee l the most accurate way of get t ing across what you do mean i s by having parent-teacher interviews three to four times a year , " remarked one teacher. ' S t i l l another commented: " I ' d rather jus t see parents and ta lk to them from t ime-to-t ime during the year . " Accurate meaning and opportunity to t a l k , c l a r i f y , extend recorded comments ( i . e . slogans ) were offered as two important purposes for meeting with parents to discuss the c h i l d ' s school progress. Face- to- face contact , in add i t ion , allows immediate reso lu t ion to possib le misunderstandings between parent and teacher; allows the parent to t e l l . their ..stories about the c h i l d they know at home. Such personal 80 two-way communication creates a bond between the two par t ies most interested in the c h i l d ' s f i r s t year at school . Re f lec t i ve conversat ion, or t a l k , was seen as the primary means by which myst i fy ing slogans could be unpacked and elaborated in re la t i on to pa r t i cu la r ch i l d ren . In 'good' repor t ing , such ta lk was essent ia l to the teachers for th is reason: . Maybe some of these statements need a l i t t l e more qua l i fy ing when you put them on a report . Instead of saying 'he works independently' How does he work independently? Does he make up his mind what he wants to do? or is he able to just fo l low what you t e l l him to do? Qual i fy a l i t t l e more or e lse see them and explain i t . So there 's another helpful thing about conferences. You know you could ta lk about i f the parents r e a l l y understood what you meant by - rather than jus t assuming that , you know, when you wr i te something down and i t goes home there can be misunderstandings about the word you used. . Whereas i f you' re ta l k ing to a person, I fee l you can i l l u s t r a t e what you mean. I t ' s more s p e c i f i c . A l s o , i f the parent does not understand then you can take them, i f they ' re in the surroundings, the kindergarten room, and i l l u s t r a t e , show, demonstrate - what you mean. . . i t appears to s a t i s f y the parents more as w e l l . As well as you get the parents' point of view. They see a d i f fe ren t part of the ch i l d than you do. In r e a l i t y , however, conferences do not supplant the expectation for wr i t ten report cards. To minimize the degree of mis in terpretat ion around slogans and cloudy communication to parents, the teachers u t i l i z e d p r a c t i c a l , commonsense ru les when wr i t ing repor ts . These are summarized below with i l l u s t r a t i v e comments made by the teachers. Not meant to be a p resc r ip t i ve l i s t of gu ide l ines , they merely h igh l ight what was voiced as useful ' r u l es of thumb' by one group of teachers. 81 ( i ) Use Descr ip t ive Language Over Judgements About Chi ldren . In re la t i on to 'gain ing more confidence' I would describe i t on a report card by saying 'appears re luctant to speak in group s i t ua t i ons ; has d i f f i c u l t y deciding what centre to choose; appears to often not enjoy the movement-kind of a c t i v i t i e s and w i l l withdraw from the group s i tua t ion phys ica l l y and watch other ch i l d ren ; appears to observe the other c h i l d r e n . . . I would have put that , t ry ing to be descr ip t i ve versus the judgment of ' l ack ing conf idence ' . What I 've r e a l l y t r i ed to do, is to leave out the judgment and to be descr ip t i ve and to say what I r e a l l y mean to say. What I r e a l l y mean to say i s ' the ch i l d phys ica l l y withdraws from the group' , without adding, ' t hey ' re insecure ' . I have r e a l l y t r i e d , l i k e on th is las t set of report cards, to describe the behaviour and leave the in terpreta t ions up to them. Just to accurately describe the behaviour and forget the 'Good a t ' , 'Bad a t ' , and I f ind i t very d i f f i c u l t to do. Slogans, in th i s teacher 's view, could have the power of a label that through careless and prolonged use was seen as po ten t i a l l y damaging to the c h i l d . Detai led descr ip t ion was offered as an a l te rna t ive to misrepresentat ion through l a b e l l i n g . ( i i) Phrase Report Card Comments ' P o s i t i v e l y ' I t ry very hard not to be negative but to make the comment in a pos i t i ve way. Keep i t in a pos i t i ve vein because the ch i l d is progressing on an uneven developmental course tha t ' s completely normal Not a continuum that goes exact ly up, but i t goes up-and-down and stops. And tha t ' s why my report cards are r e a l l y pos i t i ve . And some grade one teachers fo l lowing might say, "Helpl Why does she have to be so pos i t i ve?" But i f you s tar t being r e a l l y c r i t i c a l and putt ing down a kindergarten c h i l d , there goes the i r whole concept of themselves before they even get s ta r ted . And kindergarten is supposed to be a place that is fun, and a...place .where they get to know the other ch i l d ren , and fee l comfortable and a good s ta r t ! 82 Avoiding negative language allowed the teachers to portray the c h i l d ' s strengths to the parents and thereby preserved the option for future c h i l d growth. A negative comment was seen as an i nde l i b l e mark on the c h i l d ' s record, one to be prevented from premature l a b e l l i n g , ( i i i ) Avoid Value-Laden Language I was jus t wondering why you used the word ' compl ian t ' . Compliant is a word whose meaning is sort of M-O-U-L-D-I-N-G, ( laughter ) . Do you know what I mean, moulding? And i t was s l i g h t l y j a r r i ng when I read i t . . . . On 'asser t herse l f with o the rs ' : c a r e f u l , that may be a way of sof t pedal l ing the fact they ' re bossy and can ' t take the i r tu rn . ...I think I might say ' w i l l i n g ' rather than ' p e a c e f u l l y ' . You know, l i ke a ch i l d who's w i l l i n g to t ry another a c t i v i t y . I t ' s not Gung Ho. eagerness, but, you know, they ' re w i l l i n g to give i t a t r y . Peacefu l ly jus t seems to suggest, you know, sort of a p lac id acceptance to me. To the teachers, such emotionally-charged words were to be avoided as they appeared to provoke and to channel communication negat ive ly . Use of such words also cast the teacher 's value system up against that of the parents. To use a word l i ke 'compl iant ' was a much more d i rec t c r i t i que of the ch i l d than 'ag reeab le ' , a word that can be interpreted both p o s i t i v e l y and negat ive ly . F a c i l i t a t i n g communication was as important as being spec i f i c to the degree of using narrow, cont rovers ia l ad jec t i ves . ( iv) Communicate In P l a i n , Jargon-Free Language I t ry to use language that I know the parents in the area I teach in would understand. 83 . You know I understand the reason parents don't understand sometimes - I may say "more at tent ion needs to be paid to d e t a i l " and the parent w i l l say, "Does that mean he's messy, 'cause he's messy at home." Yes, i t means he's messy. . The big word 'behaviour' hasn' t been u s e d . . . i t seems to be a nasty no, no, espec ia l l y i f you say, "Your ch i l d doesn't know how to behave." "He h i ts so-and-so." But I'm not a f ra id of using that i f I r e a l l y fee l i t ' s necessary to use i t , I use i t . In order that parents as lay persons, would understand the messages on report cards, the teachers attempted to se lec t vocabulary that was straightforward and pub l i c . At t imes, that meant r i s k i ng d i rec t (value-laden) language such as 'messy' over the professional slogans endorsed by the school environment. Simple, c lear terms str ipped away the lack of c l a r i t y and went d i r e c t l y to the meaning. Parents, some, thought, preferred th is type of report ing s t y l e ; i t was seen as less threatening or po ten t i a l l y a l i ena t i ng . Slogans on report cards were used by teachers to 'say something' to parents about ch i l d ren . By pa r t i c ipa t ing in th is study, teachers saw how the messages sent might vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those received. Slogans, taken-for-granted by teachers, could evoke a l te rna t ive in terpretat ions in parents. As stock phrases, slogans store mul t ip le meanings for teachers but also lend themselves to diverse in terpreta t ions by non-teachers. To encourage communication between parents and teachers, therefore, slogans stand in need of d iscussion and elaborat ion through conferencing and/or carefu l descr ip t ion and se lec t ion through wr i t ten repor t ing . 84 IN CONCLUSION For a b r ie f in terva l in the i r c o l l e c t i v e l i v e s , kindergarten teachers paused long enough to more f u l l y understand the i r meanings about ch i l d ren . Through bracketing of the i r own stock phrases ( i . e . slogans) on report cards, they played with a l te rna t ive meanings and c r y s t a l l i z e d some old and new assumptions about ch i l d ren , and, in f ac t , report ing to parents. Time and ta lk were v i t a l ingredients in th is experience. Not simply ta lk of 'maybe 's 1 , and 'should be ' s ' but ta lk of re levant , purposeful things in the i r l i v e s : kids and communication with parents. In the process, more' questions were ra i sed . What re la t ionsh ip ex is ts between the i r assumptions about ch i ld ren and da i l y classroom pract ices? Do other groups of kindergarten teachers hold s im i l a r meanings about chi ldren? What meanings about the ch i l d are embodied wi th in other types of commonsense school language: s ta f f room t a l k , journals and newslet ters, and professional meetings? As one looks into other grades, do the meanings change or remain the same? What is the students' view of teacher reporting? How do parents interpret slogans used on report cards? The answers to these questions pose problems for future research. They l i e in the study of the everyday commonsense world - the meaning-making of teachers and students. 85 FOOTNOTES 1 Based on the work of selected c r i t i c a l theor is ts : M. Apple and N. King, "What Do Schools Teach?" (1977); J . Anyon, "Socia l Class and School Knowledge" (1981); H. Giroux, "Towards a New Sociology of Curriculum" (December, 1979) and " C r i t i c a l Theory and Rat iona l i ty in Ci t izenship Education" (1980). 2 M. Apple and N. King, "What Do Schools Teach?", Curriculum  Inquiry, v o l . 6, no.4, ( 1977), p. 348. 3 H. Giroux, "Towards a New Sociology of Curriculum", Educational Leadership (December, 1979), p. 252. 86 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anyon, 3. " S o c i a l Class and School Knowledge." Curriculum Inquiry, v o l . 11, no. 1, 1981, 3-41. Aok i , T. In te res ts , Knowledge and Eva lua t ion : A l t e rna t i ve Approaches To  Curr iculum Eva lua t ion . Unpublished paper presented at the Summer Ins t i t u te for Teacher Educat ion. Burnaby, B . C . : Simon Fraser Un i ve r s i t y , 1980. Apple, M. and N. K ing . "What Do Schools Teach?" Curr iculum Inquiry, v o l . 6, no. 4, 1977, 341-358. B a r f i e l d , Owen. "Language, Evolut ion of Consciousness and the Recovery of Human Meaning." Teachers' Col lege Record, v o l . 82, no. 3 (Spring 1981), 427-433. Berger, P. and H. K e l l n e r . "Marriage and the Construct ion of R e a l i t y . " i n B.R. Cos in , et a l , eds. School and Soc ie ty . London: Routledge and Kegan Pau l , 1971, 23-31. Berger, P. and 7 . Luckmann. The S o c i a l Const ruct ion of R e a l i t y . New York: Anchor Books, 1967. Berger, P. and T. Luckmann. "Language and Knowledge i n Everyday L i f e . " i n A. Cashcian and E. Grugeon, eds. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1972, 66-70. B lack , M. Models and Metaphors: Studies i n Language and Phi losophy. New York: Corne l l Un ivers i ty Press , 1962. C i c o u r e l , A%V. and J . I . K i t suse . The Educat ional Decis ion-Makers. Ind ianapo l i s : The Bobbs-Mer r i l l C o . , I nc . , 1963. Cook, A. and H. Mack. The Word and the Thing: Ways of Seeing The Teacher. Grand Forks, North Dakota: North Dakota Study Group on Eva lua t ion , 1975. Denton, D.E. E x i s t e n t i a l Re f lec t ions on Teaching. Massachusettes: The Christopher Pub l ish ing House, 1972. Edelman, M. "The P o l i t i c a l Language of the Helping P ro fess ions . " P o l i t i c s  and Soc ie ty , v o l . 4,"noT 3, 1975, 295-310. E i sne r , E.W. The Educat ional Imagination. New York: Macmil lan Publ ish ing Co . , " Inc., 1979. 87 Esland, G. The Construction of R e a l i t y . Bletchley, Buckinghamshire: The Open University Press, 1971. Esland, G. Language and So c i a l R e a l i t y . Bletchley, Buckinghamshire: The Open University Press, 1973. Foshay, A.W. "Curriculum Talk." i n A.W. Foshay, ed. Considered Action for  Curriculum Improvement. ^ V i r g i n i a : Association for Supervision and Curriculum DevelopmeVit, 1980, 82-94. Giroux, H.A. "Toward a New Sociology of Curriculum." Educational  Leadership, vol.. 37, no. 3 (December, 1979), 248-253. Giroux, H.A. " C r i t i c a l Theory and Rat i o n a l i t y i n Ci t i z e n s h i p Education." Curriculum Inquiry, v o l . 10, no. A, 1980, 329-366. Goffman, E. "The Neglected S i t u a t i o n . " i n A. Cashdan and E. Grugeon, eds. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972, 75-77. Greene, M. Landscapes of Learning. New York: Teachers College Press, 1978. Hargreaves, D.H. "Reaction to La b e l l i n g . " i n M. Hammersley and P. Woods, eds. The Process of Schooling. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976, 201-207. Huebner, 0. "Toward a Remaking of Curricular Language." i n W. Pinar, ed. Heightened Consciousness. Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : McCutchan Publishing Company, 1974, 36-53. Huebner, D. "Cu r r i c u l a r Language and Classroom Meanings." i n to. Pinar, ed. Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconceptualists. Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Company, 1975, 217-236. Kellner, H. "On the S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Perspective of the Communicative S i t u a t i o n . " i n A. Cashdan and E. Grugeon, eds. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972, 78-84. Kilbourn, B. "World Views and Curriculum." Interchange, v o l . 11, no. 2, 1980-81, 1-10. Macdonald, J.B. "Theory - Practice and the Hermeneutic C i r c l e . " Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, v o l . 3, no. 2, 1981, 130-138. M i l l s , C.W. "Language, Logic and Culture." i n A. Cashdan and E. Grugeon, eds. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Keaan Paul, 1972, 59-65. 88 Morris, M. An Excursion i n t o Creative Sociology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. Natanson, M. "Introduction." i n A. Schutz. Collected Papers I. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1973, XXV-XLVII. Pierce, Joseph C h i l t o n . The Crack i n the Cosmic Egg. New York: J u l i a n Press, Inc., 1971. Pratte, R. "Metaphorical Models and Curriculum Theory." Curriculum  Inquiry, v o l . 11, no.A., 1981, 307-319. Rothe, P.O. Teacher Evaluation Comments Within Program Evaluation: An Analysis of Negotiation Structures. Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Evaluation Network Conference. Memphis, Tennessee: September, 1980. Schutz, A. The Phenomenology of the S o c i a l World. Translated and introduced by George Walsh and F. Lehnert. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1967. Schutz, A. "The Stranger: An Essay i n S o c i a l Psychology." i n B.R. Cosin, et a l , eds. School and Society: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Reader. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971, 32-38. Schutz, A. Collected Papers I. Edited and introduced by Maurice. Natanson. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1973. Schutz, A. Collected Papers I I . Edited and introduced by Arvid Broderson. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1971. Schutz, A. Collected Papers I I I . Edited and introduced by I. Schutz and A. Gurwitsch. The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1971. Strauss, A.L. "Language and I d e n t i t y . " i n A. Cashdan and E. Grugeon,. eds. Language i n Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972, 71-74. van Manen, M. "Languages of Deep Structure i n Curriculum Inquiry." in K. Reeder and D. Wilson, eds. Language, Culture, and  Curriculum. Vancouver, B.C.: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction (U.B.C.), 1978, 43-68. Wagner, H., ed. A l f r e d Schutz: On Phenomenology and S o c i a l Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. Werner, W. " E d i t o r i a l C r i t i c i s m i n C u r r i c u l a r Analysis." Curriculum • .-Inquiry, v o l . 10, no. .2, 1980, 143-154. 89 Werner, W. "An Interpretive Approach to Curriculum Implementation." i n K. Leithwood and A. Hughes, eds. Curriculum Canada I I I , ; Vancouver, B.C.: Canadian Association of Curriculum Studies and Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction (U.B.C.), 1981, 137-160. Werner, W. and P. Rothe. Curriculum Praxis: Doing School Ethnography. Edmonton: University of Alberta, Faculty of Education, 1979. Young, M., ed. Knowledge and Control. London: C o l l i e r MacMillan, 1971. 90 APPENDIX A C o p i e s o f B l a n k R e p o r t C a r d T y p e s P a r e n t - T e a c h e r I n t e r v i e w P u p i 1 1 s Name S c h o o l D a t e B i r t h d a t e S0CI0-EM0TI0NAL DEVELOPMENT COMMENTS A t t i t u d e t o w a r d s - o t h e r s ( r i g h t s and p r o p e r t y ) - s c h o o l - f a m i l y - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( p l a y t h i n g s , c l o t h i n g ) S e l f - C o n c e p t - d e p e n d e n c e upon a d u l t s - i n i t i a t i v e - s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ( a c c e p t s c r i t i c i s m , r e a c t i o n t o new s i t u a t i o n s ) - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n games, s o n g s , s t o r i e s P HYSICAL DEVELOPMENT G e n e r a l H e a l t h - e n e r g y l e v e l , e y e s i g h t , s p e e c h , h e a r i n g , e t c . M u s c l e D e v e l o p m e n t ( l a r g e & s m a l l ) - b a l a n c i n g , h o p p i n g , r u n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n - e y e / h a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n , h a n d e d n e s s , f i n e m u s c l e m a n i p u l a t i o n , • ( c r a y o n s , s c i s s o r s , c l o t h i n g ) I N T E L L E C T U A L DEVELOPMENT - c r e a t i v e u s e o f e q u i p m e n t - a p p r o a c h t o a c t i v i t i e s ( u s e o f t i m e , c o m p l e t e s a t a s k , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e , i n d e p e n d e n c e . 91 APPENDIX A • C o p i e s o f B l a n k R e p o r t C a r d T y p e s I N T E L L E C T U A L DEVELOPMENT ( c o n t ) C o n c e p t D e v e l o p m e n t - m a k i n g c o m p a r i s o n s - s e q u e n c i n g - s o r t i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g - number c o n c e p t s - s p a c e , d i r e c t i o n A u d i t o r y P e r c e p t i o n - rhymes - b e g i n n i n g s o u n d s - r e p r o d u c i n g s o u n d p a t t e r n s V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n - r e p r o d u c i n g p a t t e r n s - l i k e n e s s e s , d i f f e r e n c e s - r e c o g n i z i n g s y m b o l s L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t - v o c a b u l a r y - l i s t e n i n g and f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s - c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s - memory and r e c a l 1 - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n P l e a s e t e l l how y o u r c h i l d " r e p o r t s " a b o u t s c h o o l P a r e n t ' s S i g n a t u r e T e a c h e r ' s S i g n a t u r e 92 APPENDIX A C o p i e s o f B l a n k R e p o r t C a r d T y p e s O p e n - E n d e d A n e c d o t a l P u p i l ' s Name School Date 93 APPENDIX A C o p i e s o f B l a n k R e p o r t C a r d T y p e s C h e c k l i s t MARCH 'KINDERGARTEN EVALUATION A T T I T U D E : - T o w a r d s : s e l f o t h e r s A c t i v i t i e s : - u s e s t i m e w i s e l y - c a n o r g a n i z e - c o m p l e t e s a t a s k - p a r t i c i p a t e s and s h a r e s - l i s t e n s t o . d i r e c t i o n s GROSS MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT - b a l a n c i n g , r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g F I N E MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT - u s e . o f c r a y o n s , s c i s s o r s - e y e - h a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - s p e e c h - v o c a b u l a r y AUDITORY PERCEPTION - h e a r s r h y m e s - h e a r s l i k e n e s s e s a n d . d i f f e r e n c e s o f s o u n d s , w o r d s VISUAL PERCEPTION - s e e s l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f c o l o u r s , s h a p e s , p i c t u r e s , l e t t e r s of. t h e a l p h a b e t • - r e c o g n i z e s own name . - c a n r e c o g n i z e and name t h e l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t - c a n r e c o g n i z e and name t h e .. n u m e r a l s t o 12 NUMBER CONCEPTS - u n d e r s t a n d s t o more t h a n l e s s t h a n s o r t by s i z e , s h a p e , i s a b l e c o l o u r i s a b l e t o c l a s s i f y g r o u p s e c l o t h i n g , f o o d c a n c o u n t o b j e c t s c a n c o u n t by r o t e S a t i s f a c t o r y N e e d s . I m p r o v e m e n t 94 APPENDIX A C o p i e s o f B l a n k R e p o r t C a r d T y p e s C h e c k 1 i s t NI Y o u r 1. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. C h i l d -h a s l e a r n e d t o s h a r e , c o - o p e r a t e and h e l p o t h e r s . h a s d e v e l o p e d a c h e e r f u l a t t i t u d e w i t h h e r p i a y m a t e s . h a s l e a r n e d t o t a k e c o r r e c t i o n w i t h a m a t u r e a p p r o a c h . u s e s h e r own i n i t i a t i v e and i n d e p e n d e n c e . u s e s h e r t i m e p r o f i t a b l y . shows r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s and t h e i r b e l o n g i n g s . shows a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s , h a s l e a r n e d t o f o l l o w r o u t i n e w e l l , c a n f o l l o w a s e q u e n c e o f d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . a t t e n t i o n s p a n i s l e n g t h e n i n g . l i s t e n s a t t e n t i v e l y . c a n u s e s c i s s o r s e f f i c i e n t l y . c o n t r i b u t e s i n t e r e s t i n g l y and f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g o r a l d i s c u s s i o n s . p a r t i c i p a t e s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . i s l e a r n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e and p r i n t t h e a l p h a b e t . i s l e a r n i n g t o p r i n t numbers 1 - 10 and u n d e r s t a n d number c o n c e p t s . G G o o d S S a t i s f a c t o r y NI N e e d s I m p r o v e m e n t . S l o g a n s : P e r s o n a l A t t r i b u t e s SELF-CONFIDENCE S e l f - i m a g e Meanings: assumpt ions about the c h i l d 1. as an i n d i v i d u a l wi th a s t rong EGO, secure and s e l f - d i r e c t e d in most a c t i v i t i e s 2. as a c a u t i o u s , p r o t e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l 1n her r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th others 3. as a s o c i a l be ing whose i n t e r a c t i o n s wi th c l a s s m a t e s are c o n g e n i a l , p l e a s a n t and compl iant 4. as a f r a g i l e I n d i v i d u a l , v u l n e r a b l e in her r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th others 5. as a group member ab le to v e r b a l ly a s s e r t h e r s e l f wi th o thers 6 . as an i n d i v i d u a l whose personal s t r e n g t h is counter -dependent on the a t t e n t i o n / p r a i s e o f the teacher 7. as a r a t i o n a l BEING able to c o n t r o l her emotions and th ink through her problems (as an adu l t would) 8. as an e m o t i o n a l l y insecure i n d i v i d u a l needing the s t a b i l i t y of school r o u t i n e MATRIX 1 APPENDIX B Sample Mat r ices P a r e n t - T e a c h e r In terv iew Type S l o g a n s : Work H a b i t s DEPENDENCE upon a d u l t s INITIATIVE Meanings: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. as a l e a r n e r ab le to s t a r t and f i n i s h a s s i g n e d work wi thout teacher s u p e r v i s i o n 2. as a group member w i l l i n g to lead i n open, a d u l t - f r e e s i t u a t i o n s 3 . as a d e c i s i o n - m a k e r able to s e l f - s e l e c t a ba lanced program 4 . as a manager o f l i m i t e d and v a l u a b l e t ime , mot iva ted to turn time i n t o a u s e f u l product 5. as a c o n s c i e n t i o u s l e a r n e r , mot ivated to s e l e c t her own school work from a l i m i t e d number o f ass igned tasks 6. as a group member seeking autonomy, open e x p r e s s i o n over confinement in a group 7. as a group member able to work a l o n e , in i s o l a t i o n 8. as a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , outgo ing member of her c l a s s r o o m community 1 1 MATRIX 2 APPENDIX B Sample M a t r i c e s P a r e n t - T e a c h e r In terv iew Type GETS ALONG WELL WITH HER - CLASSMATES - TEACHER MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a s o c i a l be ing who a d j u s t s her behaviour to s u i t the r u l e s / n o r m s of her pr imary group (the c l a s s ) 2. i s a c l a s s member who n e i t h e r h i t s o thers nor harms t h e i r t h i n g s 3. i s a group member w i l l i n g to g i v e o thers equal  o p p o r t u n i t y and equal r esources to p a r t i c i p a t e 1. i s a group member whose r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e v o l v e around s h a r i n g ; and serv ing o thers 5. i s a s o c i a l be ing whose i n t e r e a t i o n s wi th o thers are c o n g e n i a l , p o l i t e and compl iant 3 2 1 3 2 2 3 3 7 2 5 2 1 5 2 6 MATRIX A APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s M a t r i c e s A-F 6000, CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCHOOL, WORK, SELF, OTHERS MEANINGS: assumptions about the ch i l d 1. is a "HAPPY" ind iv idual with an agreeable manner and pos i t i ve outlook in a l l s i tuat ions 2. is a wel l-adjusted personal i ty who appreciates a l l opportuni t ies to learn 3. is an indiv idual who approaches each assignment without resistance or con f l i c t (eg. peaceful ly) 4 . is a classroom member who does what she is told without complaining 5. is a classroom member who cheer fu l ly y ie lds to the rules and expectations of her classroom (and her teacher) 6. is a soc ia l being whose personal needs are met in care and service to others APPENDIX C MATRIX 8 S l 0 g a n / M e a n M 3 t r ^ c ^ t K : F A HARD-WORKING, CO-OPERATIVE AND DEPENDABLE STUDENT MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is an i n d u s t r i o u s group member who r e l i a b l y undertakes each requested task 2. i s a manager of l i m i t e d and v a l u a b l e t ime , mot iva ted to turn time into a u s e f u l product 3. i s a p roduc t ive worker committed to a f i n i s h e d job and minimal mate r i a l waste U3 ID i s a dependent l earner who must r e l y on knowledgeable a d u l t s (and peers) in order to p rogress i s a d i s c i p l i n e d learner who w i l l i n g l y pays a t t e n t i o n to o thers in order to progress is a team member who can be depended on to f o l l o w through on each task wi th l i t t l e or no a s s i s t a n c e MATRIX C APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s M a t r i c e s A-F SELF-CONFIDENT IN NEW SITUATIONS (ACCEPTS CRITICISM) MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is an i n d i v i d u a l with a s t rong EGO, secure and s e l f - d i r e c t e d in most a c t i v i t i e s 11 2. i s an e m o t i o n a l l y secure i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to r i s k f a i l u r e in o rder to learn 3. i s an i n d i v i d u a l capable of c u r b i n g her emotions and d i s c i p l i n i n g her behaviour to f i t s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e pat tern 4. i s a " g o o d - s p o r t " able to use feedback c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and reasonably to improve performance i s a group member ab le to v e r b a l l y asser t h e r s e I f wi th o thers i s an i n d i v i d u a l whose personal s t rength is dependent upon the a t t e n t i o n / p r a i s e of the teacher MATRIX D APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s M a t r i c e s A-F GOOD PARTICIPATION IN GAMES, SONGS, AND S l U H l t S ^ AND PLAY T 0 T A L MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e her r e s p o n s i b l e share towards the " g r o u p ' s " a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . put the group ahead of h e r s e l f ) 2. Is a s o c i a l b e i n g : e x t r o v e r t e d , t a l k a t i v e , c o n f i d e n t in groups 1s a s o c i a l being who s u c c e s s f u l l y adopts the "laws" and a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l pa t te rns o f her c l a s s r o o m i s an I n d i v i d u a l whose school success depends upon obeying the teacher and f o l l o w i n g the c lassroom r u l e s i s an i n d i v i d u a l complying wi th c lassroom p r a c t i c e In order to p lease her teacher 21 18 11 o MATRIX E APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s M a t r i c e s A-F WORKS INDEPENDENTLY AND USES OWN INITIATIVE MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a l e a d e r , ab le to s t a r t and f i n i s h her OWN, SELF-DESIGNED p r o j e c t s without adul t help 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to s t a r t and f i n i s h ASSIGNED work without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n 3. is a d e c i s i o n - m a k e r able to s e l f - s e l e c t a ba lanced school program (from ass igned tasks) 4 . is a group member able to work a l o n e , in i s o l a t i o n 5. is an i n d i v i d u a l seeking autonomy and open e x p r e s s i o n over conformi ty to the group 6. is a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t member of her c lassroom community 7. is an eager l e a r n e r , c u r i o u s about new school t a s k s / a c t i v i t i e s 8. i s a c l a s s r o o m member who handles a l l m a t e r i a l s and equipment mature ly and puts th ings away a f t e r used MATRIX F APPENDIX C Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s M a t r i c e s A-F 103 APPENDIX D Interview Schedule This phrase and i t s var ia t ions appeared frequent ly on the report cards. (a) This is how teachers say i t . This is what I think they mean. Look at what I think they mean, and see i f I am understanding them. How would you change the l i s t ? Do you agree? What would you add? Take away? Why? Do you hold any other meanings? Do any other meanings come to mind? Does th is cover everythi ng? A l te rna t i ve Questions: (b) Is the meaning you hold for i t captured in th i s l i s t ? If you wrote th i s on a report card, is there any other way you would be in terpre t ing the c h i l d ' s behaviour in the classroom? Would you have any other meaning in mind? Have I found the meanings, the understandings, the images that you have of the t yp i ca l 5 year old ch i ld? If you saw or wrote " t h i s " on a report card would these meanings come to mind? How would you in terpret th i s phrase? Weighting: Are there any meanings l i s t e d that are more s i g n i f i c a n t to you than others? Do you agree with th i s ordering? Repeat for a l l slogan c l us te r s . In your own words, what view of the c h i l d emerges from these things teachers have said about ch i ld ren and a l l the associated meanings? What is the composite view? Tne f i n a l view? Total view? of the Kindergarten ch i ld? F ina l comments, overa l l impression and re f l ec t i on ' on the in terv iew. GETS ALONG WELL WITH HER - CLASSMATES - TEACHER MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. i s a s o c i a l be ing whose i n t e r a c t i o n s wi th o thers are c o n g e n i a l , p o l i t e , and complaint 2. i s a group member w i l l i n g t o g i v e o thers equal  o p p o r t u n i t y and equal resources to p a r t i c i p a t e 3 . i s a group member whose r e l a t i o n s h i p s revo lve around s h a r i n g ; and s e r v i n g others 1. i s a s o c i a l being who ad jus ts her behavior to s u i t the ru les /norms of her primary group (the c l a s s ) 5. i s a c l a s s member who n e i t h e r h i t s others nor harms t h e i r things 13 10 10 o MATRIX A (REVISED) APPENDIX E Revised Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s Revised Mat r ices A-F (post p i l o t ) GOOD, CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCHOOL i WORK, SELF, OTHERS MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. i s a "HAPPY" i n d i v i d u a l with an agreeable manner and p o s i t i v e outlook in a l l s i t u a t i o n s 2. is an i n d i v i d u a l who approaches each assignment without r e s i s t a n c e or c o n f l i c t (eg. p e a c e f u l l y ) 3. i s a c lassroom member who c h e e r f u l l y y i e l d s to the r u l e s and expecta t ions of her c lassroom (and her teacher) 4 . i s a s o c i a l being whose personal needs are met in ca re and s e r v i c e to others 5. i s a c lassroom member who does what she is t o l d without compla in ing 6. i s a w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y who gets e x c i t e d and c u r i o u s about l ea rn ing MATRIX 8 (REVISED) APPENDIX E Rev ised Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s Revised Mat r ices A-F (post p i l o t ) A HARD-WORKING, CO-OPERATIVE AND DEPENDABLE STUDENT MEANINGS': assumptions about the c h i l d 1. i s a p r o d u c t i v e worker committed to a f i n i s h e d job and minimal m a t e r i a l waste 2. i s a manager of l i m i t e d and v a l u a b l e t ime, mot iva ted to turn time in to something u s e f u l 3. is a d i s c i p l i n e d person who w i l l i n g l y pays a t t e n t i o n to o thers in order to learn 1. is a team member who can be depended on to f o l l o w through on each task with l i t t l e or no a s s i s t a n c e 5. i s an i n d u s t r i o u s group member who r e l i a b l y undertakes each requested task 6. is a dependent person who needs knowledgeable a d u l t s (and peers) in order to learn MATRIX C (REVISED) APPENDIX E Revised Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s Revised M a t r i c e s A-F (post p i l o t ) SELF-CONFIDENT IN NEW SITUATIONS (ACCEPTS CRITICISM) MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. i s an i n d i v i d u a l with a s t rong EGO, secure and s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n m o s t a c t i v i t i e s (and w i l l i n g to seek cha l l enges ) 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to use feedback c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and reasonably to improve performance 3. i s an i n d i v i d u a l capable of curb ing her emotions and d i s c i p l i n i n g her behaviour to f i t s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e pat terns 4. i s an i n d i v i d u a l whose personal s t rength i s dependent upon the a t t e n t i o n / p r a i s e of the teacher 5. i s a group member able to v e r b a l l y asser t h e r s e l f wi th o thers 6. i s an emot iona l l y secure i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to attempt new exper iences MATRIX D (REVISED) APPENDIX E Rev ised Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s Revised M a t r i c e s A-F (post p i l o t ) GOOO PARTICIPATION IN GAMES, SONGS, AND SrUHILSy ANuHPOY MEANINGS: 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e her r e s p o n s i b l e share towards the " g r o u p ' s " a c t i v i t i e s is a s o c i a l b e i n g : e x t r o v e r t e d , t a l k a t i v e , c o n f i d e n t in groups i s a s o c i a l be ing who s u c c e s s f u l l y adopts the " laws" and a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of her c l a s s r o o m i s an i n d i v i d u a l whose school success depends upon obeying the teacher and f o l l o w i n g the c l a s s r o o m r u l e s Is an i n d i v i d u a l comply ing wi th c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e in order to p lease her teacher i s a group member who i n t e r a c t s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y w i th peers i . e . , s u p p o r t i v e , en joys s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o co 11 MATRIX £ (REVISED) APPENDIX E Rev ised S logan /Mean inq C l u s t e r s R e v i s e d M a t r i c e s A-F (post p i l o t ) WORKS INDEPENDENTLY AND USES OWN INITIATIVE MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a d e c i s i o n - m a k e r able to s e l f - s e l e c t from a ba lanced school program (from ass igned tasks) 2 . is an i n d i v i d u a l able to s t a r t and f i n i s h her OWN, SELF-DESIGNED p r o j e c t s without adul t help 3. i s a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t member of her c lassroom community 4. i s an eager l e a r n e r , c u r i o u s about new school task s / a c t i v i t ies 5. is a c l a s s r o o m member who handles a l l m a t e r i a l s and equipment maturely and puts th ings away a f t e r use 6. is an i n d i v i d u a l who is i n c r e a s i n g l y able to i d e n t i f y goa ls and work toward them with l e s s d i r e c t i o n from the teacher 7. i s a group member able to work a l o n e , in i s o l a t i o n 8. i s an i n d i v i d u a l able to s t a r t and f i n i s h ASSIGNED work without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n 9. is a bossy i n d i v i d u a l who needs group a t t e n t i o n 4 4 7 7 1 11 10 8 7 7 o MATRIX F (REVISEO) APPENDIX E Rev ised Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s Rev ised M a t r i c e s A-F (post p i l o t ) SELF-CONFIDENT IN NEW SITUATIONS (ACCEPTS CRITICISM) MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d * 6. i s an e m o t i o n a l l y secure i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n q to attempt new exper iences 1 . i s an i n d i v i d u a l with a s t rong EGO, secure and s e l f - d i r e c t e d in most a c t i v i t i e s (and w i l l i n g t o seek c h a l l e n g e s ) 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to use feedback c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and reasonably to improve performance 5 . i s a group member able to v e r b a l l y a s s e r t h e r s e l f wi th o t h e r s 3. i s an i n d i v i d u a l capable of c u r b i n g her emotions and d i s c i p l i n i n g her behaviour to f i t s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e pa t te rns 4. i s an i n d i v i d u a l who is becoming more secure and outgoing in group s i t u a t i o n s 1 11 1 1 2 4 '2 11% TABLE I MATRIX D * F o r a l l T a b l e s and M a t r i c e s ( A p p e n d i x F) t h e m e a n i n g s a r e o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' s i g n i f i c a n c e . C,M«, r, APPENDIX F FINAL S logan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A - F (TABLES I -VI) GOOD, CHEERFUL ATTITUDE TOWARDS SCHOOL, WORK, SELF, OTHERS MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. i s a "HAPPY" i n d i v i d u a l wi th an agreeable manner and p o s i t i v e outlook in most s i t u a t i o n s 6. is a w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y who gets e x c i t e d and c u r i o u s about l ea rn ing 3. is a c lassroom member who c h e e r f u l l y y i e l d s to the r u l e s and expecta t ions of her c lassroom (and her teacher ) 2. i s an i n d i v i d u a l who w i l l i n g l y approaches each assignment 4. i s a s o c i a l be ing who f e e l s good about he lp ing o thers 5. is a c l a s s r o o m member who does what she is t o l d wi th enjoyment TABLE II MATRIX B APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL Mat r ices A-F (TABLES I -VI) GETS ALONG WELL WITH HER - CLASSMATES - TEACHER MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a s o c i a l be ing whose i n t e r a c t i o n s with o thers are c o n g e n i a l , p o l i t e , and r e s p e c t f u l 2. i s a group member w i l l i n g to g ive others equal  o p p o r t u n i t y and equal resources to p a r t i c i p a t e 3. is a group member who shares and c o n s i d e r s o thers 4. i s a s o c i a l being who ad justs her behavior to s u i t the r u l e s / n o r m s of her pr imary group (the c1 ass) 5. is a c l a s s member who ne i the r h i t s others nor harms t h e i r th ings TABLE III MATRIX A APPENDIX F FINAL Sloaan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I - VI) GOOD PARTICIPATION IN GAMES, SONGS, AND S I O R I L ^ ANU PLAY MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d is an group member who i n t e r a c t s c o n s t r u c t i v e l y and happ i l y with peers ( i . s u p p o r t i v e , enjoys s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) is an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e her r e s p o n s i b l e share towards the " g r o u p ' s " a c t i v i t i e s 2. is a s o c i a l be ing w i l l i n g to t ry group a c t i v i t i e s wi th her c lassmates ( i . e . at her l e v e l ) is a s o c i a l being who s u c c e s s f u l l y adopts the r u l e s and a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l pa t te rns of her c l a s s r o o m 10 TABLE IV MATRIX E APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL Mat r ices A-F (TABLES I -VI ) A HARD-WORKING, CO-OPERATIVE AND DEPENDABLE STUDENT MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a p r o d u c t i v e worker committed to a f i n i s h e d job 10 2. i s a manager of l i m i t e d and v a l u a b l e t ime, mot iva ted to turn time into something u s e f u l 1. i s a c lassroom member who can be depended on to f o l l o w through on each task with l i t t l e or no a s s i s t a n c e 3. i s a d i s c i p l i n e d person who w i l l i n g l y pays a t t e n t i o n to o thers 5. J s an i n t e r e s t e d group member who r e l i a b l y undertakes each requested task 6. is a dependent person who needs knowledgeable a d u l t s (and peers) ( i . e . t h e i r help and a t ten t ion ) TABLE V MATRIX C APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL Mat r ices A-F (TABLES I -VI) WORKS INDEPENDENTLY AND USES OWN INITIATIVE MEANINGS: assumptions about the c h i l d 1. is a dec is ion -maker able to s e l f - s e l e c t a balanced school program (from ass igned tasks) 2 . i s an I n d i v i d u a l able to s t a r t and f i n i s h her OWN, SELF-DESIGNED p r o j e c t s without adul t help 3. is a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t member of her c lassroom community 4. is an eager i n d i v i d u a l , c u r i o u s about new school t a s k s / a c t i v i t i e s 8. i s an i n d i v i d u a l ab le to s t a r t and f i n i s h ASSIGNED work without teacher s u p e r v i s i o n 6. is an i n d i v i d u a l who is i n c r e a s i n g l y able to work with less d i r e c t i o n from the teacher 7. i s a group member ab le to work a l o n e , in i s o l a t i o n 5. is a c lassroom member who handles a l l m a t e r i a l s and equipment maturely and puts th ings away a f t e r use TABLE VI MATRIX F 7 7 APPENDIX F FINAL Slogan/Meaning C l u s t e r s FINAL M a t r i c e s A-F (TABLES I -VI) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055181/manifest

Comment

Related Items