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A comparative study of teaching typing skills on microcomputers Lindsay, Robert McDonald 1982

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TEACHING TYPING SKILLS ON MICROCOMPUTERS by ROBERT MCDONALD LINDSAY B. Comm., The University of British Columbia, 1960 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 © Robert McDonald Lindsay, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive c o p y i n g of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted b y the head of my department or by his or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood that c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , F a c u l t y of Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date: A p r i l 26, 1982 ABSTRACT A four week experimental study was conducted with 105 junior secondary students in four introductory typewriting classes of a large urban Vancouver school during the Spring semester of 1981. The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching the skill building compo-nents of typewriting speed and accuracy using either the microcomputer or the electric typewriter. The study also addressed the suitability of the microprocessor selected for typewriting instruction. Ten hypotheses were tested using a randomly selected treatment group of 32 students and a con-trol group of 73 students. The nonequivalent control group design modified by a time series design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963) was used. Two pretest and posttest speed and accuracy assessments were measured by instruments certified by a panel of typewriting experts and the results treated with analysis of variance and covariance statistical techniques. The experimental group used a custom-designed software program (Braun, 1981) which was essentially a copy of the skill building text material used by the control group. A student and teacher questionnaire was administered. The results failed to reject 9 of the 10 null hypotheses indicating that the microcomputer is as effective as electric typewriter in increasing student speed levels when factors of sex, age and class attended are considered, and as effective as the electric typewriter in increasing accuracy scores where age and class attended are involved. In the rejected hypothesis, significance at the p<.01 level indicates that males of the treatment group did not achieve error rates as low as either the control group males or the females in the treatment group. Recommendations for microprocessor design and areas for future research were based on the findings. - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS I. THE PROBLEM 1 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 3 Previous Research 5 Microcomputer Related Studies 6 Measurement of Typewriting Achievement 7 Methods of Teaching Typewriting 8 Scoring Procedures 9 Pacing 10 Sex Differences 11 Age, Class Size, Race 12 III. DESIGN OF THE STUDY 13 Population 13 Selecting the Sample 15 Research Procedures 17 Pilot Study 19 Main Study 19 Treatment Program Software 20 Treatment Program Hardware 22 Control Program 24 Instruments 25 Hypotheses 28 IV. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA 31 Definition of Dependent Variables 31 Definition of Independent Variables 32 Typewriting Speed 33 Typewriting Error Rate 34 Effect of Sex Upon Typewriting Speed 35 Effect of Sex Upon Typewriting Error Rate 38 Effect of Age Upon Typewriting Speed 42 Effect of Age Upon Typewriting Error Rate 43 Effect of Class Upon Typewriting Speed 44 Effect of Class Upon Typewriting Error Rate 46 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 48 Summary 48 Findings 49 Conclusions 53 Recommendations 53 Areas of Further Research 55 - ii i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 City of Vancouver, Project Areas, Percent of Population By Mother Tongue 15 2 Vancouver Secondary Student Enrolment September 30, 1980 15 3 Sample Characteristics 16 4. Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved By Group 34 5. Analysis of Variance of the Treatment Group In Terms of Speed Per Minute 34 6. Mean Error Rate Per Minute Achieved By Group 35 7. Analysis of Variance of Error Rate Per Minute of Treatment Group 35 8. Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved By Sex 37 9. Analysis of Covariance for Speed Using Treatment and Sex 38 10. Means of Errors Per Minute Achieved By Sex 39 11. Analysis of Covariance for Error Rate Using Treatment and Sex 40 12. Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved By Age 42 13. Analysis of Variance for Speed, Using Age 43 14. Mean Error Rates Per Minute Achieved By Age 44 15. Analysis of Variance of the Treatment Group by Ages in Terms of Typewriting Errors Attained 44 16. Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved By Class 45 17. Analysis of Covariance of Treatment Group by Class in Terms of Typewriting Speed Achieved 45 18. Mean Error Rates Per Minute Achieved By Class 46 19. Analysis of Covariance for the Treatment Group by Class on the Error Rate of Typewriting 47 - iv -LIST OF FIGURES Figure , Page 1 Speed performance in terms of means achieved by sex 37 2 Error rate per minute in terms of means achieved by sex 39 3 Male error means by class 41 - v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his gratitude to the members of his commit-tee, Dr. P. Braun, Dr. C.K. Curtis, and Dr. B. Mohan for their assistance in the preparation of this thesis. Also sincere appreciation is expressed to the Vancouver School Board for permission to involve their students and to use their facilities. Thanks goes to the teachers who so willingly gave their time to help the author in judging the instrumentation, C. Abrossimoff, S. Dunster, P. Hinton, J . Lanoville, and R. Peacock. Lastly this study would have been impossible without the help and coopera-tion of the teachers who volunteered their classrooms for the experiment, T. Ireland, D. Murray, and their chairperson, S. Minter. A very special thanks to them. The typescript was prepared by Angela Tremblay. Partial financial support for the project was provided through a grant from the Educational Research Institute of British Columbia. - vi -A C O M P A R A T I V E S T U D Y O F T E A C H I N G T Y P I N G S K I L L S O N M I C R O C O M P U T E R S I . T H E P R O B L E M Microcomputers are l i t e r a l l y i n v a d i n g the pu b l i c schools, and many schools are p i l o t i n g new programs on microcomputers. For instance, d u r i n g 1980, the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education placed 100 microcomputers i n v a r i o u s p u b l i c schools f o r pilot programs. Other j u r i s d i c t i o n s placed as many as 1000. Cases' i n point are the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium which oversees more than 1000 microcomputers since 1979, and the M i n i s t r y of Education i n A l b e r t a which plans to equip a total of 400 classrooms with 25 microcomputers each d u r i n g 1982. With such numbers be i n g t h r u s t upon the schools, i t is desirable to s t u d y the usefulness of microcomputers as educational aids or i n s t r u c t i o n a l support tools i n r e g u l a r classrooms. It was felt that a classroom which already featured a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y that could be easily t r a n s f e r r e d to a microcomputer would be suitable f o r a comparative s t u d y of the advantages of some of the features often touted as g i v i n g s u p e r i o r l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s , such as the p o s s i b i l i t y to immediately process and re i n f o r c e student responses. A n e a r l y ideal s e t t i n g f o r s u c h a s t u d y can be found i n a t y p e w r i t i n g classroom, because a micro-computer can perform nearly a l l the tasks of a t y p e w r i t e r . T h e r e f o r e , i t can be used to teach t y p e w r i t i n g - c e r t a i n l y b e g i n n i n g t y p e w r i t i n g . " The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was to compare the effectiveness of two methods of teaching t y p e w r i t i n g s k i l l s . The achievement levels of an experimental group, l e a r n i n g to type on microcomputers, were compared 2 with the achievement levels of students learning on electric typewriters. In addition, both teacher and student reactions were collected by the question-naire included in Appendix A. Student responses are recorded in the right margin. Specifically, the study examined two basic typewriting skill components, speed and accuracy, which result from a teacher-directed skill-building instructional sequence. The study addresses the following questions: 1. Is the microcomputer as effective a classroom instructional tool as an electric typewriter when conventional skill-building, teacher-directed, techniques are used? 2. Is the equipment which was selected for this study (the COMMODORE Models 2001, 4016 and 4032 with cassette tapes) suitable for teaching introductory typing when conventional, accepted teaching methods are used? Conventional methods of teaching typing refer to teacher-directed, timed drill and practice sessions which were only slightly adapted to take advantage of the special capabilities of the computer, such as comparing students' typed lines to correct lines, and calculating the typewriting speed automatically. 3 I I . R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E A r e v o l u t i o n as important as the i n v e n t i o n of p r i n t i n g is t a k i n g place i n N o r t h America i n d i c a t i n g that schools are a c q u i r i n g computer and micro-processor technology on a modest scale (Melmed, 1982). He indicates that 52,000 microcomputer and computer terminals are i n use i n the United States. S i m i l a r i l y , the present state of microelectronics technology has been l i k e n e d to that of o i l i n 1870 (Long, 1982). These novel technological innovations create new concerns, among the most c r i t i c a l i s "the i n a b i l i t y of lawmakers and sociologists to cope with what i s o c c u r i n g , because no one knows where to b e g i n " (Shane, 1982, p. 306). Other equally s t r a t e g i c decisions must address the following i s s u e s : 1. S t r i k i n g a balance between what is t e c h n i c a l l y possible u s i n g microelectronics and what is educationally desirable i n the classroom. 2. D e c i d i n g upon the amount, content, and q u a l i t y of the c u r r i c u l a to be stored e l e c t r o n i c a l l y and what i s to be used and i n what fash i o n . 3. S e l e c t i n g and t r a i n i n g of specialists i n p r o d u c i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs f o r the computer. 4. Reaction to p h y s i c a l demands of the new technology i n terms of p r a c t i c e time, techniques of k e y b o a r d operation, possible p h y s i o l o g i c a l 4 effects, and the redefinition of the teachers' role. Researchers are beginning to react to the issues created by this technology and its impact in the classroom (Malsam, 1982; Miller, 1982; Sturdevant, 1982; Zucker, 1982). Drill and practice computer programs providing individualized instruction in a variety of subject fields have been developed for large computers particularily in arithmetic and science. Since the microprocessor became available in 1975, little research for its use in the field of business education has taken place. Typewriting is the most popular business education course in terms of student enrolment, particu-larily the introductory course. How then, will the impact of the micro-computer effect the practices and methods in a typical typewriting class-room? The introduction of microcomputers into the secondary schools' curriculum is accelerating (see, e.g., B.C. Business Education Curriculum  Guide, 1979, p. I l l ; Collis & Mason, 1980; Taylor, 1981). The impact of this technology may need a re-examination and re-evaluation of instructional strategies, and an investigation of the assessment standards in vogue across North America (Reese, 1980; Simcoe, 1980; Wallace, 1981). Computing power is now within the grasp of even the smallest school budgets (Braun, 1979; Dewar, 1981; Drum, 1980; Dodds, 1977; Forrest, 1980; Tesch, 1980; Wishlow, 1980). Indeed, the implications of recent research on standards, strategies, and curriculum indicate that a re-exam-ination is starting (see, e.g., Bauman, 1980; Goodrich, 1979; Lesson, 1975; McMullan, 1982; O'Dell, 1979; Pritchard, 1982; Radin, 1979; Seidel, 1980; 5 Stocker, 1981; Talsky, 1981; Wolfrum, 1980). Since this study pertains to the teaching of typewriting, and does not include word processing, only the literature related to the utilization of microprocessors in typing classrooms is reviewed further. Previous Research While most agree that the growing popularity of the computer is altering educational concepts, research is currently failing to keep pace with the rapidly changing technology. An excellent historical review of the technological evolution of the computer was given by Pokrandt in an article published in 1981. However, no mention is made of the microprocessor. Similarily, in their review of the business classroom and laboratory equip-ment for the 1980's, Selden and Jorgensen (1981) omitted two major micro-computers, namely, (a) Apple II, and (b) IBM micro. Illustrating the rapidity of change, in a similar article one year earlier, Selden and Dilori (1980) made reference to the mini and standard computers only. Lower (1981) recognized a corresponding lack of curriculum and programs by lamenting the general absence of the essential software necessary to operate the microcomputer. Little research on using the microcomputer in a typing classroom is available with the exception of articles in periodicals, and reports of action research. This is also true in other areas of business education. Much of the research is centered on the minicomputer, paced learning, Computer-6 Assisted-Instruction (CAI), and any number of audio-visual technological marvels. Mosier (1975) pointed out that there is no research available which inhibits the use of the computer as an intructional medium. References to the scarcity of suitable curriculum materials and in-service teacher-training programs abound (Joiner, Miller, & Silverstein, 1980; Licata & Inzinga, 1981; Shane, 1982). This theme was echoed by Alexander (1981) who specifies five vocational business education areas which are barren of adequate instructional and training materials. Microcomputer Related Studies In the traditional teacher-directed typewriting classroom, experiments involving many combinations of audio and visual electronic gadgetry have been examined for impact upon the learner. Rosenbloom (1979) designed an audiovisual tutorial typewriting program with the concurrance of a panel of experts in order to assess its effect upon typewriting theory, production, speed and accuracy. He discovered no significant difference in the resulting scores between the control and treatment groups. Studies by Blitz (1972) and Jackson (1976), when comparing the effect of CAI to a programmed text approach, resulted in no significant difference in the methods of instruction upon student scores. In 1976, Shirey, found no significant difference between a treatment group using computer augmented instruction and traditional instruction. All of these studies indicate that CAI methods are as effective as those in the traditional teacher directed classroom. 7 The use of electronic keycharts or electronic wallcharts produced no significant differences in speed and accuracy between the treatment and control groups (Guyot, 1973; McKown, 1979; Shaffer, 1976). In the field of television and motion picture film loops, which also utilizes a video screen, research data is presented to confirm that these media are as effective as the conventional instructional techniques (Pasewark, 1956; Stein, 1958). Measurement of Typewriting Achievement The main components of typewriting ability according to A Teaching  Learning System For Business Education, (Popham, Schrag and Blockhus, 1975, p. 173), a leading teacher training text, are: 1. touch typewriting and the operation of machine mechanisms. 2. knowledge of word division, punctuation and spacing 3. straight copy speed and accuracy. 4. production ability. The phase of typewriting learning of this study is the third component, that of acquiring straight copy speed and accuracy. Straight copy speed and accuracy instruction involves considerable drill and practice. This aspect of a repetitious drill allows a program to be prepared which is especially suitable for use on the microprocessor; the computer being an inexhaustible instructional tool. Thus, the effective use of the 8 microcomputer is measured by the gain in straight copy speed and a corre-o sponding increase in straight copy accuracy. The measurement of a student's typewriting speed and resulting accuracy has long been established as a major factor in assessing the degree of typewriting skill achieved (DiLoreto, 1956; Ehley, 1970; Gades, 1967; Grubbs, 1956; Lemaster, 1962; Pasewark 1956; Redfern, 1969; Stearnes, 1977; Weise, 1975; West, 1975). Methods of Teaching Typewriting Popham, Schrag and Blockhus (1975) stated that the majority of introductory typewriting textbooks present the keyboard during the first 5 to 15 lessons of the course. Following the identification of the initial keyboard positions, reaches and strokes, an intensive practice period occurs. This is the skill building period during which the student focuses upon technique improvements, while progressively improving both stroking and reaching motions. It is during this period of typewriting learning that many repetitious straight copy practice drills are typed, varying in length of time from 1 to 3 minutes. This phase of increasing mastery of the typewriting skills is generally one month in duration (Popham et al. 1975, p. 174) and encompasses the main period of research for this study. 9 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s T h e r e has b e e n e x p r e s s i o n s of c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g the s c o r i n g of t y p e w r i t i n g speed a n d a c c u r a c y . T h e f ocus of c o n c e r n i s w h e t h e r to e x p r e s s the r e s u l t a n t speed a n d a c c u r a c y sco res sepa ra te l y or as a compo-s i te - a s i n g l e sco re e q u i v a l e n t of these two v a r i a b l e s . Compos i te s c o r e s r e s u l t i n numerous comb ina t ions w h i c h a r e d i f f i cu l t to compare f rom one s t u d y to a n o t h e r . L e s s e n b u r y a n d C r a w f o r d (1952) d e v i s e d a composi te sco re b a s e d u p o n I n te rna t i ona l T y p e w r i t i n g Con tes t R u l e s , w h i c h i s i n use t o d a y . H o w e v e r , West (1975) s u g g e s t s " A l w a y s sco re sepa ra te l y f o r speed and q u a l i t y of w o r k . N e v e r e x p r e s s the two i n a s ing le composi te s c o r e " ( p . 2 6 ) . T h i s po in t of v iew has r e c e i v e d p o p u l a r s u p p o r t i n the tenet " M e a s u r e s of g r o s s s t r o k i n g speed have h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y e v e n in v e r y s h o r t t e s t s " (West , 1975, p . 3 0 ) . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s ( G a r r y , 1967; L o n g , 1977; T r a n q u i l l , 1965; Weise, 1975) s u g g e s t e d i n s u p p o r t of West , that the two sepa ra te s k i l l s to be measu red a r e : 1. speed as d e f i n e d b y g r o s s words 2 . p e r c e n t of a c c u r a c y T h u s , w h e n c o m p a r i n g one s t u d y to a n o t h e r , the v a r i a b l e s of g ross speed 10 and percent of error are best kept separate to avoid confusion when analyzing results. West (1975, p. 26), when describing typewriting assessment, has generally noted, "For all tests of a given kind, hold constant: test length, test difficulty, test instructions; and condition of equipment. Otherwise, one cannot attribute a change in score from one occasion to another wholly to a change in skill". Pacing Various researches failed to support the hypothesis that a form of self or group pacing of learning was a more effective speed and accuracy builder than the conventional classroom methods (Collings, 1979; Sherrill, 1975; Tranquill, 1965). However, Dupras, (1973) using an Automated Touch System, a multi-media, individualized approach achieved significance at the .05 level on the speed scores of the treatment group. Accuracy was not significantly different. The use of the computer terminal for teaching typewriting has been researched. Early terminals were teletypewriters. Sydow (1975) discovered that the teletypewriter terminal was a great motivator for both the typewriting students and their teachers. He recommended that the students be introduced to the teletypewriter after the keyboard positions were learned. 11 With the present technology the terminal in use today is the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), often referred to as a Video Display Terminal (VDT). While the radiation levels associated with this technology has occasioned concerns (Wallersteiner, Galbraith & Green, 1981), Stocker (1981) suggested that any keyboarding technology which does not include a CRT would be outdated. Hills (1980, p. 9) observes that "... we are all going to need to be able to operate keyboard terminals...". These studies indicate that a microprocessor must be operated in conjunction with a video screen. Sex Differences The variable producing the most conflicting findings concerns the sex of the students and the resulting typewriting speed and accuracy scores. As early as 1923, Bennet suggested that girls type more than boys but that their accuracy is the same as for the boys during the first 35 hours of instruction, or approximately one third of the course curriculum. Garry (1967) stated that girls typed consistently faster than boys at the same grade level. Error means were not significantly different. Lauderdale (1971) observed that females appeared to be more accuracy oriented than males, while the males appeared more speed oriented than their female classmates. Dupras (1973) found that girls typed faster than boys and that accuracy was not related to sex. Cook (1973) observed that females are more successful than males in beginning typewriting. In summary, the majority of the findings indicated that females were more successful than males where speed was concerned. 12 Age, Class Size, Race Age is another factor which r e s u l t e d i n d i v e r g e n t f i n d i n g s . One point of view i s that older students t y p e more r a p i d l y than younger students of the same sex ( G a r r y , 1967). However, Blume (1978) ob s e r v e d that the grade l e v e l enrolled had no effect i n terms of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n gross words per minute t y p e d . There was also no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifference between three and f i v e minute s t r a i g h t copy tests on gross words per minute or i n e r r o r percentages. The size of the class i n which the student i s enrolled made no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e upon the student's r e s u l t i n g t y p e w r i t i n g speed or a c c u r a c y (Good, 1970). T h i s s t u d y examined class sizes r a n g i n g from 61 students to classes with fewer than 26 students. F i n a l l y , race was not s i g n i f i c a n t as a factor r e l a t i n g to speed or a c c u r a c y (Bennet, 1923). In conclusion the l i t e r a t u r e a s s i s t s i n d e f i n i n g the problem by c l a r i f y i n g a series of related factors f o r r e s e a r c h e r s to i n v e s t i g a t e . In the f i e l d of b u s i n e s s education a h i s t o r y of examination of emerging technology i s e v i d e n t , with the microprocessor b e g i n n i n g to be an object of s t u d y . Methods of t y p e w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , i t s measurement and s c o r i n g are suggested b y p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . Factors of sex, age, class s i z e , produced d i v e r g e n t conclusions. 13 I I I . D E S I G N O F T H E S T U D Y T h i s s t u d y was designed to generalize the f i n d i n g s to a target population comprising the t y p e w r i t i n g students enrolled i n i n t r o d u c t o r y t y p i n g classes i n Vancouver. The 55,539 students i n V a n c o u v e r are ur b a n dwell e r s . A s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 1, sev e r a l national and ethnic groups are rep r e s e n t e d , with E n g l i s h as the mother tongue of 70 percent of the popula-t i o n . V a n c o u v e r with a population of approximately 500,000 people is the lar g e s t c i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the center of an u r b a n region contain-i n g 61 percent of the p r o v i n c i a l population. Population E r i c Hamber Secondary School, i n Vancouver, was selected f o r the s t u d y as i t was one of two Vanco u v e r secondary schools organized into semesters, e n r o l l i n g a heterogeneous student population of 1745. U s i n g a semestered school ensured d a i l y t y p i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and the optimal use of the microcomputers. The students are representative of the Vanco u v e r pop-ulation (see Table 1). The school a t t r a c t s students from a l l communities w i t h i n the c i t y , but s p e c i f i c a l l y from the Shaughnessy and South Cambie areas. Hamber Secondary School e n r o l l e d 247 students i n T y p e w r i t i n g 9 classes which were organized into two semester groups of 119 students 14 during the fall term and 127 students during the spring term. 1 This represents nine percent of the 2692 Vancouver students enrolled in beginning typewriting courses during the 1980-1981 school term. Vancouver secondary school enrolment is illustrated in Table 2. The ages fell between 14 and 15 years. While the school is located in an upper middle class district, enrolment is open to students from other areas of the city. The school has extensive vocational education facilities, and for this reason it appeals to many vocationally-minded students. The typewriting instruction and classroom environment at Hamber were as one would normally expect a modern type-writing laboratory to be. There appeared to be nothing in the physical setting of the study which might impinge on its generalizability to other typing classes in the Greater Vancouver area. 1 Other secondary schools in the greater Vancouver region were considered. They were rejected for the following reasons: 1. insufficient project population 2. non-semestered secondary school 3. lack of electric typewriters in the typing laboratory 4. high incidence of non-English mother tongue population 15 Table 1 City of Vancouver, Project Areas, Percent of Population By Mother Tongue Language Vancouver Shaughnessy South Cambie English 70.0 87.0 73.0 French 1.5 .9 2.5 German 3.3 2.0 2.8 Italian 2.6 .4 .2 Chinese 7.8 3.2 6.7 Indo-Pakistani 1.5 .2 1.2 Other 13.3 6.3 13.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 Figures obtained from 1976 census Table 2 Vancouver Secondary Student Enrolment September 30, 1980 8 9 10 Grade 11 12 S pecial Total 4224 4404 4815 4877 4600 1773 24693 Figures obtained from the Vancouver School Board Selecting the Sample The 127 students enrolled in Typewriting 9 were taught in four sections of about 32 students each. In order to minimize experimental mortality, a 16 number of students with a record of absenteeism in the typing classes were excluded from the sampling. Other exculusions included students with prev-ious typewriting instruction and students recently immigrating to Canada. Students with a history of four or more absences during the first twenty school days would be more likely to drop out as the course progressed. Recent immigrants to Canada may not be experienced in receiving instruc-tions in the English language. Students with prior typewriting experience are at significantly different speed and accuracy levels than are the begin-ners and may progress in dissimilar stages. Twenty-two students were excluded from the study for these reasons. The remaining 105 students were assigned to experimental and control groups using a table of random numbers. A summary of the sample is presented in Table 3. Table 3 Sample Characteristics Enrolment Treatment Control Class Grade by Sex Exclusions Group Group 9 10 M F M F M F M F 1 27 5 17 15 1 5 6 2 10 8 2 29 4 9 24 2 4 4 4 3 16 3 24 7 9 22 0 6 4 4 5 12 4 29 2 9 22 0 4 2 6 7 12 109 18 44 83 3 19 16 16 25 48 127 127 22 32 73 Note: Exclusions based upon: Absenteeism Previous Experience Recent Immigrant 17 Research Procedures The non-equivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p.47) was modified to include aspects of a time series design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 37). The design can be represented by the following matrix: 01 x o3 o5 0 2 o4 o6 Letter '0' represents observations upon the project group. Letters subscripted with odd numbers represent observations of the experimental group, while the evenly subscripted letters are representative of control group observations. Letter 'X' represents the treatment. Both and 0 2 are pretests, the remaining observations are posttests. This design controls threats to interval validity from the effects of history, maturation, testing and instrumentation. A major threat to the internal validity of the study results from the interaction of selection and maturation. In controlling for this factor the aspects of the time series design assisted the researcher. The series of two posttests would assist in controlling this variable (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 41). An additional threat to validity, regression, is controlled by avoiding the selection of subjects presumed to have extreme scores (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p.5). Statistically, regression can also be controlled by analyzing the data using the method of covariance analysis (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 49). Since 18 there were four classes available and the students were randomly selected after excluding possible extreme students, the threat posed by regression was thus minimized for this project. An external threat to validity, the interaction of selection and treatment, was controlled by the fact that the computer had relatively narrow use in other school disciplines. Occasional use would be in a game format, probably at the student's residence, and would not require the strict physical sequences involved in the typewriting program. The Hawthorne effect (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 50) was somewhat controlled by the four week treatment period, during which time the novelty of being selected waned. The interaction of testing and the treatment was controlled by using the pretest instruments prior to notifying any student of the impending study (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 50). Additionally, the second posttest was one week following the termination of the treatment program and appeared unrelated to the project as classroom testing is a daily routine. Finally, external reactive effects of the treatment were minimal as the project group did not have access to the project classroom except during their respective instructional periods. 19 Pilot Study A pilot study was conducted at Steveston Senior Secondary School in Richmond, a suburban area of Vancouver. As a consequence of this study, the computer program to be used by the experimental group was modified to include specific instructions for: (a) loading the typewriting program into the computer, and (b) running the typewriting program. These directions are included in Appendix B. In addition, several ideas for the introduction and presentation of the project to the teachers were compiled and are also included in the Appendix C. As a result of the pilot study, the student directions were attached to the top of the computer screen for operational reference. Main Study The research study followed accepted classroom practice contained in the provincially prescribed curriculum guide and standard, authorized, text-books. For example, Farmer, Graham and Jenkins (1977) suggest a sequencing method for teaching typewriting. Exercises should develop: (a) the touch location of the alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic keys, (b) skills of increasing speed and a corresponding accuracy, (c) simple center-ing, (d) business letters, (e) statistical tables and so forth. This sequence is supported by Rowe, Lloyd and Winger (1977) in their text, Typing 300. 20 The time required for building the skills of speed and accuracy varies from two to six weeks after the initial alphabetic keyboard locations have been introduced. Based on the experience of the researcher and the project teachers, a four week period was selected to provide time for the acquisition of a reasonable initial skill in both components. The project teachers were well qualified and experienced business education teachers. Each teacher had a Bachelor of Education degree and had completed a program which included business education methods and curriculum. Treatment Program Software The treatment program consisted of computer skill building exercises based upon Rowe et al. (1977) theories of repetitious letter, word and sent-ence sequences. The software was designed to be flexible enough for teacher alteration or possible change of lesson plan while paralleling the actual lesson. ^  The computer program consisted of three modes. Mode 1 contained three sub-sections: (a) pretest, (b) practice, and (c) posttest. This mode was designed to enable the student to type pretest material containing 2 A program suitable for the task was developed with, the assistance of Dr. Peter Braun, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia from materials supplied by Mrs. Patsy Hinton, Business Education Department Head, John Oliver Secondary School, Vancouver, B.C. 21 one dominant letter of the alphabet for periods of one or two minutes. Following this, students typed material from the practice sub-section which stressed the dominant letter contained in the pretest. During the typing of this sub-section of Mode 1, the student strived to type each line without error. Following this practice section the pretest was retyped and the results automatically compared to the original. At the conclusion of the three sections of Mode 1 the student received a message on the CRT which included the following: (a) the typing speeds of the pretest and the posttest, (b) the number of errors typed during the pretest and posttest displayed separately, (c) the number of error free lines typed during the practice sub-section, and (d) a short message of encouragement, as supplied by the project teachers and based upon the attained levels of speed and accuracy. A listing of these messages is included as part of the software in Appendix D. Mode 2 of the computer program enabled the student to type a single line of text below a model line appearing on the CRT. This line recurred automatically and as frequently as required by the student. This mode was designed to assist the student to master a specific letter stroke by pro-viding a repeated drill. In this mode the number of perfectly typed lines was recorded and appeared on the CRT. Mode 3 of the typing program is referred to as the free mode, in that any text material may be typed as a drill . This mode was particularily use-ful during the warm up drills at the beginning of each lesson. It was also 22 useful as the student was able to practice material which was not included in the data banks of the program. This mode of the program was designed to caluculate and visually present the following information: (a) the num-ber of lines typed, based on a 40 stroke line, (b) the speed of the student typing the drill, and (c) a short message of encouragement from the project teacher. The experimental group was notified and met with the researcher in class groups during the first day of the study in order to familiarize them with the operations of the computer. The three instructional modes were explained at this time. A discussion of the purpose of the study began, however, no mention of a comparison with the control group occurred in order to avoid factors which jeopardize the internal and external validity of the study. Treatment Program Hardware To compare the effectiveness of microcomputers as a teaching device in typewriting classrooms, one should ideally equip a classroom partly with microcomputers and partly with electric typewriters. All other conditions of the typing laboratory can then be held constant for both the experimental group working on the micros and the control group working on the elec-tronic typewriters. Due to financial limitations only eight microcomputers were available for experimental purposes. Conti Electronics Ltd., a retailer in Vancouver, supplied eight 23 Commodore PET microcomputers and tape drives for the duration of the study. Three models were supplied: (a) five model #4016 (16K), (b) two model #2001 (32K), and (c) one model #4032 (32K). Several physical problems were encountered using this configuration: 1. The tape drives took four and one half minutes to load the pro-gram whereas, disk drives accomplish the task in thirty seconds. This problem was outlined by Brown (1981). 2. The computer keyboard locations of numbers and special characters needed to be modified, making it comparable to the electric type-writer's keyboard. 3. Accidental striking of the RUN/STOP key, located near the letter 'p' erased the entire program from the memory of the computer, causing a reloading wait of four and one half minutes. This key was eventually dis-abled, rendering the computer's internal clock inoperable. 4. Valuable memory storage space was claimed during the reprogramming made necessary in solving problems 2 and 3. 5. Reprogramming the software to overcome operational problems increased its length to approximately 16K, thus limiting the encouragement messages suggested by the project teachers. This was a major problem using model #4016. 24 6 . On o c c a s i o n , a d i s c e r n a b l e time lag be tweeen the k e y s t r o k e and the a p p e a r a n c e of the l e t t e r on the C R T c a u s e d c o n f u s i o n fo r the s tuden t o p e r a t o r . 7 . T h e h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e t o u c h of the compu te r k e y b o a r d was a major p r o b l e m . T h e s l i gh tes t t o u c h on a k e y wou ld r e g i s t e r . 8 . T h e m ic rocompu te r model used i n bo th p r e p a r i n g the so f tware p r o -g ram a n d d u r i n g the pi lot s t u d y had an i n t e r n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of 3.2 B A S I C . A l l of the l eased pro jec t models were 4 .0 B A S I C . T h e p r o g r a m s a re not immedia te ly i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . A compu te r ma l func t i on r e s u l t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t day of s t uden t o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n t r o l P r o g r a m T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p fo l lowed the same i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequences as the t rea tment g r o u p excep t these s t u d e n t s u s e d the r e g u l a r e l ec t r i c t y p e w r i t e r to deve lop t h e i r s p e e d a n d a c c u r a c y s k i l l s . T h e i r t y p i n g mater ia l was in p r i n t e d f o r m , bu t e x a c t l y the same as the tex t mater ia l f o u n d i n the compute r ' s memory b a n k s . C o n t r o l g r o u p s t u d e n t s had to p r o o f - r e a d al l of t h e i r e x e r c i s e s and h a d to ca lcu la te t he i r speed and a c c u r a c y s c o r e s . When c e n t e r i n g e x e r c i s e s or b u s i n e s s l e t t e r s were i n c l u d e d as par t of t h e da i l y l e s s o n the t rea tment g r o u p r e t u r n e d to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t y p e w r i t e r s . T h i s was on l y occas iona l l y a n d wou ld not exceed f i f t een m inu tes i n d u r a t i o n . It o c c u r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t imes pe r week . 25 Instruments The pretests and posttests consisted of instruments designed to measure speed and accuracy. These instruments were selected from Rowe and Etier's (1967) supplemental drill and practice text. The material, which is included in Appendix E is similar to the provincially prescribed texts. The straight copy, narrative or manuscript form of material is most common-ly used during one, two, or three minute sustained timed writings. This material was presented to a panel of five typewriting experts for comment regarding its suitability for use in this study. The instruments were cer-tified as appropriate. The questions which were presented to this panel are contained in Appendix F. It is common practice to supply a marking code consisting of a word count on this form of instrument. One word consists of five typing strokes. Thus letters of the alphabet, numbers, special characters, space bar or shift keys and punctuation marks are regarded as a keystroke. The total number of words typed is stated at the end of each line and a running score is presented in columnar form on the right of the narrative. Addi-tionally, a sequential word count is horizontally displayed at the base of the copy. Total words typed are easily calculated by the student. The administration time of each pretest and posttest was two minutes. This was a reasonable interval for typing tests for students with only one month of typing instruction (Typewriting Resource Manual, 1979). The time interval was increased to three minutes for the posttests as the students 26 progressed to longer sustained timed instruments after an additional month of instruction. Each of the instruments used in the study contained 180 words. Since the study was conducted during the initial phase of the students' type-writing career it was felt that this length of instrument is satisfactory, and is supportable by its use in other researches (Typewriting Resource  Manual, 1979, pp 8 - 12). An analysis of Typing 300, (Rowe et al., 1977), the typing text used in the project classes, indicated that the students were typing material which had a syllabic intensity (SI) of 1.15. This indicates that there are 1.15 syllables, on the average, in every five strokes typed by the students. The greater the syllablic intensity, the more difficult it is to type. While this SI level is classified as fairly easy, the material is suitable for the novice typist. The Typewriting Resource Manual, (1979) indicated that the SI of typed material should increase as students advance in their course work. The pretest instrument had a syllabic intensity of 1.17; the posttest instrument had a SI of 1.19, taking into consideration the expected increase in student skills. The Flesch (1951) readability or level of difficulty of written materials was applied to the instruments. The resulting readability scores indicated that readability was not a factor in student achievement. 27 The pretest and posttest instruments were administered to the students in a format similar to the usual speed and accuracy instruments contained in the regular text (Rowe, et al., 1977) and related materials. All tests were administered on the electric typewriter. Students scored their results and submitted their test copy to their teacher. Typewriting speed is calculated by dividing the total number of words typed by the length of testing time (Farmer, et al., 1977). For example, a student typed 43 words during a two minute test and the resulting score is 21.5 words per minute (43 - 2 = 21.5). Accuracy, however, is determined according to the total number of identifiable errors typed or omitted by the student. Identifiable classifi-cations of errors which generally occur during any typewriting task are included in Wong's (1971, p. 68) composite list. Categories of inaccuracy are: 1. Capitalization - omitted or superfluous 2. Doubling of small words or syllables within a word 3. Letters - omitted or superfluous 4. Misspellings 5. Punctuation - omitted or superfluous 6. Spacing - incorrect, omitted or superfluous spacing between letters, words, lines, or paragraphs 7. Substitutions 28 8. Transpositions - of letters and words * 9. Type face - wrong kind or type of face 10. Words - omitted This composite listing, generated by Wong (1971) from four authors, was applied by the researcher in an unambiguous manner to identify student errors on the pretest and posttest instruments. Hypotheses 1. There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on micro-computers and the typewriting speed of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 2. There is no significant difference between the error rate scores of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on micro-computers and the error rate scores of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 3. There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting speed of male students receiving four 29 weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 4. There is no significant difference between typewriting error rate scores of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the error rate scores of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as meas-ured by straight copy tests. 5. There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting speed of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 6. There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting error rate scores of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 7. There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using micro-computers and the typewriting speed of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of 30 skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 8. There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting error rate of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 9 . There is no significant difference'between the typewriting speed of students belonging to different classes as measured by straight copy tests. 10. There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of students belonging to difference classes as measured by straight copy tests. The elements of design summarized in this chapter described the target and sample populations, how the sample was selected, its characteristics, and which research designs were selected to conduct the study. This section also described the pilot and main studies and the components of its hardware and software (terms are defined in Appendix 6). Treatment and control group procedures are described in detail. A description of the instruments involved and scoring procedures used are outlined. The presentation of 10 testable hypotheses conclude the chapter. 31 I V . A N A L Y S I S A N D I N T E R P R E T A T I O N O F T H E D A T A The data consisted of scores for the speed and the error rate per minute achieved by the treatment and control groups in each of four classes. Thirty-two students comprised the treatment group that received typewriting instructions for one month on the microcomputer. The control group consisted of seventy-three students who received the same typewrit-ing instructions on the electric typewriter. Since instruction was given in four sections of Typewriting 9, eight students from the treatment group received the same instructions during any particular class period as their corresponding eighteen peers belonging to the control group. The measurement of individual words per minute and the number of errors per minute were recorded between February 26, 1981, and April 8, 1981. The speed testing occasions are referred to as SI, S2, S3, S4, rep-resenting the dates of February, 26, 1981; February 27, 1981; April 1, 1981; and April 8, 1981, respectively. The associated error measurement scores are referred to as E l , E2, E3, E4, respectively. Definition of Dependent Variables Two measures constituted the dependent variables: 1. Speed. A person's typewriting speed is generally measured in "words per minute". A word is defined as having an average of five key-strokes. Thus, a standard 60 character line contains twelve words. 3 2 In a three minute timed test, the number of five character fields typed is divided by three to obtain the average measure of words per minute. 2. Errors. The total count of errors made during the three minute timed test is divided by three to obtain the average errors per minute. Definition of Independent Variables Both the treatment and the control groups were analysed in a multi-factorial design using sex, age and class of instruction as independent variables. Students under fourteen and one half years of age were com-pared to the students above that age. Thus, younger students were com-pared to their older typewriting peers. Also, each class grouping was compared to each of the other classes in order to assure similarity of instruction in all classes. Pretest scores were used as covariates to control for possible existing differences in typewriting ability at the beginning of the treatment. The average speed per minute for each of the 105 students participating in the study was obtained from two tests administered on February 26 and 27, 1981. Two separate pretesting occasions were used in case some students were absent at one or the other testing occasions. Where two test scores were available, the average of the two was used as the best estimator of typewriting speed and error rate. A few students attended only one of the two testing sessions. For these, their single score was used in the subse-quent analysis of covariance. Similarily, the average error rate per minute 33 for each of the students who attended both of the pretesting sessions was calculated and used in all subsequent analyses of covariance which related to errors. Potential differences in level of achievement at the beginning of the study were controlled by using analysis of covariance. For this purpose, the two pretest scores, SI and S2, as well as E l and E2, were averaged and used as covariates in analysing speed and error differences. A three-factor analysis of covariance was performed to test for the effects of treatment, using age, sex, and class membership as independent factors. t a Typewriting Speed The hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on microcomputers and the typewriting speed of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests was tested. Unadjusted speed means are presented in Table 4 . F ratios for the analysis of variance of the adjusted treatment group speed means are given in Table 5 . The differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically significant. The findings fail to reject the null hypothesis. 34 Table 4 Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved by Group Group n Pretest S 3 s 4 Treatment 32 21.221 27.844 31.226 Control 73 20.845 28.361 31.085 Table 5 Analysis of Variance of the Treatment Group On Terms of Speed Per Minute Posttests F DF Mean 2 a Significance of F S3 0.491 1 8.271 0.485 S 4 0.046 1 0.875 0.831 sum of squares identical Typewriting Error Rate The second hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the error rate scores of students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction on microcomputers and the error rate scores of students receiv-ing four weeks of skill building instruction on electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests was tested. Unadjusted error rate means are presented in Table 6. F ratios for the analysis of variance of adjusted error rate means of the treatment group are given in Table 7. The 35 differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically significant. These findings fail to reject the null hypothesis. Table 6 Mean Error Rate Per Minute Achieved By Group Group n Pretest E 3 E 4 Treatment 32 2.208 2.097 1.821 Control 73 2.301 1.610 1.457 Table 7 Analysis of Variance of Error Rate Per Minute On Treatment Group Posttests F DF Mean 2 a Significance of F E 3 3.570 1 5.189 0.062 E 4 2.617 1 2.503 0.109 sum of squares identical The Effect of Sex Upon Typewriting Speed The following hypotheses were tested: There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using 36 microcomputers and the typewriting speed of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. There is no • significant difference between the typewriting speed of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting speed of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. The results of separating the groups by sex indicated that sex membership did not affect typewriting speed. Figure 1 demonstrates that both males and females in both the treatment and control groups had nearly identical learning curves, as measured by the pretest and posttest occa-sions. The exact means graphed in Figure 1 are given in Table 8. F ratios for the analysis of covariance of adjusted means are given in Table 9. The differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically significant. The findings failed to reject both null hypotheses. 37 35 30 25 f 20 r 19 co n t r o l females treatment males treatment females co n t r o l males Pre t e s t S3 S4 F i g u r e 1. Speed performance i n terms of means achieved b y sex. Table 8 Mean Speed P er Minute A c h i e v e d b y Sex Group n S1+S2 S3 S4 Treatment male female mean Con t r o l male female mean 16 16  32 25 48 73 20.766 21.219  20.993 19.620 21.422 20.845 28.250 27.437  27.844 26.833 29.125 28.361 31.333 31.125  31.229 28.958 32.170 31.085 38 Table 9 Analysis of Covariance for Speed Using Treatment and Sex F DF Mean^a Significance of F S3 Treatment 0.386 1 6.561 0.536 Sex 0.352 1 5.989 0.554 s 4 Treatment 0.001 1 0.006 0.986 Sex 0.136 1 2.618 0.713 a sum of squares identical The Effect of Sex Upon Typewriting Error Rate The following hypotheses were tested: There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the error rate scores of male students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the error rate scores of female students receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests. 39 E r r o r rate p e r minute i n terms of means achieved b y each sex is shown i n F i g u r e 2 and Table 10. 3.0 2.5 2.0 .1.5 + 1.2 t treatment males c o n t r o l males co n t r o l females treatment females Pre t e s t E3 E4 F i g u r e 2. E r r o r Rate per minute i n terms of means achieved b y sex. Table 10 Means of E r r o r s per Minute A c h i e v e d b y Sex Group n E1+E2 E3 E4 Treatment male female mean Co n t r o l male female mean 16 16  32 25 48 73 2.375 1.944  2.137 2.330 2.026 2.065 2.787 1.360  2.074 1.929 1.447 1.610 2.327 1.279  1.803 1.679 1.341 1.457 40 The data were organized according to treatment and sex and treated with the analysis of covariance, and illustrated in Table 11. Table 11 Analysis of Covariance for Error Rate Using Treatment and Sex DF Mean 2 a Significance of F Treatment Sex Treatment Sex 2.566 11.458 1.861 9.235 3.389 15.135 1.650 8.186 0.112 0.001 0.176 0.003 a sum of squares identical The effect of sex upon the treatment group's error rate was significant at the p < .01 level on both posttesting occasions. The findings rejected the null hypotheses. The results indicate that the males of the treament group did not achieve error rates as low as either the control group males or the females in the treatment group. In fact, their error rate increased from pretest to the first posttest time, then declined somewhat for the second posttest. Figure 3 illustrates the means of the male treatment group compared to those of the male control group. 41 While the control group showed the expected decrease in errors due to the practice effect, three of the four treatment sub-groups showed little im-provement in error rate. The fourth group went from a very low pretest error rate to a nearly four-fold posttest error rate, then recovered some-what on the second posttest. 4.3 -4.0 -3.5 -3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 -1.2 -1.1 -Class 1 Treatment Class 2 Treatment Class 4 Treatment 1 *~ — — Class 4 Control Class 1 Control Class 3 Control Class 3 Treatment \ Class 2 Control Pretest E3 E4 Figure 3. Male error means by class. Note: 1 Due to severe sample size 42 The Effect of Age Upon Typewriting Speed The hypothesis, there is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting speed of junior second-ary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as measured by straight copy tests, was tested. Unadjusted speed means for these students are presented in Table 12. F Ratios for the analysis of variance of adjusted means are given in Table 13. The differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically sig-nificant. Thus the findings failed to reject the null hypotheses. Table 12 Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved by Age Years of Age n Pretest So S Under 14.5 35 20.914 28.114 31.647 Over 14.5 70 20.836 28.246 30.868 43 Table 13 Analysis of Variance for Speed, Using Age F DF Mean 2 a Significance of F 5 3 0.008 1 0.138 0.928 5 4 0.465 1 8.811 0.497 a sum of squares identical The Effect of Age Upon Typewriting Error Rate The eighth hypothesis was tested: There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using microcomputers and the typewriting error rate scores of junior secondary students younger or older than fourteen and one half years of age receiving four weeks of skill building instruction using electric typewriters as meas-ured by straight copy tests. Unadjusted mean scores for error rates achieved are given in Table 14. F ratios for the analysis of variance of adjusted means are given in Table 15. The difference on the mean posttest scores are not statistically significant. The findings failed to reject the null hypothesis. 44 Table 14 Mean Error Rates Per Minute Achieved By Age Years of Age n Pretest E 3 E 4 Under 14.5 35 1.896 1.924 1.632 Over 14.5 70 2.261 1.675 1.528 Table 15 Analysis of Variance of the Treatment Group by Ages in Terms of Typewriting Errors Attained F DF Mean 2 a Significance of F E 3 1.868 1 2.762 0.175 E 4 0.737 1 0.719 0.393 a sum of squares identical The Effect of Class Upon Typewriting Speed The following hypothesis was tested: There is no significant difference between the typewriting speed of students belonging to different classes as measured by straight copy test. 45 Unadjusted speed means of these students are given in Table 16. F ratios for the analysis of covariance of the adjusted means are give in Table 17. The differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically sig-nificant. The study failed to reject the null hypotheses. Table 16 Mean Speed Per Minute Achieved By Class Class n Pretest s 3 s 4 1 26 20.721 27.920 30.917 2 27 19.911 26.071 28.778 3 25 20.850 28.800 31.000 4 27 22.038 30.192 33.885 Table 17 Analysis of Covariance of Treatment Group by Class in Terms of Typewriting Speed Achieved Sum of F Squares Mean 2 a DF Signif. of F s 3 Treatment 0.549 9.305 9.305 1 0.460 Class 1.162 59.066 19.689 3 0.328 S 4 Treatment 0.093 1.765 1.765 1 0.761 Class 1.577 90.085 30.028 3 0.200 The Effect of Class Upon Typewriting Error Rate 46 There is no significant difference between the typewriting error rate scores of students belonging to different classes as measured by straight copy tests, is the final testable hypothesis. Unadjusted error rate means are given in Table 18. F ratios for the analysis of covariance for treatment and class are given in Table 19. The differences on the mean posttest scores are not statistically significant. Thus, the results fail to reject the null hypotheses. Table 18 Mean Error Rates Per Minute Achieved By Class Class n Pretest E 3 E 4 1 26 2.138 1.952 1.775 2 27 1.973 1.621 1.512 3 25 1.900 1.396 1.225 4 27 2.548 2.092 1.731 47 Table 19 Analysis of Covariance for the Treatment Group by Class on the Error Rate of Typewriting DF Sum of Squares Mean 2 a Signif. of F E 3 Treatment 3.499 Class 1 1.346 3 E 4 Treatment 2.675 1 Class 1.618 5.140 5.934 2.575 4.671 5.140 1.978 2.575 1.557 0.065 0.264 0.105 0.191 48 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Summary An experimental study was conducted with beginning typewriting students to investigate the effect of the microcomputer upon the students' speed and accuracy at the conclusion of a four week skill building period. The study compared the differences in the two skill components of speed and level of accuracy between students who practiced using a microcomputer and those who practiced using an electric typewriter. The study specifically addressed two questions: 1. Is the microcomputer as effective a classroom instructional tool as an electric typewriter when conventional skill building, teacher-directed, techniques are used? 2. Is the equipment which was selected for the study suitable for teaching introductory typing when conventional accepted teaching methods are used? The non-equivalent control group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, pp. 47 - 50), modified to include aspects of a time series design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, pp. 55 - 57) was used. One hundred and five typing students in a large Vancouver secondary school were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. 49 The treatment group was instructed in beginning typewriting on Commodore PET microcomputers having 40 character lines of print on a video display terminal, while the control group received simultaneous instruction on IBM electric typewriters in the same room. Both the control group and the treatment group were treated as a unit classroom, receiving the same typewriting instructions. The four week treatment program on the microcomputer gave speed and accuracy component drills through the operation of a stored program on the tape; these drills were identical to the printed materials used by the control group. Skill building exercises were displayed on the video terminal. The treatment group followed pre-programmed instructions, typing responses in the same fashion as the control group. The control group was taught the basic skills in the traditional manner following the identical sequences as the treatment group. The pretests consisted of two, two minute timed writings from straight copy material selected from typical instructional sources and measured typewriting speed and accuracy. The posttests consisted of similar straight copy material. Two posttests were administered one week apart to assess recovery from the treatment. Findings The results of the study failed to reject the null hypotheses regarding treatment and control groups. The treatment students learned as well on 50 the microcomputers as the control students learned on the electric type-writers. The findings regarding the suitability of the hardware available for this study are primarily resulting from observations of the author, partici-pating teachers and the students from the experimental group. It should be mentioned that of several retailers who were approached for leasing their equipment for this study, only one firm, Conti Electronics, agreed to par-ticipate. Thus, while the impressions presented here may not be compliment-ary for the Commodore machines, this is not to say that other products do not suffer from the same or greater shortcomings. One compliment which Commodore deserves is that they were willing to expose their equipment to this study while the other manufacturers were not. The results showed that the Commodore machines are as effective as electric typewriters, while the effectiveness of other machines remains to be demonstrated. A disadvantage of the machines used here was the short line length of 40 characters. This necessitated truncation of the original practice lines which were 60 characters in length. Since the execution of this study in March, 1981, new machines featuring an 80 character line have been designed by Commodore and others. 51 As most typewriting exercises had to be stored for accurate com-parisons, the 32,000 character memory bank was adequate. Some of the leased machines featured only 16,000 characters of memory storage. This was not enough. Since the layout of the microcomputer keyboard should be similar to the IBM electric typewriter used by the control group, and the entire project group for pretests and posttests, several keys on the micro-computers had to be reprogrammed to conform to this design. This used additional memory space. The RUN/STOP key was too close to the RETURN key. To avoid acci-dental depression of the RUN/STOP key, the key was purposely disabled. This had the side effect of disabling the internal time clock as well, and less accurate methods of timing had to be programmed. Loading the program from a cassette tape - even though very inexpensive - proved too slow. It took 4 1/2 minutes, nearly 10 percent of the available class time during each class period, to load the program. On the positive side, there were some appealing characteristics. The screen appeared to be at an optimal distance, was easy to read, and bright enough in this well lighted classroom. The flicker-free, green upper and lower case letters seem less tiring than white letters on a black screen. The keyboard height was the same as the typewriters. 52 Having all components in a single housing with a minimum of cables appeared advantageous in a school setting. Equipment breakdown was. confined to one tape unit during the four week period. This was certainly a good showing as the machines were left on during the entire study, nights and weekends included. Students tended to object to the very light touch of the microcomputer keyboard, especially since this caused their initial error rate to jump sub-stantially. It is more difficult to anchor one's fingers on this keyboard; the slightest depression registers as a stroke. Many of student comments on the questionnaire concerned the touch. For example, the comments of, "It was difficult to get used to the light touch of the computer"; "... that typing on a computer was hard because you had to have a light touch"; "If you press your fingers too hard or too springy you would have typed double letters"; "...sometimes I wouldn't press a certain letter, but it would show up on the screen"; "the keys are sensitive"; "it takes a while to develop the right touch for the keys"; "you must be very light fingered", suggest a level of user frustration. Several students were troubled by the absence of a typing sound or clicking noise which, on a typewriter, indicates a key stroke. This could be related to the lighter touch however. Teacher comments were positive and tended to center on mechanical operations. The teachers were enthusiastic about the features of high 5 3 teacher f l e x i b i l i t y , d i r e c t teacher * i n p u t allowing them to program t h e i r comments d i r e c t l y i nto the memory banks of the computer, and the increase i n possible motivational l e v e l of t h e i r students. Conclusions 1. The microcomputer is as effective as an e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r to teach the t y p e w r i t i n g s k i l l component of speed r e g a r d l e s s of the age, sex, or class to which the student is assigned. 2. The microcomputer is an effective means to teach the t y p e w r i t i n g s k i l l component of a c c u r a c y r e g a r d l e s s of age or class to which the student i s a s signed. 3. The microcomputer used i n thi s s t u d y may be less effective than the e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r i n teaching accuracy f o r males than for females. However, t h i s r e s u l t appeared i n only one of the f o u r classes and may have been a consequence of the small male number of students i n that treatment group, (only two males). Recommendations  T y p e w r i t i n g 1. The microcomputer be used as a viable a l t e r n a t i v e to the e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r i n teaching s k i l l components of speed and a c c u r a c y . 5 4 2. The use of microcomputers be expanded in introductory typewriting. 3. Teachers of introductory typewriting courses be encouraged to attend training sessions on the programming and the operation of micro-computers. 4. Student score keeping programs for monitoring their progress in introductory typewriting classes be prepared. Hardware 1. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should have a 32,000 character memory. 2. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should have an 80 character line length. 3. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should have a key-board design similar to an IBM electric typewriter. 4. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should have a disk or ROM storage feature for faster loading. 55 5. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should be in one housing, with a minimum of cables and installed at the appropriate desk top height. 6. Microcomputers used in typewriting programs should have a key-board touch sensitivity similar to an electric typewriter. Software 1 . Microcomputers used in typewriting programs need further software development. 2. BASIC is a viable programming language for typewriting program development. Areas of Further Research 1 . Typewriting tasks of centering, letters and general production typewriting be investigated for their possible programability on the micro-computer. 2. Typewriting nemesis of student strike-overs and screen/paper watching be investigated and assessed for microcomputer applicability. 56 3. The cost features of r e p l a c i n g e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s with microcomputers be i n v e s t i g a t e d . While i t may not be economically feasible f o r a school which f u l l y u t i l i z e s a t y p i n g l a b o r a t o r y to replace t h e i r ele c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s with microcomputers, i t may, on the other hand, make economic sense f o r a school with only one class of t y p e w r i t i n g per day to equip a l a b o r a t o r y with microprocessors. Other subject f i e l d s , such as mathematics and science may r e q u i r e cost effective equipment for t h e i r computer science courses, thus s a v i n g the costs of s u p p l y i n g t y p e w r i t e r s as w e l l . 4. 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Which of the following practice modes did you experience the greatest difficulty in? Mode 1 17 Mode 2 11 Mode 3 4 5. Which of the following practice modes did you enjoy the least? Mode 1 8 Mode 2 15 Mode 3 9 6. In which of the following practice modes did you learn the least from? Mode 1 5 Mode 2 7 Mode 3 20 7. Do you feel that the computer program helped you increase your speed? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 14 10 8 8. Do you feel that the computer program helped you increase your accuracy? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 13 7 12 67 STUDENT RESPONSES 9. Did you feel tired after a period of typing on the computer? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 4 3 25 10. Did you feel that watching the screen for one period was tiring for your eyes? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 4 2 27 11. Would you like to do another typing computer program? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 19 8 5 males 12 3 1 females 7 5 4 12. Did you talk about the computer program with: 1. your friends yes no 15 5 2. your parents yes no 17 3 3. your teachers yes no 1 1 4. others yes no 2 3 13. About how long did it take you to get used to using the computer? (circle one) DAYS: 5 d a y s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 more than 15 14. About how long did it take you to feel comfortable about using the computer (circle one) DAYS: 5 d a y s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 more than 15 15. Did you ever work with a computer before? 1. in the school? yes no 6 26 2. at home? yes no 5 26 16. How far in the skill-building program did you get? page number 10 group no. 4 17. In your opinion, did the students on the electric type-writers type essentially the same material that you did? (circle one) 1. yes 2. don't know 3. no 24 4 1 18. How much of the typing period did you spend on the computer? (please check one) 68 STUDENT RESPONSES 18. (cont'd) full period (60 min.) 13 (50 min.-59 min.) 8_ (40 min.-49 min.) 9_ (30 min.-39 min.) 2_ (16 min.-29 min.) 0_ (less than 15 min.) 0 19. What speed did you usually achieve while using the computer? (Gross Words Per Minute; GWPM) (circle one) RESPONSE: 2 5 9 8 4 1 2 0-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 ' 41 or more 20. About how many errors did you normally make per minute while using the computer? (circle one) RESPONSE: 0 0 5 11 5 4 2 5 zero one two three four five six seven or more 21. Generally, if you were to describe the program it would be: (circle one on each line) RESPONSE: 1 21 8 2 a) very useful useful not really useful useless 1 0 6 16 9 b) very boring boring uncertain interesting very interesting 2 19 10 1 c) very easy easy difficult very difficult 22. General Comments: Would you like to tell me anything else about this computer program? Please comment below. 69 APPENDIX B. STUDENT DIRECTIONS A. TO LOAD YOUR PROGRAM: 1. Check plugs: (a) Tape Drive to Computer (b) Computer to Power Source 2. Turn on Computer (Switch at back on Left Side) A Message will appear on the screen. "###COMMODORE BASIC### ...READY." Also the CURSOR will be FLASHING 3. Insert the program tape cassette into the Tape Drive. Make certain that the cassette is rewound! 4. TYPE LOAD on the Computer Keyboard and then PRESS the RETURN Key. (If you make a spelling mistake use the INST/DEL Key to backspace; and retype the correct spelling). At this point the message on the screen should be "PRESS PLAY ON TAPE # 1". 5. PRESS the PLAY button on the Tape Drive. (DO NOT TOUCH THE KEYBOARD UNTIL THE "READY" MESSAGE with the Flashing CURSOR appears.) This message takes about 4-5 minutes to appear. 6. When you see the message PRESS the STOP/EJECT button on the Tape Drive. PRESS the REW (rewind) button on the Tape Drive to rewind the cassette for future use. 7. PRESS the STOP/EJECT button on the Tape Drive when the cassette is rewound. c CONGRATULATIONS YOUR PROGRAM IS READY B. TO RUN YOUR PROGRAM: 1. TYPE "RUN" on the Computer Keyboard and PRESS the RETURN Key. 2. Select a sub-program from a MENU of 4 Programs by PRESSING a number (either 1,2,3 or 4) on the small number keyboard on the right side of the Computer console. 3. Follow directions on the Computer's Screen. The "@" key will temporarily halt a program. NB: IF the Computer EVER gives the "READY" message with the flashing CURSOR then TYPE RUN and PRESS the RETURN Key. NEVER TYPE IN NUMBERS AT THIS TIME! BEST WISHES AND GOOD LUCK. 70 APPENDIX C. TEACHER INFORMATION A. INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER EXPERIMENT TO THE CLASS: (generally about 2-3 minutes in length and very low key approach) 1. "We are doing an exercise for Business Education teachers who wish to find out how useful computers might be in a typewriting classroom. They are expensive and thus we can't buy them until we see if they are worthwhile." 2. "We drew some names from a hat to see who will work on them during the 4 weeks they will be here. That is why some of you can operate them and others can not. Perhaps at some future time the rest of you will get a try." 3. Read out the 8 names. B. SPECIAL FEATURES: 1. Use the INST/DEL Key as a backspacer. This is best in Mode 3, the "Free Mode". When the INST/DEL Key is used in Mode 1, there is a SHAKEY, back and forth motion to the print on the line which was backspaced. 2. It is very important for the students to match EXACTLY the letters and blanks DIRECTLY beneath the coded line on the screen. To do otherwise will result in a series of errors. 3. TYPING POWER DRILLS: Letter Page Page Group a 15 is 11 1 & 2 d 16 is 11 3 & 4 f 16 is 12 1 & 2 j 18 is 12 3 & 4 k 18 is 13 1 & 2 1 18 is 13 3 & 4 s 21 is 14 1 & 2 y 23 is 14 3 & 4 4. The reinforcement message in Mode 1 is based upon the 1st try post-test. There is a general reinforcement message in Modes 2 and 3 which can also be altered at your direction. 5. All Modes are fully operational; in Mode 2 the timing length for each single repeated line is to be set by the teacher. During the pilot study no student used up all of the available screen during a 2 minute timed series. There are 9 visible lines in this mode. 6. In Mode 1 during the "practice" section; this can be done at the student's leisure; BUT they must wait for you to start them on the post-test. Also i f they pick the wrong drill, they may PRESS the "@" Key twice to return to the Menu. Caution: there is a notice-able pause after the 1st key, WAIT for it . APPENDIX D. SOFTWARE PROGRAM 190 o$=" ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) _ ) " 195 ol$="=======================================" 200 dima$(8) ,c$(4) ,e(3,4) ,tl(3,4) ,t$(3,4): poke59468,14: goto8000 240 prinf'SKILL BUILDING DRILLS" 243 print 0 $ 250 prinf'WHERE DO YOU WANT TO BEGIN? 251 print"(Use RETURN-key after numbers.) 261 input" PAGE= ";p:input" GROUP= ";g 281 input"NUMBER OF TRIES= ";n 290 ifn=>thenn=4 295 r=(p-l)*16+(g-l)*4+l:gosubl360 320 gosubl210:forxl=lto3:gl=0:ifxl=2thengl=l 360 forx2-lton: gosub610: jl=0: t3=0: gosub710: gosub810: t=s3/52 : gosublO 10 410 nextx2:nextxl:Gosubl030 450 forsl=lto3:fors2=lto4 460 tl(sl,s2)=0:t$(sl,s2)="":e(sl,s2)=0 470 nexts2:nextsl:goto320 610 print" PRESS '-KEY AT TIMING BELL 630 printol$ 640 print"Page"p", Group"g+gl 650 print"********PRESS SPACE BAR TO BEGIN******** 660 ifpeek(144)=88thenpokel44,85:ifpeek(144)=49thenpokel44,46 661 fory=lto999999:getx$:ifx$=""'then run 662 ifx$=" "then690 663 nexty 690 return 710 print"" :printa$(gl*4+l) 720 print""a$(gl*4+2) 730 print""a$(gl*4+3) 740 print""a$(gl*4+4) 750 print ""ol$ 760 return 810 ifpeek(144)+85thenpokel44,88:ifpeek(144)+46thenpokel44,49 811 s3=0:forsl=lto4: gosub950: print"$" :p$="" :fors2=lto40 815 getx$: s3=s3+l :ifx$=""then815 816 ifx$=chr$(13)then825 817 ifx$='""thenc$(sl)=p$:goto830 820 gosubl320: p$=p$+x$: gosub950: printp$+"$" : nexts2 825 gosub950:printp$+" ":c$(sl)=p$:nextsl :ifsl>4thensl=4 830 ifpeek(144)=88thenpokel44,85:ifpeek(144)=49thenpokel44,46 831 el=0:e2=0 835 forx3=ltosl: e3=0: y=x3+gl*4: l=len(c$(x3) ) 855 ifl<2thens3=0: return 860 forz=ltol 865 ifmid$(a$(y) ,z,l)omid$(c$(x3) ,z,l)thene3=e3+l 866 nextz 868 ife3=0thenel=el+l 869 e2=e2+e3:nextx3: return 900 z=int(z*100+.5)/100:z$=str$(z) 910 ifz=int(z)thenz$=z$+".00" :return 920 ifmid$(z$,len(z$)-l,l)="."thenz$=$+"0" 930 return 72 950 q$="" 955 ql$=left$(q$,6+3*sl) : printql$:return 1010 t5=0 1011 fork=lto4: t5=t5+len(c$ (k) ) : nextk 1013 ifgl=0and t5>4andt<>0thentl(xl,x2)=(t5/5)/(t/60) 1015 e(xl,x2)=e2 1020 ifgl<>0thentl(xl,x2)=el 1025 return 1030 print"" 1032 print "YOUR RESULTS FOR: PAGE";p;\ GROUP" ; g; "and"; g+1 1034 printol$ 1035 printtab(12);"l.try 2.try 3.try" 1040 print :forsl=lto3step2 1050 fors2=lton 1060 t1(s1,s2) =int (11.( si,s2)+. 5) 1070 nexts2:nextsl 1080 print"Pre-test : " ; e ( l , l ) ; " / " ; t l ( l , l ) ; 1081 printtab(21);e(l,2)'7"tl(l,2)tab(30)e(l,3)"/"tl(l,3) 1090 prinf'Practice : "tl(2,l)tab(21)tl(2,2)tab(30)tl(2,3) 1100 print"Post-test: "e(3,l)"/"tl(3,l)tab(21)e(3,2)'7"tl(3,2); 1104 printtab(30) ;e(3,3) ; "/";tl(3,3) 1106 print ""ol$ 1110 print"Record your results, then press 1112 prinf'spacebar to go on or '-key for menu. 1115 gosubl'400: gosub660: return 1210 forx4=lto8:reada$(x4) :nextx4 1215 print(r/16)+l:g=((r-l)-(p-l)*16)/4+l:r=r+8 1220 return 1320 ifx$=";"thenx$=". 1321 ifx$="!"thenx$="l 1322 ifx$=chr$(34)thenx$="2 1323 ifx$="#"thenx$="3 1324 ifx$="$"thenx$="4 1325 ifx$=":"thenx$="; 1326 ifx$="%"thenx$="5 1327 ifx$=*""thenx$="6 1328 ifx$="&"thenx$="7' 1329 ifx$="l "thenx$="8 1330 ifx$="("thenx$="9 1331 ifx$=")"thenx$="0 1332 ifx$=chr$(162)thenx$-chr$(34) 1333 ifx$=chr$(186)thenx$-chr$(58) 1334 ifx$=chr$(220);thenx$-chr$(42) 1335 ifx$="?"thenx$="7 1336 ifx$="?"thenx$="? 1337 ifx$="("thenx$="( 1338 ifx$=")"thenx$=") 1339 ifx$="!"thenx$="! 1340 ifx$="#"thenx$="# 1341 ifx$="$"thenx$="$ 1342 ifx$="%"thenx$="% 1343 ifx$="&"thenx$="& 1344 ifx$=","thenx$="' 73 1345 ifx$=";"thenx$="; 1346 ifx$=","thenx$=", 1347 return 1360 ford2=ltor: readd$: nextd2 : return 1400 u=tl(3,l):v=e(3,l) 1405 print ""o$"" 1409 ifu<10thenprint"EXTRA PRACTICE NECESSARY" 1410 ifu>9andu<14andv<4thenprint"THAT'S BETTER NOW GO FOR SPEED!!" 1420 ifu>9andu<14andv>3thenprint"EXTRA PRACTICE NEEDED" 1440 ifu>13andu<17andv>4thenprint"CONCENTRATION REDUCES ERRORS" 1450 ifu>16andu<20andv<4thenprint"NOW YOU'RE ROLLING!!!" 1460 ifu>16andu<20andv"3thenprint"THOSE ERRORS ARE COSTLY!!" 1470 ifu>19andu<25andv<4thenprint"NICELY DONE!!" 1480 ifu>19andu<25andv>3thenprint"WARNING-ERRORS ARE HAZARDOUS" 1490 ifu>24andu<30andv<4thenprint"YOU ARE STARTING TO IMPRESS" 1500 ifu>24andu<30andv>3thenprint"GETTING TOO OVER-CONFIDENT" 1510 ifu>29andu<36andv<4thenprint"NOBODY»S PERFECT-BUT YOUR'RE CLOSE" 1511 ifu>29andu<36andv>3thenprint"YOU'RE IN HIGH GEAR" 1512 ifu>35andu<41andv<4thenprint"EVER THOUGHT OF TURNING PRO?" 1513 ifu>35andu<41andv>3thenprint"FAST, BUT NOT FANCY" 1514 ifu>40andv<4thenprint"YOU'RE HIRED!!!" 1515 ifu>40andv>3thenprint"FAST, BUT IS IT ENGLISH?" 1521 print" "o$ 1530 return 1999 data"this is a non-printed line" 2000 datea"I did. I did. I do. I do. I did" 2010 data"it. I did i t . It is I." 2020 data"It is I. It is I. It is a doll." 2030 data"It is old. I said so." 2040 data"ik ik ik if if is is if if is is ik ik" 2050 data"kid kid lid lid dill did did aid a" 2060 data"skill skill slid slid slid Ud l i " 2070 data"disks. disks disks sail sail ill i f " 2080 data"Joe had a fall. He hurt his foot." 2090 data"His dad asked Dr. Good to look" 3000 data"at the foot. The chocolate" 3010 data"cake looks good to me." 3015 data"ol ol ol do do do so so so lo lo lo do" 3020 data"old old old aid aid aid ado ado ado old" 3015 data"fold fold fold sold sold sold load load" 3030 data "all aid aU loads so all is sold all of" 3035 data"Nothing is done right. I think" 3040 data"there is a loss. Ask John." 3045 data"I shall thank John. Joe thinks" 3050 data"the note is due. Now go." 3055 data"tf tf to to it it at at it it to to at" 3060 data"tot tot tot jot jot jot too too too dot" 3065 data"sat sat fat fat kit kit kit kit tot tot too" 3070 data"told told told total total total told" 3075 data"He has the last old desk. Let J i l l " 3080 data"see the total. Run now." 3085 data"Joe feeds the seals. He has the lead." 3090 data' 3095 data' 4000 data' 4001 data' 4002 data' 4005 data' 4006 data' 4007 data' 4008 data' 4010 data' 4011 data' 4012 data' 4013 data' 4015 data' 4016 data' 4017 data' 4018 data' 4020 data' 4021 data' 4022 data' 4023 data' 4025 data' 4026 data' 4027 data' 4028 data' 4030 data' 4031 data' 4032 data' 4033 data 1 4035 data' 4036 data' 4037 data' 4038 data' 4040 data 4041 data 4042 data 4043 data 4045 data 4046 data 4047 data 4048 data 4050 data 4051 data 4052 data 4053 data 4055 data 4056 data 4057 data 4058 data 4060 data 4061 data 4062 data 4063 data I sold it. I see i t . " hf hf hf ha ha ha hf hf hf ho ho ho hi" had had had hat hat hat hit hit has has" aha aha aha ash ash ash had had had has" dish dish dish hall hall hall hill hill" Jill is here; Jeff said she i s . " He has a red rug. He went." Gus feeds a red deer. Dr. Hall" sued Jake Lee. He sees you." ed ed eh eh edit edit edit elf elf elk" led led let let fed fed jet jet lee fee" see see tee tee fed fed tea tea jet jet" sea sea led led heed heed lead lead dee" Thefoo d is so old. The lease is" out at the lake. Go out." 'He used it all. She used it a l l . " 'It is a duet. Use it a l l . " 'uj uj uj us us us use use use used used" 'out out out due due due use use use sue" 'Hal is out. Hal is out. He is out. He" 'It is due. It is due. Use it all. Use" It is good glue. The glue held." 'Jill is good. Go now." 'Joe is good, he told a joke." 'The glass is hot. Good." 'gf gf gf go go go got got got get get" 'keg keg glad glad glad good good go" 'gas gas gas egg egg egg glue glue ego" 'tugs tugs tugs ages ages ages eagle ego" 'The girl tried to read the joke." 'The glass fell. Ask Ruth." 'The road to the lake has ruts." 'He told it to all. Run ask." 'rf rf rf rod rod rod rid rid rid ride" 'ore ore ore for for for fair fair fair" 'real real real rate rate rate order ode" 'after after after relate relate relate" 'He can read the old letter. It" 'is fun to read it. Read i t . " 'Cancel all the old contracts." 'Run to the house. I can go." 'njh nj nj an an an and and and no no no" 'fern fern tone tone tone than than in" 'thank thank thank think think inner inn" •He hit the nail. He hit the nail hard." 'Carl had a fall; he hurt his right" 'leg. T r y to do so soon." 'Let us make sure that there is some" 'ice cream for us to eat." 'cd cd cd cod cod cod code code code cod" 'can can cane cane critic critic cling" since since since office office color" 'enclose enclose credit credit chart" 4065 data"The new way is not said to be" 4066 data"better, but certainly easier." 4067 data"A blue ribbon was used to tie the" 4068 data"big parcel for her party." 4070 data"p; p; p; pep pep pet pet put pa" 4071 data"pass pass pad pad pad cap cap cap pick" 4072 data"up up up upper upper supper supper up" 4073 data"lip lip lip tip tip sip sip top top top" 4075 data'The water was cold, he will sail" 4076 data"on the water. Walk on now." 4077 data"We hope Pat will win the race." 4078 data"Follow a recipe. Thank you." 4080 data"ws ws ws who who what what when when ws" 4081 data"wit wit walk walk walk will will was wa" 4082 data"wet wet wet wheat wheat wheat week week" 4083 data"wink wink were were were was was saw so" 4085 data"Pam purchased a trumpet. Norm" 4086 data"wrote memoranda. Make a cake." 4087 data"Jim went to the market to get" 4088 data"some meat and eggs yesterday." 4090 data"mj mj mj me me me mad mad mad made made" 4091 data"home home home foam foam foam some some" 4092 data "sum sum sum from from from much much mo" 4093 data"palm palm palm poem poem poem slump man" 4095 data"The quick question made him stop." 4096 data"He almost quit smoking." 4097 data"Ken enquired if he had a quarter" 4098 data"section. He has to go now." 4100 data"qa qa qa quit quit quit quote quote qui" 4101 data"pique pique pique aqua aqua enquire qaq" 4102 data"acquire acquire acquire acquit acquit" 4103 data"quest question question quota quota qui" 4105 data"Please open the oven. The liver" 4106 data"is on fire. Stop the smoke." 4107 data"The review was helpful. It was" 4108 data"done with vim. Very nice." 4150 data"vf vf vf fie vie' vie van van vital vita" 4151 data"solve solve oven oven vigor vigor vim" 4152 data"visa visa visa viper viper viper vice" 4153 data"via via via wives wives lives lives way" 4160 data"It is part of his duty to help those" 4161 data"in need. He is loyal." 4162 data "Every voter should demand a" 4163 data"statement of policy each year." 4170 data"yj yj yj yell yell yellow yellow yes ya" 4171 data"my my you you your your any any day day" 4172 data"yard yard yard year year year yet yet y" 4173 data"your your youth youth they they they ya" 4180 data"She will be busy planning the" 4181 data"breakfast or brunch tomorrow." 4182 data"He feels much better because he" 4183 data"knows he did a good job." 4190 data"bf bf bf buff buff bus bus bull bo" 4191 data"ball baU ball but but but but by by by buy" 4192 data"balance balance balance back back bit b" 4193 data"bank bank bank tub tub tub stub stub be" 4200 data"The chocolate cake looks good, Joe" 4201 data"said to Chris as she cut i t . " 4202 data"He likes food. Jack told us to" 4203 data"go out to see Carl run." 4210 data",k ,k ,k one, two, three, four; one, ,k" 4211 data"Frank, John, and Alec will go. Well, I" 4212 data"When I get it, I will pass it on to him" 4213 data"John left his home town of Orillia, ON." 4220 data"It changes the typing of letters" 4221 data"to a new exciting exercise." 4222 data"If you have been lax in recent" 4223 data"years, try to be early now." 4230 data"xs xs xs ox ox ox fox fox box box tax x" 4231 data"express express extra extra six six six" 4232 data"expire expire expell expell expell axe" 4233 data"exact exact exact executive executive" 4240 data"Zeke was amazed at the size of" 4241 data"the dozen zebras in the zoo." 4242 data"Zo was amazed and dazzled by the" 4243 data"size of the puzzle prizes." 4250 data"za za za zone zone zoo zoo zoo zero zoo" 4251 data"prize prize zoom zoom ozone ozone zeal" 4252 data"Voting is not the only duty of citizens" 4253 data"One should minimize the chance of loss." 4350 data"Many a lanky lad may have a" 4351 data"mania for eating banana salads." 4352 data"Alan may appeal to Havana again" 4353 data"and ask for Almas release." 4360 data"aaa aid aaa all aaa alas aaa apart aaa" 4361 data"area data aqua saga away gala papa aria" 4362 data"alarm awake again arena amaze mania aaa" 4363 data"adage adapt madam camera animal ballad" 4370 data"Ed does good deeds daily and" 4371 data"draws due rewards by doing so." 4372 data"Dude dreads doing any odd jobs" 4373 data"but he did dye dads ladder." 4380 data"ddd did ddd dye ddd dude ddd dried ddd" 4381 data"died deed odds dyed duds dead adds idea" 4382 data"dozed dodge dread dandy faded aided end" 4383 data"toddy caddy added middle ladder adding" 4390 data"An office staff often finds" 4391 data"officials favoring free coffee." 4392 data"Cliff offered Duffy a fifth" 4393 data"of his staff for the five days." 4400 data"fff for fff off fff buff fff fifth ffff" 4401 data"biff doff tiff tuff cuff fife safe left" 4402 data"stuff bluff staff affix stiff taffy fff" 4403 data"fluff muffs offer office differ suffer" 4410 data"James objected to joining Joe" 4411 data"and John on a jaunt to Japan" 4412 data"Judge Jensen, the juvenile judge," 4413 data"is just and enjoys jokes." 4420 data"jj job jjj joy jjj just jjj major jjj" 4421 data"jobs jugs join ajar jury joys jade jail" 4422 data"joint jelly judge jolly enjoy joker joy" 4423 data"jumbo juster jurors unjust adjourn jour" 4430 data"Ken knew Ike like cake and" 4431 data"asked Kay to bake it this week." 4432 data"Kaye and Karen would like to" 4433 data"pick up silky kapok in Keokuk." 4440 data"Life will look small unless" 4441 data"all laughs lead to fulfillment." 4442 data"Lucille will allot twenty dollars." 4443 data"to allow for legal bills." 4450 data"Ul lay Ul all Ul wiU Ul level Ul" 4451 data"lull lilt loU hiy fell biU seU miU" 4452 data"alley local lilac legal label Ubel low" 4453 data"wiUs roUs shaU knoUs balled bUled" 4460 data"Susan says she is sure she" 4461 data"passed an easy test last summer." 4462 data"Yes, our losses from the sale." 4463 data"of stocks and suits seem less." 4470 data"sss sue sws sis sws loss sws sales swsw" 4471 data"loss less sues used sits sash sees sirs" 4472 data"sales socks loses slash sense suits sis" 4473 data"issue stress bosses assets assists sue" 4480 data"eEvery entry in Addys diary" 4481 data"displayed loyalty to your city." 4482 data"Mayor Younger yearns to study" 4483 data"about pyramids whUe a Yale." 4490 data"yyy you jyj yet jyj year jyj yearn jyj" 4491 data"yawn your type many days yard duly city" 4492 data"youth dryly shyly slyly mayor study yet" 4493 data"windy mayfly typing yearly pyramid try" 4500 data"l", data"2", data'"3", data"4" 8000 print" SELECT ONE CHOICE FROM THIS MENU: 8010 print" l.SkiU BuUding Drills" 8015 print 8020 print" 2.Single Line Practice" 8021 print 8030 print" 3.Self-directed Warmups, Timings & Carriage Returns 8035 print" 4.FINISH" 8040 prinf'Your choice:"; 8045 getkl$:if kl$=""then8045 8050 kl-val(kl$) :onklgoto240,8500,9000,8080 8060 Print "Return only 1 or 2 or 3 or 4." 8070 goto8040 8080 ifpeek(144)=88thenpokel44,85 :ifpeek(144)=49thenpokel44,46 8081 print"": end 8500 print" SINGLE LINE PRACTICE" 8502 printo$ 8505 input" Page: ";p 8510 input" Group: ";g 78 8530 input" Line#: ";1 8540 r=(p-l)*16+(g-l)*4+l+l:gosubl360 8620 openl,o:ifpeek(144)=85thenpokel44,88:ifpeek(144)=46thenl44,49 8621 m2=0:ml=0:m=0:pokel67,0 8625 xl$="" : dl$=d$: print""; d$ 8630 get#l ,x$ :m=m+l :ifx$=""then8630 8640 gosubl320:ml=ml+l 8650 ifx$=" ,"thenprint" " :gosub8682: goto8690 8670 if x$=chr$(13) thenprint" ":gosub 8682: goto8625 8675 xl$=xl$+x$ 8680 printx$; :goto8630 8682 if len(xl$)>len(d$)thenxl$=left$(xl$,len(d$)) 8685 if len(xl$)<len(d$)thendl$=left$(dl$,len(xl$)) 8686 ifxl$-dl$andlen(xl$)>lthenm2=m2+l 8688 return 8690 prinf'you typed" ;m2; "error-free lines.": goto9050 9000 prinf'BEGIN TYPING YOUR CHOICE WHEN READY" 9010 print "PRESS THE'-KEY TO STOP." 9012 openl.O 9020 ifpeek(144)=85thenpokel44,88:ifpeek(144)=46thenpokel44,49 9021 ml=0:m=0:pokel67,0 9023 get#l ,x$: m-m+l-:ifx$=""then9023 9024 gosubl320:ml=ml+l 9025 ofx$="'"then9040 9026 ifx$=chr$(13)thenprint" ":goto9023 9027 printx$; : goto9023 9040 j2=m/25:prinf'you typed "int(ml/5)"words." 9041 yl=int((ml/5)/8) :print"You typed" ;yl; "lines" 9050 ifpeek(144)=88thenpokel44,85:ifpeek(144)=49thenpokel44,46 9058 closel.O 9059 j2=m/25:print"YOUR SPEED IS"; int((ml/5)/(j2/60)); "WORDS PER MINUTE!" 9064 prinf'KEEP ON TRUCKIN'-EXCELLENCE IS ONLY A FEW STROKES AWAY" 9065 print"> > >PRESS SPACE BAR FOR MENU < < <"; 9070 getk$:ifk$=""then9070 9080 run ready 79 APPENDIX E. INSTRUMENTATION There are lots of terms that can tell us what a stroke 12 ought to be. Some that are used are words such as darting, 24 crisp, exact, and so on. A stroke is thought by some to be 36 like the darting reach of a cat at a fly, or a crisp tennis 48 drive, or a quick flicking of a speck off your hat or coat. 60 The complete tale is not told by these views; but they 12 72 emphasize the two basic things: that a good stroke is firm 24 84 and powerful and that your finger must not linger on a key. 36 96 It might help to think of the key cap as being red hot; you 48 108 must hit it, but you must release it before you get burned. 60 120 If you want quick strokes and the speed they carry, be 12 132 sure to keep your fingers arched as though they were grasp- 24 144 ing the handle bars of a bicycle; keep your wrists so close 36. 156 to the other hand that your thumbs can lock simultaneously. 48 168 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 80 APPENDIX F. SUITABILITY OF TYPEWRITING MATERIAL FOR TESTING Please express your agreement or disagremeent with the following comments or statements: 1. In your opinion, is this (13-B Inventory p41, Typewriting Drills  for Speed and Accuracy, Rowe-Etier, Canadian Edition, Gregg Division, McGraw-Hill Company of Canada. 1967) the kind or type of test commonly used to assess speed and accuracy in typewriting classes? (please circle one) YES NO 2. In your opinion, is the above material suitable for assessing speed and accuracy in Grade 9 beginning typewriting classes? YES NO 3. Would a proper method for scoring this test be to identify the number of errors made during a two or three minute timing? YES NO 4. In addition, would a proper method for scoring this material be to identify the total or gross speed per minute of typewriting? YES NO 5. A proper length of time for typing this material in a test condition, in a beginning typewriting course, would be two or three minutes. YES NO 6. A proper method of conducting the timing is to enable the student to attempt two consecutive timings on this material with a short rest period between timings. YES NO 7. Is testing material which has the Syllabic Intensity (SI) of 1.17, an appropriate level of difficulty for beginning typewriting students having experienced one or two months of typewriting instruction? YES NO Signature Date RESULTS: All 5 panelists circled YES on all statements. 81 APPENDIX G. DEFINITION OF TECHNICAL VOCABULARY 1. Computer hardware, computer equipment: The physical apparatus comprising a computer system. These components include a central processing unit (CPU), memory, tape units, disk drives printers, terminals (teletypewriter, cathode ray tube (CRT), video display terminal (VDT)), printers and card readers. 2. Computer software, computer program: The instructional sets and data which direct computer hardware. The computer software, a series of specifically written instructions, direct the electronic hardware to per-form useful functions, such as solving problems, or calculating arithmetic-ally. 3. Computer language, program language: The notation for encoding computer programs. The program language used in this research is the Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, (BASIC), developed by Dartmouth College in 1963. 4. Microcomputer, microprocessor: The most recent stage in the development of the transistor has resulted in the current level of computer hardware. Several models are small, inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, and are powerful, versatile and programmable. 

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