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Teachers' perceptions of innovations in the family management curriculum Chong, Linda Willene 1991

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TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF INNOVATIONS IN THE FAMILY MANAGEMENT CURRICULUM By LINDA WILLENE CHONG B.H.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1991 @ Linda Willene Chong, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C l i f f iai lumA Instructed The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) i i Afest r_act The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of innovations i n a curriculum. The study examined three teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective i n the Family Management curriculum document in B r i t i s h Columbia. Two interviews, sixty to one hundred and twenty minutes in length, were conducted with each teacher. During the interviews, each teacher was asked to submit documents that i l l u s t r a t e d the meaning the innovations had for their teaching. Through subsequent transcript and document analysis, descriptions of the teachers' perceptions were developed. For none of the teachers were the innovations immediately meaningful. However, they were able to give meaning to both concepts. Two teachers perceived the integrative approach as r e l a t i n g topics and concepts through discussions and work sheets. The t h i r d teacher used assignments that related topics and concepts although she did not perceive t h i s as integrative. Teachers had similar perceptions of the ecological perspective: the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among the individual and family with the school, peers, and the local community. Teacher perceptions were influenced by multiple factors: lack of need for the innovations, the lack of pedagogical and conceptual c l a r i t y i n the innovations, complexity of the innovations, time, inservice, peer meetings, teaching experience and students. i i i Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i Acknowlegement vi Chapter I: Introduction Statement of the Problem 1 Def i n i t i o n of Terms 3 Limitations 4 Significance 5 Chapter II: Review of Literature Curriculum Implementation 7 Development/Implementation of the Family Management Program 13 Family Management/Home Economics Education 17 The Innovations of the Family Management Program 18 The Integrative Approach 19 1. conceptual c l a r i t y 19 2. pedagogical c l a r i t y 21 The Ecological Perspective 24 1. conceptual c l a r i t y 24 2. pedagogical c l a r i t y 27 Related Research 27 Summary 30 Chapter III: Research Approach The Sample 32 Research Approach 34 Research Procedures 36 i v Chapter IV: Teachers' Perceptions of the Integrative Approach and Ecological Perspective Anne 42 Integrative Approach 43 Factors Influencing the Integrative Approach 49 Ecological Perspective 53 Factors Influencing the Ecological Perspective 57 Dana 59 Integrative Approach 59 Factors Influencing the Integrative Approach 61 Ecological Perspective 65 Factors Influencing the Ecological Perspective 69 Lucy 72 Integrative Approach 73 Factors Influencing the Integrative Approach 76 Ecological Perspective 80 Factors Influencing the Ecological Perspective 84 Summary 85 Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, Implications and Further Research Discussion 88 Conclusions 98 Implications of the Study 102 Further Research 103 Bibliography 105 Appendix A 112 Appendix B 115 Appendix C 116 V A p p e n d i x D 119 A p p e n d i x E 120 Acknowl^e I wish to thank Dr. Walter Werner and Dr. Margaret Arcus for serving on my thesis committee. Their comments and advice have been appreciated. I especially thank Dr. Linda Peterat, my advisor and thesis supervisor. Without Dr. Peterat's assistance and guidance, my work could not have been completed. I also wish to thank the three teachers who shared-their teaching experiences with me. Without their contribution, this study would not have been possible. F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my family for the support they have given me during my years at university. 1 C h a p t e r I: I n t r o d u c t i o n T e a c h e r s e n c o u n t e r new prog r a m s , p o l i c i e s , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e government, s c h o o l b o a r d s , p r i n c i p a l s , c o l l e a g u e s , and i n d u s t r y . How t e a c h e r s implement t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , however, i s n o t a s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d t a s k . I t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t e a c h e r s have a c e n t r a l r o l e i n i m p l e m e n t i n g any i n n o v a t i o n . F u l l a n (1982) c l a i m s t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n depends on t e a c h e r s t o i n t e r p r e t and a d a p t a new program, i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s t o t h e i r b e l i e f s and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . T e a c h e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i e d upon as i n t e r p r e t e r s of i n n o v a t i o n s when a new p r o g r a m i s b r o a d i n s c o p e , ambiguous o r u n c i e a r l y d e f i n e d o r c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of s u c h i n n o v a t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l a d a p t a t i o n (Berman S M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h a t i s , t h e t e a c h e r may change t o some e x t e n t t h e i r p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s , and t h e p r o g r a m w i l l change as i t becomes s u b j e c t t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' m e a n i n g s , t e a c h i n g s t y l e and c o n t e x t . How t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t and a d a p t i n n o v a t i o n s , and do o r do n o t implement s u c h c h a n g e s was t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e a r e few s t u d i e s i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h w h i c h examine t e a c h e r s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s ( F a c u l t y o f t h e Department o f Home E c o n o m i c s E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . 2 In B r i t i s h Columbia, the FamilyManagement C u r ^ Guide 11/12 ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986) i s a recent policy document. It contains broad, foundational and poorly defined-concepts. It was quickly implemented after a swift revision and adaptation of two courses, Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12. Although many of the topics and learning outcomes were retained from the former courses, the Family Management curriculum document has two innovative features, the integrative approach and ecological perspective. While they are the central new features of the Family Management Curriculum Guide 11/12 (Chong, 1988; Larsen, 1987), the document lacks c l a r i t y about what these features mean and how teachers should implement them i n practice. The integrative approach i s suggested for organizing the major topics and key concepts to be taught. Teachers are encouraged to link major topics, key concepts, and learning outcomes together i n several possible ways. The ecological perspective i s the basic conceptualization of Family Management. It refers to the interactions of people and t h e i r environments, and emphasizes in d i v i d u a l s , families and other s o c i a l groups and t h e i r reciprocal influence on each other. This study examined teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective. The central questions guiding the study were: 1) What are the teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach? a) What does t h i s mean for t h e i r teaching 3 practices? b) How have they come to this understanding? 2) What are the teachers' perceptions of the ecological perspective? a) What does this mean for their teaching practices? b) How have they come to this understanding? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The following terms were central to t h i s study and for the purpose of this study assumed the following meanings: A. Family Management Family Management i s a two level e l e c t i v e course offered in home economics at grade eleven and twelve. According to the curriculum document, the content of Family Management 11 includes c h i l d development, adolescence, and individual resource management while Family Management 12 i s organized around the adult years and family resource management. B. Implementation In t h i s study, implementation assumes an innovation i s always interpreted by others whose intents may d i f f e r from the developers and who are influenced by the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of the i r s i t u a t i o n of practice. Teachers experience implementation as a developmental and long term process during which there i s a change i n practice such as the use of new or revised materials, new teaching approaches or the a l t e r a t i o n of b e l i e f s . This study i s concerned with implementation i n 4 t h a t i t i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s or meanings f o r t e a c h e r s of two c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n s s e t out i n a c u r r i c u l u m document. C. I n n o v a t i o n The terms i n n o v a t i o n and change a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y t o d e s c r i b e s o m e t h i n g new i n an e d u c a t i o n a l program. In t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e a r e two new f e a t u r e s i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document compared t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m document i t r e p l a c e d , F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 and H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12. The two c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ( s e e C h a p t e r I I f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n s ) . C. P e r c e p t i o n A p e r c e p t i o n i s a p e r s o n ' s a w a r e n e s s o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a p e r s o n , c o n c e p t , o r e v e n t . In t h i s s t u d y , p e r c e p t i o n i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a t e a c h e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S i n c e t h e s e i n n o v a t i o n s l a c k p e d a g o g i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y , t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s may be d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r and f r o m t h o s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s . L i m i t a t i o n s The s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f F a m i l y Management t e a c h e r s i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t e xamined t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f a 5 p a r t i c u l a r group of teachers; therefore, the results only represent their understanding. Three teachers from three di f f e r e n t secondary schools in one school d i s t r i c t were involved i n this study. The small sample does not make i t appropriate to generalize to a l l Family Management teachers. Self-report and document analysis were sources of evidence of the teachers' perceptions. Self-report served as the main indicator of teachers' perceptions. The focus of the study was limited to teachers' perceptions and did not seek to evaluate these as operative i n classroom practice. Significance This study provided documentary evidence of teachers' perceptions of two innovative features i n the Family Management curriculum document. Since teachers work alone i n their classroom, they do not have much opportunity to talk together about the basic concepts which guide t h e i r teaching. In this study, three teachers' perceptions of the two central innovations of the Family Management curriculum document are described. Such descriptions may encourage other teachers to speculate on t h e i r own perceptions, "generating a consciousness of knowingness and a sense of the accepted as problematic" (Stenhouse, 1985). In addition, a study of teachers' perceptions i s of inte r e s t to curriculum developers. In examining how curriculum innovations are perceived by teachers, the findings w i l l have implications for curriculum 6 document writing. F i n a l l y , this study may help educators to understand the d a i l y r e a l i t i e s and constraints that influence teachers' perceptions. The study i s divided into f i v e chapters. Chapter I i d e n t i f i e s the research problem that was investigated. Chapter II examines l i t e r a t u r e related to curriculum implementation, the development and implementation of the Family Management program i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the innovative features of the program. In Chapter III, the research approach used in the study i s described. In Chapter IV, the teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective are described. Descriptions of their perceptions are based on transcribed interviews and documents that represent t h e i r understanding of the innovations. In Chapter V the teachers' perceptions are compared and contrasted, and conclusions and implications of the study are stated. 7 Chagjter II: Review of Literature In this chapter, f i v e areas of l i t e r a t u r e are reviewed. The f i r s t section examines curriculum implementation. The second section describes the development and implementation of the Family Management program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h i r d section examines the Family Management program within the context of home economics education. The fourth section examines the innovations of the Family Management curriculum document. The f i f t h section summarizes related research. Curriculum Implementation In the educational l i t e r a t u r e , two perspectives of educational change are distinguished; the f i d e l i t y and mutual adaptation perspectives (Fullan, 1982). The f i d e l i t y perspective assumes that a developed and planned innovation can be universally and f a i t h f u l l y implemented by others i n the way intended by the developers. This view of implementation i s appropriate for implementing a well defined innovation that has been successfully implemented before (Huberman & Miles, 1984). A mutual adaptation perspective assumes that an innovation i s always interpreted by others whose intents may d i f f e r from the developers and who are influenced by the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of their s i t u a t i o n of practice. Teachers 8 experience implementation as a process during which they come to understand and interpret a new program, materials or ideas and make pedagogical decisions to accommodate the needs and interests of students, available time, preferred teaching s t y l e , etc. This results in transforming the innovations introduced to accommodate teaching practices and each individual classroom. This view of implementation i s appropriate for examining innovations which contain broad or vaguely defined ideas, concepts, goals, or objectives and which require teachers to adapt, modify and interpret them (Fullan, 1985). The mutual adaptation perspective of implementation was distinguished by Berman and McLaughlin (1976) based on their study of Federal programs supporting educational change (FPSEC and also known as the Rand Change Agent Study). Berman and McLaughlin studied 293 innovations i n secondary and elementary schools that were conceived or proposed by teachers, d i s t r i c t s p e c i a l i s t s , and outside consultants. Data c o l l e c t i o n included 1,735 personal interviews with s t a f f at a l l levels i n the school d i s t r i c t to e l i c i t opinions about factors a f f e c t i n g the projects, and twenty-nine f i e l d studies were conducted to compare si m i l a r innovations operating i n d i f f e r e n t settings. As many of the projects were based on broad or vaguely defined ideas that had not been proven through exemplary practices, the implementation of them r e l i e d on adaptation of various features of the project to d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l settings. 9 Berman and McLaughlin (1976) defined this process as mutual adaptation. The Rand Change Agent Study pointed out that mutual adaptation i s l i k e l y to occur in r e l a t i o n to complex and less c l e a r l y structured innovations. Adaptation of innovations depended on " s t a f f training, frequent and regular meetings, and local material development" (Berman & McLaughlin, 1976, p.359). Staff training provided teachers with "how to do i t " knowledge; meetings provided a "forum for reassessing project goals and a c t i v i t i e s , monitoring achievements and problems, and modifying practices i n l i g h t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and project demands" (Berman & Mclaughlin, 1976, p. 360); and local material development provided s t a f f with an opportunity to carry out and understand project precepts. House (1981) proposed that implementation can be understood from a cul t u r a l perspective. He claims that teachers share a consensus of norms and values which constitutes a teachers' culture. Teacher culture i s d i f f e r e n t from the culture of other groups such as developers of the program, parents, or researchers, and innovations result from the i n t e r a c t i o n of the d i s t i n c t cultures of these groups. Teacher culture refers to the teachers' milieu of practice. It i s characterized by i s o l a t i o n i n the classroom from other teachers, control of what happens i n the classroom, and working with curriculum guidelines that teachers did not design or with materials that are a matter of local or provincial policy or both. It i s t h i s culture which accounts 10 for at least in part, implementation as a mutual adaptation perspective. Bolin (1987) states by the time the teacher i s handed a curriculum document "numerous agreements have been entered into i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y that represent vested interests in the outcomes of schooling" (p.102). C o n f l i c t and misunderstandings may arise due to di f f e r e n t values and b e l i e f s of the groups involved i n the implementation process and this can result i n unanticipated perceptions and implementation of innovations. In trying to understand the process of implementation, Fullan (1982) i d e n t i f i e d f i f t e e n factors that influence implementation. After an extensive review of l i t e r a t u r e , he selected those factors which had s u f f i c i e n t evidence i n the research about how and why they prevent or cause implementation. The factors provide a general framework for understanding educational change, but do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e in d e t a i l what implementation means for the teacher, p r i n c i p a l , parent, school, school d i s t r i c t , etc. The following i s an overview of the factors that Fullan (1982, p.56) suggests affe c t implementation: A. Charac t e r i s t i c s of the Change 1. Need and relevance of the change 2. C l a r i t y 3. Complexity 4. Quality and p r a c t i c a l i t y of program (materials, etc.) B. Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the School D i s t r i c t Level 5. The history of innovative attempts 6. The adoption process 7. Central administrative support and involvement 8. Staff development (in-service) and 11 p a r t i c i p a t i o n 9. T i m e - l i n e and i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m ( e v a l u a t i o n ) 1 0 . B o a r d and c o m m u n i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e S c h o o l L e v e l 1 1 . The p r i n c i p a l 1 2 . T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s 1 3 . T e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o r i e n t a t i o n s D . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s E x t e r n a l t o t h e L o c a l S y s t e m 14 . R o l e o f g o v e r n m e n t 1 5 . E x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e F u l l a n (1982) has n e c e s s a r i l y o v e r s i m p l i f i e d h i s r e s e a r c h t o c o m p r i s e t h e l i s t o f f a c t o r s . H o w e v e r , he c a u t i o n s one t o a v o i d t h i n k i n g o f t h e f a c t o r s i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m e a c h o t h e r . R a t h e r he s t a t e s t h a t t h e f a c t o r s a r e "a s y s t e m of v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n t e r a c t " (p 5 7 ) . B e c a u s e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y was on two c o n c e p t s as t h e c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n a c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , t h e f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c h a n g e " a r e mos t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n . F u l l a n (1982) s u g g e s t s f o u r f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e l a t e t o t h e nature of the change i t s e l f : need, c l a r i t y , c o m p l e x i t y , and q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y of the program. He s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e mus t be a p e r c e i v e d need f o r t h e new p r o g r a m , m a t e r i a l s o r i d e a s . T h e R a n d C h a n g e A g e n t S t u d y f o u n d t h a t commitment was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o j e c t s t h a t w e r e c h o s e n t o a d d r e s s a n e e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e l e a r n e r s ( B e r m a n & M c L a u g h l i n , 1 9 7 6 ) . An i n n o v a t i o n must h a v e c l e a r l y stated goals and the means for a c h i e v i n g them. F u l l a n c l a i m s t h a t f a l s e c l a r i t y may r e s u l t "when t h e c h a n g e i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d m a n n e r ; t h a t i s , t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e h a s more t o i t t h a n p e o p l e p e r c e i v e o r r e a l i z e " ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 5 8 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , r e v i s e d p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s may be 12 dismissed by some teachers on the grounds that they are already doing that. But i f the teachers' perceptions are based only on the more s u p e r f i c i a l goals and content aspects of the guidelines without r e a l i z i n g that certain b e l i e f s and teaching strategies are essential to implementing the guidelines e f f e c t i v e l y , this may be an example of fa l s e c l a r i t y . Complexity, a t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the change refers to "the d i f f i c u l t y and extent of change required of the individuals responsible for implementation" (Fullan, 1982, p.58). Some educational innovations involve major restructuring or fundamental kinds of change. The cost i s often high, and a great deal of e f f o r t may be required to achieve an unknown amount of return (Doyle & Ponder, 1977). However, the d i f f i c u l t y and extent of change required of the individuals responsible for implementation w i l l depend on the sta r t i n g point for any given individual or group (Fullan, 1982). In addition, the complexity of the change w i l l be determined by the d i f f i c u l t y of the s k i l l s required, extent of alterations i n b e l i e f s , teaching strategies, and use of materials. The quality and p r a c t i c a l i t y of program materials i s the fourth i n f l u e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the change. It may be overlooked when the adoption of a curriculum becomes more important than implementation. A short time lag between adoption and i n i t i a l implementation can result i n inadequate follow-up or preparation time for the development of 13 m a t e r i a l s . "Teachers want, need, and b e n e f i t from t a n g i b l e , r e l e v a n t program m a t e r i a l s which have been produced and t e s t e d i n a r e a l classroom s i t u a t i o n " ( F u l l a n , 1982, p . 6 0 ) . The f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the school d i s t r i c t l e v e l , the school l e v e l and e x t e r n a l to the l o c a l systems may have some i n f l u e n c e on the teachers' p e r c e p t i o n s of the i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h i s study. However, the importance of these f a c t o r s w i l l be s t u d i e d through teacher's p e r c e p t i o n s and by p r o v i d i n g some context to the c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s and not through s p e c i f i c study of the s c h o o l , school d i s t r i c t , and e x t e r n a l agency p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e . Implementation l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s a context f o r t h i s study and permits the q u e s t i o n of the teachers' p e r c e p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s to be r a i s e d . That i s , understanding teachers' p e r c e p t i o n s of c e r t a i n i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l help to understand how teachers i n t e r p r e t c e r t a i n i n n o v a t i o n s i n the context of l a r g e r program change. Development/Implementation of the Family Management Program Home economics teachers began implementing Family Management 11 i n 1986 although some teachers began as e a r l y as 1985, when the program was adopted and when a d r a f t of the Family Management 11 c u r r i c u l u m document was a v a i l a b l e . In September 1986, a l l teachers who taught Family Management 11 and Family Management 12 were to implement the new program. The Family Management program was developed to meet p r o v i n c i a l l y r e v i s e d graduation requirements. The "Graduation 14' '87" policy document stated that a l l provincial grade twelve courses must have grade eleven prerequisites. Since Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12 did not meet these prerequisites, the courses faced enrollment loss and possible elimination. With some urgency, during the summer of 1984, an ad hoc committee composed of the instructor and students in a home economics education graduate course at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia lobbied for the retention of Family Studies 12 as a part of the senior home economics program (Burnell, 1984a). The Home Economics head teachers of Vancouver Secondary Schools made several recommendations to the Ministry of Education. When their recommendations were unacceptable to the Ministry, t h i s group prepared an outline that acted on the Ministry's suggestion that Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12 be combined (Thomas, 1986). The committee drafted a curriculum proposal i n two days that recommended the replacement of Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12 with a course c a l l e d "Families: Health and Management" (Burnell, 1986b). The course was to be a two level course taught i n grades eleven and twelve, and i t s content drawn from both Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12 (Burnell, 1986b). The University of B r i t i s h Columbia home economics faculty, executive members of T.H.E.S.A. and representatives from twelve school d i s t r i c t s were consulted and endorsed the outline (Thomas, 1986). 15 The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m was a low p r i o r i t y w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n s i n c e t h e r e were o t h e r e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s t h a t were more out d a t e d and o t h e r c u r r i c u l a t h a t a f f e c t e d a g r e a t e r number o f s t u d e n t s ( L a r s e n , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h u s , t h e b u d g e t a l l o t t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m was o n l y $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 w h i c h i n t u r n n e c e s s i t a t e d a q u i c k r e v i s i o n p r o c e s s ( L a r s e n , 1 9 8 7 ) . The Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e was s e l e c t e d i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 5 . The s h o r t t i m e s p a n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t p r e c l u d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e v i s i o n a n d e x t e r n a l r e v i e w o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . T h e c o m m i t t e e w o r k e d on a d r a f t o f F a m i l y Management f o r f o u r d a y s i n F e b r u a r y a n d two weeks i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 8 5 . T h e d r a f t was i n t h e s c h o o l s by m i d S e p t e m b e r ( o p t i o n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b e g a n i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 ) . The c o m m i t t e e met a g a i n i n November 1985 a n d A p r i l 1986 t o r e v i s e t h e F a m i l y Management 11 d r a f t a n d t o work on t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r F a m i l y Management 12 . The m e e t i n g s l a s t e d f o r t h r e e a n d f i v e d a y s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e r e was no t i m e f o r a r e v i s i o n o f F a m i l y Management 12 s i n c e t h e F a m i l y Management C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e 1 1 / 1 2 was s c h e d u l e d t o be i n t h e s c h o o l s by S e p t e m b e r , 1986 a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f F a m i l y Management 11 was m a n d a t o r y i n 1 9 8 6 - 8 7 . B o t h t i m e a n d money were r u n n i n g o u t . D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g a n d summer o f 1 9 8 6 , t h e c o m m i t t e e members d i v i d e d i n t o t w o -s u b g r o u p s ; one g r o u p s e l e c t e d a t e x t b o o k , a n d t h e o t h e r g r o u p d e v e l o p e d m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n w o r k s h o p s . 15 The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o g r a m ( L a r s e n , 1 9 8 7 ) . D r a f t c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s f o r F a m i l y Management 11 a r r i v e d i n m i d / l a t e S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 , w h e r e a s t h e o p t i o n a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e was s c h e d u l e d t o b e g i n a t s c h o o l o p e n i n g i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 . The f i n a l c u r r i c u l u m document f o r F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 a r r i v e d i n l a t e O c t o b e r 1986 due t o a d e l a y i n p r i n t i n g . H o w e v e r , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was s c h e d u l e d f o r s c h o o l o p e n i n g i n S e p t e m b e r 1986 . The F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no t e x t b o o k due t o l a c k o f f u n d s . H o w e v e r , t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n d i d make money a v a i l a b l e ( $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 ) , b u t o n l y e n o u g h f o r one t e x t b o o k t h a t w o u l d c o v e r two l e v e l s . E a c h s c h o o l r e c e i v e d one c l a s s s e t o f F a m i l y L i v i n g by L e a v e n w o r t h , H e n d r i c k s , G a y , H a r r i m a n a n d K r e i n i n ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I t was s e l e c t e d i n J u l y 1986 a n d a r r i v e d i n O c t o b e r 1 9 8 6 . T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n s p o n s o r e d a o n e - d a y i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n d u r i n g 1986 a n d 1987 i n n i n e p r o v i n c i a l l o c a t i o n s : S m i t h e r s , P r i n c e G e o r g e , C r a n b r o o k , C o q u i t l a m , C a m p b e l l R i v e r , M a p l e R i d g e , P e n t i c t o n , N e l s o n , a n d V a n c o u v e r . In summary , t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m was p r o p o s e d a f t e r c o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d t h a t a s u i t a b l e t w o - y e a r c o u r s e be d e v e l o p e d q u i c k l y o r home e c o n o m i c s w o u l d be r e d u c e d t o F o o d s a n d N u t r i t i o n a n d C l o t h i n g a n d T e x t i l e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i g h s c h o o l s . T h e p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d q u i c k l y due t o b u d g e t r e s t r a i n t . U p o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , t e x t b o o k s a n d c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s a r r i v e d l a t e a t s c h o o l s , and t h e i n -s e r v i c e s e s s i o n was l i m i t e d t o o n e - d a y . F a m i 1 y M a n a g e m e n t E c o n o m i c s Ed_ucat i on The C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n p r o m o t e s and s u p p o r t s t h e s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y , and c o m m u n i t y i n home e c o n o m i c s / f a m i 1 y s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n . Home e c o n o m i c s / f a m i l y s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f d a i l y l i v e s o f p e o p l e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r p e o p l e , s o c i a l s y s t e m s , a n d m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ( C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . In f o c u s i n g on t h e d a i l y human p r o b l e m s o f 'what s h o u l d be done a b o u t . . . ' , s t u d e n t s n e e d t o l e a r n a v a r i e t y o f f a m i l y l i v i n g s k i l l s a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s w h i c h a l l o w them t o v i e w p r o b l e m s f r o m v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d t o r e c o g n i z e a n d g e n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s ( C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 , p . 2 ) . T h e r e f o r e , home e c o n o m i c s / f a m i 1 y s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f o c u s on t h e f a m i l y i n i t s c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t ( C a n a d i a n Home E c o n o m i c s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 ) , a n d t h e f a m i l y s h o u l d be s t u d i e d by i n t e g r a t i n g k n o w l e d g e f r o m s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s ; n o t o n l y t h e s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , b u t a l s o t h e h e r m e n e u t i c d i s c i p l i n e s o f h i s t o r y a n d t h e h u m a n i t i e s , a n d c r i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y ( B r o w n , 1 9 8 0 ) . The F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m i s p a r t o f home e c o n o m i c s / f a m i 1 y s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n s i n c e i t a d d r e s s e s t h e p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . H o w e v e r , s t u d e n t s a r e n o t e n c o u r a g e d to generate alternative solutions for problems as the Canadian Home Economics Association (1985) suggests. This i s demonstrated in the Family Management curriculum document which emphasizes the acquisition of knowledge and s k i l l s for the purpose of f i t t i n g in and coping with society largely as i t i s , as opposed to changing i t . For example, many student learning outcomes in the curriculum document ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986) describe behaviors that are observable and measurable: define, i d e n t i f y , describe, state, and explain. The learning outcomes do not encourage discussion and deliberation. Although the curriculum document states that teachers should "foster an atmosphere where d i f f e r i n g points of view are accepted" ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986, p . l ) ; the student learning outcomes tend to emphasize the view of the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s rather than others as suggested (Canadian Home Economics Association, 1985). As teachers interpret and transform the curriculum document into teaching practices for their own classroom, practices may be dif f e r e n t from what the learning outcomes suggest. The Innovations of the Family Management Program The Home Economics Curriculum Revision Committee stated that the Family Management program was developed by combining the best of the old courses and the most useful resources, but with a new perspective and some new content (Larsen, 1987). Thus, only some parts of the Family Management curriculum 19 document a r e i n n o v a t i v e w h i l e p a r t s o f F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a n d H o u s i n g a n d I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 c u r r i c u l u m document j u d g e d p e r t i n e n t by t h e R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e w e r e r e t a i n e d . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 and H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 c u r r i c u l u m document w i t h t h e F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 c u r r i c u l u m document i n d i c a t e d two i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s : t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . E a c h o f t h e s e two i n n o v a t i o n s a r e e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y and p e d a g o g i c a l c l a r i t y as t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . T h e In.LssX§-.t.ly..§. ApEI.oa.ch T h e c u r r i c u l u m document i n t r o d u c e s an i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h r a t h e r t h a n a s e q u e n t i a l a p p r o a c h f o r t e a c h i n g m a j o r t o p i c s and k e y c o n c e p t s . The t e r m i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s n o t f o u n d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , b u t i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e d o c u m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n s t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t ( 1 9 8 6 ) , l i n k s c a n be d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r t o p i c s a n d t h e i r k e y c o n c e p t s , a n d t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f them c a n be t a u g h t u s i n g any o f t h e t h r e e s u g g e s t e d t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e theme a p p r o a c h i s s u g g e s t e d as t h e most c o n d u c i v e way t o t e a c h t h e c o u r s e a n d i t i s b a s e d on l i n k i n g t o p i c s , k e y c o n c e p t s , a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . 1 . c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y T he m a j o r t o p i c s s t u d i e d i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n t h e F a m i l y 20 S t u d i e s 12 and H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e 1979 Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e , t h e m a j o r t o p i c s of F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 w e r e : S e l f C o n c e p t , C o m m u n i c a t i o n , The F a m i l y , The L i f e C y c l e (The U n b o r n C h i l d , A d o l e s c e n t , A d u l t L i f e , e t c . ) , and D e a t h a n d D y i n g . The m a j o r t o p i c s o f H o u s i n g a n d I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 w e r e : H o u s i n g , I n t e r i o r D e s i g n , and T e r m i n o l o g y . B e l o w e a c h m a j o r t o p i c were l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . T h e r e was no e x p l i c i t e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o r e l a t e one t o p i c t o t h e n e x t o n e . Commonly u n i t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n d e v e l o p e d a r o u n d e a c h t o p i c . T h e i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t c o u l d be n e g l e c t e d s i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d f a m i l y were s t u d i e d as s e p a r a t e t o p i c s i n F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 w h i l e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t was s t u d i e d i n H o u s i n g a n d I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 . In c o n t r a s t , t h e m a j o r t o p i c s l i s t e d i n t h e 1986 F a m i l y Management C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e 1 1 / 1 2 ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986) f o r F a m i l y Management 11 a r e : I n d i v i d u a l R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t , Human D e v e l o p m e n t , P e r s o n a l G r o w t h , a n d I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e m a j o r t o p i c s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d by t h e i r f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f a d o l e s c e n c e . F o r F a m i l y Management 1 2 , t h e y a r e : F a m i l y R e s o u r c e M a n a g e m e n t , T h e A d u l t Y e a r s , a n d C h a n g i n g L i f e s t y l e s a n d R e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e m a j o r t o p i c s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d by t h e i r f o c u s on t h e f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e l i f e c y c l e o f t h e f a m i l y . The m a j o r t o p i c f o r " e a c h g r a d e l e v e l i s d e f i n e d by a s e t o f m a j o r t o p i c s a n d e a c h m a j o r t o p i c i s a d d r e s s e d by a number 21 of key c o n c e p t s " ( M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . l ) ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . F o r e a c h key c o n c e p t , t h e r e a r e i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s " d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m " ( B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . l ) . I n s t e a d o f a s e q u e n t i a l a p p r o a c h f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f m a j o r t o p i c s , an i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document so t h a t l i n k s c a n be drawn b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r t o p i c s a n d t h e i r k e y c o n c e p t s . 2. p e d a g o g i c a l c l a r i t y T h r e e a p p r o a c h e s a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e c u r r i c u l u m document f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s i x t e e n key c o n c e p t s f o r F a m i l y Management 11 and t h e f i f t e e n k e y c o n c e p t s f o r F a m i l y Management 12 ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . One a p p r o a c h i s t o p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e m a j o r t o p i c s a n d k e y c o n c e p t s as t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h i s t o e x p a n d a n d r e a r r a n g e t h e m a j o r t o p i c s o r k e y c o n c e p t s . Th e t h i r d i s t h e theme a p p r o a c h . By p r o g r e s s i n g s e q u e n t i a l l y t h r o u g h t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , t h e t e a c h e r t e a c h e s one t o p i c a n d a l l o f i t s key c o n c e p t s a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . S t u d e n t s c a n g a i n a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t e a c h m a j o r t o p i c i s c o m p r i s e d o f many key c o n c e p t s , as t h e t e a c h e r draws l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r t o p i c a n d i t s k e y c o n c e p t s . T e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o draw l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r t o p i c s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y e a c h week , t h e t e a c h e r c o u l d p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t k e y c o n c e p t t o t h e s t u d e n t s . I f t h i s were n o t d o n e , t h e k e y c o n c e p t s c o u l d be t a u g h t as s e g r e g a t e d u n i t s . The s e c o n d a p p r o a c h i s f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o r e a r r a n g e t h e key c o n c e p t s a n d i d e n t i f y o n l y t h o s e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s t h a t o f f e r t h e most s c o p e f o r them t o draw upon t h e i r own b a c k g r o u n d a n d e x p e r i e n c e o r t h a t b e s t mee t s t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ( i . e . , i n t e r m s o f s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s and a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s ) . T h e s e t o p i c s or c o n c e p t s c a n t h e n be h i g h l i g h t e d e i t h e r by r e a r r a n g i n g t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t o p i c s and k e y c o n c e p t s a r e t r e a t e d or by d e v o t i n g e x t r a t i m e t o t h e s t u d y o f s e l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l . ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . 6 ) T e a c h e r s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o draw l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e m a j o r t o p i c s and t h e i r k e y c o n c e p t s . H o w e v e r , t h i s r e - o r d e r i n g o f k e y c o n c e p t s may make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o i n t e g r a t e b e c a u s e t h e key c o n c e p t s a r e so c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e i r m a j o r t o p i c , a n d when t h e k e y c o n c e p t s a r e r e - o r d e r e d , t h e l i n k b e t w e e n e a c h k e y c o n c e p t a n d m a j o r t o p i c w o u l d h a v e t o be r e - c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . I f t h i s were n o t d o n e , t h e k e y c o n c e p t s a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s c o u l d be t a u g h t as s e g r e g a t e d u n i t s . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c r e t e u n i t s b a s e d on k e y c o n c e p t s i s a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e c u r r i c u l u m document ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . The t h i r d a p p r o a c h i s t h e theme a p p r o a c h w h i c h t h e g u i d e s t a t e s as b e i n g "more c o n d u c i v e t o t e a c h i n g F a m i l y Management t h a n d o e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e p a r a t e u n i t s o f work on t h e b a s i s o f d i s c r e t e t o p i c s o r k e y c o n c e p t s " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . 6 ) . T h e g u i d e s t a t e s : A theme i s a l i n k i n g i d e a t h a t r e l a t e s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . . . s i n c e t h e t o p i c a r e a s 23 p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s g u i d e a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , t h e t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h a l l o w s t e a c h e r s t o s c a n t h e c u r r i c u l u m and p u l l out t h a t w h i c h a m p l i f i e s t h e i r c h o s e n theme w i t h o u t j e o p a r d i z i n g c o n t i n u i t y . Not a l l i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s n e e d t o be i n c l u d e d i n a p r o g r a m s u c h as t h i s . ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . 6 ) T e a c h e r s l i n k a u n i t of s t u d y t o a theme by c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e k e y c o n c e p t s and l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s f o r e a c h sub t h e m e . Th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e g r e g a t e d u n i t s o f s t u d y i s d i s c o u r a g e d b e c a u s e s e v e r a l m a j o r t o p i c s and s e v e r a l key c o n c e p t s a r e e x a m i n e d t o g e t h e r a n d t h e y a r e l i n k e d t o a s u b t h e m e . The c u r r i c u l u m document i n c l u d e s a p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d s a m p l e theme f o r F a m i l y Management 11 t o show how " v a r i o u s t o p i c s and k e y c o n c e p t s c a n be f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 , p . 6 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e c u r r i c u l u m document d o e s n o t s u g g e s t how t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e r e m a i n i n g t o p i c s , k e y c o n c e p t s , a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s i n t o o t h e r themes o r how t o i d e n t i f y t h e m e s . The f i r s t a n d s e c o n d t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s p e r m i t t h e t e a c h e r t o c h o o s e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . T h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l l o w i n g s u c h f l e x i b i l i t y . F i r s t , a t e a c h e r may e l i m i n a t e a l l t h e new l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s a n d new m a j o r t o p i c s w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y l e a v e s one w i t h t h e o l d c o u r s e s , F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a n d H o u s i n g a n d I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12. P a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e t e a c h i n g F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 s i n c e most o f i t s c o n t e n t h a s b e e n r e t a i n e d i n t h e 2 4 handouts, and student a c t i v i t i e s t o teach the "new" course. Second, any eliminated outcomes from the old courses can be reinstated i f a teacher wants t o expand the scope of content or i s drawing on one's area of expertise as suggested by the second approach. Thus, this can result in the restoration of the Housing and Interior Design 12 curriculum and permit the teacher to use her former resources for teaching. The E c o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The ecological perspective refers to the concept of the family which i s intended to guide teaching practice and i s described as the philosophy behind the Family Management program ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986). Ecological means focusing on people and environments and their influence on each other, a kind of systems approach to the family. The ecological perspective may be d i f f i c u l t to convey since the separation of the two Family Management courses i n the curriculum document may l i m i t the extent to which such a perspective i s emphasized. 1. conceptual c l a r i t y The Family Studies 12 curriculum document emphasized people and th e i r relationships while Housing and Interior Design 12 emphasized l i v i n g spaces. The Family Management curriculum document s t i l l examines the individual and family as Family Studies 12 did, and the concepts of resource management and the environment from Housing and Interior Design 12 were retained. However, the Family Management curriculum document has an ecological perspective which i s the 2 5 c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y i n t e n d e d t o g u i d e t h e c u r r i c u l u m ( B . C . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . The e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h f o c u s e s on i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , a n d o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s and assumes t h a t a l l e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d a r e m u t u a l l y s u s t a i n i n g and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . In t h i s way, human b e h a v i o r i s s e e n t o be d e p e n d e n t on a n d i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e p r o p o s e s t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e j o i n t l y h e l d by a l l a n d t h a t f a v o r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s p r o m o t e human i n t e r a c t i o n a n d g r o w t h . ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 , p . 3 ) T h e r e f o r e , " t h e f o c u s o f t h e g r a d e 11 F a m i l y Management c o u r s e i s on t h e g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t " ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 , p . 3 ) . The g r a d e t w e l v e p r o g r a m e m p h a s i z e s t h e " e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y a n d t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y " ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 , p . 3 ) . T h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y i s n o t d e f i n e d ; h o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r t o p i c s , k e y c o n c e p t s , a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s i n d i c a t e t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y r e f e r s t o t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . The Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m R e v i s i o n C o m m i t t e e b o r r o w e d t h e i d e a o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m t h e work o f K e l l y ( 1968 ) a n d K e l l y a n d L e v i n ( 1984 ) w h i c h was c i t e d i n t h e t e x t b o o k T o d a y ' s M a r r i a g e s a n d F a m i l i e s ( G u l l o t t a , A d a m s , a n d A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . G u l l o t t a e t a l . ( 1986) o u t l i n e d t h e m a j o r i d e a s o f an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h a l f o f a p a g e o f t h e i r t e x t b o o k a c c o r d i n g t o a p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m K e l l y a n d 2 6 L e v i n ( 1 9 8 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o G u l l o t t a e t a l ( 1 9 8 6 ) , t h e p e r s p e c t i v e i s an o f f s h o o t o f g e n e r a l s y s t e m s t h e o r y . . . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e has c a p t u r e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f many i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f s o c i a l work a n d c o m m u n i t y p s y c h o l o g y who s e e i t as a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k c a p a b l e o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f humans and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . The e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e n e e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and o t h e r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n a n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . ( p . 3 4 ) The e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t a t e d i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986) i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . F o r e x a m p l e , k e y p h r a s e s s u c h as " o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s , " " e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d a r e m u t u a l l y s u s t a i n i n g , " " r e s o u r c e s a r e j o i n t l y h e l d , " a n d " f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s " a r e n o t made e x p l i c i t . T h e p e r s p e c t i v e a l l u d e s t o t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f p e o p l e a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f t h e g l o b a l o r c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t . Or i t c o u l d mean an e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c f o r c e s on t h e f a m i l y . H o w e v e r , f r o m e x a m i n i n g t h e t o p i c s , k e y c o n c e p t s , a n d l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s , an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s c o n v e y e d as u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e f a m i l y i n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e s o c i a l s e t t i n g o r e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e l i f e c y c l e h a s p r e d i c t a b l e s t a g e s ; a n d t h e r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s o c i a l s e t t i n g a n d p e r s o n s , a n d among p e r s o n s . 27 2. pedagogical c l a r i t y The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Family Management c u r r i c u l u m document i n t o Family Management 11 which focuses on the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n to other i n d i v i d u a l s , the f a m i l y and surrounding environment and Family Management 12 which focuses on the f a m i l y and the community may l i m i t the extent to which an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on the i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y can be developed. Because of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g focus of the two courses, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y may not be s t u d i e d any d i f f e r e n t l y than i n Family Studies 12 and Housing and I n t e r i o r Design 12. ' Despite the p o s s i b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the meaning of e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e contained i n the document and the way the courses are organized, the e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as the b a s i c philosophy of the new program was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by Larsen (1987). The e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r s a s p e c i f i c g u i d i n g framework f o r the Family Management program which was not present i n the Home E c q n g ^ G u i d e 8-12 f o r the courses Family S t u d i e s 12 or Housing and I n t e r i o r Design 12. The e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d by the R e v i s i o n Committee as a c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n and was a focus of i n - s e r v i c e workshops which o r i e n t e d teachers to the new program (Larsen, 1987). R e l a t e d Research Few s t u d i e s i n home economics education r e s e a r c h have examined t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s or other aspects of c u r r i c u l u m implementation. Larsen (1987) 28 u s e d F u l l a n ' s (1982) f a c t o r s t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m i n t h e L a n g l e y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d u r i n g i t s i n i t i a l y e a r o f m a n d a t o r y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L a r s e n was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t a n d s c h o o l l e v e l s u p p o r t s i n p l a c e and r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e new p r o g r a m . L a r s e n (1987) i d e n t i f i e d t h e i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h and t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as t h e c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i o n s o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m . A c c o r d i n g t o L a r s e n ( 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h r e f e r s t o t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c u r r i c u l u m document so t h a t t h e y a r e s t u d i e d i n a v a r i e t y o f k e y c o n c e p t s ; t h u s , ' t h e y a r e s t u d i e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . By e x a m i n i n g t h e e a r l y m o n t h s o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f m a n d a t o r y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m i n one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , L a r s e n (1987) p r o v i d e d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e f i r s t y e a r o f m a n d a t o r y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L a r s e n recommended t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d p r i n c i p a l s be made aware o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m so t h e y c a n s u p p o r t t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e p r o g r a m ; a n d t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e a s e r i e s o f i n -s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s t o a d d r e s s t e a c h e r s ' i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n s . I n a r e l a t e d s t u d y w h i c h e x a m i n e d t e a c h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f s e w i n g i n c l o t h i n g a n d t e x t i l e s , M u r p h e y & S t e w a r t (1990) i n t e r v i e w e d f i v e home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s . U s i n g " q u a s i - e t h n o g r a p h i c " i n t e r v i e w s , e a c h t e a c h e r was q u e s t i o n e d f o r one h o u r u s i n g o p e n - e n d e d a n d c l o s e - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . T h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t i n home e c o n o m i c s , t e a c h e r s 29 h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s e l e c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t , and t h e i r s e l e c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e i r j u d g e m e n t a b o u t s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t s and n e e d s . T e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d " t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h e u l t i m a t e j u d g e s o f what s h o u l d o r s h o u l d n o t be i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n " ( M u r p h e y & S t e w a r t , 1 9 9 0 , p . 2 8 ) , a n d t h i s b e l i e f was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m document t o p l a n c u r r i c u l u m i n s t r u c t i o n a n d c h o o s e c o u r s e c o n t e n t , t h e y c h o s e o u t s i d e o f i t f o r c o n t e n t a n d a c t i v i t i e s . T e a c h e r s j u s t i f i e d t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a b o u t c o u r s e c o n t e n t by s t a t i n g t h a t i t was i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In a r e l a t e d s t u d y w h i c h e x a m i n e d home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s , Thomas (1990) i n t e r v i e w e d s i x t e a c h e r s o f F a m i l y M a n a g e m e n t , o b s e r v e d t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e a n d a n a l y z e d t e a c h i n g d o c u m e n t s . Thomas was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t e a c h e r s c o n c e p t i o n s o f f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n , t h e p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e s on t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n s t o t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . T e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s h a d t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r t e a c h i n g b e l i e f s . O t h e r i n f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a n d a c a d e m i c p r e p a r a t i o n . Thomas f o u n d c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n t h e i r a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f s a n d t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s . No o t h e r home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s o r c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d . T h e r e v i e w o f c e n t r a l i n d i c e s a n d a r t i c l e s i n t h e a r e a f o u n d t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n an o v e r -r e l i a n c e on e m p i r i c a l a n a l y t i c a l r e s e a r c h t o e x p l a i n o r p r e d i c t t h e n a t u r e , c o n t e n t , a n d s t r u c t u r e o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n ( F a c u l t y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Home E c o n o m i c s E d u c a t i o n , 1986; W a l l a c e & H a l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h t h a t u n c o v e r s m e a n i n g s u n d e r l y i n g c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s and t h i s c a n s u g g e s t new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n . Summary R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n n o v a t i o n s may be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , l e g i s l a t o r s , o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . F o r i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t l a c k s t r u c t u r e a n d a r e n o t w e l l d e f i n e d , t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s a r e t h e r e s u l t of a p r o c e s s o f m u t u a l a d a p t a t i o n . M u t u a l a d a p t a t i o n e n t a i l s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s a n d may be i n f l u e n c e d by p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s ' c u l t u r e and t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h a n g e i t s e l f . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e more open t o i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t a r e p e r c e i v e d as n e c e s s a r y , h a v e p r o c e d u r a l c l a r i t y , a n d r e l e v a n t p r o g r a m m a t e r i a l s . I f t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e p r e s e n t w i t h o n g o i n g s t a f f t r a i n i n g , f r e q u e n t a n d r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o p u t t h e i r e f f o r t s i n t o m a k i n g a n d s u s t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c c h a n g e s . A l t h o u g h F a m i l y Management was a p r o g r a m i n n o v a t i o n , much o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t was n o t new., T h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h , one i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , c a n be a c h i e v e d i n one o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e ways . The s e c o n d i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e , t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e may be c o n t r a d i c t e d t h r o u g h t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c o u r s e s i n t o two f o c i on t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d f a m i l y . I n F u l l a n ' s t e r m s ( 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e l a c k c o n c e p t u a l a n d p e d a g o g i c a l c l a r i t y and t h i s makes them v e r y p r o n e t o t e a c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . R e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r s e l e c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t a n d b a s e t h e i r j u d g m e n t s on p e r c e i v e d n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 32 Chapter I I I : R e s e a r c h Approach The Family Management curriculum document introduced two innovative features that were pedagogical 1y and conceptually unclear, the integrative approach and the ecological perspective. This study examined teachers' perceptions of these two innovations and asked two central questions: 1) What are teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach? a) What does this mean for their teaching practices? b) How have they come to this understanding? 2) What are teachers' perceptions of the ecological perspective? a) What does this mean for their teaching practices? b) How have they come to this understanding? The Sample The study took place i n an urban school d i s t r i c t i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. During 1989-90, this d i s t r i c t had f i v e teachers teaching Family Management 11 and/or 12. By selecting one school d i s t r i c t , s e l e c t i v e sampling of subjects was avoided. Since the study was focused on the teacher and not at the school d i s t r i c t l e v e l , there was 33 no need for d i s t r i c t comparisons and one school d i s t r i c t permitted a constant context for the study. Within the chosen school d i s t r i c t , there was one home economics teacher of Family Management 11 and/or 12 i n each of the f i v e secondary schools. Home economics teachers in this d i s t r i c t were known for their leadership i n curriculum development. For example, one teacher who was on the Curriculum Revision Committee for the Family Management program taught i n the d i s t r i c t , but was not teaching the Family Management program during the year of this study. After permission was received from the school d i s t r i c t ' s superintendent, the f i v e home economics teachers who were teaching Family Management 11 and/or Family Management 12 were contacted (see Appendix B). Three teachers agreed to part i c i p a t e i n this study. Two teachers declined stating they were too busy to be involved. Three teachers were judged as an appropriate sample to offer s u f f i c i e n t range i n possible v a r i a t i o n for comparing and contrasting perceptions i n this study. The researcher followed up each consenting l e t t e r with a phone c a l l to arrange a convenient interview time. The three teachers i n the study were Anne, Dana, and Lucy. A l l three teachers were trained q u a l i f i e d home economics teachers and had between twelve and seventeen years of teaching experience. Both Anne and Lucy had experience teaching Family Management 11 and 12 and Family Studies 12 while Dana had had no previous experience teaching these 34 c o u r s e s . O n l y L u c y h a d e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 1 2 . R e s e a r c h A p £ r o a c h T e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s were i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s . T e a c h i n g d o c u m e n t s s u c h as c o u r s e o u t l i n e s , s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s , a n d h a n d o u t s were g a t h e r e d and a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s . A s e t o f open and c l o s e e n d e d q u e s t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d t o g u i d e t h e i n t e r v i e w s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s were s t r u c t u r e d t o p r o b e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h a n d e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e m e a n i n g s t h e y h e l d . Many q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e i n n o v a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d s i n c e Whyte (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y c a n " b r i n g t o l i g h t p o s s i b l e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r e s p o n s e w h i c h may i n d i c a t e a m b i v a l e n c e o f f e e l i n g s - o r c o n f u s i o n as t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n s " ( p . 1 1 4 ) . T h e q u e s t i o n s were p i l o t t e s t e d w i t h two home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y , b u t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y t r a n s c r i p t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e f i n e d a n d r e v i s e d t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s : i n a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s w e r e r e m o v e d , a n d q u e s t i o n s t h a t w e r e v a g u e o r m i s u n d e r s t o o d were r e - w o r d e d . I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y r e s t s on t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o w i n g t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e c r e d i b l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' b e l i e f s o r p e r s p e c t i v e s ( M e r r i a m , 1988 ; 35 S m i t h , 1 9 8 5 ) . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d d a t a i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d u s e d t h i s d a t a t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s . T e a c h e r s were a s k e d f o r o u t l i n e s , work s h e e t s , and h a n d o u t s t h a t t h e y u s e d t o t e a c h F a m i l y Management and w h i c h r e f l e c t e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . T h e d o c u m e n t s were u s e d t o v e r i f y t h e t e a c h e r s ' s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e i r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e . To s t r e n g t h e n i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y , e a c h t e a c h e r was g i v e n a summary o f t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w a n d p r i o r t o t h e s e c o n d a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were a c c u r a t e . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s were c h e c k e d t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , e a c h t e a c h e r was g i v e n a f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e s t u d y a n d a s k e d t o comment on t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e r e p o r t c o n v e y e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o s u s p e n d p r e j u d i c e s a b o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o be as o p e n as p o s s i b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r was s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n a n d a t t e m p t e d t o r e a s s u r e t h e t e a c h e r t h r o u g h eye c o n t a c t a n d s m i l e s as s u g g e s t e d by M e a s o r ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e t e a c h e r s d i d n o t a p p e a r r e l u c t a n t t o e x p r e s s t h e i r f e e l i n g s a n d o p i n i o n s . To a s s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , t h e t e a c h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i r names a n d t h e names o f o t h e r p e r s o n n e l , s c h o o l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . 36 External v a l i d i t y or generalizabi1ity i s problematic in qua l i t a t i v e research (Merriam, 1988; Smith & Heshusius, 1986). It i s suggested that external v a l i d i t y be judged according to agreement among interpreters. Thus, in this study, the researcher offers a description of the teachers' perceptions with supporting evidence i n the voices of the teachers so that the reader can decide whether the researcher's interpretations are appropriate or propose alternative interpretations. R e l i a b i l i t y refers to the extent to which the research can be replicated with the same results. In this regard, q u a l i t a t i v e research tends to be weak because human understandings and behavior are never s t a t i c (Merriam, 1988). While the questions and methodology of the study could be replicated, the nature and assumptions of the research assume that there may be some similar findings i n a sim i l a r study and there would also be considerable differences. Research Procedures Teachers were interviewed at places of the i r choice. Two teachers were interviewed twice at their school s i t e while one was interviewed twice at her residence. Each interview was tape recorded and transcribed. The interviews were sixty to one hundred and twenty minutes i n length. Two interviews were judged s u f f i c i e n t because the f i r s t interview probed the teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective and the second interview was necessary 37 to further probe and check consistency of perceptions with those stated i n the f i r s t interview. Interviews were the most appropriate method to access the teachers' meaning of the curriculum innovations. While survey could offer a larger sample, i t would be i n e f f e c t i v e in accessing or probing teachers' meanings. Interviews would also permit- unexpected variables or findings to emerge (Theman, 1979). Thus, interviews were considered the most appropriate methodology for addressing the research questions. The f i r s t interview was conducted i n November 1989. Teachers were asked about their teaching experience, experience i n the school d i s t r i c t , teacher tr a i n i n g , and years of experience with the Family Management program and with the courses i t replaced (Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12). Then the questions focused on the integrative approach. During t h i s time, each teacher was asked to submit an outline of her course, to explain how she devised and arranged the topics, and to describe her understanding of the integrative approach and theme approach. Questions about the ecological perspective dealt f i r s t with the teacher's focus and philosophy of the course then each teacher was questioned about her understanding of the ecological perspective and asked to i l l u s t r a t e i t with student assignments or a description of a lesson plan. Teachers were also questioned about the resources that may have helped them to gain an understanding of these innovations such as ministry or d i s t r i c t workshops, peers, the resources l i s t e d i n the 38 c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , o r c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e s . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , e a c h t e a c h e r was a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e l e s s o n s and s u b m i t work s h e e t s and a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d h e r p e d a g o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . A f t e r t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , e a c h t e a c h e r was m a i l e d a summary o f h e r f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . T h e summary was m a i l e d t h r e e m o n t h s l a t e r i n F e b r u a r y 1990 so t h a t e a c h t e a c h e r h a d t h r e e t o s i x weeks t o r e a d t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s summary . I n a d d i t i o n , a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e t o p i c s t h a t w o u l d be p r o b e d i n t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w was m a i l e d . T h i s p r e p a r e d t h e t e a c h e r f o r d i s c u s s i n g i t e m s t h a t were n o t p r o b e d a t t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w a n d / o r a l l o w e d h e r t o c h e c k d e t a i l s t h a t s h e was u n s u r e o f d u r i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . The s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g M a r c h 1990 . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h i n t e r v i e w , e a c h t e a c h e r was q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e summary was a c c u r a t e and g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a d d i t i o n a l comments a n d c o r r e c t i o n s w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . T h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e n p r o b e d s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s t h a t a r o s e f r o m a n a l y z i n g t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e - e x a m i n e d t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s t o c h e c k t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e m . T h e r e s e a r c h e r u s e d an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e t h a t was d e s i g n e d f o r e a c h t e a c h e r ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t s were g u i d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r a n a l y z e d t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s by d i v i d i n g e a c h t r a n s c r i p t i n t o s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a d d r e s s e d t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y : t h e i n t e g r a t i v e 39 approach/organization of course content and the ecological perspective/underlying conceptualization of the in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the in d i v i d u a l , family, and other social groups. Transcript statements were further divided into four sub categories: what i s the organization of course content; how did this organization transpire; what i s the underlying conceptualization of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the in d i v i d u a l , family, and other social groups; and how did this concept transpire. Tesch (1987) describes this method of working with text as panning since the researcher looks for descriptive expressions that d i r e c t l y address the phenomenon she i s exploring and excludes text that i s not d i r e c t l y pertaining. Based on the Family Management curriculum document, c r i t e r i a were devised to determine whether the teachers had perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective that were similar to those i n the curriculum document. The c r i t e r i a allows the reader to share the researcher's int e r p r e t a t i o n of the teachers' perceptions. The c r i t e r i a i s not intended to indicate whether or not the teachers implement the i r perceptions of the innovations. The researcher judged the teachers' perceptions as described i n the interviews against the d e f i n i t i o n of integrative approach provided i n the curriculum guide. That i s , the perception of the integrative approach was considered consistent with the guide i f the teacher explained that she drew links among the topics, key concepts and learning outcomes by progressing sequentially through the guide, or by rearranging them, or by 40 using the theme approach. In addition, the course outline was examined to see i f i t was consistent with one of the three approaches. The researcher looked for statements that indicated that the teacher was aware of the meaning of the ecological perspective as stated i n the curriculum document and used th i s meaning as the underlying concept of the family in the course (see Chapter II for further d e t a i l s about the innovations as described i n the curriculum document). In addition, student assignments, handouts, or lesson plans were examined to see i f there was evidence of the ecological perspective i n the teaching materials. Each interview transcript was read and re-read to focus on explanations, descriptions, and conditions that related to the teacher's perceptions. A l l documents that teachers submitted were checked against t h e i r perceptions for consistencies. Inconsistent statements and documents were questioned during the second interview with the teachers. Questions for the second interviews re-examined the teachers' perceptions of the innovations and probed s p e c i f i c concerns that arose from examining the f i r s t interviews; so the questions were not always the same for each teacher. After the second interview, the researcher analyzed the transcripts i n the same manner as the f i r s t interview t r a n s c r i p t s . In addition, the researcher compared the data between the f i r s t and second interview. Data was eventually combined since the teachers' perceptions between the f i r s t and second interviews were consistent. Each teacher was mailed a f i n a l d r a f t o f t h e s t u d y and a s k e d f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o r t r a y a l a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . None o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c h a l l e n g e d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . 42 Chapter IV: Teachers' Pexcj^^ Integrative Approach and Eco.Lqgic_al Perspective The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of innovations i n a curriculum. To do t h i s , three teachers were interviewed about th e i r perceptions of the integrative approach and ecological perspective i n the Family Management curriculum document. This chapter examines the teachers' perceptions and the factors that influenced them. Anne Anne has taught for twelve years i n her school d i s t r i c t . This was her fourth year in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r secondary school. Anne began teaching Family Studies 12 i n 1979 and f i r s t taught Family Management 11 i n 1985 when a draft of the new curriculum was available. During 1989-90, Anne taught one block of Family Management 11 and one block of Family Management 12 i n addition to Foods and N u t r i t i o n 9 and Mathematics 8. She was the only teacher teaching the Family Management program at her school. 43 Integrative Approach The following topics constituted Anne's 1989-90 year plan for Family Management 11. The topics were taught in the following sequence: SuperHost Communication Relationships - includes friendships, dating Self-Concept Mental and Physical Health - includes drug and alcohol abuse, smoking, eating disorders, etc. Community Resources - includes information about suicide, cancer, c h i l d abuse, stress Sexuality - includes physiology and human reproduction, methods of contraception, sexually transmitted diseases - includes AIDS, sexual pressures, rape, teenage pregnancy Pregnancy and B i r t h The following topics constituted Anne's 1989-90 year plan for Family Management 12. The topics were taught i n the following sequence: Introduction - including communication Families - types, family tree, functions, l i f e cycle, c u l t u r a l differences 44 L i f e s t y l e O p t i o n s - P a r e n t i n g : d e c i d i n g t o have c h i l d r e n , a f f e c t of b i r t h o r d e r , i n f e r t i l i t y , d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s , p a r e n t i n g s t y l e s , d i s c i p l i n e - S i n g l e L i f e , Mate S e l e c t i o n , M a r r i a g e D e a l i n g w i t h L o s s - f r i e n d s h i p s , d i v o r c e , d e a t h E l d e r l y - The G o l d e n Y e a r s : a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e e l d e r l y , p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s , how t o cope M o v i n g f r o m A d o l e s c e n c e t o A d u l t h o o d - h o u s i n g n e e d s , employment, c o s t of moving o u t Anne s t a t e d t h a t t h e t o p i c s a r e a r r a n g e d i n b o t h c o u r s e s so t h a t " t h e y seem t o f l o w r e a l l y w e l l , and t h e y make a l o t of s e n s e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . " F o r example f o r F a m i l y Management 11, Anne e x p l a i n e d t h a t R e l a t i o n s h i p s f l o w s l o g i c a l l y f r o m C o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n c e you communicate i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Then i n t o t h e S e l f C o n c e p t and l o o k i n g a t who t h e y a r e and where t h e y a r e g o i n g i n l i f e , what t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a r e . And t h e n we t a l k a b o u t M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l H e a l t h and how i t a l l comes back t o S e l f - C o n c e p t : how t h e y r e a c t t o d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of t h e s e p r o b l e m s a l l come b a c k t o s e l f - e s t e e m so i t r e l a t e s back t h e r e . 45 The sequence of the topics showed that Anne dealt f i r s t with the topics that were less intimidating for students to discuss such as SuperHost and Communication. Intimate topics l i k e Sexuality and Pregnancy and B i r t h were taught at the end of the school year. She described the order as dealing with "Who they are. Then we look at getting pregnant, not wanting to get pregnant, the decision of a pregnancy, and impact of that, then the b i r t h of a c h i l d . " SuperHost was a one and half day seminar presented by the Ministry of Tourism, Recreation, and Culture that dealt with upgrading standards of service and h o s p i t a l i t y industry to the t r a v e l l i n g public i n B r i t i s h Columbia. During A p r i l 1989, Anne attended the seminar with f i v e or six other home economics teachers i n the school d i s t r i c t . Each teacher received a Leader's Manual and P a r t i c i p a t i o n Kit which enabled them to delive r the SuperHost seminar to the i r students. In order to accommodate SuperHost into the Family Management 11 curriculum 1988-89, the development of the newborn from one to twelve months was omitted i n the topic of Pregnancy and Bi r t h . SuperHost was included again i n the Family Management 11 curriculum 1989-90 under the same conditions. For Family Management 12, the topics r e f l e c t e d the chronology of a person's l i f e , eg. single l i f e , mate sele c t i o n , marriage, parenting, and the eld e r l y . Anne did consider organizing the topics to r e f l e c t a linear l i f e cycle, but she f e l t that i t would result i n studying the eld e r l y and death during the last term of school which could be depressing 46 f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . I n s t e a d , t h e t o p i c s were a r r a n g e d so t h a t e v e n t s were " a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d " w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r . F o r example, i n L i f e C y c l e O p t i o n s , p a r e n t i n g was t a u g h t b e f o r e s i n g l e l i f e , mate s e l e c t i o n and m a r r i a g e so t h a t s t u d e n t s c o u l d use t h e p a r e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o p l a n a C h r i s t m a s p a r t y f o r p r e - p r e s c h o o l e r s . T r a n s i t i o n f r o m a d o l e s c e n c e t o a d u l t h o o d was t h e l a s t t o p i c of t h e y e a r b e c a u s e i t s c o n t e n t a p p e a l s t o t h e g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s ; b u d g e t i n g , h o u s i n g n e e d s , moving o u t , and employment. Anne r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e t o p i c s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and t r i e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i n g a s p e c t t o t h e s t u d e n t s . Anne b e l i e v e d she a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s t h r o u g h c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . F o r example when she t a u g h t M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l H e a l t h , Anne had t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s " i f one i s f e e l i n g crummy, how does t h i s a f f e c t one's m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ? " . The s t u d e n t s b r a i n s t o r m and Anne had them c o n s i d e r what t h e y l e a r n e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t o p i c s ; she drew upon a s p e c t s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s t o p i c s , S e l f - C o n c e p t , C o m m u n i c a t i o n , and R e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e a f f e c t of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , how t o h e l p a p e r s o n , and d e t e c t i n g body l a n g u a g e and v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . U n l i k e c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , work s h e e t s and a s s i g n m e n t s t e n d e d t o f o c u s oh a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t o r s e t of c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o a t o p i c r a t h e r t h a n i n t e g r a t e c o n c e p t s f r o m v a r i o u s t o p i c s . F o r example f o r t h e t o p i c M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l H e a l t h , s t u d e n t s c h e c k e d o f f t h e ways t h e y d e a l t w i t h s t r e s s i n "How do we d e a l w i t h s t r e s s " and r a t e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o 47 s i t u a t i o n s i n "how t o t e l l i f y o u ' r e a s t r e s s - p r o n e p e r s o n a l i t y " . F o r "a c o m m u n i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e f o r t e e n s & p a r e n t s " i n F a m i l y Management 12, s t u d e n t s c h e c k e d o f f yes o r no t o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s : what p a r e n t s d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e i r c h i l d and how d i d t h e c h i l d r e l a t e t o o n e ' s p a r e n t s . Work s h e e t s t e n d e d t o l i m i t t h e s t u d e n t s ' f o c u s t o t h e t o p i c a t h a n d r a t h e r t h a n i n t e g r a t e v a r i o u s t o p i c s . In d e c i d i n g how t o o r g a n i z e t h e t o p i c s , a t t h e e n d o f e a c h s c h o o l y e a r Anne l o o k e d o v e r what work was c o v e r e d and what w o r k e d b e s t . She o r g a n i z e d a b i n d e r f o r e a c h u n i t c o n t a i n i n g l e s s o n p l a n s , t e a c h e r i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s , h a n d o u t s , a n d a s s i g n m e n t s . I t c o n t a i n e d what s h e u s e d f o r t h e u n i t d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s y e a r s . She s t a t e d t h a t s h e i s " r e a l l y t r y i n g t o a i m i t [ t h e c o u r s e s ] a t what t h e i r [ s t u d e n t s ' ] i n t e r e s t s a r e . Anne s t a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w r i t e e v a l u a t i o n s a b o u t what t h e y t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e c o u r s e , a n d I c h a n g e i t a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r . I c h a n g e t h e o r d e r , I l o o k t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s . A n d , I d o n ' t p l a n t h e w h o l e y e a r , I p l a n t h e m a j o r t o p i c s a t t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r . T h e n , i n S e p t e m b e r when I h a v e t h e s t u d e n t s , I do a u n i t a t a t i m e . A n d I l o o k a t what w e ' v e c o v e r e d . A n d I l o o k i f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g new t h e n I w i l l p u t s o m e t h i n g new i n . I f I h a v e a new a r t i c l e o r s o m e t h i n g t o e n h a n c e t h e u n i t t h a t w i l l work b e t t e r , I w i l l c h a n g e t h e a c t i v i t y . Anne d e v i s e d t h e t o p i c s by u s i n g t h e k e y c o n c e p t s f r o m t h e d r a f t o f t h e F a m i l y Management 11 c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e F a m i l y Management 11/12 C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 48 M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1986). Key c o n c e p t s were r e a r r a n g e d and u s e d t o f o r m t o p i c s . When t h e c u r r i c u l u m f i r s t came o u t , I went t o a workshop on r e a r r a n g i n g t h e key c o n c e p t s and I u s e d t h a t . I l o o k e d a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m [ g u i d e ] and I p i c k e d t h e ones, I put them i n some k i n d of o r d e r t h a t I t h o u g h t would work. Anne a t t e n d e d t h e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n - s e r v i c e about F a m i l y Management 11/12 i n O c t o b e r , 1986 w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s : t e a c h t h e t o p i c s and key c o n c e p t s i n t h e o r d e r as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e g u i d e , r e a r r a n g e and expand t o p i c s and key c o n c e p t s , and t h e theme a p p r o a c h . However, Anne began t e a c h i n g F a m i l y Management 11 i n 1985 u s i n g t h e d r a f t and i t d i d n o t i n c l u d e t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s ; t h e r e f o r e , she must have r e l i e d on h e r p a s t p r a c t i c e s f r o m t e a c h i n g F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 - t o o r g a n i z e t o p i c s i n t o a l o g i c a l o r d e r . Anne has n e v e r u s e d t h e theme a p p r o a c h t o o r g a n i z e F a m i l y Management 11/12. She l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e theme a p p r o a c h a t t h e M i n i s t r y ' s one-day i n - s e r v i c e . She commented I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e was enough of an e x p l a n a t i o n . I t h i n k t h e theme a p p r o a c h i s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t way of t e a c h i n g . I g u e s s I d o n ' t have t h e e x p e r i e n c e of i t . I h a v e n ' t s e e n anyone t e a c h i n t h a t a p p r o a c h . T h e r e was a t e n o r f i f t e e n m i n u t e d i s c u s s i o n [ d u r i n g t h e i n -s e r v i c e ] o f how you c o u l d do t h i s and t h a t was i t . So f o r me t o do t h e theme a p p r o a c h , I d i d n ' t know where t o s t a r t . The whole c u r r i c u l u m l o o k e d o v e r w h e l m i n g and t o p u t t o g e t h e r t h e s e c o n c e p t s t o f i t was j u s t , i t blew my m i nd. 49 Anne stated that she may have attempted the theme approach i f she had "an outline of the course with the topic areas," or had attended in-service to learn how to use i t . I've seen the theme approach [at the in-service and i n the curriculum guide] and I have trouble doing that because I think sequentially and I can pull things together i n my mind, but I can't see how I would teach i t to the students that way. Furthermore, i n meetings with other Family Management teachers in the d i s t r i c t during 1987, Anne found that other teachers organized the content i n a si m i l a r manner; teaching topics and rearranging them. Factors Influencing the Integrative Approach The s i m i l a r i t i e s between Family Management 11/12 and Family Studies 12 allowed Anne to use previous teaching materials, s i m i l a r organization of topics, and former teaching approaches. What worked i n Family Studies 12 was applied to teaching Family Management 11 and 12. For example, there are some lessons on communication [from Family Studies 12] that work r e a l l y , r e a l l y well and some lessons on self-concept that work r e a l l y , r e a l l y , well and so I s t i l l have some of the o r i g i n a l things that I used ten years ago and s t i l l work with the students, so I use them. For example the work sheet, "Barriers to Communication" was from Family Studies 12, and used i n Family Management 11 for the topic Communication. Students read a l i s t of actions 50 which i n h i b i t communication and decide which one can or can not be changed. Then, they pick three communication barriers that describe themselves and l i s t ideas for overcoming them. "Paraphrasing" was used for Family Studies 12 and i s used i n Family Management 11 for the topic Communication. Students read nine statements and rewrite the sentence using d i f f e r e n t words. The "Family Constellation" assignment for Family Management 12 was from Family Studies 12. Using th e i r imaginations, students show how they feel about family members and close friends by cutting out d i f f e r e n t s i z e , color and texture of c i r c l e s and arranging them to show the student's attachment to these people. Even after Anne's i n i t i a l implementation of Family Management 11, she continued to c o l l e c t resources, change assignments from year to year, and change the order of topics. For example, SuperHost was not prescribed for the Family Management 11/12 curriculum, but Anne vo l u n t a r i l y inserted i t into 1988-89 Family Management 11 curriculum. She explained I thought the students would r e a l l y enjoy i t . I thought they could use i t i n t h e i r work. When I asked the students how many of them worked, about eighty percent of them said that they do work. And i t would be a review of [the topic] Communication of what we did e a r l i e r i n the year . . . i t would support what we had done . . . I thought i t was a r e a l l y upbeat way to end the term. Resource materials came from the Family Management 11 and 12 resource books published by the Vancouver School Board, Perspectives for Living resource books from Alberta, other 51 teachers, and information pamphlets from Alcoholics Anonymous, Canadian Cancer Society, etc. The basis for choosing materials was " l e g i b i l i t y , at the student's l e v e l , checklists, anything that gets them to think about issues." Anne collected resources from other Family Management teachers i n the school d i s t r i c t . After teaching Family Management 11 during 1986-87, she contacted a teacher in the d i s t r i c t who taught both Family Management 11 and 12. The reason was that Anne worried about how/what she would teach the housing section i n Family Management 12. She omitted the housing section from Family Management 11. During the summer 1987, Anne talked to this teacher and another teacher. The three teachers decided to meet during the school year and inv i t e d other Family Management teachers i n the d i s t r i c t to join them. Meetings were held once a month during the school year to share ideas, work sheets, assignments and problems. The meetings took place after school at a f a c i l i t y i n the school d i s t r i c t for four to f i v e hours. "We talked about the focus [of the course], we talked about topics, we talked about teaching strategies, what worked, what didn't work, we talked about assignments, we talked about everything." Anne described how they shared their ideas: "what we had done i n a unit, we would bring them or i f we found materials that we could use." Anne enjoyed meeting with the other teachers because " i t was very supportive. It confirmed that we were on the right track." For example, teaching by topics was common among the 52 teachers. Anne "only knew of one person who does i t [theme approach], but I don't know her personally." The meetings were important to Anne as there was no one i n the d i s t r i c t responsible for the implementation of Family Management 11/12; so the only other people I talked to were other Family Management teachers. I'd c a l l e d them up and say 'this i s n ' t working, what are you doing' or 'I need some help, I'm on this unit, do you have something on i t ? ' That's about i t , we helped ourselves. There was no one in the d i s t r i c t who helped. The teachers did not continue to meet after June, 1988. Anne explained that "the reason that we didn't meet was I guess due to the lack of time . . . we shared enough resources, had enough ideas that we didn't need to meet the following year." Anne organized Family Management 11 and 12 using topics; however, she did not teach them as segregated units. Instead, Anne integrated concepts from previous and present topics. Using class discussions, she believed students could understand that concepts are i n t e r r e l a t e d . Anne did not perceive this approach as integrative because i t was not patterned after any of three approaches in the curriculum document. Rather, she developed this way of integrating through her teaching experience of Family Studies 12. Student success with this approach led Anne to believe that i t was an appropriate way to teach Family Management 11 and 12. 53 Ecological Perspective Our conversation about the ecological perspective began with Anne's description of her philosophy of Family Management 1 1 and 1 2 . This was followed by Anne's comments on an excerpt of the ecological perspective that was photocopied from the Family Management curriculum document. According to Anne, the focus of Family Management 1 1 was "issues r e l a t i n g to the adolescent and psychology of people with emphasis on adolescent." Her responses to questions, work sheets, and assignments r e f l e c t e d this viewpoint. For example, in the topic Mental and Physical Health, students analyzed themselves, what they did under stress and how they handled i t . For drug abuse, students discussed why do people get involved, how to help, and where to seek available community services and agencies. This i s something I do on alcoholism . . . . we w i l l talk about why do people use alcohol. What are some reasons, and they [the students] t e l l me their reasons. And we discuss them as they give me a l l the reasons . . . . So, t h e y ' l l talk about i t and a l l the reasons involved . . . . What's too much? What do dif f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s say? What do di f f e r e n t cultures say? What's okay in one culture? What's okay in other cultures? . . . . How do you help? Can you help someone i f they have a problem with alcohol? In the topic Communication, students read eight statements about communication and check the box that describes their opinion in "How Do You Communicate?". In addition, they explained why and rated their talking and l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . 54 One topic that was not an issue r e l a t i n g to adolescence was SuperHost. SuperHostr deals with the tourism industry in B r i t i s h Columbia and communication i n the work place. In ten periods, Anne taught the students how to give clear d i r e c t i o n s , i n i t i a t e conversations, and use tourism publications such as road maps. Anne explained that SuperHost was included because she f e l t that the "students would r e a l l y enjoy i t " and "they could use i t i n the i r work [jobs]". For Family Management 12, Anne stated that "the focus changes to families . . . and we look at everything from a family point of view. . . . the psychology of family and the effects on the family." However, Anne stated that the topics also related back to the individual's perspective since " i f you don't look at where they [students] are, they can't relate to i t . I think you do have to come back to what they believe i n , what their opinions are." The researcher found that some student assignments examined the interactive nature of the relationship between the individual and family while others did not. For example, with the work sheet "Family Constellation" students examined their relationship to their immediate family members, other r e l a t i v e s , and friends by cutting out c i r c l e s of paper of diff e r e n t colors, textures, and sizes. Students used lines to connect, encircle, or divide and cluster them to show relationships. Thus, the interdependence of social groups was examined. This did not occur when the students worked on a budgeting assignment at the end of year. They chose where they would l i k e to l i v e 55 b a s e d on t h e c o s t of l i v i n g on t h e i r own and t h e k i n d of j o b s t h e y a r e l o o k i n g f o r . S t u d e n t s examined o n l y t h e m s e l v e s t o make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a l t h o u g h t h e i r c h o i c e s a r e l i k e l y t o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r f a m i l y and c u s t o m s . C l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s a p p e a r e d t o be c o n d u c i v e t o examine t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e f a m i l y . Anne e x p l a i n e d t h a t f o r F a m i l y Management 11 and 12, " I d o n ' t have them s i t down and have them do work s h e e t s . . . . A l o t of i t i s r e a l l y d i s c u s s i o n o r i e n t e d . " F o r t h e e l d e r l y "we t a l k a b o u t a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e y have t o w a r d s them," as w e l l as " t h e p h y s i c a l changes of t h e e l d e r l y . . . and abuse of t h e e l d e r l y . " F o r p a r e n t i n g , s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d i f t h e y want t o have c h i l d r e n and " w e ' l l d i s c u s s how come you d o n ' t want t o have k i d s ? W e ' l l t a l k about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and what t h e y s e e i n t h e i r l i f e . " Anne was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e t e r m " e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e " . When a s k e d t o d e f i n e i t , she s t a t e d t h a t i t was " h a v i n g some i d e a o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and s t a r t i n g t o t a k e t h a t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , I t h i n k . . . what we a r e d o i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t o be more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y aware and how we c a n h e l p t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h e s e d a y s . " She e x p l a i n e d " I t h o u g h t of i t as t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e i t i s s u c h an i s s u e t o d a y . " Anne was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a d t h e p h i l o s o p h y s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m document. A f t e r r e a d i n g i t , she r e a l i z e d t h a t " I d o n ' t t e a c h t o o much f r o m what I s a i d b e f o r e . You know, t h e e f f e c t about t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I t e a c h more f r o m 56 this [the philosophy statement] . . . human behavior and the int e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of human behavior between people." However, Anne stated that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to teach using this philosophy statement. It's overwhelming. I l i k e the ending that students enter the course with d i f f e r e n t perspectives and teachers should have a f l e x i b l e stance to deal with issues . . . I highly agree with the ending. I guess the problem that I have i s just trying to do everything. It's just a l o t . Anne had some d i f f i c u l t y understanding part of the curriculum document's description of an ecological perspective. She was unsure about the meaning of "resources are j o i n t l y held by a l l and that favourable environmental conditions promote human in t e r a c t i o n and growth" ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986, p.3). Anne explained that I have trouble thinking of ecological, I'm thinking r e a l l y large, that resources are held by a l l these people and favorable environmental conditions promote human in t e r a c t i o n and growth . . . . the last half of the sentence i s talking about human in t e r a c t i o n and growth, so are they talking about human in t e r a c t i o n i n the family or about families and families? I have a lot of trouble with that. . . . I don't know i f I teach i t . Nevertheless Anne f e l t that she taught from an ecological perspective because she focused on the individual and the family as structured i n the guide: 57 Human behavior seems to be dependent on . . . No. I wouldn't say i t [Family Management 11 and 12] i s too much on that. Focus of Family Management 11 i s on growth and development of the i n d i v i d u a l , and interactive relationships between individuals, family and the surrounding environment. The emphasis of the grade twelve on the evolutionary nature of the family i n the larger community. That's d e f i n i t e l y what we do. And we d e f i n i t e l y examine the relationships of humans. And the environment, not so much since we don't do much on housing, but we talk about the environment about how that affects people. And we do concentrate on the individual in grade eleven and on the family [in grade twelve],trying to f i t i n the community in grade twelve. For the community view, Anne had the students locate community health organizations, v i s i t a local d e t o x i f i c a t i o n centre, v i s i t a maternity ward at a local hospital, and plan a party for a pre-school. Anne f e l t that the individual's and family's i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p with society i s more suitable for Social Studies so she focused discussions on other culture's attitudes towards alcoholism, b i r t h control, marriage and divorce. Factors Influencing the Ecological Perspective As described above, Anne was not familiar with the ecological perspective. She indicated that a major influence on her focus had been the psychology courses taken i n university. I took a lot courses i n university so . . . I have a strong background i n psychology and i t i s through the reading there and the constant reading now i n 58 d i f f e r e n t areas, in books of personal development, how children learn. Psychology and sociology readings and textbooks about adolescents indicated to Anne that "everything i s based on their values, their needs, and their goals. And that's a l l a part of Family Management." We talk about what their values are, looking at who they are, looking at their needs, looking at the i r goals, where do they want to go i n l i f e , making sure they get there, decision-making i s a r e a l l y big part of i t . So I guess just by .doing a lot of reading i n a l l the d i f f e r e n t areas, talking to the students and seeing what's important to them, what they get out of the course. Anne was not fam i l i a r with the term ecological perspective. Her i n i t i a l impression was that i t meant teaching about the environmental conditions of the world. Our conversation, and an examination of Anne's assignments and work sheets indicated that her perception of an ecological perspective meant studying the i n t e r a c t i v e relationship between the individual and the family i n i t s immediate environment. This meant work sheets, assignments and class discussions to examine the individual and family i n r e l a t i o n to peers, the school, and local community. For Family Management 11, Anne focused on the adolescent while for Family Management 12, she focused on the family l i f e cycle. Anne believed that her perception of the ecological perspective 59 developed from her university training and reading psychology text books. Dana Dana has taught for eighteen years, sixteen years i n her present school d i s t r i c t and at the same secondary school. She has no previous teaching experience with Family Management 11 or 12, Family Studies 12, or Housing and Interior Design 12. During 1989-90, Dana taught one block of Family Management 12 in addition to Clothing and,Textiles 9, 11, 12A, and 12B and Home Economics 8. She was the only teacher teaching Family Management 12. No one taught Family Management 11. l3^R^3.%J:y..^..h£2I.93.9.h The following topics constituted Dana's 1989-90 year plan for Family Management 12. The topics were taught i n the following sequence: SuperHost L i f e Cycle Roles The Family Today Young Adulthood Mate Selection Parenting Family Changes Family C r i s i s Aging 60 On Your Own Dana did not possess a Family Management curriculum document to organize or teach the course. A course outline was borrowed from a friend who was a home economics teacher in the d i s t r i c t and had taught Family Management 12 for two years. The course outline included a l i s t of topics and student objectives that were derived from the Family Management curriculum document. The topics for the course outline were based on the family l i f e cycle s t a r t i n g from young adulthood. Each topic l i s t e d three to four student objectives. The objectives related s p e c i f i c a l l y to their topic, suggesting that the l i f e cycle i s a series of segregated topics. Dana taught the topics as segregated units. She stated "I am very much categorized, step-by-step person. I l i k e things clear cut." Dana did not perceive herself as integrating although she used work sheets and assignments that i n t e r r e l a t e d topics or concepts. In L i f e Cycle Roles, students studied stages of the family l i f e cycle. Students worked i n groups of three or four to create posters of one stage of the family l i f e cycle that included information about housing needs, parent/child relationships, husband/wife roles, finances, health concerns, and jobs. Each pair of students gave a twenty minute oral report about families i n other cultures which included information about courtship and dating practices, marriage customs, r e l i g i o n , c h ild-rearing practices, and b i r t h and death r i t e s . In the unit on Mate 61 Selection, students wrote a "marriage cookbook" for newly married couples. Students wrote one to two pages about how newly married couples can solve economic, r e l i g i o n , friends/in-laws, and career/job/work problems. These assignments required students to re-examine the family l i f e cycle and to consider other concepts related to i t . Dana made one change to the course outline that her frien d gave her. She inserted the SuperHost program. In Ap r i l 1989, Dana and five other home economics teachers i n the same school d i s t r i c t attended the one and half day SuperHost seminar. Dana did not use the theme approach. When she attended the Ministry's one-day in-service that introduced the teaching approaches, she was neither teaching nor ant i c i p a t i n g teaching Family Management 11 or 12. She stated " i f you aren't teaching i t [Family Management 11 and 12], i t [the in-service] doesn't have much meaning to you." Factors Influencing the Integrative Approach For seventeen years, Dana taught either the Foods and Nutr i t i o n or the Clothing and Textiles courses. At the end of the 1989 school year, she unexpectedly learned that she would teach Family Management 12 i n September, 1989. Being unsure about what to teach and how to organize the course content, she borrowed a course outline from a friend who taught Family Management 11 and 12 for several years. 62 I talked to a friend who has taught this course before and I got an outline from her because I r e a l l y didn't know where to start or what to do. And I didn't feel r e a l l y comfortable because to me i t i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t . She explained that "Foods and Clothing are r e a l l y concrete courses and this i s very abstract" and requires d i f f e r e n t pedagogy. For example, she f e l t that classroom discussions should be integral to the course. She states "they [students] would come and have some active discussion of t h e i r thoughts and feelings . . . . they would spend some time a c t i v e l y discussing how they f e l t , what they saw, and what the i r experiences were." Instead, she found that "a lot of them don't feel comfortable discussing s t u f f . . . . they gossip, but they don't r e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e and discuss as a group." In organizing the course, Dana did not consult the Family Management 11/12 curriculum document. She stated that "I'm sure I must have one around this school, but I completely forgot about i t and haven't looked at i t . " Dana borrowed work sheets and assignments from her fr i e n d . She stated that "they have given me guidelines to follow." Without them, "I would have s t r i c t l y used the text book and used i t chapter by chapter." However, Dana admitted that there are disadvantages i n using someone else materials. For example her friend gave her an assignment that required the students to o r a l l y report on the culture and t r a d i t i o n s of families i n foreign countries. Dana allowed the students to choose countries, not r e a l i z i n g that some countries would be 63 d i f f i c u l t to research due to limited resources of the l i b r a r y or that some cultures were too similar to North American traditions and detracted from the purpose of the assignment, learning about cult u r a l differences. Thus next time, she w i l l have the students choose from a l i s t of countries. Another disadvantage i s that "I rely on her [the friend] and I'm not r e a l l y looking to develop my own, so I'm not sure i f what I am doing i s the best because everyone has their own personality." However, Dana stated that "I doubt that I w i l l ever get my own things . . . . I w i l l probably only modify her things because her things are quite good. It i s kind of the thing of 'why re-invent the wheel?'" At the time of the second interview, Dana had begun to use materials that were not borrowed from her friend. She used the text book by Leavenworth et al (1985). She stated "I did this unit on goal setting with them and actually took some stuf f from the text book". In addition, she had borrowed the Family Management 12 Resource Book published by the Vancouver School Board from the teacher who had taught Family Management 12 i n the school. The only change that Dana made to her friend's outline was to insert SuperHost. After I had taken the course [SuperHost seminar], I had decided that's what I would do f i r s t [the f i r s t topic for Family Management 12] since that's what I was f a m i l i a r with. And that would give me some sort of an edge as far as before I started to accumulate materials and look at the materials that I had accumulated. 6 4 Dana was not sure i f i t was appropriate to include SuperHost i n Family Management 12. "I'm not sure that tourism f i t s , " with the Family Management content. Nevertheless, Dana w i l l include i t i f she teaches Family Management 12 again because the students "enjoyed getting the c e r t i f i c a t e and the pin" that indicates their p a r t i c i p a t i o n . She explained that "three or four of them [students] have come and said that they have gotten jobs because people were impressed that they had their SuperHost c e r t i f i c a t e . " Furthermore, she explained that " i f you look at the course as to develop better rounded individuals and not just focusing on the family, but on the individual as a whole which means [developing] some sense of community involvement and community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " then i t i s appropriate to include the SuperHost program. Not possessing a curriculum document, Dana r e l i e d on a Family Management 12 course outline, work sheets, and assignments borrowed from a fri e n d . Although Dana taught the family l i f e cycle as a series of segregated topics, she did use student assignments that integrated topics and concepts. The student assignments reviewed various topics i n r e l a t i o n to the new one. Dana believed she did not integrate topics using any of three approaches suggested i n the curriculum. Dana was unfamiliar with the family l i f e education content and had no previous experience teaching i t . 65 E c o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e Our conversation about the ecological perspective began with Dana's description of her philosophy of Family Management 12. This was followed by her comments on the excerpt of the ecological perspective photocopied from the Family Management curriculum document. Dana described Family Management 12 as an examination of the family l i f e cycle from young adulthood to death and how these stages relate to the students' present and future l i v e s . She stated that "my main focus i s that I want them to gain something personally from i t . " She explained that for Family Management 12, the most important thing i s to get some understanding of choosing a mate or partner and for them to set up what the i r goals are and what the i r objectives are so that they have some kind of ideas of what the i r expectations are [in a relationship] . . . . the other big thing . . . i s that hopefully when they choose to be parents, i t w i l l be a responsible choice, not one that happens because they got pregnant when they weren't planning to or expecting to. Dana explained that she was trying to prepare her students for th e i r future l i v e s . You are giving these students information so that when they are going out into the world and are on the i r own, they are able to make decisions, that they feel more that they are more aware of what i s going on and they feel that they are making the i r own choices rather than have their l i f e directed for them. 66 F o r e x a m p l e , s t u d e n t s drew t h e i r f a m i l y t r e e s , e x a m i n e d t h e i r f a m i l i e s ' p r o c r e a t i o n p a t t e r n a n d a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r f e e l i n g s t o w a r d f a m i l y members . The s t u d e n t s made p o s t e r s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e i r i d e a s , d e s i r e s , g o a l s , and v a l u e s . "My g o a l i s f o r when s t u d e n t s l e a v e , t h e y w i l l f e e l t h a t t h e y h a v e g a i n e d a l o t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t a l s o t h a t t h e y c a n h a v e some power i n t h e i r own l i v e s t o make d e c i s i o n s a n d t o t a k e c o n t r o l . " H o w e v e r , Dana f e l t t h a t "I d o n ' t f e e l l i k e I ' m g e t t i n g my m e s s a g e a c r o s s t o t h e m . T h e y a r e r e a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e and t h e y seem t o e n j o y t h e m s e l v e s , b u t I ' m n o t s u r e how much t h e y a r e g e t t i n g o u t o f t h e c o u r s e . " L i k e t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e s t u d y , Dana was q u e s t i o n e d a b o u t t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A l t h o u g h s h e h a d n o t u s e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t t o o r g a n i z e a n d t e a c h t h e c o u r s e , i t was f e l t t h a t Dana may h a v e g a i n e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h r o u g h t h e m a t e r i a l s t h a t s h e b o r r o w e d . Dana d e d u c e d t h a t an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e was d r a w n f r o m t h e t e r m e c o l o g y so s h e " w o u l d s u s p e c t i t [ e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ] i s s u p p o s e t o r e f l e c t some k i n d o f a p a t t e r n as a w h o l e . I ' m n o t e x a c t l y s u r e . " Upon r e a d i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t , Dana t h o u g h t i t was b r o a d e n o u g h n o t t o mean a p a r t i c u l a r amount o f t h i n g s . . . i t ' s w e l l w o r d e d a n d v e r y f l o w e r y . I s u s p e c t i t i s t h e a p p r o a c h t h a t mos t p e o p l e do t a k e when t h e y t e a c h t h e c o u r s e . I t ' s what y o u h o p e t o d o . 67 However, Dana stated I'm not teaching from this philosophy [in the Family Management Curriculum Guide 11/12]. I'm trying to survive and get through this course . . . the other thing . . . i s that I have seven preps and I teach six blocks [some of the blocks are combined levels of Clothing and T e x t i l e s ] , so I have a r e a l l y busy timetable so I don't devote the time to this that I should or need to. I just can't. Dana f e l t that she would have a better understanding of the philosophical statement, i f she could "read more than what these people wrote (the description of an ecological perspective i n the Family Management 11/12 Curriculum Guide i s referenced to Gullotta et al (1986) see Appendix B) to get an understanding of what they are trying to say because i t i s a very broad statement." For example, "I mean sure I can see i n natural settings a l l things are mutually sustaining, but r e a l l y what does that r e a l l y mean?" Furthermore, I question what the whole meaning i s and what they're trying to say. I think the excerpt i t s e l f has r e a l l y l i t t l e meaning unless you read the whole reference. Yes, I would say that i t doesn't have a lot of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Dana had si m i l a r feelings about another statement i n the philosophy: "I agree that favorable interactions promote human growth . . . Again, I think you can pick the statement apart and i t doesn't have a lot of meaning." 6 8 She f e l t that the statement about "human behavior i s dependent on and influenced by the environment" ( B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education, 1986, p.3) reflected her teaching approach. I think one of the things that you are trying to teach students i s about the in t e r a c t i v e relationships between them and their families. I think that i s a re a l l y important aspect that you want them to see how they are . . . to look beyond their immediate family and into t h e i r immediate family . . . we do pick up a lot of habits from our parents . . . as you get older you see yourself saying and doing things as a c h i l d 'oh, I hope I don't act l i k e my mom', yet you see yourself responding just l i k e your mother did i n a similar kind of si t u a t i o n . So, I think i t i s r e a l l y important that students do look at that. She f e l t that the "evolutionary nature of the family and community" could be interpreted i n di f f e r e n t ways. "It r e a l l y depends . . . the fact that there i s a l i f e cycle and i t goes from b i r t h to death or from being . . . . [or] the point of view that children i n our society has the a b i l i t y to have a better l i f e than their parents did." She f e l t that she has taught both meanings. "Content wise, we've been talking about the evolution of the family cycle" such as when the class created posters of the family l i f e cycle. "But on the underlying side, the message that I would l i k e to give i s the other one. That they can move beyond what the i r family circumstances are i f they choose to." 69 £§c..to„rs^ the Ecol qgic§l........PersEecti ve At Dana's school, Jan was the home economics teacher who taught Family Management 11/12 since i t s i n i t i a l implementation at the school, September 1986. Family Management 12 was part of Jan's teaching assignment for September 1990, but she was unhappy with t h i s . According to Dana, Jan suggested that Dana should teach Family Management 12 and Jan would teach a di f f e r e n t course so that each would have a new course to teach. Dana did not agree. Jan f i l e d a complaint with the teacher's association and a meeting was held to discuss her grievances. From the meeting, Dana learned that Jan wanted to change her teaching assignment because she did not want to teach Family Management 12; i t " i s too s t r e s s f u l , the kids upset me, I don't think I am doing a good job." The pr i n c i p a l assigned Family Management 12 to a newly hired home economics teacher. However as this teacher did not have any tr a i n i n g i n family l i f e education, Family Management 12 was assigned to Dana. Dana was unhappy about t h i s . She described her feelings I feel I have the worst teaching assignment here and I wasn't happy about receiving Family Management to teach. And I f e l t that because the other person who taught i s s t i l l here and has gone to do a l l the other planning and stuff [monthly meetings with other Family management teachers i n 1986 and i n - s e r v i c e ] . I f e l t r e a l l y cheated and I was r e a l l y angry. Dana did not ask Jan for any resources or help i n teaching Family Management 12. She explained that their 70 relationship i s s t i l l strained due to the past events. Instead, Dana asked for help from a teacher from another school. Dana's friend not only gave her an outline, but also gave work sheets and assignments for each topic. The outline i s important since i t "has given me guidelines to follow. I wouldn't have had any idea. I would have s t r i c t l y used the text book and used i t chapter by chapter." Dana's friend structured the outline so that i t revolved around the chronological family l i f e cycle, beginning with young adulthood. As structured i n the curriculum document, the outline for Family Management 12 focused on the family l i f e cycle. "In i t [the o u t l i n e ] , she [her friend] does the family today, then she goes through young adulthood and kind of follows through. . . So, i t seemed to be f a i r l y l o g i c a l and I li k e d that." Dana states that her approach towards the course i s that "I want them to gain a better sense of themselves . . . . we s t a r t at the young adulthood and mate selection, I w i l l hopefully take i t to a personal level with them." The students are provided with information, which Dana hopes that they w i l l apply to their l i v e s . However, Dana has found that the students are s t i l l at the point where they see me as receiving information to an assignment or a test. And I don't see anything where they're seeing i t applies to them. And that i s my major disappointment. Dana had other problems to contend with that were of more concern than teaching from an ecological perspective. 71 D i f f i c u l t i e s were related to the change in da i l y classroom l i f e and teaching strategies. For example, monitoring student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group work was d i f f i c u l t . b a s i c a l l y i n Clothing, once the kids start the project, they work b a s i c a l l y independently. In Foods, they work i n groups, but you only have a pair of two and b a s i c a l l y i t i s much easier to monitor because you are working i n the classroom. But whereas here [in Family Management 1 2 ] , once they are given the assignment and they should actually be doing their work or research i n the l i b r a r y , then you know i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to monitor who i s doing the research. Discussing issues has been d i f f i c u l t : I f i n d that they are r e a l l y good at doing a written piece of work, but they are r e a l l y poor at discussing. Like we can't r e a l l y generate any feelings about how things are because they are r e a l l y reluctant to discuss i t . Poor student attendance seemed to hinder class rapport and discussions. " I t ' s the only class where I teach where attendance i s horrendous, where there i s always four or f i v e kids away . . . and when you are . . . trying to b u i l d a rapport and focus on students i n t e r a c t i n g . . . then that i s a real problem." Dana also worried about how well her students were performing. "I think that the quality has been f a i r l y good, but I would l i k e to see how i t compares with what other people are receiving". Despite these concerns, Dana admitted this [Family Management 12] i s not a top p r i o r i t y . That's the truth. If I had three blocks then I'd feel 72 that this i s a top p r i o r i t y . . . . In my vast array of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , this class i s a minor part . . . . So when I look at i t I don't feel that I am giving as much service as I'd liked to. Dana was not familiar with the ecological perspective. She thought i t was a teaching method to organize concepts. Our conversation and Dana's teaching assignments indicated that her perception of an ecological perspective meant studying the in t e r a c t i v e relationship between the individual and the family i n i t s immediate environment. This meant work sheets and assignments to examine the stages of the family l i f e cycle i n r e l a t i o n to the students' l i v e s and local community. Class discussions were limited since they were d i f f i c u l t to conduct. At this time, Dana was not concerned about teaching from the ecological perspective or any pa r t i c u l a r philosophy. Lucy. Lucy has taught for thirteen years i n her school d i s t r i c t . This was her second year i n th i s p a r t i c u l a r secondary school: she taught for f i v e and six years respectively at two other secondary schools i n the d i s t r i c t . Lucy taught Family Studies 12 for nine years and Housing and Interior Design 12 for two years. Lucy began teaching Family Management 11 i n 1985 when a draft of the Family Management 11 curriculum document was available. During 1989-90, Lucy taught one block of Family Management 11 i n addition to 73 Clothing and Textiles 9/10, Home Economics 8, and Work Study 11, Child Development 11, and Child Development 12. She was the only teacher teaching the Family Management program at her school. IntegrativeApproach The following topics constitute Lucy's 1989-90 year plan for Family Management 11. The topics were taught i n the following sequence: Communication Self Adolescence Mental and Physical Health Relationships Community Resources Human Sexuality Pregnancy and B i r t h Children According to Lucy, the topics were arranged so that they are i n a " l o g i c a l " sequence. They are l o g i c a l because "one topic leads into the other quite well. Like there i s real connections between communication and self-concept, and s e l f -concept and mental and physical health" and "after relationships i s human sexuality." Furthermore, she explains that " I chose the order that I have because i t does l o g i c a l l y follow one another . . . . that's the way l i f e goes. You learn how to do each of those things." 74 The order of the topics are also based on what Lucy f e l t would build rapport among the students. "The students have to build up a rapport with one another before you can get into discussions." She stated that i f they do the less threatening kinds of things at the beginning of the year and things that I'm doing a l o t , the teacher i s sort of t e l l i n g them to do things. And they do the more important things and student-oriented a c t i v i t i e s at the end of the year so that they have a chance to develop a r e a l l y strong sort of group atmosphere. The researcher found that the sequence of topics supported th i s idea. Lucy dealt f i r s t with the topics that were less intimidating for students to discuss such as Communication while Human Sexuality and Pregnancy and B i r t h were l e f t u n t i l the end of ±he school year. Communication i s the f i r s t topic of the year to help foster a " r e a l l y strong sort of group atmosphere," After Communication, the topics focused on the adolescent in their relationships at school, home, and work. Lucy f e l t that the "flow" of topics allowed her to b u i l d and expand concepts, ideas, and issues. For example, when Lucy taught self-concept, she drew on aspects of communication: the students read the a r t i c l e "Putting Down Kids" (Brown, unknown) which was about verbal abuse and self-concept; watched the video "Things My Mother Told Me" which t i e d together s e l f -concept, verbal abuse and communication techniques; and on the self-concept test, one question asked the students to explain 75 "how can every day communication affect a person's s e l f -concept?" Furthermore, there would be a number of times when we were working in groups and problems happening i n groups, we would talk about group work and how i t was affected by what was going on i n the classroom." According to Lucy, aspects of the previous topic(s) were related to the present topic because "every topic i s i n t e r r e l a t e d . " Lucy's descriptions and examples of class discussions, work sheets and assignments seem to r e f l e c t this idea; integrate concepts from various topics. However, not a l l handouts, work sheets and assignments integrated concepts or topics. For example, "Protecting Self Concept" and "How to Improve Self-Confidence," are informational handouts that explain an aspect of s e l f concept. In organizing the topics, Lucy states that she rearranged the learning outcomes into topics. Well, I looked at the curriculum guide and would have pulled the topics generally out of them. And I would have looked at the learning outcomes, but what I thought about the learning outcomes would be what I had done i n the past and related to Family Studies and what I know work i n the past. She explained that My approach i s based a lot on what I did i n Families Studies before and what I found worked for me in Family Studies before. Although I referred to the curriculum guide, I didn't use i t as a bibl e for planning. 76 H o w e v e r , L u c y c o u l d n o t have u s e d t h e c u r r i c u l u m document t o o r g a n i z e F a m i l y Management 11 i n 1985 as s h e s t a t e d s i n c e i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l O c t o b e r , 1986 . L u c y p r o b a b l y u s e d a d r a f t o f t h e g u i d e w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t o p i c s , k e y c o n c e p t s , l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s and s u g g e s t e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The d r a f t d i d n o t h a v e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t ; so L u c y p r o b a b l y d i d r e l y on h e r p a s t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12; o r g a n i z e a n d t e a c h by t o p i c s . L u c y has n e v e r u s e d t h e theme a p p r o a c h t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o u r s e . She l e a r n e d a b o u t i t when s h e a t t e n d e d t h e o n e - d a y i n - s e r v i c e a b o u t t h e F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 p r o g r a m s p o n s o r e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , O c t o b e r 3 1 9 8 6 . She s t a t e s t h a t " I t was n o t my cup o f t e a . I t was n o t s o m e t h i n g t h a t I c h o s e t o d o . E v e r y o n e has t h e i r own way o f t e a c h i n g . " F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e I n t e g r a t i v e A p p r o a c h T h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 and F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a l l o w e d L u c y t o u s e s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o p i c s , a n d f o r m e r t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . A c c o r d i n g t o L u c y t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a n d F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 meant t h a t s h e " o n l y n e e d e d t i m e t o l o o k a t t h e d r a f t . O t h e r t h a n t h a t , I d i d n ' t n e e d any more b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n . I s p e n t so much t i m e d e a l i n g w i t h same s t u f f b e f o r e . " A s i n t h e p a s t , L u c y u s e d t o p i c s t o o r g a n i z e t h e c o u r s e , b u t t h e y were n o t t a u g h t as d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s . I n s t e a d , a s p e c t s o f p r e v i o u s t o p i c s were r e v i e w e d a n d r e -i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s , a s s i g n m e n t s a n d work s h e e t s . 77 Lucy stated that the " t i e i n " of topics was something that she has always done. She reflected that she taught i n this manner because "whenever I learn something best, i t was when i t was joined together, when i t inter r e l a t e d with one another, when there has been connections rather than jumping from one to another." She explained that I can't jump around from topic to topic without any relationship. It's just l i k e when you are learning how to sew. You have to build on the s k i l l s that the students have. You can't jump from doing the zipper today and we'll go back and do marking tomorrow. There i s l o g i c a l order to sewing a garment and there's a l o g i c a l order to doing things [for Family Management]. For example, she explained that for the topic Mental and Physical Health, they s t i l l deal with Communication since they talk about e f f e c t i v e ways of dealing with stress, and Self-Concept i s discussed again because people who develop eating disorders or commit suicide have a poor self-concept. According to Lucy, "every topic i s in t e r r e l a t e d . There i s no doubt about i t . " Lucy confirmed that "a lot of the stuff that I used i n Family Management i s the same stu f f I used i n Family Studies [ 1 2 ] . " For example I would use stuff from Family Studies for Communication, Self-Concept . . . . Mental and Physical Health, there would be some things and speakers I've used before and information I s t i l l use. 78 F o r e x a m p l e , " I - M e s s a g e s , " " P a r a p h r a s i n g , " S t u d e n t I . D . C a r d " a r e work s h e e t s f o r C o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t were u s e d i n F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 . F o r " I - M e s s a g e s , " s t u d e n t s r e - w r i t e t e n m e s s a g e s t h a t e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s i n a n o n - h o s t i l e m a n n e r ; f o r " P a r a p h r a s i n g , " s t u d e n t s r e - w r i t e n i n e s e n t e n c e s t o e x p r e s s t h e same m e a n i n g ; a n d f o r " S t u d e n t I . D . " , s t u d e n t s c o n s t r u c t a c a r d t h a t r e p r e s e n t s f a c t s , f e e l i n g s , a n d a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s by u s i n g p i c t u r e s , s a y i n g s , c o l o r , and s y m b o l s . A l t h o u g h L u c y u s e d some o f h e r m a t e r i a l s f r o m t h e F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a n d H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n 12 t o t e a c h F a m i l y Management 1 1 , L u c y c o n t i n u e d t o c o l l e c t r e s o u r c e s and a t t e n d w o r k s h o p s . M a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d t h e F a m i l y Management 11 a n d 12 r e s o u r c e b o o k s p u b l i s h e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r L i v i n g r e s o u r c e b o o k s f r o m A l b e r t a , a n d r e s o u r c e b o o k s f r o m C a l i f o r n i a . O t h e r s o u r c e s o f m a t e r i a l s : I r e a d m a g a z i n e s a n d I w o u l d buy m a g a z i n e s b e c a u s e t h e y were p e r t i n e n t t o what I was t e a c h i n g . I h a v e t a p e d o f f t . v . s o I w a t c h i t a n d t a k e n o t e s f r o m i t a n d g e t i d e a s . A n d p e o p l e , I mean t h e o t h e r n i g h t I g o t a phone c a l l f r o m a p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e a b o u t a p r o g r a m on t . v . t h a t I s h o u l d w a t c h . L u c y e x p l a i n e d " I ' m a l w a y s l o o k i n g f o r new i d e a s e v e n i f t h e o l d way h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , I ' m l o o k i n g f o r ways t o k e e p me i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c o u r s e t o o . " M a t e r i a l s were a l s o c o l l e c t e d f r o m o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 7 , F a m i l y Management t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t b e g a n t o meet on a m o n t h l y b a s i s . 79 We g e t t o g e t h e r f o r a b o u t f o u r h o u r s , o n c e a m o n t h . And t h e r e was someone r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h o f t h e s c h o o l s . . . i t was somewhat a h e l p i n g g r o u p . We a l l had c e r t a i n a r e a s o f s t r e n g t h and e a c h o f us t r i e d t o i m p r o v e c e r t a i n a r e a s . E a c h t i m e we m e t , we w o u l d f o c u s on a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c . L e t ' s s a y we were f o c u s i n g on F a m i l y Management 12 and t h e w h o l e a r e a o f m a r r i a g e . I w o u l d b r i n g what w o r k e d f o r me a n d t h e y w o u l d b r i n g what w o r k e d w i t h t h e m . L u c y f e l t i t was l i k e " g o i n g away f r o m a b i r t h d a y p a r t y w i t h an a r m f u l o f g i f t s . " The m e e t i n g s d i d n o t c o n t i n u e t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s d i d n o t h a v e t i m e t o c o n t i n u e m e e t i n g o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l h o u r s . L u c y has o r g a n i z e d h e r c o u r s e u s i n g t o p i c s ; h o w e v e r s h e d o e s n o t t e a c h them as s e g r e g a t e d u n i t s . I n s t e a d , L u c y i n t e g r a t e d c o n c e p t s f r o m p r e v i o u s a n d p r e s e n t t o p i c s . T h r o u g h c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s a n d a s s i g n m e n t s , s h e h a d t h e s t u d e n t s c o n t e m p l a t e a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o n c e p t s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . L u c y d i d n o t p a t t e r n t h i s a p p r o a c h a f t e r any o f t h e t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . R a t h e r , s h e d e v e l o p e d t h i s m e t h o d o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h r o u g h h e r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e s . She b e l i e v e d t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among c o n c e p t s i s t h e b e s t m e t h o d f o r l e a r n i n g . 80 E c o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e Our conversation about the ecological perspective began with Lucy's description of her philosophy of Family Management 11. This was followed by her comments on an excerpt of the ecological perspective that was photocopied from the Family Management curriculum document. According to Lucy, the focus of Family Management 11 i s "the adolescent and how the adolescent relates to him or herself and to others" such as family members, peers, teachers, and others. In examining the assignments given to the students, Lucy examined the individual and family as separate e n t i t i e s and as in t e r a c t i v e social groups. For example i n the topic Self, each student completed a booklet with exercises, a r t i c l e s , and assignments that dealt with self-concept and how i t i s affected by oneself, parents, friends, and teachers. Focusing on the i n d i v i d u a l , students created a personal coat of arms, described feelings about themselves for "I am", and i d e n t i f i e d ways to improve se l f image and self-confidence. Focusing on the in t e r a c t i v e relationship among groups, students constructed a time l i n e of s i g n i f i c a n t events and people i n the i r l i v e s , examined the image that Laura projected to others i n "case study - s e l f -concept", and examined the self-concepts of the characters i n the movie "The Breakfast Club". When Lucy was asked to define the ecological perspective, she stated "I thought of i t as the environmental approach because i t i s such an issue today." She believed i t meant 81 " s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t " . " E c o l o g y i s a f u n n y word b e c a u s e i t i s u s e d w i t h i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u f f . " H o w e v e r , i n t e r m s o f F a m i l y M a n a g e m e n t , s h e f e l t i t must h a v e a d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g . " E n v i r o n m e n t a l . . . . I d e a l w i t h t h e t o p i c A d o l e s c e n c e when t h e y a r e d e a l i n g w i t h some o f t h e c r i s e s o f a d o l e s c e n c e . T h e y a r e i n t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a t t h e t i m e . " A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t , L u c y commented t h a t I w o u l d n e v e r u s e t h e w o r d e c o l o g i c a l . . . [ b u t ] I g u e s s I do f o l l o w t h a t p h i l o s o p h y b e c a u s e I am d o i n g . . . t h i n g s l i k e [ i t ] . . . b u t I c a n ' t r e c a l l how l o n g ago t h a t I r e a d i t . I m a g i n e I t e a c h t h e c o u r s e j u s t l i k e t h e p h i l o s o p h y s t a t e m e n t . I s n ' t t h a t a m a z i n g ? L o o k i n g b a c k on i t , I ' v e o b v i o u s l y r e a d t h i s a t some p o i n t i n t i m e , b u t I ' v e n e v e r r e a l l y f o c u s e d my c o u r s e a r o u n d t h e p h i l o s o p h y y e t t h e way I t e a c h i s b a s i c a l l y t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e y h a v e p u t h e r e . O r a t l e a s t , t h a t ' s my a s s u m p t i o n . She d e s c r i b e d h e r t e a c h i n g as a n e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e by j u s t t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t s t u d e n t s , t h a t a f f e c t t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e c l a s s , t h a t a f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t a f f e c t s e l f - c o n c e p t . A l l t h e t o p i c s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a s w e l l . . . . I t ' s w i t h i n e v e r y s i n g l e t o p i c . L u c y f o u n d some d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t s u c h as " t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h f o c u s e s on i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , a n d o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s a n d a s s u m e s t h a t a l l e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d 8 2 a r e m u t u a l l y s u s t a i n i n g and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . 3 ) . She s t a t e d t o t e l l y o u t h e h o n e s t t r u t h , I d o n ' t t h i n k i t makes a h e c k o f a l o t o f s e n s e . I mean i t makes s e n s e , b u t i t d o e s n ' t . I t ' s a l o t o f words t h a t d o n ' t i m p r e s s me. I mean i t p r o b a b l y d o e s make s e n s e , b u t i t i s n ' t w o r d e d i n a way t h a t ' s e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . T h a t ' s my r e a c t i o n t o t h a t . F u r t h e r m o r e , s h e s t a t e d "my i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n i s t o p a s s by t h a t one [ t h e p h i l o s o p h y s t a t e m e n t ] . B u t i f I was t o s p e n d t i m e , I c o u l d g i v e y o u an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h a t . " She h a d d i f f i c u l t y c o m p r e h e n d i n g " a l l e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d , I d o n ' t know what t h e y a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e r e " . In a d d i t i o n , s h e d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d how " r e s o u r c e s h e l d j o i n t l y t o g e t h e r a n d t h a t f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s p r o m o t e human i n t e r a c t i o n a n d g r o w t h " ( B . C . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 , p . 3 ) c o u l d be r e l a t e d . "I d o n ' t know why t h e y w o u l d c o n n e c t them w i t h a n ' a n d ' . I t h i n k t h e y ' r e two s e p a r a t e t h o u g h t s . " She e x p l a i n e d R e s o u r c e s , I mean e v e r y one h a s p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , e v e r y o n e h a s f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . . . [ b u t t h e l a t t e r p h r a s e m e a n s ] i f p e o p l e a r e i n a f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e y a r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o grow i n a more p o s i t i v e way a n d be a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r more e f f e c t i v e l y . L i k e [ t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ] c o u l d be t h e s c h o o l , i t c o u l d be t h e home, t h e work e n v i r o n m e n t . I d o n ' t know, b a s i c a l l y , a n y w h e r e t h a t t h e y [ s t u d e n t s ] h a p p e n t o be a t t h e t i m e , a n d where t h e y ' r e a t t h o u g h t - w i s e t o o , c o u l d be t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . An e x a m p l e o f f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s was what L u c y a t t e m p t e d t o a c h i e v e i n t e a c h i n g t h e t o p i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n . I t " d e a l s w i t h g e t t i n g a f a v o u r a b l e k i n d o f e n v i r o n m e n t " and h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s " f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h one a n o t h e r . " H o w e v e r , L u c y s t a t e d t h a t " a l l o f t h e work t h a t we do has t o t r y t o g e t them f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e . . . . I l e t them s i t w i t h whom t h e y f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h , b u t I a l s o make s u r e t h a t t h e y a l s o work w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . " L u c y d e s c r i b e d t h e " i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986 , p . 3 ) as " b a s i c a l l y y o u s h o u l d be i n a p o s i t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t and p a r t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s b e i n g w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . " "I d o n ' t t h i n k any p a r t i c u l a r a s s i g n m e n t w o u l d a d d r e s s t h a t . I t h i n k i t . w o u l d be t h e o v e r a l l way t h a t t h e t o p i c s a r e d e a l t w i t h , t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t we w o u l d h a v e . " She e x p l a i n e d , f o r e x a m p l e t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s e d " r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d F a m i l y Management" a f t e r someone a s k e d why t h e y were s t u d y i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t . She e x p l a i n e d i f y o u d o n ' t h a v e a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , y o u a r e g o i n g t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y i n m a n a g i n g y o u r f a m i l y b e c a u s e y o u h a v e t o t h i n k p o s i t i v e l y a b o u t y o u r s e l f o r f e e l g o o d a b o u t y o u r s e l f i n o r d e r t o make d e c i s i o n s . . . s o , t h e r e ' s l o t s o f t i e s i n t h e r e . " T h e e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986) i s 34 "how the family evolves and changes. The focus of that i s b a s i c a l l y Family Management 12 where you talk about the family l i f e cycle and how the family changes from b i r t h to death." Factors In|Iuencing ^he Ecqlqgical Persgective Lucy f e l t that i t i s important that the students have the a b i l i t y to relate to one another more e f f e c t i v e l y and when they get involved in a relationship, be able to solve problems. [As well] be more empathic to their family, to their friends, to their s i g n i f i c a n t others . . . To have some idea of the kinds of issues involved in making decisions. I mean the whole unit on human sexuality, just becoming knowledgeable about their own bodies, how they function, I think most students are r e a l l y ignorant about that kind of thing. I want to give them that information so they can make informed decisions. . . . to prepare them for some of l i f e ' s experiences. She did not feel that her perspective developed from reading or using the Family Management 11/12 Curriculum Guide. It has nothing to do with the curriculum guide . . . Looking at this curriculum guide my course t i e s closely with i t . . . [students] look from a s p e c i f i c point of view, the individual and that's what I focus on at the beginning of the course . . . then I want them to develop relationships with one another throughout the year and that's going to a bigger thing and when they get into grade twelve. It's b a s i c a l l y what I do with my course so whether I have been influenced by this when I read i t the f i r s t time which I don't think I have because I have been teaching the course l i k e Family Studies . . . and my philosophy has not changed a great deal . . . . That's an eye opener [the philosophy statement] . . . . Aren't teachers suppose to do that [teach from an ecological perspective]? 85 Lucy was not familiar with the term ecological perspective. She thought i t meant teaching about the environment that the individual l i v e d i n . Our conversation, and an examination of Lucy's assignments and work sheets indicated that she perceived the ecological perspective as studying the in t e r a c t i v e relationship among the individual and family i n i t s immediate environment. This meant class discussions, assignments, and work sheets to examine the individual and family i n r e l a t i o n to peers, the school and local community. Lucy believed that her perception of the ecological perspective developed from teaching Family Studies 12 . Summary Anne and Lucy held si m i l a r perceptions of an integrative approach. Both had previously taught Family Studies 12 and found s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the content and topics between i t and Family Management 11/12. Based on the topics that they used for Family Studies 12, both teachers organized topics to teach Family Management. Rather than teach the topics as a series of segregated units, both teachers believed they integrated them. Anne used class discussions to integrate concepts from past and present topics while Lucy used class discussions, work sheets, and assignments to integrate concepts from past and present topics. Both developed this integrative approach from their experience of teaching Family Studies 12 . 8 6 Dana h a d no t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t a l t h o u g h she was an e x p e r i e n c e d home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r . She d i d n o t u s e any o f t h e t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . A l t h o u g h she t a u g h t t h e t o p i c s as a s e r i e s o f s e g r e g a t e d u n i t s , s h e u s e d s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t h e t o p i c s a n d c o n c e p t s . F o r t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s were n o t aware t h a t i t was t h e g u i d i n g c o n c e p t i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m document f o r s t u d y i n g t h e f a m i l y . Anne a n d L u c y p e r c e i v e d t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as t e a c h i n g a b o u t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . Dana was n o t s u r e what i t m e a n t . I t was a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e q u o t a t i o n o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e p h o t o c o p i e d f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s were a b l e t o r e f l e c t on i t a n d r e l a t e i t t o t h e i r v i e w s o f t h e c o u r s e . T h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as e x a m i n i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d f a m i l y i n t h e i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s meant r e l a t i n g t h e l i v e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h e f a m i l y , p e e r s , s c h o o l , and l o c a l c o m m u n i t y i n c o n t e x t o f t h e t o p i c b e i n g s t u d i e d . To do t h i s , Anne u s e d c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , work s h e e t s , a n d a s s i g n m e n t s , Dana u s e d work s h e e t s a n d a s s i g n m e n t s , a n d L u c y u s e d c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , work s h e e t s , a n d a s s i g n m e n t s . Anne b e l i e v e d s h e d e v e l o p e d h e r m e a n i n g f r o m r e a d i n g a n d t a k i n g p s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s i n u n i v e r s i t y , w h i l e L u c y f e l t i t was f r o m t e a c h i n g F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12. Dana d e v e l o p e d h e r m e a n i n g b a s e d 87 on h e r f e e l i n g s a n d b e l i e f s a b o u t s t u d e n t s ; she w a n t e d s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y l e a r n e d t o t h e i r own l i v e s . 8 3 C h a p t e r V: . . D i s c u s s i o n C o n c l u s i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s and F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of i n n o v a t i o n s i n a c u r r i c u l u m . The s t u d y examined t h r e e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document ( 1 9 8 6 ) . D a t a were g a t h e r e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w s and document a n a l y s i s and s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s c r i p t and document a n a l y s i s d e t e r m i n e d t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e summarized. In a d d i t i o n , t h e c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s c o n c l u s i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . D i s c u s s i o n The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w h i c h g u i d e d t h i s s t u d y was "what a r e t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h ? " The i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h was t h e s u g g e s t e d a p p r o a c h i n t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document f o r o r g a n i z i n g t o p i c s and t e a c h i n g t h e F a m i l y Management program. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m document ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 6 ) , i t c o u l d be a c h i e v e d i n one of t h r e e ways: t e a c h t h e t o p i c s and key c o n c e p t s as p r e s e n t e d i n t h e g u i d e , r e a r r a n g e and expand t h e 89 topics and key concepts, or rearrange the topics, key concepts, and learning outcomes into themes. In Fullan's terms (1982), as a curriculum innovation the integrative approach lacked pedagogical c l a r i t y because i t lacked procedural referents in the curriculum document. The integrative approach lacked conceptual c l a r i t y because i t s meaning was dif f u s e and i t r e l i e d on teachers to interpret i t s meaning for practice. To organize the course content, Anne and Lucy developed teaching topics from the key concepts. Anne and Lucy believed an integrative approach occurred as they related past and present concepts and topics i n their teaching. They encouraged th e i r students to consider the int e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among previously studied and present concepts and topics. Their approach resembled the guide's second way of integrating which was to re-organize and expand the major topics and key concepts. Dana did not integrate using any of the approaches suggested by the Family Management curriculum guide. She taught topics i n her preferred way, as segregated units. Although she used assignments that related past topics and current concepts, she did not perceive this as integrative. Fullan (1982) states that implementation of change i s influenced by teachers' perceived need for the change and this may account i n part for Anne and Lucy's perceptions of the integrative approach. Both Anne and Lucy taught Family Studies 12 before Family Management. Their experience led to thei r recognizing Family Management as an expansion of the 90 e a r l i e r c o u r s e . They d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e need f o r a new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . Dana d i d n o t p e r c e i v e a need f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h i n t h e F a m i l y Management program. E x p e r i e n c i n g t e a c h i n g of F a m i l y Management f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , she was more f o c u s e d on a s t e p - b y - s t e p , u n i t - b y - u n i t a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g . C o m p l e x i t y r e f e r s t o t h e e x t e n t of change and d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n n o v a t i o n . F o r b o t h Anne and L u c y , t h e c o m p l e x i t y r e l a t e d t o t h e new mode o f t h i n k i n g r e q u i r e d by t h e theme a p p r o a c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r n o n - a d o p t i o n of t h i s i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . N e i t h e r L u c y n o r Anne a t t e m p t e d a theme a p p r o a c h t o i n t e g r a t i n g c o u r s e c o n c e p t s . B o t h t e a c h e r s j u d g e d t h a t t h e theme a p p r o a c h d i d n o t m e r i t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Anne s t a t e d h e r n o n - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e theme a p p r o a c h was due t o h e r l a c k o f knowledge about i t w h i l e L u c y s t a t e d i t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h e r p r e f e r r e d t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h . B o t h Anne and L u c y r e l i e d on t h e i r p r e v i o u s ways of o r g a n i z i n g and t e a c h i n g F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12. They p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as i n t e g r a t i n g t o p i c s i n t e a c h i n g F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 and r e p e a t e d t h i s i n F a m i l y Management. T h e r e f o r e , t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d few p e d a g o g i c a l c h a n g e s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s when t h e y t a u g h t t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m . C o m p l e x i t y was f u r t h e r r e d u c e d s i n c e t h e y had knowledge o f f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t , t h e y had e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t , t h e y d e v e l o p e d c o u r s e o u t l i n e s and u n i t p l a n s f o r F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 w h i c h c o u l d be a d a p t e d f o r t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m , and t h e y had work s h e e t s and a s s i g n m e n t s 91 from Family Studies 12 which they could use to teach Family Management. T h i s r e l i a n c e on t h e i r past teaching experiences f u r t h e r reduced the n e c e s s i t y f o r change Dana was unsure about the conceptual meaning of the theme approach f o r o r g a n i z i n g and t e a c h i n g the Family Management program. She became acquainted with the theme approach at the m i n i s t r y ' s i n - s e r v i c e , but she c o u l d not remember l e a r n i n g about i t . In a d d i t i o n to a lack of i n f o r m a t i o n , Dana d i d not r e f e r to a Family Management c u r r i c u l u m document which would be necessary i n r e a r r a n g i n g the t o p i c s , key concepts, and l e a r n i n g outcomes i n t o themes. Thus, complexity r e l a t e d to lack of knowledge and l a c k of a c u r r i c u l u m document accounted i n p art f o r Dana's non adoption of the theme approach. Dana borrowed a course o u t l i n e f o r Family Management 12 from a home economics teacher t e a c h i n g i n the same school d i s t r i c t . The o u t l i n e was developed from the Family Management c u r r i c u l u m document. It l i s t e d t o p i c s and d e a l t with the c h r o n o l o g i c a l development of the a d u l t from e a r l y adulthood to death which Dana taught as a s e r i e s of segregated u n i t s , a s s e s s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s with each u n i t as she proceeded. Being a new teacher i n the s u b j e c t area and the o b l i g a t i o n s demanded by her f u l l t e a c h i n g load were f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d her u n i t - b y - u n i t approach to t e a c h i n g . The demands a s s o c i a t e d with beginning to teach a new program may a l s o account f o r her p e r c e p t i o n of the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s as not being i n t e g r a t i v e . 92 Fullan (1982) states that peer relationships among teachers enhance implementation p a r t i c u l a r l y when teachers exchange ideas, support and feelings about work. Berman & McLaughlin (1976) agree that teachers should exchange their implementation successes and problems, but at regular meetings that serve as a forum to reassess project goals and a c t i v i t i e s . During 1987, Anne and Lucy met with other Family Management teachers i n their school d i s t r i c t . After school once a month, they exchanged problems, ideas, and materials. Discussions indicated that the other teachers also taught using topics devised from the key concepts; thus, providing dire c t confirmation that they were implementing the new courses l i k e Anne'and Lucy. Dana did not attend the meetings since she was not teaching Family Management 12 at the time. She didn't ask for help from the previous Family Management teacher since t h e i r working relationship was strained. Instead, Dana r e l i e d on a friend who was a Family Management teacher i n the school d i s t r i c t . Dana borrowed a course outline and assignments from her, but they didn't discuss Dana's feelings, ideas, or problems about teaching the course. A l l three teachers r e l i e d on peers i n teaching the new program. According to Thomas (1990) teacher meetings influence teachers' selection of content rather than methods for teaching i t . In this study, peer support did not focus on the integrative approach or ecological perspective, the two innovative features of the program. Thus, peer support may serve to re-reinforce t r a d i t i o n a l practice and meanings unless 93 there i s some f e l t need for or e x p l i c i t encouragement to r e f l e c t on or discuss the nature and implications of innovati ons. Fullan (1982) found teaching experience was an inconsistent variable in predicting adoption of innovations. In this study, past teaching experience appeared to influence the teachers' perceptions of the integrative approach. Based on their past teaching experiences of Family Studies 12, Anne and Lucy proceeded to organize the content of Family Management into topics. Both teachers learned that there were advantages to using topics to teach: the breadth and depth of topics can be expanded or shortened; additional topics can be added to suit the teacher's and students' needs and interests; and the order of topics can be eas i l y changed. Also from teaching Family Studies 12, Anne and Lucy developed their meaning of integrative which they perceived as i n t e r r e l a t i n g topics and concepts in class discussions or through work sheets and assignments. The second question which guided this study was "what are the teachers' perceptions of the ecological perspective?" The ecological perspective i s the basic conceptualization of the Family Management program which i s concerned with the interactions of people and the reciprocal influences among indiv i d u a l s , families and other s o c i a l groups. In Fullan's (1982) ,terms, the ecological perspective i n the Family Management curriculum document lacks pedagogical c l a r i t y because i t lacks procedural referents. It lacks conceptual 94 c l a r i t y b e c a u s e i t i s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m may l i m i t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t may be e m p h a s i z e d i n e i t h e r o f t h e two c o u r s e s . When i n i t i a l l y a s k e d , t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s were n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n i t i a l l y , Anne and L u c y d e s c r i b e d t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as t e a c h i n g a b o u t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w h i l e Dana was n o t s u r e what i t m e a n t . A f t e r t h e y r e a d t h e e x c e r p t a b o u t t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m t h e F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , t h e y r e c o n c i l e d i t w i t h t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e c o u r s e . The t e a c h e r s were n o t a l w a y s s u r e i f t h e i r t e a c h i n g e n c o u r a g e d an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c e t h e y c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e e x c e r p t f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t o r a l w a y s g i v e e x a m p l e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s . F u l l a n ( 1982 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t c o m p l e x i t y i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g a d o p t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n s a n d t h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e b r i e f m e n t i o n g i v e n i t i n t h e F a m i l y Management C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e 1 1 / 1 2 ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1986) l i k e l y a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e t e a c h e r s l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c o n c e p t . W h i l e a c e n t r a l i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e o f F a m i l y M a n a g e m e n t , n o n e o f t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s were r e a d i l y a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r m e a n i n g o f i t o r how i t i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r t e a c h i n g . B e r m a n & M c L a u g h l i n ( 1976 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t l o c a l m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s i m p o r t a n t i n w o r k i n g w i t h i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t a r e broadly defined concepts such as the ecological perspective. Anne and Lucy did not develop teaching materials, but exchanged materials with other teachers and used former materials from teaching Family Studies 12. They met with other home economic teachers i n the school d i s t r i c t , but the meetings were not structured to plan implementation and ide n t i f y issues and solutions. Instead of discussing the ecological perspective, teachers exchanged teaching resources so they could have a variety of teaching resources for each topic. Dana did not attend these meetings since she was not teaching Family Management at the time. Teachers' perceptions of the ecological perspective were influenced by their judgement of the interests and needs of students. In their teaching, the teachers focused on the inte r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the individual and the family with the school, peers, and the local community. They judged that the examination of the individual and the family i n the near environment enabled students to r e f l e c t on the i r family, school peers, and local community. They f e l t that this made the content i n t e r e s t i n g and relevant to the students' l i v e s . Anne and Lucy used class discussions, work sheets, and assignments and Dana used work sheets and assignments to convey her perspective of the family. Teachers had sim i l a r perceptions of the ecological perspective, but spoke of d i f f e r e n t influences on the i r perception. Anne claimed that her professional education was related to her conception of ecological perspective. However, 96 i t was not due to her training in home economics education, but rather psychology. Lucy claimed her perception was due to her teaching experience while Dana claimed i t was due to the personalized nature of the Family Management content. It i s interesting that teachers did not claim the curriculum document. Anne and Lucy admitted a reliance on the document early in their teaching of the program. It i s l i k e l y during this time that they recognized the s i m i l a r i t y between the Family Management program and Family Studies 12 and began to use their teaching experiences of Family Studies 12 as a guide. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Dana did not rely on the curriculum document l i k e most teachers early i n t h e i r teaching of a subject (Thomas, 1990). Dana was the only teacher i n the study who had not referred to the Family Management curriculum document for planning course content or teaching. Dana was included in the study since i t i s not unusual for a teacher to teach without a curriculum document or not to use i t when one has i t (Coles McRadu, A l l i s o n , and Gray, 1985). Since Family Management i s not an examinable school subject, teachers have considerable freedom to organize and develop th e i r course as they prefer. Under these circumstances, the teacher r e l i e s on one's b e l i e f s , teaching experiences, and the course content to guide one's conceptual framework, teaching approach and organization, and s e l e c t i o n of materials. Dana was guided by her friend's course outline and borrowed materials. These 97 items indicated appropriate content, types of student a c t i v i t i e s and assignments, and teaching approach. Dana's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study also provided a novice's perceptions of the innovations. Unlike Anne and Lucy, Dana had no past teaching experience of Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design; thus, her perceptions about the innovations were "untainted". Her perceptions of the innovations also reflected issues associated with teaching a new course. This study focused on Fullan's four factors associated with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a change (1982). However, one can not think of these factors i n i s o l a t i o n from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the school d i s t r i c t l e v e l , the school level and external to the local school system. Many of these factors were discussed through the examination of the teachers' perceptions: s t a f f development, time-line, teacher-teacher re l a t i o n s , and teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Not a l l of the factors were highlighted since they did not relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to the teachers' perceptions. For example, the role of the p r i n c i p a l did not seem to influence teachers' perceptions of the innovations. Teachers viewed their p r i n c i p a l as an administrator rather than an i n s t r u c t i o n a l leader. The inactive role of the p r i n c i p a l may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n examining the teachers' implementation of Family Management. Some factors i n d i r e c t l y influenced teachers' perceptions of the innovations. For example, factors related to the external local systems (Ministry of Education) 98 i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e l a c k o f c o n c e p t u a l and p e d a g o g i c a l c l a r i t y o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s w h i c h i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s . F a c t o r s a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l e v e l a l s o d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be i n f l u e n t i a l on t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . P e r h a p s , t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s d i d n o t p r o b e d e e p l y e n o u g h t o u n c o v e r t h e m . C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f two c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Th e two c u r r i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n s s t u d i e d l a c k e d c l a r i t y ( b o t h c o n c e p t u a l and p e d a g o g i c a l ) i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . H o w e v e r , as t h e b a s i c t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h a n d c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e c o u r s e t h e y h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l t o c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e way t e a c h e r s t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e c o u r s e and t a u g h t i t . Two t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y h o w e v e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c h a n g e t h e way t h e y t a u g h t F a m i l y Management 11/12 c o m p a r e d t o F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t . J u d g e m e n t s a b o u t what a n d how t o p l a n and t e a c h a p p e a r e d t o r e l y on t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e i r b e l i e f s a b o u t s t u d e n t n e e d s a n d what w o r k s w i t h s t u d e n t s . F o r none o f t h e t e a c h e r s , was t h e e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e an i m m e d i a t e l y m e a n i n g f u l c o n c e p t . T h u s , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e a c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t may c o n t a i n 99 innovative proposals, i t does not mean that these innovations become readily meaningful for teachers. Both innovations examined in this study were guiding concepts i n the Family Management program. Unlike innovations in content or a basic method of inquiry or learning, they may be more eas i l y viewed by teachers as non-essential to t h e i r daily decisions of what and how to teach. However, the teachers i n the study gave meaning to both concepts. Anne and Lucy did not choose an organizational and teaching approach from the curriculum document. Both held to t r a d i t i o n a l organizing of topics, integrating through discussions and work sheets. Dana did not select an organizational and teaching approach from the curriculum document since she used a borrowed course outline. She did not perceive herself as teaching from an integrative approach since she taught using a unit-by-unit approach. However, she used student assignments that integrated concepts and topics. These assignments were borrowed from another teacher i n the d i s t r i c t . Anne and Lucy's meaning of integrative approach were influenced primarily by t h e i r past teaching experiences, a reliance on what was meaningful to and "worked" with students, and the support from peers and available teaching resources. Dana's meaning of integrative approach was primarily influenced by borrowing teaching resources. This study i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y i n g innovations i n curriculum documents and i l l u s t r a t i n g s p e c i f i c means of implementing them. The 100 i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h and e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e h e l d l i t t l e m e a n i n g f o r t h e t e a c h e r s due t o t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y a n d l a c k o f c o n c e p t u a l and p e d a g o g i c a l c l a r i t y i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . The b r e v i t y o f i n s e r v i c e and p o o r t i m i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d a t e l i k e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s e v e n t u a l m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s o f t h e c o n c e p t s f o r t h e t e a c h e r s . T h i s s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . Anne and L u c y p e r c e i v e d t h e i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h as r e l a t i n g t o p i c s and c o n c e p t s t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s a n d work s h e e t s . Anne a n d L u c y b a s e d t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s on t h e i r p a s t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t t h e i r v a l u e s a n d b e l i e f s . T h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r i n d e c i d i n g what s h o u l d a n d s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e a l l t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t u s e o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t , t h e y a l s o showed i n d e p e n d e n c e i n s e l e c t i n g o t h e r t e a c h i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k s , a r e a s o f s t u d y , a n d a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h e t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h e s e c h o i c e s were made i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s . M u r p h e y & S t e w a r t ( 1990 ) f o u n d t h a t t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h more y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y h a d t e n t o s e v e n t e e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d d i d e x p r e s s b e l i e f s t h a t t h e n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s were i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . T e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d o t h e r c o n c e r n s f o r t h e i r c h o i c e s : Dana s e l e c t e d c o n t e n t t h a t s h e was f a m i l i a r w i t h w h i l e Anne 101 removed content that she was unfamiliar with. Moreover, because each teacher in this study was the only one responsible for teaching the Family Management program in their school, th e i r control of content was strengthened. This teaching s i t u a t i o n allowed for "considerable latitude in decisions about the focus of the course and content to be covered" (Thomas, 1990, p.249). Thus, teacher i s o l a t i o n contributes to teacher control of what i s and i s not included in classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . In addition without centralized examinations or supervisory control, home economics teachers have considerable control in course design and content selection. The study demonstrates that peer teacher meetings and support w i l l not alone ensure that innovations w i l l become meaningful and u t i l i z e d by teachers. The nature of the innovations and how cent r a l l y necessary teachers view them are l i k e l y more i n f l u e n t i a l than simply being able to meet and support each other i n making changes. Innovations which are basic to a program and poorly defined l i k e the innovations i n this study, are l i k e l y to necessitate focused and protracted inservice i n order to make them meaningful and i n f l u e n t i a l i n teacher decisions. Larsen (1987) recommended a series teacher meetings to c l a r i f y the program innovations, share teaching resources, and assess their implementation. In structured meetings, the innovations may become meaningful and u t i l i z e d by teachers. Otherwise the meetings may only break down the t r a d i t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n of the classroom teacher and reinforce 102 e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t s and p e d a g o g y . L a r s e n (1987) a l s o recommended t h a t i n s e r v i c e s h o u l d p r o v i d e s k i l 1 - s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g by c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s and p o o l t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s f r o m n e i g h b o r i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . H o w e v e r , t h i s t y p e o f i n s e r v i c e may o n l y s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t s and p e d a g o g y . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f i n n o v a t i o n s i n a c u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t . The s t u d y d o e s n o t c l a i m a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e p t i o n s a n d c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e a l t h o u g h Thomas (1990) f o u n d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f s a n d t h e i r c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . I n d e e d , t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s w h i c h t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t may c h a n g e a t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e s a n d b e l i e f s . P a s t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d b e l i e f s seemed t o h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s . O t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n s . I m p l i i £ a t i i o n s i o f t h e S t u d y T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s w i s h i n g t o i n t r o d u c e p r o g r a m i n n o v a t i o n s . - C u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s s h o u l d c l a r i f y t h r o u g h d e t a i l e d e x a m p l e s what i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t e a c h e r s ' p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p r a c t i c e s . C u r r i c u l u m d o c u m e n t s s h o u l d d i s p l a y c o n s i s t e n c y a n d c l a r i t y among t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t u a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l 103 f r a m e w o r k , t h e g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t and i n s t r u c t i o n m e t h o d s s u g g e s t e d . The b a s e s o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c y n e e d s t o be e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d a n d d e v e l o p e d . P r o g r a m m a t e r i a l s s u c h as t e x t b o o k s , c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , and r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s i n t e n d e d t o s u p p o r t s p e c i f i c c h a n g e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r s and s h o u l d a r r i v e when t e a c h e r s n e e d t h e m , i f e x p e c t e d t o h a v e an i m p a c t . I n s e r v i c e i n t e n d e d t o s u p p o r t s p e c i f i c i n n o v a t i o n s s h o u l d c l a r i f y a n d d i s c u s ' s t h e c h a n g e s b e t w e e n p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s , c o n c e p t s a n d b e l i e f s and t h o s e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e . S i n c e t e a c h e r s a p p e a r t o b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on "what w o r k s " w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t u d e n t n e e d s , i n n o v a t i o n s n e e d t o be d i s c u s s e d and n e g o t i a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f r a m e of t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d home e c o n o m i c t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f two i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e F a m i l y Management p r o g r a m w h i c h i s a r e c e n t c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t d i d n o t f o c u s on c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s . O b s e r v a t i o n s may p r o v i d e a d e e p e r y e t more v a r i e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h " a n d " e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e " . S u c h a s t u d y c o u l d p r o v i d e r i c h e r 104 d a t a and d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t e a c h e r s ' g u i d i n g f r a m e w o r k s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . S i n c e t e a c h e r s i n home e c o n o m i c s h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f i n f l u e n c e s on t h e s e d e c i s i o n s i s w a r r a n t e d . S u c h r e s e a r c h w o u l d be h e l p f u l t o b o t h c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . 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C a s e s t u d y r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i q . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s . M i l l e r , J . R . , N e l s o n , L . , a n d G a r y V a u g h n , G . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . D e v e l opment e d u c a t i o n : An i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . . J o u r n a l o f Home E c q n q m i c s , 81 ( 1 ) , 2 1 - 2 6 . M i l l e r , J . P , a n d S e l l e r , W. ( 1 9 9 0 ) . C u r r i c u l u m £.§..Ls..E.§.£.Ll.y.e..§ and p r a c t i c e s . New Y o r k : C o p p C l a r k P i t m a n . M u r p h e y , I . C . a n d S t e w a r t , D . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . C h a n g e s i n t h e c l o t h i n g a n d t e x t i l e s c u r r i c u l u m : P r a c t i c e s o f f i v e home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s . J o u L n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l Home E c o n o m i c s E d u c a t i o n , 8 ( 1 ) , 1 9 - 2 9 . O l s o n , J . K . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C h a n g i n g o u r i d e a s a b o u t c h a n g e . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 0 ( 3 ) , 2 9 4 - 3 0 8 . P e s h k i n , A . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . In s e a r c h o f s u b j e c t i v i t y - o n e ' s own. E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r , 1 7 , 7 , 1 7 - 2 2 . P e t e r a t , L . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . T h e m e a n i n g s o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n e d u c a L i o n . . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P i k e , M . L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S t r u c t u r e s o f c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e as e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 110 S a r a n , R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The use o f a r c h i v e s and i n t e r v i e w s i n r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . In R. B u r g e s s ( E d . ) , S . . t„rat_egi .es q f e d u c a t i q n a l r e s e a r c h ( p p . 1 5 3 - 2 0 6 ) . P e n n s y l v a n i a : F a l m e r P r e s s . S m i t h , J . K . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Q u a n t i t a t i v e v e r s u s q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h : An a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e . Educa . t i , on a 1 R e s e a r c h e r , 1 2 ( 3 ) , 6 - 1 3 . S m i t h , J . K . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The p r o b l e m o f c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g i n t e r p r e t i v e i n q u i r y . E d u c a t i q n a E y a l ^ a n d P o l i c y An.a.l.y.s.i.s, 6, 3 7 9 - 3 9 1 . S m i t h , J . K , & H e s h u s i u s , L . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . C l o s i n g down t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n : The end of t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e - q u a l i t a t i v e d e b a t e among e d u c a t i o n a l i n q u i r e r s . E d u c a t i q n a R e s e a r c h e r , 1.8 (1) , 4 - 1 2 . S t e n h o u s e , L . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A n o t e on c a s e s t u d y and e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . In R . G . B u r g e s s ( E d . ) , F i e l d M e t h o d s i n t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i . q ( p p . 2 6 3 - 2 7 1 ) . P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a : F a l m e r P r e s s . T e s c h , R. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E m e r g i n g t h e m e s : T h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e . P h e ^ .+ P e d a g o g y , 5 ( 3 ) , 2 3 0 - 2 4 1 . Theman,' J . ( 1979) . The . i n t e r y i e w . .as a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . ( R e p o r t N o . 86) H o l n d a l , Sweden: G o t e b a r y U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n . E r i c Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No . E d . 183 573) T . H . E . S . A . - T e a c h e r s o f Home E c o n o m i c s S p e c i a l i s t s A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 8 6 , F e b r u a r y 2 2 ) . A n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g m i n u t e s . T...H v N.?. w s . l ^ > 2 .4(4) , 5-7 . T . H . E . S . A . - T e a c h e r s o f Home E c o n o m i c s S p e c i a l i s t s A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Mom w o u l d n ' t r e c o g n i z e t o d a y ' s home e c o n o m i c s . Do you? T . H . E . S N e w s L e t t e r , 2 6 ( 4 ) , 1 3 - 1 4 . T h i e s s e n , D . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . T e a c h e r s a n d t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e o r i e n t a t i o n s . In G . M i l b u r n , I . G o o d s o n , & R . C l a r k ( E d s . ) , R e - i n t e c u r r i c j a l j u m r e s e a r c h : Images & A r g u m e n t ( p p . 1 3 2 - 1 4 5 ) . L o n d o n , O n t a r i o : F a l m e r P r e s s . I l l T h o m a s , C . J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . F o r c e s i n f i u e n c i n g home e c o n q m i c s c h a n.g e i n B.....C... s e c on d.a. r y s c h o o l s .19.12 - .1.?. .8.5.:. U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . T h o m a s , C . J . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . C o n c e p t i o n s o f c u r r i c u l u m and c l a s s r o o m pract..ice...:. An e t h n q g r a p h s t u d y o f f ami AY. .l..i..fe e d u c a t i on t e a c h e r s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . s T y e , K . A . & T y e , B . B . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . T e a c h e r i s o l a t i o n and s c h o o l r e f o r m . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , 6 5 ( 5 ) , 3 1 9 - 3 2 2 . W a l l a c e , S . A . a n d H a l l , H . C . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R e s e a r c h i n home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n : P a s t a c h i e v e m e n t s , p r e s e n t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , f u t u r e n e e d s . Home E c o n o m i c s R.e i ,eaLch J o u r n a l , 1.2 ( 3 ) , 40 3 - 4 1 9 . W e r n e r , W. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E v a l u a t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C e n t e r f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h y t e , W . F . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I n t e r v i e w i n g i n f i e l d r e s e a r c h . I n R . G . B u r g e s s ( E d . ) , F i e l d r e s e a r c h : _ A s g u r c e b q q k and f i e 1 d m a n u a l . B o s t o n : A l l e n a n d U n w i n . W i e r s m a , W. (1986) . R e s e a r c h methods... . i ^ e d u c ^ An i n t r o d u c t i o n ( f o u r t h e..d...)_. T o r o n t o : A l l y n and B a c o n . W o l p e r t , E . M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g L§..§ eALclL...i.. :Q e d u c a t i o n ( 2 n d e d . ) . Iowa: K e n d a l l H u n t . A p p e n d i x A T o p i cs and Key C o n c e p t s f o r F a m i l y Management i l T o p i c : I n d i v i d u a l R e s o u r c e Management Key C o n c e p t s : 1. D e c i s i o n s a d o l e s c e n t s make r e g a r d i n g t h e u s e o f r e s o u r c e s a r e b a s e d on p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and g o a l s . K n o w l e d g e a b o u t p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s a n d g o a l s w i l l a s s i s t a d o l e s c e n t s t o make s a t i s f y i n g d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e l i f e s t y l e s a n d c a r e e r s . 2. E f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s e n h a n c e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i s i n f l u e n c e d by h a b i t s and l i f e s t y l e 4. K n o w l e d g e o f t h e e l e m e n t s a n d p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n i s a p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e . The u s e o f d e s i g n c o n c e p t s e n a b l e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c r e a t e e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l t a s t e . 5. E f f e c t i v e u s e o f c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s i s p r o m o t e d t h r o u g h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . Use of c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s i s b a s e d on n e e d s , a v a i l a b i l i t y , q u a l i t y , a n d c o s t . T o p i c : Human D e v e l o p m e n t Key C o n c e p t s : 1. C h i l d r e n p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s f r o m c o n c e p t i o n t o a d o l e s c e n c e . 2. C h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r s o c i a l a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . 3. T h e c o n c e p t o f a d o l e s c e n c e as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e i n t h e l i f e c y c l e i s u n i q u e t o t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . S p e c i f i c c h a n g e s mark t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o a d u l t h o o d . 4. A d o l e s c e n t i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n i s h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 5. A d o l e s c e n c e i s m a r k e d by s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e an i m p a c t on p s y c h o s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 113 T o p i c : P e r s o n a l G r o w t h Key C o n c e p t s : 1. The s e l f i s c o m p r i s e d of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and e m o t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t s . The way one v i e w s o n e s e l f i s t e r m e d t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t . 2. H e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t c o n t r i b u t e i n t e r a c t i v e l y t o o n e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e . 3 . B a s i c human n e e d s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l . Needs a r e i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s t h a t one s e e k s t o r e s o l v e . T o p i c : I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s Key C o n c e p t s : 1. I n d i v i d u a l s n e e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , and e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y . F u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s meet t h e n e e d s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d . 2. I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d y n a m i c and c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . 3 . P e r s o n a l a n d f a m i l y l i f e c a n be e n r i c h e d by t h e u s e o f c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s . I n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p c o n t r i b u t i o n s c a n e n h a n c e c o m m u n i t y l i f e . T o p i c s a n d Key C o n c e p t s f o r F a m i l y Management 12 T o p i c : F a m i l y R e s o u r c e Management Key C o n c e p t s : 1. As a u n i q u e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e f a m i l y s h a r e s common f u n c t i o n s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e g a r d l e s s o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , o r s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 2. F a m i l y r e s o u r c e s c h a n g e as f a m i l y members move t h r o u g h t h e l i f e c y c l e a n d t h e f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e s . D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g u s e o f r e s o u r c e s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by a f a m i l y ' s v a l u e s , n e e d s , w a n t s a n d l i f e s t y l e . 3 . The f a m i l y f u n c t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y when t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f f a m i l y members a r e c o m p a t i b l e a n d t h e n e e d s o f f a m i l y members a r e b e i n g m e t . E f f e c t i v e g r o u p c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g s k i l l s f a c i l i t a t e f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g a n d t h e o p t i m u m u s e o f r e s o u r c e s . 4. H o u s i n g i s a f a m i l y r e s o u r c e t h a t r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e management . 5. Work p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n f a m i l y l i f e . 1 1 4 6. The c o m m u n i t y p r o v i d e s a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s f o r p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n . C a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r t h o s e t r a i n e d i n t h e f i e l d of f a m i l y s e r v i c e s . T o p i c : The A d u l t Y e a r s Key C o n c e p t s : 1. E a r l y a d u l t h o o d i s a s t a g e i n t h e l i f e c y c l e t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s . P l a n n i n g i n e a r l y a d u l t h o o d may f a c i l i t a t e t h e a t t a i n m e n t of work and l i f e g o a l s . 2. The p r i m a r y f o c u s o f m i d d l e a d u l t h o o d i s on r e a s s e s s i n g o n e s e l f and o n e ' s l i f e . 3. L i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l a t e a d u l t h o o d i s i n f l u e n c e d by f e e l i n g s o f s e l f w o r t h , use o f s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n e a r l i e r y e a r s , h e a l t h , a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T o p i c : C h a n g i n g L i f e s t y l e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s Key C o n c e p t s : 1. L i f e s t y l e o p t i o n s a r e many a n d v a r i e d and may c h a n g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e . 2. D i v e r s i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , m a r r i a g e , and f a m i l y l i f e c h a r a c t e r i z e o u r s o c i e t y . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by c h a n g e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . 3. The i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a m i l y members and t h e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . 4. C h a n g e i n f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u n c t i o n s i n i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 5. A d j u s t m e n t s t o d y i n g a n d d e a t h c a n be f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h t h e s u p p o r t o f i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s . 6. B e c o m i n g a p a r e n t a f f e c t s o n e ' s l i f e s t y l e a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The m a i n f o c u s o f p a r e n t i n g i s g u i d i n g c h i l d r e n f r o m d e p e n d e n c e t o i n d e p e n d e n c e . AppendixC Sample Q u e s t i o n s f r o m F i r s t I n t e r y i e w A. What are the major topics that you have taught this year for Family Management 11? 1. Do you have a copy of the course outline that I may see? 8. How did you decide on the sequence of the topics and key concepts? 1. Are you teaching as the topics and key concepts are arranged in the guide, rearranging the topics and key concepts, the theme approach, or your own organization? 2. How did you come to this decision? 3. Why did you come to this decision for organizing the course content? a. What are the advantages of this? b. Have you ever changed your approach? Why? C. How would describe the role of the a) topics, b) key concepts, and c) learning outcomes i n your teaching practices or organization of content? 1. What do they mean to you, c o l l e c t i v e l y or separately? D. What does integrative mean to you? 1. Is Family Management 11 integrative? What i s integrative about i t ? 2. Do you integrate? How? What i s an example? E. Are you using any materials that you used to teach F a m i l y S t u d i e s or H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n ? 1 . W h i c h t o p i c s i n F a m i l y Management 1 1 a r e y o u u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s ? 2. Why a r e y o u u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s f r o m t h e o t h e r c o u r s e ( s ) ? a . What i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s ? ( V S B , o r i g i n a l , e t c . ) i . May I h a v e a c o p y o f some o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t h a t y o u h a v e u s e d t o t e a c h F a m i l y S t u d i e s o r H o u s i n g and I n t e r i o r D e s i g n , b u t a r e now u s i n g t o t e a c h F a m i l y Management 11? What do y o u want s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n f r o m t a k i n g F a m i l y Management 11? What i s y o u r p h i l o s o p h y ? What d o e s t e a c h i n g f r o m "an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e " mean t o y o u ? 1. How d i d y o u come t o t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ? 2. Do y o u t e a c h F a m i l y Management 11 f r o m an " e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ? Why o r why n o t ? 3 . How do y o u t e a c h F a m i l y Management 11 f r o m an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ? o r What p e r s p e c t i v e , a p p r o a c h o r p h i l o s o p h y do y o u t e a c h f r o m ? a . C a n y o u t h i n k o f a l e s s o n t h a t i s a g o o d e x a m p l e o f an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ? A r e y o u f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y s t a t e m e n t o f t h e 118 F a m i l y Management c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ? P l e a s e r e a d t h i s s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . The philosophy behind the Family Management curr icu lum can be descr ibed as an ecological perspect ive. T h e ecological approach focusses on ind iv idua l s , families, and other social groups in natural Bettings and assumes that all elements of the world are mutually susta ining and interdependent (Gullotta, Adams, and A lexander , 1986). In this way, human behaviour is seen to be dependent on and Influenced by the environment. Addit ional ly , the ecological perspect ive proposes that resources are jointly held by all and that favourable environmental condit ions promote human interact ion and growth. T h e focus of the grade 11 Family Management course is on the growth and development of the indiv idual and the interact ive relat ionships between Individuals, families, and the sur round ing environment. T h e emphasis of the grade 12 program is on the evolut ionary nature of the family and the larger community. T h u s , students in Family Management have the opportuni ty to examine the relationship of humans and their env i ron -ments initial ly from a specif ic point of view (the individual) and later from a more general perspect ive (the family and the community). As students enter the course with part icu lar and d i f fer ing ideas about themselves and their world, it is important that teachers of Family Management adopt an open and flexible stance towards* issues raised throughout the course and a keen sens i t iv i ty to their part icu lar pupi ls ' percept ions. What do y o u t h i n k t h i s s t a t e m e n t means " t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h f o c u s e s on i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and o t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p s i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s a n d as sumes t h a t a l l e l e m e n t s o f t h e w o r l d a r e m u t u a l l y s u s t a i n i n g a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n t " ? 1. What d o e s t h i s mean t o y o u ? 2 . How do y o u t e a c h t h i s ? 3. C a n y o u g i v e me a n e x a m p l e f r o m a p a s t l e s s o n ? Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t y o u a r e c o n v e y i n g an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e s t u d e n t s ? I f y e s , 1. How do y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u h a v e d o n e t h i s ? 2 . C a n y o u g i v e me e x a m p l e s o f t h i s ? 120 A g p e n d i x E Samp 1 e Q u e s t i o n s F r o m S e c o n d I n_t_erv i e w Q u e s t i o n s f o r A n n e F i r s t , do y o u h a v e any comments a b o u t t h e summary? A n y t h i n g t o add or make c h a n g e s a b o u t y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n o r t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h ? Can y o u t e l l me a b o u t t h e t r a i n i n g y o u h a d t o t e a c h S u p e r H o s t . How many h o u r s ? When? D i d t h e d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e t h i s i n -s e r v i c e ( d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s ) ? Why d i d y o u a t t e n d i t ? Have y o u a t t e n d e d anymore t o u r i s m r e l a t e d i n - s e r v i c e ? (ENCORE?) How d i d y o u d e c i d e t h a t S u p e r H o s t w o u l d f i t i n w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f F a m i l y Management 11? Why n o t F a m i l y Management 12? Was t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n v o l u n t a r y ? How w o u l d y o u d e s c r i b e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t o p i c s f o r F a m i l y Management 11? What d o e s i t r e v o l v e a r o u n d ? Y o u d e s c r i b e d t h e t o p i c as f i t t i n g r e a l l y w e l l . What i s t h i s f i t ? Do y o u e x p a n d t h e f o c u s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y , s o c i e t y , g l o b a l l y ( w o r l d v i e w ) ? F o r e x a m p l e ? Y o u h a v e d e s c r i b e d t h e c o u r s e as " c o n t i n u a l l y e v o l v i n g " . Do y o u c o n s i d e r t h e e v o l u t i o n f r o m when y o u s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g F a m i l y Management 11 o r F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12? What a r e some e x a m p l e s o f how t h e c o u r s e has e v o l v e d ? C a n y o u remember what y o u r c o n c e r n s were a b o u t when y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d t e a c h i n g F a m i l y M a n a g e m e n t ? How d i d y o u r e s o l v e them? Y o u h a d m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e t o p i c s o f F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m F a m i l y Management 11 a n d 12 . W h i c h a r e d i f f e r e n t ? What do y o u f e e l t h a t y o u a r e d o i n g d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t h e way y o u t a u g h t F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12? What i s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s ? ( y o u r a p p r o a c h , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , f o c u s ) Y o u m e n t i o n e d t h a t y o u d r o p p e d h o u s i n g f r o m t h e b o t h F a m i l y Management 1 1 / 1 2 , b u t I saw h o u s i n g n e e d s l i s t e d i n F a m i l y Management 12 i n t h e t o p i c M o v i n g f r o m A d o l e s c e n c e t o A d u l t h o o d ? I s t h i s d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h f r o m what i s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ? I f i t i s , why? What s h o u l d one be d o i n g s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m F a m i l y S t u d i e s 12 s i n c e t h i s F a m i l y Management i s a new c o u r s e , has a c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , a n d i n - s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y ? 121 F o r e x a m p l e , what w o u l d y o u t e l l someone who has t a u g h t F a m i l y S t u d i e s and j u s t f o u n d out s h e i s g o i n g t o t e a c h F a m i l y Management 11 i n S e p t e m b e r . Y o u m e n t i o n e d t h a t y o u h a d some t r o u b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e theme a p p r o a c h ? What was i t a b o u t i t t h a t y o u f o u n d d i f f i c u l t ? Where d i d y o u e n c o u n t e r t h e theme a p p r o a c h , i . e . a m i n i s t r y w o r k s h o p o r o n l y i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e ? What i s / w a s t h e b a s i s f o r c h o o s i n g m a t e r i a l s t o t e a c h F a m i l y Management? Y o u r m e e t i n g w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s , y o u m e n t i o n e d i t was a s u p p o r t g r o u p a n d s h a r i n g i d e a s . Y o u met i n 1986 b e g i n n i n g a r o u n d what month? A f t e r s c h o o l ? Where? How l o n g ? Who came up w i t h t h e i d e a ? Was i t f o r m a l m e e t i n g s ? e g . m i n u t e s , a g e n d a ? When y o u d e c i d e d t o s h a r e an i d e a o r u s e someone e l s e ' s i d e a s , how d i d y o u d e c i d e t h i s ? (What was t h e b a s i s f o r c h o o s i n g an i d e a ? ) Was t h e r e someone i n t h i s d i s t r i c t who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n c o u r a g i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d h e l p e d s o l v e p r o b l e m s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g F a m i l y Management? ( l a t e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s and t e x t b o o k s , r e s o u r c e s ) Were t h e r e t i m e s , when a p e r s o n l i k e t h i s c o u l d h a v e b e e n h e l p f u l ? F o r e x a m p l e ? Were y o u a b l e t o t u r n t o a n y o n e f o r h e l p ? Who? 

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