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Analysis of gender bias in home economics textbooks Hayibor, Bernice Anne 1990

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ANALYSIS OF GENDER BIAS IN HOME ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS By BERNICE ANNE HAYIBOR B.H.E., The University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1990 ® Bernice Anne Hayibor, 1990  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  C  e  n  t  r  e  f o r  t  n  e  Study o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  D a t  DE-6  e  (2/88)  27 A p r i l , 1990  Abstract Three Canadian home economics t e x t b o o k s c u r r e n t l y used i n t e a c h i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p s were examined t o e x p l o r e t h e ways i n which t h e y a r e o r a r e n o t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o gender e q u i t y . The r e s e a r c h posed t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : To whom i s t h e t e x t b o o k addressed? What a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e t e x t b o o k ? and I n what way does t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l w i t h gender b i a s ? I n each t e x t b o o k t h e p r e f a c e , i n d e x , t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , p h o t o g r a p h s , h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and c o n t e n t were examined i n d e t a i l . The t e x t s were compared t o determine commonalities. The methodology was adapted from e a r l i e r t e x t b o o k a n a l y s e s o f sex e q u i t y which were based on t h e s t u d y o f i n t e n t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e f a c e , p h o t o g r a p h s , and language. Recent f e m i n i s t work s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d i e s o f b i a s must c o n s i d e r n o t o n l y t h e b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t o f s e x b u t a l s o t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender which r e l a t e s t o t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and r o l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one sex. The f e m i n i s t c o n c e p t s o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e were used i n t h i s t e x t b o o k analysis. The t e x t b o o k s were found t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y i n f i v e Ways. The f i r s t approach, i n c l u d i n g males, i s n o t adequate because i t i n v o l v e s t h e r i s k o f males and a male p e r s p e c t i v e becoming dominant. The second approach, u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language, i s a l s o i n a d e q u a t e because i t i n v o l v e s t h e r i s k o f masking t h e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between  females  and males and the problems a r i s i n g from gender. E x p o s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s and are two  a d d r e s s i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o gender  approaches which may  h o l d promise i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  gender e q u i t y but i n the t e x t s examined were i n a d e q u a t e because t h e i s s u e s were p r e s e n t e d as n e u t r a l  or  u n p r o b l e m a t i c . E n c o u r a g i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was approach used i n o n l y one gender e q u i t y was  t e x t b o o k and  the  final  i t s contribution to  m i n i m a l because c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g  was  a p p l i e d i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and r a r e l y a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y  to  problems o f gender. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e r e q u i r e the appropriate  use of i n c l u s i v e and  sex s p e c i f i c  language, the b a l a n c e d i n c l u s i o n of f e m a l e s and males, d e t a i l e d , s e n s i t i v e , and c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of  and  issues  r e l a t e d t o gender. The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y r a i s e c o n c e r n s about the  a n a l y s i s of t e x t b o o k s . Home economics t e x t b o o k s have t h e unique c h a l l e n g e and  o f i n c l u d i n g males w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g males  a male p e r s p e c t i v e  t o become dominant. Overcoming the  problems of gender r e q u i r e s s e n s i t i v i t y i n e x p o s i n g gender differences. Neutralizing  knowledge and  presenting  knowledge as f a c t u a l r a t h e r t h a n p r o b l e m a t i c masks d i f f e r e n c e s and problems a r i s i n g from them. The t h i s research  f i n d i n g s of  s u g g e s t a n a l y s i s of t e x t b o o k s f o r gender b i a s  s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d t o s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s such as e x p l i c i t intentions stated i n prefaces,  photographs,  language. E l i m i n a t i o n of gender b i a s r e q u i r e s changes i n t e x t b o o k c o n t e n t .  and  substantive  iv Table o f Contents Abstract  i i  L i s t of Tables  ;  vi  Acknowledgements  • ,  v i i  1  INTRODUCTION Statement o f Problem Research Questions D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Limitations Significance  1 1 7 7 11 13  2  LITERATURE REVIEW Knowledge and t h e New S o c i o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n ... Feminist Research Gender E q u i t y and Home Economics Textbooks and T e a c h i n g Related Research ;  14 14 18 27 28 33  3  METHODOLOGY The Sample The Method The P r o c e d u r e  48 49 51 52  4  FINDINGS Preface Table o f Contents Index Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s Highlighted Sections Content  5  DISCUSSION  141  6  CONCLUSION  167  •• •••  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 -  61 61 63 65 68 83 94  177 Presence o f Gender E q u i t y T o p i c s i n Index of Textbooks Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y Number o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l y L i v i n g  182 186 188 192 193  V  Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 T a b l e 10 APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G APPENDIX H APPENDIX I APPENDIX J APPENDIX K APPENDIX L APPENDIX M -  Number o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g 194 Number o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y ... 197 Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n F a m i l y L i v i n g by " C o l o u r " and Sex 198 Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by " C o l o u r " and Sex .* 199 Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y by " C o l o u r " and Sex 202 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n F a m i l y L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e o f Photograph 203 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e o f Photograph .... 204 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e o f Photograph .... 207 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y 209 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y 215 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y 224 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o N a t u r e o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y L o c a t e d i n t h e Home 229 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o N a t u r e o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y L o c a t e d i n t h e Home 231 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o Nature o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y L o c a t e d i n t h e Home 233 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 234 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 237 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 239  vi  L i s t o f Tables  TABLE I  TABLE I I  Summary o f Numbers o f Females and Males i n Photographs  70  Summary o f Numbers o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n  72  TABLE I I I Summary o f Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s by and Sex >  "Colour" 72  vii Acknowledgements  I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my a d v i s o r s : J i m G a s k e l l f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me t o see m y s e l f as a f e m i n i s t ; Jane G a s k e l l f o r t h e f e m i n i s t i n s p i r a t i o n she p r o v i d e d ; and L i n d a P e t e r a t f o r b o t h o f t h o s e , b u t a l s o f o r h e r p a t i e n t and painstaking assistance i n the preparation of t h i s thesis. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o L i n d a E y r e , d o c t o r a l c a n d i d a t e i n home economics,  f o r s h a r i n g h e r f e m i n i s t i n s i g h t w i t h me o v e r t h e  past three years. S p e c i a l thanks go t o S h e i l a Wareing w i t h o u t whose e n t h u s i a s m and companionship  I would n o t have begun t h i s  program. C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e program would have been v e r y d i f f i c u l t w i t h o u t t h e p a t i e n t encouragement and s u p p o r t o f Bruce Mann, Sena H a y i b o r , S e f a H a y i b o r and t h e o t h e r members o f o u r f a m i l y . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t o f my f r i e n d s and my c o l l e q u e s w i t h t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board a r e a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  1 Chapter l INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem The new s o c i o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h emerged d u r i n g t h e 1970 ' s c h a r a c t e r i z e s s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m as a " s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g conscious o r unconscious c u l t u r a l c h o i c e s ( i n accordance w i t h ) t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f dominant groups" ( W h i t t y , 1985, p . 8 ) . That o u r c u l t u r e and ways o f t h i n k i n g have been h i s t o r i c a l l y shaped by a male p e r s p e c t i v e has been i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d o v e r t h e l a s t two decades. F e m i n i s t e d u c a t o r s  argue t h a t s c h o o l knowledge  i s dominated by a male p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h , t h r o u g h i t s o m i s s i o n s and b i a s e s , d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y ( E i c h l e r and L a p o i n t e , 1985). The o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y i n t h i s s t u d y i s s c h o o l p a r t o f t h e o v e r t , planned  textbooks,  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . The s t u d y  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h s e l e c t e d home economics t e x t b o o k s  deals  published  i n t h e 1980's and a u t h o r i z e d , approved o r recommended f o r use by s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s i n Canadian s c h o o l s . I t examines t h e images, r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r o l e s o f females and males p o r t r a y e d . The s t u d y c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e s t h e form o f gender b i a s e x h i b i t e d by t h e books and seeks t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e achievement o f gender e q u i t y . Canadian laws have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e women's movement. Equal r i g h t s a r e e x p l i c i t i n s e c t i o n 15(1) o f t h e Canadian C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms s e t o u t by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1982,  w h i c h came i n t o f o r c e on Apr. 17,  2  1985.  I t states:  15. (1) Every i n d i v i d u a l i s e q u a l b e f o r e and under t h e law and has t h e r i g h t t o t h e e q u a l p r o t e c t i o n and e q u a l b e n e f i t o f t h e law w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ... based on ... (2) S u b s e c t i o n (1) does n o t p r e c l u d e any law, program o r a c t i v i t y t h a t has as i t s o b j e c t t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups i n c l u d i n g t h o s e t h a t a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e d because o f ... s e x (Government o f Canada, 1982, p.15). Women i n Canada s h o u l d now e n j o y e q u a l p r o t e c t i o n and b e n e f i t o f t h e law. S i n c e women's r i g h t t o e q u a l i t y now e x i s t s w i t h i n Canadian  law, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s s h o u l d be c h a n g i n g i n a  d i r e c t i o n which r e f l e c t s t h i s i d e a l s t a t e o f e q u a l i t y . The Charter recognizes t h a t , although the r i g h t t o e q u a l i t y e x i s t s , t h e s t a t e o f e q u a l i t y has y e t t o be a c h i e v e d . I t t h e r e f o r e a u t h o r i z e s " a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs d e s i g n e d t o improve t h e l o t o f ... d i s a d v a n t a g e d groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s ( i n c l u d i n g women) who may have s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t o f p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " (Government o f Canada, 1982, p.16). The F e d e r a l Human R i g h t s A c t arid t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Human R i g h t s A c t r e i n f o r c e t h e e q u a l i t y r i g h t s o f women ( B e v e r i d g e and R e i d , 1987). L e g i s l a t i v e mandates do n o t guarantee a change i n s c h o o l p r a c t i c e . "The s t r e n g t h o f a mandate r e s t s i n t h e power o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " (Schmuck e t a l . . , 1985, p.91).  Canadian  laws g i v e e d u c a t o r s a c l e a r mandate t o pursue t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a more e q u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n f o r b o t h  females  and males, n o t o n l y t h r o u g h e l i m i n a t i n g b i a s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , b u t a l s o t h r o u g h a d v o c a t i n g gender e q u i t y . Textbooks  a r e one o f t h e many v e h i c l e s w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r  3  p r o m o t i n g gender e q u i t y i n e d u c a t i o n . Over t h e l a s t two decades t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e women's movement and changes i n government p o l i c y i n both Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of sexism i n textbooks  (Weston  & S t e i r i , 1978; P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee on Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , no d a t e ) . Consequently,  some changes i n  t e x t b o o k s have t a k e n p l a c e . The need f o r f r e q u e n t r e e v a l u a t i o n o f changes i s noted by E i c h l e r (1987) who p o i n t s out t h a t i n i t i a l e f f o r t s t o e l i m i n a t e s e x i s m i n language have o c c a s i o n a l l y l e d t o a d i f f e r e n t type of s e x i s t p r a c t i c e . T h i s o c c u r s when g e n e r i c terms (such as spouse abuse) a r e used i n p l a c e o f sex s p e c i f i c terms (such as w i f e b a t t e r i n g ) making women and women's i s s u e s i n v i s i b l e . T h i s addresses  study  E i c h l e r ' s (1987) concern by q u e s t i o n i n g t h e  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and adequacy o f changes which have t a k e n p l a c e i n home economics t e x t b o o k s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , such as s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s , may have more impact on s t u d e n t s t h a n t h e knowledge o r a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l teachers  ( H e r b e r t , P e t e r a t and Wagner, 1982).  P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n f l u e n c e the students outside of the c l a s s r o o m when t h e t e a c h e r i s no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e t o a c t as mediator  between t h e s t u d e n t and t h e t e x t . A l s o , imbedded i n  m a t e r i a l s i s ah i m p l i c i t view o f t h e l e a r n e r as one who (a) a b s o r b s knowledge i n t h e form o f f a c t s , (b) i n t e r p r e t s what i s r e a d , o r ( c ) c r i t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e s knowledge i n a s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e way ( H e r b e r t , P e t e r a t and Wagner, 1982).  4  The  i m p l i c i t view o f t h e l e a r n e r i s e v i d e n t i n t h e way i n  which knowledge i s p r e s e n t e d , and may i n f l u e n c e t h e way i n which t h e knowledge, b o t h e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , i s l e a r n e d . E x p l i c i t s e x i s t messages may be r a r e i n c u r r e n t t e x t b o o k s b u t i m p l i c i t l y gender b i a s e d messages (such as t h e acceptance  o f gender power r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y ) may  p e r s i s t . These ( a l o n g w i t h t h e i n t e n d e d , e x p l i c i t messages) may be absorbed  by s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g i f t h e  t e x t b o o k assumes t h e l e a r n e r t o be a p a s s i v e r e c e i v e r o f knowledge and s i m p l y p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r u n q u e s t i o n i n g a b s o r p t i o n by s t u d e n t s . I f t e x t b o o k s a r e t o b r i n g about s o c i a l change, t h e y must encourage t h e c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f knowledge about s o c i e t y ( W e i l e r , 1988). As r e c e n t l y as t h e 1960's, e d u c a t o r s were u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e s e x i s t messages conveyed i n home economics t e x t b o o k s . R e f l e c t i n g t h e dominant s o c i a l " i d e a l s " o f t h e t i m e , home economics f o c u s e d on e d u c a t i n g women f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n t h e domestic  sphere (home c o o k i n g , sewing and c h i l d c a r e ) and  r e l a t e d r o l e s i n t h e p u b l i c sphere ( q u a n t i t y c o o k i n g , i n d u s t r i a l sewing and o r g a n i z e d day c a r e ) . Many home economics t e a c h e r s have r e j e c t e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t home economics i s o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g i r l s and have sought t o show t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p r i v a t e sphere i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l . M a r t i n (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t when each g e n e r a t i o n "has t o ponder anew an i s s u e as complex as t h e e d u c a t i o n o f women, t h e r e s u l t a n t i d e a s t e n d t o be r e a c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c r e a t i v e , t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r e j e c t i o n o f some c l e a r e v i l r a t h e r t h a n t h e  5  a d o p t i o n o f a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d a l t e r n a t i v e " (p.175).  In order  t o make home economics more a p p r o p r i a t e , a t t e m p t s were made t o e l i m i n a t e such t h i n g s as t h e female s t e r e o t y p e and s e x i s t language, b u t a " w e l l - d e v e l o p e d a l t e r n a t i v e " t o t h e e a r l i e r , i r e s t r i c t i v e l y f e m a l e , home economics program has y e t t o be clearly  articulated.  E a r l y e f f o r t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem o f s e x i s m i n t e x t b o o k s r e s u l t e d i n t h e development  of "sex-balanced"  books. P i c t u r i n g and f e a t u r i n g males as w e l l as females i n home economics t e x t b o o k s became a p r i o r i t y . Sex b a l a n c e was a c h i e v e d by i n c l u d i n g an e q u a l number o f females and males. Whether o r n o t t h o s e females and males were i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and e x h i b i t e d s t e r e o t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was n o t an i s s u e (Weis, 1979). However, an e q u a l number o f p i c t u r e s o f women and men i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r c o u n t e r i n g gender b i a s s i n c e many o t h e r messages a r e conveyed t h r o u g h p i c t u r e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s ( W i l l i g e r ,  1983).  Another way i n which books attempted t o be n o n - s e x i s t was by u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language. Words such as p e o p l e and humankind were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r g e n e r i c terms l i k e man and mankind w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d by f e m i n i s t s t o e x c l u d e women. W r i t e r s o f gender n e u t r a l t e x t b o o k s a v o i d e d s e x s p e c i f i c terms (husband o r w i f e ) i n f a v o u r o f i n c l u s i v e terms ( s p o u s e ) . M i s u s e o f i n c l u s i v e language i s now r e c o g n i z e d by c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t t h i n k e r s t o l e a d t o a problem o f gender b l i n d n e s s i n which women and women's i s s u e s remain  invisible  ( E i c h l e r , 1987). F o r example, women's p o v e r t y which has  6  a r i s e n p a r t l y because o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women i n t h e w o r k f o r c e and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f  f e m a l e s can be i g n o r e d by  t e x t b o o k s w h i c h use i n c l u s i v e language because t h e y d e a l w i t h p o v e r t y , work and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a g e n e r a l way r a t h e r t h a n a gender s e n s i t i v e  way.  The c o n c e p t o f an e d u c a t i o n which i s "gender s e n s i t i v e " ( M a r t i n , 1985) and "gender b a l a n c e d " ( T e t r e a u l t , 1986) has been proposed as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o one w h i c h i s s e x i s t , sex b a l a n c e d , o r gender n e u t r a l . A gender s e n s i t i v e , gender b a l a n c e d c u r r i c u l u m and i t s s u p p o r t i n g t e x t b o o k s would t a k e gender i n t o a c c o u n t and n o t i g n o r e i t . A gender s e n s i t i v e approach would o p e n l y a d d r e s s s o c i a l i z e d gender d i f f e r e n c e s and encourage a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n t o compensate t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . A gender b a l a n c e d approach i n c l u d e s f e m a l e s and males e q u a l l y u n l e s s t h e i s s u e r e l a t e s more p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y t o one t h a n t h e o t h e r , places, e q u a l v a l u e on t h o s e r o l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e , and examines i s s u e s from b o t h female and male p e r s p e c t i v e s . These approaches a r e s u g g e s t e d t o overcome "the p a t r i a r c h a l hegemony o f s c h o o l i n g " ( E y r e , 1987).  The c o n c e p t s o f gender  b a l a n c e and gender s e n s i t i v i t y i n f o r m t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n t h i s s t u d y w h i c h q u e s t i o n s t h e ways c u r r e n t t e x t s may o r may n o t c o n t r i b u t e toward gender e q u i t y .  7 Research Questions The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l g u i d e t h e a n a l y s i s o f home economics t e x t b o o k s i n t h i s s t u d y : 1. To whom i s t h e t e x t b o o k e x p l i c i t l y and  implicitly  addressed? 2. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s a r e assumed by t h e textbook? 3. I n what way does t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l w i t h  gender b i a s ?  Is i t biased or i s i t n e u t r a l , balanced, or  sensitive?  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Concepts which a r e c e n t r a l t o t h i s s t u d y a r e : sex,  sex  stereotyping, sex equity, gender, gender equity, patriarchy, d i v i s i o n of labour, and feminism. I n t h e s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , t h e s e terms w i l l be d e f i n e d as t h e y a r e used i n t h i s study. A l t h o u g h t h e terms sex and gender a r e f r e q u e n t l y used synonymously, t h e y can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Sex  i s a biological  c o n s t r u c t , u s u a l l y determined a t t h e t i m e o f c o n c e p t i o n by t h e chromosomal arrangement. The terms female and male a r e b i o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , and sex d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s which a r e b i o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . B e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males based on g e n e t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l s i n c e sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e g i n a t b i r t h continue throughout l i f e  ( L i n n and P e t e r s o n , 1985).  Sex stereotyping i s t h e p r o c e s s by which n a r r o w l y and r i g i d l y  and  society  a s c r i b e s t r a i t s , r o l e s and b e h a v i o r s t o  8  females and males based on sex and n o t on human p o t e n t i a l . I t r e f e r s t o " t h e c o n s c i o u s / u n c o n s c i o u s v a l u e s and assumptions t h a t ... c h a n n e l females and males i n t o interests, activities  and g o a l s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  t h e i r s e x " ( G r i f f i n and K e l l y i n W i l l i g e r , 1983, p . 4 ) . A l t h o u g h s e x s t e r o t y p i n g i s seen by some as s i m p l i f y i n g and p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s , t h e r i g i d and u n t h i n k i n g acceptance o f s t e r e o t y p e s makes them b a r r i e r s t o achievement  o f f u l l a d u l t p o t e n t i a l (Schau,  1985).  Sex equity r e f e r s t o f a i r t r e a t m e n t o f females and males, t r e a t i n g p e o p l e as e q u a l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r s e x . T h i s concept i s r e l e v a n t t o i s s u e s such as e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s t o o c c u p a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . " E q u i t y means a c c e s s t o s o c i e t a l and p e r s o n a l i n c l u d i n g ecomomic reward  accomplishments,  , f o r b o t h men and women. E q u i t y  means freedom f o r b o t h sexes t o choose s c h o o l and c a r e e r activities  w i t h o u t s o c i a l c e n s u r e . These c o n d i t i o n s  encourage  i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own and o t h e r ' s needs"  ( L i n n and  P e t e r s o n , 1985, p.53). E q u i t y r e f e r s t o f a i r n e s s , i m p a r t i a l i t y , freedom from b i a s and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Gender i s a s o c i a l l y , n o t b i o l o g i c a l l y , c o n s t r u c t e d phenomenon. The p r o c e s s o f gender d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b e g i n s a t b i r t h as p a r e n t s and o t h e r s t r e a t g i r l s and boys d i f f e r e n t l y , s o c i a l i z e g i r l s t o be f e m i n i n e and boys t o be m a s c u l i n e , and have d i f f e r e n t a s p i r a t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r them. S i n c e t h e p r o c e s s b e g i n s so e a r l y and i s l a r g e l y u n c o n s c i o u s , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h gender d i f f e r e n c e s from  9  b i o l o g i c a l (sex) d i f f e r e n c e s ( S c o t t , 1986). Throughout t h i s paper t h e term "gender" w i l l be assumed t o i n c l u d e b o t h t h e b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t o f s e x as w e l l as t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender. Gender equity i s an e v o l v i n g c o n c e p t . I t means p l a c i n g e q u a l v a l u e on t h o s e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as f e m i n i n e o r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r females and t h o s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as m a s c u l i n e o r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r males. N u r t u r i n g must be as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r males as i t i s f o r females;  a s s e r t i v e n e s s must be as  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r females as i t i s f o r males; work i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere must be v a l u e d a s h i g h l y as work i n t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e ; and b o t h women and men must be a b l e t o work comfortably  and e q u i t a b l y i n e i t h e r o r b o t h spheres.  Gender  e q u i t y w i l l o n l y be a c h i e v e d when female and male a r e v a l u e d e q u a l l y and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e " m a s c u l i n e "  and " f e m i n i n e "  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l l . Both women and men must be a l l o w e d a f u l l range o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s ( l i m i t e d o n l y by t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , not by g e n d e r ) .  Throughout t h i s paper t h e term "gender  equity" w i l l be assumed t o i n c l u d e b o t h s e x e q u i t y and gender equity. When a d d r e s s i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y i t i s important  t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g y o f patriarchy.  The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s i d e o l o g y as normal o r n a t u r a l i s p a r t of t h e hegemony (unquestioned  assumptions) o f t h i s s o c i e t y .  P a t r i a r c h y r e f e r s t o a male d e f i n e d , male c o n t r o l l e d  10  s o c i e t y . W i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y , males d e f i n e t h e v a l u e system and,  as a r e s u l t , t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s and m a s c u l i n e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e v a l u e d more t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s and  f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p a t r i a r c h a l  assumes, c o n s c i o u s l y  ideology  o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t h a t men a r e s u p e r i o r  t o women and have t h e r i g h t t o c o n t r o l t h e l i f e  circumstances  o f women. When c o n s i d e r i n g  gender e q u i t y t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e  d i v i s i o n of labour proposed by home e c o n o m i s t , Thompson (1986) i s u s e f u l . She sees work as t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n two s p h e r e s . One i s t h e p u b l i c , p r o d u c t i v e ,  v i s i b l e sphere where  wage l a b o u r i s s i t u a t e d and t h e o t h e r i s t h e p r i v a t e , reproductive,  i n v i s i b l e sphere o f u n p a i d home l a b o u r .  The two  s p h e r e s a r e " d i s t i n c t i v e , y e t complementary and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , ... i n t e r c o n n e c t e d The p a t r i a r c h a l i d e o l o g y  and i n t e r a c t i v e " (p.278).  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y o p e r a t e d w i t h i n  b o t h t h e p u b l i c sphere ( i n t h a t men c o n t r o l b o t h government and b u s i n e s s ) and t h e p r i v a t e sphere ( i n t h a t men a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e "head o f t h e h o u s e h o l d " , u n l e s s i t i s a "male a b s e n t " h o u s e h o l d ) . S i n c e s e x r o l e s a r e known t o d i f f e r from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e , t h e r e l e g a t i o n o f p r i v a t e sphere work t o women and p u b l i c sphere work t o men i s " n e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l l y based n o r g i v e n i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s "  (Greene, 1985,  p.232). F e m i n i s t e d u c a t o r s see a need t o i n c l u d e knowledge about and f o r b o t h t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s p h e r e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f b o t h female and male s t u d e n t s ( M a r t i n ,  1985).  Feminism i s "a movement f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f sex-based  11  i n j u s t i c e " ( R i c h a r d s i n E i c h l e r , 1987, p.47).  Basic t o  f e m i n i s t thought i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t women have n o t been c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l t o men and t h a t "the unequal and i n f e r i o r s t a t u s o f women i s u n j u s t and needs t o be changed" (Jagger i n B i k l e n and S h a k e s h a f t , 1985, p. 4 5 ) . The g o a l o f feminism i s t o i n s e r t "the concerns o f women from a l l walks o f l i f e  into  p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e , u l t i m a t e l y r e s h a p i n g t h e whole w o r l d so t h a t i t b e t t e r r e f l e c t s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b o t h men and women" ( G a s k e l l , 1988, p. 9 ) . E v e n t u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a t r i a r c h a l i d e o l o g y c a n be seen as a f e m i n i s t g o a l i n education. Limitations T h i s s t u d y examines o n l y home economics t e x t b o o k s w i t h a family or r e l a t i o n s h i p focus.  The s t u d y e x c l u d e s t e x t b o o k s  used i n home economics s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s such as foods and n u t r i t i o n , c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , h o u s i n g , and c h i l d development because t h e s e may n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e v e a l an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h t h e format o f t h e a n a l y s i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a p p l i e d t o o t h e r t e x t b o o k s i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s i n home economics, t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l home economics textbooks. The s t u d y has been l i m i t e d t o a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f o n l y t h r e e t e x t b o o k s . The purpose o f t h e s t u d y i s t o a n a l y z e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e changes which have o c c u r r e d i n t e x t b o o k s . I t does n o t attempt t o determine t h e e x t e n t t o which gender  12 b i a s e x i s t s i n home economics t e x t b o o k s a t t h i s t i m e . No attempt i s made t o examine u n i v e r s i t y t e x t b o o k s i n home economics. Only t e x t b o o k s which a r e recommended, approved o r a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n Canadian j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . The s t u d y i s a l s o l i m i t e d to  t e x t b o o k s i n which E n g l i s h i s t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The e a r l i e s t p u b l i c a t i o n date f o r any book chosen i s  1980  s i n c e i t i s assumed t h a t books o f t h i s decade w i l l  have  been i n f l u e n c e d by g u i d e l i n e s r e g a r d i n g s e x i s t language and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . Some o f t h e a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s judgements on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r which may d i f f e r  from  judgements made by o t h e r s . A v e r y i m p o r t a n t , complex and dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f women and o t h e r forms o f o p p r e s s i o n based on t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f gender, r a c e and c l a s s . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f r a c e and c l a s s b i a s was n o t t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y and no attempt i s made t o l i n k  these  forms o f o p p r e s s i o n . T h i s s t u d y assumes t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k i s i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n use. Research on t e x t b o o k use i n home economics i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e t h e assumption i s based on r e s e a r c h o f t e x t b o o k use i n s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n home economics ( A p p l e ,  1986).  The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s and accompanying t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s and r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . No attempt i s made t o examine t h e t e x t b o o k i n use. The assumption  i s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r w i l l use t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e  13 m a t e r i a l s as p r e s e n t e d and t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k and accompanying s t u d e n t r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s w i l l be used i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n c r i t i c a l way by b o t h t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r as a m e d i a t o r between t h e s t u d e n t and t h e t e x t b o o k and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g t e x t b o o k s i n a c r i t i c a l way i s r e c o g n i z e d . Significance T h i s s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g how  textbooks  have responded t o c r i t i c i s m s o f b e i n g gender b i a s e d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a framework f o r f u t u r e a n a l y s e s o f t e x t b o o k s , e s p e c i a l l y home economics textbooks. This study i n v e s t i g a t e s the appropriateness of the c o n c e p t s o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t e x t b o o k knowledge. These c o n c e p t s may  be  a p p r o p r i a t e t o use i n d e v e l o p i n g f u t u r e g u i d e l i n e s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t e x t b o o k s . I n o f f e r i n g c u r r e n t i n s i g h t regarding t e x t a n a l y s i s , the study w i l l have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t e a c h e r s , departments o f e d u c a t i o n , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and p u b l i s h e r s .  14 Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e examines s e l e c t e d works from t h e s o c i o l o g y o f e d u c a t i o n a d d r e s s i n g t h e development o f s c h o o l knowledge. F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h on t h e concept o f s c h o o l knowledge i s examined i n e x p l o r i n g t h e p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n of home economics t e x t b o o k s t o gender e q u i t y . Research on t h e importance o f t e x t b o o k s t o t e a c h i n g and t h e development o f textbooks i s reviewed.  T h i s s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h an  e x a m i n a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f gender b i a s i n t e x t b o o k s . School Knowledge and the New Sociology of Education "The  s t u d y o f e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge i s a s t u d y i n  i d e o l o g y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e knowledge" (Apple and K i n g i n Werner, 1987, p.92). The dominant views o f a s o c i e t y may be r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f what i s p r e s e n t i n o r absent from any s c h o o l curricula or texts. For an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f s c h o o l knowledge, t h e work o f W h i t t y (1985) i s i n s t r u c t i v e a l t h o u g h i t r e l a t e s t o c l a s s r a t h e r t h a n gender. D u r i n g t h e 1950's, s o c i o l o g i s t s o f education b e l i e v e d d e f i c i e n c i e s i n working c l a s s c u l t u r e c o u l d be compensated by e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s n o t i o n o f s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n was r a r e l y made e x p l i c i t , s o c i o l o g i s t s attempted t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e underachievement o f w o r k i n g c l a s s s t u d e n t s and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e upward m o b i l i t y .  15  E d u c a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d as "good" and t h e n a t u r e o f s c h o o l i n g was u n q u e s t i o n e d . E d u c a t o r s argued f o r i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y ( W h i t t y , 1985). I n t h e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's t h e "new" s o c i o l o g i s t s o f e d u c a t i o n r e l a t e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a r knowledge t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g o f s c h o o l s and t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . They argued t h a t c u r r i c u l u m was a s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g c u l t u r a l c h o i c e s which r e f l e c t e d t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f dominant groups i n s o c i e t y . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s i n t e r e s t e d knowledge was d i s p u t e d . D u r i n g t h e 1970's, "what we know" became t h e o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y , n o t a g i v e n . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s c h o o l knowledge i s c o n s t r u c t e d , s e l e c t e d , o r g a n i z e d , r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways, and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n f o r i t t o be g i v e n t h e a b s o l u t e s t a t u s o f " t h e knowledge" and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . S o c i o l o g i s t s argued t h a t knowledge, because i t i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , can be r e c o n s t u c t e d ( W h i t t y , 1985). W e i l e r (1988) argues t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s f o c u s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s c h o o l i n g t o s o c i a l c l a s s and n e g l e c t t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f gender r e l a t i o n s .  Social  r e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r i e s , however, a s s i s t i n t h e understanding  o f o p p r e s s i o n . W e i l e r (1988) w r i t e s : " s t u d e n t s  a r e shaped by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s  i n schools t o i n t e r n a l i z e or  a c c e p t a s u b j e c t i v i t y and a c l a s s p o s i t i o n t h a t l e a d s t o t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g power r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s " ( p . 6 ) . She c l a i m s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o acknowledge an i n t e n d e d r o l e o f s c h o o l s as " a p p a r a t u s e s o f  16  s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and s i t e s o f c u l t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n " ( p . 2 4 ) . The  r o l e o f s c h o o l s and t h e p r o c e s s e s of s c h o o l i n g  a r e p r o b l e m a t i c f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r i s t s . For  production  t h e o r i s t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e dominant form o f language and t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge a r e p r o b l e m a t i c . A c c o r d i n g t o p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r y , "both i n d i v i d u a l s and c l a s s e s a s s e r t t h e i r own  e x p e r i e n c e and c o n t e s t o r r e s i s t t h e  i d e o l o g i c a l and m a t e r i a l f o r c e s imposed upon them ... t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s produce meaning t h r o u g h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s "  (Weiler,  both own  1988,  p.11) . The c o n t r a d i c t o r y t e n s i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n  and  r e p r o d u c t i o n are important i n a c r i t i c a l theory of  education  ( W e i l e r , 1988). C r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s concern t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s through s c h o o l i n g . They argue s o c i e t y i s e x p l o i t i v e and  oppressive,  y e t c a p a b l e o f change. C r i t i c a l p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r i s t s have "a political 1988,  commitment t o human b e t t e r m e n t "  (Bates i n W e i l e r ,  p.12). They see p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l empowerment  t h r o u g h development o f c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f p r e s e n t s o c i a l arrangements. c o n t r a d i c t o r y t e n s i o n s of domination i n f o r m one another  and f o r a The  and r e s i s t a n c e m u t u a l l y  i n e f f o r t s t o develop  emanicipatory  p r o j e c t s which w i l l t r a n s f o r m t h e p r e s e n t s o c i a l arrangements o f c l a s s , r a c e and gender ( W e i l e r , 1988). Whitty  (1985) c o n s i d e r s s c h o o l s t o be s i t e s o f  i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e and s t r u g g l e .  Subject areas  offer  17  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e w o r l d but not t h e w o r l d U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s view o f t h e w o r l d may imutable  itself.  be t a k e n as  f a c t by s t u d e n t s . S o c i o l o g i s t s of e d u c a t i o n say  we  t e a c h , not knowledge, but p r e f e r r e d d i s c o u r s e . However, j u s t as "hegemonic i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e has a p a r t i c u l a r  and  c r u c i a l r o l e i n s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , so can o p p o s i t i o n a l i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e , i f properly organized, play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s o c i a l transformation" (Whitty,  1985,  p.38). C r i t i c a l pedagogy r e j e c t s t h e n o t i o n of t h e t e a c h e r a n e u t r a l t r a n s m i t t e r of knowledge, t h e l e a r n e r as  as  the  p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t of knowledge, and knowledge as immutable m a t e r i a l t o i m p a r t . I n s t e a d i t r e c o g n i z e s them as a c t i v e , c h a n g i n g and changeable agents ( L u s t e d i n W e i l e r , 1988). A c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s made by d e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e dominant d i s c o u r s e , ( e x p o s i n g t h e  existing  i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s of gender, r a c e , and c l a s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e r e b y s h a t t e r i n g t h e n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of s c h o o l knowledge) and i d e n t i f y i n g a l t e r n a t e d i s c o u r s e s ( W h i t t y , 1985). Weiler  (1988) argues t h a t c r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y  f e m i n i s t theory are e s s e n t i a l i n a f e m i n i s t theory  of  e d u c a t i o n . C r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y and f e m i n i s t t h e o r y concerned w i t h "the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  individual  s u b j e c t and an o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (and b o t h emphasize) s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and knowledge are  socially  c o n s t r u c t e d and are t h u s open t o c o n t e s t a t i o n and ( W e i l e r , 1988,  and  change"  p . 4 ) . The t e n s i o n s between p r o d u c t i o n  and  are  18  r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e demonstrated i n b o t h t h e o r i e s . C r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y , however, r a r e l y c o n s i d e r s how gender i s produced and reproduced  t h r o u g h s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s and  textbooks. Feminist theory often f a i l s t o recognize the ongoing  s t r u g g l e o f s c h o o l s i n knowledge and s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( W e i l e r , 1988). F o r an a n a l y s i s o f gender and s c h o o l i n g , b o t h c r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y and f e m i n i s t t h e o r y are  necessary. Feminist Research D u r i n g t h e 1960's and 1970's f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h i n  e d u c a t i o n documented and attempted ( B i k l e n and S h a k e s h a f t , textbooks  t o e l i m i n a t e sexism  1985). Assumptions which pervaded  (eg. mothers s t a y e d home t o cook and c l e a n w h i l e  f a t h e r s went t o work) were r e c o g n i z e d as s t e r e o t y p e s . D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e sexes were r e c o g n i z e d as e v i d e n c e o f i n e q u a l i t y , not natural or i n e v i t a b l e differences (Gaskell, 1988). S t u d e n t s were r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was b a s i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e . F o r example, o n l y 20% o f households i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f i t t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f husband w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home and w i f e a t home w i t h c h i l d r e n , y e t t h i s s t e r e o t y p e was commonly p o r t r a y e d i n t e x t s . I n s p i t e o f t h e predominance o f t h e two wage e a r n e r f a m i l y (Schau, 1985), t h i s r e a l i t y was not b e i n g conveyed. Textbooks were a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r making women i n v i s i b l e i n knowledge and knowledge p r o d u c t i o n  (Westkott,  1979). U n l e s s t h e scene was d o m e s t i c , women were absent  from  19 c u r r i c u l a (Howe, 1979). A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1970 R o y a l Commission on t h e S t a t u s o f Women  "a woman's c r e a t i v e and  i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i s e i t h e r underplayed  o r i g n o r e d ...  The s e x r o l e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e t e x t b o o k s p r o v i d e few c h a l l e n g i n g models f o r young g i r l s , and they f a i l t o c r e a t e a sense o f community between men and women as f e l l o w human b e i n g s " ( i n G a s k e l l , 1988, p.13). E a r l y f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l i n g exposed s e x s t e r e o t y p i n g and s e x b i a s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s . I t documented s e x r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s , absences o f women i n h i s t o r y books, t h e d e g r a d i n g and u n r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f women i n r e a d e r s and l i t e r a t u r e , s t r e a m i n g o f g i r l s i n t o some c u r r i c u l a r a r e a s b u t n o t o t h e r s , and s e x i s m i n c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e s ( W e i l e r , 1988). S o l u t i o n s t o sexism i n c l u d e d encouraging  young women t o e n t e r non-  t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s o f s t u d y a s t h e way o f a c c e s s i n g h i g h e r p a y i n g j o b s ( G a s k e l l , 1988). G u i d e l i n e s f o r a v o i d i n g s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were developed.  The g o a l o f t h i s e a r l y f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h and  a c t i o n was t o r e f o r m s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s o f e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as t e x t s and p r a c t i c e s ( W e i l e r , 1988). Other f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n has examined t h e r o l e o f s c h o o l s i n s o c i a l i z i n g young p e o p l e . F i r s t ,  schools  m a i n t a i n two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s , s k i l l s , d e s i r e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r females and males. Ayim (197980) w r i t e s : For g e n e r a t i o n s females have been s o c i a l i z e d t o be p a s s i v e , c o n f o r m i s t , and dependent, males t o be a c t i v e ,  20 n o n - c o n f o r m i s t , and independent; females have been p r e p a r e d b a s i c a l l y f o r t h e r o l e o f w i f e and mother and males f o r t h e r o l e o f wage-earner. The s c h o o l system s i m p l y r e i n f o r c e s t h i s dichotomy - i t does n o t i n s i s t upon ( o r even encourage) females l e a r n i n g t h e c o m p e t i t i v e s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s most v a l u e d by t h e dominant group ( p . 8 3 ) . M a r t i n (1985) c l a i m s t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n s , r o l e s , t a s k s , t r a i t s are detachable  from one a n o t h e r and from gender"  (p.177).  A second c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t s c h o o l s v a l u e t h e p u b l i c , p r o d u c t i v e sphere and male t r a i t s over t h e p r i v a t e , r e p r o d u c t i v e sphere and female t r a i t s . L i k e t h e media and s o c i e t y a t l a r g e , s c h o o l s m i s r e p r e s e n t  the worth  and i n t e g r i t y o f t h e v a l u e s , l i f e - s t y l e s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women. A l t h o u g h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y female r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f n u r t u r a n c e  has been  e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e maintenance o f s o c i e t y , i t i s g e n e r a l l y unrecognized  i n s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . Even t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f  women's work i n t h e p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y recognized  i n school subjects.  A c c o r d i n g t o M a r t i n (1985), e d u c a t i o n has been devoted s o l e l y t o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . Recent h i s t o r i a n s o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t have n e g l e c t e d  marriage,  home, f a m i l y , c h i l d r e a r i n g and d o m e s t i c management, i n o t h e r words, t h e t a s k s , t r a i t s , f u n c t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e . M a r t i n (1985) argues e d u c a t i o n f o r s o c i e t y ' s reproductive processes  i s e s s e n t i a l . A c c e p t i n g an e d u c a t i o n  f o r o n l y t h e p u b l i c sphere s u p p o r t s t h e h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s which p l a c e s p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s  above r e p r o d u c t i v e ones and  p l a c e s g r e a t e r v a l u e on t r a i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  21 males ( M a r t i n , 1985). G a s k e l l (1988) argues t h a t  knowledge  must be q u e s t i o n e d and reworked w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " t h e ways i n which gender has shaped t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Canadian s o c i e t y " (p.15) and t h a t t h e c o n c e r n s o f women must be i n t e g r a t e d a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m so t h a t a l l knowledge  will  be t r a n s f o r m e d . What i s needed i s a b a s i c r e t h i n k i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t gender bound ( M a r t i n , 1985), gender b i a s e d (Houston, 1985), and gender s p e c i f i c ( K l e i n , 1985) e d u c a t i o n . Two a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h have been proposed a r e gender f r e e e d u c a t i o n and gender s e n s i t i v e / gender b a l a n c e d e d u c a t i o n . Houston (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t "gender f r e e " means "freedom from gender b i a s " ( p . 359). The problem i s how b e s t t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l . When used i n i t s weak s e n s e , gender f r e e r e f e r s t o an e d u c a t i o n i n which gender i s i g n o r e d (Houston, 1985). I t i s an e d u c a t i o n which i s b l i n d t o t h e problems c r e a t e d by t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender. A system which opens a l l e x i s t i n g c o u r s e s t o a l l s t u d e n t s would q u a l i f y as gender f r e e . However, t h i s n o t i o n o f gender f r e e i s i n a d e q u a t e i f i t does n o t p r o v i d e  programs  o r c o u r s e s i n t e n d e d t o e l i m i n a t e sex-based i n j u s t i c e s . Morgan (1985) uses gender f r e e i n a s t r o n g e r sense. She a d v o c a t e s t h e a b o l i t i o n o f gender as a s o c i a l c a t e g o r y . Gender would be d i s r e g a r d e d i n a v e r y a c t i v e way w i t h t h e g o a l o f o b l i t e r a t i n g gender d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s p h e r e . The e l i m i n a t i o n o r complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , such as w r e s t l i n g and b a l a n c e beam g y m n a s t i c s , i n  22 which t h e r e seem t o be n a t u r a l b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e x e s , i s a way o f e l i m i n a t i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e s (Houston,  1985).  Houston (1985) and M a r t i n (1985) argue t h e s e gender f r e e approaches  t o e d u c a t i o n make i n v i s i b l e t h e v e r y problems  which need t o be a d d r e s s e d . Gender f r e e approaches  mask and  r e i n f o r c e s u b t l e forms o f gender b i a s . They i g n o r e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s c e n t r a l t o t h e i s s u e by assuming t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e q u a l i t y . (Houston, 1985). Freedom from gender b i a s r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o gender,  i n o t h e r words, an e d u c a t i o n  which i s gender s e n s i t i v e (Houston, 1985; M a r t i n , 1985). The e x i s t e n c e o f g e n d e r i z e d t r a i t s a t t h i s c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c moment makes a s e n s i t i v i t y t o gender n e c e s s a r y  (Martin,  1985). M a r t i n (1985) a l s o argues t h a t s i m p l y a d d i n g women t o t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e . Women's s t u d i e s c o u r s e s t h r i v e i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s b u t i t i s "too  little,  t o o l a t e , and t o o e l i t i s t t o postpone u n t i l c o l l e g e y e a r s t h e r e v e l a t i o n s o f t h e new r e s e a r c h " ( M a r t i n , 1985,  p.197).  N u r t u r a n c e , c a r i n g , c o n c e r n , and c o n n e c t i o n must be g o a l s o f a l l e d u c a t i o n t o a v o i d t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s p l i t between t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i e t y . These t r a i t s must be r e c o g n i z e d as h a v i n g i m p o r t a n t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o u r m o r a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l l i v e s ( M a r t i n , 1985). The encouragement o f t h e s e t r a i t s must be g o a l s i n a l l s u b j e c t s and n o t l i m i t e d t o c o u r s e s such as home economics t h a t a r i s e out o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s .  23 Because women and men l i v e  interdependently,  e n l i g h t e n m e n t about t h e e d u c a t i o n o f women s h o u l d b r i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t about t h e e d u c a t i o n o f men. R i c h  (1977) wants  boys t o d i s c o v e r new ways o f becoming men j u s t as g i r l s a r e f i n d i n g new ways o f becoming women. Men need "a k i n d o f compensatory e d u c a t i o n i n t h e t h i n g s about w h i c h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n as males has l e f t them i l l i t e r a t e "  ( R i c h , 1977,  p.216). The r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l " l i b e r a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a l l young p e o p l e , male and f e m a l e "  (Storey,  1979-80, p.18). Gender i n v o l v e s a dynamic p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e which i s a f f e c t e d by o t h e r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s means u n d e r s t a n d i n g gender d i f f e r e n t l y r a t h e r t h a n e l i m i n a t i n g i t . A gender sensitive curriculum  r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n t o gender when, t o do  so, a s s i s t s i n prevention  o f b i a s and achievement o f e q u a l i t y  (Houston, 1985). Gender s e n s i t i v i t y r e c o g n i z e s  t h e dynamic  n a t u r e o f gender r e l a t i o n s . I t r e q u i r e s c o n s t a n t v i g i l a n c e and  adjustment i n e d u c a t i o n a l  p r a c t i c e and p o l i c y . I t  " r e q u i r e s a c r i t i c a l and c o n s t a n t r e v i e w o f t h e meaning and evaluation attached Weiler  t o gender" (Houston, 1985,  p. 3 6 9 ) .  (1988) c r i t i c i z e s much f e m i n i s t work as t o o  narrow i n f o c u s , and o v e r l y concerned w i t h t e x t s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f s c h o o l i n g . She argues t h a t , i f t h e r o l e o f power i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t o be a d d r e s s e d , a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o broad s o c i a l and economic structures i n addition t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s of schooling  24 ( W e i l e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . She proposes a c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y d e r i v e d from c r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y and s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t t h e o r y ( W e i l e r , 1988). I t would q u e s t i o n t h e o r i g i n s of gender b i a s e d p r a c t i c e and t h e ways i n which o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s o f power and c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e s c h o o l i n g . C r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h e o r y makes two b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n n e c t i o n between s c h o o l i n g , t h e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and t h e economic system. A f o c u s , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f women's s c h o o l i n g and women's work. The second assumption i s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m and p a t r i a r c h y a r e r e l a t e d and m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g . Men and women e x i s t i n i n t e r c o n n e c t e d and o v e r l a p p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f gender, r a c e and c l a s s ( W e i l e r , 1988). In s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t t h e o r y , as i n c r i t i c a l  education  t h e o r y , t h e two p e r s p e c t i v e s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e p a r a t i o n i s n o t a d i s t i n c t and r i g i d one ( W e i l e r , 1988). A l i m i t e d amount o f work has been done which addresses  e x p l i c i t l y the r o l e of schools i n  t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f gender o p p r e s s i o n  ( W e i l e r , 1988).  F e m i n i s t work i n s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n views o p p r e s s i o n o f women i n t h e p a i d work f o r c e and d o m e s t i c work as reproduced t h r o u g h s c h o o l s . E d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s a r e examined f o r o v e r t and hidden assumptions r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f women i n t h e economy. "The major f o c u s o f t h i s approach i s on t h e c o n n e c t i o n between s e x i s t p r a c t i c e s i n t h e s c h o o l s and women's o p p r e s s i o n i n s o c i e t y as a whole" ( p . 3 1 ) .  Feminist  r e p r o d u c t i o n t h e o r i s t s a r e concerned w i t h p a t r i a r c h a l  25 o p p r e s s i o n and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n s o c i e t y . They see t h e i d e o l o g y  of the e x i s t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l of schools  preparing  g i r l s "to  a c c e p t t h e i r r o l e as low p a i d o r u n p a i d w o r k e r s i n c a p i t a l i s m " ( p . 3 2 ) . S c h o o l s have r e i n f o r c e d t h e p r e s e n t arrangement o f s o c i e t y i n t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s have tended t o make " c h o i c e s " which r e p r o d u c e t h e s o c i a l s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f labour  i n c a p i t a l i s m (Deem i n W e i l e r ,  Feminist ideology  production  1988).  t h e o r i s t s do n o t view gender  as u n c o n t e s t e d . Anyon (1984) argues s e x r o l e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f women i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e i t h e r complete a c c e p t a n c e n o r complete r e j e c t i o n o f t h e attempted s o c i a l i z a t i o n b u t i n s t e a d i n v o l v e s "a s i m u l t a n e o u s p r o c e s s o f accomodation and r e s i s t a n c e " ( p . 2 5 ) . She s u g g e s t s t h a t "Gender development i n v o l v e s n o t so much p a s s i v e  imprinting  as a c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " (Anyon i n Weiler,  1988,  p.49). The d a i l y accommodation and r e s i s t a n c e  of women t r a p s them i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h e y would overcome, because t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l accomodation and r e s i s t a n c e do n o t seek t o remove t h e s t r u c t u r a l causes o f t h e contradictions. C o l l e c t i v e action i s required. Individual, fragmented e f f o r t i s p o l i t i c a l l y weak. Anyon (1984) w r i t e s : We must n u r t u r e i n f e m a l e s a sense o f s o l i d a r i t y and p o t e n t i a t i o n . We must argue t h e females have t h e power t o work f o r new, more e q u i t a b l e k i n d s o f s o c i a l arrangements. Moreover, we must n u r t u r e i n b o t h females and males t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i t i s l e g i t i m a t e f o r women t o engage i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . F o r as women a r e c u r r e n t l y d e f i n e d by i d e o l o g i e s o f f e m i n i n i t y , i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d f e m i n i n e f o r women t o a c t t o g e t h e r i n p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t . ( p . 45-46) I n h e r e n t i n t h e n o t i o n o f r e s i s t a n c e i s t h e hope o f  26 transcendence  o f o p p r e s s i o n . F o r W e i l e r (1988) t h e q u e s t i o n  i s how t o c r e a t e meaning and r e s i s t t h e imposed i d e o l o g y ; how to  i n f o r m s c h o o l p r a c t i c e and t r a n s f o r m s o c i a l  relationships.  W e i l e r s u g g e s t s t h a t f e m i n i s t t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be " c o u n t e r hegemonic". I t s h o u l d be an o r g a n i z e d , c o n s c i o u s ,  collective  a c t i o n which opposes t h e hegemony o f t h e e x i s t i n g  order  ( W e i l e r , 1988). T h i s t y p e o f c r i t i c a l t e a c h i n g d e a l s w i t h t h e l a t e n t and u n a r t i c u l a t e d r e s i s t a n c e o f s t u d e n t s . Teachers and s t u d e n t s can work t o g e t h e r i n an attempt t o d e v e l o p a c r i t i c a l understanding  o f t h e f o r c e s which a c t upon t h e i r  l i v e s . S c h o o l s c a n be p l a c e s where i d e o l o g y c a n be made c o n s c i o u s and s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s and p r e j u d i c e s c a n be c h a l l e n g e d . The women's movement c a n d e v e l o p an a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n o f gender and open d i s c u s s i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e o p p r e s s i o n f a c e d by f e m a l e s . feminism  Socialist  i s committed t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , n o t j u s t  consciousness  r a i s i n g ; r e l a t i o n s h i p s and power s t r u c t u r e s  must be t r a n s f o r m e d  ( W e i l e r , 1988).  F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h about gender r a i s e s new c h a l l e n g e s f o r t e x t b o o k development. R e s e a r c h o f t h e 1960's and 1970's l e d to  s u g g e s t i o n s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h s e x b i a s by i n c l u d i n g women  where t h e y had been o m i t t e d , e l i m i n a t i n g s e x s t e r e o t y p e s , and u s i n g n o n - s e x i s t language. More r e c e n t f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h suggests will,  a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s so t h a t  i n a d d i t i o n t o being non-sexist,  textbooks  s t r i v e f o r gender  s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e . C r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s such as W e i l e r (1988) s u g g e s t t h a t c h a n g i n g t e x t s a l o n e i s  27 inadequate. Instead, achieving  t h e s o c i a l changes n e c e s s a r y f o r  e q u i t y r e q u i r e counter-hegemonic p r a c t i c e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , W e i l e r ' s (1988) argument s u g g e s t s t h a t  texts  s h o u l d encourage a more c r i t i c a l approach t o i s s u e s by examining h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and s t r u c t u r e s . Gender Equity and Home Economics The  i d e o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f women w i t h t h e p r i v a t e  sphere i s b l u r r e d by women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p a i d  labour  f o r c e and p u b l i c l i f e . To f o c u s women's e d u c a t i o n on t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e , as t h e e a r l y home economics c o u r s e s d i d , i s no l o n g e r a p p r o p r i a t e .  To f o c u s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f b o t h women  and men on p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r t h e p u b l i c sphere i s a l s o  inappropriate  ( M a r t i n , 1988). Gender e q u i t y i n t h e p r i v a t e  sphere i s e s s e n t i a l i f gender e q u i t y i s t o be a c h i e v e d i n t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . The b l u r r i n g o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r a l s o means t h a t t h e s t u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s i s incomplete without also considering and  t h e i r interaction with,  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s o f s o c i e t y . Home  economics i s concerned w i t h t h e w e l l b e i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s and must, t h e r e f o r e , t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s which a f f e c t t h e i r w e l l b e i n g . The  need f o r an e d u c a t i o n which s t r i v e s f o r gender  equity, e s p e c i a l l y i n the reproductive by G a s k e l l ' s  sphere, i s i n d i c a t e d  r e s e a r c h (1984) on Vancouver s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g  employment i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l . The s t u d e n t s ' comments r e v e a l a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e g i r l s '  and boys'  perceptions of the future, e s p e c i a l l y with respect t o  28  m a r r i a g e . G a s k e l l (1984) w r i t e s (These g i r l s ) o v e r w h e l m i n g l y assume t h a t t h e y w i l l have p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e domestic l a b o r i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , w h i l e t h e boys do n o t c o n s i d e r domestic l a b o r something t h e y have t o t a k e i n t o account a t a l l . . . . B u t ( g i r l s ) want husbands and t h e y want c h i l d r e n . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e , t h e y f e e l t h e y w i l l have t o do t h e d o m e s t i c work f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons based on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f how t h e w o r l d works, and what o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . Men, t h e y s a y , w i l l n o t o r cannot do i t . ( G a s k e l l > 1984, p.100) The s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e e q u i t a b l e v i e w o f m a r r i a g e s t a t e d be G e o - K a r i s  (1975):  M a r r i a g e s h o u l d be a p a r t n e r s h i p o f e q u a l s where t h e dependence i s m u t u a l , t h e o b l i g a t i o n s r e c i p r o c a l , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s m a i n t a i n e d and respected....The r o l e s and d u t i e s o f m a r r i a g e s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o n a t u r a l t a l e n t s and i n c l i n a t i o n s , n o t on t h e b a s i s o f sex. (p.287) An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how domestic l a b o u r a f f e c t s gender d i f f e r e n c e s i s i m p o r t a n t t o gender e q u i t y , b u t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e x p l o r e s how h i g h s c h o o l s reproduce t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  d o m e s t i c work ( G a s k e l l , 1984). Ayim (1986) p o i n t s o u t t h a t  we cannot have e q u i t y w i t h o u t changes i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t , i n c l u d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e home and f a m i l y . T h i s r e s e a r c h h i g h l i g h t s t h e r o l e home economics c a n p l a y i n f a c i l i t a t i n g some o f t h e changes which a r e e s s e n t i a l i f we a r e t o a c h i e v e a gender e q u i t a b l e s o c i e t y . Textbooks and Teaching Textbooks  a r e chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y because t h e y a r e a  c o n c r e t e and r e a d i l y examinable p a r t o f t h e planned s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . They have importance as t h e " a u t h o r i z e d v e r s i o n of  s o c i e t y ' s v a l i d knowledge" ( O l s o n i n Luke, de C a s t e l l &  29 Luke, 1983,  p.113). However, as s o c i o l o g i s t s of  education  argue, t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d i n them i s n e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e nor n e u t r a l . "The  c h o i c e of p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t . . . i s r e l a t e d  b o t h t o e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and t o s t r u g g l e s t o a l t e r t h e s e r e l a t i o n s " ( A p p l e , 1986, A s t u d y of t e x t b o o k The  p.84).  ideology requires deconstruction.  r e f l e c t i o n i s t model s u g g e s t s s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s a r e  s t r u c t u r e d by some u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l  reality  r e i n f o r c i n g t h e p o w e r l e s s n e s s of non-dominant groups 1985). For example, Anyon ( i n W h i t t y , 1985) elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks  (Whitty,  analyzed  f o r t h e i r patterns of  i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n . She showed how  ideology i s revealed,  not o n l y t h r o u g h what i s s a i d , but a l s o t h r o u g h s i l e n c e s , gaps, and absences i n c o n t e n t . The p a t t e r n s o f i n c l u s i o n  and  e x c l u s i o n , along with c e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l representations, c r e a t e an image o f t h e n a t u r e and h i s t o r y of b o t h dominant and o p p r e s s e d groups. She  found t h e p o r t r a y a l t o be  c o n s i s t e n t and m i s l e a d i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o s o c i a l  class,  n a t u r a l i z i n g t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s by p r o v i d i n g support  f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e dominant group. Most s t u d i e s  of t e x t b o o k s  show t h e y s e r v e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s  and v a l u e s p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e s t a t u s quo  ( W h i t t y , 1985). W h i t t y  (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t c l a s s r e l a t i o n s (and gender r e l a t i o n s ) a r e masked by t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n p e r s o n s who  of c l a s s e s i n t o  individual  are t h e n r e c o n s t i t i t u t e d i n t o i m a g i n a r y  and  non-  a n t a g o n i s t groups such as t h e community and t h e n a t i o n so t h a t c o n f l i c t and power r e l a t i o n s a r e n e u t r a l i z e d .  30 The q u e s t i o n o f what c o n t e n t s h o u l d be t a u g h t l e a r n e d i s a p o l i t i c a l one.  S e l e c t i o n o f c o n t e n t i s made on  "the b a s i s o f what someone c o n s i d e r s i m p o r t a n t " 1987,  and  (Werner,  p.91). The power t o make d e c i s i o n s about t e x t b o o k  knowledge r e s t s i n p a r t w i t h p u b l i s h e r s who e v a l u a t i o n , a d o p t i o n , and f u n d i n g procedures  a r e i n f l u e n c e d by of M i n i s t r i e s of  E d u c a t i o n (Werner, 1987). Content o f t e x t b o o k s  represents  compromises amongst competing i n t e r e s t s (Werner, 1987). In a d d i t i o n , s e l e c t i o n of content i s r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c e s o f t h e p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . I n 1980,  t o t a l s a l e s i n t h e book  p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s amounted t o $6 b i l l i o n , $1.5 secondary  b i l l i o n o f which came from  elementary,  and c o l l e g e l e v e l t e x t s . The books p u b l i s h e r s  choose t o p r i n t must s a t i s f y a market a t a p r i c e t h a t w i l l withstand competition. Increased competition  between a s m a l l  number o f l a r g e f i r m s has d e c r e a s e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e risks. P u b l i s h i n g companies c o n c e n t r a t e on a s m a l l number o f " c a r e f u l l y chosen p r o d u c t s " ( A p p l e , 1986,  p.92). A  non-  c o n t r o v e r s i a l presentation of standard content allows t h e i r use i n numerous d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  over  long p e r i o d s of time. C o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s are u s u a l l y o m i t t e d from t e x t s i f t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o a f f e c t t h e m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f t h e t e x t . Apple e d u c a t i o n a l v i s i o n may  (1986) w r i t e s " C u l t u r a l o r  be o v e r r i d d e n by t h e i r concern  t h e market s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h f i n a n c e s and h i g h p r o f i t margins a r e more i m p o r t a n t "  (p.95).  with  31 American t e x t b o o k s may undergo changes i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s and minor r e v i s i o n s i n c o n t e n t t o make them a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e Canadian market. I t i s good b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e f o r  publishers  t o aim t h e i r t e x t b o o k s toward t h e l a r g e s t s t a t e s and provinces  w i t h t e x t b o o k a d o p t i o n p o l i c i e s such as O n t a r i o ,  (Werner, 1987) and C a l i f o r n i a and Texas ( A p p l e , The  1986).  p r e s s u r e o f t h e women's movement has l e d t o t h e  development o f t e x t b o o k g u i d e l i n e s f o r b o t h p u b l i s h e r s Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s  and  by t h e m s e l v e s may be  i n s u f f i c i e n t t o b r i n g about change. Anyon (1979) c o n t e n d s , i n s p i t e o f p e r i o d i c changes i n t h e c o n t e n t o f c u r r i c u l u m , t h e underlying Any  perspective  remains t h a t o f t h e dominant group.  change a d d r e s s i n g gender e q u i t y r e q u i r e s a commitment by  p u b l i s h e r s , and t h e e x p e r t i s e t o r e c o g n i z e  s u b t l e forms o f  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( S c o t t and Schau, 1985). The  publishing industry, l i k e the larger society, i s  p a t r i a r c h a l . There a r e more men t h a n women i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y (Apple,  1986). Thus, d e c i s i o n s about what i s v a l i d  knowledge a r e made by men, who a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o make conservative  d e c i s i o n s based on t h e m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f t e x t s  r a t h e r t h a n on t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l  injustice.  Because c o n t e n t i s s e l e c t e d w i t h m a r k e t a b i l i t y i n mind, t e x t s a r e n o t n e u t r a l i n i n t e r e s t . The w r i t i n g s t y l e , however, t e n d s t o n e u t r a l i z e knowledge and i n d o i n g so e s t a b l i s h e s b o t h i t s m a r k e t a b i l i t y and i t s a u t h o r i t y as a t e x t (Luke e t a l . , 1983). I n p r a c t i c e , t e x t b o o k s assume a d d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y because t h e y a r e " a u t h o r i z e d " by  32 Departments o f E d u c a t i o n (Luke e t a l . ,  1983).  Textbooks t e n d t o shape modes o f i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as t h e knowledge a c q u i r e d . I f a t e x t b o o k assumes t h e l e a r n e r t o be a p a s s i v e r e c e i v e r o f knowledge, i t may be used i n an u n q u e s t i o n i n g way by t e a c h e r and l e a r n e r .  Even though t e x t s  may be mediated by t e a c h e r s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t  (which  i s l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e t e s t s and p r o v i n c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s )  makes  c r i t i c i s m o f t e x t s u n l i k e l y (Luke e t a l , 1983). Werner (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n s i s t e n t use o f t e x t b o o k s g i v e s them a major r o l e as agents o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . (1986)  Apple  contends:  The c u r r i c u l u m i n most American s c h o o l s i s n o t d e f i n e d by c o u r s e s o f s t u d y o r suggested programs b u t by t h e standardized, grade-level-specific text. It is e s t i m a t e d ... t h a t 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e elementary and secondary s t u d e n t s a r e i n c l a s s r o o m s and 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r t i m e on homework i s spent w i t h t e x t m a t e r i a l s , (p.85) Thus, t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n use i s determined  t o a large extent  by t h e q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e . A t p r e s e n t , no r e s e a r c h i s a v a i l a b l e on whether o r how t e x t b o o k s a r e used i n home economics. Because home economics t e x t b o o k s a r e p u b l i s h e d , approved by Departments o f E d u c a t i o n , and purchased  by s c h o o l b o a r d s , i t i s assumed t h e y  a r e used i n home economics, as t h e y a r e i n o t h e r s c h o o l subjects. The e d u c a t i o n a l system c a n i n f l u e n c e what t e a c h e r s t e a c h t h r o u g h t h e t e x t b o o k s i t a u t h o r i z e s o r approves.  Decisions  about how ( o r i f ) e q u i t y i s s u e s a r e d e a l t w i t h s h o u l d be made by Departments o f E d u c a t i o n , n o t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s . I n a  33 s t u d y o f e f f o r t s t o e l i m i n a t e s e x i s m i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n , Hegarty  (1977) found, a l t h o u g h e d u c a t o r s a r e aware o f t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o uphold n o n - s e x i s t s t a n d a r d s f o r  students,  some o f them doubt whether t h e y can o r s h o u l d attempt t o a f f e c t s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s . Hegarty  (1977) r e g a r d e d most a c t i o n s  toward n o n - s e x i s t s t a n d a r d s as " t o k e n s " . A t o k e n approach a c t u a l l y be d e t r i m e n t a l . I f i t i s t o be  successful,  i n t e r v e n t i o n t o change sex s t e r e o t y p i n g must be (Hegarty, 1977)  can  powerful  and t h e power and a u t h o r i t y o f t h e t e x t g i v e  i t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r b e i n g more t h a n a " t o k e n " e f f o r t i n e l i m i n a t i n g s e x i s m . S c h o o l boards and Departments o f E d u c a t i o n can p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f gender e q u i t y by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s . Related Research The  Importance of Sex  Equitable Instructional  A "sex-fair reality"  (Schau, 1985)  Materials  s h o u l d be p o r t r a y e d  i n a l l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o s t u d e n t s . The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t most women w i l l be homemakers and mothers i s not a  reality,  nor i s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t men's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l  fall  o n l y i n t h e p u b l i c domain. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o r t r a y women and men  realistically.  Flexibility  i n role patterns i s  e s s e n t i a l . For example, b e l i e f i n t h e female s t e r e o t y p e o f a woman's p l a c e b e i n g i n t h e home causes t e n s i o n when combined with the r e a l i t y  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p a i d labour f o r c e  (Schau, 1985). A n a l y s i s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i s i m p o r t a n t because t h e y p r e s e n t sex r o l e models and p r o v i d e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n about sex r o l e s ( S c o t t & Schau,  1985).  34  R e s e a r c h has  shown when s t u d e n t s are exposed t o  sex  e q u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s t h e y become l e s s sex t y p e d i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . However, t h e s e a t t i t u d e s are not g e n e r a l i z e d  to  a r e a s not s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l s . O v e r a l l , a t t i t u d e s o f females and males have been a f f e c t e d approximately equally toward e q u i t y  ( S c o t t & Schau, 1985). A t t i t u d e change  (more f l e x i b l e sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s )  with increased  increases  exposure t o sex e q u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s .  Exposure  t o token, n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , r o l e s i n m a t e r i a l s i s inadequate i n p r o d u c i n g a t t i t u d e change ( S c o t t & Schau, 1985). Bias i n Instructional Materials Sadker and  Sadker ( i n Dobry, 1986)  l i s t the ways b i a s i s  exhibited i n instructional materials: 1. o m i s s i o n - p r o v i d i n g  low v i s i b i l i t y of any group i n  photos o r p r i n t conveys a message of l e s s e r v a l u e o r importance. 2. s t e r e o t y p i n g  - a s s i g n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l and  (dominant/ s u b o r d i n a t e ) ,  rigid roles  behaviors ( f e a r f u l / brave),  a t t r i b u t e s ( s t r o n g / weak) encourages s t u d e n t s t o t h e m s e l v e s o n l y i n s t e r e o t y p i c ways and own  unique p o t e n t i a l (Dobry, 1986,  see  f a i l t o develop t h e i r  p.43).  3. i m b a l a n c e / s e l e c t i v i t y - g i v i n g o n l y one  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  an i s s u e , s i t u a t i o n o r group d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y and complex and d i f f e r i n g  or  ignores  viewpoints.  4. u n r e a l i t y - p o r t r a y i n g contemporary l i f e  experience  u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y avoids or glosses over c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s .  35 5. f r a g m e n t a t i o n / i s o l a t i o n - s e p a r a t i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o sex from t h e main body o f t h e t e x t , such as by  one  different  c o l o u r e d t y p e o r boxed o f f l i n e s , i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s e  issues  a r e l e s s i m p o r t a n t o r not p a r t of t h e mainstream. 6. l i n g u i s t i c b i a s - u s i n g any language which i n t r o d u c e s bias. A r t i c l e s about sexism  i n textbooks  a l l mention s e x i s t  language perhaps because i t i s easy t o r e c o g n i z e  and  r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o r r e c t . S e x i s t language c o u l d  be  c o n s i d e r e d one of t h e " c l e a r e v i l s " t h a t M a r t i n (1985) s u g g e s t s we r e j e c t . Language i s an i m p o r t a n t  i s s u e because i t  r e f l e c t s our s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s t h e way  we  think  and a c t . Changing language p a t t e r n s w i l l a l l o w us t o i n t r o d u c e e q u a l i t y and f a i r n e s s (Sah & Rancy, 1984). Language needs t o be c o n s i d e r e d a f f e c t s most p a r t s o f a t e x t b o o k .  i n depth because i t  The  l i t e r a t u r e on  textbook  language d e a l s w i t h u s i n g sex s p e c i f i c terms t o d e s c r i b e g e n e r i c s i t u a t i o n s . The Vancouver S c h o o l Board (VSB,  1987)  r e f e r s t o t h e s e as " f a l s e g e n e r i c " terms. Weis (1979) r e f e r s t o them as "subsuming t e r m i n o l o g y " ,  d e f i n e d as " m a s c u l i n e  terms w h i c h a r e commonly b e l i e v e d t o i n c l u d e o r r e f e r t o females as w e l l as males but w h i c h , i n f a c t , o p e r a t e exclude  females"  ( B u r r e t a l i n Weis 1979,  to  p.150).  E i c h l e r (1987) w r i t e s : N o n - s e x i s t language..must not be c o n f u s e d w i t h removing sex from l a n g u a g e . . . S e x i s t language commits e i t h e r one o r b o t h of ( t h e s e ) e r r o r s : i t may use sex s p e c i f i c terms t o d e s c r i b e g e n e r i c s i t u a t i o n s and/or may use g e n e r i c terms t o d e s c r i b e s e x - s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . E i t h e r usage must be seen as u n a c c e p t a b l e . . . . b e c a u s e i t o b s c u r e s and  36 c o n f u s e s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s o c i a l phenomena r a t h e r t h a n e l u c i d a t e and a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e them. (p.28) For  t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , any language which  i n d i c a t e s t h e s e x o f t h e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d w i l l be termed "sex s p e c i f i c " . F o r example, "she", "he", "women", "men", " w i f e abuse", and " f a t h e r i n g " a r e s e x s p e c i f i c terms. Language w h i c h s u g g e s t s i n c l u s i o n o f b o t h women and men w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " i n c l u s i v e " , a l t h o u g h e l s e w h e r e i t may be r e f e r r e d t o as " g e n e r i c " o r "gender n e u t r a l " . F o r example, "spouse abuse", " p a r e n t i n g " , and "he and she" a r e i n c l u s i v e terms. U s i n g i n c l u s i v e terms f o r s e x s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s and sex s p e c i f i c terms f o r g e n e r i c s i t u a t i o n s ( E i c h l e r , 1987) w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o nouns,  pronouns,  s i t u a t i o n s , and c o n c e p t s . Nouns The E n g l i s h language has t r a d i t i o n a l l y used such terms as "man" and "mankind"  t o r e f e r t o t h e human p o p u l a t i o n . An  i n c l u s i v e word such as "humankind" would be c o n s i d e r e d nons e x i s t . E i c h l e r and L a p o i n t e (1985) draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a b s u r d i t y o f s t a t e m e n t s such as "Man i s a mammal who does n o t always s u c k l e h i s young." Because "man" c a n a l s o be used t o r e f e r t o an e x c l u s i v e l y male p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s a v e r y ambiguous term ( E i c h l e r & L a p o i n t e , 1985). I t s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by an a p p r o p r i a t e s e x s p e c i f i c o r i n c l u s i v e t e r m , depending on t h e c o n t e x t . When "man" i s used r a t h e r t h a n "human b e i n g " , l i s t e n e r s o r r e a d e r s v i s u a l i z e men more o f t e n t h a n t h e y v i s u a l i z e women (Sah & Rancy, 1984). VSB (1987) s u g g e s t s u s i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r words w h i c h  37  i n c l u d e "man", o r male t e r m s . F o r example, "manhole  cover"  s h o u l d be " a c c e s s c o v e r " , " f o r e f a t h e r s " c o u l d be " f o u n d e r s " and "cameraman" c o u l d be "camera o p e r a t o r " . Home economics t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d use "homemaker" r a t h e r t h a n " h o u s e w i f e " o r "househusband". Sah and Rancy (1984) s u g g e s t a v o i d i n g t h e f e m i n i z a t i o n o f some gender terms because i t may  be  u n n e c e s s a r y (eg. a u t h o r e s s , p o e t e s s ) o r b e l i t t l i n g (eg. jockette, astronette). Pronouns VSB (1987), B l a n k e n s h i p (1984), Weis (1979), W i l l i g e r (1983), and Sah and Rancy (1984) draw a t t e n t i o n t o pronoun usage. The f o l l o w i n g s o l u t i o n s t o problems w i t h pronouns were s u g g e s t e d : (a) a v o i d i n g them when n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e meaning o f t h e s e n t e n c e (b) r e w o r d i n g t h e s e n t e n c e (c) r e p l a c i n g t h e m a s c u l i n e pronoun w i t h "one" o r "he/she, her/him" (d) c h a n g i n g t h e s e n t e n c e t o p l u r a l , o r (e) u s i n g t h e p l u r a l pronouns t o r e p l a c e t h e m a s c u l i n e s i n g u l a r . Weis (1979) s t u d i e d pronouns as an i n d i c a t o r o f s e x i s m i n t h e language o f home economics t e x t b o o k s from 1964 t o 1974. S i x p e r s o n a l pronouns ( e x c l u d i n g " i t " ) were c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r r e f e r e e s i n t h e t e x t . A group o f p e o p l e o f one sex o r b o t h sexes was c l a s s i f i e d as n e u t r a l ( N ) . Pronouns r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c p e r s o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as "gender referenced": masculine(M), feminine(F),or neutral(N). Pronouns w h i c h r e f e r r e d t o p e r s o n s w i t h o u t i d e n t i f i e d gender were c l a s s i f i e d as "non-gender r e f e r e n c e d " and f u r t h e r s u b c l a s s i f i e d as (M) (F) o r (N) depending on t h e pronoun.  38  N e u t r a l pronouns ( y o u , t h e y , t h e i r ) were used more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e i t h e r m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e pronouns. M a s c u l i n e pronouns were used more t h a n f e m i n i n e pronouns. O b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e gender r e f e r e n c e d pronouns i n d i c a t e d more r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c f e m a l e s t h a n males. " I t seemed t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k s were g e n e r a l l y s a y i n g more about f e m a l e s b u t were u s i n g more m a s c u l i n e t h a n f e m i n i n e pronouns t o s a y i t "  (Weis, 1979,  p.153-4). W i l l i g e r (1983) s t u d i e d pronouns i n home economics t e x t b o o k s used between 1976 and 1983. She found t h a t n e u t r a l pronouns outnumbered female and male pronouns and t h a t male pronouns s l i g h t l y outnumbered  (1.04) f e m a l e pronouns. She  a l s o found more s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o f e m a l e s t h a n t o males and more male pronouns t o r e f e r t o u n s p e c i f i e d  individuals.  Situations E i c h l e r (1987) draws a t t e n t i o n t o an i s s u e o f s e x i s m i n language w h i c h i s g i v e n l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n - t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e terms f o r sex s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . F o r example, t h i s problem a r i s e s i n r e f e r r i n g t o w i f e b a t t e r i n g as "spouse abuse", t o d i l i n q u e n t boys as " d i l i n q u e n t a d o l e s c e n t s " , and t o "one-parent f a m i l i e s " when most o f t h e s e a r e "headed" by mothers. Use o f i n c l u s i v e terms i s u s u a l l y done i n an attempt t o be n o n - s e x i s t b u t i n r e a l i t y i t c o n f u s e s t h e i s s u e s by masking t h e impact o f gender. Concepts E i c h l e r (1987) draws a t t e n t i o n t o s e x i s m i n c o n c e p t s  as  more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o g n i z e because i t does n o t r e l a t e t o t h e  39  word i t s e l f b u t t o t h e meaning o f t h e word. "Concepts a r e s e x i s t i f t h e y a r e based on some form o f d o u b l e s t a n d a r d , a l t h o u g h t h e way i n w h i c h such a double s t a n d a r d may m a n i f e s t i t s e l f may v a r y g r e a t l y " ( p . 2 9 ) . F o r example: "head o f t h e household"  i m p l i e s a h i e r a r c h y ; "maternal d e p r i v a t i o n "  i n v o l v e s a v a l u e judgement because " p a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n " i s n o t a p p l i e d t o men who work o u t s i d e t h e home ( E i c h l e r , 1987); and  l a b e l l i n g s e x u a l b e h a v i o r o f a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s as  "promiscuous" w h i l e c a l l i n g s i m i l a r b e h a v i o r i n boys "experimental"  judges e q u i v a l e n t b e h a v i o r s  differently  ( E i c h l e r & L a p o i n t e , 1985). E i c h l e r (1987) summarizes by s a y i n g : Concepts a r e s e x i s t i f (a) t h e y c o n s t r u c t ego as o f one sex o n l y b u t a p p l y t h e c o n c e p t g e n e r a l l y , ( b ) a r e a s y m m e t r i c a l , i n t h e sense t h a t i d e n t i c a l b e h a v i o r s o f f e m a l e s and males a r e e v a l u a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y , (c)involve a d i f f e r e n t i a l evaluation of m a l e - i d e n t i f i e d and f e m a l e - i d e n t i f i e d t r a i t s , (d) a r e premised on a h i e r a r c h i c a l s e x u a l o r d e r i n g t h a t does n o t , i n f a c t , o b t a i n i n s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and l a s t l y (e) a r e premised on n o t i o n s o f s e x a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s when i n f a c t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a human a t t r i b u t e , (p.31) Four o t h e r ways i n which sexism i s i n t r o d u c e d  through  language a r e : 1. u s i n g n o n - e q u i v a l e n t  terms such as man and w i f e . Because  t h e i r use c r e a t e s a s e x u a l s l u r , e q u i v a l e n t terms such as woman and man o r w i f e and husband s h o u l d be used i n t h e i r p l a c e (VSB, 1984; Sah & Rancy, 1984). P a r a l l e l terms f o r females and males s h o u l d be used i n p a r a l l e l ( E i c h l e r and L a p o i n t e , 1985). "Working women"  situations corresponds  w i t h "working men", "working mothers" corresponds  with  40 "working f a t h e r s " . Because Mr. i s n o t p a r a l l e l t o e i t h e r M r s . or M i s s , Ms. s h o u l d be used o r t h e s e t i t l e s dropped and people r e f e r r e d t o by name o n l y ( E i c h l e r & L a p o i n t e , 1985). In Quebec, a woman does n o t t a k e h e r husband's name upon m a r r i a g e . C h i l d r e n may t a k e e i t h e r o r b o t h names. I n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , c h a n g i n g a name upon m a r r i a g e i s n o t a l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t , o n l y a custom ( E i c h l e r & L a p o i n t e , 1985). 2. m e n t i o n i n g s e x when i t adds no r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n (Sah & Rancy, 1984; VSB, 1987) as i n "male n u r s e " , " l a d y d o c t o r " , "woman judge".  The VSB (1987) r e f e r s t o t h i s as " s u b t l e  sexism". 3. d e s c r i b i n g women i n terms o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and appearance o r as mere appendages (as i n X's w i f e , Y's m o t h e r ) . VSB (1987) d e s c r i b e s t h i s as t h e " t r i v i a l i z a t i o n " o f women and t h e i r accomplishments  (VSB,  1987).  4. u s i n g c l i c h e s which d e n i g r a t e o r oppress women such a s : t h e b e t t e r h a l f , t h e f a i r s e x , t h e l i t t l e woman, a man-sized job,  t h e o l d l a d y , o l d w i v e s ' t a l e , sweet young t h i n g , t h e  weaker s e x , t h e w i f e , woman's work (VSB,  1987).  Some s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were vague. F o r example, McMahen (1988) c a u t i o n s us t o watch f o r " l o a d e d words" and t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (1983) s u g g e s t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e " a u t h o r ' s t o n e " . N e i t h e r e l a b o r a t e s on t h e meaning o f t h e s e terms o r how we c a n r e c o g n i z e them. S c o t t and Schau (1985) summarized t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on language. I n c l u s i v e and s e x s p e c i f i c language a r e more l i k e l y t h a n g e n e r i c language t o e l i c i t gender b a l a n c e d  41 images and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e impact o f s e x s p e c i f i c language on t h e images and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f boys. A n a l y s e s o f Textbooks Gender b i a s can be d e t e c t e d by examining v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e t e x t b o o k . A l t h o u g h none o f t h e t e x t b o o k a n a l y s e s examined f o r t h i s s t u d y have s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested c h e c k i n g a l l p a r t s o f t h e book, i t may be h e l p f u l t o c o n s i d e r each p a r t s e p a r a t e l y . The p a r t s which have been suggested f o r s c r u t i n y a r e : t h e p r e f a c e (Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r , 1983), t h e i n d e x ( B l a n k e n s h i p , 1984), photographs  and i l l u s t r a t i o n s  ( B l a n k e n s h i p , 1984; McMahen, 1988; M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1983; S t o r e y , 1979-80; Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r ,  1983),  h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s ( B l a n k e n s h i p , 1984), and c o n t e n t ( B l a n k e n s h i p , 1984; Marsden, 1979-80; McMahen, 1988; M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1983). Preface Weis (1979) d e t e r m i n e d t h e gender o r i e n t a t i o n o f 100 randomly sampled home economics t e x t b o o k s , p u b l i s h e d between 1964  and 1974 by examining t h e p r e f a c e t o see i f a t a r g e t  a u d i e n c e was s p e c i f i e d . Weis (1979) found 13% o f t h e home economics books examined were addressed s o l e l y t o f e m a l e s , 2% s o l e l y t o males, 20% t o males and f e m a l e s , and 65% were n o n s p e c i f i c . Weis (1979) c o n c l u d e d : "home economics t e x t b o o k s a r e g e n e r a l l y addressed t o a l l secondary s t u d e n t s and do n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e on t h e b a s i s o f s e x i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n " 1979,  p.152).  (Weis,  42 W i l l i g e r (1983) r e p l i c a t e d p o r t i o n s o f Weis' work (gender o f t a r g e t a u d i e n c e , use o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e pronouns, e q u i t y o f photographs p o r t r a y i n g females and males i n s e l e c t e d r o l e environments) on t e x t b o o k s p u b l i s h e d 1976  t o 1983.  Of t h e books p u b l i s h e d  from  from 1976-1979, 77% were  n o n s p e c i f i c about t h e gender o f t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e . I n t h e p e r i o d 1980-83, 100% were n o n s p e c i f i c . Recent f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d be e x p l i c i t l y o r i e n t e d toward female and male s t u d e n t s .  A gender  n e u t r a l t e x t b o o k may l e a v e room f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l o r s e x i s t way and i s l i k e l y t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s approach. As was p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , a t t e m p t s use i n c l u s i v e language may mask i m p o r t a n t women's i s s u e s . Index B l a n k e n s h i p (1984) s t u d i e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n d e x o f t e x t s s h o u l d be a n a l y z e d . S c a n n i n g i t can q u i c k l y r e v e a l i f women's i s s u e s (such as s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a l incomes f o r men and women) and men's i s s u e s (such as f a t h e r i n g ) have been i n c l u d e d . The  language used i n t h e i n d e x may a l s o r e v e a l s e x i s t  c o n c e p t s . F o r example, a "bedroom community" i s o n l y t h a t f o r t h o s e who work o u t s i d e t h e community, n o t f o r t h o s e who work i n s i d e t h e homes o f t h e community; "maternal d e p r i v a t i o n " i s a s y m e t r i c a l i n t h e way i n which i t c o n s i d e r s male and female p a r e n t i n g ; and "head o f t h e h o u s e h o l d " i m p l i e s a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which does n o t adequately r e f l e c t s o c i a l r e a l i t y . C a r e f u l examination of t h e  43 i n d e x (and t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s ) c a n r e v e a l a b i a s o f t h i s type. Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s "An e x a m i n a t i o n o f photographs i s n e c e s s a r y because o f t h e i r power t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t and t o l e a v e l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s on t h e r e a d e r s " ( B l a n k e n s h i p , p 282). I n h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f home economics t e x t b o o k s , Weis  (1979)  c o n s i d e r e d t h e r o l e environments o f t h e photographs. They were c l a s s i f i e d a s p o r t r a y i n g f e m a l e s ( F ) , males(M) o r females and m a l e s ( N ) . Photographs were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s i x r o l e e n v i r o n m e n t s : (l)Home:indoors  (2)Home:outdoors  (3) O c c u p a t i o n a l (4) Community (5) S c h o o l (6) O t h e r . Weis (1979) found females were f e a t u r e d i n 47.52% o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , males i n 19.73% and b o t h female and male i n 32.75%. She a l s o found t h a t photographs "appeared t o p r e s e n t f e m a l e s a s l i m i t e d t o home and f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d  activities,  and males as l i m i t e d t o a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e home and i n o c c u p a t i o n a l and c o m m u n i t y - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s "  (Weis, 1979,  p.155). W i l l i g e r (1983) found females were f e a t u r e d i n 40.08% o f t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e books she examined, males were f e a t u r e d i n 29.75% and 30.27% p o r t r a y e d b o t h females and males.  T h i s showed an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f males.  W i l l i g e r (1983) recommended f u t u r e s t u d i e s l o o k n o t o n l y at r o l e environments, but a l s o a t t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f females and males. P i c t u r e s s h o u l d show a v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s open t o b o t h men and women ( S t o r e y , 1979-80). B l a n k e n s h i p (1984) s u g g e s t s a  44 s e p a r a t e l i s t i n g o f t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  roles.  T h i s might r e v e a l , f o r example, t h a t even when males a r e p i c t u r e d i n d o o r s , t h e y may s t i l l p o r t r a y t r a d i t i o n a l The B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n  (1983) s u g g e s t s  roles.  relationships  w i t h i n and between t h e sexes s h o u l d a l s o be examined. Blankenship  (1984) a d v i s e s a l s o l o o k i n g a t t e x t b o o k  c a r t o o n s t o see how women a r e p o r t r a y e d . Because t h e r e i s now concern about t h e r o l e o f men i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e , home economics e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o how b o t h women and men a r e p o r t r a y e d i n c a r t o o n s . Highlighted Sections Blankenship  (1984) suggested  u s i n g frequency t a b u l a t i o n s  o f t h e f e a t u r i n g o f women and men i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i n c l u d i n g women i s n o t enough and t h a t how t h e y a r e i n c l u d e d must be c o n s i d e r e d as w e l l . Because home economics t e x t b o o k s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  focused  on women, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o check f o r i n c l u s i o n o f women and men and t o note how each i s i n c l u d e d . Content R e c o g n i z i n g gender b i a s and e l i m i n a t i n g i t from t h e c o n t e n t i s d i f f i c u l t . Canadian e d u c a t o r s a r e aware o f t h e need t o remove s t e r e o t y p e s from books (Marsden, 1979-80; S t o r e y 1979-80). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , even though e q u a l i t y between t h e sexes i s f a v o r e d by Canadian e d u c a t o r s , t h e r e i s d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g and d e s c r i b i n g what t h i s means (Marsden, 1979-80) and t r a n s l a t i n g i t i n t o any s p e c i f i c arrangement (Ayim,  1986).  45 I n h e r s t u d y o f home economics t e x t b o o k s , Weis (1979) examined r o l e b e h a v i o r s e v i d e n t i n t h e t e x t . psychosocial intimacy,  Five  r o l e s were used i n t h e a n a l y s i s : a f f i l i a t i o n ,  g e n e r a t i v i t y , n u r t u r a n c e and autonomy (Weis, 1979,  p.151). Judgements were made r e g a r d i n g t h e c a t e g o r y o f r o l e b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t e d ; whether t h e b e h a v i o r was e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d o r i m p l i e d by t h e c o n t e n t and i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  and i f  t h e b e h a v i o r was f o r males, f o r females o r was a gender neutral  statement.  Most r o l e s t a t e m e n t s i n each c a t e g o r y were n e u t r a l i n gender o r i e n t a t i o n . Females r e c e i v e d  more d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g  r o l e b e h a v i o r s t h a n d i d males. A f f i l i a t i o n and g e n e r a t i v i t y were l e s s emphasized  and were d i r e c t e d e q u a l l y t o b o t h  s e x e s . I n t i m a c y , n u r t u r a n c e and autonomy were emphasized and d i r e c t e d t o females more o f t e n t h a n t o males. N u r t u r a n c e was n o t d i r e c t e d t o males a t a l l e x c e p t i n gender n e u t r a l  terms.  Weis (1979) s u g g e s t s t h e low emphasis on g e n e r a t i v i t y i n home economics t e x t b o o k s i n d i c a t e s a problem  i n presenting the  work o f t h e home and f a m i l y as l e g i t i m a t e and v a l u e d occupation, f u l l y challenging  t h e c r e a t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y  of b o t h s e x e s . Females were more e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d i n r o l e b e h a v i o r s t h a n males and t h e r o l e s t h e y were e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d toward were t r a d i t i o n a l f o r f e m a l e s . Weis (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t a u t h o r s and e d i t o r s s h o u l d r i g o r o u s l y  strive  t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k s encourage a f u l l d i v e r s i t y o f psychosocial  r o l e development f o r b o t h sexes  (Weis,  1979).  The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (1983) s u g g e s t s c h e c k i n g a  46 t e x t b o o k f o r r o l e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e sexes and f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and between t h e s e x e s . Marsden (1979-80) s u g g e s t s t h e r e s h o u l d be c o n c e r n n o t j u s t w i t h o l d stereotypes  b u t w i t h new ones b e i n g c r e a t e d . She s t a t e s :  Changing t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f gender i d e n t i t y and g e t t i n g r i d o f s t e r e o t y p e s i m p l i e s t h a t we know where we a r e g o i n g . O f f i c i a l l y , we a r e moving i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f making t h e o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e e q u a l f o r women and men i n o u r s o c i e t y . But t h e d i r e c t i o n has n o t been worked o u t . We a r e s t i l l i n t h e m i d d l e o f r a d i c a l s o c i a l change, (p.23) Schau (1985) d e s c r i b e s m a t e r i a l s as s e x - r o l e  reversed  when each s e x e x h i b i t s t r a i t s and b e h a v i o r s t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with the opposite  sex.  Sex f a i r m a t e r i a l s show  females and males i n t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . Sex a f f i r m a t i v e m a t e r i a l s emphasize r o l e r e v e r s a l b u t e x p l a i n b e n e f i t s and problems, i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o be s e x e q u i t a b l e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s must be b o t h s e x f a i r and s e x a f f i r m a t i v e (Schau, 1985) . B l a n k e n s h i p (1984) s u g g e s t s s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s which do n o t i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f women's i s s u e s a r e s e x i s t . He s t a t e s women's i s s u e s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a s u b s t a n t i v e , r a t h e r t h a n t o k e n , way. D e t e r m i n i n g t h i s r e q u i r e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o n t e n t . In t h e A n a l y s i s o f Learning  Resources (1983), t h e  M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e need t o check f o r o n e - s i d e d t r e a t m e n t s o f t o p i c s o r i s s u e s . T h i s approach may be t o o s i m p l i s t i c f o r t h i s s t u d y , however, because E i c h l e r (1987) s u g g e s t s f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h can t a k e two forms:  47 woman c e n t e r e d and n o n - s e x i s t . A gender s e n s i t i v e t e x t b o o k may a t t i m e s r e q u i r e a o n e - s i d e d approach  (woman c e n t e r e d o r  man c e n t e r e d ) , b u t t h i s s h o u l d be e x p l i c i t l y  stated.  Most o f t h e r e s e a r c h on t e x t b o o k s has f o c u s e d on a c h i e v i n g s e x b a l a n c e ( i n c l u s i o n o f women and men) as w e l l as r e v e a l i n g and e l i m i n a t i n g s e x i s t language and s e x s t e r e o t y p e d images and r o l e s . The r e v i e w o f f e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d methods f o r d e t e c t i n g b i a s i n t e x t b o o k s may e l i m i n a t e b l a t a n t s e x i s m b u t may n o t a d e q u a t e l y d e a l w i t h s u b t l e gender b i a s o r promote gender e q u i t y . C u r r e n t f e m i n i s t thought i n s i s t s on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f knowledge t o e q u i t a b l y i n c l u d e t h e concerns o f women and men and on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y t o a more e q u i t a b l e one not based on t h e p a t r i a r c h a l h i e r a r c h y . None o f t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f t e x t b o o k s were h e l p f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r a n a l y z i n g knowledge o r r e c o g n i z i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i v e potential. The f e m i n i s t c o n c e p t s o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e r e l a t e t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f knowledge. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o a d d r e s s t h a n language and s t e r e o t y p i n g . No t e x t b o o k r e s e a r c h e x p l o r i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e was found. A l t h o u g h n o t p r e v i o u s l y a p p l i e d i n a n a l y s e s o f gender b i a s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a p p l y t h e s e c o n c e p t s t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f home economics t e x t b o o k s .  48 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s how home economics t e x t b o o k s a r e c h a n g i n g t o overcome e a r l i e r t y p e s o f gender b i a s (Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r ,  1983). Some o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s from p r e v i o u s  g u i d e l i n e s f o r textbook a n a l y s i s are u t i l i z e d but the e x a m i n a t i o n goes beyond t h e s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s o f t h e t e x t . I t e x p l o r e s whether s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f females and males a r e r e i n f o r c e d . I t examines whether gender b a l a n c e and gender s e n s i t i v i t y have been a c h i e v e d i n t h e v a l u e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s conveyed and whether t h e t e x t b o o k s c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s upon w h i c h i t w i l l f o c u s a r e : 1. To whom i s the textbook e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y addressed? i . Who i s the intended audience of the textbook? i i . Are female or male images portrayed ? iii.  Is the knowledge expressed from a female or male perspective?  2 . What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of learners are assumed by the textbook? i . Are learners expected t o accept the textbook knowledge as presented? i i . Are learners encouraged t o question s o c i a l arrangements or analyze s o c i a l problems? i i i . Are learners encouraged t o question and challenge the  49 textbook? 3. In what way does the textbook deal with gender bias? Is i t biased or i s i t neutral, balanced, or sensitive? i.  Is the language s e x i s t or are i n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language used appropriately?  i i . Are both female and male images and issues included equitably? Does the textbook reinforce the valuing system which gives more emphasis and importance t o t r a d i t i o n a l male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s than t o t r a d i t i o n a l female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and roles? i i i . Are s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the dual work r o l e of women reinforced? i v . What does the textbook say about female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n and research on sex and gender differences? v. What p o s i t i o n i s taken on equity issues and the women's movement?  The Sample L i s t s of recommended, authorized or approved textbooks were obtained from p r o v i n c i a l Departments and M i n i s t r i e s of Education across Canada. The sample was limited to home economics textbooks with a family or r e l a t i o n s h i p focus. Textbooks which apply only to a s p e c i f i c area of home economics, such as foods and n u t r i t i o n , clothing and t e x t i l e s , housing, consumer education or c h i l d care, and books published before 1980 were not considered. Because the  50 purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a n a l y z e t e x t b o o k s i n d e t a i l , f o c u s i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e changes i n home economics t e x t s , r a t h e r t h a n t o d e v e l o p a comprehensive r e v i e w o f t h e s t a t e o f gender b i a s i n c u r r e n t t e x t s , a sample" o f o n l y t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was chosen. The t i t l e s chosen f o r c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e x t b o o k , t h e t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e and t h e s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s were: F a m i l y L i v i n g , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , and People i n S o c i e t y . F a m i l y L i v i n g (1985, Second E d i t i o n ) was w r i t t e n by C a r o l Leavenworth, Gay H e n d r i c k s , K a t h l y n Gay, Lynda C. Harriman and M a r l e n e M i l l e r K r e i n i n and p u b l i s h e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by P r e n t i c e - H a l l . F a m i l y L i v i n g i s l i s t e d f o r s e n i o r home economics c o u r s e s by Departments o r M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, M a n i t o b a , and Newfoundland and L a b r a d o r . T h i s t e x t b o o k was chosen because o f my p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and e x p e r i e n c e i n home economics e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Teacher's Guide w h i c h accompanies t h e t e x t b o o k was w r i t t e n by K a t h l y n Gay and p u b l i s h e d i n 1985 by Prentice-Hall. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g (1985, Canadian e d i t i o n ) i s a Canadian a d a p t a t i o n o f an American t e x t b o o k w r i t t e n by J o s e p h i n e A. F o s t e r , M. J a n i c e Hogan, B e t t i e M. H e r r i n g and Audrey G. G i e s e k i n g - W i l l i a m s , and p u b l i s h e d by C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n Canada. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s l i s t e d f o r j u n i o r (grade 7-9) home economics c o u r s e s by Departments o r M i n i s t r i e s o f E d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , Newfoundland and L a b r a d o r , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Quebec, M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , and Nova S c o t i a . T h i s t e x t b o o k was  51 chosen because i t i s t h e t e x t b o o k most f r e q u e n t l y l i s t e d by p r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . I t i s a u t h o r i z e d o r approved f o r use i n seven o f t h e t e n Canadian p r o v i n c e s . The accompanying Teacher's Resource Book was w r i t t e n by J e a n e t t e Weber and p u b l i s h e d i n 1986 by C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n Canada. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y (1988) i s a Canadian t e x t b o o k w r i t t e n by Kenneth J . Hanson and E l e a n o r Gower and p u b l i s h e d by H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada. I t i s l i s t e d i n O n t a r i o ' s C i r c u l a r 14B f o r use i n H i s t o r y and Contemporary S t u d i e s . Because t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k f i t s so c l o s e l y w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r F a m i l y Management 11 and 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s b e i n g used as a r e f e r e n c e by home economics t e a c h e r s i n t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r s t u d e n t use; I t i s a l s o b e i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n as a home economics t e x t b o o k by t h e Nova S c o t i a Department o f E d u c a t i o n . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y was chosen because i t i s a r e c e n t Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n and because i t i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r use i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f home economics c o u r s e s i n a t l e a s t two p r o v i n c e s even though i t i s n o t p r e s e n t l y a home economics t e x t b o o k . The Teacher Resource Book w h i c h accompanies t h e t e x t b o o k was w r i t t e n by Ken Hanson and E l e a n o r Gower and was p u b l i s h e d i n 1988 by H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada. The Method A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e on a n a l y s e s o f t e x t b o o k s f o r gender b i a s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p a r t s o f t h e t e x t b o o k examined; Other r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t gender  52  b i a s c o u l d be d e t e c t e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e books, t h e r e f o r e t h i s s t u d y examined s e v e r a l p a r t s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was chosen i n o r d e r t o determine  i f bias could  be c o n s i s t e n t l y d e t e c t e d i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e book and t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y i n t h e o v e r a l l judgement about t h e book. The p r e f a c e , i n d e x and t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s  and  photographs a r e r e l a t i v e l y easy t o examine f o r b l a t a n t gender b i a s and t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a r e s u l t i n g from such e x a m i n a t i o n may  an  be e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d . However, t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n does not r e v e a l whether t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t e x t i s gender s e n s i t i v e o r gender b a l a n c e d . Because f e m i n i s t e d u c a t o r s c l a i m t h e need f o r a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f knowledge, t h i s s t u d y a l s o f o c u s e d on t h e c o n t e n t h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . No r e s e a r c h was  and  a v a i l a b l e on t h e  d e t e c t i o n o f b i a s i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t e x t b o o k s and t h e r e f o r e a p r o c e d u r e was developed  f o r t h i s s t u d y . The i n t e p r e t a t i o n o f  c o n t e n t i n t h e t e x t s i s more s u b j e c t t o r e s e a r c h e r b i a s .  My  judgements have been g u i d e d by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f e m i n i s t t h e o r y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on comparisons  of the three  t e x t b o o k s examined. The  Procedure  A n a l y s i s o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was c a r r i e d o u t on s e v e r a l p a r t s o f t h e books. The p a r t s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s examined and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n sought t h r o u g h t h e i r were as f o l l o w s :  examination  53 1. P r e f a c e The p r e f a c e o f each t e x t b o o k was r e a d c a r e f u l l y t o determine: a) t h e i n t e n d e d  audience.  b) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e textbook. c) t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n on e q u i t y i s s u e s . 2.  Table o f Contents The t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s was s t u d i e d f o r e v i d e n c e o f gender  b i a s i n language and c o n c e p t s . T o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y and t h e women's movement were l i s t e d and counted. 3. Index The  i n d e x was examined f o r e v i d e n c e o f gender b i a s i n  language and c o n c e p t s and f o r i n c l u s i o n o f t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The r e l e v a n t t o p i c s were l i s t e d f o r t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s so t h a t comparison  was p o s s i b l e .  4. Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s A l l photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e books were examined c a r e f u l l y t o d e t e r m i n e : a) t h e i n t e n d e d  audience.  b) i f female o r male images a r e p o r t r a y e d . c) i f women's t r a d i t i o n a l work r o l e s (home maintenance and c h i l d c a r e ) a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o r i f more emphasis and importance  i s g i v e n t o t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s .  d) i f s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e d u a l work r o l e o f women a r e r e i n f o r c e d . Weis (1979) c l a s s i f i e d photographs which i n c l u d e d b o t h  54 females and males as n e u t r a l . T h i s approach assumes t h a t a l l we need t o a c h i e v e i s b a l a n c e i n numbers o f females and males p r e s e n t e d i n t e x t b o o k s . W i l l i g e r (1983) s u g g e s t e d a need t o c o n s i d e r r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l . Balance To d e t e r m i n e i f t h e books a d d r e s s b o t h females and males and  show a b a l a n c e i n t h e number o f female and male images,  t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used: a) A l l dominant p e o p l e i n t h e photographs were c o u n t e d and c l a s s i f i e d as " a d u l t " , i n c l u d i n g young a d u l t s and t h e e l d e r l y , o r as " c h i l d r e n " , i n c l u d i n g b a b i e s and a d o l e s c e n t s . Each p e r s o n was f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as female o r male. For F a m i l y L i v i n g , a l l photographs from t h e f r o n t c o v e r t o t h e back c o v e r were a n a l y z e d e x c e p t f o r t h o s e which accompanied  t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s s i n c e a l l o f t h e s e were  i n c l u d e d a g a i n i n t h e t e x t . Some c h i l d r e n (17) were l e f t u n c l a s s i f i e d ("other") s i n c e p i n k c l o t h i n g a l o n e was n o t t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f femaleness and b l u e c l o t h i n g a l o n e was n o t t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f maleness. The c l o t h i n g and h a i r s t y l e s o f most c h i l d r e n made c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s e x possible. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does n o t f e a t u r e p e o p l e on t h e book t i t l e pages o r i n t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and t h e one s m a l l photograph o f p e o p l e on t h e c o v e r was d i s r e g a r d e d . A l l photographs w i t h i n t h e t e x t b o o k were a n a l y z e d . Many c h i l d r e n (27) were l e f t u n c l a s s i f i e d because t h e use o f w i n t e r c l o t h i n g makes c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s e x v e r y d i f f i c u l t .  In  55 C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t h e r e a r e many photographs i n which o n l y t h e hands show. These were n o t c o u n t e d u n l e s s t h e hands were v e r y o b v i o u s l y male ( h a i r y arms) o r female ( l o n g n a i l s ) . I t was sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s . I n each case a judgement about t h e age g r o u p i n g was made, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e environment, a c t i v i t y , and comments accompanying t h e photograph. Photographs which d i d n o t i n c l u d e p e o p l e were d i s r e g a r d e d . In P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y , a l l photographs e x c e p t t h e two on the  f r o n t and back c o v e r s a r e i n b l a c k and w h i t e o r i n b l a c k  and w h i t e w i t h a p u r p l i s h t o n e . These t e n d t o c a t c h t h e a t t e n t i o n somewhat l e s s t h a n t h e c o l o u r photos o f t h e o t h e r t e x t b o o k s . There a r e no photographs on c o v e r pages o r u n i t t i t l e pages. The r e s u l t i s t o make t h e photographs appear t o be p a r t o f t h e t e x t r a t h e r t h a n as d e c o r a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t enhancers ( m o t i v a t o r s ) . The P r e f a c e o f t h e t e x t b o o k s t a t e s t h a t "Photographs ... a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f P e o p l e i n Society"  (Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p . v i i ) and t h e Teacher  Resource Book s t a t e s t h a t " V i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n t h e form o f photographs ... i s used f r e q u e n t l y t o h e l p d e v e l o p a t o p i c " (Hanson and Gower, 1988b, p.10). A l l photographs w i t h i n t h e t e x t were a n a l y z e d . The one s m a l l photograph o f p e o p l e on t h e c o v e r was d i s r e g a r d e d as were some photographs o f l a r g e groups (eg. Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p.49). I n o t h e r photographs (eg. p.157) o n l y p e o p l e i n the  f o r e g r o u n d were counted and i n one photograph  (p.140)  o n l y t h e two most i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s were c o u n t e d because  56 the  photograph was so s m a l l . The c l o t h i n g and h a i r s t y l e s o f  most c h i l d r e n made c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sex p o s s i b l e b u t t h e " o t h e r " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d f o r some a d u l t s and some children. b) The " c h i l d r e n " c a t e g o r y was r e c o u n t e d and r e c l a s s i f i e d as " a d o l e s c e n t s " and "young c h i l d r e n " t o d e t e r m i n e how many a d o l e s c e n t s o f each sex were p i c t u r e d . T h i s was done because the  books i n t e n d t o a d d r e s s a d o l e s c e n t s .  c ) The a d o l e s c e n t s were r e c o u n t e d and r e c l a s s i f i e d as w h i t e or  non-white. T h i s was done because t h e absence o f a  s i g n i f i c a n t number o f non-white a d o l e s c e n t s was n o t e d i n F a m i l y L i v i n g . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d w i t h C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . d) Photographs o f s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s were examined and c l a s s i f i e d by age group, s e x , b e h a v i o r and a c t i v i t y and t h e n by s i z e o f photograph ( f u l l page and s m a l l e r t h a n f u l l p a g e ) . Roles and  Relationships  To d e t e r m i n e t h e p o r t r a y a l o f r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e work done i n t h e home, t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were followed: a) Photographs were a n a l y z e d by l o c a t i o n ,  activities  p o r t r a y e d and sex o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s f e a t u r e d . T h i s was done o n l y i f t h e sex o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r a t l e a s t one o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . In  Family L i v i n g , t o avoid including  specific  photographs more t h a n once, o n l y photographs on u n i t pages and w i t h i n c h a p t e r s were a n a l y z e d by l o c a t i o n .  title  57 Photographs on t h e book t i t l e pages and t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s were d i s r e g a r d e d because t h e y were r e p e a t e d i n t h e body o f the  book. The photographs on t h e c o v e r s o f a l l t h r e e books  were a l s o d i s r e g a r d e d . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y c o n t a i n s many head and s h o u l d e r s s t y l e , posed photographs o f s p e c i f i c , named i n d i v i d u a l s . S i n c e t h e s e photographs c o u l d n o t be a n a l y z e d by l o c a t i o n , b e h a v i o r o r a c t i v i t y i n t h e photograph i t s e l f , t h e accompanying comments were r e a d so t h a t t h e photographs c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d . Most photographs o f t h i s t y p e were c l a s s i f i e d by t h e o c c u p a t i o n o r a c t i v i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  featured.  T h i r t y s i x o f t h e n i n e t y two photographs a n a l y z e d were o f named p e o p l e . b) I n o r d e r t o more f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e work done i n t h e home, photographs w h i c h had been c l a s s i f i e d as l o c a t e d i n t h e home were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the  type of behavior or a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s involved. V e r y few o f t h e photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y c o u l d  be c l a s s i f i e d as l o c a t e d a t home and t h o s e which c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s way c o u l d r a r e l y be c l a s s i f i e d by t h e t y p e of a c t i v i t y o r b e h a v i o r shown. c) I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o r t r a y a l o f female and male r e l a t i o n s h i p s , photographs which i n c l u d e d a t l e a s t one a d o l e s c e n t o r a d u l t o f each s e x were c l a s s i f i e d by t h e a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o r t r a y e d . The t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s used were: no dominance a p p a r e n t , male dominance and female dominance.  58 5. H i g h l i g h t e d  Sections  H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s were examined s e p a r a t e l y from t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k . T h i s was done t o e x p l o r e whether women o r men a r e i s o l a t e d from t h e t e x t i n a way t h a t makes them appear t o be n o t p a r t o f t h e mainstream. I n t e g r a t i o n o f female and male c o n c e r n s r a t h e r t h a n i s o l a t i o n i s a f e m i n i s t g o a l . Examination of t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s was done i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e : a) t h e i n t e n d e d  audience.  b) i f t h e knowledge i s e x p r e s s e d from a female o r male perspective. c) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e t e x t . d) t h e way i n which t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l s w i t h gender b i a s . I n F a m i l y L i v i n g t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s t a k e t h e form of b o t h " F e a t u r e s "  and " F i g u r e s " which a r e s e t a p a r t from t h e  t e x t by c o l o u r e d boxes. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a l s o r e f e r s t o h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s a s " f e a t u r e s " and uses t h e t e c h n i q u e o f c o l o u r e d boxes. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s " F i g u r e s " . Some o f them a r e i n l i n e d boxes and o t h e r s a r e i n shaded boxes w h i c h s e t them a p a r t from t h e r e s t o f t h e t e x t . Those f i g u r e s which were n o t s e t a p a r t from t h e t e x t i n some way were n o t considered  t o be h i g h l i g h t e d b u t were c o n s i d e r e d  t o be p a r t  of t h e c o n t e n t . The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were r e a d and q u o t a t i o n s  were  n o t e d which i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e x t on q u e s t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The s t y l e o f language and who was b e i n g a d d r e s s e d were a l s o n o t e d when b i a s was e v i d e n t and  59 when t h e r e was an attempt t o be n o n - s e x i s t . 6. Content The t e x t , s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s and t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e books were examined i n o r d e r t o determine a) t h e i n t e n d e d  from t h e i r c o n t e n t :  audience.  b) i f t h e knowledge i s e x p r e s s e d from a female o r male perspective. c) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e t e x t . d) t h e way i n which t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l s w i t h gender b i a s . The procedure  f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t was t o r e a d  each c h a p t e r and t h e accompanying s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s v e r y c a r e f u l l y . Each o f t h e t e x t b o o k s and i t s t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e book was r e a d a t l e a s t t w i c e n o t i n g q u o t a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n on v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . Form o f c o n t e n t and language were c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g w i t h t h e t o p i c s o f women's i s s u e s , work r o l e s , c h i l d c a r e , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a n a l y s i s o f c o n t e n t began w i t h F a m i l y L i v i n g , proceeded  t o C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , then  t o People i n S o c i e t y .  When d i f f e r e n c e s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s were d e t e c t e d , s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n s were r e a d o v e r a g a i n i n o r d e r t o c o n f i r m t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . When a n a l y z i n g how each t e x t d e a l t w i t h an i s s u e o f importance t o gender e q u i t y , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e t e x t s were r e r e a d t o compare o r c o n t r a s t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t o p i c . The importance o f examining t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was e s t a b l i s h e d as c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n a d d r e s s i n g gender b i a s emerged. A l t h o u g h c o m m o n a l i t i e s were  60 n o t e d , d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found. Comparison o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s made i t p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i v e u s e f u l n e s s o f a v a r i e t y o f a t t e m p t s t o e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s . Examination of three t e x t s confirmed the v a l i d i t y of the findings. P r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s o f t e x t b o o k s f o r gender b i a s have n o t f o c u s e d on t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t . T h i s r e s e a r c h adapted e a r l i e r work, l o o k i n g f o r problems t o do w i t h language,  i n c l u s i o n o f females and males,  and s t e r e o t y p i n g . These p r o c e d u r e s a r e f a i r l y easy and probably are appropriate f o r determining i f textbooks portray a "sex-fair reality"  (Schau, 1985) b u t n o t f o r d e t e c t i n g a  gender s e n s i t i v e and gender b a l a n c e d  reality.  I t was o n l y t h r o u g h d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t t h a t I began t o g e t a sense o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g about how t h e s e t e x t b o o k s f i t w i t h c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t t h o u g h t . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d became p r o b l e m a t i c . What i s b e i n g t a u g h t about s o c i e t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , whose p e r s p e c t i v e i s b e i n g t a u g h t o r whose i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g s e r v e d , and how t h e s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n became important  concerns.  61  Chapter  4  FINDINGS Each o f t h e t h r e e home economics t e x t b o o k s i n t h i s was  study  a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i x p a r t s o f t h e books as  d e s c r i b e d i n the previous chapter: p r e f a c e , t a b l e of c o n t e n t s , i n d e x , photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and  content. Preface  The p r e f a c e was  r e a d t o determine  the intended  audience,  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e t e x t b o o k s , and whether t h e r e was an i n t e n t t o address gender e q u i t y issues. The p r e f a c e s o f b o t h F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y a r e n o n - s p e c i f i c about t h e audience t h e y a d d r e s s .  The  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s r e v e a l t h i s l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y :  "This  t e x t b o o k i s d e s i g n e d t o a c q u a i n t you w i t h t h e f u l l scope o f f a m i l y l i v i n g , e n r i c h i n g your awareness and d e f i n i n g your s k i l l s as an i n d i v i d u a l , as a f a m i l y member, and as a p a r e n t o f tomorrow" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985,  p.10)  and "We  hope  t h i s t e x t w i l l h e l p you d e v e l o p a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  y o u r s e l f and t h e w o r l d i n which you l i v e " (Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p . v i i ) . S i n c e t h e r e i s no mention o f female o r male s t u d e n t s , i m p l i c i t l y t h e books a r e i n t e n d e d t o address a l l students e q u a l l y . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g c o n t a i n s no p r e f a c e but t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e Teacher's Resource Book s t a t e s t h e e x p l i c i t p o s i t i o n o f  62  t h e book: " I t i s w r i t t e n f o r b o t h males and females and i s f r e e o f ... s e x u a l ... s t e r e o t y p i n g " (Weber, 1985, p . 7 ) . T h i s makes c l e a r i t s i n t e n t i o n t o i n c l u d e males i n a c o u r s e  which  has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i r e c t e d t o f e m a l e s . I m p l i c i t l y o r explicitly and  a l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s a d d r e s s an a u d i e n c e o f  females  males. The second c o n c e r n i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r e f a c e s  was t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s assumed by each o f t h e books. Both C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and F a m i l y L i v i n g assume t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l be p a s s i v e l y l e a r n i n g t h e knowledge contained w i t h i n the textbook. Family L i v i n g s t a t e s q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s  "...  ... w i l l h e l p you determine how  you have mastered t h e c h a p t e r c o n t e n t s " (Leavenworth 1985, p.11). P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y i s t h e o n l y t e x t b o o k explicitly  acknowledges t h e s t u d e n t s as  i n d i v i d u a l s who  well  et a l , which  knowledgeable  are capable of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y  about  s o c i a l i s s u e s . The p r e f a c e s t a t e s t h e p r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s r e v e a l "how  much you a l r e a d y know" and t h e a c t i v i t i e s  "your a b i l i t y  to apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s "  Gower, 1988,  p.vii).  The f i n a l to  test  (Hanson and  concern i n the examination of the preface  was  determine any i n t e n t t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s .  The  s t a n c e on gender i s s u e s which t h e s e t e x t b o o k s t a k e i s not e x p l i c i t i n the preface. Family L i v i n g g i v e s the c l e a r e s t i m p r e s s i o n o f b e g i n n i n g t o address problems r e l a t e d t o t h e p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e home by s t a t i n g : " I n d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s , p a r e n t s must meet t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e i r j o b s and  63  i n a d d i t i o n must manage t h e home, a r r a n g e f o r c h i l d c a r e , f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s as p a r e n t s ..." (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.10). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s n o t as e x p l i c i t b u t g i v e s a s i m i l a r i m p r e s s i o n by c l a i m i n g t o r e f l e c t t h e "changing n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y and t h e contemporary  lifestyles"  and s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l  (Weber, 1985, p. 6)  "examine t h e i r r o l e o p t i o n s  and p l a n f o r t h e f u t u r e w o r l d o f work and f a m i l y " ( p . 6 ) . The p r e f a c e o f P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y a l s o does n o t e x p l i c i t l y  state  an i n t e n t t o a d d r e s s gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . I t does, however, s u g g e s t s t u d e n t s w i l l be asked t o a p p l y c r i t i c a l  thinking  s k i l l s and examine c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l i s s u e s , one o f which i s d a y - c a r e . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t s may i n some way a d d r e s s gender i s s u e s i s i m p l i e d b u t n o t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h e p r e f a c e o f each book. Table o f Contents The t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i n each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was examined f o r e v i d e n c e o f s e x i s m i n language and c o n c e p t s and for  i n c l u s i o n o f t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y o r t h e  women's movement. Sexism i n language and c o n c e p t s was n o t e v i d e n t i n any o f t h e books. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y l i s t s two t o p i c s ( w i f e abuse and s u r r o g a t e motherhood) i n a s e x s p e c i f i c way. Other t i t l e s o f u n i t s , c h a p t e r s , and s e c t i o n s i n a l l t h e t e x t b o o k s a r e v e r y g e n e r a l and i n c l u s i v e . F o r example,  "spouse abuse" and " s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s "  appear  i n F a m i l y L i v i n g and t h e " c h a l l e n g e o f parenthood" i s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g . I n c l u s i v e language i s used t h r o u g h o u t  64 the t a b l e s of c o n t e n t and, i t may  a l t h o u g h t h i s conveys no  sexism,  be gender b l i n d . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s q u i t e  p o s s i b l e f o r t o p i c s t o be l i s t e d i n an i n c l u s i v e way p r e s e n t e d i n a gender s e n s i t i v e way.  Only ah e x a m i n a t i o n o f  t h e c o n t e n t w i l l r e v e a l b i a s o r s e n s i t i v i t y and The  and  balance.  t e x t b o o k s d i d d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s  r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The  t a b l e of contents of  Creative  L i v i n g l i s t s t h e f e w e s t t o p i c s which might a d d r e s s gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The The  t e x t b o o k appears v e r y  non-controversial.  t o p i c s which have t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g e q u i t y  issues  are: R e l a t i o n s h i p s and You S t e r e o t y p e s and P r e j u d i c e D a t i n g and Love C h i l d r e n and You: Rewards of S k i l l s f o r Parenting C a r i n g f o r Shared Space. The  Caregiving  t a b l e of c o n t e n t s of F a m i l y L i v i n g a l s o  t o p i c s w i t h a p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g gender e q u i t y  includes issues.  They a r e : R o l e s : R o l e s and R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Sex R o l e s Loving R e l a t i o n s h i p : E q u a l i t y A s s i g n i n g Tasks and R o l e s : R o l e P e r c e p t i o n s and E f f e c t s of R o l e P e r c e p t i o n s A d j u s t i n g t o I n f a n t Care: Shared P a r e n t i n g D i v o r c e : E f f e c t s on A d u l t s Other F a m i l y P a t t e r n s : S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s and Stepfamilies F a m i l y V i o l e n c e : Spouse Abuse, C h i l d Abuse and Reasons f o r F a m i l y V i o l e n c e Of t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s examined, P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s t h e most t o p i c s h a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g e q u i t y i s s u e s . Twenty t h r e e t o p i c s were i d e n t i f i e d : H e r e d i t y and Environment - The Socialization  N a t u r e - N u r t u r e Debate  65 P r e j u d i c e and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n P e r s o n a l i t y ( F r e u d , E r i k s o n , Maslow) Agents o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n Child-Care centres Agents o f A d o l e s c e n t S o c i a l i z a t i o n S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Sex r o l e S t e r e o t y p i n g Forms o f M a r r i a g e (Polygamy, Monogamy) Other L i v i n g Arrangements ( S i n g l e h o o d , C o h a b i t a t i o n ) Mate S e l e c t i o n (Arranged M a r r i a g e s , Dowry and B r i d e p r i c e , M a r r y i n g f o r Love, D a t i n g ) Marriage Contracts C o n f l i c t i n Marriage Wife Abuse Changing R o l e s i n M a r r i a g e The F a m i l y as a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n ( F u n c t i o n s o f t h e Family) C h i l d Abuse D i v o r c e and t h e F a m i l y Emerging Forms o f t h e F a m i l y ( S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s , F a m i l i e s t h r o u g h Remarriage) New Forms o f P a r e n t i n g ( A r t i f i c i a l I n s e m i n a t i o n , S u r r o g a t e Motherhood) P o v e r t y and t h e E l d e r l y R e t i r e m e n t - A Time o f Adjustment S u i c i d e - A d o l e s c e n t s : A High R i s k Group None o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e t h e women's movement as a t o p i c . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and F a m i l y L i v i n g have t h e p o t e n t i a l for  a d d r e s s i n g some i s s u e s o f gender e q u i t y . P e o p l e i n  S o c i e t y has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a d d r e s s i n g many i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t can determine i f t h e s e t o p i c s a r e addressed i n a gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced  way. Index  The i n d e x o f each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was examined f o r e v i d e n c e o f s e x i s m i n language and c o n c e p t s and f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y and t h e women's movement. The language o f t h e i n d e x e s r e v e a l e d a t t e m p t s t o use i n c l u s i v e language  i n a l l t h r e e t e x t s . For example,  "caregiving" i s l i s t e d i n Creative Living, "caregivers" i n  66  P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y and " p a r e n t i n g " i n F a m i l y L i v i n g . No s e x i s t language was e v i d e n t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was o c c a s i o n a l use o f s e x - s p e c i f i c language which i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f gender b a l a n c e i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some t o p i c s . Some o f t h e c o n c e p t s l i s t e d i n t h e i n d e x o f F a m i l y L i v i n g r e f e r t o t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f males b u t n o t t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f f e m a l e s . "Shared p a r e n t i n g " ,  "joint  c u s t o d y " , and " s t e p f a t h e r i n g " (but n o t s t e p m o t h e r i n g ) a r e examples. One male concept ( p a t e r n i t y l e a v e ) i s l i s t e d  in  P e o p l e , i n S o c i e t y b u t i t s female e q u i v a l e n t ( m a t e r n i t y l e a v e ) i s not. Each t e x t i n c l u d e s some t o p i c s which may a d d r e s s e q u i t y i s s u e s . The development  o f gender  gender  through  s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c i n c o n s i d e r i n g  gender  e q u i t y . Each o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . F a m i l y L i v i n g l i s t s "sex r o l e s " , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g l i s t s " s t e r e o t y p e s " , and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y l i s t s "sex r o l e  development".  Of t h e t o p i c s l i s t e d i n t h e i n d e x o f C r e a t i v e L i v i n g o n l y 19 were i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l t o a d d r e s s gender e q u i t y i s s u e s (Appendix A, T a b l e 1 ) . That i s h a l f t h e number o f t o p i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n F a m i l y L i v i n g (38) and l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e number i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y ( 4 1 ) . Perhaps because i t i s w r i t t e n f o r a younger a u d i e n c e t h a n t h e o t h e r two books, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g c o n t a i n s more t r a d i t i o n a l home economics t o p i c s such a s "appearance",  "grooming",  " b a b y s i t t i n g " and "home maintenance". A t t h e same t i m e , i t  67  c o n t a i n s fewer s e n s i t i v e o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s . S p e c i f i c s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s such as spouse and c h i l d abuse and d i v o r c e may be subsumed under a t o p i c such as " f a m i l y problems". The t o p i c o f s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s n o t l i s t e d b u t may be i n c l u d e d under t h e t o p i c , " t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s " . The  i n d e x e s o f F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y  i n d i c a t e t h a t e q u i t y i s s u e s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e textbooks.  T o p i c s such as " d u a l - e a r n e r  family", "equality i n  relationships", "family violence", " f l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , " r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s " ,  "single-parent  f a m i l i e s " and " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " a l l appear i n t h e index o f Family L i v i n g . " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " , "single-parent  families",  "Canadian C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms", " m a r r i a g e , c h a n g i n g r o l e o f " , and "abuse, s p o u s a l " a r e a l l t o p i c s l i s t e d i n t h e index o f People i n S o c i e t y . Some o f t h e t o p i c s i n c l u d e d i n t h e index o f P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t e x t b o o k may be more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i s s u e s o f gender t h a n t h e o t h e r two t e x t b o o k s . F o r example, " d i v o r c e , and f a t h e r " i s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y from " d i v o r c e , and mother" and b o t h "men" and "women" appear i n the  index. Examination of t h e indexes i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e three  textbooks  attempt t o a v o i d gender b i a s by u s i n g i n c l u s i v e  language. O c c a s i o n a l use o f s e x s p e c i f i c language ( e g . " f a t h e r i n g " n o t " m o t h e r i n g " i n F a m i l y L i v i n g ) s u g g e s t s a male p e r s p e c t i v e may be emphasized. The t e x t s i n c l u d e some concepts,  such as s e x r o l e development, which may o r may n o t  68  be b i a s e d , depending  on t h e t r e a t m e n t w i t h i n t h e t e x t . Each  t e x t b o o k i n c l u d e s some t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y  with  C r e a t i v e L i v i n g h a v i n g t h e f e w e s t , w h i l e People i n S o c i e t y has t h e most. None o f t h e t e x t b o o k s have e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d t o p i c s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e women's movement. A g a i n , t h e t o p i c s i n c l u d e d have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s b u t o n l y an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t w i l l  determine  i f t h e t o p i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a gender b a l a n c e d and gender sensitive  way. Photographs  and  Illustrations  T h i s a n a l y s i s o f photographs  examines t h e b a l a n c e o f  female and male images p o r t r a y e d i n v a r i o u s age groups and c o n s i d e r s whether t h e y appear a l o n e o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o examines t h e photographs  to  determine i f s t e r e o t y p i n g and t h e d u a l work r o l e f o r women are r e i n f o r c e d . I t a l s o c o n s i d e r s the r e l a t i v e v a l u i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l female and male r o l e s . T h i s i s done t h r o u g h examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the home, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t r a d i t i o n a l and  non-  t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e p o r t r a y a l o f dominance and a c t i v i t y i n the  photographs.  Female-male Balance One  o f t h e ways t e x t b o o k s may  counter sexism i s through  s t r i v i n g f o r an o v e r a l l b a l a n c e i n t h e number o f females males i n t h e photographs.  The a n a l y s i s o f  and  photographs  r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e I shows t h a t F a m i l y L i v i n g has an o v e r a l l  69 sex b a l a n c e w i t h females making up 46.8% o f t h e p e o p l e portrayed  i n t h e book and males, 48.4%. Females make up 40%  of t h e p e o p l e p o r t r a y e d  i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y and males, 51%.  Females make up 50% o f t h e p e o p l e p o r t r a y e d  i n Creative  L i v i n g and males, 40.5% (Appendix A, T a b l e s 2-4). When a d u l t s were c o n s i d e r e d  s e p a r a t e l y from c h i l d r e n a  d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e emerged. I n F a m i l y L i v i n g , which had an o v e r a l l sex b a l a n c e , t h e r e a r e more a d u l t females  (53.09%)  t h a n a d u l t males ( 4 6 . 9 1 % ) . A c l o s e l o o k r e v e a l s t h a t t h e preponderance o f females o v e r males (11) i s a c c o u n t e d f o r i n two c h a p t e r s ,  "Having a Baby" and "Growing and L e a r n i n g " , t h e  c h a p t e r on e a r l y c h i l d development  (Appendix A, T a b l e 1 ) .  P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y , which has a s l i g h t preponderence o f males o v e r a l l , f e a t u r e s more a d u l t f e m a l e s (52.29%) t h a n a d u l t males (47.71 % ) . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which has a s l i g h t preponderance o f females o v e r a l l a l s o f e a t u r e s more a d u l t females (51.67%) t h a n a d u l t males ( 4 8 . 3 3 % ) . The photographs i n a l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s f e a t u r e more a d u l t f e m a l e s t h a n a d u l t males (Appendix A, T a b l e 5 ) . Another p i c t u r e emerged when o n l y c h i l d r e n were considered.  Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y  feature  more male c h i l d r e n t h a n female c h i l d r e n . F a m i l y L i v i n g which has t h e b e s t o v e r a l l sex b a l a n c e i n c l u d e s 56.25% male c h i l d r e n and 43.75% female c h i l d r e n . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y , which has a s l i g h t preponderence o f males o v e r a l l has t w i c e as many  70  Table I Summary o f Numbers o f Females and H a l e s i n Photographs Family Living  Creative Living  People i n Society  Males Females  91 103  58 62  73 80  Total  194  120  153  81 63  92 124  52 27  Total  144  216  79  Males Females  172 166  150 186  125 107  17  34  23  355  370  267  Sex/Age Group Adults:  C h i l d r e n : Males Females  Totals:  Other T o t a l number o f p e o p l e  71 male c h i l d r e n (65.82%) as female c h i l d r e n (34.18%). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which has a s l i g h t preponderance o f females  overall  i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s which has more female c h i l d r e n (57.41%) t h a n male c h i l d r e n  (42.59%).  Adolescents Since these textbooks a r e w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a d o l e s c e n t s , i t i s perhaps most i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e r e be a b a l a n c e o f female and male a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e photographs. I t i s here t h e d i f f e r e n c e between numbers o f females and males i s even g r e a t e r i n two o f t h e t h r e e t e x t s . T a b l e I I shows t h a t F a m i l y L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more a d o l e s c e n t males (60.32%) t h a n a d o l e s c e n t females  (39.68%).  P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s t h r e e t i m e s as many a d o l e s c e n t males (75%) as a d o l e s c e n t females  (25%). Creative L i v i n g  f e a t u r e s more a d o l e s c e n t females  (58.33%) t h a n a d o l e s c e n t  males (41.67%) (Appendix A, T a b l e s 5 - 7 ) . L o o k i n g more c l o s e l y a t where t h e d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r s r e v e a l s t h a t i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g two t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f s t u d y i n home economics have more a d o l e s c e n t females  than  a d o l e s c e n t males. The u n i t on Foods and N u t r i t i o n f e a t u r e s 14 a d o l e s c e n t females arid o n l y 3 a d o l e s c e n t males and t h e u n i t on C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s f e a t u r e s 20 a d o l e s c e n t females and o n l y 4 a d o l e s c e n t males (Appendix A, T a b l e 6 ) . Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e more a d o l e s c e n t males t h a n a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s . The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r s i n c h a p t e r s on i n d i v i d u a l development, " Y o u r s e l f and O t h e r s " i n F a m i l y L i v i n g (Appendix A, T a b l e 5) and " H e r e d i t y ,  72  Table I I Summary o f Numbers o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young Children Family Liying  Creative Living  People i n Society  25 38  105 75  9 27  63  180  36  38 43  19 17  18 25  81  36  43  Other c h i l d r e n  17  27  15  Total children  161  243  94  Sex/Age Group A d o l e s c e n t s : Female Male Total Young c h i l d r e n : Female Male Total  Table I I I Summary o f Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s by " C o l o u r " and Sex S e x / C o l o u r Group Adolescent females: White Non-white Total A d o l e s c e n t males: White Non-white Total Total Adolescents:  Family Living  Creative Living  People i n Society  21 4  91 14  9 0  25  105  9  28 10  67 8  24 3  38  75  27  63  180  36  73 Environment,  and t h e I n d i v i d u a l " and " A d o l e s c e n c e " i i i P e o p l e  i n S o c i e t y (Appendix A, T a b l e 7 ) . T a b l e I I I r e v e a l s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t "women o f c o l o u r " a r e r e p r e s e n t e d even more p o o r l y t h a n a d o l e s c e n t women i n g e n e r a l . A t o t a l o f 4 a d o l e s c e n t non-white women appear i n F a m i l y L i v i n g compared t o 10 non-white males. Two o f t h o s e are  a c t u a l l y t h e same g i r l i n t h e same photo which appears on  t h e back c o v e r as w e l l as on page 90. I f t h i s g i r l were n o t counted ( s i n c e she appears t o be p o s s i b l y a  Mexican-American)  i t would l e a v e o n l y two a d o l e s c e n t "women o f c o l o u r " i n t h e e n t i r e book. One o f t h e g i r l s appears t o be o f A f r i c a n o r i g i n , the other g i r l ' s r a c i a l o r i g i n i s less clear  (p.228).  A s i a n and O r i e n t a l a d o l e s c e n t s a r e u n r e p r e s e n t e d and o n l y one O r i e n t a l family i s p i c t u r e d i n Family L i v i n g . Adolescent "women o f c o l o u r " a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n People i n S o c i e t y . Photographs o f f a m i l y groups r e p r e s e n t many r a c i a l b u t none o f them shows a non-white  groups,  a d o l e s c e n t female.  A d o l e s c e n t "women o f c o l o u r " f a r e b e t t e r i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t h a n t h e y do i n e i t h e r F a m i l y L i v i n g o r P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . Once a g a i n , t h i s t e x t b o o k r e v e a l s i t s female emphasis i n photographs. F o u r t e e n (13.33%) o f t h e 105 females a r e nonw h i t e and e i g h t (10.66%) o f t h e 75 males a r e non-white (Appendix A, T a b l e s 8 - 1 0 ) . E q u a l numbers o f females and males i s n o t enough f o r f a i r t r e a t m e n t o f t h e sexes i n photographs. The s i z e o f t h e photographs, t h e absence o f o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e photographs, t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e photographs, and t h e r a c i a l o r i g i n s o f t h e  74 people p o r t r a y e d a l l c a r r y w i t h them messages about who t h e book i s a d d r e s s i n g as w e l l as about images, r o l e s and relationships. Alone o r i n R e l a t i o n s h i p Although there i s not a very l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t o t a l number o f females and males i n t h e photographs o f F a m i l y L i v i n g , t h e y have t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f making males v i s i b l e and i m p o r t a n t w h i l e making females l e s s v i s i b l e and l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n males. T h i s male emphasis i s apparent i n photographs o f s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s . Of t h e 17 photographs o f s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s who c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d by sex, 10 a r e o f a d u l t and a d o l e s c e n t males, 5 o f a d u l t o r a d o l e s c e n t females and t h e r e m a i n i n g 2 female c h i l d r e n (Appendix  B ) . The  t e x t b o o k i n c l u d e s two f u l l page p i c t u r e s o f s o l i t a r y a d o l e s c e n t males (p.14 and p.342) and two f u l l  page  photographs o f s o l i t a r y a d u l t males (p.222 and p.360) b u t t h e r e a r e no f u l l page photographs o f s o l i t a r y a d u l t o r a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s . The a d u l t and a d o l e s c e n t males a r e used to  ' d e c o r a t e ' t h e t e x t b o o k . The message conveyed by t h e s e  photographs seems t o be t h a t g i r l s a l r e a d y t a k e home economics c o u r s e s , b u t i n o r d e r t o address t h e boys i n home economics c o u r s e s males must be more v i s i b l e t h a n  females.  A d u l t females a r e shown a l o n e i n o n l y t h r e e photographs.  Here  t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s and a r e unmarried. Only one o f t h e s o l i t a r y males i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s way and he i s f o r m e r l y m a r r i e d . Whereas F a m i l y L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a male emphasis i n i t s  75 photographs, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a female emphasis. The female f o c u s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s apparent i n t h e photographs o f s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s as i t i s i n o t h e r photographs (Appendix C ) . A l l t h r e e o f t h e f u l l page photographs i n t h e book a r e o f f e m a l e s . Two o f them a r e a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s and one a p r e - a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e . I n t h e s m a l l e r t h a n f u l l page photographs o f s o l i t a r y  individuals  t h e r e a r e 45 f e m a l e s and 36 males. Of t h e a d o l e s c e n t s , 68.89% are  female and o n l y 31.11% a r e male. C o n s i d e r i n g o n l y  s o l i t a r y a d u l t s , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a preponderance o f males. 60% o f t h e s o l i t a r y a d u l t s a r e males and o n l y 40% a r e f e m a l e s . These photos i m p l y t h a t men e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y w h i l e a d u l t women e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . U n l i k e F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s e q u a l numbers o f s o l i t a r y males and s o l i t a r y f e m a l e s . There i s one f u l l page photograph o f a s o l i t a r y a d o l e s c e n t male (p.121) and one o f a s o l i t a r y e l d e r l y female (p.226). There a r e 15 males and 15 females i n s m a l l e r t h a n f u l l page photographs o f i n d i v i d u a l s (Appendix D ) . Occupational Roles When o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o f females and males a r e examined i n t h e photographs, women f r e q u e n t l y appear i n t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s r a t h e r t h a n i n t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s o r p o s i t i o n s o f power and i n f l u e n c e . In  F a m i l y L i v i n g v e r y few o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s a r e  d e p i c t e d i n t h e photographs and more women (6) t h a n men (4) are  d e p i c t e d t h i s way (Appendix E ) . The f o u r males a r e  76 p s y c h o l o g i s t s and c l e r g y . Four women a r e shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as h e a l t h c a r e w o r k e r s . There a r e two women i n t h e once n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f TV r e p o r t e r and weather f o r e c a s t e r but t h e comment b e s i d e t h e s e photographs p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e women remain s i n g l e because o f t h e i r demanding c a r e e r s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which o v e r a l l p i c t u r e s more f e m a l e s t h a n males, shows t w e n t y - f i v e males i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s b u t o n l y twenty-^one f e m a l e s .  Of t h e twenty-one females p i c t u r e d i n  o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , f o u r o f them a r e i n r o l e s c a r i n g f o r o r r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n o r a d o l e s c e n t s : t e a c h e r , day c a r e w o r k e r , s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a f o o d s e r v i c e , and a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n a t s t r e e t c r o s s i n g (p.157, p.155, p.81 and p.79). The photographs i n t h e c h a p t e r  "Careers H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n " show  o n l y women. I n t h e e n t i r e t e x t b o o k , occupational roles,  a teacher,  o n l y one o f t h e male  (p.63) shows i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h  c h i l d r e n o r a d o l e s c e n t s . Females i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a r e shown i n o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l women's work. E i g h t women a r e p i c t u r e d a t i n d u s t r i a l sewing machines. The o n l y male who i s p i c t u r e d w o r k i n g i n t h e c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y i s a buyer. The t r a d i t i o n a l male o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r r e l a t i n g t o housing  and machinery a r e f i l l e d more o f t e n by males t h a n  by f e m a l e s .  E i g h t males a r e shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l male  occupations  and o n l y two f e m a l e s a r e shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l  male o c c u p a t i o n s ,  a w e l d e r and a worker i n h a r d h a t (p.78).  I n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y , twenty males a r e shown i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , none o f w h i c h a r e n u r t u r i n g r o l e s (Appendix G ) . Only t w e l v e women a r e shown i n o c c u p a t i o n a l  77 r o l e s and t h r e e o f t h o s e a r e n u r t u r i n g , c h i l d b e a r i n g r o l e s ( p r e s c h o o l w o r k e r , s u r r o g a t e mother, m i s s i o n a r y ) . E i g h t males a r e shown i n p o s i t i o n s o f power o r i n f l u e n c e : p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ( 5 ) , p o l i t i c i a n s ( 2 ) , Pope ( 1 ) . Only t h r e e females a r e shown i n p o s i t i o n s o f power o r i n f l u e n c e : p o l i t i c i a n s ( 2 ) , Queen, (1). R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e Home C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s , i n i t s photographs and l i n e drawings,  f a r more home maintenance and home management  a c t i v i t i e s t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two t e x t b o o k s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows s i x f e m a l e s , b u t o n l y one male, shopping  for  f o o d . F i v e f e m a l e s , and o n l y one male, shop f o r c l o t h e s . Two females a r e shown shopping shown shopping  f o r c o s m e t i c s and no males a r e  f o r personal care products  (Appendix  F). In  t h e home, females a r e d o i n g more c o o k i n g t h a n males. S i x females b u t o n l y two males a r e p i c t u r e d c o o k i n g . The photographs show o t h e r housekeeping t a s k s s l i g h t l y more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between females and males: two a d o l e s c e n t males do t h e l a u n d r y and one does t h e vacuuming w h i l e one a d o l e s c e n t female does t h e i r o n i n g , two c l e a n t h e bedroom and two make a bed (Appendix I ) . F a m i l y L i v i n g i n c l u d e s s i x home maintenance and home management photographs f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between females and males: a man vacuuming w i t h a young g i r l , a woman c o o k i n g w i t h a boy, a man u s i n g a b l e n d e r , a f a m i l y ( a d u l t female and male w i t h c h i l d r e n ) r a k i n g l e a v e s , a man d o i n g home r e n o v a t i o n and a woman and c h i l d r e n b u i l d i n g something  78 (Appendix H ) . Of t h e photographs which d e p i c t t h e home environment, P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y does n o t i n c l u d e any which show t h e work i n v o l v e d i n home maintenance o r home management (Appendix J ) . Responsibilities i n Relationships An a n a l y s i s o f photographs o f t h e home environment i n F a m i l y L i v i n g shows f i v e males i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and n i n e f e m a l e s p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s r o l e . Women a r e a l s o p i c t u r e d i n a more "connected" way t h a n men. F o r example, a woman and 2 g i r l s l o o k a t each o t h e r w h i l e a man and a boy l o o k a t t h e f o o d ( p . 2 6 2 ) ; a woman and g i r l l o o k a t one a n o t h e r , w h i l e a man and a boy l o o k a t a  k n i f e (p.315) (Appendix H). The  c h a p t e r on "Growing and L e a r n i n g " (Leavenworth, e t a l , p.175), about p a r e n t i n g o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s c h o o l  years,  show s i x women b u t no men (Appendix A, T a b l e 2 ) . T h i s has t h e v i s u a l e f f e c t o f g i v i n g t h e r o l e o f s t a y i n g home w i t h young c h i l d r e n t o t h e mother. A l t h o u g h t h e comment by one photograph s a y s " P a r e n t s w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r t o manage i f t h e y p l a n ahead" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 233-emphasis  added), t h e photograph shows a mother w i t h f o u r  c h i l d r e n t r y i n g t o g e t two o f them o f f t o s c h o o l . I n l o c a t i o n s w h i c h were n o t r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , t h r e e a d u l t f e m a l e s were p i c t u r e d w i t h c h i l d r e n w h i l e o n l y one male was p i c t u r e d w i t h a c h i l d (Appendix E ) . Some photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l images o f women and men as c a r e g i v e r s . One p i c t u r e i n an u n i d e n t i f i e d environment f i t s i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y  79 of the  "discipline",  a f a t h e r reprimands a c h i l d . The p i c t u r e o f  female s i n g l e p a r e n t comments on t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t o f  d i v o r c e . The p i c t u r e o f a male s i n g l e p a r e n t d e s c r i b e s t h e work and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n b e i n g a s i n g l e p a r e n t (Appendix E).  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e between males and females as c a r e g i v e r s  was n o t o b s e r v e d i n t h e photographs o f e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two t e x t b o o k s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows t h e l a r g e s t number o f photographs which d e p i c t c a r e g i v i n g t o c h i l d r e n . Of t h e twenty photographs o f c h i l d c a r e g i v i n g , o n l y f o u r f e a t u r e a d u l t males and none o f them f e a t u r e a d o l e s c e n t males w i t h c h i l d r e n . The r e m a i n i n g s i x t e e n photographs show a d u l t o r adolescent females w i t h c h i l d r e n . In C r e a t i v e L i v i n g the a d o l e s c e n t female r o l e o f b a b y s i t t i n g i s r e i n f o r c e d  (p.142-  147) by photographs showing two female b a b y s i t t e r s and no males (Appendix F ) . The i n t e n t i o n i s p r o b a b l y n o t t o i n d i c a t e t h a t b a b y s i t t i n g i s f o r females though, because t h e l i n e drawings (p.159-166) show t h r e e a d o l e s c e n t males  interacting  w i t h c h i l d r e n and o n l y one a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e . Other  line  d r a w i n g s (p. 161-162), however, r e i n f o r c e t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f the  female as t h e c a r e g i v e r when t h e hands shown d i a p e r i n g  the  baby have l a c e around t h e c u f f o f t h e s l e e v e i n d i c a t i n g  t h a t t h e p e r s o n c h a n g i n g t h e baby i s f e m a l e . Only two photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y show p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n c a r e g i v i n g t a s k s w i t h c h i l d r e n . A woman i s shown g i v i n g a baby a b o t t l e and a "househusband"  (Hanson & Gower,  1988a, p.168) does t h e same (Appendix G). The  photographs,  80 p a r t l y t h r o u g h t h e i r absence, do n o t r e i n f o r c e t h e s t e r e o t y p e of f e m a l e s as c a r e g i v e r s t o c h i l d r e n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h o s e i n F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g do. However, b o t h t h e l i n e drawings (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.160 and 181)  show t h e  woman r a t h e r t h a n t h e man h o l d i n g t h e baby. Non-traditional A c t i v i t i e s Some photographs s e r v e t o c o u n t e r a c t  stereotyping. In  F a m i l y L i v i n g , t h r e e photographs f e a t u r e males i n nont r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s : a man and g i r l d e c o r a t i n g a gingerbread  house (p.337), a man and g i r l vacuuming (p.198)  and a man u s i n g a b l e n d e r  (p.360). One shows a woman d o i n g a  woodworking p r o j e c t w i t h a g i r l and a boy.  However, when t h i s  photograph i s s t u d i e d i t shows t h e woman a s incompetent i n a t r a d i t i o n a l male t a s k . The woman i s p a i n t i n g an u n f i n i s h e d p r o j e c t - t h e g i r l measures and t h e boy sands. These t h r e e tasks are incompatible.  I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e photograph was  "posed" and i n c l u d e d f o r t h e " e f f e c t " o f c o u n t e r a c t i n g a s t e r e o t y p e . F o r anyone who r e a l l y l o o k s a t i t , t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e incompetent female w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d . I n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , one photograph s u g g e s t s male incompetence i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female t a s k . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s a l s o i s a "posed" photograph. A man's hands a r e shown c u t t i n g a p a t t e r n w h i c h i s p l a c e d on f a b r i c .  Closer  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e photograph r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n are n o t p i n n e d down, he i s b e g i n n i n g  pieces  t o cut the f a b r i c i n the  m i d d l e n o t a t t h e edge, and t h e p a t t e r n i s f o r a s k i r t . The s e c t i o n o f C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t i t l e d "Be an  Entrepreneur"  81 ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.233-234) may be e n c o u r a g i n g a d o l e s c e n t s t o see t h e m s e l v e s i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . The l i n e drawings show a g i r l as a b a b y s i t t e r b u t a g i r l a l s o washing c a r s , a g i r l and boy g a r d e n i n g , a boy c l e a n i n g , a g i r l a t a computer, and g i r l s and boys i n a band. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y does n o t i n c l u d e photographs which appear t o be t o k e n e f f o r t s t o encourage n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Few photographs o f a c t i v i t y a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e book and t h e two n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (p.136 and p.169) are  n o t t o k e n s because t h e y i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t i n  the  textbook.  Dominance and A c t i v i t y i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between females and males c a n , t o some e x t e n t , be d e t e r m i n e d by o b s e r v i n g photographs. F a m i l y L i v i n g f e a t u r e s many photographs (51 o u t o f 91 - 56%) w h i c h i n c l u d e b o t h f e m a l e s and males. I n F a m i l y L i v i n g , males t a k e more a c t i v e o r more dominant r o l e s t h a n do females (Appendix K ) . For  example, a man c a r v e s w h i l e t h e f a m i l y s i t s ( p . 2 8 3 ) , and  males p l a y m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s w h i l e f e m a l e s l i s t e n (p.75,91,126). There a r e 21 photographs (41%) which i n c l u d e a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and i n w h i c h t h e male i s more a c t i v e o r dominant. Females a r e more a c t i v e o r dominant i n o n l y 5 photographs (10%) and t h e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s such as n u r t u r i n g and s h o p p i n g (p.54 and p.220), o r j u s t h a v i n g fun  (p.79 and 8 2 ) . Throughout, t h e r e a r e 25 photographs (49%)  i n w h i c h n e i t h e r male n o r female i s more a c t i v e o r dominant. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g c o n t a i n s v e r y few photographs (22 o u t o f  82 192 - 11%) w h i c h i n c l u d e b o t h females and males. Most o f t h e s e photographs  (15 - 68%) do n o t show e i t h e r females o r  males as more a c t i v e o r dominant (Appendix L ) . However, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows females as more a c t i v e o r dominant t h a n males i n 6 photographs  ( 2 7 % ) ; a male i s more a c t i v e o r  dominant i n o n l y one photograph  (>5%). The a c t i v e females  a r e , however, p i c t u r e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as t e a c h e r (p.157), as w a i t r e s s (p.246), as n u r t u r e r ( p . 2 1 ) , s e l l i n g t i c k e t s i n a t h e a t r e ( p . 1 7 0 ) , and shopping (p.287). P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y a l s o uses many photographs  (27 o u t o f  88 - 30%) w h i c h i n c l u d e b o t h female and male. I n most o f them (20 - 74%) n e i t h e r male n o r female i s dominant (Appendix M). Males a r e more dominant i n seven photographs  ( 2 6 % ) . Three o f  t h e s e photographs have male p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . There a r e no photographs i n which females a r e more dominant. O b s e r v a t i o n o f photographs r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s examined a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . F a m i l y L i v i n g has an o v e r a l l sex b a l a n c e , whereas P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y has moire males t h a n f e m a l e s , and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g has more f e m a l e s t h a n males. A l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s f e a t u r e more a d u l t f e m a l e s t h a n a d u l t males. Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e more a d o l e s c e n t males t h a n f e m a l e s , whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more a d o l e s c e n t females t h a n a d o l e s c e n t males. A d o l e s c e n t "women o f c o l o u r " a r e p o o r l y represented i n a l l three textbooks. Creative L i v i n g features more s o l i t a r y females t h a n males whereas F a m i l y L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more s o l i t a r y males t h a n f e m a l e s and P e o p l e i n  83 S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s e q u a l numbers o f s o l i t a r y females and males. F a m i l y L i v i n g d e p i c t s few o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s b u t a l l t e x t s show women most o f t e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s no photographs which d e p i c t home maintenance and home management a c t i v i t i e s whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more women t h a n men i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s and F a m i l y L i v i n g shows an e q u a l number o f women and men i n v o l v e d i n home management and home maintenance. Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u d e t o k e n , posed photographs i n e p t l y p o r t r a y i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I n People i n S o c i e t y , however, such t o k e n s do n o t appear. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y a l s o does n o t f e a t u r e e i t h e r t h e female o r male as a c t i v e o r dominant whereas i n F a m i l y L i v i n g males a r e more a c t i v e o r dominant arid i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g females a r e more a c t i v e o r dominant b u t i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female a c t i v i t i e s . Highlighted The  Sections  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i r i g s from t h e  examination of t h e h i g h l i g h t e d sections of t h e textbooks. I n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d  t o be h i g h l i g h t e d i f i t was s e t  a p a r t from t h e r e s t o f t h e t e x t i n a c o l o u r e d o r o u t l i n e d box.  F i r s t , t h e f i n d i n g s o f gerider b i a s a r e r e p o r t e d .  Second,  t h e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h gender b i a s a r e reported. Gender B i a s A l l textbooks  e x h i b i t e d examples o f gender b i a s . The  t h r e e t y p e s o f b i a s n o t e d were o n e - s i d e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s , s e x i s t language, and s t e r e o t y p i n g .  84  One-sided P r e s e n t a t i o n Each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s  has examples o f h i g h l i g h t e d  s e c t i o n s which f o c u s on one s e x w h i l e i g n o r i n g o r m i n i m i z i n g the other; I n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f Family seven o f t h e f o r t y - o n e " F e a t u r e s "  Living,  f o c u s on a male o r g i v e a  male p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r e x a m p l e : " F a t h e r i n g " (p.170); " S m i l i n g , Development o f " (p.178)- a male's e x p e r i e n c e "The and  of parenting;  L a s t Day" (p.334)- a f a t h e r l o s e s c u s t o d y o f h i s s o n ; "Being a S t e p f a t h e r "  (p.338).  C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s females more o f t e n t h a n males i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , j u s t as i t does i n t h e photographs. E i g h t o f t h e " F e a t u r e s "  f o c u s on females o r  female examples. F o r example: " C a r i n g f o r t h e Unborn" c o m p l e t e l y care  i g n o r e s t h e r o l e o f t h e male i n p r e n a t a l  (p.127) and "Design I l l u s i o n s " (p.377) f e a t u r e s  females i n dresses  four  and one male i n warm-up o r j o g g i n g  clothes. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s t h r e e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on f e m a l e s and f i v e on males. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e female may mean t h a t i m p o r t a n t  f o c u s i n g o n l y on  i n f o r m a t i o n about males i s  l e f t o u t . F o r example, " B l i n d t o o l o n g " (p.187) f o c u s e s on a female c h i l d abuser b u t makes no mention o f how p a t t e r n s o f c h i l d abuse o r r e a s o n s f o r abuse may be d i f f e r e n t f o r males. S i m i l a r l y , f o c u s i n g o n l y on t h e male may mean t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about f e m a l e s i s n e g l e c t e d . w h i c h o n l y t h e male e x p e r i e n c e  important  Some examples i n  o f an i s s u e i s r e c o g n i z e d  o c c u r i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . F o r example: " D i v o r c e d  father  85  f r u s t r a t e d by w i n n e r - t a k e - a l l l a w s " (p.193); " I f you h u r t your w i f e o r g i r l f r i e n d when you a r e angry, you s h o u l d know t h a t : . . . " (p.167); and "Househusbands a growing phenomenon" (p.168). S e x i s t Language The e l i m i n a t i o n o f s e x i s t language i s an i m p o r t a n t way i n which t e x t b o o k s d e a l w i t h t h e problem o f gender b i a s . S e x i s t language o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s t h a n i n t h e c o n t e n t . The use o f "he" as a g e n e r i c pronoun s l i p s i n t o t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f two o f t h e s e t e x t b o o k s . I t appears i n q u o t a t i o n s such a s : "He s m i l e s e a r l y , because he i s a s o c i a l b e i n g " (McNulty i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.178); " I f one t u g s a t a s i n g l e t h i n g i n n a t u r e , he f i n d s i t a t t a c h e d t o e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i n t h e w o r l d " ( M u i r i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.288-9); and "a New  Yorker  spends a l i f e t i m e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f an a r e a s m a l l e r t h a n a c o u n t r y v i l l a g e . L e t him walk two b l o c k s from h i s c o r n e r and he i s i n a s t r a n g e l a n d ..." (E.B. White i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.306). One " F e a t u r e " i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a l s o uses t h e " g e n e r i c " male pronoun i n "Some Ways t o Make D e c i s i o n s " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.27) i n t h e comment t h a t "a swimmer does w e l l t o f o l l o w t h e example o f h i s coach". I n a d d i t i o n t o u s i n g t h e g e n e r i c "he", F a m i l y L i v i n g a l s o s l i p s from i t s u s u a l use o f i n c l u s i v e language t o s e x i s t language i n a n o t h e r h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n . The t e r m i n o l o g y moves from "homemaker" t o "housewife"  and back t o "homemaker"  (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.125) as i f t h e two were  86  synonymous. Two  j o b s o f t h e "housewife"  a r e r e f e r r e d t o as  " l a u n d r e s s " and " s e a m s t r e s s " and q u a l i t y o f c l o t h i n g i s d e t e r m i n e d by c h e c k i n g t h e "workmanship" (p.294). Stereotyping Each of t h e t h r e e t e x t s c o n t a i n s examples o f h i g h l i g h t e d sections r e i n f o r c i n g s t e r e o t y p i c a l patterns of behaviour or r o l e s f o r women and men.  These h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s a r e  p r e s e n t e d i n an u n p r o b l e m a t i c way.  The t e x t b o o k s do not  suggest t h e i r use i n d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l behaviors or r o l e s . Two  highlighted sections i n Creative Living reinforce  t h e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e woman s t a y i n g home w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . They a r e : "Scenes from a M a r r i a g e " ( F o s t e r e t a l ,  1985,  p.150) i n which Donna q u i t s work when she has a baby and M a r i o l e a v e s s c h o o l t o g e t a j o b , and " P a r e n t i n g i n D i f f e r e n t C u l t u r e s " (p.120) which s t a t e s " . . . g r a n d p a r e n t s - o f t e n h e l p mothers c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (emphasis  added).  Some examples from P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y r e i n f o r c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e mother o r w i f e as c a r e g i v e r , as i n the f o l l o w i n g : P s y c h o l o g i s t says TV can be b e n e f i c i a l t o k i d s who a r e a c t i v e v i e w e r s ... t h e d i f f e r e n c e between i n v o l v e d and p a s s i v e v i e w i n g ... comes from how much leeway mothers a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n s e l e c t i n g and d i s c u s s i n g programs. The mother who dominates her c h i l d ' s v i e w i n g i s more l i k e l y t o produce a p a s s i v e v i e w e r . . . ( B i s h o p i n Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.129) R a i s i n g t e e n s : a tough b u s i n e s s ... N o v i c k wipes t h e g u i l t from a w o r k i n g mother's p l a t e .... The problem i s when mothers have t o work i r r e g u l a r h o u r s . . . . I f mothers work, and so many do j u s t t o keep up w i t h e x p e n s i v e t e e n a g e r s needs... p a r e n t s have c o n f u s e d ( t e e n a g e r s )  87 about what t o e x p e c t . 'There's changed m o d e l l i n g o f p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y women...' (Hanson & Gower, p.182-3) Family L i v i n g features three h i s t o r i c a l write-ups i n which f e m a l e s and males have r o l e s and p o s i t i o n s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from one a n o t h e r . They a r e : " C h i v a l r y and C o u r t l y Love" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.75), "An Anglo-Saxon B e t r o t h a l " ( p . 9 8 ) , and "Payday a t t h e P e l l e g r i n i ' s " (p.l34)» The t e x t b o o k does n o t s u g g e s t t h e i r use i n d i s c u s s i o n o f what i s s a i d about women's h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y o r t h e changes  ( o r l a c k o f change) i n women's r o l e s .  Another h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n i n F a m i l y L i v i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t women a r e i n s t i n c t i v e c a r e g i v e r s : "When a n y t h i n g happens i n Johnny's room - n o i s e s , t h a t i s - we b o t h s t a r t r u n n i n g . My w i f e r u n s f o r Johnny, and I r u n f o r t h e book. She's p l a y i n g t h i s t h i n g by i n s t i n c t , and I'm p l a y i n g by t h e book" (McNulty i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.178). A t t e m p t s t o D e a l w i t h Gender B i a s A l l t e x t b o o k s examined a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h gender b i a s . The ways n o t e d were t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e language, t h e i n c l u s i o n o f males, t h e mention o f female and male d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . I n c l u s i v e Language One approach t o overcoming gender b i a s t a k e n by t h e s e t e x t b o o k s i s gender n e u t r a l i t y . Examples o f i n c l u s i v e language o c c u r i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f a l l t h r e e books. N e u t r a l i t y may mean t h a t i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s a r e masked o r e x c l u d e d as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g from C r e a t i v e L i v i n g : "How t o Have a S u c c e s s f u l Date"  ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.91) which  88  a v o i d s mention o f any t r a d i t i o n s which might be d i f f e r e n t f o r f e m a l e s and males, and "Matching t h e Toy t o t h e C h i l d " (p.133) w h i c h s a y s n o t h i n g about t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n through toys. I n c l u s i v e language may  a l s o mean t h a t i m p o r t a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t r e c o g n i z e d as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  examples:  (a) I n t h e s e c t i o n on h e a l t h (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.255 & 256), " a d u l t s " a r e grouped i n t o one c a t e g o r y a l t h o u g h , i n r e a l i t y , women's h e a l t h problems a r e somewhat d i f f e r e n t from men's a t p r e s e n t . (b) F o r a l l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e d i v o r c e r a t e e x c e p t m a r r i a g e age ( e g . l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n ) f e m a l e s and males a r e grouped t o g e t h e r (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 329). (c) S e x u a l A t t i t u d e s o f Canadian Teenagers  (Hanson & Gower,  1988a, p.127), T e r m i n a l V a l u e s (p.131), and P e r s o n a l Concerns (p.132) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r a d o l e s c e n t s i n g e n e r a l from d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s i n Canada. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know how o r i f female and male a d o l e s c e n t s d i f f e r on t h e s e . I n c l u s i o n o f Males Another approach used o c c a s i o n a l l y i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s t o overcome gender b i a s i s t h e attempt t o i n c l u d e b o t h f e m a l e s and males i n a b a l a n c e d way.  T h i s i s done by  showing how c o n c e p t s can be r e l e v a n t t o o r can a p p l y t o b o t h females and males. Many h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f C r e a t i v e L i v i n g attempt t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n a b a l a n c e d way. Some examples a r e : " S e t t i n g up G o a l s ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.175) w h i c h uses female and male examples, and "Measuring Up"  89  (p.406-407) which p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r b o t h f e m a l e s and males. No i s s u e s o f importance t o gender e q u i t y a r e h a n d l e d i n a b a l a n c e d way. A b e t t e r gender s e n s i t i v e and b a l a n c e d approach i s used i n t h e two h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s o f P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y , "What can a b a t t e r e d woman do?" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.165) and "What c a n a b a t t e r e r do?" (p.166). T h i s i s s u e i s t h e n p e r s o n a l i z e d f o r males i n a n o t h e r h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n , " I f you h u r t y o u r w i f e o r g i r l f r i e n d when you a r e angry, you s h o u l d know t h a t ..." ( p . 167 - emphasis added). However, i t i s n o t p e r s o n a l i z e d i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n on f e m a l e s , "Keeping h e r i n l i n e ... W i f e b a t t e r i n g : i t s t i m e t o b r e a k t h e s i l e n c e " (p.164 - emphasis added). The same l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n f o r b o t h females and males would h e l p a l l s t u d e n t s t o r e l a t e t o t h i s i s s u e and m a i n t a i n , r a t h e r t h a n d i s t o r t , t h e gender b a l a n c e . Female and Male D i f f e r e n c e s Some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s i n each t e x t b o o k attempt t o d e a l w i t h gender b i a s by m e n t i o n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between f e m a l e s and males. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o o l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d t o be o f v a l u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e o r t h e problems c r e a t e d by t h e i t . Two examples from C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a r e : (a)"The A g i n g F a m i l y " draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t women o u t l i v e men and s u g g e s t s t h a t "more a t t e n t i o n (be p a i d ) t o t h e needs o f widows and women l i v i n g a l o n e " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.71). I t doesn't a d d r e s s t h e problem o f p o v e r t y among  90  female s e n i o r s o r t h e causes o f i t . (b) " E a t i n g D i s o r d e r s "  ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.271)  acknowledges t h a t a n o r e x i a and b u l i m i a a f f e c t more g i r l s  than  boys b u t t h e n uses "he o r she" r a t h e r t h a n j u s t t h e female pronoun and does n o t e l a b o r a t e on why g i r l s a r e more a f f e c t e d . Some f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e development o f a n o r e x i a a r e p o s t u l a t e d b u t t h e y t e n d t o blame t h e v i c t i m f o r b e i n g " o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e " and " p e r f e c t " : The d i s o r d e r seems t o be b a s i c a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b u t no one i s r e a l l y s u r e o f t h e e x a c t cause. V i c t i m s a r e u s u a l l y young women. They t e n d t o o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e and want t o be p e r f e c t i n a l l t h e y do. When t h e y l e a r n t h a t s o c i e t y encourages t h i n n e s s , t h e y t r y t o become t h i n . ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.271) The importance o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e i d e a t h a t women a r e e v a l u a t e d much more h a r s h l y t h a n men when i t comes t o w e i g h t are n o t mentioned. An example from F a m i l y L i v i n g which mentions a difference but includes too l i t t l e is  i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o f v a l u e  " P a r e n t i n g Tasks" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.214) which  shows t h e unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t a s k s around t h e home b u t reports i t unproblematically. Some examples from P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y mention i s s u e s o f female and male d i f f e r e n c e b u t g i v e t o o l i t t l e be o f much v a l u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  information t o  problems. Two a r e :  (a) " F o r c h i l d r e n under 13, t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s o f abuse i n v o l v i n g g i r l s and boys. Over t h e age o f 13, t h e r e a r e more c a s e s i n v o l v i n g g i r l s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.189). No  91 explanation of the d i f f e r e n c e i s given. (b) "Income Averages f o r Canadian F a m i l i e s " (p.193) which c l e a r l y shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e ($12,400) i n income  between  females and male headed s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s b u t g i v e s no further information. Gender E q u i t y I s s u e s A l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s which attempt t o d e a l w i t h gender i s s u e s . Three " f e a t u r e s " i n F a m i l y L i v i n g seem t o have been used i n an attempt t o change s t u d e n t s p e r c e p t i o n s o f women's a b i l i t i e s and r o l e s . They are: (a) "As f e m a l e s and males become f r i e n d s and e q u a l s , as t h e y s t u d y , work and compete w i t h each o t h e r , t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r i d e a l i z i n g t h e o p p o s i t e sex i s l o s t . That's when r e a l i t y e n t e r s and t h e myths d e p a r t " 1985, p.75).  (Leavenworth e t a l ,  T h i s i s a c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t a f t e r some  comments on c h i v a l r y and c o u r t l y l o v e . (b) "Who  S u p p o r t s t h e F a m i l y ? " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985,  p.119) acknowledges t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f women t o t h e f a m i l y and  t h e comments f o c u s on women.  (c) "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n S p o r t s " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.23) c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t h e r e can be g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s among members o f one sex t h a n between t h e average man and t h e average woman." One h i g h l i g h t e d a c t i v i t y  i n Creative Living  challenges  s t u d e n t s ' sex s t e r e o t y p i n g : Here i s a l i s t o f 10 c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s . W r i t e t h e numbers 1 t o 10 on a p i e c e o f paper and mark each M o r F, f o r  92 masculine o r feminine. 1. H e l p s o t h e r s 2. I s a g g r e s s i v e 3. I s home o r i e n t e d 4. I s independent 5. I s q u i e t 6. I s a c t i v e 7. I s e m o t i o n a l 8. Never c r i e s 9. I s u n a b l e t o make d e c i s i o n s 10. Makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y When g i v e n t h i s l i s t , most p e o p l e agree t h a t men have t h e even-numbered t r a i t s and women have t h e odd-numbered ones. B u t t h o s e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e n ' t r e a l l y t r u e o f a l l men and women. You c a n h e l p end t h i s s t e r e o t y p i n g : * Develop y o u r own s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s . Don't l i m i t y o u r s e l f by b e l i e v i n g s t e r e o t y p e s . * B e f o r e you s a y " G i r l s s h o u l d n ' t do t h a t , " o r "Boys don't a c t t h a t way," s t o p y o u r s e l f . What you s a y can i n f l u e n c e y o u r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . T r y t o h e l p them be more f l e x i b l e i n how t h e y t h i n k and a c t . I f you encourage them, t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o t h i n k f o r and be t h e m s e l v e s . ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.80) Two t e x t s i n c l u d e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on day c a r e , an i s s u e o f importance i f women a r e t o move f r e e l y i n t o t h e p u b l i c sphere. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g addresses t h i s i s s u e i n i t s s u p p o r t o f " f a m i l y s e r v i c e s " i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n which s t a t e s t h a t "Today, o v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f Canadian mothers work o u t s i d e t h e home, and t h i s p e r c e n t a g e i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n t h e f u t u r e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e r e i s a growing demand f o r more, and more generous, f a m i l y s e r v i c e s " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985,  p.120). P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y has i n c l u d e d two h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s  on day c a r e - one i n f a v o u r o f i t and one opposed t o i t . Kagan's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t i t i s a myth t h a t mothers s h o u l d be t h e p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e and a r e t h e b e s t ones t o "mould young p e o p l e i n t o h e a l t h y human b e i n g s "  (Hanson & Gower, 1988a,  p.111). He b e l i e v e s t h a t o t h e r s c a n a l s o do t h e j o b w e l l .  93  White w r i t e s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o day c a r e and> a t f i r s t ,  appears  t o be g i v i n g mothers t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : " I f you  are a mother w o r k i n g t o make ends  meet, dump the j o b and  l i v e poor f o r a few y e a r s "  "Even i f a mother has  (p.108) and  f o u r c h i l d r e n a t home, s h e ' l l pay  a t t e n t i o n t o the d i s t r e s s c a l l s of a two-month o l d  more  ..."  (p.109). White's assumptions about women are somewhat reversed  l a t e r i n the same h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n when he  comments t h a t "...men s h o u l d be as a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d c a r e as women a r e "  (p.110) and t h a t h i s i d e a l  i s the u n r e a l i s t i c proposal  t h a t b o t h p a r e n t s work  situation part-time.  P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y uses t h r e e o t h e r f e a t u r e s on women's i s s u e s . They a r e : " S o v i e t s d i v i d e d on women's r o l e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171); "Court g i v e s a s s i s t t o g i r l hockey" (p.135-136); and  over  "Male - female d i f f e r e n c e s " w h i c h  s t a t e s "Some f e m i n i s t s have argued t h a t a l l e m o t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s are c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d ...  i t i s unlikely  that  ( c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ) a c c o u n t e d f o r a l l the d i f f e r e n c e s , some of w h i c h were c l e a r l y drawn a l o n g s e x u a l Lee  l i n e s " (p.137). I n  Dr.  S a l k ' s o p i n i o n , hormones and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g b o t h  play a p a r t . This textbook presents a p o s i t i o n i n opposition t o the f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y .  I n t h e Suggested  A c t i v i t i e s s t u d e n t s are asked t o s t a t e whether t h e y "agree o r disagree The  w i t h h i s v i e w " ( p.137). highlighted sections exhibited  inconsistency  i n the way  considerable  i n which t h e problem of gender b i a s  i s addressed. Bias i s evident  i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s  of  94  a l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s . Some s e c t i o n s p r e s e n t  one-sided  i n f o r m a t i o n . Others c o n t a i n s e x i s t language o r r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p e s . S t i l l o t h e r s attempt t o d e a l w i t h gender b i a s : most a r e w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language,  some attempt t o  i n c l u d e females and males i n a b a l a n c e d way, and o t h e r s noted female and male d i f f e r e n c e s o r mentioned i s s u e s o f r e l e v a n c e t o gender e q u i t y . However, many o f t h e s e attempts were f l a w e d and a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n i n f a v o u r o f gender e q u i t y i s n o t t a k e n by any o f t h e t e x t b o o k s . The t e x t b o o k s g e n e r a l l y t r y t o maintain a n e u t r a l r a t h e r than t r a n s f o r m a t i v e stance. Content The  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n examines t h e c o n t e n t  s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s ) o f t h e t e x t b o o k s . Content  (including  includes not  o n l y what i s s a i d b u t a l s o how i t i s s a i d and t h e q u e s t i o n s which- a r e asked about i t . To address t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r s assumed by t h e t e x t , t h e examination of the content begins w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the form o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t , t h a t i s whether t h e c o n t e n t i s p r e s e n t e d as f a c t u a l o r p r o b l e m a t i c . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s c o n t i n u e s by examining how t h e problem o f b i a s has been d e a l t w i t h f i r s t t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f language t h e n t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t , t h a t i s , what i s p r e s e n t e d as knowledge and whether t h a t knowledge i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s u b s t a n t i v e o r s u p e r f i c i a l way.  95 Form o f c o n t e n t : f a c t u a l o r p r o b l e m a t i c ? The language o f t h e t e x t b o o k r e v e a l s t h e assumptions about l e a r n e r s and whether t h e knowledge p r e s e n t e d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be f a c t u a l o r p r o b l e m a t i c . I n F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g l e a r n e r s a r e b a s i c a l l y assumed t o be unknowledgeable, p a s s i v e r e c e i v e r s o f t e x t b o o k knowledge. They a r e g i v e n t h e " f a c t s " b u t r a r e l y t o l d t h e s o u r c e s o f t h e s e " f a c t s " so t h a t t h e y c a n l e a r n more i f t h e y choose. There i s never any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y might q u e s t i o n t h i s knowledge i n any way o r a p p l y i t i n a c r i t i c a l way t o s o c i a l issues. In  F a m i l y L i v i n g most o b j e c t i v e s b e g i n w i t h words such  as i d e n t i f y , name, d e s c r i b e , s t a t e , l i s t , e x p l a i n ,  tell,  g i v e , d e f i n e . O t h e r s , such as e v a l u a t e , appear l e s s o f t e n and can s t i l l be used i n r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e t e x t . The r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s which accompany each c h a p t e r o f F a m i l y L i v i n g ask the, l e a r n e r t o d e s c r i b e , name, and l i s t i t e m s  from  t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k . The r e v i e w s e c t i o n i s "made up of  q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s t h a t w i l l h e l p you determine  how  w e l l you have mastered t h e c h a p t e r c o n t e n t s " (Leavenworth e t al,  1985, p.11 - emphasis added). The T e a c h e r s '  Guide  p r o v i d e s t h e c o r r e c t answers from t h e t e x t t o a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r i n marking t h e s t u d e n t ' s work. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e a r e r i g h t answers and t h o s e from t h e s t u d e n t s own e x p e r i e n c e s a r e n o t encouraged. " O b j e c t i v e " t e s t q u e s t i o n s ( m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , t r u e and f a l s e , matching) and a complete answer k e y a r e p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t t h e t e a c h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g  96 whether o r n o t t h e s t u d e n t s have mastered t h e c o n t e n t o r l e a r n e d t h e key i d e a s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g assumes a t t i m e s t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e t h i n k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . I n t h e "Answers t o U n i t Review Q u e s t i o n s " i n t h e Teacher's Resource Book (p.155-157), "answers w i l l v a r y " i s g i v e n i n p l a c e o f a s p e c i f i c answer t o some q u e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s a r e n o t expected t o l i m i t themselves  t o r o t e l e a r n i n g , much r o t e l e a r n i n g i s e x p e c t e d .  A l l o f t h e "Test Items" on pages 110-152 a r e o f t h e T r u e / F a l s e , matching,  c o m p l e t i o n , and m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t y p e .  Even t h e c o m p l e t i o n t y p e i s g i v e n v e r y s p e c i f i c answers i n t h e answer key on pages 152-154. S t u d e n t s a r e n o t encouraged t o c h a l l e n g e t h e t e x t o r t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t . People i n S o c i e t y e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h a t l e a r n e r s are knowledgeable people who a r e c a p a b l e o f t h i n k i n g  critically  about s o c i a l i s s u e s . Each c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h "a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t i n t r o d u c e s you t o t h e t o p i c and t e l l s you how much you a l r e a d y know" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p . v i i emphasis added). The Suggested A c t i v i t i e s a r e i n t e n d e d t p t e s t the students " a b i l i t y t o apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g ( p . v i i ) and " t o d e v e l o p t h e s t u d e n t s critically  7  skills"  a b i l i t y to think  about t h e i s s u e s under d i s c u s s i o n " (Hanson &  Gower, 1988b, p . 8 ) . Each c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h "A S o c i a l Issue t o Explore", r e l a t i n g t o a t o p i c i n the chapter  over  which t h e r e i s some c o n t r o v e r s y . "Students a r e encouraged t o d e v e l o p reasoned  o p i n i o n s on t h o s e i s s u e s t h a t w i l l  their adult lives"  affect  (p.8). This idea i s c a r r i e d through i n  97 a c t i v i t i e s such as " E x p l a i n whether you agree t h a t ..." (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.128) and "Which v i e w do you agree w i t h and why?"(p.128) A l t h o u g h many e x e r c i s e s a r e o f t h e t y p e t h a t would encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , many o t h e r q u e s t i o n s encourage r o t e l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n t h o u g h t f u l answers. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e encouragement o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s n o t always c a r r i e d through  i n t h e t e x t . A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Freud's work, t h e  t e x t b o o k s t a t e s t h a t "Freud's work has been c r i t i c i z e d ... his  s t a g e s o f development were based m a i n l y on a male model  of behavior"  (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.68). A f t e r a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f E r i k s o n ' s and Maslow's work i t s t a t e s "Maslow's t h e o r i e s have been s u b j e c t t o many o f t h e same c r i t i c i s m s as Freud's and E r i k s o n ' s " ( p . 7 2 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s a r e q u i t e e a s i l y d i s m i s s e d by t h e s t a t e m e n t s " N e v e r t h e l e s s , Freud has been one o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l t h i n k e r s on human b e h a v i o r . H i s work c o n t i n u e s t o i n f l u e n c e treatment  o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y problems" (p.68)  and " D e s p i t e t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s argue t h a t Maslow's t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y development has some v a l u e " (p.72). People  i n S o c i e t y does n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  instruct  s t u d e n t s t o q u e s t i o n and c h a l l e n g e t h e t e x t b u t encourages them t o q u e s t i o n and c h a l l e n g e r e s e a r c h . F o r example, s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o c o n s i d e r why "Do you b e l i e v e women s h o u l d abandon t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e day t o pursue c a r e e r s ? " i s a " l o a d e d q u e s t i o n " ( p . 2 1 ) . They a r e a l s o  98 encouraged t o t a k e a p o s i t i o n on s o c i a l i s s u e s . F o r example, t h e y a r e asked t o agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h one o f t h e v i e w s p r e s e n t e d on day c a r e . By d o i n g t h i s i t may h e l p t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o question a l l t h a t they read, i n c l u d i n g the textbook. Of t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s , o n l y People  i n S o c i e t y encourages  some c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , t h e development o f reasoned o p i n i o n s and p o l i t i c a l  activity.  Language o f C o n t e n t One o f t h e ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h s e x i s m and s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s i s by c h a n g i n g t h e words used. S e x i s t language i s r a r e i n t h e c o n t e n t b u t one a s p e c t i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g was t h e use o f "Mr." and "Mrs.". Each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s shows evidence  o f an e f f o r t t o c o u n t e r gender b i a s by u s i n g  i n c l u s i v e language, u s i n g sex s p e c i f i c language, and c h o i c e o f pronouns. These approaches and some o f t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r use w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g section. I n c l u s i v e language. The use o f i n c l u s i v e words i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l three textbooks. In Family L i v i n g , "parenting" i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n p l a c e o f "mothering" L i v i n g and People  o r " f a t h e r i n g " and C r e a t i v e  i n S o c i e t y use t h e more i n c l u s i v e word  " c a r e g i v i n g " . "Spouse" has r e p l a c e d husband o r w i f e i n a l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s and F a m i l y L i v i n g a l s o uses " l i f e p a r t n e r " and "marriage  p a r t n e r " . "Homemaker" and "homemanager" a r e  used i n F a m i l y L i v i n g , whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a v o i d s concept.  this  " F i r e f i g h t e r s " has r e p l a c e d " f i r e m e n " i n F a m i l y  99 L i v i n g , " p o l i c e o f f i c e r " has r e p l a c e d "policeman" i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and "humanity" has r e p l a c e d "mankind" i n People i n Society. Attempts t o use i n c l u s i v e language c r e a t e some  problems.  Gender n e u t r a l i t y masks e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r women and men. A t t i m e s t h e use o f " n o n - s e x i s t " language i n F a m i l y L i v i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . F o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n accompanies a photograph  o f t h r e e mothers  i n a c l a s s e x e r c i s i n g with t h e i r small babies: "Exercise c l a s s e s f o r p a r e n t s and t h e i r i n f a n t s c a n b e n e f i t b o t h .  While  p a r e n t s improve muscle t o n e , t h e y l e a r n v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s t o h e l p t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s muscle development ..." (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.180 - emphasis added). The mothers a r e g e t t i n g t h e i r abdominals  i n shape a f t e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f pregnancy  got them o u t o f shape. T h i s i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y f o r f a t h e r s . Many t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h r e e t e x t s t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e language means t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s o f women and men a r e assumed t o be s i m i l a r when, i n f a c t , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e y may be v e r y d i f f e r e n t . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e "empty n e s t " s t a g e i n F a m i l y L i v i n g p r o v i d e s an example: P a r e n t s may miss h a v i n g young p e o p l e around t o a d v i s e , t o f i x t h i n g s f o r , o r t o k i d w i t h , f o r c h i l d r e n o f t e n make p a r e n t s f e e l r e s o u r c e f u l and young. The p a r e n t s may a l s o f i n d t i m e on t h e i r hands and f e e l l e s s u s e f u l w i t h no c h i l d r e n i n t h e h o u s e h o l d . They may need t o f i n d new i n t e r e s t s i n order t o maintain a p o s i t i v e self-image. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.319) The  "empty n e s t " s t a g e must be e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t l y by  t h o s e women who have s p e n t much o f t h e i r l i v e s c a r i n g f o r  100 t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h a n i t would be by men who have been o r a r e w o r k i n g a t a j o b o u t s i d e t h e home. People i n S o c i e t y , l i k e Family L i v i n g a l s o f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f women and men by u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language. F o r example, "The e l d e r l y a l s o b a b y s i t and p r o v i d e n u r t u r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n when b o t h p a r e n t s i n a f a m i l y work o u t s i d e t h e home" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.222). T h i s i s a r o l e most o f t e n t a k e n by e l d e r l y women. " R e t i r e m e n t " i s a n o t h e r a r e a where d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men e x i s t b u t a r e n o t r e c o g n i z e d o r a r e m i n i m i z e d i n each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s . T h i s s t a g e o f l i f e w i l l be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r a woman who has worked i n t h e home a l l h e r l i f e and a man who has worked o u t s i d e t h e home. One cannot " r e t i r e " from h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Retirement  from p u b l i c sphere work may a l s o come e a r l i e r f o r men t h a n for  women. By u s i n g i n c l u s i v e words such as " r e t i r e d p e r s o n "  and " r e t i r e d p e o p l e " as P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y does i n f o u r o u t o f f i v e o f t h e Suggested A c t i v i t i e s (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.236) t h i s book and t h e o t h e r s do n o t acknowledge what " r e t i r e m e n t " means t o t r a d i t i o n a l women. None o f t h e t e x t s mention t h a t r e t i r e m e n t from t h e w o r k f o r c e i s a t i m e f o r r e n e g o t i a t i n g a l l t h e work t h a t g e t s done i n homes. I s s u e s such as t h i s a r e e x p r e s s e d n e u t r a l l y as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y : " R e t i r e m e n t c a n a l s o mean a d j u s t i n g t o s p e n d i n g more t i m e w i t h t h e spouse. T h i s i s a time f o r r e t i r e d couples t o enjoy a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r ; however i t c a n mean a d j u s t i n g t o l e s s p r i v a c y , more household  101 c h o r e s , and t o o much f r e e t i m e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.234). C o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e language may cause o t h e r problems as w e l l . The t e x t b o o k s t e n d t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s even when t h e s t u d i e s have been  conducted  on o n l y one sex. F o r example i n F a m i l y L i v i n g , t h e s e c t i o n on d e l i n q u e n c y r e f e r s t o a s t u d y o f 500 a d o l e s c e n t boys and then g e n e r a l i z e s t o "young p e o p l e " (Leavenworth  e t a l , 1985,  p.346). The use o f i n c l u s i v e language may mean t h a t r e a l i s s u e s a r e i g n o r e d o r m i n i m i z e d . T h i s problem  social  arises with the  d i s c u s s i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e between females and males i s r e c o g n i z e d a t f i r s t by t h e comment "Most s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , about 17 m i l l i o n , a r e headed by women w i t h o u t a husband i n t h e h o u s e h o l d .  S i n g l e - p a r e n t households  m a i n t a i n e d by t h e f a t h e r a l o n e number l e s s t h a t 2 m i l l i o n " (Leavenworth  e r a l , 1985, p.336). However, t h e remainder o f  t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s t o t h e s i n g l e p a r e n t , even though problems a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r females and males. The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s t o p i c from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c u s t o d i a l  parent  never t h a t o f t h e n o n - c u s t o d i a l p a r e n t may i n i t s e l f be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . " S i n g l e p a r e n t s " may n o t be " s i n g l e " b u t p e o p l e who p a r e n t a l o n e . The s e c t i o n on "spouse abuse" (p.351) i n F a m i l y L i v i n g i s a n o t h e r a r e a where i m p o r t a n t problems a r e n o t addressed because o f a t t e m p t s t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e i s s u e by u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language. V i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women by i s more  102 p r e v a l e n t and s e v e r e t h a n v i o l e n c e o f women a g a i n s t men. Textbook c o n t e n t s h o u l d make t h i s c l e a r . I t s h o u l d a l s o n o t i g n o r e v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h o s e women who a r e n o t m a r r i e d . I n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u s i v e language a l s o d i s t o r t s t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o f females and males:  "Teens a r e  g e t t i n g t h e word - t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e e n s who smoke has d e c r e a s e d t e n p e r c e n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.277). The change i n t h e smoking p a t t e r n s f o r g i r l s and boys has n o t been t h e same a l t h o u g h t h i s t e x t b o o k r e p o r t s t h e information  inclusively.  Sex s p e c i f i c  language.  A l t h o u g h i n c l u s i v e language  i s used t h r o u g h o u t a l l t h e  t e x t b o o k s , none used i t t o t h e t o t a l e x c l u s i o n o f s e x s p e c i f i c words. "Mother" and " f a t h e r " a r e used f r e q u e n t l y i n examples t h r o u g h o u t C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , "mothering" and " f a t h e r i n g " a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned  i n F a m i l y L i v i n g , and  P eople i n S o c i e t y r e f e r s t o " w i f e abuse" a f t e r  introducing  t h e t o p i c o f "spouse abuse". The a p p r o p r i a t e use o f s e x s p e c i f i c language  i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e achievement  o f gender  sensitivity. The s e c t i o n on w i f e b a t t e r i n g i n People i n S o c i e t y o f f e r s one example o f a somewhat gender s e n s i t i v e  treatment  o f c o n t e n t , a l t h o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d n o t have been l i m i t e d t o " w i v e s " and " g i r l f r i e n d s " . People i n S o c i e t y f i r s t d e f i n e s t h e abuse i n an i n c l u s i v e way "Spousal abuse i s p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l v i o l e n c e o r a s s a u l t a p p l i e d by one spouse t o a n o t h e r " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.163) and emphasizes t h e  103 seriousness of i t ,  " S p o u s a l abuse i s a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e "  (p.163). A l t h o u g h i t r e p o r t s t h a t " t h e r e i s a r i s i n g number o f r e p o r t e d c a s e s o f husband abuse and homosexual  abuse"  ( p . 1 6 3 ) , t h i s t e x t b o o k acknowledges t h a t most c a s e s " a r e committed by husbands a g a i n s t t h e i r w i v e s " and t h r o u g h o u t t h e remainder o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h e t e x t i s gender s e n s i t i v e i n i t s emphasis on w i f e abuse and t h e problems o f t h e male abuser. Some comments about t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f o r r e s e a r c h on abuse o f males c o u l d add b a l a n c e t o t h i s gender s e n s i t i v e treatment. R a t h e r t h a n d i s p l a y i n g gender s e n s i t i v i t y , most a t t e m p t s t o use s e x s p e c i f i c language c r e a t e problems o f gender b i a s . C h i l d b i r t h i s one o b v i o u s a r e a i n which females and males have r o l e s which a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The f o l l o w i n g example from F a m i l y L i v i n g shows how, u s i n g t h e male as t h e s u b j e c t , t h e r o l e o f t h e male c a n be emphasized  while the role of the  female i s m i n i m i z e d . A t t e n d i n g p r e n a t a l c l a s s e s t o g e t h e r i s an e x c e l l e n t way f o r husband and w i f e t o s h a r e t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f parenthood. The c o u p l e l e a r n s b r e a t h i n g and muscler e l a x i n g e x e r c i s e s t o g e t h e r so t h a t t h e e x p e c t a n t f a t h e r can h e l p h i s p a r t n e r p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e pregnancy. He a l s o c a n a s s i s t d u r i n g t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d by e n c o u r a g i n g h i s w i f e t o r e l a x and b r e a t h e p r o p e r l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.155) Emphasis i s on t h e f a t h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e n o t on t h e mother's l e a r n i n g , p r a c t i c i n g and d o i n g . Sex s p e c i f i c language c a n a l s o m i n i m i z e o r i g n o r e t h e r o l e o f males when females become t h e s u b j e c t . When i t comes to r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r prenatal health, Family L i v i n g leaves men o u t . The t e x t b o o k summarizes t h e i r a d v i c e as "Mothers  104  must watch t h e i r d i e t s c a r e f u l l y and must a v o i d s u b s t a n c e s t h a t may  harm t h e unborn c h i l d " (Leavenworth  e t a l , 1985,  p. 171). No importance i s g i v e n t o t h e r o l e t h a t f a t h e r s can p l a y i n a s s i s t i n g , e n c o u r a g i n g and s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r p a r t n e r s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a males o n l y e n t e r i n an  inclusive  s t a t e m e n t , " B e f o r e t h e baby i s b o r n , e x p e c t a n t p a r e n t s have an i m p o r t a n t p a r e n t i n g r o l e : To p r o v i d e t h e mother-to-be w i t h p r o p e r c a r e " (p.158). Choice of One  pronouns. o f t h e ways i n which t h e t e x t b o o k s d e a l w i t h s e x i s m  i n language  i s t h r o u g h t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e pronouns.  Each o f  t h e t e x t b o o k s examined d e a l t w i t h female and male pronouns t h r o u g h t h e use o f "he o r she" i n p l a c e o f t h e g e n e r i c "he". F a m i l y L i v i n g does not s l i p i n t o t h e g e n e r i c "he" e x c e p t i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s as mentioned  e a r l i e r . People i n  S o c i e t y (p.128) a l l o w s "he" t o e n t e r as a g e n e r i c pronoun i n one o f t h e s t u d e n t a c t i v i t e s . Most o f t h e t i m e , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , uses pronouns.  I n t h i s way  "gendered"  inclusive  i t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e work f o r c e i s not  as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g :  "A p r i n c i p a l  heads up o n l y  one s c h o o l . He o r she makes s u r e t h a t t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e s what t h e community wants t o have t a u g h t " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.158);  "A s c h o o l d i e t i t i a n p l a n s and d i r e c t s  aim i s t o ..." they've had  (p.158); " p e d i a t r i c i a n s  ..."  H i s o r her  ... l i k e a l l d o c t o r s ,  (p.156); and "mother's h e l p e r "  ... "he o r  she" (p.155). But t h e t e x t b o o k i s not a b s o l u t e l y c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e pronouns.  The w o r k f o r c e i s gendered  105  i n s t a t e m e n t s such a s : "watch t h e n e i g h b o u r work i n h i s garden" (p.134) and " S a l l y d e c i d e s t o t a l k t o h e r m i n i s t e r . He  ..." ( p . 6 5 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o u s i n g i n c l u s i v e pronouns, b o t h C r e a t i v e  L i v i n g arid F a m i l y L i v i n g use a n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e t o d e a l w i t h pronouns. The t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e s t h e a l t e r n a t i n g use o f "she" and "he". A l t h o u g h t h i s t e c h n i q u e may appear n o n - s e x i s t , i t s use can r e i n f o r c e s e x i s t a s s u m p t i o n s . F o r example, i n t h e s e c t i o n o f C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t i t l e d "How  t o Feed B a b i e s and  T o d d l e r s " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.160-161) t h i s t e c h n i q u e o f a l t e r n a t i n g pronouns has been used from one example t o t h e n e x t b u t n o t w i t h i n t h e examples. As a r e s u l t t h e h e l p l e s s i n f a n t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y l a b e l l e d w i t h a female pronoun, r e i n f o r c i n g t h e dependence and h e l p l e s s n e s s o f f e m a l e s , and t h e more independent t o d d l e r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y l a b e l l e d w i t h t h e male pronoun, r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i d e a o f male independence. T h i s problem o c c u r s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e "How C h i l d " and " C h i l d S a f e t y " s e c t i o n s  t o Bathe a  (p.162-164).  The problem o f r e i n f o r c i n g s e x i s t s t e r e o t y p e s a l s o a r i s e s i n F a m i l y L i v i n g when t h e t e c h n i q u e o f a l t e r n a t i n g pronouns i s used i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s : "She has t o l i k e t r a v e l l i n g . " "He s h o u l d s h a r e i n t h e house work." "She s h o u l d have a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . " "He ought t o have a s t e a d y j o b . " "Her i d e a l s ought t o be t h e same as mine." "He s h o u l d have a sense o f humour." (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.96) The two which cause some d i f f i c u l t y here a r e t h e second and t h e f o u r t h . "She s h o u l d  106  s h a r e i n t h e housework" and "She s h o u l d have a s t e a d y  job"  r e a l l y e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t i d e a s from "He s h o u l d s h a r e i n t h e housework" and "He s h o u l d have a s t e a d y  j o b " . The t e x t b o o k  has used s i x examples o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a l t e r n a t i n g from t h e female pronoun t o t h e male pronoun, b u t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e s t i l l based on t h e assumption t h a t t h e male works o u t s i d e t h e home ( s t e a d y job) and t h a t t h e f e m a l e ' s work o u t s i d e t h e home i s s e c o n d a r y , b u t s i n c e she does work o u t s i d e t h e home he s h o u l d s h a r e t h e housework, b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a l l y . A l l o f the textbooks  use i n c l u s i v e nouns and i n c l u s i v e  pronouns, b u t n o t t o t h e complete e x c l u s i o n o f s e x s p e c i f i c language. Both i n c l u s i v e language and s e x s p e c i f i c language c r e a t e problems o f gender b i a s . Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e w i l l r e q u i r e t h e c a r e f u l and a p p r o p r i a t e use o f b o t h sex s p e c i f i c and i n c l u s i v e language. Substantive Content F i v e t o p i c s p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n how s u b s t a n t i v e  content  of t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l s w i t h gender b i a s . The t o p i c s c o n s i d e r e d a r e : women's i s s u e s and problems, work r o l e s , c h i l d  care,  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These t o p i c s were examined because t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e t e x t b o o k s examined and a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n home economics textbooks  about f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Women's i s s u e s and problems T h i s s t u d y examines f o u r i s s u e s w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r as women's i s s u e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a c o u r s e on f a m i l i e s and s o c i e t y : t h e c h a n g i n g s o c i a l  107  r o l e s and p o s i t i o n o f women, day c a r e , d i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , and woman b a t t e r i n g . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e s e a r e n o t e x c l u s i v e l y women's i s s u e s b u t t h a t t h e y a f f e c t females and males d i f f e r e n t l y , u s u a l l y u n e q u a l l y .  The impact  t h e s e i s s u e s have had on women has f r e q u e n t l y been more s e v e r e and d e s t r u c t i v e t h a n t h e impact on men. (a) The c h a n g i n g s o c i a l r o l e s and p o s i t i o n o f women The  c h a n g i n g s o c i a l r o l e s and p o s i t i o n o f women i n  s o c i e t y a r e acknowledged, a t l e a s t i n a minor way, i n a l l three textbooks.  Creative L i v i n g ' s only c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  c h a n g i n g t h e p o s i t i o n and r o l e o f women i s i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o s t e r e o t y p i n g ( P o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.79). T h i s t e x t b o o k  takes  an " i n d i v i d u a l approach" by c o n s i d e r i n g s t e r e o t y p e s as r e s t r i c t i n g and l i m i t i n g i n d i v i d u a l "chances"  (p.79).  A l t h o u g h F a m i l y L i v i n g i d e n t i f i e s t h e problem o f s t e r o t y p e s as more s o c i a l t h a n i n d i v i d u a l , i t a t t e m p t s t o be v a l u e f r e e o r n e u t r a l on women's c h a n g i n g r o l e s . I t does n o t advocate an e q u i t y p o s i t i o n roles  b u t a t t e m p t s t o make v a r i o u s s e x  acceptable.  W h i l e t h e r e a r e s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n boys' and g i r l s ' b e h a v i o r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r o l e s o f male and female a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s r i g i d l y d e f i n e d t o d a y t h a n t h e y were i n t h e p a s t . Women were once viewed a s one k i n d o f p e o p l e , w h i l e men were seen as a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . Work and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s performed by women were u s u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e performed by men. I f p e o p l e enjoyed a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r sex r o l e s they were c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e o r odd. The s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o maintain c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s c o n s i d e r e d p r o p e r f o r men o r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women i s c a l l e d s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . Such s t e r e o t y p i n g i s s t i l l common t h r o u g h o u t many p a r t s of t h e w o r l d s i n c e most p e o p l e a c c e p t t h e r o l e s s o c i e t y s e t s f o r them. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.25)  108 Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s d e a l t w i t h as i f i t i s a problem o f the  p a s t : "Today, s e x r o l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e y were a  g e n e r a t i o n ago, l e t a l o n e a c e n t u r y ago. Some men and women b e l i e v e t h a t i f t h e y f o l l o w r i g i d s e x r o l e s , t h e y may l i m i t t h e i r p o t e n t i a l " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.25). Once a g a i n i t appears t h a t t h e problem w i t h s t e r e o t y p e d s e x r o l e s i s t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l . Problems a r i s i n g from t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f f e m a l e s and males, such a s , w i f e b a t t e r i n g , d a t e rape and e m o t i o n a l abuse, a r e n o t mentioned. F a m i l y L i v i n g acknowledges  t h a t changes i n t h e r o l e and  p o s i t i o n o f women a r e o c c u r r i n g b u t does n o t advocate change, acknowledge  further  r e a s o n s why change i s e s s e n t i a l , o r even  t a k e a p o s i t i v e s t a n d on change. The t e x t b o o k ' s g r e a t e s t number o f comments on t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f women and i t s o n l y r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e women's movement i s i n t h e c h a p t e r on " s i n g l e s " (p.362-3). Postponement o f m a r r i a g e and c h o o s i n g a c a r e e r r a t h e r t h a n m a r r i a g e a r e p r e s e n t e d as outcomes o f t h e women's movement. T h i s g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e women's movement c o u l d l e a d t o t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e f a m i l y t h r o u g h women c h o o s i n g t o remain s i n g l e and devote t h e i r l i v e s t o c a r e e r s . I t doesn't a d d r e s s t h e problem o f t h e d u a l responsibility  g i v e n t o women and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s women  f a c e i n managing a c a r e e r and a f a m i l y . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o m i t s t h o s e who choose a l t e r n a t i v e s o t h e r t h a n m a r r i a g e , such as parenting alone. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y b a r e l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e women's  109 movement. The comment "The s u f f r a g e t t e s who c h a i n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o p i l l a r s o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h e e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r cause - s e c u r i n g t h e v o t e f o r women - were seen as b e h a v i n g a b n o r m a l l y " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.79) i s one o f t h e few r e c o g n i t i o n s o f t h i s movement. A change i n t h e c u r r e n t l e g a l s t a t u s o f women i s b r i e f l y acknowledged  b u t o n l y i n a p r e v i e w q u e s t i o n on t h e Canadian  C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms ( p . 3 0 ) . No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e t e x t on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women, n o r i s a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i t i n t h e s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The t e x t o m i t s any d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i g h t t o g e t women i n c l u d e d i n t h e C h a r t e r , an i m p o r t a n t s t e p f o r t h e women's movement i n Canada. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y a l s o emphasizes  t h e c h o i c e o f women t o  remain c h i l d l e s s . " S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f women i n Canada who a r e o r were m a r r i e d and remain i s on t h e r i s e "  childless  (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.141) and "... f o r  many women, c h i l d b e a r i n g i s no l o n g e r a main s o u r c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . Many women seek p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t and economic independence  t h r o u g h c a r e e r s " (p.142). The f a c t t h a t  i t i s h a r d e r f o r women t h a n men t o have b o t h c h i l d r e n and a c a r e e r i s n o t mentioned.  No emphasis i s g i v e n t o why t h i s  c h o i c e t o remain c h i l d l e s s i s b e i n g made. The s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f women c h o o s i n g t o remain c h i l d l e s s a r e n o t addressed. When f o c u s i n g on t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e s o f women and men, P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y f r e q u e n t l y emphasizes  change i n t h e male  110 r o l e r a t h e r t h a n change i n t h e female r o l e . S t u d e n t s a r e asked t o d i s c u s s why men a r e t a k i n g on h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y "women's work" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.172). They a r e n o t asked i f men a r e t a k i n g o v e r more r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r why i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s h a r e h o u s e h o l d t a s k s more e q u i t a b l y t h a n t h e y a r e s h a r e d a t p r e s e n t . T h i s t e x t b o o k a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n t o men and t h e i r c h a n g i n g r o l e . F o r example,  "People a r e b e g i n n i n g t o see  n u r t u r i n g as an i m p o r t a n t v a l u e t o d e v e l o p i n b o t h boys and girls"  (p.135). P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y t a k e s a male p e r s p e c t i v e i n  d e a l i n g w i t h "men's issues'' r a t h e r t h a n women's i s s u e s . F o r example,  "More men a r e ... p e t i t i o n i n g t h e i r employers f o r  b e n e f i t s such as p a t e r n i t y l e a v e and t i m e a l l o t m e n t s t o c a r e for  s i c k c h i l d r e n " (p.171). The t e x t b o o k does n o t mention  employment i s s u e s f o r women.  Maternity leave i s neither  mentioned n o r d e f i n e d i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . No mention i s made o f o t h e r i s s u e s which c o u l d b e n e f i t a l l p a r e n t s who work o u t s i d e t h e home, b u t e s p e c i a l l y women, such as f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l e s , p a r t t i m e work, j o b s h a r i n g , and day c a r e a t t h e work s i t e , (b) Day c a r e U n l e s s b o t h s i n g l e and m a r r i e d women make t h e c h o i c e t o remain c h i l d l e s s o r women w i t h c h i l d r e n choose n o t t o be employed, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f q u a l i t y d a y c a r e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a major i s s u e i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r gender  equity.  However, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g makes no comment on day c a r e , a l l u d i n g t o i t i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n as " f a m i l y s e r v i c e s "  Ill ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.120). I n F a m i l y L i v i n g , day c a r e i s seen o n l y as a f a m i l y m a t t e r , not a s o c i a l problem f o r governments o r employers t o d e a l w i t h . Comments suggest  the  problem o f day c a r e i s b e s t d e a l t w i t h by g e t t i n g h e l p from r e l a t i v e s and  friends.  I f b o t h p a r e n t s work, c h i l d c a r e can become a problem. I f t h e r e a r e no r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s who can h e l p , p a r e n t s might have t o h i r e a b a b y s i t t e r , f i n d a r e p u t a b l e day-care c e n t e r , o r work d i f f e r e n t s h i f t s so t h a t one p a r e n t can be home w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.152) I n People i n S o c i e t y , day c a r e i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d  as  an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e , not a s o c i a l i s s u e . Most o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and d e a l s w i t h whether o r n o t day c a r e i s good f o r c h i l d r e n . I n t h e c o n t e n t , day c a r e i s mentioned as a s o c i a l i s s u e i n one comment: " I n Canada, day c a r e c e n t r e s have not been seen as a p r i o r i t y . Day c a r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t r e a t e d as a p r i v a t e good t o be purchased by p a r e n t s . E d u c a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, has been t r e a t e d as a p u b l i c good and i s f u l l y p a i d t h r o u g h t a x e s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.107). The t e x t b o o k  doesn't  s u g g e s t any f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l h e l p s t u d e n t s t o e x p l o r e c h i l d c a r e as a s o c i a l i s s u e , a l t h o u g h one  activity  i n t h e Teacher Resource Book s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s w r i t e an e d i t o r i a l on who why  s h o u l d bear t h e c o s t o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n  (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, p.56).  ( c ) D i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s A l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d i v o r c e and  single  p a r e n t i n g , though t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t o p i c s v a r i e s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g keeps t h e comments b r i e f , n e u t r a l and  and  112 unproblematic.  P o v e r t y among "female headed" s i n g l e p a r e n t  f a m i l i e s i s n o t acknowledged. The d i f f e r e n t problems f a c e d by f e m a l e s and males when t h e y become " s i n g l e p a r e n t s " a r e n o t addressed. " S i n g l e parents  support t h e i r f a m i l i e s , care f o r  t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and r u n t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s , j u s t as c o u p l e s do. But t h e y must do t h i n g s a l o n e "  ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.55).  T h i s t e x t b o o k emphasizes what c h i l d r e n c a n do t o h e l p . S i m i l a r l y , t h e comments on " d i v o r c e " (p.68) f o c u s on t h e r e a c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n t o i t . T h i s approach may have been t a k e n because t h e book i s a d d r e s s e d t o younger  students.  F a m i l y L i v i n g a d d r e s s e s o n l y v e r y b r i e f l y t h e way t h a t d i v o r c e a f f e c t s f e m a l e s and males d i f f e r e n t l y . R e s e a r c h shows t h a t some c o u p l e s s t a y t o g e t h e r f o r economic s e c u r i t y , i n s p i t e o f c o n f l i c t s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e where women don't have v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and f e a r t h a t t h e y c a n ' t s u r v i v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . However, t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f d i v o r c e r i s e s when t h e husband i s unemployed. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.330) Some d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e p o r t e d from a male p e r s p e c t i v e , such as .... i n g e n e r a l , l e g a l d e c i s i o n s f a v o r women when awarding c u s t o d y o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e home, and h o u s e h o l d p r o p e r t y . Men u s u a l l y a r e r e q u i r e d t o make c h i l d - s u p p o r t payments, and sometimes t h e y must a l s o pay a l i m o n y t o t h e w i f e . ( L e a v e n w o r t h e t a l , 1985, p.332) The standard  t e x t b o o k f a i l s t o mention t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , a woman's o f l i v i n g f a l l s a f t e r d i v o r c e as h e r d i s p o s a b l e  income d e c r e a s e s whereas t h e man's d i s p o s a b l e  income  i n c r e a s e s . I t a l s o i g n o r e s t h e f a c t t h a t , even though men a r e r e q u i r e d t o make c h i l d c a r e payments, many o f them d e f a u l t on t h e s e payments. Y e t i t l a t e r s t a t e s " n e a r l y h a l f t h e ( s i n g l e p a r e n t ) f a m i l i e s were j u s t g e t t i n g by, 'coping when and as  113  t h e y c o u l d ' " (Leavenworth  e t a l , 1985, p.335), and "most  s i n g l e p a r e n t s have f i n a n c i a l w o r r i e s " (p.337). I t f a i l s t o mention t h a t most o f t h o s e who s u f f e r f i n a n c i a l l y a r e f e m a l e s . The use o f i n c l u s i v e language masks t h e problem. Peopl e i n S o c i e t y comments on how t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f men and women a r e d i f f e r e n t . F o r example: A m a j o r i t y o f d i v o r c e d men l e a v e t h e f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d and do n o t have c u s t o d y o f c h i l d r e n . They have g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a n women t o have an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e . For t h e m a j o r i t y o f d i v o r c e d women, an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e i s d i f f i c u l t because t h e y must m a i n t a i n a j o b and c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . A d i v o r c e d woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do not g i v e h e r t h e freedom e n j o y e d by h e r former spouse. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.191) D i v o r c e d men remarry i n g r e a t e r numbers t h a n d i v o r c e d females ( s i c ) , and d i v o r c e d women r e c e i v e c u s t o d y i n most c a s e s . These f a c t s h e l p t o account f o r 1981 s t a t i s t i c s t h a t show t h a t s i n g l e mothers made up a l m o s t 83% o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s whereas s i n g l e f a t h e r s made up o n l y 17%.(Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.196-197) Peopl e i n S o c i e t y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t "a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f d i v o r c e d men do n o t make s u p p o r t payments", "female  single  p a r e n t s a r e h a r d h i t by t h e economic e f f e c t s o f d i v o r c e " and "about h a l f o f Canada's f e m a l e - l e d f a m i l i e s l i v e i n p o v e r t y " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.193). W h i l e t h e problem has been s t a t e d , what c o u l d o r s h o u l d be done about i t i s n o t addressed. People i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s two a c t i v i t i e s on s i n g l e p a r e n t s ; one f o c u s e s on t h e female and a n o t h e r on t h e male. The f o c u s on t h e female i s i n t h e " p r e v i e w " , b e f o r e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t o p i c b e g i n s : "Suggest reasons why t h e m a j o r i t y o f s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e l e d by women" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.176). A t t h e end o f t h e c h a p t e r , t h e  114  textbook  f o c u s e s on t h e male: "Debate whether o r n o t men a r e  d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n custody  cases"  (p.196). There a r e no  Suggested A c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e l a t e t o women and p o v e r t y  after  d i v o r c e o r government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n e n f o r c i n g c h i l d s u p p o r t and a l i m o n y payments. (d) Woman b a t t e r i n g V i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women i s l i m i t e d t o w i f e abuse and spouse abuse i n two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s  examined. C r e a t i v e  L i v i n g does n o t acknowledge t h e s u b j e c t . F a m i l y L i v i n g has a s h o r t s e c t i o n on "spouse abuse". Once a g a i n t h i s  textbook  t a k e s t h e male p e r s p e c t i v e more t h a n t h e female p e r s p e c t i v e and p r o v i d e s t o o l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o f v a l u e . V i o l e n c e a g a i n s t one's m a r i t a l p a r t n e r may range from v e r b a l c r u e l t y t o s e v e r e p h y s i c a l abuse o r even h o m i c i d e . S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t w i f e abuse i s r e p o r t e d more o f t e n t h a n husband abuse, no doubt because s o c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s of manhood d i s c o u r a g e men from r e p o r t i n g such i n c i d e n t s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.351 - emphasis added) Such comments m i n i m i z e t h e importance o f abuse as a problem f o r women. A n o t h e r comment r e c o g n i z e s o n l y one o f t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i f e abuse: "Lack o f p e r s o n a l o r f i n a n c i a l resources...(women) s e e no way t o c a r e f o r themselves o r f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e t h e marriage" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 3 5 2 ) . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n w h i c h encourages women i n t o t h i s p o s i t i o n i s n o t a d d r e s s e d . There i s nothing e l s e t o develop students' understanding  o f sources  of t h e problem o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y i s more gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced.  The h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e o f w i f e abuse i n European  115 cultures i s recognized: W i f e b e a t i n g and w i f e k i l l i n g were r e c o g n i z e d r i g h t s o f men i n a n c i e n t Greece and Rome. D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages, husbands c o u l d k i l l t h e i r w i v e s f o r a d u l t e r y . I n most M i d d l e Age s o c i e t i e s , men were c o n s i d e r e d t o own t h e i r w i v e s and had complete and u n q u e s t i o n e d a u t h o r i t y o v e r them. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.163) P r o f i l e s o f b o t h t h e abused and t h e abuser a r e i n c l u d e d . The t e x t b o o k  recognizes t h e r o l e o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n  t h e p r e s e n t problem o f abuse: "The Abuser ... h o l d s s t e r e o t y p e d v i e w s about female and male r o l e s (males a r e t o be t h e p r o v i d e r s and source o f a u t h o r i t y i n t h e home; women [ s i c ] a r e t o be housewives and m o t h e r s ) " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.165). Other i n f o r m a t i o n on w i f e abuse i s i n c l u d e d i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . The  Suggested A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h accompany t h e s e c t i o n on  w i f e abuse i n People i n S o c i e t y a r e n e i t h e r gender s e n s i t i v e nor gender b a l a n c e d .  They f o c u s on t h e male p e r s p e c t i v e . One  of t h e q u e s t i o n s on w i f e abuse has t h e s t u d e n t s assume t h e y a r e male. E x e r c i s e s i n which t h e s t u d e n t s assumed t h a t t h e y were t h e female c o u l d a l s o have been i n c l u d e d . The s t u d e n t s l o o k a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p o n l y from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e male i n v o l v e d . I n a n o t h e r e x e r c i s e , s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o " w r i t e a r a d i o advertisement  t h a t g i v e s a d v i c e t o men who  abuse t h e i r w i v e s (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.167)". What about one  f o r women who a r e abused by t h e i r p a r t n e r s o r husbands?  Or one f o r a d o l e s c e n t women abused by t h e i r b o y f r i e n d s ? Only t h e Teacher Resource Book has one e x e r c i s e f o c u s e d on abused women. I t i s concerned w i t h " s e r v i c e s ... t o meet t h e needs of t h e s e women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (Hanson & Gower, 1988b,  116  p.78)  and t h e f u n d i n g o f s h e l t e r s . Work r o l e s . One g o a l o f t h e women's movement has been t o a c h i e v e a  s h i f t t o a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work i n b o t h p a i d p u b l i c work and u n p a i d p r i v a t e work. The i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t assumptions o f t h e t e x t b o o k s r e g a r d i n g work w i l l be reported i n t h i s  section.  A l l t h r e e o f t h e t e x t b o o k s examined i m p l i c i t l y  locate  t h e male's major a r e a o f work i n t h e p u b l i c sphere w h i l e g i v i n g t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r work i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere t o f e m a l e s . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y makes no e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e work i n t h e home b u t i m p l i c i t l y a s s i g n s t h i s r o l e t o women i n case s t u d i e s r e i n f o r c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s .  F o r example, i n  t h e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n f o r which s t u d e n t s a r e t o work o u t a compromise: "Rob and L a u r i e c a n ' t agree on an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n f o r a f a m i l y h o l i d a y . L a u r i e i s a homemaker... Rob i s a s a l e s p e r s o n . . . " ( H a n s o n & Gower, 1988a, p.161). The case s t u d y o f t h e r e m a r r i a g e s i t u a t i o n a l s o has female and male i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s : "Remarried seven y e a r s ago t o a b a n k i n g e x e c u t i v e , Joanne Green ... l e f t h e r o f f i c e j o b t o devote h e r s e l f t o t h e f i v e c h i l d r e n " ( p . 199-200). No case s t u d i e s f e a t u r e s i t u a t i o n s where b o t h p a r t n e r s work o u t s i d e t h e home and t h e problem o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f work i n t h e home i s n o t addressed. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x p l i c i t l y advocates t h a t  housekeeping  d u t i e s be s h a r e d : " P a r t o f k e e p i n g a home c o m f o r t a b l e i s  117  c a r i n g f o r i t t o keep i t c l e a n . J u s t as t h e whole f a m i l y s h a r e s t h e space, each p e r s o n s h o u l d h e l p c l e a n i t "  (Foster  e t a l , 1985, p.474). I n s p i t e o f t h i s e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t , t h e r e a r e some i m p l i c i t assumptions about r o l e s , e v i d e n t i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s made about "mother" and " f a t h e r " . F o r example: (a) Mothers a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g f o o d and meals: "... you may o f f e r t o s e t t h e t a b l e when your mother i s v e r y busy" ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.10 - emphasis added). (b) Mothers a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t house c l e a n i n g and home management t a s k s a r e completed: "... i f you see t h a t y o u r mother o r o l d e r b r o t h e r i s v e r y busy on a p a r t i c u l a r day, v o l u n t e e r t o c l e a n up t h e l i v i n g room" ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.496 - emphasis added). (c) Mothers have a d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h a t t h e y a l s o work o u t s i d e t h e home: " t a l k t o your mother about t h e d i n n e r dishes  ... don't t r y t o t a l k about i t when she's l a t e l e a v i n g  f o r work one morning" ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.62 - emphasis added). (d) The f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s o f t h e f a m i l y a r e f a t h e r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : "When your f a t h e r g i v e s you some e x t r a d o l l a r s , he's t e l l i n g you t h a t he approves o f y o u " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.17 - emphasis added). A l t h o u g h F a m i l y L i v i n g makes no e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s regarding the d i v i s i o n o f labour, household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y a s s i g n e d t o women w h i l e men a r e p l a c e d i n employment. T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g examples:  118 A c o u p l e must d e c i d e n o t o n l y what money means t o them, but a l s o who t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s . I f t h e husband a l o n e has a p a y i n g j o b , he may b e l i e v e t h a t he s h o u l d d e c i d e what t o do w i t h t h e income. Y e t , t h e w i f e may i n d i r e c t l y have h e l p e d t o produce t h a t income o r expanded i t s use. Her management s k i l l s , such as w i s e s h o p p i n g , may have p r o v i d e d b o t h a p r o d u c t i v e and h e a l t h y environment f o r t h e f a m i l y and more m a t e r i a l goods. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p . i 2 4 ) However, v a r i o u s s t u d i e s show t h a t many w o r k i n g wives s t i l l have t h e major r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r home c a r e . F u r t h e r , t h e w i v e s ' c a r e e r s have secondary s t a t u s as compared t o t h o s e o f t h e i r husbands. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.118) With t h e b i r t h o f t h e f i r s t c h i l d , a more c l e a r c u t d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s emerges a l o n g s e x r o l e l i n e s . A c c o r d i n g t o a v a i l a b l e d a t a , most c o u p l e s agree t h a t women s h o u l d handle home management w h i l e husbands e a r n a l i v i n g . . . . Couples s t u d i e d c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l t h i s way even when t h e w i f e r e t u r n e d t o o u t s i d e work. I n g e n e r a l , husbands seemed t o h e l p o u t l e s s around t h e house a f t e r t h e f i r s t c h i l d was b o r n . They l e f t even more of t h e housework t o t h e w i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i f she had q u i t h e r j o b f o r good. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.152) In a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g them r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r homes, none o f t h e t e x t b o o k s appear t o p l a c e s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e on t h e r o l e s t h a t females t a k e i n t h e p u b l i c sphere. Some comments t r i v i a l i z e t h e woman's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f t h e f a m i l y . F o r example, F a m i l y L i v i n g s t a t e s : One o b v i o u s b e n e f i t i n h a v i n g b o t h p a r t n e r s work i s i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y income. E x t r a money can h e l p improve t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and t h e o v e r a l l morale o f t h e f a m i l y . Research a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t women who choose t o have j o b s , r a t h e r t h a n work because t h e y need t o h e l p make ends meet, seem t o be h a p p i e r i n d i v i d u a l s , which o f c o u r s e c a n make them b e t t e r company f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.120 - emphasis added) People i n S o c i e t y a l s o t r i v i a l i z e s t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r i b u t i o n o f women. T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n s t a t e m e n t s such as "Some women work t o a s s i s t t h e f a m i l y f i n a n c i a l l y , whereas o t h e r s work t o become f i n a n c i a l l y  119 independent o r f o r p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n " 1988a, p.170) and  (Hanson & Gower,  " I f mothers work, and so many do, j u s t t o  keep up w i t h t e e n a g e r s ' e x p e n s i v e needs ..." (p.192). The t e x t assumes t h a t t h e major f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l i e s is  t a k e n by males. A l t h o u g h some women a l s o a c c e p t t h e major  f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l i e s (even i n some malep r e s e n t households) i t i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d . The importance o f women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s h o u l d b o t h be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e t e x t s . The r o l e o f women i n t h e p u b l i c sphere i s m i n i m i z e d even when P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y b r e a k s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and emphasizes  t h e r o l e o f "househusbands" (p.170). No mention o f  t h e r o l e t h a t t h e w i v e s o f t h e s e househusbands have i n t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As a r e s u l t t h e t e x t i m p l i e s t h a t women's work i n t h e p u b l i c sphere i s o f minor importance. A l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s g i v e women t h e major in  role  t h e home, changes i n female and male r o l e s which a r e  b e g i n n i n g t o t a k e p l a c e a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . I n F a m i l y L i v i n g changes i n p e r c e p t i o n o f work r o l e s o f females and males i s acknowledged:  "The v i e w  t h a t women c a n p e r f o r m most j o b s , e x c e p t t h o s e r e q u i r i n g g r e a t p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , as c a p a b l y as men has g a i n e d i n a c c e p t a n c e " (Leavenworth e t a l ,  1985, p.114). B u t t h e  t e x t b o o k s t i l l t r i e s t o t e a c h t h e concept o f s e x r o l e s i n t h e s t a t e m e n t , "Sex r o l e s a r e s t i l l v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o d a y , a l t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e y have undergone s i g n i f i c a n t  120 changes i n American c u l t u r e " s u p p o r t s a non-gehdered  ( p . 1 0 ) . Sometimes F a m i l y L i v i n g  w o r k f o r c e as w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n s ,  "Which o f us s h o u l d e a r n t h e income and d e t e r m i n e how  i tis  managed? S h o u l d we b o t h do t h i s ? " ( p . 1 2 3 ) . However, t h e commitment o f F a m i l y L i v i n g t o t h e i d e a o f a change i n r o l e s appears i n c o m p l e t e as i t a t t e m p t s t o be  neutral:  I n d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s and even i n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s , t h e r o l e s o f male and female a r e n o t viewed i n t h e same way. In one s o c i e t y , f o r example, males a r e a c t i v e " d o e r s " w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e house; women a r e i n charge o f d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s . I n a n o t h e r s o c i e t y , t h e r o l e s may be l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . You know from your own e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a d u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s h o l d v a r i o u s i d e a s about male and female r o l e s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.25) Even though some change i n t h e r o l e s o f females and males i s acknowledged,  F a m i l y L i v i n g s t i l l views t r a d i t i o n a l  r o l e s i n a p o s i t i v e way.  " I f couples p r e f e r t o accept  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , t h e y a r e f r e e t o choose them. They aim f o r m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g , o r r e c i p r o c a l , r o l e s " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.115). F a m i l y L i v i n g does n o t e l a b o r a t e upon o r even ask s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k about t h e problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e arrangements. A r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s i m p l y asks s t u d e n t s t o r e c o g n i z e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l arrangement: " D e s c r i b e some customary ways i n which a husband and w i f e c a r r y o u t t h e i r e x p e c t e d r o l e s " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.128) t o w h i c h t h e Teacher's Guide g i v e s t h e answer,  "Traditional  m a r i t a l r o l e s c a s t t h e husband as breadwinner and t h e w i f e as homemaker" (Gay, 1985, p.22). However, when i t comes t o t h e more common, b u t l e s s " t r a d i t i o n a l " , dual earner family,  Family L i v i n g i s less  p o s i t i v e . I n a r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o l o o k f o r  problems: "Name t h r e e problems t h a t members o f d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l i e s might e n c o u n t e r " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.129  -  emphasis added) t o which t h e Teacher's Guide g i v e s t h e answer "There may be c o n f l i c t s o v e r who w i l l do t h e h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s , d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r how t h e two incomes s h o u l d be s p e n t , and problems a r i s i n g o v e r which spouse's j o b o r c a r e e r s h o u l d have p r i o r i t y "  (Gay, 1985, p.22). The t e x t b o o k does  n o t ask s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k about t h e b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d from b e i n g i n a d u a l e a r n e r f a m i l y . In a d d i t i o n t o s u p p o r t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and l o o k i n g for  problems i n d u a l - e a r n e r f a m i l e s , F a m i l y L i v i n g  trivializes  t h e importance o f e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s :  In c o o p e r a t i o n ... b o t h p a r t n e r s d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r o l e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . The w i f e might be b e t t e r a t bookkeeping and h a n d l i n g t h e budget, so she pays a l l t h e h o u s e h o l d b i l l s , s e t s a s i d e t h e s a v i n g s , and g i v e s o u t "spending money." The husband might be a good cook, so he p r e p a r e s many o f t h e f a m i l y meals. The w i f e does t h e yardwork because t h e husband h a t e s i t . The husband t a k e s c a r e o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e s around t h e home because he l i k e s t o f i x t h i n g s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.117 - emphasis added) On f i r s t r e a d i n g , t h e above q u o t a t i o n may  appear t o advocate  e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e w i f e does n o t o n l y what she i s good a t and b u t a l s o what he h a t e s t o do, whereas t h e husband does what he i s good a t and what he  likes  t o do. No mention i s made o f t h e d i s h e s , vacuuming, l a u n d r y , t o i l e t s and b a t h t u b s o r any o t h e r c l e a n i n g t a s k s . The p o s i t i o n t a k e n by P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y seems more p o s i t i v e about r o l e changes: " I n Canadian s o c i e t y t o d a y , t h e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r husbands and w i v e s a r e c h a n g i n g . I n a  122 l e g a l sense; a woman's s t a t u s has e v o l v e d from t h a t o f h e r husband's p o s s e s s i o n t o e q u a l p a r t n e r i n t h e m a r r i a g e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a  t  p.170). T h i s does n o t e x a c t l y  advocate e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g them, o r e l a b o r a t e on how t h e new laws a c t u a l l y o p e r a t e , b u t i t i s a beginning. P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y sees d u a l e a r n e r f a m i l i e s as meeting challenges: M a r r i a g e s i n w h i c h b o t h p a r t n e r s work o u t s i d e t h e home p r e s e n t new c h a l l e n g e s . Even though b o t h p a r t n e r s h o l d j o b s , c h i l d r e n must s t i l l be c a r e d f o r , and c h o r e s must be done t o ensure t h a t t h e h o u s e h o l d f u n c t i o n s w e l l . How a r e c h i l d c a r e and t h e h o u s e h o l d managed when husband and w i f e b o t h work f u l l - t i m e ? How a r e d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s shared? (Hanson & Gower,1988a, p.170) The c h a p t e r on m a r r i a g e emphasizes  "You w i l l have t o  d e c i d e how t o s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.140). P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y s u g g e s t s no s o l u t i o n s , does n o t p r o v i d e c a s e s t u d i e s f o r examples o f s o l u t i o n s b u t r e c o g n i z e s d u a l e a r n e r f a m i l i e s by e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o b e g i n t h i n k i n g about them.  People i n S o c i e t y a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h e  d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f women when i t s t a t e s :  "Canadian  s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h b o t h spouses w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e , women a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f d o m e s t i c c h o r e s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171). I n s p i t e o f t h a t t h e book c o n t i n u e s : Many women now e x p e c t t h e i r husbands t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n t h e n u r t u r i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e performance o f h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . Men, t o o , a r e changing t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . Many men no l o n g e r emphasize t h e importance o f a good housekeeper i n a m a r r i a g e , and t h e y e x p e c t t h e i r w i v e s t o c o n t i n u e t o work o u t s i d e t h e home. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171)  123 Not o n l y does t h e t e x t b o o k m i n i m i z e t h e importance o f s t u d i e s w h i c h show when b o t h spouses a r e w o r k i n g women do most o f t h e housework, i t a l s o makes women r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g male p a r t i c i p a t i o n and makes "good housekeeping" seem t r i v i a l . I f men do n o t emphasize t h e importance o f a "good  housekeeper"  t h e y p r o b a b l y do n o t p l a c e much v a l u e on becoming good housekeepers. A l t h o u g h b o t h F a m i l y L i v i n g and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y r e c o g n i z e t h a t r o l e s a r e c h a n g i n g , n e i t h e r makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n toward meeting c h a l l e n g e s o r s o l v i n g problems, n o r do t h e y advocate changes i n r o l e s .  Disagreement  about work i n s i d e t h e home i s a major cause o f f r i c t i o n i n m a r r i a g e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The importance o f t h i s i s r e c o g n i z e d t o some e x t e n t . People i n S o c i e t y  conflict  lists  " s h a r i n g o f h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s " as one o f t h e "Common Sources o f C o n f l i c t i n M a r r i a g e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.158). F a m i l y L i v i n g a l s o acknowledges "The  t h a t r o l e s c a n be a problem:  l i k e l i h o o d o f d i v o r c e i s h i g h e r i f ... t h e c o u p l e has  always had o p p o s i n g views on t h e r o l e s o f husband and w i f e " (Leavenworth, 1985, p.329-330) and The p a r t n e r s r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y don't have t h e same i d e a s about what i t means t o be a husband o r a w i f e ... t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f d i v o r c e s o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e second o r t h i r d y e a r s o f m a r r i a g e .... They b u c k l e under t h e s t r a i n o f t r y i n g t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r s e p a r a t e and combined m a r i t a l r o l e s . (Leavenworth, 1985, p.116) C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does n o t acknowledge  the c o n f l i c t of  r o l e s t h a t can o c c u r i n f a m i l i e s n o r t h e importance o f t h i s c o n f l i c t . Instead, i t simply advocates t h e s h a r i n g o f h o u s e h o l d t a s k s by a l l who s h a r e t h e h o u s e h o l d . A t t h e same  124  t i m e i t a l s o t r i v i a l i z e s t h e work i n v o l v e d  as i n t h e  following: Cooking a t home c a n be e a s i e r i f i t ' s a team e f f o r t . Why n o t make a game o f i t ? You can g e t t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r f a m i l y members and o r g a n i z e a meal. Everyone c a n make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s h o p p i n g o r c o o k i n g . And everyone can j o i n i n e a t i n g i t . ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.280) Creative Living  and P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y suggest a c t i v i t i e s  t o h e l p s t u d e n t s b e g i n t o a d d r e s s t h e problem o f d i v i s i o n o f household t a s k s : (a)  People i n S o c i e t y provides students w i t h a l i s t of  c h o r e s and s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s " u s i n g t h e l i s t ,  survey  f i v e w o r k i n g c o u p l e s t o f i n d o u t how c h o r e s a r e d i v i d e d " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.172-17) and w r i t e a paragraph t o summarize t h e f i n d i n g s . The t e x t b o o k does n o t a s k s t u d e n t s t o f i n d o u t i f t h e way c h o r e s a r e d i v i d e d i s p e r c e i v e d by e i t h e r or b o t h members o f t h e c o u p l e as a problem. J u s t because s t u d e n t s f i n d o u t t h a t t h e c h o r e s a r e d i v i d e d one way o r a n o t h e r does n o t make t h a t way n e c e s s a r i l y a p p r o p r i a t e o r u n p r o b l e m a t i c . S t u d e n t s need t o d i s c u s s t h i s and d e v e l o p t h e i r own reasoned o p i n i o n s about t h e e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f c h o r e s b u t t h e t e x t b o o k does n o t go t h i s f a r i n t h e Suggested Activites. (b)  The Teacher's Resource Book f o r C r e a t i v e L i v i n g  suggests  an assignment "Cooking and C l e a n i n g : A F a m i l y A f f a i r " which has s t u d e n t s a n a l y z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i t i e s i n t h e home, d e t e r m i n e i f each member has "an e q u a l s h a r e o f h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s " and suggest ways i n which t o " b a l a n c e t h e h o u s e h o l d responsiblities"  (Weber, 1986, p.17).  125  Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g p r e s e n t  marriage  and c a r e e r almost as m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e o p t i o n s f o r f e m a l e s . F a m i l y L i v i n g acknowledges  t h e c h o i c e i s more l i k e l y t o  a p p l y t o women: "Women may f i n d t h e p r o s p e c t o f a c a r e e r more a p p e a l i n g t h a n t h e i d e a o f home management" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.363), and "Some p e o p l e choose t o remain s i n g l e because t h e y a r e p u r s u i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding c a r e e r " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.366). A l t h o u g h t h i s l a s t comment appears b e s i d e t h e photographs o f two women, F a m i l y L i v i n g does n o t e x p l i c i t l y  acknowledge t h a t t h i s a p p l i e s , i n  g e n e r a l , t o women more t h a n men o r t h a t h a v i n g t o make a c h o i c e i s a problem. F a m i l y L i v i n g goes on t o p r e s e n t c h i l d r e n and a c a r e e r as i n c o m p a t i b l e o p t i o n s when d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e a s o n s t h a t people remain c h i l d l e s s : "Sometimes, a w i f e wants t o pursue a c a r e e r w i t h o u t t a k i n g t i m e o u t t o have c h i l d r e n " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.138). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does n o t acknowledge t h a t , a t p r e s e n t , i t i s women who a r e most l i k e l y t o have t o make t h e c h o i c e between f a m i l y and c a r e e r . I n s t e a d i t makes t h e n e u t r a l statement  "Of c o u r s e , n o t everyone chooses t o marry. You may  p r e f e r t o d e d i c a t e your l i f e t o a c a r e e r " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985,  p.96) as i f i t a p p l i e d e q u a l l y t o females and males. These t e x t b o o k s g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t one must choose  between f a m i l y / m a r r i a g e and c a r e e r . Men have been a b l e t o have b o t h f a m i l i e s and c a r e e r s . I t i s women who have been h a v i n g t o choose. The t e x t b o o k s do n o t address  this  d i f f e r e n c e as a problem n o r do t h e y a d e q u a t e l y address t h e  126  p o s s i b i l i t y of choosing both o r n e i t h e r . C h i l d Care I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e f i n d i n g s about who i s assumed t o be responsible f o r c h i l d care tasks are reported. C o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t messages a r e c o n s i d e r e d . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y g i v e s t h e r o l e o f c h i l d c a r e t o women o n l y t h r o u g h i m p l i c i t messages i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r . The i n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k  may be q u i t e  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s s i n c e t h e t e x t o f t h e book g i v e s no e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n about who s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e . F o r t h a t  reason,  comments i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e o t h e r two textbooks. Both F a m i l y L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g have e x p l i c i t messages a d v o c a t i n g t h e s h a r i n g o f p a r e n t i n g and t h e appropriateness  o f c h i l d c a r e t a s k s f o r b o t h females and  males. The i m p l i c i t assumptions u n d e r l y i n g some o f t h e comments o f t h e t e x t b o o k s , however, a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s e e x p l i c i t messages. The  appropriateness  of c h i l d care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r  b o t h females and males i s s u g g e s t e d i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by s t a t e m e n t s such as "Many p e o p l e can p a r e n t , i n c l u d i n g p a r e n t s and b a b y s i t t e r s . I n some f a m i l i e s , p a r e n t i n g i s shared by t h e parents, grandparents,  o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , and a day-  c a r e c e n t r e " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.119) and " F a t h e r s  share  i n p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as c h a n g i n g d i a p e r s , f e e d i n g , e n t e r t a i n i n g , and showing l o v e and a f f e c t i o n t o  127  t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (p.152). S i m i l a r i d e a s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n F a m i l y L i v i n g i n t h e form of  i n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s such as "Parenthood may be one o f t h e  most r e w a r d i n g j o b s you w i l l have as an a d u l t " et  (Leavenworth  a l , 1985, p.150). F a m i l y L i v i n g , however, a d d r e s s e s many  statements e x p l i c i t l y t o the f a t h e r i n advocating shared p a r e n t i n g . T h i s i s seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : Throughout h i s t o r y , f a t h e r s have n o t been much i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d c a r e . T h i s has g i v e n r i s e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n ' t o r c a n ' t h a n d l e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Today the v i e w t h a t f a t h e r s a r e u n a b l e o r r e l u c t a n t t o c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s b e g i n n i n g t o change. S t u d i e s show t h a t f a t h e r s , i f g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , become as e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d as mothers and a r e j u s t as c a p a b l e and competent. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1 9 8 5 , p . l 6 9 ) Sharing c h i l d r a i s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s helps fathers l e a r n more about t h e development o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They and t h e i r c h i l d r e n become b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d . F a t h e r s who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h i l d c a r e have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o d e v e l o p s t r o n g and s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . One s t u d y reported t h a t i n play s i t u a t i o n s w i t h both parents p r e s e n t , e i g h t month o l d i n f a n t s sought o u t t h e i r f a t h e r s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 172) One o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two t e x t b o o k s i s t h a t , i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , f a t h e r s are expected t o share i n " p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.152) such as f e e d i n g and d i a p e r i n g . I n F a m i l y L i v i n g , however, t h e r e i s no mention o f f e e d i n g , d i a p e r c h a n g i n g o r b a t h i n g . The work i n v o l v e d i n l o o k i n g a f t e r a baby i s i g n o r e d . I n s t e a d t h e emphasis i s on "attachment" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.177179) and "growth and development"  (p. 181-194). Bonding i s  mentioned as a " c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n a baby's p h y s i c a l and mental growth" (p.176) and t h e bonding o f f a t h e r s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s encouraged by s t a t e m e n t s such as " L i t t l e r e s e a r c h  128  has been done on bonding between f a t h e r s and  i n f a n t s , but  p s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e same p a t t e r n p r o b a b l y  exists"  (p.177). Both C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and F a m i l y L i v i n g a d v o c a t e t h e s h a r i n g o f p a r e n t i n g . They do not e x p l i c i t l y e x p r e s s t h e assumption t h a t the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h a t r o l e f a l l s t o t h e mother. I n s p i t e of t h a t , each of t h e s e  textbooks  makes s t a t e m e n t s which s u g g e s t t h a t women are l i k e l y t o  leave  t h e p a i d w o r k f o r c e t o l o o k a f t e r c h i l d r e n . For example, F a m i l y L i v i n g s t a t e s : " I n d i r e c t c o s t s (of r a i s i n g a c h i l d ) r e f e r t o t h e p o t e n t i a l income l o s t i f a mother l e a v e s her t o r a i s e c h i l d r e n " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985,  p.154  job  - emphasis  added). F a m i l y L i v i n g a l s o makes s t a t e m e n t s such as:  "...  mothers can t a k e t h e i r i n f a n t s f o r r e g u l a r , f r e e checkups" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985,  p.252) and  "Shopping e x p e d i t i o n s  f o r two mothers w i t h a c t i v e t o d d l e r s can be c h a o t i c . . .  The  mothers might w i s e l y d e c i d e t o t a k e t u r n s w a t c h i n g t h e c h i l d r e n " (p.235). The  t r a d i t i o n a l assumption about who  is  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d c a r e a l s o passes u n q u e s t i o n e d i n Creative Living: Two months l a t e r , Donna was p r e g n a n t . N e i t h e r o f them had p l a n n e d i t t h a t way o r t h o u g h t much about h a v i n g a baby. Donna d e c i d e d t o g i v e up her j o b , and she postponed p l a n s f o r s c h o o l . M a r i o withdrew h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o l l e g e and got a j o b d r i v i n g a d e l i v e r y t r u c k . ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.149) C r e a t i v e L i v i n g g i v e s t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e t o t h e mother, even i f t h o s e mothers a r e w o r k i n g i n t h e suggestions  t h a t a "mother's h e l p e r " i s one who  "cares  for  129 the c h i l d r e n of a working parent or working e t a l , 1985,  parents" (Foster  p.154) and "Many mothers f i n d ( s c h o o l c a f e t e r i a  work) a c o n v e n i e n t  j o b , because i t a l l o w s them t o work when  t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e i n s c h o o l and t o be home a f t e r s c h o o l i s i  out" 1  (p.157). Creative Living reinforces t r a d i t i o n a l parenting s t y l e s ,  c a s t i n g t h e female i n t h e n u r t u r i n g r o l e and t h e male i n t h e d i s c i p l i n g r o l e . T h i s can be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : "At home, i  when y o u r mother l e t s you s t a y o v e r n i g h t a t a f r i e n d s house, she i s showing you t h a t she t r u s t s you" p.17  ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985,  - emphasis added), "mother p r a i s e s you f o r d o i n g  food shopping  w e l l " ( p . 4 1 ) , "your f a t h e r y e l l s a t  the  you"  (p.41,) and "Does y o u r f a t h e r always g i v e you a c u r f e w . . . ? " (p.60). The o n l y t e x t b o o k which p u t s any emphasis on t h e t o p i c o f b a b y s i t t i n g i s C r e a t i v e L i v i n g . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y because i t i s aimed a t younger s t u d e n t s t h a n t h e o t h e r two  textbooks.  Once a g a i n t h e e x p l i c i t message appears t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i m p l i c i t message. The n e u t r a l statement "Many young people 1985,  l i k e working  as p a r t - t i m e c a r e g i v e r s " ( F o s t e r e t a l ,  p.119) i s p r o b a b l y meant t o i n c l u d e males as  b a b y s i t t e r s . T h i s r o l e , however, i s i m p l i c i t l y g i v e n t o young women by t h e use o f female names i n t h e examples. "Monique" i s a s s i s t i n g "Mrs. M c A r t h u r " by b a b y s i t t i n g f o r her and " i s even c o n s i d e r i n g a 'mother's h e l p e r ' j o b " (118-119); Annie (p.141) i s another b a b y s i t t e r ; and "Susan's budget" (p.194) i n c l u d e s income from b a b y s i t t i n g .  130 Socialization Many o f t h e problems which women i n t h i s s o c i e t y e x p e r i e n c e may be r e l a t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f females and males. S i n c e much s o c i a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y i t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e t o p i c i n any c o u r s e  focused  on f a m i l i e s . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n each o f t h e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s was examined. In Family L i v i n g , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i s mentioned as one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f f a m i l i e s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f female and male c h i l d r e n no  receives  mention. One i m p o r t a n t f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i s t o s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s by which c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e h a v i o r t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e f a m i l y and t o t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y . Most o f your v i e w p o i n t s and a t t i t u d e s a r e l e a r n e d i n your f a m i l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.132)  Sex r o l e s a r e n o t seen as a problem something  i n t h i s textbook,  just  t o be a c q u i r e d from t h e c u l t u r e , passed on w i t h o u t  questioning:  "During (the years of childhood) c h i l d r e n  also  become aware o f whether t h e y a r e female o r male. As a r e s u l t , t h e y l e a r n t h e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s a s s i g n e d t o each s e x i n t h e i r c u l t u r e " (Leavenworth  e t a l , 1985, p.36) and "From o b s e r v i n g  o t h e r s , young c h i l d r e n l e a r n n o t o n l y t h e p r o p e r b e h a v i o r s f o r a d u l t r o l e s , b u t a l s o who s h o u l d p l a y t h o s e r o l e s " (p.204). A l t h o u g h i t has y e t t o be proved, most e x p e r t s b e l i e v e t h a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n human b e h a v i o r r e s u l t from e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Many p a r e n t s t e n d t o t r e a t t h e i r male and female c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t l y , and a c h i l d tends t o i m i t a t e t h e b e h a v i o r , o r r o l e , o f t h e p a r e n t o f t h e same s e x . R o l e i s a major f a c t o r i n t h e way boys and g i r l s behave, and i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e y w i l l have toward t h e o p p o s i t e sex. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.22)  131  The t e x t b o o k does not r e f e r t o t h e s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n nor i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e t r e a t e d as a  problem. The t o p i c o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n People i n  S o c i e t y . " S o c i a l i z a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s by which we l e a r n t h e b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and customs t h a t make up our c u l t u r e . We  l e a r n about and shape our b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h  c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , o f t e n i n groups"  (Hanson & Gower,  1988a, p.57). S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s l i s t e d as one o f t h e " F u n c t i o n s o f t h e F a m i l y " (p.177). However, when s o c i a l i z a t i o n of s m a l l c h i l d r e n i s d e a l t w i t h (p.99), there i s no mention o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f females  and  males. The t e x t b o o k i n c l u d e s sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e s e c t i o n on a d o l e s c e n c e . I n t h e p r e v i e w , s t u d e n t s a r e asked t o "Make a l i s t o f t h e ways i n which your u p b r i n g i n g might be d i f f e r e n t i f you were a member o f t h e o p p o s i t e sex" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.116). About sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h e textbook s t a t e s : A l t h o u g h everyone goes t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , not a l l p e o p l e a r e s o c i a l i z e d e q u a l l y ... S t e r e o t y p e s , l i k e a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , do not t a k e i n t o account i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and t e n d t o l a g b e h i n d changes i n s o c i a l custom... U n t i l r e c e n t l y , g i r l s were e x p e c t e d t o p l a y g e n t l e games and t o be sweet and s e n s i t i v e . Boys were e x p e c t e d t o t a k e p a r t i n rough s p o r t s and t o be s t r o n g and tough. A l t h o u g h our s o c i e t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed males and females i n t h e s e ways t h e s e views do not e x i s t everywhere. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.133) (Two examples a r e g i v e n from o t h e r cultures.) c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f sex r o l e s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f agents - p a r e n t s , o t h e r a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ,  132 p e e r s , a d v e r t i s i n g , and o t h e r media. I n our s o c i e t y , s e x r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s are i n the process of changing. Changing gender e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e way we r a i s e our c h i l d r e n . ( H a n s o n & Gower, 1988a, p.135) A l t h o u g h t h e s e comments a r e n o t s p e c i f i c enough t o be r e a l l y h e l p f u l i n t h e development o f a p p r o p r i a t e p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e power and p e r v a s i v e n e s s of socialization,  a t l e a s t t h e tone o f t h e comments appears t o  f a v o u r t h e changes t a k i n g p l a c e . P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s which have s t u d e n t s f o c u s i n g on female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.135  & 137). The  Teacher Resource book a l s o c o n t a i n s an e x e r c i s e "Sex R o l e s and C a r e e r s "  (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, p.71).  C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does n o t mention s o c i a l i z a t i o n  even  though i t i s e x p l i c i t i n i t s i n t e n t i o n t o oppose s t e r e o t y p i n g which w i l l  " l i m i t your chances" ( F o s t e r e t a l , 1985, p.79).  The s o u r c e s o f s t e r e o t y p i n g a r e s a i d t o be " t r a d i t i o n "  and  "media". The c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s a d d r e s s e d o n l y i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n but t h e importance i s downplayed. Even though much s o c i a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n f a m i l i e s , these textbooks give l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The r o l e o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n agents o t h e r t h a n t h e f a m i l y i s m i n i m i z e d and no r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e problems a r i s i n g from t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f females and males. Relationships The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between females and males. S i n c e t h e s e books are  a d d r e s s e d t o a d o l e s c e n t s and a r e concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l  133  l i v e s r a t h e r t h a n c a r e e r s , most o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p comments r e l a t e t o d a t i n g , c o u r t s h i p and m a r r i a g e . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u d e s s u g g e s t i o n s on r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as  where t o go on a d a t e , "Crushes", "Love", and  " B r e a k i n g Up" ( p . 9 0 ) . The d i s c u s s i o n i s k e p t n e u t r a l as i n " A r r i v e on t i m e , o r c a l l i f you're l a t e " and "Be ready on t i m e . Don't keep your d a t e w a i t i n g " ( p . 9 1 ) . M e n t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i s a v o i d e d . F o r example, no one phones a n o t h e r t o ask f o r t h e d a t e , no one d r i v e s a c a r , no one pays. The book a t t e m p t s t o d e a l more w i t h f e e l i n g s t h a n w i t h d a t i n g p r a c t i c e s . Because p r a c t i c e s a r e never d i s c u s s e d o r q u e s t i o n e d , change i s n o t encouraged. F a m i l y L i v i n g r e f e r s t o "A L o v i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.81) r a t h e r t h a n t o " d a t i n g " and " c o u r t s h i p " . Much o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e c o n t e n t c e n t e r s around "Myths about Love" ( p . 7 4 ) . F a m i l y L i v i n g , however, i s t h e o n l y t e x t b o o k which e x p l i c i t l y a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l b e i t t r i v i a l i z e d and s i m p l i f i e d : I n h e a l t h y , growing l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e two p e o p l e a r e committed t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g e q u a l i t y i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . E q u a l i t y means t h a t t h e i d e a s and f e e l i n g s o f b o t h p e o p l e a r e c o n s i d e r e d whenever a d e c i s i o n i s t o be made t h a t w i l l a f f e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . (Leavenworth, 1985, p.83) The r e a s o n s f o r e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e r a t h e r  trivial:  " I f one p e r s o n makes a l l t h e d e c i s i o n s , t h a t p e r s o n may soon f e e l p r e s s u r e d , w h i l e t h e o t h e r p e r s o n may f e e l l e f t o u t and r e s e n t f u l " ( p . 8 3 ) ; " a v o i d s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and enhances f e e l i n g s o f t r u s t " ( p . 8 2 ) ; "more s e c u r e " ( p . 8 2 ) ; and "more  134 fun"  (p.83). E q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a l s o t r i v i a l i z e d i n  t h e r e v i e w q u e s t i o n s which ask S t u d e n t s t o " e x p l a i n some ways i n which e q u a l i t y can e n l i v e n a r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Leavenworth a l , 1985, p.86  et  - emphasis added). The book f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e  t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s because of male/female  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s .  F a m i l y L i v i n g a t t e m p t s t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s : " I n d e m o c r a t i c m a r r i a g e s , who  has  authority?  I s i t p o s s i b l e t o s h a r e d e c i s i o n making on a l l i s s u e s ? " (Leavenworth  e t a l , 1985, p.120). These q u e s t i o n s a r e  f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y by a weak statement "Each c o u p l e w i l l need t o work out t h e answers f o r themselves i n c o n s t u c t i v e ways" (p.120). The s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n no h e l p i n s e a r c h i n g o u t n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d . A t t i m e s F a m i l y L i v i n g appears t o advocate e q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t i t a l s o a t t e m p t s t o be v a l u e - f r e e i n t r y i n g t o acknowledge b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l and e q u i t a b l e m a r r i a g e  roles  as a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s . T h i s t e x t b o o k i s not c o n t r o v e r s i a l . I t doesn't t a k e a s t a n d o r even d i s c u s s t h e advantages d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and  and  traditional  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The w a v e r i n g s t a n c e adopted by t h i s t e x t b o o k can be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : Even though t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s d i f f e r , most c o u p l e s do develop i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s according t o p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n s ... The terms husband and w i f e i m p l y a s e t o f r o l e s . I f a m a r r i a g e i s t o succeed, a c o u p l e must agree on what t h e y e x p e c t o f themselves and each o t h e r i n t h e r o l e s o f husband and w i f e . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.114) In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l view o f m a r i t a l r o l e s , c e r t a i n t r a i t s and t a s k s a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e husband and w i f e . " F a t h e r  135 knows b e s t , " f o r example i s an o l d s a y i n g t h a t assumes s u p e r i o r wisdom i n t h e males. V a r i o u s s t u d i e s show t h a t many c o u p l e s s t i l l v i e w t h e i r r o l e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l terms. Unmarried p e o p l e , t o o , o f t e n e x p r e s s t h e i r d e s i r e t o d i v i d e h o u s e h o l d t a s k s a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s when t h e y marry, w i t h women c a r i n g f o r t h e home and c h i l d r e n and men t a k i n g on f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Nevertheless, the m a j o r i t y of people surveyed i n r e c e n t y e a r s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r views on m a r i t a l r o l e s b e l i e v e d t h a t women s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e home and t h a t men s h o u l d s h a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing t h e home. The view t h a t women can p e r f o r m most j o b s , e x c e p t t h o s e r e q u i r i n g g r e a t p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , as c a p a b l y as men has g a i n e d i n a c c e p t a n c e . A number o f n a t i o n a l p o l l s and s u r v e y s conducted d u r i n g t h e 1970s i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f husbands now f e e l l e s s p r e s s u r e t o be t h e a l l - p o w e r f u l , a l l knowing a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n t h e home and t h a t t h e y p e r f o r m many h o u s e h o l d t a s k s . More and more p e o p l e a r e coming t o b e l i e v e t h a t b o t h husband and w i f e s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e b o t h money and household labour t o the support of the f a m i l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.114-115) The c o n t e n t o f People i n S o c i e t y d e a l s more w i t h h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s t h a n w i t h p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Subheadings i n c l u d e "Arranged M a r r i a g e s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.148), "Dowry and  Brideprice"  ( p . 1 5 0 ) , and "Romantic M a r r i a g e s " ( p . 1 5 0 ) . The h i s t o r i c a l c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s a r e s i m p l y p r e s e n t e d , not  critically  a n a l y z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o what t h e y say about t h e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between women and  and  and  men.  In r e f e r r i n g t o c u r r e n t Canadian customs, People i n Society  d i s c u s s e s the process, "casual d a t i n g " , "going  s t e a d y " , "becoming engaged", and " g e t t i n g m a r r i e d " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.154). The d i s c u s s i o n i s k e p t v e r y n e u t r a l as i n "Dating a l s o helps people l e a r n t o get along w i t h others and t o accomodate d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s " (p.155.) There i s no mention o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and no c r i t i c a l of  analysis  them. The Suggested A c t i v i t i e s do not encourage c r i t i c a l  136  a n a l y s i s o f any o f t h e c u l t u r a l , p a s t , o r p r e s e n t  traditions.  Some comments i n People i n S o c i e t y u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e i n f o r c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f male as t h e p u r s u e r and female as t h e pursued. F o r example, "Danny i s so shy t h a t he cannot a s k Kathy f o r a d a t e " (p.116) and " C o u r t s h i p b e g i n s a t sundown each day when groups o f a r d e n t young men ... c a l l on young women i n t h e i r t h a t c h e d homes" (p.153). A l t h o u g h t h e t e x t b o o k s d i s c u s s c o u r t s h i p , d a t i n g , and l o v e t h e y do n o t d e a l i n any way w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l (eg.  rituals  boys a s k i n g , p a y i n g , d r i v i n g ) which keep females  dependent and v u l n e r a b l e . Only one o f t h e t e x t b o o k s a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h e q u i t a b l e m a r r i a g e s and t h e n o n l y v e r y weakly because i t a l s o a t t e m p t s t o be v a l u e - f r e e . There i s no mention o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s o t h e r t h a n m a r r i a g e and a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h e t e r o s e x u a l . P a s t and p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e never c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d t o determine what assumptions  a r e made about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between women and  men. Many t o p i c s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e achievement  o f gender  e q u i t y a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k s examined. However, t h e i n c l u s i o n o f i m p o r t a n t t o p i c s i s by i t s e l f n o t enough. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r how t h e s e t o p i c s a r e i n c l u d e d . I n t h e t e x t b o o k s examined t h e r e were c o n f l i c t s between e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t messages, some t o p i c s were examined from a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n t h a n from a female o r gender b a l a n c e d p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i s s u e s was o f t e n t r i v i a l r a t h e r t h a n s u b s t a n t i v e and c r i t i c a l  137  a n a l y s i s o f i s s u e s was n o t encouraged. I n g e n e r a l t h e t e x t b o o k s s t r i v e more o f t e n f o r gender n e u t r a l i t y t h a n f o r gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e . Summary o f F i n d i n g s T h i s s t u d y examined v a r i o u s p a r t s o f home economics t e x t b o o k s f o r e v i d e n c e o f gender b i a s . The d e t a i l s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e b r i e f l y summarized. The p r e f a c e o f t h e t e x t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e books were i n t e n d e d t o address e i t h e r a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience o r a female and male a u d i e n c e . Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s assumed a view of  l e a r n e r s as a b s o r b i n g knowledge i n t h e form o f f a c t s ,  whereas t h e t h i r d t e x t b o o k assumed t h a t s t u d e n t s critically  will  a p p r a i s e knowledge. I m p l i e d i n each o f t h e  p r e f a c e s was t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k s may address some i s s u e s o f r e l e v a n c e t o gender e q u i t y . The t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s i n a l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s were w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language making i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine  i f e q u i t y i s s u e s were addressed. Some t o p i c s had  t h e p o t e n t i a l t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The t e x t b o o k s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e number o f r e l e v a n t t o p i c s i n c l u d e d . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s r e v e a l e d no mention o f t h e women's movement. L i k e t h e t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s , t h e i n d e x o f each t e x t was w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language.  Sex s p e c i f i c language was  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d . Some use o f sex s p e c i f i c language r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e knowledge was p r e s e n t e d from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . The t e x t b o o k s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e i n c l u s i o n o f  138  t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y b u t a l l t e x t b o o k s showed t h e p o t e n t i a l t o address some i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . I n t h e photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , b a l a n c i n g t h e t o t a l numbers o f females and males was one o f t h e ways t h e problem o f gender b i a s was addressed.  However, when  a d o l e s c e n t s a l o n e were c o n s i d e r e d , two t e x t s emphasized males and one t e x t emphasized f e m a l e s . Non-white a d o l e s c e n t  females  were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d o r were p o o r l y r e p r e s e n t e d . A d u l t and a d o l e s c e n t women, when shown i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , were p i c t u r e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l  roles.  The p o r t r a y a l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere showed c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n . One t e x t p o r t r a y e d  females  more o f t e n t h a n males i n home management and home maintenance t a s k s . Another t e x t portrayed these t a s k s i n f r e q u e n t l y but showed a b a l a n c e between females and males. The t h i r d t e x t d i d n o t p o r t r a y any o f t h e s e t a s k s f o r e i t h e r females o r males. I n two o f t h e t e x t s , c h i l d c a r e g i v i n g was f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d b u t t h i s r o l e was a s s i g n e d t o f e m a l e s . I n t h e t h i r d t e x t , t h i s r o l e was almost c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d b u t t h e two photographs p o r t r a y e d a female and a male. Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d t o k e n photographs o f females and males i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The t h i r d t e x t b o o k does n o t i n c l u d e t h e s e t o k e n s . Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y males as more a c t i v e o r dominant t h a n f e m a l e s . Males v i s u a l l y dominate one book because o f t h e s i z e and c o l o u r o f t h e photographs o f s o l i t a r y males. One t e x t b o o k p o r t r a y s females more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n males and as more a c t i v e o r dominant b u t i n t r a d i t i o n a l  139  r o l e s . These f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t s i m p l y a c h i e v i n g a b a l a n c e between t o t a l numbers o f females and males i n photographs does n o t e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s . The  h i g h l i g h t e d sections of the textbooks d e a l t with  gender b i a s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y . Many problems o f b i a s were found. These s e c t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y gave a o n e - s i d e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an i s s u e , most o f t e n from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . Most o f t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s used i n c l u s i v e language t h e r e b y masking o r e x c l u d i n g i m p o r t a n t gender i s s u e s . Most examples o f s e x i s t language were found i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s as i f i t i s n o t m o n i t o r e d as c a r e f u l l y i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s .  Highlighted  s e c t i o n s were a l s o found t o r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r f o r females and males. Some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s attempted t o d e a l w i t h gender b i a s b u t r a r e l y s u c c e s s f u l l y . A few examples e x h i b i t e d b a l a n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . Some drew a t t e n t i o n t o female and male d i f f e r e n c e s b u t i n c l u d e d t o o l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be o f v a l u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e problems. O t h e r s h i g h l i g h t e d issues of relevance  t o gender e q u i t y b u t f a i l e d t o t a k e a  s t r o n g p o s i t i o n i n f a v o u r o f e q u i t y . The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were found t o e x h i b i t problems o f gender b i a s as w e l l as t o attempt t o d e a l w i t h problems o f gender e q u i t y . The c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k s was a l s o found t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e maintenance o f problems r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y . Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n as f a c t s f o r r e t e n t i o n by t h e l e a r n e r . The t h i r d t e x t attempted t o encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g b u t f r e q u e n t l y f a i l e d i n t h i s  140  a t t e m p t . The c o n t e n t o f a l l t h e t e x t b o o k s was g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n i n c l u s i v e language which f r e q u e n t l y masked t h e r e a l i t y o f gender i s s u e s . The o c c a s i o n a l use o f s e x s p e c i f i c language l e d t o t h e problems o f r e i n f o r c i n g s t e r e o t y p e s and presenting  o n l y one p e r s p e c t i v e on an i s s u e .  None o f t h e t e x t b o o k s t o o k a s t r o n g s t a n d on any women's i s s u e s o r e q u i t y i s s u e s , and t h e women's movement was b a s i c a l l y i g n o r e d . The t e x t s have t a k e n minor and t e n t a t i v e s t e p s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f gender e q u i t y b u t t h i s e f f o r t was weakened by a t t e m p t s t o be v a l u e - f r e e o r n e u t r a l on i s s u e s . A t t i m e s t h e e x p l i c i t messages o f t h e c o n t e n t were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i m p l i c i t messages. These f i n d i n g s show t h a t , a l t h o u g h some a t t e m p t s have been made t o e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s , much b i a s s t i l l e x i s t s . The t e x t b o o k s do n o t promote gender e q u i t y .  141  Chapter 4 DISCUSSION T h i s r e s e a r c h examined t h r e e home economics t e x t s and questioned  how t h e s e t e x t s may o r may n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o  gender e q u i t y i n s c h o o l i n g . The r e s e a r c h was g u i d e d by t h r e e questions: 1. To whom i s the textbook e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y addressed? i . Who i s the intended audience of the textbook? i i . Are the images portrayed female or male? i i i . Is the knowledge expressed from a female or male perspective? T r a d i t i o n a l l y , home economics t e x t b o o k s female audience.  addressed a  The e l i m i n a t i o n o f gender b i a s demands t h a t  t h e c o n c e r n s o f females and males be i n c l u d e d . The a u d i e n c e a d d r e s s e d by each t e x t b o o k was e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t i n t h e t e x t . The i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e was e x p l i c i t l y r e v e a l e d o r i m p l i e d i n t h e p r e f a c e . Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r  (1983)  examined t h e p r e f a c e s o f t e x t s . I n h e r e n t i n t h e i r work were two a s s u m p t i o n s : f i r s t , t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e o f a t e x t b o o k c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by a n a l y z i n g t h e p r e f a c e and second, a d d r e s s i n g a n o n - s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e was n o n - s e x i s t . Both o f t h e s e assumptions were q u e s t i o n e d  by t h i s r e s e a r c h .  The assumption t h a t a t a r g e t a u d i e n c e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by r e a d i n g t h e p r e f a c e a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e i n t e n d e d An i m p l i e d a u d i e n c e ,  a d d r e s s e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y and  u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , was r e v e a l e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e textbooks.  audience.  142  Even though t h e e x p l i c i t i n t e n t i o n s t a t e d i n t h e p r e f a c e of one o f t h e t e x t b o o k s was t o a d d r e s s b o t h female and male s t u d e n t s , t h e r e was a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h i s  intention  and t h e message conveyed i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e t e x t . T h i s book f e a t u r e d more f e m a l e s , e s p e c i a l l y a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s , i n the  photographs and used more h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s d i r e c t e d  to  females o r from a female p e r s p e c t i v e . The c o n t e n t o f t h i s  book was so n e u t r a l i z e d t h a t i t a d d r e s s e d some androgenous p e r s o n , n e i t h e r female n o r male. Even i f an i n t e n t i o n t o a d d r e s s a female and male a u d i e n c e i s e x p l i c i t l y s e t f o r t h i n a p r e f a c e i t cannot be assumed t h i s i n t e n t i o n w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s t of the textbook. Examination of o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e book i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n c e s t a t e d i n t h e p r e f a c e i s t h e same as t h e i m p l i e d a u d i e n c e conveyed i n t h e remainder o f t h e book. A n o n - s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e was assumed by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) t o be n o n - s e x i s t and i n c l u s i v e o f females and males. The p r e f a c e s o f two t e x t b o o k s i m p l i e d t h a t a nons p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e o f f e m a l e s and males was a d d r e s s e d . Both t h e s e t e x t b o o k s a d d r e s s e d males more t h a n f e m a l e s . They f e a t u r e d more a d o l e s c e n t males t h a n females i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , f e a t u r e d males o r gave a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y n e u t r a l i z e d o r t r i v i a l i z e d i s s u e s o f importance t o females i n t h e c o n t e n t . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h suggest t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n t o a d d r e s s a n o n - s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e may n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o gender  143  s e n s i t i v i t y and gender b a l a n c e . A n a l y s i s o f a p r e f a c e a l o n e is insufficient  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g i f females and males w i l l be  included equally i n a text. Traditionally,  home economics t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y e d more  female t h a n male images. I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e l i m i n a t e b i a s , home economics t e x t s f a c e d a unique problem. Whereas t e x t b o o k s i n most s u b j e c t s have had t o s t r i v e t o i n c l u d e more f e m a l e s , home economics t e x t b o o k s have had t o i n c l u d e more males. Photographs a r e an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t e x t s and c a n a p p e a l e i t h e r t o females o r males. Images c o n t a i n e d i n t h e photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s were examined i n r e l a t i o n t o the  q u e s t i o n o f who i s a d d r e s s e d by t h e t e x t b o o k . One t e x t b o o k was v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l . A l t h o u g h an apparent  attempt had been made t o i n c l u d e males, more female t h a n male images remained i n t h e photographs, e s p e c i a l l y i n a c t i v i t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by f e m a l e s . Photographs o f s o l i t a r y f e m a l e s were more p r e v a l e n t t h a n t h o s e o f s o l i t a r y males and v e r y few photographs f e a t u r e d b o t h females and males. D e s p i t e the  specific  i n t e n t i o n t o a d d r e s s females and males s t a t e d i n  the  p r e f a c e , t h e photographs i n t h i s t e x t a d d r e s s f e m a l e s .  T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e unequal p o r t r a y a l o f female and male images may u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y o c c u r i n t e x t s , making e x a m i n a t i o n o f photographs i m p o r t a n t . Both t h e o t h e r t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d more male t h a n female images. One f e a t u r e d many photographs o f b o t h females and males b u t i n c l u d e d s l i g h t l y more male images t h a n female ones  144  ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e were t h r e e t i m e s as many a d o l e s c e n t males as f e m a l e s ) . Males d i d n o t v i s u a l l y dominate t h e book, because t h e l a c k o f c o l o u r made t h e s e photographs l e s s d e c o r a t i v e . Most photographs i n t h e t h i r d book f e a t u r e d females and males, making t h i s t e x t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e examined by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983), b o t h o f whom found a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f female o n l y photographs. T h i s t e x t b o o k a c h i e v e d t h e b e s t b a l a n c e i n numbers o f females and males. However, i t a l s o c r e a t e d a new problem r e l a t e d t o gender  bias  i n home economics. T h i s t e x t b o o k f e a t u r e d more s o l i t a r y males t h a n s o l i t a r y f e m a l e s . The use o f f u l l page, d e c o r a t i v e p i c t u r e s o f s o l i t a r y males made them more v i s i b l e t h a n f e m a l e s . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome t h e problem o f e m p h a s i z i n g f e m a l e s , t h i s t e x t b o o k made male images more dominant.  This  r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t , n o t o n l y t h e t o t a l number o f females and males i s i m p o r t a n t , b u t a l s o t h a t t h e c o l o u r , s i z e and number o f p e o p l e i n t h e photographs s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h e i n t e n t i o n t o a d d r e s s females and males s t a t e d o r i m p l i e d i n t h e p r e f a c e was c o n t r a d i c t e d by e m p h a s i z i n g e i t h e r females o r males i n photographs. I n e f f o r t s t o i n c l u d e males i n home economics t e x t b o o k s i t w i l l be i m p o r t a n t t o a v o i d making females l e s s v i s i b l e t h a n males. H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t ( i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s ) were examined t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them was e x p r e s s e d from a female o r male p e r s p e c t i v e . Research on t e x t b o o k s o t h e r t h a n home economics  145  t e x t b o o k s s u g g e s t e d t h a t knowledge i s most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . No r e s e a r c h on home economics t e x t b o o k s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e from which knowledge was p r e s e n t e d b u t Weis (1979) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t females were g i v e n more d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g r o l e b e h a v i o r s t h a n males. The most t r a d i t i o n a l home economics t e x t b o o k f o c u s e d more h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on females t h a n on males. The c o n t e n t o f t h i s book was s i m p l i f i e d and n e u t r a l i z e d so t h a t t h e book was a d d r e s s e d t o an androgenous p e r s o n . The knowledge was n o t u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d from e i t h e r a female o r male p e r s p e c t i v e . Problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gender were i g n o r e d because gender was e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s t e x t b o o k was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e audience a d d r e s s e d . The photographs and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s a d d r e s s e d females and t h e c o n t e n t a d d r e s s e d n e i t h e r even though t h e p r e f a c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h f e m a l e s and males would be a d d r e s s e d . Males were c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized  i n t h e o t h e r two  t e x t s . H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s f o c u s e d on males o r e x p r e s s e d knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t h e c o n t e n t , t h e s e t e x t s a l s o a d d r e s s e d males more t h a n females and p r e s e n t e d a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n t h a n a female one. T h i s problem was e v i d e n t i n t h e emphasis on t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f males i n t h e n u r t u r i n g o f c h i l d r e n , t h e impact o f d i v o r c e on t h e f a t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , and i s s u e s such as " p a t e r n i t y l e a v e " . These two t e x t s e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r  146  c o n s i s t e n c y t h a n t h e o t h e r t e x t - Photographs,  highlighted  s e c t i o n s , and c o n t e n t a l l addressed males more t h a n  females  and p r e s e n t e d a male p e r s p e c t i v e . Because t h e p r e f a c e s o f t h e s e t e x t s were n o n - s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t a r g e t a u d i e n c e , t h i s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t h e assumption  that  a d d r e s s i n g a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience i s n o n - s e x i s t and i n c l u d e s females and males. This r e s e a r c h suggests i t i s important t o c o n s i d e r both t h e i n t e n d e d audience and t h e i m p l i e d , u n i n t e n d e d  audience  when a n a l y z i n g t e x t b o o k s . The p r e f a c e may r e v e a l t h e i n t e n d e d audience b u t t h e photographs,  h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and  c o n t e n t r e v e a l an i m p l i e d a u d i e n c e . Messages conveyed by t h e s e p a r t s o f t h e books may be i n c o n s i s t e n t and contradictory. Gender e q u i t y l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s b o t h females and males must be i n c l u d e d i n t e x t b o o k s and knowledge e x p r e s s e d  from  t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f b o t h . Textbooks may i n t e n d t o address b o t h females and males by b e i n g n o n - s p e c i f i c . However, t h e n o t i o n o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o gender. I t i s t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o be e x p l i c i t about a d d r e s s i n g females and males. T h i s i n t e n t i o n s h o u l d be combined w i t h v e r y c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f photographs,  h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and c o n t e n t , a d d r e s s i n g  b o t h females and males and i n c l u d i n g b o t h female and male perspectives. Home economics t e x t b o o k s f a c e a c h a l l e n g e when i n c l u d i n g  147  males. I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e gender b a l a n c e , knowledge s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d from b o t h female and male p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h o u t making a male p e r s p e c t i v e appear more v a l u e d o r dominant t h a n a female one.  I n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e gender s e n s i t i v i t y ,  this  b a l a n c e must be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t i g n o r i n g t h e problems women e x p e r i e n c e as a r e s u l t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender. 2. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s a r e assumed by t h e textbook? i. ii. iii.  Are l e a r n e r s expected t o accept the textbook knowledge as p r e s e n t e d ? A r e l e a r n e r s encouraged t o q u e s t i o n s o c i a l arrangements o r a n a l y z e s o c i a l problems? A r e l e a r n e r s encouraged t o q u e s t i o n and c h a l l e n g e the textbook?  No p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on gender b i a s i n t e x t b o o k s analyzed t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r o l e i n s o c i a l transformation yet c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t thought i n s i s t s s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . T h i s r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was posed i n o r d e r t o determine  i f these t e x t s play a r o l e i n s o c i a l transformation  t h r o u g h e n c o u r a g i n g c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i n q u i r y . The q u e s t i o n  was  a d d r e s s e d by examining t h e p r e f a c e , h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content ( i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s ) of the textbooks. The assumed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r s were suggested by t h e p r e f a c e s . Two  textbooks i m p l i e d i n the preface t h a t  s t u d e n t s would absorb knowledge c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t e x t b o o k , a c c e p t i n g i t as p r e s e n t e d . The c o n t e n t and  highlighted  s e c t i o n s i n t h e t e x t s were p r e s e n t e d i n a way c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s i n t e n t i o n . Knowledge was p r e s e n t e d as f a c t s  and  a c t i v i t i e s were d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e c a l l o r  148  understanding  o f t h e s e f a c t s . C r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t pedagogy  r e j e c t s t h e n o t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r as a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t o f knowledge and knowledge as immutable f a c t . A l t h o u g h  critical  a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e t e x t s c o u l d be encouraged by t h e t e a c h e r , t h e t e x t s a l o n e do n o t encourage c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i n q u i r y . The  t h i r d textbook  stated c l e a r l y i n the preface  that  s t u d e n t s were knowledgeable and a b l e t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s . To some e x t e n t , t h i s t e x t d i d encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g on s o c i a l i s s u e s , p r e s e n t i n g more t h a n one v i e w p o i n t on an i s s u e and e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o t a k e a s t a n d on an i s s u e and defend o r r e f u t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  This  t e x t a l s o encouraged s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r ways o f becoming politically  involved with respect t o c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l  issues. This suggestion  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Anyon's, (1979)  p o s i t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s need t o l e a r n t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e for  females,  as w e l l as males, t o engage i n p o l i t i c a l  p r o t e s t . None o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t e d , however, r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gender i s s u e s . This textbook  frequently f e l l short of i t s goal of  d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Many a c t i v i t i e s were based o n l y on r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d  and o t h e r s  considered  problems from a male p e r s p e c t i v e o n l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n was b i a s e d , as i n t h e d i s m i s s a l of t h e f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m o f t h r e e p s y c h o l o g i s t s . These f i n d i n g s once a g a i n s u g g e s t t h e i n t e n t i o n s t a t e d i n t h e p r e f a c e may n o t be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e book. T h i s  149  i n c o n s i s t e n c y makes e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s content,  and  i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s , e s s e n t i a l .  A t no t i m e d i d any o f t h e t e x t b o o k s s u g g e s t s t u d e n t s should question or challenge the textbook. In a l l three textbooks,  l e a r n e r s were e x p e c t e d t o a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t y of  t h e t e x t . I n p r a c t i c e , however, t h e t e x t i n use by a t e a c h e r who One  can encourage i t s use  p o s s i b l e way  i s mediated  in a critical  way.  f o r t e x t s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender  e q u i t y i s t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i e t y and  s o c i a l i s s u e s w i t h gender e q u i t y as a g o a l . I f  t e x t b o o k knowledge i s t o p l a y a p a r t i n s o c i a l  transformation  as s u g g e s t e d by W e i l e r  (1988), i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d  considered  r a t h e r t h a n f a c t u a l and  should  problematic  be  students  l e a r n t o c r i t i c a l l y examine s o c i a l i s s u e s and  ways o f a f f e c t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . C r i t i c a l  develop  feminist  e d u c a t o r s have a p o l i t i c a l commitment t o t h e improvement of t h e c o n d i t i o n o f f e m a l e s . P r e s e n t i n g s t a t i s t i c s on problems such as p o v e r t y  o r w i f e abuse i s not enough. An i n d i v i d u a l  approach t o t h e s e problems i s a l s o i n a d e q u a t e . More i m p o r t a n t i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e r o l e t h a t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n p l a y i n t h e development of s o c i e t a l problems. F e m i n i s t t e a c h i n g has a counter-hegemonic g o a l  (Weiler,  1988). I t exposes t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r and d e v e l o p s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s o c i a l f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g our l i v e s .  A  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f causes and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l problems i s e s s e n t i a l i f home economics t e x t b o o k s a r e  to  150  c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y . 3. I n what way does t h e t e x t b o o k d e a l w i t h gender b i a s ? Is i t biased o r i s i t n e u t r a l , balanced, o r s e n s i t i v e ? The  sub-questions of t h i s research  examined s e p a r a t e l y i.  question  w i l l be  i n the following section.  I s t h e language s e x i s t o r a r e i n c l u s i v e and s e x s p e c i f i c language used a p p r o p r i a t e l y ?  Language was a n a l y z e d i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s e x c e p t t h e p r e f a c e and photographs. S e x i s t language appeared i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s more t h a n i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e books. A l l t h r e e books used t h e g e n e r i c  "he" i n h i g h l i g h t e d  s e c t i o n s . One t e x t a l s o used t h e s e x s p e c i f i c word, housewife, t o apply t o a generic  situation. I t i s possible,  when p u b l i s h e r s were c h e c k i n g f o r b i a s i n language, t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were o m i t t e d from t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n so t h a t s e x i s t language was l e f t i n . The  major way t h e s e t e x t s d e a l t w i t h s e x i s m i n language  was t h r o u g h t h e use o f i n c l u s i v e words. i n g e n e r a l , t h i s made i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t e i t h e r gender b i a s o r gender b a l a n c e and  s e n s i t i v i t y i n t h e index o r t a b l e o f contents.  Language  was examined i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t s and  a l l showed e v i d e n c e o f s t r i v i n g t o be n o n - s e x i s t  gender n e u t r a l i t y . However, i n a p p r o p r i a t e  through  use o f i n c l u s i v e  language caused problems. I t masked d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men and i g n o r e d  d i s a d v a n t a g e s women s u f f e r as a r e s u l t o f  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I n c l u s i v e language also l e d t o the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of research  f i n d i n g s t o both  151  s e x e s , even though t h e r e s e a r c h may have been c a r r i e d o u t on one s e x o n l y . I n c l u s i v e language was n o t used t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f s e x s p e c i f i c language. O c c a s i o n a l l y gender b a l a n c e and gender s e n s i t i v i t y were i m p l i e d by t h e use o f s e x s p e c i f i c  language  i n t h e i n d e x . Gender b a l a n c e was s u g g e s t e d i n one t e x t by i n c l u s i o n o f s e x s p e c i f i c c o n c e p t s such as m o t h e r i n g and f a t h e r i n g , women and men. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y was s u g g e s t e d i n t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s o f t h e same t e x t by i n c l u s i o n o f " w i f e abuse". I n a l l t e x t s , s e x s p e c i f i c language c r e a t e d problems o f b i a s r a t h e r than gender b a l a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t . Sex s p e c i f i c language i g n o r e d o r m i n i m i z e d t h e r o l e o f one sex w h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e o t h e r . I t a l s o r e i n f o r c e d s e x s t e r e o t y p e s as i n t h e a l t e r n a t i n g use o f "she" and "he" and i n t h e examples which c o n t a i n e d e i t h e r "mother" o r " f a t h e r " . I f t e x t b o o k s a r e t o be gender s e n s i t i v e and gender b a l a n c e d , n o t j u s t n o n - s e x i s t , b o t h i n c l u s i v e and s e x s p e c i f i c language must be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e book. I n c l u s i v e language i s a p p r o p r i a t e and i t s use i s i m p o r t a n t when a c o n c e p t a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o b o t h females and males. Sex s p e c i f i c language i s a p p r o p r i a t e when a d d r e s s i n g problems r e l a t i n g t o gender. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i n c l u s i v e language n o t mask gender problems and t h a t sex s p e c i f i c language n o t l e a d t o an u n b a l a n c e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o r t h e r e i n f o r c i n g of stereotypes.  152  This r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s e x i s t language i s n o t an easy m a t t e r . Pronouns a r e no l o n g e r an adequate i n d i c a t o r o f s e x i s m as i n t h e r e s e a r c h by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) because t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y used i n c l u s i v e l y o r a v o i d e d . F a l s e g e n e r i c terms (VSB, 1987) have g e n e r a l l y been r e p l a c e d by i n c l u s i v e words. D e t e r m i n i n g gender b i a s i n language now must a d d r e s s E i c h l e r ' s  (1987)  c o n c e r n o f u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language t o a d d r e s s sex s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The judgement no l o n g e r depends upon t h e word i t s e l f b u t on t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n which i t i s used. T h e r e f o r e , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f gender problems i s e s s e n t i a l so a p p r o p r i a t e judgements can be made about t h e use o f b o t h i n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language. iii  A r e b o t h f e m a l e and male images and i s s u e s i n c l u d e d e q u i t a b l y ? Does t h e t e x t b o o k r e i n f o r c e t h e v a l u i n g system w h i c h g i v e s more emphasis and i m p o r t a n c e t o t r a d i t i o n a l male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s t h a n t o t r a d i t i o n a l female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s ?  One o f t h e e a s i e s t and most o b v i o u s ways o f c o u n t e r i n g gender b i a s i n t e x t s i s t o attempt t o b a l a n c e t h e number o f female and male images i n photographs. I n home economics t e x t b o o k t h i s was done by a d d i n g males. A l l t e x t b o o k s examined came c l o s e ( d i f f e r e n c e no g r e a t e r t h a n 11%) t o a c h i e v i n g an o v e r a l l sex b a l a n c e i n photographs. There was a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e when c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d . Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d more male c h i l d r e n t h a n female c h i l d r e n w h i c h may r e f l e c t t h e h i g h e r v a l u e which many c u l t u r e s p l a c e on male c h i l d r e n . There was an even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e when  153  o n l y a d o l e s c e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d . Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d more a d o l e s c e n t males t h a n f e m a l e s . T h i s may have been t h e r e s u l t o f a t t e m p t i n g t o i n c l u d e males i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female dominated  a r e a , b u t had t h e e f f e c t o f  p l a c i n g more v a l u e on males than f e m a l e s . The low r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f non-white  adolescents, e s p e c i a l l y females,  a l s o i n d i c a t e d an u n d e r v a l u i n g o f females and a l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r a c h i e v i n g a b a l a n c e which more c l o s e l y  reflects  the r a c i a l balance of t h e country. The male emphasis i n one o f t h e t e x t b o o k s and t h e female emphasis i n a n o t h e r was r e f l e c t e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a g r e a t e r number o f s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y women have been c o n s i d e r e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . I t w i l l be i m p o r t a n t t o f e a t u r e s o l i t a r y women i n photographs,  but not predominantly i n t r a d i t i o n a l  as i n t h e t e x t b o o k w i t h female emphasis. B a l a n c e d o f females and males i n a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s ,  activities inclusion both  t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o gender balance. Another major way t h e s e t e x t b o o k s d e a l t w i t h gender b i a s was t h r o u g h a d a p t i n g knowledge t o i n c l u d e males. There were some examples i n which i n f o r m a t i o n f o r females and males was i n c l u d e d i n a b a l a n c e d way. I n some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t , however, t h e emphasis on males and t h e s h a p i n g o f knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t l y gave more v a l u e to  males.  154  A l l textbooks dealt with issues p o t e n t i a l l y relevant t o gender e q u i t y . These i s s u e s were a d d r e s s e d f a c t u a l l y r a t h e r t h a n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . I n one t e x t , t h e n e u t r a l i z a t i o n and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f c o n t e n t m i n i m i z e d c o n t r o v e r s y . The o t h e r two t e x t b o o k s g e n e r a l l y shaped knowledge about r e l e v a n t i s s u e s from a male more t h a n female p e r s p e c t i v e , as i n t h e bonding o f f a t h e r s t o i n f a n t s and i n t h e need f o r p a t e r n i t y l e a v e . A l t h o u g h changes i n t h e r o l e s o f women w i l l  require  compensatory e d u c a t i o n f o r males, t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on males reshaped knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . As a r e s u l t , fewer women's i s s u e s t h a n men's i s s u e s were emphasized. A l s o , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s women s u f f e r , such a s h e a v i e r work l o a d s i n p r i v a t e sphere work and l o w e r incomes i n p u b l i c sphere work, were m i n i m i z e d . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f b o t h female and male c o n c e r n s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e achievement o f gender b a l a n c e . The v a l u i n g ( o r l a c k o f v a l u i n g ) o f women's t r a d i t i o n a l work was e v i d e n t when photographs o f home maintenance work were examined. I t s h o u l d be r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t a t e x t b o o k used i n home economics would v a l u e h i g h l y t h e work done i n homes. The most t r a d i t i o n a l home economics t e x t b o o k f e a t u r e d f a r more photographs o f work i n homes t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r t e x t b o o k s . The t e x t b o o k w i t h t h e h i g h e s t v i s i b l i t y o f males gave more emphasis i n photographs t o f a m i l y t o g e t h e r n e s s and f u n t h a n t o work done i n f a m i l i e s . The t h i r d t e x t b o o k i n c l u d e s no photographs o f home maintenance work. As home e c o n o m i s t s seek t o i n c l u d e more males i n t h e i r  subject,  155  i t w i l l be i m p o r t a n t t o a v o i d a d o p t i n g a male dominated v a l u e system which g i v e s l i t t l e emphasis t o work done i n t h e private  sphere.  The low v a l u e p l a c e d on work done i n homes was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s e t e x t s as w e l l as i n t h e photographs. S h a r i n g work i n homes was emphasized i n one t e x t b u t i t was also t r i v i a l i z e d  as " f u n " . A n o t h e r t e x t emphasized t h e  s h a r i n g o f t h e n u r t u r i n g r o l e b u t i g n o r e d t h e work i n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n and t h e work o f home management and home maintenance. The t h i r d t e x t i n c l u d e d n o t h i n g about work t r a d i t i o n a l l y done by women o r t h e importance o f r e d i s t r i b u t i n g t h i s work. I t appears t h a t , i n a t t e m p t s t o i n c l u d e males, t h e c o n t e n t was r e v a l u e d and some t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t e n t was o m i t t e d . The problem o f t h e d u a l work r o l e o f women c a n be i g n o r e d i f work done i n homes i s t r i v i a l i z e d o r ignored.  The achievement o f gender e q u i t y w i l l depend upon  t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere and t h e v a l u i n g o f t h i s work by b o t h females and males. E d u c a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e f i n e d by males and has been r e l a t e d t o t h e p u b l i c sphere. M a r t i n (1985) i n s i s t s t h a t e d u c a t i o n must no l o n g e r reproduce  t h e s p l i t between  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s p h e r e s . A gender b a l a n c e d and gender s e n s i t i v e e d u c a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n f o r and about b o t h s p h e r e s . T h i s e d u c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l . As home economics t e x t b o o k s seek t o i n c l u d e males, knowledge must n o t be reshaped  t o e x c l u d e t r a d i t i o n a l l y female e x p e r i e n c e and  156  knowledge. i i i . A r e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e dual work r o l e o f women r e i n f o r c e d ?  A l l three textbooks r e i n f o r c e d the t r a d i t i o n a l  division  o f l a b o u r by i m p l i c i t l y l o c a t i n g women most f r e q u e n t l y i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s whether i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere o r t h e p u b l i c s p h e r e . T h i s was e v i d e n t i n t h e photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t . I n t h e photographs o f two t e x t b o o k s , more men t h a n women were shown i n p u b l i c  sphere  work r o l e s . R a r e l y d i d t h e s e t e x t s p o r t r a y women i n o c c u p a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g power o r i n f l u e n c e . They were most f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d i n n u r t u r i n g , f o o d s e r v i c e , and c l o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n r o l e s . I n t h e t h i r d book, more women t h a n men were p i c t u r e d i n o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s b u t then most f r e q u e n t l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l , n u r t u r i n g r o l e s . T h i s t e x t b o o k f e a t u r e d two women i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s b u t emphasized t h a t t h e y remained s i n g l e because t h e work was v e r y demanding. I n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e books, women's work i n t h e p u b l i c sphere was t r i v i a l i z e d . A woman's income was c o n s i d e r e d t o be secondary  t o a man's and she was o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be  w o r k i n g f o r p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . Women were p o r t r a y e d as t h e p a r e n t s who would g i v e up p u b l i c sphere work t o s t a y home w i t h c h i l d r e n . The t e x t b o o k s m i n i m i z e d t h e importance o f women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o f a m i l i e s t h r o u g h work i n t h e p u b l i c sphere. The t e x t b o o k s i g n o r e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  socialization  o f women i n t o lower p a y i n g j o b s and none advocated  attempting  157 to enter n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l jobs. S t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere were o n l y s l i g h t l y r e i n f o r c e d i n t h e photographs  o f two t e x t b o o k s . One  o f t h e s e t e x t b o o k s attempted t o b a l a n c e t h e number o f females and males shown i n home maintenance r o l e s . However, because t h e r e a r e so few o f t h e s e photographs,  t h e y c o u l d be  c o n s i d e r e d t o k e n s , e s p e c i a l l y when one photograph  posed a  woman and two c h i l d r e n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r on i n c o m p a t i b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n t a s k s . The o t h e r t e x t b o o k f e a t u r e d more women t h a n men c o o k i n g and shopping f o r f o o d b u t d i v i d e d o t h e r home maintenance t a s k s more e v e n l y between females and males. The t h i r d textbook avoided r e i n f o r c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l o f l a b o u r by o m i t t i n g home maintenance  division  photographs  altogether. The c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t s d i d n o t g i v e t h e home management and home maintenance r o l e e x p l i c i t l y t o women. One t e x t advocated t h e s h a r i n g o f t h e work i n t h e home. The o t h e r two t e x t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o u p l e s would have t o work t h i s o u t i n t h e i r own ways. The o v e r a l l i m p l i c i t message i n a l l t h r e e t e x t s , however, gave t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r work i n t h e home t o women. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r home maintenance work, females were g i v e n t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d c a r e . T h i s message was i n c o n s i s t e n t l y i m p l i e d i n photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t . The photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f two t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y more females  than  158 males i n c h i l d c a r e r o l e s . The importance o f t h i s r o l e i s m i n i m i z e d i n t h e t h i r d t e x t by t h e use o f o n l y two p h o t o g r a p h s , one o f a woman and one o f a man. Women's traditional two  r o l e i n c h i l d c a r e i s r e i n f o r c e d i n t h i s book by  l i n e drawings showing women h o l d i n g c h i l d r e n .  Highlighted  sections i n a l l the textbooks i m p l i c i t l y reinforced the mother as major  caregiver.  C o n t e n t i n two t e x t b o o k s d i s p l a y e d  a c o n f l i c t between  e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t messages about c h i l d c a r e . advocated shared parenting responsibility  Both  b u t i m p l i c i t l y gave t h e major  t o women. They a l s o c o n t a i n e d t h e i m p l i c i t  message t h a t mothers n u r t u r e and f a t h e r s d i s c i p l i n e . The s t u d e n t s were n o t encouraged t o c r i t i c a l l y inappropriateness  of assigning  analyze the  r o l e s i n t h i s way. The c o n t e n t  o f t h e t h i r d t e x t b o o k c o n t a i n e d no e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t messages about female o r male r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for child  care.  I t was i g n o r e d e x c e p t i n t h e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n on househusbands. S t e r e o t y p i c a l assignment o f r o l e s keeps women dependent on and s u b o r d i n a t e t o men. A c o n t r i b u t i o n toward gender e q u i t y c o u l d be made by a d v o c a t i n g g r e a t e r and  a more e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n  role  flexibility  o f l a b o u r i n b o t h p u b l i c and  p r i v a t e s p h e r e s . C u r r e n t s o c i a l arrangements must be p r e s e n t e d as p r o b l e m a t i c . In a d d i t i o n t o r e i n f o r c i n g s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s , these t e x t b o o k s r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s was  159 most e v i d e n t i n photographs. Women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been s o c i a l i z e d t o be p a s s i v e and dependent w h i l e men a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o be a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e , Relationships  and dominant.  were examined i n photographs w h i c h p o r t r a y e d a t  l e a s t one a d u l t o r a d o l e s c e n t o f each sex.  Stereotypical  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e i n f o r c e d by two o f t h e t e x t s which p o r t r a y e d men as b o t h more a c t i v e and more dominant. The t h i r d t e x t b o o k p o r t r a y e d women as a c t i v e and dominant more frequently  t h a n men b u t o n l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s .  Women were n o t shown as more a c t i v e and dominant i n nontraditional roles. E q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was mentioned b u t n o t s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s e t e x t b o o k s . One t e x t b o o k explicitly  opposed s t e r e o t y p i n g  relationships t o dating.  but l i m i t e d i t s discussion of  The d i s c u s s i o n  was gender n e u t r a l s o  t h a t e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was n o t mentioned. A n o t h e r book t r i v i a l i z e d  e q u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y  were "more f u n " . The t h i r d book emphasized t r a d i t i o n s i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s . I n t h e s e l a s t two books, e f f o r t s were made t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e c o n t e n t and make i t value-^free b o t h p a t r i a r c h a l and e q u i t a b l e  by a c c e p t i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l these  approaches a r e l i k e l y t o r e i n f o r c e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , k e e p i n g women dependent on men and men responsible  f o r , and s u p e r i o r  t o women. I f t e x t b o o k s on  relationships are t o contribute  t o gender e q u i t y  then  t r a d i t i o n a l customs must be r a i s e d t o t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l and  160 explicitly The  challenged.  t e x t b o o k s p e r s i s t e d i n g i v i n g t h e image o f t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l n u c l e a r f a m i l y more v i s i b i l i t y t h a n t h e more common d u a l income f a m i l y . None o f t h e s e t e x t b o o k s acknowledged t h e b e n e f i t s o f two income f a m i l i e s o r d e a l t w i t h how t o meet t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f l i v i n g i n them. They d e a l t s u p e r f i c a l l y , i f a t a l l , w i t h t h e problems f a c e d by women i n one  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f d i v o r c e  and one  p a r e n t f a m i l i e s were i g n o r e d . I n f o r m a t i o n about r e m a r r i a g e f a m i l i e s and how t o meet t h e i r c h a l l e n g e s r e c e i v e d  no u s e f u l  emphasis. The o n l y example o f a r e m a r r i a g e f a m i l y used i n one t e x t b o o k r e i n f o r c e d t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s o f women and men. A l l emphasis was p l a c e d on f a m i l i e s o f m a r r i a g e and h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The importance o f e q u i t y i n various The was  t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s was n o t a d d r e s s e d . r e i n f o r c i n g o f s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e books. I n t h e photographs, some  p r o g r e s s was made toward c h a n g i n g s t e r e o t y p e s b u t t h e r o l e o f women i n n u r t u r i n g  and home maintenance was somewhat  r e i n f o r c e d . The books t o o k t e n t a t i v e s t e p s toward e q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s but f e l l f a r short of advocating i t .  Even when  e q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was s u g g e s t e d , i m p l i c i t messages reinforced  women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s .  A g o a l o f t h e women's movement i s t o s h i f t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work done i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere and p u b l i c sphere more e q u i t a b l y . A l l t h r e e t e x t b o o k s r e i n f o r c e d t h e  161 s t e r e o t y p i c a l arrangement o f t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere r e s t i n g w i t h women and t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e p u b l i c sphere r e s t i n g w i t h males. The t e x t b o o k s r e c o g n i z e d women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c sphere b u t m i n i m i z e d and t r i v i a l i z e d i t .  I n f o r m a t i o n about  r e l a t i o n s h i p s was n e u t r a l i z e d and s i m p l i f i e d so t h a t i t was not c o n t r o v e r s i a l and d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e transformation and  o f s o c i a l arrangements. The p o r t r a y a l o f r o l e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e s e t e x t b o o k s was u s u a l l y  stereotyped  and u n r e a l i s t i c . i v . What does t h e t e x t b o o k s a y about f e m a l e and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e s e a r c h on gender d i f f e r e n c e s ? Many problems e x p e r i e n c e d by women can be t r a c e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f females and males. The i s s u e o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d i n e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t . One a c t i v i t y i n a h i g h l i g h t e d  section  r e f e r r e d t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s u a l l y considered feminine o r m a s c u l i n e and s u g g e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d n o t l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s way. S o c i a l i z a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d  strictly  as an i n d i v i d u a l problem r a t h e r t h a n a s o c i a l i s s u e . S o c i a l i z a t i o n was a c o n t e n t t o p i c i n o n l y two books and no emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e d i f f e r e n t ways females and males a r e s o c i a l i z e d o r on t h e problems t h i s may c r e a t e . S o c i a l i z a t i o n was mentioned a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . Much s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s done by t h e media, a d v e r t i s i n g , s c h o o l s , and o t h e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t i t was n o t emphasized i n t h e textbooks. Since parenting  i s a t o p i c i n home economics t h e r e  162  i s the p o t e n t i a l t o c r i t i c a l l y address s o c i a l i z a t i o n . p a r e n t s must u n d e r s t a n d t h e p e r v a s i v e  Future  and u n c o n s c i o u s n a t u r e  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and attempt t o i n t e r v e n e  so problems which  females and males e x p e r i e n c e as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n c a n be a d d r e s s e d . Female and male d i f f e r e n c e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y a d d r e s s e d i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . Exposing d i f f e r e n c e s i s important i n the achievement o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y b u t none o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e d enough i n f o r m a t i o n  t o be o f any  s i g n i f i c a n c e . D i f f e r e n c e s were p r e s e n t e d f a c t u a l l y  rather  t h a n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was drawn between t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s and gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n o r t h e p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e s o f s o c i e t y . Gender s e n s i t i v i t y w i l l  require  a t t e n t i o n , n o t o n l y t o d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t a l s o t o how t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e o u t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f gender and have g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d women a t a s o c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e . v. What p o s i t i o n i s t a k e n on e q u i t y i s s u e s and t h e women's movement? This question preface,  was e x p l o r e d  table of contents,  through examining t h e  i n d e x , h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and  c o n t e n t . An i n t e n t i o n t o a d d r e s s some i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y was i m p l i e d i n t h e p r e f a c e s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s . The  s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t t e x t b o o k s would examine  stereotyping,  changing r o l e s , the changing s o c i e t y , o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l i s s u e s c r e a t e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i s s u e s i m p o r t a n t t o gender e q u i t y would be d e a l t  with.  163 The p o t e n t i a l t o address e q u i t y i s s u e s was r e v e a l e d i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d e x and t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s o f each t e x t b o o k . The use o f sex s p e c i f i c language i n one  textbook  made t h e p o s i t i o n more e x p l i c i t . The mention o f " w i f e abuse" i n t h e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s and " d i v o r c e , and mother" as w e l l  as  " d i v o r c e , and f a t h e r " i n t h e i n d e x suggested t h e p o s s i b l i t y o f a gender s e n s i t i v e and gender b a l a n c e d approach  to  s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s . S i n c e t h e s e t e x t b o o k s used i n c l u s i v e language more o f t e n t h a n sex s p e c i f i c language, t h e p o s i t i o n on e q u i t y i s s u e s was not c l e a r but i n a l l t e x t b o o k s some t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y were i d e n t i f i e d . A l t h o u g h an i n t e n t i o n t o address e q u i t y i s s u e s was i m p l i e d i n t h e p r e f a c e s and t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i m p o r t a n t e q u i t y i s s u e s was  address  i d e n t i f i e d i n the indexes  and  t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s , t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t a k e n on i s s u e s , as opposed t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f i s s u e s , was determined  by  e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t . A l l t h r e e textbooks included h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h issues o f r e l e v a n c e t o gender e q u i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s e i s s u e s were weakly p r e s e n t e d as i f t h e t e x t b o o k s were u n w i l l i n g t o t a k e a s t r o n g s t a n d i n f a v o u r o f gender e q u i t y . Even though t h e women's movement has had a s t r o n g impact on b o t h s o c i e t y and f a m i l i e s , none o f t h e t e x t b o o k s commented upon i t i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h gender e q u i t y i s now  embedded  i n t h e Canadian C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms, t h e t e x t b o o k s t r y t o m a i n t a i n a n e u t r a l s t a n c e on gender e q u i t y as i f i t i s  164 a t o p i c about which a d e c i s i o n has n o t y e t been made. The c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t b o o k s was examined t o determine t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r as r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . Day c a r e i s an example o f an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e which c o u l d be addressed  in a  home economics c o u r s e . E q u i t y i n t h e p u b l i c w o r k f o r c e  cannot  be a c h i e v e d u n t i l adequate day c a r e and t h e e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f men i n c h i l d c a r e r e l e a s e s women and men equally t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c workforce. This issue r e c e i v e d l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n i n two o f t h e t e x t s and Was p r e s e n t e d s t r i c t l y as an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e , n o t a s o c i a l one. B r i e f comments i n t h e t h i r d t e x t began t o address day c a r e as a s o c i a l i s s u e b u t gave v e r y l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n about  problems o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Problems which women s u f f e r as a r e s u l t o f d i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g , such as p o v e r t y , were a d d r e s s e d  only  b r i e f l y i n t h e t e x t b o o k s and were p r e s e n t e d f a c t u a l l y r a t h e r t h a n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . How t h e problems were r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n and d i s c r i m a t i o n a g a i n s t women i n t h e p u b l i c w o r k f o r c e were n o t a d d r e s s e d . The attempted c o n t e n t masked t h e importance  neutralization of  o f d i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g  as i s s u e s w i t h a more d e v a s t a t i n g impact on women t h a n on men. Woman b a t t e r i n g i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i s s u e which be a d d r e s s e d was  should  i n a c o u r s e on r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l i e s . I t  i g n o r e d by one t e x t b o o k and masked by n e u t r a l i z a t i o n as  165 "spouse abuse" i n a n o t h e r . The t h i r d t e x t b o o k l i m i t e d i t s d i s c u s s i o n g e n e r a l l y t o " w i f e abuse" and attempted t o be s e n s i t i v e and b a l a n c e d by p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r b o t h abused females and a b u s i n g males. T h i s t e x t b o o k f a l l s s h o r t o f gender b a l a n c e , however, by p u t t i n g e x t r a emphasis on males. The b a t t e r i n g o f women who a r e n o t a l s o wives was i g n o r e d , e x c e p t f o r one r e f e r e n c e t o " g i r l f r i e n d " . D i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere i s an i m p o r t a n t e q u i t y i s s u e . The work o f home maintenance was t r i v i a l i z e d by one book and b a s i c a l l y i g n o r e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e o t h e r two books. One a r e a i n which t h e t e x t b o o k s advocated change was t h e n u r t u r i n g r o l e o f males. encouraged  T h i s was e x p l i c i t l y  i n a l l t h r e e t e x t s . The i m p l i c i t message o f t e x t s ,  however, was t h a t t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s  role  s t i l l goes t o women. The d i v i s i o n o f work w i l l have t o be more c r i t i c a l l y examined i f t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a r e t o be changed. Women's s t r u g g l e s toward e q u i t y were n o t acknowledged by any o f t h e t e x t b o o k s i n a p o s i t i v e and m e a n i n g f u l way. The C h a r t e r r e c e i v e d b r i e f mention movement was mentioned  i n one t e x t and t h e women's  i n t h e c h a p t e r on  being s i n g l e i n  a n o t h e r . A l t h o u g h a l l t e x t b o o k s acknowledged i n some way t h a t women's r o l e s a r e c h a n g i n g , none o f them advocated  further  change. Two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s f o c u s e d upon changes i n male r o l e s . W h i l e t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t / i t s h o u l d n o t be emphasized a t t h e expense o f d i s c u s s i o n o f change i n women's r o l e s .  166 T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n cause some s o c i a l problems t o have a more d e v a s t a t i n g impact on women t h a n on men. These i s s u e s w i l l have t o be a d d r e s s e d e x p l i c i t l y and c r i t i c a l l y  i f e q u i t y i s t o be a c h i e v e d .  Only  P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y began t o s u b s t a n t i v e l y a d d r e s s some i s s u e s o f importance t o women b u t t h e s e i s s u e s were o f t e n a d d r e s s e d from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . A l l t h e books a d d r e s s e d males o r a t t e m p t e d t o be n e u t r a l r a t h e r t h a n t o t a k e a s t r o n g s t a n d on t h e s e i s s u e s as women's i s s u e s . A l t h o u g h t h e women's movement has g a i n e d important  a c c e p t a n c e t h r o u g h changes i n Canadian l a w s ,  this  movement and t h e i s s u e s i t r a i s e s were v i r t u a l l y  ignored i n these  textbooks.  Three r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were posed i n e x p l o r i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h home economics t e x t s may o r may n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y i n s c h o o l i n g . O v e r a l l , t h e t e x t b o o k s make l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o gender e q u i t y . Some s t e p s were t a k e n i n d e a l i n g w i t h gender b i a s by u s i n g  inclusive  language and by i n c l u d i n g males. These same s t e p s have a l s o i n t r o d u c e d new forms o f gender b i a s t o t h e t e x t s . None o f t h e t e x t b o o k s  deal adequately with the e x i s t i n g  d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males o r w i t h i s s u e s o f relevance  t o gender e q u i t y . A l l o f t h e t e x t b o o k s  short of advocating  fall  equity or a s s i s t i n g i n the transformation  of t h i s s o c i e t y t o a more e q u i t a b l e one by e n c o u r a g i n g c r i t i c a l social inquiry.  167 Chapter 6 CONCLUSION The  Canadian C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms makes gender  e q u i t y an a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l i n e d u c a t i o n . Home economics, because o f i t s f o c u s on r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and s o c i e t y , c o u l d p l a y a p i v o t a l r o l e i n s t r i v i n g toward t h i s g o a l o f e q u i t y . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n economics t e x t b o o k s r e v e a l e d t h a t attempts  o f home  a r e b e i n g made t o  a d d r e s s t h e problem o f gender b i a s . F i v e approaches t o t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b i a s were d e t e c t e d i n t h e t e x t b o o k s  analyzed  i n t h i s s t u d y : i n c l u s i o n o f females and males, use o f i n c l u s i v e language, e x p o s i n g female and male d i f f e r e n c e s , a d d r e s s i n g i s s u e s o f r e l e v a n c e t o gender e q u i t y , and encouraging  c r i t i c a l thinking.  A predominant approach was t o i n c l u d e males i n o r d e r t o b a l a n c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l female f o c u s i n home economics. The r e s u l t i n two o f t h e t e x t b o o k s was t o g i v e more emphasis t o males and t o a male p e r s p e c t i v e t h a n t o females and a female p e r s p e c t i v e . Male emphasis may be a response t o gender b i a s which a p p l i e s u n i q u e l y t o home economics t e x t b o o k s . T h i s male emphasis was e v i d e n t i n t h e photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t , and was e x h i b i t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. Males were f e a t u r e d i n photographs more o f t e n o r more d e c o r a t i v e l y and were o f t e n more a c t i v e and dominant t h a n t h e females.  168 2. H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o changes i n male r o l e s ( e s p e c i a l l y n u r t u r i n g ) r a t h e r t h a n on changes i n women's r o l e s o r t h e problems w h i c h women f a c e because o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 3. Women's t r a d i t i o n a l work i n t h e p r i v a t e sphere ( e x c e p t f o r n u r t u r i n g ) was g i v e n l e s s emphasis i m p l y i n g a l o w e r v a l u e . A n o t h e r predominant approach was t o use i n c l u s i v e language i n o r d e r t o be n o n - s e x i s t and a d d r e s s a n o n - s p e c i f i c a u d i e n c e . The r e s u l t was t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between f e m a l e s and males were o f t e n i g n o r e d and problems r e l a t i n g t o gender were masked. I n c l u s i v e language was e v i d e n t i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e t e x t s e x c e p t f o r t h e photographs and was e x h i b i t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. When a t o p i c was a d d r e s s e d i n an i n c l u s i v e way knowledge was p r e s e n t e d as gender f r e e . Gender  differences  were m i n i m i z e d . Problems r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p i n g were n o t a d d r e s s e d and r e s e a r c h was r e p o r t e d as i f i t a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y t o f e m a l e s and males even though t h e r e s e a r c h may have been done on o n l y one s e x . 2. Gender b i a s e d c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s were i g n o r e d . P a t r i a r c h y remained u n q u e s t i o n e d . E q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was acknowledged b u t t r i v i a l i z e d  and never s t r o n g l y promoted.  3. T r a d i t i o n a l assumptions about r o l e s remained u n q u e s t i o n e d p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e d u a l work r o l e f o r women. These f i r s t two approaches were c o n s i d e r e d  insufficient  i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o gender e q u i t y . I n c l u d i n g males l e d t o t h e  169 reshaping  o f home economics from a male p e r s p e c t i v e  masking women's p e r s p e c t i v e s .  while  I n c l u s i v e language l e d t o t h e  masking o f i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f gender i n e q u i t y . Both o f t h e s e approaches l e d t o problems o f gender b i a s . A gender b a l a n c e d approach would mean t h a t i s s u e s s h o u l d be examined from perspectives  o f b o t h women and men. A gender s e n s i t i v e  approach would mean e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o more s u b t l e problems o f b i a s a r i s i n g from gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Both t h e s e approaches would a l t e r t h e c o n t e n t i n t e x t s as w e l l as t h e form i n which knowledge i s p r e s e n t e d . A t h i r d approach t o t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f gender b i a s was t o expose female and male d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s approach was most f r e q u e n t l y used i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . I t e x h i b i t e d two problems. F i r s t , i n f o r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n c e s was r e p o r t e d f a c t u a l l y . Since d i f f e r e n c e s frequently r e f l e c t t h e i n e q u a l i t y which has r e s u l t e d from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (as i n t h e l o w e r incomes o f women) and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( a s i n t h e d u a l work l o a d ) and t h e y ought t o be exposed as problems, n o t j u s t f a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Secondly, u s u a l l y t o o l i t t l e was  i n c l u d e d about d i f f e r e n c e s t o be o f any use.  information The causes  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s s h o u l d be questioned,  and problems a r i s i n g from t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s  explored. A n o t h e r approach t o t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b i a s was t o address i s s u e s o f relevance  t o gender e q u i t y .  Highlighted  s e c t i o n s and c o n t e n t i n a l l t h r e e books had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  170 a d d r e s s i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s but none t o o k a s t r o n g  stand  a s s i s t i n g i n t h e achievement o f gender e q u i t y . Three problems were noted i n t h e way  the textbooks d e a l t w i t h e q u i t y  issues.  F i r s t , t h e t e x t s attempted t o be n e u t r a l , r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Second, problems r e l a t i n g t o gender were t r e a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l problems. The  role  p l a y e d by s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e development of t h e s e problems was  never c o n s i d e r e d .  T h i r d , i s s u e s were f r e q u e n t l y  examined from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . The most gender s e n s i t i v e and gender b a l a n c e d approach i n an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e was  the  d i s c u s s i o n of " w i f e abuse" i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y . Even t h i s t r e a t m e n t f e l l s h o r t of i d e a l because one h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n was  directed personally  t o women i m p e r s o n a l l y  ("you") t o men  w h i l e another r e f e r r e d  ( " w i f e " ) . No i s s u e s o f r e l e v a n c e  gender e q u i t y were p r e s e n t e d i n a way a s s i s t i n t h e achievement of A l t h o u g h t h e s e l a s t two  that i s l i k e l y  to to  equity. approaches t o the e l i m i n a t i o n o f  b i a s h o l d p r o m i s e , i n t h e t e x t b o o k s examined t h e y d i d  not  a s s i s t i n p r o g r e s s toward gender e q u i t y . A l t h o u g h i s s u e s were i n c l u d e d , t h e manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n was non-controversial  unproblematic  t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender  e q u i t y . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e r e s e a r c h on t e x t b o o k s which s u g g e s t s t h a t p u b l i s h e r s choose t o market books w i t h a standard The  and  content avoiding controversy  (Apple,  1986).  f i n a l approach t o t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b i a s ,  e n c o u r a g i n g c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , was  detected  i n only  one  171 t e x t b o o k . T h i s approach assumes t h e l e a r n e r s a r e knowledgeable p e r s o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s approach was n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t b o o k and was n o t used t o d i r e c t t h e s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o i s s u e s o f gender, i t f i t s w e l l w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t pedagogy. I t t h e r e f o r e h o l d s promise i n t h e development o f gender equitable texts. The development o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s p e r m i t s l e a r n e r s t o q u e s t i o n c u r r e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h may to  lead  a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r and t h e f o r c e s  w h i c h a f f e c t our l i v e s . T h i s may encourage s t u d e n t s t o t a k e a c t i o n toward s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g improvement i n c o n d i t i o n s f o r women. Only t h r o u g h t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y the  about  impact o f gender i n t h i s s o c i e t y w i l l s t u d e n t s become  c o n s c i o u s o f i t and aware o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f and need f o r change. I f t e x t b o o k s a r e t o encourage gender  sensitivity,  t h e y w i l l need t o encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g about s o c i a l i s s u e s n o t r o t e l e a r n i n g o f f a c t s about t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y . T e a c h i n g must be counter-hegemonic, t h a t i s , i t must q u e s t i o n and c h a l l e n g e p r e v a i l i n g assumptions ( W e i l e r , 1988). Gender r e l a t i o n s a r e dynamic. C o n t i n u e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o gender  will  r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t a d j u s t m e n t . The development o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s w i l l allow students t o continue t o develop t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f gender r e l a t i o n s and work toward t h e achievement o f gender e q u i t y . This research contributes t o research of textbooks  172 t h r o u g h i t s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e books. A s h o r t c o m i n g o f e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h such as t h a t by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) was t h a t t h e y d i d not a n a l y z e t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d i n t e x t s . Much t e x t b o o k a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s such as t h e p r e f a c e ,  has  photographs,  and language. T h i s r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t changing s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s o f t e x t s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n e l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s . The r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f knowledge r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f e x i s t i n g knowledge so t h a t s u b t l e b i a s can be d e t e c t e d . Therefore, the w r i t i n g of unbiased textbooks r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n , not o n l y t o s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s o f a t e x t b o o k ,  but  a l s o t o t h e knowledge i t c o n t a i n s . As t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e d t h e importance o f c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t became e v i d e n t . The p r e f a c e , i n d e x and t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s were easy t o examine, but t h e i n t e n t i o n s may  not be c a r r i e d t h r o u g h i n t o t h e c o n t e n t  t h e t o p i c s l i s t e d may  and  not be p r e s e n t e d i n a way t h a t a s s i s t s  t h e p r o g r e s s toward gender e q u i t y . Photographs and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s c a t c h t h e i n t e r e s t and a r e e a s i l y examined but may  not c a r r y t h e same message as t h e c o n t e n t .  Because t e x t b o o k s a r e an i n t e g r a l and i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , t h e knowledge c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them must be examined c a r e f u l l y and  critically.  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h suggest some q u e s t i o n s which s h o u l d be asked about home economics t e x t b o o k s i n o r d e r t o determine  i f t h e y a r e f r e e o f gender b i a s . The  following  q u e s t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o use i n a n a l y z i n g home economics t e x t b o o k s b e f o r e a d o p t i n g them f o r s t u d e n t use. I n a d d i t i o n t h e y may be h e l p f u l i n guiding the preparation of textbooks. 1. I s i n c l u s i v e language used i n g e n e r i c s i t u a t i o n s ? I s s e x s p e c i f i c language used t o c l a r i f y problems a r i s i n g from s e x d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n ? 2. A r e b o t h women and men r e p r e s e n t e d e q u i t a b l y and meaningfully public  i n a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n b o t h p r i v a t e and  spheres?  3. A r e b o t h women's i s s u e s and men's i s s u e s addressed i n b a l a n c e d and s e n s i t i v e ways? A r e i s s u e s examined from  both  t h e female and male p e r s p e c t i v e s ? A r e t h e d i f f e r e n t problems f a c e d by women and men addressed  i n m e a n i n g f u l ways?  4. A r e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f r e l e v a n c e t o gender e q u i t y addressed m e a n i n g f u l l y i n t h e content o r represented o n l y i n highlighted sections? 5. A r e s t u d e n t s encouraged t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s and t r a d i t i o n s ? 6. A r e p r i v a t e sphere a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l l y  desirable,  t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s given high value o r has t h e emphasis s h i f t e d t o p u b l i c sphere a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine  characteristics?  7. A r e female and male d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e r e s u l t i n g problems addressed i n m e a n i n g f u l ways? 8. A r e women's s t r u g g l e s f o r e q u i t y and problems a r i s i n g  from  174 p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d and m e a n i n g f u l l y  addressed?  9. Does t h e t e x t b o o k advocate gender e q u i t y ? A t e x t b o o k which e x h i b i t s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o c o n t r i b u t e t o an e d u c a t i o n which may a c h i e v e t h e i d e a l s o f gender e q u i t y . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f gender b i a s i n home economics t e x t b o o k s w i l l n o t be a c h i e v e d s i m p l y by i n c l u d i n g males and u s i n g i n c l u s i v e language. While language and photographs a r e i m p o r t a n t , c o n t e n t i s most i m p o r t a n t . I f knowledge i s a s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h e dominant p e r s p e c t i v e t h e n knowledge c a n be t r a n s f o r m e d . F e m i n i s t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t knowledge must be reshaped  i n gender  b a l a n c e d and gender s e n s i t i v e ways so t h a t t h e gender r e l a t e d problems o f b o t h females and males c a n be addressed and some p r o g r e s s made toward t h e achievement o f gender e q u i t y . Development o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s i s d e s i r a b l e s i n c e changing gender r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e c o n s t a n t r e - e v a l u a t i o n and adjustment. Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s r e s e a r c h assumed home economics t e x t b o o k s a r e used uncritically  i n t e a c h i n g . T h i s assumption  was based on  r e s e a r c h i n t e x t b o o k s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r home economics. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o t e x t b o o k use i n home economics t o determine  i f t h e y a r e used, how much t h e y a r e  used, and whether t h e y a r e used u n c r i t i c a l l y . The r o l e t e x t b o o k s t a k e i n s h a p i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n home economics i s unknown.  175  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d a l s o be d i r e c t e d t o a n a l y z i n g t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f gender b i a s i n home economics t e x t b o o k s . The q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a l a r g e r sample o f t e x t b o o k s on f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To determine  i f these questions are u s e f u l i n  t h e a n a l y s i s o f a l l home economics t e x t b o o k s , r e s e a r c h c o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t a r e a s such a s foods and n u t r i t i o n and c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s . C e r t a i n i s s u e s were assumed t o be i m p o r t a n t i n p r o g r e s s toward gender e q u i t y . These a r e a s o f s t u d y were d e r i v e d from a r e v i e w o f c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t w r i t i n g . More r e s e a r c h needs t o be d i r e c t e d toward c o n t e n t which s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a home economics c u r r i c u l u m . I f p r o g r e s s i s t o be made i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f gender e q u i t y , more d i a l o g u e i s needed between f e m i n i s t s , home e c o n o m i s t s ,  and o t h e r s concerned  with the  achievement o f e q u i t y . Other b i a s e s , such as t h o s e o f r a c e , c l a s s , c u l t u r e , and h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The c o n t e n t o f home economics must be restructured  t o r e f l e c t a more r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f  Canadian s o c i e t y , k e e p i n g e q u i t y as a g o a l i n t h i s restructuring * Another a r e a f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y i s t h e r o l e o f t e x t b o o k s i n p r o g r e s s toward gender e q u i t y . T h i s r e s e a r c h assumed t e x t b o o k s have a major impact on s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g and c o u l d h e l p t o d e v e l o p gender e q u i t a b l e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . This r e s e a r c h suggests textbooks should explore c o n t r o v e r s i a l  176  i s s u e s and d e v e l o p c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . More a t t e n t i o n needs t o be d i r e c t e d t o whether t e x t b o o k s can be t r a n s f o r m a t i v e and what t h e y must be l i k e i n o r d e r t o be transformative.  177 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anyon, Jean (1979). 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I d e n t i f y i n g s e x s t e r e o t y p e s : Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s u s i n g t h e new m i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s . I n t e r c h a n g e , 10(2), 20-24. M a r t i n , Jane Rowland (1985). R e c l a i m i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y . McMahen, Lawrence (1988). V i g i l e n c e k e y i n f i g h t t o end s e x i s m . B.C. T e a c h e r s ' S t a t u s o f Women J o u r n a l , Feb., 7-8. ( R e p r i n t e d from Saskatchewan B u l l e t i n , November 25, 1987.) M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (1983). S o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n a l y s i s o f l e a r n i n g resources. Author. Morgan, K a t h r y n P a u l y (1985). F r e e i n g t h e c h i l d r e n : The a b o l i t i o n o f gender. E d u c a t i o n a l Theory. 35, 351-358. P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia (1983). A n a l y s i s o f L e a r n i n g Resources. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . 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B a l t i m o r e , MD: John Hopkins.  180  Schmuck, P a t r i c i a A., A d k i s o n , J u d i t h A., P e t e r s o n , B a r b a r a , B a i l e y , Susan, G l i c k , G e o r g i a S., K l e i n , Susan S., Mcdonald, S c o t t , S c h u b e r t , Jane & T a r a s o n , Stephen L . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n s t i u t i o n a l i z i n g s e x e q u i t y i n e d u c a t i o n and t h e r o l e o f government. I n K l e i n , Susan ( E d . ) . Handbook f o r a c h i e v i n g s e x e q u i t y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . B a l t i m o r e , MD: John Hopkins. S c o t t , K.P. (1986). L e a r n i n g s e x e q u i t a b l e s o c i a l Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e . XXV, 243-249.  skills.  S c o t t , K a t h r y n P. & Schau, Candace G a r r e t t (1985). Sex e q u i t y and s e x b i a s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n K l e i n , Susan ( E d . ) . Handbook f o r a c h i e v i n g s e x e q u i t y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n (pp.221-232). B a l t i m o r e , MD: John Hopkins. S t o r e y , John (1979-80). " D i c k does" and "Jane watches": Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Interchange, 1 0 ( 2 ) , 15-19. T e t r e a u l t , Mary Kay Thompson (1986). The j o u r n e y from maled e f i n e d t o gender-balanced e d u c a t i o n . Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e . XXV, 227-234. Thompson, P a t r i c i a J . (1986). Beyond gender e q u i t y : I s s u e s i n home economics. Theory i n t o P r a c t i c e . XXV, 276-283. Vancouver S c h o o l Board Vancouver:Author  (VSB)  (1987) S t y l e g u i d e ,  Weber, J e a n h e t t e (1985). C r e a t i v e l i v i n g . Teacher's r e s o u r c e book. Don M i l l s , ON: C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n . W e i l e r , K a t h l e e n (1988). Women t e a c h i n g f o r change: Gender, c l a s s and power, South Hadley> MA: B e r g i n & Garvey. Weis, Susan F. (1979). E x a m i n a t i o n s o f Home Economics Textbooks f o r Sex B i a s . Home Economics Research J o u r n a l , 7 ( 3 ) , 147-162. Werner, W a l t e r (1987). C u r r i c u l u m and s o c i a l i z a t i o n I n Ghosh, Ratna and Douglas Ray. S o c i a l Change and E d u c a t i o n i n Canada (pp.91-101). Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : H a r c o u r t Brace J o v a n o v i c h . Weston, L o u i s e C & S t e i n , Sandra L. (1978). A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i s h e r s ' g u i d e l i n e s f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l Researcher, 7 ( 4 ) , 13-4.  W h i t t y , G e o f f (1985). S o c i o l o g y and s c h o o l knowledge, London: Methuen. W i l l i g e r , M a r i l y n (1983). E x a m i n a t i o n o f secondary l e v e l home economics t e x t b o o k s f o r sex b i a s . U n p u b l i s h e d master's t h e s i s , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , Long Beach,CA.  182  Appendix A Table 1 P r e s e n c e o f Gender E q u i t y T o p i c s i n Index o f Textbooks Topic  Textbook Family L i v i n g  Creative L i v i n g  Abuse, e l d e r l y  People i n Society x  Anorexia (nervosa)  x  A r t i f i c i a l insemination  x x  Babysitting  x  Brideprice  x  Bulimia  x  Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoas  x x  Caregiving (Caregivers, role of) Child abuse (Abuse, c h i l d )  x  Child custody  x  x  x  x  x  Children, day-care centres  x  Children, sex-role developnent  x  Coanunications  x  Conmunication and r e l a t i o n s h i p s Coapetition i n narriage  x x  C o n f l i c t , resolution of  x  Conflicts  x  Cooperation i n narriage Dating, adolescent,(Courtship and dating) (Relationships, loving)  x x  Delinquency  x  Discrisiination Divorce  x  x  x x  183  Topic  Divorce, and father Divorce, and mother Dowry Dual-earner f a i i l y Erikson, Erik Equality i n Relationships Expectations i n relationships Families, single parent Families, reconstituted or blended F a i i l y violence Family problems Families, types of Fathering F l e x i b i l i t y i n relationships Freud, Sigmund Home maintenance Homemaker (Homemakers, status of) Income Joint custody L i f e expectancy Marital violence Marriage Marriage, c o n f l i c t s i n Marriage, changing role of  Family Living  Textbook Creative Living  People i n Society  184  Topic Family L i v i n g  Textbook Creative L i v i n g  Marriage contract  x  Marriage, roles and tasks i n  x  Maslow, Abraham  x  x  Men  x  Money, i n the dual-earner family  x  Mothering  x  Nurturing  x  Parenthood Parenting, shared  x x  Parenting  x  Paternity leave Piaget, Jean  People i n Society  x x  x  Prejudice  x  Relationships  x  Relationships, roles and  x  Role making  x  Roles, expectations  x  Roles, marital  x  Roles, and relationships  x  x  Senior c i t i z e n s , abuse  x  Senior c i t i z e n s and poverty  x  Sex differences  x  Sex role development  x  Sex r o l e stereotyping  x  185  Topic Family Living Sex roles  x  Sharing  x  Socialization  x  Space, sharing  Textbook Creative L i v i n g  People i n Society  x x  Spouse abuse (Abuse, spousal)  x  Stepfathering  x  x  Stepparent (Stepparenting)  x  Stereotypes  x  x  Stereotyping, sex r o l e  x  Suicide  x  Women  x  Hork  x  Total number of topics i n each book  38  19  41  186 Appendix A Table 2 Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g Adult Males  Male Children  Total Males  Adult Female  Female Children  Front Cover  4  9  13  5  4  9  1st T i t l e Page  3  2  5  1  4  5  2nd T i t l e Page  1  4  5  2  3  5  8  8  5  5  Section of Book  Unit 1 Yourself and Others  Total Females  Ch. 1 Defining Yourself  3  5  8  3  2  5  Ch. 2 Understanding  3  7  10  3  6  .9  5  5  12  8  Others  5  Unit 2 Family L i f e  7  Ch. 4 Getting Married  6  6  5  5  Ch. 5 Making Adjustments  6  6  4  4  4  12  Ch. 6 Becoming a Family  7  5  12  6  4  10  Unit 3 Parenting  4  2  6  3  4  7  Ch. 7 Having a Baby  3  3  8  1  1  6  Ch. 8 Growing and Learning  1  5  Ch. 3 Being i n Love  5  Other  1  1  8  3  2  8  6  2  2  Ch. 9 Understanding Children  3  2  5  Unit 4 Family Management  3  2  5  4  2  6  1  Ch. 10 Balancing Needs & Resources  1  3  4  2  3  5  2  Ch. 11 Keeping Healthy  5  2  7  8  1  9  Ch. 12 Enjoying Good N u t r i t i o n  5  5  10  5  7  12  Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments  8  3  11  8  1  9  Unit 5 Families i n Transition  2  2  4  3  2  5  Ch. 14 Facing Family Changes  3  3  6  3  1  4  Ch. 15 Resolving Family Crises  1  3  4  1  1  2  Ch. 16 Managing Independent Living  3  3  4  4  187  Section of Book Back Cover Totals  Total Females  Adult Hales  Hale Children  Total Hales  Adult Female  Feiale Children  Other  5  8  13  6  5  11  2  91  81  172  103  63  166  17  188 Appendix A Table 3 Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g Section of Book  Adult Hales  Hale Children  Total Hales  Adult Feiale  Feiale Children  Total Other Females  Introduction - Focus on You  2  Ch. 1 You as an Individual  4  Ch. 2 Growing and Changing  2  Ch. 3 What You Communicate about Yourself  1  Ch. 4 What's Important to you  2  Ch. 5 Making Decisions for Now and for Your Future  3  Unit 1 Your Family and Your Friends  2  Ch. 6 Relationships and You  2  Ch. 7 Families: Sharing and Caring  5 10  Ch. 8 Understanding Your Family Ch. 9 Sharing Problems  2  Ch. 10 Changes i n the Family  3  Ch. 11 Being a Friend  1  5  Ch. 12 Stereotypes and Prejudice  2  Ch. 13 Making new Friends  6  Ch. 14 Dating and Love  3 3  2  Ch. 16 Careers that Help with Relationships 1  5  Ch. 15 Looking at Your Future  Unit 2 Child Care and Child Development  1  Ch. 17 Children and You  1  Ch. 18 Ages and Stages Ch. 19 The Importance of Play Ch. 20 Care and Safety  1  189  Section of Book  Adult Hales  Male Children  Total ' Adult Males Female  Ch. 21 Babysitting: Earning and Learning Ch. 22 Ready for Parenthood  2 3  3  Ch. 23 Careers Helping Children  7  7  Unit 3 Managing and Buying  1  1  Ch. 24 Management and You  10  10  Ch. 25 Your Resources  3  1  4  Ch. 26 Managing Your Time  1  2  3  1  1  Ch. 27 Managing Your Money Ch. 28 Saving and Borrowing  2  2  Ch. 29 You i n the Marketplace  1  1  2  3  Ch. 30 Shopping for Price and Quality  1  Ch. 31 Voicing Your Own Opinion  i  Ch. 32 Being a Responsible Consumer  1  5  Ch. 33 Management and Consumer-Related Careers  4  4  1  Unit 4 Foods and Nutrition Ch. 34 Food and You  1  Ch. 35 Eating and Nutrition Ch. 36 Which Foods Have Which Nutrients  1  Ch. 37 Developing Healthy Eating Habits Ch. 38 Fact, Fad, or Falacy  1  Ch. 39 Planning Meals for the Home Ch. 40 Shopping for Food  2  Ch. 41 Selecting and Storing Food:I  1  Ch. 42 Selecting and Storing Food:II  Feiale Children  6  Total Other Females  190  Section of Book  Hale Children  Adult Hales  Total Hales  Adult Female  Female Children  Total Other Females  Ch. 43 Safety and Sanitation Ch. 44 Kitchen Utensils Ch. 45 Kitchen Appliances Ch. 46 Following Recipes Ch. 49 Serving Heals at Home and Eating Out 2 Ch. 50 Careers i n Food and N u t r i t i o n  2  Unit 5 Clothing and,Textiles Ch. 51 Clothing and You Ch. 52 Design and Your Appearance  1  Ch. 53 Clothes and Fashion  1  Ch. 55 Planning Your Wardrobe Ch. 56 Shopping for Clothes Ch. 58 Sewing Equipment Ch. 59 Layout, Cut, Hark  1  Ch. 60 Basic Construction Ch. 62 Clothes Care  1  Ch. 63 Redesigning and Recycling Ch. 64 Careers i n Clothing and T e x t i l e s  1  Unit 6 Housing and L i v i n g Space  1  10  Ch. 65 L i v i n g Space and You Ch. 66 Organizing Space  1  Ch. 67 Getting the Look You Want Ch. 68 Sharing Space Ch. 69 Caring f o r L i v i n g Space Ch. 70 Safety i n the Home  1  191  Section of Book  '  Adult Males  Ch. 71 Energy Conservation i n the Home  1  Ch. 72 Careers i n Housing  6  Totals  58  Hale Children 2  Total Males  Adult Female  Female Children  3  92  Total Other Females 1  1  6  2  2  4  150  62  124  186  34  192 Appendix A Table 4 Number o f Females and Males i n Photographs i n P e o p l e i n Society Adult Hales  Hale Children  Total Hales  Adult Female  Female Children  Total Females  Other  5  2  7  10  0  10  1  Ch. 2 Heredity, Environment and the Individual  9  16  25  14  6  20  1  Ch. 3 Personality and the Individual  9  1  10  6  3  9  2  Part 2 Ch. 4 Growing Up: Childhood  4  3  7  6  3  9  5  Ch. 5 Growing Up: Adolescence  13  1  14  1  4  5  Ch. 6 Marriage  18  6  24  16  5  21  8  Ch. 7 The Family  4  5  9  5  4  9  1  Ch. 8 Aging  9  3  12  15  2  17  0  Ch. 9 Death and Dying  14  2  15  7  0  7  5  Totals  73  52  125  80  27  107  Section of Book Part 1 Ch. 1 Studying Huian Behavior  23  193 Appendix A Table 5 Number o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n i n Family L i v i n g Section of Book  Total Children  Adolescent Hales  Adolescent Females  Young Male Children  13  4  2  5  1st T i t l e Page  6  1  1  1  3  2nd T i t l e Page  8  3  2  1  1  Unit 1 Yourself h Others  13  8  5  Ch. 1 Defining Yourself  7  5  1  13  6  5  1  1  Unit 2 F a i i l y L i f e  10  1  1  4  3  Ch. 6 Becoming a Family  10  5  Unit 3 Parenting  6  2  Ch. 7 Having a Baby  3  Ch. 8 Growing & Learning  9  1  2  Ch. 9 Understanding Children  4  2  2  Unit 4 Family Management  5  1  Ch. 10 Balancing Needs & Resources  8  2  Ch. 11 Keeping Healthy  3  1  12  3  Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments  4  2  Unit 5 Families i n Transition  4  Ch. 14 Facing Family Changes  4  Ch. 15 Resolving Family Crises  4  2  15  1  1  7  161  38  25  43  Front Cover  Ch. 2 Understanding  Others  Ch. 12 Enjoying Good Nutrition  Back Cover Totals  Young Female Children '  Other  2  1  1  1 l  3  3  6  1  2  1  2  1  1 4  1  2  3  1  1  2  1  3  1  1  1 4  38  2 17  194  Appendix Table  A  6  Creative Living Section  Total Children  Adolescent Hales Females  Young Young Male Female Children  Other  Introduction Focus on You  '2  Ch.1 You as an Individual  6  2  4  Ch.2 Growing and Changing  6  4  2  Ch.3 What You Communicate About Yourself  4  3  1  Ch.4 What's Important to You  8  5  2  Ch.5 Making Decisions for Now and for Your Future  5  3  2  Unit 1 Your Family and Your Friends  2  Ch.6 Relationships and You  7  5  2  Ch.7 Families: Sharing and Caring  6  •2  1  1  2  Ch.8 Understanding Your Family  7  1  2  3  1  Ch.9 Sharing Problems  7  Ch.10 Changes i n the Family  5  1  1  2  C h . l l Being a Friend  8  Ch. 12 Stereotypes and Prejudice  1  Ch.13 Making New Friends  8  3  5  Ch.14 Dating and Love  7  4  3  Ch. 16 Careers that Help with Relationships 4  I  1  2  1  5  1  2 1  3  1  5 1  1  1  Unit 2 Child Care and Child Development  2  2  Ch. 17 Children and You  3  3  Ch.18 Ages and Stages  3  3  195  Section  Total .Children  Ch.19 The Importance of Play  4  Ch.20 Care and Safety  4  Ch.21 Babysitting: Earning and Learning 4 Ch.22 Ready for Parenthood  2  Ch.23 Careers Helping Children  12  Unit 3 Hanaging and Buying  2  Ch. 24 Management and You  18  Ch.25 Your Resources  5  Ch.26 Managing Your Time  4  Ch.27 Hanaging Your Honey  2  Ch.29 You i n the Marketplace  3  Ch.30 Shopping for Price and Quality  4  Ch.31 Voicing Your Own Opinion  1  Ch. 32 Being a Responsible Consumer  5  Ch.33 Management and Consumer-Related Careers  4  Unit 4 Foods and Nutrition  2  Ch.34 Food and You  2  Ch.35 Eating and Nutrition  1  Ch.36 Which Foods Have Which Nutrients  1  Ch.37 Developing Healthy Eating Habits  2  Ch.38 Fact, Fad, or Fallacy  1  Ch.39 Planning Heals for the Home  1  Ch.40 Shopping for Food  4  Adolescent Hales Females  Young Young Hale Female Children  Other  196  Section  Total Children  Adolescent Hales Females  Young Young Male Feiale Children  1  Ch.41 Selecting and Storing Food: I  2  Ch.42 Selecting and Storing Food: II  1  Ch.45 Kitchen Appliances  3  Ch.46 Following Recipes  2  1  Ch.49 Serving Heals at Home and Eating Out 3  2  1  1  2  Unit 5 Clothing and T e x t i l e s  1  Ch.51 Clothing and You  8  1  7  Ch.52 Design and Your Appearance  3  1  2  Ch. 53 Clothes and Fashion  1  1  Ch.55 Planning Your Wardrobe  2  2  Ch.56 Shopping for Clothes  2  2  Ch.62 Clothes Care  3  Ch.63 Redesigning and Recycling  3  Ch.64 Careers i n Clothing and T e x t i l e s  1  Unit 6 Housing and L i v i n g Space  1  Ch.65 L i v i n g Space and You  1  Ch.66 Organizing Space  2  Ch,67 Getting the Look You Want  3  Ch.68 Sharing Space  5  1  3  Ch.69 Caring for L i v i n g Space  2  1  1  Ch.71 Energy Conservation in the Hoie  3  2  1  Ch.72 Careers i n Housing  2  Totals  243  Other  2  1 3  3 1  2  75  10  17  19  27  197 Appendix A Table 7 Number o f Female and Male A d o l e s c e n t s and Young C h i l d r e n i n People i n S o c i e t y Section of Book Part 1 Ch.l Studying Human Behavior Ch.2 Heredity, Environment, and the Individual Ch.3 Personality and the Individual  Total Children  Adolescent Hales Females  3  2  20  13  Young Young Hale Female Children  Other  5  Part 2 Ch.4 Growing Up: Childhood  9  Ch.5 Growing Up: Adolescence  18  Ch. 6 Harriage  19  Ch. 7 The Family  10  Ch. 8 Aging  5  Ch. 9 Death and Dying  2  Totals  91  27  9  25  18  15  198 Appendix A Table 8 Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n F a m i l y L i v i n g by " C o l o u r " and Section of Book  Adolescent Males Total White Non-white  Front Cover  4  3  1st T i t l e Page  1  1  2nd T i t l e Page  3  2  Unit 1 Yourself k Others  8  Ch.l Defining Yourself  1  Sex  Adolescent Females Total White Non-white 2  2  1  1  1  2  2  6  2  5  5  5  3  2  1  1  Ch.2 Understanding Others  6  5  1  5  5  Unit 2 Family L i f e  1  1  1  1  Unit 4 Family Management  1  1 2  2  Ch.10 Balancing Meeds and Resources C h . l l Keeping Healthy  1  1  Ch. 12 Enjoying Good Nutrition  3  3  Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments  2  2  Unit 5 Families i n Transition Ch. 15 Resolving Family Crises  2  Back Cover  1  Totals  38  4  4  1  1.  1  1  1  25  21  4  2  28  10  199 Appendix A Table 9 Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by " C o l o u r " and Section of Book  Adolescent Hales Total White Non-white  Introduction Focus on You  Adolescent Females Total White Non-white 2  2  Ch.1 You as an Individual  2  2  4  4  Ch.2 Growing and Changing  4  4  2  2  Ch.3 What You Communicate About Yourself  3  3  1  1  Ch.4 What's Important to You  5  5  2  2  Ch.5 Making Decisions for Now and for Your Future  3  3  2  2  1  1  2  1  Unit 1 Your Family and Your Friends Ch.6 Relationships and You  5  3  Ch.7 Families: Sharing and Caring  2  2  2  Ch.9 Sharing Problems  5  2  3  Ch.10 Changes i n the Family  1  1  2  2  1  1  5  5  5  5  C h . l l Being a Friend  3  3  Ch.13 Making New Friends  3  2  Ch.14 Dating and Love  4  4  3  3  Ch.16 Careers that Help with Relationships  1  1  1  1  2  2  Unit 2 Ch.21 Babysitting:Earning and Learning  1  1 1  1  Ch.8 Understanding Your Family  Sex  1  Ch.23 Careers Helping Children  6  6  1  Unit 3 Managing and Buying  1  1  1  1  Ch.24 Management and You  2  2  8  6  Ch.25 Your Resources  1  1  4  4  Ch 26 Managing Your Time  2  2  2  2  2  200  Section of Book Ch.27 Hanaging Your Money  Adolescent Hales Total White Non-white 1  Ch. 29 You i n the Marketplace Ch.30 Shopping for Price and Quality  1 1  Ch.32 Being a Responsible Consumer  5  Ch.33 Management and Consumer-Related Careers  4  Unit 4 1  Ch.36 Which Foods Have Which Nutrients Ch.37 Developing Healthy Eating Habits Ch.38 Fact, Fad, of Fallacy Ch.39 Planning Meals for the Home Ch.40 Shopping for Food  1  Ch.41 Selecting and Storing Food: I Ch.42 Selecting and Storing Food: I I Ch.45 Kitchen Appliances  1  Ch.46 Following Recipes Ch.49 Serving Heals at Home and Eating Out Unit 5 Clothing and Textiles Ch.51 Clothing and You  1  Ch.52 Design and Your Appearance  1  Ch.53 Clothes and Fashion Ch.55 Planning Your Wardrobe Ch.56 Shopping for Clothes Ch.62 Clothes Care  2  2  2  2  1  Ch.31 Voicing Your Own Opinion  Ch.35 Eating and Nutrition  Adolescent Females Total White Non-white  2  1  201  Section of Book  Adolescent Males Total White Non-white  Adolescent Females Total White Non-white  Ch.63 Redesigning and Recycling  3  3  Ch.64 Careers i n Clothing and Textiles  1  1  Ch.66 Organizing Space  2  1  Ch.67 Getting the Look You Want  3  3  3  3  1  1  Unit 6 Housing and Living Space Ch.65 Living Space and You  Ch.68 Sharing Space  1  1  Ch.69 Caring f o r Living Space  1  1  Ch.71 Energy Conservation i n the Home  2  2  2  Ch.72 Careers i n Housing Totals  1  75  67  8  105  91  14  202 Appendix A Table  10  Number o f A d o l e s c e n t s i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y by " C o l o u r " and Section of Book Part 1 Ch.l Studying Human Behavior  Adolescent Hales Total White Non-white 2  1  1  Ch.2 Heredity, Environment, and the Individual  13  12  1  Ch.3 Personality and the Individual  1  1  Part 2 Ch.5 Growing Up: Adolescence  9  8  Ch.7 The Family  2  2  1  Ch.8 Aging Totals  27  24  3  Adolescent Females Total White Non-white  3  3  1  1  3  3  1  1  1  1  9  9  0  Sex  203 Appendix B C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n F a m i l y L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e o f Photograph Photographs of Females (7) F u l l Page Photographs - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (7) Adults (3) p.366 adult f e i a l e working as weather forecaster p.366 adult female working as TV reporter p.370 adult female working at hobby of painting Adolescents (2) p.30 adolescent female doing i n t e l l i g e n c e test p.314 adolescent female looking sadly contemplative Children (2) p.182 f e i a l e c h i l d p u l l i n g herself to her feet p.204 female c h i l d playing dressup Photographs of Kales (11) F u l l Page Photographs (4) Adults (-1) p.222 adult male working at computer Adolescents (3) p.14 adolescent male gazing over harbour i n thoughtful contemplation p. 342 adolescent male looking unhappily or angrily contemplative p.360 adult male working with blender Children - none Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (6) Adults (5) p.34 male psychologist (Maslow) p.34 male psychologist (Piaget) p.34 male psychologist (Erikson) p. 296 older adult male i n s t a l l i n g storm windows p.365 adult male hiking Adolescents (1) p. 12 adolescent male leaning on fence i n thoughtful contemplation Children - None Not c l a s s i f i e d by Sex (1) p.186  Smaller than F u l l Page Photograph (1) c h i l d eating  204 Appendix C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e o f Photograph Photographs of Females (48) F u l l Page Photographs (3) Adults - None Adolescents Introduction t i t l e page - adolescent female smiling p.470 adolescent plays grand piano Children p. 244 g i r l eats Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (45) Adults (14) p.78 adult female flagperson p. 178 adult female welds p. 260 adult female shops for food p.305 adult female cooks i n restaurant p.311 adult female cooks at home p.351 adult f e i a l e works as pastry chef p. 365 adult female (white) wears s a r i p.381 adult female poses p.411 adult females at i n d u s t r i a l sewing machine p.423 adult f e i a l e at sewing machine p. 439 adult female hands care for c l o t h i n g p.452 adult female at coiputer i n c l o t h i n g or t e x t i l e factory p.457 adult female i n t e x t i l e m i l l p.500 adult female i n s t a l l s smoke alarm Adolescents (31) p . l adolescent female plays bagpipes p. 14 adolescent female dries hair p.23 adolescent female does school work p.87 adolescent female talks on telephone p.170 adolescent female on bicycle p.202 adolescent female shops for clothes p. 204 adolescent female shops i n record store p.209 adolescent female shops f o r ghetto b l a s t e r p.261 adolescent female shops for f r u i t p.280 adolescent female cooks p.290 adolescent f e i a l e shops for food p.299 adolescent female shops for food p.319 adolescent f e i a l e cooks p.321 adolescent female cooks over campfire p.326 adolescent female cooks p.344 adolescent female walks past restaurants p. 364 adolescent female looks at s e l f i n mirror p.367 adolescent female leans on locker p. 368 adolescent female skis p. 374 adolescent female shops for clothes p.378 adolescent female smiles (head only)  p. 382 p.391 p.395 p.444 p.446 p.473 p.478 p.480 p.487 p.494  adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent adolescent  feiale female female female female female female female female female  reads fashion catologue checks her wardrobe poses i n dress prepares to iron goes to recycled cothing store reads stores clothes at study desk hangs picture on b u l l e t i n board waters plants  Photographs of Males (36) F u l l Page Photographs - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (36) Adults (21) p.57 adult male runs p.93 adult male poses i n front of airplane p.151 adult male warms bottle p. 183 adult male at d r a f t i n g board p.194 adult male at ATM p. 196 adult male enters bank p.263 adult male works i n grocery store p.274 adult male walks past store p.286 adult male works i n d e l i p. 347 adult male serves "gourmet food i n restaurant p.349 adult male cooks i n restaurant p.350 adult male wipes table i n restaurant p.373 adult male poses ( i n chapter on clothing design) p.419 adult male cuts f a b r i c with pattern p.440 adult male checks clothing care symbols p.457 adult male i n clothing manufacturing p.471 adult male works on roof p.481 adult male hangs picture p.504 adult male checks heating appliance p.508 adult male i n s t a l l s i s u l a t i o n p.512 adult male repairs r e f i g e r a t o r Adolescents (14) p.2 adolescent male smiles p.10 adolescent male shaves p.16 adolescent male wears s k i clothes p.29 adolescent male lifts weights p.205 adolescent male shops i n auto supply store p.222 adolescent male shops f o r clothes p.230 adolescent male works i n clothing store p.192 adolescent male looks i n store window p.253 adolescent male skis p.317 adolescent male cooks p.378 adolescent male (head only - serious) p.366 adolescent male puts on t i e p.482 adolescent male puts garbage i n public garbage r e c e p t i c l e p.495 adolescent male vacuums bedroom 11  Children (1) p.245 boy eating Not C l a s s i f i e d by Sex (7) ' p.18 adolescent at archery p.117 c h i l d walking p.123 c h i l d i n walker p.130 c h i l d with wagon p.132 c h i l d r i d i n g on wheeled duck p.132 c h i l d sawing p.293 c h i l d with basket of f r u i t  207 Appendix D C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs o f S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y by Sex, Age Group and S i z e of Photograph Photographs of Females (16) F u l l Page Photographs (1) Adults (1) p. 226 elderly female walking Adolescents - None Children - None Smaller then F u l l Page Photographs (15) Adults (13) p.41 female psychologist - posed - head only (Scarr) p.52 tatooed Japanese female p.53 female with anorexia nervosa p.55 Doukhobor female participates i n arson and nude protest p.56 Inuit female - posed - head only (Freeman) p. 100 pregnant female plays music f o r unborn baby p.220 former lieutenant-governor (McGibbon) p.224 female university graduate at 75 (Morrison) p. 232 Meir - Prime Minister of Israel at 70 p. 232 Katherine Hepburn - making movies after 65 p.237 impoverished elderly female i n wheelchair p.258 female actress dramatizes hara-kiri i n opera p.269 Karen Ann Quinlan Adolescents - None Children (0) p.134 g i r l with d o l l p.188 frightened g i r l standing i n corner Photographs of Males (16) F u l l Page Photographs (1) Adults - None Adolescents (1) p. 121 - adolescent male with spiked hair asserts i n d i v i d u a l i t y Children - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (15) Adults (13) p.11 male anthropologist examines dinosaur bones p.13 male anthropologist - posed -head only (Trigger) p.14 male s o c i o l o g i s t - posed - head only (Schlesenger) p.26 male university researcher - posed - head only (Zimbardo) p.35 male evolutionist - Posed - head only (Darwin) p.69 male c h i l d p s y c h i a t r i s t - posed - head only (Erikson) p.103 male s c i e n t i s t - posed ^ head only (Pavlov) p.104 male psychologist - posed - head only (Skinner) p.105 male psychologist - posed - head only (Bandura) p.210 former governor general with tennis racquet (Hichener) p.211 older male, s i t t i n g  p.232 Reagan re-elected at 73 p.272 s c i e n t i s t , David Suzuki Adolescents (2) p.91 troubled male adolescent Children (1) p.125 boy imitates v i o l e n t movie character Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by Sex (1) p.39 hemophiliac c h i l d  209 Appendix E C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y Home: Indoors page 13  Hales  3 adolescents discuss school project  36 65  Females 2 adolescents discuss school project 3 adults pose for picture with baby g i r l  adolescent at table i n awkward communication with parents  adult at table i n awkward communication with adolescent male  adult at table i n awkward communication with adolescent male 90 112 91 139  adult discusses household paper work with with adult female  adult discusses household paper work with adult male  adult showing female something about finances on home computer  adult looks at home computer while male shows her something  adult plays guitar for family gathering 7 adults sing or l i s t e n to g u i t a r i s t  6 adults a t family gathering sing or l i s t e n while male plays  older adult at family gathering plays with c h i l d on knee  g i r l watches older adult male  adult a t family gathering reads to g i r l on his knee  g i r l listens to male read  one adult s i t t i n g at family gathering  3 adults s i t t i n g at family gathering  1 boy s i t t i n g a t family gathering 126  adult plays piano at party 3 males l i s t e n t o male play piano  2 adults lean on male as he plays piano  146  adult plays triangle  adult plays piano g i r l sings  100  adult i n discussion of c o n f l i c t with female  adult points finger i n discussion of c o n f l i c t  116  adult looks at stamp collection  adult reads book and pets cat  137  adult pours milk for g i r l at breakfast table  adult at breakfast table reaches out to boy  one boy looks at other boy who looks a t mother  g i r l watches male as he pours milk for her  adult holds toy for baby to look a t  adult watches baby as male holds toy  149  210 Home: Indoors  (con'td)  page 196  Males adult vacuums  Females g i r l dusts  182  baby g i r l pulls into standing position  204  small g i r l plays dress-up  199  adult holds boy and cat boy s i t s i n man's lap while holding cat  220  boy cooks with adult female  228  adult works at home computer  233  2 boys put jackets on for school small boy watches boys put on jackets  265  283  1 g i r l l i s t e n s to adult female  adult holds c h i l d as 2 boys get ready for school  adult eats boy eats  adult looks at g i r l s  boy serves food to man at table  2 g i r l s at table  1 adult i s served food by boy  2 adults watch boy serve food  1 adult male at table  1 g i r l at table  1 adult carves at head of table  2 adults and 4 adolescents wait while male carves  1 adult and 3 adolescents s i t at table 315  adult talks to g i r l s 2 adolescents l i s t e n to adult female  222  262  adult cooks with boy  adult at table holds knife and boy looks at i t boy at table looks at knife which male holds  adult looks at g i r l as she gives her salad  286  boy sands construction project  adult paints construction project as boy sands and g i r l measures  323  older adult places hand on woman's hand to console her  seated older adult smiles as man touches her hand  337  "single" father decorates gingerbread house with daughter  g i r l works on gingerbread house with father  211 Home: Indoors  (cont'd)  page  Hales  348 adolescent t r i e s to d i s t r a c t angry l i t t l e girl  Females g i r l c r i e s angrily  l i t t l e boy watches angry l i t t l e g i r l 354 adult with clenched f i s t speaks angrily to female  adult l i s t e n s to angry male with clenched f i s t  360 adult prepares food i n blender 370  single adult works on her hobby of painting  Home: Outdoors page 90 221  Hales  Females  2 adults i n t e r a c t i n g with children  2 adults holding children interacting with males  adult raking leaves  adult hold garbage can for c o l l e c t i n g leaves  adolescent gathering leaves  g i r l plays i n leaves which have been raked up  297  older adult adds storm windows to the house  314  older adult barbequing  older adult s i t s while male cooks  335  boy unhappy about going to v i s i t father  divorced adult talks to son who i s unhappy about v i s i t i n g father  Workplace page 106 34  Hale  Female  member of clergy o f f i c i a t i n g at wedding 3 adult psychologists (head and shoulders)  180  adult exercise instructor i n post partum class  155  adult instructor at prenatal class  158  obstetrician  169  health care worker  366  single weather forecaster  366  single TV reporter  212 Community:Outdoors page  Hales  Females  14  adolescent gazes over harbour  14  adult stands behind f e i a l e  adult on honeymoon  90  adult getting married  adult getting married adult wedding attendant  290  3 adults s i t t i n g 2 adults standing at country f a i r  3 adults s i t t i n g 2 adults standing  310  2 adults and 2 adolescents serve and prepare food at block party  2 adults standing i n food service area  Comiunity:Indoors page  Hales  155  adult at prenatal class  158  Females adult at prenatal class pregnant adult l i s t e n s to o b s t e t r i c i a n  167  adult poses for picture with baby after childbirth  adult poses for picture adult with baby at c l i n i c  169 220  adult looks at something while shopping  adult shows male something on l a b e l  School page 19  Hales 4 adolescents graduating  30 42  adolescent running  Females  adolescent doing i n t e l l i g e n c e test 3 adolescents running, not dressed for serious running 2 young adults (1 in wheelchair)  45 -59  2 young adults t a l k i n g but holding books 3 adolescents working on l i b r a r y research project  adolescent working on project  192  boy works on puzzle at preschool  g i r l works on puzzle at preschool  213 Recreation page  Hales  Females  12  adolescent c y c l i n g  adolescent c y c l i n g  12  3 adolescents hiking  2 adolescents hiking  12  adolescent leaning on fence of playground  48  boy watching g i r l at hopscotch  g i r l playing hopscotch  72  adult ( r i d i n g motorcycle?)  adult behind male (on motorcycle?)  75  young adult playing guitar  young adult l i s t e n i n g to male  79  young adult  young adult spraying male with water from hose  82  young adult  young adult helps male up from i c e while skating  older adult preparing to throw b a l l to g i r l  g i r l preparing to catch b a l l  adult cooking at p i c n i c  adult watching males at picnic  adult talks to boy at p i c n i c  adult holds c h i l d at picnic  130  boy talks to adult male at picnic 146  adult and boy with snorkeling masks on  adult helps g i r l i n water  146  adult with g i r l  girl flying kite  147  adult with g i r l  g i r l on male's shoulders female holds part of k i t e  boy holds part of k i t e 180 220  adult skating with g i r l and c h i l d  238  adult jogging adolescent jogging adult c y c l i n g boy c y c l i n g  241  3 adults exercise with babies at a class adult skating with g i r l and c h i l d adult jogging adult c y c l i n g girl cycling 2 adults jogging  257 257  3 senior c i t i z e n s at exercise class  4 senior c i t i z e n s at exercise class  316  adult holding b i c y c l e t a l k i n g to woman  adult holding dog (out walking)  365  adult hiking  371.  adult dancing  adult dancing  214 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page  Hales  Females  92  adult gazes into female's eyes  adult gazes into male's eyes  95  adult watching female  adult smiling but with downcast eyes  54  adolescent being consoled  adolescent female consoles male  85  young adult breaking up  young adult breaking up adult helping c h i l d walk  175 206  adult male s c o l d i n g boy adolescent looking discouraged or unhappy  315 327  2 boys examine dead bird on beach  342  adolescent looking sadly contemplative  Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page  Hales  Females  176  adult holding sleeping c h i l d  314  adult reading to boy  215 Appendix F C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y Home: Indoors page 10  Hales adolescent shaves  14  Females  adolescent dries hair adolescent at desk writes goals  23  adult gives g i r l birthday cake  46 51  adolescent eats at table  54  twin boys play v i o l i n s  adult and g i r l eat at table  adolescent helps g i r l take boots o f f  66  adolescent on telephone  87  adult gets c h i l d ready to go outside i n winter  97 121  male hands bathe c h i l d  122  older adult holds baby adult holds small baby  138 142  adult holds baby b o t t l e and adolescent baby s i t t e r holds c h i l d  144  adolescent babysitter plays with c h i l d  149  baby cradled i n woman's legs  151  adult checks temperature of baby's b o t t l e adolescent cooks  280 296  adult bakes bread  adult cooks  311 317  adult bakes bread  adolescent cooks  319  adolescent cooks  323  adult and g i r l cook  326  adolescent cooks  216 Home: Indoors (cont'd) page  Hales  Females  364 366~ adolescent puts on t i e  adolescent looks i n f u l l length mirror  381 adult poses - 1914  382 391  adolescent reads fashion magazine i n bedroom adolescent checks wardrobe  395  adolescent poses for photo i n "simple, but well-cut dress"  418  adult cuts fabric using commercial pattern  439  adult hands care for clothing  440  adult hands hold clothing care labels  442  2 adolescents do laundry  444  adolescent does ironing  470  adolescent plays piano  473  adolescent reads book  478  adolescent arranges clothing on shelves  480  adolescent works at desk  481  adult hangs picture above stereo  484  2 adolescents s i t on bed t a l k i n g  487  adolescent hangs picture on b u l l e t i n board  489  boy lounges on bed  adolescent lounges on bed  490  2 adolescents clean bedroom  494  adolescent waters plants  495  adolescent vacuums adult fixes smoke alarm  500 508 516  adult i n s t a l l s i n s u l a t i o n 2 adolescents make bed  217 Home:Outdoors page  Hales  48  adolescent c a r r i e s groceries into house  48  boy on b i c y c l e  59  Females  adolescent helps boy on b i c y c l e adult and g i r l plant flowers  132  c h i l d on wheeled duck  132  c h i l d with toy saw  134  adult reads to c h i l d on outside steps  152  adult feeds baby  159  adolescent pours drink for g i r l  184  2 adolescents shovel gravel  506  adolescent works on house extension another adolescent watches  adolescent works on extension  Workplace page  Males  Females  78  young adult female does t r a f f i c control in hard hat  79  older adult does t r a f f i c control helping c h i l d  81  adult female serves food i n c a f e t e r i a adolescent serves food i n c a f e t e r i a  93  adult poses with airplane  98  adult and adolescent b u i l d boat  155  adult and adolescent b u i l d boat adult with three g i r l s i n daycare center  157  6 adolescents from boys' private school  teacher from boys' private school  170  adolescent purchases theatre t i c k e t s  adult s e l l s theatre t i c k e t s  178 183 210  adult welder adult at d r a f t i n g table male r e t a i l c l e r k a s s i s t s adolescent who shops with boy  218 Workplace (cont'd) page 212  Hales  Females ,  adult clerk i n health food store helps adolescent female  216  c l e r k i n photo dept  223  clerk i n corner store serves adolescent  227  clerk shows 2 adolescent males a camera  228  manager and worker i n resaurant  230 233  adolescent works i n clothing store clerk i n corner grocery store assists adolescent  246  adult male watches  adolescent gets film developed  ' "waitress" assists adult g i r l and c h i l d watch  263  adult works i n food store  286  adult works i n d e l i  305  adult works in restaurant kitchen  347  adult serves i n gourmet restuarant  349  adult cooks i n restaurant  350  adult cleans table i n restaurant  351  adult pastry chef  411  adult at power sewing machine  425  adult hands at power sewing machine  452  adult works at computer in t e x t i l e industry  453  6 adults work i n garment factory  454  adult and adolescent check designer's garment sketch  457  adult clothes buyer checks garment  459 471  adult i n t e x t i l e s m i l l adult roofer i n hard hat  219 Workplace (cont'd) page  Males  Females  504  adult from gas co. checks heating appliance  511  adult talks about house  real estate agent shows house to adult male and female  512  adult repairs r e f r i g e r a t o r  513  4 adults work on construction s i t e  Community:Outdoors page 21 153  Males  Females  retarded adolescent crossing street  adolescent helping retarded male  boy at playground  adult with boy at playground  190  adult buys cotton candy for c h i l d  192  adolescent looks i n store window  194  adult at ATM  196 225  adult enters bank 3 adolescents talk i n front of wall covered with g r a f f i t i  251  adolescent buys f r u i t at stand  274  adult walks past store  285  adult puts groceries i n car  adult puts groceries i n car g i r l watches  287  adolescent at produce market  2 adolescents at produce market  344  adolescent walks past restaurants  398  •>  2 adolescents shop for make-up  446  adolescent goes to clothing r e c y c l i n g display  450  2 adolescents deposit used a r t i c l e s in recycling bin  492  adolescent deposits l i t t e r i n r e c e p t i c l e  220 Community: Indoors page  Hales  Females  60  black adolescent talking in restaurant  white adolescent talks to male  88  adolescent i n shopping mall  adolescent i n shopping mall  173  adult with adolescent shops for clothes  179  3 adolescents prepare for theatre production  202  adolescent shops for clothes  204  adolescent shops for records  205  adolescent shops i n auto supply store  209 222  adolescent shops for ghetto blaster adolescent shops for clothing  260  adult shops for food  276  adolescent shops for health food  291  adolescent shops for food  299  adolescent shops for food  342  adult eats i n restaurant  two g i r l s eat in restaurant adolescent shops for clothes  374 School page  Hales  24  adolescent graduates  25  adolescent does school work  40  4 adolescents i n c a f e t e r i a  63  adolescent i s reassured by teacher  adolescent watches male do school work  7 adolescents s i t i n school hallway talking  174 186  Females  2 adolescents work on school project  367  adolescent leans on locker  370  5 adolescents in school uniforms talking  221 Recreation page  Hales  Females  11  3 adolescents snowshoe  13  2 adolescents at c a i p f i r e  29  adolescent lifts weights  30  adolescent gets g i r l ready for ice skating  57  adult male runs  74  adult and 3 adolescents prepare for c l i i b i n g  3 adolescents prepare to go rock climbing  89  2 adolescents skate  adolescent skates  171  adolescent poses on b i c y c l e  172  2 adolescents and 8 boys at the beach  177  2 adult males run and wheelchair i n race  180  adolescent and adult watch female climb  253  adolescent skis  adolescent climbs on rope  272  2 adolescents run  321  adolescent cooks over campfire  368  adolescent skis  Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e ; Outdoors page  Males  Females adolescent playing bagpipes  1 2  adolescent smiles  3  1 adolescent talks  2 adolescents talk 2 adolescents talk  5 8 16  adolescent wearing s k i clothes smiles  2 adolescents lounge on lawn with others  older adult walks with small boy  adult and adolescent walk  26 39  Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page  Hales  Females  43 44  adult and adolescent t a l k on sidewalk  52  4 adults pose for family photo  62  older adolescent t a l k i n g to younger adolescent  2 adolescents i n sleeping bags  5 adults, a g i r l , a baby  67 adult walks with c h i l d  73 92  adolescent on bench t a l k s  2 adolescents t a l k  95  2 adults pose for wedding photo  adolescent on bench t a l k s 2 adults pose for wedding photo  103 117  c h i l d walks on grass  adult and g i r l walk through long grass adult with c h i l d and outdoors to play  118 123  c h i l d i n walker  130  c h i l d p u l l s wagon across grass  136  Native adult s i t s with g i r l  139  adult talks to c h i l d and small g i r l  148  adult poses for photo  pregnant adult poses for photo g i r l eats corn  244 245  boy eats hamburger  294  c h i l d with apples  365  white adult wears s a r i  378  adolescent smiles  378  adolescent looks serious  Location,not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page  Hales  adolescent hugs adult  38 61  Females  adolescent smokes and talks  116  adult holds baby  126  2 children look at story book  373  adult poses  380  adult poses (1940s)  adolescent smokes  adult poses (1940s)  224 Appendix G C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o L o c a t i o n o f Female and Male A c t i v i t i e s Hole:Indoors page 39  Hales Down's syndrome boy  134  Females two females s i t with Down's syndrome boy g i r l s i t s with d o l l  145  African adult poses with wives  three wives, g i r l S 2 children  154  adult teases mate  adult being teased  169  adult feeds baby and watches c h i l d  Home:Outdoors page 46  Hales  Females  adult and boy outside ruins of house  106  older adult and g i r l s i t on steps  125  boy imitates movie violence  191  adult t i c k l e s g i r l  g i r l laughs  198  2 adolescents (sons) pose  single mother poses with adolescent daughter  Workplace page 7 11  Hales  Females  s o c i o l o g i s t , Emile Durkheim anthropologist  12  anthropologist, Margaret Head  13  antropologist, Bruce Trigger  14  s o c i a l work prof, Benjamin Schlesinger  16  therapist, Janice Gouse-Sh'eese  25  p o l l taker  26  university prof, P h i l i p Zimbardo  35  e v o l u t i o n i s t , Charles Darwin '  225 Workplace (cont'd) page  Hales  41 51  psychologist, Sandra Scarr two RCMP read c r i m i n a l code to Hiada one Haida male protesting  56 69  two Haida females protesting Inuit writer, Minnie Freeman  psychologist, Erik Erikson  71 78  Females  Queen presenting medal 2 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a r r e s t i n g suffragette  103  s c i e n t i s t , Pavlov  104  psychologist, B.F.Skinner  105  psychologist, Albert Bandura  107  suffragette  Preschool worker  143  Buddhist monk performs wedding  151  monk watches over Romeo and J u l i e t (actor) Romeo gazes at J u l i e t  J u l i e t gazes at Romeo  206  male p o l i c e o f f i c e r  surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead  210  former governor general, Roland Hichener former lieutenant-governor of Ontario, Pauline McGibbon  220 232  president of U.S., Ronald Reagan  232  Prime Minister of I s r a e l , Golda Heir  232  actress, Katherine Hepburn  233  Pope John Paul II  233  missionary, Mother Teresa  258  actress i n opera  272  s c i e n t i s t , David Suzuki  274  surgeon  226 Community:Outdoors page  Hales  55  Females one Doukhobor, nude protest  58  two adolescent punks  three adolescent punks lounge on sidewalk  71  adult climbs hill  adult and two g i r l s  78 91  suffragette arrested adolescent  contemplating pregnant adult plays music to her unborn c h i l d  100 123  5 skinheads i n front of shop  140  groom on church steps  211  older adult s i t t i n g outside shop  bride on church steps  older adult i n wheelchair holds female adolescent's hand  221  223  older adult walks  230  three older adults, s i t and drink  249  6 adults with c o f f i n  250  4 adults at cremation  older adult and g i r l  4 adults at cremation  Community:Indoors page  Hales  Females  50  2 teenage males shop for records  99  father with mother & baby  mother with baby & father  136  adolescent gets ready for hockey  adolescent gets ready for hockey  143  Vietnamese groom 1 adult looks on  Vietnamese bride 3 adults look on adult says grace with g i r l  197 222  older adult teaches mentally d e f i c i e n t boy to swim adult i n wheelchair knits  237 253  adult plays tambourine  adult plays f l u t e for woman i n hospital bed  227 Community:Indoors page 270  Hales father holds son i n hospital another son with them  Females mother watches  School page 19  Hales  Females  one adult shows adolescent something on the computer adolescent graduates  71  older adult graduates from university  224 Recreation page  Hales  58  9 adolescents play team sport  71  adult receives a sports medal  Females  f i v e older adults lawn bowl  214 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page  Hales  adult with anorexia nervosa  53 148  Females  father and two sons  mother poses with family older woman with cane  226 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page 37  Hales 4 adults and 1 boy pose for photo  older adult i d e n t i c a l twins adult feeds baby a bottle  71  grandmother holds baby and mother stands by her  102 117  5 adults and 3 g i r l s Japanese tatooed woman  52 64  Females  adolescent smiles  adolescent leans on male, b i t i n g knuckle and smiling  228 Location Hot I d e n t i f i a b l e : indoors (cont'd) page  Kales  Females  121  adolescent with spiked hair with mouse on head  122  4 boys pose with arms around each other  126  adolescent kisses f e i a l e  130  Stevie Wonder on drinking and d r i v i n g poster  141  3 adults, 4 boys  4 adults, 5 g i r l s pose for f a i i l y photo  157  A r i s t o l e Onassis and 4 adults  Jacqueline Kennedy and daughter  178  adult and c h i l d  adult and boy g i r l i n corner on c h i l d abuse poster  188 205 269  adolescent kisses male  Peter Woodruff and t e s t tube sons  Susan Woodruff Karen Ann Quinlan i n head and shoulders photo  229 Appendix H C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Nature o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y L o c a t e d i n t h e Home Personal Care - none School Work p. 13 3 adolescent males and 2 adolescent females discuss school project Guiding, D i s c i p l i n i n g , Nurturing Children p.65 adolescent male a t table i n awkward communication with parents p.149 adult male holds toy f o r baby while adult female watches p.199 adult male holds boy and cat i n lap p.228 adult female talks to young females and c h i l d p.233 adult female holds small c h i l d as 2 boys get ready for school. Small boy watches, p.323 older male places hand on seated older female's hand to console her. She smiles, p.335 divorced female talks to son who i s unhappy about leaving to v i s i t father Home Management and Home Maintenance p.90 adult male and adult female discuss household paperwork p.112 adult male showing female something about finances on home computer p.196 adult male vacuums while g i r l dusts p.220 adult female cooks with boy p.221 adult and adolescent male gather leaves with adult female and g i r l p. 222 adult male works at home computer p. 286 adult female paints on construction project as boy sands and g i r l measures p. 297 adult male adds storm window to house Conflict p. 354 adult male with clenched f i s t speaks angrily to adult female p.348 adolescent male t r i e s t o d i s t r a c t angry l i t t l e g i r l while l i t t l e boy watches p. 100 adult female points finger a t adult male i n discussion of c o n f l i c t Leisure p. 36 3 adult females pose f o r picture with baby g i r l [4 generations] p.90 2 adult males interacting with children while 2 adult females hold the children p.91 adult male plays guitar for family gathering while 7 males and 6 females sing or l i s t e n p. 116 adult male looks a t stamp c o l l e c t i o n while adult female reads book and strokes cat p. 139 family gathering p.126 adult male plays piano at party while 2 adult females lean on h i s shoulders and 3 adult males l i s t e n p.146 adult male plays triangle, adult female plays piano, g i r l sings p.337 single father decorates gingerbread house with daughter p.370 single adult female works on her hobby of painting Eating at an Indoor Table p.137 adult male pours milk f o r g i r l at breakfast table while adult female reaches out to boy and another boy watches p. 262 adult male and boy eat while adult female looks at g i r l s at table and two g i r l s look at mother p. 265 boy serves food t o adult male at table while 2 adult females, 1 adult male and a g i r l watch p.283 1 adult male carves at head of table while 2 adult females, 4 adolescent females, 1 adult male and 3 adolescent males wait for home to carve p.315 adult male at table holds knife and boy looks a t i t while adult female looks at g i r l at table  Nature of A c t i v i t y Unclassified p. 182 baby g i r l p u l l s into standing position p. 204 small g i r l plays dress-up  231  Appendix I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Nature o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y i n t h e Home Personal Care p.10 adolescent p.14 adolescent p. 364 adolescent p.366 adolescent  male shaves female dries hair female looks i n f u l l length mirror male puts on t i e  School Work p.23 adolescent female writes at desk p.46 adult female gives g i r l birthday cake p.480 adolescent female at desk Guiding, D i s c i p l i n i n g and Nurturing Children p.48 adolescent female helps boy on bicycle p.67 adolescent female helps g i r l take boots o f f p.97 adult female gets c h i l d ready to go outside (winter) p.121 c h i l d being bathed by male hands p.122 older adult male holds baby p.138 adult female holds small baby p.142 adult female holds baby b o t t l e and adolescent baby s i t t e r holds c h i l d p. 144 adolescent female babysitter plays with c h i l d p.149 adult female with baby cradled i n her legs p. 151 adult male checks temperature of baby's b o t t l e p. 134 adult male reads to c h i l d on outside steps p. 152 adult male feeds baby p.159 adolescent female pours drink for g i r l Home Management and Home Maintenance p.48 adolescent male carries groceries into house p.59 adult female and g i r l plant flowers p.184 2 adolescent females shovel gravel p.280 adolescent female cooks p.296 adult female and male bake bread p.311 adult female cooks p.317 adolescent male cooks p.319 adolescent female cooks p.323 adult female and g i r l cooks p.326 adolescent female cooks p.391 adolescent female checks wardrobe p.418 adult male cuts fabric using commercial pattern p. 439 adult female hands care for clothing p. 440 adult male hands hold clothing care labels p.442 2 adolescent males do laundry p.444 adolescent female does ironing p.478 adolescent female arranges clothing on shelves p. 481 adult male hangs picture above stereo p.487 adolescent female hangs picture on b u l l e t i n board p.490 2 adolescent females clean bedroom p.494 adolescent female waters plants  232  Home Management and Home Maintenance (cont'd) p.495 adolescent male vacuums p.500 adult male fixes smoke alarm p.506 adolescent male and female work on house extension while another adolescent male watches p.508 adult male i n s t a l l s insulation p.516 2 adolescent females make bed C o n f l i c t - none Leisure p.51 adult female, adolescent male and g i r l eat at table p.54 twin boys play v i o l i n s p.87 adolescent female on telephone p. 382 adolescent female reads fashion magazine i n bedroom p.470 adolescent female plays piano p.473 adolescent female reads book i n bedroom p.484 2 adolescent females s i t on bed talking p.489 adolescent female lounges on bed with boy p.132 c h i l d on wheeled duck p.132 c h i l d with toy saw Eating at Indoor Table p.51 adult female, adolescent male and g i r l eat at table Nature of A c t i v i t y Unclassified p.381 adult female poses (1914) p.395 adolescent female poses for photo  233  Appendix J C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o Nature o f Female and Male A c t i v i t y i n t h e Home Personal Care - none Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors  - none  Schoolwork - none Guiding, D i s c i p l i n g , Nurturing Children p.39 two adult females s i t t i n g with Down's syndrome boy p.169 adult male feeding baby and watching c h i l d p. 191 adult male t i c k l i n g laughing g i r l Home Management and Home Maintenance - none C o n f l i c t - none Leisure - none Eating a t Indoor Table - none Nature p.46 p.106 p.125 p.134 p.145 p. 154 p.198  of A c t i v i t y U n c l a s s i f i e d adult male and boy outside ruins of house older female and g i r l s i t on steps boy imitating movie violence g i r l with d o l l African adult male poses with three wives, g i r l and 2 children adult male teases adult female mate adult female (single mother) poses with adolescent daughter and 2 adolescent sons  234 Appendix K C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n F a m i l y L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.13 p.65 p.90 p. 146 p.116 p.262  3 adolescent boys and 2 adolescent g i r l s discuss school project adolescent male at table i n awkward communication with adult female and adult male adult male and adult female discuss household paperwork father plays triangle while mother plays piano and g i r l sings adult male looks a t stamp c o l l e c t i o n and adult female reads book and strokes cat adult male and boy eat while adult female looks at two g i r l s at table  p.315 man at table holds knife and boy looks a t i t while adult woman looks at g i r l as she gives her salad Home : Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors p. 14 male stands behind female on honeymoon p.290 3 males and 3 females s i t and 2 males and 2 females stand at country f a i r Community: Indoors p.155 adult male and female at prenatal class p.167 adult male poses for picture with adult female and baby after c h i l d b i r t h p.42 p.45 p.59 p.192  School 1 adolescent male and 3 adolescent females running but not dressed for serious running 2 young adults males and 2 young adults females talk, holding books (1 i n wheelchair) 3 adolescent males and 1 adolescent female work on l i b r a r y research project boy and g i r l work on puzzle at preschool Recreation  p.12 p.12 p.147 p. 220 p. 238 p.241 p.257 p.371  adolescent male and adolescent female cycling 3 adolescent males and 2 adolescent females hiking adult male with g i r l on shoulders and adult female and boy who each hold part of k i t e adult male and adult female skate with g i r l and c h i l d adult male, adult female and adolescent male jogging adult male and adult female cycling with boy and g i r l 3 male and 4 female senior c i t i z e n s work out at exercise class adult female and adult male dance Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors  p.92 adult female and adult male gaze into each other's eyes p.85 young adult female and young adult male break up  235 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors - none HALE DOMINANCE Hone: Indoors p. 91 adult male plays guitar for 6 females at family gathering and 7 males sing or l i s t e n p. 112 adult male points at computer monitor while adult female watches p.139 older adult male at family gathering plays with g i r l on knee; adult male reads to g i r l on his knee; one adult male, 3 adult females and 1 boy s i t at family gathering p.126 adult male plays piano at party while 2 adult females lean on his shoulders, 3 males l i s t e n p.137 adult male pours milk for g i r l at breakfast table while adult female at breakfast table reaches out to one of two boys p. 149 adult male holds toy for baby as adult female watches p.265 boy serves food to adult male at table, 2 adult females, 1 adult male, 1 g i r l wait to be served p.283 1 adult male carves at head of table while 2 adult females, 4 adolescent females, 1 adult male and 3 adolescent males s i t at table waiting for man to carve p.323 older male places hand on the hand of seated older female who smiles p.354 adult male with clenched f i s t speaks angrily to adult female Home: outdoors p.90 2 adult males interacting with children while 2 adult females hold the children p. 221 adult male rakes leaves while adolescent male gathers leaves and adult female hold garbage can for c o l l e c t i n g leaves and g i r l plays i n leaves which have been raked p.314 older male cooks at barbegue while older female s i t s Workplace p. 106 male member of clergy o f f i c i a t e s at wedding ceremony Community: Outdoors p.310 2 adult males and 2 adolescent males serve and prepare food at block barbegue party while 2 adult females stand i n food service area Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation p.72 adult male r i d i n g motorcycle (?) with adult female r i d i n g behind p.75 young adult male plays guitar while young adult female l i s t e n s p. 130 older male prepares to throw b a l l as g i r l prepares to catch b a l l ; male cooks at picnic while adult female watches; adult male talks to boy at picnic; adult female holds c h i l d at at picnic p. 146 adult male and boy with snorkeling masks on and adult female helps g i r l i n water p.316 adult male holding bicycle talks to adult female who holds dog Location Not Identifiable p.95  adult male watches female who smiles but with downcast eyes  FEMALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors p.100  adult female points finger at adult male i n discussion of c o n f l i c t Home: Outdoors - .none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors  p.220  adult female shows adult male something on label while shopping School - none Recreation  p.79  young adult female sprays water on young adult male with hose  p.82  young adult female helps young adult male up from ice while skating Location Not Identifiable  p.54  adolescent female consoles adolescent male  237 Appendix L C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.51 adolescent male eats a t table with adult female and g i r l p.296 adult female and adult male bake bread p.489 adolescent female and boy lounge on bed Home: Outdoors p.506 adolescent female and male work on house extension while another male adolescent watches Workplace p.98 adult female and male and adolescent female and male build boat Community: Outdoors p.285 adult female and male put groceries put groceries i n car while g i r l watches Community: Indoors p.60 black adolescent male and white adolescent female talk i n restaurant p.88 adolescent female and male shop i n mall School - none Recreation p.74 adult male, 3 adolescent males and 3 females adolescent prepare to go rock climbing p.89 2 adolescent males and adolescent female skate Location Not Identifiable: Outdoors p.3 p.92 p.95 p. 148  1 adolescent male and 2 adolescents females talk adolescent male and adolescent female on bench talking 2 adult females and 2 adult males pose for wedding photo adult male and pregnant adult female pose for photo Location Not Identifiable: Indoors  p.61 adolescent female and adolescent male smoking and talking  238 HALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors - none School p.25 adolescent male doing school while adolescent female watches Recreation - none Location not Identifiable - none FEMALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Workplace p.21 p. 157 p.170 p.246 p.287 p.180  adolescent female helps retarded adolescent male cross street female teacher discusses display with 6 adolescent males from private school adult female s e l l s theatre tickets to adolescent male waitress assists adult female while adult male, g i r l and c h i l d watch adolescent female points out produce to adolescent female and male at outdoor produce market adolescent female climbs on rope while adult and adolescent male watch Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation - none Location not Identifiable - none  239 Appendix M C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Photographs i n P e o p l e i n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o Dominance o f Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.145 African man poses with three wives Home: Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors p.58 p.71 p.71 p.99 p.140 p.223 p.250  Punk teenages lounge on sidewalk Queen presents medal to athlete male and female with children climbing a hill father and mother pose with new baby bride and groom come down church steps older adult female and male walk with c h i l d four males and three females at cremation of I. Ghandi Community: Indoors  p.136 p.250 p.253 p.270  adolescent female and male get ready t o play hockey bride and groom at Vietnamese wedding female and male v i s i t with sick female i n hospital Dawsons v i s i t with Stephen at Childrens' Hospital School - none Recreation - none Location Not Identifiable  p. 37 p.141 p.148 p.151 p. 157 p.178 p.198 p.205  4 males and 5 females pose f o r photo with many children 3 males and 4 females pose for photo with many children female and male pose with two children 'Romeo and J u l i e t gaze into each others eyes Jacqueline Kennedy walks with Onassis and others mother and father hold two children single mother poses with 2 adolescent sons and daughter mother and father hold "test tube" twins  240 HALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Community: Outdoors p. 51 p.71 p.78 p.17 p.54 p.206 p.270  2 RCHP o f f i c e r s with to 2 females and one male adult male and adolescent female smile at one another at her graduation, adult female watches 2 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s (male) a r r e s t s u f f r a g e t t e female adolescent leans on male's shoulder (biting knuckle) adult male teases adult female male p o l i c e o f f i c e r escorts Hary Beth Whitehead Hr.Dawson holds Stephen at Childrens' Hospital, mother s i t s beside him  Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation - none Location not I d e n t i f i a b l e - none FEHALE DOMINANCE - none  

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