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Analysis of gender bias in home economics textbooks 1990

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ANALYSIS OF GENDER BIAS IN HOME ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS By BERNICE ANNE HAYIBOR B.H.E., The University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1990 ® Bernice Anne Hayibor, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C e n t r e f o r t n e Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a te 27 A p r i l , 1990 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t Three Canadian home economics textbooks c u r r e n t l y used i n teaching human r e l a t i o n s h i p s were examined t o explore the ways i n which they are or are not c o n t r i b u t i n g t o gender eq u i t y . The research posed three questions: To whom i s the textbook addressed? What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s assumed by the textbook? and In what way does the textbook deal w i t h gender b i a s ? In each textbook the preface, index, t a b l e of contents, photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content were examined i n d e t a i l . The t e x t s were compared t o determine commonalities. The methodology was adapted from e a r l i e r textbook analyses of sex eq u i t y which were based on the study of i n t e n t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n the preface, photographs, and language. Recent f e m i n i s t work suggests t h a t s t u d i e s of b i a s must consider not only the b i o l o g i c a l concept of sex but a l s o the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender which r e l a t e s t o those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t i v i t i e s , and r o l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one sex. The f e m i n i s t concepts of gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance were used i n t h i s textbook a n a l y s i s . The textbooks were found t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y i n f i v e Ways. The f i r s t approach, i n c l u d i n g males, i s not adequate because i t i n v o l v e s the r i s k of males and a male p e r s p e c t i v e becoming dominant. The second approach, using i n c l u s i v e language, i s a l s o inadequate because i t i n v o l v e s the r i s k of masking the d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between females and males and the problems a r i s i n g from gender. Exposing d i f f e r e n c e s and addressing s o c i a l i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o gender are two approaches which may hold promise i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o gender e q u i t y but i n the t e x t s examined were inadequate because the i s s u e s were presented as n e u t r a l or unproblematic. Encouraging c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was the f i n a l approach used i n only one textbook and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o gender e q u i t y was minimal because c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g was a p p l i e d i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and r a r e l y a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o problems of gender. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance r e q u i r e the appropriate use of i n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language, the balanced i n c l u s i o n of females and males, and d e t a i l e d , s e n s i t i v e , and c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study r a i s e concerns about the a n a l y s i s of textbooks. Home economics textbooks have the unique challenge of i n c l u d i n g males without a l l o w i n g males and a male pe r s p e c t i v e t o become dominant. Overcoming the problems of gender r e q u i r e s s e n s i t i v i t y i n exposing gender d i f f e r e n c e s . N e u t r a l i z i n g knowledge and pr e s e n t i n g knowledge as f a c t u a l r a t h e r than problematic masks d i f f e r e n c e s and problems a r i s i n g from them. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s research suggest a n a l y s i s of textbooks f o r gender b i a s should not be r e s t r i c t e d t o surface f e a t u r e s such as e x p l i c i t i n t e n t i o n s s t a t e d i n prefaces, photographs, and language. E l i m i n a t i o n of gender b i a s r e q u i r e s s u b s t a n t i v e changes i n textbook content. iv Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables ; v i Acknowledgements • v i i 1 INTRODUCTION , 1 Statement of Problem 1 Research Questions 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 L i m i t a t i o n s 11 S i g n i f i c a n c e 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14 Knowledge and the New Sociology of Education ... 14 Feminist Research 18 Gender Equity and Home Economics 27 Textbooks and Teaching 28 Related Research ; 33 3 METHODOLOGY 48 The Sample 49 The Method 51 The Procedure 52 4 FINDINGS • • 61 Preface • • • 61 Table of Contents 63 Index 65 Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s 68 H i g h l i g h t e d Sections 83 Content 94 5 DISCUSSION 141 6 CONCLUSION 167 BIBLIOGRAPHY 177 APPENDIX A Table 1 - Presence of Gender Equity Topics i n Index of Textbooks 182 Table 2 - Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n Family L i v i n g 186 Table 3 - Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g 188 Table 4 - Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y 192 Table 5 - Number of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n i n Family L i v i n g 193 V Table 6 - Table 7 - Table 8 - Table 9 - Table 10 - APPENDIX B - APPENDIX C - APPENDIX D - APPENDIX E - APPENDIX F - APPENDIX G - APPENDIX H - APPENDIX I - APPENDIX J - APPENDIX K - APPENDIX L - APPENDIX M - Number of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g 194 Number of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n i n People i n So c i e t y ... 197 Number of Adolescents i n Family L i v i n g by "Colour" and Sex 198 Number of Adolescents i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by "Colour" and Sex . * 199 Number of Adolescents i n People i n So c i e t y by "Colour" and Sex 202 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n Family L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e of Photograph 203 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e of Photograph .... 204 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n People i n S o c i e t y by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e of Photograph .... 207 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Lo c a t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t y 209 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Lo c a t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t y 215 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y According t o Loca t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t y 224 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Located i n the Home 229 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Located i n the Home 231 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y According t o Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Located i n the Home 233 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 234 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 237 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n Soc i e t y According t o Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s 239 v i L i s t of Tables TABLE I Summary of Numbers of Females and Males i n Photographs 70 TABLE I I Summary of Numbers of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n 72 TABLE I I I Summary of Number of Adolescents by "Colour" and Sex > 72 v i i Acknowledgements I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o my a d v i s o r s : Jim G a s k e l l f o r encouraging me t o see myself as a f e m i n i s t ; Jane G a s k e l l f o r the f e m i n i s t i n s p i r a t i o n she provided; and Linda P e t e r a t f o r both of those, but a l s o f o r her p a t i e n t and p a i n s t a k i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Linda Eyre, d o c t o r a l candidate i n home economics, f o r sh a r i n g her f e m i n i s t i n s i g h t w i t h me over the past three years. S p e c i a l thanks go t o S h e i l a Wareing without whose enthusiasm and companionship I would not have begun t h i s program. Completion of the program would have been very d i f f i c u l t without the p a t i e n t encouragement and support of Bruce Mann, Sena Hayibor, Sefa Hayibor and the other members of our f a m i l y . The understanding and support of my f r i e n d s and my c o l l e q u e s w i t h the Vancouver School Board are a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. 1 Chapter l INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem The new so c i o l o g y of education which emerged during the 1970 's c h a r a c t e r i z e s school c u r r i c u l u m as a " s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g conscious or unconscious c u l t u r a l choices ( i n accordance with) the values and b e l i e f s of dominant groups" (Whitty, 1985, p.8). That our c u l t u r e and ways of t h i n k i n g have been h i s t o r i c a l l y shaped by a male p e r s p e c t i v e has been i n c r e a s i n g l y recognized over the l a s t two decades. Feminist educators argue t h a t school knowledge i s dominated by a male p e r s p e c t i v e which, through i t s omissions and b i a s e s , d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y ( E i c h l e r and Lapointe, 1985). The o b j e c t of i n q u i r y i n t h i s study i s school textbooks, p a r t of the o v e r t , planned school c u r r i c u l u m . The study deals s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h s e l e c t e d home economics textbooks p u b l i s h e d i n the 1980's and au t h o r i z e d , approved or recommended f o r use by students and teachers i n Canadian schools. I t examines the images, r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r o l e s of females and males portrayed. The study c r i t i c a l l y analyzes the form of gender b i a s e x h i b i t e d by the books and seeks t o determine i f they c o n t r i b u t e t o the achievement of gender e q u i t y . Canadian laws have been i n f l u e n c e d by the women's movement. Equal r i g h t s are e x p l i c i t i n s e c t i o n 15(1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms s e t out by the C o n s t i t u t i o n A ct, 1982, which came i n t o f o r c e on Apr. 17, 2 1985. I t s t a t e s : 15. (1) Every i n d i v i d u a l i s equal before and under the law and has the r i g h t t o the equal p r o t e c t i o n and equal b e n e f i t of the law without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ... based on ... (2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or a c t i v i t y t h a t has as i t s o b j e c t the a m e l i o r a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s of disadvantaged i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n c l u d i n g those t h a t are disadvantaged because of ... sex (Government of Canada, 1982, p.15). Women i n Canada should now enjoy equal p r o t e c t i o n and b e n e f i t of the law. Since women's r i g h t t o e q u a l i t y now e x i s t s w i t h i n Canadian law, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s should be changing i n a d i r e c t i o n which r e f l e c t s t h i s i d e a l s t a t e of e q u a l i t y . The Charter recognizes t h a t , although the r i g h t t o e q u a l i t y e x i s t s , the s t a t e of e q u a l i t y has yet t o be achieved. I t t h e r e f o r e a u t h o r i z e s " a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n programs designed t o improve the l o t of ... disadvantaged groups or i n d i v i d u a l s ( i n c l u d i n g women) who may have s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t of past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " (Government of Canada, 1982, p.16). The Federal Human Rights Act arid the B r i t i s h Columbia Human Rights Act r e i n f o r c e the e q u a l i t y r i g h t s of women (Beveridge and Reid, 1987). L e g i s l a t i v e mandates do not guarantee a change i n school p r a c t i c e . "The st r e n g t h of a mandate r e s t s i n the power of i t s implementation" (Schmuck e t a l . . , 1985, p.91). Canadian laws g i v e educators a c l e a r mandate t o pursue the implementation of a more e q u i t a b l e education f o r both females and males, not only through e l i m i n a t i n g b i a s i n educational p r a c t i c e s , but a l s o through advocating gender e q u i t y . Textbooks are one of the many v e h i c l e s w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r 3 promoting gender eq u i t y i n education. Over the l a s t two decades the pressure of the women's movement and changes i n government p o l i c y i n both Canada and the United States have r e s u l t e d i n the production of g u i d e l i n e s f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of sexism i n textbooks (Weston & S t e i r i , 1978; P r o v i n c i a l Advisory Committee on Sex D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , no d a t e ) . Consequently, some changes i n textbooks have taken p l a c e . The need f o r frequent r e - e v a l u a t i o n of changes i s noted by E i c h l e r (1987) who p o i n t s out t h a t i n i t i a l e f f o r t s t o e l i m i n a t e sexism i n language have o c c a s i o n a l l y l e d t o a d i f f e r e n t type of s e x i s t p r a c t i c e . This occurs when generic terms (such as spouse abuse) are used i n place of sex s p e c i f i c terms (such as wi f e b a t t e r i n g ) making women and women's iss u e s i n v i s i b l e . This study addresses E i c h l e r ' s (1987) concern by qu e s t i o n i n g the appropriateness and adequacy of changes which have taken place i n home economics textbooks. I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , such as school textbooks, may have more impact on students than the knowledge or a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l teachers (Herbert, P e t e r a t and Wagner, 1982). P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n f l u e n c e the students o u t s i d e of the classroom when the teacher i s no longer a v a i l a b l e t o a c t as mediator between the student and the t e x t . A l s o , imbedded i n m a t e r i a l s i s ah i m p l i c i t view of the l e a r n e r as one who (a) absorbs knowledge i n the form of f a c t s , (b) i n t e r p r e t s what i s read, or (c) c r i t i c a l l y appraises knowledge i n a s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e way (Herbert, P e t e r a t and Wagner, 1982). 4 The i m p l i c i t view of the l e a r n e r i s evident i n the way i n which knowledge i s presented, and may i n f l u e n c e the way i n which the knowledge, both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , i s learned. E x p l i c i t s e x i s t messages may be r a r e i n cu r r e n t textbooks but i m p l i c i t l y gender biased messages (such as the acceptance of gender power r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y ) may p e r s i s t . These (along w i t h the intended, e x p l i c i t messages) may be absorbed by students without q u e s t i o n i n g i f the textbook assumes the l e a r n e r t o be a passive r e c e i v e r of knowledge and simply presents i n f o r m a t i o n f o r unquestioning absorption by students. I f textbooks are t o b r i n g about s o c i a l change, they must encourage the c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of knowledge about s o c i e t y (Weiler, 1988). As r e c e n t l y as the 1960's, educators were unconscious of the s e x i s t messages conveyed i n home economics textbooks. R e f l e c t i n g the dominant s o c i a l " i d e a l s " of the time, home economics focused on educating women f o r t h e i r r o l e s i n the domestic sphere (home cooking, sewing and c h i l d care) and r e l a t e d r o l e s i n the p u b l i c sphere ( q u a n t i t y cooking, i n d u s t r i a l sewing and organized day c a r e ) . Many home economics teachers have r e j e c t e d the not i o n t h a t home economics i s only appropriate f o r g i r l s and have sought t o show t h a t education f o r the p r i v a t e sphere i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l . M a r t i n (1985) suggests t h a t when each generation "has t o ponder anew an i s s u e as complex as the education of women, the r e s u l t a n t ideas tend t o be r e a c t i v e r a t h e r than c r e a t i v e , t o represent the r e j e c t i o n of some c l e a r e v i l r a t h e r than the 5 adoption of a well-developed a l t e r n a t i v e " (p.175). In order to make home economics more ap p r o p r i a t e , attempts were made to e l i m i n a t e such t h i n g s as the female stereotype and s e x i s t language, but a "well-developed a l t e r n a t i v e " t o the e a r l i e r , i r e s t r i c t i v e l y female, home economics program has yet t o be c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . E a r l y e f f o r t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of sexism i n textbooks r e s u l t e d i n the development of "sex-balanced" books. P i c t u r i n g and f e a t u r i n g males as w e l l as females i n home economics textbooks became a p r i o r i t y . Sex balance was achieved by i n c l u d i n g an equal number of females and males. Whether or not those females and males were i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and e x h i b i t e d s t e r e o t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was not an is s u e (Weis, 1979). However, an equal number of p i c t u r e s of women and men i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r countering gender b i a s s i n c e many other messages are conveyed through p i c t u r e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s ( W i l l i g e r , 1983). Another way i n which books attempted t o be non-sexist was by using i n c l u s i v e language. Words such as people and humankind were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r generic terms l i k e man and mankind which were considered by f e m i n i s t s t o exclude women. Wr i t e r s of gender n e u t r a l textbooks avoided sex s p e c i f i c terms (husband or wife) i n favour of i n c l u s i v e terms (spouse). Misuse of i n c l u s i v e language i s now recognized by c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t t h i n k e r s t o lead t o a problem of gender bl i n d n e s s i n which women and women's iss u e s remain i n v i s i b l e ( E i c h l e r , 1987). For example, women's poverty which has 6 a r i s e n p a r t l y because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against women i n the workforce and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females can be ignored by textbooks which use i n c l u s i v e language because they deal w i t h poverty, work and s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n a general way r a t h e r than a gender s e n s i t i v e way. The concept of an education which i s "gender s e n s i t i v e " ( M a r t i n , 1985) and "gender balanced" ( T e t r e a u l t , 1986) has been proposed as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o one which i s s e x i s t , sex balanced, or gender n e u t r a l . A gender s e n s i t i v e , gender balanced c u r r i c u l u m and i t s supporting textbooks would take gender i n t o account and not ignore i t . A gender s e n s i t i v e approach would openly address s o c i a l i z e d gender d i f f e r e n c e s and encourage a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n t o compensate the disadvantaged. A gender balanced approach i n c l u d e s females and males e q u a l l y unless the i s s u e r e l a t e s more p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y t o one than the other, places, equal value on those r o l e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered feminine and masculine, and examines i s s u e s from both female and male p e r s p e c t i v e s . These approaches are suggested t o overcome "the p a t r i a r c h a l hegemony of s c h o o l i n g " (Eyre, 1987). The concepts of gender balance and gender s e n s i t i v i t y inform the a n a l y s i s of the textbooks i n t h i s study which questions the ways cu r r e n t t e x t s may or may not c o n t r i b u t e toward gender e q u i t y . 7 Research Questions The f o l l o w i n g questions w i l l guide the a n a l y s i s of home economics textbooks i n t h i s study: 1. To whom i s the textbook e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y addressed? 2. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s are assumed by the textbook? 3. In what way does the textbook deal w i t h gender b i a s ? Is i t biased or i s i t n e u t r a l , balanced, or s e n s i t i v e ? Definition of Terms Concepts which are c e n t r a l t o t h i s study are: sex, sex stereotyping, sex equity, gender, gender equity, patriarchy, division of labour, and feminism. In the s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , these terms w i l l be d e f i n e d as they are used i n t h i s study. Although the terms sex and gender are f r e q u e n t l y used synonymously, they can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Sex i s a b i o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , u s u a l l y determined a t the time of conception by the chromosomal arrangement. The terms female and male are b i o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , and sex d i f f e r e n c e s are those d i f f e r e n c e s which are b i o l o g i c a l l y determined. Behavioral d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males based on g e n e t i c explanations are c o n t r o v e r s i a l s i n c e sex r o l e expectations and other environmental d i f f e r e n c e s begin a t b i r t h and continue throughout l i f e (Linn and Peterson, 1985). Sex stereotyping i s the process by which s o c i e t y narrowly and r i g i d l y a s c r i b e s t r a i t s , r o l e s and behaviors t o 8 females and males based on sex and not on human p o t e n t i a l . I t r e f e r s t o "the conscious/unconscious values and assumptions t h a t ... channel females and males i n t o i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s and goals considered appropriate f o r t h e i r sex" ( G r i f f i n and K e l l y i n W i l l i g e r , 1983, p.4). Although sex s t e r o t y p i n g i s seen by some as s i m p l i f y i n g and p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y i n i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s , the r i g i d and unt h i n k i n g acceptance of stereotypes makes them b a r r i e r s t o achievement of f u l l a d u l t p o t e n t i a l (Schau, 1985). Sex equity r e f e r s t o f a i r treatment of females and males, t r e a t i n g people as equals r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r sex. This concept i s r e l e v a n t t o i s s u e s such as e q u a l i t y of access to occupations, o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and school s u b j e c t s . "Equity means access t o s o c i e t a l and personal accomplishments, i n c l u d i n g ecomomic reward , f o r both men and women. Equity means freedom f o r both sexes t o choose school and career a c t i v i t i e s without s o c i a l censure. These c o n d i t i o n s encourage i n d i v i d u a l s t o achieve t h e i r own and other's needs" (Linn and Peterson, 1985, p.53). Equity r e f e r s t o f a i r n e s s , i m p a r t i a l i t y , freedom from b i a s and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Gender i s a s o c i a l l y , not b i o l o g i c a l l y , c onstructed phenomenon. The process of gender d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n begins a t b i r t h as parents and others t r e a t g i r l s and boys d i f f e r e n t l y , s o c i a l i z e g i r l s t o be feminine and boys t o be masculine, and have d i f f e r e n t a s p i r a t i o n s and expectations f o r them. Since the process begins so e a r l y and i s l a r g e l y unconscious, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h gender d i f f e r e n c e s from 9 b i o l o g i c a l (sex) d i f f e r e n c e s ( S c o t t , 1986). Throughout t h i s paper the term "gender" w i l l be assumed t o i n c l u d e both the b i o l o g i c a l concept of sex as w e l l as the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender. Gender equity i s an e v o l v i n g concept. I t means p l a c i n g equal value on those s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as feminine or appropriate f o r females and those t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as masculine or appropriate f o r males. N u r t u r i n g must be as appropriate f o r males as i t i s f o r females; a s s e r t i v e n e s s must be as appro p r i a t e f o r females as i t i s f o r males; work i n the p r i v a t e sphere must be valued as h i g h l y as work i n the p u b l i c sphere; and both women and men must be able t o work comfortably and e q u i t a b l y i n e i t h e r or both spheres. Gender eq u i t y w i l l only be achieved when female and male are valued e q u a l l y and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e "masculine" and "feminine" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s are appropriate f o r a l l . Both women and men must be allowed a f u l l range of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c t i v i t i e s ( l i m i t e d only by t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , not by gender). Throughout t h i s paper the term "gender equity" w i l l be assumed t o i n c l u d e both sex eq u i t y and gender e q u i t y . When addressing i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y i t i s important t o consider the p r e v a i l i n g ideology of patriarchy. The acceptance of t h i s ideology as normal or n a t u r a l i s p a r t of the hegemony (unquestioned assumptions) of t h i s s o c i e t y . P a t r i a r c h y r e f e r s t o a male de f i n e d , male c o n t r o l l e d 10 s o c i e t y . W i t h i n p a t r i a r c h y , males de f i n e the value system and, as a r e s u l t , t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s and masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are valued more than t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s and feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p a t r i a r c h a l ideology assumes, c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously, t h a t men are s u p e r i o r t o women and have the r i g h t t o c o n t r o l the l i f e circumstances of women. When c o n s i d e r i n g gender e q u i t y the concept of the division of labour proposed by home economist, Thompson (1986) i s u s e f u l . She sees work as t a k i n g place w i t h i n two spheres. One i s the p u b l i c , p r o d u c t i v e , v i s i b l e sphere where wage labour i s s i t u a t e d and the other i s the p r i v a t e , r e p r o d u c t i v e , i n v i s i b l e sphere of unpaid home labour. The two spheres are " d i s t i n c t i v e , yet complementary and interdependent, ... interconnected and i n t e r a c t i v e " (p.278). The p a t r i a r c h a l ideology has t r a d i t i o n a l l y operated w i t h i n both the p u b l i c sphere ( i n t h a t men c o n t r o l both government and business) and the p r i v a t e sphere ( i n t h a t men are u s u a l l y considered the "head of the household", unless i t i s a "male absent" household). Since sex r o l e s are known t o d i f f e r from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e , the r e l e g a t i o n of p r i v a t e sphere work t o women and p u b l i c sphere work t o men i s " n e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l l y based nor given i n the nature of t h i n g s " (Greene, 1985, p.232). Feminist educators see a need t o in c l u d e knowledge about and f o r both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spheres i n the education of both female and male students ( M a r t i n , 1985). Feminism i s "a movement f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of sex-based 11 i n j u s t i c e " (Richards i n E i c h l e r , 1987, p.47). B a s i c t o f e m i n i s t thought i s the b e l i e f t h a t women have not been considered equal t o men and t h a t "the unequal and i n f e r i o r s t a t u s of women i s unjust and needs t o be changed" (Jagger i n B i k l e n and Shakeshaft, 1985, p. 45). The goal of feminism i s to i n s e r t "the concerns of women from a l l walks of l i f e i n t o p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e , u l t i m a t e l y reshaping the whole world so t h a t i t b e t t e r r e f l e c t s the experience of both men and women" ( G a s k e l l , 1988, p. 9). Eventual e l i m i n a t i o n of the p a t r i a r c h a l ideology can be seen as a f e m i n i s t g o a l i n education. Limitations This study examines only home economics textbooks w i t h a f a m i l y or r e l a t i o n s h i p focus. The study excludes textbooks used i n home economics subject s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s such as foods and n u t r i t i o n , c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , housing, and c h i l d development because these may not adequately r e v e a l an understanding of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i e t y . Although the format of the a n a l y s i s could p o s s i b l y be a p p l i e d t o other textbooks i n s p e c i f i c areas i n home economics, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l home economics textbooks. The study has been l i m i t e d t o a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of only three textbooks. The purpose of the study i s t o analyze the nature of the changes which have occurred i n textbooks. I t does not attempt t o determine the extent t o which gender 12 b i a s e x i s t s i n home economics textbooks at t h i s time. No attempt i s made t o examine u n i v e r s i t y textbooks i n home economics. Only textbooks which are recommended, approved or aut h o r i z e d f o r use i n Canadian j u n i o r and s e n i o r secondary schools are considered. The study i s a l s o l i m i t e d t o textbooks i n which E n g l i s h i s the language of i n s t r u c t i o n . The e a r l i e s t p u b l i c a t i o n date f o r any book chosen i s 1980 s i n c e i t i s assumed t h a t books of t h i s decade w i l l have been i n f l u e n c e d by g u i d e l i n e s regarding s e x i s t language and sex s t e r e o t y p i n g . Some of the a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s judgements on the p a r t of the researcher which may d i f f e r from judgements made by others. A very important, complex and dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the oppression of women and other forms of oppression based on the i n t e r s e c t i o n of gender, race and c l a s s . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of race and c l a s s b i a s was not the purpose of t h i s study and no attempt i s made t o l i n k these forms of oppression. This study assumes t h a t the textbook i s important i n shaping the c u r r i c u l u m i n use. Research on textbook use i n home economics i s not a v a i l a b l e . Therefore the assumption i s based on research of textbook use i n sub j e c t s other than home economics (Apple, 1986). The study i s l i m i t e d t o an examination of textbooks and accompanying teachers' guides and resource m a t e r i a l s . No attempt i s made t o examine the textbook i n use. The assumption i s t h a t the teacher w i l l use teacher resource 13 m a t e r i a l s as presented and t h a t the textbook and accompanying student resource m a t e r i a l s w i l l be used i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n c r i t i c a l way by both teachers and students. The p o s s i b i l i t y of the teacher as a mediator between the student and the textbook and the p o s s i b i l i t y of using textbooks i n a c r i t i c a l way i s recognized. Significance This study c o n t r i b u t e s t o understanding how textbooks have responded t o c r i t i c i s m s of being gender biased. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s research w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a framework f o r f u t u r e analyses of textbooks, e s p e c i a l l y home economics textbooks. This study i n v e s t i g a t e s the appropriateness of the concepts of gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance f o r the a n a l y s i s of textbook knowledge. These concepts may be appropriate t o use i n developing f u t u r e g u i d e l i n e s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s i n the w r i t i n g of textbooks. In o f f e r i n g c u r r e n t i n s i g h t regarding t e x t a n a l y s i s , the study w i l l have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r teachers, departments of education, school d i s t r i c t s , and p u b l i s h e r s . 14 Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The review of l i t e r a t u r e examines s e l e c t e d works from the s o c i o l o g y of education addressing the development of school knowledge. Feminist research on the concept of school knowledge i s examined i n e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n of home economics textbooks t o gender e q u i t y . Research on the importance of textbooks t o teaching and the development of textbooks i s reviewed. This s e c t i o n concludes w i t h an examination of previous analyses of gender b i a s i n textbooks. School Knowledge and the New Sociology of Education "The study of educational knowledge i s a study i n ideology, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of what i s considered l e g i t i m a t e knowledge" (Apple and King i n Werner, 1987, p.92). The dominant views of a s o c i e t y may be revealed through examination of what i s present i n or absent from any school c u r r i c u l a or t e x t s . For an understanding of the s o c i o l o g y of school knowledge, the work of Whitty (1985) i s i n s t r u c t i v e although i t r e l a t e s t o c l a s s r a t h e r than gender. During the 1950's, s o c i o l o g i s t s of education b e l i e v e d d e f i c i e n c i e s i n working c l a s s c u l t u r e could be compensated by education. Although t h i s n o t i o n of s o c i a l engineering through education was r a r e l y made e x p l i c i t , s o c i o l o g i s t s attempted t o understand the underachievement of working c l a s s students and the i n a b i l i t y of education t o f a c i l i t a t e upward m o b i l i t y . 15 Education was perceived as "good" and the nature of s c h o o l i n g was unquestioned. Educators argued f o r increased access i n order t o provide e q u a l i t y of opportunity (Whitty, 1985). In the 1960's and e a r l y 1970's the "new" s o c i o l o g i s t s of education r e l a t e d the s e l e c t i o n of c u r r i c u l a r knowledge t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g of schools and t o the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . They argued t h a t c u r r i c u l u m was a s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n i n v o l v i n g c u l t u r a l choices which r e f l e c t e d the values and b e l i e f s of dominant groups i n s o c i e t y . The p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s i n t e r e s t e d knowledge was disputed. During the 1970's, "what we know" became the ob j e c t of i n q u i r y , not a given. I t was recognized t h a t school knowledge i s const r u c t e d , s e l e c t e d , organized, represented and d i s t r i b u t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways, and there i s no reason f o r i t t o be given the absolute s t a t u s of "the knowledge" and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the school c u r r i c u l u m . S o c i o l o g i s t s argued t h a t knowledge, because i t i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , can be reconstucted (Whitty, 1985). Weiler (1988) argues t h a t educational t h e o r i s t s focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o o l i n g t o s o c i a l c l a s s and neglect the production and reproduction of gender r e l a t i o n s . S o c i a l r e p r oduction and production t h e o r i e s , however, a s s i s t i n the understanding of oppression. Weiler (1988) w r i t e s : "students are shaped by t h e i r experiences i n schools t o i n t e r n a l i z e or accept a s u b j e c t i v i t y and a c l a s s p o s i t i o n t h a t leads t o the reproduction of e x i s t i n g power r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s " (p.6). She claims i t i s important t o acknowledge an intended r o l e of schools as "apparatuses of 16 s o c i a l reproduction and s i t e s of c u l t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n " (p.24). The r o l e of schools and the processes of s c h o o l i n g are problematic f o r reproduction t h e o r i s t s . For production t h e o r i s t s , on the other hand, the dominant form of language and the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of knowledge are problematic. According t o production theory, "both i n d i v i d u a l s and c l a s s e s a s s e r t t h e i r own experience and contest or r e s i s t the i d e o l o g i c a l and m a t e r i a l f o r c e s imposed upon them ... both teachers and students produce meaning through t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e consciousness" (Weiler, 1988, p.11) . The c o n t r a d i c t o r y tensions of production and reproduction are important i n a c r i t i c a l theory of education (Weiler, 1988). C r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s concern themselves w i t h the production and reproduction of s o c i a l c l a s s through s c h o o l i n g . They argue s o c i e t y i s e x p l o i t i v e and oppressive, yet capable of change. C r i t i c a l production t h e o r i s t s have "a p o l i t i c a l commitment t o human betterment" (Bates i n W e i l e r , 1988, p.12). They see p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l empowerment through development of c r i t i c a l consciousness and f o r a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of present s o c i a l arrangements. The c o n t r a d i c t o r y tensions of domination and r e s i s t a n c e mutually inform one another i n e f f o r t s t o develop emanicipatory p r o j e c t s which w i l l transform the present s o c i a l arrangements of c l a s s , race and gender (Weiler, 1988). Whitty (1985) considers schools t o be s i t e s of i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e and s t r u g g l e . Subject areas o f f e r 17 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the world but not the world i t s e l f . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s view of the world may be taken as imutable f a c t by students. S o c i o l o g i s t s of education say we teach, not knowledge, but p r e f e r r e d d i s c o u r s e . However, j u s t as "hegemonic i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e has a p a r t i c u l a r and c r u c i a l r o l e i n s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , so can o p p o s i t i o n a l i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e , i f p r o p e r l y organized, p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " (Whitty, 1985, p.38). C r i t i c a l pedagogy r e j e c t s the n o t i o n of the teacher as a n e u t r a l t r a n s m i t t e r of knowledge, the l e a r n e r as the passive r e c i p i e n t of knowledge, and knowledge as immutable m a t e r i a l t o impart. Instead i t recognizes them as a c t i v e , changing and changeable agents (Lusted i n W e i l e r , 1988). A c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s made by d e c o n s t r u c t i n g the dominant d i s c o u r s e , (exposing the e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s of gender, race, and c l a s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , thereby s h a t t e r i n g the n a t u r a l i z a t i o n of school knowledge) and i d e n t i f y i n g a l t e r n a t e discourses (Whitty, 1985). Weiler (1988) argues t h a t c r i t i c a l education theory and f e m i n i s t theory are e s s e n t i a l i n a f e m i n i s t theory of education. C r i t i c a l education theory and f e m i n i s t theory are concerned w i t h "the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l s u b ject and an oppressive s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (and both emphasize) s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and knowledge are s o c i a l l y c onstructed and are thus open t o c o n t e s t a t i o n and change" (Weiler, 1988, p.4). The tensions between production and 18 reproduction are demonstrated i n both t h e o r i e s . C r i t i c a l education theory, however, r a r e l y considers how gender i s produced and reproduced through school p r a c t i c e s and textbooks. Feminist theory o f t e n f a i l s t o recognize the ongoing s t r u g g l e of schools i n knowledge and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Weiler, 1988). For an a n a l y s i s of gender and sc h o o l i n g , both c r i t i c a l education theory and f e m i n i s t theory are necessary. Feminist Research During the 1960's and 1970's f e m i n i s t research i n education documented and attempted t o e l i m i n a t e sexism ( B i k l e n and Shakeshaft, 1985). Assumptions which pervaded textbooks (eg. mothers stayed home t o cook and cl e a n w h i l e f a t h e r s went t o work) were recognized as stereotypes. D i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes were recognized as evidence of i n e q u a l i t y , not n a t u r a l or i n e v i t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s ( G a s k e l l , 1988). Students were r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was b a s i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e . For example, only 20% of households i n the United States f i t the stereotype of husband working o u t s i d e the home and w i f e a t home w i t h c h i l d r e n , yet t h i s stereotype was commonly portrayed i n t e x t s . In s p i t e of the predominance of the two wage earner f a m i l y (Schau, 1985), t h i s r e a l i t y was not being conveyed. Textbooks were a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r making women i n v i s i b l e i n knowledge and knowledge production (Westkott, 1979). Unless the scene was domestic, women were absent from 19 c u r r i c u l a (Howe, 1979). According t o the 1970 Royal Commission on the Status of Women "a woman's c r e a t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i s e i t h e r underplayed or ignored ... The sex r o l e s described i n these textbooks provide few c h a l l e n g i n g models f o r young g i r l s , and they f a i l t o crea t e a sense of community between men and women as f e l l o w human beings" ( i n G a s k e l l , 1988, p.13). E a r l y f e m i n i s t research on sc h o o l i n g exposed sex st e r e o t y p i n g and sex b i a s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and school p r a c t i c e s . I t documented sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s , absences of women i n h i s t o r y books, the degrading and u n r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of women i n readers and l i t e r a t u r e , streaming of g i r l s i n t o some c u r r i c u l a r areas but not others , and sexism i n classroom p r a c t i c e s (Weiler, 1988). S o l u t i o n s t o sexism i n c l u d e d encouraging young women t o enter non- t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s of study as the way of accessing higher paying jobs ( G a s k e l l , 1988). G u i d e l i n e s f o r avoi d i n g s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s and educational m a t e r i a l s were developed. The goal of t h i s e a r l y f e m i n i s t research and a c t i o n was t o reform s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s of education as w e l l as t e x t s and p r a c t i c e s (Weiler, 1988). Other f e m i n i s t research i n education has examined the r o l e of schools i n s o c i a l i z i n g young people. F i r s t , schools maintain two d i f f e r e n t s e t s of behaviour p a t t e r n s , s k i l l s , d e s i r e s , and expectations f o r females and males. Ayim (1979- 80) w r i t e s : For generations females have been s o c i a l i z e d t o be pas s i v e , conformist, and dependent, males t o be a c t i v e , 20 non-conformist, and independent; females have been prepared b a s i c a l l y f o r the r o l e of wi f e and mother and males f o r the r o l e of wage-earner. The school system simply r e i n f o r c e s t h i s dichotomy - i t does not i n s i s t upon (or even encourage) females l e a r n i n g the competitive s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s most valued by the dominant group (p.83). M a r t i n (1985) claims t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n s , r o l e s , t a s k s , t r a i t s are detachable from one another and from gender" (p.177). A second concern regarding s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t schools value the p u b l i c , productive sphere and male t r a i t s over the p r i v a t e , r e p r o d u c t i v e sphere and female t r a i t s . L i k e the media and s o c i e t y at l a r g e , schools misrepresent the worth and i n t e g r i t y of the va l u e s , l i f e - s t y l e s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women. Although the t r a d i t i o n a l l y female r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of nurturance has been e s s e n t i a l f o r the maintenance of s o c i e t y , i t i s g e n e r a l l y unrecognized i n school c u r r i c u l a . Even the c o n t r i b u t i o n of women's work i n the p a i d labour f o r c e i s only m a r g i n a l l y recognized i n school s u b j e c t s . According t o Ma r t i n (1985), education has been devoted s o l e l y t o pr e p a r a t i o n f o r productive f u n c t i o n s . Recent h i s t o r i a n s of edu c a t i o n a l thought have neglected marriage, home, f a m i l y , c h i l d r e a r i n g and domestic management, i n other words, the t a s k s , t r a i t s , f u n c t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the p r i v a t e sphere. M a r t i n (1985) argues education f o r s o c i e t y ' s r e p r o d u c t i v e processes i s e s s e n t i a l . Accepting an education f o r only the p u b l i c sphere supports the h i e r a r c h y of values which places productive processes above reproductive ones and places g r e a t e r value on t r a i t s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 21 males ( M a r t i n , 1985). G a s k e l l (1988) argues t h a t knowledge must be questioned and reworked w i t h an understanding of "the ways i n which gender has shaped the o r g a n i z a t i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y " (p.15) and t h a t the concerns of women must be i n t e g r a t e d across the cu r r i c u l u m so t h a t a l l knowledge w i l l be transformed. What i s needed i s a b a s i c r e t h i n k i n g of the present gender bound (M a r t i n , 1985), gender biased (Houston, 1985), and gender s p e c i f i c ( K l e i n , 1985) education. Two a l t e r n a t i v e s which have been proposed are gender f r e e education and gender s e n s i t i v e / gender balanced education. Houston (1985) suggests t h a t "gender f r e e " means "freedom from gender b i a s " (p. 359). The problem i s how best t o achieve t h i s g o a l . When used i n i t s weak sense, gender f r e e r e f e r s t o an education i n which gender i s ignored (Houston, 1985). I t i s an education which i s b l i n d t o the problems created by the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender. A system which opens a l l e x i s t i n g courses t o a l l students would q u a l i f y as gender f r e e . However, t h i s n o t i o n of gender f r e e i s inadequate i f i t does not provide programs or courses intended t o e l i m i n a t e sex-based i n j u s t i c e s . Morgan (1985) uses gender f r e e i n a stronger sense. She advocates the a b o l i t i o n of gender as a s o c i a l category. Gender would be disregarded i n a very a c t i v e way w i t h the goal of o b l i t e r a t i n g gender d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the educational sphere. The e l i m i n a t i o n or complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g of a c t i v i t i e s , such as w r e s t l i n g and balance beam gymnastics, i n 22 which there seem t o be n a t u r a l b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes, i s a way of e l i m i n a t i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e s (Houston, 1985). Houston (1985) and M a r t i n (1985) argue these gender f r e e approaches t o education make i n v i s i b l e the very problems which need t o be addressed. Gender f r e e approaches mask and r e i n f o r c e s u b t l e forms of gender b i a s . They ignore important questions c e n t r a l t o the i s s u e by assuming the exist e n c e of e q u a l i t y . (Houston, 1985). Freedom from gender b i a s r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o gender, i n other words, an education which i s gender s e n s i t i v e (Houston, 1985; M a r t i n , 1985). The exis t e n c e of genderized t r a i t s a t t h i s c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c moment makes a s e n s i t i v i t y t o gender necessary ( M a r t i n , 1985). M a r t i n (1985) a l s o argues t h a t simply adding women t o the e x i s t i n g education i s inadequate. Women's s t u d i e s courses t h r i v e i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s but i t i s "too l i t t l e , too l a t e , and too e l i t i s t t o postpone u n t i l c o l l e g e years the r e v e l a t i o n s of the new research" ( M a r t i n , 1985, p.197). Nurturance, c a r i n g , concern, and connection must be goals of a l l education t o avoid the reproduction of the s p l i t between the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e processes of s o c i e t y . These t r a i t s must be recognized as having important s i g n i f i c a n c e i n our moral, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l l i v e s ( M a r t i n , 1985). The encouragement of these t r a i t s must be goals i n a l l s u b j e c t s and not l i m i t e d t o courses such as home economics t h a t a r i s e out of the repro d u c t i v e processes. 23 Because women and men l i v e interdependently, enlightenment about the education of women should b r i n g enlightenment about the education of men. Rich (1977) wants boys t o di s c o v e r new ways of becoming men j u s t as g i r l s are f i n d i n g new ways of becoming women. Men need "a k i n d of compensatory education i n the th i n g s about which t h e i r education as males has l e f t them i l l i t e r a t e " ( R i c h , 1977, p.216). The r e s t r u c t u r i n g of education w i l l " l i b e r a t e the p o t e n t i a l of a l l young people, male and female" (Storey, 1979-80, p.18). Gender i n v o l v e s a dynamic p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people which i s a f f e c t e d by other s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s means understanding gender d i f f e r e n t l y r a t h e r than e l i m i n a t i n g i t . A gender s e n s i t i v e c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n t o gender when, t o do so, a s s i s t s i n prevention of b i a s and achievement of e q u a l i t y (Houston, 1985). Gender s e n s i t i v i t y recognizes the dynamic nature of gender r e l a t i o n s . I t r e q u i r e s constant v i g i l a n c e and adjustment i n educ a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and p o l i c y . I t "re q u i r e s a c r i t i c a l and constant review of the meaning and ev a l u a t i o n attached t o gender" (Houston, 1985, p. 369). Weiler (1988) c r i t i c i z e s much f e m i n i s t work as too narrow i n focus, and o v e r l y concerned w i t h t e x t s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of s c h o o l i n g . She argues t h a t , i f the r o l e of power i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t o be addressed, a t t e n t i o n must be pa i d t o broad s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e s i n a d d i t i o n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s of s c h o o l i n g 24 (Weiler,1988). She proposes a c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t education theory d e r i v e d from c r i t i c a l education theory and s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t theory (Weiler, 1988). I t would question the o r i g i n s of gender biased p r a c t i c e and the ways i n which other s t r u c t u r e s of power and c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e s c h o o l i n g . C r i t i c a l education theory makes two b a s i c assumptions. The f i r s t i s t h a t there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t connection between s c h o o l i n g , the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and the economic system. A focus, t h e r e f o r e , i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of women's s c h o o l i n g and women's work. The second assumption i s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m and p a t r i a r c h y are r e l a t e d and mutually r e i n f o r c i n g . Men and women e x i s t i n interconnected and overlapping r e l a t i o n s h i p s of gender, race and c l a s s (Weiler, 1988). In s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t theory, as i n c r i t i c a l education theory, the two pe r s p e c t i v e s of reproduction and production can be i d e n t i f i e d , although the sepa r a t i o n i s not a d i s t i n c t and r i g i d one (Weiler, 1988). A l i m i t e d amount of work has been done which addresses e x p l i c i t l y the r o l e of schools i n the reproduction of gender oppression (Weiler, 1988). Feminist work i n s o c i a l reproduction views oppression of women i n the pa i d work f o r c e and domestic work as reproduced through schools. Educational p o l i c i e s are examined f o r o v e r t and hidden assumptions regarding the r o l e of women i n the economy. "The major focus of t h i s approach i s on the connection between s e x i s t p r a c t i c e s i n the schools and women's oppression i n s o c i e t y as a whole" (p.31). Feminist reproduction t h e o r i s t s are concerned w i t h p a t r i a r c h a l 25 oppression and the reproduction of the e x i s t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y . They see the ideology of schools preparing g i r l s "to accept t h e i r r o l e as low pa i d or unpaid workers i n c a p i t a l i s m " (p.32). Schools have r e i n f o r c e d the present arrangement of s o c i e t y i n t h a t the students have tended t o make "choices" which reproduce the s o c i a l sexual d i v i s i o n of labour i n c a p i t a l i s m (Deem i n W e i l e r , 1988). Feminist production t h e o r i s t s do not view gender ideology as uncontested. Anyon (1984) argues sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of women i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e i t h e r complete acceptance nor complete r e j e c t i o n of the attempted s o c i a l i z a t i o n but i n s t e a d i n v o l v e s "a simultaneous process of accomodation and r e s i s t a n c e " (p.25). She suggests t h a t "Gender development i n v o l v e s not so much passive i m p r i n t i n g as a c t i v e response t o s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " (Anyon i n Weil e r , 1988, p.49). The d a i l y accommodation and r e s i s t a n c e of women t r a p s them i n the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s they would overcome, because t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l accomodation and r e s i s t a n c e do not seek t o remove the s t r u c t u r a l causes of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . C o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . I n d i v i d u a l , fragmented e f f o r t i s p o l i t i c a l l y weak. Anyon (1984) w r i t e s : We must nurture i n females a sense of s o l i d a r i t y and p o t e n t i a t i o n . We must argue the females have the power to work f o r new, more e q u i t a b l e kinds of s o c i a l arrangements. Moreover, we must nurture i n both females and males the understanding t h a t i t i s l e g i t i m a t e f o r women t o engage i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e . For as women are c u r r e n t l y d e f i n e d by i d e o l o g i e s of f e m i n i n i t y , i t i s not considered feminine f o r women t o act together i n p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t . ( p . 45-46) Inherent i n the no t i o n of r e s i s t a n c e i s the hope of 26 transcendence of oppression. For Weiler (1988) the question i s how t o create meaning and r e s i s t the imposed ideology; how to inform school p r a c t i c e and transform s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Weiler suggests t h a t f e m i n i s t teaching should be "counter- hegemonic". I t should be an organized, conscious, c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n which opposes the hegemony of the e x i s t i n g order (Weiler, 1988). This type of c r i t i c a l teaching deals w i t h the l a t e n t and u n a r t i c u l a t e d r e s i s t a n c e of students. Teachers and students can work together i n an attempt t o develop a c r i t i c a l understanding of the fo r c e s which a c t upon t h e i r l i v e s . Schools can be places where ideology can be made conscious and s o c i a l stereotypes and p r e j u d i c e s can be challenged. The women's movement can develop an a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n of gender and open d i s c u s s i o n of s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s and the oppression faced by females. S o c i a l i s t feminism i s committed t o s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , not j u s t consciousness r a i s i n g ; r e l a t i o n s h i p s and power s t r u c t u r e s must be transformed (Weiler, 1988). Feminist research about gender r a i s e s new challenges f o r textbook development. Research of the 1960's and 1970's l e d to suggestions f o r d e a l i n g w i t h sex b i a s by i n c l u d i n g women where they had been omitted, e l i m i n a t i n g sex stereotypes, and using non-sexist language. More recent f e m i n i s t research suggests a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s so t h a t textbooks w i l l , i n a d d i t i o n t o being n o n - s e x i s t , s t r i v e f o r gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance. C r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s such as Weiler (1988) suggest t h a t changing t e x t s alone i s 27 inadequate. Instead, the s o c i a l changes necessary f o r ach i e v i n g e q u i t y r e q u i r e counter-hegemonic p r a c t i c e . Nevertheless, Weiler's (1988) argument suggests t h a t t e x t s should encourage a more c r i t i c a l approach t o iss u e s by examining h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and s t r u c t u r e s . Gender Equity and Home Economics The i d e o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n of women wi t h the p r i v a t e sphere i s b l u r r e d by women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the paid labour f o r c e and p u b l i c l i f e . To focus women's education on the p r i v a t e sphere, as the e a r l y home economics courses d i d , i s no longer ap p r o p r i a t e . To focus the education of both women and men on pr e p a r a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c sphere i s a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e ( M a r t i n , 1988). Gender e q u i t y i n the p r i v a t e sphere i s e s s e n t i a l i f gender e q u i t y i s t o be achieved i n the p u b l i c sphere. The b l u r r i n g of the d i v i s i o n of labour a l s o means t h a t the study of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s i s incomplete without a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h , and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , other s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y . Home economics i s concerned w i t h the w e l l being of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s and must, t h e r e f o r e , take i n t o account a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s which a f f e c t t h e i r w e l l being. The need f o r an education which s t r i v e s f o r gender e q u i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the reproductive sphere, i s i n d i c a t e d by G a s k e l l ' s research (1984) on Vancouver students seeking employment immediately a f t e r high s c h o o l . The students' comments r e v e a l a vast d i f f e r e n c e i n the g i r l s ' and boys' perceptions of the f u t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h respect t o 28 marriage. G a s k e l l (1984) w r i t e s (These g i r l s ) overwhelmingly assume t h a t they w i l l have primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the domestic l a b o r i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , w h i l e the boys do not consider domestic l a b o r something they have t o take i n t o account a t a l l . . . . B u t ( g i r l s ) want husbands and they want c h i l d r e n . In order to accomplish these, they f e e l they w i l l have t o do the domestic work f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons based on t h e i r p e r ception of how the world works, and what o p p o r t u n i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e . Men, they say, w i l l not or cannot do i t . (Gaskell> 1984, p.100) The students' perceptions are very d i f f e r e n t from the eq u i t a b l e view of marriage s t a t e d be Geo-Karis (1975): Marriage should be a p a r t n e r s h i p of equals where the dependence i s mutual, the o b l i g a t i o n s r e c i p r o c a l , and the i n d i v i d u a l i t i e s maintained and respected....The r o l e s and d u t i e s of marriage should be assigned according t o n a t u r a l t a l e n t s and i n c l i n a t i o n s , not on the b a s i s of sex. (p.287) An understanding of how domestic labour a f f e c t s gender d i f f e r e n c e s i s important t o gender e q u i t y , but l i t t l e r esearch explores how high schools reproduce the o r g a n i z a t i o n of domestic work ( G a s k e l l , 1984). Ayim (1986) p o i n t s out t h a t we cannot have e q u i t y without changes i n the s o c i a l context, i n c l u d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the home and f a m i l y . This research h i g h l i g h t s the r o l e home economics can play i n f a c i l i t a t i n g some of the changes which are e s s e n t i a l i f we are t o achieve a gender e q u i t a b l e s o c i e t y . Textbooks and Teaching Textbooks are chosen f o r t h i s study because they are a concrete and r e a d i l y examinable p a r t of the planned school c u r r i c u l u m . They have importance as the "authorized v e r s i o n of s o c i e t y ' s v a l i d knowledge" (Olson i n Luke, de C a s t e l l & 29 Luke, 1983, p.113). However, as s o c i o l o g i s t s of education argue, the knowledge contained i n them i s n e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e nor n e u t r a l . "The choice of p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t . . . i s r e l a t e d both t o e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s of domination and t o s t r u g g l e s t o a l t e r these r e l a t i o n s " (Apple, 1986, p.84). A study of textbook ideology r e q u i r e s d e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The r e f l e c t i o n i s t model suggests school m a t e r i a l s are s t r u c t u r e d by some un d e r l y i n g concept of s o c i a l r e a l i t y r e i n f o r c i n g the powerlessness of non-dominant groups (Whitty, 1985). For example, Anyon ( i n Whitty, 1985) analyzed elementary s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks f o r t h e i r p a t t e r n s of i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n . She showed how ideology i s r e v e a l e d , not only through what i s s a i d , but a l s o through s i l e n c e s , gaps, and absences i n content. The patterns of i n c l u s i o n and e x c l u s i o n , along w i t h c e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , c r e a t e an image of the nature and h i s t o r y of both dominant and oppressed groups. She found the p o r t r a y a l t o be c o n s i s t e n t and misleading w i t h respect t o s o c i a l c l a s s , n a t u r a l i z i n g the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s by p r o v i d i n g support f o r the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant group. Most s t u d i e s of textbooks show they serve i n the formation of a t t i t u d e s and values perpetuating the s t a t u s quo (Whitty, 1985). Whitty (1985) suggests t h a t c l a s s r e l a t i o n s (and gender r e l a t i o n s ) are masked by the fragmentation of c l a s s e s i n t o i n d i v i d u a l persons who are then r e c o n s t i t i t u t e d i n t o imaginary and non- antagonist groups such as the community and the n a t i o n so t h a t c o n f l i c t and power r e l a t i o n s are n e u t r a l i z e d . 30 The question of what content should be taught and learned i s a p o l i t i c a l one. S e l e c t i o n of content i s made on "the b a s i s of what someone considers important" (Werner, 1987, p.91). The power t o make d e c i s i o n s about textbook knowledge r e s t s i n p a r t w i t h p u b l i s h e r s who are i n f l u e n c e d by e v a l u a t i o n , adoption, and funding procedures of M i n i s t r i e s of Education (Werner, 1987). Content of textbooks represents compromises amongst competing i n t e r e s t s (Werner, 1987). In a d d i t i o n , s e l e c t i o n of content i s r e l a t e d t o finances of the p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . In 1980, t o t a l s a l e s i n the book p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i n the United States amounted t o $6 b i l l i o n , $1.5 b i l l i o n of which came from elementary, secondary and c o l l e g e l e v e l t e x t s . The books p u b l i s h e r s choose t o p r i n t must s a t i s f y a market at a p r i c e t h a t w i l l w ithstand competition. Increased competition between a small number of l a r g e f i r m s has decreased t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o take r i s k s . P u b l i s h i n g companies concentrate on a small number of " c a r e f u l l y chosen products" (Apple, 1986, p.92). A non- c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of standard content allows t h e i r use i n numerous d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s and school d i s t r i c t s over long periods of time. C o n t r o v e r s i a l issues are u s u a l l y omitted from t e x t s i f they are l i k e l y t o a f f e c t the m a r k e t a b i l i t y of the t e x t . Apple (1986) w r i t e s " C u l t u r a l or e d u c a t i o n a l v i s i o n may be overridden by t h e i r concern w i t h the market s t r u c t u r e i n which finances and high p r o f i t margins are more important" (p.95). 31 American textbooks may undergo changes i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s and minor r e v i s i o n s i n content t o make them acceptable t o the Canadian market. I t i s good business p r a c t i c e f o r p u b l i s h e r s t o aim t h e i r textbooks toward the l a r g e s t s t a t e s and provinces w i t h textbook adoption p o l i c i e s such as Ontario, (Werner, 1987) and C a l i f o r n i a and Texas (Apple, 1986). The pressure of the women's movement has l e d t o the development of textbook g u i d e l i n e s f o r both p u b l i s h e r s and Departments of Education. G u i d e l i n e s by themselves may be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o b r i n g about change. Anyon (1979) contends, i n s p i t e of p e r i o d i c changes i n the content of c u r r i c u l u m , the un d e r l y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e remains t h a t of the dominant group. Any change addressing gender e q u i t y r e q u i r e s a commitment by p u b l i s h e r s , and the e x p e r t i s e t o recognize s u b t l e forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Scott and Schau, 1985). The p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , l i k e the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , i s p a t r i a r c h a l . There are more men than women i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y (Apple, 1986). Thus, d e c i s i o n s about what i s v a l i d knowledge are made by men, who are a l s o l i k e l y t o make conservat i v e d e c i s i o n s based on the m a r k e t a b i l i t y of t e x t s r a t h e r than on the e l i m i n a t i o n of s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . Because content i s s e l e c t e d w i t h m a r k e t a b i l i t y i n mind, t e x t s are not n e u t r a l i n i n t e r e s t . The w r i t i n g s t y l e , however, tends t o n e u t r a l i z e knowledge and i n doing so e s t a b l i s h e s both i t s m a r k e t a b i l i t y and i t s a u t h o r i t y as a t e x t (Luke e t a l . , 1983). In p r a c t i c e , textbooks assume a d d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y because they are "authorized" by 32 Departments of Education (Luke et a l . , 1983). Textbooks tend t o shape modes of i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as the knowledge acquired. I f a textbook assumes the l e a r n e r t o be a passive r e c e i v e r of knowledge, i t may be used i n an unquestioning way by teacher and l e a r n e r . Even though t e x t s may be mediated by teachers, the educ a t i o n a l context (which i s l i k e l y t o in c l u d e t e s t s and p r o v i n c i a l examinations) makes c r i t i c i s m of t e x t s u n l i k e l y (Luke et a l , 1983). Werner (1987) suggests t h a t c o n s i s t e n t use of textbooks g i v e s them a major r o l e as agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Apple (1986) contends: The c u r r i c u l u m i n most American schools i s not defined by courses of study or suggested programs but by the standardized, g r a d e - l e v e l - s p e c i f i c t e x t . I t i s estimated ... t h a t 75 percent of the time elementary and secondary students are i n classrooms and 90 percent of t h e i r time on homework i s spent w i t h t e x t m a t e r i a l s , (p.85) Thus, the c u r r i c u l u m i n use i s determined t o a l a r g e extent by the q u a l i t y of teaching m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e . At present, no research i s a v a i l a b l e on whether or how textbooks are used i n home economics. Because home economics textbooks are published, approved by Departments of Education, and purchased by school boards, i t i s assumed they are used i n home economics, as they are i n other school s u b j e c t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l system can i n f l u e n c e what teachers teach through the textbooks i t a u t h o r i z e s or approves. Decisions about how (or i f ) e q u i t y i s s u e s are d e a l t w i t h should be made by Departments of Education, not i n d i v i d u a l teachers. In a 33 study of e f f o r t s t o e l i m i n a t e sexism i n Canadian education, Hegarty (1977) found, although educators are aware of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o uphold non-sexist standards f o r students, some of them doubt whether they can or should attempt t o a f f e c t s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s . Hegarty (1977) regarded most a c t i o n s toward non-sexist standards as "tokens". A token approach can a c t u a l l y be d e t r i m e n t a l . I f i t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i n t e r v e n t i o n t o change sex s t e r e o t y p i n g must be powerful (Hegarty, 1977) and the power and a u t h o r i t y of the t e x t g i v e i t the p o t e n t i a l f o r being more than a "token" e f f o r t i n e l i m i n a t i n g sexism. School boards and Departments of Education can provide l e a d e r s h i p i n the d i r e c t i o n of gender e q u i t y by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n or r e j e c t i o n of textbooks. Related Research The Importance of Sex Equitable Instructional Materials A " s e x - f a i r r e a l i t y " (Schau, 1985) should be portrayed i n a l l m a t e r i a l presented t o students. The expectation t h a t most women w i l l be homemakers and mothers i s not a r e a l i t y , nor i s the expectation t h a t men's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l f a l l o n ly i n the p u b l i c domain. I t i s important t o p o r t r a y women and men r e a l i s t i c a l l y . F l e x i b i l i t y i n r o l e p a tterns i s e s s e n t i a l . For example, b e l i e f i n the female stereotype of a woman's place being i n the home causes t e n s i o n when combined wit h the r e a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p a i d labour f o r c e (Schau, 1985). A n a l y s i s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i s important because they present sex r o l e models and provide d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n about sex r o l e s ( S c o t t & Schau, 1985). 34 Research has shown when students are exposed to sex e q u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s they become l e s s sex typed i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . However, these a t t i t u d e s are not g e n e r a l i z e d t o areas not s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed i n the m a t e r i a l s . O v e r a l l , a t t i t u d e s of females and males have been a f f e c t e d approximately e q u a l l y ( S c o t t & Schau, 1985). A t t i t u d e change toward e q u i t y (more f l e x i b l e sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s ) increases w i t h increased exposure t o sex e q u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s . Exposure t o token, n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , r o l e s i n m a t e r i a l s i s inadequate i n producing a t t i t u d e change (Scott & Schau, 1985). Bias in Instructional Materials Sadker and Sadker ( i n Dobry, 1986) l i s t the ways b i a s i s e x h i b i t e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s : 1. omission - p r o v i d i n g low v i s i b i l i t y of any group i n photos or p r i n t conveys a message of l e s s e r value or importance. 2. s t e r e o t y p i n g - a s s i g n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l and r i g i d r o l e s (dominant/ subo r d i n a t e ) , behaviors ( f e a r f u l / brave), or a t t r i b u t e s ( s t r o n g / weak) encourages students to see themselves only i n s t e r e o t y p i c ways and f a i l t o develop t h e i r own unique p o t e n t i a l (Dobry, 1986, p.43). 3. i m b a l a n c e / s e l e c t i v i t y - g i v i n g only one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an i s s u e , s i t u a t i o n or group d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y and ignores complex and d i f f e r i n g viewpoints. 4. u n r e a l i t y - p o r t r a y i n g contemporary l i f e experience u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y avoids or glosses over c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s . 35 5. f r a g m e n t a t i o n / i s o l a t i o n - s e p a r a t i n g i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o one sex from the main body of the t e x t , such as by d i f f e r e n t coloured type or boxed o f f l i n e s , i m p l i e s t h a t these i s s u e s are l e s s important or not p a r t of the mainstream. 6. l i n g u i s t i c b i a s - u s i n g any language which introduces b i a s . A r t i c l e s about sexism i n textbooks a l l mention s e x i s t language perhaps because i t i s easy to recognize and r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o r r e c t . S e x i s t language could be considered one of the " c l e a r e v i l s " t h a t M a r t i n (1985) suggests we r e j e c t . Language i s an important i s s u e because i t r e f l e c t s our s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s the way we t h i n k and a c t . Changing language pa t t e r n s w i l l a l l o w us t o introduce e q u a l i t y and f a i r n e s s (Sah & Rancy, 1984). Language needs t o be considered i n depth because i t a f f e c t s most p a r t s of a textbook. The l i t e r a t u r e on textbook language deals w i t h using sex s p e c i f i c terms t o d e s c r i b e generic s i t u a t i o n s . The Vancouver School Board (VSB, 1987) r e f e r s t o these as " f a l s e g e n e r i c " terms. Weis (1979) r e f e r s t o them as "subsuming terminology", d e f i n e d as "masculine terms which are commonly b e l i e v e d t o i n c l u d e or r e f e r t o females as w e l l as males but which, i n f a c t , operate t o exclude females" (Burr e t a l i n Weis 1979, p.150). E i c h l e r (1987) w r i t e s : Non-sexist language..must not be confused w i t h removing sex from language...Sexist language commits e i t h e r one or both of (these) e r r o r s : i t may use sex s p e c i f i c terms to d e s c r i b e generic s i t u a t i o n s and/or may use generic terms t o d e s c r i b e s e x - s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . E i t h e r usage must be seen as unacceptable....because i t obscures and 36 confuses d e s c r i p t i o n s of s o c i a l phenomena r a t h e r than e l u c i d a t e and a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e them. (p.28) For the purposes of t h i s study, any language which i n d i c a t e s the sex of the person or persons i n v o l v e d w i l l be termed "sex s p e c i f i c " . For example, "she", "he", "women", "men", "wife abuse", and " f a t h e r i n g " are sex s p e c i f i c terms. Language which suggests i n c l u s i o n of both women and men w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " i n c l u s i v e " , although elsewhere i t may be r e f e r r e d t o as "generic" or "gender n e u t r a l " . For example, "spouse abuse", "parenting", and "he and she" are i n c l u s i v e terms. Using i n c l u s i v e terms f o r sex s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s and sex s p e c i f i c terms f o r generic s i t u a t i o n s ( E i c h l e r , 1987) w i l l be considered i n r e l a t i o n t o nouns, pronouns, s i t u a t i o n s , and concepts. Nouns The E n g l i s h language has t r a d i t i o n a l l y used such terms as "man" and "mankind" t o r e f e r t o the human po p u l a t i o n . An i n c l u s i v e word such as "humankind" would be considered non- s e x i s t . E i c h l e r and Lapointe (1985) draw a t t e n t i o n t o the ab s u r d i t y of statements such as "Man i s a mammal who does not always suckle h i s young." Because "man" can a l s o be used t o r e f e r t o an e x c l u s i v e l y male p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s a very ambiguous term ( E i c h l e r & Lapointe, 1985). I t should be replaced by an appropriate sex s p e c i f i c or i n c l u s i v e term, depending on the context. When "man" i s used r a t h e r than "human being", l i s t e n e r s or readers v i s u a l i z e men more o f t e n than they v i s u a l i z e women (Sah & Rancy, 1984). VSB (1987) suggests using s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r words which 37 in c l u d e "man", or male terms. For example, "manhole cover" should be "access cover", " f o r e f a t h e r s " could be "founders" and "cameraman" could be "camera operator". Home economics textbooks should use "homemaker" r a t h e r than "housewife" or "househusband". Sah and Rancy (1984) suggest a v o i d i n g the f e m i n i z a t i o n of some gender terms because i t may be unnecessary (eg. authoress, poetess) or b e l i t t l i n g (eg. j o c k e t t e , a s t r o n e t t e ) . Pronouns VSB (1987), Blankenship (1984), Weis (1979), W i l l i g e r (1983), and Sah and Rancy (1984) draw a t t e n t i o n t o pronoun usage. The f o l l o w i n g s o l u t i o n s t o problems w i t h pronouns were suggested: (a) avoi d i n g them when not e s s e n t i a l t o the meaning of the sentence (b) rewording the sentence (c) r e p l a c i n g the masculine pronoun w i t h "one" or "he/she, her/him" (d) changing the sentence t o p l u r a l , or (e) us i n g the p l u r a l pronouns t o repl a c e the masculine s i n g u l a r . Weis (1979) s t u d i e d pronouns as an i n d i c a t o r of sexism i n the language of home economics textbooks from 1964 t o 1974. S i x personal pronouns (excluding " i t " ) were c l a s s i f i e d by t h e i r r e f e r e e s i n the t e x t . A group of people of one sex or both sexes was c l a s s i f i e d as n e u t r a l ( N ) . Pronouns r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c persons were c l a s s i f i e d as "gender referenced": masculine(M), feminine(F),or n e u t r a l ( N ) . Pronouns which r e f e r r e d t o persons without i d e n t i f i e d gender were c l a s s i f i e d as "non-gender referenced" and f u r t h e r s u b c l a s s i f i e d as (M) (F) or (N) depending on the pronoun. 38 Neut r a l pronouns (you, they, t h e i r ) were used more f r e q u e n t l y than e i t h e r masculine or feminine pronouns. Masculine pronouns were used more than feminine pronouns. Observation of the gender referenced pronouns i n d i c a t e d more references t o s p e c i f i c females than males. " I t seemed t h a t the textbooks were g e n e r a l l y saying more about females but were using more masculine than feminine pronouns t o say i t " (Weis, 1979, p.153-4). W i l l i g e r (1983) s t u d i e d pronouns i n home economics textbooks used between 1976 and 1983. She found t h a t n e u t r a l pronouns outnumbered female and male pronouns and t h a t male pronouns s l i g h t l y outnumbered (1.04) female pronouns. She a l s o found more s p e c i f i c reference t o females than t o males and more male pronouns t o r e f e r t o u n s p e c i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Situations E i c h l e r (1987) draws a t t e n t i o n t o an iss u e of sexism i n language which i s given l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n - the use of i n c l u s i v e terms f o r sex s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . For example, t h i s problem a r i s e s i n r e f e r r i n g t o w i f e b a t t e r i n g as "spouse abuse", t o d i l i n q u e n t boys as " d i l i n q u e n t adolescents", and to "one-parent f a m i l i e s " when most of these are "headed" by mothers. Use of i n c l u s i v e terms i s u s u a l l y done i n an attempt t o be non-sexist but i n r e a l i t y i t confuses the iss u e s by masking the impact of gender. Concepts E i c h l e r (1987) draws a t t e n t i o n t o sexism i n concepts as more d i f f i c u l t t o recognize because i t does not r e l a t e t o the 39 word i t s e l f but t o the meaning of the word. "Concepts are s e x i s t i f they are based on some form of double standard, although the way i n which such a double standard may manifest i t s e l f may vary g r e a t l y " (p.29). For example: "head of the household" i m p l i e s a h i e r a r c h y ; "maternal d e p r i v a t i o n " i n v o l v e s a value judgement because "pa t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n " i s not a p p l i e d t o men who work outside the home ( E i c h l e r , 1987); and l a b e l l i n g sexual behavior of adolescent g i r l s as "promiscuous" wh i l e c a l l i n g s i m i l a r behavior i n boys "experimental" judges e q u i v a l e n t behaviors d i f f e r e n t l y ( E i c h l e r & Lapointe, 1985). E i c h l e r (1987) summarizes by saying: Concepts are s e x i s t i f (a) they c o n s t r u c t ego as of one sex only but apply the concept g e n e r a l l y , (b)are asymmetrical, i n the sense t h a t i d e n t i c a l behaviors of females and males are evaluated d i f f e r e n t i a l l y , ( c ) i n v o l v e a d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a l u a t i o n of m a l e - i d e n t i f i e d and f e m a l e - i d e n t i f i e d t r a i t s , (d) are premised on a h i e r a r c h i c a l sexual o r d e r i n g t h a t does not, i n f a c t , o b t a i n i n s o c i a l r e a l i t y , and l a s t l y (e) are premised on notions of sex appropriateness when i n f a c t we are d e a l i n g w i t h a human a t t r i b u t e , (p.31) Four other ways i n which sexism i s introduced through language are: 1. using non-equivalent terms such as man and w i f e . Because t h e i r use creates a sexual s l u r , e q u i v a l e n t terms such as woman and man or wi f e and husband should be used i n t h e i r place (VSB, 1984; Sah & Rancy, 1984). P a r a l l e l terms f o r females and males should be used i n p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s ( E i c h l e r and Lapointe, 1985). "Working women" corresponds w i t h "working men", "working mothers" corresponds w i t h 40 "working f a t h e r s " . Because Mr. i s not p a r a l l e l t o e i t h e r Mrs. or Miss, Ms. should be used or these t i t l e s dropped and people r e f e r r e d t o by name only ( E i c h l e r & Lapointe, 1985). In Quebec, a woman does not take her husband's name upon marriage. C h i l d r e n may take e i t h e r or both names. In other pr o v i n c e s , changing a name upon marriage i s not a l e g a l requirement, only a custom ( E i c h l e r & Lapointe, 1985). 2. mentioning sex when i t adds no r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n (Sah & Rancy, 1984; VSB, 1987) as i n "male nurse", "lady doctor", "woman judge". The VSB (1987) r e f e r s t o t h i s as " s u b t l e sexism". 3. d e s c r i b i n g women i n terms of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and appearance or as mere appendages (as i n X's w i f e , Y's mother). VSB (1987) describes t h i s as the " t r i v i a l i z a t i o n " of women and t h e i r accomplishments (VSB, 1987). 4. using c l i c h e s which denigrate or oppress women such as: the b e t t e r h a l f , the f a i r sex, the l i t t l e woman, a man-sized job, the o l d lady, o l d wives' t a l e , sweet young t h i n g , the weaker sex, the w i f e , woman's work (VSB, 1987). Some suggestions i n the l i t e r a t u r e were vague. For example, McMahen (1988) cautions us t o watch f o r "loaded words" and the M i n i s t r y of Education (1983) suggests c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the "author's tone". Neither elaborates on the meaning of these terms or how we can recognize them. Scot t and Schau (1985) summarized the research f i n d i n g s on language. I n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language are more l i k e l y than generic language t o e l i c i t gender balanced 41 images and understanding. This was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r the impact of sex s p e c i f i c language on the images and understandings of boys. Analyses of Textbooks Gender b i a s can be detected by examining v a r i o u s p a r t s of the textbook. Although none of the textbook analyses examined f o r t h i s study have s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested checking a l l p a r t s of the book, i t may be h e l p f u l t o consider each p a r t s e p a r a t e l y . The p a r t s which have been suggested f o r s c r u t i n y are: the preface (Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r , 1983), the index (Blankenship, 1984), photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s (Blankenship, 1984; McMahen, 1988; M i n i s t r y of Education, 1983; Storey, 1979-80; Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r , 1983), h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s (Blankenship, 1984), and content (Blankenship, 1984; Marsden, 1979-80; McMahen, 1988; M i n i s t r y of Education, 1983). Preface Weis (1979) determined the gender o r i e n t a t i o n of 100 randomly sampled home economics textbooks, published between 1964 and 1974 by examining the preface t o see i f a t a r g e t audience was s p e c i f i e d . Weis (1979) found 13% of the home economics books examined were addressed s o l e l y t o females, 2% s o l e l y t o males, 20% t o males and females, and 65% were n o n s p e c i f i c . Weis (1979) concluded: "home economics textbooks are g e n e r a l l y addressed t o a l l secondary students and do not d i s c r i m i n a t e on the b a s i s of sex i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n " (Weis, 1979, p.152). 42 W i l l i g e r (1983) r e p l i c a t e d p o r t i o n s of Weis' work (gender of t a r g e t audience, use of masculine and feminine pronouns, e q u i t y of photographs p o r t r a y i n g females and males i n s e l e c t e d r o l e environments) on textbooks published from 1976 t o 1983. Of the books published from 1976-1979, 77% were n o n s p e c i f i c about the gender of the t a r g e t audience. In the pe r i o d 1980-83, 100% were n o n s p e c i f i c . Recent f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e suggests textbooks should be e x p l i c i t l y o r i e n t e d toward female and male students. A gender n e u t r a l textbook may leave room f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l or s e x i s t way and i s l i k e l y t o be con s e r v a t i v e i n i t s approach. As was pointed out e a r l i e r , attempts use i n c l u s i v e language may mask important women's i s s u e s . Index Blankenship (1984) s t u d i e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks and suggested t h a t the index of t e x t s should be analyzed. Scanning i t can q u i c k l y r e v e a l i f women's iss u e s (such as sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a l incomes f o r men and women) and men's iss u e s (such as f a t h e r i n g ) have been i n c l u d e d . The language used i n the index may a l s o r e v e a l s e x i s t concepts. For example, a "bedroom community" i s only t h a t f o r those who work outside the community, not f o r those who work i n s i d e the homes of the community; "maternal d e p r i v a t i o n " i s as y m e t r i c a l i n the way i n which i t considers male and female pare n t i n g ; and "head of the household" i m p l i e s a h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p which does not adequately r e f l e c t s o c i a l r e a l i t y . C a r e f u l examination of the 43 index (and the t a b l e of contents) can r e v e a l a b i a s of t h i s type. Photographs and Illustrations "An examination of photographs i s necessary because of t h e i r power t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t and t o leave l a s t i n g impressions on the readers" (Blankenship, p 282). In her examination of home economics textbooks, Weis (1979) considered the r o l e environments of the photographs. They were c l a s s i f i e d as p o r t r a y i n g females(F), males(M) or females and males(N). Photographs were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s i x r o l e environments: (l)Home:indoors (2)Home:outdoors (3) Occupational (4) Community (5) School (6) Other. Weis (1979) found females were featured i n 47.52% of the photographs, males i n 19.73% and both female and male i n 32.75%. She a l s o found t h a t photographs "appeared t o present females as l i m i t e d t o home and f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and males as l i m i t e d t o a c t i v i t i e s o u tside the home and i n occupational and community-oriented a c t i v i t i e s " (Weis, 1979, p.155). W i l l i g e r (1983) found females were featured i n 40.08% of the p i c t u r e s i n the books she examined, males were feat u r e d i n 29.75% and 30.27% portrayed both females and males. This showed an increase i n the p o r t r a y a l of males. W i l l i g e r (1983) recommended f u t u r e s t u d i e s look not only at r o l e environments, but a l s o at the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of females and males. P i c t u r e s should show a v a r i e t y of occupations, a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s open t o both men and women (Storey, 1979-80). Blankenship (1984) suggests a 44 separate l i s t i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . This might r e v e a l , f o r example, t h a t even when males are p i c t u r e d indoors, they may s t i l l p o r t r a y t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . The B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education (1983) suggests r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and between the sexes should a l s o be examined. Blankenship (1984) advises a l s o l o o k i n g at textbook cartoons t o see how women are portrayed. Because there i s now concern about the r o l e of men i n the reprod u c t i v e sphere, home economics educators should be s e n s i t i v e t o how both women and men are portrayed i n cartoons. Highlighted Sections Blankenship (1984) suggested using frequency t a b u l a t i o n s of the f e a t u r i n g of women and men i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . Feminist research suggests t h a t i n c l u d i n g women i s not enough and t h a t how they are inc l u d e d must be considered as w e l l . Because home economics textbooks have t r a d i t i o n a l l y focused on women, i t i s important t o check f o r i n c l u s i o n of women and men and t o note how each i s in c l u d e d . Content Recognizing gender b i a s and e l i m i n a t i n g i t from the content i s d i f f i c u l t . Canadian educators are aware of the need t o remove stereotypes from books (Marsden, 1979-80; Storey 1979-80). Un f o r t u n a t e l y , even though e q u a l i t y between the sexes i s favored by Canadian educators, there i s d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g and d e s c r i b i n g what t h i s means (Marsden, 1979-80) and t r a n s l a t i n g i t i n t o any s p e c i f i c arrangement (Ayim, 1986). 45 In her study of home economics textbooks, Weis (1979) examined r o l e behaviors evident i n the t e x t . F i v e p s y c h o s o c i a l r o l e s were used i n the a n a l y s i s : a f f i l i a t i o n , intimacy, g e n e r a t i v i t y , nurturance and autonomy (Weis, 1979, p.151). Judgements were made regarding the category of r o l e behavior i n d i c a t e d ; whether the behavior was e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d or i m p l i e d by the content and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and i f the behavior was f o r males, f o r females or was a gender n e u t r a l statement. Most r o l e statements i n each category were n e u t r a l i n gender o r i e n t a t i o n . Females r e c e i v e d more d i r e c t i o n regarding r o l e behaviors than d i d males. A f f i l i a t i o n and g e n e r a t i v i t y were l e s s emphasized and were d i r e c t e d e q u a l l y t o both sexes. Intimacy, nurturance and autonomy were emphasized and d i r e c t e d t o females more o f t e n than t o males. Nurturance was not d i r e c t e d t o males at a l l except i n gender n e u t r a l terms. Weis (1979) suggests the low emphasis on g e n e r a t i v i t y i n home economics textbooks i n d i c a t e s a problem i n present i n g the work of the home and f a m i l y as l e g i t i m a t e and valued occupation, f u l l y c h a l l e n g i n g the c r e a t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y of both sexes. Females were more e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d i n r o l e behaviors than males and the r o l e s they were e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d toward were t r a d i t i o n a l f o r females. Weis (1979) suggests t h a t authors and e d i t o r s should r i g o r o u s l y s t r i v e t o i n s u r e t h a t the textbooks encourage a f u l l d i v e r s i t y of psyc h o s o c i a l r o l e development f o r both sexes (Weis, 1979). The M i n i s t r y of Education (1983) suggests checking a 46 textbook f o r r o l e p o r t r a y a l of the sexes and f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and between the sexes. Marsden (1979-80) suggests there should be concern not j u s t w i t h o l d stereotypes but w i t h new ones being created. She s t a t e s : Changing the boundaries of gender i d e n t i t y and g e t t i n g r i d of stereotypes i m p l i e s t h a t we know where we are going. O f f i c i a l l y , we are moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of making the opportunity s t r u c t u r e equal f o r women and men i n our s o c i e t y . But the d i r e c t i o n has not been worked out. We are s t i l l i n the middle of r a d i c a l s o c i a l change, (p.23) Schau (1985) des c r i b e s m a t e r i a l s as s e x - r o l e reversed when each sex e x h i b i t s t r a i t s and behaviors t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the opposite sex. Sex f a i r m a t e r i a l s show females and males i n t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . Sex a f f i r m a t i v e m a t e r i a l s emphasize r o l e r e v e r s a l but e x p l a i n b e n e f i t s and problems, i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . In order t o be sex e q u i t a b l e , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s must be both sex f a i r and sex a f f i r m a t i v e (Schau, 1985) . Blankenship (1984) suggests s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks which do not i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of women's iss u e s are s e x i s t . He s t a t e s women's iss u e s should be in c l u d e d i n a su b s t a n t i v e , r a t h e r than token, way. Determining t h i s r e q u i r e s an examination of content. In the A n a l y s i s of Learning Resources (1983), the M i n i s t r y of Education draws a t t e n t i o n t o the need t o check f o r one-sided treatments of t o p i c s or i s s u e s . This approach may be too s i m p l i s t i c f o r t h i s study, however, because E i c h l e r (1987) suggests f e m i n i s t research can take two forms: 47 woman centered and non-se x i s t . A gender s e n s i t i v e textbook may at times r e q u i r e a one-sided approach (woman centered or man centered), but t h i s should be e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d . Most of the research on textbooks has focused on ac h i e v i n g sex balance ( i n c l u s i o n of women and men) as w e l l as r e v e a l i n g and e l i m i n a t i n g s e x i s t language and sex stereotyped images and r o l e s . The review of f e m i n i s t research suggests t h a t c u r r e n t l y accepted methods f o r d e t e c t i n g b i a s i n textbooks may e l i m i n a t e b l a t a n t sexism but may not adequately deal w i t h s u b t l e gender b i a s or promote gender e q u i t y . Current f e m i n i s t thought i n s i s t s on the tran s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge t o e q u i t a b l y i n c l u d e the concerns of women and men and on the tran s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i e t y t o a more e q u i t a b l e one not based on the p a t r i a r c h a l h i e r a r c h y . None of the previous analyses of textbooks were h e l p f u l i n developing techniques f o r a n a l y z i n g knowledge or r e c o g n i z i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . The f e m i n i s t concepts of gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance r e l a t e t o the tran s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance are more d i f f i c u l t t o address than language and s t e r e o t y p i n g . No textbook research e x p l o r i n g the concepts of gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance was found. Although not p r e v i o u s l y a p p l i e d i n analyses of gender b i a s , t h i s study w i l l apply these concepts t o the a n a l y s i s of home economics textbooks. 48 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This study i n v e s t i g a t e s how home economics textbooks are changing t o overcome e a r l i e r types of gender b i a s (Weis, 1979; W i l l i g e r , 1983). Some of the suggestions from previous g u i d e l i n e s f o r textbook a n a l y s i s are u t i l i z e d but the examination goes beyond the surface f e a t u r e s of the t e x t . I t explores whether s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of females and males are r e i n f o r c e d . I t examines whether gender balance and gender s e n s i t i v i t y have been achieved i n the values and p e r s p e c t i v e s conveyed and whether the textbooks c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y . The research questions upon which i t w i l l focus are: 1. To whom i s the textbook e x p l i c i t l y and implicitly addressed? i . Who i s the intended audience of the textbook? i i . Are female or male images portrayed ? i i i . Is the knowledge expressed from a female or male perspective? 2. What characteristics of learners are assumed by the textbook? i . Are learners expected to accept the textbook knowledge as presented? i i . Are learners encouraged to question social arrangements or analyze social problems? i i i . Are learners encouraged to question and challenge the 49 textbook? 3. In what way does the textbook deal with gender bias? Is i t biased or i s i t neutral, balanced, or sensitive? i . Is the language sexist or are inclusive and sex specific language used appropriately? i i . Are both female and male images and issues included equitably? Does the textbook reinforce the valuing system which gives more emphasis and importance to traditional male characteristics and roles than to traditional female characteristics and roles? i i i . Are stereotypical roles and relationships and the dual work role of women reinforced? i v . What does the textbook say about female and male socialization and research on sex and gender differences? v. What position i s taken on equity issues and the women's movement? The Sample Lists of recommended, authorized or approved textbooks were obtained from provincial Departments and Ministries of Education across Canada. The sample was limited to home economics textbooks with a family or relationship focus. Textbooks which apply only to a specific area of home economics, such as foods and nutrition, clothing and textiles, housing, consumer education or child care, and books published before 1980 were not considered. Because the 50 purpose of t h i s study i s t o analyze textbooks i n d e t a i l , f o c u s i n g on the nature of the changes i n home economics t e x t s , r a t h e r than t o develop a comprehensive review of the s t a t e of gender b i a s i n c u r r e n t t e x t s , a sample" of only three textbooks was chosen. The t i t l e s chosen f o r c a r e f u l examination of the textbook, the teacher's guide and the student a c t i v i t i e s were: Family L i v i n g , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , and People i n S o c i e t y . Family L i v i n g (1985, Second E d i t i o n ) was w r i t t e n by Caro l Leavenworth, Gay Hendricks, Kathlyn Gay, Lynda C. Harriman and Marlene M i l l e r K r e i n i n and published i n the United States by P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Family L i v i n g i s l i s t e d f o r s e n i o r home economics courses by Departments or M i n i s t r i e s of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Manitoba, and Newfoundland and Labrador. This textbook was chosen because of my personal i n t e r e s t and experience i n home economics education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Teacher's Guide which accompanies the textbook was w r i t t e n by Kathlyn Gay and published i n 1985 by P r e n t i c e - H a l l . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g (1985, Canadian e d i t i o n ) i s a Canadian adaptation of an American textbook w r i t t e n by Josephine A. Fos t e r , M. J a n i c e Hogan, B e t t i e M. Herring and Audrey G. Gies e k i n g - W i l l i a m s , and published by C o l l i e r Macmillan Canada. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s l i s t e d f o r j u n i o r (grade 7-9) home economics courses by Departments or M i n i s t r i e s of Education i n A l b e r t a , Newfoundland and Labrador, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , Quebec, Manitoba, Ontario, and Nova S c o t i a . This textbook was 51 chosen because i t i s the textbook most f r e q u e n t l y l i s t e d by p r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education. I t i s author i z e d or approved f o r use i n seven of the ten Canadian provinces. The accompanying Teacher's Resource Book was w r i t t e n by Jeanette Weber and published i n 1986 by C o l l i e r Macmillan Canada. People i n So c i e t y (1988) i s a Canadian textbook w r i t t e n by Kenneth J . Hanson and Eleanor Gower and published by H o l t , Rinehart and Winston of Canada. I t i s l i s t e d i n Ontario's C i r c u l a r 14B f o r use i n H i s t o r y and Contemporary Studies. Because the content of the textbook f i t s so c l o s e l y w i t h the cu r r i c u l u m f o r Family Management 11 and 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s being used as a reference by home economics teachers i n the Surrey School D i s t r i c t and i s being considered f o r student use; I t i s a l s o being evaluated f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n as a home economics textbook by the Nova S c o t i a Department of Education. People i n S o c i e t y was chosen because i t i s a recent Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n and because i t i s being considered f o r use i n the teaching of home economics courses i n at l e a s t two provinces even though i t i s not p r e s e n t l y a home economics textbook. The Teacher Resource Book which accompanies the textbook was w r i t t e n by Ken Hanson and Eleanor Gower and was published i n 1988 by H o l t , Rinehart and Winston of Canada. The Method A review of l i t e r a t u r e on analyses of textbooks f o r gender b i a s showed considerable v a r i a t i o n i n the p a r t s of the textbook examined; Other researchers i n d i c a t e d t h a t gender 52 b i a s could be detected i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the books, t h e r e f o r e t h i s study examined s e v e r a l p a r t s of the textbooks. This technique was chosen i n order t o determine i f b i a s could be c o n s i s t e n t l y detected i n a l l p a r t s of the book and t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y i n the o v e r a l l judgement about the book. The preface, index and the t a b l e of contents and photographs are r e l a t i v e l y easy t o examine f o r b l a t a n t gender b i a s and the e m p i r i c a l data r e s u l t i n g from such an examination may be e a s i l y understood. However, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n does not r e v e a l whether the knowledge contained i n the t e x t i s gender s e n s i t i v e or gender balanced. Because f e m i n i s t educators c l a i m the need f o r a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge, t h i s study a l s o focused on the content and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . No research was a v a i l a b l e on the d e t e c t i o n of b i a s i n the content of textbooks and t h e r e f o r e a procedure was developed f o r t h i s study. The i n t e p r e t a t i o n of content i n the t e x t s i s more su b j e c t t o researcher b i a s . My judgements have been guided by an understanding of f e m i n i s t theory and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on comparisons of the three textbooks examined. The Procedure A n a l y s i s of the three textbooks was c a r r i e d out on s e v e r a l p a r t s of the books. The p a r t s of the textbooks examined and the i n f o r m a t i o n sought through t h e i r examination were as f o l l o w s : 53 1. Preface The preface of each textbook was read c a r e f u l l y t o determine: a) the intended audience. b) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r s assumed by the textbook. c) the p o s i t i o n taken on e q u i t y i s s u e s . 2. Table of Contents The t a b l e of contents was s t u d i e d f o r evidence of gender b i a s i n language and concepts. Topics r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y and the women's movement were l i s t e d and counted. 3. Index The index was examined f o r evidence of gender b i a s i n language and concepts and f o r i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The r e l e v a n t t o p i c s were l i s t e d f o r the three textbooks so t h a t comparison was p o s s i b l e . 4. Photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s A l l photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the books were examined c a r e f u l l y t o determine: a) the intended audience. b) i f female or male images are portrayed. c) i f women's t r a d i t i o n a l work r o l e s (home maintenance and c h i l d care) are represented or i f more emphasis and importance i s given t o t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s . d) i f s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the dual work r o l e of women are r e i n f o r c e d . Weis (1979) c l a s s i f i e d photographs which i n c l u d e d both 54 females and males as n e u t r a l . This approach assumes t h a t a l l we need t o achieve i s balance i n numbers of females and males presented i n textbooks. W i l l i g e r (1983) suggested a need t o consider r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l . Balance To determine i f the books address both females and males and show a balance i n the number of female and male images, the f o l l o w i n g procedures were used: a) A l l dominant people i n the photographs were counted and c l a s s i f i e d as " a d u l t " , i n c l u d i n g young a d u l t s and the e l d e r l y , or as " c h i l d r e n " , i n c l u d i n g babies and adolescents. Each person was f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as female or male. For Family L i v i n g , a l l photographs from the f r o n t cover t o the back cover were analyzed except f o r those which accompanied the t a b l e of contents s i n c e a l l of these were in c l u d e d again i n the t e x t . Some c h i l d r e n (17) were l e f t u n c l a s s i f i e d ("other") s i n c e pink c l o t h i n g alone was not taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of femaleness and blue c l o t h i n g alone was not taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of maleness. The c l o t h i n g and h a i r s t y l e s of most c h i l d r e n made c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sex p o s s i b l e . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does not featu r e people on the book t i t l e pages or i n the t a b l e of contents and the one small photograph of people on the cover was disregarded. A l l photographs w i t h i n the textbook were analyzed. Many c h i l d r e n (27) were l e f t u n c l a s s i f i e d because the use of winter c l o t h i n g makes c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sex very d i f f i c u l t . In 55 C r e a t i v e L i v i n g there are many photographs i n which only the hands show. These were not counted unless the hands were very ob v i o u s l y male ( h a i r y arms) or female (long n a i l s ) . I t was sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between a d u l t s and adolescents. In each case a judgement about the age grouping was made, c o n s i d e r i n g the environment, a c t i v i t y , and comments accompanying the photograph. Photographs which d i d not in c l u d e people were disregarded. In People i n S o c i e t y , a l l photographs except the two on the f r o n t and back covers are i n black and white or i n black and white w i t h a p u r p l i s h tone. These tend t o catch the a t t e n t i o n somewhat l e s s than the co l o u r photos of the other textbooks. There are no photographs on cover pages or u n i t t i t l e pages. The r e s u l t i s t o make the photographs appear t o be p a r t of the t e x t r a t h e r than as deco r a t i o n or i n t e r e s t enhancers ( m o t i v a t o r s ) . The Preface of the textbook s t a t e s t h a t "Photographs ... are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of People i n So c i e t y " (Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p . v i i ) and the Teacher Resource Book s t a t e s t h a t " V i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n the form of photographs ... i s used f r e q u e n t l y t o help develop a t o p i c " (Hanson and Gower, 1988b, p.10). A l l photographs w i t h i n the t e x t were analyzed. The one small photograph of people on the cover was disregarded as were some photographs of l a r g e groups (eg. Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p.49). In other photographs (eg. p.157) only people i n the foreground were counted and i n one photograph (p.140) only the two most important i n d i v i d u a l s were counted because 56 the photograph was so s m a l l . The c l o t h i n g and h a i r s t y l e s of most c h i l d r e n made c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sex p o s s i b l e but the "other" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d f o r some a d u l t s and some c h i l d r e n . b) The " c h i l d r e n " category was recounted and r e c l a s s i f i e d as "adolescents" and "young c h i l d r e n " t o determine how many adolescents of each sex were p i c t u r e d . This was done because the books intend t o address adolescents. c) The adolescents were recounted and r e c l a s s i f i e d as white or non-white. This was done because the absence of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of non-white adolescents was noted i n Family L i v i n g . This procedure was repeated w i t h C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y . d) Photographs of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s were examined and c l a s s i f i e d by age group, sex, behavior and a c t i v i t y and then by s i z e of photograph ( f u l l page and s m a l l e r than f u l l page). Roles and Relationships To determine the p o r t r a y a l of r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the work done i n the home, the f o l l o w i n g procedures were fo l l o w e d : a) Photographs were analyzed by l o c a t i o n , a c t i v i t i e s portrayed and sex of the i n d i v i d u a l s f e atured. This was done only i f the sex of the i n d i v i d u a l or at l e a s t one of the i n d i v i d u a l s could be determined. In Family L i v i n g , t o avoid i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c photographs more than once, only photographs on u n i t t i t l e pages and w i t h i n chapters were analyzed by l o c a t i o n . 57 Photographs on the book t i t l e pages and the t a b l e of contents were disregarded because they were repeated i n the body of the book. The photographs on the covers of a l l three books were a l s o disregarded. People i n S o c i e t y contains many head and shoulders s t y l e , posed photographs of s p e c i f i c , named i n d i v i d u a l s . Since these photographs could not be analyzed by l o c a t i o n , behavior or a c t i v i t y i n the photograph i t s e l f , the accompanying comments were read so t h a t the photographs could be c l a s s i f i e d . Most photographs of t h i s type were c l a s s i f i e d by the occupation or a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l f e atured. T h i r t y s i x of the n i n e t y two photographs analyzed were of named people. b) In order t o more f u l l y understand the p o r t r a y a l of the work done i n the home, photographs which had been c l a s s i f i e d as l o c a t e d i n the home were f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d according t o the type of behavior or a c t i v i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d . Very few of the photographs i n People i n So c i e t y could be c l a s s i f i e d as l o c a t e d at home and those which could be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s way could r a r e l y be c l a s s i f i e d by the type of a c t i v i t y or behavior shown. c) In order t o understand the p o r t r a y a l of female and male r e l a t i o n s h i p s , photographs which in c l u d e d at l e a s t one adolescent or a d u l t of each sex were c l a s s i f i e d by the a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s portrayed. The three c a t e g o r i e s used were: no dominance apparent, male dominance and female dominance. 58 5. H i g h l i g h t e d Sections H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of the textbooks were examined se p a r a t e l y from the content of the textbook. This was done t o explore whether women or men are i s o l a t e d from the t e x t i n a way t h a t makes them appear t o be not pa r t of the mainstream. I n t e g r a t i o n of female and male concerns r a t h e r than i s o l a t i o n i s a f e m i n i s t g o a l . Examination of the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s was done i n order t o determine: a) the intended audience. b) i f the knowledge i s expressed from a female or male p e r s p e c t i v e . c) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s assumed by the t e x t . d) the way i n which the textbook deals w i t h gender b i a s . In Family L i v i n g the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s take the form of both "Features" and "Figures" which are s e t apart from the t e x t by coloured boxes. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a l s o r e f e r s t o h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s as " f e a t u r e s " and uses the technique of coloured boxes. People i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s "Figures". Some of them are i n l i n e d boxes and others are i n shaded boxes which s e t them apart from the r e s t of the t e x t . Those f i g u r e s which were not s e t apart from the t e x t i n some way were not considered t o be h i g h l i g h t e d but were considered t o be p a r t of the content. The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were read and quotations were noted which i n d i c a t e d the p o s i t i o n of the t e x t on questions r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The s t y l e of language and who was being addressed were a l s o noted when b i a s was evident and 59 when there was an attempt t o be non-sexist. 6. Content The t e x t , student a c t i v i t i e s and teacher resource books were examined i n order t o determine from t h e i r content: a) the intended audience. b) i f the knowledge i s expressed from a female or male p e r s p e c t i v e . c) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r s assumed by the t e x t . d) the way i n which the textbook deals w i t h gender b i a s . The procedure f o r examination of the content was t o read each chapter and the accompanying student a c t i v i t i e s very c a r e f u l l y . Each of the textbooks and i t s teacher resource book was read at l e a s t t w ice n o t i n g quotations i n d i c a t i n g the p o s i t i o n taken on v a r i o u s questions r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . Form of content and language were considered along w i t h the t o p i c s of women's i s s u e s , work r o l e s , c h i l d c are, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a n a l y s i s of content began wi t h Family L i v i n g , proceeded t o C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , then t o People i n S o c i e t y . When d i f f e r e n c e s or s i m i l a r i t i e s were detected, s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n s were read over again i n order t o confirm the i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . When a n a l y z i n g how each t e x t d e a l t w i t h an iss u e of importance t o gender e q u i t y , the appropriate s e c t i o n s of the three t e x t s were reread t o compare or c o n t r a s t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t o p i c . The importance of examining three textbooks was e s t a b l i s h e d as commonalities i n addressing gender b i a s emerged. Although commonalities were 60 noted, d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o found. Comparison of the d i f f e r e n c e s made i t p o s s i b l e t o assess the r e l a t i v e usefulness of a v a r i e t y of attempts t o e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s . Examination of three t e x t s confirmed the v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s . Previous analyses of textbooks f o r gender b i a s have not focused on the knowledge contained w i t h i n the content of the t e x t . This research adapted e a r l i e r work, l o o k i n g f o r problems t o do w i t h language, i n c l u s i o n of females and males, and s t e r e o t y p i n g . These procedures are f a i r l y easy and probably are appropriate f o r determining i f textbooks p o r t r a y a " s e x - f a i r r e a l i t y " (Schau, 1985) but not f o r d e t e c t i n g a gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced r e a l i t y . I t was only through d e t a i l e d examination of the content t h a t I began t o get a sense of understanding about how these textbooks f i t w i t h c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t thought. The i n f o r m a t i o n presented became problematic. What i s being taught about s o c i e t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , whose per s p e c t i v e i s being taught or whose i n t e r e s t i s being served, and how the students are expected t o l e a r n the in f o r m a t i o n became important concerns. 61 Chapter 4 FINDINGS Each of the three home economics textbooks i n t h i s study was analyzed according t o the s i x p a r t s of the books as described i n the previous chapter: preface, t a b l e of contents, index, photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content. Preface The preface was read t o determine the intended audience, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r s assumed by the textbooks, and whether there was an i n t e n t t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The prefaces of both Family L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y are n o n - s p e c i f i c about the audience they address. The f o l l o w i n g quotations r e v e a l t h i s l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y : "This textbook i s designed t o acquaint you w i t h the f u l l scope of f a m i l y l i v i n g , e n r i c h i n g your awareness and d e f i n i n g your s k i l l s as an i n d i v i d u a l , as a f a m i l y member, and as a parent of tomorrow" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.10) and "We hope t h i s t e x t w i l l help you develop a g r e a t e r understanding of y o u r s e l f and the world i n which you l i v e " (Hanson and Gower, 1988a, p . v i i ) . Since there i s no mention of female or male students, i m p l i c i t l y the books are intended t o address a l l students e q u a l l y . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g contains no preface but the preface t o the Teacher's Resource Book s t a t e s the e x p l i c i t p o s i t i o n of 62 the book: " I t i s w r i t t e n f o r both males and females and i s f r e e of ... sexual ... s t e r e o t y p i n g " (Weber, 1985, p.7). This makes c l e a r i t s i n t e n t i o n t o i n c l u d e males i n a course which has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i r e c t e d t o females. I m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y a l l three textbooks address an audience of females and males. The second concern i n the examination of the prefaces was the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r s assumed by each of the books. Both C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and Family L i v i n g assume t h a t the students w i l l be p a s s i v e l y l e a r n i n g the knowledge contained w i t h i n the textbook. Family L i v i n g s t a t e s "... questions and statements ... w i l l help you determine how w e l l you have mastered the chapter contents" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.11). People i n S o c i e t y i s the only textbook which e x p l i c i t l y acknowledges the students as knowledgeable i n d i v i d u a l s who are capable of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s . The preface s t a t e s the preview questions r e v e a l "how much you already know" and the a c t i v i t i e s t e s t "your a b i l i t y t o apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s " (Hanson and Gower, 1988, p . v i i ) . The f i n a l concern i n the examination of the preface was to determine any i n t e n t t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The stance on gender i s s u e s which these textbooks take i s not e x p l i c i t i n the preface. Family L i v i n g g ives the c l e a r e s t impression of beginning t o address problems r e l a t e d t o the p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e i n the home by s t a t i n g : "In dual-earner f a m i l i e s , parents must meet the o b l i g a t i o n s of t h e i r jobs and 63 i n a d d i t i o n must manage the home, arrange f o r c h i l d care, f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s as parents ..." (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.10). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s not as e x p l i c i t but gi v e s a s i m i l a r impression by c l a i m i n g t o r e f l e c t the "changing nature of s o c i e t y and the contemporary l i f e s t y l e s " (Weber, 1985, p. 6) and suggests t h a t students w i l l "examine t h e i r r o l e options and plan f o r the f u t u r e world of work and f a m i l y " (p.6). The preface of People i n S o c i e t y a l s o does not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e an i n t e n t t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . I t does, however, suggest students w i l l be asked t o apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s and examine c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l i s s u e s , one of which i s day-care. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t each of the three t e x t s may i n some way address gender i s s u e s i s i m p l i e d but not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n the preface of each book. Table of Contents The t a b l e of contents i n each of the three textbooks was examined f o r evidence of sexism i n language and concepts and f o r i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y or the women's movement. Sexism i n language and concepts was not evident i n any of the books. People i n S o c i e t y l i s t s two t o p i c s (wife abuse and surrogate motherhood) i n a sex s p e c i f i c way. Other t i t l e s of u n i t s , chapters, and s e c t i o n s i n a l l the textbooks are very general and i n c l u s i v e . For example, "spouse abuse" and " s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s " appear i n Family L i v i n g and the "challenge of parenthood" i s i n Cr e a t i v e L i v i n g . I n c l u s i v e language i s used throughout 64 the t a b l e s of content and, although t h i s conveys no sexism, i t may be gender b l i n d . On the other hand, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e f o r t o p i c s t o be l i s t e d i n an i n c l u s i v e way and presented i n a gender s e n s i t i v e way. Only ah examination of the content w i l l r e v e a l b i a s or s e n s i t i v i t y and balance. The textbooks d i d d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . The t a b l e of contents of C r e a t i v e L i v i n g l i s t s the fewest t o p i c s which might address gender equ i t y i s s u e s . The textbook appears very n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l . The t o p i c s which have the p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g e q u i t y i s s u e s are: R e l a t i o n s h i p s and You Stereotypes and P r e j u d i c e Dating and Love C h i l d r e n and You: Rewards of Caregiving S k i l l s f o r Parenting Caring f o r Shared Space. The t a b l e of contents of Family L i v i n g a l s o i n c l u d e s t o p i c s w i t h a p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . They are: Roles: Roles and R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Sex Roles Loving R e l a t i o n s h i p : E q u a l i t y A s s i g n i n g Tasks and Roles: Role Perceptions and E f f e c t s of Role Perceptions A d j u s t i n g t o I n f a n t Care: Shared Parenting Divorce: E f f e c t s on A d u l t s Other Family P a t t e r n s : S i n g l e Parent F a m i l i e s and S t e p f a m i l i e s Family V i o l e n c e : Spouse Abuse, C h i l d Abuse and Reasons f o r Family V i o l e n c e Of the three textbooks examined, People i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s the most t o p i c s having the p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g e q u i t y i s s u e s . Twenty three t o p i c s were i d e n t i f i e d : Heredity and Environment - The Nature-Nurture Debate S o c i a l i z a t i o n 65 P r e j u d i c e and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n P e r s o n a l i t y (Freud, E r i k s o n , Maslow) Agents of S o c i a l i z a t i o n Child-Care centres Agents of Adolescent S o c i a l i z a t i o n S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Sex r o l e Stereotyping Forms of Marriage (Polygamy, Monogamy) Other L i v i n g Arrangements (Singlehood, Cohabitation) Mate S e l e c t i o n (Arranged Marriages, Dowry and B r i d e p r i c e , Marrying f o r Love, Dating) Marriage Contracts C o n f l i c t i n Marriage Wife Abuse Changing Roles i n Marriage The Family as a S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n (Functions of the Family) C h i l d Abuse Divorce and the Family Emerging Forms of the Family ( S i n g l e Parent F a m i l i e s , F a m i l i e s through Remarriage) New Forms of Parenting ( A r t i f i c i a l Insemination, Surrogate Motherhood) Poverty and the E l d e r l y Retirement - A Time of Adjustment S u i c i d e - Adolescents: A High Risk Group None of the textbooks i n c l u d e the women's movement as a t o p i c . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and Family L i v i n g have the p o t e n t i a l f o r addressing some i s s u e s of gender e q u i t y . People i n S o c i e t y has the p o t e n t i a l f o r addressing many important i s s u e s . An examination of the content can determine i f these t o p i c s are addressed i n a gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced way. Index The index of each of the three textbooks was examined f o r evidence of sexism i n language and concepts and f o r the i n c l u s i o n of t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y and the women's movement. The language of the indexes revealed attempts t o use i n c l u s i v e language i n a l l three t e x t s . For example, " c a r e g i v i n g " i s l i s t e d i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , " c a r e g i v e r s " i n 66 People i n S o c i e t y and "parenting" i n Family L i v i n g . No s e x i s t language was evident although there was oc c a s i o n a l use of s e x - s p e c i f i c language which i n d i c a t e d a la c k of gender balance i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of some t o p i c s . Some of the concepts l i s t e d i n the index of Family L i v i n g r e f e r t o the changing r o l e of males but not the changing r o l e of females. "Shared p a r e n t i n g " , " j o i n t custody", and " s t e p f a t h e r i n g " (but not stepmothering) are examples. One male concept ( p a t e r n i t y leave) i s l i s t e d i n People,in S o c i e t y but i t s female e q u i v a l e n t (maternity leave) i s not. Each t e x t i n c l u d e s some t o p i c s which may address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The development of gender through s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s an important t o p i c i n c o n s i d e r i n g gender e q u i t y . Each of the textbooks i n c l u d e d concepts r e l a t e d t o sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Family L i v i n g l i s t s "sex r o l e s " , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g l i s t s " stereotypes", and People i n S o c i e t y l i s t s "sex r o l e development". Of the t o p i c s l i s t e d i n the index of C r e a t i v e L i v i n g only 19 were i d e n t i f i e d as having the p o t e n t i a l t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s (Appendix A, Table 1). That i s h a l f the number of t o p i c s i d e n t i f i e d i n Family L i v i n g (38) and l e s s than h a l f of the number i n People i n S o c i e t y (41). Perhaps because i t i s w r i t t e n f o r a younger audience than the other two books, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g c o ntains more t r a d i t i o n a l home economics t o p i c s such as "appearance", "grooming", " b a b y s i t t i n g " and "home maintenance". At the same time, i t 67 contains fewer s e n s i t i v e or c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s . S p e c i f i c s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s such as spouse and c h i l d abuse and d i v o r c e may be subsumed under a t o p i c such as " f a m i l y problems". The t o p i c of s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s not l i s t e d but may be inc l u d e d under the t o p i c , "types of f a m i l i e s " . The indexes of Family L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y i n d i c a t e t h a t e q u i t y i s s u e s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n the textbooks. Topics such as "dual-earner f a m i l y " , " e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , " f a m i l y v i o l e n c e " , " f l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , " r o l e s and expe c t a t i o n s " , " s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s " and " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " a l l appear i n the index of Family L i v i n g . " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n " , " s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s " , "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms", "marriage, changing r o l e o f " , and "abuse, spousal" are a l l t o p i c s l i s t e d i n the index of People i n S o c i e t y . Some of the t o p i c s i n c l u d e d i n the index of People i n So c i e t y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s textbook may be more s e n s i t i v e t o the i s s u e s of gender than the other two textbooks. For example, " d i v o r c e , and f a t h e r " i s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y from " d i v o r c e , and mother" and both "men" and "women" appear i n the index. Examination of the indexes i n d i c a t e d t h a t the three textbooks attempt t o avoid gender b i a s by using i n c l u s i v e language. Occasional use of sex s p e c i f i c language (eg. " f a t h e r i n g " not "mothering" i n Family L i v i n g ) suggests a male pe r s p e c t i v e may be emphasized. The t e x t s i n c l u d e some concepts, such as sex r o l e development, which may or may not 68 be biased, depending on the treatment w i t h i n the t e x t . Each textbook i n c l u d e s some t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y w i t h C r e a t i v e L i v i n g having the fewest, w h i l e People i n S o c i e t y has the most. None of the textbooks have e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d t o p i c s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the women's movement. Again, the t o p i c s i n c l u d e d have the p o t e n t i a l t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s but only an examination of the content w i l l determine i f the t o p i c s are presented i n a gender balanced and gender s e n s i t i v e way. Photographs and I l l u s t r a t i o n s This a n a l y s i s of photographs examines the balance of female and male images portrayed i n v a r i o u s age groups and considers whether they appear alone or i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h oth e r s . This s e c t i o n a l s o examines the photographs t o determine i f s t e r e o t y p i n g and the dual work r o l e f o r women are r e i n f o r c e d . I t a l s o considers the r e l a t i v e v a l u i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l female and male r o l e s . This i s done through examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the home, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t r a d i t i o n a l and non- t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the p o r t r a y a l of dominance and a c t i v i t y i n the photographs. Female-male Balance One of the ways textbooks may counter sexism i s through s t r i v i n g f o r an o v e r a l l balance i n the number of females and males i n the photographs. The a n a l y s i s of photographs reported i n Table I shows t h a t Family L i v i n g has an o v e r a l l 69 sex balance w i t h females making up 46.8% of the people portrayed i n the book and males, 48.4%. Females make up 40% of the people portrayed i n People i n So c i e t y and males, 51%. Females make up 50% of the people portrayed i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and males, 40.5% (Appendix A, Tables 2-4). When a d u l t s were considered s e p a r a t e l y from c h i l d r e n a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e emerged. In Family L i v i n g , which had an o v e r a l l sex balance, there are more a d u l t females (53.09%) than a d u l t males (46.91%). A c l o s e look r e v e a l s t h a t the preponderance of females over males (11) i s accounted f o r i n two chapters, "Having a Baby" and "Growing and Learning", the chapter on e a r l y c h i l d development (Appendix A, Table 1). People i n S o c i e t y , which has a s l i g h t preponderence of males o v e r a l l , f e a t u r e s more a d u l t females (52.29%) than a d u l t males (47.71 % ) . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which has a s l i g h t preponderance of females o v e r a l l a l s o f e a t u r e s more a d u l t females (51.67%) than a d u l t males (48.33%). The photographs i n a l l three textbooks f e a t u r e more a d u l t females than a d u l t males (Appendix A, Table 5). Another p i c t u r e emerged when only c h i l d r e n were considered. Both Family L i v i n g and People i n So c i e t y f e a t u r e more male c h i l d r e n than female c h i l d r e n . Family L i v i n g which has the best o v e r a l l sex balance i n c l u d e s 56.25% male c h i l d r e n and 43.75% female c h i l d r e n . People i n S o c i e t y , which has a s l i g h t preponderence of males o v e r a l l has twice as many 70 Table I Summary of Numbers of Females and Hales i n Photographs Sex/Age Group Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n Soc i e t y A d u l t s : Males 91 58 73 Females 103 62 80 T o t a l 194 120 153 C h i l d r e n : Males 81 92 52 Females 63 124 27 T o t a l 144 216 79 T o t a l s : Males 172 150 125 Females 166 186 107 Other 17 34 23 T o t a l number of people 355 370 267 71 male c h i l d r e n (65.82%) as female c h i l d r e n (34.18%). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which has a s l i g h t preponderance of females o v e r a l l i s the only one of the three textbooks which has more female c h i l d r e n (57.41%) than male c h i l d r e n (42.59%). Adolescents Since these textbooks are w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r adolescents, i t i s perhaps most important t h a t there be a balance of female and male adolescents i n the photographs. I t i s here the d i f f e r e n c e between numbers of females and males i s even g r e a t e r i n two of the three t e x t s . Table I I shows t h a t Family L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more adolescent males (60.32%) than adolescent females (39.68%). People i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s three times as many adolescent males (75%) as adolescent females (25%). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more adolescent females (58.33%) than adolescent males (41.67%) (Appendix A, Tables 5-7). Looking more c l o s e l y at where the d i f f e r e n c e occurs r e v e a l s t h a t i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g two t r a d i t i o n a l areas of study i n home economics have more adolescent females than adolescent males. The u n i t on Foods and N u t r i t i o n f e a t u r e s 14 adolescent females arid only 3 adolescent males and the u n i t on C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s f e a t u r e s 20 adolescent females and only 4 adolescent males (Appendix A, Table 6). Both Family L i v i n g and People i n So c i e t y f e a t u r e more adolescent males than adolescent females. The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e occurs i n chapters on i n d i v i d u a l development, "Yourself and Others" i n Family L i v i n g (Appendix A, Table 5) and "Heredity, 72 Table I I Summary of C h i l d r e n Numbers of Female and Male Adolescents and Young Sex/Age Group Family L i y i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n So c i e t y Adolescents: Female Male 25 38 105 75 9 27 T o t a l 63 180 36 Young c h i l d r e n : Female Male 38 43 19 17 18 25 T o t a l 81 36 43 Other c h i l d r e n 17 27 15 T o t a l c h i l d r e n 161 243 94 Table I I I Summary of Number of Adolescents by "Colour" and Sex Sex/Colour Group Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n Soc i e t y Adolescent females: White Non-white 21 4 91 14 9 0 T o t a l 25 105 9 Adolescent males: White Non-white 28 10 67 8 24 3 T o t a l 38 75 27 T o t a l Adolescents: 63 180 36 73 Environment, and the I n d i v i d u a l " and "Adolescence" i i i People i n S o c i e t y (Appendix A, Table 7 ) . Table I I I r e v e a l s t h a t adolescent "women of c o l o u r " are represented even more po o r l y than adolescent women i n gene r a l . A t o t a l of 4 adolescent non-white women appear i n Family L i v i n g compared t o 10 non-white males. Two of those are a c t u a l l y the same g i r l i n the same photo which appears on the back cover as w e l l as on page 90. I f t h i s g i r l were not counted ( s i n c e she appears t o be p o s s i b l y a Mexican-American) i t would leave only two adolescent "women of c o l o u r " i n the e n t i r e book. One of the g i r l s appears t o be of A f r i c a n o r i g i n , the other g i r l ' s r a c i a l o r i g i n i s l e s s c l e a r (p.228). Asi a n and O r i e n t a l adolescents are unrepresented and only one O r i e n t a l f a m i l y i s p i c t u r e d i n Family L i v i n g . Adolescent "women of c o l o u r " are not present i n People i n S o c i e t y . Photographs of f a m i l y groups represent many r a c i a l groups, but none of them shows a non-white adolescent female. Adolescent "women of c o l o u r " f a r e b e t t e r i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g than they do i n e i t h e r Family L i v i n g or People i n S o c i e t y . Once again, t h i s textbook r e v e a l s i t s female emphasis i n photographs. Fourteen (13.33%) of the 105 females are non- white and e i g h t (10.66%) of the 75 males are non-white (Appendix A, Tables 8 - 10). Equal numbers of females and males i s not enough f o r f a i r treatment of the sexes i n photographs. The s i z e of the photographs, the absence of other people i n the photographs, the content of the photographs, and the r a c i a l o r i g i n s of the 74 people portrayed a l l c a r r y w i t h them messages about who the book i s addressing as w e l l as about images, r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Alone or i n R e l a t i o n s h i p Although there i s not a very l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n the t o t a l number of females and males i n the photographs of Family L i v i n g , they have the general e f f e c t of making males v i s i b l e and important w h i l e making females l e s s v i s i b l e and l e s s important than males. This male emphasis i s apparent i n photographs of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s . Of the 17 photographs of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s who co u l d be c l a s s i f i e d by sex, 10 are of a d u l t and adolescent males, 5 of a d u l t or adolescent females and the remaining 2 female c h i l d r e n (Appendix B). The textbook i n c l u d e s two f u l l page p i c t u r e s of s o l i t a r y adolescent males (p.14 and p.342) and two f u l l page photographs of s o l i t a r y a d u l t males (p.222 and p.360) but there are no f u l l page photographs of s o l i t a r y a d u l t or adolescent females. The a d u l t and adolescent males are used to 'decorate' the textbook. The message conveyed by these photographs seems t o be t h a t g i r l s a lready take home economics courses, but i n order t o address the boys i n home economics courses males must be more v i s i b l e than females. A d u l t females are shown alone i n only three photographs. Here they are described by t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s and are unmarried. Only one of the s o l i t a r y males i s c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s way and he i s formerly married. Whereas Family L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a male emphasis i n i t s 75 photographs, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a female emphasis. The female focus i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i s apparent i n the photographs of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s as i t i s i n other photographs (Appendix C). A l l three of the f u l l page photographs i n the book are of females. Two of them are adolescent females and one a pre-adolescent female. In the sma l l e r than f u l l page photographs of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s there are 45 females and 36 males. Of the adolescents, 68.89% are female and only 31.11% are male. Considering only s o l i t a r y a d u l t s , C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x h i b i t s a preponderance of males. 60% of the s o l i t a r y a d u l t s are males and only 40% are females. These photos imply t h a t men e x i s t independently wh i l e a d u l t women e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . U n l i k e Family L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , People i n Soc i e t y f e a t u r e s equal numbers of s o l i t a r y males and s o l i t a r y females. There i s one f u l l page photograph of a s o l i t a r y adolescent male (p.121) and one of a s o l i t a r y e l d e r l y female (p.226). There are 15 males and 15 females i n sm a l l e r than f u l l page photographs of i n d i v i d u a l s (Appendix D). Occupational Roles When occupational r o l e s of females and males are examined i n the photographs, women f r e q u e n t l y appear i n t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s r a t h e r than i n t r a d i t i o n a l male r o l e s or p o s i t i o n s of power and i n f l u e n c e . In Family L i v i n g very few occupational r o l e s are depic t e d i n the photographs and more women (6) than men (4) are d e picted t h i s way (Appendix E). The four males are 76 p s y c h o l o g i s t s and c l e r g y . Four women are shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as h e a l t h care workers. There are two women i n the once n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of TV r e p o r t e r and weather f o r e c a s t e r but the comment beside these photographs p o i n t s out t h a t the women remain s i n g l e because of t h e i r demanding c a r e e r s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , which o v e r a l l p i c t u r e s more females than males, shows tw e n t y - f i v e males i n occupational r o l e s but only twenty-^one females. Of the twenty-one females p i c t u r e d i n occupational r o l e s , four of them are i n r o l e s c a r i n g f o r or r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n or adolescents: teacher, day care worker, school c a f e t e r i a food s e r v i c e , and a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n a t s t r e e t c r o s s i n g (p.157, p.155, p.81 and p.79). The photographs i n the chapter "Careers Helping C h i l d r e n " show only women. In the e n t i r e textbook, only one of the male occu p a t i o n a l r o l e s , a teacher, (p.63) shows involvement w i t h c h i l d r e n or adolescents. Females i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g are shown i n other t r a d i t i o n a l women's work. Eight women are p i c t u r e d at i n d u s t r i a l sewing machines. The only male who i s p i c t u r e d working i n the c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y i s a buyer. The t r a d i t i o n a l male occ u p a t i o n a l r o l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r r e l a t i n g t o housing and machinery are f i l l e d more o f t e n by males than by females. E i g h t males are shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l male occupations and only two females are shown i n t r a d i t i o n a l male occupations, a welder and a worker i n hard hat (p.78). In People i n S o c i e t y , twenty males are shown i n occup a t i o n a l r o l e s , none of which are n u r t u r i n g r o l e s (Appendix G). Only twelve women are shown i n occupational 77 r o l e s and three of those are n u r t u r i n g , c h i l d b e a r i n g r o l e s (preschool worker, surrogate mother, m i s s i o n a r y ) . Eight males are shown i n p o s i t i o n s of power or i n f l u e n c e : p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ( 5 ) , p o l i t i c i a n s ( 2 ) , Pope ( 1 ) . Only three females are shown i n p o s i t i o n s of power or i n f l u e n c e : p o l i t i c i a n s ( 2 ) , Queen, (1) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the Home Cr e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s , i n i t s photographs and l i n e drawings, f a r more home maintenance and home management a c t i v i t i e s than e i t h e r of the other two textbooks. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows s i x females, but only one male, shopping f o r food. F i v e females, and only one male, shop f o r c l o t h e s . Two females are shown shopping f o r cosmetics and no males are shown shopping f o r personal care products (Appendix F ) . In the home, females are doing more cooking than males. S i x females but only two males are p i c t u r e d cooking. The photographs show other housekeeping tasks s l i g h t l y more evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between females and males: two adolescent males do the laundry and one does the vacuuming wh i l e one adolescent female does the i r o n i n g , two cl e a n the bedroom and two make a bed (Appendix I ) . Family L i v i n g i n c l u d e s s i x home maintenance and home management photographs f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between females and males: a man vacuuming w i t h a young g i r l , a woman cooking w i t h a boy, a man using a blender, a f a m i l y ( a d u l t female and male w i t h c h i l d r e n ) r a k i n g l e a v e s , a man doing home renovation and a woman and c h i l d r e n b u i l d i n g something 78 (Appendix H). Of the photographs which d e p i c t the home environment, People i n S o c i e t y does not i n c l u d e any which show the work i n v o l v e d i n home maintenance or home management (Appendix J ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s An a n a l y s i s of photographs of the home environment i n Family L i v i n g shows f i v e males i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and nine females portrayed i n t h i s r o l e . Women are a l s o p i c t u r e d i n a more "connected" way than men. For example, a woman and 2 g i r l s look at each other w h i l e a man and a boy look a t the food (p.262); a woman and g i r l look at one another, wh i l e a man and a boy look a t a k n i f e (p.315) (Appendix H). The chapter on "Growing and Learning" (Leavenworth, et a l , p.175), about parenting of c h i l d r e n i n the preschool years, show s i x women but no men (Appendix A, Table 2). This has the v i s u a l e f f e c t of g i v i n g the r o l e of s t a y i n g home w i t h young c h i l d r e n t o the mother. Although the comment by one photograph says "Parents w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n f i n d i t e a s i e r to manage i f they plan ahead" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p. 233-emphasis added), the photograph shows a mother w i t h f o u r c h i l d r e n t r y i n g t o get two of them o f f t o sch o o l . In l o c a t i o n s which were not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , three a d u l t females were p i c t u r e d w i t h c h i l d r e n w h i l e only one male was p i c t u r e d w i t h a c h i l d (Appendix E). Some photographs i n Family L i v i n g r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l images of women and men as c a r e g i v e r s . One p i c t u r e i n an u n i d e n t i f i e d environment f i t s i n t o the category 79 of " d i s c i p l i n e " , a f a t h e r reprimands a c h i l d . The p i c t u r e of the female s i n g l e parent comments on the emotional aspect of d i v o r c e . The p i c t u r e of a male s i n g l e parent describes the work and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n being a s i n g l e parent (Appendix E). This d i f f e r e n c e between males and females as c a r e g i v e r s was not observed i n the photographs of e i t h e r of the other two textbooks. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows the l a r g e s t number of photographs which d e p i c t c a r e g i v i n g t o c h i l d r e n . Of the twenty photographs of c h i l d c a r e g i v i n g , only four f e a t u r e a d u l t males and none of them feat u r e adolescent males w i t h c h i l d r e n . The remaining s i x t e e n photographs show a d u l t or adolescent females w i t h c h i l d r e n . In C r e a t i v e L i v i n g the adolescent female r o l e of b a b y s i t t i n g i s r e i n f o r c e d (p.142- 147) by photographs showing two female b a b y s i t t e r s and no males (Appendix F ) . The i n t e n t i o n i s probably not t o i n d i c a t e t h a t b a b y s i t t i n g i s f o r females though, because the l i n e drawings (p.159-166) show three adolescent males i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and only one adolescent female. Other l i n e drawings (p. 161-162), however, r e i n f o r c e the stereotype of the female as the c a r e g i v e r when the hands shown d i a p e r i n g the baby have l a c e around the c u f f of the sleeve i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the person changing the baby i s female. Only two photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y show people i n v o l v e d i n c a r e g i v i n g t asks w i t h c h i l d r e n . A woman i s shown g i v i n g a baby a b o t t l e and a "househusband" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.168) does the same (Appendix G). The photographs, 80 p a r t l y through t h e i r absence, do not r e i n f o r c e the stereotype of females as c a r e g i v e r s t o c h i l d r e n t o the extent t h a t those i n Family L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g do. However, both the l i n e drawings (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.160 and 181) show the woman r a t h e r than the man h o l d i n g the baby. N o n - t r a d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Some photographs serve t o counteract s t e r e o t y p i n g . In Family L i v i n g , three photographs f e a t u r e males i n non- t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s : a man and g i r l d e c o r a t i n g a gingerbread house (p.337), a man and g i r l vacuuming (p.198) and a man using a blender (p.360). One shows a woman doing a woodworking p r o j e c t w i t h a g i r l and a boy. However, when t h i s photograph i s s t u d i e d i t shows the woman as incompetent i n a t r a d i t i o n a l male task. The woman i s p a i n t i n g an u n f i n i s h e d p r o j e c t - the g i r l measures and the boy sands. These three t a s k s are incompatible. I t i s obvious t h a t the photograph was "posed" and inc l u d e d f o r the " e f f e c t " of cou n t e r a c t i n g a stereotype. For anyone who r e a l l y looks at i t , the stereotype of the incompetent female w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d . In C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , one photograph suggests male incompetence i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female task. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s a l s o i s a "posed" photograph. A man's hands are shown c u t t i n g a p a t t e r n which i s placed on f a b r i c . C l o s e r a t t e n t i o n t o the photograph r e v e a l s t h a t the p a t t e r n pieces are not pinned down, he i s beginning t o cut the f a b r i c i n the middle not a t the edge, and the p a t t e r n i s f o r a s k i r t . The s e c t i o n of C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t i t l e d "Be an Entrepreneur" 81 (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.233-234) may be encouraging adolescents t o see themselves i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . The l i n e drawings show a g i r l as a b a b y s i t t e r but a g i r l a l s o washing c a r s , a g i r l and boy gardening, a boy c l e a n i n g , a g i r l a t a computer, and g i r l s and boys i n a band. People i n So c i e t y does not i n c l u d e photographs which appear t o be token e f f o r t s t o encourage n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Few photographs of a c t i v i t y are i n c l u d e d i n the book and the two n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (p.136 and p.169) are not tokens because they i l l u s t r a t e s p e c i f i c content i n the textbook. Dominance and A c t i v i t y i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between females and males can, t o some extent, be determined by observing photographs. Family L i v i n g f e a t u r e s many photographs (51 out of 91 - 56%) which i n c l u d e both females and males. In Family L i v i n g , males take more a c t i v e or more dominant r o l e s than do females (Appendix K). For example, a man carves w h i l e the f a m i l y s i t s (p.283), and males p l a y musical instruments wh i l e females l i s t e n (p.75,91,126). There are 21 photographs (41%) which i n c l u d e a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and i n which the male i s more a c t i v e or dominant. Females are more a c t i v e or dominant i n only 5 photographs (10%) and then i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s such as n u r t u r i n g and shopping (p.54 and p.220), or j u s t having fun (p.79 and 82). Throughout, there are 25 photographs (49%) i n which n e i t h e r male nor female i s more a c t i v e or dominant. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g contains very few photographs (22 out of 82 192 - 11%) which i n c l u d e both females and males. Most of these photographs (15 - 68%) do not show e i t h e r females or males as more a c t i v e or dominant (Appendix L ) . However, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g shows females as more a c t i v e or dominant than males i n 6 photographs (27%); a male i s more a c t i v e or dominant i n only one photograph (>5%). The a c t i v e females are, however, p i c t u r e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s as teacher (p.157), as w a i t r e s s (p.246), as n u r t u r e r (p.21), s e l l i n g t i c k e t s i n a t h e a t r e (p.170), and shopping (p.287). People i n So c i e t y a l s o uses many photographs (27 out of 88 - 30%) which i n c l u d e both female and male. In most of them (20 - 74%) n e i t h e r male nor female i s dominant (Appendix M). Males are more dominant i n seven photographs (26%). Three of these photographs have male p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . There are no photographs i n which females are more dominant. Observation of photographs r e v e a l s t h a t the three textbooks examined are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from each other. Family L i v i n g has an o v e r a l l sex balance, whereas People i n S o c i e t y has moire males than females, and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g has more females than males. A l l three textbooks f e a t u r e more a d u l t females than a d u l t males. Both Family L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e more adolescent males than females, whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more adolescent females than adolescent males. Adolescent "women of c o l o u r " are poorly represented i n a l l three textbooks. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more s o l i t a r y females than males whereas Family L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more s o l i t a r y males than females and People i n 83 S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s equal numbers of s o l i t a r y females and males. Family L i v i n g d e p i c t s few occupational r o l e s but a l l t e x t s show women most o f t e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l o c cupational r o l e s . People i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s no photographs which d e p i c t home maintenance and home management a c t i v i t i e s whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s more women than men i n these a c t i v i t i e s and Family L i v i n g shows an equal number of women and men i n v o l v e d i n home management and home maintenance. Both Family L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u d e token, posed photographs i n e p t l y p o r t r a y i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In People i n S o c i e t y , however, such tokens do not appear. People i n So c i e t y a l s o does not f e a t u r e e i t h e r the female or male as a c t i v e or dominant whereas i n Family L i v i n g males are more a c t i v e or dominant arid i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g females are more a c t i v e or dominant but i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y female a c t i v i t i e s . H i g h l i g h t e d Sections The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e p o r t s the f i n d i r i g s from the examination of the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of the textbooks. Information was considered t o be h i g h l i g h t e d i f i t was s e t apart from the r e s t of the t e x t i n a coloured or o u t l i n e d box. F i r s t , the f i n d i n g s of gerider b i a s are reported. Second, the f i n d i n g s regarding attempts t o deal w i t h gender b i a s are reported. Gender B i a s A l l textbooks e x h i b i t e d examples of gender b i a s . The three types of b i a s noted were one-sided p r e s e n t a t i o n s , s e x i s t language, and s t e r e o t y p i n g . 84 One-sided P r e s e n t a t i o n Each of the three textbooks has examples of h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s which focus on one sex whil e i g n o r i n g or minimizing the other; In the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of Family L i v i n g , seven of the forty-one "Features" focus on a male or giv e a male p e r s p e c t i v e . For example:"Fathering" (p.170); " S m i l i n g , Development o f " (p.178)- a male's experience of pa r e n t i n g ; "The L a s t Day" (p.334)- a f a t h e r l o s e s custody of h i s son; and "Being a Stepfa t h e r " (p.338). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g f e a t u r e s females more o f t e n than males i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , j u s t as i t does i n the photographs. Eight of the "Features" focus on females or female examples. For example: "Caring f o r the Unborn" completely ignores the r o l e of the male i n p r e n a t a l care (p.127) and "Design I l l u s i o n s " (p.377) f e a t u r e s f o u r females i n dresses and one male i n warm-up or jogging c l o t h e s . People i n S o c i e t y f e a t u r e s three h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on females and f i v e on males. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , f o c u s i n g only on the female may mean t h a t important i n f o r m a t i o n about males i s l e f t out. For example, " B l i n d too long" (p.187) focuses on a female c h i l d abuser but makes no mention of how patterns of c h i l d abuse o r reasons f o r abuse may be d i f f e r e n t f o r males. S i m i l a r l y , f o c u s i n g only on the male may mean t h a t important i n f o r m a t i o n about females i s neglected. Some examples i n which only the male experience of an i s s u e i s recognized occur i n People i n S o c i e t y . For example: "Divorced f a t h e r 85 f r u s t r a t e d by w i n n e r - t a k e - a l l laws" (p.193); " I f you hurt your w i f e or g i r l f r i e n d when you are angry, you should know t h a t : . . . " (p.167); and "Househusbands a growing phenomenon" (p.168). S e x i s t Language The e l i m i n a t i o n of s e x i s t language i s an important way i n which textbooks deal w i t h the problem of gender b i a s . S e x i s t language occurs more f r e q u e n t l y i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s than i n the content. The use of "he" as a generic pronoun s l i p s i n t o the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of two of these textbooks. I t appears i n quotations such as: "He smiles e a r l y , because he i s a s o c i a l being" (McNulty i n Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.178); " I f one tugs a t a s i n g l e t h i n g i n nature, he f i n d s i t attached t o ever y t h i n g e l s e i n the world" (Muir i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.288-9); and "a New Yorker spends a l i f e t i m e w i t h i n the confines of an area s m a l l e r than a country v i l l a g e . Let him walk two blocks from h i s corner and he i s i n a strange land ..." (E.B. White i n Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.306). One "Feature" i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g a l s o uses the "generic" male pronoun i n "Some Ways t o Make De c i s i o n s " (Foster et a l , 1985, p.27) i n the comment t h a t "a swimmer does w e l l t o f o l l o w the example of h i s coach". In a d d i t i o n t o using the generic "he", Family L i v i n g a l s o s l i p s from i t s usual use of i n c l u s i v e language t o s e x i s t language i n another h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n . The terminology moves from "homemaker" t o "housewife" and back t o "homemaker" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.125) as i f the two were 86 synonymous. Two jobs of the "housewife" are r e f e r r e d t o as "laundress" and "seamstress" and q u a l i t y of c l o t h i n g i s determined by checking the "workmanship" (p.294). S t e r e o t y p i n g Each of the three t e x t s contains examples of h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s r e i n f o r c i n g s t e r e o t y p i c a l p a tterns of behaviour or r o l e s f o r women and men. These h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s are presented i n an unproblematic way. The textbooks do not suggest t h e i r use i n d i s c u s s i o n s regarding t r a d i t i o n a l behaviors or r o l e s . Two h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g r e i n f o r c e the stereotype of the woman s t a y i n g home w i t h the c h i l d r e n . They are: "Scenes from a Marriage" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.150) i n which Donna q u i t s work when she has a baby and Mario leaves school t o get a job, and "Parenting i n D i f f e r e n t C u l t u r e s " (p.120) which s t a t e s "...grandparents - o f t e n help mothers care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (emphasis added). Some examples from People i n S o c i e t y r e i n f o r c e the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the mother or w i f e as c a r e g i v e r , as i n the f o l l o w i n g : P s y c h o l o g i s t says TV can be b e n e f i c i a l t o k i d s who are a c t i v e viewers ... the d i f f e r e n c e between i n v o l v e d and passive viewing ... comes from how much leeway mothers al l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n s e l e c t i n g and d i s c u s s i n g programs. The mother who dominates her c h i l d ' s viewing i s more l i k e l y t o produce a passive viewer ...(Bishop i n Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.129) R a i s i n g teens: a tough business ... Novick wipes the g u i l t from a working mother's p l a t e .... The problem i s when mothers have t o work i r r e g u l a r hours.... I f mothers work, and so many do j u s t t o keep up w i t h expensive teenagers needs... parents have confused (teenagers) 87 about what t o expect. 'There's changed modelling of parents, e s p e c i a l l y women...' (Hanson & Gower, p.182-3) Family L i v i n g f e a t u r e s three h i s t o r i c a l write-ups i n which females and males have r o l e s and p o s i t i o n s very d i f f e r e n t from one another. They are: " C h i v a l r y and C o u r t l y Love" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.75), "An Anglo-Saxon B e t r o t h a l " (p.98), and "Payday a t the P e l l e g r i n i ' s " (p.l34)» The textbook does not suggest t h e i r use i n d i s c u s s i o n of what i s s a i d about women's h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y or the changes (or l a c k of change) i n women's r o l e s . Another h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n i n Family L i v i n g suggests t h a t women are i n s t i n c t i v e c a r e g i v e r s : "When anything happens i n Johnny's room - n o i s e s , t h a t i s - we both s t a r t running. My w i f e runs f o r Johnny, and I run f o r the book. She's p l a y i n g t h i s t h i n g by i n s t i n c t , and I'm p l a y i n g by the book" (McNulty i n Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.178). Attempts t o Deal w i t h Gender B i a s A l l textbooks examined attempt t o deal w i t h gender b i a s . The ways noted were the use of i n c l u s i v e language, the i n c l u s i o n of males, the mention of female and male d i f f e r e n c e s , and the i n c l u s i o n of gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . I n c l u s i v e Language One approach t o overcoming gender b i a s taken by these textbooks i s gender n e u t r a l i t y . Examples of i n c l u s i v e language occur i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of a l l three books. N e u t r a l i t y may mean t h a t important i s s u e s are masked or excluded as i n the f o l l o w i n g from C r e a t i v e L i v i n g : "How t o Have a Suc c e s s f u l Date" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.91) which 88 avoids mention of any t r a d i t i o n s which might be d i f f e r e n t f o r females and males, and "Matching the Toy t o the C h i l d " (p.133) which says nothing about the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n through t o y s . I n c l u s i v e language may a l s o mean t h a t important d i f f e r e n c e s are not recognized as i n the f o l l o w i n g examples: (a) In the s e c t i o n on h e a l t h (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.255 & 256), " a d u l t s " are grouped i n t o one category although, i n r e a l i t y , women's h e a l t h problems are somewhat d i f f e r e n t from men's at present. (b) For a l l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the d i v o r c e r a t e except marriage age (eg.lack of education) females and males are grouped together (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 329). (c) Sexual A t t i t u d e s of Canadian Teenagers (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.127), Terminal Values (p.131), and Personal Concerns (p.132) are reported f o r adolescents i n general from d i f f e r e n t regions i n Canada. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know how or i f female and male adolescents d i f f e r on these. I n c l u s i o n of Males Another approach used o c c a s i o n a l l y i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s t o overcome gender b i a s i s the attempt t o i n c l u d e both females and males i n a balanced way. This i s done by showing how concepts can be r e l e v a n t t o or can apply t o both females and males. Many h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of C r e a t i v e L i v i n g attempt t o present i n f o r m a t i o n i n a balanced way. Some examples are: " S e t t i n g up Goals (Foster et a l , 1985, p.175) which uses female and male examples, and "Measuring Up" 89 (p.406-407) which provides i n f o r m a t i o n f o r both females and males. No is s u e s of importance t o gender e q u i t y are handled i n a balanced way. A b e t t e r gender s e n s i t i v e and balanced approach i s used i n the two h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of People i n S o c i e t y , "What can a b a t t e r e d woman do?" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.165) and "What can a b a t t e r e r do?" (p.166). This i s s u e i s then p e r s o n a l i z e d f o r males i n another h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n , " I f you hurt your w i f e or g i r l f r i e n d when you are angry, you should know t h a t ..." (p. 167 - emphasis added). However, i t i s not p e r s o n a l i z e d i n the a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n on females, "Keeping her i n l i n e ... Wife b a t t e r i n g : i t s time t o break the s i l e n c e " (p.164 - emphasis added). The same l e v e l of p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n f o r both females and males would help a l l students t o r e l a t e t o t h i s i s s u e and maintain, r a t h e r than d i s t o r t , the gender balance. Female and Male D i f f e r e n c e s Some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s i n each textbook attempt t o deal w i t h gender b i a s by mentioning d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s inc l u d e d t o be of value i n understanding the reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e or the problems created by the i t . Two examples from C r e a t i v e L i v i n g are: (a)"The Aging Family" draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t women o u t l i v e men and suggests t h a t "more a t t e n t i o n (be paid) t o the needs of widows and women l i v i n g alone" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.71). I t doesn't address the problem of poverty among 90 female s e n i o r s or the causes of i t . (b) "Eating D i s o r d e r s " (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.271) acknowledges t h a t anorexia and b u l i m i a a f f e c t more g i r l s than boys but then uses "he or she" r a t h e r than j u s t the female pronoun and does not ela b o r a t e on why g i r l s are more a f f e c t e d . Some f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o the development of anorexia are p o s t u l a t e d but they tend t o blame the v i c t i m f o r being " o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e " and " p e r f e c t " : The d i s o r d e r seems t o be b a s i c a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l , but no one i s r e a l l y sure of the exact cause. V i c t i m s are u s u a l l y young women. They tend t o o v e r l y s e n s i t i v e and want t o be p e r f e c t i n a l l they do. When they l e a r n t h a t s o c i e t y encourages t h i n n e s s , they t r y t o become t h i n . ( Foster e t a l , 1985, p.271) The importance of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the idea t h a t women are evaluated much more h a r s h l y than men when i t comes t o weight are not mentioned. An example from Family L i v i n g which mentions a d i f f e r e n c e but i n c l u d e s too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be of value i s "Parenting Tasks" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.214) which shows the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of tasks around the home but re p o r t s i t u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . Some examples from People i n S o c i e t y mention i s s u e s of female and male d i f f e r e n c e but giv e too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be of much value i n understanding problems. Two are: (a) "For c h i l d r e n under 13, there seems t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of i n c i d e n t s of abuse i n v o l v i n g g i r l s and boys. Over the age of 13, there are more cases i n v o l v i n g g i r l s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.189). No 91 ex p l a n a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e i s given. (b) "Income Averages f o r Canadian F a m i l i e s " (p.193) which c l e a r l y shows the d i f f e r e n c e ($12,400) i n income between females and male headed s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s but gives no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Gender Equ i t y Issues A l l three textbooks i n c l u d e d h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s which attempt t o deal w i t h gender i s s u e s . Three " f e a t u r e s " i n Family L i v i n g seem t o have been used i n an attempt t o change students perceptions of women's a b i l i t i e s and r o l e s . They are: (a) "As females and males become f r i e n d s and equals, as they study, work and compete w i t h each other, the d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r i d e a l i z i n g the opposite sex i s l o s t . That's when r e a l i t y enters and the myths depart" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.75). This i s a concluding statement a f t e r some comments on c h i v a l r y and c o u r t l y l o v e . (b) "Who Supports the Family?" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.119) acknowledges the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of women t o the f a m i l y and the comments focus on women. (c) "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Sports" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.23) concludes w i t h the statement t h a t "there can be g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s among members of one sex than between the average man and the average woman." One h i g h l i g h t e d a c t i v i t y i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g challenges students' sex s t e r e o t y p i n g : Here i s a l i s t of 10 ch a r a c t e r t r a i t s . Write the numbers 1 t o 10 on a piece of paper and mark each M or F, f o r 92 masculine or feminine. 1. Helps others 2. I s aggressive 3. I s home o r i e n t e d 4. I s independent 5. I s q u i e t 6. I s a c t i v e 7. I s emotional 8. Never c r i e s 9. I s unable t o make d e c i s i o n s 10. Makes d e c i s i o n s e a s i l y When given t h i s l i s t , most people agree t h a t men have the even-numbered t r a i t s and women have the odd-numbered ones. But those general statements aren't r e a l l y t r u e of a l l men and women. You can help end t h i s s t e r e o t y p i n g : * Develop your own s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s . Don't l i m i t y o u r s e l f by b e l i e v i n g stereotypes. * Before you say " G i r l s shouldn't do t h a t , " or "Boys don't a c t t h a t way," stop y o u r s e l f . What you say can i n f l u e n c e your brothers and s i s t e r s . Try t o help them be more f l e x i b l e i n how they t h i n k and a c t . I f you encourage them, they are l i k e l y t o t h i n k f o r and be themselves. (Foster et a l , 1985, p.80) Two t e x t s i n c l u d e h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on day care, an is s u e of importance i f women are t o move f r e e l y i n t o the p u b l i c sphere. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g addresses t h i s i s s u e i n i t s support of " f a m i l y s e r v i c e s " i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n which s t a t e s t h a t "Today, over 50 percent of Canadian mothers work outs i d e the home, and t h i s percentage i s expected t o increase i n the f u t u r e . For t h i s reason, there i s a growing demand f o r more, and more generous, f a m i l y s e r v i c e s " (Foster et a l , 1985, p.120). People i n S o c i e t y has inc l u d e d two h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on day care - one i n favour of i t and one opposed t o i t . Kagan's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t i t i s a myth t h a t mothers should be the primary i n f l u e n c e and are the best ones t o "mould young people i n t o healthy human beings" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.111). He b e l i e v e s t h a t others can a l s o do the job w e l l . 93 White w r i t e s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o day care and> at f i r s t , appears t o be g i v i n g mothers the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d care as i n the f o l l o w i n g : " I f you are a mother working t o make ends meet, dump the job and l i v e poor f o r a few years" (p.108) and "Even i f a mother has four c h i l d r e n at home, s h e ' l l pay more a t t e n t i o n t o the d i s t r e s s c a l l s of a two-month o l d ..." (p.109). White's assumptions about women are somewhat reversed l a t e r i n the same h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n when he comments t h a t "...men should be as a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d c a r e as women are" (p.110) and t h a t h i s i d e a l s i t u a t i o n i s the u n r e a l i s t i c proposal t h a t both parents work part-time. People i n S o c i e t y uses three other f e a t u r e s on women's i s s u e s . They are: "Soviets d i v i d e d on women's r o l e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171); "Court gives a s s i s t t o g i r l over hockey" (p.135-136); and "Male - female d i f f e r e n c e s " which s t a t e s "Some f e m i n i s t s have argued t h a t a l l emotional d i f f e r e n c e s are c u l t u r a l l y determined ... i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t ( c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ) accounted f o r a l l the d i f f e r e n c e s , some of which were c l e a r l y drawn along sexual l i n e s " (p.137). In Dr. Lee Salk's o p i n i o n , hormones and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g both pl a y a p a r t . This textbook presents a p o s i t i o n i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . In the Suggested A c t i v i t i e s students are asked t o s t a t e whether they "agree or disagree w i t h h i s view" ( p.137). The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s e x h i b i t e d considerable i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the way i n which the problem of gender b i a s i s addressed. Bias i s evident i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of 94 a l l three textbooks. Some s e c t i o n s present one-sided i n f o r m a t i o n . Others c o n t a i n s e x i s t language or r e i n f o r c e stereotypes. S t i l l others attempt t o deal w i t h gender b i a s : most are w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language, some attempt t o in c l u d e females and males i n a balanced way, and others noted female and male d i f f e r e n c e s or mentioned i s s u e s of relevance to gender e q u i t y . However, many of these attempts were flawed and a stro n g p o s i t i o n i n favour of gender e q u i t y i s not taken by any of the textbooks. The textbooks g e n e r a l l y t r y t o maintain a n e u t r a l r a t h e r than t r a n s f o r m a t i v e stance. Content The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n examines the content ( i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s ) of the textbooks. Content i n c l u d e s not only what i s s a i d but a l s o how i t i s s a i d and the questions which- are asked about i t . To address the question of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r s assumed by the t e x t , the examination of the content begins w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the form of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the content, t h a t i s whether the content i s presented as f a c t u a l or problematic. The d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s continues by examining how the problem of b i a s has been d e a l t w i t h f i r s t through an examination of language then through an examination of the subs t a n t i v e content, t h a t i s , what i s presented as knowledge and whether t h a t knowledge i s presented i n a subs t a n t i v e or s u p e r f i c i a l way. 95 Form of content: f a c t u a l o r problematic? The language of the textbook r e v e a l s the assumptions about l e a r n e r s and whether the knowledge presented i s considered t o be f a c t u a l or problematic. In Family L i v i n g and Cr e a t i v e L i v i n g l e a r n e r s are b a s i c a l l y assumed t o be unknowledgeable, passive r e c e i v e r s of textbook knowledge. They are given the " f a c t s " but r a r e l y t o l d the sources of these " f a c t s " so t h a t they can l e a r n more i f they choose. There i s never any suggestion t h a t they might question t h i s knowledge i n any way or apply i t i n a c r i t i c a l way t o s o c i a l i s s u e s . In Family L i v i n g most o b j e c t i v e s begin w i t h words such as i d e n t i f y , name, d e s c r i b e , s t a t e , l i s t , e x p l a i n , t e l l , g i v e , d e f i n e . Others, such as evaluate, appear l e s s o f t e n and can s t i l l be used i n r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the t e x t . The review questions which accompany each chapter of Family L i v i n g ask the, l e a r n e r t o d e s c r i b e , name, and l i s t items from the content of the textbook. The review s e c t i o n i s "made up of questions and statements t h a t w i l l help you determine how w e l l you have mastered the chapter contents" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.11 - emphasis added). The Teachers' Guide provides the c o r r e c t answers from the t e x t t o a s s i s t the teacher i n marking the student's work. The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t there are r i g h t answers and those from the students own experiences are not encouraged. " O b j e c t i v e " t e s t questions ( m u l t i p l e c h o i c e , t r u e and f a l s e , matching) and a complete answer key are provided t o a s s i s t the teacher i n determining 96 whether or not the students have mastered the content or learned the key ideas. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g assumes at times t h a t students are t h i n k i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . In the "Answers t o U n i t Review Questions" i n the Teacher's Resource Book (p.155-157), "answers w i l l vary" i s given i n place of a s p e c i f i c answer t o some questions. Although students are not expected t o l i m i t themselves t o r o t e l e a r n i n g , much r o t e l e a r n i n g i s expected. A l l of the "Test Items" on pages 110-152 are of the True/False, matching, completion, and m u l t i p l e choice type. Even the completion type i s given very s p e c i f i c answers i n the answer key on pages 152-154. Students are not encouraged to challenge the t e x t or the knowledge contained w i t h i n i t . People i n So c i e t y e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h a t l e a r n e r s are knowledgeable people who are capable of t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s . Each chapter begins w i t h "a s e t of questions t h a t introduces you t o the t o p i c and t e l l s you how much you already know" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p . v i i - emphasis added). The Suggested A c t i v i t i e s are intended t p t e s t the students " a b i l i t y t o apply c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s " ( p . v i i ) and "to develop the s t u d e n t s 7 a b i l i t y t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about the is s u e s under d i s c u s s i o n " (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, p.8). Each chapter concludes w i t h "A S o c i a l Issue t o Explore", r e l a t i n g t o a t o p i c i n the chapter over which there i s some controversy. "Students are encouraged t o develop reasoned opinions on those i s s u e s t h a t w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s " (p.8). This idea i s c a r r i e d through i n 97 a c t i v i t i e s such as " E x p l a i n whether you agree t h a t ..." (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.128) and "Which view do you agree w i t h and why?"(p.128) Although many e x e r c i s e s are of the type t h a t would encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , many other questions encourage r o t e l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than t h o u g h t f u l answers. In a d d i t i o n , the encouragement of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s not always c a r r i e d through i n the t e x t . A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n of Freud's work, the textbook s t a t e s t h a t "Freud's work has been c r i t i c i z e d ... h i s stages of development were based mainly on a male model of behavior" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.68). A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n of Erikson's and Maslow's work i t s t a t e s "Maslow's t h e o r i e s have been subject t o many of the same c r i t i c i s m s as Freud's and E r i k s o n ' s " (p.72). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these c r i t i c i s m s are q u i t e e a s i l y dismissed by the statements "Nevertheless, Freud has been one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l t h i n k e r s on human behavior. His work continues t o i n f l u e n c e treatment of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y problems" (p.68) and "Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s argue t h a t Maslow's theory of p e r s o n a l i t y development has some value" (p.72). People i n S o c i e t y does not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n s t r u c t students t o question and challenge the t e x t but encourages them t o question and challenge research. For example, students are asked t o consider why "Do you b e l i e v e women should abandon t h e i r c h i l d r e n during the day t o pursue c a r e e r s ? " i s a "loaded question" (p.21). They are a l s o 98 encouraged t o take a p o s i t i o n on s o c i a l i s s u e s . For example, they are asked t o agree or disagree w i t h one of the views presented on day care. By doing t h i s i t may help the students l e a r n t o question a l l t h a t they read, i n c l u d i n g the textbook. Of the three textbooks, only People i n S o c i e t y encourages some c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , the development of reasoned opinions and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Language of Content One of the ways of d e a l i n g w i t h sexism and s t e r e o t y p i n g i n t e x t s i s by changing the words used. S e x i s t language i s ra r e i n the content but one aspect i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g was the use of "Mr." and "Mrs.". Each of the three textbooks shows evidence of an e f f o r t t o counter gender b i a s by using i n c l u s i v e language, u s i n g sex s p e c i f i c language, and choice of pronouns. These approaches and some of the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r use w i l l be discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I n c l u s i v e language. The use of i n c l u s i v e words i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l three textbooks. In Family L i v i n g , "parenting" i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n place of "mothering" or " f a t h e r i n g " and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y use the more i n c l u s i v e word " c a r e g i v i n g " . "Spouse" has replaced husband or w i f e i n a l l three textbooks and Family L i v i n g a l s o uses " l i f e p a rtner" and "marriage p a r t n e r " . "Homemaker" and "homemanager" are used i n Family L i v i n g , whereas C r e a t i v e L i v i n g avoids t h i s concept. " F i r e f i g h t e r s " has replaced "firemen" i n Family 99 L i v i n g , " p o l i c e o f f i c e r " has replaced "policeman" i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and "humanity" has replaced "mankind" i n People i n So c i e t y . Attempts t o use i n c l u s i v e language cr e a t e some problems. Gender n e u t r a l i t y masks experiences t h a t are d i f f e r e n t f o r women and men. At times the use of "non-sexist" language i n Family L i v i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . For example, the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n accompanies a photograph of three mothers i n a c l a s s e x e r c i s i n g w i t h t h e i r s m a ll babies: "Exercise c l a s s e s f o r parents and t h e i r i n f a n t s can b e n e f i t both. While parents improve muscle tone, they l e a r n v a r i o u s e x e r c i s e s t o help t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s muscle development ..." (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.180 - emphasis added). The mothers are g e t t i n g t h e i r abdominals i n shape a f t e r the experience of pregnancy got them out of shape. This i s h a r d l y necessary f o r f a t h e r s . Many times throughout the three t e x t s the use of i n c l u s i v e language means t h a t experiences of women and men are assumed t o be s i m i l a r when, i n f a c t , there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they may be very d i f f e r e n t . The d i s c u s s i o n of the "empty nest" stage i n Family L i v i n g provides an example: Parents may miss having young people around t o advise, t o f i x t h i n g s f o r , or t o k i d w i t h , f o r c h i l d r e n o f t e n make parents f e e l r e s o u r c e f u l and young. The parents may a l s o f i n d time on t h e i r hands and f e e l l e s s u s e f u l w i t h no c h i l d r e n i n the household. They may need t o f i n d new i n t e r e s t s i n order t o maintain a p o s i t i v e self-image. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.319) The "empty nest" stage must be experienced d i f f e r e n t l y by those women who have spent much of t h e i r l i v e s c a r i n g f o r 100 t h e i r c h i l d r e n than i t would be by men who have been or are working at a job outside the home. People i n S o c i e t y , l i k e Family L i v i n g a l s o f a i l s t o recognize d i f f e r e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s of women and men by using i n c l u s i v e language. For example, "The e l d e r l y a l s o b a b y s i t and provide n u r t u r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n when both parents i n a f a m i l y work ou t s i d e the home" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.222). This i s a r o l e most o f t e n taken by e l d e r l y women. "Retirement" i s another area where d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men e x i s t but are not recognized or are minimized i n each of the three textbooks. This stage of l i f e w i l l be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r a woman who has worked i n the home a l l her l i f e and a man who has worked ou t s i d e the home. One cannot " r e t i r e " from household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Retirement from p u b l i c sphere work may a l s o come e a r l i e r f o r men than f o r women. By using i n c l u s i v e words such as " r e t i r e d person" and " r e t i r e d people" as People i n S o c i e t y does i n four out of f i v e of the Suggested A c t i v i t i e s (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.236) t h i s book and the others do not acknowledge what "retirement" means t o t r a d i t i o n a l women. None of the t e x t s mention t h a t retirement from the workforce i s a time f o r r e n e g o t i a t i n g a l l the work t h a t gets done i n homes. Issues such as t h i s are expressed n e u t r a l l y as i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t ation from People i n S o c i e t y : "Retirement can a l s o mean a d j u s t i n g t o spending more time w i t h the spouse. This i s a time f o r r e t i r e d couples t o enjoy a c t i v i t i e s together; however i t can mean a d j u s t i n g t o l e s s p r i v a c y , more household 101 chores, and too much f r e e time" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.234). Concentration on the use of i n c l u s i v e language may cause other problems as w e l l . The textbooks tend t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s even when the s t u d i e s have been conducted on only one sex. For example i n Family L i v i n g , the s e c t i o n on delinquency r e f e r s t o a study of 500 adolescent boys and then g e n e r a l i z e s t o "young people" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.346). The use of i n c l u s i v e language may mean t h a t r e a l s o c i a l i s s u e s are ignored or minimized. This problem a r i s e s w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e between females and males i s recognized at f i r s t by the comment "Most s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , about 17 m i l l i o n , are headed by women without a husband i n the household. Single-parent households maintained by the f a t h e r alone number l e s s t h a t 2 m i l l i o n " (Leavenworth er a l , 1985, p.336). However, the remainder of the d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r s t o the s i n g l e parent, even though problems are d i f f e r e n t f o r females and males. The examination of t h i s t o p i c from the pe r s p e c t i v e of the c u s t o d i a l parent never t h a t of the non-custodial parent may i n i t s e l f be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . " S i n g l e parents" may not be " s i n g l e " but people who parent alone. The s e c t i o n on "spouse abuse" (p.351) i n Family L i v i n g i s another area where important problems are not addressed because of attempts t o n e u t r a l i z e the i s s u e by using i n c l u s i v e language. V i o l e n c e against women by i s more 102 prevalent and severe than v i o l e n c e of women again s t men. Textbook content should make t h i s c l e a r . I t should a l s o not ignore v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t those women who are not married. In C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u s i v e language a l s o d i s t o r t s the d i f f e r e n t experiences of females and males: "Teens are g e t t i n g the word - the percentage of teens who smoke has decreased ten percent i n recent years" (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.277). The change i n the smoking patterns f o r g i r l s and boys has not been the same although t h i s textbook r e p o r t s the inf o r m a t i o n i n c l u s i v e l y . Sex s p e c i f i c language. Although i n c l u s i v e language i s used throughout a l l the textbooks, none used i t t o the t o t a l e x c l u s i o n of sex s p e c i f i c words. "Mother" and " f a t h e r " are used f r e q u e n t l y i n examples throughout C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , "mothering" and " f a t h e r i n g " are s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n Family L i v i n g , and People i n S o c i e t y r e f e r s t o "wife abuse" a f t e r i n t r o d u c i n g the t o p i c of "spouse abuse". The appropriate use of sex s p e c i f i c language i s important i n the achievement of gender s e n s i t i v i t y . The s e c t i o n on wi f e b a t t e r i n g i n People i n S o c i e t y o f f e r s one example of a somewhat gender s e n s i t i v e treatment of content, although d i s c u s s i o n should not have been l i m i t e d t o "wives" and " g i r l f r i e n d s " . People i n So c i e t y f i r s t d e f i n e s the abuse i n an i n c l u s i v e way "Spousal abuse i s p h y s i c a l or emotional v i o l e n c e or a s s a u l t a p p l i e d by one spouse t o another" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.163) and emphasizes the 103 seriousness of i t , "Spousal abuse i s a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e " (p.163). Although i t r e p o r t s t h a t "there i s a r i s i n g number of reported cases of husband abuse and homosexual abuse" (p.163), t h i s textbook acknowledges t h a t most cases "are committed by husbands aga i n s t t h e i r wives" and throughout the remainder of the d i s c u s s i o n the t e x t i s gender s e n s i t i v e i n i t s emphasis on wife abuse and the problems of the male abuser. Some comments about the prevalence of or research on abuse of males could add balance t o t h i s gender s e n s i t i v e treatment. Rather than d i s p l a y i n g gender s e n s i t i v i t y , most attempts t o use sex s p e c i f i c language c r e a t e problems of gender b i a s . C h i l d b i r t h i s one obvious area i n which females and males have r o l e s which are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The f o l l o w i n g example from Family L i v i n g shows how, using the male as the s u b j e c t , the r o l e of the male can be emphasized while the r o l e of the female i s minimized. Attending p r e n a t a l c l a s s e s together i s an e x c e l l e n t way f o r husband and wi f e t o share the f i r s t stage of parenthood. The couple l e a r n s b r e a t h i n g and muscle- r e l a x i n g e x e r c i s e s together so t h a t the expectant f a t h e r can help h i s partner p r a c t i c e throughout the pregnancy. He a l s o can a s s i s t during the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d by encouraging h i s w i f e t o r e l a x and breathe p r o p e r l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.155) Emphasis i s on the f a t h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e not on the mother's l e a r n i n g , p r a c t i c i n g and doing. Sex s p e c i f i c language can a l s o minimize or ignore the r o l e of males when females become the su b j e c t . When i t comes t o r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e n a t a l h e a l t h , Family L i v i n g leaves men out. The textbook summarizes t h e i r advice as "Mothers 104 must watch t h e i r d i e t s c a r e f u l l y and must avoid substances t h a t may harm the unborn c h i l d " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 171). No importance i s given t o the r o l e t h a t f a t h e r s can p l a y i n a s s i s t i n g , encouraging and supporting t h e i r p a r t n e r s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area males only enter i n an i n c l u s i v e statement, "Before the baby i s born, expectant parents have an important parenting r o l e : To provide the mother-to-be w i t h proper care" (p.158). Choice of pronouns. One of the ways i n which the textbooks deal w i t h sexism i n language i s through the use of i n c l u s i v e pronouns. Each of the textbooks examined d e a l t w i t h female and male pronouns through the use of "he or she" i n place of the generic "he". Family L i v i n g does not s l i p i n t o the generic "he" except i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s as mentioned e a r l i e r . People i n S o c i e t y (p.128) allows "he" t o enter as a generic pronoun i n one of the student a c t i v i t e s . Most of the time, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , uses i n c l u s i v e pronouns. In t h i s way i t suggests t h a t the work f o r c e i s not "gendered" as i n the f o l l o w i n g : "A p r i n c i p a l heads up only one s c h o o l . He or she makes sure t h a t the school teaches what the community wants to have taught" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.158); "A school d i e t i t i a n plans and d i r e c t s His or her aim i s t o ..." (p.158); " p e d i a t r i c i a n s ... l i k e a l l d o c t o r s , they've had ..." (p.156); and "mother's h e l p e r " ... "he or she" (p.155). But the textbook i s not a b s o l u t e l y c o n s i s t e n t i n the use of i n c l u s i v e pronouns. The workforce i s gendered 105 i n statements such as: "watch the neighbour work i n h i s garden" (p.134) and " S a l l y decides t o t a l k t o her m i n i s t e r . He ..." (p.65). In a d d i t i o n t o using i n c l u s i v e pronouns, both C r e a t i v e L i v i n g arid Family L i v i n g use another technique t o deal w i t h pronouns. The technique i n v o l v e s the a l t e r n a t i n g use of "she" and "he". Although t h i s technique may appear n o n - s e x i s t , i t s use can r e i n f o r c e s e x i s t assumptions. For example, i n the s e c t i o n of C r e a t i v e L i v i n g t i t l e d "How t o Feed Babies and Toddlers" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.160-161) t h i s technique of a l t e r n a t i n g pronouns has been used from one example t o the next but not w i t h i n the examples. As a r e s u l t the h e l p l e s s i n f a n t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y l a b e l l e d w i t h a female pronoun, r e i n f o r c i n g the dependence and h e l p l e s s n e s s of females, and the more independent t o d d l e r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y l a b e l l e d w i t h the male pronoun, r e i n f o r c i n g the idea of male independence. This problem occurs c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the "How t o Bathe a C h i l d " and " C h i l d Safety" s e c t i o n s (p.162-164). The problem of r e i n f o r c i n g s e x i s t stereotypes a l s o a r i s e s i n Family L i v i n g when the technique of a l t e r n a t i n g pronouns i s used i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t of p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s : "She has t o l i k e t r a v e l l i n g . " "He should share i n the house work." "She should have a c o l l e g e education." "He ought t o have a steady job." "Her i d e a l s ought t o be the same as mine." "He should have a sense of humour." (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.96) The two which cause some d i f f i c u l t y here are the second and the f o u r t h . "She should 106 share i n the housework" and "She should have a steady job" r e a l l y e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t ideas from "He should share i n the housework" and "He should have a steady job". The textbook has used s i x examples of expectations a l t e r n a t i n g from the female pronoun t o the male pronoun, but the expectations are s t i l l based on the assumption t h a t the male works outside the home (steady job) and t h a t the female's work out s i d e the home i s secondary, but s i n c e she does work out s i d e the home he should share the housework, but not n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a l l y . A l l of the textbooks use i n c l u s i v e nouns and i n c l u s i v e pronouns, but not t o the complete e x c l u s i o n of sex s p e c i f i c language. Both i n c l u s i v e language and sex s p e c i f i c language crea t e problems of gender b i a s . Gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance w i l l r e q u i r e the c a r e f u l and appropriate use of both sex s p e c i f i c and i n c l u s i v e language. Substantive Content F i v e t o p i c s provide i n f o r m a t i o n how sub s t a n t i v e content of the textbook deals w i t h gender b i a s . The t o p i c s considered are: women's is s u e s and problems, work r o l e s , c h i l d care, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These t o p i c s were examined because they are r e f e r r e d t o i n a t l e a s t one of the textbooks examined and are appropriate f o r i n c l u s i o n i n home economics textbooks about f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Women's i s s u e s and problems This study examines four i s s u e s which were i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s researcher as women's iss u e s appropriate f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a course on f a m i l i e s and s o c i e t y : the changing s o c i a l 107 r o l e s and p o s i t i o n of women, day care, d i v o r c e and s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s , and woman b a t t e r i n g . I t i s understood t h a t these are not e x c l u s i v e l y women's iss u e s but t h a t they a f f e c t females and males d i f f e r e n t l y , u s u a l l y unequally. The impact these i s s u e s have had on women has f r e q u e n t l y been more severe and d e s t r u c t i v e than the impact on men. (a) The changing s o c i a l r o l e s and p o s i t i o n of women The changing s o c i a l r o l e s and p o s i t i o n of women i n s o c i e t y are acknowledged, at l e a s t i n a minor way, i n a l l three textbooks. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g ' s only c o n t r i b u t i o n t o changing the p o s i t i o n and r o l e of women i s i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o s t e r e o t y p i n g (Poster et a l , 1985, p.79). This textbook takes an " i n d i v i d u a l approach" by c o n s i d e r i n g stereotypes as r e s t r i c t i n g and l i m i t i n g i n d i v i d u a l "chances" (p.79). Although Family L i v i n g i d e n t i f i e s the problem of sterotypes as more s o c i a l than i n d i v i d u a l , i t attempts t o be value f r e e or n e u t r a l on women's changing r o l e s . I t does not advocate an e q u i t y p o s i t i o n but attempts t o make va r i o u s sex r o l e s acceptable. While there are s t i l l r e c o g nizable d i f f e r e n c e s i n boys' and g i r l s ' behavior i n the United S t a t e s , the r o l e s of male and female are g e n e r a l l y l e s s r i g i d l y d e f i n e d today than they were i n the past. Women were once viewed as one ki n d of people, w h i l e men were seen as a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . Work and other a c t i v i t i e s performed by women were u s u a l l y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those performed by men. I f people enjoyed a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r sex r o l e s they were considered inadequate or odd. The s o c i a l pressure t o maintain c e r t a i n behaviors considered proper f o r men or appropriate f o r women i s c a l l e d s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . Such s t e r e o t y p i n g i s s t i l l common throughout many p a r t s of the world s i n c e most people accept the r o l e s s o c i e t y s e t s f o r them. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.25) 108 Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s d e a l t w i t h as i f i t i s a problem of the past: "Today, sex r o l e s are d i f f e r e n t than they were a generation ago, l e t alone a century ago. Some men and women b e l i e v e t h a t i f they f o l l o w r i g i d sex r o l e s , they may l i m i t t h e i r p o t e n t i a l " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.25). Once again i t appears t h a t the problem w i t h stereotyped sex r o l e s i s the l i m i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p o t e n t i a l . Problems a r i s i n g from the s t e r e o t y p i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females and males, such as, wife b a t t e r i n g , date rape and emotional abuse, are not mentioned. Family L i v i n g acknowledges t h a t changes i n the r o l e and p o s i t i o n of women are o c c u r r i n g but does not advocate f u r t h e r change, acknowledge reasons why change i s e s s e n t i a l , or even take a p o s i t i v e stand on change. The textbook's g r e a t e s t number of comments on the changing r o l e of women and i t s only r e c o g n i t i o n of the women's movement i s i n the chapter on " s i n g l e s " (p.362-3). Postponement of marriage and choosing a career r a t h e r than marriage are presented as outcomes of the women's movement. This g i v e s the impression t h a t the women's movement could lead t o the disappearance of the f a m i l y through women choosing t o remain s i n g l e and devote t h e i r l i v e s t o ca r e e r s . I t doesn't address the problem of the dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y given t o women and the d i f f i c u l t i e s women face i n managing a career and a f a m i l y . This d i s c u s s i o n omits those who choose a l t e r n a t i v e s other than marriage, such as parenting alone. People i n S o c i e t y b a r e l y recognizes the women's 109 movement. The comment "The s u f f r a g e t t e s who chained themselves t o p i l l a r s of b u i l d i n g s i n the e a r l y 20th century t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r cause - se c u r i n g the vote f o r women - were seen as behaving abnormally" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.79) i s one of the few r e c o g n i t i o n s of t h i s movement. A change i n the c u r r e n t l e g a l s t a t u s of women i s b r i e f l y acknowledged but only i n a preview question on the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (p.30). No s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n the t e x t on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against women, nor i s a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i t i n the suggested a c t i v i t i e s . The t e x t omits any d i s c u s s i o n of the f i g h t t o get women in c l u d e d i n the Charter, an important step f o r the women's movement i n Canada. People i n S o c i e t y a l s o emphasizes the choice of women t o remain c h i l d l e s s . " S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t the percentage of women i n Canada who are or were married and remain c h i l d l e s s i s on the r i s e " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.141) and "... f o r many women, c h i l d b e a r i n g i s no longer a main source of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Many women seek personal f u l f i l m e n t and economic independence through c a r e e r s " (p.142). The f a c t t h a t i t i s harder f o r women than men t o have both c h i l d r e n and a career i s not mentioned. No emphasis i s given t o why t h i s choice t o remain c h i l d l e s s i s being made. The s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of women choosing t o remain c h i l d l e s s are not addressed. When f o c u s i n g on the changing r o l e s of women and men, People i n S o c i e t y f r e q u e n t l y emphasizes change i n the male 110 r o l e r a t h e r than change i n the female r o l e . Students are asked t o d i s c u s s why men are t a k i n g on household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y "women's work" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.172). They are not asked i f men are t a k i n g over more r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s or why i t i s necessary t o share household tasks more e q u i t a b l y than they are shared at present. This textbook a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n t o men and t h e i r changing r o l e . For example, "People are beginning t o see n u r t u r i n g as an important value t o develop i n both boys and g i r l s " (p.135). People i n S o c i e t y takes a male p e r s p e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h "men's issues'' r a t h e r than women's i s s u e s . For example, "More men are ... p e t i t i o n i n g t h e i r employers f o r b e n e f i t s such as p a t e r n i t y leave and time allotments t o care f o r s i c k c h i l d r e n " (p.171). The textbook does not mention employment is s u e s f o r women. Ma t e r n i t y leave i s n e i t h e r mentioned nor defined i n People i n S o c i e t y . No mention i s made of other i s s u e s which could b e n e f i t a l l parents who work outs i d e the home, but e s p e c i a l l y women, such as f l e x i b l e schedules, parttime work, job s h a r i n g , and day care a t the work s i t e , (b) Day care Unless both s i n g l e and married women make the choice t o remain c h i l d l e s s or women w i t h c h i l d r e n choose not t o be employed, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of q u a l i t y daycare w i l l continue to be a major i s s u e i n the s t r u g g l e f o r gender e q u i t y . However, C r e a t i v e L i v i n g makes no comment on day care, a l l u d i n g t o i t i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n as " f a m i l y s e r v i c e s " I l l ( F oster et a l , 1985, p.120). In Family L i v i n g , day care i s seen only as a f a m i l y matter, not a s o c i a l problem f o r governments or employers to deal w i t h . Comments suggest the problem of day care i s best d e a l t w i t h by g e t t i n g help from r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . I f both parents work, c h i l d care can become a problem. I f there are no r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s who can h e l p , parents might have t o h i r e a b a b y s i t t e r , f i n d a reputable day-care ce n t e r , or work d i f f e r e n t s h i f t s so t h a t one parent can be home w i t h the c h i l d r e n . (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.152) In People i n S o c i e t y , day care i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e , not a s o c i a l i s s u e . Most of the d i s c u s s i o n i s i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and deals w i t h whether or not day care i s good f o r c h i l d r e n . In the content, day care i s mentioned as a s o c i a l i s s u e i n one comment: "In Canada, day care centres have not been seen as a p r i o r i t y . Day care has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t r e a t e d as a p r i v a t e good t o be purchased by parents. Education, on the other hand, has been t r e a t e d as a p u b l i c good and i s f u l l y p a i d through taxes" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.107). The textbook doesn't suggest any f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l help students t o explore c h i l d care as a s o c i a l i s s u e , although one a c t i v i t y i n the Teacher Resource Book suggests t h a t students w r i t e an e d i t o r i a l on who should bear the c o s t of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n and why (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, p.56). (c) Divorce and s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s A l l three textbooks i n c l u d e d i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g , though the treatment of the t o p i c s v a r i e s . C r e a t i v e L i v i n g keeps the comments b r i e f , n e u t r a l and 112 unproblematic. Poverty among "female headed" s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s i s not acknowledged. The d i f f e r e n t problems faced by females and males when they become " s i n g l e parents" are not addressed. " S i n g l e parents support t h e i r f a m i l i e s , care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and run t h e i r households, j u s t as couples do. But they must do t h i n g s alone" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.55). This textbook emphasizes what c h i l d r e n can do t o help. S i m i l a r l y , the comments on "d i v o r c e " (p.68) focus on the r e a c t i o n of c h i l d r e n t o i t . This approach may have been taken because the book i s addressed t o younger students. Family L i v i n g addresses only very b r i e f l y the way t h a t d i v o r c e a f f e c t s females and males d i f f e r e n t l y . Research shows t h a t some couples stay together f o r economic s e c u r i t y , i n s p i t e of c o n f l i c t s . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e where women don't have v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and f e a r t h a t they can't s u r v i v e independently. However, the l i k e l i h o o d of d i v o r c e r i s e s when the husband i s unemployed. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.330) Some d i f f e r e n c e s are reported from a male p e r s p e c t i v e , such as .... i n ge n e r a l , l e g a l d e c i s i o n s favor women when awarding custody of the c h i l d r e n , the home, and household property. Men u s u a l l y are r e q u i r e d t o make c h i l d - s u p p o r t payments, and sometimes they must a l s o pay alimony t o the wife.(Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.332) The textbook f a i l s t o mention t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , a woman's standard of l i v i n g f a l l s a f t e r d i v o r c e as her disposable income decreases whereas the man's disposable income in c r e a s e s . I t a l s o ignores the f a c t t h a t , even though men are re q u i r e d t o make c h i l d care payments, many of them d e f a u l t on these payments. Yet i t l a t e r s t a t e s "nearly h a l f the ( s i n g l e - parent) f a m i l i e s were j u s t g e t t i n g by, 'coping when and as 113 they c o u l d ' " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.335), and "most s i n g l e parents have f i n a n c i a l w o r r i e s " (p.337). I t f a i l s t o mention t h a t most of those who s u f f e r f i n a n c i a l l y are females. The use of i n c l u s i v e language masks the problem. People i n S o c i e t y comments on how the experiences of men and women are d i f f e r e n t . For example: A m a j o r i t y of di v o r c e d men leave the f a m i l y household and do not have custody of c h i l d r e n . They have greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s than women t o have an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e . For the m a j o r i t y of divorc e d women, an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e i s d i f f i c u l t because they must maintain a job and care f o r the c h i l d r e n . A di v o r c e d woman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s do not g i v e her the freedom enjoyed by her former spouse. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.191) Divorced men remarry i n gre a t e r numbers than d i v o r c e d females ( s i c ) , and divorc e d women r e c e i v e custody i n most cases. These f a c t s help t o account f o r 1981 s t a t i s t i c s t h a t show t h a t s i n g l e mothers made up almost 83% of s i n g l e parents whereas s i n g l e f a t h e r s made up only 17%.(Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.196-197) People i n So c i e t y recognizes t h a t "a high percentage of divo r c e d men do not make support payments", "female s i n g l e parents are hard h i t by the economic e f f e c t s of d i v o r c e " and "about h a l f of Canada's female-led f a m i l i e s l i v e i n poverty" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.193). While the problem has been s t a t e d , what could or should be done about i t i s not addressed. People i n S o c i e t y i n c l u d e s two a c t i v i t i e s on s i n g l e parents; one focuses on the female and another on the male. The focus on the female i s i n the "preview", before d i s c u s s i o n of the t o p i c begins: "Suggest reasons why the ma j o r i t y of s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s are l e d by women" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.176). At the end of the chapter, the 114 textbook focuses on the male: "Debate whether or not men are d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n custody cases" (p.196). There are no Suggested A c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e l a t e t o women and poverty a f t e r d i v o r c e or government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n e n f o r c i n g c h i l d support and alimony payments. (d) Woman b a t t e r i n g V i o l e n c e against women i s l i m i t e d t o wi f e abuse and spouse abuse i n two of the textbooks examined. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does not acknowledge the su b j e c t . Family L i v i n g has a shor t s e c t i o n on "spouse abuse". Once again t h i s textbook takes the male p e r s p e c t i v e more than the female p e r s p e c t i v e and provides too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be of value. V i o l e n c e a g a i n s t one's m a r i t a l partner may range from v e r b a l c r u e l t y t o severe p h y s i c a l abuse or even homicide. S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t w i f e abuse i s reported more o f t e n than husband abuse, no doubt because s o c i a l stereotypes of manhood discourage men from r e p o r t i n g such i n c i d e n t s . (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.351 - emphasis added) Such comments minimize the importance of abuse as a problem f o r women. Another comment recognizes only one of the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w i f e abuse: "Lack of personal or f i n a n c i a l resources...(women) see no way t o care f o r themselves or f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n o u t s i d e the marriage" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p. 352). The s o c i a l i z a t i o n which encourages women i n t o t h i s p o s i t i o n i s not addressed. There i s nothing e l s e t o develop students' understanding of sources of the problem or p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . People i n So c i e t y i s more gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced. The h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e of wi f e abuse i n European 115 c u l t u r e s i s recognized: Wife beating and wi f e k i l l i n g were recognized r i g h t s of men i n ancient Greece and Rome. During the Middle Ages, husbands could k i l l t h e i r wives f o r a d u l t e r y . In most Middle Age s o c i e t i e s , men were considered t o own t h e i r wives and had complete and unquestioned a u t h o r i t y over them. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.163) P r o f i l e s of both the abused and the abuser are in c l u d e d . The textbook recognizes the r o l e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n the present problem of abuse: "The Abuser ... holds stereotyped views about female and male r o l e s (males are t o be the pr o v i d e r s and source of a u t h o r i t y i n the home; women [ s i c ] are t o be housewives and mothers)" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.165). Other i n f o r m a t i o n on wi f e abuse i s inc l u d e d i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . The Suggested A c t i v i t i e s which accompany the s e c t i o n on wi f e abuse i n People i n So c i e t y are n e i t h e r gender s e n s i t i v e nor gender balanced. They focus on the male p e r s p e c t i v e . One of the questions on wi f e abuse has the students assume they are male. E x e r c i s e s i n which the students assumed t h a t they were the female could a l s o have been in c l u d e d . The students look at t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p only from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the male i n v o l v e d . In another e x e r c i s e , students are asked t o "w r i t e a r a d i o advertisement t h a t gives advice to men who abuse t h e i r wives (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.167)". What about one f o r women who are abused by t h e i r partners or husbands? Or one f o r adolescent women abused by t h e i r boyfriends? Only the Teacher Resource Book has one e x e r c i s e focused on abused women. I t i s concerned w i t h " s e r v i c e s ... t o meet the needs of these women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, 116 p.78) and the funding of s h e l t e r s . Work r o l e s . One goal of the women's movement has been t o achieve a s h i f t t o a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of work i n both p a i d p u b l i c work and unpaid p r i v a t e work. The i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t assumptions of the textbooks regarding work w i l l be reported i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A l l three of the textbooks examined i m p l i c i t l y l o c a t e the male's major area of work i n the p u b l i c sphere while g i v i n g the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r work i n the p r i v a t e sphere t o females. People i n S o c i e t y makes no e x p l i c i t reference t o the work i n the home but i m p l i c i t l y assigns t h i s r o l e t o women i n case s t u d i e s r e i n f o r c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . For example, i n the c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n f o r which students are t o work out a compromise: "Rob and L a u r i e can't agree on an appropriate l o c a t i o n f o r a f a m i l y h o l i d a y . L a u r i e i s a homemaker... Rob i s a salesperson..."(Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.161). The case study of the remarriage s i t u a t i o n a l s o has female and male i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s : "Remarried seven years ago t o a banking e x e c u t i v e , Joanne Green ... l e f t her o f f i c e job t o devote h e r s e l f t o the f i v e c h i l d r e n " (p. 199-200). No case s t u d i e s f e a t u r e s i t u a t i o n s where both partners work outside the home and the problem of the d i v i s i o n of work i n the home i s not addressed. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g e x p l i c i t l y advocates t h a t housekeeping d u t i e s be shared: "Part of keeping a home comfortable i s 117 c a r i n g f o r i t t o keep i t c l e a n . J u s t as the whole f a m i l y shares the space, each person should help clean i t " (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.474). In s p i t e of t h i s e x p l i c i t statement, there are some i m p l i c i t assumptions about r o l e s , evident i n the statements made about "mother" and " f a t h e r " . For example: (a) Mothers are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g food and meals: "... you may o f f e r t o s e t the t a b l e when your mother i s very busy" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.10 - emphasis added). (b) Mothers are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ensuring t h a t house c l e a n i n g and home management tasks are completed: "... i f you see t h a t your mother or o l d e r brother i s very busy on a p a r t i c u l a r day, v o l u n t e e r t o c l e a n up the l i v i n g room" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.496 - emphasis added). (c) Mothers have a dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h a t they a l s o work ou t s i d e the home: " t a l k t o your mother about the dinner dishes ... don't t r y t o t a l k about i t when she's l a t e l e a v i n g f o r work one morning" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.62 - emphasis added). (d) The f i n a n c i a l concerns of the f a m i l y are f a t h e r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : "When your f a t h e r gives you some e x t r a d o l l a r s , he's t e l l i n g you t h a t he approves of you" (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.17 - emphasis added). Although Family L i v i n g makes no e x p l i c i t statements regarding the d i v i s i o n of labour, household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are f r e q u e n t l y assigned t o women while men are placed i n employment. This i s i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g examples: 118 A couple must decide not only what money means t o them, but a l s o who takes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s . I f the husband alone has a paying job, he may b e l i e v e t h a t he should decide what t o do w i t h the income. Yet, the wi f e may i n d i r e c t l y have helped t o produce t h a t income or expanded i t s use. Her management s k i l l s , such as wise shopping, may have provided both a productive and healthy environment f o r the f a m i l y and more m a t e r i a l goods. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.i24) However, v a r i o u s s t u d i e s show t h a t many working wives s t i l l have the major r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r home care. Further, the wives' careers have secondary s t a t u s as compared t o those of t h e i r husbands. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.118) With the b i r t h of the f i r s t c h i l d , a more c l e a r cut d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s emerges along sex r o l e l i n e s . According t o a v a i l a b l e data, most couples agree t h a t women should handle home management while husbands earn a l i v i n g . . . . Couples s t u d i e d continued t o f e e l t h i s way even when the wi f e returned t o outside work. In gen e r a l , husbands seemed t o help out l e s s around the house a f t e r the f i r s t c h i l d was born. They l e f t even more of the housework t o the w i f e , e s p e c i a l l y i f she had q u i t her job f o r good. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.152) In a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g them r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r homes, none of the textbooks appear t o place s i g n i f i c a n t value on the r o l e s t h a t females take i n the p u b l i c sphere. Some comments t r i v i a l i z e the woman's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f i n a n c i a l support of the f a m i l y . For example, Family L i v i n g s t a t e s : One obvious b e n e f i t i n having both partners work i s increased f a m i l y income. E x t r a money can help improve the standard of l i v i n g and the o v e r a l l morale of the f a m i l y . Research a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t women who choose t o have jobs, r a t h e r than work because they need t o help make ends meet, seem t o be happier i n d i v i d u a l s , which of course can make them b e t t e r company f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.120 - emphasis added) People i n So c i e t y a l s o t r i v i a l i z e s the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r i b u t i o n of women. This i s evident i n statements such as "Some women work t o a s s i s t the f a m i l y f i n a n c i a l l y , whereas others work t o become f i n a n c i a l l y 119 independent or f o r personal s a t i s f a c t i o n " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.170) and " I f mothers work, and so many do, j u s t t o keep up w i t h teenagers' expensive needs ..." (p.192). The t e x t assumes t h a t the major f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l i e s i s taken by males. Although some women a l s o accept the major f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l i e s (even i n some male- present households) i t i s not recognized. The importance of women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s and the p o s s i b i l i t y of an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s should both be inc l u d e d i n these t e x t s . The r o l e of women i n the p u b l i c sphere i s minimized even when People i n So c i e t y breaks w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and emphasizes the r o l e of "househusbands" (p.170). No mention of the r o l e t h a t the wives of these househusbands have i n the f i n a n c i a l support of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As a r e s u l t the t e x t i m p l i e s t h a t women's work i n the p u b l i c sphere i s of minor importance. Although the three textbooks g i v e women the major r o l e i n the home, changes i n female and male r o l e s which are beginning t o take place are recognized i n Family L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y . In Family L i v i n g changes i n perception of work r o l e s of females and males i s acknowledged: "The view t h a t women can perform most jobs, except those r e q u i r i n g great p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , as capably as men has gained i n acceptance" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.114). But the textbook s t i l l t r i e s t o teach the concept of sex r o l e s i n the statement, "Sex r o l e s are s t i l l very important today, although i n recent years they have undergone s i g n i f i c a n t 120 changes i n American c u l t u r e " (p.10). Sometimes Family L i v i n g supports a non-gehdered workforce as w i t h the questions, "Which of us should earn the income and determine how i t i s managed? Should we both do t h i s ? " ( p . 1 2 3 ) . However, the commitment of Family L i v i n g t o the idea of a change i n r o l e s appears incomplete as i t attempts t o be n e u t r a l : In d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s and even i n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s , the r o l e s of male and female are not viewed i n the same way. In one s o c i e t y , f o r example, males are a c t i v e "doers" working o u t s i d e the house; women are i n charge of domestic a f f a i r s . In another s o c i e t y , the r o l e s may be l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . You know from your own experience t h a t a d u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t f a m i l i e s hold v a r i o u s ideas about male and female r o l e s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.25) Even though some change i n the r o l e s of females and males i s acknowledged, Family L i v i n g s t i l l views t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s i n a p o s i t i v e way. " I f couples p r e f e r t o accept t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , they are f r e e t o choose them. They aim f o r mutually s a t i s f y i n g , or r e c i p r o c a l , r o l e s " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.115). Family L i v i n g does not elaborate upon or even ask students t o t h i n k about the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e arrangements. A review question simply asks students t o recognize the t r a d i t i o n a l arrangement: "Describe some customary ways i n which a husband and w i f e c a r r y out t h e i r expected r o l e s " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.128) to which the Teacher's Guide g i v e s the answer, " T r a d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l r o l e s c a s t the husband as breadwinner and the w i f e as homemaker" (Gay, 1985, p.22). However, when i t comes t o the more common, but l e s s " t r a d i t i o n a l " , dual earner f a m i l y , Family L i v i n g i s l e s s p o s i t i v e . In a review question students are asked t o look f o r problems: "Name three problems t h a t members of dual-earner f a m i l i e s might encounter" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.129 - emphasis added) to which the Teacher's Guide g i v e s the answer "There may be c o n f l i c t s over who w i l l do the household chores, disagreements over how the two incomes should be spent, and problems a r i s i n g over which spouse's job or career should have p r i o r i t y " (Gay, 1985, p.22). The textbook does not ask students t o t h i n k about the b e n e f i t s t o be gained from being i n a dual earner f a m i l y . In a d d i t i o n t o supporting t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s and l o o k i n g f o r problems i n dual-earner f a m i l e s , Family L i v i n g t r i v i a l i z e s the importance of e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s : In cooperation ... both partners determine t h e i r r o l e s according t o t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . The w i f e might be b e t t e r at bookkeeping and handling the budget, so she pays a l l the household b i l l s , s e t s aside the savings, and g i v e s out "spending money." The husband might be a good cook, so he prepares many of the f a m i l y meals. The w i f e does the yardwork because the husband hates i t . The husband takes care of the mechanical f a i l u r e s around the home because he l i k e s t o f i x t h i n g s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.117 - emphasis added) On f i r s t reading, the above quotation may appear t o advocate e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the w i f e does not only what she i s good at and but a l s o what he hates t o do, whereas the husband does what he i s good a t and what he l i k e s t o do. No mention i s made of the d i s h e s , vacuuming, laundry, t o i l e t s and bathtubs or any other c l e a n i n g t a s k s . The p o s i t i o n taken by People i n S o c i e t y seems more p o s i t i v e about r o l e changes: "In Canadian s o c i e t y today, the r o l e expectations f o r husbands and wives are changing. In a 122 l e g a l sense; a woman's s t a t u s has evolved from t h a t of her husband's possession t o equal partner i n the marriage" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a t p.170). This does not e x a c t l y advocate e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g them, or elaborate on how the new laws a c t u a l l y operate, but i t i s a beginning. People i n So c i e t y sees dual earner f a m i l i e s as meeting challenges: Marriages i n which both partners work ou t s i d e the home present new chall e n g e s . Even though both partners hold jobs, c h i l d r e n must s t i l l be cared f o r , and chores must be done t o ensure t h a t the household f u n c t i o n s w e l l . How are c h i l d care and the household managed when husband and wif e both work f u l l - t i m e ? How are domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s shared? (Hanson & Gower,1988a, p.170) The chapter on marriage emphasizes "You w i l l have t o decide how t o share r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.140). People i n So c i e t y suggests no s o l u t i o n s , does not provide case s t u d i e s f o r examples of s o l u t i o n s but recognizes dual earner f a m i l i e s by encouraging students t o begin t h i n k i n g about them. People i n So c i e t y a l s o recognizes the dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of women when i t s t a t e s : "Canadian s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h both spouses working f u l l - t i m e , women are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of domestic chores" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171). In s p i t e of t h a t the book continues: Many women now expect t h e i r husbands t o p a r t i c i p a t e more f u l l y i n the n u r t u r i n g of the c h i l d r e n and the performance of household chores. Men, too, are changing t h e i r e x pectations. Many men no longer emphasize the importance of a good housekeeper i n a marriage, and they expect t h e i r wives t o continue t o work outside the home. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.171) 123 Not only does the textbook minimize the importance of s t u d i e s which show when both spouses are working women do most of the housework, i t a l s o makes women r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ensuring male p a r t i c i p a t i o n and makes "good housekeeping" seem t r i v i a l . I f men do not emphasize the importance of a "good housekeeper" they probably do not place much value on becoming good housekeepers. Although both Family L i v i n g and People i n S o c i e t y recognize t h a t r o l e s are changing, n e i t h e r makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n toward meeting challenges or s o l v i n g problems, nor do they advocate changes i n r o l e s . Disagreement about work i n s i d e the home i s a major cause of f r i c t i o n i n marriage and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The importance of t h i s c o n f l i c t i s recognized t o some extent. People i n S o c i e t y l i s t s " s h aring of household d u t i e s " as one of the "Common Sources of C o n f l i c t i n Marriage" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.158). Family L i v i n g a l s o acknowledges t h a t r o l e s can be a problem: "The l i k e l i h o o d of di v o r c e i s higher i f ... the couple has always had opposing views on the r o l e s of husband and w i f e " (Leavenworth, 1985, p.329-330) and The partners r e a l i z e t h a t they don't have the same ideas about what i t means t o be a husband or a wife ... the highest percentage of d i v o r c e s occurs during the second or t h i r d years of marriage .... They buckle under the s t r a i n of t r y i n g t o ad j u s t t o t h e i r separate and combined m a r i t a l r o l e s . (Leavenworth, 1985, p.116) Cr e a t i v e L i v i n g does not acknowledge the c o n f l i c t of r o l e s t h a t can occur i n f a m i l i e s nor the importance of t h i s c o n f l i c t . Instead, i t simply advocates the sharing of household t a s k s by a l l who share the household. At the same 124 time i t a l s o t r i v i a l i z e s the work i n v o l v e d as i n the f o l l o w i n g : Cooking a t home can be e a s i e r i f i t ' s a team e f f o r t . Why not make a game of i t ? You can get together w i t h other f a m i l y members and organize a meal. Everyone can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o shopping or cooking. And everyone can j o i n i n e a t i n g i t . (Foster et a l , 1985, p.280) C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and People i n So c i e t y suggest a c t i v i t i e s t o help students begin t o address the problem of d i v i s i o n of household t a s k s : (a) People i n S o c i e t y provides students w i t h a l i s t of chores and suggests t h a t students "using the l i s t , survey f i v e working couples t o f i n d out how chores are d i v i d e d " (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.172-17) and w r i t e a paragraph t o summarize the f i n d i n g s . The textbook does not ask students t o f i n d out i f the way chores are d i v i d e d i s perceived by e i t h e r or both members of the couple as a problem. J u s t because students f i n d out t h a t the chores are d i v i d e d one way or another does not make t h a t way n e c e s s a r i l y appropriate or unproblematic. Students need t o d i s c u s s t h i s and develop t h e i r own reasoned opinions about the e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n of chores but the textbook does not go t h i s f a r i n the Suggested A c t i v i t e s . (b) The Teacher's Resource Book f o r C r e a t i v e L i v i n g suggests an assignment "Cooking and Cleaning: A Family A f f a i r " which has students analyze r e s p o n s i b i l i t i t i e s i n the home, determine i f each member has "an equal share of household chores" and suggest ways i n which t o "balance the household r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s " (Weber, 1986, p.17). 125 Both Family L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g present marriage and career almost as mutually e x c l u s i v e options f o r females. Family L i v i n g acknowledges the choice i s more l i k e l y t o apply t o women: "Women may f i n d the prospect of a career more appealing than the idea of home management" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.363), and "Some people choose t o remain s i n g l e because they are pursuing a p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding car e e r " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.366). Although t h i s l a s t comment appears beside the photographs of two women, Family L i v i n g does not e x p l i c i t l y acknowledge t h a t t h i s a p p l i e s , i n ge n e r a l , t o women more than men or t h a t having t o make a choice i s a problem. Family L i v i n g goes on t o present c h i l d r e n and a career as incompatible options when d i s c u s s i n g the reasons t h a t people remain c h i l d l e s s : "Sometimes, a wi f e wants t o pursue a career without t a k i n g time out t o have c h i l d r e n " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.138). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does not acknowledge t h a t , at present, i t i s women who are most l i k e l y t o have t o make the choice between f a m i l y and career. Instead i t makes the n e u t r a l statement "Of course, not everyone chooses t o marry. You may p r e f e r t o dedicate your l i f e t o a career" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.96) as i f i t a p p l i e d e q u a l l y t o females and males. These textbooks g i v e the impression t h a t one must choose between family/marriage and career. Men have been able t o have both f a m i l i e s and car e e r s . I t i s women who have been having t o choose. The textbooks do not address t h i s d i f f e r e n c e as a problem nor do they adequately address the 126 p o s s i b i l i t y of choosing both or n e i t h e r . C h i l d Care In t h i s s e c t i o n the f i n d i n g s about who i s assumed t o be re s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d care tasks are reported. C o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t messages are considered. People i n S o c i e t y g i v e s the r o l e of c h i l d care t o women only through i m p l i c i t messages i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s mentioned e a r l i e r . The i n t e n t of the textbook may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n d i c a t e d by the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s s i n c e the t e x t of the book gi v e s no e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n about who should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d care. For t h a t reason, comments i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d t o the other two textbooks. Both Family L i v i n g and C r e a t i v e L i v i n g have e x p l i c i t messages advocating the sh a r i n g of parenting and the appropriateness of c h i l d care tasks f o r both females and males. The i m p l i c i t assumptions u n d e r l y i n g some of the comments of the textbooks, however, are i n c o n f l i c t w i t h these e x p l i c i t messages. The appropriateness of c h i l d care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r both females and males i s suggested i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by statements such as "Many people can parent, i n c l u d i n g parents and b a b y s i t t e r s . In some f a m i l i e s , parenting i s shared by the parents, grandparents, o l d e r brothers and s i s t e r s , and a day- care c e n t r e " (Foster et a l , 1985, p.119) and "Fathers share i n primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as changing d i a p e r s , feeding, e n t e r t a i n i n g , and showing love and a f f e c t i o n t o 127 t h e i r c h i l d r e n " (p.152). S i m i l a r ideas are expressed i n Family L i v i n g i n the form of i n c l u s i v e statements such as "Parenthood may be one of the most rewarding jobs you w i l l have as an a d u l t " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.150). Family L i v i n g , however, addresses many statements e x p l i c i t l y t o the f a t h e r i n advocating shared pa r e n t i n g . This i s seen i n the f o l l o w i n g : Throughout h i s t o r y , f a t h e r s have not been much i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d care. This has given r i s e t o the n o t i o n t h a t they shouldn't or can't handle the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Today the view t h a t f a t h e r s are unable or r e l u c t a n t t o care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s beginning t o change. Studies show t h a t f a t h e r s , i f given the op p o r t u n i t y , become as emotionally i n v o l v e d as mothers and are j u s t as capable and competent. (Leavenworth e t a l , 1 9 8 5 , p . l 6 9 ) Sharing c h i l d r a i s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s helps f a t h e r s l e a r n more about the development of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They and t h e i r c h i l d r e n become b e t t e r acquainted. Fathers who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c h i l d care have the p o t e n t i a l t o develop strong and s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . One study reported t h a t i n play s i t u a t i o n s w i t h both parents present, e i g h t month o l d i n f a n t s sought out t h e i r f a t h e r s . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p. 172) One of the d i f f e r e n c e s between these two textbooks i s t h a t , i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g , f a t h e r s are expected t o share i n "primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.152) such as feeding and d i a p e r i n g . In Family L i v i n g , however, there i s no mention of feeding, diaper changing or bathing. The work i n v o l v e d i n l o o k i n g a f t e r a baby i s ignored. Instead the emphasis i s on "attachment" (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.177- 179) and "growth and development" (p. 181-194). Bonding i s mentioned as a " c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n a baby's p h y s i c a l and mental growth" (p.176) and the bonding of f a t h e r s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s encouraged by statements such as " L i t t l e research 128 has been done on bonding between f a t h e r s and i n f a n t s , but p s y c h o l o g i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the same p a t t e r n probably e x i s t s " (p.177). Both C r e a t i v e L i v i n g and Family L i v i n g advocate the s h a r i n g of parenting. They do not e x p l i c i t l y express the assumption t h a t the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h a t r o l e f a l l s t o the mother. In s p i t e of t h a t , each of these textbooks makes statements which suggest t h a t women are l i k e l y t o leave the p a i d workforce t o look a f t e r c h i l d r e n . For example, Family L i v i n g s t a t e s : " I n d i r e c t c o s t s (of r a i s i n g a c h i l d ) r e f e r t o the p o t e n t i a l income l o s t i f a mother leaves her job t o r a i s e c h i l d r e n " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.154 - emphasis added). Family L i v i n g a l s o makes statements such as: "... mothers can take t h e i r i n f a n t s f o r r e g u l a r , f r e e checkups" (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.252) and "Shopping e x p e d i t i o n s f o r two mothers w i t h a c t i v e t o d d l e r s can be c h a o t i c . . . The mothers might w i s e l y decide t o take turns watching the c h i l d r e n " (p.235). The t r a d i t i o n a l assumption about who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d care a l s o passes unquestioned i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g : Two months l a t e r , Donna was pregnant. Neither of them had planned i t t h a t way or thought much about having a baby. Donna decided t o give up her job, and she postponed plans f o r s c h o o l . Mario withdrew h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o l l e g e and got a job d r i v i n g a d e l i v e r y t r u c k . (Foster et a l , 1985, p.149) Cr e a t i v e L i v i n g gives the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d care t o the mother, even i f those mothers are working i n the suggestions t h a t a "mother's he l p e r " i s one who "cares f o r 129 the c h i l d r e n of a working parent or working parents" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.154) and "Many mothers f i n d (school c a f e t e r i a work) a convenient job, because i t allows them t o work when t h e i r c h i l d r e n are i n school and t o be home a f t e r school i s i out" (p.157). 1 C r e a t i v e L i v i n g r e i n f o r c e s t r a d i t i o n a l p arenting s t y l e s , c a s t i n g the female i n the n u r t u r i n g r o l e and the male i n the d i s c i p l i n g r o l e . This can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g : "At home, i when your mother l e t s you stay overnight at a f r i e n d s house, she i s showing you t h a t she t r u s t s you" (Foster e t a l , 1985, p.17 - emphasis added), "mother p r a i s e s you f o r doing the food shopping w e l l " (p.41), "your f a t h e r y e l l s a t you" (p.41,) and "Does your f a t h e r always g i v e you a curfew ...?" (p.60). The only textbook which puts any emphasis on the t o p i c of b a b y s i t t i n g i s C r e a t i v e L i v i n g . This i s probably because i t i s aimed a t younger students than the other two textbooks. Once again the e x p l i c i t message appears to be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the i m p l i c i t message. The n e u t r a l statement "Many young people l i k e working as part-time c a r e g i v e r s " (Foster et a l , 1985, p.119) i s probably meant t o i n c l u d e males as b a b y s i t t e r s . This r o l e , however, i s i m p l i c i t l y given t o young women by the use of female names i n the examples. "Monique" i s a s s i s t i n g "Mrs. McArthur" by b a b y s i t t i n g f o r her and " i s even c o n s i d e r i n g a 'mother's h e l p e r ' job" (118-119); Annie (p.141) i s another b a b y s i t t e r ; and "Susan's budget" (p.194) in c l u d e s income from b a b y s i t t i n g . 130 S o c i a l i z a t i o n Many of the problems which women i n t h i s s o c i e t y experience may be r e l a t e d t o the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females and males. Since much s o c i a l i z a t i o n takes place i n the f a m i l y i t i s an appropriate t o p i c i n any course focused on f a m i l i e s . For t h a t reason, the treatment of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n each of the three textbooks was examined. In Family L i v i n g , the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i s mentioned as one of the f u n c t i o n s of f a m i l i e s but the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n of female and male c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e s no mention. One important f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i s t o s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s the process by which c h i l d r e n l e a r n behavior t h a t i s acceptable t o the f a m i l y and t o the r e s t of s o c i e t y . Most of your viewpoints and a t t i t u d e s are learned i n your f a m i l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.132) Sex r o l e s are not seen as a problem i n t h i s textbook, j u s t something t o be acquired from the c u l t u r e , passed on without q u e s t i o n i n g : "During (the years of childhood) c h i l d r e n a l s o become aware of whether they are female or male. As a r e s u l t , they l e a r n the d i f f e r e n t r o l e s assigned t o each sex i n t h e i r c u l t u r e " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.36) and "From observing ot h e r s , young c h i l d r e n l e a r n not only the proper behaviors f o r a d u l t r o l e s , but a l s o who should play those r o l e s " (p.204). Although i t has yet t o be proved, most experts b e l i e v e t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n human behavior r e s u l t from environmental d i f f e r e n c e s . Many parents tend t o t r e a t t h e i r male and female c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t l y , and a c h i l d tends t o i m i t a t e the behavior, or r o l e , of the parent of the same sex. Role i s a major f a c t o r i n the way boys and g i r l s behave, and i n the expectations they w i l l have toward the opposite sex. (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.22) 131 The textbook does not r e f e r t o the s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n nor i s the d i f f e r e n c e t r e a t e d as a problem. The t o p i c of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n People i n S o c i e t y . " S o c i a l i z a t i o n d e s c r i b e s the l i f e l o n g process by which we l e a r n the b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and customs t h a t make up our c u l t u r e . We l e a r n about and shape our behavior through contact w i t h other people, o f t e n i n groups" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.57). S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s l i s t e d as one of the "Functions of the Family" (p.177). However, when s o c i a l i z a t i o n of small c h i l d r e n i s d e a l t w i t h (p.99), there i s no mention of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females and males. The textbook i n c l u d e s sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the s e c t i o n on adolescence. In the preview, students are asked t o "Make a l i s t of the ways i n which your upbringing might be d i f f e r e n t i f you were a member of the opposite sex" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.116). About sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n the textbook s t a t e s : Although everyone goes through a process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , not a l l people are s o c i a l i z e d e q u a l l y ... Stereotypes, l i k e a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , do not take i n t o account i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and tend t o l a g behind changes i n s o c i a l custom... U n t i l r e c e n t l y , g i r l s were expected t o play g e n t l e games and t o be sweet and s e n s i t i v e . Boys were expected t o take p a r t i n rough s p o r t s and t o be strong and tough. Although our s o c i e t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed males and females i n these ways these views do not e x i s t everywhere. (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.133) (Two examples are given from other c u l t u r e s . ) c h i l d r e n develop t h e i r understanding of sex r o l e s through a v a r i e t y of agents - parents, other a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s , 132 peers, a d v e r t i s i n g , and other media. In our s o c i e t y , sex- r o l e expectations are i n the process of changing. Changing gender expectations are r e f l e c t e d i n the way we r a i s e our children.(Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.135) Although these comments are not s p e c i f i c enough to be r e a l l y h e l p f u l i n the development of appropriate parenting s k i l l s or an understanding of the power and pervasiveness of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , at l e a s t the tone of the comments appears t o favour the changes t a k i n g p l a c e . People i n S o c i e t y suggests s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s which have students f o c u s i n g on female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.135 & 137). The Teacher Resource book a l s o contains an e x e r c i s e "Sex Roles and Careers" (Hanson & Gower, 1988b, p.71). C r e a t i v e L i v i n g does not mention s o c i a l i z a t i o n even though i t i s e x p l i c i t i n i t s i n t e n t i o n t o oppose s t e r e o t y p i n g which w i l l " l i m i t your chances" (Foster et a l , 1985, p.79). The sources of s t e r e o t y p i n g are s a i d t o be " t r a d i t i o n " and "media". The concept of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s addressed only i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n but the importance i s downplayed. Even though much s o c i a l i z a t i o n takes place i n f a m i l i e s , these textbooks give l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n c e i n female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The r o l e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n agents other than the f a m i l y i s minimized and no r e c o g n i t i o n i s given t o the problems a r i s i n g from the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females and males. Relationships The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between females and males. Since these books are addressed t o adolescents and are concerned w i t h personal 133 l i v e s r a t h e r than c a r e e r s , most of the r e l a t i o n s h i p comments r e l a t e t o d a t i n g , c o u r t s h i p and marriage. C r e a t i v e L i v i n g i n c l u d e s suggestions on r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as where t o go on a date, "Crushes", "Love", and "Breaking Up" (p.90). The d i s c u s s i o n i s kept n e u t r a l as i n " A r r i v e on time, or c a l l i f you're l a t e " and "Be ready on time. Don't keep your date w a i t i n g " (p.91). Mention of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i s avoided. For example, no one phones another t o ask f o r the date, no one d r i v e s a c a r , no one pays. The book attempts t o deal more w i t h f e e l i n g s than w i t h d a t i n g p r a c t i c e s . Because p r a c t i c e s are never discussed or questioned, change i s not encouraged. Family L i v i n g r e f e r s t o "A Loving R e l a t i o n s h i p " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.81) r a t h e r than t o " d a t i n g " and " c o u r t s h i p " . Much of the d i s c u s s i o n i n the content centers around "Myths about Love" (p.74). Family L i v i n g , however, i s the only textbook which e x p l i c i t l y attempts t o deal w i t h e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l b e i t t r i v i a l i z e d and s i m p l i f i e d : In h e a l t h y , growing love r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the two people are committed t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining e q u a l i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . E q u a l i t y means t h a t the ideas and f e e l i n g s of both people are considered whenever a d e c i s i o n i s t o be made t h a t w i l l a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p . (Leavenworth, 1985, p.83) The reasons f o r e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r a t h e r t r i v i a l : " I f one person makes a l l the d e c i s i o n s , t h a t person may soon f e e l pressured, w h i l e the other person may f e e l l e f t out and r e s e n t f u l " (p.83); "avoids misunderstandings and enhances f e e l i n g s of t r u s t " (p.82); "more secure" (p.82); and "more 134 fun" (p.83). E q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a l s o t r i v i a l i z e d i n the review questions which ask Students t o " e x p l a i n some ways i n which e q u a l i t y can e n l i v e n a r e l a t i o n s h i p " (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.86 - emphasis added). The book f a i l s t o recognize the d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s because of male/female s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r a l e xpectations. Family L i v i n g attempts t o r a i s e questions about marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p s : "In democratic marriages, who has a u t h o r i t y ? I s i t p o s s i b l e t o share d e c i s i o n making on a l l i s s u e s ? " (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.120). These questions are f o l l o w e d immediately by a weak statement "Each couple w i l l need t o work out the answers f o r themselves i n c o n s t u c t i v e ways" (p.120). The students are given no help i n searching out n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l answers t o the questions r a i s e d . At times Family L i v i n g appears t o advocate e q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s but i t a l s o attempts t o be v a l u e - f r e e i n t r y i n g t o acknowledge both t r a d i t i o n a l and e q u i t a b l e marriage r o l e s as appropriate choices. This textbook i s not c o n t r o v e r s i a l . I t doesn't take a stand or even d i s c u s s the advantages and disadvantages of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The wavering stance adopted by t h i s textbook can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g : Even though t h e i r experiences d i f f e r , most couples do develop i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s according t o p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n s ... The terms husband and w i f e imply a s e t of r o l e s . I f a marriage i s t o succeed, a couple must agree on what they expect of themselves and each other i n the r o l e s of husband and w i f e . (Leavenworth et a l , 1985, p.114) In the t r a d i t i o n a l view of m a r i t a l r o l e s , c e r t a i n t r a i t s and t asks are assigned t o the husband and w i f e . "Father 135 knows best," f o r example i s an o l d saying t h a t assumes s u p e r i o r wisdom i n the males. Various s t u d i e s show t h a t many couples s t i l l view t h e i r r o l e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l terms. Unmarried people, too, o f t e n express t h e i r d e s i r e t o d i v i d e household t a s k s along t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s when they marry, w i t h women c a r i n g f o r the home and c h i l d r e n and men t a k i n g on f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Nevertheless, the m a j o r i t y of people surveyed i n recent years regarding t h e i r views on m a r i t a l r o l e s b e l i e v e d t h a t women should not be r e s t r i c t e d t o the home and t h a t men should share the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing the home. The view t h a t women can perform most jobs, except those r e q u i r i n g great p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , as capably as men has gained i n acceptance. A number of n a t i o n a l p o l l s and surveys conducted during the 1970s i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y of husbands now f e e l l e s s pressure t o be the a l l - p o w e r f u l , a l l knowing a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e i n the home and t h a t they perform many household t a s k s . More and more people are coming to b e l i e v e t h a t both husband and w i f e should c o n t r i b u t e both money and household labour t o the support of the f a m i l y . (Leavenworth e t a l , 1985, p.114-115) The content of People i n S o c i e t y deals more w i t h h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s than w i t h present p r a c t i c e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Subheadings i n c l u d e "Arranged Marriages" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.148), "Dowry and B r i d e p r i c e " (p.150), and "Romantic Marriages"(p.150). The h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s are simply presented, not c r i t i c a l l y analyzed w i t h respect t o what they say about the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s between women and men. In r e f e r r i n g t o c u r r e n t Canadian customs, People i n S o c i e t y d i scusses the process, "casual d a t i n g " , "going steady", "becoming engaged", and " g e t t i n g married" (Hanson & Gower, 1988a, p.154). The d i s c u s s i o n i s kept very n e u t r a l as i n "Dating a l s o helps people l e a r n t o get along w i t h others and t o accomodate d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s " (p.155.) There i s no mention of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and no c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of them. The Suggested A c t i v i t i e s do not encourage c r i t i c a l 136 a n a l y s i s of any of the c u l t u r a l , past, or present t r a d i t i o n s . Some comments i n People i n S o c i e t y unconsciously r e i n f o r c e the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of male as the pursuer and female as the pursued. For example, "Danny i s so shy t h a t he cannot ask Kathy f o r a date" (p.116) and "Courtship begins at sundown each day when groups of ardent young men ... c a l l on young women i n t h e i r thatched homes" (p.153). Although the textbooks d i s c u s s c o u r t s h i p , d a t i n g , and love they do not deal i n any way w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l s (eg. boys as k i n g , paying, d r i v i n g ) which keep females dependent and v u l n e r a b l e . Only one of the textbooks attempts t o d e a l w i t h e q u i t a b l e marriages and then only very weakly because i t a l s o attempts t o be v a l u e - f r e e . There i s no mention of r e l a t i o n s h i p s other than marriage and a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are heterosexual. Past and present p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s are never c r i t i c a l l y analyzed t o determine what assumptions are made about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between women and men. Many t o p i c s important t o the achievement of gender e q u i t y are inc l u d e d i n the content of the textbooks examined. However, the i n c l u s i o n of important t o p i c s i s by i t s e l f not enough. I t i s important t o consider how these t o p i c s are inc l u d e d . In the textbooks examined there were c o n f l i c t s between e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t messages, some t o p i c s were examined from a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n than from a female or gender balanced p e r s p e c t i v e , the treatment of iss u e s was o f t e n t r i v i a l r a t h e r than s u b s t a n t i v e and c r i t i c a l 137 a n a l y s i s of i s s u e s was not encouraged. In general the textbooks s t r i v e more o f t e n f o r gender n e u t r a l i t y than f o r gender s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance. Summary of Findings This study examined v a r i o u s p a r t s of home economics textbooks f o r evidence of gender b i a s . The d e t a i l s reported i n t h i s chapter are b r i e f l y summarized. The preface of the t e x t s revealed t h a t the books were intended t o address e i t h e r a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience or a female and male audience. Two of the textbooks assumed a view of l e a r n e r s as absorbing knowledge i n the form of f a c t s , whereas the t h i r d textbook assumed t h a t students w i l l c r i t i c a l l y appraise knowledge. Implied i n each of the prefaces was the suggestion t h a t the textbooks may address some i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y . The t a b l e s of contents i n a l l three textbooks were w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language making i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine i f e q u i t y i s s u e s were addressed. Some t o p i c s had the p o t e n t i a l t o address gender e q u i t y i s s u e s . The textbooks v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n the number of r e l e v a n t t o p i c s i n c l u d e d . The examination of t a b l e s of contents revealed no mention of the women's movement. L i k e the t a b l e s of contents, the index of each t e x t was w r i t t e n i n i n c l u s i v e language. Sex s p e c i f i c language was o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d . Some use of sex s p e c i f i c language revealed t h a t the knowledge was presented from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . The textbooks v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n the i n c l u s i o n of 138 t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y but a l l textbooks showed the p o t e n t i a l t o address some important i s s u e s . In the photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , b a l a n c i n g the t o t a l numbers of females and males was one of the ways the problem of gender b i a s was addressed. However, when adolescents alone were considered, two t e x t s emphasized males and one t e x t emphasized females. Non-white adolescent females were not represented or were po o r l y represented. A d u l t and adolescent women, when shown i n occupational r o l e s , were p i c t u r e d most f r e q u e n t l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . The p o r t r a y a l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the p r i v a t e sphere showed considerable v a r i a t i o n . One t e x t portrayed females more o f t e n than males i n home management and home maintenance t a s k s . Another t e x t portrayed these tasks i n f r e q u e n t l y but showed a balance between females and males. The t h i r d t e x t d i d not po r t r a y any of these tasks f o r e i t h e r females or males. In two of the t e x t s , c h i l d c a r e g i v i n g was f r e q u e n t l y portrayed but t h i s r o l e was assigned t o females. In the t h i r d t e x t , t h i s r o l e was almost completely ignored but the two photographs portrayed a female and a male. Two of the textbooks i n c l u d e d token photographs of females and males i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The t h i r d textbook does not in c l u d e these tokens. Two of the textbooks p o r t r a y males as more a c t i v e or dominant than females. Males v i s u a l l y dominate one book because of the s i z e and c o l o u r of the photographs of s o l i t a r y males. One textbook p o r t r a y s females more f r e q u e n t l y than males and as more a c t i v e or dominant but i n t r a d i t i o n a l 139 r o l e s . These f i n d i n g s revealed t h a t simply a c h i e v i n g a balance between t o t a l numbers of females and males i n photographs does not e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s . The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s of the textbooks d e a l t w i t h gender b i a s i n c o n s i s t e n t l y . Many problems of b i a s were found. These s e c t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y gave a one-sided p r e s e n t a t i o n of an i s s u e , most o f t e n from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . Most of the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s used i n c l u s i v e language thereby masking or e x c l u d i n g important gender i s s u e s . Most examples of s e x i s t language were found i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s as i f i t i s not monitored as c a r e f u l l y i n these s e c t i o n s . H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were a l s o found t o r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l patterns of behaviour f o r females and males. Some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s attempted t o deal w i t h gender b i a s but r a r e l y s u c c e s s f u l l y . A few examples e x h i b i t e d balance i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . Some drew a t t e n t i o n t o female and male d i f f e r e n c e s but in c l u d e d too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o be of value i n understanding the problems. Others h i g h l i g h t e d i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y but f a i l e d t o take a strong p o s i t i o n i n favour of e q u i t y . The h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were found t o e x h i b i t problems of gender b i a s as w e l l as t o attempt t o deal w i t h problems of gender e q u i t y . The content of the textbooks was a l s o found t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the maintenance of problems r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y . Two of the textbooks presented i n f o r m a t i o n as f a c t s f o r r e t e n t i o n by the l e a r n e r . The t h i r d t e x t attempted t o encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g but f r e q u e n t l y f a i l e d i n t h i s 140 attempt. The content of a l l the textbooks was g e n e r a l l y expressed i n i n c l u s i v e language which f r e q u e n t l y masked the r e a l i t y of gender i s s u e s . The o c c a s i o n a l use of sex s p e c i f i c language l e d t o the problems of r e i n f o r c i n g stereotypes and presenti n g only one pe r s p e c t i v e on an i s s u e . None of the textbooks took a stro n g stand on any women's is s u e s or e q u i t y i s s u e s , and the women's movement was b a s i c a l l y ignored. The t e x t s have taken minor and t e n t a t i v e steps i n the d i r e c t i o n of gender e q u i t y but t h i s e f f o r t was weakened by attempts t o be v a l u e - f r e e or n e u t r a l on i s s u e s . At times the e x p l i c i t messages of the content were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the i m p l i c i t messages. These f i n d i n g s show t h a t , although some attempts have been made t o e l i m i n a t e gender b i a s , much b i a s s t i l l e x i s t s . The textbooks do not promote gender e q u i t y . 141 Chapter 4 DISCUSSION This research examined three home economics t e x t s and questioned how these t e x t s may or may not c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y i n s c h o o l i n g . The research was guided by three questions: 1. To whom i s the textbook e x p l i c i t l y and implicitly addressed? i . Who i s the intended audience of the textbook? i i . Are the images portrayed female or male? i i i . Is the knowledge expressed from a female or male perspective? T r a d i t i o n a l l y , home economics textbooks addressed a female audience. The e l i m i n a t i o n of gender b i a s demands t h a t the concerns of females and males be in c l u d e d . The audience addressed by each textbook was e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t i n the t e x t . The intended audience was e x p l i c i t l y revealed or i m p l i e d i n the preface. Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) examined the prefaces of t e x t s . Inherent i n t h e i r work were two assumptions: f i r s t , the t a r g e t audience of a textbook could be determined by a n a l y z i n g the preface and second, addressing a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience was non-sexist. Both of these assumptions were questioned by t h i s research. The assumption t h a t a t a r g e t audience can be determined by reading the preface a p p l i e d only t o the intended audience. An i m p l i e d audience, addressed unconsciously and u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , was revealed i n other p a r t s of the textbooks. 142 Even though the e x p l i c i t i n t e n t i o n s t a t e d i n the preface of one of the textbooks was t o address both female and male students, there was a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h i s i n t e n t i o n and the message conveyed i n other p a r t s of the t e x t . This book featured more females, e s p e c i a l l y adolescent females, i n the photographs and used more h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s d i r e c t e d to females or from a female p e r s p e c t i v e . The content of t h i s book was so n e u t r a l i z e d t h a t i t addressed some androgenous person, n e i t h e r female nor male. Even i f an i n t e n t i o n t o address a female and male audience i s e x p l i c i t l y s e t f o r t h i n a preface i t cannot be assumed t h i s i n t e n t i o n w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s t of the textbook. Examination of other p a r t s of the book i s e s s e n t i a l t o determine i f the intended audience s t a t e d i n the preface i s the same as the i m p l i e d audience conveyed i n the remainder of the book. A n o n - s p e c i f i c audience was assumed by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) t o be non-sexist and i n c l u s i v e of females and males. The prefaces of two textbooks i m p l i e d t h a t a non- s p e c i f i c audience of females and males was addressed. Both these textbooks addressed males more than females. They fe a t u r e d more adolescent males than females i n the photographs, featured males or gave a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y n e u t r a l i z e d or t r i v i a l i z e d i s s u e s of importance t o females i n the content. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s research suggest t h a t the i n t e n t i o n t o address a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience may not c o n t r i b u t e t o gender 143 s e n s i t i v i t y and gender balance. A n a l y s i s of a preface alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r determining i f females and males w i l l be inc l u d e d e q u a l l y i n a t e x t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , home economics textbooks portrayed more female than male images. In attempting t o e l i m i n a t e b i a s , home economics t e x t s faced a unique problem. Whereas textbooks i n most sub j e c t s have had t o s t r i v e t o i n c l u d e more females, home economics textbooks have had t o i n c l u d e more males. Photographs are an important fe a t u r e of t e x t s and can appeal e i t h e r t o females or males. Images contained i n the photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s were examined i n r e l a t i o n to the question of who i s addressed by the textbook. One textbook was very t r a d i t i o n a l . Although an apparent attempt had been made t o i n c l u d e males, more female than male images remained i n the photographs, e s p e c i a l l y i n a c t i v i t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by females. Photographs of s o l i t a r y females were more preva l e n t than those of s o l i t a r y males and very few photographs featured both females and males. Despite the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n t o address females and males s t a t e d i n the preface, the photographs i n t h i s t e x t address females. This f i n d i n g suggests t h a t the unequal p o r t r a y a l of female and male images may u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y occur i n t e x t s , making examination of photographs important. Both the other textbooks i n c l u d e d more male than female images. One featured many photographs of both females and males but in c l u d e d s l i g h t l y more male images than female ones 144 (although there were three times as many adolescent males as females). Males d i d not v i s u a l l y dominate the book, because the l a c k of co l o u r made these photographs l e s s d e c o r a t i v e . Most photographs i n the t h i r d book fea t u r e d females and males, making t h i s t e x t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those examined by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983), both of whom found a higher p r o p o r t i o n of female only photographs. This textbook achieved the best balance i n numbers of females and males. However, i t a l s o c reated a new problem r e l a t e d t o gender b i a s i n home economics. This textbook featured more s o l i t a r y males than s o l i t a r y females. The use of f u l l page, d e c o r a t i v e p i c t u r e s of s o l i t a r y males made them more v i s i b l e than females. In attempting t o overcome the problem of emphasizing females, t h i s textbook made male images more dominant. This research i n d i c a t e s t h a t , not only the t o t a l number of females and males i s important, but a l s o t h a t the c o l o u r , s i z e and number of people i n the photographs should be considered. These f i n d i n g s suggest the i n t e n t i o n t o address females and males s t a t e d or i m p l i e d i n the preface was c o n t r a d i c t e d by emphasizing e i t h e r females or males i n photographs. In e f f o r t s t o i n c l u d e males i n home economics textbooks i t w i l l be important t o avoid making females l e s s v i s i b l e than males. H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content ( i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s ) were examined t o determine i f the knowledge contained w i t h i n them was expressed from a female or male p e r s p e c t i v e . Research on textbooks other than home economics 145 textbooks suggested t h a t knowledge i s most frequently- expressed from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . No research on home economics textbooks considered the pe r s p e c t i v e from which knowledge was presented but Weis (1979) determined t h a t females were given more d i r e c t i o n regarding r o l e behaviors than males. The most t r a d i t i o n a l home economics textbook focused more h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s on females than on males. The content of t h i s book was s i m p l i f i e d and n e u t r a l i z e d so t h a t the book was addressed t o an androgenous person. The knowledge was not u s u a l l y expressed from e i t h e r a female or male p e r s p e c t i v e . Problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gender were ignored because gender was e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s textbook was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h respect t o the audience addressed. The photographs and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s addressed females and the content addressed n e i t h e r even though the preface i n d i c a t e d t h a t both females and males would be addressed. Males were c o n s i s t e n t l y emphasized i n the other two t e x t s . H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s focused on males or expressed knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . In the content, these t e x t s a l s o addressed males more than females and presented a male p e r s p e c t i v e more o f t e n than a female one. This problem was evident i n the emphasis on the changing r o l e of males i n the n u r t u r i n g of c h i l d r e n , the impact of div o r c e on the f a t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c h i l d r e n , and iss u e s such as " p a t e r n i t y leave". These two t e x t s e x h i b i t e d g r e a t e r 146 consistency than the other t e x t - Photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content a l l addressed males more than females and presented a male p e r s p e c t i v e . Because the prefaces of these t e x t s were n o n - s p e c i f i c w i t h respect t o the t a r g e t audience, t h i s research questions the assumption t h a t addressing a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience i s non-sexist and i n c l u d e s females and males. This research suggests i t i s important t o consider both the intended audience and the i m p l i e d , unintended audience when a n a l y z i n g textbooks. The preface may r e v e a l the intended audience but the photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content r e v e a l an i m p l i e d audience. Messages conveyed by these p a r t s of the books may be i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Gender e q u i t y l i t e r a t u r e suggests both females and males must be inc l u d e d i n textbooks and knowledge expressed from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of both. Textbooks may intend t o address both females and males by being n o n - s p e c i f i c . However, the no t i o n of gender s e n s i t i v i t y r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o gender. I t i s t h e r e f o r e appropriate t o be e x p l i c i t about addressing females and males. This i n t e n t i o n should be combined w i t h very c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content, addressing both females and males and i n c l u d i n g both female and male p e r s p e c t i v e s . Home economics textbooks face a challenge when i n c l u d i n g 147 males. In order t o achieve gender balance, knowledge should be presented from both female and male pe r s p e c t i v e s without making a male p e r s p e c t i v e appear more valued or dominant than a female one. In order t o achieve gender s e n s i t i v i t y , t h i s balance must be achieved without i g n o r i n g the problems women experience as a r e s u l t of the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender. 2. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s are assumed by the textbook? i . Are l e a r n e r s expected t o accept the textbook knowledge as presented? i i . Are l e a r n e r s encouraged t o question s o c i a l arrangements or analyze s o c i a l problems? i i i . Are l e a r n e r s encouraged t o question and challenge the textbook? No previous research on gender b i a s i n textbooks analyzed t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r o l e i n s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n yet c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t thought i n s i s t s s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . This research question was posed i n order t o determine i f these t e x t s p l a y a r o l e i n s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through encouraging c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i n q u i r y . The question was addressed by examining the preface, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content ( i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s ) of the textbooks. The assumed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e a r n e r s were suggested by the prefaces. Two textbooks i m p l i e d i n the preface t h a t students would absorb knowledge contained i n the textbook, accepting i t as presented. The content and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s i n the t e x t s were presented i n a way c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s i n t e n t i o n . Knowledge was presented as f a c t s and a c t i v i t i e s were designed t o t e s t the student's r e c a l l or 148 understanding of these f a c t s . C r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t pedagogy r e j e c t s the n o t i o n of the l e a r n e r as a passive r e c i p i e n t of knowledge and knowledge as immutable f a c t . Although c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of these t e x t s could be encouraged by the teacher, the t e x t s alone do not encourage c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i n q u i r y . The t h i r d textbook s t a t e d c l e a r l y i n the preface t h a t students were knowledgeable and able t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s . To some extent, t h i s t e x t d i d encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g on s o c i a l i s s u e s , p r e s e n t i n g more than one viewpoint on an i s s u e and encouraging students t o take a stand on an iss u e and defend or r e f u t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n . This t e x t a l s o encouraged students t o consider ways of becoming p o l i t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h respect t o c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l i s s u e s . This suggestion i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Anyon's, (1979) p o s i t i o n t h a t students need t o l e a r n t h a t i t i s appropriate f o r females, as w e l l as males, t o engage i n p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t . None of the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s suggested, however, r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o gender i s s u e s . This textbook f r e q u e n t l y f e l l s h ort of i t s goal of developing c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . Many a c t i v i t i e s were based only on r e c a l l of inf o r m a t i o n presented and others considered problems from a male p e r s p e c t i v e only. O c c a s i o n a l l y the pr e s e n t a t i o n of inf o r m a t i o n was biased, as i n the d i s m i s s a l of the f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m of three p s y c h o l o g i s t s . These f i n d i n g s once again suggest the i n t e n t i o n s t a t e d i n the preface may not be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s t of the book. This 149 i n c o n s i s t e n c y makes examination of h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content, i n c l u d i n g student a c t i v i t i e s , e s s e n t i a l . At no time d i d any of the textbooks suggest students should question or challenge the textbook. In a l l three textbooks, l e a r n e r s were expected to accept the a u t h o r i t y of the t e x t . In p r a c t i c e , however, the t e x t i n use i s mediated by a teacher who can encourage i t s use i n a c r i t i c a l way. One p o s s i b l e way f o r t e x t s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender eq u i t y i s t o encourage students t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i e t y and s o c i a l i s s u e s w i t h gender e q u i t y as a g o a l . I f textbook knowledge i s t o p l a y a p a r t i n s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as suggested by Weiler (1988), i n f o r m a t i o n should be considered problematic r a t h e r than f a c t u a l and students should l e a r n t o c r i t i c a l l y examine s o c i a l i s s u e s and develop ways of a f f e c t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . C r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t educators have a p o l i t i c a l commitment t o the improvement of the c o n d i t i o n of females. Presenting s t a t i s t i c s on problems such as poverty or w i f e abuse i s not enough. An i n d i v i d u a l approach t o these problems i s a l s o inadequate. More important i s an understanding of the r o l e t h a t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l i z a t i o n play i n the development of s o c i e t a l problems. Feminist teaching has a counter-hegemonic goal (Weiler, 1988). I t exposes the e x i s t i n g order and develops an understanding of s o c i a l f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g our l i v e s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of causes and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l problems i s e s s e n t i a l i f home economics textbooks are t o 150 c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y . 3. I n what way does the textbook de a l w i t h gender b i a s ? I s i t b i a s e d o r i s i t n e u t r a l , balanced, o r s e n s i t i v e ? The sub-questions of t h i s research question w i l l be examined s e p a r a t e l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . i . I s the language s e x i s t or are i n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language used a p p r o p r i a t e l y ? Language was analyzed i n a l l p a r t s of the textbooks except the preface and photographs. S e x i s t language appeared i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s more than i n other s e c t i o n s of the books. A l l three books used the generic "he" i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . One t e x t a l s o used the sex s p e c i f i c word, housewife, t o apply t o a generic s i t u a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , when p u b l i s h e r s were checking f o r b i a s i n language, the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s were omitted from t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n so t h a t s e x i s t language was l e f t i n . The major way these t e x t s d e a l t w i t h sexism i n language was through the use of i n c l u s i v e words. i n gen e r a l , t h i s made i t d i f f i c u l t t o detect e i t h e r gender b i a s or gender balance and s e n s i t i v i t y i n the index or t a b l e of contents. Language was examined i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content of the t e x t s and a l l showed evidence of s t r i v i n g t o be non-sexist through gender n e u t r a l i t y . However, i n a p p r o p r i a t e use of i n c l u s i v e language caused problems. I t masked d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men and ignored disadvantages women s u f f e r as a r e s u l t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I n c l u s i v e language a l s o l e d t o the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of research f i n d i n g s t o both 151 sexes, even though the research may have been c a r r i e d out on one sex only. I n c l u s i v e language was not used t o the e x c l u s i o n of sex s p e c i f i c language. O c c a s i o n a l l y gender balance and gender s e n s i t i v i t y were i m p l i e d by the use of sex s p e c i f i c language i n the index. Gender balance was suggested i n one t e x t by i n c l u s i o n of sex s p e c i f i c concepts such as mothering and f a t h e r i n g , women and men. Gender s e n s i t i v i t y was suggested i n the t a b l e of contents of the same t e x t by i n c l u s i o n of "wife abuse". In a l l t e x t s , sex s p e c i f i c language created problems of b i a s r a t h e r than gender balance and s e n s i t i v i t y i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content. Sex s p e c i f i c language ignored or minimized the r o l e of one sex while emphasizing the other. I t a l s o r e i n f o r c e d sex stereotypes as i n the a l t e r n a t i n g use of "she" and "he" and i n the examples which contained e i t h e r "mother" or " f a t h e r " . I f textbooks are t o be gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced, not j u s t n o n - s e x i s t , both i n c l u s i v e and sex- s p e c i f i c language must be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a l l p a r t s of the book. I n c l u s i v e language i s appropriate and i t s use i s important when a concept a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o both females and males. Sex s p e c i f i c language i s appropriate when addressing problems r e l a t i n g t o gender. I t i s important t h a t i n c l u s i v e language not mask gender problems and t h a t sex s p e c i f i c language not lead t o an unbalanced p r e s e n t a t i o n or the r e i n f o r c i n g of stereotypes. 152 This research suggests t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s e x i s t language i s not an easy matter. Pronouns are no longer an adequate i n d i c a t o r of sexism as i n the research by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) because they are g e n e r a l l y used i n c l u s i v e l y or avoided. False generic terms (VSB, 1987) have g e n e r a l l y been replaced by i n c l u s i v e words. Determining gender b i a s i n language now must address E i c h l e r ' s (1987) concern of using i n c l u s i v e language t o address sex s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The judgement no longer depends upon the word i t s e l f but on the context w i t h i n which i t i s used. Therefore, an understanding of gender problems i s e s s e n t i a l so appropriate judgements can be made about the use of both i n c l u s i v e and sex s p e c i f i c language. i i i Are both female and male images and i s s u e s i n c l u d e d e q u i t a b l y ? Does the textbook r e i n f o r c e the v a l u i n g system which g i v e s more emphasis and importance t o t r a d i t i o n a l male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s than t o t r a d i t i o n a l female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s ? One of the e a s i e s t and most obvious ways of countering gender b i a s i n t e x t s i s t o attempt t o balance the number of female and male images i n photographs. In home economics textbook t h i s was done by adding males. A l l textbooks examined came c l o s e ( d i f f e r e n c e no g r e a t e r than 11%) t o a c h i e v i n g an o v e r a l l sex balance i n photographs. There was a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e when c h i l d r e n were considered. Two of the textbooks i n c l u d e d more male c h i l d r e n than female c h i l d r e n which may r e f l e c t the higher value which many c u l t u r e s place on male c h i l d r e n . There was an even g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e when 153 only adolescents were considered. Two of the textbooks in c l u d e d more adolescent males than females. This may have been the r e s u l t of attempting t o i n c l u d e males i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female dominated area, but had the e f f e c t of p l a c i n g more value on males than females. The low re p r e s e n t a t i o n of non-white adolescents, e s p e c i a l l y females, a l s o i n d i c a t e d an undervaluing of females and a l a c k of concern f o r a c h i e v i n g a balance which more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s the r a c i a l balance of the country. The male emphasis i n one of the textbooks and the female emphasis i n another was r e f l e c t e d by the i n c l u s i o n of a gre a t e r number of s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y women have been considered most f r e q u e n t l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h oth e r s . I t w i l l be important t o fe a t u r e s o l i t a r y women i n photographs, but not predominantly i n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as i n the textbook w i t h female emphasis. Balanced i n c l u s i o n of females and males i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s , both t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , could c o n t r i b u t e t o gender balance. Another major way these textbooks d e a l t w i t h gender b i a s was through adapting knowledge t o i n c l u d e males. There were some examples i n which i n f o r m a t i o n f o r females and males was inc l u d e d i n a balanced way. In some h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content, however, the emphasis on males and the shaping of knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i c i t l y gave more value t o males. 154 A l l textbooks d e a l t w i t h i s s u e s p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . These i s s u e s were addressed f a c t u a l l y r a t h e r than p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . In one t e x t , the n e u t r a l i z a t i o n and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of content minimized controversy. The other two textbooks g e n e r a l l y shaped knowledge about r e l e v a n t i s s u e s from a male more than female p e r s p e c t i v e , as i n the bonding of f a t h e r s t o i n f a n t s and i n the need f o r p a t e r n i t y leave. Although changes i n the r o l e s of women w i l l r e q u i r e compensatory education f o r males, t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on males reshaped knowledge from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . As a r e s u l t , fewer women's is s u e s than men's iss u e s were emphasized. A l s o , the disadvantages women s u f f e r , such as heavier work loads i n p r i v a t e sphere work and lower incomes i n p u b l i c sphere work, were minimized. The i n t e g r a t i o n of both female and male concerns i s e s s e n t i a l t o the achievement of gender balance. The v a l u i n g (or l a c k of va l u i n g ) of women's t r a d i t i o n a l work was evident when photographs of home maintenance work were examined. I t should be reasonable t o expect t h a t a textbook used i n home economics would value h i g h l y the work done i n homes. The most t r a d i t i o n a l home economics textbook featured f a r more photographs of work i n homes than d i d the other textbooks. The textbook w i t h the highest v i s i b l i t y of males gave more emphasis i n photographs t o f a m i l y togetherness and fun than t o work done i n f a m i l i e s . The t h i r d textbook i n c l u d e s no photographs of home maintenance work. As home economists seek t o i n c l u d e more males i n t h e i r s u b j e c t , 155 i t w i l l be important t o avoid adopting a male dominated value system which g i v e s l i t t l e emphasis t o work done i n the p r i v a t e sphere. The low value placed on work done i n homes was r e f l e c t e d i n the content of these t e x t s as w e l l as i n the photographs. Sharing work i n homes was emphasized i n one t e x t but i t was a l s o t r i v i a l i z e d as "fun". Another t e x t emphasized the shar i n g of the n u r t u r i n g r o l e but ignored the work i n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n and the work of home management and home maintenance. The t h i r d t e x t i n c l u d e d nothing about work t r a d i t i o n a l l y done by women or the importance of r e d i s t r i b u t i n g t h i s work. I t appears t h a t , i n attempts t o in c l u d e males, the content was revalued and some t r a d i t i o n a l content was omitted. The problem of the dual work r o l e of women can be ignored i f work done i n homes i s t r i v i a l i z e d or ignored. The achievement of gender e q u i t y w i l l depend upon the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of work i n the p r i v a t e sphere and the v a l u i n g of t h i s work by both females and males. Education has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been defined by males and has been r e l a t e d t o the p u b l i c sphere. M a r t i n (1985) i n s i s t s t h a t education must no longer reproduce the s p l i t between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e spheres. A gender balanced and gender s e n s i t i v e education w i l l i n c l u d e education f o r and about both spheres. This education i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l . As home economics textbooks seek t o i n c l u d e males, knowledge must not be reshaped t o exclude t r a d i t i o n a l l y female experience and 156 knowledge. i i i . Are s t e r e o t y p i c a l roles and relationships and the dual work role of women reinforced? A l l three textbooks r e i n f o r c e d the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour by i m p l i c i t l y l o c a t i n g women most f r e q u e n t l y i n s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s whether i n the p r i v a t e sphere or the p u b l i c sphere. This was evident i n the photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content. In the photographs of two textbooks, more men than women were shown i n p u b l i c sphere work r o l e s . R arely d i d these t e x t s p o r t r a y women i n occupations i n v o l v i n g power or i n f l u e n c e . They were most f r e q u e n t l y portrayed i n n u r t u r i n g , food s e r v i c e , and c l o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n r o l e s . In the t h i r d book, more women than men were p i c t u r e d i n occupational r o l e s but then most f r e q u e n t l y i n t r a d i t i o n a l , n u r t u r i n g r o l e s . This textbook featured two women i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l occupations but emphasized t h a t they remained s i n g l e because the work was very demanding. In the content of the books, women's work i n the p u b l i c sphere was t r i v i a l i z e d . A woman's income was considered t o be secondary t o a man's and she was o f t e n considered t o be working f o r personal s a t i s f a c t i o n . Women were portrayed as the parents who would g i v e up p u b l i c sphere work t o stay home wi t h c h i l d r e n . The textbooks minimized the importance of women's c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o f a m i l i e s through work i n the p u b l i c sphere. The textbooks ignored the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of women i n t o lower paying jobs and none advocated attempting 157 t o enter n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l jobs. S t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s i n the p r i v a t e sphere were only s l i g h t l y r e i n f o r c e d i n the photographs of two textbooks. One of these textbooks attempted t o balance the number of females and males shown i n home maintenance r o l e s . However, because there are so few of these photographs, they could be considered tokens, e s p e c i a l l y when one photograph posed a woman and two c h i l d r e n working together on incompatible c o n s t r u c t i o n t a s k s . The other textbook featured more women than men cooking and shopping f o r food but d i v i d e d other home maintenance tasks more evenly between females and males. The t h i r d textbook avoided r e i n f o r c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of labour by o m i t t i n g home maintenance photographs a l t o g e t h e r . The content of the t e x t s d i d not giv e the home management and home maintenance r o l e e x p l i c i t l y t o women. One t e x t advocated the sh a r i n g of the work i n the home. The other two t e x t s suggested t h a t couples would have t o work t h i s out i n t h e i r own ways. The o v e r a l l i m p l i c i t message i n a l l three t e x t s , however, gave the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r work i n the home t o women. In a d d i t i o n t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r home maintenance work, females were given the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d care. This message was i n c o n s i s t e n t l y i m p l i e d i n photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content. The photographs and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of two textbooks p o r t r a y more females than 158 males i n c h i l d care r o l e s . The importance of t h i s r o l e i s minimized i n the t h i r d t e x t by the use of only two photographs, one of a woman and one of a man. Women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i n c h i l d care i s r e i n f o r c e d i n t h i s book by two l i n e drawings showing women ho l d i n g c h i l d r e n . H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s i n a l l the textbooks i m p l i c i t l y r e i n f o r c e d the mother as major c a r e g i v e r . Content i n two textbooks d i s p l a y e d a c o n f l i c t between e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t messages about c h i l d care. Both advocated shared parenting but i m p l i c i t l y gave the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o women. They a l s o contained the i m p l i c i t message t h a t mothers nurture and f a t h e r s d i s c i p l i n e . The students were not encouraged t o c r i t i c a l l y analyze the inappropriateness of a s s i g n i n g r o l e s i n t h i s way. The content of the t h i r d textbook contained no e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t messages about female or male r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d care. I t was ignored except i n the h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n on househusbands. S t e r e o t y p i c a l assignment of r o l e s keeps women dependent on and subordinate t o men. A c o n t r i b u t i o n toward gender e q u i t y could be made by advocating g r e a t e r r o l e f l e x i b i l i t y and a more e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n of labour i n both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e spheres. Current s o c i a l arrangements must be presented as problematic. In a d d i t i o n t o r e i n f o r c i n g s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s , these textbooks r e i n f o r c e s t e r e o t y p i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This was 159 most evident i n photographs. Women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been s o c i a l i z e d t o be passive and dependent wh i l e men are s o c i a l i z e d t o be a c t i v e , r e s p o n s i b l e , and dominant. R e l a t i o n s h i p s were examined i n photographs which portrayed a t l e a s t one a d u l t or adolescent of each sex. S t e r e o t y p i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e i n f o r c e d by two of the t e x t s which portrayed men as both more a c t i v e and more dominant. The t h i r d textbook portrayed women as a c t i v e and dominant more fr e q u e n t l y than men but only i n t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s . Women were not shown as more a c t i v e and dominant i n non- t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . E q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was mentioned but not s t r o n g l y advocated i n the content of these textbooks. One textbook e x p l i c i t l y opposed s t e r e o t y p i n g but l i m i t e d i t s d i s c u s s i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o d a t i n g . The d i s c u s s i o n was gender n e u t r a l so th a t e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was not mentioned. Another book t r i v i a l i z e d equal r e l a t i o n s h i p s by suggesting t h a t they were "more fun". The t h i r d book emphasized t r a d i t i o n s i n other c u l t u r e s . In these l a s t two books, e f f o r t s were made t o n e u t r a l i z e the content and make i t value-^free by accepting both p a t r i a r c h a l and e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l these approaches are l i k e l y t o r e i n f o r c e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , keeping women dependent on men and men res p o n s i b l e f o r , and s u p e r i o r t o women. I f textbooks on r e l a t i o n s h i p s are t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender equ i t y then t r a d i t i o n a l customs must be r a i s e d t o the conscious l e v e l and 160 e x p l i c i t l y challenged. The textbooks p e r s i s t e d i n g i v i n g the image of the t r a d i t i o n a l nuclear f a m i l y more v i s i b i l i t y than the more common dual income f a m i l y . None of these textbooks acknowledged the b e n e f i t s of two income f a m i l i e s or d e a l t w i t h how t o meet the challenges of l i v i n g i n them. They d e a l t s u p e r f i c a l l y , i f at a l l , w i t h the problems faced by women i n one parent f a m i l i e s . The p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s of di v o r c e and one parent f a m i l i e s were ignored. Information about remarriage f a m i l i e s and how t o meet t h e i r challenges r e c e i v e d no u s e f u l emphasis. The only example of a remarriage f a m i l y used i n one textbook r e i n f o r c e d the s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s of women and men. A l l emphasis was placed on f a m i l i e s of marriage and heterosexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The importance of eq u i t y i n va r i o u s types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s was not addressed. The r e i n f o r c i n g of s t e r e o t y p i c a l r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s was i n c o n s i s t e n t i n the books. In the photographs, some progress was made toward changing stereotypes but the r o l e of women i n n u r t u r i n g and home maintenance was somewhat r e i n f o r c e d . The books took t e n t a t i v e steps toward e q u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s but f e l l f a r short of advocating i t . Even when eq u i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was suggested, i m p l i c i t messages r e i n f o r c e d women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . A goal of the women's movement i s t o s h i f t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of work done i n the p r i v a t e sphere and p u b l i c sphere more e q u i t a b l y . A l l three textbooks r e i n f o r c e d the 161 s t e r e o t y p i c a l arrangement of the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the p r i v a t e sphere r e s t i n g w i t h women and the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the p u b l i c sphere r e s t i n g w i t h males. The textbooks recognized women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p u b l i c sphere but minimized and t r i v i a l i z e d i t . Information about r e l a t i o n s h i p s was n e u t r a l i z e d and s i m p l i f i e d so t h a t i t was not c o n t r o v e r s i a l and d i d not c o n t r i b u t e t o the tran s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l arrangements. The p o r t r a y a l of r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n these textbooks was u s u a l l y stereotyped and u n r e a l i s t i c . i v . What does the textbook say about female and male s o c i a l i z a t i o n and research on gender d i f f e r e n c e s ? Many problems experienced by women can be t r a c e d t o the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females and males. The is s u e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n was considered i n examination of h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content. One a c t i v i t y i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n r e f e r r e d t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s u a l l y considered feminine or masculine and suggested i n d i v i d u a l s should not l i m i t themselves i n t h i s way. S o c i a l i z a t i o n was presented s t r i c t l y as an i n d i v i d u a l problem r a t h e r than a s o c i a l i s s u e . S o c i a l i z a t i o n was a content t o p i c i n only two books and no emphasis was placed on the d i f f e r e n t ways females and males are s o c i a l i z e d or on the problems t h i s may cr e a t e . S o c i a l i z a t i o n was mentioned as a f u n c t i o n of the f a m i l y . Much s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s done by the media, a d v e r t i s i n g , schools, and other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s but i t was not emphasized i n the textbooks. Since parenting i s a t o p i c i n home economics there 162 i s the p o t e n t i a l t o c r i t i c a l l y address s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Future parents must understand the pervasive and unconscious nature of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and attempt t o intervene so problems which females and males experience as a r e s u l t of t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n can be addressed. Female and male d i f f e r e n c e s were o c c a s i o n a l l y addressed i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . Exposing d i f f e r e n c e s i s important i n the achievement of gender s e n s i t i v i t y but none of the textbooks i n c l u d e d enough inf o r m a t i o n t o be of any s i g n i f i c a n c e . D i f f e r e n c e s were presented f a c t u a l l y r a t h e r than p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was drawn between these d i f f e r e n c e s and gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n or the p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i e t y . Gender s e n s i t i v i t y w i l l r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n , not only t o d i f f e r e n c e s , but a l s o t o how these d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s e out of the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of gender and have g e n e r a l l y placed women at a s o c i a l disadvantage. v. What p o s i t i o n i s taken on e q u i t y i s s u e s and the women's movement? This question was explored through examining the preface, t a b l e of contents, index, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s , and content. An i n t e n t i o n t o address some issues r e l a t e d t o gender e q u i t y was i m p l i e d i n the prefaces of the textbooks. The suggestions t h a t textbooks would examine s t e r e o t y p i n g , changing r o l e s , the changing s o c i e t y , or c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l i s s u e s created the impression t h a t i s s u e s important t o gender eq u i t y would be d e a l t w i t h . 163 The p o t e n t i a l t o address e q u i t y i s s u e s was revealed i n an examination of the index and t a b l e of contents of each textbook. The use of sex s p e c i f i c language i n one textbook made the p o s i t i o n more e x p l i c i t . The mention of "wife abuse" i n the t a b l e of contents and " d i v o r c e , and mother" as w e l l as " d i v o r c e , and f a t h e r " i n the index suggested the p o s s i b l i t y of a gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced approach t o s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s . Since these textbooks used i n c l u s i v e language more o f t e n than sex s p e c i f i c language, the p o s i t i o n on e q u i t y i s s u e s was not c l e a r but i n a l l textbooks some t o p i c s r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y were i d e n t i f i e d . Although an i n t e n t i o n t o address e q u i t y i s s u e s was i m p l i e d i n the prefaces and the p o t e n t i a l t o address important e q u i t y i s s u e s was i d e n t i f i e d i n the indexes and t a b l e s of contents, the p e r s p e c t i v e taken on i s s u e s , as opposed t o the i n c l u s i o n of i s s u e s , was determined by examination of h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content. A l l three textbooks i n c l u d e d h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y . Unfortunately these i s s u e s were weakly presented as i f the textbooks were u n w i l l i n g t o take a strong stand i n favour of gender e q u i t y . Even though the women's movement has had a strong impact on both s o c i e t y and f a m i l i e s , none of the textbooks commented upon i t i n a h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n . Although gender e q u i t y i s now embedded i n the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the textbooks t r y t o maintain a n e u t r a l stance on gender e q u i t y as i f i t i s 164 a t o p i c about which a d e c i s i o n has not yet been made. The content of the textbooks was examined t o determine the p o s i t i o n taken on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s i d e n t i f i e d by the researcher as r e l e v a n t t o gender e q u i t y . Day care i s an example of an important i s s u e which could be addressed i n a home economics course. Equity i n the p u b l i c workforce cannot be achieved u n t i l adequate day care and the equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n of men i n c h i l d care r e l e a s e s women and men eq u a l l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p u b l i c workforce. This i s s u e r e c e i v e d l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n i n two of the t e x t s and Was presented s t r i c t l y as an i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e , not a s o c i a l one. B r i e f comments i n the t h i r d t e x t began t o address day care as a s o c i a l i s s u e but gave very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about problems or p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Problems which women s u f f e r as a r e s u l t of d i v o r c e and s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g , such as poverty, were addressed only b r i e f l y i n the textbooks and were presented f a c t u a l l y r a t h e r than p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y . How the problems were r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n and d i s c r i m a t i o n a g a i n s t women i n the p u b l i c workforce were not addressed. The attempted n e u t r a l i z a t i o n of content masked the importance of di v o r c e and s i n g l e parenting as i s s u e s w i t h a more d e v a s t a t i n g impact on women than on men. Woman b a t t e r i n g i s another important i s s u e which should be addressed i n a course on r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l i e s . I t was ignored by one textbook and masked by n e u t r a l i z a t i o n as 165 "spouse abuse" i n another. The t h i r d textbook l i m i t e d i t s d i s c u s s i o n g e n e r a l l y t o "wife abuse" and attempted t o be s e n s i t i v e and balanced by present i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r both abused females and abusing males. This textbook f a l l s s h ort of gender balance, however, by p u t t i n g e x t r a emphasis on males. The b a t t e r i n g of women who are not a l s o wives was ignored, except f o r one reference t o " g i r l f r i e n d " . D i v i s i o n of labour i n the p r i v a t e sphere i s an important e q u i t y i s s u e . The work of home maintenance was t r i v i a l i z e d by one book and b a s i c a l l y ignored i n the content of the other two books. One area i n which the textbooks advocated change was the n u r t u r i n g r o l e of males. This was e x p l i c i t l y encouraged i n a l l three t e x t s . The i m p l i c i t message of t e x t s , however, was t h a t the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s r o l e s t i l l goes t o women. The d i v i s i o n of work w i l l have t o be more c r i t i c a l l y examined i f t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s are t o be changed. Women's s t r u g g l e s toward e q u i t y were not acknowledged by any of the textbooks i n a p o s i t i v e and meaningful way. The Charter r e c e i v e d b r i e f mention i n one t e x t and the women's movement was mentioned i n the chapter on being s i n g l e i n another. Although a l l textbooks acknowledged i n some way t h a t women's r o l e s are changing, none of them advocated f u r t h e r change. Two of the textbooks focused upon changes i n male r o l e s . While t h i s i s important/ i t should not be emphasized at the expense of d i s c u s s i o n of change i n women's r o l e s . 166 T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n cause some s o c i a l problems t o have a more de v a s t a t i n g impact on women than on men. These i s s u e s w i l l have t o be addressed e x p l i c i t l y and c r i t i c a l l y i f e q u i t y i s t o be achieved. Only People i n So c i e t y began t o s u b s t a n t i v e l y address some iss u e s of importance t o women but these i s s u e s were o f t e n addressed from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . A l l the books addressed males or attempted t o be n e u t r a l r a t h e r than t o take a strong stand on these i s s u e s as women's i s s u e s . Although the women's movement has gained acceptance through changes i n Canadian laws, t h i s important movement and the is s u e s i t r a i s e s were v i r t u a l l y ignored i n these textbooks. Three research questions were posed i n e x p l o r i n g the ways i n which home economics t e x t s may or may not c o n t r i b u t e t o gender eq u i t y i n s c h o o l i n g . O v e r a l l , the textbooks make l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o gender e q u i t y . Some steps were taken i n d e a l i n g w i t h gender b i a s by usi n g i n c l u s i v e language and by i n c l u d i n g males. These same steps have a l s o introduced new forms of gender b i a s t o the t e x t s . None of the textbooks d e a l adequately w i t h the e x i s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males or w i t h i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y . A l l of the textbooks f a l l s h o rt of advocating e q u i t y or a s s i s t i n g i n the tra n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i s s o c i e t y t o a more e q u i t a b l e one by encouraging c r i t i c a l s o c i a l i n q u i r y . 167 Chapter 6 CONCLUSION The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms makes gender eq u i t y an appropriate goal i n education. Home economics, because of i t s focus on r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and s o c i e t y , could play a p i v o t a l r o l e i n s t r i v i n g toward t h i s goal of e q u i t y . This examination of home economics textbooks revealed t h a t attempts are being made t o address the problem of gender b i a s . F i v e approaches t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s were detected i n the textbooks analyzed i n t h i s study: i n c l u s i o n of females and males, use of i n c l u s i v e language, exposing female and male d i f f e r e n c e s , addressing i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y , and encouraging c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . A predominant approach was t o i n c l u d e males i n order t o balance the t r a d i t i o n a l female focus i n home economics. The r e s u l t i n two of the textbooks was t o give more emphasis t o males and t o a male p e r s p e c t i v e than t o females and a female p e r s p e c t i v e . Male emphasis may be a response t o gender b i a s which a p p l i e s uniquely t o home economics textbooks. This male emphasis was evident i n the photographs, h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content, and was e x h i b i t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. Males were featured i n photographs more o f t e n or more d e c o r a t i v e l y and were o f t e n more a c t i v e and dominant than the females. 168 2. H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content concentrated on iss u e s r e l a t i n g t o changes i n male r o l e s ( e s p e c i a l l y n u r t u r i n g ) r a t h e r than on changes i n women's r o l e s or the problems which women face because of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 3. Women's t r a d i t i o n a l work i n the p r i v a t e sphere (except f o r n u r t u r i n g ) was given l e s s emphasis implying a lower value. Another predominant approach was t o use i n c l u s i v e language i n order t o be non-sexist and address a n o n - s p e c i f i c audience. The r e s u l t was t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between females and males were o f t e n ignored and problems r e l a t i n g t o gender were masked. I n c l u s i v e language was evident i n a l l p a r t s of the t e x t s except f o r the photographs and was e x h i b i t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. When a t o p i c was addressed i n an i n c l u s i v e way knowledge was presented as gender f r e e . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s were minimized. Problems r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i z a t i o n and st e r e o t y p i n g were not addressed and research was reported as i f i t a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y t o females and males even though the research may have been done on only one sex. 2. Gender biased c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s were ignored. P a t r i a r c h y remained unquestioned. Equity i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s was acknowledged but t r i v i a l i z e d and never s t r o n g l y promoted. 3. T r a d i t i o n a l assumptions about r o l e s remained unquestioned perpetuating the dual work r o l e f o r women. These f i r s t two approaches were considered i n s u f f i c i e n t i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o gender e q u i t y . I n c l u d i n g males l e d t o the 169 reshaping of home economics from a male pe r s p e c t i v e w h i l e masking women's p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n c l u s i v e language l e d t o the masking of important i s s u e s of gender i n e q u i t y . Both of these approaches l e d t o problems of gender b i a s . A gender balanced approach would mean t h a t i s s u e s should be examined from p e r s p e c t i v e s of both women and men. A gender s e n s i t i v e approach would mean e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n should be given t o more s u b t l e problems of b i a s a r i s i n g from gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Both these approaches would a l t e r the content i n t e x t s as w e l l as the form i n which knowledge i s presented. A t h i r d approach t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of gender b i a s was to expose female and male d i f f e r e n c e s . This approach was most f r e q u e n t l y used i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s . I t e x h i b i t e d two problems. F i r s t , i n f o r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n c e s was reported f a c t u a l l y . Since d i f f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t the i n e q u a l i t y which has r e s u l t e d from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (as i n the lower incomes of women) and s o c i a l i z a t i o n (as i n the dual work load) and they ought t o be exposed as problems, not j u s t f a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Secondly, u s u a l l y too l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was i n c l u d e d about d i f f e r e n c e s t o be of any use. The causes of the d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s should be questioned, and problems a r i s i n g from these d i f f e r e n c e s explored. Another approach t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s was t o address i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y . H i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s and content i n a l l three books had the p o t e n t i a l t o 170 address important i s s u e s but none took a s t r o n g stand a s s i s t i n g i n the achievement of gender e q u i t y . Three problems were noted i n the way the textbooks d e a l t w i t h e q u i t y i s s u e s . F i r s t , the t e x t s attempted t o be n e u t r a l , r a t h e r than c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Second, problems r e l a t i n g t o gender were t r e a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than s o c i a l problems. The r o l e played by s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the development of these problems was never considered. T h i r d , i s s u e s were f r e q u e n t l y examined from a male p e r s p e c t i v e . The most gender s e n s i t i v e and gender balanced approach i n an important i s s u e was the d i s c u s s i o n of "wife abuse" i n People i n S o c i e t y . Even t h i s treatment f e l l s h ort of i d e a l because one h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n was d i r e c t e d p e r s o n a l l y ("you") t o men w h i l e another r e f e r r e d t o women impersonally ("wife"). No i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y were presented i n a way t h a t i s l i k e l y t o a s s i s t i n the achievement of e q u i t y . Although these l a s t two approaches t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s hold promise, i n the textbooks examined they d i d not a s s i s t i n progress toward gender e q u i t y . Although i s s u e s were i n c l u d e d , the manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n was unproblematic and n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o gender e q u i t y . This supports the research on textbooks which suggests t h a t p u b l i s h e r s choose to market books w i t h a standard content a v o i d i n g controversy (Apple, 1986). The f i n a l approach t o the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s , encouraging c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , was detected i n only one 171 textbook. This approach assumes the l e a r n e r s are knowledgeable persons. Although t h i s approach was not c o n s i s t e n t l y present throughout the textbook and was not used to d i r e c t the student's a t t e n t i o n t o i s s u e s of gender, i t f i t s w e l l w i t h the concept of c r i t i c a l f e m i n i s t pedagogy. I t t h e r e f o r e holds promise i n the development of gender e q u i t a b l e t e x t s . The development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s permits l e a r n e r s t o question c u r r e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which may lead t o a b e t t e r understanding of the s o c i a l order and the f o r c e s which a f f e c t our l i v e s . This may encourage students t o take a c t i o n toward s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g improvement i n c o n d i t i o n s f o r women. Only through t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y about the impact of gender i n t h i s s o c i e t y w i l l students become conscious of i t and aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y of and need f o r change. I f textbooks are t o encourage gender s e n s i t i v i t y , they w i l l need t o encourage c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g about s o c i a l i s s u e s not r o t e l e a r n i n g of f a c t s about the e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y . Teaching must be counter-hegemonic, t h a t i s , i t must question and challenge p r e v a i l i n g assumptions (Weiler, 1988). Gender r e l a t i o n s are dynamic. Continued s e n s i t i v i t y t o gender w i l l r e q u i r e constant adjustment. The development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s w i l l a l l o w students t o continue t o develop t h e i r understanding of gender r e l a t i o n s and work toward the achievement of gender e q u i t y . This research c o n t r i b u t e s t o research of textbooks 172 through i t s a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s p a r t s of the books. A shortcoming of e a r l i e r research such as t h a t by Weis (1979) and W i l l i g e r (1983) was t h a t they d i d not analyze the knowledge contained i n t e x t s . Much textbook a n a l y s i s has focused on surface f e a t u r e s such as the preface, photographs, and language. This research suggests t h a t changing surface f e a t u r e s of t e x t s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n e l i m i n a t i n g gender b i a s . The r e s t r u c t u r i n g of knowledge r e q u i r e s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of e x i s t i n g knowledge so t h a t s u b t l e b i a s can be detected. Therefore, the w r i t i n g of unbiased textbooks r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n , not only t o surface f e a t u r e s of a textbook, but a l s o t o the knowledge i t c o n t a i n s . As t h i s research progressed the importance of c a r e f u l examination of the content became evident. The preface, index and t a b l e of contents were easy t o examine, but the i n t e n t i o n s may not be c a r r i e d through i n t o the content and the t o p i c s l i s t e d may not be presented i n a way t h a t a s s i s t s the progress toward gender e q u i t y . Photographs and h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s catch the i n t e r e s t and are e a s i l y examined but may not c a r r y the same message as the content. Because textbooks are an i n t e g r a l and important p a r t of the school c u r r i c u l u m , the knowledge contained w i t h i n them must be examined c a r e f u l l y and c r i t i c a l l y . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s research suggest some questions which should be asked about home economics textbooks i n order to determine i f they are f r e e of gender b i a s . The f o l l o w i n g questions are appropriate f o r teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o use i n a n a l y z i n g home economics textbooks before adopting them f o r student use. In a d d i t i o n they may be h e l p f u l i n gui d i n g the pr e p a r a t i o n of textbooks. 1. I s i n c l u s i v e language used i n generic s i t u a t i o n s ? I s sex s p e c i f i c language used t o c l a r i f y problems a r i s i n g from sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and gender s o c i a l i z a t i o n ? 2. Are both women and men represented e q u i t a b l y and meaningfully i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s i n both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c spheres? 3. Are both women's iss u e s and men's i s s u e s addressed i n balanced and s e n s i t i v e ways? Are i s s u e s examined from both the female and male pe r s p e c t i v e s ? Are the d i f f e r e n t problems faced by women and men addressed i n meaningful ways? 4. Are important i s s u e s of relevance t o gender e q u i t y addressed meaningfully i n the content or represented only i n h i g h l i g h t e d s e c t i o n s ? 5. Are students encouraged t o t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about s o c i a l i s s u e s and t r a d i t i o n s ? 6. Are p r i v a t e sphere a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s given high value or has the emphasis s h i f t e d t o p u b l i c sphere a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y masculine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? 7. Are female and male d i f f e r e n c e s and the r e s u l t i n g problems addressed i n meaningful ways? 8. Are women's s t r u g g l e s f o r e q u i t y and problems a r i s i n g from 174 past d i s c r i m i n a t i o n recognized and meaningfully addressed? 9. Does the textbook advocate gender equity? A textbook which e x h i b i t s these q u a l i t i e s has the p o t e n t i a l t o c o n t r i b u t e t o an education which may achieve the i d e a l s of gender e q u i t y . The e l i m i n a t i o n of gender b i a s i n home economics textbooks w i l l not be achieved simply by i n c l u d i n g males and using i n c l u s i v e language. While language and photographs are important, content i s most important. I f knowledge i s a s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n r e f l e c t i n g the dominant pe r s p e c t i v e then knowledge can be transformed. Feminist research suggests t h a t knowledge must be reshaped i n gender balanced and gender s e n s i t i v e ways so t h a t the gender r e l a t e d problems of both females and males can be addressed and some progress made toward the achievement of gender e q u i t y . Development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s i s d e s i r a b l e s i n c e changing gender r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e constant r e - e v a l u a t i o n and adjustment. Recommendations f o r Further Research This research assumed home economics textbooks are used u n c r i t i c a l l y i n teaching. This assumption was based on research i n textbooks other than those f o r home economics. Further research should be d i r e c t e d t o textbook use i n home economics t o determine i f they are used, how much they are used, and whether they are used u n c r i t i c a l l y . The r o l e textbooks take i n shaping the cu r r i c u l u m i n home economics i s unknown. 175 Further research could a l s o be d i r e c t e d t o a n a l y z i n g the c u r r e n t s t a t e of gender b i a s i n home economics textbooks. The questions posed i n the co n c l u s i o n of t h i s research could be a p p l i e d t o a l a r g e r sample of textbooks on f a m i l i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To determine i f these questions are u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of a l l home economics textbooks, research could be expanded t o i n c l u d e d i f f e r e n t content areas such as foods and n u t r i t i o n and c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s . C e r t a i n i s s u e s were assumed t o be important i n progress toward gender e q u i t y . These areas of study were d e r i v e d from a review of c u r r e n t f e m i n i s t w r i t i n g . More research needs t o be d i r e c t e d toward content which should be inc l u d e d i n a home economics c u r r i c u l u m . I f progress i s t o be made i n the d i r e c t i o n of gender e q u i t y , more dialogue i s needed between f e m i n i s t s , home economists, and others concerned w i t h the achievement of e q u i t y . Other b i a s e s , such as those of race, c l a s s , c u l t u r e , and h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y should be considered i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . The content of home economics must be r e s t r u c t u r e d t o r e f l e c t a more r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of Canadian s o c i e t y , keeping e q u i t y as a goal i n t h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g * Another area f o r f u r t h e r study i s the r o l e of textbooks i n progress toward gender e q u i t y . This research assumed textbooks have a major impact on student l e a r n i n g and could help t o develop gender e q u i t a b l e a t t i t u d e s and behaviors. This research suggests textbooks should explore c o n t r o v e r s i a l 176 iss u e s and develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . More a t t e n t i o n needs t o be d i r e c t e d t o whether textbooks can be tr a n s f o r m a t i v e and what they must be l i k e i n order t o be tr a n s f o r m a t i v e . 177 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anyon, Jean (1979). Ideology and United States h i s t o r y textbooks. Harvard Educational Review, 49, 361-386. Anyon, Jean (1984). 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Unpublished master's t h e s i s , C a l i f o r n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , Long Beach,CA. 182 Appendix A Table 1 Presence of Gender Equity Topics i n Index of Textbooks Topic Textbook Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n S o c i e t y Abuse, e l d e r l y x Anorexia (nervosa) x x A r t i f i c i a l i nsemination x Ba b y s i t t i n g x Br i d e p r i c e x Bulimia x x Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoas x Care g i v i n g ( C a r e g i v e r s , r o l e of) x x Ch i l d abuse (Abuse, c h i l d ) x x x Ch i l d custody x Ch i l d r e n , day-care centres x Ch i l d r e n , s e x - r o l e developnent x Coanunications x Conmunication and r e l a t i o n s h i p s x Coa p e t i t i o n i n n a r r i a g e x C o n f l i c t , r e s o l u t i o n of x C o n f l i c t s x Cooperation i n n a r r i a g e x Dating, adolescent,(Courtship and dating) x x x (Re l a t i o n s h i p s , l o v i n g ) Delinquency x Di s c r i s i i n a t i o n x Divorce x 183 Topic Textbook Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n Society Divorce, and fa t h e r Divorce, and mother Dowry Dual-earner f a i i l y E r i k s o n , E r i k E q u a l i t y i n R e l a t i o n s h i p s Expectations i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s F a m i l i e s , s i n g l e parent F a m i l i e s , r e c o n s t i t u t e d or blended F a i i l y v i o l e n c e Family problems F a m i l i e s , types of Fathering F l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s Freud, Sigmund Home maintenance Homemaker (Homemakers, status of) Income J o i n t custody L i f e expectancy M a r i t a l v i o l e n c e Marriage Marriage, c o n f l i c t s i n Marriage, changing r o l e of 184 Topic Textbook Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n S o c i e t y Marriage c o n t r a c t x Marriage, r o l e s and tasks i n x Maslow, Abraham x x Men x Money, i n the dual-earner family x Mothering x Nurturing x Parenthood x Parenting, shared x Parenting x P a t e r n i t y leave x P i a g e t , Jean x x P r e j u d i c e x x R e l a t i o n s h i p s x R e l a t i o n s h i p s , r o l e s and x Role making x Roles, expectations x Roles, m a r i t a l x Roles, and r e l a t i o n s h i p s x Senior c i t i z e n s , abuse x Senior c i t i z e n s and poverty x Sex d i f f e r e n c e s x Sex r o l e development x Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g x 185 Topic Textbook Family L i v i n g C r e a t i v e L i v i n g People i n S o c i e t y Sex r o l e s x Sharing x S o c i a l i z a t i o n x x Space, sharing x Spouse abuse (Abuse, spousal) x x S t e p f a t h e r i n g x Stepparent (Stepparenting) x x Stereotypes x Stereotyping, sex r o l e x S u i c i d e x Women x Hork x T o t a l number of t o p i c s i n each book 38 19 41 186 Appendix A Table 2 Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n Family L i v i n g Section Adult Male T o t a l Adult Female T o t a l Other of Book Males C h i l d r e n Males Female C h i l d r e n Females Front Cover 4 9 13 5 4 9 1st T i t l e Page 3 2 5 1 4 5 2nd T i t l e Page 1 4 5 2 3 5 1 Unit 1 Your s e l f and Others 8 8 5 5 Ch. 1 D e f i n i n g Yourself 3 5 8 3 2 5 Ch. 2 Understanding Others 3 7 10 3 6 . 9 Ch. 3 Being i n Love 5 5 5 5 Unit 2 Family L i f e 7 5 12 8 4 12 1 Ch. 4 Ge t t i n g Married 6 6 5 5 Ch. 5 Making Adjustments 6 6 4 4 Ch. 6 Becoming a Family 7 5 12 6 4 10 1 Unit 3 Parenting 4 2 6 3 4 7 Ch. 7 Having a Baby 3 3 8 8 3 Ch. 8 Growing and Learning 1 1 6 2 8 6 Ch. 9 Understanding C h i l d r e n 3 2 5 2 2 Unit 4 Family Management 3 2 5 4 2 6 1 Ch. 10 Balancing Needs & Resources 1 3 4 2 3 5 2 Ch. 11 Keeping Healthy 5 2 7 8 1 9 Ch. 12 Enjoying Good N u t r i t i o n 5 5 10 5 7 12 Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments 8 3 11 8 1 9 Unit 5 Fam i l i e s i n T r a n s i t i o n 2 2 4 3 2 5 Ch. 14 Facing Family Changes 3 3 6 3 1 4 Ch. 15 Resolving Family C r i s e s 1 3 4 1 1 2 Ch. 16 Managing Independent L i v i n g 3 3 4 4 187 Section of Book Adult Hales Hale C h i l d r e n T o t a l Hales Adult Female F e i a l e C h i l d r e n T o t a l Females Other Back Cover 5 8 13 6 5 11 2 T o t a l s 91 81 172 103 63 166 17 188 Appendix A Table 3 Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g S e c t i o n of Book Adult Hale T o t a l Adult F e i a l e T o t a l Other Hales C h i l d r e n Hales F e i a l e C h i l d r e n Females I n t r o d u c t i o n - Focus on You Ch. 1 You as an I n d i v i d u a l Ch. 2 Growing and Changing Ch. 3 What You Communicate about Yourself Ch. 4 What's Important to you Ch. 5 Making Decis i o n s f o r Now and f o r Your Future Unit 1 Your Family and Your Friends Ch. 6 R e l a t i o n s h i p s and You Ch. 7 F a m i l i e s : Sharing and Caring Ch. 8 Understanding Your Family Ch. 9 Sharing Problems Ch. 10 Changes i n the Family Ch. 11 Being a Fri e n d 1 Ch. 12 Stereotypes and P r e j u d i c e Ch. 13 Making new Friends Ch. 14 Dating and Love Ch. 15 Looking at Your Future 3 Ch. 16 Careers that Help with R e l a t i o n s h i p s 1 Unit 2 C h i l d Care and C h i l d Development 1 Ch. 17 C h i l d r e n and You 1 Ch. 18 Ages and Stages Ch. 19 The Importance of Play 1 Ch. 20 Care and Safety 2 4 2 1 2 3 2 2 5 10 2 3 5 2 6 3 2 5 189 S e c t i o n of Book Adult Male T o t a l ' Adult F e i a l e T o t a l Other Hales C h i l d r e n Males Female C h i l d r e n Females Ch. 21 B a b y s i t t i n g : Earning and Learning Ch. 22 Ready f o r Parenthood 3 Ch. 23 Careers Helping C h i l d r e n Unit 3 Managing and Buying Ch. 24 Management and You Ch. 25 Your Resources 3 Ch. 26 Managing Your Time 1 Ch. 27 Managing Your Money Ch. 28 Saving and Borrowing 2 Ch. 29 You i n the Marketplace Ch. 30 Shopping f o r P r i c e and Q u a l i t y 1 Ch. 31 V o i c i n g Your Own Opinion i Ch. 32 Being a Responsible Consumer 1 Ch. 33 Management and Consumer-Related 4 Careers Unit 4 Foods and N u t r i t i o n Ch. 34 Food and You 1 Ch. 35 E a t i n g and N u t r i t i o n Ch. 36 Which Foods Have Which Nu t r i e n t s 1 Ch. 37 Developing Healthy E a t i n g Habits Ch. 38 Fact, Fad, or Falacy 1 Ch. 39 Planning Meals f o r the Home Ch. 40 Shopping f o r Food 2 Ch. 41 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food:I 1 Ch. 42 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food:II 7 1 10 1 2 1 1 2 5 4 3 7 1 10 4 3 1 2 1 3 1 6 2 190 S e c t i o n of Book Adult Hales Hale C h i l d r e n T o t a l Adult Hales Female Female C h i l d r e n T o t a l Other Females Ch. 43 Safety and S a n i t a t i o n Ch. 44 Kitchen U t e n s i l s Ch. 45 Kitchen Appliances Ch. 46 Following Recipes Ch. 49 Serving Heals at Home and Eating Out 2 Ch. 50 Careers i n Food and N u t r i t i o n 2 Unit 5 C l o t h i n g a n d , T e x t i l e s Ch. 51 C l o t h i n g and You Ch. 52 Design and Your Appearance 1 Ch. 53 Clothes and Fashion 1 Ch. 55 Planning Your Wardrobe Ch. 56 Shopping f o r Clothes Ch. 58 Sewing Equipment Ch. 59 Layout, Cut, Hark 1 Ch. 60 Basic C o n s t r u c t i o n Ch. 62 Clothes Care 1 Ch. 63 Redesigning and Recy c l i n g Ch. 64 Careers i n C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s 1 Unit 6 Housing and L i v i n g Space 1 Ch. 65 L i v i n g Space and You Ch. 66 Organizing Space 1 Ch. 67 Get t i n g the Look You Want Ch. 68 Sharing Space Ch. 69 Caring f o r L i v i n g Space Ch. 70 Safety i n the Home 1 10 191 Section ' Adult Hale T o t a l Adult Female T o t a l Other of Book Males C h i l d r e n Males Female C h i l d r e n Females Ch. 71 Energy Conservation i n the Home 1 2 3 1 1 Ch. 72 Careers i n Housing 6 6 2 2 4 T o t a l s 58 92 150 62 124 186 34 192 Appendix A Table 4 Number of Females and Males i n Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y S e c t i o n of Book Adult Hales Hale C h i l d r e n T o t a l Hales Adult Female Female C h i l d r e n T o t a l Females Other Part 1 Ch. 1 Studying Huian Behavior 5 2 7 10 0 10 1 Ch. 2 Heredity, Environment and the I n d i v i d u a l 9 16 25 14 6 20 1 Ch. 3 P e r s o n a l i t y and the I n d i v i d u a l 9 1 10 6 3 9 2 Part 2 Ch. 4 Growing Up: Childhood 4 3 7 6 3 9 5 Ch. 5 Growing Up: Adolescence 13 1 14 1 4 5 Ch. 6 Marriage 18 6 24 16 5 21 8 Ch. 7 The Family 4 5 9 5 4 9 1 Ch. 8 Aging 9 3 12 15 2 17 0 Ch. 9 Death and Dying 14 2 15 7 0 7 5 T o t a l s 73 52 125 80 27 107 23 193 Appendix A Table 5 Number of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n i n Family L i v i n g S e c t i o n T o t a l of Book C h i l d r e n Adolescent Hales Adolescent Females Young Male C h i l d r e n Young Female C h i l d r e n Other Front Cover 13 4 2 5 ' 2 1st T i t l e Page 6 1 1 1 3 2nd T i t l e Page 8 3 2 1 1 1 Unit 1 Your s e l f h Others 13 8 5 Ch. 1 Def i n i n g Y o u r s e l f 7 5 1 1 Ch. 2 Understanding Others 13 6 5 1 1 Unit 2 F a i i l y L i f e 10 1 1 4 3 1 Ch. 6 Becoming a Family 10 5 l U n i t 3 Parenting 6 2 Ch. 7 Having a Baby 3 3 Ch. 8 Growing & Learning 9 1 2 6 Ch. 9 Understanding C h i l d r e n 4 2 2 Unit 4 Family Management 5 1 1 2 1 Ch. 10 Balancing Needs & Resources 8 2 3 1 2 Ch. 11 Keeping Healthy 3 1 1 Ch. 12 Enjoying Good N u t r i t i o n 12 3 4 2 3 Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments 4 2 1 1 Unit 5 Fam i l i e s i n T r a n s i t i o n 4 1 2 1 Ch. 14 Facing Family Changes 4 3 1 Ch. 15 Resolving Family C r i s e s 4 2 1 1 Back Cover 15 1 1 7 4 2 T o t a l s 161 38 25 43 38 17 194 Appendix A Table 6 C r e a t i v e L i v i n g Section T o t a l C h i l d r e n Adolescent Hales Females Young Young Male Female C h i l d r e n Other I n t r o d u c t i o n Focus on You '2 2 Ch.1 You as an I n d i v i d u a l 6 2 4 Ch.2 Growing and Changing 6 4 2 Ch.3 What You Communicate About Yo u r s e l f 4 3 1 Ch.4 What's Important to You 8 5 2 1 Ch.5 Making Decis i o n s f o r Now and f o r Your Future 5 3 2 U n i t 1 Your Family and Your Friends 2 1 1 Ch.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p s and You 7 5 2 Ch.7 F a m i l i e s : Sharing and Caring 6 •2 1 1 2 Ch.8 Understanding Your Family 7 1 2 3 1 Ch.9 Sharing Problems 7 5 2 Ch.10 Changes i n the Family 5 1 1 1 2 C h . l l Being a F r i e n d 8 3 5 Ch. 12 Stereotypes and P r e j u d i c e 1 1 Ch.13 Making New Friends 8 3 5 Ch.14 Dating and Love 7 4 3 Ch. 16 Careers that Help with R e l a t i o n s h i p s 4 I 1 1 1 Unit 2 C h i l d Care and C h i l d Development 2 2 Ch. 17 C h i l d r e n and You 3 3 Ch.18 Ages and Stages 3 3 195 S e c t i o n T o t a l Adolescent Young Young Other .Children Hales Females Hale Female C h i l d r e n Ch.19 The Importance of Play 4 Ch.20 Care and Safety 4 Ch.21 B a b y s i t t i n g : Earning and Learning 4 Ch.22 Ready f o r Parenthood 2 Ch.23 Careers Helping C h i l d r e n 12 Unit 3 Hanaging and Buying 2 Ch. 24 Management and You 18 Ch.25 Your Resources 5 Ch.26 Managing Your Time 4 Ch.27 Hanaging Your Honey 2 Ch.29 You i n the Marketplace 3 Ch.30 Shopping f o r P r i c e and Q u a l i t y 4 Ch.31 V o i c i n g Your Own Opinion 1 Ch. 32 Being a Responsible Consumer 5 Ch.33 Management and Consumer-Related 4 Careers Unit 4 Foods and N u t r i t i o n 2 Ch.34 Food and You 2 Ch.35 E a t i n g and N u t r i t i o n 1 Ch.36 Which Foods Have Which N u t r i e n t s 1 Ch.37 Developing Healthy Eating Habits 2 Ch.38 Fact, Fad, or F a l l a c y 1 Ch.39 Planning Heals f o r the Home 1 Ch.40 Shopping f o r Food 4 196 Section T o t a l C h i l d r e n Adolescent Hales Females Young Young Other Male F e i a l e C h i l d r e n Ch.41 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food: I 2 1 1 Ch.42 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food: II 1 Ch.45 Kitchen Appliances 3 1 2 Ch.46 Following Recipes 2 1 Ch.49 Serving Heals at Home and Ea t i n g Out 3 2 Unit 5 C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s 1 Ch.51 C l o t h i n g and You 8 1 7 Ch.52 Design and Your Appearance 3 1 2 Ch. 53 Clothes and Fashion 1 1 Ch.55 Planning Your Wardrobe 2 2 Ch.56 Shopping f o r Clothes 2 2 Ch.62 Clothes Care 3 2 1 Ch.63 Redesigning and R e c y c l i n g 3 3 Ch.64 Careers i n C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s 1 Unit 6 Housing and L i v i n g Space 1 Ch.65 L i v i n g Space and You 1 Ch.66 Organizing Space 2 Ch,67 Getting the Look You Want 3 3 Ch.68 Sharing Space 5 1 3 1 Ch.69 Caring f o r L i v i n g Space 2 1 1 Ch.71 Energy Conservation i n the Hoie 3 2 1 Ch.72 Careers i n Housing 2 2 T o t a l s 243 75 10 17 19 27 197 Appendix A Table 7 Number of Female and Male Adolescents and Young C h i l d r e n i n People i n S o c i e t y Section of Book To t a l Adolescent Young Young Other C h i l d r e n Hales Females Hale Female C h i l d r e n Part 1 Ch.l Studying Human Behavior 3 Ch.2 Heredity, Environment, 20 and the I n d i v i d u a l Ch.3 P e r s o n a l i t y and the I n d i v i d u a l 5 Part 2 Ch.4 Growing Up: Childhood 9 Ch.5 Growing Up: Adolescence 18 Ch. 6 Harriage 19 Ch. 7 The Family 10 Ch. 8 Aging 5 Ch. 9 Death and Dying 2 2 13 T o t a l s 91 27 9 25 18 15 198 Appendix A Table 8 Number of Adolescents i n Family L i v i n g by "Colour" and Sex Section Adolescent Males Adolescent Females of Book T o t a l White Non-white T o t a l White Non-white Front Cover 4 3 1 2 2 1st T i t l e Page 1 1 1 1 2nd T i t l e Page 3 2 1 2 2 Unit 1 You r s e l f k Others 8 6 2 5 5 Ch.l D e f i n i n g Y o u r s e l f 5 3 2 1 1 Ch.2 Understanding Others 6 5 1 5 5 Unit 2 Family L i f e 1 1 1 1 Unit 4 Family Management 1 1 Ch.10 Balancing Meeds and Resources 2 2 C h . l l Keeping Healthy 1 1 Ch. 12 Enjoying Good N u t r i t i o n 3 3 4 4 Ch. 13 Managing Your Environments 2 2 Unit 5 Fam i l i e s i n T r a n s i t i o n 1 1. Ch. 15 Resolving Family C r i s e s 2 2 Back Cover 1 1 1 1 To t a l s 38 28 10 25 21 4 199 Appendix A Table 9 Number of Adolescents i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by "Colour" and Sex Section of Book Adolescent Hales T o t a l White Non-white Adolescent Females T o t a l White Non-white In t r o d u c t i o n Focus on You 2 2 Ch.1 You as an I n d i v i d u a l 2 2 4 4 Ch.2 Growing and Changing 4 4 2 2 Ch.3 What You Communicate About Yourself 3 3 1 1 Ch.4 What's Important to You 5 5 2 2 Ch.5 Making Decis i o n s f o r Now and f o r Your Future 3 3 2 2 Unit 1 Your Family and Your Friends 1 1 Ch.6 R e l a t i o n s h i p s and You 5 3 2 2 1 1 Ch.7 F a m i l i e s : Sharing and Caring 2 2 1 1 Ch.8 Understanding Your Family 1 1 Ch.9 Sharing Problems 5 2 3 2 2 Ch.10 Changes i n the Family 1 1 C h . l l Being a Fri e n d 3 3 5 5 Ch.13 Making New Friends 3 2 1 5 5 Ch.14 Dating and Love 4 4 3 3 Ch.16 Careers that Help with R e l a t i o n s h i p s 1 1 1 1 Unit 2 Ch.21 B a b y s i t t i n g : E a r n i n g and Learning 2 2 Ch.23 Careers Helping C h i l d r e n 6 6 1 1 Unit 3 Managing and Buying 1 1 1 1 Ch.24 Management and You 2 2 8 6 2 Ch.25 Your Resources 1 1 4 4 Ch 26 Managing Your Time 2 2 2 2 200 Section of Book Adolescent Hales T o t a l White Non-white Adolescent Females T o t a l White Non-white Ch.27 Hanaging Your Money 1 Ch. 29 You i n the Marketplace 1 Ch.30 Shopping f o r P r i c e and Q u a l i t y 1 Ch.31 V o i c i n g Your Own Opinion Ch.32 Being a Responsible Consumer 5 Ch.33 Management and Consumer-Related 4 Careers Unit 4 Ch.35 E a t i n g and N u t r i t i o n 1 Ch.36 Which Foods Have Which N u t r i e n t s Ch.37 Developing Healthy E a t i n g Habits Ch.38 Fact, Fad, of F a l l a c y Ch.39 Planning Meals f o r the Home Ch.40 Shopping f o r Food 1 Ch.41 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food: I Ch.42 S e l e c t i n g and S t o r i n g Food: II Ch.45 Kitchen Appliances 1 Ch.46 Following Recipes Ch.49 Serving Heals at Home and Eating Out Unit 5 C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s Ch.51 C l o t h i n g and You 1 Ch.52 Design and Your Appearance 1 Ch.53 Clothes and Fashion Ch.55 Planning Your Wardrobe Ch.56 Shopping f o r Clothes Ch.62 Clothes Care 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 201 S e c t i o n Adolescent Males Adolescent Females of Book T o t a l White Non-white T o t a l White Non-white Ch.63 Redesigning and Rec y c l i n g 3 3 Ch.64 Careers i n C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s 1 1 Unit 6 Housing and L i v i n g Space Ch.65 L i v i n g Space and You Ch.66 Organizing Space 2 1 1 Ch.67 Ge t t i n g the Look You Want 3 3 Ch.68 Sharing Space 1 1 3 3 Ch.69 Caring f o r L i v i n g Space 1 1 Ch.71 Energy Conservation i n the Home 2 2 1 1 Ch.72 Careers i n Housing 2 T o t a l s 75 67 8 105 91 14 202 Appendix A Table 10 Number of Adolescents i n People i n S o c i e t y by "Colour" and Sex Section Adolescent Hales Adolescent Females of Book T o t a l White Non-white T o t a l White Non-white Part 1 Ch.l Studying Human Behavior 2 1 1 Ch.2 Heredity, Environment, and the I n d i v i d u a l 13 12 1 3 3 Ch.3 P e r s o n a l i t y and the I n d i v i d u a l 1 1 1 1 Part 2 Ch.5 Growing Up: Adolescence 9 8 1 3 3 Ch.7 The Family 2 2 1 1 Ch.8 Aging 1 1 T o t a l s 27 24 3 9 9 0 203 Appendix B C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n Family L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e of Photograph Photographs of Females (7) F u l l Page Photographs - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (7) Adults (3) p.366 a d u l t f e i a l e working as weather f o r e c a s t e r p.366 adult female working as TV re p o r t e r p.370 a d u l t female working at hobby of p a i n t i n g Adolescents (2) p.30 adolescent female doing i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t p.314 adolescent female looking sadly contemplative C h i l d r e n (2) p.182 f e i a l e c h i l d p u l l i n g h e r s e l f to her f e e t p.204 female c h i l d p l a y i n g dressup Photographs of Kales (11) F u l l Page Photographs (4) Adults (-1) p.222 a d u l t male working at computer Adolescents (3) p.14 adolescent male gazing over harbour i n thoughtful contemplation p. 342 adolescent male looking unhappily or a n g r i l y contemplative p.360 adult male working with blender C h i l d r e n - none Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (6) Adults (5) p.34 male p s y c h o l o g i s t (Maslow) p.34 male p s y c h o l o g i s t (Piaget) p.34 male p s y c h o l o g i s t (Erikson) p. 296 o l d e r adult male i n s t a l l i n g storm windows p.365 adult male h i k i n g Adolescents (1) p. 12 adolescent male l e a n i n g on fence i n thoughtful contemplation C h i l d r e n - None Not c l a s s i f i e d by Sex (1) Smaller than F u l l Page Photograph (1) p.186 c h i l d e a t i n g 204 Appendix C C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g by Sex, Age Group, and S i z e of Photograph Photographs of Females (48) F u l l Page Photographs (3) Adults - None Adolescents I n t r o d u c t i o n t i t l e page - adolescent female s m i l i n g p.470 adolescent plays grand piano C h i l d r e n p. 244 g i r l eats Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (45) Adults (14) p.78 a d u l t female flagperson p. 178 a d u l t female welds p. 260 a d u l t female shops f o r food p.305 adult female cooks i n r e s t a u r a n t p.311 a d u l t female cooks at home p.351 a d u l t f e i a l e works as pastry chef p. 365 a d u l t female (white) wears s a r i p.381 a d u l t female poses p.411 a d u l t females at i n d u s t r i a l sewing machine p.423 adult f e i a l e at sewing machine p. 439 a d u l t female hands care f o r c l o t h i n g p.452 adult female at c o i p u t e r i n c l o t h i n g or t e x t i l e f a c t o r y p.457 adult female i n t e x t i l e m i l l p.500 adult female i n s t a l l s smoke alarm Adolescents (31) p . l adolescent female plays bagpipes p. 14 adolescent female d r i e s h a i r p.23 adolescent female does school work p.87 adolescent female t a l k s on telephone p.170 adolescent female on b i c y c l e p.202 adolescent female shops f o r c l o t h e s p. 204 adolescent female shops i n record s t o r e p.209 adolescent female shops f o r ghetto b l a s t e r p.261 adolescent female shops f o r f r u i t p.280 adolescent female cooks p.290 adolescent f e i a l e shops f o r food p.299 adolescent female shops f o r food p.319 adolescent f e i a l e cooks p.321 adolescent female cooks over campfire p.326 adolescent female cooks p.344 adolescent female walks past r e s t a u r a n t s p. 364 adolescent female looks at s e l f i n mirror p.367 adolescent female leans on l o c k e r p. 368 adolescent female s k i s p. 374 adolescent female shops f o r c l o t h e s p.378 adolescent female smiles (head only) p. 382 adolescent f e i a l e reads fashion catologue p.391 adolescent female checks her wardrobe p.395 adolescent female poses i n dress p.444 adolescent female prepares to i r o n p.446 adolescent female goes to r e c y c l e d cothing s t o r e p.473 adolescent female reads p.478 adolescent female s t o r e s c l o t h e s p.480 adolescent female at study desk p.487 adolescent female hangs p i c t u r e on b u l l e t i n board p.494 adolescent female waters pl a n t s Photographs of Males (36) F u l l Page Photographs - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (36) Adults (21) p.57 adult male runs p.93 a d u l t male poses i n f r o n t of a i r p l a n e p.151 adult male warms b o t t l e p. 183 a d u l t male at d r a f t i n g board p.194 a d u l t male at ATM p. 196 a d u l t male enters bank p.263 adult male works i n grocery s t o r e p.274 a d u l t male walks past s t o r e p.286 adult male works i n d e l i p. 347 a d u l t male serves "gourmet 1 1 food i n r e s t a u r a n t p.349 adult male cooks i n r e s t a u r a n t p.350 adult male wipes t a b l e i n res t a u r a n t p.373 adult male poses ( i n chapter on c l o t h i n g design) p.419 adult male cuts f a b r i c with p a t t e r n p.440 adult male checks c l o t h i n g care symbols p.457 adult male i n c l o t h i n g manufacturing p.471 adult male works on roof p.481 a d u l t male hangs p i c t u r e p.504 adult male checks heating appliance p.508 a d u l t male i n s t a l l s i s u l a t i o n p.512 adult male r e p a i r s r e f i g e r a t o r Adolescents (14) p.2 adolescent male smiles p.10 adolescent male shaves p.16 adolescent male wears s k i c l o t h e s p.29 adolescent male lifts weights p.205 adolescent male shops i n auto supply store p.222 adolescent male shops f o r c l o t h e s p.230 adolescent male works i n c l o t h i n g s t o r e p.192 adolescent male looks i n s t o r e window p.253 adolescent male s k i s p.317 adolescent male cooks p.378 adolescent male (head only - s e r i o u s ) p.366 adolescent male puts on t i e p.482 adolescent male puts garbage i n p u b l i c garbage r e c e p t i c l e p.495 adolescent male vacuums bedroom C h i l d r e n (1) p.245 boy e a t i n g Not C l a s s i f i e d by Sex (7) ' p.18 adolescent at archery p.117 c h i l d walking p.123 c h i l d i n walker p.130 c h i l d with wagon p.132 c h i l d r i d i n g on wheeled duck p.132 c h i l d sawing p.293 c h i l d with basket of f r u i t 207 Appendix D C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs of S o l i t a r y I n d i v i d u a l s i n People i n S o c i e t y by Sex, Age Group and S i z e of Photograph Photographs of Females (16) F u l l Page Photographs (1) Adults (1) p. 226 e l d e r l y female walking Adolescents - None C h i l d r e n - None Smaller then F u l l Page Photographs (15) Adults (13) p.41 female p s y c h o l o g i s t - posed - head only (Scarr) p.52 tatooed Japanese female p.53 female with anorexia nervosa p.55 Doukhobor female p a r t i c i p a t e s i n arson and nude p r o t e s t p.56 I n u i t female - posed - head only (Freeman) p. 100 pregnant female plays music f o r unborn baby p.220 former lieutenant-governor (McGibbon) p.224 female u n i v e r s i t y graduate at 75 (Morrison) p. 232 Meir - Prime M i n i s t e r of I s r a e l at 70 p. 232 Katherine Hepburn - making movies a f t e r 65 p.237 impoverished e l d e r l y female i n wheelchair p.258 female a c t r e s s dramatizes h a r a - k i r i i n opera p.269 Karen Ann Quinlan Adolescents - None C h i l d r e n (0) p.134 g i r l with d o l l p.188 f r i g h t e n e d g i r l standing i n corner Photographs of Males (16) F u l l Page Photographs (1) Adults - None Adolescents (1) p. 121 - adolescent male with spiked h a i r a s s e r t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y C h i l d r e n - None Smaller than F u l l Page Photographs (15) Adults (13) p.11 male a n t h r o p o l o g i s t examines dinosaur bones p.13 male a n t h r o p o l o g i s t - posed -head only (Trigger) p.14 male s o c i o l o g i s t - posed - head only (Schlesenger) p.26 male u n i v e r s i t y researcher - posed - head only (Zimbardo) p.35 male e v o l u t i o n i s t - Posed - head only (Darwin) p.69 male c h i l d p s y c h i a t r i s t - posed - head only (Erikson) p.103 male s c i e n t i s t - posed ^ head only (Pavlov) p.104 male p s y c h o l o g i s t - posed - head only (Skinner) p.105 male p s y c h o l o g i s t - posed - head only (Bandura) p.210 former governor general with t e n n i s racquet (Hichener) p.211 o l d e r male, s i t t i n g p.232 Reagan r e - e l e c t e d at 73 p.272 s c i e n t i s t , David Suzuki Adolescents (2) p.91 t r o u b l e d male adolescent C h i l d r e n (1) p.125 boy i m i t a t e s v i o l e n t movie character Not C l a s s i f i a b l e by Sex (1) p.39 hemophiliac c h i l d 209 Appendix E C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Loc a t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Home: Indoors page 13 36 65 90 Hales 3 adolescents d i s c u s s school p r o j e c t Females 2 adolescents d i s c u s s school p r o j e c t 3 adults pose f o r p i c t u r e with baby g i r l adolescent at t a b l e i n awkward communication a d u l t at t a b l e i n awkward communication with with parents a d u l t at t a b l e i n awkward communication with adolescent male a d u l t discusses household paper work with with a d u l t female adolescent male a d u l t discusses household paper work with a d u l t male 112 adu l t showing female something about finances a d u l t looks at home computer while male shows on home computer 91 a d u l t plays g u i t a r f o r family gathering 7 adults s i n g or l i s t e n to g u i t a r i s t 139 o l d e r a d u l t at family gathering plays with c h i l d on knee adult at family gathering reads to g i r l on hi s knee one a d u l t s i t t i n g at fa m i l y gathering 1 boy s i t t i n g at family gathering 126 a d u l t plays piano at party 3 males l i s t e n t o male play piano 146 a d u l t plays t r i a n g l e her something 6 adults at family gathering s i n g or l i s t e n while male plays g i r l watches olde r a d u l t male g i r l l i s t e n s to male read 3 adults s i t t i n g at family gathering 2 adults lean on male as he plays piano a d u l t plays piano g i r l s ings a d u l t points f i n g e r i n d i s c u s s i o n of c o n f l i c t a d u l t reads book and pets cat 100 adul t i n d i s c u s s i o n of c o n f l i c t with female 116 a d u l t looks at stamp c o l l e c t i o n 137 a d u l t pours milk f o r g i r l at breakfast t a b l e a d u l t at breakfast t a b l e reaches out to boy one boy looks at other boy who looks at g i r l watches male as he pours milk f o r her mother 149 adu l t holds toy f o r baby to look at adult watches baby as male holds toy 210 Home: Indoors (con'td) page Males 196 ad u l t vacuums 182 204 199 a d u l t holds boy and c a t boy s i t s i n man's lap while h o l d i n g cat 220 boy cooks with a d u l t female 228 222 a d u l t works at home computer 233 2 boys put jackets on f o r school small boy watches boys put on jackets 262 a d u l t eats boy eats 265 boy serves food to man at ta b l e 1 adult i s served food by boy 1 adult male at t a b l e 283 1 adult carves at head of t a b l e 1 a d u l t and 3 adolescents s i t at t a b l e 315 a d u l t at t a b l e holds k n i f e and boy looks at i t boy at t a b l e looks at k n i f e which male holds 286 boy sands c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t 323 o l d e r a d u l t places hand on woman's hand to console her 337 " s i n g l e " f a t h e r decorates gingerbread house with daughter Females g i r l dusts baby g i r l p u l l s i n t o standing p o s i t i o n small g i r l plays dress-up a d u l t cooks with boy adult t a l k s to g i r l s 2 adolescents l i s t e n to a d u l t female 1 g i r l l i s t e n s to adult female a d u l t holds c h i l d as 2 boys get ready f o r school a d u l t looks at g i r l s 2 g i r l s at t a b l e 2 adults watch boy serve food 1 g i r l at t a b l e 2 adu l t s and 4 adolescents wait while male carves a d u l t looks at g i r l as she gives her sal a d a d u l t p a i n t s c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t as boy sands and g i r l measures seated o l d e r a d u l t smiles as man touches her hand g i r l works on gingerbread house with f a t h e r 211 Home: Indoors (cont'd) page Hales 348 adolescent t r i e s to d i s t r a c t angry l i t t l e g i r l l i t t l e boy watches angry l i t t l e g i r l 354 a d u l t with clenched f i s t speaks a n g r i l y to female 360 a d u l t prepares food i n blender 370 Home: Outdoors page Hales 90 2 adu l t s i n t e r a c t i n g with c h i l d r e n 221 a d u l t r a k i n g leaves adolescent gathering leaves 297 o l d e r a d u l t adds storm windows to the house 314 o l d e r a d u l t barbequing 335 boy unhappy about going to v i s i t f a t h e r Workplace page Hale 106 member of c l e r g y o f f i c i a t i n g at wedding 34 3 adult p s y c h o l o g i s t s (head and shoulders) 180 155 158 169 366 366 Females g i r l c r i e s a n g r i l y adult l i s t e n s to angry male with clenched f i s t s i n g l e a d u l t works on her hobby of p a i n t i n g Females 2 a d u l t s holding c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g with males adult hold garbage can f o r c o l l e c t i n g leaves g i r l plays i n leaves which have been raked up ol d e r adult s i t s while male cooks d i v o r c e d a d u l t t a l k s to son who i s unhappy about v i s i t i n g f a t h e r Female adult e x e r c i s e i n s t r u c t o r i n post partum c l a s s a d u l t i n s t r u c t o r at pr e n a t a l c l a s s o b s t e t r i c i a n h e a l t h care worker s i n g l e weather f o r e c a s t e r s i n g l e TV re p o r t e r 212 Community:Outdoors page Hales 14 adolescent gazes over harbour 14 a d u l t stands behind f e i a l e 90 a d u l t g e t t i n g married 290 3 a d u l t s s i t t i n g 2 a d u l t s standing at country f a i r 310 2 adults and 2 adolescents serve and prepare food at block party Comiunity:Indoors page Hales 155 a d u l t at p r e n a t a l c l a s s 158 167 a d u l t poses f o r p i c t u r e with baby a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h 169 220 a d u l t looks at something while shopping School page Hales 19 4 adolescents graduating 30 42 adolescent running 45 2 young ad u l t s t a l k i n g but holding books -59 3 adolescents working on l i b r a r y research p r o j e c t 192 boy works on puzzle at preschool Females adul t on honeymoon ad u l t g e t t i n g married a d u l t wedding attendant 3 a d u l t s s i t t i n g 2 a d u l t s standing 2 adults standing i n food s e r v i c e area Females adul t at p r e n a t a l c l a s s pregnant a d u l t l i s t e n s to o b s t e t r i c i a n adult poses f o r p i c t u r e adul t with baby at c l i n i c a d u l t shows male something on l a b e l Females adolescent doing i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t 3 adolescents running, not dressed f o r s e r i o u s running 2 young adults (1 i n wheelchair) adolescent working on p r o j e c t g i r l works on puzzle a t preschool 213 Recreation page Hales 12 adolescent c y c l i n g 12 3 adolescents h i k i n g 12 adolescent l e a n i n g on fence of playground 48 boy watching g i r l at hopscotch 72 adult ( r i d i n g motorcycle?) 75 young a d u l t p l a y i n g g u i t a r 79 young adult 82 young a d u l t 130 old e r a d u l t preparing to throw b a l l to g i r l a d u l t cooking at p i c n i c a d u l t t a l k s to boy at p i c n i c boy t a l k s to a d u l t male at p i c n i c 146 adult and boy with s n o r k e l i n g masks on 146 adult with g i r l 147 adult with g i r l boy holds p a r t of k i t e 180 220 a d u l t s k a t i n g with g i r l and c h i l d 238 adult jogging adolescent jogging 241 a d u l t c y c l i n g boy c y c l i n g 257 257 3 s e n i o r c i t i z e n s at e x e r c i s e c l a s s 316 a d u l t h o l d i n g b i c y c l e t a l k i n g to woman 365 adult h i k i n g 371. adult dancing Females adolescent c y c l i n g 2 adolescents h i k i n g g i r l p l a y i n g hopscotch a d u l t behind male (on motorcycle?) young a d u l t l i s t e n i n g to male young adult spraying male with water from hose young adult helps male up from i c e while s k a t i n g g i r l preparing to catch b a l l a d u l t watching males at p i c n i c a d u l t holds c h i l d at p i c n i c a d u l t helps g i r l i n water g i r l f l y i n g k i t e g i r l on male's shoulders female holds part of k i t e 3 adults e x e r c i s e with babies at a c l a s s a d u l t s k a t i n g with g i r l and c h i l d a d u l t jogging a d u l t c y c l i n g g i r l c y c l i n g 2 adults jogging 4 senior c i t i z e n s at e x e r c i s e c l a s s a d u l t holding dog (out walking) adult dancing 214 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page Hales Females 92 adult gazes i n t o female's eyes adult gazes i n t o male's eyes 95 adult watching female a d u l t s m i l i n g but with downcast eyes 54 adolescent being consoled adolescent female consoles male 85 young a d u l t breaking up young a d u l t breaking up 175 adult h e l p i n g c h i l d walk 206 a d u l t male s c o l d i n g boy 315 adolescent l o o k i n g discouraged or unhappy 327 2 boys examine dead b i r d on beach 342 adolescent l o o k i n g sadly contemplative Lo c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page Hales Females 176 adult h o lding s l e e p i n g c h i l d 314 adult reading to boy 215 Appendix F C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Loc a t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Home: Indoors page Hales 10 adolescent shaves 14 23 46 51 adolescent eats at t a b l e 54 twin boys play v i o l i n s 66 87 97 121 male hands bathe c h i l d 122 o l d e r a d u l t holds baby 138 142 144 149 151 a d u l t checks temperature of baby's b o t t l e 280 296 a d u l t bakes bread 311 317 adolescent cooks 319 323 326 Females adolescent d r i e s h a i r adolescent at desk writes goals adul t g ives g i r l b i r t h d a y cake a d u l t and g i r l eat at t a b l e adolescent helps g i r l take boots o f f adolescent on telephone adul t gets c h i l d ready to go outside i n winter a d u l t holds small baby adult holds baby b o t t l e and adolescent baby s i t t e r holds c h i l d adolescent b a b y s i t t e r plays with c h i l d baby c r a d l e d i n woman's legs adolescent cooks adul t bakes bread adul t cooks adolescent cooks adul t and g i r l cook adolescent cooks 216 Home: Indoors (cont'd) page Hales 364 366~ adolescent puts on t i e 381 382 391 395 418 a d u l t cuts f a b r i c using commercial p a t t e r n 439 440 a d u l t hands hold c l o t h i n g care l a b e l s 442 2 adolescents do laundry 444 470 473 478 480 481 a d u l t hangs p i c t u r e above stereo 484 487 489 boy lounges on bed 490 494 495 adolescent vacuums 500 508 a d u l t i n s t a l l s i n s u l a t i o n Females adolescent looks i n f u l l length mirror a d u l t poses - 1914 adolescent reads f a s h i o n magazine i n bedroom adolescent checks wardrobe adolescent poses f o r photo i n "simple, but w e l l - c u t dress" adu l t hands care f o r c l o t h i n g adolescent does i r o n i n g adolescent plays piano adolescent reads book adolescent arranges c l o t h i n g on shelves adolescent works at desk 2 adolescents s i t on bed t a l k i n g adolescent hangs p i c t u r e on b u l l e t i n board adolescent lounges on bed 2 adolescents clean bedroom adolescent waters p l a n t s adu l t f i x e s smoke alarm 516 2 adolescents make bed 217 Home:Outdoors page Hales Females 48 adolescent c a r r i e s g r o c e r i e s i n t o house 48 boy on b i c y c l e adolescent helps boy on b i c y c l e 59 a d u l t and g i r l p l a n t flowers 132 c h i l d on wheeled duck 132 c h i l d with toy saw 134 a d u l t reads to c h i l d on outside steps 152 a d u l t feeds baby 159 adolescent pours drink f o r g i r l 184 2 adolescents shovel g r a v e l 506 adolescent works on house extension adolescent works on extension another adolescent watches Workplace page Males Females 78 young adult female does t r a f f i c c o n t r o l i n hard hat 79 older a d u l t does t r a f f i c c o n t r o l h e l p i n g c h i l d 81 a d u l t female serves food i n c a f e t e r i a adolescent serves food i n c a f e t e r i a 93 a d u l t poses with a i r p l a n e 98 a d u l t and adolescent b u i l d boat a d u l t and adolescent b u i l d boat 155 a d u l t with three g i r l s i n daycare center 157 6 adolescents from boys' p r i v a t e school teacher from boys' p r i v a t e school 170 adolescent purchases t h e a t r e t i c k e t s a d u l t s e l l s t h e a t r e t i c k e t s 178 a d u l t welder 183 a d u l t at d r a f t i n g t a b l e 210 male r e t a i l c l e r k a s s i s t s adolescent who shops with boy 218 Workplace (cont'd) page Hales Females 212 , a d u l t c l e r k i n h e a l t h food s t o r e helps adolescent female 216 c l e r k i n photo dept adolescent gets f i l m developed 223 c l e r k i n corner s t o r e serves adolescent 227 c l e r k shows 2 adolescent males a camera 228 manager and worker i n resaurant 230 adolescent works i n c l o t h i n g s t o r e 233 c l e r k i n corner grocery s t o r e a s s i s t s adolescent 246 a d u l t male watches ' "waitress" a s s i s t s a d u l t g i r l and c h i l d watch 263 ad u l t works i n food s t o r e 286 a d u l t works i n d e l i 305 a d u l t works i n r e s t a u r a n t k i t c h e n 347 a d u l t serves i n gourmet r e s t u a r a n t 349 a d u l t cooks i n r e s t a u r a n t 350 a d u l t cleans t a b l e i n r e s t a u r a n t 351 a d u l t pastry chef 411 a d u l t at power sewing machine 425 a d u l t hands at power sewing machine 452 adu l t works at computer i n t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y 453 6 adults work i n garment f a c t o r y 454 a d u l t and adolescent check designer's garment sketch 457 a d u l t c l o t h e s buyer checks garment 459 adu l t i n t e x t i l e s m i l l 471 a d u l t r o o f e r i n hard hat 219 Workplace (cont'd) page Males Females 504 ad u l t from gas co. checks heating appliance 511 a d u l t t a l k s about house r e a l estate agent shows house to a d u l t male and female 512 a d u l t r e p a i r s r e f r i g e r a t o r 513 4 adults work on c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e Community:Outdoors page Males Females 21 retarded adolescent c r o s s i n g s t r e e t adolescent h e l p i n g retarded male 153 boy at playground a d u l t with boy at playground 190 a d u l t buys cotton candy f o r c h i l d 192 adolescent looks i n s t o r e window 194 a d u l t at ATM 196 a d u l t enters bank 225 3 adolescents t a l k i n f r o n t of wall covered with g r a f f i t i 251 adolescent buys f r u i t at stand 274 a d u l t walks past s t o r e 285 a d u l t puts g r o c e r i e s i n car a d u l t puts g r o c e r i e s i n car g i r l watches 287 adolescent at produce market 2 adolescents at produce market 344 adolescent walks past r e s t a u r a n t s 398 •> 2 adolescents shop f o r make-up 446 adolescent goes to c l o t h i n g r e c y c l i n g d i s p l a y 450 2 adolescents deposit used a r t i c l e s i n r e c y c l i n g b i n 492 adolescent deposits l i t t e r i n r e c e p t i c l e 220 Community: Indoors page Hales 60 black adolescent t a l k i n g i n r e s t a u r a n t 88 adolescent i n shopping mall 173 179 202 204 205 adolescent shops i n auto supply s t o r e 209 222 adolescent shops f o r c l o t h i n g 260 276 291 299 342 a d u l t eats i n r e s t a u r a n t 374 School page Hales 24 adolescent graduates 25 adolescent does school work 40 4 adolescents i n c a f e t e r i a 63 adolescent i s reassured by teacher 174 186 2 adolescents work on school p r o j e c t 367 370 Females white adolescent t a l k s to male adolescent i n shopping mall adul t with adolescent shops f o r c l o t h e s 3 adolescents prepare f o r theatre production adolescent shops f o r c l o t h e s adolescent shops f o r records adolescent shops f o r ghetto b l a s t e r a d u l t shops f o r food adolescent shops f o r h e a l t h food adolescent shops f o r food adolescent shops f o r food two g i r l s eat i n r e s t a u r a n t adolescent shops f o r c l o t h e s Females adolescent watches male do school work 7 adolescents s i t i n school hallway t a l k i n g adolescent leans on locker 5 adolescents i n school uniforms t a l k i n g 221 Recreation page Hales 11 3 adolescents snowshoe 13 2 adolescents at c a i p f i r e 29 adolescent lifts weights 30 57 a d u l t male runs 74 a d u l t and 3 adolescents prepare f o r c l i i b i n g 89 2 adolescents skate 171 172 2 adolescents and 8 boys at the beach 177 2 a d u l t males run and wheelchair i n race 180 adolescent and a d u l t watch female climb 253 adolescent s k i s 272 321 368 L o c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e ; Outdoors page Males 1 2 adolescent smiles 3 1 adolescent t a l k s 5 8 16 adolescent wearing s k i c l o t h e s smiles 26 39 o l d e r a d u l t walks with small boy Females adolescent gets g i r l ready f o r i c e s k a t i n g 3 adolescents prepare to go rock climbing adolescent skates adolescent poses on b i c y c l e adolescent climbs on rope 2 adolescents run adolescent cooks over campfire adolescent s k i s Females adolescent p l a y i n g bagpipes 2 adolescents t a l k 2 adolescents t a l k 2 adolescents lounge on lawn with others adul t and adolescent walk L o c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page Hales 43 44 a d u l t and adolescent t a l k on sidewalk 52 4 a d u l t s pose f o r family photo 62 o l d e r adolescent t a l k i n g to younger adolescent 67 73 92 adolescent on bench t a l k s 95 2 a d u l t s pose f o r wedding photo 103 117 c h i l d walks on grass 118 123 c h i l d i n walker 130 c h i l d p u l l s wagon across grass 136 139 148 a d u l t poses f o r photo 244 245 boy eats hamburger 294 c h i l d with apples 365 378 378 adolescent looks s e r i o u s Females 2 adolescents i n s l e e p i n g bags 5 a d u l t s , a g i r l , a baby adult walks with c h i l d 2 adolescents t a l k adolescent on bench t a l k s 2 a d u l t s pose f o r wedding photo a d u l t and g i r l walk through long grass adul t with c h i l d and outdoors to play Native a d u l t s i t s with g i r l a d u l t t a l k s to c h i l d and small g i r l pregnant a d u l t poses f o r photo g i r l eats corn white a d u l t wears s a r i adolescent smiles Location,not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page Hales 38 61 adolescent smokes and t a l k s 116 adult holds baby 126 2 c h i l d r e n look at s t o r y book 373 adult poses 380 adult poses (1940s) Females adolescent hugs adult adolescent smokes adult poses (1940s) 224 Appendix G C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y According to L o c a t i o n of Female and Male A c t i v i t i e s Hole:Indoors page Hales Females 39 Down's syndrome boy two females s i t with Down's syndrome boy 134 g i r l s i t s with d o l l 145 A f r i c a n a d u l t poses with wives three wives, g i r l S 2 c h i l d r e n 154 a d u l t teases mate adult being teased 169 a d u l t feeds baby and watches c h i l d Home:Outdoors page Hales Females 46 adu l t and boy outside r u i n s of house 106 o l d e r a d u l t and g i r l s i t on steps 125 boy i m i t a t e s movie v i o l e n c e 191 a d u l t t i c k l e s g i r l g i r l laughs 198 2 adolescents (sons) pose s i n g l e mother poses with adolescent daughter Workplace page Hales Females 7 s o c i o l o g i s t , Emile Durkheim 11 a n t h r o p o l o g i s t 12 a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , Margaret Head 13 a n t r o p o l o g i s t , Bruce T r i g g e r 14 s o c i a l work prof, Benjamin Schlesinger 16 t h e r a p i s t , J a n i c e Gouse-Sh'eese 25 p o l l taker 26 u n i v e r s i t y prof, P h i l i p Zimbardo 35 e v o l u t i o n i s t , Charles Darwin ' 225 Workplace (cont'd) page Hales 41 51 two RCMP read c r i m i n a l code to Hiada one Haida male p r o t e s t i n g 56 69 p s y c h o l o g i s t , E r i k E rikson 71 78 2 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a r r e s t i n g s u f f r a g e t t e 103 s c i e n t i s t , Pavlov 104 p s y c h o l o g i s t , B.F.Skinner 105 p s y c h o l o g i s t , A l b e r t Bandura 107 143 Buddhist monk performs wedding 151 monk watches over Romeo and J u l i e t (actor) Romeo gazes at J u l i e t 206 male p o l i c e o f f i c e r 210 former governor general, Roland Hichener 220 232 p r e s i d e n t of U.S., Ronald Reagan 232 232 233 Pope John Paul II 233 258 272 s c i e n t i s t , David Suzuki 274 surgeon Females p s y c h o l o g i s t , Sandra Scarr two Haida females p r o t e s t i n g I n u i t w r i t e r , Minnie Freeman Queen presenting medal s u f f r a g e t t e Preschool worker J u l i e t gazes at Romeo surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead former lieutenant-governor of Ontario, Pauline McGibbon Prime M i n i s t e r of I s r a e l , Golda Heir a c t r e s s , Katherine Hepburn missionary, Mother Teresa a c t r e s s i n opera 226 Community:Outdoors page Hales 55 58 two adolescent punks 71 adul t climbs h i l l 78 91 adolescent contemplating 100 123 5 skinheads i n f r o n t of shop 140 groom on church steps 211 o l d e r a d u l t s i t t i n g outside shop 221 223 o l d e r a d u l t walks 230 three o l d e r a d u l t s , s i t and drink 249 6 adults with c o f f i n 250 4 a d u l t s at cremation Community:Indoors page Hales 50 2 teenage males shop f o r records 99 f a t h e r with mother & baby 136 adolescent gets ready f o r hockey 143 Vietnamese groom 1 adult looks on 197 222 o l d e r a d u l t teaches mentally d e f i c i e n t boy to swim 237 253 a d u l t plays tambourine Females one Doukhobor, nude p r o t e s t three adolescent punks lounge on sidewalk a d u l t and two g i r l s s u f f r a g e t t e a r r e s t e d pregnant a d u l t plays music to her unborn c h i l d b r i d e on church steps o l d e r a d u l t i n wheelchair holds female adolescent's hand o l d e r adult and g i r l 4 adults at cremation Females mother with baby & f a t h e r adolescent gets ready f o r hockey Vietnamese br i d e 3 adults look on a d u l t says grace with g i r l a d u l t i n wheelchair k n i t s a d u l t plays f l u t e f o r woman i n h o s p i t a l bed 227 Community:Indoors page Hales 270 f a t h e r holds son i n h o s p i t a l another son with them School page Hales 19 one adult shows adolescent something on the computer 71 224 Recreation page Hales 58 9 adolescents play team spo r t 71 a d u l t r e c e i v e s a sports medal 214 L o c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors page Hales 53 148 f a t h e r and two sons 226 L o c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors page Hales 37 4 adu l t s and 1 boy pose f o r photo 52 64 o l d e r a d u l t i d e n t i c a l twins 71 102 117 adolescent smiles Females mother watches Females adolescent graduates o l d e r a d u l t graduates from u n i v e r s i t y Females f i v e o l d e r adults lawn bowl Females adult with anorexia nervosa mother poses with family o l d e r woman with cane Females 5 adults and 3 g i r l s Japanese tatooed woman ad u l t feeds baby a b o t t l e grandmother holds baby and mother stands by her adolescent leans on male, b i t i n g knuckle and s m i l i n g 228 Location Hot I d e n t i f i a b l e : indoors (cont'd) page Kales 121 adolescent with spiked h a i r with mouse on head 122 4 boys pose with arms around each other 126 adolescent k i s s e s f e i a l e 130 S t e v i e Wonder on d r i n k i n g and d r i v i n g poster 141 3 a d u l t s , 4 boys 157 A r i s t o l e Onassis and 4 a d u l t s 178 adul t and c h i l d 188 205 Peter Woodruff and t e s t tube sons 269 Females adolescent k i s s e s male 4 a d u l t s , 5 g i r l s pose f o r f a i i l y photo Jacq u e l i n e Kennedy and daughter adult and boy g i r l i n corner on c h i l d abuse poster Susan Woodruff Karen Ann Quinlan i n head and shoulders photo 229 Appendix H C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y Located i n the Home Personal Care - none School Work p. 13 3 adolescent males and 2 adolescent females d i s c u s s school p r o j e c t Guiding, D i s c i p l i n i n g , Nurturing C h i l d r e n p.65 adolescent male at t a b l e i n awkward communication with parents p.149 adult male holds toy f o r baby while a d u l t female watches p.199 adult male holds boy and cat i n lap p.228 adult female t a l k s to young females and c h i l d p.233 adult female holds small c h i l d as 2 boys get ready f o r sc h o o l . Small boy watches, p.323 o l d e r male places hand on seated o l d e r female's hand to console her. She smiles, p.335 d i v o r c e d female t a l k s to son who i s unhappy about l e a v i n g to v i s i t f a t h e r Home Management and Home Maintenance p.90 a d u l t male and a d u l t female discuss household paperwork p.112 adult male showing female something about finances on home computer p.196 adult male vacuums while g i r l dusts p.220 adult female cooks with boy p.221 a d u l t and adolescent male gather leaves with a d u l t female and g i r l p. 222 adult male works at home computer p. 286 adult female p a i n t s on c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t as boy sands and g i r l measures p. 297 a d u l t male adds storm window to house C o n f l i c t p. 354 a d u l t male with clenched f i s t speaks a n g r i l y to adult female p.348 adolescent male t r i e s to d i s t r a c t angry l i t t l e g i r l while l i t t l e boy watches p. 100 adult female points f i n g e r at adult male i n d i s c u s s i o n of c o n f l i c t L e i s u r e p. 36 3 ad u l t females pose f o r p i c t u r e with baby g i r l [4 generations] p.90 2 adult males i n t e r a c t i n g with c h i l d r e n while 2 adult females hold the c h i l d r e n p.91 a d u l t male plays g u i t a r f o r family gathering while 7 males and 6 females s i n g or l i s t e n p. 116 adult male looks at stamp c o l l e c t i o n while a d u l t female reads book and strokes cat p. 139 f a m i l y gathering p.126 a d u l t male plays piano at party while 2 adult females lean on h i s shoulders and 3 adult males l i s t e n p.146 a d u l t male plays t r i a n g l e , a d u l t female plays piano, g i r l sings p.337 s i n g l e f a t h e r decorates gingerbread house with daughter p.370 s i n g l e a d u l t female works on her hobby of p a i n t i n g E a t i n g at an Indoor Table p.137 a d u l t male pours milk f o r g i r l at b r e a k f a s t t a b l e while a d u l t female reaches out to boy and another boy watches p. 262 adult male and boy eat while a d u l t female looks at g i r l s at t a b l e and two g i r l s look at mother p. 265 boy serves food to adult male at t a b l e while 2 adult females, 1 adult male and a g i r l watch p.283 1 adult male carves at head of t a b l e while 2 adult females, 4 adolescent females, 1 adult male and 3 adolescent males wait f o r home to carve p.315 adult male at t a b l e holds k n i f e and boy looks at i t while adult female looks at g i r l at t a b l e Nature of A c t i v i t y U n c l a s s i f i e d p. 182 baby g i r l p u l l s i n t o standing p o s i t i o n p. 204 small g i r l plays dress-up 231 Appendix I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y i n the Home Personal Care p.10 adolescent male shaves p.14 adolescent female d r i e s h a i r p. 364 adolescent female looks i n f u l l length mirror p.366 adolescent male puts on t i e School Work p.23 adolescent female writes at desk p.46 a d u l t female gives g i r l b i r t h d a y cake p.480 adolescent female at desk Guiding, D i s c i p l i n i n g and Nurturing C h i l d r e n p.48 adolescent female helps boy on b i c y c l e p.67 adolescent female helps g i r l take boots o f f p.97 a d u l t female gets c h i l d ready to go outside (winter) p.121 c h i l d being bathed by male hands p.122 o l d e r a d u l t male holds baby p.138 a d u l t female holds small baby p.142 a d u l t female holds baby b o t t l e and adolescent baby s i t t e r holds c h i l d p. 144 adolescent female b a b y s i t t e r plays with c h i l d p.149 a d u l t female with baby c r a d l e d i n her legs p. 151 adult male checks temperature of baby's b o t t l e p. 134 a d u l t male reads to c h i l d on outside steps p. 152 adult male feeds baby p.159 adolescent female pours drink f o r g i r l Home Management and Home Maintenance p.48 adolescent male c a r r i e s g r o c e r i e s i n t o house p.59 a d u l t female and g i r l p l a n t flowers p.184 2 adolescent females shovel g r a v e l p.280 adolescent female cooks p.296 adult female and male bake bread p.311 a d u l t female cooks p.317 adolescent male cooks p.319 adolescent female cooks p.323 adult female and g i r l cooks p.326 adolescent female cooks p.391 adolescent female checks wardrobe p.418 a d u l t male cuts f a b r i c using commercial pattern p. 439 a d u l t female hands care f o r c l o t h i n g p. 440 a d u l t male hands hold c l o t h i n g care l a b e l s p.442 2 adolescent males do laundry p.444 adolescent female does i r o n i n g p.478 adolescent female arranges c l o t h i n g on shelves p. 481 a d u l t male hangs p i c t u r e above stereo p.487 adolescent female hangs p i c t u r e on b u l l e t i n board p.490 2 adolescent females c l e a n bedroom p.494 adolescent female waters p l a n t s 232 Home Management and Home Maintenance (cont'd) p.495 adolescent male vacuums p.500 adult male f i x e s smoke alarm p.506 adolescent male and female work on house extension while another adolescent male watches p.508 adult male i n s t a l l s i n s u l a t i o n p.516 2 adolescent females make bed C o n f l i c t - none L e i s u r e p.51 a d u l t female, adolescent male and g i r l eat at t a b l e p.54 twin boys play v i o l i n s p.87 adolescent female on telephone p. 382 adolescent female reads f a s h i o n magazine i n bedroom p.470 adolescent female plays piano p.473 adolescent female reads book i n bedroom p.484 2 adolescent females s i t on bed t a l k i n g p.489 adolescent female lounges on bed with boy p.132 c h i l d on wheeled duck p.132 c h i l d with toy saw Eating at Indoor Table p.51 a d u l t female, adolescent male and g i r l eat at t a b l e Nature of A c t i v i t y U n c l a s s i f i e d p.381 a d u l t female poses (1914) p.395 adolescent female poses f o r photo 233 Appendix J C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y According to Nature of Female and Male A c t i v i t y i n the Home Personal Care - none Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors - none Schoolwork - none Guiding, D i s c i p l i n g , Nurturing C h i l d r e n p.39 two ad u l t females s i t t i n g with Down's syndrome boy p.169 adult male feeding baby and watching c h i l d p. 191 adult male t i c k l i n g laughing g i r l Home Management and Home Maintenance - none C o n f l i c t - none L e i s u r e - none Eating at Indoor Table - none Nature of A c t i v i t y U n c l a s s i f i e d p.46 adult male and boy outside r u i n s of house p.106 o l d e r female and g i r l s i t on steps p.125 boy i m i t a t i n g movie v i o l e n c e p.134 g i r l with d o l l p.145 A f r i c a n a d u l t male poses with three wives, g i r l and 2 c h i l d r e n p. 154 adult male teases a d u l t female mate p.198 a d u l t female ( s i n g l e mother) poses with adolescent daughter and 2 adolescent sons 234 Appendix K C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n Family L i v i n g According t o Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.13 3 adolescent boys and 2 adolescent g i r l s d i s c u s s school p r o j e c t p.65 adolescent male at t a b l e i n awkward communication with a d u l t female and adult male p.90 ad u l t male and a d u l t female d i s c u s s household paperwork p. 146 f a t h e r plays t r i a n g l e while mother plays piano and g i r l sings p.116 a d u l t male looks at stamp c o l l e c t i o n and adult female reads book and strokes cat p.262 adult male and boy eat while a d u l t female looks at two g i r l s at t a b l e p.315 man at t a b l e holds k n i f e and boy looks at i t while a d u l t woman looks at g i r l as she gives her s a l a d Home : Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors p. 14 male stands behind female on honeymoon p.290 3 males and 3 females s i t and 2 males and 2 females stand at country f a i r Community: Indoors p.155 a d u l t male and female at pr e n a t a l c l a s s p.167 a d u l t male poses f o r p i c t u r e with a d u l t female and baby a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h School p.42 1 adolescent male and 3 adolescent females running but not dressed f o r s e r i o u s running p.45 2 young adults males and 2 young adu l t s females t a l k , h o lding books (1 i n wheelchair) p.59 3 adolescent males and 1 adolescent female work on l i b r a r y research p r o j e c t p.192 boy and g i r l work on puzzle at preschool Recreation p.12 adolescent male and adolescent female c y c l i n g p.12 3 adolescent males and 2 adolescent females h i k i n g p.147 a d u l t male with g i r l on shoulders and adult female and boy who each hold p a r t of k i t e p. 220 a d u l t male and adult female skate with g i r l and c h i l d p. 238 a d u l t male, adult female and adolescent male jogging p.241 adult male and adult female c y c l i n g with boy and g i r l p.257 3 male and 4 female senior c i t i z e n s work out at ex e r c i s e c l a s s p.371 adult female and adult male dance Loc a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors p.92 a d u l t female and adult male gaze i n t o each other's eyes p.85 young a d u l t female and young adult male break up 235 Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors - none HALE DOMINANCE Hone: Indoors p. 91 a d u l t male plays g u i t a r f o r 6 females at family gathering and 7 males s i n g or l i s t e n p. 112 a d u l t male p o i n t s at computer monitor while a d u l t female watches p.139 o l d e r a d u l t male at family gathering plays with g i r l on knee; adult male reads to g i r l on h i s knee; one adult male, 3 adult females and 1 boy s i t at fa m i l y gathering p.126 a d u l t male plays piano at party while 2 adult females lean on h i s shoulders, 3 males l i s t e n p.137 a d u l t male pours milk f o r g i r l at br e a k f a s t t a b l e while a d u l t female at breakfast t a b l e reaches out to one of two boys p. 149 a d u l t male holds toy fo r baby as adult female watches p.265 boy serves food to a d u l t male at t a b l e , 2 adult females, 1 adult male, 1 g i r l wait to be served p.283 1 adult male carves at head of t a b l e while 2 adult females, 4 adolescent females, 1 adult male and 3 adolescent males s i t at t a b l e w a i t i n g f o r man to carve p.323 olde r male places hand on the hand of seated o l d e r female who smiles p.354 a d u l t male with clenched f i s t speaks a n g r i l y to adult female Home: outdoors p.90 2 adult males i n t e r a c t i n g with c h i l d r e n while 2 adult females hold the c h i l d r e n p. 221 a d u l t male rakes leaves while adolescent male gathers leaves and adult female hold garbage can fo r c o l l e c t i n g leaves and g i r l plays i n leaves which have been raked p.314 o l d e r male cooks at barbegue while o l d e r female s i t s Workplace p. 106 male member of c l e r g y o f f i c i a t e s at wedding ceremony Community: Outdoors p.310 2 adult males and 2 adolescent males serve and prepare food at block barbegue party while 2 adult females stand i n food s e r v i c e area Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation p.72 a d u l t male r i d i n g motorcycle (?) with a d u l t female r i d i n g behind p.75 young adult male plays g u i t a r while young adult female l i s t e n s p. 130 o l d e r male prepares to throw b a l l as g i r l prepares to catch b a l l ; male cooks at p i c n i c while a d u l t female watches; adult male t a l k s to boy at p i c n i c ; a d u l t female holds c h i l d at at p i c n i c p. 146 a d u l t male and boy with s n o r k e l i n g masks on and a d u l t female helps g i r l i n water p.316 a d u l t male holding b i c y c l e t a l k s to adult female who holds dog Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e p.95 a d u l t male watches female who smiles but with downcast eyes FEMALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors p.100 adult female points f i n g e r at a d u l t male i n d i s c u s s i o n of c o n f l i c t Home: Outdoors - .none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors p.220 a d u l t female shows adult male something on l a b e l while shopping School - none Recreation p.79 young a d u l t female sprays water on young adult male with hose p.82 young adult female helps young adult male up from i c e while s k a t i n g L o c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e p.54 adolescent female consoles adolescent male 237 Appendix L C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n C r e a t i v e L i v i n g According t o Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.51 adolescent male eats at ta b l e with a d u l t female and g i r l p.296 adult female and adult male bake bread p.489 adolescent female and boy lounge on bed Home: Outdoors p.506 adolescent female and male work on house extension while another male adolescent watches Workplace p.98 a d u l t female and male and adolescent female and male b u i l d boat Community: Outdoors p.285 adult female and male put g r o c e r i e s put g r o c e r i e s i n car while g i r l watches Community: Indoors p.60 black adolescent male and white adolescent female t a l k i n rest a u r a n t p.88 adolescent female and male shop i n mall School - none Recreation p.74 a d u l t male, 3 adolescent males and 3 females adolescent prepare to go rock climbing p.89 2 adolescent males and adolescent female skate Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Outdoors p.3 1 adolescent male and 2 adolescents females t a l k p.92 adolescent male and adolescent female on bench t a l k i n g p.95 2 adult females and 2 adult males pose f o r wedding photo p. 148 a d u l t male and pregnant a d u l t female pose f o r photo Lo c a t i o n Not I d e n t i f i a b l e : Indoors p.61 adolescent female and adolescent male smoking and t a l k i n g 238 HALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors - none School p.25 adolescent male doing school while adolescent female watches Recreation - none Location not I d e n t i f i a b l e - none FEMALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Workplace p.21 adolescent female helps retarded adolescent male cross s t r e e t p. 157 female teacher discusses d i s p l a y with 6 adolescent males from p r i v a t e school p.170 adult female s e l l s theatre t i c k e t s to adolescent male p.246 waitress a s s i s t s a d u l t female while adult male, g i r l and c h i l d watch p.287 adolescent female points out produce to adolescent female and male at outdoor produce market p.180 adolescent female climbs on rope while a d u l t and adolescent male watch Community: Outdoors - none Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation - none Location not I d e n t i f i a b l e - none 239 Appendix M C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Photographs i n People i n S o c i e t y According to Dominance of Females and Males i n A c t i v i t i e s NO DOMINANCE APPARENT Home: Indoors p.145 A f r i c a n man poses with three wives Home: Outdoors - none Workplace - none Community: Outdoors p.58 Punk teenages lounge on sidewalk p.71 Queen presents medal to a t h l e t e p.71 male and female with c h i l d r e n c l imbing a hill p.99 f a t h e r and mother pose with new baby p.140 b r i d e and groom come down church steps p.223 o l d e r a d u l t female and male walk with c h i l d p.250 four males and three females at cremation of I. Ghandi Community: Indoors p.136 adolescent female and male get ready to play hockey p.250 b r i d e and groom at Vietnamese wedding p.253 female and male v i s i t with s i c k female i n h o s p i t a l p.270 Dawsons v i s i t with Stephen at C h i l d r e n s ' H o s p i t a l School - none Recreation - none Location Not I d e n t i f i a b l e p. 37 4 males and 5 females pose f o r photo with many c h i l d r e n p.141 3 males and 4 females pose f o r photo with many c h i l d r e n p.148 female and male pose with two c h i l d r e n p.151 'Romeo and J u l i e t gaze i n t o each others eyes p. 157 J a c q u e l i n e Kennedy walks with Onassis and others p.178 mother and f a t h e r hold two c h i l d r e n p.198 s i n g l e mother poses with 2 adolescent sons and daughter p.205 mother and f a t h e r hold " t e s t tube" twins 240 HALE DOMINANCE Home: Indoors - none Home: Outdoors - none Community: Outdoors p. 51 2 RCHP o f f i c e r s with to 2 females and one male p.71 adult male and adolescent female smile at one another at her graduation, a d u l t female watches p.78 2 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s (male) a r r e s t s u f f r a g e t t e p.17 female adolescent leans on male's shoulder ( b i t i n g knuckle) p.54 adult male teases a d u l t female p.206 male p o l i c e o f f i c e r e s c o r t s Hary Beth Whitehead p.270 Hr.Dawson holds Stephen at C h i l d r e n s ' H o s p i t a l , mother s i t s beside him Community: Indoors - none School - none Recreation - none Loc a t i o n not I d e n t i f i a b l e - none FEHALE DOMINANCE - none

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