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Questions of value : an inquiry into the nature of research on teacher thinking Court, Deborah 1988

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QUESTIONS OF VALUE: AN INQUIRY INTO THE NATURE OF RESEARCH ON TEACHER THINKING by DEBORAH COURT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974, M.A., of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984.  University  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTORATE IN EDUCATION in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1988 <c) Deborah C o u r t , 1988  In  presenting this  degree  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Abstract  Early i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a defensible conception of t e a c h i n g i s l a i d o u t . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e r e a r e l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g , whereby t e a c h e r s do t h e i r b e s t t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n s t u d e n t s , and  that  t h e r e i s a moral c o n d i t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g , whereby t e a c h e r s a c c o r d s t u d e n t s d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t . With t h i s l a i d o u t , a n a l y s e s a r e undertaken  conception  of l i t e r a t u r e on  teacher  t h i n k i n g . The main purposes of these a n a l y s e s a r e t o see what c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g i s I m p l i c i t i n s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g , and t o compare t h i s c o n c e p t i o n w i t h the c o n c e p t i o n p r e s e n t e d e a r l y i n the  dissertation.  As a framework f o r a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e teacher t h i n k i n g , Lakatos'  on  i d e a of a r e s e a r c h program i s  used. L i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g i s viewed as a r e s e a r c h program, the "hard c o r e " of which i s the i m p l i c i t of t e a c h i n g . L a k a t o s '  conception  i d e a of " p r o b l e m s h i f t s " i s used t o  examine the moves from the s t u d y of t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making, to t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge, t o t e a c h e r  reflection.  S t u d i e s of d e c i s i o n making and p r a c t i c a l knowledge are found t o be based on a c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g which meets the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s of t e a c h i n g but not the moral c o n d i t i o n , because these s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e t e a c h e r s ' knowledge but not t h e i r v a l u e s and  beliefs.  ii  S e v e r a l reasons  f o r the lack' of I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o  v a l u e s a r e p o s t u l a t e d and e x p l o r e d , among these  the  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t v a l u e s a r e seen by r e s e a r c h e r s as  tacitly  h e l d and t h e r e f o r e i n a r t i c u l a b l e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of P o l a n y i ' s i d e a of t a c i t knowing l e a d s t o the argument t h a t m a t e r i a l which i s t a c i t l y h e l d can indeed be The  concept  articulated.  of v a l u e s i s then e x p l o r e d and  i t is  argued t h a t t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The main r e a s o n why  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s important i s t h a t  t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s a r e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t m o t i v a t e d by t h e i r v a l u e s . To u n d e r s t a n d  teacher  t h i n k i n g , i t i s a r g u e d , r e s e a r c h e r s must understand  how  t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s a f f e c t t h e i r p r a c t i c e . I t i s a l s o argued t h a t t o change and  improve t h e i r t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e , and  to  meet the moral c o n d i t i o n of t e a c h i n g , t e a c h e r s must g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own  values.  From the s t u d y of p r a c t i c a l knowledge, r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g i s shown t o be moving t o the s t u d y of t e a c h e r s ' r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Work on i s i n i t s i n f a n c y , but e x a m i n a t i o n  of w r i t i n g on  reflection teacher  r e f l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h f o c u s may p o t e n t i a l a c c e s s t o t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s i n a way r e s e a r c h has n o t . I t i s suggested  offer  that previous  that i f research  t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g i n c l u d e s t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t i n g on  into  their  v a l u e s , improvement of p r a c t i c e c o u l d r e s u l t , and the  "hard  c o r e " of the t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program c o u l d change t o i n c l u d e the moral c o n d i t i o n of t e a c h i n g .  Table of Contents Page Abstract Table  i  of Contents  i l l  CHAPTER ONE: I n t r o d u c t i o n A. Overview of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s B. O r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s C. Inure Lakatos and the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h programs CHAPTER TWO: A Conception o£ Teaching A. Concepts and c o n c e p t i o n s B. 'Teaching' and r e l a t e d concepts C. A c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g CHAPTER THREE: Teachers' I n t e r a c t i v e D e c i s i o n Making A. Research i n t o teacher t h i n k i n g B. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the concept of ' s k i l l ' .... C. Review of the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making a) I n t r o d u c t i o n b) The s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l method c) s t u d i e s of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making .... d) The problem o£ d e c i s i o n CHAPTER POUR: A n a l y s i s of the D e c i s i o n Making L i t e r a t u r e : The "Hard Core" and I m p l i c i t Conception of Teaching CHAPTER FIVE: Teachers' P r a c t i c a l Knowledge A. The nature of p r a c t i c a l knowledge and s t u d i e s o£ " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" B. S t u d i e s of r o u t i n l z a t i o n CHAPTER SIX: A n a l y s i s of the P r a c t i c a l Knowledge Literature  1 3 6 8 17 17 22 27  33 33 39 42 42 44 47 53  62 68 68 89 96  CHAPTER SEVEN: I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Idea of T a c i t Knowing and i t s R e l a t i o n t o the Study of Teacher T h i n k i n g  102  CHAPTER EIGHT: I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Concept of Values and the R e l a t i o n of Values t o Teacher T h i n k i n g  119  CHAPTER NINE: The Role of R e f l e c t i o n  139  CHAPTER TEN: S t u d i e s Possibilities  157  of R e f l e c t i o n : New  iv CHAPTER ELEVEN: C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations  .... 162  Appendix One: Teacher I s o l a t i o n as a Hindrance to R e f l e c t i o n on P r a c t i c e  169  Appendix Two: A C r i t i q u e of the Work of Donald Schon  173  REFERENCES  179  Chapter  One  Introduction  Research on teachers has been conducted almost as long as there have been schools. This research has moved from e a r l y work, which focussed mainly on i d e n t i f y i n g the t r a i t s of e f f e c t i v e teachers, to present day studies of teacher thinking. The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to evaluate a portion of that research history, viewing studies of teachers' Interactive decision making, teachers' p r a c t i c a l knowledge and teachera' r e f l e c t i o n on their practice as parts of a coherent research program on teacher thinking. The  idea of a research program comes from the work of Imre  Lakatos, whose paper on t h i s topic w i l l be discussed l a t e r in t h i s chapter. Lakatos argues that research programs have an unquestioned  "hard core" and a changing "protective  b e l t " , and that a move from one theory to another within a research program can constitute a "progressive or degenerating  problemshift". These terms, mentioned in the  statement of purposes below, w i l l be explained i n the ensuing discussion of the Lakatos paper.  2 S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e purposes of t h i s  investigation  are : 1) To i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l norms t h r o u g h t h e e x p l i c a t i o n o f a d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g , and t o use t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t e a c h i n g as t h e main b a s i s on which s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g w i l l be e v a l u a t e d . 2) To examine r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g and i d e n t i f y t h e "hard c o r e " of t h i s r e s e a r c h so as t o determine a) What fundamental,  unquestioned  assumptions u n d e r l i e  t h i s work? b) What c o n c e p t i o n s )  of t e a c h i n g i s / a r e  c) How does t h i s c o n c e p t i o n  (how do these  implicit? conceptions)  r e l a t e t o the conception of teaching e x p l i c a t e d early in this  dissertation?  d) What q u e s t i o n s do t h e a s s u m p t i o n s and c o n c e p t i o n ( s ) i m p l i c i t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a l l o w us t o ask and what q u e s t i o n s do t h e y d i s c o u r a g e us from a s k i n g ? e) What changes i n t h e " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " accompany t h e moves from t h e s t u d y of d e c i s i o n making, t o p r a c t i c a l knowledge, t o r e f l e c t i o n , and do these moves cons t i t u t e "progressive problemshifts"? 3) To g e n e r a t e , based on t h e f i n d i n g s of these a n a l y s e s , a set  of recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o  thinking.  teacher  One o f t h e main v e h i c l e s f o r "unpacking" the i m p l i c i t assumptions i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be  examination  of t h e use of language by d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s . Concepts which a r e i d e n t i f i e d as n e e d i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n w i l l  f r e q u e n t l y be  i n v e s t i g a t e d by o r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s . I t w i l l be the case on two o c c a s i o n s t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e "main argument, w h i l e p e r t i n e n t , i s too l e n g t h y t o p r e s e n t  i n the main t e x t w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i n g  the g e n e r a l f l o w of argument. I n t h e s e cases t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  i n an a p p e n d i x .  T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n w i t h an overview, o f r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of o r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s , and f i n a l l y by a summary of Imre L a k a t o s ' work on r e s e a r c h programs.  A. Overview of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s From the e a r l i e s t t i m e , the major purpose of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s , whether s t a t e d or u n s t a t e d , has been to  improve t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g  s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s do i n c l a s s r o o m s  o f what  has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  the t r a i n i n g of new t e a c h e r s and the p r o f e s s i o n a l development o f e x p e r i e n c e d d i r e c t e d to understanding  t e a c h e r s . Much r e s e a r c h has been what s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s do.  E a r l y r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s f o c u s s e d m a i n l y on i d e n t i f y i n g the t r a i t s o f e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . Techniques of measurement and a n a l y s i s were few, and r e s e a r c h e r s  often  conducted t h e i r s t u d i e s by a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e  f a v o r a b l e and u n f a v o r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e a c h e r s  they  had known. Examples of t h i s type of r e s e a r c h can be found i n the l a s t c e n t u r y ( f o r example, K r a t z , 1896) and d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g f i f t y years Researchers  ( f o r example, W i t t y , 1947). have not o n l y sought s t u d e n t  d e s c r i p t i o n s of t e a c h e r s , t h e y have a l s o e x t e n s i v e l y observed  and r e c o r d e d t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s . Doyle and  Ponder (1975) summarize t h i s work, by s a y i n g , " A f t e r more than s i x t y y e a r s of r e s e a r c h , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have s u c c e s s f u l l y i s o l a t e d and d e s c r i b e d the f r e q u e n c y and p a t t e r n s of a l a r g e number of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s . I t i s now p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e w i t h some measure of c o n f i d e n c e the behaviors teachers e x h i b i t with regard to questioning p r a c t i c e s , d i r e c t vs. i n d i r e c t v e r b a l Influence, nonverbal communication, p e d a g o g i c a l moves, and the l o g i c of t e a c h e r d i s c o u r s e , t o name but a few"  (p.184).  T h i s r e s e a r c h has y i e l d e d much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and many i d e a s f o r i m p r o v i n g p r a c t i c e . Ideas  now  a c c e p t e d as t r u i s m s , such as t h a t t e a c h e r s do most of the t a l k i n g i n classrooms,  tend t o ask q u e s t i o n s  requiring  f a c t u a l r e c a l l , and o f t e n t r e a t g i r l s and boys d i f f e r e n t l y , have a l l been documented t h r o u g h the o b s e r v a t i o n of t e a c h e r a c t i o n s . D e s p i t e the v a l u e of such s t u d i e s , however, t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h does not take i n t o account  the n a t u r e of  c l a s s r o o m l i f e . Teacher a c t i o n s do not occur  in isolation.  They a r e e x p r e s s i o n s of a whole human b e i n g a c t i n g i n a c o n t e x t . I n t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s people  like  Jackson  (1968), L o r t i e  (1975) and Goodlad (1982) have sought t o  d e s c r i b e and understand  t h e complex m i l i e u i n which  teachers  operate. Modern r e s e a r c h e r s have more s o p h i s t i c a t e d methods of d a t a g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i s , but some o f t h e i r work i s not d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s . C u r r e n t s t u d i e s of ' e x p e r t ' t e a c h e r s ( f o r example, B e r l i n e r ,  1986),  though more complex m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y and h a v i n g t h e advantage o f knowledge g a i n e d through many y e a r s of research, are remarkably s i m i l a r  i n i n t e n t t o much e a r l i e r  work. The " P u r s u i t of t h e E x p e r t Pedagogue" ( B e r l i n e r , 1986) seeks t o i d e n t i f y t h e t h i n g s good t e a c h e r s do i n c l a s s r o o m s , and t h e " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Best T e a c h e r s "  ( K r a t z , 1896)  r e a l l y sought t o do much t h e same t h i n g . I t i s r a t h e r as i f we a r e v i s i t i n g a f o r e i g n c o u n t r y a g a i n and a g a i n and g a i n i n g each time a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e l i v e s o f t h e n a t i v e s . We a r e s t i l l i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e meals t h e y cook, i n t h e i r p o l i t i c s and t h e i r r e l i g i o n , but now we a r e a b l e t o see t h e s e not as c o l o r f u l o d d i t i e s , b u t as m e a n i n g f u l  practices  inextricably  bound i n t h e web of c u l t u r e . Our r e p e a t e d v i s i t s t o c l a s s r o o m s  have l e d us t o  much deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l i v e s of t h e n a t i v e s , both s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . Here t h e metaphor breaks down, however, f o r w h i l e we would not presume t o 'improve'  on  another c o u n t r y ' s c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s (the e f f o r t s o f m i s s i o n a r i e s and empire b u i l d e r s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ) , a l l  r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h i n g s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be seen t o improve p r a c t i c e , and i n d e e d , t h i s has been t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the hundred y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r s . sought f o r many y e a r s t o d e s c r i b e t e a c h e r  Researchers ' b e h a v i o r s ' and  then t e a c h i n g ' s k i l l s ' , w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s e c o u l d be communicated t o b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s and t o e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s w i s h i n g t o improve t h e i r t e a c h i n g . O n l y r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y have r e s e a r c h e r s sought t o understand  teachers'  t h i n k i n g , r e a l i z i n g that teachers b r i n g to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n d i s t i n c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and v a r y i n g b o d i e s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Teachers do n o t a c c e p t u n q u e s t l o n l n g l y s u g g e s t i o n s , i d e a s and c u r r i c u l u m changes which come 'down' to  them. B e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the nature of classroom  l i f e and of t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g thus has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the implementation  o f new e d u c a t i o n a l programs as w e l l as f o r  t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l development.  Researchers  i n v e s t i g a t i n g teacher t h i n k i n g are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s understanding.  B. O r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s The  conceptual i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h i s  w i l l be conducted  dissertation  l a r g e l y t h r o u g h o r d i n a r y language  a n a l y s i s , and so a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s method i s i n o r d e r . O r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s , or c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s , i s a u s e f u l method f o r h e l p i n g us t o 'step back from* and understand  t h e ways i n which we view t h e w o r l d . We v i e w t h e  w o r l d t h r o u g h a s e t o f c o n c e p t s , a c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e , and  our  language I s t h e p u b l i c embodiment o£ t h a t  conceptual  s t r u c t u r e . We l e a r n our c o n c e p t s t h r o u g h l e a r n i n g language, and  s t u d y i n g language h e l p s us t o s t u d y c o n c e p t s .  a n a l y s i s has i t s r o o t s i n W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s to  Conceptual  l i n g u i s t i c approach  p h i l o s o p h y , and though i t has e v o l v e d s i n c e W i t t g e n s t e i n  i t can s t i l l  be s a i d t h a t c o n c e p t u a l  a n a l y s i s assumes  b a s i c a l l y t h i s : "For a l a r g e c l a s s o f s t a t e m e n t s — t h o u g h not all—in  which we employ t h e word 'meaning' i t can be d e f i n e d  t h u s : t h e meaning of a word i s i t s use i n language" ( W i t t g e n s t e i n , 1953, p.43). There i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , one meaning f o r t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of words, but a v a r i e t y of usages and t h u s a v a r i e t y of meanings and shades of meaning. I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t ways i n which a word i s used g i v e s us a k i n d o f map o f t h e meanings o f t h a t word. Conceptual a n a l y s i s i s u s u a l l y o n l y undertaken when we have a problem w i t h some c o n c e p t : i t would be f o o l i s h t o a n a l y z e e v e r y t h i n g . I n e d u c a t i o n , many f r e q u e n t l y used words l i k e  'needs' (as i n 'student  needs' and 'needs  a s s e s s m e n t ' ) , ' i n t e l l i g e n c e ' and ' e d u c a t i o n '  i t s e l f a r e used  by d i f f e r e n t people i n d i f f e r e n t ways, w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e t s of a s s u m p t i o n s , and we may i n e d u c a t i o n a l  discourse  f r e q u e n t l y be t a l k i n g a t c r o s s purposes w i t h each o t h e r . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t a n a l y z i n g a c o n c e p t w i l l make c l e a r what t h e ' r e a l ' o r ' r i g h t ' d e f i n i t i o n o f t h a t c o n c e p t i s . The purpose i s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s and connections  which u n d e r l i e our use o f words. S o l t i s  states this  well:  (1968)  "...many of us...would be hard p r e s s e d  i f asked t o  s p e l l o u t i n s i n g l e words the i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n such o r d i n a r y concepts  of e d u c a t i o n as t e a c h i n g , l e a r n i n g or  s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Yet these v e r y c o n c e p t s any  i n t e l l i g e n t thought  Furthermore,  are basic to  or d i s c u s s i o n about e d u c a t i o n .  I b e l i e v e t h a t an e x p l i c a t i o n of these  i d e a s would i n v a r i a b l y r e s u l t i n t h e u n v e i l i n g o f i m p o r t a n t nuances of meaning which we u n c o n s c i o u s l y assume i n our d i s c o u r s e and i n our a c t i o n s as s t u d e n t s or t e a c h e r s . As a r e s u l t , we would n o t o n l y become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and c a r e f u l i n t h e i r u s e , b u t we would a l s o g a i n a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o e d u c a t i o n as a human endeavor. T h i s i s t h e p o i n t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n a l y s i s of e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s " In t h i s s p i r i t the concepts  (p.7). of d e c i s i o n , s k i l l s ,  v a l u e s and r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be a n a l y z e d . These terms m e r i t a n a l y s i s by v i r t u e o f t h e i r importance  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  t h a t i s t o be examined i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n and t h e i r u n c l e a r or c o n f l i c t i n g uses i n t h a t l i t e r a t u r e .  C. Imre L a k a t o s and the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h programs I n a now famous paper e n t i t l e d " F a l s i f i c a t i o n and the Methodology of S c i e n t i f i c Research  Programmes"  (1965),  Imre L a k a t o s argues t h a t s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s cannot be e v a l u a t e d i n i s o l a t i o n , but s h o u l d be seen i n r e l a t i o n t o  the t h e o r i e s which precede and  supercede them. Such s e r i e s  of t h e o r i e s form what L a k a t o s c a l l s r e s e a r c h  programs.  L a k a t o s argues a g a i n s t s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l of t h o u g h t . One t h a t any  i d e a he d i s c l a i m s i s the p o s i t i v i s t i c  c l a i m must be t e s t a b l e and  p r e v a i l i n g v i e w , and  notion  i t s t r u t h p r o v a b l e or i t  i s m e a n i n g l e s s . For many y e a r s i n s c i e n c e  was  schools  t h i s was  the  because of i t much c r e a t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n  disallowed. L a k a t o s c l a i m s t h a t Kuhn (1962) and  argue t h a t s c i e n t i f i c change from one  Polanyi  (1958)  dominant t h e o r y  a n o t h e r i s a k i n d of " m y s t i c a l c o n v e r s i o n "  to  which i s not  governed by the r u l e s of r e a s o n but by "the p s y c h o l o g y of d i s c o v e r y " . L a k a t o s c a l l s t h i s " t r u t h by c o n s e n s u s " a t t e m p t s t o d i s c r e d i t the  i d e a . He shows h i s s c o r n  and f o r the  " s o c i o l o g y of knowledge", which he says s e r v e s as "a c o v e r f o r i l l i t e r a c y " when he r e t e l l s a s t o r y r e c o u n t e d by (1958, pp.12-14) about how 1925  Polanyi  the a u d i e n c e of s c i e n t i s t s a t  the  meeting of the American P h y s i c a l S o c i e t y remained  f i r m l y committed t o E i n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y d e s p i t e the remarks of the s o c i e t y ' s p r e s i d e n t  t h a t he had  overwhelming e v i d e n c e  f o r the o p p o s i n g t h e o r y of e t h e r - d r i f t . P o l a n y i  suggests  t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l , r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s were responsible theory.  f o r the s c i e n t i s t s ' commitment t o E i n s t e i n ' s  L a k a t o s , however, r e c o n s t r u c t s  t h e o r i e s of which e t h e r - d r i f t was a l a t e r member, and  the s e r i e s of  an e a r l i e r and  h i s " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n makes the  of the E i n s t e i n i a n r e s e a r c h  Einstein's tenacity  programme i n the face of a l l e g e d  c o n t r a r y evidence a completely t h e r e b y undermines P o l a n y i ' s message"  1  r a t i o n a l phenomenon and post-critical'-mystical  (p.163). In L a k a t o s ' v i e w Kuhn and P o l a n y i  s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s as something l i k e  present  religious  c o n v e r s i o n s , w i t h change o c c u r r i n g t h r o u g h t h e " p s y c h o l o g y of d i s c o v e r y " , whereas L a k a t o s h i m s e l f a g r e e s w i t h Popper (1959) t h a t s c i e n t i f i c change i s r a t i o n a l and o c c u r s v i a t h e " l o g i c of d i s c o v e r y " . Lakotos s t a t e s that a l l s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s are f a l l i b l e , b u t t h a t we c a n n e i t h e r prove nor d i s p r o v e any of them. T h i s l e a d s t o t h e q u e s t i o n , i f no t h e o r y can be d i s p r o v e d , t h e n on what grounds can we ever e l i m i n a t e any t h e o r y ? We must e l i m i n a t e some t h e o r i e s or t h e r e w i l l be a chaotic  proliferation.  L a k a t o s s u g g e s t s t h a t t o ensure t h e  s u r v i v a l of only the f i t t e s t t h e o r i e s , t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r l i f e must be made s e v e r e  and a t h e o r y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  ' a c c e p t a b l e ' or ' s c i e n t i f i c ' o n l y " i f i t has e x c e s s e m p i r i c a l content  over i t s p r e d e c e s s o r  (or r i v a l ) , that i s ,  only i f i t leads t o the d i s c o v e r y of novel f a c t s " L a k a t o s c a l l s a s e r i e s of t h e o r i e s  (p.116).  theoretically  p r o g r e s s i v e i f each new t h e o r y "has some e x c e s s e m p i r i c a l content  over i t s p r e d e c e s s o r ,  t h a t i s , i f i t p r e d i c t s some  n o v e l , h i t h e r t o unexpected f a c t "  (p. 1 1 8 ) . He c a l l s such a  t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e s e r i e s of t h e o r i e s e m p i r i c a l l v p r o g r e s s i v e " i f some of t h i s e x c e s s e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t i s  11  a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e d , t h a t i s , i f each new the a c t u a l d i s c o v e r y of some new  t h e o r y l e a d s us to  f a c t " (p. 118).  These a r e d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a than the  time-  honored e m p i r i c a l demand t h a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y must a c c o r d w i t h observed  f a c t s . In L a k a t o s  1  scheme, the  f o r j u d g i n g a s e r i e s of t h e o r i e s i s t h a t each t h e o r y s h o u l d produce new connected  criteria  succeeding  f a c t s . A s e r i e s of t h e o r i e s i s  by a c o n t i n u i t y which welds the t h e o r i e s i n t o a  r e s e a r c h program. A r e s e a r c h program may  be a p p r a i s e d , even a f t e r  i t s e l i m i n a t i o n , f o r i t s h e u r i s t i c power, t h a t i s , how new  f a c t s i t produced and how  g r e a t i t s c a p a c i t y was  e x p l a i n the r e f u t a t i o n s and anomalies growth. The  many  to  t h a t arose d u r i n g i t s  h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e , L a k a t o s c l a i m s , has been and  s h o u l d be the h i s t o r y of competing r e s e a r c h programs. L a k a t o s a l s o d i s c u s s e s what he c a l l s the  "negative  h e u r i s t i c " or "hard c o r e " and the " p o s t i v e h e u r i s t i c " or " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " of r e s e a r c h programs. These a r e w i t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r u l e s i n the f o l l o w i n g way: c o r e of the program c o n s i s t s of the unquestioned  a s s u m p t i o n s which may  connected  the  hard  "irrefutable", not be c h a l l e n g e d  and  which t h u s t e l l us what paths of r e s e a r c h t o a v o i d . T h i s i s why  L a k a t o s c a l l s i t the n e g a t i v e h e u r i s t i c . The  positive  h e u r i s t i c t e l l s us what paths of r e s e a r c h t o pursue. the hard c o r e must be p r o t e c t e d "we  Since  must use our i n g e n u i t y  t o a r t i c u l a t e or even i n v e n t ' a u x i l i a r y hypotheses' form a p r o t e c t i v e b e l t around t h i s c o r e . . . I t Is t h i s  which  p r o t e c t i v e b e l t which has  t o bear the b r u n t of t e s t s and  adjusted  or even c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e d ,  and  re-adjusted,  defend the thus-hardened c o r e " A research  get  to  (p.133).  program i s s u c c e s s f u l , L a k a t o s s a y s , i f  a l l t h i s leads to a progressive  problemshift.  He  o f f e r s as  an example of a s u c c e s s f u l program Newton's g r a v i t a t i o n a l theory,  the hard c o r e of w h i c h was  dynamics and  Newton's t h r e e  laws of  h i s law of g r a v i t a t i o n . E a r l y on many  s c i e n t i s t s gave c o u n t e r e x a m p l e s t o Newton's t h e o r i e s "Newtonians t u r n e d , one  counter-instance  instances,  w i t h b r i l l i a n t t e n a c i t y and a f t e r another i n t o  theories  e v i d e n c e ' was  established"  To sum  i n the  original  l i g h t of which t h i s  'contrary  (p.133).  up, L a k a t o s s a y s t h a t "The  h e u r i s t i c s p e c i f i e s the  ingenuity,  corroborating  p r i m a r i l y by o v e r t h r o w i n g the  observational  but  'hard c o r e *  negative  of the program which i s  ' i r r e f u t a b l e * by the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e c i s i o n of i t s protagonists;  the p o s i t i v e h e u r i s t i c c o n s i s t s of a  a r t i c u l a t e d s e t of s u g g e s t i o n s or h i n t s on how d e v e l o p the  ' r e f u t a b l e v a r i a n t s ' of the  t o change,  research-programme,  how  t o m o d i f y , s o p h i s t i c a t e the  The  p o s i t i v e h e u r i s t i c of the programme saves the  'refutable' protective belt.  from becoming c o n f u s e d by the ocean of a n o m a l i e s " While L a k a t o s has s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , he  concerned h i m s e l f  intimates  and  Popper's i d e a s on one  scientist (p.135).  with  that t h i s discussion i s  r e l e v a n t a l s o t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . own  partially  The  hand, and  c l a s h between h i s  the  i d e a s of Kuhn  and P o l a n y i on the o t h e r , " . . . i s not about a mere t e c h n i c a l point i n epistemology. v a l u e s , and has  I t c o n c e r n s our c e n t r a l  intellectual  i m p l i c a t i o n s not o n l y f o r t h e o r e t i c a l  p h y s i c s but f o r the underdeveloped s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and for  moral and p o l i t i c a l  i s no way  even  p h i l o s o p h y . I f even i n s c i e n c e t h e r e  of j u d g i n g a t h e o r y but by a s s e s s i n g the number,  f a i t h and v o c a l energy of i t s s u p p o r t e r s , then t h i s must be even more so i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : t r u t h l i e s  i n power"  (p.93).  and  Lakatos  o f f e r s another  way  of e x a m i n i n g  e v a l u a t i n g s u c c e s s i v e t h e o r i e s , as l o g i c a l  progressions  w i t h i n a r e s e a r c h program. On t h i s v i e w a new by a c c e p t e d  over an o l d one  d i s c o v e r y of new  theory  i f i t p r e d i c t s and  f a c t s . T h i s i s what L a k a t o s  should  l e a d s t o the  calls  "the  l o g i c of d i s c o v e r y " . I t would p r o b a b l y be e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t apply Lakatos*  to  p r i n c i p l e s t o moral p h i l o s o p h y , an a r e a i n  which ' f a c t s * a r e hard t o come by, though a l s o , as i n political  p h i l o s o p h y , an a r e a  i n which the adage " t r u t h  i n power" i s o f t e n d a n g e r o u s l y s c i e n c e s as w e l l ,  a c c u r a t e . In the  ' f a c t s ' about human e x p e r i e n c e  lies  social are u s u a l l y  a r g u a b l e . Even i n s c i e n c e the i d e a of ' f a c t s ' i s not unproblematic: may  in t h e o r e t i c a l physics, for instance,  not be the b e s t t e r m t o use  p a r t i c l e s t h a t no one w i l l ever  'facts*  i n d i s c u s s i o n s of waves and see.  In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n the work of a n a l y z i n g s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n s of the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g w i l l be done u s i n g a L a k a t o s i a n framework; however, some  l i b e r t i e s w i l l be t a k e n w i t h L a k a t o s  1  i d e a s . The n o t i o n of  "hard c o r e " w i l l be used l a r g e l y as L a k a t o s has d e f i n e d i t , as the b a s i c s e t o f u n q u e s t i o n e d a s s u m p t i o n s which d e t e r m i n e s t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s which can and cannot be asked and which m e t h o d o l o g i e s may be used. The "hard of a program o f r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g w i l l conception it  core"  l a r g e l y be t h e  of t e a c h i n g t h a t i s i n h e r e n t i n the program, and  i s toward u n c o v e r i n g  that conception  t h a t much of t h e  a n a l y s i s w i l l be d i r e c t e d . I n terms o f the " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " , t h i s w i l l be seen as t h e s h i f t t o new " s e n s i t i z i n g concepts"  ( f o r i n s t a n c e , from " d e c i s i o n making" t o  " p r a c t i c a l knowledge") which change t h e f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h and  t h u s a l l o w new q u e s t i o n s  the "hard  t o be a s k e d , but do not change  core". I n t h e a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e whether a p r o g r e s s i v e  p r o b l e m s h i f t has o c c u r r e d  i n the teacher t h i n k i n g  l i t e r a t u r e , c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r t i e s w i l l be t a k e n w i t h  this  n o t i o n . A p r o g r e s s i v e p r o b l e m s h i f t w i l l not be d e f i n e d as one which has l e d t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n or d i s c o v e r y of new ' f a c t s ' . Rather,  the q u e s t i o n w i l l be a s k e d , has t h e move  from t h e s t u d y of d e c i s i o n making, t o p r a c t i c a l knowledge t o r e f l e c t i o n a l l o w e d us t o ask new q u e s t i o n s which g i v e new i n s i g h t i n t o t h e ways t e a c h e r s t h i n k about t e a c h i n g ? Are we l e a r n i n g more about t e a c h e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n s classroom us  for their  a c t i o n s , and i f s o , w i l l t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n a i d  i n the improvement o f p r a c t i c e ?  Lakatos'  i d e a s must be a d j u s t e d i n another  way  for  use h e r e . While i t does not seem u n r e a s o n a b l e t o c a l l r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g a r e s e a r c h program, the d i f f e r e n t t h r e a d s w i t h i n t h a t program, namely d e c i s i o n making, p r a c t i c a l knowledge and r e f l e c t i o n , a r e not t h e o r i e s i n the way  t h a t Lakatos  t a l k s about s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s .  They a r e l i n e s of r e s e a r c h w i t h d i f f e r e n t  sensitizing  c o n c e p t s , and  namely d e c i s i o n ,  these s e n s i t i z i n g c o n c e p t s ,  p r a c t i c a l knowledge and r e f l e c t i o n , w i l l be e x p l o r e d as  the  d i f f e r e n t l i n e s of r e s e a r c h a r e examined. D e s p i t e these a d j u s t m e n t s t o L a k a t o s '  i d e a s , the  framework used i n the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s c l e a r l y L a k a t o s i a n , and t h i s framework was  s e l e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y because i t  o f f e r s c e r t a i n t h i n g s u s e f u l f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t other frameworks do n o t . The  n o t i o n of a r e s e a r c h program's hard  core which c o n t a i n s u n q u e s t i o n e d  a s s u m p t i o n s and  r e s e a r c h e r s away from c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s w e l l d e f i n e d i d e a t h a t h e l p s t o do the work of  leads is a clear, uncovering  the i m p l i c i t c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g i n l i t e r a t u r e on  teacher  t h i n k i n g . As w e l l , the n o t i o n s of p r o g r e s s i v e p r o b l e m s h i f t s and  of changes i n the p r o t e c t i v e b e l t of a r e s e a r c h program  l e n d s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n t o the a n a l y s i s of movements w i t h i n the t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program. An a l t e r n a t e framework might have been Kuhn's n o t i o n s of paradigms and paradigm s h i f t s , but these a r e vaguer, l e s s e x p l i c i t l e s s u s e f u l f o r the a n a l y s i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n  here.  and  The main component of the hard c o r e of the program of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g i s the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g t h a t i s i m p l i c i t i n the l i t e r a t u r e . examination  Before  of the l i t e r a t u r e b e g i n s , the f i r s t purpose of  t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , s t a t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of the c h a p t e r , must be f u l f i l l e d ;  present  namely, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  e d u c a t i o n a l norms through the e x p l i c a t i o n of a d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g , so t h a t t h a t c o n c e p t i o n can s e r v e as the main b a s i s on which t o e v a l u a t e the program of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g . I t i s t o t h i s t a s k t h a t the chapter  i s devoted.  next  Chapter  Two  A C o n c e p t i o n of T e a c h i n g  A. Concepts and C o n c e p t i o n s In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n an e x p l a n a t i o n was g i v e n of o r d i n a r y language  analysis.  O r d i n a r y language a n a l y s i s o f f e r s one way o f u n c o v e r i n g t h e b a s i c uses o f terms i n language so t h a t we can u n d e r s t a n d and use c o n c e p t s more c l e a r l y . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c o u r s e because many of the major c o n c e p t s i n e d u c a t i o n a r e used i n d i v e r s e and u n c l e a r ways. Sometimes j u s t t h e e x e r c i s e of f o c u s s i n g on and e x a m i n i n g a concept h e l p s us t o g a i n c l a r i t y . The O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s a concept as "a g e n e r a l n o t i o n " , and g e t t i n g c l e a r on our use o f c o n c e p t s h e l p s us t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e g e n e r a l n o t i o n s t h a t u n d e r l i e and g u i d e our t h i n k i n g . A c o n c e p t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s d e f i n e d as "a t h i n g c o n c e i v e d ; an i d e a " . I t i s more complex, more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d , may be f a s h i o n e d from s e v e r a l c o n c e p t s and may v a r y more i n t h e ways i t i s used and u n d e r s t o o d by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . A concept may be seen as a p u b l i c l y - h e l d set  o f ' r u l e s ' or norms g o v e r n i n g t h e use o f a term, and a  c o n c e p t i o n as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s more i d i o s y n c r a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a concept or c l u s t e r o f c o n c e p t s .  181  The concept  of education, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a  g e n e r a l n o t i o n , a l t h o u g h one which needs c l a r i f y i n g i f e d u c a t o r s a r e t o d i s c u s s i t p r o d u c t i v e l y . Many o f us p r o b a b l y share a b a s i c g e n e r a l n o t i o n o f what e d u c a t i o n i s . But a c o n c e p t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i l l  i n v o l v e many more d e t a i l s  about how, why and what e d u c a t i o n e n t a i l s and when and where i t s h o u l d or does take p l a c e . A c o n c e p t i o n o f , s a y , ' l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n ' or ' g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n ' may be an even more complex i d e a which i s l i k e l y t o need c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n by t h e person u s i n g i t i f i t i s t o be understood  as he or she  intends. Sometimes people  fashion conceptions  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o do s p e c i f i c j o b s , or when t h e y f e e l t h a t e x i s t i n g c o n c e p t i o n s a r e i n a d e q u a t e . T h i s may i n v o l v e c l a r i f y i n g c o n c e p t s  t h a t a r e vague o r  c o n f u s i n g and l a y i n g out t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s .  Someone might,  f o r i n s t a n c e , want t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t i o n o f ' g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n ' , a term i n f r e q u e n t c u r r e n t u s e , and t h i s would i n v o l v e , among o t h e r t h i n g s , c l a r i f y i n g both o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t terms.  I n t h e p u r p o s e f u l development o f a  c o n c e p t i o n one l a y s o u t and j u s t i f i e s an i d e a o r s e t of i d e a s t o s e r v e a p a r t i c u l a r purpose. Such a purpose might be the development o f a program f o r g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n . A f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s k i n d o f c o n c e p t i o n development w i l l the c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s o f c o n s t i t u e n t terms.  l i k e l y be  I t i s also  i m p o r t a n t t o examine t h e views o f d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s on t h e c o n c e p t i o n and perhaps on t h e c o n s t i t u e n t terms. As w e l l ,  one  should  being  make  discussed  conception come  to  in  been  rectify  to  what  avoid  with  often  the  knowledge" confounded  in  in  conception  one  compatible  with  a  new  Someone  for  previous  known  should  (are  there  be  empirical  data  things  knowledge  attempt  education  and  to  of  and  and  and  a  "personal  values  clear  are  have  such  in  literature, In  would  discussions  that  conception.  things  constructing  interested  notice  of  example,  area  Someone  fashions  category  confusing  this  might in  or  confusion.  thinking,  skills'?).  this  order  critical  literature  'thinking  practical had  of  grips  'skills' as  clear  to  the  coherent,  heuristically  fruitful. One conception justice.  of  the  construction  Rawls  conceptions  of  justice  position"  position",  posits  ignorance",  place  and in  is  a  person  world,  society.  lays  would  out  This  choose  Such construction their  is  own  conceptions  of  behind  or  the  of  various  in  the  The  "original  "veil  of  the  workings  her  own  talents  impartial  reasoning  a  o£  of  an  choice.  behind  of and  Rawls  various  implications  and  flaws,  conception.  systematic, seldom  them.  allows  showing  his  between  person  his  justice,  builds  how a  of  conceptions  self-conscious  conception  not  the  then  of  conditions  knowledge  explains  and  the  functioning  systematically of  (1971)  imagines  general but  examples  Rawls'  and  possessing the  famous  carefully  "original  people  most  self-conscious  done,  ideas  however.  they  see  as  Many  conception writers  important,  offer but  these  are o f t e n m e r e l y h i n t e d a t or i m p l i e d , and may ever have been c a r e f u l l y thought t e a c h e r s one  in fact  not  out. In the l i t e r a t u r e  f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s such phrases  on  as  " c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the t e a c h e r as a d e c i s i o n maker". T h i s would seem t o have more to do w i t h a c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g than w i t h the c o n c e p t , Although  or g e n e r a l n o t i o n of t e a c h i n g .  " t e a c h e r as d e c i s i o n maker" i s not a complete or  f i n i s h e d c o n c e p t i o n , when r e s e a r c h e r s choose t o ' c o n c e p t u a l i z e ' t e a c h e r s as d e c i s i o n makers t h e y are o f f e r i n g a more developed  i d e a than the g e n e r a l n o t i o n . T h i s  ' c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ' w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r c h o i c e of r e s e a r c h methodology and I t was  language. s t a t e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r t h a t one  purposes of a n a l y s i n g s e l e c t i o n s from the l i t e r a t u r e  of the on  t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g w i l l be t o see what c o n c e p t i o n or conceptions  of t e a c h i n g are i m p l i c i t i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g observe  As  teachers, talk  w i t h them and w r i t e about the t e a c h e r s ' work, t h e y h o l d assumptions about what the t a s k s and purposes of t e a c h i n g are.  The  c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g t h a t each r e s e a r c h e r works  from e n c a p s u l a t e s and  'bad'  the s t a n d a r d s a c c o r d i n g t o which 'good'  t e a c h i n g w i l l be judged. As w e l l , the  c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g may  researcher's  i n f l u e n c e the language he or  chooses t o use t o t a l k about t e a c h i n g , the a r e a s he or  she she  sees as worthy of s t u d y and the r e s e a r c h methodology t h a t i s chosen.  Because the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g t h a t i s h e l d will  i n f l u e n c e standards  of v a l u e , use of language,  chosen f o r s t u d y and r e s e a r c h methodology, I w i l l examining  the l i t e r a t u r e attempt  areas  in  to b r i n g these a r e a s  into  focus so as t o i l l u m i n a t e the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g t h a t u n d e r l i e s them. That a n a l y s i s w i l l be done i n a  later  c h a p t e r . P r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h a t work, and the purpose of the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , i s the l a y i n g out of a c l e a r , d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g . The  purpose of e x p l i c a t i n g a  c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g i s so t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n can as a s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t which t o e v a l u a t e whatever or c o n c e p t i o n s are uncovered i n the No new  serve  conception  literature.  c o n c e p t i o n i s proposed f o r t h i s  purpose.  R a t h e r , the c o n c e p t i o n o f f e r e d here i s drawn from v a r i o u s w r i t i n g s of P a u l H i r s t and R i c h a r d P e t e r s . H i r s t and P e t e r s ' work was  s e l e c t e d because i t appears t o o f f e r a more  d e t a i l e d and comprehensive c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g than w r i t e r s . Komisar (1968), f o r i n s t a n c e , has concept  other  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  of t e a c h i n g but not c o n s t r u c t e d a c o n c e p t i o n . John  Dewey's c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g can be i n f e r r e d examination  from  of h i s work, but he has not s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t h i s c o n c e p t i o n as H i r s t  and  and  P e t e r s have done. Among the s t r e n g t h s of H i r s t and P e t e r s ' conception are i t s c l a r i t y , each s t e p , and  i t s thorough  i t s comprehensiveness.  j u s t i f i c a t i o n at  B. 'Teaching*  and r e l a t e d  •Teaching'  concepts  would seem t o be r e l a t e d t o s e v e r a l  other concepts, notably 'education', ' l e a r n i n g ' . I f the person  ' s c h o o l i n g * and  i n t h e s t r e e t were asked t o  d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these f o u r c o n c e p t s , he or she might s a y something l i k e , " I n s c h o o l t e a c h e r s  teach  and s t u d e n t s l e a r n , and t h a t ' s how one g e t s an e d u c a t i o n . " There i s c e r t a i n l y t r u t h i n t h i s , but some f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s s h o u l d be made. D i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e d i f f e r e n t concepts  w i l l help to lend c l a r i t y  to the d i s c u s s i o n of t e a c h i n g i t s e l f . H i r s t and P e t e r s (1970) s t a t e t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s "not a s i n g l e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y or p r o c e s s cycling"  l i k e g a r g l i n g or  ( p . 7 4 ) , but a more a b s t r a c t term l i k e  'reform' or  'improve' which "seems t o draw a t t e n t i o n o n l y t o the s t a n d a r d s t o which the c l a s s of a c t i v i t i e s must conform and which g i v e them t h e i r p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y " ( p . 7 4 ) . T h i s group of a c t i v i t i e s  " a l l c o n t r i b u t e somehow t o a c h i e v i n g t h e  g e n e r a l end of an educated  person"  (p.74).  E d u c a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g . Changes brought about i n a person by p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r a t i o n  cannot  be c a l l e d e d u c a t i o n . L e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s mastery or achievement of some p a r t i c u l a r X, such as m a s t e r i n g a s k i l l or knowing something one d i d not p r e v i o u s l y know. T h i s m a s t e r y or achievement i s brought about as a r e s u l t of one's own  experience.  The  l e a r n i n g t h a t one does under the heading  ' e d u c a t i o n ' need have n o t h i n g to do w i t h s c h o o l . One s e l f - e d u c a t e d or educated i n f o r m a l non-school "My  i n a v a r i e t y of f o r m a l  o£  can  be  and  s e t t i n g s . I t seems q u i t e n a t u r a l to say  t r i p t o Japan was  a r e a l education", for although  major purpose of the t r i p may  the  have been a s i g h t s e e i n g  h o l i d a y , the t r a v e l l e r might have l e a r n e d a good d e a l about Japanese language and c u l t u r e . He or she may l e a r n e d how  a l s o have  t o swear a t t a x i d r i v e r s and eat w i t h  c h o p s t i c k s , but " i t must be noted t h a t i f a l l e d u c a t i o n a l processes are processes l e a r n i n g are processes  of l e a r n i n g , not a l l p r o c e s s e s of e d u c a t i o n . The  of  value c r i t e r i o n for  e d u c a t i o n c l e a r l y i m p l i e s t h a t much which can be l e a r n t must be e x c l u d e d  from e d u c a t i o n e i t h e r as u n d e s i r a b l e , f o r  i n s t a n c e a s e x u a l p e r v e r s i o n , or as t r i v i a l ,  for instance  w i g g l i n g one's e a r s " ( H i r s t and P e t e r s , 1970,  p.76).  This  v a l u e s c r i t e r i o n t h a t H i r s t and P e t e r s s t i p u l a t e r e q u i r e s t h a t what i s l e a r n e d i s v a l u a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i e t a l  and  moral s t a n d a r d s . They s t i p u l a t e a l s o a "knowledge c o n d i t i o n " , which s t a t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the development of ( w o r t h w h i l e ) knowledge as w e l l as depth b r e a d t h of  and  understanding. While t h e r e i s a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between  e d u c a t i o n and  l e a r n i n g , t h e r e i s no such c o n n e c t i o n between  e i t h e r of these terms and t e a c h i n g . E d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g go on w i t h o u t any t e a c h i n g . Teaching  can, however, c e r t a i n l y  h e l p people t o l e a r n , and thus t o become educated.  Teaching  i s c e n t r a l t o the i d e a of s c h o o l i n g . As our p e r s o n i n the s t r e e t s a i d , " I n s c h o o l s t e a c h e r s t e a c h and s t u d e n t s and  learn,  (we might s l i g h t l y amend the s t a t e m e n t ) t h a t ' s one  t h a t one can get an  way  education."  Teachers don't always t e a c h , of c o u r s e ,  and  s t u d e n t s don't always l e a r n , but by d e f i n i t i o n s c h o o l s p l a c e s where e d u c a t i o n  (and t h e r e f o r e l e a r n i n g )  are  through  t e a c h i n g i s supposed t o take p l a c e . Some of the t h i n g s  we  want s t u d e n t s to l e a r n (and these t h i n g s stem from our e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s ) would seem t o r e q u i r e d e l i b e r a t e t e a c h i n g . Some p e o p l e ,  i f l e f t t o t h e i r own  d e v i c e s , might  l e a r n t o read and w r i t e and do d i f f e r e n t i a l c a l c u l u s , but most need t o be taught a t l e a s t some t h i n g s d u r i n g l e a r n i n g of these and  other e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e s i r a b l e  ( a c c o r d i n g to our s o c i e t a l s t a n d a r d s ) of  the  competencies and  bits  content. In terms of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e a c h i n g ,  s e v e r a l t h i n g s can be s a i d . Komisar (1968) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h r e e d i f f e r e n t senses of the word  'teaching'.  F i r s t , t e a c h i n g "names an o c c u p a t i o n or an  activity  h a b i t u a l l y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y engaged i n " ( p . 6 8 ) . s e n t e n c e i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s sense would be "She t e a c h i n g f o r twenty y e a r s . "  has  A been  Second, t e a c h i n g " r e f e r s t o a  g e n e r a l e n t e r p r i s e , some a c t i v i t y b e i n g engaged i n " ( p . 6 8 ) . In t h i s sense we might say t h a t Jones i s t e a c h i n g t i l l  noon,  a l t h o u g h he may  as  engage i n such n o n - t e a c h i n g  opening the window or s h a r p e n i n g  activities  a p e n c i l . Third, teaching  " c h a r a c t e r i z e s an a c t or a l l u d e s t o an a c t as b e i n g c e r t a i n s o r t (belonging (p.68). and  t o the e n t e r p r i s e of  of a  teaching)"  A t e a c h i n g a c t might be d e m o n s t r a t i n g or e x p l a i n i n g ,  d e m o n s t r a t i n g or e x p l a i n i n g c o u l d  involve  talking,  w o r k i n g a p i e c e of a p p a r a t u s , w r i t i n g on the board or some more e x o t i c a c t i v i t i e s . H i r s t (1973, p.168) s a y s t h a t teaching  i s an  i n t e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and  a l l teaching a c t i v i t i e s  "The  i n t e n t i o n of  i s t h a t of b r i n g i n g about l e a r n i n g . "  Thus i n Komisar's t h i r d sense the a c t i v i t i e s  "of a c e r t a i n  s o r t " c o u l d be s a i d t o be the s o r t of a c t i v i t i e s which are intended  t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n the s t u d e n t s .  (1973, p.168) s a y s , whole a f t e r n o o n  " I f therefore a teacher  ego,  spends the  i n a c t i v i t i e s the c o n c e r n of which i s not  t h a t the p u p i l s s h o u l d own  As H i r s t  l e a r n , b u t , say, the  i n f l a t i o n of h i s  then i n f a c t he cannot have been t e a c h i n g a t a l l . " H i r s t makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between the t a s k and  achievement senses of t e a c h i n g . teacher  In the task sense  the  the  i s t r y i n g t o get the s t u d e n t t o l e a r n something; i n  the achievement sense s u c c e s s i s i m p l i e d , t h a t i s , l e a r n i n g has  indeed t a k e n p l a c e . T e a c h i n g , t h e n , i n v o l v e s the  about l e a r n i n g . In o r d e r  i n t e n t i o n to bring  t h a t the t e a c h i n g  can r e a l i s t i c a l l y  be e x p e c t e d t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g , H i r s t and make s e v e r a l o t h e r s t i p u l a t i o n s as w e l l . The teacher  Peters  (1970)  activities  the  chooses must " i f not o v e r t l y , a t l e a s t by  i m p l i c a t i o n , e x h i b i t , d i s p l a y , e x p r e s s or e x p l a i n t o  the  l e a r n e r , what i s t o be l e a r n t . However f i r m one's i n t e n t i o n  t o t e a c h swimming might be,  i t would be a b s u r d to count an  a n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , or even a presentation  of how  to solve c e r t a i n equations i n swimming" ( p . 7 9 ) .  hydrodynamics, as i n f a c t t e a c h i n g  w e l l , the a c t i v i t i e s chosen must be a t a l e v e l of appropriate she  can  As  difficulty  f o r the l e a r n e r ' s c o g n i t i v e s t a t e , so t h a t he  or  i n f a c t l e a r n . G i v e n a l l these t h i n g s , i t i s  obviously  important that a teacher  terms of what i s to be select appropriate  have c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s i n  l e a r n t , so t h a t the t e a c h e r  a c t i v i t i e s and  p r e s e n t a t i o n . Together w i t h the  methods and  can  sequence of  i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about  l e a r n i n g i s the c o n d i t i o n t h a t what i s t o be l e a r n t i s not t r i v i a l or u n d e s i r a b l e , recognized  but has  educational  worth as  by the s t a n d a r d s of our s o c i e t y . S p e c i f i c  instances  of " e d u c a t i o n a l  arguable;  nevertheless,  e x i s t and  teachers  and  w o r t h " are p r o b a b l y e n d l e s s l y  a f a i r l y c l e a r s e t of s t a n d a r d s does c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s must weigh the  l e a r n i n g experiences they s e l e c t against these T h i s s e c t i o n has c o n c e p t s of e d u c a t i o n , their  Involved  "educational which may  e x a m i n a t i o n of  s c h o o l i n g , t e a c h i n g and  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . H i r s t and  standards. the  learning  Peters conclude  and  that  p r o c e s s e s are t h o s e p r o c e s s e s of l e a r n i n g ,  be s t i m u l a t e d by t e a c h i n g ,  out of which d e s i r a b l e  s t a t e s of mind, i n v o l v i n g knowledge and d e v e l o p " (p.86) and  understanding,  t h a t "though t e a c h i n g may  n e c e s s a r y t o a l l forms of e d u c a t i o n necessary to s c h o o l i n g "  and  not  be  learning, i t is  ( p . 7 7 ) . Teaching i n v o l v e s  the  i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g and the s e l e c t i o n , w i t h c l e a r l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n mind, of a c t i v i t i e s  which  e x p r e s s or e n c a p s u l a t e t h a t which i s t o be l e a r n e d and a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o the d e v e l o p m e n t a l  which  s t a g e of the  learner(s). S i n c e the s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e methods and m a t e r i a l s and  the g e a r i n g of l e s s o n s to the  developmental  s t a g e of the l e a r n e r s a r e ways of i n s u r i n g , as much as p o s s i b l e , t h a t the i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t , these w i l l for  be c a l l e d the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s  the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g p r e s e n t e d  below.  C. A c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g Having drawn t h e s e i m p o r t a n t c l a r i f i c a t i o n s , what e l s e i s t h e r e t o be s a i d about t e a c h i n g ? T h i s  conceptual  c l a r i f i c a t i o n has l e d us t o the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r a d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g . One  other very  important  c o n d i t i o n remains t o be a r g u e d . B e f o r e moving t o f u r t h e r development of the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g , however, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o ask about the use of the word ' d e f e n s i b l e ' . In what ways s h o u l d a c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g be d e f e n s i b l e ? In the f i r s t p l a c e , the c o n c e p t i o n must be l o g i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e i n t h a t i t i s sound and s e n s i b l e and  i t s p a r t s work w e l l t o g e t h e r . H i r s t  and P e t e r s ' c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t e a c h i n g and concepts  related  would seem t o s a t i s f y t h i s c r i t e r i o n . In the second  p l a c e a c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be e d u c a t i o n a l l y  d e f e n s i b l e , t h a t i s , i t s h o u l d h e l p t o f u r t h e r the g e n e r a l l y agreed  upon ends of e d u c a t i o n . S i n c e the major aim of  e d u c a t i o n i n our s o c i e t y i s the l e a r n i n g by s t u d e n t s worthwhile  of  c o n t e n t , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s , and s i n c e H i r s t  and P e t e r s * a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s how  t e a c h e r s can b r i n g about  such l e a r n i n g , t h i s second c r i t e r i o n would appear a l s o t o be s a t i s f i e d . In the t h i r d p l a c e a c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g should, s i n c e teaching i n v o l v e s r e l a t i n g to other people,  be  m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e and g i v e an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e t o the n o t i o n of r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n s .  I t i s t o t h i s a r e a t h a t the  remainder of the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r  i s devoted.  That t e a c h i n g i s a moral e n t e r p r i s e i s i n e s c a p a b l e , not o n l y because w o r k i n g o t h e r s i n v o l v e s moral q u e s t i o n s of how  i n close contact with one ought t o t r e a t  o t h e r p e o p l e , but because the e d u c a t i o n a l aim of t h i n g s of v a l u e means, i n p a r t , c o n v e y i n g  conveying  by l e s s o n and  example moral p r i n c i p l e s such as r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n s . H i r s t and P e t e r s say t h a t "Teaching, activity,  as  an  i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e u n l e s s somebody i s or i s thought  of as a l e a r n e r . The v i e w which a t e a c h e r has of h i s p u p i l s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e a t h r e a d of u n i t y which runs through a whole range of h i s  d e a l i n g s w i t h them..."  (pp.89-90) These d e a l i n g s i n v o l v e f o r m a l l e s s o n s as w e l l as i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m , and the v i e w a t e a c h e r s h o u l d take of h i s or her s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e d e a l i n g s , i d e a l l y t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e persons accorded  and must be  d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t , i s an i m p o r t a n t component of  any d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n o f t e a c h i n g . How t h e n o t i o n s of d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s will  i n v o l v e many d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s and t h e w e i g h i n g of  d i f f e r e n t s e t s of v a l u e s . As w e l l , t e a c h e r s may h o l d b i a s e s t h a t sometimes i n h i b i t t h e i r a c t i n g on t h e p r i n c i p l e of respect f o r persons. T r e a t i n g s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons p r o v i d e s a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r t e a c h e r s b u t u s u a l l y does n o t d i c t a t e how e x a c t l y t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a c t i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . They must make many d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s , i n t h e a r e a of d i s c i p l i n e , f o r i n s t a n c e . The t e a c h e r ' s p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s and the v a l u e s o f t h e s c h o o l w i l l i n t e r a c t w i t h and sometimes c o n f l i c t w i t h the teacher's o b l i g a t i o n t o t r e a t  students  w i t h r e s p e c t , d i g n i t y and f a i r n e s s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t o e f f e c t i v e l y e x p r e s s and embody the p r i n c i p l e o f r e s p e c t f o r persons t e a c h e r s must p o s s e s s considerable understanding  of t h e i r own v a l u e s and t h e  sometimes s u b t l e ways t h e s e may be communicated t o s t u d e n t s . Some v a l u e s may be h e l d t a c i t l y or even s u b c o n s c i o u s l y and may a f f e c t t e a c h e r s * c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of s t u d e n t s . I f t e a c h e r s a r e t o make i n t e l l i g e n t judgements about how b e s t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y s h o u l d r e f l e c t on t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and a l s o on t h e v a l u e s t h a t a r e o p e r a t i n g a t the s c h o o l l e v e l . There a r e p o s s i b l e  30  c o n f l i c t s between p e r s o n a l and s c h o o l v a l u e s t h a t may t e a c h e r s f r u s t r a t i o n and  cause  confusion.  Another s o u r c e of p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t f o r a t e a c h e r i s t h a t he or she must, on the one  hand, r e s p e c t the p r i d e  and s e n s i t i v i t y of h i s or her s t u d e n t s and on the o t h e r hand t r y to f u l f i l l  the r e q u i r e m e n t s  of the r o l e of  teacher  w i t h i n an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , r e s p e c t i n g the s u b j e c t matter  he or she  i s meant t o convey. A t e a c h e r must "have  r e g a r d a l s o t o the v a l u e s immanent i n what he i s t e a c h i n g . He must not be so overwhelmed w i t h awe another  e x p r e s s i n g h i s innermost  a t the thought  thoughts  t h a t he omits t o  p o i n t out t h a t t h e y a r e not v e r y c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d s c a r c e l y r e l e v a n t t o the matter t e a c h e r who  or  under d i s c u s s i o n . An a r t  i s content to l e t c h i l d r e n express  w i t h o u t any concern  of  themselves,  f o r a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s , i s d e f i c i e n t as  a t e a c h e r whatever h i s or her m e r i t s as a r e s p e c t e r of persons"  ( H i r s t and P e t e r s , 1970,  matter s t a n d a r d s  i s connected  p.92). R e s p e c t i n g s u b j e c t  t o the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s  s p e c i f i e d e a r l i e r , and t o the s e l e c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l l y worthwhile  learning experiences. A t e a c h e r must, t h e n , weigh t h e s e sometimes  opposing  s e t s of v a l u e s i n o r d e r t o be t r u e both t o moral  p r i n c i p l e s and t o the demands of the r o l e of t e a c h e r i n an educational  institution.  The d i g n i t y and  requirement  that teachers t r e a t students with  r e s p e c t a c c o r d i n g t o the b a s i c moral p r i n c i p l e  of r e s p e c t f o r persons  w i l l be c a l l e d the moral c o n d i t i o n .  The l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e moral c o n d i t i o n t o g e t h e r a r e the components of t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g . In summary, t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g here from t h e work of H i r s t and P e t e r s  developed  is logically,  e d u c a t i o n a l l y and m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g  t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s can be made:  1) T e a c h i n g i n v o l v e s t h e i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about learning. 2) The a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g must i n d i c a t e t o the l e a r n e r , what i s t o be l e a r n t . 3) The a c t i v i t i e s and methods s e l e c t e d must be  appropriate  t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s c o g n i t i v e s t a t e , so t h a t he or she can in fact learn. 4) The a c t i v i t i e s , c o n t e n t and methods s e l e c t e d must r e f l e c t and be a p p r o p r i a t e educational  t o the teacher's c l e a r  aims.  5) That which i s t o be l e a r n t must not be t r i v i a l or undesirable, according  but must be e d u c a t i o n a l l y  to defensible  worthwhile  standards.  These f i v e p o i n t s s p e c i f y the l e a r n i n g  conditions.  6) The t e a c h e r s h o u l d e x p r e s s and embody, t o t h e b e s t of h i s or her a b i l i t y , the moral p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons i n a l l h i s or her d e a l i n g s  with  students.  T h i s p o i n t s p e c i f i e s the moral c o n d i t i o n .  Having a r t i c u l a t e d the d e t a i l s of t h i s of t e a c h i n g , we t u r n now thinking,  t o the l i t e r a t u r e on  conception  teacher  b e g i n n i n g w i t h s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making.  Chapter  Teachers'  A. R e s e a r c h  I n t e r a c t i v e D e c i s i o n Making  into teacher  The  Three  thinking  f i r s t seven or e i g h t decades o f r e s e a r c h on  t e a c h e r s was devoted  t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r  b e h a v i o r , and t h i s r e s e a r c h has been f r u i t f u l Teacher b e h a v i o r  i n many ways.  i s no l o n g e r t h e major r e s e a r c h f o c u s ,  because t e a c h e r s ' a c t i o n s have been q u i t e t h o r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y s e d , and t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h does n o t appear t o o f f e r many new i n s i g h t s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r c a n be seen as a r e s e a r c h program which, w h i l e i t may not be s u p p l a n t e d ,  i s a t l e a s t r i v a l l e d by a  new r e s e a r c h program t h a t emphasizes t e a c h e r  thinking.  These two r e s e a r c h programs have some r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t b a s i c assumptions.  The t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r  assumes t h a t we can know and understand  program  most o f t h e  i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s about t e a c h i n g from o b s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s * o v e r t a c t i o n s . The t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program, on t h e o t h e r hand, assumes t h a t we need t o ask t e a c h e r s about t h e i r thoughts as w e l l as o b s e r v i n g t h e i r b e h a v i o r . The t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r program does n o t g i v e a major f o c u s t o t h e c o n t e x t of t e a c h i n g , assuming t h a t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t b e h a v i o r can be understood and  teacher  without the d e t a i l s of context  judged a c c o r d i n g t o a s t a n d a r d s e t o f c r i t e r i a . The  t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program assumes t h a t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r can b e s t be u n d e r s t o o d  i n t h e v a r y i n g c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t , and  c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g b e h a v i o r t o be e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e , a p p r o p r i a t e or i n a p p r o p r i a t e , w i l l  vary  a c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e x t . As w e l l , t h e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r program assumes t h a t s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s can i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t achievement, and t h a t t h e r e i s a s t a n d a r d s e t o f t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program t a k e s t h e view t h a t because t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a r e complex i t i s seldom the case t h a t a few p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h i n g a c t i o n s w i l l c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h a few p a r t i c u l a r measures o f p u p i l l e a r n i n g , and t h a t because t e a c h e r s b r i n g d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g , t h e y w i l l d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and methods and e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t  have  skills.  Having made t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s , t h e y must now be q u a l i f i e d . S e t t i n g up a t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r / t e a c h e r  thinking  d i c h o t o m y i n t h i s way i s u s e f u l i n t h a t i t g i v e s , r a t h e r s t a r k l y , something  o f t h e d i f f e r e n t f l a v o u r s o f these two  r e s e a r c h programs. However t h e p o r t r a y a l i s t o o s t a r k and i n f a c t people  i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r of t h e s e r e s e a r c h programs  may s h a r e many assumptions importance  w i t h each o t h e r . D e s p i t e t h e  given t o context i n teacher t h i n k i n g s t u d i e s , f o r  i n s t a n c e , t h e f a c t remains t h a t t h e r e IS a s t a n d a r d s e t of c r i t e r i a by which we judge e f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . Without  s t a n d a r d s , no e v a l u a t i o n would be  p o s s i b l e . As w e l l , e a r l y r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r was s i m p l e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t h a n much c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , and t h e  l a c k o£ a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o c o n t e x t may  have been due  partly  t o t h e l a c k of t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s k i n d of s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e the assumptions  of b o t h programs may  be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , and w h i l e i t may  not be  not  entirely  a c c u r a t e t o s t a t e them as s t a r k l y as was done above, t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e a t the h e a r t of the programs. The  two  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r program seeks t o d i s c o v e r  what a c t s t e a c h e r s p e r f o r m i n c l a s s r o o m s , and so o b v i o u s l y the u n d e r l y i n g assumption a r e of fundamental seeks t o understand  i s t h a t t h e s e a c t s , or b e h a v i o r s  i m p o r t a n c e . The t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program the t h i n k i n g t h a t m o t i v a t e s t e a c h e r s '  a c t s and d e c i s i o n s and the c l a s s r o o m c o n t e x t i n which take p l a c e , and the u n d e r l y i n g assumption  they  i s that acts are,  i f not u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , a t l e a s t not p a r t i c u l a r l y or e n l i g h t e n i n g w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h i n k i n g and  meaningful to  context. The  f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w of l i t e r a t u r e examines the  major works on t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making and d i s c u s s e s the i d e a s of w r i t e r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the major d i r e c t i o n s  and  perspectives within t h i s area. The s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g began about 1970, a l t h o u g h some w r i t e r s d u r i n g the 1960's e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r approach.  Researchers  behavior  i n t o t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g have used  several different foci in their has been the s t u d y of p l a n n i n g .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . One  of these  L i t e r a t u r e on e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r e t c h e s back for  a t l e a s t f i f t y y e a r s , but under the a u s p i c e s of  b e h a v i o r r e s e a r c h t h i s l i t e r a t u r e was d i c t a t i n g t o t e a c h e r s how  teacher  prescriptive,  t h e y ought t o p l a n . A f t e r  most p r e s c r i p t i v e p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e was  1950  based on the model  proposed by T y l e r , a d v o c a t i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s s p e c i f y educational o b j e c t i v e s , plan a c t i v i t i e s designed  to achieve  those o b j e c t i v e s , and p l a n a p p r o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n procedures. A notable departure  from t h i s model o c c u r r e d when  Macdonald (1965) and E i s n e r (1967) suggested  that teachers  do not s t a r t w i t h o b j e c t i v e s when t h e y b e g i n t o p l a n , and not proceed  through  do  the s t e p s of T y l e r ' s model. They f o c u s  f i r s t on a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i l l  e n j o y and  at  which t h e y can be s u c c e s s f u l . O b j e c t i v e s a r i s e i n the c o n t e x t of i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s was  called  an  " i n t e g r a t e d ends-means model" i n I t s l a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n by Zahorik  (1975). S t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m  remain r e l a t i v e l y few In number. The  r e s u l t s of  planning those  s t u d i e s t h a t have been done a r e q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t , a g r e e i n g w i t h the f i n d i n g s of Z a h o r i k  (1975) t h a t t e a c h e r s spend most  of t h e i r p l a n n i n g time concerned  w i t h the s u b j e c t matter  to  be t a u g h t , and on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount of time i s spent on o b j e c t i v e s and evaluation.  A  37Yinger teacher  (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d the t h i n k i n g of t h e  In h i s s t u d y by h a v i n g her t a l k a l o u d as she  planned. Yinger suggests t h a t i n planning a teacher i s 'problem-finding', d i s c o v e r i n g p o t e n t i a l useful i n s t r u c t i o n a l i d e a s and e l a b o r a t i n g on them. He s a y s t h a t problem-finding  i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n among f o u r components:  the p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g dilemma c o n f r o n t i n g t h e t e a c h e r , the t e a c h e r ' s knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , the t e a c h i n g g o a l s and the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . The acknowledgement t h a t t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s d i f f e r and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s b r i n g d i f f e r e n t knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e  t o t h e i r t a s k s marks a  major d i f f e r e n c e between t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r  r e s e a r c h and  teacher t h i n k i n g research. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r p l a n n i n g d i d not open up as a major a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f , and the number o f s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o p l a n n i n g remains s m a l l . S t u d y i n g t e a c h e r s ' p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the d e c i s i o n s t e a c h e r s make w h i l e p l a n n i n g , and many r e s e a r c h e r s found i t more f r u i t f u l  t o choose d e c i s i o n as the c e n t r a l  focus. Another f o c u s was on t e a c h e r judgement. S t u d i e s w i t h t h i s s p e c i f i c focus a r e a l s o few i n number, and have tended t o be h y p o t h e t i c a l o r l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s . One such study required teachers to f i l l  out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s t a t i n g  t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s t h e y would use f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r backgrounds ( S h a v e l s o n , C a d w e l l and I z u , 1977). I n judgement s t u d i e s ,  t o o , the word " d e c i s i o n  1  was  mentioned f r e q u e n t l y . D u r i n g  the 1970's t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making was  an a r e a of major  interest. I n 1973  Shavelson  made the s t a t e m e n t ,  much-quoted  s i n c e , t h a t d e c i s i o n making i s "the b a s i c t e a c h i n g "Any  skill".  t e a c h i n g a c t " , he w r o t e , " i s the r e s u l t of a  decision—sometimes  conscious  but more o f t e n n o t - - t h a t  the  t e a c h e r makes a f t e r the complex c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n " (p. 144). S h a v e l s o n  sees a  link  between e a r l i e r b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s and s t u d i e s of d e c i s i o n making: " T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n (of the t e a c h e r as a d e c i s i o n maker) i n c o r p o r a t e s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on  teaching  s k i l l s . Such s k i l l s as q u e s t i o n i n g , e x p l a i n i n g , r e i n f o r c i n g and p r o b i n g r e p r e s e n t the t e a c h e r ' s r e p e r t o i r e of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t s from which he must choose a t any t i m e " (p. 149). The  l i n k which S h a v e l s o n  instant in  p o s i t s between  s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r and s t u d i e s of d e c i s i o n making seems a p p r o p r i a t e , and  i n f a c t d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s share  q u a l i t i e s of both the t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r and  teacher  programs. The v i e w t h a t t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y of  research  "teaching  s k i l l s " such as q u e s t i o n i n g , e x p l a i n i n g and p r o b i n g i s not u n l i k e the v i e w t h a t t h e r e i s a s t a n d a r d s e t of t e a c h i n g " b e h a v i o r s " from which a t e a c h e r s e l e c t s . S t u d i e s of o v e r t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r seek answers t o the q u e s t i o n "What does the t e a c h e r do?"  S t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s ask not  only  what but when and, most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e y sometimes ask  39  why. "Why d i d the t e a c h e r This question  choose t h i s a c t i o n a t t h i s  t a k e s us i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t e a c h e r  S h a v e l s o n i s , however, i n a c c u r a t e  time?"  thinking.  i n labeling  d e c i s i o n making ( o r e x p l a i n i n g , or p r o b i n g ) a s k i l l .  This i s  not a minor p o i n t , but a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r how d e c i s i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d for  and s t u d i e d and  how c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n making i s approached i n t e a c h e r  education.  The v i e w t h a t t h e r e  s k i l l s " such as q u e s t i o n i n g ,  i s a v a r i e t y of "teaching  e x p l a i n i n g and p r o b i n g ,  and the  v i e w t h a t d e c i d i n g which o f t h e s e t o s e l e c t i s i t s e l f skill,  a  i s not so d i f f e r e n t from the i d e a t h a t t h e r e a r e a  standard  s e t of teaching  "behaviors"  which can be s e l e c t e d  from. The • c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r  as a d e c i s i o n  maker' s u g g e s t s a c o n c e p t i o n  as an a c t i v e  t h i n k e r , responsive  of the teacher  t o c h a n g i n g c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s , but  the d e f i n i t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making as a s k i l l does n o t a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y the t h i n k i n g which u n d e r l i e s d e c i s i o n . To make t h e s e c l a i m s more i n t e l l i g i b l e  i t i s appropriate at  t h i s time t o d i v e r t from t h e main f l o w t o i n v e s t i g a t e the concept of s k i l l .  B. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n c e p t of ' s k i l l ' 'Skills'  i s a word used f r e q u e n t l y by  who s t r i v e t o h e l p s t u d e n t s improve t h e i r skills",  educators,  "listening  " t h i n k i n g s k i l l s " and "problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s " .  Many c l a i m t o be a b l e t o t e a c h s u c h ' s k i l l s ' as c l a s s i f y i n g , i n f e r r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g .  40 Teachers a r e supposed t o be a b l e t o a c q u i r e a s e t of " t e a c h i n g s k i l l s " . S h a v e l s o n ' s  (1973) language i n h i s  a r t i c l e "What i s the B a s i c T e a c h i n g  Skill?" is typical:  " S k i l l s such as q u e s t i o n i n g and e x p l a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t the t e a c h e r ' s r e p e r t o i r e of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t s from which t o choose, w h i l e s k i l l s  such as l i s t e n i n g and  hypothesis  g e n e r a t i o n i n f l u e n c e the q u a l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n from which the t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e s the s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g u t i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t s . One  the  i m p l i c a t i o n i s that teacher  t r a i n i n g should include a decision-making i n t e g r a t e s the o t h e r b a s i c s k i l l s " u n c l e a r what S h a v e l s o n  and  component t h a t  (p. 144). While  i t i s not  i s t r y i n g t o s a y , such language i s  misleading. A skill  i s d e f i n e d by the O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y as  "expertness, p r a c t i s e d a b i l i t y ,  facility  i n d o i n g something,  d e x t e r i t y " . I t i s by i m p l i c a t i o n d i s c r e t e and s e p a r a b l e other  from  activities. In an a r t i c l e on the misuse of the words  ' p r o c e s s e s ' and  'skills',  are p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t i e s ,  D a n i e l s (1975) says t h a t  skills  not g e n e r a l a b i l i t i e s . A r e c e n t  Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l document l i s t s such  'thinking  skills'  as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , e x t r a p o l a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Of the  'skill'  of a n a l y s i s ( f o r example)  Daniels says, "If  we choose a s u f f i c i e n t l y narrow range of t h i n g s  t o . . . a n a l y s e , we may  be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y  particular  a c t i v i t i e s t o do and e x e r c i s e s t o p r a c t i c e t o  develop  the r e l e v a n t f a c i l i t i e s . Thus c h e m i c a l t e c h n i c i a n s learn c e r t a i n routines for synthesizing products. These r o u t i n e s a r e procedures  t h a t can be  learned  as s t r i n g s of f a c i l i t i e s , and t r a i n e e s can thus become s k i l f u l a n a l y s t s , e v a l u a t o r s , and so on. But t h e r e  can  be no g e n e r a l s k i l l of a n a l y s i n g or e v a l u a t i n g because criteria differ (p.  from one a r e a of a n a l y s i s t o a n o t h e r "  253).  Similarly,  such  ' t e a c h i n g s k i l l s ' as q u e s t i o n i n g  and e x p l a i n i n g must be s u s p e c t . A t e a c h e r c o u l d be a  skilled  q u e s t i o n e r , but i n a s k i n g s t u d e n t s a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s or she  i s not e x e r c i s i n g one s k i l l .  he  To be a good q u e s t i o n e r  the t e a c h e r must be knowledgeable about the s u b j e c t a t hand, must be a r t i c u l a t e ,  s e n s i t i v e t o the a b i l i t i e s  and  d i s p o s i t i o n s of her s t u d e n t s , and must have, as  Shavelson  s a y s , "...not  order  the a b i l i t y t o ask, s a y , a h i g h e r  q u e s t i o n , but the a b i l i t y t o d e c i d e when t o ask such a q u e s t i o n " (p. 144). He or she might be a b e t t e r q u e s t i o n e r i n mathematics than i n s o c i a l  s t u d i e s , or might be a  g e n e r a l l y good q u e s t i o n e r of s t u d e n t s , when q u e s t i o n s a r e designed  t o t e a c h , but a poor q u e s t i o n e r of the f a m i l y  d o c t o r or l o c a l  politician.  I t i s clear that context i s  i m p o r t a n t , and t h a t the s k i l f u l  q u e s t i o n e r has a number of  i m p o r t a n t s e n s i b i l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s and p r o p e n s i t i e s , not  the  l e a s t of which i s the e x e r c i s e of good judgement about the  r i g h t time t o ask c e r t a i n k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s and t o whom t h e y s h o u l d be  asked.  D e c i s i o n making i s n e i t h e r a s k i l l nor a s e t of s k i l l s , and  the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  teacher, l i k e  the  q u e s t i o n i n g t e a c h e r , i s e x e r c i s i n g judgement based on knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e . I t seems l i k e l y  her  that a teacher  c o u l d improve the q u a l i t y of her c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s not through t r a i n i n g i n " d e c i s i o n making s k i l l s " , but  through  a n a l y s i s of and r e f l e c t i o n on d e c i s i o n s she has made, and e x p l o r a t i o n of the v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and knowledge t h a t u n d e r l i e these d e c i s i o n s . The  term  ' s k i l l s ' as i t has been d i s c u s s e d  i s not j u s t a harmless  misnomer. V i e w i n g problem s o l v i n g ,  c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g or d e c i s i o n making as s k i l l s s k i l l s suggests  here,  or s e t s of  t o a t e a c h e r c e r t a i n t e a c h i n g approaches  which, s i n c e t h e y a r e based on a m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n  of the  n a t u r e of t h a t which t h e y p u r p o r t t o t e a c h , w i l l  likely  i n e f f e c t i v e and c o u l d be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . V i e w i n g as the e x e r c i s e of a s e t of " t e a c h i n g s k i l l s " and d e c i s i o n making as a s k i l l  in itself  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of what t e a c h e r s  be  teaching  teacher  i s an i n a c c u r a t e  do.  C. Review of the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making a) I n t r o d u c t i o n In  t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of t e a c h e r s as d e c i s i o n  makers, S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d  (1979) d e f i n e a " t e a c h i n g  d e c i s i o n " as "a d e c i s i o n made d u r i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the teacher"  ( p . 16) and  d i s t i n g u i s h between r e f l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , which a r e "non-immediate, c o n t e m p l a t i v e  d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g events i n  the f u t u r e " (p.9) and immediate d e c i s i o n s , which "occur as a r e s u l t o f f o r c e s p e r c e i v e d as a f f o r d i n g no time f o r reflection"  ( p . 1 0 ) . T h i s i s an obvious  but important  d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making. C l e a r l y p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e k i n d , and d e c i s i o n s made w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r  i sactually  interacting  w i t h s t u d e n t s a r e immediate. Immediate d e c i s i o n s a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as ' i n t e r a c t i v e ' d e c i s i o n s and ' i n f l i g h t ' d e c i s i o n s . They w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o here as interactive decisions. I n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making has been d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y , because d e c i s i o n s made 'on t h e s p o t ' d u r i n g t e a c h i n g occur r a p i d l y and may i n v o l v e l i t t l e d e l i b e r a t i o n or c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e between a l t e r n a t i v e s . An o b s e r v e r might n o t be aware on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f l o w of events  i n a classroom  t h a t many q u i c k d e c i s i o n s had been made by t h e t e a c h e r . Yet because o f t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s , i t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r b e s t l a i d  plans,  t e a c h e r s must make many i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s about how t o respond t o s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r and how t o a d j u s t l e s s o n s t o meet s t u d e n t s ' immediate i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs. Researchers  i n t e r e s t e d In t e a c h e r s '  interactive  d e c i s i o n making have used t h e method o f s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l t o  study classroom d e c i s i o n s . A l l of the e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s r e v i e w have used t h e s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l method. Because of i t s importance  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , and because t h e r e has been  some c o n t r o v e r s y over t h e a c c u r a c y of r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h i s method, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l i s i n o r d e r here.  b) The s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l method V i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y r e s e a r c h method i d e n t i f i e d as u s e f u l f o r the study of teachers' i n t e r a c t i v e  decision  making has been s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l . A t e a c h e r i s a u d i o t a p e d , or more o f t e n v i d e o t a p e d , w h i l e t e a c h i n g , and t h e tape i s p l a y e d back t o t h e t e a c h e r soon a f t e r t h e l e s s o n . T h i s i s done i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e l e s s o n l f p o s s i b l e , and no l a t e r than t h e end o f t h e same day. The r e s e a r c h e r a s k s t h e t e a c h e r t o i d e n t i f y p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e l e s s o n a t which he or she made d e c i s i o n s , and then q u e s t i o n s him or her about those d e c i s i o n s and t h e c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g them. The q u e s t i o n s asked by Marx and P e t e r s o n (1981) i n t h e i r are  typical: 1. What were you d o i n g i n t h i s segment and why? 2. Were you t h i n k i n g o f any a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s or s t r a t e g i e s a t t h e t i m e ? 3. I f s o , what were t h e y ?  study  k5  4. How  were the s t u d e n t s  5. Did any s t u d e n t  responding?  r e a c t i o n s cause you  d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n you had  to act  planned?  While the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l method has a c c e p t e d , t h e r e has been c o n t r o v e r s y  as t o the  as d a t a of v e r b a l r e p o r t s . N i s b e t t and  Wilson  been w i d e l y reliability  (1977)  r e v i e w e d r e s e a r c h which s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n t r o s p e c t i o n does not always produce a c c u r a t e  reports. Their p o s i t i o n i s that  p e o p l e ' s r e p o r t s are based on "a p r i o r i ,  implicit  causal  t h e o r i e s , or judgements about the e x t e n t t o which a p a r t i c u l a r stimulus  i s a p l a u s i b l e cause of a  given  r e s p o n s e " (p.231) r a t h e r t h a n on t r u e i n t r o s p e c t i o n . In o t h e r words, the r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d by N i s b e t t and  Wilson  s u g g e s t e d t h a t people h o l d c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s ( ' b e l i e f s ' might be a b e t t e r word) about s o c i a l phenomena, and questioned  when  t h e y w i l l c a l l up t h e s e b e l i e f s r a t h e r than t r u l y  e x a m i n i n g t h e i r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s . E r i c s s o n and  Simon (1980) d i s a g r e e , s t a t i n g t h a t  when i n a c c u r a t e r e p o r t s are g i v e n i t i s because have asked s u b j e c t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t "was  researchers  never d i r e c t l y  heeded, t h u s f o r c i n g s u b j e c t s t o i n f e r r a t h e r t h a n remember mental p r o c e s s e s "  (p.215). T h i s seems t o mean t h a t people  g i v e i n a c c u r a t e r e p o r t s of t h e i r own  t h o u g h t s when t h e y are  asked t o comment on something t h e y had to.  I t i s not c l e a r , however, how  paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n  a researcher  can know f o r  c e r t a i n whether a person i s r e p o r t i n g h i s or her accurately.  thoughts  Sometimes we might be i m a g i n i n g recalling  r a t h e r than  ( i t i s t e m p t i n g here to s a y we are  i n c o r r e c t l y ' , but as R y l e •got i t * v e r b , and  (1949) p o i n t s o u t , r e c a l l i s a  r e c a l l u n s u c c e s s f u l l y or  i n c o r r e c t l y a r e i l l e g i t i m a t e p h r a s e s ) . We purposely  'recalling  recall  may  a l s o sometimes  g i v e r e p o r t s t h a t make us appear i n a  favorable  l i g h t . However, common sense would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t can  i n g e n e r a l r e c a l l and  r e p o r t a c c u r a t e l y on our  we  recent  t h o u g h t s . Such r e p o r t s w i l l not be p e r f e c t , because, as  Ryle  says, "Aside  from the f a c t t h a t even prompt r e c o l l e c t i o n i s  s u b j e c t both to evaporations a c c u r a t e l y I may I may  still  yesterday's  and d i l u t i o n s , however  r e c o l l e c t an a c t i o n or a  f a i l to recognize  feeling,  i t s nature.  Whether  t w i n g e which I r e c a l l t o d a y was  a pang of  genuine compassion or a twinge of g u i l t , need not any  the more o b v i o u s t o me  f o r the f a c t t h a t my memory  of i t i s v i v i d . C h r o n i c l e s are not e x p l a n a t o r y they record"  (p.  be  of what  160).  I t seems s e n s i b l e t o a c c e p t R y l e ' s v i e w t h a t we not have p r i v i l e g e d and our own  p e r f e c t a c c e s s t o the w o r k i n g s of  minds, but we can acknowledge the  general  r e l i a b i l i t y of r e t r o s p e c t i o n (a more a c c u r a t e i n t r o s p e c t i o n ) and  do  t e r m than  t r e a t v e r b a l r e p o r t s as l e g i t i m a t e  s o u r c e s of d a t a . Even l f we do some I n t e r p r e t i n g as we up memories of t h o u g h t s and  f e e l i n g s , and  t h u s do not  call report  them e x a c t l y as t h e y were t h i s morning or y e s t e r d a y , does not  i n v a l i d a t e our r e p o r t i n g . O b s e r v e r s d o i n g  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h a l s o i n t e r p r e t , and i n v a l i d a t e t h e i r c l a i m to accurate  t h i s does  this social  not  reporting.  While the i s s u e i s not e x a c t l y the same, the q u e s t i o n of whether people can a c c u r a t e l y remember and r e p o r t t h e i r thoughts i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o the q u e s t i o n whether people can b r i n g i n t o f o c u s and knowledge, v a l u e s and  b e l i e f s t h e y may  articulate hold t a c i t l y .  It will  be argued t h r o u g h o u t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e can and a r t i c u l a t e , and,  i t may  focus  be added h e r e , remember,  i m p e r f e c t l y p e r h a p s , but w e l l enough t h a t v e r b a l r e p o r t s be a c c e p t e d as a c c u r a t e . reasonable one  of  can  In terms of memory, i t seems  t o say t h a t the l o n g e r the time p e r i o d over which  i s asked t o remember, the more i m a g i n a t i o n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l come i n t o p l a y . S t i m u l a t e d  and recall  i n t e r v i e w s are always done as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the l e s s o n , on the same day,  minimizing  problems t h a t  the  passage of time might b r i n g t o r e p o r t s based on memory. c) S t u d i e s of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making D u r i n g the 1970's the s t u d y of t e a c h e r making was  one  decision  of the most a c t i v e a r e a s of i n t e r e s t f o r  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . R e p o r t s of r e s e a r c h  in educational  j o u r n a l s and  conferences  centered  papers p r e s e n t e d  f r e q u e n t l y on t e a c h e r  at educational  d e c i s i o n making. Some of  t h e s e papers r e l a t e d t o l o n g t e r m p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s , but  t h e r e was  a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r a c t i v e classroom  d e c i s i o n s . The to capture  c o n c e p t of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making seemed  the h e a r t of  teaching.  T h i s i n t e r e s t reached i t s peak a t the end decade. The  a n n u a l meeting of the American  R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n i n T o r o n t o i n 1978 number of papers p r e s e n t e d  of  Educational  saw  a substantial  on t h i s t o p i c . There were fewer  s t u d i e s of d e c i s i o n making i n the e a r l y 1980's, and s p e c i f i c focus  i s seldom chosen by r e s e a r c h e r s ,  d e c i s i o n remains an i m p o r t a n t t e a c h i n g . The  s p e c i f i c focus on d e c i s i o n has  from which t e a c h e r s *  now  this  though  c o n c e p t i n the s t u d y  t o i n c l u d e e x a m i n a t i o n of the whole bed experience  the  now  of  broadened  of knowledge  and  decisions spring.  R e s e a r c h e r s i n t o i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s have sought t o u n d e r s t a n d the c o n t e n t s t i m u l i t h a t may  of t h e s e d e c i s i o n s as w e l l as  the  n e c e s s i t a t e making such d e c i s i o n s . S e v e r a l  people have c o n s t r u c t e d  t y p o l o g i e s of t e a c h e r  most of t h e s e are q u i t e s i m i l a r . The W h i t f i e l d ' s (1979) t y p o l o g y  d e c i s i o n s , and  p a r t of S u t c l i f f e  and  t h a t d e a l s w i t h i n t e r a c t i v e or  immediate d e c i s i o n s i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and  can be summarized  as f o l l o w s :  Content of Immediate decisions - a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; the l e s s o n - a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p p a r a t u s and  other a i d s ,  content appropriateness  of i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; t i m i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n -associated with p u p i l s ' behavior,  e i t h e r a l o n e or  with  o t h e r s , i n v o l v i n g v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , o b j e c t s or m a t e r i a l s - a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the amendment of the t e a c h e r s '  behavior  C l a s s r o o m s t i m u l i which a r e p r e c u r s o r s of the d e c i s i o n - p u p i l centered s t i m u l i  (cues s u g g e s t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g  or  m i s u n d e r s a n d i n g , d i s r u p t i o n or c o o p e r a t i o n , o t h e r a t t e n t i o n s e e k i n g or communication) -distractor stimuli  (not d i r e c t l y p u p i l caused)  - m a t e r i a l s based s t i m u l i S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d developed  these c a t e g o r i e s  d u r i n g t h e i r s t u d y of b e g i n n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e d  teachers.  They r e a l i z e d t h a t w h i l e some d e c i s i o n s would g i v e r i s e t o an o b s e r v a b l e change i n b e h a v i o r , a ' n u l l ' d e c i s i o n t o c o n t i n u e on a c o u r s e of a c t i o n would be d i f f i c u l t  to  m o n i t o r . Thus, as w e l l as d i r e c t i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n on the p a r t of t e a c h e r s as t h e y watched v i d e o t a p e s of themselves t e a c h i n g , the r e s e a r c h e r s  monitored  t e a c h e r s * h e a r t r a t e s and s k i n r e s i s t a n c e , on the grounds t h a t "The  v a l u e of a measure of t e a c h e r s t r e s s l i e s i n i t s  p o t e n t i a l as a more o b j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e of i d e n t i f y i n g  null  d e c i s i o n s " ( P . 2 3 ) . They hoped t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e -would " r e v e a l d e c i s i o n p o i n t s where t h e r e was in teacher behavior"  no o b s e r v a b l e  change  ( p . 2 3 ) . Such t e c h n i q u e s , p r e v a l e n t i n  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , a r e seldom used i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , and w h i l e the d e s i r e of these r e s e a r c h e r s t o f i n d an o b j e c t i v e measure of t e a c h e r s t r e s s i s the t e c h n i q u e may  understandable,  be somewhat q u e s t i o n a b l e . For one  thing,  use o f a p p a r a t u s t o measure t h e p h y s i c a l s i g n s of s t r e s s i s t i e d t o t h e i r assumption that accompanied by i n c r e a s e d  ' n u l l ' decisions are  s t r e s s , and t h i s may n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y be t h e c a s e . Some d e c i s i o n s may not cause an increase  i n s t r e s s , and some i n c r e a s e s  i n s t r e s s may n o t be  caused by t h e making of a d e c i s i o n . The p h y s i c a l f a c t of being attached  t o t h i s a p p a r a t u s w h i l e t e a c h i n g may be a  cause f o r some s t r e s s . One o f S u t c l l f f e and W h i t f i e l d ' s f i n d i n g s was t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t e r  p r o p o r t i o n o f Immediate t o r e f l e c t i v e  decisions f o r inexperienced  than f o r experienced  This suggests that experienced teachers  teachers.  may have more w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n s and r o u t i n e s which make i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s n e c e s s a r y l e s s o f t e n . I t may a l s o be t h a t t h e increases  i n s t r e s s which t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  often i n inexperienced teachers  teachers  measured more  Indicate that  beginning  f i n d immediate d e c i s i o n s more s t r e s s f u l , not  n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t t h e y make them more o f t e n . S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d a l s o found t h a t s t i m u l i g i v i n g r i s e t o d e c i s i o n s were more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s r o o m management f o r inexperienced  teachers,  and most commands g i v e n by t e a c h e r s ,  whether e x p e r i e n c e d or n o t , caused an i n c r e a s e Morine and V a l l a n c e  (1975) I d e n t i f i e d t h r e e  t y p e s o f i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s : 1) i n t e r c h a n g e s r e l a t e d t o v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ) , 2) planned ( i n t e r a c t i v e decisions r e l a t e d to previous unplanned a c t i v i t i e s  i n stress. major  (decisions  activities p l a n n i n g ) and 3)  ( i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s t o d i v e r t from  the  l e s s o n p l a n ) . Most of the d e c i s i o n s made by teachers i n  t h i s s t u d y were interchange  or planned. There was  little  d i v e r s i o n from the b a s i c p l a n , a f i n d i n g shared by most researchers. In C l a r k and Peterson's (1978) study, t o o , most teachers  conducted "business  alternative going  as u s u a l " , not c o n s i d e r i n g  s t r a t e g i e s unless  the classroom  situation  p o o r l y , and even then not d i v e r t i n g much from t h e i r  basic plans. Their  i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making  s p e c i f i c responses to students It connection  i s reasonable  t o assume t h a t there  is a  interactive  have made c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g  have presumably c o n s i d e r e d  some of the p o s s i b l e  responses t o the l e s s o n , and may have b u i l t alternatives,  involved  and " f i n e t u n i n g " of l e s s o n s .  between p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s and  d e c i s i o n s . Teachers who  while  was  student  i n some  l e s s e n i n g the need f o r i n t e r a c t i v e  t e a c h i n g . Marx and Peterson  decisions  decisions  (1981) s t u d i e d  teachers'  p r e a c t i v e and i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g , and  d i d f i n d such a c o n n e c t i o n .  They found t h a t  "teachers  who d i d the most p r e a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making d i d the l e a s t i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making, and those who d i d the most i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making d i d the l e a s t p r e a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making" (p.243). T h i s may s i m p l y  be a statement of the  f a i r l y obvious p o i n t t h a t teachers  who make more p r e a c t i v e  d e c i s i o n s are b e t t e r prepared and thus do not have t o 'think on t h e i r f e e t ' as much. I t may a l s o suggest d i f f e r e n t teaching  s t y l e s , with some t e a c h e r s  planning  more  thoroughly  and a d h e r i n g more r i g i d l y t o t h e i r p l a n , and some t e a c h e r s responding more t o the immediate demands of the classroom. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , teachers i n t h i s study who had t h i s more spontaneous t e a c h i n g s t y l e and d i d more i n t e r a c t i v e making had students with more p o s i t i v e  decision  attitudes.  T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g area f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . S t u d i e s of l i n k s between student a t t i t u d e and student achievement have not been c o n c l u s i v e , but t h e r e does appear to be some l i n k , and i t would a l s o seem t h a t p o s i t i v e student a t t i t u d e t o s c h o o l i s a worthwhile for  in itself,  Teachers  goal to s t r i v e  r e g a r d l e s s of any l i n k with achievement.  with a more spontaneous, l i v e l i e r  perhaps more r e s p o n s i v e t o s u g g e s t i o n s  s t y l e , who a r e  from s t u d e n t s , are  p r o b a b l y more fun t o be w i t h . C l e a r l y , p l a n n i n g i s a l s o vital,  because l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s must be met and  c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t must be covered. While  the o c c a s i o n a l  unplanned l e s s o n can be h a p p i l y c r e a t i v e and p r o d u c t i v e , c o n s i s t e n t underplannlng coverage  would p r o b a b l y l e a d t o inadequate  of the c u r r i c u l u m and t o c l a s s r o o m chaos.  This  balance between p l a n n i n g and s p o n t a n e i t y i s e x p l o r e d t o some e x t e n t i n s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' r o u t i n i z a t i o n of t h e i r classrooms. These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r McNair  (1978),  chapter.  l i k e C l a r k and Peterson  (1978),  found t h a t t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s mainly i n v o l v e d adjustments  to a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n . "As long as the  f i n e - t u n i n g a c t i v i t y keeps the i n s t r u c t i o n a l order on a r e l a t i v e l y even k e e l there a r e no major changes i n  d i r e c t i o n . . . T h e c o n t e n t has, g e n e r a l l y , been s e t and t h e c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' engagement w i t h i t .  At the  point of i n t e r a c t i o n with the c h i l d r e n the teachers the r e s p o n s e s of the s t u d e n t s and make c o n t i n u o u s  'feel'  minute  a d j u s t m e n t s t o m a i n t a i n t h e f l o w o f a c t i v i t i e s which has been e s t a b l i s h e d l o n g b e f o r e "  (p.42).  None o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d , a d d r e s s e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f d e c i s i o n i t s e l f , seeming n o t t o f i n d i t p r o b l e m a t i c . O t h e r s such as Marland (1977) have found t h e i d e a of q u i c k l y made, a l m o s t spontaneous d e c i s i o n s t o be a t odds w i t h t h e n o t i o n s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n and t h e w e i g h i n g o f a l t e r n a t i v e s which seem t o be i n h e r e n t i n t h e c o n c e p t o f d e c i s i o n . These r e s e a r c h e r s , as w e l l as r e p o r t i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s , grapple w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of d e c i s i o n .  d) The problem of d e c i s i o n M a r l a n d (1977) c o n c l u d e d  as a r e s u l t o f h i s s t u d y  t h a t t e a c h e r s do not make many d e c i s i o n s w h i l e t e a c h i n g . He based t h i s s t a t e m e n t on h i s f i n d i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s  often  choose l e s s o n t a c t i c s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e courses  o f a c t i o n . Teachers tend t o be ' s a t i s f i c e r s ' , a  f i n d i n g shared  by Webster (1982) and C l a r k and P e t e r s o n  (1978). The s a t i s f i c i n g t e a c h e r  only looks for a l t e r n a t i v e  s t r a t e g i e s i f a l e s s o n I s g o i n g b a d l y . I f a l e s s o n Is g o i n g w e l l he or she i s c o n t e n t w i t h t h a t , and does n o t seek t o  o p t i m i z e i n s t r u c t i o n . The  term  ' s a t i s f i c i n g ' seems o f t e n t o  be used i n a somewhat d e r o g a t o r y way,  even i f t h i s i s not  d i r e c t l y s t a t e d . There i s the s u g g e s t i o n i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , Webster's w r i t i n g , t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a t a l l t i m e s  be  a t t e m p t i n g t o " o p t i m i z e i n s t r u c t i o n " , but the r e a l i t y of c l a s s r o o m l i f e d i c t a t e s something  rather different. I f a  l e s s o n i s g o i n g w e l l i t would be d i s r u p t i v e f o r the t e a c h e r to may  change t h e f l o w or i n t e r r u p t s t u d e n t s ' work. He or she f i l e away f o r f u t u r e use  i d e a s about how  t o improve  a c t i v i t i e s , but s t i c k i n g t o t h e p l a n of a l e s s o n t h a t i s g o i n g w e l l seems ( r a t h e r o b v i o u s l y ) t o be the b e s t s t r a t e g y to  t a k e a t the t i m e . Nor does t h i s statement  contradict  encouragement of s p o n t a n e i t y i n one's t e a c h i n g s t y l e . t e a c h e r w i t h a more f l e x i b l e , spontaneous s t y l e may  A  be more  r e s p o n s i v e t o s t u d e n t s u g g e s t i o n s and perhaps more open t o d i s c a r d i n g a l e s s o n t h a t i s NOT  g o i n g w e l l , but i t would be  r i s k y a t b e s t t o change the d i r e c t i o n of a l e s s o n t h a t i s s u c c e s s f u l i n the hope of making i t even b e t t e r . Because the t e a c h e r s i n Marland's  s t u d y d i d not  r e p o r t f r e q u e n t c h o o s i n g between a l t e r n a t i v e s , he  concluded  t h a t t h e y were not making d e c i s i o n s . Rather t h e y were p e r f o r m i n g " d e l i b e r a t e a c t s " , f o l l o w i n g one c o u r s e of a c t i o n w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . When d e c i s i o n s were made, the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y chose from two  alternatives,  r a r e l y t h r e e or more. Wodlinger's s i m i l a r to Marland's.  (1980) d e f i n i t i o n of d e c i s i o n i s For Wodlinger  a d e c i s i o n i s made when  a p r o b l e m r e q u i r e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o make a c h o i c e of a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e of a c t i o n a f t e r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of two or more a l t e r n a t i v e s . The t e a c h e r s  i n Wodlinger's  study  r e p o r t e d making d e c i s i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n d i d those i n M a r l a n d ' s s t u d y . Wodlinger i d e n t i f i e d two main c a t e g o r i e s o f i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l and m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n s . He a l s o found t h a t more a n t e c e d e n t s , t h a t i s , s t i m u l i from s t u d e n t s  or t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , were a s s o c i a t e d  with managerial d e c i s i o n s than with i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , suggesting  t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s may be based more on  the t e a c h e r ' s  e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s and b e l i e f s ,  rather  t h a n on immediate e n v i r o n m e n t a l demands. I n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s were r e p o r t e d more o f t e n (though b o t h occurred  kinds  i n each l e s s o n ) and more p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were  r e p o r t e d as b e i n g used i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f each i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n t h a n i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f each m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n . Wodlinger a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t " t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d were r e p o r t e d l y formulated  a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o n l y one c o u r s e  of a c t i o n " (p.225); t h a t i s , t e a c h e r s  considered  only  whether t o do something or n o t t o do i t . In S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f the nature  of d e c i s i o n , they address the question of conscious  choice  i n i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making.  " I m p l i c i t i n t h e concept o f d e c i s i o n i s t h a t of c h o i c e . However, c h o i c e  implies a conscious  awareness w i t h i n  the i n d i v i d u a l of a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , which i n t u r n  i m p l i e s an a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e amomg them. D e c i s i o n s may be made w i t h o u t  a conscious  awareness or  w e i g h i n g o f o p t i o n s , even, f o r example, f o r such o v e r t a c t s as w r i t i n g on t h e b l a c k b o a r d .  Since d e c i s i o n s are  not always c o n s c i o u s l y m o n i t o r e d , a d e f i n i t i o n of decision-making  which encompasses t h e n o t i o n o f c h o i c e  i s both i n a p p r o p r i a t e and u n n e c e s s a r i l y  limiting.  S i m i l a r l y , a d e f i n i t i o n which i n v o l v e s t h e n o t i o n o f a c h o i c e p o i n t as t h e i n s t a n t of d e c i s i o n i s u n h e l p f u l " (pp.12-13). S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d go on t o d e s c r i b e a d e c i s i o n i n t h i s way: "A d e c i s i o n has been made by an i n d i v i d u a l whenever he h i m s e l f o r one or more o b s e r v e r s availablility  acknowledge t h e  o f a t l e a s t one a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o r t o  the one observed a t a g i v e n  i n s t a n t o f t i m e . The  r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a v a i l a b l e alternative behavior  need n o t have t a k e n p l a c e by t h e time the  i s observed f o r e i t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l or t h e  o b s e r v e r ( s ) . I f the observed behavior  consists entirely  of spoken words, t h e n a d i f f e r e n t p h r a s i n g repitition  or a  o f those words does n o t c o n s t i t u t e an  a l t e r n a t e response... I t i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n t h a t the d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e s , or has i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s previous processes.  h i s t o r y , the higher  Learned r e f l e x e s and b e h a v i o r a l  cognitive acts  s e l e c t e d without  conscious  awareness a t t h e i n s t a n t  of response c o n s t i t u t e d e c i s i o n s p r o v i d i n g t h a t conscious  processing  of a l t e r n a t i v e responses  can  be s a i d t o have t a k e n p l a c e a t some time i n the past h i s t o r y of the i n d i v i d u a l ' *  (p.15).  What S u t c l i f f e and W h i t f i e l d seem t o be s u g g e s t i n g because c o n s c i o u s  processing  s i t u a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e operations  i s that  o f i n f o r m a t i o n about a s i m i l a r  i n the p a s t , a t e a c h e r ' s  mental  i n a new but f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n may be so f a s t as  t o be below the c o n s c i o u s  level.  W o d l i n g e r (1980) s t a t e s t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s agree w i t h Marland's i n s u g g e s t i n g  that the teacher  decision  making p r o c e s s i s one " o f l i m i t e d r a t i o n a l i t y " meaning, presumably, t h a t t e a c h e r attended  d e c i s i o n making i s not o f t e n  by c a r e f u l t h o u g h t , and t h a t t e a c h e r s  d e c i s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f l i t t l e more than  make  quick  intuition.  W o d l i n g e r o f f e r s as an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h e n o t i o n of l i m i t e d r a t i o n a l i t y t h e i d e a t h a t many t e a c h e r are r o u t i n i z e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , unconscious screening  decisions  and s u g g e s t s t h a t an  p r o c e s s may e l i m i n a t e some  a l t e r n a t i v e s before they r i s e t o the conscious  l e v e l . He  f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t " i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s may be more h i g h l y r o u t i n i z e d than managerial d e c i s i o n s ; a c c o r d i n g l y , the consequences of i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s may tend t o be f a i r l y c e r t a i n and e a s i l y p r e d i c t e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e consequences of m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n s may tend t o be more u n c e r t a i n and not as e a s i l y p r e d i c t e d "  (p.226).  The not  c o n c e p t of d e c i s i o n seems t o be  o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o s k i l l s , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ;  v e r y d e f i n i t i o n of d e c i s i o n and  require  i s a major f o c u s of  b a s i c q u e s t i o n seems t o be, does  the w e i g h i n g of a l t e r n a t i v e s ?  decisions  t h a t are  is  i t be s a i d t o  In terms of t e a c h i n g  be  decisions,  made w h i l e p l a n n i n g c l e a r l y a l l o w time f o r  d e l i b e r a t i o n and so-called  decision  I f an a c t i o n  performed w i t h o u t p r i o r d e l i b e r a t i o n , can the r e s u l t of a d e c i s i o n ?  the  i s a t q u e s t i o n f o r many w r i t e r s ,  t h i s i s a problem when d e c i s i o n  r e s e a r c h . The  the w e i g h i n g of a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t i s the  "spontaneous" d e c i s i o n s , i n q u e s t i o n . Why  these are d e c i s i o n s ? s e m a n t i c s ? No: way  problematic  t h e y are  or  interactive  does i t m a t t e r whether or  Is t h i s an u n i m p o r t a n t p o i n t  not  of  c e n t r a l terms must be made c l e a r because  used w i l l a f f e c t r e s e a r c h e r s ' c h o i c e  methodology and  decisions  the way  r e s u l t s are  the  of  interpreted.  E x a m i n a t i o n of the c o n c e p t of d e c i s i o n  suggests  t h a t w e i g h i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s or d e l i b e r a t i n g about a problem i s i m p l i c i t i n our  use  of  ' d e c i d e ' . When I say  d e c i d e d t o become a d o c t o r " , one  " I have  assumes t h a t I have  considered other occupations. D e l i b e r a t i o n ,  or  careful  thought as a n e c e s s a r y component of d e c i s i o n would seem t o eliminate  spontaneous and  v e r y s h o r t term  However, i t does seem t h a t o r d i n a r y uses of  ' d e c i d e ' when the d e c i d i n g  decisions.  language a c c e p t s some i s done on a v e r y s h o r t  t e r m b a s i s , though perhaps not s p o n t a n e o u s l y . C e r t a i n l y do  not  want to c a l l e v e r y a c t i o n we  take, including  we  putting  one  f o o t In f r o n t of the o t h e r when we walk, the r e s u l t of a  d e c i s i o n , but i t does not seem unreasonable  f o r a t e a c h e r to  s a y , " I have d e c i d e d t o l e t you s t a y i n a t r e c e s s because i t i s r a i n i n g " , even though the d e c i s i o n was  preceded  q u i c k g l a n c e out the window and the b r i e f w e i g h i n g "Should  by o n l y a of  I l e t the c l a s s s t a y i n or n o t ? " He or she does  d e l i b e r a t e , i f o n l y f r a c t i o n a l l y . Behind t h a t b r i e f h e s i t a t i o n may  be the q u i c k r e c a l l of a number of items  p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , such as s c h o o l r u l e s , how has behaved on r a i n y days i n the p a s t and how  this  from  class  other c l a s s e s  have behaved. Wodlinger's a r e preceded  f i n d i n g t h a t most t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n s  by the w e i g h i n g  of o n l y two a l t e r n a t i v e s - - d o  t h i s or don't do t h i s — r e f l e c t s the r a p i d l y moving m i l i e u i n which the t e a c h e r must o p e r a t e . D e s p i t e the l a c k of  time  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e a l d e l i b e r a t i o n , i t does not seem i n c o r r e c t t o l a b e l a t e a c h e r ' s c h o i c e s f o r a c t i o n as d e c i s i o n s because, a l t h o u g h such c h o i c e s may  s p r i n g sometimes from a  grouchy mood or headache ( t e a c h e r s a r e , a f t e r a l l ,  only  human) t h e y (presumably) a r i s e more o f t e n from p r i o r d e l i b e r a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Even i f we do agree t h a t t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s a r e , i n f a c t , d e c i s i o n s , the concept i s not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y as a f o c u s f o r  classroom of d e c i s i o n  understanding  t e a c h i n g . Review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s c h a p t e r has shown t h a t as w e l l as answering have r a i s e d new  many q u e s t i o n s , d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s  q u e s t i o n s which seem t o r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t  60 k i n d s o£  I n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s i s not a bad t h i n g , of  because new  questions  The  l e a d t o new  course,  research.  i d e a of r o u t i n i z a t i o n mentioned by W o d l i n g e r  became a s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h focus d u r i n g the 1980's, and  this  i d e a can be seen t o have l i n k s w i t h d e c i s i o n making. Shavelson  and S t e r n (1981) s a y t h a t " r o u t i n e s  c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n making d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i v e  minimize teaching  and...reduce the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g l o a d on t e a c h e r s making the t i m i n g and s e q u e n c i n g behavior  of a c t i v i t i e s and  by  students'  p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n an a c t i v i t y f l o w . Hence,  c o n s c i o u s m o n i t o r i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n can t h e n f o c u s  on  p a r t i c u l a r students"  the  (p.482). T h i s s t a t e m e n t l i n k s  d e c i s i o n making s t u d i e s of the 1970's w i t h s t u d i e s of r o u t i n i z a t i o n , which became a p o p u l a r  focus i n about  1985.  Another focus of the 1980's has been t o compare the performance of e x p e r i e n c e d •expert  1  and  and  inexperienced  (or  ' n o v i c e ' ) t e a c h e r s . Housner and G r i f f e y  compared the d e c i s i o n making of e x p e r i e n c e d  (1985)  and  i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s d u r i n g i n t e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g and  found  that inexperienced teachers without w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e s f o c u s s e d most of t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the l e v e l and b e h a v i o r  of the whole c l a s s , w h i l e  t e a c h e r s f o c u s s e d most on i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t suggesting that "experienced  interest  experienced performance,  t e a c h e r s possess knowledge  s t r u c t u r e s r i c h i n s t r a t e g i e s f o r managing s t u d e n t s . . . t h a t enabled  them t o a t t e n d t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t performance  a l t e r t h e i r lessons i n accordance w i t h student  needs"  and  ( p . 4 5 ) . Housner and G r i f f e y ' s s t u d y c o n c e r n s d e c i s i o n but has a broader f o c u s t h a n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , e x p l o r i n g t o a greater extent teachers' p r a c t i c a l Hargreaves sense knowledge  knowledge.  (1979) speaks o f " u n c o v e r i n g t h e common  which becomes t a c i t i n t h e d e c i s i o n  i t s e l f . " The s t u d y o f t h i s "common sense knowledge"  making became a  major a r e a of i n t e r e s t i n t h e 1980's. T h i s , however, i s jumping ahead. Having r e v i e w e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on d e c i s i o n making, s e v e r a l t a s k s remain b e f o r e l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s ' practical  knowledge  i s examined.  These a r e : a) t o see what  c o n c e p t i o n o f t e a c h i n g , however i n c o m p l e t e i t may be, appears t o u n d e r l i e s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making; b) t o see what f u n d a m e n t a l , u n q u e s t i o n e d a s s u m p t i o n s appear t o be i n h e r e n t i n t h e s e s t u d i e s ; and c ) t o d e t e r m i n e what q u e s t i o n s t h e s e assumptions encourage and d i s c o u r a g e us from a s k i n g . These t a s k s a r e u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e next c h a p t e r .  Chapter Four  A n a l y s i s of the D e c i s i o n Making L i t e r a t u r e : The  "Hard C o r e " and I m p l i c i t C o n c e p t i o n  of Teaching  I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e f u l l y t h e "hard c o r e " o f t h e t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program u n t i l  other  a r e a s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e have been examined; however, some t e n t a t i v e statements found  can be made about t h e v i e w o f t e a c h i n g  i n t h e d e c i s i o n making l i t e r a t u r e and about r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n s asked and unasked i n t h i s work. While t h e t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n making l i t e r a t u r e does not o f f e r a f i n i s h e d o r c a r e f u l l y developed  conception of  t e a c h i n g , a c e r t a i n v i e w o f t e a c h i n g and t e a c h e r s i s implicit. The  emphasis, as i n s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r  behavior,  i s b a s i c a l l y on t h e 'doings' o f t h e t e a c h e r , b u t t h e v i e w o the t e a c h e r i n d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s i s more t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l , assuming n o t j u s t a moving mannequin, b u t an a c t i v e , t h i n k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n the classroom  environment,  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s and r e s p o n d i n g  t o changing  c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s . Some s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those which found t h e i d e a of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making t o be p r o b l e m a t i c and q u e s t i o n e d whether t e a c h e r s were a c t u a l l y making d e c i s i o n s , found t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s s t u d i e d f e l l  shor  of t h i s i d e a l , " s a t l s f i c i n g " r a t h e r than making f r e q u e n t  63 i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s the v i e w of the t e a c h e r as an a c t i v e , t h i n k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t i n the i s h e l d as an  classroom  ideal.  W i t h o u t b e i n g e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the purpose of t e a c h i n g i s t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g runs t h r o u g h the d e c i s i o n making s t u d i e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s g e n e r a l l y c e n t e r s on two  areas,  i n s t r u c t i o n and c l a s s r o o m management. D e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n are c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d to improving  instruction.  D e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o methods and m a t e r i a l s a r e c e n t e r e d the importance  of these items i n i m p r o v i n g  on  instruction.  D e c i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o c l a s s r o o m management a r e d i r e c t e d t o the s u c c e s s f u l s t r u c t u r i n g of an environment i n which l e a r n i n g can t a k e p l a c e . The  q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e asked  d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s c e n t r e on the a r e a s of t e c h n i q u e s , c o n t e n t and m a t e r i a l s and on management. The  in  instructional classroom  p r o b i n g of t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g t h a t i s done  i l l u m i n a t e s t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g about those a r e a s .  Questions  a r e not asked about t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e , as we w i l l s e e , l i k e l y t o be c r u c i a l motivating factors in decisions. Thus the f o c u s on d e c i s i o n , w h i l e i l l u m i n a t i n g i n some r e s p e c t s , i s too narrow i n o t h e r s . L i t t l e mention i s g i v e n i n any of the r e p o r t s of d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s about what t e a c h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n a l aims and v a l u e s might be, and d e c i s i o n s r e l a t e t o these aims and v a l u e s . V a l u e s p o s s i b l e c l a s h e s between p e r s o n a l and  how  and  institutional  values  a r e d i s c u s s e d by o n l y a few a u t h o r s , and b a r e l y h i n t e d a t or o m i t t e d by most. The  q u e s t i o n , "WHY  d i d you d e c i d e  this  way?", an obvious q u e s t i o n and one which m i g h t , w i t h some p r o b i n g , i l l u m i n a t e v a l u e s , i s never e x p l o r e d i n any The  depth.  p i c t u r e of t e a c h i n g t h a t emerges from t h e s e  s t u d i e s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o n c e p t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d i n c h a p t e r two  i n t h a t the f o c u s on d e c i s i o n does h i g h l i g h t  the  b a s i c i n t e n t i o n of t e a c h i n g as b e i n g the i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n s t u d e n t s . D e c i s i o n s made by t e a c h e r s i n these s t u d i e s about c o n t e n t , methods and m a t e r i a l s a r e c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d t o b r i n g i n g about l e a r n i n g i n s t u d e n t s . Teachers appear t o f a l l somewhat s h o r t of t h i s g o a l i n s t u d i e s such as Marland's and Webster's, where the i d e a of t e a c h e r s " s a t i s f i c i n g " and b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h a "good enough" s i t u a t i o n i s h i g h l i g h t e d . Teachers i n t h e s e s t u d i e s appear t o g i v e a l o t of importance  t o c l a s s r o o m management  and smooth, n o n - d i s r u p t i v e c l a s s r o o m f l o w . I n f a c t t h e r e  may  be v a l u e c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d In these s i t u a t i o n s , between, f o r i n s t a n c e , k e e p i n g the c l a s s q u i e t or p u r s u i n g p o s s i b l y n o i s y q u e s t i o n s or changes of a c t i v i t y . Value  questions,  though sometimes mentioned, a r e l a r g e l y u n e x p l o r e d  i n the  d e c i s i o n l i t e r a t u r e , and the second component of the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g d e v e l o p e d  i n c h a p t e r two,  the m o r a l  c o n d i t i o n , which s p e c i f i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s show r e s p e c t f o r persons  and d e a l w i t h any c l a s h e s w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l  or  s u b j e c t matter v a l u e s t h a t t h i s might e n t a i l , does not an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n the v i e w of t e a c h i n g p r e s e n t e d  find  i n the  d e c i s i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Questions  which may be r e l a t e d t o v a l u e  c l a s h e s a r i s e . The " s a t i s f i c i n g " t e a c h e r s may, i n e f f e c t , be weighing  educational ( l e a r n i n g - r e l a t e d ) values against  institutional  ( o r d e r - k e e p i n g ) v a l u e s . The p r i n c i p l e o f  t r e a t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t may be g i v e n s h o r t s h r i f t i n t h e m i d s t o f c l a s h i n g s t a n d a r d s . These i d e a s a r e n o t e x p l o r e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e complex a r e a o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g which i n v o l v e s m o r a l q u e s t i o n s i s not  addressed. I t may be t h a t t h e c e n t r a l n o t i o n o f d e c i s i o n i s  s i m p l y n o t adequate f o r d e a l i n g w i t h complex v a l u e q u e s t i o n s ; i t may be t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s d o i n g d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s do n o t f i n d v a l u e q u e s t i o n s as worthy o f p u r s u i t as t h e y f i n d q u e s t i o n s about t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and c l a s s r o o m management; o r t h e r e may be o t h e r reasons  f o r t h e apparent  b u i l t - i n taboo a g a i n s t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f v a l u e q u e s t i o n s . Some o f these w i l l be suggested  i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . I t  seems c l e a r t h a t s i n c e p e r s o n a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s u n d e r l i e both i n s t r u c t i o n and c l a s s r o o m research d i r e c t e d t o understanding  management,  t e a c h i n g i s incomplete  without i n v e s t i g a t i o n of value q u e s t i o n s . S t u d i e s o f d e c i s i o n making had l a r g e l y stopped by about 1980, and now d e c i s i o n as a c e n t r a l f o c u s i s seldom t a k e n . While  i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making has been i d e n t i f i e d  by many w r i t e r s as t h e h e a r t o f t e a c h i n g , something of a dead end appears t o have been reached  i n terms of r e s e a r c h .  D e c i s i o n t y p o l o g i e s have mapped t h e c o n t e n t and a n t e c e d e n t s  of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , and s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l s t u d i e s have been used t o i d e n t i f y p o i n t s d u r i n g t e a c h i n g when d e c i s i o n s have been made. T e a c h e r s have been q u e s t i o n e d number of a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d  as t o t h e  and t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) between i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s and p r e v i o u s planning. S u r p r i s i n g l y , however, i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e r e a s o n s f o r d e c i s i o n s has never been a major f o c u s , y e t t h i s would seem t o be a key i s s u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  teachers*  t h i n k i n g . I t may be, as s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , t h a t d e c i s i o n i s not an adequate v e h i c l e f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Reasons f o r d e c i s i o n s a r i s e from t h e knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s teachers and  h o l d . Much of t h i s m a t e r i a l may be h e l d  researchers  would need t o h e l p t e a c h e r s  that  tacitly,  focus on and  a r t i c u l a t e t h i n g s t h e y may n o t p r e v i o u s l y have e x p l i c i t l y formulated. The p a r t i c u l a r mix o f knowledge, b e l i e f s and values  t h a t each t e a c h e r  knowledge" or " p e r s o n a l  h o l d s has been c a l l e d  "practical  p r a c t i c a l knowledge" by some  recent  r e s e a r c h e r s , and the s t u d y of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making would seem t o l e a d a l m o s t I n e v i t a b l y t o t h i s n o t i o n . I f teachers  do have time t o weigh a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e y do so on  the b a s i s o f t h e i r knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , and i f t h e y do n o t have time and must make speedy, i n t u i t i v e c h o i c e s t h e n t h e i r i n t u i t i o n s must s p r i n g from t h i s bed o f knowledge and v a l u e s . The d e c i s i o n l i t e r a t u r e t e l l s a l o t about c l a s s r o o m  i n t e r a c t i o n s , b u t does n o t do much i n t h e  way of i l l u m i n a t i n g practical  i n any d e t a i l e d  way t e a c h e r s '  "personal  knowledge". Whether or not the s h i f t from d e c i s i o n making as a  major s e n s i t i z i n g c o n c e p t t o p r a c t i c a l knowledge as a major s e n s i t i z i n g c o n c e p t i s " p r o g r e s s i v e " w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r s i x . F i r s t , however, the l i t e r a t u r e on  practical  knowledge must be examined. T h i s t a s k i s u n d e r t a k e n i n chapter  five.  Chapter F i v e  Teachers' P r a c t i c a l  A. The n a t u r e "personal  Knowledge  of p r a c t i c a l knowledge and s t u d i e s of p r a c t i c a l knowledge"  Interest i n teachers'  i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n making  l e a d s l o g i c a l l y t o an i n t e r e s t i n how t e a c h e r s  decide,  on what t h e y base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . These q u e s t i o n s  and  a r e not  a d d r e s s e d i n d e p t h i n the d e c i s i o n making l i t e r a t u r e , though the l i n k between d e c i s i o n making and p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s s u g g e s t e d by some w r i t e r s . Hargreaves (1979), "...uncovering  f o r i n s t a n c e , speaks of  the common sense knowledge which becomes  t a c i t i n t h e d e c i s i o n making i t s e l f " i n making d e c i s i o n s t e a c h e r s  ( p . 7 5 ) , and s t a t e s t h a t  not o n l y use s k i l l s  t h e i r v a l u e s . "Values a r e embedded i n c l a s s r o o m but because t h e r e  but r e v e a l practice;  i s no s i m p l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between  ' a b s t r a c t * v a l u e s and e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e , i t i s a task to analyse  p r e c i s e l y how v a l u e s a r e , o f t e n  research tacitly,  embedded i n a c t i o n . Here i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  classroom  d e c i s i o n making, f o r i t i s i n d e c i s i o n making t h a t a l l these f e a t u r e s f i n d t h e i r p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n " i s reasonable  to say that teachers'  (p.80). While i t  knowledge and  " f i n d t h e i r p o i n t of a r t i c u l a t i o n " i n c l a s s r o o m making, the s t u d y of c l a s s r o o m  values  decision  d e c i s i o n s does not seem t o  o f f e r s u f f i c i e n t access t o the understanding  o f knowledge  and v a l u e s . The s t u d y of p r a c t i c a l knowledge seems more a b l e to  offer this  access.  Hargreaves f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s  t h a t examination of  t e a c h e r s ' common sense knowledge, s k i l l s and v a l u e s ,  through  c o l l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h e r commentaries, c o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i c model o f t e a c h i n g . Such a model might h e l p s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g " t h e e x p e r i e n c e d to  teacher with the t o o l s  uncover and r e c o n s t r u c t h i s own common sense knowledge,  s k i l l s and v a l u e s , and thus t o change more t h o r o u g h l y and with self-awareness"  (p.81).  I f t h e g o a l i s t h e improvement o f p r a c t i c e ,  then  the e x p l i c a t i o n o f a l l t h a t might be i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s indeed a w o r t h w h i l e for  the two reasons  research task,  t h a t Hargreaves c i t e s : t o h e l p  t e a c h e r s become adept and c o n f i d e n t , and t o h e l p  student  experienced  t e a c h e r s change t h e i r p r a c t i c e e f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h  increased  understanding. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e on p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s work i s l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e . One major s t r e a m d e s c r i b e s , u s i n g v a r i o u s t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e " n a r r a t i v e s " ( C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , 1986), o r " b i o g r a p h i e s " ( B u t t , 1984) o f t e a c h e r s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s k i n d of work a r e t h e " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s , which a i m t o d e s c r i b e t h e knowledge g a i n e d by e x p e r i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l  t e a c h e r s . E l b a z (1981) says t h a t "Teachers a r e r a r e l y seen as p o s s e s s i n g a body o f knowledge and e x p e r t i s e proper t o them" (p.42) and because t h e y do not have an a r t i c u l a t e d body o f knowledge t h e i r s t a t u s i s much lower than t h a t o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . E l b a z s t r e s s e s t h a t t e a c h e r s do h o l d knowledge r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , but much of i t i s tacit,  g a i n e d by e x p e r i e n c e , and not r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a b l e .  W r i t e r s on " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" I n c l u d e C o n n e l l y , E l b a z and C l a n d i n i n , and t h e i r work, which w i l l be examined in depth,  i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the " n a r r a t i v e " p e r s p e c t i v e .  I t I s a p p r o p r i a t e t o g i v e a c e n t r a l p l a c e t o t h e work o f C o n n e l l y and h i s a s s o c i a t e s because he i s a major f i g u r e i n t h i s f i e l d . He i s e d i t o r o f C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , a j o u r n a l which i s an Important  p u b l i c a t i o n v e h i c l e f o r r e p o r t s of  p r a c t i c a l knowledge s t u d i e s . He was one o f t h e f i r s t w r i t e r s on t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge, moving from e a r l i e r work which c e n t e r e d on d e c i s i o n making ( C o n n e l l y , 1972; C o n n e l l y and D i e n e s ,  1982) t o work c e n t e r e d on t h e n o t i o n of  t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge ( C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , 1982, 1985,  1986). Another s t r e a m o f s t u d i e s , stemming m a i n l y  the domain of e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ,  from  seek t o e x p l i c a t e the  p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f ' e x p e r t ' as opposed t o ' n o v i c e ' t e a c h e r s . The " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" work  focusses  by d e s i g n on t h e p e r s o n a l and seeks t o show how i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s t h e i r own l e a r n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e s In skilled  p e r f o r m a n c e . The " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " work does n o t seek  out t h e p e r s o n a l , but i s d e s i g n e d  so t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  can be made about t h e k i n d s o f t h i n g s t h a t 'expert* do  i n classrooms.  teachers  T h i s work comes from a d i f f e r e n t  p e r s p e c t i v e than does t h e " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" or " n a r r a t i v e " stream, Nevertheless,  and has a more s p e c i f i c  focus.  i t aims t o d e s c r i b e how t e a c h e r s ' knowledge  f i n d s expression i n the classroom,  through  r o u t i n e s , and  seeks t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e . D e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t d i s j u n c t u r e some have p e r c e i v e d between t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r o u t i n e s and o t h e r s t u d i e s o f t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g ( f o r example, Lowyck, 1984), t h i s work i s l i n k e d because s t u d i e s o f r o u t l n l z a t i o n do seek t o d e s c r i b e t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The r e p o r t of a r e c e n t major s t u d y o f t e a c h e r s ' r o u t i n e s ( L e i n h a r d t , Weidman and Hammond, 1987) appeared i n C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y as p a r t o f an ongoing s e r i e s on p r a c t i c a l knowledge. The critically  purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e n , i s t o  examine s e l e c t i o n s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e on  t e a c h e r s * p r a c t i c a l knowledge. T h i s c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n w i l l lead, i n chapter s i x , t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the I n s i g h t s t h i s l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s us i n t o t h e "hard c o r e " of t h e t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program, i n c l u d i n g t h e i m p l i c i t  conception  of t e a c h i n g and t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e asked and n o t asked by r e s e a r c h e r s  i n this  area.  Much has been w r i t t e n on t h e n a t u r e of p r a c t i c a l knowledge, and i t i s n o t t h e purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r t o  r e v i e w t h i s work or t o e x p l i c a t e f u l l y t h e v i e w s of d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s on p r a c t i c a l knowledge. However, i t i s u s e f u l t o g a i n some g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of t h i s concept by  l o o k i n g a t the ideas of s e v e r a l a u t h o r s . In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l knowledge, S t e r n b e r g and Caruso (1985) o f f e r  this  d e f i n i t i o n : " P r a c t i c a l knowledge i s p r o c e d u r a l t h a t i s u s e f u l i n one's e v e r y d a y l i f e . "  information  I t i s "...procedural  r a t h e r than d e c l a r a t i v e " (p.134). P r a c t i c a l knowledge i s , according t o t h i s account,  a c q u i r e d by d o i n g , and much of i t  i s " e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e or i n a c c e s s i b l e t o conscious i n t r o s p e c t i o n . . . " (p.143) H a r t n e t t and N a i s h  (1976) s a y t h a t  much p r a c t i c a l knowledge " r e q u i r e s knowledge of a k i n d which cannot be put i n t o p r o p o s i t i o n s " (p.116) and speak of the " t a c i t and u n s p e c i f i a b l e elements In p r a c t i c a l  knowledge  which can o n l y be a c q u i r e d by p r a c t i c e " (p.118).  According  to t h e s e a u t h o r s , t h e n , p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s knowledge about how t o c a r r y out v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , perhaps cannot be f o r m u l a t e d  and i t Is not and  i n maxims or r u l e s . Much of  p r a c t i c a l knowledge may be l e a r n e d o n l y by d o i n g the v a r i o u s activities.  P r a c t i c a l knowledge a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a c c o u n t  may be a k i n t o what G i l b e r t R y l e  (1949) c a l l e d knowing  how,  as opposed t o knowing t h a t . W h i l e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between knowing how and knowing t h a t i s c l e a r and r e a s o n a b l e , and w h i l e i t i s u n d o u b t e d l y t r u e t h a t much, or even most p r a c t i c a l cannot be f o r m u l a t e d  i n maxims and r u l e s , these  knowledge  i d e a s and  the n o t i o n of t a c i t knowledge must not be used t o d i s c u s s i o n about what t e a c h e r s do.  thwart  I do not argue f o r a  " s c i e n c e of t e a c h i n g " , w i t h c l e a r l y s t a t e d r u l e s ' w r i t t e n i n 1  stone ,  but  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a l l o w the pendulum t o swing  too f a r i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , adhering  m y s t i f y i n g p r a c t i c e and  too s t r o n g l y t o the n o t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s '  knowledge cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d .  The  i d e a t h a t much of  t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s t a c i t o c c u r s the p r a c t i c a l knowledge l i t e r a t u r e , and which t h i s n o t i o n i s embraced may  i t might. The in a later  of the reasons  or as d e e p l y p r o b i n g  i d e a of t a c i t knowing w i l l be examined  why as  fully  chapter. One  teachers  frequently in  the e n t h u s i a s m w i t h  be one  t h i s work does not seem as f o c u s e d  tacit  author  whose i d e a s have i n f l u e n c e d w r i t e r s on  " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" i s Joseph Schwab.  Schwab (1969) s t r e s s e d t h a t the f i e l d of c u r r i c u l u m i s a p r a c t i c a l one,  "concerned w i t h c h o i c e and a c t i o n " . Schwab  c o n t r a s t s the p r a c t i c a l w i t h the t h e o r e t i c , s t a t i n g there  i s an I n c o n g r u i t y between the two:  "The  that  practical is  always marked by p a r t i c u l a r i t y , the t h e o r e t i c by g e n e r a l i t y " (p.495).  According  t o Schwab, t h e o r y i d e a l i z e s ,  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s and n o n - u n i f o r m i t i e s  ("the  l e a v i n g out  potholes  i n the  r o a d " ) . Because Schwab sees the p r a c t i c a l as concerned w i t h the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s  of a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s ,  t h e o r y can ever be adopted w h o l e s a l e  to solve a  problem. Schwab's i d e a s a r e not u n u s u a l . have made s i m i l a r  he says t h a t  no  practical  Many o t h e r  authors  remarks. E n t w i s t l e (1982) makes much the  same p o i n t when he says "We t h e o r i e s and  have t o l e a r n not o n l y r u l e s ,  p r i n c i p l e s , but a l s o how  t o i n t e r p r e t and  them a p p r o p r i a t e l y ; t h a t i s , some i n i t i a t i v e  i s required  from the p r a c t i t i o n e r i n d i s c o v e r i n g the p e r t i n e n c e t h e o r y t o h i s or her own  p r a c t i c e . The  apply  of  j o b of a t h e o r y i s t o  evoke judgement r a t h e r t h a n r o t e o b e d i e n c e " ( p . 1 2 ) . (1964) d e s c r i b e s t h e o r y as s t a n d i n g f o r "the  Kaplan  symbolic  d i m e n s i o n of e x p e r i e n c e ,  as opposed t o the a p p r e h e n s i o n of  brute f a c t "  says t h a t t h e o r y , as w e l l as  (p.294),  s y s t e m a t i z i n g and  and  o r d e r i n g f a c t s , has as i t s b a s i c f u n c t i o n  making "sense of what would o t h e r w i s e unmeaning e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s "  be i n s c r u t a b l e or  (p.302).  Schwab's i d e a s on a p p l y i n g t h e o r y were meant t o a p p l y t o l a r g e s c a l e c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s . He d e s c r i b e s "commonplaces" of the s c h o o l s e t t i n g as the t e a c h e r , l e a r n e r s , the s c h o o l m i l i e u , s u b j e c t m a t t e r and development, and  the  curriculum  s u g g e s t s c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g by people  knowledgeable about the p a r t i c u l a r s of each of these T h e o r i e s would be chosen as t h e y are judged t o appropriate  the  ("harnessing  areas.  be  a temporary team") f o r s o l v i n g  p r a c t i c a l problems. T h e o r i e s  would be r e a d i e d f o r p r a c t i c a l  use by v a r i o u s " e c l e c t i c a r t s " which Schwab enumerates. M i c h a e l C o n n e l l y , an e a r l y a s s o c i a t e of Schwab's and  the p r o g e n i t o r of the " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge"  s t u d i e s , a p p l i e d Schwab's i d e a s i n h i s own  curriculum  development work. I n f l u e n c e d by Schwab's reminder t h a t curriculum i s a practical f i e l d  i n which t h o u g h t f u l  d e l i b e r a t i o n by p a r t i c i p a n t s i s c e n t r a l , C o n n e l l y  (1972)  f o c u s e d , as Schwab had n o t , s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e t e a c h e r and h i s or her r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m development. He c h a r a c t e r i z e d the t e a c h e r as a " u s e r - d e v e l o p e r "  of c u r r i c u l u m , r a t h e r t h a n  as a mere c o n d u i t f o r e x t e r n a l l y d e v e l o p e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , and became i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e knowledge u n d e r l y i n g teachers' curriculum decisions. Another w r i t e r whose views on t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n f l u e n c e d w r i t e r s on " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" was R i c h a r d McKeon (1952). As C o n n e l l y had s t u d i e d w i t h Schwab, so Schwab, e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r , had s t u d i e d w i t h McKeon. McKeon d i s c u s s e d t h r e e "modes" f o r c o n n e c t i n g  t h e o r y and  p r a c t i c e . I n h i s " l o g i s t i c " mode t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r e s e p a r a t e and " t h e o r e t i c a c t i v i t i e s a r e the p r o v i n c e o f e x p e r t s who a l o n e have mastered the f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s which they e n t a i l "  ( R e i d , 1984, p.104). I t i s easy t o see t h e  m e r i t of t h i s v i e w as f a r as t h e development of a t l e a s t some t h e o r y i s c o n c e r n e d : I would r a t h e r have my p s y c h i a t r i s t t r e a t me w i t h the guidance of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s d e v e l o p e d by p s y c h i a t r i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a n those d e v e l o p e d by plumbers, o r t h o d o n t i s t s or h i s l a n d l a d y . McKeon's second "mode" i s a " d i a l e c t i c a l " one i n which t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e c o n s t a n t l y I n t e r a c t , " . . . t h e o r y i s r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e and p r a c t i c e r e f l e c t s t h e o r y i n a constant  c y c l e of d i s j u n c t i o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of i d e a s "  ( R e i d , 1984, p.104). hinges  F i n a l l y , McKeon's " p r o b l e m a t i c  on the n o t i o n of " i n q u i r y " , c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a  mode"  " s c i e n t i f i c " problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s which c a n be a p p l i e d t o the t h e o r e t i c as w e l l as t o t h e p r a c t i c a l .  A l l o f these  "modes" c a n be seen t o have t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s as ways of v i e w i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , depending on t h e s i t u a t i o n a t hand. " P e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" w r i t e r s such as E l b a z (1983) and C l a n d i n i n (1986) espouse t h e " d i a l e c t i c a l mode", and  i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o see why. T h e i r c o n c e r n  i s with  the immediate p r a c t i c a l problems of c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , f o r whom f o r m a l t h e o r i z i n g o r t h e s t u d y o f f o r m a l t h e o r i e s a r e a c t i v i t i e s not o f t e n engaged i n , though t h e y may use f o r m a l t h e o r i e s l e a r n e d about d u r i n g t h e i r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n ways t h a t s u i t t h e i r needs, and may engage i n t h e i r own t h e o r i z i n g about v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g s ituation. As t h e " p r a c t i c a l " i n t h e work o f M i c h a e l  Connelly  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s E l b a z , C l a n d i n i n and o t h e r s can be t r a c e d t o some e x t e n t t o Schwab, so t h e p e r s o n a l r e l a t e s t o t h e work o f M i c h a e l P o l a n y i , and e s p e c i a l l y t o h i s book P e r s o n a l Knowledge (1958), i n which he champions t h e i d e a o f " t a c i t knowing". P o l a n y i attempts  t o o f f e r a s c a t h i n g c r i t i q u e of  modern o b j e c t i v i s m , which he says a c c e p t s and v a l u e s o n l y t h a t which we c a n prove. He g r a n t s t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l p o s i t i v i s t i c s t a n c e was a n e c e s s a r y t o o l f o r man t o l i f t h i m s e l f out o f m e d i e v a l  s u p e r s t i t i o n , b u t he f e e l s t h a t t h e  need f o r t h i s movement has r u n i t s c o u r s e , and t h a t we a r e now b e i n g robbed o f something v a l u a b l e . P o l a n y i seeks " . . . t o  r e s t o r e t o us once more the power f o r the d e l i b e r a t e h o l d i n g of unproven b e l i e f s " s c i e n t i s t t h i s may own  lives,  (p.268). From h i s v i e w p o i n t  as a  be a r e l e v a n t b a t t l e t o wage, and  i n our  i n c l u d i n g our l i v e s as t e a c h e r s , we want t o  f r e e t o t r u s t our  f e e l i n g s and  i n t u i t i o n s about the  c o u r s e s of a c t i o n f o r our s t u d e n t s ,  but t h e r e  feel  right  i s some danger  i n t h i s i d e a . Whether or not we can a r t i c u l a t e p e r f e c t l y the f a c t o r s t h a t m o t i v a t e us i n our c l a s s r o o m important  t h a t we  our p r a c t i c e and  decisions, i t is  t r y , not o n l y so t h a t we can r e f l e c t  on  improve i t , but because we are p u b l i c l y  morally accountable  f o r our a c t i o n s as  and  teachers.  P o l a n y i says t h a t u n l i k e a r t i c u l a t e a f f i r m a t i o n s , t a c i t knowing cannot be c r i t i c a l .  "We  know more t h a n we  t e l l , and what we cannot t e l l we cannot t e s t , but can a c t upon and ( A l l e n , 1978,  thus f i n d o u r s e l v e s h a v i n g p.171).  The  only  gone r i g h t or wrong"  i d e a of t a c i t knowing i s a t  h e a r t of P o l a n y i ' s work, and considerable  can  t h i s i d e a has  the  exercised  i n f l u e n c e on the w r i t e r s on t e a c h e r s '  "personal  p r a c t i c a l knowledge". In C o n n e l l y ' s "user-developers" and  of c u r r i c u l u m , he s t r e s s e s the  i n t e r a c t i v e nature  teachers  (1972) d i s c u s s i o n of t e a c h e r s  of t h e i r r o l e , and  make d e c i s i o n s and adapt new  the term " p e r s o n a l  practical  suggests that  i d e a s as t h e y  t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n demands. C o n n e l l y and  as  perceive  Dienes (1982) use  p r a c t i c a l knowledge" to a c c o u n t f o r the  knowledge t h a t t e a c h e r s  use t o make c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s .  They s t a t e t h a t i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r y t e a c h e r s  "...attempt  to p e r s o n a l i z e — a n d  'make* p r a c t i c a l — t h e o r e t i c a l  P r o p e r l y used, the p r o c e s s of 'making p r a c t i c a l and p e r s o n a l i s the way new  1  theoretical  practitioners  i d e a s and e v e n t u a l l y make them t h e i r own.  the i d e a s w i l l  be g r e a t l y  matters  cope w i t h Undoubtedly  m o d i f i e d when t h i s happens, s i n c e  the p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge of one that individual"  ideas...  person  i s unique t o  (p.197). T h i s i s a Schwabian n o t i o n , t h a t  t e a c h e r s do not " a p p l y t h e o r y w h o l e s a l e " , and r a t h e r o b v i o u s one. As w e l l  i t seems a  i t appears unnecessary  to  state,  as the a u t h o r s have done i n t h i s passage, t h a t "the p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge of one p e r s o n  i s unique t o t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l " , s i n c e t h i s i s t r u e by d e f i n i t i o n . Thus the p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge may The  was  be r e d u n d a n t .  f i r s t of C o n n e l l y ' s graduate  complete a d i s s e r t a t i o n  term  students to  on " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l  knowledge"  Freema E l b a z (1980). E l b a z used o b s e r v a t i o n s  open-ended i n t e r v i e w s i n her s t u d y of 'Sarah', a  and secondary  E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . Because p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s p e r s o n a l , Elbaz states,  any s t u d y of such knowledge must seek out  the  p e r s p e c t i v e and p o i n t of v i e w of the person under s t u d y .  The  t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e "... encompasses not o n l y i n t e l l e c t u a l b e l i e f , but a l s o p e r c e p t i o n , f e e l i n g , v a l u e s , purpose and commitment" (1983, p.17).  I t i s not a t a l l c l e a r ,  t h a t the c o n s t i t u e n t s of " p e r s p e c t i v e " t h a t E l b a z s h o u l d be grouped t o g e t h e r . V a l u e s and ("intellectual  however, lists  beliefs  b e l i e f s " i s redundant) may  i n the same c a t e g o r y , but " p e r c e p t i o n " and  be s e n s i b l y p l a c e d "feeling"  sound  v e r y odd i n the same c a t e g o r y and need t o be e x p l a i n e d . Does " p e r c e p t i o n " mean how a t e a c h e r p e r c e i v e s the w o r l d a c c o r d i n g t o her b e l i e f s , v a l u e s and e x p e r i e n c e s ? Does " f e e l i n g " mean how she f e e l s about the w o r l d and her e x p e r i e n c e s as a t e a c h e r ? "Purpose" might b e t t e r be c a l l e d " p u r p o s e s " , and "commitment" seems t o mean commitment t o some i d e a l s  or v a l u e s . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n  of a l l these  terms  w i t h o u t adequate d e f i n i t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n i s t y p i c a l of problems i n w r i t i n g s t y l e and p e r i o d i c  lack  occur i n much of t h e " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l  of f o c u s t h a t  knowledge"  l i t e r a t u r e . I would argue t h a t the t h i n g s E l b a z has grouped under " p e r s p e c t i v e " a r e a l l c e n t r a l l y r e l a t e d  t o v a l u e s , and  t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n of a t e a c h e r ' s v a l u e s ( t o g e t h e r w i t h the s t u d y of how she a c q u i r e d them and how she j u s t i f i e s would be more I l l u m i n a t i n g  them),  than t h i s m o t l e y a s s o r t m e n t of  terms a l l o w s . Elbaz attempts knowledge  t o a r t i c u l a t e Sarah's p r a c t i c a l  i n terms of Schwab's (1973) f i v e " b o d i e s " of  e x p e r i e n c e . The c o n t e n t of her knowledge  i s described i n  terms of her knowledge of s e l f as a t e a c h e r , of the  milieu  i n which she works, of s u b j e c t m a t t e r , of i n s t r u c t i o n and of c u r r i c u l u m development. She examines how Sarah's knowledge active  r e l a t i o n t o her t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n " ,  "orientations":  situational orientation,  and s c h o o l ; p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , giving  " i s oriented in identifying  five  t o the c l a s s r o o m  a p p l y i n g t o the s e l f and  meaning t o e x p e r i e n c e ; s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n ,  used t o  structure  social reality; experiential  orientation,  r e f l e c t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h which knowledge has a c q u i r e d and  g i v i n g shape to e x p e r i e n c e ; and  orientation. Theoretical way:  "The  orientation  been  theoretical  i s explained in t h i s  knower c o n c e i v e s ( i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y ) t h e o r y  and  p r a c t i c e and  the  how  he a c q u i r e s and  r e l a t i o n s between them d e t e r m i n e s both uses p r a c t i c a l knowledge and  a t t a i n s t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and  exploits  how  he  i t for p r a c t i c a l  ends" (1983, p.102). While some of t h i s w o r d i n g seems t o demand f u r t h e r  e x p l a n a t i o n , the  sections  on  " o r i e n t a t i o n " do a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n  why  categories,  of the  and  her  interpretations  w i t h Sarah are a t t i m e s q u i t e reporting  each  E l b a z chose these interview  i n s i g h t f u l . Analysing  such d a t a i s never an easy t a s k , and  data and  w h i l e some of  E l b a z ' language i s u n u s u a l , i t i s b a s i c a l l y s e n s i b l e  when  read i n c o n t e x t . In terms of the s t r u c t u r e E l b a z has  of p r a c t i c a l knowledge,  formulated three basic categories:  p r a c t i c e , p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e and A r u l e of p r a c t i c e  consists  of "...a  encountered i n p r a c t i c e . "  i s quiet  l e s s e x p l i c i t f o r m u l a t i o n In which the i n the  (1983, waiting  before speaking.  A p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e i s "...a  implied  brief,  in a particular  pp.132-133) Most t e a c h e r s have such r u l e s , l i k e u n t i l the c l a s s  of  image.  c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d s t a t e m e n t of what t o do s i t u a t i o n frequently  rule  more i n c l u s i v e  and  teacher's purposes,  s t a t e m e n t of a r u l e , are made more c l e a r l y  e v i d e n t . " An example i s t h a t Sarah t r i e s t o make r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s "happy t o walk i n t o t h a t c l a s s . " I would again t h a t the c e n t r a l  i d e a i n "purposes"  suggest  i s the teacher's  v a l u e s . The n o t i o n o f " p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e " c o u l d be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g a t e a c h e r t o a r t i c u l a t e her v a l u e s . I f Sarah wants s t u d e n t s t o be "happy t o walk i n t o t h a t c l a s s " she may be e x p r e s s i n g t h e v a l u e she p l a c e s on a s c h o o l environment which f o s t e r s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and freedom from p u n i t i v e judgement f o r s t u d e n t s . I f she a r t i c u l a t e s these v a l u e s ( o r o t h e r s ) , she may be a b l e t o see c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r own p r a c t i c e and ways t h a t she can b e t t e r s e r v e t h e i d e a l s she holds. An image i s d e s c r i b e d as "...the l e a s t  explicit  and most i n c l u s i v e of t h e t h r e e . On t h i s l e v e l , t h e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s , v a l u e s , needs and b e l i e f s combine as she forms images o f how t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be, and marshals e x p e r i e n c e , t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and s c h o o l f o l k l o r e t o g i v e substance  t o these images" (1983, p.134). Examples of  the images E l b a z a t t r i b u t e s t o Sarah a r e " t h e rhythm o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r " and her f e e l i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s c a n "hide subject  behind"  matter. The  i d e a of image i s q u i t e s u g g e s t i v e , b u t t h e r e  a r e p o s s i b l e problems w i t h i t . One i s t h e q u e s t i o n of v a l i d i t y . Of c o u r s e r e s e a r c h e r s must use t h e i r powers t o a n a l y s e and make sense of the d a t a accumulate, metaphoric  interpretive  they  b u t i t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e t h a t such interpretation could r e s u l t i n misrepresentations  of  t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e , as shown i n some  of  t h e images from C l a n d l n l n ' s (1983) s t u d y o u t l i n e d below,  t h a t t h e images a t t r i b u t e d t o t e a c h e r s c o u l d be so mundane as t o o f f e r l i t t l e  insight into teachers' practice.  C l a n d i n i n (1983) d e v e l o p e d  t h e i d e a o f image i n  her d i s s e r t a t i o n on t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f two t e a c h e r s , " A i l e e n " and " S t e p h a n i e " . For S t e p h a n i e , some o f t h e images C l a n d i n i n p r e s e n t s a r e "The C l a s s r o o m as Home", and an image S t e p h a n i e h e l d o f h e r s e l f as a "Maker o f T h i n g s " . She saw t e a c h i n g as a p r o c e s s of " h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o be makers". For A i l e e n , some o f t h e images were "The C l a s s r o o m as a M i n i - S o c i e t y of C o o p e r a t i o n " ; A i l e e n ' s f e e l i n g t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y she was "A L i t t l e  I s l a n d " ; and "Language as  the Key", an image A i l e e n h e l d f o r how c h i l d r e n l e a r n . These "images", w h i l e t h e y may c a p t u r e m e t a p h o r i c a l l y something of what these t e a c h e r s v a l u e and t h e way t h e y t e a c h , seem f o r the most p a r t t o be r a t h e r o r d i n a r y and i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h e y r e a l l y o f f e r much i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f S t e p h a n i e and A i l e e n . I n a r e c e n t paper C l a n d i n i n  (1987)  d e s c r i b e s t h e f i r s t year t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f " S t e w a r t " and o f f e r s as one of h i s images "Teaching as R e l a t i n g t o C h i l d r e n " . A g a i n , t h i s t e l l s us something  about S t e w a r t but  has t h e r i n g o f a c l i c h e about i t as w e l l . Sanger who found t h e i d e a of m e t a p h o r i c  (1987),  images a c r e d i b l e one, made  a s i m i l a r p o i n t i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f C l a n d i n l n ' s work: "Too  much may be c l a i m e d , i n t h i s c a s e , f o r t h e d a t a .  The  central  too l i t t l e  images a r e a t r i f l e t o o p r o s a i c and c o n t a i n of t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e and u n c o m f o r t a b l e t o  s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s a r e g r a p p l i n g a t a depth beyond t h e i r c o n s c i o u s purchase. quality  There i s l i t t l e  of the  o f p o e t r y i n t h e phrases t h e y use t o suggest a  f r e e enough a s s o c i a t i o n of images t o s u b v e r t  their  c o n s c i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . That, o f c o u r s e , may be a lack i n C l a n d i n i n ' s discernment  or q u e s t i o n i n g  c a p a c i t y . Despite the post-hoc analyses of the data g e n e r a t e d , which b e g i n t o c a t e g o r i z e t e a c h e r images i n terms o f t h e i r moral d i m e n s i o n s , •coloring*  emotional  and P e r s o n a l - P r i v a t e d i m e n s i o n s ,  i t is  d i f f i c u l t t o p i n p o i n t much t h a t one might r e g a r d as profound  i n the f i n d i n g s "  (p.381).  The c o n s t r u c t o f image c o u l d perhaps be q u i t e a p o w e r f u l one f o r g e t t i n g a t t e a c h e r s * v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t a r e "beyond t h e i r c o n s c i o u s p u r c h a s e " . R e s e a r c h e r s  must  go beyond t h e g e n e r a t i o n of t h e image, however. Assuming t h a t r e a l l y i n s i g h t f u l and a p p r o p r i a t e images c o u l d be generated  ( t h i s could present f a i r l y s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s ) ,  t h e s e s h o u l d be viewed as an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p  toward  h e l p i n g a t e a c h e r t o make c o n s c i o u s and t o c l e a r l y articulate  t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s which a r e ( h o p e f u l l y )  encapsulated helpful  i n t h e image. T h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n c o u l d be v e r y  f o r meaningful  r e f l e c t i o n and change. C l a n d i n i n  f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e "moral d i m e n s i o n " it)  i s Important. Of S t e p h a n i e ' s  (as she c a l l s  "image" o f "The C l a s s r o o m  as Home", f o r i n s t a n c e , C l a n d i n i n w r i t e s , " I n S t e p h a n i e ' s v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n of t h e image, a sense o f i t s moral c o l o u r i n g emerged, t h e image i s n o t n e u t r a l ; a c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d be l i k e a home and b o t h c l a s s r o o m and home s h o u l d have c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s . . . A sense of p o s s i b i l i t y o f ' b e t t e r ' or 'worse' a c t i o n emerges" (1985, p.377). However she does not pursue t h e "moral d i m e n s i o n "  i n a s y s t e m a t i c way;  r a t h e r , i t i s one a s p e c t o f t h e b l e n d o f knowledge, e x p e r i e n c e and v a l u e s t h a t she c a l l s " p e r s o n a l  practical  knowledge". S p e c i f i c f o c u s on v a l u e s i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , t h e purpose o f her s t u d y , and w h i l e some g e n e r a l f e e l i n g about these t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s comes t h r o u g h  i n h e r work, v a l u e s a r e  submerged i n t h e n o t i o n o f " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge". The  o t h e r c e n t r a l i d e a i n C l a n d i n i n ' s work and i n  her r e c e n t work w i t h C o n n e l l y ( C l a n d i n i n , 1987; C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n , 1985, 1986, 1987) i s " n a r r a t i v e u n i t y " . C l a n d i n i n (1987) e x p l a i n s t h i s i d e a by s a y i n g , "The method we have developed  f o r o f f e r i n g accounts  of teachers' personal  p r a c t i c a l knowledge i s a n a r r a t i v e one w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . A n a r r a t i v e method has as i t s p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m meaning i n terms of u n i t i e s and rhythms i n t h e l i v e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s " ( p . 5 ) . Thus two i d e a s a r e e n c a p s u l a t e d here: t h e " n a r r a t i v e " a s p e c t has t o do w i t h t e a c h e r s r e v e a l i n g t h e i r  "personal  p r a c t i c a l knowledge" t h r o u g h t h e t e l l i n g o f t h e i r  "life  s t o r i e s " i n t e a c h i n g , and t h e " u n i t y " a s p e c t has t o do w i t h "the power of t h e c y c l i c t e m p o r a l  o r d e r i n s c h o o l s and the  d i f f i c u l t y of b r e a k i n g regularity"  t h r o u g h the bonds of  ( C o n n e l l y and  C l a n d i n i n , 1986,  cyclic p.378). L i k e  "image", t h i s i d e a has p o s s i b i l i t i e s but a l s o p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Grumet (1987),  who  uses the n o t i o n of  n a r r a t i v e , though i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t way C l a n d i n i n , i n her work w i t h t e a c h e r s , made i n r e f e r e n c e  r a i s e s the same p o i n t  t o "image" about the d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s t a t i n g that there "when an  than  of  i s a need f o r c a u t i o n  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d as t e l l i n g more about  the n a r r a t i v e than i t s n a r r a t o r knew" (p.325). Harking l a c k of " c o n t e x t "  back t o e a r l i e r t e a c h e r i n which t e a c h e r  r e s e a r c h and  the  a c t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d ,  i t can c e r t a i n l y be s a i d t h a t s t u d y i n g t e a c h e r s '  narratives  o f f e r s r i c h p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t , but the dangers of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when w o r k i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l s t o r i e s and metaphors cannot be o v e r l o o k e d . rather s t r a n g e l y beside  Another danger, s i t t i n g  the danger of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s  the danger of u n d e r a n a l y s i n g .  C o n n e l l y and  C l a n d i n i n seem t o  get r a t h e r . t o o i n v o l v e d i n d e s c r i b i n g the " u n i t i e s and rhythms" of the s c h o o l , w i t h o u t  a s k i n g where t h e y come from,  what e f f e c t t h e y have on p u p i l s and should  teachers  and  what can  or  be done t o change them. S t e p h a n i e ' s " C l a s s r o o m as  Home", i n which S t e p h a n i e (who  i s Jewish) c o n s i s t e n t l y plans  her t e a c h i n g around the "rhythm" of the s c h o o l h o l i d a y s H a l l o w e e n , C h r i s t m a s and E a s t e r , was  of  i l l u m i n a t e d more by a  communication t o C l a n d i n i n from Joseph Schwab than by C l a n d i n i n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . Schwab w r o t e ,  86 "...the s c h o o l year b e i n g a c y c l e o f b i g e v e n t s , T h a n k s g i v i n g , Halloween,  fall,  C h r i s t m a s , snow, and so on.  - I would l i k e t o ask whether the a u t h o r might see S t e p h a n i e and ask her whether t h i s i s n ' t a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e way i n which t h e J e w i s h r e l i g i o n tends t o make Jews t h i n k o f t h e year as d i v i d e d by h o l i d a y s . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e r e a r e many such and s e v e r a l of the ones t h e a u t h o r mentions  l i k e Thanksgiving, Christmas  and so on have t h e i r J e w i s h c o r r e l a t e s . So, the f a m i l y Judaism she r e p r e s e n t s may have been a n o t h e r f a c t o r i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the images which c o n t r o l her judgements" (Schwab, 1983, quoted  i n C o n n e l l y and  C l a n d i n i n , 1986, p.382). In response t o t h i s , C o n n e l l y and C l a n d i n i n comment t h a t S t e p h a n i e " l i v e s out her J e w i s h c u l t u r a l n a r r a t i v e by c e l e b r a t i n g her own h o l i d a y s " (p.382). T h i s i n c l u d e s t a k i n g two days o f f f o r Rosh Hashanah, even though t h i s o c c u r s a t a time when t h e s c h o o l i s r e o r g a n i z i n g and S t e p h a n i e ' s " c u l t u r a l rhythm c o n f l i c t s w i t h the s c h o o l c y c l e "  (p.382).  A g a i n , t h e i d e a of v a l u e s seems c e n t r a l . The r e a d e r  yearns  f o r more q u e s t i o n s t o be asked h e r e , but f o r the most p a r t the " u n i t i e s and rhythms"  of t h e s c h o o l and t h e " n a r r a t i v e s "  of t e a c h e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f any searching analysis. I n summary, t h e " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s , w h i l e they o f f e r the suggestive idea of reaching  8?  t e a c h e r s * u n s t a t e d and sometimes u n c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f s through the f o r m a t i o n of m e t a p h o r i c examination  values  and  "images" and  the  of p e r s o n a l " n a r r a t i v e s " have s e v e r a l  shortcomings.  F i r s t , t h e y s u f f e r from a w r i t i n g s t y l e i n  which i d e a s a r e sometimes obscured  r a t h e r than c l a r i f i e d  wordy d e s c r i p t i o n s . Second, the "images" themselves  by  seem  r a t h e r p r o s a i c and not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s i g h t f u l . T h i r d , t h e r e i s a danger of m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n and  i n t e r v i e w d a t a i n t o "images". F o u r t h , t h e r e  i s i n s u f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s of the d a t a t h a t a r e d e s c r i b e d . Thus, w h i l e t h e s e s t u d i e s do appear t o r e c t i f y t o some e x t e n t the l a c k i n the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s of d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o n t e x t of t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s , t h e y  fail  t o o f f e r i n s i g h t f u l a n a l y s e s of what t h e y d e s c r i b e . As w e l l , i t has been argued t h r o u g h o u t examination  the  of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a c e n t r a l i d e a i n  " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge", a c e n t r a l m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r i n t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s , i s v a l u e s , and a r e a remains l a r g e l y u n s t u d i e d , though the p r a c t i c a l knowledge" work touches  that t h i s  "personal  on i t and  suggests  p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h methods. T h i s work v e n t u r e s  i n t o the moral  r e a l m more than do d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , v a l u e s are not a major f o c u s . As a method of h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t on t h e i r own  p r a c t i c e i t may  be h e l p f u l , and i t  seems l i k e l y t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n E l b a z and C l a n d i n i n ' s s t u d i e s gained  I n s i g h t I n t o t h e i r own  teaching  through  88 discussions with the researchers, although helping teachers to  r e f l e c t was not the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of these r e s e a r c h e r s . Oberg (1986) a d v o c a t e s  p r a c t i c e by e x p e r i e n c e d deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g  r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r  t e a c h e r s , t h a t t h e y may " a c h i e v e a  o f t h e b e l i e f s and i n t e n t i o n s which  motivate t h e i r p r a c t i c e "  ( p . l ) . I n i t i a l l y , Oberg s a y s ,  this  r e f l e c t i o n s h o u l d f o c u s on a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m i n s t a n c e s , because "These a r e t h e o v e r t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of b e l i e f s and values underlying teachers' a c t i o n s that are often i m p l i c i t and d i f f i c u l t t o v e r b a l i z e . Many of t h e t e a c h e r ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n s a r e spontaneous o r h a b i t u a l , chosen i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y w i t h o u t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n , or r i t u a l i z e d i n t h e form o f r o u t i n e s " ( p . 3 ) . The a s s i s t a n c e o f a second p a r t y , she h o l d s , i s p r o b a b l y e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s reflective  undertaking. The  i d e a t h a t many t e a c h e r a c t i o n s a r e " r i t u a l i z e d  i n t h e form o f r o u t i n e s " bears  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and some  recent teacher t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h , i n the realm of teachers' p r a c t i c a l knowledge b u t r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from t h e " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s , has l o o k e d i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s t h a t t e a c h e r s u s e . B e f o r e t h e p r a c t i c a l knowledge work i s a n a l y s e d  i n t h e next c h a p t e r , these  s t u d i e s w i l l be c r i t i c a l l y  reviewed.  "routinization"  B. S t u d i e s of  routinization  S t u d i e s of " e x p e r t " t e a c h e r s a l s o r e v e a l the p r a c t i c a l knowledge of t e a c h e r s , but are l e s s p e r s o n a l i n nature and do seek t o g e n e r a l i z e about the " r o u t i n e s , s c r i p t s and schema used by e x p e r t s " ( B e r l i n e r , 1986, B e r l i n e r says t h a t such  p.6).  i n f o r m a t i o n can be used, f o r  example, to i d e n t i f y "the buggy r o u t i n e or s c r i p t , or the i l l - f o r m e d schemata, t h a t might be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  less  e x p e r t or novice t e a c h e r s " , and a l s o to "provide exemplary performances from which we  can l e a r n . " E x p e r t s can,  than most t e a c h e r s , p r o v i d e us with c a s e s — t h e  richly  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l e v e n t s — t h a t form a p a r t of teacher e d u c a t i o n  "more  should  programs...beginning  t e a c h e r s need such cases of p r a c t i c e t o develop t h e i r understanding  full  of pedagogy" ( p . 6 ) . B e r l i n e r a l s o says t h a t  "expert t e a c h e r s are one  of the best sources t o see  and  study examples of d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n , and...the knowledge gained  from such study i s more c o d i f i a b l e than many people  t h i n k " (p.13). If a c t i o n i s to be d e f e n s i b l e , as should be apparent  i n the domain of p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h i n g , i t i s t h a t teachers must r e a l l y understand  what they do, and guided  r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r  r e v e a l i n g t h e i r values and significant thus an  indeed i t  beliefs,  why  they  do  practice,  i s a g a i n seen to be a  i s s u e . B e r l i n e r ' s i d e a of d e f e n s i b l e a c t i o n i s  important  one,  but as  i n the " p e r s o n a l  knowledge" work i t i s an idea not adequately expert-novice  practical  e x p l o r e d i n the  l i t e r a t u r e , which seldom goes much beyond  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of classroom  r o u t i n e s without  really  f o l l o w i n g up on the t h i n k i n g t h a t u n d e r l i e s them. T h i s work does o f f e r and  " d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l  these are undoubtedly u s e f u l as m i r r o r s  see themselves i n and amongst student researchers  f o r teachers  to  as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n  teachers.  do not ask  I t seems s t r a n g e ,  the t e a c h e r s  they f o l l o w c e r t a i n r o u t i n e s and from, f o l l o w i n g up  events",  however, t h a t  in their studies  why  where the r o u t i n e s come  i n a more d i l i g e n t way  on the n o t i o n  of  defensible action. One criteria  difficulty  to use  i n the  i n such s t u d i e s would be what  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "expert"  In B e r l i n e r ' s work he developed a system of "expert"  teachers  by t h r e e  independent observers  identifying  using reputation, classroom and  teachers.  observations  performance on  laboratory  tasks. Leinhardt teachers  according  and  Greeno (1986) i d e n t i f i e d  to the academic growth of t h e i r  over a f i v e year p e r i o d . These r e s e a r c h e r s plans,  l e s s o n a c t i v i t i e s and  " e x p e r t s " and Using  the  "expert"  s e v e r a l novices  classroom  students  looked a t  r o u t i n e s of s e v e r a l  t e a c h i n g comparable c l a s s e s .  language of t h e i r d i s c i p l i n e ,  educational  psychology, they c a l l t e a c h i n g a "complex c o g n i t i v e which " r e q u i r e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of plans and r a p i d o n - l i n e d e c i s i o n s " , and r e s t s "on  two  s t r u c t u r e and  lesson  state that s k i l l  skill",  the making of i n teaching  fundamental systems of knowledge, l e s s o n s u b j e c t matter" (p.75). T h e i r s t u d y  focussed  on l e s s o n s t r u c t u r e . They found t h a t 'expert*  t e a c h e r s , whom  t h e y a l s o c a l l e d s k i l l e d t e a c h e r s , d i d a more d i s c i p l i n e d and q u i c k e r opening homework r e v i e w t h a n d i d n o v i c e s , p i c k i n g up i n f o r m a t i o n about which s t u d e n t s  had n o t done  t h e i r homework and who needed e x t r a h e l p . The s k i l l e d t e a c h e r s had r o u t i n e s i n p l a c e f o r t a k i n g checking  homework and r e s p o n d i n g  attendance,  to students'  questions.  These w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e s were f l e x i b l e and c o u l d be reordered  o r used o n l y i n p a r t . L i t t l e o r no e x p l a n a t i o n was  required f o r their functioning. Novices,  on t h e o t h e r hand, changed t h e way t h e y  d i d t h i n g s from day t o day, and t h u s had t o e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s  i n the r o l e s expected of  them f r e q u e n t l y . L e i n h a r d t and Greeno found t h a t r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f much o f t h e s c h o o l day was a major d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f " e x p e r t " and n o v i c e and s u g g e s t t h a t , " R o u t i n e s  p l a y an i m p o r t a n t  teachers,  part i n  s k i l l e d performances because t h e y a l l o w r e l a t i v e l y l o w - l e v e l activities  t o be c a r r i e d o u t e f f i c i e n t l y , w i t h o u t  s i g n i f i c a n t mental r e s o u r c e s  diverting  f r o m t h e more g e n e r a l and  s u b s t a n t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and g o a l s o f t e a c h i n g . Thus, r o u t i n e s reduce c o g n i t i v e l o a d and expand t h e t e a c h e r ' s d e a l w i t h t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e elements o f a t a s k "  f a c i l i t y to (p.76).  I n l i g h t o f t h i s , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see whether t e a c h e r s whose c l a s s r o o m s a r e h i g h l y r o u t i n i z e d make fewer s h o r t t e r m d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g a t e a c h i n g day, s i n c e would presumably have fewer m a n a g e r i a l  they  difficulties. It is  a l s o l o g i c a l t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t the content and antecedents of the s h o r t term d e c i s i o n s made by these t e a c h e r s would differ  from those made by t e a c h e r s who do not have w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e s . Teachers  without w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  r o u t i n e s would have t o make more on-the-spot  d e c i s i o n s about  the mechanics of running a c l a s s , and t e a c h e r s with e f f i c i e n t r o u t i n e s , f r e e d t o d e l v e more d e e p l y i n t o content and  s t u d e n t s ' academic needs, would presumably make more  instructional decisions. Whether or not t e a c h e r s with e f f i c i e n t r o u t i n e s a c t u a l l y do c o n s i s t e n t l y focus more on i n s t r u c t i o n , t o the b e n e f i t o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s , would make a worthwhile e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . I t would a l s o be u s e f u l t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether t h e r e a r e any n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of r o u t i n i z a t i o n , such as l a c k of s p o n t a n e i t y and r i s k - t a k i n g on the p a r t of some t e a c h e r s whose day i s h e a v i l y r o u t i n i z e d . I t c o u l d even be the case t h a t some u n e n t e r p r i s i n g t e a c h e r s who have w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r o u t i n e s do not take advantage of the "reduced c o g n i t i v e l o a d " t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on s t u d e n t s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs, but put t h e i r students  and a r e not v e r y e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s , though t h e i r appear t o r u n smoothly. I t i s worthwhile Marx and Peterson's  1  'on a u t o m a t i c , classrooms  here t o remember  (1981) f i n d i n g t h a t the t e a c h e r s i n  t h e i r study who made the s m a l l e s t number of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a l s o made the g r e a t e s t number of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , and these t e a c h e r s ' s t u d e n t s had more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s than d i d the students of t e a c h e r s who made more  p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s and fewer i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s . O b v i o u s l y more s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher d e c i s i o n making and student a t t i t u d e s would be needed before any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be made, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e on p o s s i b l e reasons Peterson  found. Teachers  f o r the l i n k t h a t Marx and  who make fewer p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s  are presumably somewhat l e s s prepared and t h e i r  classrooms  may be l e s s r o u t i n i z e d , perhaps l e s s o r g a n i z e d and l e s s w e l l managed. I t i s p o s s i b l e a l s o t h a t some of these t e a c h e r s may be more spontaneous, more l i v e l y i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n and more r e s p o n s i v e t o c r e a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s i s c e r t a i n l y not a 'black and white'  from s t u d e n t s . T h i s  Issue ( n e i t h e r  " r o u t i n i z a t i o n good, s p o n t a n e i t y bad", nor the r e v e r s e ) , but it  i s one worth i n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r f i n e r shades of meaning.  Much of a t e a c h e r ' s day may need t o be r o u t i n i z e d f o r e f f i c i e n c y ' s sake,  but does c r e a t i v i t y and r i s k - t a k i n g  sometimes get s a c r i f i c e d  i n the i n t e r e s t s of e f f i c i e n c y ?  L i k e so many other unasked q u e s t i o n s teachers, t h i s  i n the l i t e r a t u r e on  i s a value q u e s t i o n .  I n t e r e s t i n g a l s o i s the q u e s t i o n of whether (and to what extent) a l l good t e a c h e r s use r o u t i n e s . L e i n h a r d t , Weidman and Hammond (1987), establishment year, observed  i n t h e i r study of the  of r o u t i n e s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the s c h o o l s i x teachers  s t u d e n t s ' unusual  i d e n t i f i e d as " e x p e r t s " by t h e i r  academic successes and by nomination  from  p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r v i s o r s . Only one of these t e a c h e r s had weak and i n c o n s i s t e n t l y p r a c t i s e d r o u t i n e s , and she appeared  to be s l i g h t l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e than the other f i v e . T h i s study a l s o i d e n t i f i e d what the r e s e a r c h e r s  call  " d y s f u n c t i o n a l r o u t i n e s " , which are n e g a t i v e as h a b i t u a l as f u n c t i o n a l r o u t i n e s . One c l a s s almost d a i l y to g i v e a l e n g t h y , proper  in effect  but  t e a c h e r stopped  Impassioned l e c t u r e  b e h a v i o r , to which the s t u d e n t s d i d not respond  which r e s u l t e d  the  i n the l o s s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l time.  on  and  "Expert"  t e a c h e r s are not p e r f e c t , i t would seem, a t r u i s m worth remembering l e s t we e l e v a t e them to the s t a t u s of u n a t t a i n a b l e r o l e models, undermining r a t h e r than the c o n f i d e n c e of other Viewing  teachers.  the " e x p e r t - n o v i c e " l i t e r a t u r e  v a l u e s , i t i s apparent  enhancing  i n terms of  t h a t the p e r s o n a l v a l u e s of t e a c h e r s ,  while t h e y are r e v e a l e d t o some e x t e n t i n t e a c h e r s ' r o u t i n e s , are not brought to l i g h t as they are i n the " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s , but they may  say  some i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s . While classrooms  o b v i o u s l y must have order and reasonable  f o r t e a c h i n g and  quiet  l e a r n i n g to occur, there i s something to be  s a i d f o r " c r e a t i v e chaos" from time t o time, and we value q u i e t and e f f i c i e n c y over other seemingly organized modes which may  may  less  f o s t e r more d i s c o v e r y and  e x p r e s s i o n by s t u d e n t s . As w e l l , as the " p e r s o n a l  self  practical  knowledge" s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e , each teacher has h i s or her own  body of knowledge and experience which i s expressed  t e a c h i n g , and  in  the study of " e x p e r t " t e a c h e r s s h o u l d not l e a d  to an o v e r l y r i g i d  p i c t u r e of what a good teacher does.  The  p r a c t i c a l knowledge work does o f f e r  rich,  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o n t e x t of t e a c h i n g , and t h i s i s v a l u a b l e because t h i s c o n t e x t must be taken i n any attempt  t o understand  into  account  t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s and  d e c i s i o n s . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e deep and focused  probing  of reasons, v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . D e s c r i p t i o n i s not enough without c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s . Very seldom a r e t e a c h e r s  asked  "Why?" i n these s t u d i e s , a q u e s t i o n t h a t might, with the guidance  of the r e s e a r c h e r , open the door t o t e a c h e r s '  examination  of t h e i r v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , as w e l l as the  weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge. Reading accounts  based  on a more focused r e f l e c t i v e  would seem t o be more u s e f u l t o an audience and  journey  of e x p e r i e n c e d  novice t e a c h e r s as w e l l .  What a r e the b a s i c assumptions of r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge, what c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g is implicit  i n t h e i r work, and what changes i n the s o - c a l l e d  " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " have accompanied the move from the study of d e c i s i o n making t o the study of p r a c t i c a l knowledge? These q u e s t i o n s a r e addressed  i n the next  chapter.  96 Chapter S i x  Analysts of the Practical Knowledge Literature  I t was  s t a t e d i n the a n a l y s i s of the d e c i s i o n  making l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher l i t e r a t u r e was  more "three d i m e n s i o n a l " than the view of the  teacher presented literature,  In behavior  i t was  s t u d i e s . The d e c i s i o n  claimed, p r e s e n t s t e a c h e r s as  thinking participants  i n the c l a s s r o o m  i n t e r a c t i n g with students and c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s . The earlier  in that  active,  environment,  responding  to changing  learning conditions laid  out  f o r the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g are adequately  served  i n t h i s view of the t e a c h e r . The q u e s t i o n s r e s e a r c h e r s ask r e l a t e t o methods, m a t e r i a l s and  c o n t e n t , as w e l l as to  c l a s s r o o m management. The d e c i s i o n making l i t e r a t u r e was  seen t o  s h o r t on the moral c o n d i t i o n , sometimes s u g g e s t i n g about v a l u e s but not r e a l l y p r o b i n g i n t o why  fall  questions  t e a c h e r s might  make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s . Value c l a s h e s between t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and implications  f o r how  i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s , which c o u l d have students are viewed and  t r e a t e d , are  sometimes i m p l i e d or h i n t e d a t but not i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t suggested  t h a t perhaps the concept  was  of d e c i s i o n i s too narrow  to g i v e access to t h i s complex a r e a , or t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s do not  judge value q u e s t i o n s to be s i g n i f i c a n t enough to merit  in-depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s and  other p o s s i b l e reasons  for  97 the seeming taboo a g a i n s t the I n v e s t i g a t i o n of v a l u e s be d i s c u s s e d i n chapter  will  nine.  In the p r a c t i c a l knowledge area the " r o u t i n i z a t i o n " s t u d i e s have a d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s but have some s i m i l a r t h a t classrooms  focus than d e c i s i o n  l i m i t a t i o n s . They demonstrate  need some r o u t i n e s t o keep mundane  a c t i v i t i e s running smoothly so t h a t r e l e v a n t l e a r n i n g can be g i v e n more a t t e n t i o n ; they can o f f e r " t i p s " t o b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s on how t o o r g a n i z e and manage a classroom; suggest  and they  t h a t t h e r e may be some " d y s f u n c t i o n a l r o u t i n e s "  which a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d but c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . They do not i n v e s t i g a t e how t e a c h e r s develop  t h e i r r o u t i n e s and they  do not pursue the idea of c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e  r o u t i n e s , the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o u t i n e s and s p o n t a n e i t y , and the e x t e n t t o which r o u t i n e s r e l a t e d t o c l a s s r o o m management a r e designed  t o meet i n s t i t u t i o n a l standards  f o r q u i e t and "good  b e h a v i o r " , c a u s i n g p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t with t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l values and e d u c a t i o n a l aims. They demonstrate some of the " p r a c t i c a l knowledge" and the  "knowing-ln-actlon"—Donald  Schon's (1983) t e r m — o f t e a c h e r s , but they d e l v e i n t o the t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g even l e s s than the d e c i s i o n making studies. The  focus on r o u t i n e s may be somewhat more  i n s i g h t f u l than the teacher behavior  focus on s p e c i f i c , and  i s o l a t e d , t e a c h e r a c t i o n s , but the i n t e n t i o n s of these two streams of r e s e a r c h a r e not d i s s i m i l a r . They both seek to d e s c r i b e what good t e a c h e r s do i n classrooms. R o u t i n i z a t i o n  s t u d i e s do i n v e s t i g a t e t o some e x t e n t t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g about t h e i r c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e s , but the f a c t t h a t they do t h i s and e a r l i e r behavior s t u d i e s d i d not may have as much to do w i t h the development and acceptance  of q u a l i t a t i v e  r e s e a r c h techniques as with the d i f f e r e n t  i n t e r e s t s of the  two  groups of r e s e a r c h e r s . The  n o t i o n of "good" t e a c h e r s immediately  raises  the q u e s t i o n of "good" a c c o r d i n g t o what standards?  Aside  from g e n e r a l s o c i e t a l s t a n d a r d s , the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g h e l d by the r e s e a r c h e r s d i c t a t e s the s t a n d a r d s , and i t i s c l e a r throughout  the work on d e c i s i o n and r o u t i n l z a t i o n t h a t  the b r i n g i n g about of l e a r n i n g i n s t u d e n t s , with a l l the c h o i c e s of m a t e r i a l s , content and methods t h a t t h i s  entails,  t o g e t h e r with the a b i l i t y t o run and "manage" an o r d e r l y c l a s s r o o m a r e the main f e a t u r e s of t h i s c o n c e p t i o n . In terms of c l a s s r o o m management, i t i s c l e a r t h a t a non-chaotic environment i s n e c e s s a r y f o r l e a r n i n g t o take p l a c e , and so c l a s s r o o m management r e l a t e s t o the i n t e n t i o n t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g , but t h e r e seem t o be other reasons  f o r "managing"  the c l a s s , such as not v i o l a t i n g n o i s e standards  of the  s c h o o l , not a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t o express themselves i n s o c i a l l y unacceptable  ways such as swearing,  and p r o v i d i n g  r e l a t i v e peace and q u i e t f o r the t e a c h e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between management, l e a r n i n g and v a r i o u s s e t s of v a l u e s i s not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the d e c i s i o n or r o u t i n l z a t i o n s t u d i e s . The  " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s both  b e n e f i t and s u f f e r from having a much broader  focus than the  d e c i s i o n making or r o u t i n i z a t i o n work. The "why"  questions  benefit i s that  (and these seem to be the q u e s t i o n s t h a t  i l l u m i n a t e values)--why d i d you do t h i s , why t h i s way,  why  do you  f e e l t h i s way  up when they a r i s e without  d i d you  about i t — c a n  be f o l l o w e d  s t r a y i n g too f a r from a s p e c i f i c  r e s e a r c h focus such as d e c i s i o n or r o u t i n i z a t i o n . n e g a t i v e a s p e c t of the v e r y broad  focus of the  The  "personal  p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s i s t h a t too much time d e s c r i b i n g the p l e n t i f u l data and  the end  i n these  over too q u i c k l y and  one  rich  wishes i n  f o r more focus on s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e .  c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher t h a t i s suggested  by the  p r a c t i c a l knowledge" work i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the offered  i s spent  not a l o t of a n a l y s i s gets  done. Issues of v a l u e which come t o l i g h t d e s c r i p t i o n s are passed  decide  i n chapter  two,  The  "personal  conception  i n t h a t teachers are p o r t r a y e d  as  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose i n t e n t i o n i s to b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s and who  s t r u g g l e (Elbaz  p o r t r a y s v e r y w e l l the s t r u g g l e of "Sarah"  to choose the  best methods and m a t e r i a l s f o r working with s t u d e n t s  who  came to the " l e a r n i n g c e n t r e " f o r h e l p with E n g l i s h ) to choose methods, m a t e r i a l s and content t h a t best serve g o a l of b r i n g i n g about l e a r n i n g . O b v i o u s l y t e a c h e r s s t r i v e and  s t r u g g l e i n t h i s way  the  who  hold s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g as a  primary valued g o a l . Other of t h e i r p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s  and  values w i l l  and  i n f l u e n c e the ways i n which they s t r i v e ,  moral v a l u e s w i l l  i n t e r a c t with t h e i r  ideas about l e a r n i n g .  100 The  " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s address  t e a c h e r s * v a l u e s more d i r e c t l y than any p r e v i o u s work but, f r u s t r a t i n g l y , do not probe value q u e s t i o n s , s e e k i n g to d e s c r i b e the whole f a b r i c of " p e r s o n a l  mainly  practical  knowledge" of which values a r e a p a r t . The d e s c r i p t i o n  isa  worthwhile t a s k ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , one wishes f o r more a n a l y s i s . Since v a l u e s a r e not a major f o c u s , the "hard c o r e " of the teacher t h i n k i n g program remains unchanged: knowledge and l e a r n i n g a r e the concerns  of the teacher  i n t h i s conception;  the moral c o n d i t i o n i s not a d e q u a t e l y met. The mentioning of the "moral dimension"  i n " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge"  s t u d i e s can be seen as a change i n the " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " . I t i s AS IF value q u e s t i o n s have been addressed, f a c t remain unprobed and the apparent  but they i n  taboo i n the "hard  c o r e " t h a t d i s a l l o w s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of value remains  questions  unchallenged. Another p o s s i b l e reason  f o r the l a c k of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of value q u e s t i o n s may be t h a t s i n c e many values a r e h e l d t a c i t l y t h e y a r e not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n . One of the Important  ideas i n  the " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" s t u d i e s and i n other l i t e r a t u r e on teacher t h i n k i n g i s the n o t i o n t h a t much of what we know i s t a c i t and cannot be a c c u r a t e l y a r t i c u l a t e d . Adherence t o the idea of t a c i t knowing may account  f o r some  of the l a c k of p r o b i n g i n the teacher t h i n k i n g l i t e r a t u r e . As Trumbull  (1986) d e s c r i b e s i t , "Because much of t a c i t  knowing i s not a r t i c u l a t e d , t h e r e i s a danger t h a t p r a c t i c e ,  a r t i s t i c and r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , can be seen as somewhat mysterious  or can become m y s t i f i e d . The master teacher  somehow "knows" what the r i g h t a c t i o n  i s , but cannot e x p l a i n  j u s t how (s)he knows t h i s . The processes by which the e x p e r t makes sense  of complex s i t u a t i o n s may seem impenetrable t o  the n o v i c e or l e s s r e f l e c t i v e t e a c h e r " (p.118). And t o the r e s e a r c h e r , we might add. There appears of t h i s m y s t i f i c a t i o n work. P r a c t i c e  t o be some element  i n the " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l  knowledge"  i s t h o r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d but the d e t a i l s of  t e a c h e r s ' knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , which may indeed be h e l d t a c i t l y , a r e not probed. t a c i t l y can be brought  Whether m a t e r i a l t h a t i s h e l d  i n t o focus and a r t i c u l a t e d  important q u e s t i o n . Examination may h e l p t o shed  of the idea of t a c i t  knowing  l i g h t on the l a c k of p r o b i n g i n t o some  areas of t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g . T h i s examination i n the next  i s thus an  chapter.  i s undertaken  102  Chapter Seven  Invest I gat fton of the Idea Qt Tacit Knowing and  I t s R e l a t i o n t o the Study of Teacher  Thinking  Almost a l l of the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s ' knowledge s t a t e s t h a t much of t e a c h e r s '  practical  knowledge i s t a c i t .  While the idea of t a c i t knowing i s a c r e d i b l e one, questions a r i s e about the nature of t a c i t knowing and e s p e c i a l l y about whether t a c i t knowledge can be made e x p l i c i t . Whether or not the knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s  that teachers  may h o l d  t a c i t l y can be made e x p l i c i t and a r t i c u l a t e d w i l l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' material that  i s held t a c i t l y  i n a r t i c u l a b l e , researchers  i s viewed as being  have  thinking. If largely  may t r y t o 'get a t ' t h i s  material  i n n o n - e x p l i c i t ways, such as through " n a r r a t i v e " , or the t e l l i n g of t e a c h e r s '  " l i f e s t o r i e s " and a l l t h a t those might  r e v e a l , or through metaphors such as the "images" t h a t C l a n d i n i n uses. I t i s c l e a r t h a t a l l our knowledge i s not of the p r o p o s i t i o n a l k i n d , and t h a t we do not have  immediate  c o n s c i o u s a c c e s s t o a l l t h a t we know, or t o a l l o f the b e l i e f s and v a l u e s ,  p o s s i b l y acquired  a t an e a r l y age, which  guide us i n our l i v e s and i n our c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s . N a r r a t i v e and metaphor appear t o o f f e r ways f o r us to " s u r f a c e " and t a l k about knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s we hold  tacitly.  which  I t may be a l s o t h a t the understanding of t a c i t knowing inherent  In some of the teacher t h i n k i n g  literature  does not a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the f u l l scope of P o l a n y i ' s w r i t i n g ; nor w i l l , u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  the a n a l y s i s which  f o l l o w s . What I w i l l attempt t o do i s l a y out the b a s i c ideas and examples P o l a n y i  uses and d i s c u s s  these i n  r e l a t i o n t o the l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g . The idea of t a c i t knowing bears i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r i t may be t h a t much t a c i t m a t e r i a l can be brought i n t o focus and a r t i c u l a t e d , and  t h a t t h i s i s an important t h i n g f o r t e a c h e r s t o do. A t y p i c a l d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f the word  i s "unspoken or s i l e n t ;  implied  'tacit'  or understood without being  openly e x p r e s s e d " . We speak o f a ' t a c i t agreement* as one which has not been v e r b a l i z e d , or has perhaps not been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y thought out, but which i s n e v e r t h e l e s s understood by the concerned p a r t i e s . There i s n o t h i n g i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o suggest t h a t something t a c i t cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d . T a c i t knowing may be another t h i n g , however. Though he c e r t a i n l y d i d not invent Polanyi  the word t a c i t ,  Michael  i s c r e d i t e d with o r i g i n a t i n g the idea of t a c i t  knowing. H i s work, and e s p e c i a l l y h i s book P e r s o n a l Knowledge (1958) i s i n v a r i a b l y r e f e r r e d t o i n d i s c u s s i o n s of teachers'  t a c i t knowledge. The t h e s i s P o l a n y i  P e r s o n a l Knowledge i s developed f u r t h e r notably  the 1966 P h i l o s o p h y a r t i c l e ,  Inference",  presents i n  i n h i s l a t e r work,  "The L o g i c o f T a c i t  and the 1966 book, The T a c i t Dimension.  10k I t Is a p p r o p r i a t e t o c e n t r e t h i s chapter around P o l a n y i ' s ideas by examining h i s work i n terms of the answers  t o t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : What i s the nature o f t a c i t  knowing? How i s t a c i t knowledge a c q u i r e d ? Can t a c i t knowledge be made e x p l i c i t ? About the nature of t a c i t knowing, that  P o l a n y i says  i t always i n v o l v e s two t h i n g s , which he c a l l s  terms of t a c i t knowing.  The f i r s t  the two  he c a l l s the p r o x i m a l  term. I t i s o n l y " s u b s i d i a r i l y known", w h i l e the second, or distal  term i s " f o c a l l y known". In t a c i t knowing  a t t e n d s f_r_oja the p r o x i m a l termfco_the d i s t a l  a person  term. In other  words, the p r o x i m a l term forms a k i n d of backdrop or c o n t e x t i n which we can understand the d i s t a l f o c u s i n g . "We know the f i r s t  term on which we a r e  term o n l y by r e l y i n g on our  awareness  of i t f o r a t t e n d i n g t o the second...In many ways  the  first  term of t h i s r e l a t i o n w i l l prove t o be nearer t o  us,  the second f u r t h e r away from u s . . . I t  i s the p r o x i m a l  term, then, of which we have a knowledge t h a t we may not be able to t e l l "  (1966b, p.10). P o l a n y i e x p l a i n s t h i s  by s a y i n g t h a t i n t a c i t knowing  further  an a c t of i n t e g r a t i o n takes  p l a c e whereby we s h i f t our focus from p a r t i c u l a r s t o the coherent whole t h a t t h e y form. As an example of t h i s , he d i s c u s s e s the way we r e c o g n i z e f a c e s . We do not focus on s e p a r a t e f e a t u r e s l i k e eyes or a nose, but a t t e n d from the f e a t u r e s t o the f a c e . We r e c o g n i z e the f a c e , but may be unable t o s p e c i f y the f e a t u r e s . T h i s i s c l e a r l y a l e g i t i m a t e example of a kind of "knowing",  or r e c o g n i z i n g which cannot  be d e s c r i b e d p r e c i s e l y i n words. As modern p o l i c e  artists  know, people can d e s c r i b e f e a t u r e s o f f a c e s , and these a r t i s t s a r e a b l e t o draw good l i k e n e s s e s by u s i n g t h e nose and eye " t y p e s " t h a t a r e d e s c r i b e d t o them; however, many people's  f a c e s c o u l d be composed o f t h e same c o l l e c t i o n o f  f e a t u r e " t y p e s " , and we c o u l d s t i l l  r e c o g n i z e someone we  know. T h i s k i n d o f " t a c i t knowing", whereby "we know more t h a n we can t e l l " ,  i s n o t , however, d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e  t o many o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o be done i n t e a c h e r  thinking  r e s e a r c h . F o r one t h i n g , n o t i o n s l i k e the r e c o g n i t i o n o f f a c e s a r e s e l d o m r e l e v a n t t o q u e s t i o n s about t e a c h i n g . Q u e s t i o n s about t e a c h i n g ( a s i d e from the o b v i o u s  "what does  the t e a c h e r do" q u e s t i o n s ) have t o do, i n t h e main, w i t h knowledge (What knowledge i s the t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t i n g here? What does she need t o know t o do t h i s b e t t e r ? ) and v a l u e s (What i s i m p o r t a n t  i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? To the t e a c h e r ? The  s c h o o l ? The s t u d e n t s ? ) Q u e s t i o n s about t e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s may i n v o l v e a whole f a b r i c o f knowledge, e x p e r i e n c e and v a l u e s w h i c h i s not e a s i l y a r t i c u l a b l e , b u t t e a c h e r s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y , t o e x p l a i n t h e i r a c t i o n s as t e a c h e r s . I f an o b s e r v e r were t o ask a t e a c h e r , "Why d i d you make t h e d e c i s i o n s you d i d r e g a r d i n g Mary and P e t e r ' s homework?",  late  i t does not seem a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o  s a y , " I don't know why I gave Mary an e x t e n s i o n f o r h e r homework and gave P e t e r a z e r o . I j u s t f o l l o w e d my  Instinct.  1 I t seemed l i k e the r i g h t t h i n g t o do." Teachers their  must a c t on  I n s t i n c t s and i n t u i t i o n s , because they do not have  time while t e a c h i n g t o c o n s t a n t l y q u e s t i o n themselves, but d u r i n g times of r e f l e c t i o n , or when d i s c u s s i n g with c o l l e a g u e s , these  i n t u i t i o n s and the d e c i s i o n s based on them  s h o u l d be examined i n terms of reasons, p r a c t i c a l reasons  both the immediate  and u n d e r l y i n g reasons which may r e l a t e t o  t e a c h e r s * b e l i e f s or v a l u e s . The teacher who gave Mary a homework e x t e n s i o n and Peter a z e r o may know from e x p e r i e n c e with these two s t u d e n t s t h a t Mary's l a t e n e s s i s due t o lack of understanding  or f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s . He or she may know  t h a t P e t e r ' s l a t e n e s s i s a r e c u r r i n g problem and t h a t he w i l l not complete h i s homework no matter how l o n g he i s g i v e n . But the teacher may a l s o be l e s s s t r i c t with Mary because she i s a g i r l ,  or may be angry w i t h P e t e r about some  other i n c i d e n t . Even i f Mary does seem t o 'deserve' an e x t e n s i o n while P e t e r does not, the t e a c h e r might b e n e f i t from examining the c o n s i s t e n c y with which he or she e x e r c i s e s v a r i o u s r u l e s , and should be a b l e t o e x p l a i n and defend  h i s or her a c t i o n s . " T a c i t knowing d w e l l s i n our awareness o f  p a r t i c u l a r s while b e a r i n g on an e n t i t y which the p a r t i c u l a r s jointly constitute"  (1966b, p.61). T h i s i n t r o d u c e s  another  p a r t of P o l a n y i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of t a c i t knowing, the idea of indwelling. To focus d i r e c t l y on something, P o l a n y i says, i s to e x t e r i o r i z e or a l i e n a t e i t , thus d e s t r o y i n g i t s meaning.  He g i v e s as an example of t h i s what happens when one focusses on and r e p e a t s a word, out of c o n t e x t , u n t i l i t l o s e s i t s meaning."Knowledge by i n d w e l l i n g " , on the other hand, occurs when we a t t e n d "from a t h i n g t o i t s meaning", thus " i n t e r i o r i z i n g " i t . There i s c e r t a i n l y t r u t h i n t h i s p a r t o f P o l a n y i ' s argument, as we have a l l experienced how a repeated word can suddenly seem meaningless, f o c u s i n g on t h e i r  and musicians  fingers s k i l f u l  know t h a t by  performance can be  p a r a l y s e d . But i t i s not t r u e t h a t by f o c u s i n g or c o n c e n t r a t i n g d i r e c t l y on something i t i n v a r i a b l y l o s e s i t s meaning. P o l a n y i says t h a t "...we endow a t h i n g with meaning by i n t e r i o r l s i n g it"  i t and d e s t r o y i t s meaning by a l i e n a t i n g  (1966a, p . 9 ) , and adds t h a t "...when we l e a r n t o use  language,  or a probe,  or a t o o l , and thus make o u r s e l v e s  ( s u b s i d i a r i l y ) aware o f these t h i n g s as we a r e of our body, we i n t e r i o r i s e these t h i n g s and make o u r s e l v e s d w e l l i n them" (1966a, p.10). One must be c a r e f u l here not t o adhere to  P o l a n y i ' s statements  difficult  too l i t e r a l l y . While  i t is certainly  ( o r perhaps i m p o s s i b l e ) t o c a r r y out some  performances,  such as p l a y i n g the piano, while c o n c u r r e n t l y  a l s o f o c u s s i n g on the p a r t i c u l a r s of the performance, as the movement of one's l i t t l e  such  f i n g e r , one can, when not  performing, r e f l e c t m e a n i n g f u l l y on p a r t i c u l a r s . In terms of some a c t i v i t i e s  i t s h o u l d a c t u a l l y be p o s s i b l e t o focus on  p a r t i c u l a r s while d o i n g . E f f i c i e n t t o o l u s e r s may use hammers or p a i n t brushes  almost as e x t e n s i o n s of t h e i r  108  bodies,  but  i t i s p o s s i b l e a l s o to c o n c e n t r a t e  the use  of a t o o l without  f o r g e t t i n g how  i s b e i n g used. In terms of language, we  directly  to use  i t or why  u s u a l l y do  awareness of the s t r u c t u r e or r u l e s of grammar  syntax,  and  and  r e c i t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n s of words t o  o u r s e l v e s . However i t i s p o s s i b l e to focus on one's use language, as when a poet searches phrase, without  f o r one  make one  on some d e t a i l have t o s t o p ,  check the book or l e s s o n p l a n , f o r example, and  smoothly f l o w i n g l e s s o n i s momentarily d i s r u p t e d . on and  articulating details  difficult  i s not  of  p e r f e c t word or  l o s i n g the meaning. F o c u s s i n g  of t e a c h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n may to  it  speak  without  without  on  a Focussing  i m p o s s i b l e , but  i t is  t o do d u r i n g a performance. "We  i n t e r i o r i z e t h i n g s and  make o u r s e l v e s d w e l l  them", says P o l a n y i . For example, "...as each of  In  us  i n t e r i o r i z e s our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , he grows i n t o a person s e e i n g the world  and  experiencing  life  i n terms of t h i s  o u t l o o k . " T h i s much i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e , and  i t i s an  idea  f a m i l i a r t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s f o r many y e a r s . Broudy (1979) has c h a r a c t e r i s e d i t as world  views and  f o l l o w s : " . . . t a c i t covers  schemata of a l l s o r t s i n s o f a r as d u r i n g  i n t e r p r e t i v e a c t they are see but which we i t seems to me,  theories,  'the s p e c t a c l e s ' through which  do not see"  (p.451). But  i t need not be  t h a t I a c t u a l l y "know more than I can  about the p a r t s of my  c u l t u r e . I may  we so,  tell"  not s t o p t o examine the  v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s , b e l i e f s and as ray " s p e c t a c l e s " , but  an  p r e j u d i c e s which a c t  i f c a l l e d upon t o do so I may  well  be a b l e to a r t i c u l a t e them, o r , i f someone o u t s i d e c u l t u r e p o i n t e d them out t o me  I may  the  well recognize  them.  Furthermore, though I undoubtedly do h o l d many a s p e c t s  of  c u l t u r a l heritage t a c i t l y —  and  i n t h a t though my  thoughts  my  a c t i o n s are a f f e c t e d by them I have not examined or v e r b a l i z e d them-- a l l of my  cultural  i n h e r i t a n c e can  p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d knowledge. Much of i t would be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as t a c i t b e l i e f and important  p o i n t . P o l a n y i has  knowledge, p h y s i c a l s k i l l ,  better  t a c i t v a l u e s . T h i s Is an  not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  between  b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . Most of what  he speaks of as t a c i t knowledge seems to f i t G i l b e r t category  of "knowing how"  not  as opposed t o "knowing  Ryle's  that"—the  l a t t e r c o v e r i n g e x p l i c i t or p r o p o s i t i o n a l knowledge—and t h i s k i n d of t a c i t knowing may t h i n g s as  Indeed be  i n a r t i c u l a b l e . Such  l e a r n i n g to r i d e a b i c y c l e and d r i v e a c a r ,  l e a r n i n g t o r e c o g n i z e a face and t o g i v e a medical  d i a g n o s i s and  speak a language, l e a r n i n g making s c i e n t i f i c  d i s c o v e r i e s , some of the examples P o l a n y i g i v e s , do seem to be  Impossible  to d e s c r i b e with any  b i c y c l e r i d i n g one  r e a l accuracy.  can t a l k about p e d a l l i n g and  a c t u a l l y p u t t i n g the elements together encapsulated.  T h i s i d e a i s important  because teachers  and  balance,  i n terms of  teaching  cannot e x p l a i n e v e r y t h i n g to students  understandings need to be taught p r a c t i c e d and  and  by example as w e l l as  experienced  by  the  r i d i n g cannot  words. Words h e l p , but some s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s  p r e c e p t , and  For  students.  in  but be  Seeing the world outlook appears  i n terms of a c e r t a i n  t o be something  cultural  r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t , however,  than knowing how  to do something.  c u l t u r e , wearing  my c u l t u r a l  As I operate i n my  ' s p e c t a c l e s ' , I am not aware of  d e t a i l s , but I can become aware of them. As I teach I wear a set  of  ' s p e c t a c l e s ' , composed of my p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ,  knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , but t h e r e i s no reason why  I  cannot s i t down and t h i n k , t a l k and become aware of these d e t a i l s , so t h a t I can understand and change, weaving t h i s understanding and change i n t o new  performance  i n which  d e t a i l s w i l l a g a i n recede. As f o r the way  t a c i t knowledge i s a c q u i r e d ,  P o l a n y i says b a s i c a l l y t h i s : A person can get  explicit  i n s t r u c t i o n i n , say, r i d i n g a b i c y c l e or d r i v i n g a c a r , and will  f o r awhile a t t e n d t o the p a r t i c u l a r s of the b i c y c l e ' s  handbrakes or the c a r ' s c l u t c h , but g r a d u a l l y the p a r t i c u l a r s w i l l be smooth performance  i n t e g r a t e d and recede  from focus i n the  of the whole. Student d o c t o r s are taught  e x p l i c i t l y the symptoms of d i s e a s e s , but to i n t e g r a t e  these  b i t s of e x p l i c i t knowledge and make a d i a g n o s i s , "...the p u p i l must d i s c o v e r by an e f f o r t of h i s own c o u l d not t e l l him. And cannot  tell  something  we  he knows i t then i n h i s t u r n but  i t " (1966a, p.5). E x p l i c i t p a r t i c u l a r s can  be  taught, but then t h e r e must be a p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n of these p a r t i c u l a r s by the l e a r n e r . "An e x p l i c i t  prescription  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e as i t s i n k s deeper t a c i t m a t r i x " (1966a, p.7).  into a  Ill In other words, when we w e l l we  no  much, and  t o do  something  longer have to a t t e n d to d e t a i l s of e x e c u t i o n t h i s a l l o w s us t o perform more e f f i c i e n t l y  more e f f e c t i v e l y . b a c k t r a c k i n g and  (Although  and  p u r p o s e f u l c o n c e n t r a t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r s , small t r i l l  i n a piano  Imagining what goes i n t o the b r i l l i a n t e x e c u t i o n  as  piece,  l e a d t o improved performance. P o l a n y i makes t h i s  nocturne,  as  the o c c a s i o n a l b i t of  i n r i g o r o u s l y working on one can  l e a r n how  point.)  of a Chopin  the d i a g n o s i s of an obscure d i s e a s e or the  flash  of i n s i g h t t h a t leads t o a s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y , one  can  understand what P o l a n y i means by s a y i n g t h a t "the p u p i l must d i s c o v e r on h i s own  something t h a t we c o u l d not t e l l  but t h i s must not be allowed  t o become too mysterious  wondrous a t h i n g . There i s a g r e a t d e a l t h a t we and t e a c h without  falling  him", and  can e x p l a i n  i n t o the o b j e c t i v i s t t r a p which  P o l a n y i so d e c r i e s . In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of how  t a c i t knowledge i s  a c q u i r e d , P o l a n y i uses the p s y c h o l o g i c a l term which he d e s c r i b e s as "the process awareness" (1966a, p.6). understanding  of how  language, and  f o r how  The  of l e a r n i n g  "subception", without  term does r e f l e c t our  c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o speak t h e i r we  present native  absorb much (but not a l l ) of  our  c u l t u r e . I t does not, however, seem e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e as a d e s c r i p t i o n of how medical  one  l e a r n s t o p l a y the piano or make a  d i a g n o s i s . In these cases  v e r y c a r e f u l l y and p a r t i c u l a r s may  one  l e a r n s the  v e r y c o n s c i o u s l y , and  come together  in a  while  marvellous,  particulars  the  112 unselfconscious  performance, they have a t t h a t p o i n t  already  been l e a r n e d , and not, a t l e a s t i n l a r g e p a r t , by subception. A f i n a l question work f o r r e s e a r c h we, a c c o r d i n g  about t h e r e l e v a n c e  into teaching  of P o l a n y i ' s  remains t o be answered. Can  t o P o l a n y i , make t a c i t  knowledge e x p l i c i t ? I f  we "know more then we can t e l l , " does t h i s mean t h a t we can never t e l l  i t ? H i s answer i s t h a t i n f a c t there  we can never t e l l ,  i s much t h a t  and much t h a t we can never even b r i n g  i n t o c l e a r f o c u s . We can t r y , but our a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i l l always be " d e f e c t i v e " . In f a c t , " . . . s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g nothing  t h a t we know can be s a i d p r e c i s e l y " (1958, p.87).  There w i l l always be " i n e f f a b l e knowledge", simply  which  "may  mean something t h a t I know and can d e s c r i b e  even l e s s  p r e c i s e l y than u s u a l , or even o n l y v e r y v a g u e l y . " When we do a r t i c u l a t e there  is still  "a r e s i d u e  d e f e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n " , and t h i s of knowledge"  l e f t unsaid by  i s the " u n s p e c i f i a b l e p a r t  (1958, p.88). To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s he says t h a t  even though he knows how t o r i d e a b i c y c l e and how t o p i c k out h i s macintosh from twenty o t h e r s ,  he cannot s a y c l e a r l y  how. "For I know t h a t I know p e r f e c t l y w e l l how t o do such t h i n g s , though I know the p a r t i c u l a r s of what I know o n l y i n an i n s t r u m e n t a l  manner and am f o c a l l y q u i t e  ignorant of  them; so t h a t I may s a y t h a t I know these matters even though I cannot t e l l  c l e a r l y , or h a r d l y a t a l l , what i t i s  t h a t I know" (1958, p.88). While i t may be t r u e t h a t I cannot p r e c i s e l y d e s c r i b e  the p h y s i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and  balance I e x e r c i s e  i n r i d i n g a b i c y c l e , the statement t h a t  " s t r i c t l y speaking nothing  t h a t we know can be s a i d  p r e c i s e l y " does not, o£ c o u r s e , mean t h a t we cannot communicate w e l l with each other and c l a r i f y t h i n g s f o r ourselves.  How I came t o i n t e r p r e t a c e r t a i n look on a  s t u d e n t ' s face as e x p r e s s i n g fall but  s e c r e t a n x i e t y would seem t o  under the heading of "knowing more than I can t e l l " , t h a t does not mean t h i s t o p i c i s not d i s c u s s a b l e . I  might have been r i g h t or wrong i n my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and t h i s might be shown o n l y by the r e s u l t s of the a c t i o n I chose t o take t o a l l e v i a t e my s t u d e n t ' s a n x i e t y .  I can  c e r t a i n l y t a l k about these t h i n g s , as I can about a l l my instincts,  i n t u i t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The  crux of P o l a n y i ' s  answer t o the q u e s t i o n  whether t a c i t knowledge can be a r t i c u l a t e d comes i n the paragraph below. In i t he mentions s e v e r a l t h i n g s which bear comment, i n c l u d i n g the idea of knowing i n p r a c t i c e , which s e v e r a l w r i t e r s on t e a c h e r s ' The  p r a c t i c a l knowledge have used.  passage i s thus worth q u o t i n g " S u b s i d i a r y or i n s t r u m e n t a l defined  at length: knowledge, as I have  i t , i s not known i n i t s e l f but i s known i n  terms o f something f o c a l l y known, t o the q u a l i t y of which i t c o n t r i b u t e s ; and t o t h i s extent  i t is  u n s p e c i f i a b l e . A n a l y s i s may b r i n g s u b s i d i a r y knowledge i n t o focus and f o r l m u l a t e  i t as a maxim or as a  feature  i n a physiognomy, but such s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s i n  general  not e x h a u s t i v e .  Although the expert  dlagnos-  tician,  taxonomist  t h e i z c l u e s and  and c o t t o n - c l a s s e r can I n d i c a t e  formulate t h e i r maxims, they know many  more t h i n g s than they can t e l l ,  knowing them o n l y i n  p r a c t i c e , as i n s t r u m e n t a l p a r t i c u l a r s , and not p l i c i t l y , as o b j e c t s . The  knowledge of such  ex-  partic-  u l a r s i s t h e r e f o r e i n e f f a b l e , and the pondering of a judgement i n terms of such p a r t i c u l a r s process of thought.  ineffable  This a p p l i e s e q u a l l y to connois-  s e u r s h i p as the a r t of knowing and of doing, wherefore  i s an  to s k i l l s as the a r t  both can be taught o n l y by a i d of  p r a c t i c a l example and  never s o l e l y by p r e c e p t " (1958,  p.88).  Thus, i n terms of 'knowing i n p r a c t i c e ' , can never  teachers  f u l l y and with complete a c c u r a c y r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r  s k i l f u l performances; " d e f e c t i v e " and  t h e i r a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i l l always be  t h e i r knowledge " i n e f f a b l e " . A program of  r e s e a r c h i n t o teacher t h i n k i n g which s u b s c r i b e s t o t h i s b e l i e f would appear to be doomed, i f not to f a i l u r e , a t l e a s t t o v e r y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s . However, such c o n c l u s i o n s are unacceptable.  I f we  seek t o Improve p r a c t i c e we must b e l i e v e  t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n can be done t o a h i g h degree;  and  the  t h r u s t of teacher t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h i s , presumably, to get t e a c h e r s t o recount t h e i r thoughts particulars.  I t would undoubtedly  and  highlight  be h e l p f u l to expert  p r a c t i t i o n e r s as w e l l as n o v i c e s t o a n a l y s e t h e i r  practice  and b r i n g " s u b s i d i a r y knowledge i n t o f o c u s . " Only when the p a r t i c u l a r s meet the l i g h t of c o n s c i o u s i n s p e c t i o n can  p r a c t i c e be I n t e l l i g e n t l y changed. And I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d  115  a g a i n t h a t the s u b s i d i a r y f e a t u r e s brought i n t o focus by a n a l y s i s do not a l l c o n s t i t u t e knowledge, but b e l i e f and v a l u e s as w e l l . It i s c e r t a i n l y true that teaching, l i k e activities, and  needs t o be taught  other  "by a i d of p r a c t i c a l example  never s o l e l y by p r e c e p t . " Novice  how an expert combines p a r t i c u l a r s  t e a c h e r s need t o see  into a s k i l f u l  performance ( i t i s a l s o h e l p f u l a f t e r an o b s e r v a t i o n f o r the expert to t e l l  the novice e x p l i c i t l y some o f the t h i n g s he  or she was d o i n g , because o b s e r v a t i o n o f a smooth performance does not always r e v e a l i t s workings), and n o v i c e s need t o p r a c t i s e a p p l y i n g the e x p l i c i t p r e c e p t s are  they  taught. O b v i o u s l y one cannot c o n c e n t r a t e on p a r t i c u l a r s  (though  n o v i c e s and even e x p e r t s do b r i n g p a r t i c u l a r s  focus from time t o time, reminding not t o address without and  themselves,  into  f o r instance,  the c l a s s u n t i l a l l n o i s e has stopped)  producing a r a t h e r choppy performance. T h e o r i e s  techniques cannot be c a l l e d up c o n s t a n t l y ; they  recede  i n t o a smooth performance. G i l b e r t Ryle, i n h i s book Concept of Mind  (1949),  says s e v e r a l t h i n g s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o the present discussion. "First,  t h e r e a r e many c l a s s e s of performances i n which  intelligence  i s d i s p l a y e d , but the r u l e s or c r i t e r i a of  which a r e unformulated.  The w i t , when c h a l l e n g e d t o  c i t e the maxims or canons by which he c o n s t r u c t s and appreciates  jokes,  116  i s unable t o answer. He knows how t o  make good jokes, and how t o d e t e c t bad ones, but he cannot t e l l  us or h i m s e l f any r e c i p e s f o r them. So the  p r a c t i c e of humour i s not a c l i e n t of i t s t h e o r y . The canons of a e s t h e t i c t a s t e , o f t a c t f u l manners and of i n v e n t i v e technique without  s i m i l a r l y remain unpropounded  impediment t o the I n t e l l i g e n t e x e r c i s e of  these g i f t s "  (p.30).  Ryle goes on t o s a y t h a t r u l e s of c o r r e c t reasoning  were f i r s t  e x t r a c t e d by A r i s t o t l e and r u l e s of  good a n g l i n g by Izaak Walton, but men knew how t o reason and how t o angle  before  this:  " E f f i c i e n t p r a c t i c e preceded the t h e o r y o f i t ; methodologies presuppose the a p p l i c a t i o n of the methods, of the c r i t i c a l they a r e the p r o d u c t s .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of which I t was because A r i s t o t l e  found h i m s e l f and others r e a s o n i n g  now  intelli-  g e n t l y and now s t u p i d l y and I t was because Izaak Walton found h i m s e l f and o t h e r s a n g l i n g sometimes e f f e c t i v e l y and sometimes i n e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t both were a b l e t o g i v e t h e i r p u p i l s the maxims and p r e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r a r t s "  It  (p.31).  might be added t h a t t h e r e have been good t e a c h e r s  long before teach  the study of t e a c h i n g , but because  since  teachers  i n t e l l i g e n t l y and s t u p i d l y , e f f e c t i v e l y and  ineffectively,  i t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o n o v i c e s and  t e a c h e r s a l i k e t o e x t r a c t and  experienced  communicate i n f o r m a t i o n about  teachers' practice. T h i s task i s i n no way artistry  opposed t o the n o t i o n of  i n t e a c h i n g , nor to the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a w e l l  conducted, f r u i t f u l mathematics, b i o l o g y or p o e t r y l e s s o n i s a p e r s o n a l achievement on the p a r t of the t e a c h e r .  The  e x p l i c i t study of the p a r t i c u l a r s of t e a c h i n g , and  the  s e p a r a t i o n of knowledge, b e l i e f s and values  i n the a n a l y s i s  of t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e , can o n l y h e l p more t e a c h e r s toward such p e r s o n a l achievements and  benefit their  students.  I f the d e t a i l s of a t e a c h e r ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge are made as e x p l i c i t as p o s s i b l e as he or  she  works t o a n a l y s e some i n c i d e n t from or a s p e c t of the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s i n t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge should become more e v i d e n t and  thus  more s u b j e c t to change. As w e l l , d u r i n g such a n a l y s i s i n f o r m a t i o n about how  the t e a c h e r ' s values are a f f e c t i n g a s i t u a t i o n may  come  to l i g h t . A n a l y s i s of the t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has shown t h a t while v a l u e s are important  motivating factor i n teachers' classroom a c t i o n s  and d e c i s i o n s , v a l u e s have not been e x p l o r e d way this  an  i n any  rigorous  by t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h e r s . P a r t of the reason f o r i s l i k e l y t h a t many v a l u e s are h e l d t a c i t l y , and  direct  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of them does not seem an easy t a s k . Thus the moral c o n d i t i o n , an important  p a r t of the c o n c e p t i o n of the  1 teacher l a i d out i n chapter two,  i s inadequately served  the c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher which u n d e r l i e s the  by  teacher  t h i n k i n g l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e d thus f a r .  The  work done so f a r i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has  been  to l a y out a d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g , s p e c i f y i n g both  l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and a moral c o n d i t i o n ; to  c r i t i c a l l y review s t u d i e s of teacher d e c i s i o n making and t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge so as to e x p l i c a t e the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g which u n d e r l i e s t h i s work and  forms  the "hard c o r e " of the teacher t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program; to e v a l u a t e t h i s c o n c e p t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the c o n c e p t i o n  laid  out  to e x p l o r e the i d e a of t a c i t  knowing  as i t a p p l i e s to r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g . The  idea of  i n chapter two;  and  values has a r i s e n a g a i n and a g a i n , as  i t had  been  demonstrated t h a t the complex area of v a l u e s , both moral  and  non-moral, both p e r s o n a l and  but  institutional,  i s suggested  not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h . I t has  been  recommended t h a t values be taken as a focus f o r r e s e a r c h into teacher t h i n k i n g . It  i s time now  to focus on the concept  of v a l u e s  and  to examine some of the many d i f f i c u l t  may  a r i s e d u r i n g study of the moral a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g .  concept  of v a l u e s may  this  The  need c l a r i f i c a t i o n so t h a t  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v a l u e s can proceed chapter  q u e s t i o n s which  more e a s i l y . In the  I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s undertaken, and  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to v a l u e s a r e  important  suggested.  next  119 Chapter Bight  Investigation o£ the Concept of Values and the Relation of Values to Teacher Thinking  Studies of p r a c t i c a l knowledge have extended into the realm of values but have f a i l e d to make a clear d i s t i n c t i o n between knowledge and values. Questions about the factors that motivate and Influence teachers' classroom decisions often lead to the idea of values. Values and b e l i e f s come to l i g h t through interviews, observations and analyses of teachers' p r a c t i c e . Teachers' values have not been investigated in any focussed way, reasons have been suggested  however. Several  in previous chapters for this  lack of a t t e n t i o n by researchers to values. One reason appears to be that the conception of teaching which underlies the teacher thinking l i t e r a t u r e presents the teacher's thinking as being devoted  basically  to the two areas of i n s t r u c t i o n and classroom management. These are seen as the main areas of concern. Values are not portrayed as being of major importance for teachers. This i s less true in the p r a c t i c a l knowledge work, which does suggest value questions, but s t i l l these studies do not pursue the value questions they r a i s e . The conception of the teacher within the hard core of the teacher thinking  120 r e s e a r c h program generates a k i n d of taboo which does not a l l o w f o r the  in-depth  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  Another p o s s i b l e reason  may  values. be the d i f f i c u l t y of  s t u d y i n g v a l u e s because t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s " c o n t e x t u a l i z e d " and may  expressed  are  i n the c l a s s r o o m  not match the v a l u e s t e a c h e r s e x p l i c i t l y espouse.  Related  to t h i s  i s the  idea t h a t many v a l u e s are  t a c i t l y , and  that a r t i c u l a t i o n  would a t any  r a t e g i v e an  there has been l i t t l e v a l u e s , and value Before  little  itself,  and  inadequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  e m p i r i c a l work done on  Thus  teachers'  p h i l o s o p h i c a l work on the concept of  though i t i s a term much used by  examining the l i m i t e d  Daniels  held  of them i s d i f f i c u l t  philosophers.  e m p i r i c a l work t h a t has  done, I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the concept of v a l u e s  and  i n ways t h a t  (1975) found t h a t there are  been  i s i n order. few  "recent  competent accounts of the concept of a v a l u e  although...the  terra " v a l u e "  (and  i t s cognates) are  f r e q u e n t l y used i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , s c i e n c e s and  i n pedagogical  literature"  i n the  (p.31-32).  accounts t h a t D a n i e l s d i d f i n d adequate were by (1961) and  Baler  (1969). The  i n the  Two  Taylor  views of these authors  s e v e r a l o t h e r s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to l a t e r  social  and  present  account. There are s e v e r a l usages of term i s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t to  'value' i n which the  'worth', whether monetary or  non-monetary. A l l of the f o l l o w i n g sentences use value mean worth:  to  121 She doesn't  know the v a l u e of a d o l l a r .  What Is the value o f h i s farm? I p l a c e g r e a t v a l u e on our f r i e n d s h i p . I have learned the value of r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e . In music:  What i s the v a l u e of a h a l f note  i n three quarter  time? In a l g e b r a : What i s the v a l u e of x? 'Value' can be used as a verb  i n sentences  v a l u e your company" t o mean a p p r e c i a t e or see as There i s a l s o , of  l i k e "I  worthwhile.  i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g , much t a l k  'value judgements' and 'value terms' or 'value  e x p r e s s i o n s ' . Some f r e q u e n t l y used value terms a r e 'good', 'ought' and ' r i g h t ' , though, as Hare (1952) s a y s , e v e r y word i n our language i s capable  "almost  of being used on  o c c a s i o n as a value-word  ( t h a t i s , commending or i t s  o p p o s i t e ) " (p.80). Value  terms a r e words we use t o i n d i c a t e  t h a t something has or l a c k s v a l u e a c c o r d i n g t o some s t a n d a r d : A "good" boy i s good i n accordance  with some s e t  of r u l e s about how boys ought t o behave, and " I t wasn't right  f o r you t o t r e a t him t h a t way" r e f e r s  some standards  i m p l i c i t l y to  of how one ought t o t r e a t other people. In  v a l u e judgements ( l i k e the two sentences  j u s t mentioned) we  use v a l u e terms t o pronounce on the v a l u e of t h i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o some s t a n d a r d s . There a r e moral and non-moral value judgements. In moral v a l u e judgements the standards of goodness or r i g h t n e s s r e f e r r e d t o w i l l be moral p r i n c i p l e s .  Hare (1952) says t h a t "the f u n c t i o n of moral p r i n c i p l e s i s to guide conduct"  (p.l).  In p h i l o s o p h i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l people's  'values' a r e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o .  literature  'Values' used i n  t h i s way i s a c o l l e c t i v e term f o r those p r i n c i p l e s which one holds dear and which one sees as having worth. T a y l o r says t h a t "a person's v a l u e s r u l e s which together his  i d e a l s and l i f e  according  (1961)  i n c l u d e a l l the s t a n d a r d s and  make up h i s way of l i f e .  They d e f i n e  goals...They a r e the standards and r u l e s  t o which he e v a l u a t e s  t h i n g s and p r e s c r i b e s  acts,  as w e l l as the standards and r u l e s he l i v e s by, whether or not he i s aware of them" (p. 297-298). Baier  (1969) says t h a t  "...someone holds or s u b s c r i b e s  t o some p a r t i c u l a r  value V (e.g., achievement, work, a l t r u i s m , comfort, equality, t h r i f t ,  f r i e n d s h i p ) . When we s a y t h i s s o r t  of t h i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l or a whole s o c i e t y , we impute t o t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l or t h a t s o c i e t y a  a t t i t u d e toward the r e a l i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s  favourable states of  a f f a i r s ; we v a g u e l y i n d i c a t e those s t a t e s of a f f a i r s by the value favourable  name, "V", and we imply t h a t he has t h i s  a t t i t u d e because he expects (more or l e s s  e x p l i c i t l y ) t h a t the r e a l i z a t i o n of these s t a t e s of a f f a i r s makes some f a v o u r a b l e life,  d i f f e r e n c e t o someone's  not n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t of the value  (p.54).  holder  himself"  123 in  t h i s way  values d i f f e r  always (by d e f i n i t i o n ) normative,  from b e l i e f s . Values  but b e l i e f s need not  so. Most v a l u e s c o u l d be s t a t e d as b e l i e f s  are  be  ("I b e l i e v e t h a t  a b o r t i o n i s wrong", "I b e l i e v e i n t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o be independent") but the r e v e r s e i s not the case t h a t the sun  is a star  i n the M i l k y Way"  and  ("I b e l i e v e "I b e l i e v e t h a t  he w i l l r e t u r n home s a f e l y " ) . There are b e l i e f s r e l a t e d t o v a l u e s , and e m p i r i c a l b e l i e f s . B a i e r (1969) says t h a t values differ  from b e l i e f s because the s u b j e c t matter  "the good l i f e " and how  of v a l u e s i s  t o come c l o s e r t o i t . The concept  of  "the good l i f e " w i l l be examined more c l o s e l y momentarily. In of  terms of b e l i e f s , t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s ,  like  those  other people, w i l l be r e l a t e d t o v a l u e s and t o the  e m p i r i c a l world. V a l u e - r e l a t e d b e l i e f s , which In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as i d e n t i c a l w i t h the v a l u e s themselves,  might be about the r i g h t n e s s or wrongness of  v a r i o u s s o r t s of punishment, or the Importance of not embarasslng  or u s i n g sarcasm  on a c h i l d . These v a l u e s ,  though s i n c e r e l y h e l d , might not be a c t e d on when the s t r e s s e s of the c l a s s r o o m c a l l up the t e a c h e r ' s anger or Impatience.  He or she may  s u f f e r from a g u i l t y c o n s c i e n c e or  f e e l i n g of f a i l u r e . Or these v a l u e s may  conflict  i n s t i t u t i o n a l ones. D e s p i t e a t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f  with  i n the  importance  of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g c o o p e r a t i o n through  in  he or she may  groups,  be concerned  t h a t the n o i s e  i n the c l a s s does not meet s c h o o l s t a n d a r d s , and  working level  thus might  c u r t a i l any group work. To g i v e a more c o n c r e t e example,  t h i s author c l e a r l y remembers, s t i l l  w i t h some p a i n , how  v i c e - p r i n c i p a l e n t e r e d her c l a s s r o o m and reprimanded and  humiliated  one  strongly  of her s t u d e n t s f o r a  misdemeanor which n e i t h e r the student nor  the  teacher  considered  was  expected  a t a l l s e r i o u s . Aware that she  t o undermine the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ' s a u t h o r i t y , and t h a t the s t u d e n t had up  broken a s c h o o l  f o r the s t u d e n t , and  the  r u l e , she  not  aware a l s o  d i d not  speak  s u f f e r e d profound pangs of  conscience. As  for teachers'  e m p i r i c a l b e l i e f s , these  could  r e l a t e t o the e f f i c a c y of d i f f e r e n t methods of i n s t r u c t i o n (Aileen's  "Language as the Key"  they c o u l d ,  seems t o belong here) or  perhaps not q u i t e c o n s c i o u s l y ,  c a p a c i t i e s of g i r l s and  how,  in a teacher's p r a c t i c e ,  the t e a c h e r ' s e m p i r i c a l b e l i e f s can realm of v a l u e s and  the  boys or c h i l d r e n from d i f f e r e n t  backgrounds. I t i s easy to see  the  r e l a t e to  morality,  have r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n  because h i s or  her  a c t i o n s , motivated t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by b e l i e f s , have profound e f f e c t s on the One  l a s t p o i n t may  a p p l i e s a l s o to v a l u e s . r a t i o n a l l y formed and v a l u e s as c h i l d r e n , we thinkers  students.  The  be made about b e l i e f s , and b e l i e f s of a d u l t s a r e ,  h e l d . While we s h o u l d as we  values.  general  grow i n t o independent  P e t e r s (1974) says t h a t  understand r a t i o n a l behavior and  ideally,  'absorb' b e l i e f s and  l e a r n to e v a l u a t e the grounds on which we  b e l i e f s and  it  b e l i e f as  r u l e s . . . R a t i o n a l behavior and  "we  hold  can  informed  by  b e l i e f s p r i n g from the  125  r e c o g n i t i o n , i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t , t h a t c e r t a i n general c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e grounds f o r a c t i o n and b e l i e f The  (p.121).  r a t i o n a l man "has t o r e s o l v e and remove any p u t a t i v e  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between h i s e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s and a s s u m p t i o n s and any d i s c r e p a n t  'incoming' e x p e r i e n c e s  or pieces of  i n f o r m a t i o n " ( p . 1 2 5 ) . To do s u c h e v a l u a t i o n b e l i e f s and v a l u e s must be brought f o r w a r d something t h a t t e a c h e r s  f o r conscious  examination,  may n o t o f t e n have t h e chance t o do.  C o n s t r a i n t s o f time as w e l l as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and  h a b i t u a l patterns of behavior  of routines  may a c t a g a i n s t  teachers  engaging i n r e f l e c t i o n on t h e k i n d o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t Peters  mentions. Dewey (1932) g i v e s an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s and t h e l a t e r consequences i f one i s u n r e f l e c t i v e : " . . . h a b i t s o f l i k i n g and d i s l i k i n g a r e formed e a r l y in l i f e ,  p r i o r t o a b i l i t y t o use d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  i n t e l l i g e n c e . P r e j u d i c e s , unconscious biases are g e n e r a t e d ; one i s uneven i n h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f esteem and a d m i r a t i o n ; he i s u n d u l y s e n s i t i v e t o some v a l u e s , r e l a t i v e l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o o t h e r s . He i s s e t i n h i s ways, and h i s immediate a p p r e c i a t i o n s t r a v e l i n t h e grooves l a i d down by h i s  unconsciously  formed h a b i t s . Hence t h e spontaneous " i n t u i t i o n s " o f v a l u e have t o be e n t e r t a i n e d s u b j e c t t o c o r r e c t i o n , t o c o n f i r m a t i o n and r e v i s i o n , by p e r s o n a l  observation  of consequences and c r o s s - q u e s t i o n i n g of t h e i r q u a l i t y  126 and scope"  (p.132).  Dewey recommends d e l i b e r a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e to habituated a c t i o n . C l e a r l y r e f l e c t i o n i s l i n k e d t o such i d e a s as r o u t i n l z a t i o n , d e c i s i o n making and v a l u e s . R e f l e c t i o n w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n a l a t e r chapter of this  dissertation.  To r e t u r n t o B a l e r ' s n o t i o n of "the good t h i s can be d e f i n e d as l i f e  life",  as i t would be i f s p e c i f i c  c i r c u m s t a n c e s and a t t i t u d e s were g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t . Many people share many v a l u e s , and my v i s i o n of "the good might be q u i t e s i m i l a r t o y o u r s . I t i s l i k e l y ,  life"  f o r instance,  t h a t we would both choose f o r our i d e a l world the c o n d i t i o n t h a t people not be prematurely k i l l e d ,  p h y s i c a l l y i n j u r e d or  e m o t i o n a l l y b a t t e r e d , because we value human l i f e . The s a n c t i t y of human l i f e t h a t we would l i k e  i s one o f our v a l u e s , a p r i n c i p l e  t o uphold and would l i k e  others to  uphold. We a r e quick t o condemn regimes or persons  who  f l a g r a n t l y d e f y t h i s p r i n c i p l e . On other p o i n t s we might differ. and  I might f e e l t h a t t h e l i v e s of animals a r e v a l u a b l e ,  be a g a i n s t the k i l l i n g of animals  f o r food, whereas you  might agree t h a t animals should not be used experiments  but should be r a i s e d  i n medical  f o r food. Though many  (perhaps most) of my v a l u e s w i l l p r o b a b l y be i n a c c o r d w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , there w i l l c l a s h e s between the v a l u e s of persons  f r e q u e n t l y be  or groups,  and the  127 p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . Such c l a s h e s f u e l  political  discussion. R e t u r n i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e of the s a n c t i t y of human l i f e ,  there are p r o b a b l y few people  not t o h o l d t h i s v a l u e , and did  not go beyond such g e n e r a l statements  the c o n t e x t of t h e i r  s t a t e d and  values  of p r i n c i p l e i t  study of people's  l i v e s , however, suggests  between the v a l u e s h e l d by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l and  would c l a i m  i f d i s c u s s i o n of people's  might be r a t h e r u n i n t e r e s t i n g . The in  who  values  conflicts  i n d i v i d u a l s , between  i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s , between e x p l i c i t l y  t a c i t l y or even s u b c o n s c i o u s l y h e l d v a l u e s ,  between the a c t i o n s t h a t one's v a l u e s d i c t a t e and  and  the  immediate demands of v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . Many d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s may uphold  be c a l l e d  f o r . To what lengths w i l l  I go  the p r i n c i p l e of the s a n c t i t y of human l i f e ?  endanger my  own  life  d u r i n g World war  for others'?  Two,  hide a Jewish  to  Will i  W i l l I, a German c i t i z e n f a m i l y i n my  attic?  W i l l I, an a f f l u e n t North American i n the 1980's, reduce  my  consumption of food, goods and energy i n the i n t e r e s t s of t h i r d world people  who  may  be d y i n g because of world  economic imbalance? On a more mundane l e v e l , t o what extent will  I, i n my d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s , g r a t i f y my ego  an expedient  course a t the expense of another's  What values do and  I r e a l l y express  or choose feelings?  i n my d a l l y  life,  t o what extent do these c o i n c i d e with the v a l u e s which I  a r t i c u l a t e and  c l a i m to hold? T h i s c o u l d be an  extremely  u s e f u l q u e s t i o n f o r a t e a c h e r t o pose t o h e r s e l f , and  an  128 important  focus f o r r e s e a r c h e r s working i n classrooms  teachers to take. I t i s l i k e l y that  with  d i s p a r i t i e s would  become e v i d e n t , because the " e x i g e n c i e s o f p r a c t i c e " may compel t e a c h e r s t o a c t on some b a s i s other than t h e i r own v a l u e s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y hold and a c t on some v a l u e s of which they a r e l a r g e l y unaware.  E m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' values a r e v e r y few i n number, p a r t l y , no doubt, because o f the d i f f i c u l t y involved  i n i s o l a t i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g v a l u e s . There may  a l s o be some r e l u c t a n c e t o t a c k l e t h i s t o p i c because v a l u e s are l a r g e l y seen i n our s o c i e t y t o be p e r s o n a l , a matter of 'one's own b u s i n e s s ' . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d  references  to t e a c h e r s and v a l u e s , but these u s u a l l y t u r n out t o concern  the p u r p o s e f u l t e a c h i n g of v a l u e s by t e a c h e r s , and  r e l a t e d e t h i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  problems.  General d i s c u s s i o n of t e a c h e r s and v a l u e s o f t e n mentions the idea of value c o n f l i c t s . H a r t n e t t and Maish (1976), f o r i n s t a n c e , s a y t h a t "the teacher has t o be s e n s i t i v e t o the v a l u e s of the group he teaches, and t o h i s own v a l u e s . In a d d i t i o n , he has t o c o n s i d e r the v a l u e s of other t e a c h e r s  i n h i s s c h o o l , the s e n i o r t e a c h e r s ,  i n s p e c t o r s , and l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s . There may be c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n each or a l l o f these groups" (p.183).  H a r t n e t t and Naish suggest  t h a t "What a r e r e q u i r e d  are e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which cope a t the c o n c e p t u a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  l e v e l s w i t h the  129 i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between knowledge, v a l u e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , and the I n d i v i d u a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s "  (p.188).  Another t o p i c d i s c u s s e d under the g e n e r a l  heading  of t e a c h e r s and v a l u e s i s t e a c h e r s as t r a n s m i t t e r s of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , o f t e n addressed c u r r i c u l u m " . Teachers*  i n w r i t i n g on the "hidden  i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s and how these  find  e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g a r e mentioned much l e s s o f t e n and v e r y seldom s t u d i e d . One study t h a t does shed some l i g h t on t h i s  area  was done by Sharp and Green (1975). They l o o k e d a t the v a l u e s t e a c h e r s p r o f e s s e d and compared these with the o b s e r v a t i o n a l evidence  from t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . They found a  c o n s i d e r a b l e gap between the v a l u e s p r o f e s s e d by a group of t e a c h e r s a t a " p r o g r e s s i v e " E n g l i s h primary s c h o o l , and the evidence o f the c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e of these t e a c h e r s . Sharp and Green see s o c i e t a l f o r c e s a t work i n t h i s c o n f l i c t and through t h e i r s t u d y " t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e some of the s t r u c t u r e s of the broader c o n t e x t of the t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c e which tend t o l e a d t o consequences which b e l i e both the moral commitments and the causes  they appear t o have  adopted  and p r o f e s s " ( p . v i i ) . The t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y p r o f e s s e d the b e l i e f t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be seen as equal and can l e a r n t o work independently and f l o u r i s h i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n a r i c h e d u c a t i o n a l environment. The t e a c h e r s claimed to value the t e a c h i n g o f such independence. The study found t h a t i n f a c t the t e a c h e r s h e l d s t r o n g c l a s s b i a s e s and t r e a t e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r behavior and the  130 k i n d o£ home they came from, p r e v e n t i n g or h i n d e r i n g the development o f e d u c a t i o n a l independence i n many c a s e s . Sharp and Green s a y t h a t while  "the t e a c h e r s d i s p l a y a moral  concern t h a t e v e r y c h i l d matters,  i n p r a c t i c e there i s a  s u b t l e process of s p o n s o r s h i p d e v e l o p i n g where o p p o r t u n i t y i s b e i n g o f f e r e d t o some and c l o s e d o f f t o o t h e r s "  (p.218).  Sharp and Green saw these t e a c h e r s a c t i n g , v i r t u a l l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y , as agents of t h e i r s o c i e t y ' s c l a s s stratification,  i n s p i t e o f the b e l i e f  i n e q u a l i t y t h a t they  professed. There i s other l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of s c h o o l s t o s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of s t u d e n t s by t e a c h e r s 1970;  ( f o r example,  C l c o u r e l and K i t s u s e , 1963), and while t h i s  Breton,  literature  does r e l a t e t o the g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t e a c h e r s and v a l u e s , i t tends t o focus on t e a c h e r s as t r a n s m i t t e r s of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s r a t h e r than examining i n d i v i d u a l  teachers'  personal values. There a r e , o f c o u r s e , many c o n n e c t i o n s  between  t e a c h e r s ' i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s and s o c i e t a l or s c h o o l v a l u e s , and  t h e r e may w e l l be c l a s h e s of v a l u e between t h e p e r s o n a l  and  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l . McNair (1978-9), i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o her study  of t e a c h e r s ' " i n f l i g h t " d e c i s i o n s a l l u d e s t o the c l a s h of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s with i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s but, tantalizingly, says,  these remarks a r e not e l a b o r a t e d upon. She  1  "These t e a c h e r s a r e s t r o n g and unique  individuals.  As we met with them and t a l k e d with them, t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s stood out c l e a r l y . As they taught, however, we had the impression t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e i r thoughts normative  were c o n s t r a i n e d by the  a c t i v i t y of the p u b l i c s c h o o l . The c u r r e n t s  of s o c i e t y a r e powerful and w i t h i n them the t i d e s of s c h o o l i n g ebb and flow. R a r e l y i s the flow d i s r u p t e d and new c u r r e n t s developed  by the p a r t i c i p a n t s "  (p.42).  McNair seems t o be s u g g e s t i n g t h a t these t e a c h e r s were a d h e r i n g t o v a l u e s of s c h o o l and s o c i e t y even when t h e i r own v a l u e s t o l d them t o a c t d i f f e r e n t l y , and doing t h e i r best t o balance these sometimes opposing  views. While  "adjustments"  I n s t i n c t i v e l y , that i s ,  with l i t t l e  may be done almost  reflection,  McNair suggests  these  i t does seem t h a t the c o n f l i c t s  would be c o n s c i o u s sources of c o n f l i c t to  the t e a c h e r s ; however she does not r e p o r t q u e s t i o n i n g them about these  conflicts.  Hargreaves (1979) says t h i s about t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s : "When t e a c h e r s a r e asked  t o d i s p l a y t h e i r values ( t o  r e s e a r c h e r s , c o l l e a g u e s , p a r e n t s , e t c . ) , they d o u b t l e s s c o n s t r a i n e d by t h a t s i t u a t i o n to express t h e i r a s s e r t a s t r o n g degree of coherence,  feel  i d e a l s and t o  c o n s i s t e n c y and  i n t e g r a t i o n among those v a l u e s . P r a c t i c e w i l l not be a simple r e f l e c t i o n of those v a l u e s because p r a c t i c e a r i s e s i n a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n which has a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e and  s e t of c o n s t r a i n t s " (p.80). Hargreaves c o n t r a s t s the  132 • a b s t r a c t ' v a l u e s t h a t one might a r t i c u l a t e l y express the  with  ' c o n t e x t u a l i z e d ' v a l u e s which are embedded i n a  teachers' practice. T h i s i s an important seem v e r y s u g g e s t i v e  i f we  i n s i g h t . C l a n d i n i n ' s "images''  view them as e x p r e s s i o n s of her  s u b j e c t s ' c o n t e x t u a l i z e d v a l u e s , r a t h e r than  as  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e i r p r a c t i c a l knowledge. "The as home", "Language as the key" "Teaching  ( C l a n d i n i n 1986)  as r e l a t i n g to c h i l d r e n "  (Clandinin  c e r t a i n l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r how they are a t t r i b u t e d w i l l conduct  classroom  and  1987)  the t e a c h e r s t o whom  t h e i r classrooms,  r a t h e r than e n c a p s u l a t i n g knowledge these  but  "images" say  something about what these t e a c h e r s v a l u e . E l b a z (1981) says as much: "The  image i s g e n e r a l l y imbued w i t h a judgement of  value and c o n s t i t u t e s a guide to the of the t e a c h e r ' s purposes" images as a combination needs and  beliefs"  Intuitive  realization  (p.61). L a t e r she d e s c r i b e s  of "the t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s ,  values,  (1983, p.134).  In a n a l y s i n g one's own  p r a c t i c e a teacher might  w e l l b e n e f i t from b r i n g i n g the v a l u e s t h a t are embedded i n practice  i n t o f o c u s , comparing them with expressed  and pondering  any d i s j u n c t u r e t h a t might be found.  values The  teacher might a l s o f i n d t h a t there are c o n f l i c t s between p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and t h a t the  the v a l u e s of the s c h o o l . I t i s p o s s i b l e  idea of "image" c o u l d be h e l p f u l  p e r s o n a l v a l u e s i n t o f o c u s . The  in bringing  f o r m u l a t i o n of "images",  with the h e l p of an i n s i g h t f u l r e s e a r c h e r or f e l l o w teacher,  c o u l d be an i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p , • h e l p i n g ' t a c i t l y or even s u b c o n s c i o u s l y h e l d v a l u e s come forward expression. teacher may  metaphoric  Some of the c o n t e x t u a l i z e d v a l u e s t h a t a r e v e a l i n h i s or her p r a c t i c e may  held t a c i t l y , formulated  in  i n t h a t they may  be s a i d to be  never have been s p e c i f i c a l l y  or a r t i c u l a t e d , but t h e r e i s no reason to assume  t h a t they cannot be brought i n t o focus f o r Indeed, i f a teacher p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and  examination.  i s to c l e a r l y examine and b e l i e f s and  evaluate  the grounds on which he  or  she holds them, c l e a r , non-metaphoric a r t i c u l a t i o n would seem t o be e s s e n t i a l . Hargreaves (1979) says t h a t " i t i s a r e s e a r c h task to a n a l y s e p r e c i s e l y how  values are, often  t a c i t l y , embedded i n a c t i o n "  (p.80). No s t u d i e s were  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t were designed  s p e c i f i c a l l y for this  but the s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l method, as w e l l as and  purpose,  observations  open ended i n t e r v i e w s , might prove u s e f u l i n the d e s i g n  of such s t u d i e s . Many q u e s t i o n s a r i s e i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s . In what ways do t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s c l a s h with i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l u e s ? In what ways do 'contextualized*  values c l a s h with the  t h a t t h e y openly express? How  teachers'  ' a b s t r a c t ' values  can c o n t e x t u a l i z e d v a l u e s  made e x p l i c i t so t h a t they can be examined? Do the  values  t e a c h e r s h o l d change with t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , or are q u i t e s t a b l e throughout  be  they  a t e a c h e r ' s c a r e e r ? I f they do  change, what f a c t o r s i n the s c h o o l or i n other areas of t e a c h e r s ' l i v e s a c t to change them? These are a l l r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n s which m e r i t study.  I f t e a c h e r s a r e t o r e f l e c t on  t h e i r p r a c t i c e , r e f l e c t i n g on the v a l u e s they h o l d and how and  t o what extent those v a l u e s f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r  t e a c h i n g would be a u s e f u l v e h i c l e f o r t e a c h e r s t o change t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Novice t e a c h e r s c o u l d a l s o b e n e f i t by such reflection. Another q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i n the g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of values and s c h o o l s i s whether people have the r i g h t t o t r y t o change or impose upon the v a l u e s h e l d by o t h e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , do s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have the r i g h t t o t r y t o change t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s , or t o impose on t e a c h e r s methods or m a t e r i a l s t h a t c o n f l i c t s t r o n g l y with the v a l u e s they hold? The r e c i t a t i o n of the Lord's  Prayer  and d a i l y B i b l e r e a d i n g a r e r e q u i r e d by the P u b l i c Schools Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but many t e a c h e r s do not comply with t h i s law, f i n d i n g  i t t o be i n c o n f l i c t with t h e i r own  v a l u e s . P r i n c i p a l s tend t o " t u r n a b l i n d eye" and do not attempt t o e n f o r c e the r u l e . I f they d i d a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n of v a l u e s would have t o be r e s o l v e d . Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h a t have a r i s e n i n  g e t t i n g t e a c h e r s t o implement new programs may r e l a t e t o v a l u e c o n f l i c t s . Study of s p e c i f i c cases o f  implementation  problems with v a l u e s as a major focus might prove u s e f u l . As w e l l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of value q u e s t i o n s i n s c h o o l s should be done i n a more focused and r i g o r o u s way. The q u e s t i o n o f whether s c h o o l s have the r i g h t t o r e q u i r e students t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s that c o n f l i c t  with  135 t h e i r v a l u e s or the v a l u e s of t h e i r  families  arises  p e r i o d i c a l l y , but the q u e s t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s i s seldom addressed  except when gross v i o l a t i o n of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s  a teacher comes to  The  by  light.  q u e s t i o n of how  remains a d i f f i c u l t  one.  t o study t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s  R e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on  their  p r a c t i c e , with the h e l p of r e s e a r c h e r s or f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , might h e l p to b r i n g v a l u e s i n t o f o c u s . recommends t h a t s p e c i f i c analyzed.  Oberg (1986)  i n s t a n c e s of c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e  "These are the o v e r t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of b e l i e f s  v a l u e s u n d e r l y i n g t e a c h e r s ' a c t i o n s t h a t are o f t e n and d i f f i c u l t  to verbalize...When  become detached  and  and  implicit  v e r b a l i z e d they sometimes  from t h e i r r e f e r e n t i a l a c t i o n s , and we  find  a d i s c r e p a n c y between what t e a c h e r s say they b e l i e v e and for,  be  the b e l i e f s and aims t h a t are Implied  aim  in their  p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n s . Only a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y z i n g a c t u a l i n s t a n c e s of p r a c t i c e does the t e a c h e r begin t o d e l v e beneath observable (p.3)  behaviors  to the meaning of her a c t i o n s . "  I t might be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r t e a c h e r s t o focus  classroom  i n s t a n c e s i n which they experience  or dilemma, f o r here t h e r e may  on  some c o n f l i c t  be a c l a s h between the  t e a c h e r ' s v a l u e s and  those of the s c h o o l , or between the  t e a c h e r ' s v a l u e s and  the immediate p r a c t i c a l demands of the  s i t u a t i o n . Or a teacher may or she  experience c o n f l i c t because he  l a c k s the knowledge of p r a c t i c a l ways t o b r i n g some  v a l u e to f r u i t i o n  i n the classroom. The  teacher may,  for  example, want c h i l d r e n t o become more independent, but  not  know q u i t e how t o s t r u c t u r e l e s s o n s t o h e l p b r i n g t h i s about. The c o n f l u e n c e of a t e a c h e r ' s v a l u e s and knowledge c o u l d be a v a l u a b l e e n t r y p o i n t f o r understanding t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c e . R e a l i z a t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n  that of p e r s o n a l  v a l u e s may h e l p teachers t o see more c l e a r l y the areas i n which t h e i r  p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge i s inadequate,  t h a t they  may remedy t h i s by a p p r o p r i a t e study or d i s c u s s i o n with other  teachers.  In summarizing the p o s i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s chapter,  'value' i s a term g e n e r a l l y used t o mean worth.  Used as a verb i t can be used t o mean a p p r e c i a t e or see as worthy. Value  judgements a r e statements  which e v a l u a t e  a c c o r d i n g t o some s t a n d a r d s . There a r e moral and non-moral value judgements, moral value judgements r e f e r r i n g principles  about human conduct 'Values'  h e l d dear  as s t a n d a r d s .  i s a term used t o r e f e r  Values d i f f e r  to a v i s i o n  from b e l i e f s  of "the good  t o v a l u e s and b e l i e f s r e l a t i n g  v a l u e s and our b e l i e f s  to the e m p i r i c a l  i d e a l l y h o l d both our  rationally,  which we h o l d them and weighing evidence,  life".  i n t h a t a person can have b e l i e f s  world. While we as a d u l t s s h o u l d  incoming  to p r i n c i p l e s  or seen as worthwhile by a person or group o f  people, and they r e l a t e  relating  t o moral  examining the grounds on  them a g a i n s t c o n f l i c t i n g  we do not always have the time,  i n c l i n a t i o n or m o t i v a t i o n t o do s o . As w e l l , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s may be h e l d t a c i t l y or even u n c o n s c i o u s l y , and need to be brought i n t o focus f o r our examination. I n v e s t i g a t i o n  137 o£ t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s may present c o n s i d e r a b l e difficulties, essential  methodological  but the study of v a l u e s would seem t o be  i f r e s e a r c h e r s wish t o understand  teachers'  t h i n k i n g . As w e l l , a r t i c u l a t i o n of p e r s o n a l v a l u e s would h e l p t e a c h e r s t o a n a l y s e and change t h e i r own p r a c t i c e .  The  concept  of d e c i s i o n appears t o be t o o narrow  to shed much l i g h t on value q u e s t i o n s . " P e r s o n a l  practical  knowledge" s t u d i e s have g i v e n r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g and t h e i r  lives  i n classrooms  but have  though they a r e v e r y d e s c r i p t i v e , t o o f f e r a n a l y s i s , f a i l i n g t o make the important knowledge, v a l u e s and b e l i e f s w e l l , t h i s work tends  tended,  insufficient  s e p a r a t i o n between  i n the data t h e y r e p o r t . As  t o l a y too heavy a s t r e s s on the  n o t i o n of t a c i t knowledge, and perhaps f o r t h i s reason has not asked  many of the "Why?" q u e s t i o n s suggested  by the  data. The  q u e s t i o n seems t o be how t o g e t a t t h i s  tacit  m a t e r i a l and the c o n f u s i n g , c o n t e x t u a l i z e d mix of knowledge, v a l u e s and b e l i e f s which each t e a c h e r h o l d s . There i s no c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h which takes t h i s  focus, but r e c e n t  a t t e n t i o n t o the n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on t h e i r p r a c t i c e may r e p r e s e n t a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  advancement which  w i l l a l l o w g r e a t e r access t o t h i s m a t e r i a l . The  idea of t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t i n g  i n a focussed way  on t h e i r p r a c t i c e and on t h e i r v a l u e s b r i n g s t e a c h e r s  into  an equal p a r t n e r s h i p with r e s e a r c h e r s i n the study of teacher t h i n k i n g . The people who can shed the most l i g h t on  their  t h i n k i n g i s t e a c h e r s themselves,  guidance  with the probing and  of r e s e a r c h e r s or f e l l o w t e a c h e r s . The people who  can b e n e f i t the most from understanding i s t e a c h e r s themselves,  t h e i r own t h i n k i n g  and u l t i m a t e l y t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Only  they can change t h e i r own p r a c t i c e ,  improve the q u a l i t y of  t h e i r t e a c h i n g , b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s more e f f e c t i v e l y and make d e c i s i o n s i n the moral realm with g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . As w e l l as having other people t r y t o understand understand  them, i t w i l l be p r o d u c t i v e f o r them t o themselves. R e f l e c t i o n as a r e s e a r c h focus seems t o be a new  move i n the study of teacher t h i n k i n g , one which i n v o l v e s the teacher as never b e f o r e and which has the p o t e n t i a l t o e x p l o r e value q u e s t i o n s and b e t t e r serve the moral c o n d i t i o n of t e a c h i n g . R e f l e c t i o n must be focussed t o be p r o d u c t i v e , however. The n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n bears examination, and t h i s task i s undertaken  i n t h e next  chapter.  139  Chapter wine  The  Role of R e f l e c t i o n  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n began with the l a y i n g out of a conception t h a t the  of t e a c h i n g which e n t a i l e d the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s :  I n t e n t i o n of t e a c h i n g i s t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g ;  t h a t the c o n t e n t , methods and  m a t e r i a l s s e l e c t e d must be  a p p r o p r i a t e t o the c o g n i t i v e s t a t e of the l e a r n e r ( s ) ; t h a t t e a c h e r s ' l e s s o n s must i n some way  embody or express  to the  l e a r n e r ( s ) t h a t which Is t o be taught; and t h a t t e a c h i n g i s an a c t i v i t y or o c c u p a t i o n  which occurs  i n the moral  realm,  so t e a c h e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n s with students must conform t o moral p r i n c i p l e s , e s p e c i a l l y r e s p e c t f o r persons. c o n c e p t i o n t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l and central  Importance. T h i s was  d e f e n s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n , and the c o n c e p t i o n  In t h i s  e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s are of  suggested  as an  entirely  used as a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g  of t e a c h i n g which u n d e r l i e s s t u d i e s of  teacher t h i n k i n g . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of s e l e c t e d s t u d i e s from the program of r e s e a r c h on teacher  t h i n k i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t a t the  c o r e " of t h i s r e s e a r c h program i s a c o n c e p t i o n which accords way: Value  with the one  g i v e n above except  of t e a c h i n g i n one  t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s are g i v e n o n l y p e r i p h e r a l q u e s t i o n s are suggested  by much of the  reviewed, but they are not addressed  "hard  major  treatment.  research  or are addressed  i n an  unfocussed  way. There appears t o be a b u i l t  i n taboo a g a i n s t  the in-depth i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s . There a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e reasons  for this:  1) There a r e s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  difficulties  involved i n  the study of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these may be exaggerated  because of a b e l i e f t h a t s i n c e many  v a l u e s a r e h e l d t a c i t l y , they cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d by t e a c h e r s and t h e r e f o r e cannot be i n v e s t i g a t e d . 2)  P e r s o n a l v a l u e s may be seen as a matter of "one's own b u s i n e s s " , an area i n t o which r e s e a r c h e r s have no r i g h t t o probe.  3)  Values may s i m p l y be seen as unimportant matters  4)  compared t o  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o knowledge and l e a r n i n g .  The Importance of v a l u e s may have been  overlooked  because of the b e l i e f s which form the hard core of t h i s r e s e a r c h program, t h a t i s , t h a t the important t h i n g s t o know about t e a c h e r s concern and c l a s s r o o m  Any  instruction  management.  or a l l of these reasons  may a p p l y , and t h e r e  i s no e m p i r i c a l b a s i s on which t o judge which, l f any, a r e a c c u r a t e . With r e s p e c t t o the f i r s t , methodological  i t would seem t h a t  d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be surmounted, g i v e n the  i n g e n u i t y of r e s e a r c h e r s . The s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h techniques a v a i l a b l e would seem t o a l l o w f o r a t  l e a s t some success In I n v e s t i g a t i n g v a l u e s , even those which may be h e l d t a c i t l y or s u b c o n s c i o u s l y . However, i f the b e l i e f i s f i r m l y h e l d t h a t t a c i t m a t e r i a l cannot be a r t i c u l a t e d , r e s e a r c h e r s might not even t r y t o overcome methodological The  difficulties. second  and t h i r d p o s s i b i l t i e s l i s t e d above,  t h a t v a l u e s may be seen as a matter  of "one's own b u s i n e s s "  or may s i m p l y be seen as unimportant,  can both be answered  with the same argument. Since t e a c h i n g i s an a c t i v i t y moral realm,  i n the  i n t h a t i t has t o do w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n s between  people, v a l u e s a r e not o n l y important c e n t r a l . Furthermore,  but a b s o l u t e l y  teachers are accountable t o the p u b l i c  f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and they must be a b l e t o j u s t i f y them. T h i s does not mean b a r i n g one's s o u l a t a town meeting, but i t does mean t e a c h e r s need t o have a c l e a r and  idea of t h e i r own  o t h e r s ' v a l u e s t r u c t u r e s , and o f what i s i n v o l v e d i n  d e f e n d i n g value p o s t u r e s , so t h a t they c a n defend a c t i o n s as t e a c h e r s i n t e l l i g e n t l y and w i t h  their  understanding.  E x p l a i n i n g the b a s i s on which d e c i s i o n s a r e made w i l l necessarily involve values. I t w i l l not work t o s a y t h a t t e a c h i n g can be v a l u e - f r e e and t h a t t e a c h e r s can keep t h e i r v a l u e s t o themselves  and not express them i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g . We a r e  the embodiment o f our v a l u e s , as w e l l as our knowledge and b e l i e f s , and our d e c i s i o n s , a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m w i l l express our v a l u e s . As w e l l as being m o r a l l y and  p u b l i c l y a c c o u n t a b l e , which w i l l  involve a r t i c u l a t i n g  v a l u e s , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l s o be committed t o ongoing p r o f e s s i o n a l development and growth. An important p a r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l development s h o u l d be f o c u s s i n g on and a r t i c u l a t i n g v a l u e s so t h a t t e a c h e r s can understand  how  v a l u e s a f f e c t t e a c h i n g and can thus change with awareness. I t was argued  earlier  i n this d i s s e r t a t i o n that i f  the b a s i c g o a l of r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h i n g i s t o improve p r a c t i c e , then i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out, because v a l u e s a r e one of the important  factors  which motivate t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . No matter  how much r e s e a r c h e r s know about what " e x p e r t "  t e a c h e r s do or what the c o n t e n t of i n t e r a c t i v e d e c i s i o n s i s , no matter  how many recommendations from r e s e a r c h f i l t e r down  i n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l day a c t i v i t i e s , themselves  i t i s only teachers  who can change t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . They must be  i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n the r e s e a r c h process i f t h e y a r e t o understand  what they themselves  a r e d o i n g and why. T h i s  might be s t a t e d as "teacher t h i n k i n g from the i n s i d e " . I_ want t o understand  my own t h i n k i n g , r a t h e r than  just  d e s c r i b i n g i t t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r so he or she can t r y t o understand  i t . The n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e seems t o  capture t h i s i d e a , and a l s o t o o f f e r a way of " g e t t i n g a t " t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s . The remainder  of t h i s chapter  will  i n v e s t i g a t e the n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e .  143 A. The concept of  reflection  D i s c u s s i o n s of what t e a c h e r s know, how can improve how  their  p r a c t i c e and  teachers  f i n d more s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  n o v i c e t e a c h e r s can be more e f f e c t i v e l y t r a i n e d ,  i n c l u d e the n o t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s should be 'Reflective'  means i n c l i n e d  toward  often  reflective.  reflection,  examination of the concept of r e f l e c t i o n  and  and  is a useful  first  s t e p i n e x p l o r i n g the n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on their  practice. The word r e f l e c t i o n and  b a s i c s e t s of meanings. The  first  i t s cognates have  two  s e t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the  f o l l o w i n g sentences:  The sun's warmth r e f l e c t s o f f the white, south f a c i n g w a l l of my  house, g i v i n g me  the e a r l i e s t tomatoes i n the  neighborhood. She stopped t o look a t her r e f l e c t i o n  i n the  department  s t o r e window. The behavior of those boys a t the t r a c k meet i s a poor r e f l e c t i o n on the s c h o o l . Her a b i l i t y i s not r e f l e c t e d  i n her marks.  I c o u l d n ' t see h i s eyes, f o r he wore r e f l e c t i v e sunglasses. While a l l of these i n v o l v e somewhat meanings, they do have some q u a l i t i e s the i d e a of an e x i s t i n g  different  i n common. A l l Include  s t a t e , o b j e c t or c o n d i t i o n , and  the  reflection  i n v o l v e s some rebounding o f f or producing  144  an  image of t h i s s t a t e , o b j e c t or c o n d i t i o n . Another s e t of uses of the word i n v o l v e s mental r e f l e c t i o n , and  reflection  i t i s mental r e f l e c t i o n  i s of i n t e r e s t here. What does i t mean to say t h a t need the time and What would I do Would I s i m p l y  the p r o p e n s i t y  concerts  and  I brush my and  teachers  t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r work?  i f I s a t down to r e f l e c t on my  teaching?  t h i n k about i t ? Is r e f l e c t i n g the same as  t h i n k i n g ? A c t u a l l y i t o f t e n seems as work n i g h t and  that  day.  i f I t h i n k about  Thoughts of r e p o r t c a r d s ,  students'  problems crowd my  my  Christmas  mind unwanted when  t e e t h or t r y t o go t o s l e e p . T h i s s o r t of random  u n t i d y t h i n k i n g i s not r e f l e c t i o n , though r e f l e c t i o n  does i n v o l v e some s o r t of t h i n k i n g . I might, i f I had r e f l e c t on my some v e r y my  "thoughtful  noise and brought me  t h i n k i n g " . I can  time,  T h i s would  involve  remember s i t t i n g a t  s t u d e n t s as they worked, a moment of  i n a h e c t i c day,  them. E a r l i e r  time or took the  work s e v e r a l times a day.  desk watching my  quiet  the  and  i n the day  r e f l e c t i n g on how  I had  I f e l t about  been angry a t them f o r excess  u n f i n i s h e d work, but a few moments' r e f l e c t i o n t o my  deeper f e e l i n g s of a f f e c t i o n and  pride,  put t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t morning i n t o a l a r g e r An  and  context.  important f a c t o r here i s time. Even i f the time amounts  to o n l y a few minutes, r e f l e c t i o n  i s not done i n a h u r r i e d  way.  from the a c t i o n , t a k i n g a  I t i n v o l v e s removing o n e s e l f  "time-out" and  going on a l e i s u r e l y journey through one's  thoughts. As I s a t a t ray desk r e f l e c t i n g f o r a s h o r t time, the t e n s i o n of a busy a f t e r n o o n s u b s i d e d and I gained a c l e a r e r p e r s p e c t i v e as I brought  t o mind thoughts and  f e e l i n g s about my s t u d e n t s and my work as a whole. R e f l e c t i o n of t h i s s o r t o f t e n h e l p s t o s o l v e an immediate c o n f l i c t or problem by p l a c i n g present events  i n a larger  c o n t e x t . New c o n n e c t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s between i d e a s may occur. By s a y i n g t h a t r e f l e c t i o n i n v o l v e s a l e i s u r e l y journey through one's thoughts  I do not mean t h a t i t  n e c e s s a r i l y takes much time. A sentence reflection,  like,  "Upon  I d e c i d e d t h a t the p l a n was too dangerous" c o u l d  imply o n l y t h a t I thought  f o r a s h o r t time about the p l a n ,  but t h i s t h i n k i n g was focussed and c a r e f u l , and the time I spent on i t was "time o u t " from whatever p r e s s u r e s were weighing  on me. The statement,  "I never  have time t o r e f l e c t on my  work" seems t o imply t h a t l f I d i d r e f l e c t  i t might h e l p me  t o s o l v e some problems, r e s o l v e some c o n f l i c t , understanding  gain  or produce some new ideas f o r a c t i o n . I t might  heal some mental unease or c o n f u s i o n . I t might a l s o s t a r t or r e s t a r t a c r e a t i v e process o f c o n n e c t i n g and a s s i m i l a t i n g i d e a s . I t seems a l s o t h a t r e f l e c t i o n would be done r a t h e r d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , a l t h o u g h one might "pass  through"  feelings  of anger or e x h u l t a t i o n as he or she looked back on an e x p e r i e n c e . I t does not seem r i g h t t o s a y t h a t  he r e f l e c t e d i n a r a g e , o r t h a t she engaged  in ecstatic  r e f l e c t i o n . The n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n c a r r i e s w i t h I t some sense o f d i s c o n n e c t i n g from s t r o n g e m o t i o n s , s e e i n g "the l a r g e r p i c t u r e " and perhaps w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t o some r e s o l u t i o n . One removes o n e s e l f from i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e madding crowd i n o r d e r t o ponder and g a i n  clarity.  I f we were t o a t t e n d t h e f u n e r a l of our o l d f r i e n d Joe S m i t h , the m i n i s t e r might s a y , " L e t us r e f l e c t f o r a moment on t h e l i f e of Joe S m i t h . " We might a l l c l o s e our eyes and r e f l e c t f o r a few minutes i n s i l e n c e , each r e v i e w i n g our s p e c i a l memories of o l d J o e , summing up h i s l i f e and our f e e l i n g s about him, and making peace w i t h h i s memory so t h a t we can each i n our own way l a y him t o r e s t . I f t h e m i n i s t e r b e g i n s t o speak a f t e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t we r e f l e c t , he might o f f e r h i s own memories of Joe and r e c o u n t a few f a v o r i t e s t o r i e s . D u r i n g h i s t a l k we w i l l make our  own  mental a s s o c i a t i o n s and c a l l up memories, making t h e r e f l e c t i o n p e r s o n a l even l f i t i s g u i d e d . Indeed, r e f l e c t i o n must a l w a y s be a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , because we each have our  own memories,  f e e l i n g s and e x p e r i e n c e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h  even a p u b l i c e v e n t . R e f l e c t i o n i s p e r s o n a l but i t can be s t i m u l a t e d by d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o t h e r s . The m i n i s t e r a t Joe Smith's f u n e r a l might s t i m u l a t e us t o r e f l e c t more d e e p l y t h a n we might o t h e r w i s e have done. The s e n t e n c e used e a r l i e r about the dangerous p l a n c o u l d e a s i l y be reworded t o r e a d , "Upon r e f l e c t i o n , we_ d e c i d e d t h a t the p l a n was t o o dangerous",  implying  t h a t as we each d i d our own f o c u s s e d , c a r e f u l  t h i n k i n g we a l s o exchanged i d e a s . R e f l e c t i o n discussion  with o t h e r s can make i t more f r u i t f u l . Religious  one  i s p e r s o n a l but  or p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , i n which  might r e f l e c t on the nature of God, man and the  universe,  i s a l s o personal,  as we draw upon our own  e x p e r i e n c e s and backgrounds t o d e c i d e on the t r u t h of various  r e l i g i o u s or p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . The n o t i o n of  a r r i v i n g a t or a t l e a s t aiming f o r some t r u t h or some r e s o l u t i o n seems t o be i n v o l v e d From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n  in reflection. s e v e r a l g e n e r a l ideas emerge:  mental r e f l e c t i o n can be seen as " t h o u g h t f u l it  t h i n k i n g " , and  i n v o l v e s c a l l i n g up knowledge, f e e l i n g s , memories and  o p i n i o n s connected with a c e r t a i n t o p i c . R e f l e c t i o n something s p e c i f i c ; as  i s about  i t i s not j u s t the f r e e flow of thoughts  i n a "day-dream". I t i s not random and u n t i d y ,  one's thoughts may range q u i t e may be made. The g o a l  though  f r e e l y and new c o n n e c t i o n s  of r e f l e c t i o n may be the s o l u t i o n t o a  problem, the awareness of what a c t i o n needs t o be taken i n some s i t u a t i o n , the achievement of peace of mind, the r e a l i z a t i o n o f some t r u t h or the a r r i v a l a t some r e s o l u t i o n . The  time spent on r e f l e c t i o n c o u l d  but  r e f l e c t i n g i s done a t an u n h u r r i e d pace. I t i s a l s o done  dispassionately, during  be o n l y a few minutes,  a l t h o u g h f e e l i n g s may be "passed through"  r e f l e c t i o n . R e f l e c t i o n can concern p u b l i c i s s u e s but  i s always p e r s o n a l because each person draws on h i s or her own e x p e r i e n c e s , thoughts and f e e l i n g s . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  148  r e f l e c t i o n can be made more f r u i t f u l  by the c o n s t r u c t i v e  exchange of ideas w i t h o t h e r s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t  t o c o n c e i v e of a t e a c h e r d o i n g  many other kinds of t h i n k i n g . One  may  run-on of non-productive  related to teaching  p r a c t i c e . One  may  thoughts  experience an e n d l e s s  engage i n s e l f r e c r i m i n a t i o n and  guilt  when t h i n g s do not go as he or she would l i k e them t o . may  f a n t a s i z e about t e l l i n g o f f the p r i n c i p a l  or daydream  about how  n i c e the c l a s s would be i f o n l y one or  difficult  c h i l d r e n were gone. One  s p e c i f i c and  may  two  engage i n v e r y  immediate problem s o l v i n g , such as how  up the playground  One  f i g h t or when to move from  t o break  blackboard  e x p l a n a t i o n t o notebook p r a c t i c e . None of these seems t o q u a l i f y as r e f l e c t i o n .  I f a teacher  or her p r a c t i c e , the p e r s o n a l and the v a l u e s and  i s r e f l e c t i v e about h i s  p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and  b e l i e f s t h a t guide d e c i s i o n s are s u b j e c t e d to  s c r u t i n y and c a r e f u l  thought. The  necessary r e p e t i t i o n  of  v a r i o u s a c t i o n s does not become so r o u t i n i z e d as to be unquestioned. extent  Most t e a c h e r s do undoubtedly  i n r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r  p r a c t i c e , and  engage t o some this  reflection  would seem t o be a r i c h area f o r study, of p o t e n t i a l to both teacher and  benefit  r e s e a r c h e r . As a teacher r e f l e c t s he or  she c a l l s up knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , though perhaps not i n a c o m p l e t e l y focussed way.  Interaction in reflective  c o n v e r s a t i o n with a r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d h e l p a teacher t o focus on s p e c i f i c b i t s of knowledge, b e l i e f s and articulate  them and examine them and  values,  thus make changes  from  a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t e r understanding.  Observations  of  t e a c h e r s i n the c l a s s r o o m would a l s o be h e l p f u l so t h a t they can compare t h e i r expressed  v a l u e s w i t h those which they are  p e r c e i v e d to be a c t i n g from. T h i s k i n d of r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n may  be the best way  f o r both t e a c h e r s  r e s e a r c h e r s to g a i n understanding  B. Can  the t a c i t be  and  of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s .  articulated?  I f a teacher  i s t o engage i n c a r e f u l thought  about  the knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s t h a t guide h i s or her d e c i s i o n s , then he or she must be a b l e to b r i n g these  into  focus and a r t i c u l a t e them. I f r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e as i t has been p o r t r a y e d here  i s t o be a c r e d i b l e  i d e a , then  the  c l a i m t h a t t h i s can be done must be demonstrated to be a reasonable  one.  To s t a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s can do t h i s f o c u s s i n g  and a r t i c u l a t i n g  i s an e m p i r i c a l c l a i m , a l t h o u g h  has n e i t h e r engaged i n nor r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h designed  to demonstrate i t s t r u t h . Evidence  have been o f f e r e d t o support  this  specifically and  argument  i t , however. S t u d i e s of teacher  d e c i s i o n making u s i n g s t i m u l a t e d r e c a l l and  Interview  s t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' p r a c t i c a l knowledge have helped demonstrate t h a t t e a c h e r s can r e p o r t t h e i r thoughts a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , though i n a focussed way  than  author  i s suggested  to and  less  here. C e r t a i n l y there i s a  r e s p e c t a b l e t r a d i t i o n which c l a i m s  (or assumes) t h a t  can and should a t times a r t i c u l a t e t h a t which they may b e l i e v e and v a l u e t a c i t l y and  people know,  i m p l i c i t l y , and d i s c u s s i o n s of  r e f l e c t i o n o f t e n assume t h a t people have t h i s c a p a b i l i t y . C l a r k and  Peterson (1986), f o r example, say t h a t  maturing p r o f e s s i o n a l teacher steps and  who  toward making e x p l i c i t h i s or her  capable  role"  (and may  has  taken some  Implicit theories  b e l i e f s about l e a r n e r s , c u r r i c u l u m ,  the t e a c h e r ' s  s u b j e c t matter  (p.5). Teachers should  be no  less  of d o i n g such a r t i c u l a t i o n .  to c l a i m t h a t teachers  articulating,  of t h e i r  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t u i t i v e knowing and  neverthless,  this well  thoughts.  " r e f l e c t i o n - l n - a c t i o n " Schbn (1983) they  l n t u t l v e understandings... I t i s true,  t h a t there  d e s c r i p t i o n s and  and  "artistry",  says t h a t "when p r a c t i t i o n e r s r e f l e c t - i n - a c t i o n , t h e i r own  then  science  i m p e r f e c t l y , no doubt, but  enough to give an adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  describe  can,  i s based on the assumption t h a t people can do  f o c u s s i n g and  one  and  values,  the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n would have to made t h a t no one t h i s seems extremely u n l i k e l y . Much of s o c i a l  be  If  c o u l d not b r i n g i n t o focus  a r t i c u l a t e most of t h e i r knowledge, b e l i e f s and  research  and  even, because of t h e i r v e r b a l a b i l i t y ,  more capable) than others was  i s one  "The  i s always a gap  between such  the r e a l i t y to which they r e f e r . . . " but  "Incompleteness of d e s c r i p t i o n i s no  impediment to  r e f l e c t i o n . . . R e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n does not depend on a d e s c r i p t i o n of i n t u i t i v e knowing t h a t f a i t h f u l to i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . d e s c r i p t i o n s are more a p p r o p r i a t e than o t h e r s ,  i s complete or Although some  to r e f l e c t l o n - l n - a c t i o n  d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t are not v e r y good may  be good  151 enough t o enable an i n q u i r e r t o c r i t i c i z e and r e s t r u c t u r e h i s i n t u i t i v e understandings that  so as t o produce new a c t i o n s  improve the s i t u a t i o n or t r i g g e r a refraining of the  problem" (pp.276-277). I t i s c l e a r t h a t we do not have a l l the d e t a i l s of our knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s a t our mental  fingertips  at a l l times, not o n l y because we may not, or a t l e a s t not r e c e n t l y , have attempted  t o focus on t h i s m a t e r i a l , but  because our minds can o n l y d e a l with a l i m i t e d amount of m a t e r i a l a t one time. You can o n l y have t e n f i l e s on the desktop,  as my word p r o c e s s o r might s a y . I t i s c l e a r l y t r u e  t h a t we hold much of our knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s tacitly,  but t h i s i s not t o s a y t h a t a l a r g e p a r t of our  t a c i t l y h e l d m a t e r i a l cannot  be made e x p l i c i t .  C. Why should the t a c i t be made e x p l i c i t ? " I n t u i t i v e " understandings,  as Schon (1983) has  d e s c r i b e d them, a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f a t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c e as he or she moves s w i f t l y through a t e a c h i n g day, but i f a teacher i s t o r e f l e c t on these  i n t u i t i o n s , and on  the r e s u l t s of f o l l o w i n g them, they must come forward f o r examination.  These i n t u i t i v e understandings  a r e based  on a  t e a c h e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge gained through experience and a l s o on h i s or her b e l i e f s and v a l u e s . Many v a l u e s may be a c q u i r e d a t an e a r l y age and not c r i t i c a l l y examined i n adulthood.  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of moral theory, Dewey (1932) argues a g a i n s t h a b i t u a t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i n favor of "the r e f l e c t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l engages i n when he attempts to f i n d g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s which s h a l l d i r e c t and j u s t i f y h i s conduct.  Moral  t h e o r y begins,  In germ, when anyone asks  'Why should I a c t t h i s way and not otherwise?  Why i s t h i s  r i g h t and t h a t wrong?'...Any a d u l t e n t e r s the road when, i n the presence  of moral p e r p l e x i t y , of doubt as t o what i s  r i g h t or best t o do, he attempts t o f i n d h i s way out through r e f l e c t i o n which w i l l  lead him t o some p r i n c i p l e he regards  as dependable" ( p . 5 ) . These statements  could c e r t a i n l y  apply  to a teacher r e f l e c t i n g on h i s or her p r a c t i c e . Many of the s i t u a t i o n s t h a t cause doubt or a n x i e t y t o t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e moral q u e s t i o n s , or q u e s t i o n s of v a l u e . In r e f l e c t i n g on a classroom  incident after  i t has happened, a teacher may ask,  "Why d i d I r e a c t t o t h a t student  i n t h a t way? Was i t the  most p r o d u c t i v e way t o r e a c t ? Was i t f a i r ? What might have happened i f I hadn't g o t t e n angry? What should time a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n Of course  I do next  occurs?"  i t i s not o n l y i n the realm of values  t h a t such q u e s t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . R e f l e c t i n g on,  for  i n s t a n c e , an u n s u c c e s s f u l l e s s o n , a teacher might ask, "What went wrong? Was my p l a n n i n g inadequate?  Did I overestimate  the a b i l i t y of my students t o do t h i s task? Was my e x p l a n a t i o n u n c l e a r ? " And l e s s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n s such a s , "Could  I have m i s i n t e r p r e t e d cues l i k e noise  level  or the e x p r e s s i o n on s t u d e n t s ' faces? Was I r i g h t t o stop  153 the  l e s s o n when I d i d ? " A s u c c e s s f u l l e s s o n can a l s o  u s e f u l Information when s u b j e c t e d question  like,  point  t o such a n a l y s i s . A simple  "Why was t h i s l e s s o n so s u c c e s s f u l ? " c o u l d be  a very u s e f u l question The  yield  f o r a teacher  i s that r e f l e c t i o n w i l l  e x p l o r i n g such q u e s t i o n s .  t o ask him or h e r s e l f .  i n v o l v e f o c u s s i n g on and  Articulation  of knowledge, b e l i e f s and values  is essential:  details  t h a t remain t a c i t or  i m p l i c i t a r e not r e f l e c t e d upon.  D. R e f l e c t i o n In the l i t e r a t u r e  Several described,  c u r r e n t w r i t e r s on t e a c h i n g  defined  or d i s c u s s e d  have  r e f l e c t i o n , and these  d i s c u s s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y i n harmony with the n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n as i t has been d i s c u s s e d looked  s p e c i f i c a l l y a t r e f l e c t i o n as a way t o b r i n g  teachers'  values  reflection at  here, though none has  t o l i g h t . Shulman (1987) says t h a t  i s "what a teacher  the t e a c h i n g  does when he or she looks back  and l e a r n i n g t h a t has o c c u r r e d , and  r e c o n s t r u c t s , reenacts  and/or r e c a p t u r e s  the events, the  emotions and the accomplishments. I t i s t h a t s e t of processes through which a p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a r n s experience"  from  (p.19). Oberg (1986) says t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s  r e f l e c t i o n on h i s or her t e a c h i n g  critical  p r a c t i c e s "aims a t  u n c o v e r i n g i m p l i c i t assumptions on which p r o f e s s i o n a l practice  i s based", and t h a t the understanding  from t h i s r e f l e c t i o n " i s a f i r s t s t e p toward  resulting agent-oriented  1 and  - d i r e c t e d improvement of p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e "  (p.l).  Oberg holds t h a t the a s s i s t a n c e of a second p a r t y i s probably e s s e n t i a l  In t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g .  T h i s second p a r t y  c o u l d be a r e s e a r c h e r . The r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n between teacher and r e s e a r c h e r as d i s c u s s e d  i n t h i s chapter  i s no  doubt a p r o d u c t i v e one, but not a l l t e a c h e r s have a chance to i n t e r a c t with a r e s e a r c h e r . D i s c u s s i o n with c o l l e a g u e s can a l s o a i d a teacher  teaching  i n h i s or her r e f l e c t i o n .  Teachers do not, however, appear t o engage v e r y o f t e n i n r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n with each o t h e r . Many w r i t e r s ( f o r example Goodlad, 1984; L o r t i e , 1975; Tye and Tye, 1984) have documented t h i s l a c k of d i s c u s s i o n and the r e s u l t i n g professional  i s o l a t i o n of t e a c h e r s . T h i s i s o l a t i o n  to be a major hindrance  is likely  t o r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . [See  Appendix One f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of teacher Another w r i t e r on r e f l e c t i o n w r i t i n g on teacher e d u c a t i o n  Zeichner  isolation.]  i s Zeichner.In h i s  (1981-82) draws  e x t e n s i v e l y from Dewey's 1933 book How We Think: A Restatement of the R e l a t i o n of R e f l e c t i v e T h i n k i n g t o the E d u c a t i v e P r o c e s s . Dewey d i s t i n g u i s h e s between r o u t i n e a c t i o n , which i s "guided  by t r a d i t i o n ,  a u t h o r i t y and the o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h i n a s o c i a l setting"  ( Z e i c h n e r , p.5) and r e f l e c t i v e a c t i o n , which  " e n t a i l s a c t i v e , p e r s i s t e n t and c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of any b e l i e f or supposed form of knowledge i n l i g h t of the grounds t h a t support leads"  i t and the f u r t h e r consequences t o which i t  (Dewey, 1933, p.9). Dewey f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s  three  a t t i t u d e s which are first  prerequisite  to r e f l e c t i v e a c t i o n .  The  i s openmindedness, which Involves "an a c t i v e d e s i r e  l i s t e n to more s i d e s than one...and to r e c o g n i z e  to  the  p o s s i b i l i t y of e r r o r even i n the b e l i e f s t h a t are d e a r e s t us"  (p.29). Openmindedness would r e q u i r e a teacher  examine c r i t i c a l l y not h i s or her  own  o n l y the c u l t u r e  to  of the s c h o o l  "dearest b e l i e f s " about t e a c h i n g .  to  but  The  second  a t t i t u d e Dewey i d e n t i f i e s i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Zeichner says that  f o r a teacher r e s p o n s i b i l i t y means " c a r e f u l  consideration  of the consequences to which an a c t i o n  Teachers must "ask the c l a s s r o o m and  why ask  of immediate u t i l i t y "  they are d o i n g what they are doing i n i n a way  third attitude  two  a t t i t u d e s are  one's  t h a t transcends the  (Zeichner,  examination of p e r s o n a l , The  leads.  p.6).  This w i l l  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  question  involve  societal  values.  i s wholeheartedness, by which the embraced and  made an  other  important p a r t  of  life. Dewey was  a l s o an  important i n f l u e n c e  t h i n k i n g of Donald Schon, whose 1983 P r a c t i t i o n e r discusses  book The  on  the  Reflective  r e f l e c t i o n by p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n  several d i f f e r e n t professions.  Schon argues  that  p r a c t i t i o n e r s engage i n " r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n " , a k i n d c r e a t i v e problem s o l v i n g i n which they compare  new  s i t u a t i o n s to ones they have encountered i n the  past,  experiment to f i n d the answers to problems and t e s t new  of  generate  and  hypotheses while they are engaged i n p r a c t i s i n g  their professions.  (See  Appendix Two  for a f u l l e r  discussion  and c r i t i q u e  o f Schon's work! Schon a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h e  p r o b l e m o f t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n . He w r i t e s t h a t "The t e a c h e r ' s  i s o l a t i o n i n h e r c l a s s r o o m works a g a i n s t  reflection-in-action.  She needs t o communicate h e r p r i v a t e  p u z z l e s and i n s i g h t s ,  t o t e s t them a g a i n s t t h e v i e w s o f h e r  peers"  (p.33). A l l o f t h e s e w r i t e r s see r e f l e c t i o n and r e f l e c t i v e  c o n v e r s a t i o n as i m p o r t a n t  f o r t e a c h e r s who w i s h t o grow  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and make changes i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e . E n c o u r a g i n g t e a c h e r s t o be r e f l e c t i v e and e s p e c i a l l y t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r v a l u e s and how t h e s e f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m seems t o o f f e r a remedy f o r t h e l a c k o f r e s e a r c h i n t o the important area of teachers' In c h a p t e r  values.  t e n t h i s i d e a w i l l be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r ,  and t h e move from p r a c t i c a l knowledge t o r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be discussed.  157  Chapter  Ten  S t u d i e s of R e f l e c t i o n ; New  In chapter  Possibilities  four an a n a l y s i s was  o f f e r e d of the  l i t e r a t u r e on teacher d e c i s i o n making. In chapter s i x there was  a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s '  knowledge. Each of these a n a l y s e s body of l i t e r a t u r e t e a c h i n g l a i d out  practical  i n v o l v e d examination  i n the l i g h t of the c o n c e p t i o n i n chapter  two  of t h i s  of a  of  dissertation.  Such an a n a l y s i s cannot be done on s t u d i e s of teacher r e f l e c t i o n , because although some r e s e a r c h e r s are b e g i n n i n g to t a l k about r e f l e c t i o n , as a r e s e a r c h focus i t i s v e r y new,  and  there does not yet e x i s t a body of  l i t e r a t u r e which can be a s s e s s e d . Thus the p r e s e n t r a t h e r than o f f e r i n g an a n a l y s i s , e x p l o r e s the f o r new  insight  chapter,  possibilities  i n t o teacher t h i n k i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h on  r e f l e c t i o n appears to o f f e r . I t was  demonstrated i n chapter s i x t h a t the  p r a c t i c a l knowledge l i t e r a t u r e a d e q u a t e l y  meets the l e a r n i n g  c o n d i t i o n of the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g l a i d out two,  but  In chapter  f a l l s s h o r t on the moral c o n d i t i o n . P r a c t i c a l  knowledge s t u d i e s o f t e n mention t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s , but do probe i n t o value q u e s t i o n s . The mix  submergence of values  of knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s c a l l e d  not  In the  "practical  knowledge" or "personal p r a c t i c a l knowledge", as w e l l as  158 too-heavy adherence to the n o t i o n of t a c i t knowing, appear to be the main reasons q u e s t i o n s . The  for this  lack of p r o b i n g i n t o  c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher  value  implicit in this  work remains rooted i n the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The move from the study of p r a c t i c a l the study of r e f l e c t i o n appears to be a  knowledge to  "theoretically  p r o g r e s s i v e p r o b l e m s h i f t " / because r e f l e c t i o n as a r e s e a r c h focus o f f e r s  potential  access to t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s  t h a t d e c i s i o n making and  practical  has been argued throughout  way  knowledge have not. I t  this dissertation  of t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s i s of c e n t r a l  in a  t h a t the  study  importance because of the  moral c o n d i t i o n of t e a c h i n g . I f s t u d i e s of r e f l e c t i o n  take  the form of a r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n between teacher  and  r e s e a r c h e r , with a s p e c i f i c  focus on v a l u e s , t e a c h e r s may  a b l e t o focus on and a r t i c u l a t e  v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t they  hold t a c i t l y . Such f o c u s s i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g ,  i t has  been  argued here, can and should be done, because t e a c h e r s m o r a l l y and  p u b l i c l y accountable  because t e a c h e r s who practice  the f a c t o r s  their  which motivate  c l a s s r o o m a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . Since v a l u e s are a motivating factor insight  their  central  i n these a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s , whatever  t e a c h e r s can g a i n i n t o t h e i r v a l u e s s h o u l d h e l p them  to change and It  improve t h e i r i s important  practice. t h a t t e a c h e r s r e f l e c t not o n l y on  v a l u e s , of course, but on t h e i r well.  are  f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s and  wish t o i n t e l l i g e n t l y change  need to understand  be  knowledge and  beliefs  Each of the c a t e g o r i e s of knowledge, b e l i e f s  and  as  159 values form an  Important focus f o r r e f l e c t i o n . These  c a t e g o r i e s I n t e r a c t , but t a k i n g a s p e c i f i c focus seems l i k e l y to o f f e r The  the g r e a t e s t I n s i g h t .  n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n captures the essence  teacher t h i n k i n g , because r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e is. t h i n k i n g c a r e f u l l y about t h e i r t h i n k i n g about t e a c h i n g . The f u l l credence own  t e a c h i n g and about  their  n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n a l s o g i v e s  t e a c h i n g , from the i n s i d e out, and  their  t h a t t h i s must be  understanding.  S t u d i e s of r e f l e c t i o n c o u l d c e n t r e on classroom  teachers  to the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s must change  done on the b a s i s of  of  specific  i n c i d e n t s , as Oberg (1986) suggests, w i t h  q u e s t i o n s being r i g o r o u s l y pursued. Or,  value  reflective  c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o u l d s t a r t with q u e s t i o n s such as "What do you r e a l l y care about i n your d a l l y t e a c h i n g ? "  Articulation  of b a s i c v a l u e s c o u l d then be f o l l o w e d by q u e s t i o n s such "How  d i d you a c q u i r e t h i s v a l u e ? Why  Is i t worthwhile?"  by c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s which c o u l d make c l e a r the to which s t a t e d values f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n the The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v a l u e s through  as and  extent  classroom. teachers'  r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e should not be the s o l e p r o p e r t y of r e s e a r c h e r s . By i t s v e r y nature, t h i s kind of work i n v o l v e s t e a c h e r s as equal p a r t i c i p a n t s methodological  i n the r e s e a r c h . Thus a  change accompanies the move t o the study of  r e f l e c t i o n . R e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o u l d and i n v o l v e t e a c h e r s , without  the presence  should a l s o  of a r e s e a r c h e r ,  h e l p i n g each other to r e f l e c t on v a l u e s . U n i v e r s i t y  educators  c o u l d , as w e l l as c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h  t e a c h e r s , a c t as a s t i m u l u s and s o u r c e  of i d e a s f o r t e a c h e r s  w i s h i n g t o engage i n r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h each other. U n i v e r s i t y educators  c o u l d thus h e l p I n t h e  development o f t r u l y r e f l e c t i v e  practitioners.  I n summary, t h e move from p r a c t i c a l knowledge t o r e f l e c t i o n i s " t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e " because r e f l e c t i o n as a r e s e a r c h focus o f f e r s p o t e n t i a l a c c e s s  to teachers'  v a l u e s , i n c l u d i n g those which may be h e l d t a c i t l y . a r e an i m p o r t a n t  Values  f a c t o r i n t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g , and t e a c h e r s '  v a l u e s have never been a d e q u a t e l y  Investigated. Reflective  c o n v e r s a t i o n s between r e s e a r c h e r s and t e a c h e r s , w i t h v a l u e s as a s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h f o c u s , may y i e l d new i n s i g h t  into  t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g . Such work may a l s o h e l p t e a c h e r s t o Improve t h e i r p r a c t i c e , because g a i n i n g i n s i g h t ,  through  f o c u s s e d r e f l e c t i o n , i n t o t h e f a c t o r s which guide  their  classroom a c t i o n s , w i l l enable understanding.  t e a c h e r s t o change w i t h  Focussed r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s between  t e a c h e r s may thus h o l d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r w i d e s p r e a d improvement o f p r a c t i c e . I f such f o c u s s e d r e f l e c t i o n i s encouraged by r e s e a r c h e r s and u n d e r t a k e n by t e a c h e r s , t h e r e may be a genuine m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  s h i f t i n the teacher  thinking  r e s e a r c h program, because t e a c h e r s a r e e q u a l p a r t n e r s w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s i n r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a change i n t h e "hard c o r e " o f t h e t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g r e s e a r c h program may come a b o u t , such t h a t t h e m o r a l r e a l m o f t e a c h i n g i s  understood and teaching.  recognized  to be o£ c e n t r a l  importance  162 Chapter E l e v e n  c o n c l u s i o n s and  One  Recommendations  of the purposes of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was  e x p l i c a t e a conception e d u c a t i o n a l l y and  of t e a c h i n g t h a t was  logically,  m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e . T h i s was  done  through r e f e r e n c e to the work of Paul H i r s t and Peters. This conception on which t o e v a l u a t e  of t e a c h i n g was  to  largely  Richard  then used as a b a s i s  l i t e r a t u r e on teacher  thinking. A  framework based somewhat l o o s e l y on the work of Imre Lakatos was  used to i d e n t i f y r e s e a r c h  r e s e a r c h program, d i s t i n c t teacher  behavior,  i n t o teacher  t h i n k i n g as a  from the program of r e s e a r c h  though s h a r i n g with  into  i t some  characteristics. The  conception  s p e c i f i e d that teaching  of t e a c h i n g t h a t was Involves  about l e a r n i n g i n s t u d e n t s , m a t e r i a l s and  content  the  developed  i n t e n t i o n to b r i n g  t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e methods,  be s e l e c t e d , t h a t l e s s o n s be geared to  the developmental stage  of the l e a r n e r s so t h a t  the  i n t e n t i o n to b r i n g about l e a r n i n g can most e f f e c t i v e l y fulfilled,  and  t h a t what i s to be  l e a r n t must not be  or u n d e s i r a b l e . These were c a l l e d the I t was  a l s o s p e c i f i e d t h a t the teacher  trivial  learning conditions. should  embody, to the best of h i s or her a b i l i t y ,  express  and  the moral  p r i n c i p a l of r e s p e c t f o r persons i n a l l h i s or her with s t u d e n t s . T h i s was  be  c a l l e d the moral c o n d i t i o n .  dealings  163 Detailed c r i t i c a l  examination  of the l i t e r a t u r e  on  teacher d e c i s i o n making showed t h a t t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s almost e n t i r e l y concerned w i t h the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and t h a t the c o n c e p t i o n of t e a c h i n g which u n d e r l i e s t h i s work p o r t r a y s t e a c h e r s as a c t i v e , t h i n k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s who s t r u g g l e with q u e s t i o n s of c o n t e n t , method, m a t e r i a l and l e v e l of s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as with q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d  to  c l a s s r o o m management. Classroom management, i t was suggested, affects  was  r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g i n t h a t environment  l e a r n i n g , but  i s a l s o r e l a t e d to c o n t r o l and  i n s t i t u t i o n a l standards  to  f o r o r d e r . Since no attempt i s made  i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e to f o l l o w up on the value q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e , and s i n c e t e a c h e r s are not q u e s t i o n e d as t o t h e i r moral v a l u e s or t h e i r non-moral v a l u e s and b e l i e f s which have r a m i f i c a t i o n s  i n the moral realm,  i t was  concluded  may that  the c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher u n d e r l y i n g t h i s work does not p o r t r a y the teacher as having a l a r g e a r e a of moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and as s t r u g g l i n g with value q u e s t i o n s . Thus the moral c o n d i t i o n i s not met  i n t h i s conception.  L i t e r a t u r e on t e a c h e r s * p r a c t i c a l knowledge then examined. S t u d i e s of r o u t i n l z a t i o n and  was  expert-novice  s t u d i e s have a d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h f o c u s , or s e n s i t i z i n g concept,  than d e c i s i o n s t u d i e s , but were found t o have the  same u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t i o n of the t e a c h e r . Again,  questions  r e l a t e d t o v a l u e s arose but were not pursued. S t u d i e s of t e a c h e r s ' " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" i l l u m i n a t e d more than p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , but because v a l u e s were  values  submerged i n the mix of knowledge, b e l i e f s and values t h a t these authors c a l l e d was s t i l l  " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" t h e r e  no probing done i n t o value q u e s t i o n s . The move to  the study of " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" c o u l d be, i t was suggested,  termed a " p r o g r e s s i v e p r o b l e m s h i f t " because  this  work d i d r a i s e new q u e s t i o n s and g i v e , because of the " p e r s o n a l " nature of the data r e p o r t e d , some new i n s i g h t i n t o t e a c h e r s ' t h i n k i n g . However the move t o the study of " p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c a l knowledge" d i d not a f f e c t the "hard c o r e " of the teacher t h i n k i n g program. The c o n c e p t i o n of the teacher remained rooted i n the l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Since i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o v a l u e s were mentioned i n t h i s work i t was AS  IF some work on v a l u e s had been done, but i n f a c t  was r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n and l i t t l e  there  a n a l y s i s . Thus t h i s was a  change i n the " p r o t e c t i v e b e l t " o n l y , and the "hard c o r e " of the t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program, which seems t o c o n t a i n a taboo a g a i n s t the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v a l u e s , remained p r o t e c t e d and unchanged. S e v e r a l reasons t h a t because values  f o r t h i s taboo were d i s c u s s e d :  i s such a complex area  i t might be too  d i f f i c u l t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t o study; t h a t t o o heavy adherence t o the n o t i o n of t a c i t knowing might make the a r t i c u l a t i o n of v a l u e s seem Impossible;  t h a t v a l u e s might be  seen as a p r i v a t e matter Into which r e s e a r c h e r s should not pry; and t h a t v a l u e s might s i m p l y be seen as unimportant researchers.  by  I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f t a c i t knowing and the concept  o f values suggested  that i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s was both p o s s i b l e and i m p o r t a n t . I t was argued t h a t t e a c h e r s c a n f o c u s on and a r t i c u l a t e  their  p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d examine where t h e s e come from and t h e grounds on which t h e y a r e held. A r e l a t i v e l y new f o c u s i n r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g i s r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e . T h i s f o c u s appears t o h o l d c o n s i d e r a b l e promise f o r t h e s t u d y o f t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s , and to i n v o l v e not o n l y a " p r o g r e s s i v e p r o b l e m s h i f t " but a genuine m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h i f t ,  i n t h a t t h e t e a c h e r c a n be  seen as an e q u a l p a r t n e r i n r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h i s s h i f t may indeed change t h e "hard c o r e " o f the t e a c h e r t h i n k i n g program, i f r e s e a r c h e r s acknowledge t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r encouraging  t e a c h e r s t o f o c u s and r e f l e c t  m e a n i n g f u l l y on t h e many v a l u e q u e s t i o n s which c o n f r o n t them. To understand  matters r e l a t i n g t o the l e a r n i n g  c o n d i t i o n s , r e s e a r c h e r s need t o i n v e s t i g a t e t e a c h e r s ' knowledge and t h e ways i n which t h e y s t r i v e t o b r i n g about l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r s t u d e n t s . To understand  matters  relating  t o t h e m o r a l c o n d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h e r s need t o i n v e s t i g a t e t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s and b e l i e f s and t h e ways i n which these a f f e c t t e a c h e r s ' judgements about how t o t r e a t s t u d e n t s i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e moral r e a l m may have a t w o - f o l d b e n e f i t . R e s e a r c h e r s  may g a i n b e t t e r a c c e s s  166 to t e a c h e r s ' v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , some of which may be h e l d tacitly,  i f they encourage t e a c h e r s t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r  values and b e l i e f s . Teachers  w i l l a l s o b e n e f i t by doing  r e f l e c t i o n , because g a i n i n g understanding v a l u e s and b e l i e f s w i l l enable  such  of t h e i r own  them t o change t h e i r  practice  to b e t t e r a c c o r d with the moral p r i n c i p l e of r e s p e c t f o r persons. R e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on t h e i r  practice,  focussed by the b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s of knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , and informed moral realm, for  by awareness of the importance of the  should be p r o d u c t i v e , and may form the b a s i s  a new k i n d of study, the study of teacher t h i n k i n g "from  the i n s i d e o u t " .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g  recommendations can be made: 1) That q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o v a l u e s be r i g o r o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d whenever they a r i s e d u r i n g the course  of an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o teacher t h i n k i n g . T h i s can o f t e n be begun by a s k i n g "Why?" q u e s t i o n s of t e a c h e r s . 2) That t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l v a l u e s be taken as a s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h focus i n s t u d i e s of teacher t h i n k i n g ; t h a t teachers i n such s t u d i e s be encouraged t o a r t i c u l a t e  their  e d u c a t i o n a l and moral v a l u e s ; t h a t c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s be done and r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s h e l d so t h a t t e a c h e r s can  167 be t o l d what v a l u e s appear t o be o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s and ponder any d i s j u n c t u r e s w i t h t h e i r  expressed  values. 3) That q u a l i t a t i v e  s t u d i e s o f s c h o o l s be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h  v a l u e s as the r e s e a r c h f o c u s , so t h a t the f a b r i c  of  p e r s o n a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s w i t h i n w h i c h t e a c h e r s move can be p o r t r a y e d . 4)  That f a c u l t i e s of e d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h  wider and more  c o n s i s t e n t communication w i t h t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l s  and  attempt t o h e l p t e a c h e r s f o c u s t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n ; and,  since  o n l y a s m a l l number of t e a c h e r s can or even want t o be s u b j e c t s of r e s e a r c h who  enter into r e f l e c t i v e  the  conversations  w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s , t h a t f a c u l t i e s of e d u c a t i o n encourage t e a c h e r s t o engage i n r e f l e c t i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h each other. The  u l t i m a t e g o a l of r e s e a r c h i n t o t e a c h i n g i s  s u r e l y the Improvement of p r a c t i c e .  Even though we  sometimes v a l u e r e s e a r c h knowledge f o r i t s own  may  sake i t seems  a b s u r d t o deny t h a t i t i s the improvement of p r a c t i c e f o r which we s t r i v e , t h a t i t i s the r e a l w o r l d of c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l s and t h e i r u l t i m a t e good which d r i v e s the e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r y . Focussed r e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on own  practice,  their  w i t h the h e l p and guidance of a second p a r t y ,  h o l d s the g r e a t e s t promise f o r t e a c h e r s t o change and improve, w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the weaknesses and  strengths  i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, of the p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s  and  v a l u e s t h a t g u i d e them, and o f the o t h e r s e t s of v a l u e s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l , w h i c h b u f f e t them. As a c t o r s a p r o f o u n d l y moral r e a l m i t i s paramount t h a t t e a c h e r s understand  t h i s realm. Researchers  i n t o teacher  have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n f u r t h e r i n g understanding.  thinking  this  Appendix One Teacher I s o l a t i o n aa a Hindrance to R e f l e c t i o n on P r a c t i c e  In Goodlad's (1984) massive study of American s c h o o l s he found t h a t teachers appeared t o f u n c t i o n q u i t e autonomously. But t h a t autonomy seemed t o be e x e r c i s e d context  ina  "more of I s o l a t i o n than of r i c h p r o f e s s i o n a l  d i a l o g u e about a p l e t h o r a of e d u c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s " (p.186). Because t e a c h e r s and  spend l i t t l e  u s u a l l y teach alone  face t o face time alone  Goodlad found t h a t "teachers one  in a  with  classroom  colleagues,  p e r c e i v e d t h e i r awareness of  another, communication, and mutual a s s i s t a n c e not t o be  s t r o n g . Although g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i v e  of t h e i r  colleagues,  they had o n l y moderate knowledge...about how t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s a c t u a l l y behaved with s t u d e n t s ,  their  educational  b e l i e f s , and t h e i r competence" (p.188). Lortie beginning  (1975), In d e s c r i b i n g the i s o l a t i o n o f  t e a c h e r s , s t a t e s t h a t "the c e l l u l a r  organization  of s c h o o l s c o n s t r a i n s the amount of interchange beginning  teachers  from c o l l e a g u e s "  possible;  spend most of t h e i r time p h y s i c a l l y a p a r t  (p.72). L o r t i e s t a t e s t h a t lack of a d u l t  a s s i s t a n c e can make t h a beginning  months of t e a c h i n g "a  p r i v a t e o r d e a l " . While the g a i n i n g of experience and confidence  make t e a c h i n g no longer an o r d e a l  (on most days,  anyway!), the p r o f e s s i o n a l I s o l a t i o n L o r t i e d e s c r i b e s seems to begin a p a t t e r n t h a t c o n t i n u e s  i n a teacher's  career.  Schon (1983) a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h i s problem and s t a t e s t h a t "The t e a c h e r ' s i s o l a t i o n  i n her c l a s s r o o m works  a g a i n s t r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n . She needs t o communicate her p r i v a t e p u z z l e s and i n s i g h t s , t o t e s t them a g a i n s t the views of her p e e r s "  (p.333).  W r i t e r s on implementation  of new programs have  r e c o g n i z e d the problem of teacher i s o l a t i o n , and there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between hindrances t o change w i t h i n s c h o o l s and hindrances t o teacher r e f l e c t i o n . Sarason  (1971) says t h a t  " t e a c h e r s a r e alone w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and problems i n a classroom, and the frequency and p a t t e r n of c o n t a c t with others l i k e themselves  a r e of a k i n d and q u a l i t y t h a t make  new l e a r n i n g and change u n l i k e l y " Fullan  (p.107).  (1982) says t h a t change w i t h i n a s c h o o l  "involves r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  I n t e r a c t i o n i s the primary b a s i s  f o r s o c i a l l e a r n i n g . New meanings, new b e h a v i o r s , new s k i l l s depend s i g n i f i c a n t l y on whether t e a c h e r s a r e working a 3 isolated  i n d i v i d u a l s , or exchanging  i d e a s , support and  positive  f e e l i n g s about t h e i r work" (p.72). I f , as Tye and Tye (1984) suggest,  i n e d u c a t i o n t r a v e l r a t h e r randomly through  "...new ideas the system,  person t o person and from s c h o o l t o s c h o o l " (p.231), the i m p l i c a t i o n s are profound.  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l change of teacher  from  then isolation  S u r e l y one of the s u b j e c t s of a t e a c h e r ' s  r e f l e c t i o n w i l l be the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of new programs and m a t e r i a l s and her c a p a b i l i t y a t u s i n g them. Teachers  may  a v o i d u s i n g new m a t e r i a l s because of f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y  and s i m p l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  171  w h i c h c o u l d be d i s p e l l e d by  conversation with others. L i k e o t h e r human b e i n g s , t e a c h e r s do, o f c o u r s e , harbour  i n s e c u r i t y , and many appear t o have a deep-seated  f e a r o f c r i t i c i s m . C l a n d i n i n (1983) found t h i s i n her e a r l y work w i t h t h e t e a c h e r she c a l l e d S t e p h a n i e . A l l o w i n g another person t o watch one t e a c h , o r engaging i n f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n of c l a s s r o o m problems which might show t h a t one i s l e s s  than  p e r f e c t as a t e a c h e r , c a n be v e r y t h r e a t e n i n g . I t may be t h a t as t e a c h e r s our f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h a r e s t r o n g l y t i e d t o our j o b s , because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o do our j o b s w i t h o u t i n v e s t i n g our f e e l i n g s . I n c a r r y i n g o u t our p r o f e s s i o n a l d u t i e s our l i v e s a r e i n e v i t a b l y entwined  with  those o f our young c l i e n t s , and our p e r c e i v e d f a u l t s and f a i l u r e s s t r i k e a t our v e r y h e a r t s . "You d i d n ' t t r y hard enough. You d i d n ' t c a r e enough" f e e l s l i k e t h e message o f e v e r y c r i t i c i s m , and we b u i l d p r o t e c t i v e s h e l l s o f i s o l a t i o n , c l o s e our d o o r s and do not s h a r e  i d e a s and  d i s c u s s problems v e r y o f t e n w i t h our c o l l e a g u e s . R e f l e c t i o n i s not i m p o s s i b l e i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , but i t i s h i n d e r e d by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , f r u s t r a t i o n and f a i l u r e which communication w i t h o t h e r s c o u l d h e l p t o change. Another f a c t o r t h a t may keep t e a c h e r s i s o l a t e d i s the i n d i v i d u a l i s m which McNair (1978-79) remarks on and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l autonomy t h a t t e a c h e r s v a l u e so h i g h l y . They may guard  t h i s autonomy because t h e y sometimes p e r c e i v e a  d e s i r e a t t h e l e v e l s of s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s c h o o l  board  1 and government t o homogenize and  regulate teaching  and  c u r r i c u l u m t o too g r e a t a d e g r e e . Teacher i s o l a t i o n may  be what S a r a s o n (1971) c a l l s  a " b e h a v i o r a l r e g u l a r i t y " , so d e e p l y e n g r a i n e d and  i n teachers  In the s c h o o l s y s t e m t h a t we do not r e a l l y see i t s  causes,  r a m i f i c a t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s . P r o d u c t i v e change i n  s c h o o l s and the s p r e a d of new  i d e a s can be h i n d e r e d by l a c k  of communication between t e a c h e r s . As w e l l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e g u l a r and w i d e s p r e a d communication between p u b l i c s c h o o l educators  and t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y c o u n t e r p a r t s , though each  much t o s h a r e w i t h the o t h e r . One  e f f e c t of  i s o l a t i o n i s l i k e l y the f r e q u e n t h i n d r a n c e  has  teacher of p r o d u c t i v e  r e f l e c t i o n by t e a c h e r s on t h e i r p r a c t i c e . Caught i n a web f r u s t r a t i o n and  l a c k i n g , through  c h o i c e or  h e l p f u l i n p u t from o t h e r s , t e a c h e r s may do l i t t l e  of  circumstance,  t h i n k e n d l e s s l y but  r e f l e c t i o n . R e f l e c t i o n on c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s and  on the knowledge, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s t h a t u n d e r l i e them seems e s s e n t i a l i f t e a c h e r s a r e t o understand  and  i n t e l l i g e n t l y change t h e i r p r a c t i c e f o r the b e n e f i t of t h e i r s t u d e n t s and  f o r t h e i r own  satisfaction. Constructive  communication w i t h c o l l e a g u e s i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of such reflective  practice.  173 Appendix  A Critique  The the  of the  Two  Work of Donald Schon  f o c u s t h a t Donald Schon (1983) has  n o t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n by p r o f e s s i o n a l s  i s a v a l u a b l e one t o t a k e . Schon has  f o r t e a c h e r s and  recently thinking,  on t h e i r  practice.  been a major i n f l u e n c e a detailed  on  practice  researchers into teaching  made a worthy c o n t r i b u t i o n  improvement of p r o f e s s i o n a l  taken  to  the  Because h i s i d e a s have  on w r i t e r s  on  teacher  e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s work i s i n o r d e r .  Schon's c o n c e p t i o n of r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e  Is  c l o s e l y t i e d t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e f l e c t i o n i t s e l f  and  M  h i s n o t i o n of " r e f l e c t i o n - l n - a c t i o n , an a c t i v i t y i n which he c l a i m s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s  engage w h i l e t h e y  p r a c t i s i n g t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s . He reflection-in-action  says t h a t  i s u n d e r t a k e n e s p e c i a l l y when a  p r a c t i t i o n e r encounters a s i t u a t i o n that i s troubling  or i n some way  practitioners  compare new  e n c o u n t e r e d i n the  puzzling,  u n i q u e . He d e s c r i b e s situations  p a s t , and  how  t o ones t h e y have  testing  M  the  hypotheses.  Schon's examples seem t o i l l u s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of " r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n , and  several most adhere  c r i t e r i o n presented e a r l i e r that r e f l e c t i o n involves  removing o n e s e l f from the a c t i o n the  how  t h e y experiment t o f i n d  answers t o problems, g e n e r a t i n g and  t o the  are  i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t . Thus  t e r m " r e f l e c t i o n - i n - a c t i o n " has  a r a t h e r odd  r i n g to i t .  Some of Schon's examples seem not t o be illustrative  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e f l e c t i n g w h i l e a c t i v e l y  engaged i n p r a c t i c e . He s a y s , f o r i n s t a n c e , "There a r e indeed t i m e s when i t i s dangerous and t h i n k . On the f i r i n g  line,  to stop  i n the m i d s t of  t r a f f i c , even on t h e p l a y i n g f i e l d , t h e r e I s a need for  immediate, o n - l i n e r e s p o n s e , and the f a i l u r e t o  d e l i v e r i t can have s e r i o u s consequences.  But not a l l  p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s a r e of t h i s s o r t . The  action-  p r e s e n t (the p e r i o d of time i n which we r e m a i n i n the "same s i t u a t i o n " ) v a r i e s g r e a t l y from case t o c a s e , and i n many c a s e s t h e r e i s time t o t h i n k what we a r e d o i n g . C o n s i d e r , f o r example, a p h y s i c i a n ' s management of a p a t i e n t ' s d i s e a s e , a l a w y e r ' s p r e p a r a t i o n of a b r i e f , a t e a c h e r ' s h a n d l i n g of a  difficult  s t u d e n t . I n p r o c e s s e s such as t h e s e , which  may  e x t e n d over weeks, months or year3, f a s t - m o v i n g e p i s o d e s a r e p u n c t u a t e d by i n t e r v a l s  which  provide opportunity for r e f l e c t i o n "  (p.278).  While i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p h y s i c i a n , lawyer and t e a c h e r d e s c r i b e d here would be r e f l e c t i n g on t h e i r p r a c t i c e as t h e y pondered problems of d i s e a s e , b r i e f s and d i f f i c u l t s t u d e n t s , it  i s not c l e a r t h a t such r e f l e c t i o n I s o c c u r r i n g  i n a c t i o n . O b v i o u s l y a d e f i n i t i o n of ' a c t i o n ' I s needed, and it  i s i n Schon's d e f i n i t i o n t h a t d i s p u t e s over the T i g h t n e s s  of  h i s c l a i m s c o u l d a r i s e . Schon s a y s t h a t "A p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s  r e f l e c t i o n - l n - a c t i o n may not be v e r y r a p i d . I t i s bounded by the " a c t i o n - p r e s e n t " , the zone of time still  i n which a c t i o n can  make a d i f f e r e n c e t o the s i t u a t i o n . The a c t i o n - p r e s e n t  may s t r e t c h over minutes,  hours, days or even weeks or  months, depending on the pace of a c t i v i t y and the s i t u a t i o n a l boundaries practice" occur  t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  (p.62). R e f l e c t i o n OJQ. a c t i o n ,  f o r Schon, would not  i n the " a c t i o n - p r e s e n t " , but a f t e r the f a c t , when  a c t i o n can no longer make a d i f f e r e n c e t o the s i t u a t i o n . This d e f i n i t i o n  i s unclear i n several respects.  Imagining  Schon's example of a teacher working over a p e r i o d of time (a whole s c h o o l year would not be unreasonable) difficult  with a  s t u d e n t , t h e r e would be i n c i d e n t s or days on which  the teacher would r e f l e c t a f t e r the f a c t , when she c o u l d no longer make a d i f f e r e n c e  i n t h a t the i n c i d e n t or the day i s  over. Her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the student so she can s t i l l  make a d i f f e r e n c e  p i c t u r e . In Schon's sense t h i s  i s ongoing,  though,  i n terms of the l a r g e r  i s s t i l l the  " a c t i o n - p r e s e n t " . But r e f l e c t i n g a t home on a Saturday n i g h t over a cup of t e a , or even i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a f e l l o w teacher a f t e r s c h o o l on the same day as a d i f f i c u l t has o c c u r r e d does not seem l i k e r e f l e c t i n g i n because the a c t i o n student  incident  action,  i n which the teacher i n t e r a c t e d with the  i s over. R e f l e c t i n g gji a c t i o n seems a more  a p p r o p r i a t e term. As regards s t i l l  being a b l e t o make a  d i f f e r e n c e , a teacher c o u l d r e f l e c t on her r e l a t i o n s h i i p with one student a f t e r t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p has ended,  176 b e n e f i t t i n g from t h i s r e f l e c t i o n so t h a t she can make a d i f f e r e n c e w i t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t who problems. The  may  have s i m i l a r  " a c t i o n - p r e s e n t " i s r a t h e r n e b u l o u s , and  a  b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n of ' a c t i o n ' i s needed. I t might seem from the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h c l i e n t s Is practitioner is really  the o n l y time when a  ' p r a c t i s i n g ' . Of c o u r s e  t h i s i s not  s o ; p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e e n t a i l s many a c t i v i t i e s and many phases, some more ' a c t i v e ' t h a n o t h e r s . But  reflection  engaged i n d u r i n g q u i e t moments over a p e r i o d of d a y s , weeks or months when a problem or case i s b e i n g d e a l t w i t h does not seem t o e a r n the t i t l e  "reflection-in-actlon".  seems t o mean t i m e s when one  'Action'  i s ' i n the t h i c k of t h i n g s ' .  Schon d e s c r i b e s what seems l i k e a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y which o c c u r s when p e o p l e are " i n the t h i c k of t h i n g s " and  t a k e a momentary 'time o u t ' t o r e f l e c t on a  problem a t hand. For i n s t a n c e , " I n the s p l i t - s e c o n d exchanges of a game of t e n n i s , a s k i l l e d p l a y e r l e a r n s t o g i v e h i m s e l f a moment t o p l a n the n e x t s h o t . H i s game i s the b e t t e r f o r t h i s momentary h e s i t a t i o n , so l o n g as he gauges the t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f l e c t i o n c o r r e c t l y and  Integrates  h i s r e f l e c t i o n i n t o the smooth f l o w of a c t i o n " (p.279). might more r e a s o n a b l y reflection s t i l l b r i e f one,  and  be c a l l e d  This  "reflection-in-action".  r e q u i r e s a 'time o u t ' , however, a l b e i t a  i t d i f f e r s from, say, b r i e f d e s p e r a t e  p a n i c k y t h o u g h t t h a t one  or  might a l s o engage i n . R e f l e c t i o n ,  177 i t has been c l a i m e d h e r e , i s done d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , and tennis player,  l f he i s r e f l e c t i n g , i s d o i n g so  the  cooly.  Schon a l s o speaks of t i m e s when " r e f l e c t i o n i n c o n g r u e n t w i t h a p r e s e n t c o u r s e of a c t i o n may  be  m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h double v i s i o n . Double v i s i o n does not r e q u i r e us t o s t o p and t h i n k , but the c a p a c i t y t o keep a l i v e , i n the m i d s t of a c t i o n , a m u l t i p l i c i t y of views the s i t u a t i o n " (p.281). Such "double v i s i o n "  of  undoubtedly  does e x i s t , but i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether i t can l e g i t i m a t e l y be c a l l e d r e f l e c t i o n . I t might be p o s s i b l e t o v i e w the r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f many o f a t e a c h e r ' s t a s k s i n l i g h t of t h i s i d e a of double v i s i o n . As a t e a c h e r goes about c a l l i n g t h e r o l l , c h e c k i n g homework and d o i n g o t h e r r o u t i n e t a s k s , h i s or her mind may  fairly  be f r e e t o engage i n  o t h e r t h o u g h t s about what i s g o i n g on i n the c l a s s r o o m . When one  i s engaged i n v e r y demanding mental a c t i v i t y ,  though,  the i d e a of double v i s i o n seems l e s s p l a u s i b l e . I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n two c o n c u r r e n t demanding l i n e s of thought w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e t h r u s t of one or b o t h . D e l i b e r a t i o n , which has been i d e n t i f i e d as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e of d e c i s i o n , i s r e l a t e d t o r e f l e c t i o n . They both i n v o l v e  'thoughtful  t h i n k i n g ' , both  r e q u i r e a 'time o u t ' from the a c t i o n , and b o t h a r e d i r e c t e d toward  the r e s o l u t i o n of doubts or problems.  The  difference  l i e s i n d e l i b e r a t i o n b e i n g more f o c u s e d on a s p e c i f i c problem,  more d e l i b e r a t e , one might s a y , and  less free  r a n g i n g t h a n r e f l e c t i o n can be. Dewey (1932) says  that  " r e f l e c t i o n when d i r e c t e d to p r a c t i c a l matters, to determination  of what to do,  is called deliberation"  (p.134). While some of Schon's examples of "reflection-in-action"  do  r e f l e c t i o n , and  which do  others  not seem t r u l y to  involve  i n v o l v e r e f l e c t i o n do  seem t r u l y to i n v o l v e a c t i o n , or  'the  t h i c k of t h i n g s ' ,  must, i f we  allow that teachers  deliberate)  i n a c t i o n , a l l o w a l s o t h a t they can  action. This and  can d e c i d e  (and  i s a grudging admission, made on  not on the s t r e n g t h  r e f l e c t in  l o g i c a l terms  of Schon's arguments. D e l i b e r a t i o n  i s done i n b r i e f  'times out'  doctors,  problems. The lawyers and  r e f l e c t i n g which Schon  teachers  the  describes  In a c t i o n , but  i t i s submitted  i t i s q u i t e compatible with  idea of r e f l e c t i o n on p r a c t i c e d i s c u s s e d  dissertation.  Immediate  as doing over days, weeks and  months as they work with a c l i e n t i s not, here, r e f l e c t i o n  the  from a c t i o n ,  because i t i s u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d t o the s o l u t i o n of practical  we  thus  l e a d i n g to d e c i s i o n i s p r o b a b l y a b e t t e r term f o r thinking that  not  in this  References A l l e n , R.T. (1978). "The p h i l o s o p h y of M i c h a e l P o l a n y i and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e d u c a t i o n " . J o u r n a l of P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n . 12, 167-177. B a i e r , Kurt and Rescher, N i c h o l a s , eds. the F u t u r e . New York: The Free P r e s s .  (1969). 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