Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of a cultural curriculum in changing children's inter-ethnic attitudes Neaman, Evelyn 1987

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1987_A8 N42.pdf [ 2.75MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055166.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055166-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055166-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055166-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055166-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055166-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055166-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055166-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055166.ris

Full Text

C- -z-EFFECTS OF A CULTURAL CURRICULUM IN CHANGING CHILDREN'S INTER-ETHNIC ATTITUDES By Evelyn C e l i a Neaman B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department Of Cur r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c onforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER 1987 (tD EVELYN CELIA NEAMAN, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of QjMAf, djU*v\ &rtJ CjLxgjnrti/K? The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date jg^f <&tf Win ABSTRACT M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i s a nebulous term steeped i n c u l t u r a l assumptions and perhaps p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c . Over time, i t has been r e p e a t e d l y addressed through p o l i c y statements and l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . In order to move beyond mere r h e t o r i c , the awareness generated from s t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h must be e f f e c t i v e l y implemented through c a r e f u l l y designed e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Such programs may assume a v a r i e t y of approaches, however the l i t e r a t u r e suggests a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s most l i k e l y to be achieved through p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s , primary m a t e r i a l s and c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t . To t h i s end, S p o t l i g h t On Jewish Canadians was designed to f o s t e r c r o s s c u l t u r a l communication and to generate a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r l i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . The purpose of the study was to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c u r r i c u l u m premised on the afore-mentioned p r i n c i p l e s and to r e p o r t on i t s f i n d i n g s . A q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h design i n v o l v i n g four t e a c h e r s and n i n e t y - s i x students was developed and implemented. Four methods were used to c o l l e c t d a ta. Two p e n c i l and paper t e s t s , c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s were a n a l y z e d to see what e f f e c t , i f any, the u n i t had on the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d . The r e s u l t s of the p e n c i l and paper t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that t h e r e was as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s p r i d e i n - i i -h e r i t a g e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e u n i t , b u t no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t o s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y was e v i d e n t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e u n i t f o c u s s e d on J e w i s h C a n a d i a n s b u t t h e m e a s u r e a s s e s s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l d i v e s r i t y i n g e n e r a l . However c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y m e a s u r e . I n g e n e r a l t h e t e a c h e r s f o u n d t h e u n i t t o be h e l p f u l i n m a k i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s more a c c e p t i n g o f s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y a s w e l l a s i n c r e a s i n g p r i d e t o w a r d s s t u d e n t s own c u l t u r e s . - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t of Tables ,v L i s t of F i g u r e s v i I - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 D e f i n i n g M u l t i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n 1 The Promotion of M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m In Canada 3 I I - Review Of The L i t e r a t u r e 6 The I n f o r m a t i o n Hypothesis 7 The Contact Hypothesis 10 Summary Of The L i t e r a t u r e 14 I I I - R e l a t i o n s h i p of The C u r r i c u l u m To P r i n c i p l e s 17 Generated From The L i t e r a t u r e IV- Research Methodology and R e s u l t s 26 Statement Of The Problem 26 Research Design 26 Measures 28 Procedure 30 S t a t i s t i c a l R e s u l t s 31 I n t e r a c t i o n A n a l y s i s 40 Teacher E v a l u a t i o n 45 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Research 47 V- Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s 56 B i b l i o g r a p h y 60 Appendix A 63 Appenidx B 66 - i v -LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Means and N's f o r t h e P r e f e r e n c e For S o c i a l 32 D i v e r s i t y Measure 2. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e 33 3. Means and N's For t h e C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 36 4. T-Test R e s u l t s For C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 37 5. Means and N's For J e w i s h Day S c h o o l 39 On The C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 6. Independent Sample T-Test 40 For J e w i s h Day S c h o o l 7. Means and N's For C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 42 8. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e For C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 43 9. Newman-Keuls M u l t i p l e Comparison 44 - v -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Summary Of Research Design - v i -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed without the a s s i s t a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n o f : Dr. J . Kehoe, t h e s i s c h a i r p e r s o n ; Dr. C. A n a s t a s i o u and Dr. C. I. W i l l i a m s , t h e s i s committee; Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ; Vancouver Talmud Torah, t e a c h e r s and st u d e n t s ; Norman P h i l l i p s who l e d me through the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ; The c o o p e r a t i o n and encouragement of f e l l o w graduate s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y V a l Murray, was most a p p r e c i a t e d . Acknowledgment would not be complete without mentioning my husband Gary Margolus whose continued support, p a t i e n c e and knowledge of micro-computers was i n v a l u a b l e . - v i i -I INTRODUCTION C u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s a f a c t of Canadian l i f e . As such, i t needs to be addressed by members of the e d u c a t i o n a l community. Neaman and W i l l i a m s (1987) contend t h a t : " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m " and "race r e l a t i o n s " have become watchwords i n Canada. The F e d e r a l Government r e c o g n i z e s the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n as key i n d e v e l o p i n g a t r u l y m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . V a r i o u s s c h o o l boards a c r o s s Canada have d e v e l o p e d and i m p l e m e n t e d a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and r a c e r e l a t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the Vancouver School Board has a mandate to improve t o l e r a n c e and understanding i n t h e i r s c h o o l s (p. 12). A c c e p t i n g t h a t mandate, an e t h n i c s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t on the Jewish Canadian c u l t u r e was developed f o r use i n elementary classrooms. I t has s i n c e been p u b l i s h e d by P a c i f i c E d u c a t i o n a l Press (Neaman and W i l l i a m s , 1987). The purpose of the study i s to p r o v i d e some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the development of such a c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m and r e p o r t on an e v a l u a t i o n of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . DEFINING MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i s a concept which needs a d e f i n i t i o n i n order f o r i t to have meaning i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . Is m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t a t e of the Canadian s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g i t s e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y ? Is i t a reform movement which w i l l change the nature and q u a l i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l system by a l t e r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s thereby a l l o w i n g e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l students? Or i s m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n merely p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c designed to maintain an e s t a b l i s h e d Anglo p e r s p e c t i v e through meaningless e t h n i c a d d i t i v e s ? . In a 1 sense, t h i s p o o r l y d e f i n e d term i s a l l and none of the above s u g g e s t i o n s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term remains t i e d to i t s use r . In t h i s study, m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be d e f i n e d as programs or p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n s which attempt to f o s t e r the n o t i o n of m a i n t a i n i n g c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w hile at the same time encouraging acceptance of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y among Canadian c i t i z e n s . I t i n c l u d e s knowledge of the r o l e e t h n i c groups have played i n Canada's past and p r e s e n t . I t f u r t h e r acknowledges the r o l e t h a t such groups w i l l c o n t i n u e to play i n the f u t u r e . The go a l of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i s to pr o v i d e a v a r i e t y of e f f e c t i v e means f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n of Canada's many r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s . Cummings (1985) sums up i t s essence, " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m means t h a t to f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n Canadian s o c i e t y , Canadians must l e a r n to f u n c t i o n not only i n t h e i r own c u l t u r e but a c r o s s s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s " (p. 69). Furthermore, Kehoe (1984a) contends t h a t s t r a t e g i e s to change student a t t i t u d e s so t h a t students are more a c c e p t i n g of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , are an e s s e n t i a l aspect of any m u l t i c u l t u r a l program. In l i k e manner, the c u r r i c u l u m on the Jewish Canadian c u l t u r e i s premised on the b e l i e f t h a t : To f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y as members i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y , s tudents need knowledge of, a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r and s k i l l s r e l a t i n g t o , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e many c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e s s u r r o u n d i n g them i n t h e i r everyday l i v e s . S c h o o l s , as s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , are i m p o r t a n t p l a c e s where s t u d e n t s can be equipped with i n t e r c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s which 2 can help them adapt to the c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e s o c i e t y i n which t h e y a r e c i t i z e n s . As a r e s u l t , e t h n i c a l l y l i t e r a t e s t udents w i l l grow and d e v e l o p as C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s who c a n c o n t r i b u t e to the n a t i o n and help s t r e n g t h e n Canadian c u l t u r e (p.12). WHAT IS CANADA DOING TO PROMOTE MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION? Implementation of the f e d e r a l government's m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t e r of St a t e f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . M u l t i c u l t u r a l program a c t i v i t i e s are a d m i n i s t e r e d through the M u l t i c u l t u r a l D i r e c t o r a t e of the Department of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . They are di s s e m i n a t e d by o f f i c e r s i n Ottawa and i n r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s of the Department of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . A major p r i n c i p l e of the p o l i c y has been to address not only e t h n o c u l t u r a l m i n o r i t i e s and new immigrants, but a l l Canadians. In p u r s u i t of these g o a l s , Canadian educators have concerned themselves with i n c o r p o r a t i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l a i n t o the s c h o o l system. In e v a l u a t i n g the d i r e c t i o n m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m has taken, t h e r e are some p e r t i n e n t i s s u e s t h a t r e q u i r e examination. In 1984, The S p e c i a l Committee on P a r t i c i p a t i o n Of V i s i b l e M i n o r i t i e s In Canadian S o c i e t y r e c e i v e d a mandate to i n v e s t i g a t e many i s s u e s r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s i n Canada. A s e l e c t e d team t r a v e l e d a c r o s s the n a t i o n and c o l l e c t e d testimony from v a r i o u s groups. A r e p o r t e n t i t l e d E q u a l i t y Now was submitted to the government. One s e c t i o n of that r e p o r t d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y with e d u c a t i o n . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t e d u c a t i o n f a l l s under p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , the m a j o r i t y of b r i e f s r e c e i v e d , and 3 p r e s e n t a t i o n s g i v e n , l o o k e d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n system to make a major c o n t r i b u t i o n i n a m e l i o r a t i n g r a c e r e l a t i o n s and i n c r e a s i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . The F e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y of Canada (1984) i s s u e d a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t which s u p p o r t s m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l u m t h a t r e f l e c t t he r i g h t f u l p l a c e of e t h n i c groups i n the l i f e h i s t o r y of Canada. T h e i r p o l i c y paper a t t e m p t s to a d d r e s s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s and e r r o n e o u s myths about Canadian e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s p o s i t i o n i n 1984-85 t h e r e was 1.7 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a l l o c a t e d f o r f u n d i n g f o r programs and c u r r i c u l u m development by the F e d e r a l government. Yet no u n i f i e d s e t of p r i n c i p l e s g u i d i n g the development of m a t e r i a l s e x i s t s on a n a t i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l . Kehoe (1984c) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s was p r o b l e m a t i c i n t h a t c u r r i c u l a were b e i n g produced i n a non s y s t e m a t i c way, u s i n g a v a r i e t y of o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t a g e m s which may or may not have been e f f e c t i v e ( p . 131). L i t t l e of t h e m a t e r i a l was s u b j e c t e d t o s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n . W i t h some e x c e p t i o n s j o u r n a l s and r e s e a r c h e r s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o p u b l i s h r e s u l t s t h a t do not r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Kehoe (1980) contended t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be r e d i r e c t e d i f u n s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s were p u b l i s h e d . The s t u d i e s would a l s o be an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of approaches t h a t c o u l d be m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s . F u n d i n g and i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d d e s p i t e l a c k of c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o the q u a l i t y of c u r r i c u l u m p r o d u c t s b e i n g p r oduced. However, i n November 1984, the f e d e r a l government began t o encourage the development of 4 i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o u l d be used to e v a l u a t e c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s designed f o r m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n through t h e i r " a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h " funding program. T h i s was, of course, a necessary step towards more s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h , development and p u b l i c a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l a m a t e r i a l s . Determining the complex nature of the v a r i a b l e s to be c o n s i d e r e d p r e s e n t s r e s e a r c h e r s with many c h a l l e n g e s . In the next c h a p t e r , two s t r a t e g i e s which have had an e f f e c t i n changing a t t i t u d e s w i l l be e x p l o r e d . 5 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A review of the l i t e r a t u r e found two approaches to m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n which stood out as the most widely d i s c u s s e d : the knowledge h y p o t h e s i s , and the c o n t a c t h y p o t h e s i s . In t h i s c h a p t e r , the r e s e a r c h i n these two areas i s examined and the p r i n c i p l e s most l i k e l y to be e f f e c t i v e i n de v e l o p i n g a c u r r i c u l u m treatment are brought to the f o r e f r o n t . In 1974-75 a c r o s s Canada study was i n i t i a t e d and sponsored by the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , the agency i n charge of promoting the F e d e r a l M u l t i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y . The p r o j e c t was made up of a team of educators at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Werner, et a l , 1977). The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the m u l t i c u l t u r a l content of the p r e s c r i b e d elementary and secondary s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a . The study demonstrated s e v e r a l concerns: t h a t i n g e n e r a l the c u r r i c u l a d i d not r e f l e c t the d i v e r s i t y of v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s ; t h a t s t u d i e s which examined c u l t u r e s l e a d the students to emphasize the d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r than the s i m i l a r i t i e s ; t h a t e t h n i c and m i n o r i t y groups were o f t e n r o m a n t i c i z e d when c u l t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d ; and th a t the examination of contemporary i s s u e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c u l t u r e s was not c l e a r l y s t a t e d (Werner, et a l , p. 21). There was l i t t l e evidence t h a t s c h o o l programs were f o s t e r i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Educators were i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned about the r o l e of the s c h o o l i n the promotion of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and the r e d u c t i o n of e t h n i c p r e j u d i c e . I f the n o t i o n of a c u l t u r a l mosaic was to be accepted, where e t h n i c groups were encouraged 6 to r e t a i n a s p e c t s of t h e i r own c u l t u r e , then s t r a t e g i e s had to be designed so t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l system would have e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s would only be p o s s i b l e through e l i m i n a t i o n of n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , r e p l a c i n g them with an acceptance of e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . E m p i r i c a l documentation of the need to develop s t r a t e g i e s to promote p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and race r e l a t i o n s were res e a r c h e d by K a l i n (1977) i n h i s study, " E t h n i c and M u l t i c u l t u r a l A t t i t u d e s i n a Canadian C i t y " , and by Rosenstack and A d a i r (1976), i n t h e i r a r t i c l e , " M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n The Classroom, A Survey of I n t e r r a c i a l A t t i t u d e s i n Canadian S c h o o l s " . Throughout Canada, School Board A d v i s o r y Committees on Race R e l a t i o n s have t r i e d to develop ways and means of implementing e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s to address these i s s u e s . THE INFORMATION HYPOTHESIS Teachers have been t r a i n e d to t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n to s t u d e n t s on a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s . Teaching "about" other c u l t u r e s , has been the most common technique used i n the s c h o o l s . However, i t has had a l i m i t e d e f f e c t i n the development of p o s t i v e i n t e r - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s . P r o s h a n s k i (1966) found t h a t the the t r a n s m i s s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d to s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i t u d e s about twice as o f t e n as no changes. However, due to the complexity of v a r i a b l e s which needed c o n s i d e r a t i o n , he c o u l d not i n f e r why. That was i n 1966. More r e c e n t l y Kehoe (1984a, 1984b, 1984c), S a l y a c h i v i n (1972), Werner (1977) and Z i e g l e r (1979) have found some of the c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r i n f o r m a t i o n to be e f f e c t i v e . What are 7 those p r i n c i p l e s and the r e s e a r c h to support them? Ga i n i n g knowledge about another c u l t u r e does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h a t s tudents w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y have empathy and r e s p e c t f o r th a t c u l t u r e . For i n s t a n c e , S a l y a c h i v i n (1972) res e a r c h e d the kin d s of textbook i n f o r m a t i o n chosen by t e a c h e r s and the r e s u l t i n g student a t t i t u d e s . She found t h a t t e a c h e r s o f t e n chose images of a c u l t u r e which were e x o t i c and b i z a r r e i n order to i n c r e a s e student i n t e r e s t . However, t h i s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n students f e e l i n g d i s s i m i l a r to the c u l t u r e under study. S a l y a c h i v i n concluded t h a t t e a c h e r s ought to p l a c e l e s s emphasis on e x o t i c and b i z a r r e d i f f e r e n c e s and more emphasis on the s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t among c u l t u r e s . S a l y a c h i v i n f u r t h e r noted: ... a l t h o u g h the t r e n d s from some r e s e a r c h about the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r e f e r e n c e and t h e p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y between two o b j e c t s , i t does not mean t h a t the e x c l u s i v e s i m i l a r i t y approach should be a p p l i e d i n order to develop wholesome a t t i t u d e s . The use of the e x c l u s i v e s i m i l a r i t y approach f o r d e v e l o p i n g f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward other c o u n t r i e s seems to make the c h i l d o v e r s i m p l i f y the world (p. 18). In her program, " E x p l o r i n g L i k e n e s s e s and D i f f e r e n c e s Through F i l m " , Bette Hood (1977) d i s c u s s e d the importance of p l a c i n g an emphasis on f a m i l y l i f e and the nature of everyday l i f e when p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to c h i l d r e n . Hood used f i l m s which presented i n f o r m a t i o n from the i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view. Kehoe (1984a), concluded t h a t i n Hoods program the emphasis was based on r e a l i z i n g the d i g n i t y of a l l people. Werner, et a l , (1977) i n Whose C u l t u r e ? Whose H e r i t a g e 8 discussed the importance of invo lv ing members of the ethnic group as " co -p roducer ' s " of c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l a . That i s , to insure that what i s produced i s not estab l i shed t o t a l l y apart from community i n t e r e s t s , but emerges out of concerns and needs of both the departments of education and the community. They determined that to insure an authentic por t raya l of ethnic groups within s o c i a l studies curr iculum programs should s t ress "the use of f i r s t - p e r s o n accounts, poetry, novels, f i lms , and student involvement with mater ia l s and a c t i v i t i e s which encourage c r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication and understanding within d i f f e r e n t communities." (p.19). The re su l t i s a curr iculum which has meaning in l o c a l s i tua t i ons and which i s re levant to the various ethnic experiences and views of Canadian i s sues . Another issue which has been examined r e l a t i n g to the e f f e c t s of knowledge and information i s the importance of emphasizing pos i t i ve achievements of c u l t u r a l groups, with les s emphasis on hardships and persecut ions. Kehoe (1984a) found that presenting h i s t o r i c a l f ac t s to students descr ib ing d i s c r im ina t ion against a minority group did not necessar i l y cause those students to have empathy and understanding for the target group. In f a c t , the assumption may have been unwarranted. The showing of c rue l ty against a weak v i c t im may a t t r ac t rather than repulse many prejudiced persons. In showing the e f f ec t s of persecution on i t s v i c t ims , one could permit v i car ious g r a t i f i c a t i o n through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the a s s a i l a n t . In sum, i f the goal was to p o s i t i v e l y change students a t t i t u d e s , i t would be important to present the po s i t i ve achievements of the group, and to place less emphasis 9 on i n c i d e n t s of p e r s e c u t i o n . In Z i e g l e r ' s (1979) r e s e a r c h on i n f o r m a t i o n and a t t i t u d e change i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t p o s s e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about a group was a s s o c i a t e d with h o l d i n g more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s , but t h a t the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s e f f e c t c o u l d not be determined. E i t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n may have changed a t t i t u d e s or f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s may p r e d i s p o s e people to gain i n f o r m a t i o n . Z i e g l e r found t h a t the e f f e c t of i n f o r m a t i o n changing a t t i t u d e s was g r e a t e s t i f c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were met: 1) i f the i n f o r m a t i o n presented was f a v o u r a b l e ; 2) i f the i n s t r u c t o r communicated a more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e than the s t u d e n t ' s h e l d ; 3) i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between st u d e n t ' s and teacher was p o s i t i v e ; 4) and i f the course was of some l e n g t h and i n c l u d e d i n t i m a c y (workshops, s m a l l groups d i s c u s s i o n s ) . In r e v i e w i n g other r e s e a r c h , Kehoe (1984a) concluded t h a t p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was most e f f e c t i v e where the p r e j u d i c e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d d i d not serve economic or emotional needs. Kehoe (1984b) added t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to s e n s i t i v e c u r r i c u l a , the s c h o o l s ' t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f should be c o n s c i o u s of and i f p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the v a r i o u s groups i n the community. THE CONTACT HYPOTHESIS Another approach which r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n i n the development of s t r a t e g i e s f o r enhancing i n t e r group a t t i t u d e s was the c o n t a c t h y p o t h e s i s , developed by Riordan (1978). T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was p r e d i c a t e d on the assumption t h a t i n t e r group h o s t i l i t y e x i s t s p a r t l y because of s t e r e o t y p e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s 10 and misperceptions regarding b e l i e f s , a t t i tudes and in tent ion of other people. The goal of contact then, was to reduce negative stereotypes and to fos ter r e a l i s t i c (pos i t i ve ) a t t i tudes through face to face contact. Kehoe (1984a) contends that the strategy of contact between ethnic groups however, was general ly thought to be most e f f e c t i v e in s i tua t i ons of not very high p re jud ice . Yehuda Amir (1977) saw the concept of i n t e r c u l t u r a l contact as a "complex phenomenon invo lv ing a m u l t i p l i c i t y of dependent and independent va r i ab le s , each of which may determine the resu l tant e f f e c t s " (p. 73). In one of Amir 's s tud ies , he undertook to examine the v a l i d i t y in I s rae l of severa l conclus ions reached by American inves t i ga tor s on the e f f ec t of intergroup contact on change in ethnic a t t i t u d e s . His r e su l t s ind icated that; 1) as a re su l t of contact, a po s i t i ve change in a t t i tude of the high status towards the low status group occurred with regard to people and a c t i v i t i e s both re la ted and not re la ted to the contact s i t u a t i o n ; 2) only subjects with previous ethnic contact showed changes; 3) enjoyment of the contact s i t ua t i on was re la ted to a t t i tude change; 4) and author i tar ian i sm was not re la ted to a t t i tude change. Several of Amir 's (1968, 1969, 1976) studies concluded that the outcome of ethnic contact depended on condit ions p reva i l i n g at the time of the contact, and condit ions of both a s i t u a t i o n a l and personal nature" . Amir maintained that in most cases where an a t t i tude change was produced i t was as a re su l t of the contact s i t u a t i o n , and that change was l im i ted to a ce r t a in s p e c i f i c area or aspect of the a t t i tude which did not 11 genera l ize read i l y to other aspects. However, under optimal cond i t ions , a t t i tude genera l i za t ions could be achieved. McGuire's (1968) research on personal contact, which he re fe r red to as " d i r e c t experience with the stimulus o b j e c t " , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between experience in the form of a s ing le traumatic inc ident and experience in the form of repeated, accumulated contacts (p. 67). With regard to the l a t t e r , he ind icated that i f the experience was to enhance f r i e n d l i n e s s the contact should be prolonged, on an equal status bas i s , and be between people with s im i l a r i d e o l o g i c a l systems, however d iverse they might be e t h n i c a l l y . A l l p o r t (1954) in The Nature Of Pre jud ice , suggested that the contact must be in accord with three va r i ab le s . F i r s t , to be e f f e c t i v e in reducing intergroup pre jud ice , the contact must be based upon equal status between majority and minor i ty groups. Second, that the groups had some shared goals and be in a s i t ua t i on which required cooperation rather than compet i t ion. T h i r d , there was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d support surrounding the encounter. For example, where students saw that teachers and administrators perceived th i s experience as va luab le, a po s i t i ve student ro le model was provided. One approach which appeared to be e f f e c t i v e in developing pos i t i ve i n t e r - c u l t u r a l or i n t e r - e t h n i c a t t i tudes was through peer teaching. Clarke (1982) found that : There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h which shows t h a t r e s t r u c t u r i n g the c l a s s r o o m so t h a t students have frequent opportun i t ies to teach o ther s i n m u l t i e t h n i c groups w i l l r e s u l t i n more pos i t i ve mutual a t t i t u d e s . The various c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s have in common a few 12 basic features:!.) Chi ldren are heterogeneously grouped on var iab les of age, sex, race, and a b i l i t y 2) Team members are interdependent; each one's e f f o r t i s required for the success of a l l 3) Groups are smal l , t y p i c a l l y between four and s ix people, to maximize in terpersona l contact (p . 3). The re su l t s of using th i s approach lead to, among other th ings, an increase in se l f -esteem of the students, an increase in the b e l i e f that students can learn from each other and an increase of students who showed pos i t i ve a t t i tudes towards casua l , cross ethnic f r iendsh ips (Kehoe, 1984a, p.107). M u l t i c u l t u r a l Leadership camps and school c u l t u r a l exchanges were described as examples of th i s strategy in operat ion. When run e f f e c t i v e l y students have gained po s i t i ve a t t i tudes towards s o c i a l d i ve r s i t y as wel l as an increase the i r own c u l t u r a l p r ide . A t h i r d approach for increas ing understanding, s e n s i t i v i t y , and po s i t i ve i n t e r - e t h n i c a t t i t u d e s , i s by providing contact with and information about ethnic groups. In one study, I jaz and I jaz (1981) organized a study where grade s ix school ch i ld ren in Scarborough Ontario pa r t i c i pa ted in a c u l t u r a l program. Cu l tu ra l information about India was presented by an Indian woman, in such a way as to change a t t i tudes in a po s i t i ve d i r e c t i o n . The developers of the program a t t r ibu ted the success of the project to teaching through i n te r c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , rather than d i f f e rence s , and by in tegrat ing across subject areas such as phys ica l education a r t , s o c i a l studies in order to make c u l t u r a l comparisons between India and Canada. Using a Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s ca le , re su l t s ind icated that a t t i tudes 13 s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved a f t e r the program and the e f f e c t of the program was maintained t h r e e months a f t e r i t s c o n c l u s i o n . In a second study, p o l i c e and e t h n i c communities p a r t i c i p a t e d i n workshop s e s s i o n s which were intended to develop understanding o f , and s e n s i t i v i t y t o , c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . The intended outcome of the program was to promote non-d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and equal r i g h t s , to a s s i s t p o l i c e p e r s o n n e l to work more e f f e c t i v e l y i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l communities and to encourage i n t e r a c t i o n and understanding between p o l i c e and members of e t h n i c communities. The r e s u l t s of the study showed t h a t w h i l e a t t i t u d e change d i d not occur, n e a r l y a l l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s agreed t h a t the workshop encouraged i n t e r a c t i o n and understanding between p o l i c e and v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s ( U n g e r l e i d e r , 1985, P. 65). SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE Teachers have p l a c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e importance on p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about c u l t u r a l groups to students as the primary v e h i c l e of t e a c h i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s and thus m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Yet r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the most e f f e c t i v e means of encouraging a t t i t u d e change and f o s t e r i n g r e s p e c t f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y or i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l p r i d e . Thus, p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs and the e f f o r t s of c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r s must c o n c e n t r a t e on choosing i n f o r m a t i o n which p l a c e s l e s s emphasis on e x o t i c and b i z a r r e d i f f e r e n c e s and more emphasis on s i m i l a r i t i e s . Such e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s need to p l a c e the emphasis on f a m i l y l i f e , on encouraging the e t h n i c 14 groups to become co-producers of the c u r r i c u l a through ther use of " i n s i d e r " p e r s p e c t i v e s , and by emphasizing p o s i t i v e achievements of e t h n i c groups r a t h e r than h a r d s h i p s and p e r s e c u t i o n . Other s t r a t e g i e s ought to be c o n s i d e r e d when d e v e l o p i n g t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . Research on the c o n t a c t h y p o t h e s i s suggested v a r i o u s p r i n c i p l e s of c o n t a c t which may r e s u l t i n more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . These v a r i a b l e s have been t r a n s l a t e d i n to p r a c t i c a l c lassroom l e s s o n s which were subsequently shown to be e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . Peer t e a c h i n g was one such approach while M u l t i c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p camps were another. However, these s t r a t e g i e s must f o l l o w the b a s i c g u i d e l i n e s presented e a r l i e r i f they are to produce p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Using a combination of the i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t a c t s t r a t e g i e s ought to be c o n s i d e r e d as another way of d e s i g n i n g a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c u r r i c u l u m . What became apparent from r e a d i n g the l i t e r a t u r e was t h a t both these s t r a t e g i e s were more e f f e c t i v e on non-dogmatic i n d i v i d u a l s whose p r e j u d i c e s d i d not serve economic or s o c i a l needs. C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y e x i s t s f o r the most pa r t i n the p r i v a t e sphere - i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s , d r e s s , foods, and other r i g h t s . The s c h o o l i s an important mediator between the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c sphere. I f the s c h o o l has a commitment to m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , i t can use the p r i v a t e l i f e and c u l t u r e of the c h i l d as a secure b a s i s from which he or she can step out i n t o the p u b l i c world. While s c h o o l s may not be the panacea f o r a l l problems r e l a t i n g to e t h n i c i t y , they do p r o v i d e an important p l a c e to help 15 s t u d e n t s , and thus f u t u r e c i t i z e n s , a c q u i r e the s k i l l s to become e t h n i c a l l y l i t e r a t e i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e s o c i e t y . 16 I l l RELATIONSHIP OF THE CURRICULUM TO PRINCIPLES GENERATED FROM THE LITERATURE There has been l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i n the Canadian c o n t e x t on i n t e r - e t h n i c a t t i t u d e change among c h i l d r e n i n Canadian c i t i e s ( Z i e g l e r , 1979). Vancouver, as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l c i t y , p r o v i d e s v a r i o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o employ s t r a t e g i e s which would h e l p o p e r a t i o n a l i z e f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l p o l i c i e s on M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . G i v e n t h a t v a r i o u s s c h o o l boards have d e v e l o p e d r a c e r e l a t i o n s p o l i c i e s as they r e c o g n i z e " t h e need t o respond a c t i v e l y t o i s s u e s of r a c i s m " (Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , Race R e l a t i o n s P o l i c y , 1982), i t would seem a p p r o p r i a t e , i f not n e c e s s a r y , to d e v e l o p programs which would be e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g the development of p o s i t i v e i n t e r - c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r a l p r i d e i n s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . When c h o o s i n g an e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y one must c o n s i d e r many v a r i a b l e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , g i v e n the methods c o n s i d e r e d i n c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , s p e c i f i c a l l y knowledge and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n t a c t , how can t h e s e be adapted i n terms of a s t r a t e g y which meets the needs and c o n s t r a i n t s of the s c h o o l system? I n November of 1984, a committee composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p l u s t e a c h e r s from the Vancouver S c h o o l Board and the Vancouver Talmud T o r a h , was formed t o d e v e l o p a t e a c h e r manual on the Canadian J e w i s h communities f o r use i n upper e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s . T h i s g u i d e , e n t i t l e d S p o t l i g h t On J e w i s h - C a n a d i a n s , (Neaman and W i l l i a m s , 1987), has employed s t r a t e g i e s which encourage s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n about the community t h r o u g h d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge. 17 Although the curr iculum had severa l program goals, th i s study examined i t s e f fec t i venes s in two areas. These areas are changing a t t i tudes towards an acceptance of s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y and developing a pr ide in one's own c u l t u r e . Two measures were employed to analyze the e f fec t i veness of the curr iculum in terms of i t s a b i l i t y to achieve these goals. F i r s t , a preference for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y penc i l and paper t e s t , and second a c u l t u r a l survey quest ionna i re. These measures w i l l be discussed in the next chapter. The program goals as stated in the curr iculum were as fo l lows: " to help students c l a r i f y the i r own e t h n i c i t y as a means of comparing the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f fe rences between cu l t u re s " and " to provide students with the opportunity to experience and develop knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i tudes in i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication and understanding (Neaman and Wi l l iams, 1987, p. 14). The curr iculum unit was based on p r i n c i p l e s from current educat ional research which re la ted to both the information and contact hypotheses. The next sect ion of the study presents lesson plans as wel l as a d i scuss ion of the methodology behind the lesson ideas. It matches these with m u l t i c u l t u r a l curr iculum p r i n c i p l e s which provide j u s t i f i c a t i o n for t he i r place in the curr icu lum. To review, Proshanski (1966) stated that s i g n i f i c a n t favourable changes in a t t i tudes were reported twice as often as not when students were presented with knowledge or in format ion. Educators such as Kehoe (1984a, 1984b, 1984c), Sa lyach iv in (1972), Hood (1977), Werner (1977) and Z ieg le r (1979), have, through the i r research, found some of the condit ions necessary 18 f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o be e f f e c t i v e i n c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s . S a l y a c h i v i n ( 1 9 7 2 ) , d i s c u s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of p l a c i n g l e s s emphasis on b i z a r r e d i f f e r e n c e s and more emphasis on the s i m i l a r i t i e s between c u l t u r e s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e was d e v e l o p e d i n t h e methodology of the J e w i s h c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . For t h i s r e a s o n : The " expanding h o r i z o n s " a pproach i s u t i l i z e d i n t h a t s t u d e n t s b e g i n the u n i t by e x a m i n i n g t h e i r own c u l t u r a l background so t h a t they have some b a s i s upon which t o make on-going c o m p a r i s o n s t o the group under s t u d y . B e f o r e l e a r n i n g about the J e w i s h c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , s t u d e n t s r e s e a r c h t h e i r h i s t o r y and h e r i t a g e by t r a c i n g t h e i r a n c e s t r a l o r i g i n s . W i t h o u t t h i s s t e p , l i t t l e r e f l e c t i v e i n q u i r y i s p o s s i b l e w h e r e i n th e images they h o l d of e t h n i c p e o p l e a r e images of t h e m s e l v e s (Neaman and W i l l i a m s , 1987, p. 1 2 ) . The u n i t has s e v e r a l l e s s o n s which o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s a p p r o a c h . The l e s s o n s i n U n i t I had s t u d e n t s come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n c e p t of c u l t u r e . I n e a r l y p i l o t s t u d i e s of t h e u n i t d u r i n g 1985, i t was found t h a t s t u d e n t s f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d th e n o t i o n t h a t they d i d not b e l o n g t o a c u l t u r e . I n f a c t , " C u l t u r e t o them was t h e e x o t i c , the f o r e i g n , t h a t which made them d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s " (Neaman and W i l l i a m s , 1987, p . 3 2 ) . The l e s s o n s i n t h i s u n i t h e l p e d s t u d e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e on the s i m i l a r i t i e s by e x a m i n i n g t h e b a s i c needs of a l l p e o p l e , r e s e a r c h i n g t h e i r f a m i l y t r e e s , comparing o r i g i n s among c l a s s mates, and r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t a l l p e o p l e have c u l t u r e . As a f i n a l a c t i v i t y , t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s use t h e l e s s o n on "a c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n " . Here s t u d e n t s were asked t o examine the b a s i c human needs and compare and c o n t r a s t how t h e s e needs were met by t h e i r own 19 c u l t u r e as w e l l as by Jewish c u l t u r e . B e t t e Hood (1977) d i s c u s s e d the importance of p l a c i n g an emphasis on f a m i l y l i f e and the nature of everyday l i f e . S e v e r a l l e s s o n s i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n c o r p o r a t d t h i s p r i n c i p l e . For example, u n i t I I had stu d e n t s understand the r o l e Jewish people have played i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of B r i t i s h Columbia. L i s t e n i n g to a u r a l h i s t o r i e s of Jewish immigrants, e i t h e r i n person or on tape, was one means of p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the d a i l y l i v e s of Jewish persons. Teachers had s t u d e n t s compare the s t o r i e s of Jewish immigrants to e x p e r i e n c e s of c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s . T h i s o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n a s h a r i n g of s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g the s t r u g g l e s and j o y s t h a t immigrant f a m i l i e s f a c e upon v e n t u r i n g i n t o a new c o u n t r y . Werner's (1977) concern f o r having members of the community under study i n v o l v e d i n the p o r t r a y a l of t h e i r own h i s t o r y was addressed i n the c u r r i c u l u m i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t , the c u r r i c u l u m was developed under c l o s e s c r u t i n y by the Jewish community. Members of the community i n c l u d e d the the Jewish day s c h o o l , the Jewish F e s t i v a l of The A r t s , the Canadian Jewish Congress, and the p r o j e c t s r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r who i s a member of the Jewish community. In a d d i t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d v a r i o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to i n v o l v e members of the community i n the t e a c h i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m . As mentioned e a r l i e r , Jewish immigrants came i n t o classrooms to t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s . U n i t I I I had stu d e n t s go i n t o the community as a pa r t of a f i e l d study to examine the shops and s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the Jewish community. The c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e d i d e a s f o r people 20 t o c o n t a c t and p l a c e s t o v i s i t i n any Canadian c i t y w i t h a J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c examples of p e o p l e t o c a l l and p l a c e s t o v i s i t w i t h i n Vancouver and the Lower M a i n l a n d . Kehoe (1984a) a d d r e s s e d t h e need t o emphasize p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s of c u l t u r a l groups w i t h l e s s emphasis on h a r d s h i p s and p e r s e c u t i o n s . I n u n i t I I t h e r e were l e s s o n s which p r o v i d e d ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s t o a p p r e c i a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s J e w i s h p e o p l e made t o t h e development of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s p e c i f i c a l l y , and Canada i n g e n e r a l . The n o t i o n t h a t a c u l t u r a l group must be d i s c u s s e d i n p r i m a r i l y p o s i t i v e terms i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t a t m e n t : In Canada t o d a y , t h e r e a r e about 300.000 J e w i s h p e o p l e . U r b a n i z e d and l i t e r a t e , t h e J e w i s h have al w a y s been i n v o l v e d i n the economic and c u l t u r a l development of t h e c o u n t r y i n which they a r e c i t i z e n s . They e p i t o m i z e a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of a c u l t u r a l m o s a i c : the r i g h t t o d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y w h i l e l i v i n g i n u n i t y (Neaman and W i l l i a m s , 1987, p. 1 4 ) . An example of t h i s p o s i t i v e emphasis was de m o n s t r a t e d i n the l e s s o n on the p i c t o r i a l t i m e l i n e of J e w i s h h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d by p l a y i n g a t r i v i a game where they t r a v e l e d t h r o u g h the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and l e a r n e d about key p e o p l e who made c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o bot h t h e s e c u l a r l i f e of the p r o v i n c e and t o t h e J e w i s h community. Other l e s s o n s , such as t h e b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h e s of J e w i s h p i o n e e r s and t h e a u r a l h i s t o r y l e s s o n , were b u i l t on t h i s theme. What was o m i t t e d from t h e c u r r i c u l u m was a s e p a r a t e l e s s o n c o n c e r n i n g the H o l o c a u s t , or o t h e r i n c i d e n t s of 21 d i sc r im ina t ion against Jews. Instead these topics were mentioned in the background to teachers with a warning of the complexity of these i s sues , which many young students may not be ready to understand. Z i e g l e r ' s (1979) research on the re l a t i on sh ip between changing a t t i tudes and ce r t a in "classroom c l imates " were considered in the evaluat ion of the u n i t . An " i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s , " d i scuss ing ce r t a in condi t ions of the program in use in classrooms, i s developed in the chapter on research methodology. In the educat ional research on the contact hypothesis ce r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s are discussed (Amir 1968, 1969, 1977; Mcguire, 1968; A l l p o r t , 1954; Kehoe, 1984a). If these p r i n c i p l e s are b u i l t in to the c u r r i c u l a i t would be more l i k e l y that they would be e f f e c t i v e in providing students with the opportunity to experience and develop knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i tudes in i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication and understanding. The Jewish curr iculum stated as one of i t s goals that , "students examine cu l ture using an e x p e r i e n t i a l and community based approach" (p.12). Unit II had students begin communication with Jewish ch i l d ren f i r s t through pen pal l e t t e r s , and eventual ly through a c u l t u r a l exchange where Jewish and non-Jewish students met in small groups to teach each other about the cu l tures they belong to. In add i t i on , the Jewish ch i l d ren helped the non-Jewish ch i l d ren learn more about Judaism through dance, in terv iews, her i tage language a c t i v i t i e s and movies. These a c t i v i t i e s , while not i d e n t i c a l to the concept of peer teaching, were s im i l a r in that ch i l d ren 22 were heterogeneously grouped a c c o r d i n g to v a r i a b l e s of sex, age, race and a b i l i t y . The groups were i n t e r d e p e n d e n t i n t h a t each ones' p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e q u i r e d f o r the success of the meeting. Furthermore, the students were i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o s m a l l groups i n order to encourage i n t i m a c y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . Amir's (1977) c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an enjoyment of the c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change was adressed by p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s which were p l e a s u r a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s . For i n s t a n c e , s t u d e n t s had an o p p o r t u n i t y to play a t r i v i a game, meet and v i s i t people from the community, read Jewish proverbs and s t o r i e s , l e a r n songs and dances and the Hebrew a l p h a b e t . A c c o r d i n g to one of the t e a c h e r s who implemented the u n i t , i t was the v a r i e t y of l e s s o n s , and the n o v e l t y of working without t r a d i t i o n a l textbooks t h a t made the Jewish c u r r i c u l u m an e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r student p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a d d i t i o n , t e a c h e r s from both the Jewish day s c h o o l and the p u b l i c s c h o o l s concluded t h a t the i n t e r c u l t u r a l meeting was one of the most s u c c e s s f u l a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r c u l t u r a l f r i e n d s h i p s . When asked to e v a l u a t e a c t i v i t i e s they had l e a r n e d the most from, students found the time they spent at the Jewish day s c h o o l to be the most h e l p f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r u n derstanding of Judaism, and the most rewarding i n terms of the new f r i e n d s they had met. Many stud e n t s exchanged phone numbers and addresses and decided to m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t with each o t h e r . Whether or not any of these 23 f r iendsh ips s t i l l ex i s t i s unknown. However in terms of future i m p l i c a t i o n , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to inves t i ga te i f and for how long the f r iendsh ips l a s t ed . A l l p o r t ' s (1954) concern that a contact s i t ua t i on requires cooperation rather than competit ion was dealt with by having the students from the d i f f e r e n t schools grouped together in a l l a c t i v i t i e s , rather than having the two school groups compete in any way. For instance, the ch i l d ren played a t r i v i a game about Jewish h i s to ry in B r i t i s h Columbia in small groups composed of the pen pa l s . Students from d i f f e r e n t cu l tures cooperated with each other to play and win the game. A l l p o r t ' s (1954) p r i n c i p l e of having i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d support as a key part of a success fu l contact experience, was achieved in severa l ways. For example, the Vancouver School Board Centennial Working Committee recognized the project as a use fu l m u l t i c u l t u r a l resource (Wormsbecker, 1985). It served as one of many school projects ce lebra t ing the various ro les ethnic groups have played in the formation of Vancouver. The Jewish F e s t i v a l of the Arts helped organize contact between Jewish and non Jewish students, by sponsoring a "Jewish her i tage Day" as one of t he i r Centennial p ro jec t s . This p r i n c i p l e was also r e f l e c t e d in that the Canadian Jewish Congress reviewed th i s project and be l ieves i t to be an accurate por t raya l of the Jewish community. The Vancouver Talmud Torah curr iculum coordinator also reacted most p o s i t i v e l y to the project for i t s a b i l i t y to provide information and d i r e c t i o n to a teacher unfami l iar with Judaism (Greenwood, 1985). This project had a var ie ty of input and 24 support from v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the Jewish community. The Vancouver School Board e v a l u a t e d i t and approved i t as a l o c a l l y developed u n i t i n the Vancouver p u b l i c s c h o o l s (Wong, 1986) . The B r i t i s h Columbia Teacher F e d e r a t i o n c o - o r d i n a t o r of the Program a g a i n s t Racism was s u p p o r t i v e of the c u r r i c u l u m and a i d e d i n d i s t r i b u t i n g i t to more t e a c h e r s ( W i l l i a m s , 1987) . The combination of r e s e a r c h on i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n t a c t were used to develop the c u r r i c u l u m . C l e a r l y , the c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d many of the p r i n c i p l e s s e t out i n the l i t e r a t u r e . An e v a l u a t i o n of the success or f a i l u r e of t h i s approach i s reviewed i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , "Research Methodology and R e s u l t s " . 25 IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS Research Questions There are four research questions to examine the re l a t i on sh ip between the development of preferences for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y and c u l t u r a l pr ide and the in t roduct ion of a curr iculum treatment which i s based on both the information and contact s t r a teg i e s . 1) Did the experimental group change more p o s i t i v e l y on the measure of s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y than the cont ro l group? 2) Did the experimental group change more p o s i t i v e l y on the measure of c u l t u r a l pr ide than the cont ro l group? 3) Did the students at the Jewish day school experience an increase in t he i r c u l t u r a l pr ide on the measure of c u l t u r a l pr ide as a r e su l t of t he i r involvement in hosting the publ ic school? 4) How did the students in the cont ro l c la s s compare with those students at the Jewish day school on the measure of c u l t u r a l pride? RESEARCH DESIGN The research design was a quasi -experimental study invo lv ing four teachers and 96 students in three grade f i v e and one grade f i v e / s i x c lasses in the Vancouver Lower Mainland area. The design of the study i s summarized in f i gure 1. Henceforth the two experimental c lasses w i l l be c a l l ed A, B, the Jewish day school w i l l be ca l l ed c lass C, and the cont ro l c lass D. Four methods were used to c o l l e c t data. There were two measures. The main measure was a pre-post design using a penc i l and paper test with one cont ro l and two experimental c l a s se s . The secondary measure was a post only design administered to one c o n t r o l , one experimental and to one c lass 26 FIGURE 1. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH DESIGN PRE TEST TREATMENT POST TEST SCHOOL A EXPERIMENTAL XI CONTROL XI T l X2 Y l X2 Y l SCHOOL B EXPERIMENTAL XI T l X2 Y l SCHOOL C EXPERIMENTAL Y l T2 Y2 X - PREFERENCE FOR SOCIAL DIVERSITY MEASURE Y - CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY T l - CURRICULUM UNIT - SPOTLIGHT ON JEWISH CANADIANS T2 - MODIFIED CURRICULUM UNIT NOTE: In a d d i t i o n , a l l t h r e e c l a s s e s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y observed. 27 of students at the Jewish day schoo l . The th i r d method used was i n t e r a c t i o n ana lys i s (Acheson, 1980). It included a ser ies of classroom observations and interv iews. The inves t i ga to r wanted to examine: 1) the classroom cl imate in which the curr iculum was implemented; 2) how the curr iculum was adapted into the classroom (the inves t i ga to r would not be looking for f i d e l i t y , but mutual " adapta t ion " ; 3) and the kind of i n s t i t u t i o n a l support there was for the unit being taught. F i n a l l y , evaluat ions made by the teachers involved in teaching the unit were summarized to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the curr icu lum. Research on evaluat ing school programs has ind icated that these var iab les need to be considered in evaluat ing the success of a curr iculum treatment ( Fu l l an , 1977, p. 397). MEASURES The f i r s t instrument of measurement was a penc i l and paper test e n t i t l e d "preferences for s o c i a l d i v e r i s t y " . This test was developed by Suzanne Ze ig le r (1980) for the purpose of evaluat ing the e f f e c t of an appropriate workshop, a s pec i a l un i t , a text book, or membership in a mu l t i -e thn ic committee or study". A copy of the test i s attached in the Appendix A. Data on the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y scores on the sca le , as wel l as scor ing procedures, were published in Canadian Ethnic Studies. Ze i g le r (1980) found that Cronbach's alpha for the scored items was .59. T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b l i t y was .63 (p. 50). The strongest r e l a t i on sh ip with th i s measure are measures of persona l i ty 28 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : s e l f esteem (Rosenberg sca le) cor re la ted with the preference for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y sca le ( r =.22, p. < .003) and locus of cont ro l cor re la ted with the preference for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y scale (Norwick i -S t r i ck land abbreviated scale r=.29, p <.001). This ind icated that ch i l d ren who prefer s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y to s o c i a l homogeneity tend to have a more pos i t i ve se l f - concept and to f e e l more in cont ro l of the i r own l i v e s . These co r re l a t i on s suggest that preference f o r ^ s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y may be an a t t r i b u t e of strong and secure ch i l d ren and thus give support to that aspect of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l i dea l which assoc iates s e l f - p r i d e with respect for others who are d i f f e r e n t ( Ze i g l e r , 1979 p.53). Kehoe (1982) found that th i s measure had a pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i o n with se l f -esteem and a negative c o r r e l a t i o n with ethnocentrism (p. 69). This measure was used by the inves t i ga to r to determine whether or not the curr iculum treatment had any e f f e c t on the pupi l s in terms of an increase in t he i r preferences towards s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y in genera l . Measuring a t t i tudes towards Jews as a s p e c i f i c ethnic group was not poss ib le because of school board p o l i c y . The second measure cons isted of a c u l t u r a l pr ide survey. T h i s measure was developed by Dr. Jack Kehoe (1986). I t s purpose was to evaluate the l e v e l of c u l t u r a l pr ide held by i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . A copy of the survey i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. This survey had not been tested for r e l i a b i l i t y or v a l i d i t y . An item ana lys i s was completed to test for i n t e r n a l cons i s tency. The i n t e r n a l consistency for the c u l t u r a l pride measure was not h igh. Crombach's alpha was .4724. The c u l t u r a l pr ide measure helped the inves t i ga to r determine whether the 29 c u r r i c u l u m treatment had any e f f e c t on the p u p i l s i n terms of an i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l p r i d e . PROCEDURE D i s t r i c t p e r m i s s i o n was granted to have st u d e n t s i n two Grade f i v e c l a s s e s i n the Vancouver Lower Mainland, c l a s s e s A and B, served as e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n an e i g h t week c u r r i c u l u m u n i t e n t i t l e d S p o t l i g h t On Jewish Canadians. The p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y measure was a d m i n i s t e r e d to c l a s s e s A and B bef o r e and a f t e r the u n i t . C l a s s D p a r t i c i p a t e d as the c o n t r o l group i n completing the same pre and post a t t i t u d e t e s t . C l a s s e s A and C completed the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey a f t e r completing the c u r r i c u l u m treatment. Because of c o n s t r a i n t s of teac h e r time t a b l e s , i t was s i t u a t i o n a l l y i m p o s s s i b l e to have had the stu d e n t s do both pre and post t e s t s . While t h i s was a weakness i n the study, a d e c i s i o n was made to proceed based on the f a c t t h a t mean s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l and ex p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s were s i m i l a r on the pre t e s t f o r the p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In a d d i t i o n , students from the Jewish day s c h o o l completed the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey b e f o r e and a f t e r the u n i t . The i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s survey helped the i n v e s t i g a t o r determine whether or not the Jewish c h i l d r e n had an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l p r i d e as a r e s u l t of t h i s program. Upon completion of the program the r e s u l t s of the p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y measure, the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey, the i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s and the teacher e v a l u a t i o n s 30 were a n a l y z e d to see what e f f e c t , i f any, the t rea tment program had on the e x p e r i m e n t a l g roups . STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM THE TWO MEASURES 1. P r e f e r e n c e f o r d i v e r s i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e DID THE EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES CHANGE MORE POSITIVELY ON THE MEASURE OF PREFERENCE FOR SOCIAL DIVERSITY THAN THE CONTROL GROUP? The P r e f e r e n c e f o r S o c i a l D i v e r s i t y Measure was a d m i n i s t e r e d to two e x p e r i m e n t a l and one c o n t r o l g roup . Pre and post t e s t s were g i ven to a l l t h r e e g roups . Low s c o r e s would i n d i c a t e a h i g h e r degree of a c cep tance of s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y -Method To t e s t the e f f e c t of exposure to t rea tment on P r e f e r e n c e For S o c i a l D i v e r s i t y , a two way repea ted measures ANOVA was p e r f o r m e d . The g roup ing f a c t o r had t h r e e l e v e l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the c o n t r o l c l a s s , the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s A and the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s B. The w i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r c o n s i s t e d of the pre and post measures on the P r e f e r e n c e f o r S o c i a l D i v e r s i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s u l t s The two way repea ted measures ANOVA f o r t e s t i n g the e f f e c t s of t rea tment on p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y r e s u l t e d i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to c l a s s e s , (F= 0 .626, df=2, 75, p = 0 .537 ) , a non s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due to t r i a l s , (F = 26 .18, df = 1, 75, p = <0.001) and a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s by t r i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 0 .353, df = 2, 75, p = 0 . 7 0 4 ) . These r e s u l t s a re apparent from the c e l l means, i n T a b l e 1, which show rough l y equa l and modest changes i n a ccep tance f o r s o c i a l 31 TABLE 1. MEANS AND N'S FOR THE PREFERENCE FOR SOCIAL DIVERSITY MEASURE PRE X POST X N CONTROL GROUP 42.375 40.375 24 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP A 41.083 38.375 24 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP B 41.167 38.167 30 32 TABLE 2. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DF MS CLASSES 2 46.978 0.626 0.537 ERROR 75 TRIALS 1 254.650 26.181 0.000 ERROR 75 CLASS TRIAL 2 3.430 0.353 0.704 INTERACTION ERROR 75 33 d i v e r s i t y from pre to post t r i a l s f o r each treatment group. P l a c e t a b l e 1 about here R e s u l t s of the c e l l means are shown i n t a b l e 1. R e s u l t s of two way repeated measures ANOVA are shown i n t a b l e 2. P l a c e t a b l e 2 about here C o n c l u s i o n The treatment i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d not a f f e c t the s c o r e s on p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y . There c o u l d be two reasons f o r r e a c h i n g a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t . F i r s t , the i n v e s t i g a t o r chose a g e n e r a l t e s t of p r e f e r e n c e s towards s o c i a l d i v e s r i t y r a t h e r t h a n a more s p e c i f i c measure r e l a t i n g to the J e w i s h c u l t u r e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r was e x p e c t i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s who f e l t more a p p r e c i a t i v e of the Jewish c u l t u r e would t r a n s f e r those f e e l i n g s to an acceptance of other c u l t u r e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s t r a n s f e r d i d n o t o c c u r . A s p e c i f i c m e a s u r e i n d i c a t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s towards the Jewish c u l t u r e might have produced more s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Second, the measure might have been t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r s t u d e n t s to u n d e r s t a n d . One t e a c h e r implementing the u n i t s t a t e d t h i s i n her e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d more throughouly i n l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. 2. C u l t u r a l p r i d e survey DID THE EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES CHANGE MORE POSITIVELY ON THE MEASURE OF CULTURAL PRIDE THAN THE CONTROL GROUP? The c u l t u r a l p r i d e t e s t i s a r e c e n t l y developed measure and was used i n t h i s study i n p a r t , to begin the process of v a l i d a t i n g t h e m e a s u r e . The m e a s u r e has f a c e v a l i d i t y . Because the p r e t e s t means were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on the P r e f e r e n c e f o r S o c i a l D i v e r s i t y measure, the c u l t u r a l p r i d e 34 survey was administered to the cont ro l and experimental c lass A as a post test only. Low scores ind icated a higher degree of c u l t u r a l p r ide . While 10 items were present on the te s t , only the f i r s t 9 were used as students were confused by the l a s t question and i t was decided that question 10 be deleted from the r e s u l t s . Method To test the e f f e c t of the treatment on responses to the c u l t u r a l survey quest ionna i re, an independent sample t - t e s t was performed on the means of the experimental c lass A and the cont ro l c lass C. Results The t - t e s t comparing the means of the experimental c lass A and cont ro l group on the t o t a l score of the c u l t u r a l pr ide survey was s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 2,46, df = 47, p = 0.018). A comparison of the means from the two groups showed that the cont ro l group scored a mean of 21.292, 3.22 points higher than the experimental group. Results of the c e l l means are shown on table 3. Results of the t - t e s t are shown on table 4. Place table 3 about here Place table 4 about here Conclusion The treatment resu l ted in a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement in the scores on the c u l t u r a l pr ide survey. The experimental group demonstrated a higher degree of c u l t u r a l pr ide as compared to the cont ro l group. 35 TABLE 3. MEANS AND N'S ON CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY X N CONTROL GROUP 21.292 24 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 18.080 25 36 TABLE 4. T-TEST RESULTS FOR CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY T-TEST DF MS F P GROUP 2.46 1 113.659 6.030 .018 ERROR 47 37 3. C u l t u r a l p r i d e survey DID THE STUDENTS AT THE TALMUD TORAH SCHOOL EXPERIENCE AN INCREASE IN THEIR OWN CULTURAL PRIDE ON THE MEASURE OF CULTURAL PRIDE AS A RESULT OF THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN HOSTING THE PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM CONTROL CLASS A ? A Pre and Post C u l t u r a l Survey t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to one grade f i v e c l a s s at the Jewish day s c h o o l . Low s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d a h i g h e r degree of c u l t u r a l p r i d e . Method As t h e r e was no way of matching s u b j e c t s between pre and post t e s t s , an independent sample t - t e s t was performed to compare the mean s c o r e s on the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey f o r st u d e n t s at the Jewish day s c h o o l b e f o r e and a f t e r they hosted s t u d e n t s from the p u b l i c s c h o o l . R e s u l t s No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were found between the pre and post mean s c o r e s on the c u l t u r a l survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the Talmud Torah c l a s s , ( t • 1.52, df = 32. p = 0.139). R e s u l t s of the c e l l means are shown i n t a b l e 5. R e s u l t s of the t - t e s t are shown i n t a b l e 6. P l a c e t a b l e 5 about here P l a c e t a b l e 6 about here C o n c l u s i o n Comparison of the observed means suggests an i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l survey s c o r e s moved i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n from pre to post t e s t , but the i n c r e a s e d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . 38 TABLE 5. MEANS AND N'S FOR JEWISH DAY SCHOOL ON THE CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY PRE TEST X POST TEST X N EXPERIMENTAL 15.389 17.063 18 GROUP 39 TABLE 6. INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TEST FOR JEWISH DAY SCHOOL T-TEST DF MS GROUP 1.52 1 23.726 2.306 0.139 ERROR 32 40 4) C u l t u r a l p r i d e survey DID THE JEWISH DAY SCHOOL STUDENTS SCORE HIGHER THAN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE MEASURE OF CULTURAL PRIDE? Method To t e s t the v a r y i n g e f f e c t of the treatment on responses to the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey, an ANOVA was performed on the mean s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l , e x p e r i e m n t a l and Jewish day s c h o o l group. In a d d i t i o n a post hoc m u l t i p l e range t e s t , u s i n g the Newman-Keuls comparison t e s t was performed as a f o l l o w up to study the gap between the th r e e groups. R e s u l t s A comparison of the c e l l means from the three groups i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Jewish day s c h o o l s t u d e n t s showed h i g h e r s c o r e s on the c u l t u r a l p r i d e survey as compared with e i t h e r the c o n t r o l or e x p e r i e m t n a l group. (Sum of Squares = 365.670, df = 2,64 ms = 182.835, 17.704, f = 10.327. p = 0.0). A m u l t i p l e range t e s t , u s i n g the Newman-Keuls comparison, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Jewish day s c h o o l s tudents scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than both the ex p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups. The gap order between the Jewish day s c h o o l group and the ex p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were 2.516 and 3.022 r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e s u l t s of the the c e l l means are shown i n t a b l e 7. P l a c e t a b l e 7 about here R e s u l t s of t h e Anova a r e shown i n t a b l e 8. R e s u l t s of the Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e comparison t e s t are shown i n t a b l e 9. P l a c e t a b l e 8 about here P l a c e t a b l e 9 about here 41 TABLE 7 MEANS AND N'S FOR CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY POST TEST X N CONTROL GROUP 21.292 24 EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 18.080 25 JEWISH DAY SCHOOL GROUP 15.389 18 42 TABLE 8. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CULTURAL PRIDE SURVEY SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DF MS P BETWEEN GROUPS 365.670 2 182.835 10.327 0.0 ERROR 1133.076 64 17.704 43 TABLE 9. NEWMAN-KEULS MULTIPLE COMPARISON ORDERD MEANS DIFFER AT ALPHA = .50 GAP ORDER 1. 2.516 2. 3.022 44 C o n c l u s i o n There a number of p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s why the Jewish day s c h o o l students s c o r e d h i g h e r on the c u l t u r a l p r i d e measure. F i r s t , the f a c t t h a t parents choose to send t h e r e c h i l d r e n to a Jewish p r i v a t e s c h o o l to be educated, c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t the f a m i l i e s of the stu d e n t s have a hi g h degree of c u l t u r a l p r i d e , w h ich a f f e c t s t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s d e g r e e of c u l t u r a l p r i d e . Second, the s c h o o l and or i t s c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d serve to f o s t e r a h i g h degree of c u l t u r a l p r i d e . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the degree of c u l t u r a l p r i d e of the Jewish s t u d e n t s w i t h Chinese s t u d e n t s whose parents send t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n ( a f t e r s c h o o l ) . I s t h e r e a c o r r e l a t i o n between e t h n i c e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l p r i d e ? INTERACTION ANALYSIS D e s c r i p t i o n of the C l a s s e s In t h i s s e c t i o n , an a n a l y s i s of c l a s s e s A and C was completed examining t h r e e a r e a s . F i r s t , the classroom c l i m a t e i n which the u n i t was taught, second, how the te a c h e r adapted the c u r r i c u l u m i n t o h i s or her classroom and t h i r d , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l support p r o v i d e d to the te a c h e r i n t a k i n g on the t e a c h i n g of the u n i t . Classroom A Classroom C l i m a t e E x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s A was taught by a male t e a c h e r . He had a gr e a t d e a l of i n t e r e s t i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide both as a te a c h e r and as a member of a m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group. He hoped to use some of the s t r u c t u r e of t h i s guide to develop a u n i t 45 r e l e v a n t to h i s own e t h n i c group. The teacher demonstrated a high l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n the c u r r i c u l u m by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s v o l u n t a r y p r o j e c t d e s p i t e the many e x t r a hours of p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d . The s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s A belonged to a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c groups i n c l u d i n g Chinese, Vietnamese, I t a l i a n , German, N a t i v e , and B r i t i s h . Some stu d e n t s d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e n t i r e u n i t because of t h e i r involvement i n the E n g l i s h As A Second Language l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs i n t h e i r s c h o o l . T h i s d i d cause them some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n keeping up with other s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s . The teacher d e s c r i b e d h i s c l a s s as a l i t t l e below average i n comparison with other students i n t h i s grade. On the 12 o c c a s i o n s the i n v e s t i g a t o r observed h i s c l a s s , the teacher was w e l l o r g a n i z e d , d e l i v e r e d the m a t e r i a l i n an understandable way, used a v a r i e t y of examples and stopped r e g u l a r l y to answer c l a s s q u e s t i o n s . He encouraged student p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s responded by paying a t t e n t i o n to a l l of the l e s s o n s observed. I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the teacher student r e l a t i o n s h i p was, f o r the most p a r t , of a p o s i t i v e n a t u r e . Most of the students worked hard to complete a l l of t h e i r assignments. The s t u d e n t s were very e n t h u s i a s t i c about meeting t h e i r pen p a l s from the Jewish day s c h o o l . They were e a s i l y accepted upon t h e i r a r r i v a l and throughout the a f t e r n o o n s t u d e n t s f r e e l y spoke with one another. Photographs taken served as an i n f o r m a l sociogram of i n t e r a c t i o n between Jewish and non-Jewish s t u d e n t s . The photographs i l l u s t r a t e a h i g h 46 l e v e l of i n t e r a c t i o n d u r i n g the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s between the two groups. Adapting the C u r r i c u l u m i n t o the Classroom E x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s A p a r t i c i p a t e d i n almost a l l the a c t i v i t i e s i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide. They f i r s t spent a gr e a t d e a l of time examining t h e i r own h i s t o r y and h e r i t a g e . Then, they used what they had l e a r n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the Jewish c u l t u r e and heritage.. As p a r t of the program p u p i l s met members of the Jewish community and c h i l d r e n from the Jewish day s c h o o l . While being observed, the stu d e n t s o f f e r e d v a r i o u s comparative remarks r e g a r d i n g t h e i r own c u l t u r e s , r e g a r d i n g i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y of Jewish immigration i n Canada, with r e s p e c t to Jewish r i g h t s , customs, and a s p e c t s of the Jewish b e l i e f system. The stu d e n t s showed r e s p e c t f o r guests from the Jewish community coming i n t o the classroom as w e l l as to the shop owners and other people they met on t h e i r f i e l d e x c u r s i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Support f o r the C u r r i c u l u m The P u b l i c s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s cooperated by a l l o w i n g the U n i t to be taught i n the s c h o o l , by a l l o w i n g another c l a s s to serve as the c o n t r o l group, by p e r m i t t i n g a f u l l day f i e l d study and by p r o v i d i n g some funds to purchase a snack f o r both c l a s s e s . A c o l l e a g u e of the te a c h e r a i d e d i n the t e a c h i n g of the u n i t by i n t e g r a t i n g the music program to f i t i n t o the u n i t . Other t e a c h e r s were h e l p f u l i n r e a r r a n g i n g t h e i r t i m e t a b l e s a l l o w i n g f o r e x t r a gym use to teach I s r a e l i dance, as w e l l as a l l o w i n g f o r f i e l d study and community g u e s t s . 47 Classroom B Classroom C l i m a t e C l a s s B was taught by a female t e a c h e r . She was i n t e r e s t e d i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and i n the past had i n v o l v e d her c l a s s e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l f a i r . While she was more than w i l l i n g to teach the u n i t , she was not a b l e to spend more than f o u r hours a week over the e i g h t week p e r i o d doing so. In a d d i t i o n she was not i n t e r e s t e d i n having members of the Jewish community serve as guests f o r any of the l e s s o n s . She was a more s t r u c t u r e d t e a c h e r than the one i n c l a s s A, however her stu d e n t s responded to her i n a p o s i t i v e way. The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i n her c l a s s were members of Chinese and East Indian e t h n i c groups. The teacher d e s c r i b e d her c l a s s as above average as compared to other s t u d e n t s t h e i r age. Of the f o u r o b s e r v a t i o n s made to t h i s groups, the obs e r v e r found t h a t the tea c h e r showed a gre a t d e a l of enthusiasm when p r e s e n t i n g l e s s o n t o p i c s . She encouraged s t u d e n t s to c o n s i d e r how the Jewish c u l t u r e was s i m i l a r and d i f f e r e n t from the c u l t u r e s of the s t u d e n t s , emphasizing the s i m i l a r i t i e s between c u l t u r e s r a t h e r than the d i f f e r e n c e s . Adopting the c u r r i c u l u m i n t o the classroom Students i n ex p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s used f o u r l e s s o n s from the c u r r i c u l u m guide, each one s e r v i n g as a " m i n i " week long p r o j e c t . Each l e s s o n was d e a l t with i n more depth than the other c l a s s . However, t h e r e were no person-to-person i n t e r a c t i o n s with members of the Jewish community. The st u d e n t s work i n d i c a t e d a high l e v e l of understanding of what 48 was expected f o r the assignments. Students spent a g r e a t d e a l of time w r i t i n g s t o r i e s , making up proverbs which were based on i d e a s i n the c u r r i c u l u m . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Support The p r i n c i p a l was s u p p o r t i v e as f a r as a l l o w i n g the t e a c h e r to implement the u n i t and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, because t h i s t e a c h e r had used up her f i e l d study a l l o t m e n t f o r the year, t h e r e were l i m i t s as to what a c t i v i t i e s the c l a s s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n o u t s i d e of the s c h o o l . Classroom D Classroom C l i m a t e Two t e a c h e r s and t h e i r grade f i v e c l a s s e s were i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the i n t e r - c u l t u r a l exchange with the p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . Both t e a c h e r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r s t u d e n t s meeting s t u d e n t s from other c u l t u r e s . In a d d i t i o n , one teacher a p p r e c i a t e d the u n i t because t h e r e was prepared m a t e r i a l s on Jewish h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e t h a t she c o u l d use with her c l a s s . The t e a c h e r s spent a l o t of time o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r c l a s s e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the exchange. In the two o b s e r v a t i o n s made p r i o r to the exchange, t h e r e appeared to be a p o s i t i v e t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n both c l a s s e s . The t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r s t u d e n t s as above average as compared with other students t h e i r age. Adopting the C u r r i c u l u m i n t o the Classroom Students from the Jewish day s c h o o l were i n v o l v e d i n so f a r as they were h o s t i n g a h e r i t a g e day f o r one of the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s day they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n v a r i o u s l e s s o n s from the c u r r i c u l u m guide 49 i n c l u d i n g r e s e a r c h i n g t h e i r f a m i l y t r e e s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g how and why t h e i r f a m i l i e s came to l i v e i n Canada and l e a r n i n g about Jewish p i o n e e r s i n Canada. They played the Jewish h i s t o r y game, and they a l s o l e a r n e d some I s r a e l i f o l k dances be f o r e the p u b l i c s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r r i v e d . The s t u d e n t s were at f i r s t r e t i c e n t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the u n i t . However, once they had r e c e i v e d t h e i r pen p a l l e t t e r s they showed a g r e a t d e a l of enthusiasm. They were then w i l l i n g to l e a r n v a r i o u s I s r a e l i dances, prepare t h e i r f a m i l y t r e e s and develop i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s to ask t h e i r pen p a l s upon t h e i r a r r i v a l to the s c h o o l . I n s t i t u t i o n a l Support I n s t i t u t i o n a l support f o r t h i s p r o j e c t was e v i d e n t i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t , the Jewish day s c h o o l allowed t h e i r t e a c h e r s to take time from the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m to p l a n the i n t e r c u l t u r a l day. In a d d i t i o n , a Hebrew teacher was allowed to l e a v e her c l a s s on s c h o o l time to go to the p u b l i c s c h o o l i n order to teach an I s r a e l i dance to the non-Jewish c l a s s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the exchange. Other i n d i v i d u a l s from the Jewish s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d i n g programs to the p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n c l u d i n g the l i b r a r i a n , the head of Jewish s t u d i e s , the c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r and v o l u n t e e r s who came to help by p r e p a r i n g a snack f o r a l l the s t u d e n t s . Community Support f o r the P r o j e c t Students v i s i t e d v a r i o u s Jewish shops and synagogues as a p a r t of the u n i t . The shop owners and people i n v o l v e d i n g r e e t i n g the students went out of t h e i r way to be h e l p f u l . One 50 s h o p o w n e r g a v e t h e c h i l d r e n d r e i d l e s , a t o y J e w i s h c h i l d r e n p l a y w i t h on one o f t h e h o l i d a y s , w h i l e t h e b a k e r y o f f e r e d t h e c h i l d r e n s a m p l e s o f t h e i r f o o d s . Commen t s maed t o t h e t e a c h e r f r o m c l a s s A i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i t by i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a s w e l l . T h i s a d d e d t o t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r who was a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e t r o u b l e i n d i v i d u a l s h a d g o n e t o f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y c o n t i n u e s t o s u p p o r t t h e c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t i n t h e s e w a y s r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . B u t t o t h i s d a t e , t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f e v e r y o n e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s s u c c e s s . T E A C H E R E V A L U A T I O N OF THE U N I T I n t h i s n e x t s e c t i o n , t e a c h e r s f r o m g r o u p s A a n d B p r o v i d e a s t a t e m e n t o f e v a l u a t i o n on t h e u n i t . C l a s s r o o m A T h e t e a c h e r f r o m c l a s s A r e p o r t e d t h a t a l l o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w e r e a t t e m p t e d c r e a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t a m o n g s t t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e f i e l d s t u d y was t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y . He f o u n d t h a t m o r e t i m e c o u l d h a v e b e e n s p e n t i n t h e s h o p s a n d s u g g e s t e d d i v i d i n g t h e f i e l d s t u d y i n t o two d a y s , o n e f o r t h e s h o p s a n d t h e o t h e r a t t h e J e w i s h d a y s c h o o l . Some s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e u n i t , s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e f a m i l y o r i g i n a c t i v i t y . T h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t y c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a n d some f a m i l i e s h a d v e r y c o m p l e x b a c k g r o u n d s . I n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s , he f e l t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a 51 worthwhile e x e r c i s e i n attempting to communicate with parents r e g a r d i n g t h e i r background and f a m i l y h i s t o r y . He was always amazed to hear some of the c o l o u r f u l s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g how some of h i s stu d e n t s f a m i l i e s a r r i v e d i n Vancouver. The c u r r i c u l u m f i t s q u i t e w e l l i n t o the Grade f i v e c u r r i c u l u m . I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r stu d e n t s to e x p l o r e a p a r t of our community, on a hands on b a s i s . The classroom a c t i v i t i e s are c o n c i s e and w e l l o r g a n i z e d . They p r o v i d e enough f l e x i b i l i t y f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a l l s u b j e c t a r e a s , or s t u d i e s i n d i v i d u a l l y d u r i n g s o c i a l s t u d i e s p e r i o d s . Classroom B As mentioned e a r l i e r , the teacher f e l t t h a t her s t u d e n t s were not sure of the t r u e meanings or the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n s on the p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, she concluded t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s she used i n her clas s r o o m were e x c e l l e n t . She enjoyed s h a r i n g the Y i d d i s h s t o r y with her stu d e n t s and then had them w r i t e a s t o r y with a s i m i l a r moral. The Chinese s t u d e n t s i n her c l a s s found i t i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e were s i m i l a r i t i e s between Hebrew and Chinese i n t h a t both are read from r i g h t to l e f t . The Chinese s t u d e n t s a l s o found s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Jewish proverbs and the ones they knew. The c l a s s spent a l o t of time a n a l y z i n g the meaning of the p r o v e r b s . The teacher s a i d the st u d e n t s enjoyed a n a l y z i n g the h i s t o r i c a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t . In sum, she f e l t t h a t a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s were s u i t a b l e to s t u d e n t s i n her c l a s s and were designed f o r enjoyment as w e l l as l e a r n i n g . 52 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Preference For Soc ia l D i ve r s i t y Questionnaire Whether or not th i s measures was most su i tab le for the research design must be quest ioned. There ex i s t s a discrepency between the po s i t i ve evaluat ion received from the teachers of the experimental groups and the re su l t s from the measures. Kehoe (1980) re fer s to th i s as a type II er ror - " ach iev ing no measured e f f e c t when in fact there was an e f f e c t (p. 95). The measure may have been inappropr iate because i t was i n s e n s i t i v e . Should the inves t i ga to r re ly on the word of the teacher invloved or the s t a t i s t i c a l r e su l t s from the measure? This question could only be answered by re tes t ing the unit using the same and a d i f f e r e n t measure. Yet these seems to be evidence to suggest that the "preference for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y " measure was problematic according to one of the teachers. The teacher i n experimental c lass B observed that some of her students were having trouble answering some of the questions on the "Preference For Soc i a l D i v e r s i t y " measure. She commented that t h i s may have a f fected how the students answered the quest ions, thus providing an inaccurate p ic ture of student percept ions. It could have been a better designed study i f students from the Jewish day school had taken th i s test to see i f they had any change in t h e i r preference for s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y before and a f te r t he i r involvement. Unfortunate ly, because of a t i ght schedule at th i s school , the adminis trators only allowed the i r students to take the c u l t u r a l pr ide survey. C u l t u r a l Pride Survey The c u l t u r a l pride survey was not tested for r e l i a b i l i t y 53 as i t was a newly developed measure. Thus the r e s u l t s from t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e can not be c o n s i d e r e d c o n c l u s i v e . I t would have been b e t t e r to have had a p r e / p o s t t e s t d e sign as w e l l as other measures which c o r r e l a t e d with i t . D e s p i t e these c o n s t r a i n t s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r chose to go ahead with the study and r e p o r t i t s f i n d i n g s . To make up f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h i s a r e a , i t was decided t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n i n the classrooms and t e a c h e r s e v a l u a t i o n s would help c l a r i f y some p o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n s t h a t would a r i s e from the use of only one method of a n a l y s i s . Classroom O b s e r v a t i o n s Because of l a c k of f u n d i n g i t was only p o s s b i l e f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r to make the o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s c o u l d have l e d to a b i a s e d viewing of the t e a c h i n g of the u n i t . Was she only s e e i n g what she wanted to see? Were t h e r e problems which e x i s t e d but were not r e p o r t e d ? These q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e not e a s i l y answered, set l i m i t a t i o n to the f i n d i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r , because of time c o n s t r a i n t s , was not a b l e to observe both classrooms an equal number of times. C l a s s A was observed 12 times and c l a s s B only 4 times. Thus not a l l l e s s o n s were observed to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . Were the t e a c h e r s any d i f f e r e n t when the o b s e r v e r was present? Again these q u e s t i o n s are not e a s i l y answered, yet s t i l l need to be adressed as l i m i t a t i o n s of the study. Teacher E v a l u a t i o n In order not to l i m i t the d i r e c t i o n or type of comments made by the t e a c h e r s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r encouraged the t e a c h e r s to e v a l u a t e the program i n any way they saw f i t . While the 54 t e a c h e r from c l a s s A p r o v i d e d a f a i r l y thorough e v a l u a t i o n , the te a c h e r from c l a s s B gave s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on c e r t a i n l e s s o n s r a t h e r than on o v e r a l l summary of what she f e l t the students had achieved by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the u n i t . A c h e c k l i s t of t h i n g s to c o n s i d e r i n the e v a l u a t i o n may have produced a more complete e v a l u a t i o n . 55 V SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i s a nebulous term steeped i n c u l t u r a l assumptions and perhaps p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c . Over time, i t has been r e p e a t e d l y addressed through p o l i c y statements and l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . In order to move beyond mere r h e t o r i c , the awareness generated from s t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h must be e f f e c t i v e l y implemented through c a r e f u l l y designed e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Such programs may assume a v a r i e t y of approaches, however the l i t e r a t u r e suggests a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s most l i k e l y to be a c h i e v e d through p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s , primary m a t e r i a l s and c r o s s c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t . To t h i s end, S p o t l i g h t On Jewish Canadians was designed to f o s t e r c r o s s c u l t u r a l communication and to generate a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r l i v i n g i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . The purpose of the study was to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c u r r i c u l u m premised on the afore-mentioned p r i n c i p l e s and to r e p o r t on i t s f i n d i n g s . A q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n v o l v i n g f o u r t e a c h e r s and n i n e t y - s i x s t u d e n t s was developed and implemented. Four methods were used to c o l l e c t d a t a . Two p e n c i l and paper t e s t , c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s were an a l y z e d to see what e f f e c t i f any the u n i t had on the students i n v o l v e d . The r e s u l t s of the p e n c i l and paper t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s ' p r i d e i n h e r i t a g e as a r e s u l t of the u n i t , but no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s p r e f e r e n c e f o r s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y was e v i d e n t . However classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s and t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s 56 c o n t r a d i c t e d the f i n d i n g s of the p r e f e r e n c e s towards s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y . In g e n e r a l the t e a c h e r s found the u n i t to be h e l p f u l i n making t h e i r s t u d e n t s more a c c e p t i n g of s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y as w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g p r i d e towards s t u d e n t s ' own c u l t u r e s . Whether the measure chosen was s u i t a b l e to s t u d e n t ' s ages or whether the measure was u n s u i t a b l e to the u n i t of study i s u n c l e a r . Yet t h i s study can not be c o n s i d e r e d u n s u c c e s s f u l . F o r too o f t e n s t u d i e s w h i c h show no s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e l e f t u n p u b l i s h e d . In order to b e t t e r understand how to improve a s t u d y or c u r r i c u l u m u n i t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to r e c o g n i z e t h e problems and work towards a b e t t e r understanding of the i s s u e s i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . T h i s paper has allowed the i n v e s t i g a t o r to examine t h e c o n c e p t of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m t h r o u g h a program of s t u d y designed f o r use i n elementary s c h o o l s . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d be of i n t e r e s t t o t h r e e a u d i e n c e s w i t h i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l arena: p o l i c y makers, c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and t e a c h e r s . For p o l i c y makers, t h i s study p r o v i d e s groundwork as to the o b j e c t i v e s necessary to a c h i e v e a t t i t u d e change i n order to make s t u d e n t s , and thus f u t u r e c i t i z e n s , e t h n i c a l l y l i t e r a t e i n a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e s o c i e t y . P o l i c y makers must c a r e f u l l y address the most e f f e c t i v e means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l , based on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n the area of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s must apply the knowledge found i n r e s e a r c h to develop e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l a which meet the needs of the s c h o o l s , the t e a c h e r s and the s t u d e n t s . The c u r r i c u l a p r oducts must be implemented and e v a l u a t e d c a r e f u l l y . I f by 57 chance, a c u r r i c u l u m u n i t does not meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the d e v e l o p e r s , t h i s must be r e c o g n i z e d and d e a l t with by making adjustments to the c u r r i c u l u m . F i n a l l y , f o r t e a c h e r s , t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s c o n c r e t e examples of l e s s o n i d e a s w hich a t t e m p t to change s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s both towards an a p p r e c i a t i o n of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y as w e l l as the development of p r i d e towards one's own c u l t u r e . In an era where the demands on t e a c h e r s grow g r e a t e r each year, a u n i t such as S p o t l i g h t On Jewish Canadians enables t e a c h e r s to i n t r o d u c e m u l t i c u l t u r a l concepts to s t u d e n t s i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way, p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s which can be e a s i l y adopted to f i t the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m s . Canada i s a s o c i e t y made up of d i v e r s e p e o p l e , and as such, p o l i c y makers, c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and t e a c h e r s must a c o u n t f o r t h e d i v e r s i t y by a d r e s s i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and p r e p a r i n g i t s c i t i z e n s to meet the demands of the f u t u r e . 58 BIBLIOGRAPHY Acheson, K.A. And G a l l , M.D. (1980). Techniques in the c l i n i c a l superv is ion of teacher: preserv ice and i n se rv i ce  a p p l i c a t i o n s . New York: Longman. A l l p o r t , G. (1954). The nature of p re jud ice . Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley. Amir, Y. and G a r t , C. (1977) . S i t u a t i o n a l and pe r sona l in f luences on a t t i tude change fo l lowing ethnic contact . In ternat iona l Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Re la t ions . Volume 1, No. 2, Summer. 58-75. Amir , Y. et a l . ( 1979). Group s t a t u s and a t t i t u d e change i n desegregated classrooms. In ternat iona l Journal of  I n t e r c u l t u r a l Re la t ions . Volume 3, No. 2, Summer. 137-152. Banks, J . (1977). Mu l t ie thn ic educat ion: Pract i ces and promises. Bloomingdale: Phi Delta Kappa Education Foundation. C larke, P. (1982). E s tab l i sh ing contact to change a t t i t u d e s . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Volume V, No 2. 3-10. Cummings. J . (1985). C u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c p lura l i sm in Canada.Mult icu l tura l i sm Canada. Ottawa: Department of the Secretary of State. D 'oyley, Vincent and Shapson, Stan. (Eds . ) . (1984). B i l i n g u a l  and m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion: Canadian perspect ives . M u l t i l i n g u a l Matters, No 15. F u l l a n , M., and Pomfret, A. (1977). Research on curr iculum and i n s t r u c t i o n implementation. Review of Educational  Research., Volume 47, No 1, Winter. I j az , M.A. and I j az , H. (1981). A c u l t u r a l program for changing a t t i t u d e s . The History and Soc ia l Science Teacher., Volume 17, no 1, F a l l . 17-21. Katz, P. (1976). Towards the i l l i m i n a t i o n of racism. New York: Pergamon Press. K a l i n , R. (1979). Ethnic and m u l t i c u l t u r a l a t t i tudes among ch i l d ren in a Canadian c i t y . Canadian ethnic Studies. Volume X, No 1. 69-81. Kehoe, John. (1980). The d i f f i c u l t y of unpredictable s t ra teg ie s . In A Troper (ed.).Immigration and  M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . pp. 91-97. Ontario M in i s t ry of Cu l tu ra l Recreat ion. 60 Kehoe, John. (1982). M u l t i c u l t u r a l Canada: Considerat ions to schools teachers and curr icu lum. Reprinted from Teaching  pub l i c issues in a Canadian context. Toronto: Oise Press. Kehoe, John. (1984a). Achieving c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y in Canadian  schools . Cornwal l : Vesta Pub l i ca t ions L imi ted. Kehoe, John. (1984b). A_ handbook for enhancing the m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l imate Of the schoo l . Vancouver: Western Educat ional Development Group, Faculty Of Educat ion, Un iver s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia. Kehoe, John. (Project D i rec tor ) (1984c). Equa l i ty now. Report of the spec i a l committee on v i s i b l e m inor i t i e s in Canadian s oc i e t y . Ottawa. McGuire, W i l l l i a m , J . (1968). The nature of a t t i tudes and a t t i t ude change. In G. Lindsey and E. Aronson (Eds . ) . Handbook of s o c i a l pyschology. Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley. Mal lea, J.R. and Young, J . C . (Eds . ) . (1984). Cu l tu ra l d i v e r s i t y  and Canadian educat ion. Ottawa: Car leton Un iver s i ty Press. Moodley, Kog i l a . (Ed. ) . (1985). Race re l a t i on s and m u l t i c u l t u r a l educat ion. Vancouver: Centre for the Study of Curriculum and I n s t ruc t i on . Murta, Jack.(1984). Progress ive Consevative Party po l i cy statement for m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Ottawa. Neaman E. C. and Wil l iams C.I. (1987). Spot l i ght on Jewish  Canadians: _A teacher ' s guide. Vancouver, P a c i f i c Educat ional Press. Western Educat ional Development Group. Facul ty of Educat ion. Un iver s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia. Proshansky, Harold. (1966). The development of intergroup a t t i t u d e s . Review of Ch i ld Development Research. Volume 2. L. W. Hoffman and M.L. Hoffman, (Eds . ) . Russel Stage Foundation. Riordan, Corne l iu s . (1978). Developing to lerance: A comparison of contextual versus program e f f e c t s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l Re la t ions . Volume 2, No 3, F a l l . 309-327. Sa l yach i v in , S. (1972). Change in i n t e r n a t i o n a l understanding  as a_ funct ion of s i m i l a r i t y , conceptual l e v e l and primacy. M.A. Thes i s : Un iver s i t y Of Toronto, Toronto. S te inka lk , E l ka . and T a f t , Ronald. (1979). The e f f e c t of a planned i n t e r c u l t u r a l experience on the a t t i tudes and behaviour of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In ternat iona l Journal of  I n t e r c u l t u r a l Re la t ions . Volume 3, No. 2, Summer. 187-198. 61 Stenning, Bruce. (1979). Problems in cross c u l t u r a l contact: A l i t e r a t u r e review. I n te rna t ina l Journal of I n t e r c u l t u r a l  Re la t ions . Volume 3~ No. 3~! 269-314. Troper, H. (1976). Mu l t i cu l tu ra l i sm in the classroom: P i t t f a l l s and opt ions. The His tory and Soc ia l Studies Teacher• Volume 12, No 1, F a l l . 3-7. Unger le ider , Char les, S. (1985). Po l i ce i n t e r c u l t u r a l educat ion: Promoting understanding and empathy between po l i ce and ethnic communities. Canadian Ethnic  S tud ies . Volume XVII, No. 1. 51-66. Vancouver School Board. (1982). The report of the working committee on race r e l a t i o n s . Vancouver. Werner, W. Conners, B. Aoki , T. Dahl ie , J . (Eds . ) . (1977). Whose  cu l ture? whose heritage? E t h n i c i t y within Canadian s o c i a l  s tudies c u r r i c u l a . Vancouver: Centre for the Study Of Curriculum and I n s t ruc t i on . Z i e g l e r , Suzanne.(1980). Measuring i n t e r - e t h n i c a t t i tudes in a mu l t i - e thn i c context. Canadian Ethnic Studies. Volume XII, No. 3. 45-55. Z i e g l e r , Suzanne. (1979). Ethnic d i v e r s i t y in the c i t y . In Saul Levine and Anna Rose Spina (Eds. ) . The c h i l d in the c i t y . Toronto: Un iver s i t y of Toronto Press. 62 APPENDIX A Copy of P r e f e r e n c e For S o c i a l D i v e s r i t y Measure 63 Pre- and Post-Attitude Test D i r e c t i o n s : For each statement c i r c l e the number that best describes your opinion. This t e s t w i l l not count f o r marks. 1. When there are a l o t of people around who are d i f f e r e n t from me, I'm not very comfortable. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 2. Foreign languages often sound pleasing to the ear. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 3. People with d i f f e r e n t backgrounds don't u s u a l l y have a great deal i n common. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 4. The opportunity to know people who are d i f f e r e n t from you i s a r e a l advantage of l i v i n g i n a c i t y l i k e t h i s one. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 5. People whose way of l i f e i s d i f f e r e n t from my family's make me f e e l out of place. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 6. Going to a d i f f e r e n t place every year i s the best way to take vacations. 1 2 ~ 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 7. Differences among people do not stand i n the-way of fr i e n d s h i p and understanding. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 8. Because differences among people mainly d i v i d e them, people should t r y to be more a l i k e . 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 9. You can learn a l o t from people whose backgrounds are d i f f e r e n t from yours. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 64 10. I t ' s usually best to shop i n the small stores so that you can know what to expect. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 11. I enjoy being around people who are d i f f e r e n t from me. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 12. I f e e l a l i t t l e uncomfortable when I hear strangers speaking a language I don't understand. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 13. The most rewarding friendships are often between people with very d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 14. A country where people have a wide variety of backgrounds i s l i k e l y to be an interesting place to l i v e . 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 15. People whose way of l i f e i s d i f f e r e n t from my family's are interesting to me. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 16. I t ' s hard to know how to get along w e l l with people from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly 17. A country where everyone has the same background i s a l o t better of f than a very mixed one. 1 2 3 4 5 agree strongly agree no opinion disagree disagree strongly *from S. Zeigler "Preference for Social Diversity',' Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal XII,3, 1980. 65 APPENDIX B Copy of C u l t u r a l P r i d e Survey 66 CULTURAL SURVEY 1. I know q u i t e a l o t about my c u l t u r e . 2. I am ashamed of my c u l t u r e . 3. The way of my c u l t u r e i s the kind of l i f e I would l i k e to l i v e . 4. I would l i k e to know more about my c u l t u r e . 5. My c u l t u r e has a l o t to o f f e r Canada. 6. I am proud to be a part of my c u l t u r e . 7. I have been i n s i t u a t i o n s where I d i d n ' t want to say I was par t of my c u l t u r e . 8. The h i s t o r y of my c u l t u r e i n Canada should be p a r t of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . 9. I f e e l t h a t my c u l t u r e has many good q u a l i t i e s . 10. I wish I co u l d have more r e s p e c t f o r my c u l t u r e . 67 ANSWER SHEET AGREE DISAGREE STRONGLY SLIGHTLY CAN'T DECIDE SLIGHTLY STRONGLY 1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10, 68 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055166/manifest

Comment

Related Items