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Forces influencing home economics curriculum change in British Columbia secondary schools 1912-1985 Thomas, Christie Jane 1986

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FORCES INFLUENCING HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CHANGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1912 - 1985. By CHRISTIE JANE THOMAS B.H.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum and Instructional Studies)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1986 ©Christie Jane Thomas, 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  requirements  f o r an  of  British  it  freely  available  understood  that  financial  shall  f o r reference  and  study.  I  for extensive be  her  copying or shall  copying of  g r a n t e d by  not  be  of  C^rr-icuJof*i  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  s^t^c^/yp-^  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives. publication  the  University  Library  h i s or  gain  the  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  f u l f i l m e n t of  I agree that  permission  department or  for  in partial  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  agree t h a t for  thesis  written  Abstract  The purposes of this study were to describe the changes that have occurred i n home economics c u r r i c u l a i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia during the period 1912 - 1985, to i d e n t i f y the forces that have influenced these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals i n this process of curriculum change. Documents concerning the s i x major home economics curriculum revisions were analyzed using Cuban's (1979) four c u r r i c u l a r determinants: s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; i n f l u e n t i a l groups; and i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s . Four major changes i n the home economics curriculum were noted. These included an expansion of the central focus on concerns of the home and family to include vocationalism i n the workplace and community i n t e r a c t i o n ; expansion and contraction i n the educational relevance and status of home economics education; the evolution of home economics as a course of study for females to one which i s coeducational; and changes i n the format of the curriculum documents. The major determinants found to influence these changes were broad s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, e s p e c i a l l y trends in educational philosophy. There were other movements, such as s o c i a l movements and changes in economic conditions, which also had an impact. The major secondary force influencing curriculum change was p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions. These decisions defined the nature of education and of intended curriculum change and determined the process of curriculum change. While both groups and i n d i v i d u a l s have had an influence on the home economics curriculum through advocacy and/or implementation of educational p o l i c i e s , these e f f o r t s have been subject to potential veto by the Department (Ministry) of Education. As bureaucratization i n education i n B.C. has increased, there was an apparent decline i n the influence of i n d i v i d u a l s . In this study, B.C. home economics professionals assumed a role i n the process of home economics curriculum change through making recommendations, implementing educational p o l i c y and i n some cases, mediating educational p o l i c y . The influence of home economics professionals has been as individuals or as members of groups rather than as policy-makers. Some suggestions for further study have been made.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  v  Chapter I  1  Introduction  Rationale and Purpose .  2  Procedure  4  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  7  Limitations  8  Chapter I I Review of L i t e r a t u r e and Framework of the Study  10  Perspectives on Curriculum Change  10  Cuban's Determinants of Curriculum Change  13  The F i r s t Curriculum Document i n Home Economics  20  Influences on the Emergence of Domestic Science  21  Chapter  I I I Findings of the Study  35  The 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  36  The 1937 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  51  The 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  63  The 1965 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  74  The 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  89  The 1985 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  100  Chapter  IV Discussion of the Findings and Conclusions  109  Changes i n the B.C. Home Economics Curriculum 1912-1985  109  The Use of Cuban's Curricular Determinants to Analyze Home Economics Curriculum Change  118  The Role of Home Economics Professionals i n the Process of Curriculum Change  131  S t a b i l i t y i n the Home Economics Curriculum  134  Conclusions  134  Table of Contents continued...  iv  Page  Chapter V  Summary and Recommendations  137  Summary  137  Recommendations for Further Study  139  Bibliography  142  Appendix A Suggested Outline of Work for Domestic Science (1914)  154  Appendix B Resolutions of the Home Economics Section (1924)  157  Appendix C 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  158  Appendix D 1937 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  160  Appendix E 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  163  Appendix F 1965 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  164  Appendix G 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  166  Appendix H 1985 Home Economics Curriculum Revision  168  V  Acknowledgements  I would l i k e to dedicate this thesis to the memory of Dr. George Tomkins, whose teaching and writing inspired me to undertake this study. I extend my h e a r t f e l t thanks to Dr. Margaret Arcus, who assisted i n c l a r i f y i n g both my thinking and my writing.. I deeply appreciate her generous contribution of time and her constant support and caring. I am also g r a t e f u l to Dr. LeRoi Daniels and Dr. Jane Gaskell f o r their many perceptive comments arid h e l p f u l suggestions. I am indebted to Dr.,. Patrick Dunnae, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , for h i s assistance i n locating the wide variety of h i s t o r i c a l documents examined i n thi's'study and to Mary Lou Morris, for her diligence i n typing the many drafts of t/his t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I thank my husband Gordie, and my son Derek for their tolerance and encouragement.  patience,  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  T r a d i t i o n a l l y educators have been concerned for and involved i n the areas of curriculum and curriculum development. educators  During undergraduate t r a i n i n g  study curriculum theory, gain practice i n writing curriculum and  have the opportunity to develop and evaluate c u r r i c u l a r materials.  Such  curriculum theory and development forms a major focus of most professional preparation programmes i n home economics education.  I t i s assumed that home  economics educators w i l l be responsible for the development of home economics curriculum i n school programmes i n order to ensure that the aims and purposes of the f i e l d are appropriately depicted (Chamberlain & K e l l y , 1981; Fleck, 1980; Hall & Paolucci, 1970).  In home economics the teacher i s viewed as the  " c r u c i a l factor i n implementing the basic b e l i e f s of home economics" and has a professional o b l i g a t i o n to develop curriculum that r e f l e c t s these b e l i e f s (Hall & Paolucci, 1970, p.107). This assumption has been challenged by. recent changes i n the home economics curriculum i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.).  General  changes i n the public school curriculum have been made by the B.C. Ministry of Education  to provide a more academic focus and to increase  requirements.  graduation  In home economics, two-year specialty streams for senior  students were created and a name change for one of the streams was mandated. Since l i t t l e input was sought from professionals i n the f i e l d regarding  these  changes, two questions may be raised regarding the nature of previous home economics curriculum change i n B.C.  By what process has home economics  curriculum h i s t o r i c a l l y changed in B.C.? What has been the role of home economics professionals i n this process?  These questions provided the impetus  to study the forces that have influenced home economics curriculum change i n B.C. from i t s inception to the present, including the role of home economics professionals i n this process of change.  In this chapter the rationale for this study w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and the purposes delineated. The method of procedure, sources of data and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study w i l l be described and the terms used i n the study w i l l be defined.  Rationale and Purpose A number of forces have influenced the emergence of home economics as a profession i n North America. century,  During the second half of the nineteenth  for example, Enlightenment b e l i e f s and the advent of s c i e n t i f i c  thought contributed to the development of the "home economics idea", that i s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of science i n the home to improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e and the moral and s p i r i t u a l development of the family (Budewig, 1957; Carver, 1979; V i n c e n t i , 1981).  This early h i s t o r y of home economics corresponded with the  development of education  for women, which was motivated i n part by concern for  "the development of women's p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and for the role of women i n their influence i n the home" (Brown, 1985, p.227).  In the early "twentieth  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n influenced the development of home economics. problems associated with over-population  Social  i n c i t i e s , c h i l d labour and juvenile  delinquency developed, and appeared to some"to threaten the moral of society and the family.  century,  foundations  The concern of home economics for the home and  family came to be seen as increasingly relevant at this time, as strengthening the family was f e l t by many to be c r i t i c a l  i n the preservation of North  American society (Kieren, Vaines & Badir, 1983; Vincenti, 1981). Suffrage, World Wars I and I I , the launching  Women's  of Sputnik, and the C i v i l  Movement have also contributed to the evolution of the f i e l d  Rights  (Carver, 1979;  Kieren, Vaines & Badir, 1983; Vincenti, 1981). Although there are many accounts of these general economics as a profession, few have focused  forces influencing home  s p e c i f i c a l l y on the emergence and  evolution of home economics within the context  of secondary education.  As  3 schooling i s h i s t o r i c a l l y the primary means by which home economics has fulfilled  i t s mission  (Vincenti, 1981), study of this dimension of the  profession appears worthy of attention. home economics i n an educational  Those studies which have examined  setting have generally been chronological,  i d e n t i f y i n g s i g n i f i c a n t events both i n the development of Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher educaton i n home economics (Rowles, 1956, 1964) and i n the introduction of home economics as a school subject (Campbell, 1977; Chestnutt,  1975; Irvine, 1975; Light foot & Maynard, 1971).  has been given to forces which have shaped home economics As noted e a r l i e r , i t i s assumed  L i t t l e attention education.  i n home economics that home economics  professionals have a s i g n i f i c a n t role to play i n the development of home economics curriculum.  However, concern has been expressed by some home  economists that the actions of home economists are characterized by reaction and conformity _,__„..1978).  rather than by influence and i n i t i a t i v e (Brown & Paolucci,  A study of. the influences on home economics curriculum change would  provide an opportunity  to examine the role of home economics educators i n the  process of curriculum change, and as such, may advance understanding of the nature of the profession. self-examination  In this way i t may contribute to the process of  i n which the profession i s currently engaged (Vincenti,  1981). The purposes of this study were to describe the changes that have occurred  in home economics c u r r i c u l a i n the province  of B r i t i s h Columbia  during the period 1912^ - 1985, to i d e n t i f y the forces that have influenced  While the f i r s t formal curriculum document located for this study i s dated 1914, both this document and other references indicate that the f i r s t formal course outline for home economics i n B.C. schools was printed by the Department of Education i n 1912 (B.C. Department of Education, 1914b; English, 1937; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). Therefore, i n this study, 1912 w i l l be considered to be the date of the f i r s t home economics curriculum document.  these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals i n this process of curriculum change.  S p e c i f i c objectives for the study were:  1) To describe changes i n home economics curriculum i n B.C. during the period 1912 - 1985; 2) To i d e n t i f y the forces that influenced change i n home economics curricula; 3) To determine at what point, i n what ways, and to what extent home economics professionals i n the province have been involved i n these curriculum changes; and 4) To make recommendations for further study. Procedure This study employs an h i s t o r i c a l mode of inquiry i n order to gain an understanding  of curriculum change and the forces influencing i t over time.  Such an h i s t o r i c a l study looks at "the interplay between events and thoughts and the larger s o c i a l context" (Vincenti, 1981, p.23).  I t becomes a process  of "asking questions about c o n t i n u i t i e s , lines of development, relationships among ideas and events,  facts and values, and economic and s o c i a l changes," i n  order to seek out organizing p r i n c i p l e s and to pursue their meanings (Greene, 1967,  p.187).  Goodson (1983) points out the dual advantage of using such an  approach to studying curriculum.  F i r s t , a depiction of the gradual evolution  of curriculum may a s s i s t i n i l l u m i n a t i n g contemporary s i t u a t i o n s .  Historical  inquiry can uncover "curriculum transformation and reproduction", providing a context  for contemporary inquiry and extending our general understanding of  curriculum.  Second, curriculum h i s t o r i e s may a s s i s t i n developing and  substantiating theoretical frameworks for viewing curriculum and in d i s c l o s i n g new areas for further study.  H i s t o r i c a l inquiry i n curriculum then may a s s i s t  in transforming a chronological recounting of events into the "reformulation of hypotheses and theories" (p. 406). Brown (1984) also notes the importance of h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n making past actions i n t e l l i g i b l e , i n stimulating r e f l e c t i o n on both the past  and present, and i n considering the future i n an enlightened way. (1980) states, the present  I f , as she  form of home economics education i s the r e s u l t of  i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y , then a study of the evolution of home economics curriculum may help to c l a r i f y the present p o s i t i o n of home economics i n r e l a t i o n to schooling, as well as to provide some d i r e c t i o n for i t s future. Data for this study were obtained  from several sources.  Primary  documents i n the form of l e t t e r s , memos, d i r e c t i v e s , minutes of meetings, c i r c u l a r s , newsletters, b u l l e t i n s and reports were examined systematically for reference both to curriculum change i n general and to home economics curriculum change.  These documents were found i n several locations: the  P r o v i n c i a l Archives, Vancouver City Archives, B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Archives, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Special C o l l e c t i o n s , Vancouver School Board, as well as i n private f i l e s . h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l s . Materials held in the P r o v i n c i a l Archives i n V i c t o r i a were located in the Home Economics Branch f i l e s , covering the years 1927 to 1981, and i n the Curriculum Branch f i l e s , which contained records dated 1949 to 1967. Annual reports of the B.C. Department of Education  (1896-1980) provided  information regarding the development of home economics i n the public school curriculum of the province.  They also furnished information regarding changes  in policy and provided some insight into the decision-making underlying these changes.  process  Annual reports of the Vancouver School Board  (1903-1980), located i n the Vancouver City Archives, were reviewed for information regarding home economics curriculum as i t was operative i n the school system and for educational trends and philosophies expressed points i n time.  at various  Annual reports and yearbooks of the National Council of Women  in Canada (1894-1927) provided  information regarding the early development of  home economics education i n both Canada and B.C. The Vancouver Council of Women Papers, located i n the Special Collections  of  the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library were examined for information  concerning the emergence of home economics education i n B.C. Minutes of Executive and Annual Meetings of the B.C. Teachers' Federation, located i n the B.C. Teachers' Federation Archives i n Vancouver, yielded information concerning the role of B.C. teachers i n the process of curriculum change. They also afforded access to numerous b r i e f s dealing with curriculum recommendations.  The Federation's professional magazine, The B.C. Teacher,  provided insight into the educational philosophies held by l o c a l  educators.  Although records of the p r o v i n c i a l home economic teacher association were d i f f i c u l t to access, minutes of annual general meetings were available through the association's professional p u b l i c a t i o n , and furnished information concerning curriculum recommendations. Reports of major educational reviews  i n the province such as the  Putman-Weir Report (1925), the Chant Report (1960), and Involvement: The Key to Better Schools (1968), were examined for information regarding educational trends and philosophies of the times.  Views of l o c a l educators and of the  general public concerning education were r e f l e c t e d i n these documents. The report of the Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education (1913, Vol. I) provided information concerning the philosophy underlying the introduction of p r a c t i c a l education into Canadian schools during the early part of the twentieth  century.  Home economics c u r r i c u l a r documents, such as course o u t l i n e s , programmes of study and curriculum guides  (1914-1985) provided a record of s p e c i f i c  curriculum changes made at various points i n time.  Textbooks were not  examined, with the exception of the f i r s t home economics textbook  published by  the Department of Education i n 1914. This text, G i r l s ' Home Manual of Cookery, Home Management, Home Nursing and Laundry, was reviewed because i t was o r i g i n a l l y developed  as an adjunct to the f i r s t mimeographed course  outline for home economics.  Thus, i t was an extension of the curriculum  document  and  economics  aid«d  aims  and  purposes of  used  to  accounts of  understand  the  province  of  to  B.C. and/or  provide  identifying  the  broad  the  the  first  of  context.  s o c i a l movements  development  Writings  development  provincial  the  educational  c u r r i c u l a have been o p e r a t i v e .  consulted in  the  secondary h i s t o r i c a l  A m e r i c a were  economics the  clarifying  home  curriculum.  Several North  in  which  of  contexts  education  in  which  c o n c e r n i n g the  education  in  the  appeared  to  home  history  province  Secondary sources a l s o influence  in  of were  assisted  curriculum  change.  Definition For  the  of  study  It  refers  to be  of  Terms purpose of  purportedly  this  taught  study and  to  the  c u r r i c u l u m as  taught  and  the  1979).  it  excludes, taught  in  view  offers  the  change  curriculum, over  a broad  it  expanse  " C u r r i c u l u m change" (whether  in  aims and  p u r p o s e s , and  in  format The  the  of  the  s o m e t h i n g by  appear change.  In  It  to have The  for the  out  schools"  example,  the  classroom.  best  (Tomkins,  i n documents and  textbooks,  to  used  to  the  "course  1981a,  p.135).  i n c l u d e s what  teach  (Cuban,  h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m and  While  this  may be a  access  to  identifiable  refers  to  discernible  is  the  limited  curriculum  time.  this  study  rationale,  in  or  substitutions)  c o u r s e names a n d / o r  in  alterations  curriculum  goals,  course audiences  and  curriculum.  implies  indirect  this  set  modifications  term " i n f l u e n c e "  on a n o t h e r . "  1955).  form of  of  in  is  such as  c u r r i c u l u m as a c t u a l l y of  term " c u r r i c u l u m " r e f e r s  learned...in  materials,  This definition  the  or  study, impacted  is  defined  bringing  "influences" the  q u e s t i o n may b e  "action  about,  intangible  on  as  raised  on t h e  as  by one  inducing, modifying  means  curriculum  exerted  (The  American C o l l e g e  curriculum refers in  or  some way  to whether  the  to  to  thing  person  affecting Dictionary, forces  stimulate  forces  or  or  which effect  themselves  8 contributed to change or whether they were a means by which a change that would have occurred anyway was sanctioned.  This study assumes the former.  Limitations Several l i m i t a t i o n s and assumptions of the study should be noted: 1.  Because education i n Canada i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and because the question of the study emerged from a c u r r i c u l a r matter p a r t i c u l a r to the province of B.C., this study i s limited to home economics c u r r i c u l a in B r i t i s h Columbia.  2.  This study spans the years from 1912 (publication of the f i r s t formal curriculum document for home economics) to 1985 (the date of the most recent home economics curriculum change). Only major curriculum revisions during this time were examined.  3.  Study of home economics c u r r i c u l a was limited to those of the junior and senior secondary public schools of the province. Curricula for correspondence courses were not examined.  4.  The examination of curriculum documents was confined to stated goals, aims and purposes, rationales, and course names, their intended audience(s), and curriculum format. Textbooks (other than the f i r s t home economics textbook indicated previously) were not s c r u t i n i z e d . Classroom practice of curriculum was not addressed.  5.  Since some primary documents may hot have been preserved, the data for the study may be l i m i t e d . For example, the e a r l i e s t printed course outline for home economics i s dated 1912, yet home economics was taught in the public schools of the province as early as 1903. Written materials documenting the role home economics professionals and others assumed i n the process of curriculum change may also be l i m i t e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , some records of many meetings or informal discussions w i l l not have been made or kept. Very few materials concerning the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t Home Economics Association ( i n existence from 1913 u n t i l 1974), the Parent-Teacher Association and the V i c t o r i a Council of Women are a v a i l a b l e , and early records of the provincial home economics teachers' association (established i n I960) could not be located.  6.  I t i s assumed that the documents examined r e f l e c t the concerns and ideas of those who produced the documents. However, they may not be an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of either behaviour or r e a l i t y , as they may also r e f l e c t the s e l f interests and standards of accuracy of the groups and individuals responsible for producing them.  7.  The idea of change challenges the adequacy or appropriateness of e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l a and implies that improvement i s forthcoming. In some cases reasons were given for s p e c i f i c changes, and while the notion of value may be embedded i n these, this study does not address the question of the worth of any curriculum changes made, nor of the reasons for change put forward.  9 In the remainder of this thesis, Chapter II describes the framework used for analyzing the data, reviews the l i t e r a t u r e relevant to the study and provides an overview of the influences on the f i r s t home economics curriculum in B.C. the  Analysis of the data w i l l be presented in Chapter I I I . In Chapter IV  findings w i l l be interpreted and conclusions made.  summary and recommendations for further study.  Chapter V provides a  10 CHAPTER II  REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY  In this chapter the theoretical framework within which the study conducted i s described.  was  L i t e r a t u r e associated with the framework for analysis  is reviewed, a rationale for using the framework i s outlined and assumptions underlying i t are explicated.  As w e l l , the emergence of home economics  education i n the province and the f i r s t curriculum document associated with the subject are described. Perspectives on Curriculum Change Curriculum change may be considered as change i n curriculum p r a c t i c e , as the implementation of curriculum innovations, or as the forces which influence the curriculum to change.  While a great deal has been written about the f i r s t  two aspects of curriculum change (e.g. F u l l a n , 1982), considerably less appears to have been written about the sources of curriculum change, i . e . , what prompts the curriculum to change (McNeil, 1969).  However, a number of  d i f f e r e n t views regarding this l a t t e r aspect of curriculum change appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In considering sources of curriculum change, several writers link s o c i a l change and educational change.  Levin (1976), for example, asserts that  educational change i s a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l change.  As he sees i t , because  the educational sector serves to reinforce the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order, i t changes as society changes.  He i d e n t i f i e s two kinds of forces that contribute  to change i n the structure, organization and values of a society: 1) external forces such as natural d i s a s t e r s , imported technology  and values,  immigration  or emigration and wars which have tremendous potential for a l t e r i n g an e x i s t i n g s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic structure and 2) internal contradictions within a society, such as unanticipated consequences of technological changes, which may have far-reaching e f f e c t s on a society and force i t to comply with a new set of conditions.  According  to Levin, these  11 changes w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n educational p o l i c y .  Hoyle (1969) also  claims a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l change and educational change, describing education  as a subsystem of the larger s o c i a l system.  Although he indicates  that a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between education of society, and between the values pervading education  and other  institutions  and the values  pervading other parts of society, he does not indicate the d i r e c t i o n of the flow of influence of one over the other. McGee (1967) proposes three possible functions of education  i n the  process of s o c i a l change:  as an agent of s o c i a l change (where s o c i a l change  occurs through education);  as a condition of s o c i a l change (where changes i n  education  are required i n order to e f f e c t s o c i a l changes); and as an e f f e c t of  s o c i a l change (education adapts to and r e f l e c t s s o c i a l change). McGee believes that these functions are related to economic, technological and ideological factors i n a society.  He presents h i s theory as a way of  understanding rather than explaining change. the curriculum changes i n a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e s .  Tomkins (1979) suggests  that  These cycles r e f l e c t changes i n  the purposes of schooling as perceived by society, and may provide a "measure of the pace of s o c i a l change" (p.12). mirrored by educational  From this perspective, s o c i a l change i s  change.^  Other writers acknowledge that groups and individuals serve as stimulants for curriculum change.  K i r s t and Walker (1971), for example, indicate that  some groups and individuals exert "curriculum  leverage".  Their capacity to  effect substantial influence on the content of curriculum p o l i c y a f f e c t s decisions regarding  the content of the curriculum.  S i m i l a r l y , Mackenzie  (1964) i d e n t i f i e s i n d i v i d u a l s and groups as "participants i n change".  These  participants may be i n t e r n a l or external to the school or i t s related s o c i a l or legal systems and may influence the curriculum to change through a variety of actions, including the advocacy of a change or the control of money or resources.  These groups have the potential for " i n d i r e c t a c t i o n " or influence  12 on those who have the power to take d i r e c t a c t i o n .  Roald  (1980) also claims  that various interest groups are i n f l u e n t i a l i n curriculum According  policy-making.  to h i s " i n t e r e s t group theory", curriculum p o l i c i e s result from "the  c o n f l i c t and compromises of a limited number of interest groups, each of which vies f o r the acceptance of i t s p a r t i c u l a r set of views, positions, or proposals."  Roald suggests that p o l i c i e s r e s u l t i n g from this  process  represent the " p l u r a l i s t i c compromises of the views of the interest groups" (p. 122). Boyd (1978) describes groups of professional curriculum who, " i n the face of pressures  reformers  for s o c i e t a l change and maintenance", act as a  force i n educational policy-making  (p.584).  These reformers  are funded by  private or federal groups, and promote the need for curriculum changes to be made.  Boyd indicates that these groups may attempt s o c i a l change (or  maintenance) through educational change.  Goodson (1983) believes that subject  groups may be s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n the process of curriculum change. claims that status and resources  ( f i n a n c i a l support,  staff  4  He  equipment and  books) are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a l l o c a t e d to subjects on the basis of whether they have status as an academic d i s c i p l i n e .  In the pursuit of resources and  academic status for their subject, subject groups may exert internal for curriculum change.  pressure  It i s during times of c o n f l i c t over school curriculum  (e.g. which subjects should be included in the curriculum) that these subject groups may be created or ( i f they already e x i s t ) become more strongly i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n order to negotiate their place i n the school curriculum. Several writers include a l l of the preceding influencing curriculum change.  factors as forces  McNeil (1969) and F u l l a n (1982), for example,  identify internal and external forces that, over time, create pressure for change i n educational policy and subsequently  a change i n the curriculum.  Cuban (1979) also i d e n t i f i e s a series of forces, or " c u r r i c u l a r  determinants",  which may be "planned or unplanned, external and internal to school systems", and,  singly or c o l l e c t i v e l y , may influence curriculum to change (p.141).  13 These forces include broad s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, p o l i t i c a l and  legal decisions and i n f l u e n t i a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . These writings indicate that the notion of influences on curriculum, be  they general s o c i a l forces or more s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s , groups or i n d i v i d u a l s , may help to understand curriculum change over time. a single theory of educational  Although i t appears that  change does not e x i s t , the preceding  interpretations may a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g both the nature of curriculum change and  the manner i n which the curriculum changes. Cuban's theory of c u r r i c u l a r determinants was selected as the framework  for analysis for this study of forces influencing home economics change i n B.C.  Several reasons guided this s e l e c t i o n .  F i r s t , i t encompasses several  categories of c u r r i c u l a r influences, each of which has been i d e n t i f i e d singly or i n various combinations by other w r i t e r s .  Second, Cuban's depiction of  broad s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements as one c u r r i c u l a r influence i s compatible with research concerning  the o r i g i n and development of the home  economics profession i n North America.  Third, since Cuban's theory  groups and individuals as influences on curriculum,  includes  i t i s appropriate for  helping to determine the r o l e of home economics professionals i n curriculum change.  Cuban's Determinants of Curriculum 1.  Change  I n f l u e n t i a l S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements  In his d e s c r i p t i o n of curriculum determinants, Cuban i d e n t i f i e s several s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements which appear to have dramatically altered the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l fabric of North America and have had an impact on the public school curriculum.  Two such movements are  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and progressivism. Others have also written about the impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on schooling i n the late nineteenth  and early twentieth centuries (e.g.  Callahan,  14 1962; for  Cremin, 1961;  Lawr & Gidney, 1976;  Sutherland,  1976).  Callahan (1962),  example, documents the impact of s c i e n t i f i c management p r i n c i p l e s i n  schools at the turn of the century.  Uniformity and e f f i c i e n c y became  watchwords i n educaton, r e f l e c t i n g the values of e f f i c i e n t management i n industry.  corporate  Both Lawr & Gidney (1976) and Sutherland  d e t a i l the emergence of a " p r a c t i c a l " education  that was  (1976)  considered by many to  be more relevant to a society increasingly concerned with the workplace and with the preparation of i t s members for occupations The period between 1890 reforms i n North America.  and 1920  suited to a new economy.  saw numerous s o c i a l and  political  Altered i n d u s t r i a l conditions demanded a  readjustment of the s o c i a l purposes of schools (Lawr & Gidney, 1976). for  the total welfare of the student sparked  curriculum (Sutherland, 1976). "progressives", espousing  Concern  an interest in a child-centered  A group of educational professionals c a l l e d  the ideals of progressive education, emerged.  Cremin (1961) states that this progressive education movement began as part of a "vast humanitarian  e f f o r t to apply the promise of American l i f e —  of government by, of, and for the people —  to the new urban-industrial  c i v i l i z a t i o n that came into being during the l a t t e r h a l f of the century" ( p . v i i i ) .  Progressivism was  individuals through education.  the ideal  intended  nineteenth  to improve the l i v e s of  From the beginning, however, the movement  "was  marked by a p l u r a l i s t i c character... and came to mean d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people"  (p.x).  Consequently a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of the term  does not appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e . however, are apparent.  progessivism,  To some educational progressives, schooling was  as an avenue to s o c i a l reform, citizenship.  Three general dimensions of  through emphasis on p r i n c i p l e s of democracy and  Democratic education was  rapidly-changing world.  preparation for l i f e i n a  Other progressives advocated a child-centered  curriculum and pedagogy to meet the needs of d i v e r s i f i e d groups of attending public schools.  viewed  students  A t h i r d group of progressives promoted the "science  15 of education" concerned with the a p p l i c a t i o n of pedagogical  principles  gleaned  from new s c i e n t i f i c research i n psychology and the s o c i a l sciences (Cremin, 1961;  Lawr & Gidney, 1976; Tyack, 1967).  Since a l l three of these approaches  to progressivism influenced educational philosophy, methods and curriculum during the f i r s t h a l f of the twentieth century, the term "progressivism" w i l l be used i n this study to refer to a l l three dimensions of the movement.  2.  P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions . . .  2  Cuban i d e n t i f i e s state for change i n curriculum.  .. and federal laws and court decisions as forces  He indicates that government laws, for example, may  either mandate s p e c i f i c courses to be included i n the curriculum, or they may effect changes i n the content  to be taught.  I f " p o l i c y " i s defined as any  plan or course of action adopted by a government, p o l i t i c a l party or other organization intended to influence and determine decisions and/or actions (Calam, 1982), then the aforementioned "government laws" may be c l a s s i f i e d as "policy decisions". 1917 1958,  Some examples c i t e d by Cuban are the Smith-Hughes Act of  concerning vocational education and the National Defense Education Act of which supported  American classrooms.  the teaching of science, mathematics and languages i n According  to Cuban, court or legal decisions made i n  r e l a t i o n to education and s i g n i f y i n g j u d i c i a l intervention i n the school curriculum are also curriculum determinants.  Examples of these include court  decisions regarding "teacher.rights, student r i g h t s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , and other related issues" (p.152). 3.  I n f l u e n t i a l Groups  Cuban describes the groups of i n d i v i d u a l s that exert influence on the school curriculum as "mediators of s o c i a l change".  These groups are concerned  For the purposes of this study, policy decisions w i l l be those of p r o v i n c i a l or federal o r i g i n , as the designation of "state" i s inappropriate i n the Canadian context.  with -selecting "what i s important that needs doing." about what would be acceptable  Based on their b e l i e f s  to both educational and public sectors, these  groups i d e n t i f y , promote and attempt to implement changes i m p l i c i t i n national s o c i a l movements.  In "ever-changing, s h i f t i n g c o a l i t i o n s " , these i n f l u e n t i a l  groups help to determine curriculum change. I n f l u e n t i a l groups may  be c l a s s i f i e d as external or i n t e r n a l .  External  groups are those outside the school community, including publishers, foundations and professors, as well as professional associations whose business i t i s to promote curriculum reform. Publishers of textbooks are often responsible for t r a n s l a t i n g "national curriculum e f f o r t s into marketable products".  They may  technology such as audio-visual materials and computers. require adjustment to accommodate these innovations.  also introduce  new  The curriculum  may  Professional p o l i c y  makers i n government, national foundations and agencies r a i s e or create c u r r i c u l a r issues and  subsequently make p o l i c y recommendations.  Professional campaigns for change may  be i n i t i a t e d and conducted by  groups which view themselves as s o c i a l c r i t i c s and advocates for change. group's i d e o l o g i c a l conviction regarding provides  The  the value of a curriculum change  the impetus for change (Fullan, 1982).  \\  The National Council of Women  in Canada, self-professed advocates for s o c i a l change, are one example of this kind of group.  Since their founding in 1893,  they have lobbied for the  i n s t i t u t i o n of numerous educational changes, some of which influenced curriculum decision-making (Strong-Boag, 1976). U n i v e r s i t i e s may  also influence school curriculum by the s e t t i n g of  entrance requirements (Fullan, 1982). colleges of education and research and  may  As well, professors i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and  also influence the curriculum through their writings  through the students they teach.  Internal groups exerting influence on the curriculum are those d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d i n some way  with the school community, such as school and  school  17 board personnel,  teacher associations and parent groups.  these groups, including students,  teachers,  p r i n c i p a l s and  Cuban indicates that superintendents,  exert influence over the curriculum by i n i t i a t i n g curriculum change through choosing among a number of c u r r i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s presented for possible adoption by external groups. According  As well, they may  veto proposed changes.  to Goodson (1982), school subject associations often "take up  promote new  ideas and opportunities" i n the realm of curriculum.  "economics, i n t e l l e c t u a l ideas, dominant values or educational  Changes i n  systems" are  "reinterpreted...by... subject associations and communities" (p.3). groups may  and  therefore be an important dimension of the process of  Subject  curriculum  change.  4.  I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals  Cuban also suggests that some i n d i v i d u a l s who into schools and who curriculum.  write and  have contact with and  speak about education  input  influence school  While he acknowledges the d i f f i c u l t y i n determining an  individual's d i r e c t impact on c u r r i c u l a r events, he stresses that i n looking at what has  influenced curriculum change over time the forcefulness of c e r t a i n  w  individuals cannot be ignored. M ^'  For example, John Dewey, John Franklin  Bob$.itt, Edward Thorndike. and Ralph Tyler, through their writing and affected theory, content, materials and education  (Schubert, 1984).  teaching,  i n s t r u c t i o n , as well as ideas i n  Cuban describes  these'individuals as "translators  of s o c i a l change...[mediating] between movements and school p r a c t i c e " (p.157). According  to Cuban, they a s s i s t e d in transmitting change into schools.  Individuals may  exert influence as i n d i v i d u a l s alone or as individuals  holding a p o s i t i o n that c a r r i e s with i t the capacity for or the authority to exert influence. According  to Cuban, these four categories constitute the forces that  influence or shape curriculum.  As he sees i t , the greatest impact is exerted  18 by s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l movements, which may "primary" forces.  therefore be c a l l e d  The remaining determinants then become "secondary" forces  which, says Cuban, soften, select, modify and promote " d i f f e r e n t , less potent versions of movements j o l t i n g the c u l t u r e " (Cuban, 1979,  p. 157-158).  In  e f f e c t , then, these secondary forces mediate or translate s o c i a l change. Cuban believes that schools are vulnerable r e s u l t , are e a s i l y penetrated  to s o c i a l change and,  by both of these primary and  as a  secondary forces.  He states that schools lack control over external change and can only marginally  influence the consequences- of change.  are i n v o l u n t a r i l y receptive to these influences.  In this sense, then,  schools  Cuban indicates that this  v u l n e r a b i l i t y of schools stems from the organizational t r a i t s of schools school systems.  He describes  and  these organizational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as "blurred  goals, unclear technology, uncertain outcomes and  f l u i d p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p.  159). Cuban also suggests that the notion of change i s intimately bound with the notion of s t a b i l i t y . occurred  He points out that although substantive changes have  i n the kinds of courses students take and  in the ideology  underlying  the s t y l e and content of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials over the past century,  there  also appears to be a "stubborn continuity" i n the public school curriculum in what happens i n classrooms.  and  Both i n t e r n a l and external forces help to  determine this s t a b i l i t y i n curriculum.  He suggests, for example, that  because the s o c i a l i z i n g functions of schooling are "interwoven throughout the formal curriculum",  they provide a b a r r i e r to the implementation of any  innovation that might challenge  them.  S i m i l a r l y , a c c r e d i t a t i o n and state- (or  province-) wide testing help to bring continuity to the curriculum.  Textbooks  are often integrated with course offerings and create an " i n t e r l o c k i n g pressure... for maintaining L e g i s l a t i o n may  e x i s t i n g [ c u r r i c u l a r ] arrangements" (p.  also influence curriculum s t a b i l i t y .  178).  Once a l e g i s l a t e d change  has been implemented, i t i s d i f f i c u l t for further change to occur.  Forces  promoting curriculum s t a b i l i t y internal to schools, states Cuban, focus on c e r t a i n organizational t r a i t s of schools and school systems. isolated nature of teaching may demands for change" (p. 185). that may  For example, the  encourage "conservative responses to external The r a t i o n a l model of curriculum development  not account for what a c t u a l l y happens i n classrooms may,  Cuban, have strengthened  according to  continuity i n curriculum "because i t [the model] was  largely inappropriate for teachers."  As well, Cuban believes that the systems  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n school bureaucracies  allow for persistence of curriculum.  Because these b a r r i e r s to the successful implementation of curriculum changes e x i s t , changes which appear i n a curriculum guide may s i m i l a r l y i n a classroom.  not be translated  The perspective of change must therefore be  tempered with the notion of s t a b i l i t y . It i s apparent from the preceding discussion that the process of curriculum change i s exceedingly in the curriculum and  complex.  Many factors contribute to change  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h cause and  effect  relationships among them. A number of issues and assumptions embedded in Cuban's theory should  be  made e x p l i c i t before using the framework for analysis of the data for this study.  F i r s t , although  this theory implies that the four categories of  c u r r i c u l a r determinants are mutually i n t e r r e l a t e or overlap.  exclusive, in some instances they  For example, a p o l i t i c a l decision may  may  place an  individual i n a p o s i t i o n with potential for exerting influence (the chair of an educational commission), or a major s o c i a l movement may a p a r t i c u l a r individual (John Dewey and  be associated with  the progressive education movement).  Second, this framework appears not to include those whose o f f i c i a l  task  i t i s to implement p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions once they have been made i . e . those i n positions of authority i n M i n i s t r i e s or Departments of Education. Third, Cuban argues that as schools are " c u l t u r a l l y bound in our society... they lack control over external forces...[and are therefore]  20 vulnerable to s o c i a l change... and e a s i l y penetrated by s o c i a l movements, p o l i t i c a l lobbies, laws and court decisions" (p.146, 158).  Thus he assumes  that schools are dominated by the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic context of which they are a part.  He does not address the issue of the p o t e n t i a l role of  education i n contributing to or e f f e c t i n g s o c i a l change. Fourth, there i s a temptation  to equate c o r r e l a t i o n with causation.  Cuban himself indicates that while i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to document the impact of s o c i a l movements upon schools and curriculum, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to prove that a movement led d i r e c t l y to consequences observed in schools and  in school curriculum.  F i n a l l y , the term " i n f l u e n t i a l " i s not defined in Cuban's descriptions of i n f l u e n t i a l groups and  individuals.  Presumably for groups or individuals to  be i n f l u e n t i a l they must be perceived by others as having some power or capacity for influence or i t must be proven that they did indeed  influence the  curriculum to change. In order to examine curriculum change i n home economics i n the province, i t i s necessary  to describe the f i r s t curriculum document and  the influences  which shaped i t . The F i r s t Curriculum Document i n Home Economics Home economics i n the form of needlework was V i c t o r i a public schools as early as 1895  first  i n evidence i n  (B.C. Department of Education,  1896). 3  Cookery was  added i n 1903,  but i t was  not u n t i l 1911  that domestic science  During the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, education for homemaking or domestic t r a i n i n g was variously known as domestic science, household science and domestic or household economy. In 1911, following the decision of the National Education Association to adopt the name "Home Economics" as more i n d i c a t i v e of the areas of study included in this subject, domestic science instructors i n the B.C. Teachers' Institutes forwarded a r e s o l u t i o n to the Department of Education asking that this new t i t l e be used i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). In this study, the terms "domestic science" and "home economics" are used interchangeably.  for g i r l s was  o f f i c i a l l y placed in the public school curriculum  Department of Education,  1914).  It was  (B.C.  l i s t e d as an optional subject, to be  offered at the d i s c r e t i o n of individual d i s t r i c t s (B.C. Department of Education,  1911).  According  to English (1937), there were no  regulations regarding equipment, methods or aims governing either needlework or cookery u n t i l 1912 produced a mimeographed course o u t l i n e . topics to be covered the outline was nursing.  formal  the teaching of  when the Department of Education This outline provided a l i s t of  in needlework, t e x t i l e s and hygenic  clothing.  In  1914,  expanded to include cooking, housewifery, laundry and home  This document appears to have set out the f i r s t formal home  economics curriculum (see Appendix A).  Influences on the Emergence of Domestic Science S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Several s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements were i n f l u e n t i a l i n establishing home economics education  i n Canadian public schools.  became i n d u s t r i a l i z e d toward the end of the nineteenth century,  As Canada  factories  replaced cottage industry and population shifted from rural to urban centers. Rapid expansion of c i t i e s exacerbated existence, and,  some believed, the moral foundations of Canadian society were  seen to be threatened by reformers  numerous s o c i a l problems already i n  (Lawr & Gidney, 1976).  Although i t was  generally f e l t  of the time that improvement of s o c i a l conditions ultimately  rested with the home, schools gradually came to be viewed as the agent which could shape the homes of the next generation Educational reformers One group supported  (Sutherland, 1976).  proposed two approaches to changing the schools.  a more p r a c t i c a l focus i n schooling, i n order to prepare  children for a vocation i n the new  i n d u s t r i a l workplace, while the other group  promoted a more c h i l d - and family-centered o r i e n t a t i o n to schooling whereby childhood was  protected and the family strengthened.  By the turn of the  22 century, however, the interests of these two groups temporarily converged. 4 Both viewed what they c a l l e d "manual t r a i n i n g " (Sutherland, 1976). 1880 and 1920 was  The "new"  as necessary for school reform  education"* which took root i n Canada between  founded in the manual t r a i n i n g idea, and encompassed the  notions of education for the workplace as well as education of the whole child:  body, mind and s p i r i t .  Its promoters envisioned i t as a means of  preserving Canadian c u l t u r a l morality i n the midst of tremendous s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n created by  industrialization.  Domestic science for g i r l s (along with i n d u s t r i a l education for boys) was o r i g i n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as manual t r a i n i n g . i n s t r u c t i o n i n domestic arts was  As part of the new  education,  f i r s t viewed as a means by which g i r l s could  learn manual dexterity and p r a c t i c a l lessons about science (Rury, 1984). the new education movement gained momentum, however, domestic  As  science was  associated with t r a i n i n g for the home. It was generally believed at this time that a woman's l i f e work (or vocation) was her family (Rury, 1984). "correct l i v i n g " , was life'"  (Stamp, 1977,  Domestic science, as education for  intended to prepare g i r l s for their "'God-given place i n p. 20).  Thus, educating g i r l s for homemaking could  a s s i s t i n strengthening families, as home t r a i n i n g and the early influence of the family were believed by many to be c r i t i c a l in the development of good c i t i z e n s (Lawr & Gidney, 1976). 4  . . In i t s broadest sense, manual t r a i n i n g was also referred to as "the p r a c t i c a l a r t s " or " p r a c t i c a l education". By 1910 five d i s t i n c t areas of manual t r a i n i n g were distinguishable: manual arts for young-children (hand-eye coordination through handicrafts), manual t r a i n i n g (pre-vocational, concerned with manipulation of t o o l s ) , vocational and technical education for adolescents and young adults, domestic science and nature study and school gardening (Sutherland, 1976).  ^ The New Education i n Canada r e f l e c t e d elements of the progressive education movement i n the U.S. Education of the whole c h i l d — body, mind, and s p i r i t — was emphasized. As opposed to academic subjects, p r a c t i c a l subjects could a s s i s t i n forming a c h i l d ' s character and preparing him for the work of l i f e . Vocational preparation through schooling could a s s i s t in creating a 'prosperous and contented Canadian society' (Sutherland, 1976).  23 Domestic science for g i r l s gradually came to include education for the workplace.  As i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n caused a decline i n home-centered  (cottage)  industry, g i r l s as well as boys required s k i l l s to enter the work force. Training i n domestic science was then viewed as a way of preparing females for a vocation outside of the home (Lawr & Gidney, 1976; Sutherland,  1976).  The Macdonald-Robertson Movement was a major force i n the dissemination of the New Education during the years 1900-1913 (Sutherland, 1976).  James W.  Robertson and h i s supporter, S i r William Macdonald systematically spread the manual t r a i n i n g idea to major c i t i e s across Canada.  Funds were made a v a i l a b l e  to finance a manual t r a i n i n g center i n one or two c i t i e s i n each province. Although f i n a n c i a l assistance was not provided  for domestic science, the  Movement i n d i r e c t l y promoted the subject, as i t , too, was a part of the new practical  education.  Soon a f t e r the introduction of home economics into schools, World War I further influenced i t s development by providing an opportunity for r e i n f o r c i n g i t s s o c i a l and economic value.  At a meeting of the National Council of Women  during wartime, for example, home economics education was highlighted as a means of both maintaining and strengthening  the family as the cornerstone of  Canadian society, and as a means of securing technical t r a i n i n g for women following the war (National Council of Women, 1917). These examples help to i l l u s t r a t e the importance of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l movements i n e s t a b l i s h i n g home economics as part of the school curriculum i n the early part of the twentieth century.  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and  urbanization, the emergence of the New Education and the Macdonald-Robertson Movement and World War I stimulated the development of home economics i n Canada. P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions  -  Several p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions made i n the early 1900's encouraged the  establishment of home economics i n the schools.  Largely as a result of the  Macdonald-Robertson Movement and of the success of the manual t r a i n i n g centers begun i n B.C.  i n 1901,  the Department of Education appointed an "Organizer of  Manual T r a i n i n g " i n 1908  (B.C. Department of Education, 1908).  supervision and inspection of both manual t r a i n i n g and domestic part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assigned to this inspector.  The science were  This brought  new  status to p r a c t i c a l education, since previously only academic subjects had come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of an inspector.  There were no regulations  regarding the t r a i n i n g of teachers i n these subjects and no standardized course of study was  i n existence at that time.  Presumably, the appointment of  an inspector would aid in prompting some degree of uniformity and continuity in the subjects. The Macdonald-Robertson Movement also provided the impetus for the federal government to undertake a Royal Commission on Industrial and Technical Education i n 1910  to investigate "the needs and present equipment of Canada  respecting i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and technical education" (Sutherland, 1976). The Commission, headed by James Robertson,  surveyed the status of p r a c t i c a l  education i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n November and December of 1910 1976;  B.C. Department of Education, 1911).  a c t i v i t y as coucerned  (Sutherland,  Their v i s i t prompted a f l u r r y of  groups and individuals presented b r i e f s and  recommendations at public meetings scheduled during the Commissioners' v i s i t . Among these were the Local Council of Women, various members of the Vancouver School Board, and the Inspector of high schools i n Vancouver ("Schools Under", 1910;  "Witnesses Favor", 1910). It was hoped by the Board of Trustees i n Vancouver that the v i s i t of the  Royal Commission would "tend toward bringing the public more i n sympathy with this part of our work...and emphasize the necessity of a widening of the High School Course of Studies and the establishment at no very distant date of a large Technical High School" (Vancouver School Board, 1910, p.10,18).  25 The Commissioners' v i s i t to the province; however, did not influence the Department of Education to modify the high school program. 1912  I t was not u n t i l  that the Minister of Education stated that technical schools i n the.  province were e s s e n t i a l and i t was 1919 before any changes regarding technical programmes i n the high schools were i n s t i t u t e d (Wormsbecker, 1961). Sutherland for  (1976) describes the Commissioners' Report as a "blueprint"  the implementation  of the New Education i n Canada.  Many recommendations  were made that r e f l e c t e d the philosophy of the New Education and supported the introduction of subjects such as manual t r a i n i n g and home economics.  They  recommended for example, that education "should have regard to the growth of the powers of the body, mind and s p i r i t concurrently [as well as] preparation of  the pupil for l a t e r l i f e as an i n d i v i d u a l , as a working earner, as a  c i t i z e n and as a member of the race."  They stressed that education "should be  provided...to meet the needs a r i s i n g from the changes i n the nature and methods of occupations, the manner of l i v i n g and the organization of society." They c r i t i c i z e d high schools for their emphasis on university preparation and recommended a broader  curriculum, including subjects such as home economics.  They indicated that "making homes...was creating a temple, not made with the hands, as a place of culture for the best i n human l i f e " (Canada, Parliament, 1913,  Vol.1, p.11-39).  The Commissioners also recommended that a fund be  created by the federal government to support provinces.  technical education i n the  Following publication of the Commissioners' Report, the Technical  Education Act was introduced i n 1919 by the federal government.  Ten m i l l i o n  dollars was allocated to be spent on a "matching b a s i s " with p r o v i n c i a l governments over a ten-year period for b u i l d i n g and maintaining technical schools (Sutherland, 1976).  I t was noted  i n the B.C. Department of Education  Annual Report of that year that technical schools would at long last become a r e a l i t y , and that both manual t r a i n i n g and home economics would have a place in the new i n s t i t u t i o n (B.C. Department of Education, 1919).  26 These p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions provided support  for the inclusion of  p r a c t i c a l subjects such as home economics i n B.C. schools.  As the potential  s o c i a l and economic value of these subjects was p u b l i c i z e d , opportunity for improved public understanding  of a new kind of education for a new society was  increased.  I n f l u e n t i a l Groups Several groups external to home economics helped economics education i n Canadian schools.  to e s t a b l i s h home  One group instrumental i n promoting  home economics education was the National Council of Women.  This  "Parliament  of Women" (as i t was c a l l e d ) was composed primarily of middle class women who, in the late 1800's were moved by "humanitarian,  class and e g a l i t a r i a n concerns  to attempt the redemption of [the Canadian] society" (Strong-Boag, 1976, p.30).  At their f i r s t Annual Meeting i n A p r i l of 1894, the Council adopted  the following r e s o l u t i o n put forth by Adelaide Hoodless: "That the National Council of Women [of Canada] do a l l i n i t s power to further the introduction of i n d u s t r i a l (or manual) training for g i r l s into the public school system of Canada, b e l i e v i n g that such training w i l l greatly conduce to the general welfare of Canadian homes, and that copies of this r e s o l u t i o n be sent to the ministers of education of each p r o v i n c i a l government" (National Council of Women, 1894, p.114). This group did much to advance home economics education during the early stages of i t s development.  For example, during World War I, the Council  a c t i v e l y promoted home economics education. 1917  The President's address at the  Annual Meeting r e f l e c t e d the role envisioned for women and the home  following the War:  "The future of Canada l i e s i n the home. The v i c t o r y won on the b a t t l e f i e l d must be followed by a r e a l i z a t i o n of the power of consecrated motherhood....Upon woman rests the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n a great measure, of the development of a higher c i v i l i z a t i o n " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.16).  The  implications of this statement were r e i t e r a t e d more d e f i n i t i v e l y i n the  27 Report of the Committee on Education:  "It seems e s s e n t i a l . . . for the National Council of Women not only to encourage the continuance of training in household arts but to urge that f u l l f a c i l i t i e s for i n d u s t r i a l and technical t r a i n i n g be provided for boys and g i r l s a l i k e " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.280).  The Resolutions Committee instructed l o c a l councils to " p e t i t i o n their p r o v i n c i a l governments to supply vocational t r a i n i n g for boys and g i r l s over fourteen years, following a sound education and such t r a i n i n g to include household service and care of c h i l d r e n " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.70).  By the f a l l of that year, a g i r l s ' technical course, intended to t r a i n  g i r l s for homemaking, but also "an excellent preparation for that i n d u s t r i a l l i f e to which many g i r l s gravitate after leaving school" had been organized i n Vancouver (B.C. Department of Education,  1919,  p.A79).  Through the influence of the National Council, Local Councils of Women were organized Maynard, 1971).  i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and New Westminster (Lightfoot & These Local Councils sent delegates  where many issues of s o c i a l import, p r a c t i c a l education, were discussed.  to the National Council,  including domestic science i n the form of As the Canadian domestic science  movement originated in eastern Ontario, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that these  delegates  were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n National Council annual meetings, where they were able to learn more about the subject, and where they made c o l l e c t i v e decisions regarding courses of action for further advancement of home economics i n schools.  -  The Local Councils of Women i n B.C.  were instrumental i n introducing  domestic science into the public schools of the province. of Lady Aberdeen to B.C.  i n 1895,  Following the v i s i t  needlework was included in some V i c t o r i a  elementary schools (B.C. Department of Education,  1896).  In 1903, the  28 V i c t o r i a Council of Women organized Central School of that c i t y . East and money for equipping donations, operation.  to open and equip a cooking center^ i n the  Later that year, with plans obtained  from the  the center raised through fundraising and  the f i r s t home economics center i n the province was o f f i c i a l l y i n In 1905, Vancouver followed suit (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971).  As a guiding force behind  the home economics movement i n B.C., the Local  Councils kept watch over the progress and status of the subject.  In 1916, for  example, when i t was announced that the Vancouver School Board intended to release subject supervisors i n a number of departments (including home economics), the Council was quick to respond.  The Council's concern was based  on the fact that at that time there was no common curriculum for home economics and consequently  a great range of content was taught with no  consistency of teaching method.  A r e s o l u t i o n passed by the Council asking the  Board to reconsider i t s decision resulted i n the retention of one home economics supervisor, i n a half-time capacity (Vancouver Council of Women, 1916).  Clearly the-.COuncils  of Women, both at the national and l o c a l l e v e l s ,  wereiinstrumental i n introducing home economics into public schools of the province.  By using every opportunity to promote i t s s o c i a l and economic worth  they worked hard at l e g i t i m i z i n g home economics as a  school subject.  \] \.  School boards i n the ^.province also influenced the development of home economics education  i n B.C.  For example, when manual t r a i n i n g i n woodwork was  extended to the high school,^ the Vancouver School Board was insistent that ^ According to English (1937) and Lightfoot & Maynard (1971), these cooking classes were i n i t i a l l y attended by g i r l s i n Grade 8, which at that time was part of the elementary school. By 1910, cooking (and i n some cases, sewing) was included i n some high schools. In 1912, the f i r s t formal outline for the course was printed by the Department of Education. I t was not u n t i l 1917, however, that domestic science was o f f i c i a l l y extended to the high school (B.C. Department of Education, 1917; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). ^ As noted above, domestic science (and manual training) was f i r s t introduced i n the elementary school (grades 6-8).  domestic  science receive p a r i t y .  form of advanced domestic  The Board f e l t that "there should be some  science...[as] people r e a l i z e , more than ever  before, the value of these subjects i n a school curriculum" (B.C. Department of Education, 1908, p.A35).  This stance was reiterated i n 1912 when the  Municipal Inspector indicated in his report to the Department of Education that "the Board [of Vancouver] i s anxious to extend  this work [domestic  science] to the high schools, and to this end special accommodation has been provided i n the addition to the King Edward High School."  He went on to say  that "a constant e f f o r t i s being made to make the work i n this department as p r a c t i c a l and intimately related to home conditions as school equipment and the teaching of large classes w i l l permit" (B.C. Department of Education, 1912,  p.A48).  A supervisor for domestic  science was appointed  i n the c i t y , to  "outline the work, and make frequent v i s i t s i n order to a s s i s t the regular teacher i n this subject" (B.C. Department of Education, 1912, P.A48).  Through  developments such as these, the Vancouver School Board supported home economics i n the schools of the c i t y . I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals Several individuals associated with school boards, and d i s t r i c t inspectors and superintendents demonstrated their support for home economics durings i t s formative years i n the province and thus were i n f l u e n t i a l i n i t s development. Superintendent  Following the Macdonald-Robertson Movement, F.H. Eaton, of Schools i n Victoria,, requested recognition of domestic  science as a "subject i n the regular High School Course" (B.C. Department of Education, 1902, p.A58). supportive of domestic  Vancouver School Board Chairman R.P. McLennan was  science throughout  a period of public uncertainty  regarding the value of p r a c t i c a l education i n the schools (B.C. Department of Education, 1908).  He lamented that "we seem to be so surrounded  by an Arts  atmosphere that whilst there i s no open antagonism to anything along technical  30  lines...we receive no support or encouragement (Vancouver School Board, 1907, p. 10).  The following year, Chairman McLennan observed that due to "the  general worsening of the ties of home l i f e , schools are more and more taking the place and doing duties which parents used to do" (Vancouver School Board, 1908,  p.12).  He r e i t e r a t e d the need for subjects such as home economics to be  included i n the high school curriculum i n order to teach the art of homemaking to young g i r l s . Although at this time home economics was accepted by many educators and school boards i n the province, objections to the inclusion of this new subject were s t i l l evident.  In 1912, for example, the Municipal Inspector of V i c t o r i a  Schools, Edward B. Paul, had expressed to time spent schools.  his concern that many parents  objected  i n domestic science or manual t r a i n i n g i n the elementary  They f e l t that this time could be better spent preparing for  entrance examinations for admission  to the high school.  As a r e s u l t of these  concerns he made the following recommendations to the Department of Education: "To meet that objection, and to stimulate pupils to greater interest i n domestic science and manual t r a i n i n g work, I would r e s p e c t f u l l y suggest that those subjects be raised to the l e v e l of other subjects of the Entrance Examination by the assignment of marks for the year's work of each p u p i l " (B.C. Department of Education, 1912, p.A46). At that time pupils enrolled i n the subject received no c r e d i t for i t . difficult  It is  to determine whether the Inspector's recommendations had any  influence, but by 1914, both manual t r a i n i n g and domestic science were recognized as contributing to students' e l i g i b i l i t y for entry into the high school (B.C. Department of Education,  1914, p.A62).  Lady Aberdeen, President of the National Council of Women, was responsible for introducing the home economics idea into B.C. B.C.  She v i s i t e d  i n 1895 as part of a Standing Committee to extend home economics  education across Canada (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971).  In an address to the  Vancouver Council of Women she stated that courses such as domestic science  31 would " a s s i s t i n laying the foundations of the future by giving...children . . . t r a i n i n g i n those useful domestic arts which w i l l render them competent i n the most e s s e n t i a l a f f a i r s of l i f e " (Vancouver  Council of Women, 1895).  Harry Dunnell was appointed Organizer of Manual Training by the Department of Education i n 1907, with Domestic Science as one of h i s responsibilities.  He suggested  that regulations for Manual Training and  Domestic Science centers be developed and that both subjects be taught i n every school, with a course of study "approved  by the Department; that each  g i r l receive a minimum of two hours i n s t r u c t i o n i n the subject per week; and that instructors be q u a l i f i e d public school teachers" (B.C. Department of Education, 1908,  p.B33).  domestic science was  A few years l a t e r , an o f f i c i a l course outline for  produced.  Although teacher t r a i n i n g for domestic science  instructors was an issue that took many more years to resolve, Mr. Dunnell drew attention to an aspect of the subject which was related to i t s status and c r e d i b i l i t y as a school subject. John Kyle was appointed Organizer of Technical Education i n 1914  and  remained in this position with both domestic science and manual t r a i n i n g under his supervision u n t i l 1926.  His b e l i e f i n the i n t r i n s i c value of these  subjects influenced many of h i s e f f o r t s to integrate them more permanently into the school curriculum.  He looked to teachers to help accomplish  this  goal: "The instructors of the subjects of manual t r a i n i n g and domestic science have a most important mission to f u l f i l l as the ambit of their work i s increasing year by year. The success of their labours and the importance of the p o s i t i o n they w i l l occupy on the teaching s t a f f depend e n t i r e l y upon their outlook and professional s p i r i t " (B.C. Department of Education, 1915, p.A89). His concern for the role played by teachers i n strengthening the place of p r a c t i c a l education i n the schools was also r e f l e c t e d in h i s attempts  to  ensure more adequate teacher training for both domestic science and manual  training instructors.  He recommended that summer school for teachers be  u t i l i z e d to t r a i n teachers for teaching domestic science or manual t r a i n i n g (B.C. Department of Education,  1916).  As w e l l , he recommended "the  appointment of a teacher to give lessons i n household science and sewing to the student-teachers Education,  1917).  attending Normal School i n Vancouver (B.C. Department of  During the war years, Kyle recognized  contributions made by domestic science.  the s i g n i f i c a n t  In h i s report of 1917 he referred to  the "considerable attention paid [by domestic science i n schools] to economic cookery, as well as to the canning and preserving of f r u i t , vegetables and fish."  "The necessity for such knowledge," he said, "has been amply  demonstrated by the War" (B.C. Department of Education,  1917, p.A81).  Kyle's concern for the retention of domestic science and manual t r a i n i n g as school subjects, i n spite of public opposition, was c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n his  report of 1920. He saw opposition as a p o s i t i v e force: " . . . i t i s g r a t i f y i n g to know that the result of having the limelight thus thrown d i r e c t l y on the subjects has been to e s t a b l i s h them more securely than ever i n the school curriculum" (B.C. Department of Education, 1920, p.A83).  Annie Juniper was the author of the f i r s t in B.C. and contributed to the establishment province.  textbook for domestic science  of home economics i n the  Her text was e n t i t l e d G i r l s ' Home Manual of Cookery, Home  Management, Home Nursing and Laundry, and was f i r s t published by the Department of Education  i n 1913.  Miss Juniper had previously been Dean of  Household Science at Macdonald College and Professor of Household Science at Manitoba A g r i c u l t u r a l College (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971).  As a home  economics professional, she had a clear notion of the intended purpose of the f i e l d of study, and transmitted this to her readers i n the preface of her book.  According  to Miss Juniper, "the noble art of homemaking...upon which  the health of the i n d i v i d u a l j the family, and the nation depends, has [at  33 l a s t ] been thought worthy of s c i e n t i f i c study" (Juniper, 1913, p . i ) . A l i c e Ravenhill also promoted the home economics movement both i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and l o c a l l y .  She had been a lecturer on Hygiene, Public  Health and Household Science at King's College for Women, University of London, and joined the Vancouver Council of Women i n 1911 (Vancouver Council of Women, 1911).  She was c a l l e d a "desirable a c q u i s i t i o n of the society"  (National Council of Women, 1911, p . x v i i i ) because she was a much-admired and staunch supporter  of domestic science as necessary education  for g i r l s .  Because Miss Ravenhill was i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known as a pioneer  i n the f i e l d ,  her a f f i l i a t i o n with the Local Council undoubtedly added to the c r e d i b i l i t y of i t s work i n regard  to domestic science.  The Council requested that "the  government add Miss Ravenhill to the Board of Governors of the B.C. U n i v e r s i t y " (Vancouver Council of Women, 1911) because they f e l t that the status of domestic science would be enhanced i f i t was connected with the university.  The Council hoped that eventually a u n i v e r s i t y course i n home  economics would be established. Miss Ravenhill made several contributions to home economics i n B.C. She v i s i t e d e x i s t i n g Women's I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the province, and organized new  ones (B.C. Women's I n s t i t u t e , 1959).  several  Because these organizations espoused  the same p r i n c i p l e s as the home economics movement, she was a c t i v e l y promoting the b e l i e f s of the subject.  She prepared b u l l e t i n s on household health which  were d i s t r i b u t e d by the Department of Agriculture, and she was editor of the I n s t i t u t e ' s Quarterly, where she published a r t i c l e s concerning  topics such as  increased t h r i f t among women and children i n the province, and economy and e f f i c i e n c y (Ravenhill, 1916a, 1916b). Clearly these i n d i v i d u a l s played a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n influencing the development of home economics as a school subject during the early stages of i t s evolution.  They worked a c t i v e l y on i t s behalf and missed few  opportunities to advance understanding of the subject and to garner both  34 public and government  support.  These movements and events and s i g n i f i c a n t groups and individuals constitute the forces which acted to introduce the home economics idea into B r i t i s h Columbian schools. resistance.  However, i t s introduction did not occur  without  As noted e a r l i e r , i t was f e l t by many that school time was wasted  in a non-academic subject such as home economics and could be better spent on the more important  academic subjects.  Others f e l t that the inclusion of home  economics i n the school curriculum created unnecessary, additional expense for school boards and taxpayers.  During the early years, there was no common  course of study for the subject and no d e f i n i t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for home economics teachers had been l a i d down by the Department of Education.  In  addition, there was no governmental inspection of home economics centers throughout the province.  In spite of these obstacles and lack of educational  status, home economics gradually came to form part of the B r i t i s h Columbian public school curriculum and ..slowly. gained both public and professional support.  By the time the f i r s t Royal Commission into Education  i n the  province was conducted i n 1924, the stage had been set for r e v i s i o n and expansion of the home economics curriculum.  35  CHAPTER III  FINDINGS OF THE STUDY  In this chapter the s i x major curriculum revisions i n home economics i n B.C.  are reviewed and b r i e f l y characterized.  of i t s completion.  Each i s i d e n t i f i e d by the date  Influences on each r e v i s i o n are examined using the four  categories of c u r r i c u l a r influences as described by Cuban:  social,  political  and economic movements; p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; i n f l u e n t i a l groups; and influential individuals.  Several decisions concerning  the use of these  categories i n this study were made. Cuban claims that s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements constitute the primary forces influencing school c u r r i c u l a .  Since these forces are national  or i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n scope, they are not confined was  to any one province.  Thus i t  necessary to consult secondary sources to i d e n t i f y these influences or  forces.  Only major movements which influenced educational  change are  included  in this study. As noted e a r l i e r , " p o l i c y " may  be defined as any plan or course of action  adopted by a government, p o l i t i c a l party or other organization intended influence and determine decisions and/or actions.  to  For the purposes of this  study, the category of p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions includes government decisions related to the process of education, be taught and education  such as p o l i c i e s concerning  to whom, decisions to appoint  investigations into any aspect  of  and decisions to make o f f i c i a l government appointments of  individuals to educational  positions.  Although such appointments are  s t r i c t l y speaking, p o l i c y decisions, these appointments may influence the d i r e c t i o n of education this category,  i n some way  significantly  the examination of p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions was  of federal o r i g i n are noted when they appear to have had i n the  province.  not,  and are therefore included i n  primarily to those o r i g i n a t i n g i n the province of B.C.,  education  what should  restricted  although some p o l i c i e s s p e c i f i c influence on  36 In  this study, the examination of the influence of groups includes both  those internal and external to education and to home economics as r e f l e c t e d in the documents reviewed. of governmental  Where relevant, the curriculum implementation actions  departments of education (as opposed to their p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l  decision-making influences) were also included i n this category. The influence that was exerted by i n d i v i d u a l s on curriculum change i n home economics was determined by the apparent extent of their according to the role or position they held. of  involvement  The ideas, comments and actions  these individuals expressed in primary documents substantiated their  apparent influence on curriculum change. Since these four categories are not mutually exclusive, some influences on curriculum change i n home economics w i l l be discussed in more than one category.  A chronological approach for reporting the revisions and the forces  influencing them maintains the h i s t o r i c a l perspective taken i n this study.  THE 1927 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION In  1927,  the f i r s t curriculum r e v i s i o n i n home economics was  greatly expanding upon the f i r s t course o u t l i n e .  completed,  Course content was ordered  into three main subject areas, each with a progressive series of courses to be taken by students i n successive years.  As well, s p e c i f i c aims for the  programme were formulated, emphasizing "right attitudes toward home and family l i f e . . . [ a n d ] the importance outlines were devised: for  i n society of the family group."  Two  course  one for middle or junior high schools, and the other  senior high and technical schools (B.C. Department of Education, 1927b;  1927c, p.52). The junior programme (grades 7 through 9) consisted of three content areas: 1927c).  Foods, Clothing, and Home Problems (B.C. Department of Education, It centred on the role assumed by a young g i r l as her mother's helper  37 in various operations  of the home.  Revisions  to the Clothing area stressed  clothing s e l e c t i o n and machine sewing, to replace what the P r o v i n c i a l Director f e l t to be an undue emphasis on handwork.  She  f e l t that large projects  tackled by hand took so long to complete that the r e s u l t was and general Education,  often "weariness  lack of interest on the part of the c h i l d " (B.C. Department of 1927a, p.M63).  Content i n Foods was  revised to emphasize health, n u t r i t i o n , meal  planning and preparation, and was technical processes."  Greater  "broadened...to include more than mere  attention was  to be paid to the  "psychological  aspects" of cooking, where i n d i v i d u a l dishes were prepared in r e l a t i o n to an entire meal and cooking i n family quantities was food p r i n c i p l e s which underly  to be stressed.  As w e l l , the  food preparation were to be emphasized.  accompany these foods classes, a book of recipes for the classroom  To  was  developed by the P r o v i n c i a l Director i n order to save the time spent copying recipes from the blackboard and Department of Education,  to encourage greater home practice  (B.C.  1927a, p.M63-65).  Home Problems, a new  content area, dealt with the "function and  organization" of the home and was  intended  interest i n her home...[enabling her]  to "develop and  further the g i r l ' s  to p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y , i n the  l i f e of the home" (B.C. Department of Education,  1927c, p.55).  Topics covered  included home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and personal habits, managing an allowance, c h i l d care and The  the cleaning and  furnishing of one's bedroom.  focus of the high school programme (grades 10-12) was  of the home, i t s surroundings and of Education,  1927b, p.68).  Two  "appreciation  the l i f e within the home" (B.C. Department programmes were offered at this l e v e l :  two-year General Programme and a three-year  Special Programme.  The  a  two-year  General Programme consisted of a foods and a clothing component i n both years, with study of "The Programme was  Home" added i n the second year.  intended  for matriculation c r e d i t and  The  three-year  Special  included HE(A)  (foods,  n u t r i t i o n , physiology, hygiene, and home nursing) and HE(B)  (clothing,  t e x t i l e s , clothing s e l e c t i o n and applied art) (B.C. Department of Education, 1928). Three modifications were made shortly a f t e r the curriculum was revised and may appropriately be included as part of this r e v i s i o n : 1) Home economics classes for boys were introduced i n 1928.  While  there was no prescribed curriculum for this course, the focus was on elementary  sewing and camp cooking.  I t was believed that these  skills  were suitable for males and would assist them i n becoming useful members of the family and society (B.C. Department of Education, 1931; English, 1937; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). 2) As recommended i n the Putman-Weir Report, the high school was reorganized i n 1929 to create a four-year course of studies (B.C. Department of Education, 1929).  Because health education was made  compulsory i n this reorganization, physiology was deleted from the HE(A)  course and was replaced with a "comprehensive course i n Home  Management" (B.C. Department of Education, 1932, p.L35). 3) HE(C), a t h i r d d i v i s i o n of the Special Programme, was developed primarily for the small high school.  This t h i r d d i v i s i o n enabled  students i n those schools to e n r o l l i n a comprehensive course encompassing elements of foods, n u t r i t i o n , clothing, t e x t i l e s and applied art (B.C. Department of Education, 1934). The format of the curriculum guide was also modified at this time. Course content was organized into units of study. a c t i v i t i e s for students were suggested were recommended.  As well, suitable learning  and time allotments for various topics  S p e c i f i c instructions were frequently provided for the  teacher i n each unit of study.  Words and phrases such as "emphasize",  "stress", "teach", "encourage", and "attention should be drawn to" appeared throughout  the curriculum, suggesting how the course was to be taught.  (An  39 outline of the 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision i s found i n Appendix C)  I n f l u e n t i a l S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Developments Several s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic developments influenced the nature of North American education and the nature of home economics education at this time.  The end of World War I drew attention to the continued need for  improved technical knowledge and s k i l l s .  A post-war surge i n i n d u s t r i a l i s m  contributed to population increases i n urban centres.  War had reinforced the  importance of democracy, and as a r e s u l t , there was pressure for more people to be equipped to serve as informed  citizens.  Technological advances were  rapidly reducing the need for u n s k i l l e d labour, r e s u l t i n g i n changed requirements for the workforce (Patterson, 1970; Stamp, 1978). The progressive education movement continued to education i n North America.  to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n giving d i r e c t i o n  Developments such as these led to close  scrutiny of the Canadian educational system-and i t s problems. One c r i t i c of the Canadian educational system, Dr. Merchant, then President of the Canadian Education Association, i d e n t i f i e d the extension of school age attendance, the extent of the school's concern with the t r a i n i n g of youth for vocations and the need to embody modern philosophy  i n educational  systems as the challenges facing educationists of the day (Merchant, 1923). Other c r i t i c s stressed the importance of imparting "character" through education.  "Education...is a school for l i f e and l i v e l i h o o d , a school i n  which on the one hand the good c i t i z e n i s formed, and i n which on the other... some preparation i s made to enable the pupil to earn a l i v i n g " (Currie, 1923, p.161).  As w e l l , J . Roy Sanderson (1924) emphasized the need  for a "more varied curriculum" i n view of the larger and more diverse school populations of post-War Canada (p.139).  Preparing c h i l d r e n to enter society  upon leaving school appeared to be uppermost i n the minds of these  critics.  40 They believed that fundamental changes to the t r a d i t i o n a l academic curriculum of the high school were required. High school enrollment  i n post-War Canada rose dramatically, r e f l e c t i n g  the i n s t i t u t i o n of compulsory education p o l i c i e s and changing requirements for entry into the workforce (Stamp, 1978). t o t a l enrollment  In B r i t i s h Columbia, for example,  increased from 23,615 pupils i n 1901  (B.C. Department of Education,  1901;  B.C.  to 91,919 pupils i n  Department of Education,  1922  1922).  A  more p r a c t i c a l or vocationally-oriented education evolved as high school training increasingly came to be viewed as e s s e n t i a l for gaining access to the workforce.  In addition to the economic benefits to be accrued  from attending  high school, c e r t a i n s o c i a l and moral advantages of education became apparent. "Character b u i l d i n g " and " c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g " came to be seen as part of the function of schooling (Stamp, 1978). Research i n education was an important Black (1924) referred to the new  development at this time.  educationists who  Fergus  constituted "the world's  f i r s t force of educational e f f i c i e n c y experts, familiar with a vast f i e l d of comparative s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to education."  This group promoted the  educational survey as a means of "concentrating public attention on educational needs and conditions and of strengthening the hands of progressive leaders...in their b a t t l e for the increased e f f i c i e n c y of schools" (p.105-106). Through educational publications much of the r h e t o r i c and surrounding  the progressive education movement was  philosophy  c i r c u l a t i n g in the  province, providing l o c a l educational professionals with food for thought and with the opportunity to make comparisons with their own  educational systems.  P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions It was  not long before many of these ideas influenced educational  a c t i v i t y i n B.C.  In 1924  John O l i v e r , Premier of the Province, announced the  41 resolution to undertake an educational survey "...embracing every angle of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia" ("Educational Survey", 1924).  This survey had  a major impact on education i n the province, including home economics education.  Dr. J.H. Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools i n Ottawa, and Dr.  G.M. Weir, Professor of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, were appointed as Commissioners to undertake the survey and to consider such questions as extending the high school course to four years; adopting the unit system as i n American high schools; the a d v i s a b i l i t y of establishing junior high schools; and increasing e f f i c i e n c y i n the administrative capacity of the Department of Education.  As r e f l e c t e d i n the following excerpt from l o c a l  discussions concerning the proposed survey, s p e c i f i c questions and concerns regarding home economics were also expressed.  Some issues put forth included:  "The household science course (high school) and i t s r e l a t i o n to the University of B.C. Should manual t r a i n i n g and domestic science be taken up i n the elementary schools. I f yes, what grade should they be started? Should these subjects be made obligatory i n the elementary and high schools of (a) c i t i e s of the f i r s t c l a s s ; (b) c i t i e s of the second class? Should a supervisor of domestic science for the province be appointed?" ("Educational Survey", 1924).  In keeping with general educational philosophy of the times, Putman and Weir believed that t r a d i t i o n a l academic formalism i n education should be replaced with a more progressive approach based on s c i e n t i f i c learning theory and should be concerned  with the present and future needs of the c h i l d .  Because they saw the general aim of education as "to enable the c h i l d to take his place as an e f f i c i e n t participant i n the duties and a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e " (Putraan-Weir,  1925, p.44), they f e l t that the present high school curriculum  in B.C. was "too narrow [and] r i g i d " to accomplish  this aim e f f e c t i v e l y .  According to Putman and Weir, this curriculum was "meeting the...needs of at most only two classes of students... those who expect to enter a university and those who wish to teach...these  two classes put together form an i n s i g n i f i c a n t  42 proportion of the t o t a l number of pupils i n high schools" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p. 112).  They believed that a new curriculum, more r e f l e c t i v e of the new aim  of education was i n order. Proposals for revisions to the curriculum r e f l e c t e d these b e l i e f s of Putman and Weir and influenced the development of home economics education i n both general and s p e c i f i c ways.  The Commissioners proposed the creation of a  middle or junior high school for pupils from twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, covering grades 7 through 9.  This middle school was intended to provide a  curriculum " s u f f i c i e n t l y e l a s t i c i n content and requirements to give a choice of subjects to suit the varying needs of adolescent boys and g i r l s . " i t was to include "courses  As w e l l ,  that w i l l be p r o f i t a b l e " for students leaving  school without high school graduation  (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.110, 89).  They recommended that the high school include grades 10 through 12, providing a three-year course beyond the middle school. graduate on one of f i v e programmes: General, Normal School Entrance,  Students could  University Entrance (Matriculation),  Commercial or Technical (Putman-Weir, 1925).  A core of compulsory subjects was recommended to help students develop into s o c i a l l y e f f i c i e n t c i t i z e n s and to bridge the gap previously f i l l e d by the home, community and apprenticeship.  The t r a d i t i o n a l academic focus i n the  programme of studies was to be de-emphasized and replaced with a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d curriculum, which included non-academic courses 1925).  (Putman-Weir,  Home economics was to form a part of this new d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  curriculum. S p e c i f i c recommendations were made regarding home economics. The Commissioners urged that home economics be "greatly extended" and that i t be "organized and directed...by a thoroughly p r o v i n c i a l director...who  competent woman acting as a  w i l l i n s i s t on a wise expenditure  of money, allow no  waste of e i t h e r pupils' time or materials, and co-ordinate lessons i n home economics with other school a c t i v i t i e s . . . a n d with the home l i f e of the p u p i l s "  43 (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.338-339).  Because the concern of home economics with  strengthening and maintaining the family as a building block of society conformed with the ideals of progressive education espoused by Putraan and Weir in their report, i t was seen as an important part of the new curriculum. Adoption of the report by the p r o v i n c i a l government signalled the i n s t i t u t i o n of many of the recommendations made by the Commissioners.  One key  decision was the appointment of a P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics.  This  appointment helped to l e g i t i m i z e the subject i n the public school curriculum and to provide leadership and d i r e c t i o n for the recommended course expansion.  I n f l u e n t i a l Groups Several groups were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development of home economics education at this time.  The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), f o r  example, influenced home economics i n a number of ways and was an important a l l y for home economics.  The Federation provided the impetus for the  Putman-Weir Survey, made recommendations  regarding home economics to the  ..Survey Commissioners and supported recommendations economics professionals.  to the survey made by home  As w e l l , the BCTF formally recognized home economics  as an a f f i l i a t e d subject association/and assigned i t the t i t l e "Home Economics Section". The BCTF recommended at their f i r s t executive-meeting i n 1919 that "the  .  ..  Department of Education be requested to proceed with a complete r e v i s i o n of the  curriculum at an early date" (BCTF, 1919).  In 1922, a resolution to  undertake a p r o v i n c i a l survey was passed at the Annual General Meeting (BCTF, 1922), prompting the generation and subsequent adoption of a series of s p e c i f i c recommendations.  Those of note included:  a "more e l a s t i c high  school curriculum, comprising a few obligatory subjects, and several optional subjects...; wider options at the Matriculation Examinations, to include Home Economics subjects; and the need...to have the High School Course extended to  44 four years" ("BCTF Resolutions", 1923). When the Putman-Weir Survey was completed i n 1925,  the BCTF r e i t e r a t e d  i t s support for the "one-year t r a i n i n g course i n Home Economics to be established i n the V i c t o r i a Normal School" emphasizing  that i t be "open only  to graduates of the three-year Home Economics course i n high schools, or to graduates of other approved Home Economics courses" (BCTF, 1926). Home economics teachers themselves were also i n f l u e n t i a l i n this curriculum r e v i s i o n .  They were f i r s t organized as a subject group i n 1906  (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971), and as part of the Teachers' I n s t i t u t e , met along with other subject areas i n "sectional discussions" during conventions held throughout of  the year.  Home economics was formally organized under the auspices  the BCTF i n 1919 and c l a s s i f i e d as "The Home Economics Section".  One of  the f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s of the Section was to prepare a series of resolutions concerning the preparation of home economics teachers: "The Home Economics Section of the B.C. Teachers' Federation r e s p e c t f u l l y recommend: 1. That owing to the lack of a supply of q u a l i f i e d teachers of Home Economics i n the Province and to the fact that there i s at present i n the Province no t r a i n i n g school for such teachers we r e s p e c t f u l l y urge the following: (a) that a c e r t a i n number of teachers of approved standing and possessing the q u a l i t i e s which would l i k e l y make them successful Home Economics teachers be granted a yearly bonus as an inducement to t r a i n i n g i n c e r t a i n approved schools (b) that this arrangement be considered an emergency measure and that adequate t r a i n i n g i n our own Province be established at the e a r l i e s t opportunity. 2. That candidates from a l l parts of the B r i t i s h Empire, excepting Canada, from the United States, who are applying for a B r i t i s h Columbia c e r t i f i c a t e must have taught for a period of at least s i x months, must hold a l e t t e r of recommendation from the p r i n c i p a l of the school i n which the work was done, and must have the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s outlined i n the regulations of the Department of Education" (McEwan, 1922, p.47). The Home Economics Section believed that adequate training for home economics teachers was related to the c r e d i b i l i t y and status of the subject i n the  45 educational community and i n the eyes of the p u b l i c .  Although these  resolutions were forwarded to the Department of Education, l i t t l e appears to have been done with them. I n s t i t u t i o n of the Putman-Weir Survey prompted the Home Economics Section to prepare another series of resolutions regarding c u r r i c u l a r concerns. copy of these resolutions i s found i n Appendix B.)  (A  These resolutions  r e i t e r a t e d the need for the adequate t r a i n i n g of home economics teachers; recommended that the subject be made compulsory  for g i r l s i n public and high  schools of the province; and recommended that a "Provincial Organizer and Supervisor of Home Economics" be appointed to the Department of Education. Equality with other school subjects was requested, whereby credit would be granted for completion of home economics courses ("British Columbia",  1924).  Local Councils of Women i n the province were also i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development of home economics during this time i n that they both supported the campaign for educational change i n B.C. and endorsed the Home Economics Resolutions submitted to the Survey Commissioners.  These Councils supported  the proposed survey of education because of their concern for preserving the moral foundations of Canadian society and because they believed that education was one means to this end.  The New Westminster Council, for example, adopted  a r e s o l u t i o n urging the government to make an educational survey, and asked that a woman to be a member of the survey committee (National Council of Women, 1924).  The Vancouver Council was invited to send a representative to  attend a conference regarding the survey i n October of 1924 (Vancouver Council of Women, 1924).  A l l of the Councils i n the province compiled recommendations  regarding education i n the province, some of which were concerned with home economics.  The memorandum submitted by Mrs. D.L. MacLaurin on behalf of the  Local Council of Women i n V i c t o r i a concluded with an eloquent statement which e f f e c t i v e l y portrayed the Councils' c o l l e c t i v e v i s i o n of the significance of and the respect due home economics i n the public school system:  46  "We believe that the home i s the natural and r i g h t f u l domain of woman, and therefore that Home Economics, the Science of the Home, i s pre-eminently the proper and l o g i c a l study for womankind; we believe that as women are largely spenders of money, national t h r i f t would d i c t a t e that they be taught to spend wisely; that as keepers of the health of the nation, we believe they should be taught the p r i n c i p l e s of hygiene and d i e t e t i c s ; we believe that i n the d i f f e r e n t branches of this subject there i s ample scope for the varying a b i l i t i e s of the most b r i l l i a n t minds of the sex; we believe that much undesirable and unnecessary competition between the sexes w i l l be avoided and many other s o c i a l problems resolved when the d i g n i t y of homemaking i s adequately recognized and Home Economics given i t s r i g h t f u l place i n a national and international scheme of education. F i n a l l y , l e t us never forget that upon the physical stamina, the mental and moral f i b r e of the mothers-to-be depends the character of the l i f e , yea, the very l i f e of tomorrow" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.339).  This statement was included i n the text of the Putman-Weir Report and suggests that the i n c l u s i o n of home economics i n the public schools was viewed by the Commissioners as a progressive  step i n education  r e f l e c t e d the b e l i e f that schooling should  for the province.  As such i t  involve s o c i a l implications as well  as i n t e l l e c t u a l ones. Another group which supported home economics at the time of the Putman-Weir Survey was the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher Federation.  This group  endorsed both the Survey i t s e l f and the resolutions submitted to the Survey Commissioners by the Home Economics Section. M.G. Pankhurst, the convener of a Special Committee regarding Home Economics, submitted a report to the Commissioners on behalf of the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher Federation.  The report pointed out that because approximately  95% of the g i r l s i n school would be future horaemakers, home economics would probably be a "more important study for g i r l s than many subjects now compulsory."  This report emphasized that the majority of g i r l s  outside  Vancouver, however, were not receiving any t r a i n i n g i n home economics i n a school s e t t i n g (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.540-541). On the basis of this report, a series of resolutions was compiled and then endorsed by the Home Economics Section of the BCTF at the 1924 Annual General Meeting.  The resolutions submitted by the Parent-Teacher  Federation  47 were i d e n t i c a l to those submitted by the Home Economics teachers themselves. While there i s considerable documentation of support for home economics during this time, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e appears to have been recorded opposition to this school subject.  concerning  The Putman-Weir Report, however, notes  that some of the general public were opposed to the inclusion of home economics i n the school for f i n a n c i a l reasons. was  According to the Report, i t  f e l t by some that the use of expensive equipment i n home economics might  "create i n a g i r l discontent with the primitive furnishings of her mother's kitchen."  The views of Putman and Weir were apparently not influenced by this  expression of concern, as they countered  the objection stating that " [ t h i s  discontent] might not be a r e a l l y serious matter...[as]  Real economy has  reference to the wise use of money and not to saving i t for the mere sake of saving" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.339).  I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals Two individuals i n the province were prominent i n e f f e c t i n g s p e c i f i c changes i n the home economics curriculum.  John Kyle, Organizer of Technical  Education, supported home economics as a school subject and made numerous recommendations — many of which were implemented following the Putman-Weir Survey, while Jessie McLenaghen, the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Supervisor of Home Economics, was instrumental i n formalizing the curriculum changes. John Kyle supported  the introduction of home economics education  B.C. public schools i n several ways. and  into  That he was i n favour of the p r i n c i p l e s  ideals of the domestic science movement i s apparent i n many of his reports  to the Department of Education.  He f e l t ,  for example, that the lack of  progress when compared to manual t r a i n i n g was "regrettable, because the subject i s one which i s undoubtedly necessary and worthy of a prominent place in any educational system" (B.C. Department of Education, 1921, p.F47). He  48 g suggested second  that home economics be made "compulsory i n c i t i e s of f i r s t  class [ i n order to] place upon [ i t ] an equality with others which have  no greater claim to importance" "One  and  (B.C. Department of Education, 1924, p.T75).  cannot imagine," he said, "any educational subject more important  than  the management of a home...[for] i t gives the g i r l a sane attitude toward l i f e by requiring her to deal with real projects and solve l i f e problems" (B.C. Department of Education, 1926, p.R58 & 1925, p.M55). His philosophic support of the subject extended to include a number of recommendations for improving the status, s t a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of the subject i n the school s e t t i n g .  In  his report to the Department of Education i n 1918, for example, he indicated that the Household Science Course (the high school home economics o f f e r i n g ) made "excellent preparation for entrance to the P r o v i n c i a l Normal School", and that the course should probably be lengthened  "from three to four years" i f  matriculation standing was to be secured (B.C. Department of Education, 1918, p.D68). field.  Although supportive of home economics, Kyle was also c r i t i c a l of the He c r i t i c i z e d ,  for example, the lack of uniformity of courses  taught  in home economics and the varying standards of method and evaluation across the province.  He stated that "Care should be taken to develop habits i n  domes t i c science centres which are above reproach, and no g i r l s should be found cooking without aprons and caps nor sewing without thimbles" (B.C. Department of Education, 1919, p.A79).  His intent was j:pward the o v e r a l l  improvement of home economics and the eventual elevation of i t s status as a school subject i n the eyes of the educational community and the general public.  F i r s t class indicates Average Daily Attendance of pupils not less than 1,000 per school year. Second class indicates Average Daily Attendance of pupils between 250 and 1,000 per school year.  49 Kyle also saw the inadequate  t r a i n i n g of home economics teachers as a  major threat to the future success of the subject and he recommended the establishment of Saturday classes to supplement training i n home economics received at summer school (B.C. Department of Education, 1921).  When the  classes were f i n a l l y i n s t i t u t e d , however, he remarked on the poor  attendance,  commenting that "Domestic Science teachers do not show the same i n c l i n a t i o n for further study on Saturdays as do the Manual Training i n s t r u c t o r s " Department of Education, 1924, Kyle noted that domestic  (B.C.  p.T75). science seemed to have lagged behind manual  training i n the number of centres opened, the number of teachers employed and the number of pupils enrolled (B.C. Department of Education, 1922). f e l t that the Domestic Science Teachers' Association was  While he  not as active as i t  might have been " i n furthering their aims i n the community" and had not "obtained such a stronghold on public confidence" some of this may have been due i n part to the fact that manual t r a i n i n g received f i n a n c i a l assistance for the i n s t i t u t i o n of t r a i n i n g centres while home economics did not Department of Education, 1922,  (B.C.  p.C50).  He believed that the remedy for a l l these problems rested in the appointment of a p r o v i n c i a l supervisor i n home economics, who would oversee curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n i n the subject. recommendations made by Putman and Weir.  Thus he supported  the  "There i s much work to be done i n  the Province i n regard to fostering and stimulating interest i n the teaching of home economics and c h i l d welfare...a p r o v i n c i a l supervisor would find a great duty awaiting her to broadcast the correct interpretation of the educational aims which stand behind the subject of home economics" (B.C. Department of Education, 1924,  p.T75).  Yet another i n d i c a t i o n of Kyle's  influence i s that many of h i s recommendations for the subject became the recommendations of others presenting their concerns Commiss ioners.  to the Survey  50 Jessie McLenaghen was appointed P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics i n 1926,  and made operational many of Kyle's recommendations.  she also introduced several of her own innovations.  During her term,  She brought to her  position an impressive professional background and "boundless  enthusiasm, a  strong b e l i e f i n the future of home economics, and the courage to put into e f f e c t new ideas" (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971, p.35).  I t was Miss McLenaghen's  observations of inconsistencies i n home economics throughout which formed the basis for the 1927 curriculum r e v i s i o n .  the province  She found the  curriculum "varied both i n content and method of presentation...[resulting i n a general] lack of uniformity i n the work o f f e r e d " (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63, M65). She organized and coordinated a committee of home economics teachers to redraft the course of studies for both high schools and junior high schools.  Through Miss McLenaghen s d i r e c t i o n the home 1  economics curriculum was expanded to include the a p p l i c a t i o n of theory to practical situations.  For example, she saw the the potential of clothing  courses as "problem-solving s i t u a t i o n s " rather than concentration on hand sewing and emphasis on "mere technical processes" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63).  The new.foods curriculum was intended to represent  a "broader understanding of foods beyond the mere development of technique...", and the " l o g i c a l procedure" regarding preparation of individual types of foods was replaced with "the psychological, i n which each dish i s prepared because of i t s r e l a t i o n to a d e f i n i t e meal" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63-64).  Since Miss McLenaghen was aware of the need to  e n l i s t the support of the public i n promoting her subject, the book of recipes she developed  for use i n the classroom was also intended as a "means of  stimulating greater e f f o r t i n home p r a c t i c e . "  She f e l t that i f students were  to use the book i n the home, i t would help to "secure the interest and cooperation of the parents —  something absolutely v i t a l to the success of any  home economics programme" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M64).  51 Excerpts from her f i r s t annual report to the Department of Education r e f l e c t Miss McLenaghen's perceptions of the role of P r o v i n c i a l Director, as well as the new thrust she envisioned for home economics education i n B.C.:  " E f f o r t s were made to stimulate interest i n the newer ideas i n Home Economics education and to broadcast the best ideas of the various teachers by providing for classroom v i s i t i n g , by the publication of a News Letter...by the c i r c u l a t i o n of books from the Home Economics l i b r a r y , and by v i s i t s of the Director of Home Economics to each center. The convention at Easter offered an opportunity for open discussion of problems....[and]...the outlook for Home Economics i n the future appears more promising. The interest of the general public has been greatly stimulated. Trustees are more interested i n the type of work presented and are demanding better-trained teachers....No subject can reach i t s maximum e f f i c i e n c y without the best teachers" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M65).  Jessie McLenaghen influenced the home economics teachers of the province toward improved home economics teaching and training and toward increased status and public understanding of the subject.  The 1927 curriculum r e v i s i o n  was one step i n this d i r e c t i o n .  THE  1937 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION The year 1937 marked the completion of the second major r e v i s i o n of the  home economics curriculum.  This r e v i s i o n maintained  the focus of home  economics on family and home membership and on preparation for the vocation of homemaking.  S p e c i f i c reference was made i n this r e v i s i o n to two cardinal  p r i n c i p l e s of education, worthy home membership and preparation for a vocation.  According to the revised curriculum guide, studies i n home  economics education were intended to "give the student a well-rounded conception of the many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s contributing to worthy home membership...[as well as] some knowledge of the profession of homemaking" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.7).  The organization of subject  matter i n the revised programme was described as "closely related to home and l i v i n g problems as i t i s possible to make i t " (Vancouver School Board, 1936,  P.34). Courses at both the junior and senior l e v e l s were expanded as well as reorganized.  At the junior l e v e l , Home Problems as an area of study  eliminated, but was  was  replaced by units of study such as "Social Customs and  Usages" and "Cooperation with the Family Group".  Provision was also made for  optional units of study such as "Caring for the Sick." and "The Study of Child Care" to provide for "further enrichment,  exploration and  individual  d i f f e r e n c e s " (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.8,9). At the senior l e v e l , a new course e n t i t l e d "Home Relations for Senior High Schools" was  introduced at this time.  This was  to be a non-laboratory  course, suggested as an e l e c t i v e for senior students enrolled in an academic or a commercial course to "enable them to gain some preparation for what may be t h e i r true vocation —  homemaking."  Course content focused on f i n a n c i a l  and health considerations surrounding the s e l e c t i o n of food and on the selection of clothing from the standpoint of "becomingness, d u r a b i l i t y and cost" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.199). as "The Home —  As well, new units such  a Social Centre", "Appreciation of a S a t i s f y i n g Home L i f e " ,  and "Consumer Buying" were added to the Senior Course of Studies. c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d a more overt emphasis on the home and family.  These  There was  less f l e x i b i l i t y i n the senior programme presumably because s p e c i f i c content was  to be covered i n preparation for examinations  for high school graduation.  The revised curriculum guide included an outline for a Boys' Course i n home economics, which was  to be "planned for two periods a week for one term.  The aims of the course were to "help the boys to be more i n t e l l i g e n t and appreciative members of their f a m i l i e s ; to [enable boys to] plan and  prepare  simple outdoor meals; and to enable boys to prepare and serve a simple meal t a sick member of the family" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.79). The format of the new  curriculum was markedly changed.  For each unit of  study, recommendations were made regarding content to be covered, teaching  53 methods to be used, student assignments, projects and a c t i v i t i e s , and teacher references and v i s u a l a i d s .  In addition to general aims for the programme,  s p e c i f i c aims were included for each unit of study.  In the previous  curriculum document aims had been stated only for the programme.  Both the  revised Junior and Senior High School Programmes were combined into one b u l l e t i n , and implemented i n 1937 (B.C. Department of Education, Economics was made compulsory i n grades 1 and 8 i n 1936, q u a l i f i e d as an option for senior m a t r i c u l a t i o n .  1937a).  Home  and by 1938, i t  (An outline of the 1937 Home  Economics Curriculum Revision i s found i n Appendix D.)  I n f l u e n t i a l S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Among the forces influencing North American education during the 1930's were the Great Depression,  the progressive education movement and tensions  leading to the onset of World War I I . tremendous impact on education. continued  In Canada, the Great Depression had  While the p r i n c i p l e s of progressive  education  to influence the development of a new Canadian educational  structure} economic conditions hindered Patterson, 1970).  i t s construction (Lawr & Gidney, 1978;  Social problems associated with poverty and unemployment  during the Depression  years and the threat of a^second world war i n the l a t t e r  half of the t h i r t i e s contributed to renewed interest i n the potential of education to reshape the future of Canadian society (Stamp, 1978). As was the case across Canada, the economic c r i s i s of the t h i r t i e s i n -B.C.  presented  an obstacle to the implementation of the progressive system of  education recommended i n the Putman-Weir Report.  Money was increasingly  scarce and schools were among the f i r s t public i n s t i t u t i o n s to suffer (Lawr & Gidney, 1978).  Because of lack of f i n a n c i a l resources  province, i t was not long before the public expressed  throughout the concern over the  seemingly " i n e f f i c i e n t administration" of the school system, and the "fads and f r i l l s " associated with the varied and extensive curriculum.  This was viewed  54 by  some a s  despair from  indicative  felt  the  by  1933  of  school  annual  wasteful  boards  report  on c o n d i t i o n s  1932-33  to  'contraction strenuous of  turn and  the  the  of  increase  1930,  by  for  300%.  suffering  Putnam-Weir  These school  school needs  population and  a l t e r n a t i v e was individual junior  to  of  rapid  required of  emphasis  furnish  differences.  on the  awareness principles  Report  severe  were  in  an  excerpt  Schools:  the  school to  year  one  educationally, gained"  The  of  despite  (B.C.  Department  into  of  the  the  British  appropriations  Columbia. in  As w e l l ,  Vancouver  increased  was o n r e l i e f  attention  during of  an  more  the  and  incidents  these high  would  to  the  of  1930's,  education. primarily  increasingly  diverse  school which  the  in  unemployed people  some p r o v i s i o n b e made  Together  effect  curtailed.  problems  67,128.  a differentiated  of  put  1958).  emergence  of  to  civic  to  increase  larger,  social role  education.  for  sharply  social  lay  for  group of  curricula  A second a l t e r n a t i v e  among e d u c a t o r s in  previously  and a t t e m p t s  soared  that  this  programmes.  1978).  apparent  Vancouver  schools  retreat  c r i s e s brought  to  h i g h and c o m p o s i t e h i g h  university  ground  (Ormsby,  social  The  is  Vancouver's population  unemployed  continued  abilities  forced  and  escalated  unemployment.  of  (Mann,  ' e x p a n s i o n and c o n f i d e n c e '  formed,  e c o n o m i c and  attendance  created  one-tenth  crime  Vancouver  of  Breadlines  registered and  the  number  number  violence  Superintendent  saw t h e  By  of  1931,  circumstances  example,  rapidly.  expenditure  p.M49).  The D e p r e s s i o n a l s o January  in  to m a i n t a i n  1933,  of  the  from years  s c h o o l s were  recommendations  these  perplexity'...a  efforts  Education,  Clearly  high  of  "To r e p o r t is  in  government  in  included  to the  school  contributions  (Stamp, to  due  meeting  the  students. provide  varied  One  for  implementation  to  to  heterogeneous  technical,  contribute  High  an  1978)  be made b y  — of  the.  commercial  and  increased and a  heightened  progressive  55 P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions During this period of economic and s o c i a l c r i s i s , c o n f l i c t regarding management of the f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s of the province l e d to a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and to a new government.  The new premier had campaigned for the  creation of a "new s o c i a l order" and c e r t a i n l y progressive education with i t s ideals of c i t i z e n s h i p and s o c i a l welfare was consistent with h i s concern for s o c i a l reform i n the province.  The government was faced with a "great clamor  for reform during a period of serious s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n " , and was under considerable pressure to take action to put the economic a f f a i r s of the province i n order (Robin, 1972, p.48).  These actions included several which  In 1931, a cabinet advisory committee was formed, to  affected education.  enquire into government expenditures.  The r e s u l t i n g document, e n t i t l e d the  Kidd Report, advocated 'drastic economies' with regard to educational and other expenditures  (Ormsby, 1958).  Among the recommendations concerning  education were the l i m i t a t i o n of free education to age fourteen and the replacement of l o c a l school boards with Municipal Councils (Mann, 1978; Johnson, 1964).  While the Kidd Report was eventually tabled, i t had drawn  education to the attention of the p u b l i c . G.M. W e i r ^ was appointed as Minister of Education and P r o v i n c i a l Secretary i n 1933, a p o l i t i c a l decision which was to have far-reaching e f f e c t s on the d i r e c t i o n education was to take i n the province.  While Weir had  announced shortly a f t e r taking o f f i c e that he intended to i n s t i t u t e revisions to the school curriculum, he was forced to focus f i r s t on the more pressing problems of educational finance (Johnson, 1964). Finance was appointed  A Commission on School  i n 1934 with H.B. King as technical adviser.  King's  Weir may be c l a s s i f i e d as an i n f l u e n t i a l individual because of the impact his progressive ideas had ou B.C.'s school curriculum. His s p e c i f i c contributions i n this regard w i l l be discussed under the heading of " I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals".  56  recommendations concerning  school finance were generally referred to as  "reactionary, i f not revolutionary" (Johnson, 1964, p.118) and i n the end, the recommendations i n t h i s report were not adopted.  I t was f e l t by some that  King's stringent a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c management p r i n c i p l e s to school administration would improve economy and e f f i c i e n c y i n the school but at the expense of many of the p r i n c i p l e s of the new education  (Mann, 1978).  Like the  Kidd Report, the King Report, drew attention to education and prompted the Kidd public and the educational community a l i k e to re-think the aims and purposes of schooling for c h i l d r e n i n B.C. Two amendments to the School Act influenced education i n the province during this time.  In 1934, the age for free t u i t i o n was raised from 15 to 18,  or u n t i l the student completed grade 12 (B.C. Department of Education, 1934, p.N27).  By so doing, the government p u b l i c l y endorsed the notion of democracy  i n education — more students  education a v a i l a b l e to a l l .  In making schooling accessible to  for a longer period, a strong case for a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  curriculum and the composite high school could be b u i l t , ensuring a place for p r a c t i c a l as well as academic subjects.  This amendment thus had implications  for home economics. An amendment i n 1936 also had d i r e c t implications for home economics. This amendment stated that:  "In grade VII and VIII i n c i t y school d i s t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second class and i n any other school d i s t r i c t where the Council of Public Instruction so d i r e c t s , the Board of School Trustees, i n conformity with the regulations governing equipment and courses of study, s h a l l e s t a b l i s h in the schools under i t s . j u r i s d i c t i o n courses i n p r a c t i c a l a r t s , including manual t r a i n i n g and home economics" (B.C. Department of Education, 1936, p.H80).  Up u n t i l t h i s time, although home economics was a recognized  subject i n the  school curriculum, i t was included i n school programmes only at the d i s c r e t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l school boards.  This new p o l i c y indicated that home economics  had "achieved equal status with academic subjects...and  no longer does the  57  retention of this department i n the school depend upon the attitude of the community" (B.C. Department of Education, McLenaghen, the new  1936,  p.H80).  According  to Jessie  l e g i s l a t i o n "added greatly to the prestige of the subject  and has increased the zest of the teaching body" (B.C. Department of Education,  1937a, p.I49).  I n f l u e n t i a l Groups Because of i t s role i n this r e v i s i o n , the Central Revision Committee of the Department of Education had s i g n i f i c a n t influence on curriculum change at this time.  According  to Weir, the Committee was  to "give general d i r e c t i o n to  the work of revision...[and] a l l other committees w i l l conform with  the  p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by the Central Committee and with i t s d i r e c t i o n s " (Weir, 1935,  p.21).  Thus the Revision Committee was  able to exert considerable  influence. The extent to which contributions were made from groups outside the Department of Education and  i t s Central Revision Committee i s more d i f f i c u l t  to determine.  have had some influence i n the decision to  The BCTF may  undertake this curriculum r e v i s i o n . the BCTF prepared  At their Annual General Meeting in  a r e s o l u t i o n recommending a province-wide review of the  curriculum ("Annual General Meeting", 1932). underway by 1935,  1932,  -The review and r e v i s i o n were  with the BCTF included as part of individual subject  r e v i s i o n committees.  There appears to be l i t t l e information a v a i l a b l e ,  however, regarding the s p e c i f i c input by the BCTF and  its affiliated  subject  groups. Other groups outside of the Department of Education were encouraged to make suggestions  for the curriculum r e v i s i o n .  assistance and contributions might be'obtained  Because he f e l t that "valuable from many sources," Weir  invited a l l teachers, school trustees, parent-teacher  associations, i n d u s t r i a l  leaders and l o c a l councils of women to recommend improvements for the  new  58 curriculum (B.C. Department of Education,  1936; Weir, 1935).  No evidence was  found regarding the number and types of suggestions made by these groups. There i s some evidence  that suggests that l o c a l school boards may have been  i n f l u e n t i a l i n the retention of home economics i n the p r o v i n c i a l school curriculum during the early 1930's.  Whether these school boards exerted any  influence on curriculum change i s almost impossible to determine, but their actions regarding the retention of subjects such as home economics may have had some influence on public and government attitudes toward the subject, which i n turn may have influenced future development of home economics i n the school system. At the height of the Depression, when d r a s t i c economic measures were suggested due to lack of goverment funds, subjects such as home economics were often l a b e l l e d as " f r i l l s " and were targeted as one area where government expenditure  could be curbed.  during the Depression  While many home economics centers were closed  due to lack of funds, several remained i n operation.  Some l o c a l school boards which refused to eliminate the subject e n t i r e l y devised alternate means of saving money while s t i l l r e t a i n i n g the home economics program.  The Vancouver School Board, for example, employed a  creative approach to retrenchment.  The Report of the Chairman of the Finance  Committee i n 1933 indicated that "elimination of a l l but the most e s s e n t i a l " would be required, with a general "cutting of the coat according to the cloth a v a i l a b l e " (Vancouver School Board, 1933, home economics was e s s e n t i a l and decided  p.15).  The Board considered  to maintain  that  the program and to reduce  operating costs by integrating home economics and manual t r a i n i n g into the larger school plant. centers separate  Up to this time, these courses had been taught i n  from the main schools.  Superintendent  MacCorkindale argued  on behalf of the Board that the p o s s i b i l i t y of an increasing number of centers being closed due to high operating costs emphasized "the importance of having these subjects incorporated i n the school organization on the same basis as  any other subject" (Vancouver School Board, 1934, p.23).  The Board then  proceeded to implement the plan, and home economics was successfully retained in the d i s t r i c t .  I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals Three i n d i v i d u a l s had major roles i n both introducing and e f f e c t i n g this curriculum r e v i s i o n .  G.M. Weir and H.B. King, as advocates of progressive  ideals i n education, gave shape and d i r e c t i o n to the new public school curriculum, and Jessie McLenaghen, as P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics, provided leadership i n the r e v i s i o n and implementation of the home economics curriculum. As noted e a r l i e r , Dr. Weir was appointed Minister of Education He was regarded  as a dynamic crusader, a man whose " d i c t i o n f a i r l y  i n 1933. sizzles  l i k e a high tension wire", a man f i l l e d with a "consuming f i r e of passionate protest, the zeal of a r e a l reformer" p.456).  (Johnson, 1964, p.113; Ormsby, 1958,  And c l e a r l y , reform was on h i s mind.  Immediately following his  appointment, he addressed the B.C. teachers, r e f e r r i n g to them as "sentinels of the new Social Order".  Education was, he told them, "the chief cornerstone  of national well-being" (Weir, 1933, p.3-4).  By 1935, he had ordered a  complete r e v i s i o n of the e n t i r e school curriculum as the "more recent contributions of the Science of Education j u s t i f i e d a complete r e v i s i o n of a l l programmes""(B.C. Department of Education,  1936, p.H26).  Weir's progressive  view of education influenced the d i r e c t i o n that this curriculum was to take. While i t i s debatable whether the philosophy guiding Weir's r e v i s i o n r e f l e c t e d the p r i n c i p l e s of progressive education  i n their purest sense (Mann,  1978), i t c l e a r l y contained elements of progressive dogma.  In o u t l i n i n g the  duties of the Central Revision Committee, Weir indicated that committee members were to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with "current curriculum b u i l d i n g literature".  They were instructed to devise some "fundamental p r i n c i p l e s " to  60 d i r e c t the r e v i s i o n by analyzing the writings of a diverse group of progressive education proponents such as Bobbitt, Snedden, Chapman, Counts and Harrap (Weir, 1935, p.21). The Report of the Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary Education in 1915 was also considered by Weir to be important Committee.  reading f o r the Revision  I t outlined the Seven Cardinal P r i n c i p l e s of Education —  health,  fundamental s k i l l s , worthy home membership, vocation, c i t i z e n s h i p , wise use of l e i s u r e and the c u l t i v a t i o n of character —  which were intended to form the  foundation of the new curriculum (Black, 1925). Many of the progressive p r i n c i p l e s expressed i n f l u e n t i a l i n shaping content was organized principle."  i n these readings were  the new curriculum i n B.C. For example, subject into units, " b u i l t around some fundamental thought or  The aims and objectives of the new curriculum sought to emphasize  the s o c i a l education of the c h i l d and s o c i a l improvement through democratic processes.  While t r a d i t i o n a l academic subjects were retained at the core of  the curriculum for a l l students, new subjects such as music, a r t and home economics were considered  to be valuable for their contributions to character  development ( B i C . Department of Education,  1937c).  In the new curriculum,  each subject was to make contributions to the Seven Cardinal P r i n c i p l e s which were r e f e r r e d to as the "primary objectives of education" for B.C. schools (Black, 1935).  Because the concepts central to the o r i g i n a l conception of  home economics —  home and family and homemaking as a vocaton for women  —  p a r a l l e l e d these objectives of education proposed by Weir, home economics was considered to be a relevant school subject at this time. H.B. King appeared to hold similar views concerning both education and the place home economics would take i n the school curriculum.  As curriculum  adviser for the Central Revision Committee, he had a d i r e c t impact on the programme f o r public schools i n the province.  He also endorsed the Seven  Cardinal P r i n c i p l e s of education and favored a wide range of goals so that  61 schools could meet a l l of a c h i l d ' s needs and i n t e r e s t s .  He was c r i t i c a l of  the influence of the u n i v e r s i t y i n maintaining the primarily academic focus of the high school, even though a more " e l a s t i c " curriculum had been introduced following the Putnam-Weir Report  (Child, 1974).  King was responsible for  introducing the concept of "high school graduation",^ whereby a l l students were required to complete a set of "constants", with the remainder  of the  programme to be composed of e l e c t i v e subjects (Johns, 1950, p.42).  This  provided for the i n c l u s i o n of subjects other than academic ones and gave courses such as home economics a more stable and secure position i n the school curriculum with potential for future growth.  King was hopeful that the  composite high school with i t s d i v e r s i f i e d curriculum would assist in keeping more students i n school for longer periods of time, and would be more responsive to the varied a b i l i t i e s and interests of a larger and probably more diverse student population. King engineered several changes i n the structure of the home economics curriculum.  In l e t t e r s to Miss McLenaghen, he endorsed a general home  economics course at the grade IX l e v e l , "embracing both Foods and Clothing" and emphasized that i t should be a course "capable of expansion...[and]... additional starred optional units should be provided for Enrichment, 12 Exploration and Individual Differences."  King indicated also that the  "Technical and Home Economics Courses" would be organized along the lines of the "Language Science Courses", where "each section of the work [would be] three sequences out of four beyond grade V I I I . "  Out of the grade IX course  might grow, at the senior l e v e l , "a Foods course, a Clothing course, and a This i s d i s t i n c t from graduation on one of f i v e programmes s t i l l i n existence a f t e r Putman-Weir: Matriculation, Normal, Entrance, Commercial, Technical and General. This statement  i s included i n the 1937 Home Economics B u l l e t i n I I I , p.9.  62 combined CC course, making three years of Home Economics above grade VIII" (King, 1936). King also took an active interest i n the school lunch period in r u r a l schools.  He saw a d e f i n i t e role to be played by teachers trained in home  economics i n creating a learning s i t u a t i o n for students at noon hour.  "The  noon lunch-time," he said "provides an opportunity to teach the children table manners...and some of the refinements of s o c i a l l i v i n g . " '"wolf  their food...and may  Children tended to  not trouble to wash their hands."  He  felt  strongly that as the Normal Schools had been "giving training in Home Economics to young teachers...here i s an excellent way (B.C. Department of Education, 1941,  p.D42-43).  to apply this teaching"  His suggestions may have been  acted upon, for by the following year he commented that "the  unregulated,  unsupervised  away...[and]...it  luncheon period in non-urban schools i s passing  is not uncommon i n country schools for p u p i l s . . . t o s i t down...and to eat i n a c i v i l i z e d manner."  He r e i t e r a t e d his b e l i e f that "the school lunch affords  opportunity for s o c i a l training...[and] i t offers the best approach to learning the p r i n c i p l e s of diet and n u t r i t i o n " (B.C. Department of Education, 1942., p.B34-35).  By the mid-1940's, a School Lunch Programme was operating i n  many r u r a l school d i s t r i c t s , due to the fact that "large numbers of students [were] coming long distances to school by bus" (Orr, 1948,  p . l ) . Home  economics teachers were involved in a variety of ways, and while i t appears that no record exists of how  this programme was  i n s t i t u t e d , i t seems  reasonable to assume that King's intervention i n 1941 may  have influenced the  course of events. Jessie McLenaghen, P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics, continued to promote her subject during the t h i r t i e s and t r i e d to ensure that home economics r e f l e c t e d the more progressive view of education which had been defined for the province by the Putman-Weir Report of 1925. of the role home economics played in the new  Her description  conception of education  was  63 included i n her report of 1935 to the Department of Education:  " P r a c t i c a l Arts courses j u s t i f y their place i n a curriculum today upon the doctrine of s o c i a l need as well as upon c u l t u r a l values to the i n d i v i d u a l , and therefore they have attained a new status i n education. They are gradually being regarded as a necessary agency i n the development of types of knowledge, s k i l l s and attitudes which are increasingly necessary for successful l i v i n g i n a new and extremely complex s o c i a l and economic order...because of the c o n t r o l l i n g facts of present day l i f e , they are becoming basic fundamental phases i n the education of youth"(B.C. Department of Education, 1935, p.S48).  Every attempt was made to keep home economics responsive to the " s o c i a l and economic order" during the depression.  She emphasized that "despite the  economic conditions... the teachers have accepted... the challenge, and...have doubled their e f f o r t s to make the work link more closely with d a i l y  living.  Assistance i n planning expenditures on depleted budgets has been freely given, and the confidence of the public has steadily increased" (B.C. Department of Education, 1934, p.N44). During this period, Miss McLenaghen once again led a subject committee i n developing a new curriculum for home economics.  Since the Department was  "anxious to make [the] Home Economics programme at school f i t with the home", a questionnaire to parents regarding suitable content for the new curriculum, was d i s t r i b u t e d through home economics classes (McLenaghen, 1936).  The extent  to which any parental input was used i s impossible to determine, as no records of responses  THE  exist.  1952 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION The t h i r d home economics r e v i s i o n was begun i n 1946 and completed in  1952.  The stated objective for the programme at this time was "to prepare the  students for e f f e c t i v e home l i v i n g " and a l l courses were designed to center on " s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of home and family l i v i n g " (B.C. Department of Education, 1957b, p.4).  Thus home and family membership and homemaking as a vocation for  64 females were maintained as the organizing concepts of the home economics programme.  As such they r e f l e c t e d the continued influence of progressive  p r i n c i p l e s i n education i n B.C. Two changes were apparent i n this r e v i s i o n :  a change i n the system by  which courses were numbered and a marked increase i n the number of course offerings.  In the numbering system, Roman numerals were replaced with Arabic  numerals and the l e t t e r i n g system for high school courses was abandoned. At the junior l e v e l , HE I, II and III were replaced with HE 7, 8 and 10. (Although these names were changed, the content remained course names became more r e f l e c t i v e of course content.  the same.)  As well,  T i t l e s such as  "Dressmaking" and "Clothing Construction", for example, indicated more c l e a r l y than HE ( I I I ) and HE (B) the intended focus of the course. Of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e to this r e v i s i o n was the increase i n course offerings.  Three new options were developed i n the junior programme —  HE 7a,  8a and 10a. These were a l t e r n a t i v e courses developed for those schools with minimal or no home economics  facilities.  At the senior l e v e l , course content was re-organized to extend the scope of the programme.  "Arts and Crafts", "Home Furnishing" and "Child Care and  Home Nursing" were new courses which were expanded versions of optional^ units previously included i n HE I, II and III at the junior l e v e l and i n (CC) II .and Home Relations at the senior l e v e l .  While these new courses were added to the  programme of studies, these topics also continued to be included as units of study i n other courses.  The "Boys' Course" was offered to boys i n grades 11  and 12 and was open only to selected students i n grade 10. Units of study i n the course included Personal Appearance; Foods, Nutrition and Home Management; Family Relations and Social Customs and Courtesies; The Home, Its Furnishings and Its Use; and Child Care (B.C. Department of Education, 1951c). The increase i n courses may have been related to the establishment of home economics as a major f i e l d of study during this curriculum r e v i s i o n .  65 Students could graduate on the University Programme with a major, i n home economics by completing  three years of study i n home economics (acquiring a  minimum number of c r e d i t s i n the subject) and by completing an accompanying major i n Mathematics and Science.  Thus, according to the Department of  Education, home economics now had "equal status with other subjects" for u n i v e r s i t y entrance  (B.C. Department of Education, 1950a, p.22).  (An outline  of the 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision i s found i n Appendix E.)  I n f l u e n t i a l S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movement Several developments influenced school curriculum during the 1940's. The lean years of the Depression gave way to a period of economic renewal i n Canada.  World War II generated growth i n industry and technology, which  resulted i n improved economic conditions and contributed to a resurgence of the b i r t h rate (Patterson, 1970).  These developments, along with an  anticipated population increase due to immigration and affluence following the war (Tomkins, 1981b), prompted Canadian educators  to once again r e f l e c t on the  form education should take and on the role i t should assume i n post-war Canada. These general trends were r e f l e c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Growth i n the  forest industry and energy production and the r e v i v a l of mining and smelting contributed to an expanding economy i n B.C. throughout 1982).  the f o r t i e s (Ralston,  Accompanying these improved economic conditions was a rapid increase  in the b i r t h rate. According to B.C.'s Minister of Education, "careful planning and study of...reconstruction and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n problems" would constitute the best e f f o r t s of education during wartime (Weir, 1941, p.460).  There were generally  more students i n school due to the improved holding power of the high school, and i n conjunction with a predicted post-war population increase, l o c a l educators were concerned  about housing this burgeoning  student population  66 1964).  (Johnson, relevant  to  the  addressed. juvenile look  to  More  students  meant  varied  needs o f  a diverse  W i t h many y o u n g p e o p l e  delinquency appearing the  schools  (Patterson,  Progressive  principles of  education during c u r r i c u l u m and educating  e c o n o m i c s was  the  the  the  every  in  the  group of  employed be  a s a means o f  as  in  on t h e  students  wartime  rise,  improving  thirties,  "the  curriculum  would  industry  many p e o p l e moral  fibre  need  and  to  with  continued of  be  the  to  country"  p.382).  1970,  and d e v e l o p m e n t  to  that,  concerned with  whole  child  post-war  man's  one o f  child the  continued  period.  composite high  citizenship,  The  t o make  became a c e n t r a l  retained aim  courses which helped  in  to  differences  contributions  concepts of  s c h o o l were  individual  a  differentiated  and e x p a n d e d ,  public  form  to  as  education.  the  Home  differentiated  curriculum.  Political-Legal A number education  in  Maxwell  large  of  school  complaints  districts  constitute from grades of  a  of  felt in  the  "community one  i n November,  In  light  were  through  education  by  developments favored,  of  and  and  1940's  in  some t o  be  be  in  other light  He a l s o  to  into  the  the  province. the  Dr.  current  recommendations of  the  a growing  trustees  regarding  world number  and  the  where of  BCTF,  C a m e r o n recommended units  support  recommended  s u b s i d i z e d by  the  parts of  school  and  specifically.  investigate  long overdue.  economic u n i t "  influenced  precipitated  t o make  in  organizations,  twelve.  costs  the  II  to  1944  p r o v i n c e be r e o r g a n i z e d or  in  school "finance  administration  from a v a r i e t y was  study  W o r l d War  district  districts  investigation  portion  following  a commission to  school  d e c i s i o n s made  a n d home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n  reconstruction  finance.  school  generally  C a m e r o n was a p p o i n t e d  method o f school  political-legal  B.C.  Concern with appointment  of  Decisions  large  adequate  that  provincial  enough  this  that to  schooling  a greatly  increased  government  67 (Johnson, 1964). Adoption of Cameron's report created far-reaching and l a s t i n g effects i n education i n B.C.  The recommendations were implemented by 1946, and quickly  produced favourable r e s u l t s .  According  to Assistant Superintendent  H.L.  Campbell, the larger administrative units had resulted i n "improvements i n school plants and f a c i l i t i e s " and had a "most b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the types of educational opportunity...being made throughout the Province" (B.C. Department of Education,  1948, p.JJ27).  This report paved the way for the curriculum r e v i s i o n i n i t i a t e d i n 1946 by the Department of Education.  Improved school f a c i l i t i e s meant course  offerings could be improved, p a r t i c u l a r l y where specialized f a c i l i t i e s and equipment were required (as i n the case of home economics), and larger d i s t r i c t s made possible greater uniformity i n course content.  More e f f i c i e n t  administration of curriculum matters on a d i s t r i c t - w i d e basis could conceivably reduce the need for tight p r o v i n c i a l control by the P r o v i n c i a l Directors/Supervisors.  In home economics for example, constant d i r e c t i o n v i a  l e t t e r s from the Home Economics Director concerning pattern s e l e c t i o n for clothing projects and equipment i n laboratories would be lessened. The Department of Education's  decision to undertake a curriculum r e v i s i o n  in 1946 resulted i n several changes which influenced the nature of home economics curriculum at this time.  Two general changes involved the  r e d e f i n i t i o n of the two high school graduation programmes and the i n s t i t u t i o n of a new system of subject "majors". The  two high school graduation programmes (previously c a l l e d High School  Graduation Without University Entrance  and High School Graduation With  University Entrance) were re-named General and University Entrance in order to better define their intended purposes.  Programmes  Both would lead to  graduation, but only one would provide entry to the University (B.C. Department of Education,  1948).  68 It was f e l t by the Department that while the e x i s t i n g high school curriculum made provision for varying capacities and interests among students enrolled i n one graduation programme through a variety of e l e c t i v e subjects, the second graduation programme leading to university entrance s t i l l consisted largely of required (or "constant") academic subjects.  Hence there was l i t t l e  opportunity for these students to pursue "advanced e l e c t i v e courses i n f i e l d s of developing i n t e r e s t s " (B.C. Department of Education, 1947, 1948; Johns, 1950,  p.43).  In order to r e c t i f y this s i t u a t i o n , e l e c t i v e subjects were  extended to the u n i v e r s i t y entrance programme and the number of c r e d i t s required for a l l students to graduate was increased.  A new system of subject  "majors" was introduced, wherein a l l students, regardless of the graduation programme they were enrolled i n , were required to follow at least one major subject f i e l d throughout  senior high school.  The introduction of this new  system was s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t enabled students to major i n an e l e c t i v e subject and s t i l l gain entry to the u n i v e r s i t y .  Thus students on either the  General or University Entrance Programmes were able to take an increased number of e l e c t i v e subjects during their high school years.  Through this new  system, home economics was granted equal status with other subjects where high school graduation was concerned, yet  graduate  on the University Entrance Programme (B.C. Department of  Education, 1949, 1950b). designed  and a g i r l could major i n home economics and  This broadened framework for e l e c t i v e courses,  to both accommodate individual differences among students and to  facilitate  high school graduation through a system of subject majors, placed  home economics i n a position where i t s course offerings were expanded. According to the Director of Educational and Vocational Guidance, this r e v i s i o n marked a " t h i r d phase i n [the] development of a Programme of Studies that f u l l y  recognizes i n d i v i d u a l differences and accepts the child's personal  development as i t s main purpose" (Johns, 1950, p.43).  As such, i t continued  to r e f l e c t the progressive p r i n c i p l e s of individual development, democracy and  69 citizenship to  in  formalize  education.  and  which e l e c t i v e viewed  by  the  child...[and  subjects  not]  elite"  teachers  were  In  this  associated In  of  instructed is  to  the with  secondary  addition  to  of  to  attempted  these  general  individual  as  a "school for the  giving  The  s c h o o l was  cultural  Principals  of  the  Education,  de-emphasize  or and  impression that  Programme...[as]  Department  to  p.7). the  in  man's  intellectual,  1950a,  effort  school,  The  every  the  curriculum changes,  Effective  Principles  leisure.  schooling.  the  two  1949,  academic  the  a new c o m p u l s o r y c o u r s e e n t i t l e d  p.11).  and use o f  composite high  of  for  a significant  p.N29).  elitism  long  schools.  c l a s s i f i e d as a " c o n s t a n t  Seven C a r d i n a l  part  University  (B.C.  w h i c h was  the  the  Education,  the  introduced  1950a,  represented  "studiously avoid  Education  Education,  of  institution  needs"  Department  concept  E d u c a t i o n as  inferior  different  also  a central  ( B . C . Department  meet  way  formed  a selective  Programme  programmes  revision  upon the  Department  economic  General  improve  This  of  h e a l t h ^'"/physical e d u c a t i o n ,  'worker'  "Effective  subject"  L i v i n g was d e s i g n e d  Education —  c o u r s e was  'homeraaker',  citizenship  to  worthy  emphasize  and  the  'citizen'."  (vocational)  Department  (B.C. to  of  Living",  Department  encompass t h r e e  home m e m b e r s h i p , "threefold It  of  role  vocation of  included units  guidance, mental"hygiene  of  the on  and home  and  \ family  living  (Johns,  between  Effective  was n o t  one o f  indicate  the  1950.,-p.46-48).  Living  the  and e x i s t i n g  subject  reasons  for  areas  this  While  selected  substantial  Educational  assessments undertaken  to  teach  it.  The documents do  time  indicated  Canada.  Canadian Education A s s o c i a t i o n sponsored several during  the  latter  educational  this  thought  assessments  to  during  considerable The  overlap  not  decision.  Groups  given  was  home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e s , home e c o n o m i c s  Influential  was  there  years  of  the  changes r e q u i r e d  War,  and e x e r t e d  for  that post-war  educational  substantial  c u r r i c u l a r influence i n Canada during the 1940's.  In 1943,  for example, a  Committee of the Canada and Newfoundland Education Associations reported on the "Chief Educational Needs i n Canada".  This Report i d e n t i f i e d the small  school administrative d i s t r i c t as costly and curriculum as inadequate  i n scope and structure and r e i t e r a t e d the need for  curriculum d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Patterson, 1970). this Report was impact was  i n e f f i c i e n t , described the  a restatement  According to Tomkins (1981b),  of progressive p r i n c i p l e s i n education.  Its  apparently f e l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, for soon a f t e r the results  were published the Cameron Inquiry was r e v i s i o n was  i n s t i t u t e d and a major curriculum  undertaken i n order to define more c l e a r l y the concept of the  composite high school i n the province. provided opportunity for expansion  Since the composite high school  i n e l e c t i v e subjects, the Canadian  Education Association i n d i r e c t l y influenced the expansion  of home economics  curriculum during the early 1950's. In B.C.,  the findings of the above Report were r e f l e c t e d in the  deliberations of the Department of Education and Revision Committee.  the Central  [Curriculum]  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n had been expressed with the i n a b i l i t y of  the e x i s t i n g curriculum to meet the needs of the majority of students Department of Education, 1942, and i t was  p.B34-35; B.C.  (B.C.  Department of Education, 1947),  generally f e l t that the "high school i s s t i l l probably  too  selective...[and many] are not l i k e l y to remain i n high school u n t i l they are presented with a programme adjusted to their capacities and  interests."  As  noted e a r l i e r , the programme of studies i n most schools had continued to be determined by the university entrance curriculum, l i m i t i n g the opportunity to pursue study i n advanced e l e c t i v e courses  (Johns, 1950).  Because of  anticipated increases i n school populations r e s u l t i n g from post-war immigration  and r i s i n g b i r t h rates, new meaning was attached to the notion of  mass education.  Thus the Department was  challenged to provide on the one hand  "adequate c u l t u r a l and vocational t r a i n i n g for the many", while at the same  71 time developing "to -the f u l l those superior minds to whom society must ever look for the solutions to i t s problems" (B.C. Department of Education, 1950a, p.7).  I t was i n this context that the Department of Education undertook a  r e v i s i o n of the e x i s t i n g curriculum. As indicated e a r l i e r , this subject-wide changes i n the home economics curriculum.  r e v i s i o n resulted i n several  As i n the previous r e v i s i o n , the  Central Revision Committee directed the e f f o r t s of various subject groups, with each subject revised i n keeping with recommendations set down by the Committee.  The Department of Education was therefore a s i g n i f i c a n t c u r r i c u l a r  influence at this time and d i r e c t l y contributed to the expansion of home economics courses i n the B.C. public school curriculum. The Department of Education continued  to exert i t s influence as the  newly-instituted curriculum r e v i s i o n was implemented.  A Curriculum  in A p r i l of 1951 drew attention to a sharp decrease i n enrollment  Circular  i n home  economics, i n d u s t r i a l education, a r t , and music when i t was expected that the new arrangement would have contributed to increased enrollment.  An  investigation revealed a misinterpretation of the system of "majors", and p r i n c i p a l s and guidance teachers were instructed that: handled s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by guidance i t may be necessary  " I f this matter i s not to go back to a  regulatory requirement that one of the " p r a c t i c a l " subjects be included in a l l grade IX student programmes" (B.C. Department of Education, is not clear how this affected enrollments,  1951b).  While i t  i t does lndcajte the importance the  Department attached to p r a c t i c a l subjects such as home economics i n the secondary school curriculum at this time. The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers Federation did not appear to have a d i r e c t influence on the home economics curriculum during this r e v i s i o n , but i t s position regarding curriculum i n general appeared to i n d i r e c t l y affect the role of home economics professionals i n curriculum r e v i s i o n and development. In 1948 the BCTF requested  o f f i c i a l representation on the Central Revision  72 Committee. was  By 1949 a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with regard to curriculum r e v i s i o n  forged between the BCTF and the Department of Education, wherein the  Federation was able to recommend i t s curriculum chairperson for membership on the Revision Committee (Johnson, 1964).  Through the BCTF curriculum  chairperson, individual subject groups (such as home economics) had access to the process of curriculum change. During  the implementation of the new curriculum, the BCTF assumed the  role of advocate for home economics. and endorsed a b r i e f submitted  For example, the Federation  supported  i n November of 1952 on behalf of the Home  Economics Section, expressing concern that i n some schools double periods were not provided 1952).  for foods classes as outlined i n the revised curriculum (Spragge,  The BCTF approached the Department of Education on behalf of home  economics and subsequently  a b u l l e t i n s t r e s s i n g the importance of adhering to  the new time allottment for foods courses was published (B.C. Department of Education,  1953).  economics groups.  In this r e v i s i o n there was considerable input from home Since this input was coordinated by the P r o v i n c i a l Director  of Home Economics, these contributions w i l l be discussed i n the next section.  I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals As had been the case i n 1935, subject revisions were completed i n conjunction with subject representatives.  Because of her role as P r o v i n c i a l  Director of Home Economics, Bertha Rogers played a major role with regard to the 1952 Curriculum Revision.  She sought input from two groups:  a home  economics r e v i s i o n committee and home economics teachers i n the province. The home economics r e v i s i o n committee was composed of a "representative group of [home economics] teachers".  These teachers were located in the lower  mainland and included Charlotte Black, Acting Head of The Home Economics Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and H.L. Campbell, the Head of The Central Revision Committee (Rogers, 1947a, b).  Issues to be addressed  73 by this group were the renaming of e x i s t i n g home economics courses, changes i n course content and the allotment of credits for home economics courses (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1947). In November of 1947, Miss Rogers s o l i c i t e d input from home economics teachers i n the province regarding the impending curriculum r e v i s i o n .  Her  intent was to u t i l i z e "the combined thinking of the whole group", i n order that a "pattern for a new Outline may begin to take shape" (Rogers, 1947c). Questionnaire input was sought concerning such issues as the time allotment for home economics courses (the single period vs. the double period); the focus to be r e f l e c t e d i n the Home Economics Programme; the over-emphasis of skill's and techniques i n home economics; increased emphasis on "human relationships and s o c i a l and economic aspects of l i v i n g " ; "more Consumer Education and buymanship"; the preferred curriculum format; and the introduction of a separate course i n Applied Arts and C r a f t s .  Home economics  for boys was also b r i e f l y addressed, presumably at the request of the Chief Inspector of Schools (and Head of the Central Revision Committee) who had indicated to Miss Rogers that "we s h a l l have to do something about Home Economics for boys" (Campbell, 1946). While input from this questionnaire cannot be located, the request for professional opinions r e f l e c t e d the central role envisioned by Miss Rogers for home economics professionals i n determining their own curriculum.  This view  of the role of home economics teachers i n c u r r i c u l a r matters was also r e f l e c t e d i n the Home Economics B u l l e t i n s i n s t i t u t e d i n 1947.  In the  inaugural issue Miss Rogers indicated that: "I f e e l i t i s of the utmost importance for us to take a keen interest i n anything and everything that pertains to our subject, and to be constantly on the a l e r t for new ideas. We a l l need to make a real e f f o r t to broaden our outlook and to increase our knowledge. I t i s only by keeping up with developments i n Home Economics and by adapting to our own s i t u a t i o n any suggestions that w i l l make for improvement... that we s h a l l be i n a position to give service of r e a l worth to our students and to our community" (Rogers, 1947c).  74 Miss Rogers exerted her influence regarding the new home economics curriculum long after i t had been implemented.  For example, the new course  e n t i t l e d Arts and Crafts could only be offered with her consent (B.C. Department of Education,  1950a).  As only two requests had been made by 1955  and as an examination of the course content  suggested a "closer r e l a t i o n s h i p  to Art courses, rather than Home Economics", the course was withdrawn (Rogers, 1955).  This decision p a r a l l e l e d prior concerns regarding the applied art  components of previous home economics courses.  As i t was f e l t that they  "proved a deterrent i n r e g i s t r a t i o n i n Home Economics courses", i t was advocated that some of this course content be incorporated into Clothing, with the remainder to be l e f t  to the Art Department (McLenaghen & Rogers, 1946).  In l i g h t of these recommendations, i t i s curious that i n this r e v i s i o n , Arts and Crafts was s t i l l included as a separate  THE  course.  1965 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION In 1965 the fourth home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n (begun i n 1958) was  completed.  Courses were revised and renamed i n order to bring them "into l i n e  with the needs of homemakers i n a modern world" (B.C. Department of Education, 1962, p . i ) . A new Community Services Programme at the senior l e v e l was added to bring a more overt vocational o r i e n t a t i o n to the home economics curriculum.  This  constituted a major change i n emphasis for home economics i n the secondary school s e t t i n g . 13 education  Although home economics had been associated with technical  . . . for vocational t r a i n i n g i n the early part of the twentieth  Some confusion seems to exist regarding the meaning of technical education. It appears to be used i n two ways: (1) as vocational education or t r a i n i n g for a trade, and (2) p r a c t i c a l education or t r a i n i n g i n the p r a c t i c a l a r t s . The l a t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n may or may not encompass the notion of vocation i n the workplace.  century, i t s primary focus was the vocation  of homemaking i . e . the  preservation of the home and family (Stamp, 1977).  Training for the workplace  was viewed as secondary to this homemaking education.  Home and family were  retained as central concepts i n this r e v i s i o n , with the focus expanded to include both the community and the workplace. As i n previous r e v i s i o n s , changes were made to both the junior and senior programmes.  The primary aim of the new junior home economics curriculum was  to "help pupils understand and appreciate the importance of the role of homemaker and to gain knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding...of homemaking (B.C. Department of Education, 1967a, p . l ) .  Since grade 7 had been returned  to the elementary school, Home Economics 7 was eliminated from the junior course of studies.  Included i n the junior programme were a  "comprehensive"  Home Economics 8 course; clothing, foods and childcare courses at the grade 9 l e v e l ; and Boys' Cooking and Food Services 9.  Home Economics 8 was introduced  in 1962, and included a l l of the major areas of home economics: Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management, Child Development and The Home and Its Furnishings. I t was intended to be introductory and exploratory i n nature and to provide students with the opportunity to discover s p e c i f i c areas of  interest i n which to pursue further study.  The grade 9 courses were  introduced i n 1963, and could be taken as e l e c t i v e subjects i n either grades 9 or  10. Successful completion of any two of these courses q u a l i f i e d a student  for a s p e c i a l t y i n the new Senior Community Services Programme. comprehensive  Although a  boys' course had existed i n previous home economics programmes,  a new course e n t i t l e d "Boys' Cooking and Food Services" was developed at this time to equip boys with basic knowledge and s k i l l s i n foods which could then be applied i n a related occupation.  As noted e a r l i e r , the term "vocation" i n conjunction with home economics o r i g i n a l l y inferred the notion of a woman's c a l l i n g rather than a p a r t i c u l a r occupation (Rury, 1984).  At the senior l e v e l , the concept of specialty areas replaced the home economics major.  The new Community Services Programme, introduced i n 1964,  included three home economics specialty areas — I n d u s t r i a l Services.  Foods, T e x t i l e s and Home and  The goal of this Community Services Programme was to  "develop the character and personality of individual pupils, and to provide them with selected knowledge and s k i l l s applicable to personal and occupational l i f e as preparation for further training or entry into a range of occupations related to the foods industry, the clothing and t e x t i l e s industry, home and community service" (B.C. Department of Education, 1967b, p.4). The programme was vocationally-oriented, combining homemaking preparation with training for related occupations.  Home economics courses offered i n  conjunction with this programme were Management 11, Home and Industrial Services 12, Foods 11, 12A and 12B, T e x t i l e s 11, 12A and 12B, and Child Care 12.  A student e n r o l l i n g i n a specialty area on this programme was required to  take c e r t a i n senior l e v e l general education constant subjects (English......SocialStudies and Physical and Health Education) and programme constants (General Business) i n addition to required home economics specialty courses.  It i s  interesting to note that although boys could e n r o l l i n a Foods Specialty on the Community Services Programme, they were required to take only Foods 11 and 12A, with the remainder of the required specialty courses i n business education.  G i r l s i n a Foods Specialty, however, were required to take Foods  11, 12A and 12B, T e x t i l e s 11, Management 11 and Child Care 12.  Business  education courses were not offered to g i r l s i n this specialty option and a rationale for this d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was not given. Teaching cafeterias for Foods 12B were established i n schools with t o t a l enrollments of over 600 i n grades 11 and 12. These f a c i l i t i e s were intended to simulate the workplace and to enable students to gain experience working with food service, quantity food preparation and commercial equipment. Home economics was also part of a new Occupational Programme for students  77 whose h i s t o r y of school achievement indicated that they would be unable to benefit from the regular secondary school curriculum and who would probably leave school before high school graduation.  A home economcs course  called  "Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s " was introduced into some schools as part of t h i s new programme i n 1963.  I t was a three-year course, designed to  provide " p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the basic s k i l l s of homemaking...as preparation for...occupations these pupils [having d i f f i c u l t y on a regular programme] are l i k e l y to enter" (B.C. Department of Education,  1963b, p.21).  At the time of this r e v i s i o n the status of home economics with respect to academic courses and u n i v e r s i t y entrance was a l t e r e d .  Because the home  economics major was eliminated and because home economics was c l a s s i f i e d in the Chant Report as an "outer" e l e c t i v e subject (considered to be of lesser importance than other subjects), i t was no longer part of the central group of subjects leading to u n i v e r s i t y entrance.  Credits earned i n home economics  courses contributed to high school graduation, but d i d not contribute to university entrance Technical Programme.  for those students  following the new Academic and  (An outline of the 1965 Home Economics Curriculum  Revision i s found i n Appendix F.)  \'\  '•' ""*---\.\ v S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements  \.  Following World War I I , a number of developments influenced the growth of education  i n North America.  Canada's emergence from the war signalled the  onset of a period of reconstruction and reassessment^""A predicted post-war depression f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e and, as the Canadian economy expanded, population increased r a p i d l y due to an inceased b i r t h rate and to immigration. With growing material prosperity and advances i n industry and technology, the need for more and better education r a p i d l y became apparent (Stevenson, 1979). Increases of educators  i n the general population, coupled with the continued  to r e t a i n students  i n school and to equalize educational  efforts  78 opportunity, caused schools to quickly become overcrowded.  Teachers who were  often inadequately trained were required to teach a wider variety of subjects to a broader  spectrum of students than ever before.  Industry at this time was  demanding an increased number of trained employees and education for work "began to dominate the public mind." the Canadian high school was "mutually  As a r e s u l t , suggests Stevenson (1970b),  faced with two issues, which many f e l t were  inconsistent: the ideas of universal secondary education c o n f l i c t e d  with the equally pressing desire for scholastic excellence" (p. 396).  Thus,  these c o n f l i c t i n g pressures i n the Canadian school system resulted in a "confused  t r a n s i t i o n " through which Canadian education appeared to progress  during the f i f t i e s  (Stevenson,  1970b).  According to Stevenson (1979), school c u r r i c u l a across the country during the post-war years r e f l e c t e d a mixture of progressivism and academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , and uniformity of educational "opinion and p r a c t i c e " gradually disappeared.  Several public investigations into education at this time (e.g.  the Hope Commission) revealed that the progressive p r i n c i p l e s of democratization, child-centered c u r r i c u l a , the inculcation of good c i t i z e n s h i p and respect for the c h i l d ' s i n d i v i d u a l i t y were widely accepted as "tenets of the curriculum for public education by i t s spokesmen" (p. 98). however, the curriculum of the high school continued  to remain centered on the  t r a d i t i o n a l academic subjects, and progressive pedagogy was practice among teachers.  In r e a l i t y ,  not common  As the gap between educational rhetoric and practice  became increasingly apparent, the ideals of progressivism became the focus of educational debate. Educators  i n B.C.  openly expessed concern regarding progressive education  in the schools of the province.  There e x i s t s , wrote one contributor to The  B.C. Teacher, a "wide gulf between the l i b e r a l i z i n g ideals [of progressivism]...and  what i s made possible i n p r a c t i c e . "  Another educator  indicated that modern education contributed to the "lowering of standards in  79 foundation subjects."  The  f e e l i n g that students were now  "passed from grade  to grade by the Grace of God and the i l l - w i l l of the teacher advising the promotion" was,  according to the writer, becoming widespread among teachers  (Harries, 1948,  p.146-149).  The educational community was Soviets launched Sputnik.  thus ripe for change when, i n 1957,  The peace that had replaced war was  uncertainty accompanying the Cold War,  and  Age proved u n s e t t l i n g for North America.  the  underlined by  the sudden emergence of the Space In the U.S.,  fear of lagging behind  in technology moved government to emphasize a more academic curriculum, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of science and mathematics (McNeil, 1981). also responded to these events, and  Canada  thus began a period of academic curriculum  reform i n North America (Tomkins, 1981a).  P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions P o l i t i c a l decisions made i n B.C.  during the late f i f t i e s and early  s i x t i e s had a direct impact on education in.the province. made i n 1958 was  One major decision The  the appointment of a Royal Commission on Education.  extent to which world developments (such as the launching of Sputnik) influenced this decision are d i f f i c u l t  to determine since Department of  Education policy recommended curriculum evaluation every ten years and B.C.  curriculum was  due  for a r e v i s i o n at that time.  However, the influence  of changing s o c i e t a l conditions on the school curriculum was Department's annual report of the year preceding Commission.  It was  the  alluded to i n the  the appointment of the Royal  emphasized that as "society i s going through a  transition...the curriculum...is no longer s u f f i c i e n t to meet the demands of present-day living...[and] basic courses may r e v i s i o n " (B.C. Department of Education,  be i n need of adjustment and  1957c, p.FF31).  The Report of the  Royal Commission states that the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of education  i n B.C.  was  intended to improve the educational system's effectiveness " i n the l i g h t of  80 world conditions" and makes d i r e c t reference to "the launching of earth s a t e l l i t e s " as a s i g n i f i c a n t world development (Chant, 1960, statements  p.2-3).  Such  indicate that these world developments were a contributing factor  in the Department's d e c i s i o n to appoint the Royal Commission. The Commissioners undertaking this investigation viewed the e x i s t i n g aims of education for the province as "vague and a l l encompassing."  They described  the curriculum as "overloaded", and noted the disproportionate number of courses i n e l e c t i v e areas ( i . e . , home economics with over fourteen course offerings) as compared to academic subjects ( i . e . , Science with only seven offerings). may  "One  gains the impression," they wrote, "that almost any  be introduced into the curriculum, provided i t s advocates  that i t i s useful i n some way"  (Chant, 1960,  course  are able to show  p.15-16).  The Commissioners recommended that the promotion of i n t e l l e c t u a l development should be the primary aim of education i n the province and that i t should be the major emphasis throughout  the entire programme.  The  commissioners stated that "there [was] a recognized o r d e r ^ of p r i o r i t y [for school subjects]...and top p r i o r i t y must be given to the word and number subjects, which provided the base for learning p r a c t i c a l l y a l l other subjects" (Chant,  1960,  p.283).  School subjects were c l a s s i f i e d into three categories according to the r e l a t i v e emphasis they should receive: 1) "Central" subjects were those considered of central importance in the curriculum, and were comprised of the basic academic courses t r a d i t i o n a l l y offered i n schools — reading, English language, and mathematics. It was recommended that increased time be spent on these. 2) "Inner" subjects were considered to be almost as important as the central subjects, and included the sciences, s o c i a l studies, and foreign languages.  Although the Commissioners indicated there was a "recognized order" they do not state the basis for this order.  81 3) "Outer" subjects were considered to be of lesser importance, and included the " e l e c t i v e " subjects such as the a r t s , commerce, i n d u s t r i a l education, and home economics. (Chant, 1960,p.282-284).  A reorganization of the school system was recommended i n order to comply with this new aim of i n t e l l e c t u a l development.  Some of the suggested changes  included the transfer of grade 7 to the elementary school and the administration of departmental examinations at the end of grade 7 to determine which students should be enrolled i n a newly proposed junior vocational programme.  I t was also suggested that the academic programme be i n t e n s i f i e d  to give top p r i o r i t y to English and mathematics, less to h i s t o r y , s o c i a l studies, science, geography, and languages, and s t i l l less to the a r t s , commerce, i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , and home economics.  Further q u a l i f y i n g exams at  the end of grade 10 were suggested to determine which students should enter a senior vocational programme (Chant, 1960). Government adoption of this Report affected both the structure and focus of education  i n the province and had a number of implications for the home  economics curriculum.  I t affected the status of home economics as a school  subject and influenced the goals emphasized i n the senior home economics curriculum.  In 1961, grade 7 was transferred from the junior high school to  the elementary school because of the " r e l a t i v e immaturity" of grade 7 students compared to other students i n the secondary schools.  As well, i t was believed  that substantial f i n a n c i a l saving would r e s u l t since additions to elementary schools to accommodate more students would incur less cost than additions to secondary schools.  As adequate f a c i l i t i e s for home economics were not  normally a v a i l a b l e i n elementary schools, home economics was to be discontinued  i n grade 7 (Chant, 1960, p.263).  The loss of the grade 7 student  population not only meant a reduction i n the number of students enrolled i n the home economics programme, but also the loss of a " d i r e c t l i n k with the home".  Home economics teachers believed that these students were more l i k e l y  82 to discuss the subject with their parents and to be involved i n home practice ("Experts  Protest", 1961).  In this sense, these students had constituted a  form of b u i l t - i n public r e l a t i o n s for the subject. In 1960 the Technical and Vocational Training Act, passed by the federal government, strengthened  the Commissioners' recommendations regarding  vocational education i n secondary  schools.  This Act provided funding to the  provinces for construction of f a c i l i t i e s for vocational education at the high school l e v e l (Stevenson,  1970; Pitman, 1981).  Some funding for the addition  of teaching c a f e t e r i a s to some schools f a c i l i t a t e d the implementation  of the  Foods and N u t r i t i o n stream of the Community Services Programme and reinforced the new commercial-vocational  emphasis i n home economics education i n B r i t i s h  Columbian schools. The new emphasis i n education i n B r i t i s h Columbia had a major impact on the home economics curriculum.  One year before the Royal Commission was  appointed, the stated purpose of home economics education i n the high school was  "to prepare the student for e f f e c t i v e home l i v i n g . "  I t was emphasized  that home economics "was not a vocational t r a i n i n g programme...[and] a l l courses are planned around s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of home and family l i v i n g , [as]...each one can make a major contribution to the general education of the student" (B.C. Department of Education, 1957b, p.4).  However, within s i x  years, vocational t r a i n i n g had become an important dimension  of home economics  education i n high schools of the province. I n f l u e n t i a l Groups A number of groups appeared to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n shaping the public school curriculum i n B.C. during the f i f t i e s and early s i x t i e s . several groups made submissions  For example,  to the Chant Commission concerning the  d i r e c t i o n education should take i n B.C. at this time.  According to Johnson  (1964), the Chant Commission r e l i e d heavily on public opinion i n the  83 development of their report.  A number of groups submitted b r i e f s regarding  the place of home economics i n the public school curriculum and may have influenced the f i n a l recommendations for the subject made by the Commissioners. Some groups indicated that e l e c t i v e subjects such as home economics detracted  from the academic curriculum.  I t was f e l t by the UBC Faculty  Association and several school boards, for example, that home economics " i s a parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . a n d should be turned over to other i t ] diverts pupil and teacher  time and e f f o r t  agencies...[as  [as well as] a disproportionate  share of funds from other subjects" (Chant, 1960, p.20,326,327).  The UBC  Faculty Association also recommended that there be a " d r a s t i c reduction i n the number of options  i n the University Programme c h i e f l y through the elimination  of non-academic and vocational courses (Agriculture, Commerce, Home Economics, Industrial A r t s ) . . . " (Chant, 1960, p.261). Other groups supported the i n c l u s i o n of home economics i n the curriculum as they believed that i t f i l l e d a p r a c t i c a l education to cope with academic work.  need for students unable  The Vancouver Counsellors' Association, for  example, f e l t that the " p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n " aspect of these courses would increase student motivation  and reduce f a i l u r e , loss of interest and behavior  problems often associated with students of l i m i t e d a b i l i t y .  The Nanaimo  D i s t r i c t Teachers' Association recommended that a "terminal homemaking course" be set up for those students on the General Programme, and for "lower a b i l i t y groups" (Chant, 1960, p.327).  Those students leaving school p r i o r to grade 11  or 12 would then have some t r a i n i n g i n preparation school.  for a vocation upon leaving  In view of their f i n a l recommendations that home economics be an  "outer" subject and that i t should constitute part of a vocational stream for senior students,  the Commissioners apparently  considered  the subject i n  similar ways. The Home Economics Teachers of B.C. also submitted a b r i e f to the Chant  84 Commission o u t l i n i n g the importance of home economics as a school subject.  In  compiling this b r i e f , they r e l i e d heavily on the reports of the Canadian Research Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education which were based on research undertaken i n the mid-1940's and completed i n the early f i f t i e s . reports emphasized that while a varied curriculum was necessary  These i n l i g h t of  large and diverse student populations, i t s development tended to be i n h i b i t e d by u n i v e r s i t y entrance  requirements.  Because not a l l students could complete  high school work associated with academic study, the Committee recommended provision of a special course with a core of "common" subjects for those unlikely to complete a "regular" course.  Pupil retention could be increased,  and students would conceivably be better prepared  for entry into society and  the workforce (Canadian Research Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education,  1951).  The Committee i d e n t i f i e d home economics as one of the " s p e c i a l " recommended for i n c l u s i o n i n the school curriculum.  courses  " A l l secondary schools  [should offer the course] and...more g i r l s be encouraged to e n r o l l " (Canadian Research Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education,  1951, p.20).  They f e l t that this  course should involve both preparation for homemaking as a vocation as well as an opportunity to explore work-related  applications of the subject.  The  Committee viewed home economics as a valuable component of the secondary school curriculum at this time, p a r t i c u l a r l y as education  for the work place  had become a public concern following World War I I . In their b r i e f to the Chant Commission, the Home Economics Teachers i d e n t i f i e d the home as the fundamental i n s t i t u t i o n i n the physical and mental development of i n d i v i d u a l s who make up society.  The purpose of home economics  was defined as "to t r a i n the individual i n practices which w i l l lead to successful, happy, family l i v e s i n an ever-changing s o c i a l and economic situation."  Recognizing  that many mothers worked outside the home, the b r i e f  emphasized the lack of time for home i n s t r u c t i o n i n these matters, and hence the necessity for the school to assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n this capacity.  85 The Home Economics Teachers c i t e d i n their b r i e f the findings of the Canadian Research Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education (reported above) to indicate the very real need for home economics education i n the public schools.  Home economics was ranked the f i f t h highest school subject  considered most useful by g i r l s , and third highest by young married women. I t is i n t e r e s t i n g to note that while the b r i e f stressed that the education of females constituted the foundation of home economics education, the i n c l u s i o n of boys i n home economics courses was strongly recommended.  While the Report  on P r a c t i c a l Education was supposedly used by the Home Economics teachers to strengthen the argument concerning the s i g n i f i c a n c e of home economics i n schools, i t was quoted s e l e c t i v e l y .  No mention was made, for example, of the  role home economics could play i n vocational t r a i n i n g outside the realm of homemaking, a dimension of the subject indicated i n the Report to be increasingly relevant due to the changing functions of schooling. The Home Economics Teachers also stressed the need to make home economics courses equal i n status to others, with written examinations at a l l levels and standards comparable to those i n other subjects. I In this regard, the home economics teachers appeared to disagree with other, groups that their courses '••"A \ were "vocational" or were a refuge for low a b i l i t y - s t u d e n t s . \j  Instead, they  \  recommended that home economics be organized into two streams — and non-academic —  university  i n order to "accommodate children of varying mental  a b i l i t y " (BCTF, 1959).  \  The Home Economics Teachers group was recognized by the BCTF as one of the  new subject area s p e c i a l i s t associations i n December of 1960 (BCTF, 1960).  Following government adoption of the Chant Report, this newly-formed Teachers of Home Economics S p e c i a l i s t Association (THESA) suggested a number of s p e c i f i c changes for the subsequent curriculum r e v i s i o n i n home economics. These included supporting compulsory Home Economics at the grade 8 l e v e l and recommending that "a comprehensive e l e c t i v e course i n Home Economics...be  86 provided for the academic student...[and that] Home Economics...have a prominent place i n the academic program of the secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia."  They suggested that an academic approach to Home Economics would  provide "introductory preparation for further study" i n related f i e l d s , and "unless the academic g i r l can be given a challenging program i n the senior secondary schools....professions related to Home Economics t r a i n i n g w i l l s u f f e r " (THESA, 1964, p.1-3). the  For reasons which w i l l become apparent shortly,  proposal was rejected and an academic stream of home economics was never  instituted. THESA also attempted to effect change i n the senior foods component of the  Community Services Programme.  Members of this group requested a  realignment of the Foods 12A and Foods 12B courses. the  Among their concerns were  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the instructors i n these courses, desegregation of the  "Foods Specialty" option for boys, and the i n c l u s i o n of an e l e c t i v e Foods 12 course for " g i r l s who have selected another s p e c i a l t y " (BCTF, 1967). Although these recommendations were considered by the Department of Education, no s i g n i f i c a n t adjustments were made to accommodate them. The Department of Education also influenced home economics curriculum. In addition to their role i n appointing the Royal Commission and subsequently adopting many of i t s recommendations, the Department also vetoed changes i n the  curriculum proposed by home economics professionals.  Requests made by the  home economics .educators for an academic stream of senior e l e c t i v e s were rejected because i t was f e l t that the e x i s t i n g courses could be constructed to "adapt to [ d i f f e r i n g student] a b i l i t i e s . . . [ a n d ] attempting to provide separate courses for d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y . " (Meredith, no date) The recommendation submitted by the Home Economics Teachers was viewed as weak i n light of the dominant "homemaking aspect" of stated home economics philosophy. The Department f e l t that because of the emphasis i n home economics on homemaking and manipulative s k i l l s i t was best viewed as an e l e c t i v e subject  87 with a strong vocational o r i e n t a t i o n .  Action taken by the Department  following adoption of the Chant Report confirmed this view of the subject. While the Department of Education d i d not adopt the Chant Commission's recommendations  regarding a Junior Vocational Programme, i t d i d i n s t i t u t e an  Occupational Programme for low a b i l i t y students at the junior l e v e l , and home economics was included as part of this new course of study.  In schools where  the Occupational Programme was introduced, home economics teachers were assigned to teach a component of the programme e n t i t l e d "Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s " (B.C. Department of Education, 1963b).  At the senior l e v e l ,  the Community Services Programme constituted a vocational stream of home economics primarily to prepare students for further t r a i n i n g or entry into an occupation following high school graduation.  While the vocation of homemaking  remained as one purpose of the home economics programme, the Department of Education had created an additional emphasis on vocation i n the workplace. Home economics as an academic profession appeared to be less acceptable to the Department of Education than home economics i n s k i l l - o r i e n t e d jobs. 16 The D i v i s i o n of Home Economics  i n the Department of Education also  influenced the development of the B.C. home economics curriculum following the Chant Commission.  The D i v i s i o n made several contributions to the home  economics curriculum r e v i s i o n .  F i r s t , they supported  the continued  inclusion  of home economics i n the school curriculum to both the Chant Commission and to the Department of Education.  Using the findings of the Canadian Research  Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education, the Home Economics D i v i s i o n emphasized the need for home economics education i n the public schools of the province (Division of Home Economics, 1959).  These same research findings served as  the foundation for their l a t e r recommendation  to the Department of Education  At this time the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics consisted of Mildred Orr, Director, and Jean Irvine and Jean Campbell, Inspectors.  88 that home economics be made compulsory for g i r l s i n grade 8 (Division of HomeEconomics, 1961).  This recommendation was implemented by the Department  in 1963 " i n the b e l i e f that a l l pupils need or can benefit i n a predominantly academic curriculum from some organized t r a i n i n g i n the p r a c t i c a l involved [ i n home economics]"  skills  (B.C. Department of Education, 1963a, p.7).  A t h i r d way i n which the D i v i s i o n influenced the home economics curriculum was through the process of curriculum r e v i s i o n .  As had been the  case i n the past, a home economics representative i n the Department of Education directed the curriculum r e v i s i o n and was required to communicate with Department of Education o f f i c i a l s i n the D i v i s i o n of Curriculum regarding a l l decisions made.  Recommendations regarding the senior foods component of  the new Community Services Programme forwarded by THESA i n 1967, for example, were s c r u t i n i z e d f i r s t by the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics. then forwarded 1968).  to another Departmental  These comments were  o f f i c i a l for f i n a l approval (Orr,  In this instance, the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics did not support the  THESA recommendations, and while there i s no record of the f i n a l decision-making process, the curriculum guide associated with the courses i n question indicates that the majority of recommendations were not implemented. .  \ \ V  \  .  .  .  .  .  ,/  The D i v i s i o n of Home Economics was also instrumental "in disseminating information,.and c l a r i f y i n g the intent of the new programme.  While  these  duties were not d i r e c t l y connected with change i n the curriculum, their execution may have influenced implementation  of the revised curriculum which,  in turn may have influenced how changes were i n s t i t u t e d .  In 1962, for  example, the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics prepared a memo for d i s t r i b u t i o n to p r i n c i p a l s and guidance counsellors. This memo was intended to "make this [grade 8] programme more e f f e c t i v e and acceptable," and described the rationale underlying education for homemaking and the kinds of learnings expected of students "when properly taught" (Orr, 1962).  At this time the  D i v i s i o n also prepared two a r t i c l e s concerning home economics education for  89 inclusion  in  the  1963  Guidance B u l l e t i n .  requirements  for  both  academic  economics  programme.  employment solicit  daily  opportunities  enrollment  subject.  It  activities  with  felt  the  the by  programme the  private  more  employment  The names o f  several  the  Division  the  Royal  Home E c o n o m i c s , Commission i n t o  C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h Committee  be c o n s i d e r e d t o potential  for  be  influential  influence.  been d i s c u s s e d  and w i l l  who  time,  names d o n o t  their  years,  influenced  be  (Orr,  were  as]  prepare  on P r a c t i c a l  education  home  of intended of  to  the  Provincial  of  they  of  Director  Sperrin  These  individuals  individuals If  located  t h e r e were  for  this  Chant  chairman  positions with  these  Home  Home E c o n o m i c s  and home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n  i n documents  of  Education;  elaborated.  for  associated  of  in  the  girls  Inspectors  Education.  were  make  in  1963).  E d u c a t i o n ; a n d Hugh C r o m b i e was  since  the  versatility  i n many d o c u m e n t s  were  Department  further  appear  range  could also]  well  O r r was  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s not  individuals  In  home"  appeared  Mildred  the  needs...[and  the  wide  in  home e c o n o m i c s c o u l d be " a p p l i e d  and J e a n C a m p b e l l and J e a n I r v i n e  D i v i s i o n of  THE 1979  that  individuals  curriculum revision:  publicize  effective...[as  outside  the  course  enrolled  These a r t i c l e s  to  and p e r s o n a l  Individuals  this  and  outlined  students  described  i n home e c o n o m i c s .  homemaker  of  and n o n - a c a d e m i c  second a r t i c l e  Influential  head o f the  of  fields  Economics in  was  in  living...for  various  The  One a r t i c l e  was of may  the have  already  other at  this  study.  HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM R E V I S I O N  keeping with Ministry the  fifth  major  revision  the m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s  and c o m p l e t e d  c u r r i c u l u m was  to  effectively  individuals  as  policy  "educate  in  of  regarding  the  September  family  every  home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m was b e g u n of  young p e o p l e . . . t o and  curriculum evaluation  members  1979.  The a i m o f  enable  them t o  throughout  this  ten in  new  function  their  life  cycles."  90 Study of "the family, n u t r i t i o n , conservation, consumer s k i l l s and  leisure  a c t i v i t i e s , " dealing with s o c i a l , economic and technological changes, and developing a broad knowledge base i n preparation for s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g and/or further t r a i n i n g received increased emphasis i n this new Ministry of Education, 1979b, p.1,2).  curriculum (B.C.  While the home and family continued to  be unifying concepts i n the programme of studies, these were expanded to r e f l e c t two additional dimensions: family-societal i n t e r a c t i o n . programme was  the i n d i v i d u a l as a family member and  For the f i r s t time the entire home economics  open to both boys and g i r l s and "both content and methodology"  r e f l e c t e d a coeducational approach.  It was expected  that Management and  Consumerism would be integrated into subject matter of a l l home economics courses. In this r e v i s i o n , several new courses were introduced and some course t i t l e s were changed to more accurately r e f l e c t their content.  While Home  Economics 8 remained a composite course including the areas of Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s and Management and Consumerism, i n some schools L i f e s k i l l s 8 was  offered as an a l t e r n a t i v e to HE 8.  L i f e s k i i l s 8 was  designed as a coeducational course with condensed Home Economics 8 content plus an Industrial Education component.  It was  intended to be "child-centered  rather than subject^centered...[focusing] on three areas of basic needs: home ( s h e l t e r ) , food and c l o t h i n g " (B.C. Department of Education, 1975b).  Two  new  composite courses, Home Economics 9 and 10, were introduced at this time. Child Care 9 was revised to create a new  course c a l l e d Family Studies 10 which  emphasized human development rather than c h i l d care. 10 and 11 were new  courses concerned  p r i n c i p l e s of design to t e x t i l e s .  T e x t i l e Arts and Crafts  with the application of the elements and  Since the new  programme was  co-educational  there was no longer a need for a separate foods course for boys.  Thus Cooking  and Food Services 9 was deleted. At the senior l e v e l beginning courses i n foods and clothing were  91 introduced for students who had not had the opportunity or i n c l i n a t i o n to take courses i n these areas at the junior secondary l e v e l .  Child Care 12, a course  in c h i l d development, was expanded to include study of the human l i f e cycle, and was r e t i t l e d Family Studies 12.  Management 11 was deleted from the  programme of studies and was replaced with Housing and Interior Design 12. was  f e l t that this new  It  t i t l e was more d e s c r i p t i v e of course content (Home  Economics Revision Committee, 1977).  Since Home and Industrial Services 12  had never displayed s u f f i c i e n t enrollments, this course was eliminated (B.C. Department of Education, 1968,  1969).  The concept of the Community Services  Programme, where c e r t a i n home economics courses were grouped programme of study i n a specialty area, was  to create a  retained as part of the  new  Selected Studies Programme for senior students (B.C. Department of Education, 1974a). The new curriculum also featured a new  format, characterized by "learning  outcomes developed i n scope and sequence using f i v e levels which grades at the secondary school."  approximate  These learning outcomes (also c a l l e d  i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives) described the anticipated results of i n s t r u c t i o n i.e.  student performance  associated with mastery of s p e c i f i c concepts.  Learning outcomes for each home economics content area were organized so that basic concepts to be mastered  were l i s t e d for each grade l e v e l ~ i n a specified  order of sequence for learning. five grade l e v e l s .  Sometimes the same concept was  Where this was  l i s t e d for a l l  the case, i t was expected that  understanding of the concept would be continuously expanded as students b u i l t upon s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and knowledge acquired through mastery of the required learning outcomes i n the preceding l e v e l ( s ) (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979b, p.3).  This format d i f f e r e d greatly from that of the previous home  economics curriculum i n which topics to be covered for each grade l e v e l and in each content area were l i s t e d with accompanying suggestions for student learning experiences.  92 This new  curriculum was described as more f l e x i b l e (B.C. Department of  Education, 1975a) and was  intended to provide some l a t i t u d e for teachers i n  accommodating individual student needs, differences and a b i l i t i e s . l i n e of the 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision i s found  (An out-  in Appendix  G.)  I n f l u e n t i a l Social P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Attention to the personal or human dimension increasingly apparent as the seventies evolved. the development of this new  Several events contributed to  focus.  During the s i x t i e s , there was America.  of education became  considerable s o c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y in North  Social and p o l i t i c a l unrest were influenced by Canadian francophone  nationalism, r a c i a l c r i s i s i n the U.S.,  and American involvement  Vietnam War and were r e f l e c t e d i n demonstrations,  in the  protests and r i o t s .  As  issues involving c u l t u r a l minority and sexism were brought to public attention a movement concerned  with human rights and freedoms emerged (Schubert, 1984).  These developments, along with a still-expanding school population, shaped the d i r e c t i o n of Canadian education i n the s i x t i e s and early seventies. According to Tomkins (1981b), the decade of the s i x t i e s marked the zenith of mass education i n Canada.  Expansion  i n both educational programmes and  f a c i l i t i e s r e f l e c t e d both the population explosion i n schools and a renewed attention to equal opportunity i n education, regardless of individual differences i n a b i l i t y or i n t e r e s t . Studies of Canadian education during the s i x t i e s and early seventies advocated  e g a l i t a r i a n i s m i n education and emphasized "humanistic" and  " p e r s o n a l i s t i c " approaches to educating children.  Attention was  focused on  the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of learners, increased f l e x i b i l i t y in c u r r i c u l a r options for students, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of student programmes, and greater d i v e r s i t y of ' pedagogy (Stevenson,  1970,  1979;  Tomkins, 1981b).  Social relevance in  education took on new meaning as meeting the needs of a l l students, regardless  93  of sex, age, race or a b i l i t y became paramount.  The curriculum was expanded to  encompass new s o c i a l issues such as the concern for c i v i l rights and e q u a l i t y . More vocational and " a l t e r n a t e " programmes for students with s o c i a l ,  emotional  and learning d i s a b i l i t i e s were included i n school c u r r i c u l a , and more electives were provided for academic students i n order to r e f l e c t the " i n d i v i d u a l " nature of student interest (Stevenson, 1979).  P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions Several p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions influenced curriculum development i n the province during the early seventies and d i d much to a l t e r home economics curriculum during this decade.  A document e n t i t l e d "The Public School System  - Directions for Change" was introduced i n the l e g i s l a t u r e during i t s 1974 spring session and r e f l e c t e d a renewed emphasis on equal opportunity i n education.  I t was f e l t that many students were treated "inequitably, since  their education needs are not met." Because a l l pupils i n the province should have the right to an education which "provided a measure of success for every student," the Department of Education announced i t s intent to "develop e f f e c t i v e programmes i n this area" ("Directions for Change", 1974). Changed graduation requirements  i n the secondary  school were introduced  in 1972 and marked the beginning of a period of-decentralization i n education in the province.  The purpose of the changes i n the senior  curriculum was twofold.  secondary  A d i s t i n c t i o n was made between requirements for  graduation and requirements  for admission  to post secondary  institutions.  As  w e l l , an "increased measure of f l e x i b i l i t y i n student programming" was provided, with programmes i n d i v i d u a l l y designed to meet " p a r t i c u l a r pupil needs or future a s p i r a t i o n s " .  Local school d i s t r i c t s assumed increased  authority for making decisions regarding requirements  for graduation and for  student programmes (B.C. Department of Education, 1972b, p.l3,D36).  At the  senior l e v e l a l l students were required to take four courses (English 11 and  94 12, Social Studies 11 and Physical and Health Education and Guidance c a l l e d "general education constants".  11)  Students could then elect to pursue  either a Selected Studies Programme or a Combined Studies Programme.  Students  choosing to e n r o l l i n Selected Studies could study indepth a major f i e l d of learning i n one of the areas of the following areas: Arts and Sciences, Commercial, I n d u s t r i a l , Community Services, Visual and Performing Arts or Agriculture.  Those i n Combined Studies could study related f i e l d s i n breadth,  choosing senior courses from "the broad spectrum of courses numbered 11 and 12... provided that school regulations pertaining to pupil programmes are (B.C. Department of Education, 1972a, p.35).  met"  Courses required for each  programme were prescribed, and c l e a r l y there was great potential for expanded curriculum development i n e l e c t i v e subject areas. Another decision which complemented this decentralization i n education involved a 1974 amendment to the Public Schools Act. permitted to introduce l o c a l l y developed  School d i s t r i c t s were  courses into their schools without  f i r s t seeking f i n a l approval from the Department of Education. was  This amendment  intended to increase the authority of elected school trustees, enabling  them "to be more d i r e c t l y responsible to l o c a l educational requirements."  The  Department however, continued to prescribe and to have authority over a "core" curriculum (B.C. Department of Education, 1974b, p.DIO).  This  decentralization i n curriculum influenced the development of new home economics courses at this time. C r a f t s " was  For example, a new  course e n t i t l e d " T e x t i l e  introduced into some Vancouver schools i n the mid-1970's (Cole,  1979). In 1973,  several new p o l i c i e s intended to provide "opportunity for  studies i n the f i e l d of human growth and family l i v i n g " led to the introduction into B.C.  schools of courses i n family l i f e education  Department of Education, 1973c; 1973a, p.E25).  (B.C.  The rationale for these  p o l i c i e s were stated i n terms of "the pressures, h a l f - t r u t h s and  conflicting  95 values" enpountered by young people.  I t was f e l t that the school had a role  to play i n "providing opportunity to acquire the knowledge and insight necessary to cope with this s i t u a t i o n " and a curriculum which neglected these kinds of concerns might be viewed as " i r r e l e v a n t " .  A series of p r o v i n c i a l  guidelines for programme development and implementation  was to be developed  and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , "at their d i s c r e t i o n " , could oversee the development of l o c a l courses i n family l i f e education "deemed appropriate to the needs of pupils and the desires of the community" (B.C. Department of Education, 1973b, p.1-2).  Two home economics courses which were revised i n Vancouver under  these p o l i c i e s included Child Care 9 ( r e - t i t l e d Human Development 9) and Child Care 12 ( r e - t i t l e d Family Studies 12) (Vancouver School Board, 1974).  These  courses were eventually incorporated into home economics curriculum revisions i n i t i a t e d by the Department of Education l a t e r that year. Human rights p o l i c i e s contributed to further changes i n the home economics curriculum during the decade of the seventies.  In keeping with the  B.C. Human Rights Code, the Department announced i t s intention to "review and revise" HE 8 and Industrial Education 8 i n order to "increase their appropriateness for either sex," as t r a d i t i o n a l enrolment practices had resulted i n segregation and sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n both courses (B.C. Department of Education, 1974c).  But because at this time IE 8 and HE 8 were  compulsory (B.C. Department of Education,  1974a), o f f e r i n g these courses to  students of both sexes was d i f f i c u l t to implement.  One locally-developed  course assisted i n resolving this problem. A coeducational mobile home economics programme for grade 7 students had been introduced i n Vancouver i n 1974 (B.C. Department of Education, 1974b). Because of i t s success, i t was f e l t that this concept could be extended to the grade 8 l e v e l and used to combine both Home Economics and Industrial Education.  This locally-developed course became the basis of a coeducational  course c a l l e d " L i f e s k i l l s 8".  This programme was introduced into two  96 Vancouver schools i n 1976 (Vancouver  School Board, 1977), and although the  Department of Education considered developing a prescribed course e n t i t l e d " L i f e S k i l l s " (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1978),  i t did not m a t e r i a l i z e .  Locally developed L i f e s k i l l s 8 programmes, however, remained i n operation i n many school d i s t r i c t s i n the province. The concern with human rights influenced the integration of boys into t r a d i t i o n a l l y female-dominated home economics courses and, i f necessary, the adjustment  of course content and approaches used in teaching i t .  I n f l u e n t i a l Groups The emergence of three new home economics courses over a period of three years r e f l e c t s the impact of p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions on the d i r e c t i o n of home economics curriculum during the early seventies.  The substance of these  changes were ultimately determined by several groups which had d i r e c t input into the curriculum r e v i s i o n . THESA appeared  instrumental i n both advocating change and i n determining  the d i r e c t i o n of change.  While i t has already been noted that the curriculum  was due for a major r e v i s i o n , the THESA group acted on their own i n i t i a t i v e to stimulate change i n two ways. to i t s members to "determine  Early i n 1972 THESA d i s t r i b u t e d a questionnaire the extent to which teachers of home economics  were s a t i s f i e d with the...home economics curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (THESA, 1973a).  The results of this questionnaire formed the basis of a b r i e f  prepared for submission to the Department of Education i n the f a l l of 1973. This b r i e f recommended several ways i n which p r o v i n c i a l home economics educators believed the curriculum should change: 1) 2)  a new curriculum f o r m a t ^ the inclusion of Family L i f e Education at both junior and senior levels  The new format was not specified i n this b r i e f .  97 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)  r e v i s i o n of a l l t e x t i l e s courses i n l i g h t of technological changes coeducational course offerings increased emphasis on consumer education at a l l levels the i n c l u s i o n of "handicrafts" i n a l l t e x t i l e s and management courses deleting the "Community Services" programme component adding an i n t e r i o r design course at the senior l e v e l adapting Child Care courses to encompass family l i v i n g content incorporating the boys' food course into a coeducational course at the grade IX l e v e l (THESA, 1973b).  Many of these recommendations from THESA were incorporated i n the f i n a l curriculum r e v i s i o n .  The Home Economics Revision Committee, composed of five  home economics teachers from d i f f e r e n t school d i s t r i c t s , two curriculum consultants and the P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics, was a second i n f l u e n t i a l group i n this home economics r e v i s i o n . i n f l u e n t i a l i n two ways.  This Committee was  F i r s t , i t evaluated the current home economics guide  and made decisions regarding what changes should be made. revisions, the Committee forwarded  Second, as i n past  a l l proposed changes to the Department of  Education. During the i n i t i a l stages of the r e v i s i o n , the Committee undertook to examine home economics curriculum guides from other provinces and the U.S. The Committee also undertook to determine what was currently being done i n home economics education i n B.C. and to evaluate the extent to which adolescent needs were addressed by the present home economics courses.  In  their d e l i b e r a t i o n s they also examined the demand for "courses i n Consumer Education and Family L i f e Education" (Home Economics Curriculum Revision Committee, 1974).  Correspondence associated with this r e v i s i o n indicated that  consumerism had long been a "problem area" i n the B.C. home economics curriculum (Irvine, 1974). province advocated  A number of home economics teachers i n the  that a course e n t i t l e d "Consumer Education" be added to the  revised home economics curriculum.  Approximately  one-third of 545 home  economics teachers who responded to a questionnaire concerning this r e v i s i o n requested a programme name change from "Home Economics" to some t i t l e  incorporating the concept of consumerism.  " L i f e Management", "Family  Consumer Studies" and "Economics of L i f e S k i l l s " were some of the made (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1976).  and  suggestions  However, since the Committee  generally f e l t that consumer education should be "an integral part of the [home economics] programme" (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1974), i t was subsequently  decided that consumer education would be integrated with other  home economics courses rather than be offered as a separate course (Home ...  •. -. >  Economics Revision Committee, 1975b). The Committee also s o l i c i t e d input from p r o v i n c i a l home economics teachers regarding family l i f e education i n the new  curriculum.  Replies to  their survey indicated that respondents generally f e l t that the current name "Child Care" was  course  unsuitable for courses which included family l i f e  education concepts and  that t i t l e s such as "Child Development" or "Human  Development" would be more appropriate (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1976).  The Committee, however, was hesitant to endorse the t i t l e "Human  Development" as i t was  f e l t that the "use of [this t i t l e ] may  cause the  public, teachers and students to expect that the course w i l l contain Family L i f e - Sex Education"  (Campbell, 1977).  Department of Education  The Committee recommended to the  that the t i t l e "Human Development" not be used for the \  courses developed to replace Child- Care and included i n the new  that a cautionary statement be  guide i n d i c a t i n g that "any extension of the courses  as  outlined here must have the approval of the l o c a l school board" (Campbell, 1977;  B.C. Ministry of Education,  1979,  p.4).  The Department of Education played a central role in mediating curriculum r e v i s i o n .  It had been emphasized at the f i r s t Home Economics  Curriculum Revision Committee meeting that "the Committee was Department of Education and Education...[and  this  appointed by the  is therefore responsible to the Department of  a l l ] recommendations [ w i l l be] forwarded to the Department"  (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1974).  For example, f i n a l approval of  99 course names was  Co come from o f f i c i a l s  i n the Curriculum Development Branch,  and the proposed course t i t l e s "Human Development 10 & 12" were vetoed.  As  well, the Superintendent of Educational Programmes indicated that some of the proposed units of study seemed inappropriate:  "'Mate Selection' has primitive or a g r i c u l t u r a l or b i o l o g i c a l overtones. If this course i s being developed i t should not be turned into a personal development course. Therefore i t s content seems to be becoming also a personal guidance course. If...so, i t should...not be a p r o v i n c i a l l y prescribed...or authorized course" (Meredith, 1977).  As a r e s u l t of these decisions, the term 'mate selection' was deleted from the outline and the t i t l e "Human Development" was not used.  Thus the Department  of Education shaped to some extent the form Family L i f e Education was  to take  in the Home Economics curriculum document. A commission on education i n the province undertaken by the BCTF i n 1968 may have contributed i n d i r e c t l y to curriculum change i n home economics during the 1970's. had advocated  The commission report ("Involvement: The Key to Better Schools") that education be humanized and personalized.  It was  recommended that l o c a l school boards be empowered to "develop curriculum that meets... the...needs and interests of a community."  It was also suggested that  an "extensive d i v e r s i t y of courses" be provided by the curriculum, including "human r e l a t i o n s [ i n the area of] family l i f e education" (BCTF, 1968, 57-59).  p.53,  As noted e a r l i e r , p o l i c i e s p a r a l l e l i n g these recommendations were  i n s t i t u t e d by the Department of Education i n the mid-1970's, and while i t i s difficult  to determine  the extent to which this commission influenced  educational policy i n B.C.,  i t i s conceivable that i t provided some impetus  for change. The BCTF also endorsed THESA's recommendation for curriculum r e v i s i o n i n home economics.  The Federation supported a l l of the recommendations included  in the THESA b r i e f and indicated the willingness of the THESA executive to be involved i n the r e v i s i o n (Church, 1974).  100 I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals Names of several individuals such as Jean Campbell and Jean Irvine i n the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics and W.B. Naylor and J.R. Meredith i n the Department of Education appeared on documents assocated with this curriculum r e v i s i o n . As their influence stemmed from their positions held with respect to the curriculum r e v i s i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine any individual influence beyond that documented e a r l i e r . Margaret Murphy, coordinator of home economics for the Vancouver School Board from 1966  to 1979,  development throughout  was also i n f l u e n t i a l i n home economics curriculum the seventies.  She participated a c t i v e l y i n the  development of L i f e s k i l l s 8 as documented in minutes of meetings held with Department of Education o f f i c i a l s (B.C. Department of Education, 1975b). She also led a group of Vancouver home economics teachers who prepared two l o c a l l y developed Family L i f e Education courses — Family L i f e 12 (Vancouver  School Board, 1974).  Human Development 9 and  As well, Mrs. Murphy  i n s t i t u t e d other locally-developed courses i n foods and t e x t i l e s which were designed for senior students with no previous background i n these areas (Cole, 1979; Murphy, 1970).  THE 1985 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION 18 A sixth, p a r t i a l r e v i s i o n  of the home economics curriculum commenced i n  . .  .  January of 1985. According to the Ministry of Education's  19  ten year plan for  curriculum evaluation, the entire home economics curriculum was due for r e v i s i o n ; however only one area of the home economics programme was i d e n t i f i e d  This analysis i s based on the draft curriculum outline released by the Ministry of Education i n February 1985. The Department of Education became the Ministry of Science, Education & Technology i n 1976.  101 for r e v i s i o n at this time.  Thus this r e v i s i o n i s an anomaly i n that i t did  not involve the entire home economics programme. yet complete,  Although the r e v i s i o n i s not  i t i s worthy of scrutiny because of this  uniqueness.  No revisions were made to the general aims and objectives of the home economics programme or to the format of the curriculum. were made to any part of the junior programme.  As w e l l , no revisions  Revisions to the senior  programme focused on the elimination of two courses —  Family Studies 12 and  Housing and Interior Design 12 — . and their recombination into a new course e n t i t l e d "Family Management 12". The aim of this new course was to " a s s i s t students to explore the reciprocal influences of family, s e l f and society, and to develop positive attitudes about themselves and their world."  The curriculum was designed to  use processes of "decision-making, communicating and problem-solving" as a means of developing some of the "necessary s k i l l s , knowledge and a b i l i t i e s to meet the challenges of our dynamic and complex society" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1985).  Four content areas were i d e n t i f i e d ; human growth and  development, interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s , management of human and material resources and one's r e l a t i o n s h i p with the environment.  The family, s e l f  A\ ( i n d i v i d u a l ) and society were retained from the previous Family Studies 12 course (with an added emphasis on their " i n t e r a c t i v e nature") and the concepts of resource management and of environment Housing 12 course.  were retained from the former  This new course represented a major departure from the  more t r a d i t i o n a l view of home economics as " p r a c t i c a l a r t s " , and was generally more r e f l e c t i v e of the contemporary stated mission of home economics: to enable families to create systems of action leading to s e l f development and to cooperative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c r i t i q u e and formulation of s o c i a l goals (Brown & Paolucci, 1978).  (An outline of the 1985 Home Economics Curriculum  Revision i s found i n Appendix H.)  102 I n f l u e n t i a l , S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements As the decade of the seventies unfolded, education was once again re-examined because of problems associated with declining school enrollments, increasing economic i n s t a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l constraints and an apparent decrease  i n public confidence i n the schools.  A move toward "accountability"  and "back to b a s i c s " i n education became apparent (Stevenson,  i n North America and i n B.C.  1979; Tomkins, 1981b).  According to Stevenson (1979) these accountability and back to basics movements replaced the previous emphasis on "variety, the individual and innovation" i n education (p. 107). In B.C., attention was directed toward accountability i n both student achievement and i n educational finance and administration.  Concern regarding what appeared to be a decline i n the basic  s k i l l s taught i n schools of the province was r e f l e c t e d i n public demands for a "return to the three R's" and a more rigorous, academic focus i n schooling (Russell, 1976). Per pupil costs i n B.C. had r i s e n beyond general growth i n the economy during the seventies, and although enrollments were d e c l i n i n g , education expenditures had continued to increase (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education, 1976, 1978).  Funding  for education became more d i f f i c u l t to negotiate and f i n a n c i a l  accountability became a central issue i n educational debate of the seventies. In the 1980's, public interest and p o l i t i c a l response  i n B.C. appeared to  center on i n f l a t i o n and unemployment during a period of economic recession. In education, retrenchment and cutbacks were applied to a l l areas: achievement, administration and finance.  Thus, i n contrast to the l a t t e r part  of the s i x t i e s and the early seventies, there was a general move toward an increasingly centralized approach to education, where the development of i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s was re-emphasized and where the concern with student achievement and with f i n a n c i a l support of education were more overt.  103 Political-Legal  Decisions  The move to a more centralized approach i n education  and the re-emphasis  on the development of i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s as a general goal of education i n B.C.  were r e f l e c t e d i n p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions made by the Ministry of  Education during the l a t t e r part of the seventies and the early e i g h t i e s . In 1976,  for example, the Ministry had emphasized the need for "strong  d i r e c t i o n " i n education  i n the province.  [Ministry]  Indicating that the " c i t i z e n s of  [B.C.] expect the government to take a more p o s i t i v e role i n defining what should be taught i n our schools" (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education, Ministry introduced students.  a Core Curriculum  1976), the  that outlined basic learnings for a l l  By 1984 this c e n t r a l i z e d , back to basics movement was reflected i n  revised high school graduation  requirements which d i r e c t l y influenced  curriculum r e v i s i o n changes i n s i x secondary school subjects, one of which was home economics (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education,  1984a).  In a document released by the Ministry of Education, for many high school students, exploratory  i t was stated that  the senior secondary years had become "more  than the junior years".  Because many of these students appeared  to be making course selections on the basis of such c r i t e r i a as "where friends are going and which courses do not require p r e r e q u i s i t e s , " the Ministry \ decided  to eliminate the Selected Studies/Combined Studies programme structure  of the 70's.  I t was also stated that a reaffirmation of the "central  importance of English, Mathematics, Science for academic students,  and Social Studies" was c r u c i a l  as well as those intending to secure immediate  employment, "as the changing nature of the workplace demands a greater understanding of international developments and an increasing competence i n language, computation and technological l i t e r a c y " (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984b, p.3,8). Also of concern to the Ministry was an apparent general decline i n the  104 academic standards set for students i n B.C. schools.  20 In a presentation in  January of 1985, the Director of the Curriculum Development Branch i n the Ministry of Education made several points concerning achievement standards for high school completion i n the province.  He outlined, for example, the  discrepancy between the smaller number of students completing high school successfully i n the s i x t i e s and early seventies, and the larger number graduating i n the late seventies.  According to him, this increased number of  students graduating during the seventies appeared  to r e f l e c t a generally  lowered standard of achievement i n B.C. high schools.  It appeared  that more  students were graduating on the Combined Studies Programme, which had minimum academic requirements  for graduation and which enabled students to e n r o l l i n a  wide v a r i e t y of e l e c t i v e subjects.  He indicated that because these e l e c t i v e  areas were not p r o v i n c i a l l y assessed i n terms of student achievement (as were the academic "constant" subjects at that time), i t was more d i f f i c u l t to determine whether adequate standards of achievement were being met.  Because  the increased number of graduating students was deemed "too high to r e f l e c t adequate or appropriate standards," i t was decided by the Ministry of Education to revise- graduation requirements for high school completion" (Overgaard,  i n order to "raise the standards  1985).  It was intended by the Ministry that these revised graduation requirements would i n part help students "develop a focused program that provides a sense of d i r e c t i o n and accomplishment i n their l a s t two.years of school" (Ministry of Education, 1984b, p.8). The changes involved both an increase i n the number of courses required for graduation and changes i n numerical course designations to s a t i s f y a "prerequisite" requirement for  On January 9, 1985, Bob Overgaard, the Director of the Curriculum Development Branch i n the Ministry of Education, spoke to a class of undergraduate students enrolled i n Education 404, at the University of B.C. and discussed the recent curriculum changes to be introduced into B.C. public schools.  105 senior l e v e l e l e c t i v e s .  As of September 1985, students enrolled i n grade 11  would be required to take fourteen —  rather than twelve —  courses numbered  .11 and 12, and would be required to pass thirteen of these i n order to be e l i g i b l e for graduation.  A l l students would be required to take four  p r o v i n c i a l l y authorized "12" l e v e l courses, including an English 12 course. As of September 1986, a l l p r o v i n c i a l "12" l e v e l courses would have grade 11 l e v e l prerequisites (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984a). These changes impacted on home economics and resulted in a r e v i s i o n to the senior home economics programme.  Two home economics courses, Family  Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 were i d e n t i f i e d as "12" l e v e l courses which did not have grade 11 prerequisites.  In order to r e c t i f y  s i t u a t i o n , the Ministry mandated that the two courses — Housing & Interior Design 12 —  this  Family Studies 12 and  were to be eliminated and recombined  to create  a third-stream specialty course for senior students c a l l e d "Home Management". In keeping with other senior e l e c t i v e courses i n the school curriculum, two l e v e l s , 11 and 12, were to be offered.  As a r e s u l t , the home economics  programme was to be "consolidated to include only three areas of study: Foods & N u t r i t i o n , Clothing & T e x t i l e s and Home Management" (B.C. Ministry of '  Education, 1984a, p.3).  \  V  \ Prerequisites as part of the revised graduation requirements therefore had a d i r e c t and very s p e c i f i c influence on the home economics curriculum. Not only were student options for electives being reduced but also a r e v i s i o n to the curriculum was required. I n f l u e n t i a l Groups Although these p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions of the Ministry of Education influenced the nature of the home economics curriculum change, the home economics educators i n the province were responsible for the s p e c i f i c changes to be made i n the content of the revised courses.  Thus c o l l e c t i v e l y they were  106 i n f l u e n t i a l i n this home economics r e v i s i o n .  Several groups of home economics  professionals made contributions to the r e v i s i o n through submission of 21 recommendations to the Ministry of Education.  For example, an ad hoc  committee composed of the instructor and students i n a home economics education graduate course at the University of B.C., lobbied for the retention of Family Studies 12 as part of the senior home economics programme.  This  committee drafted a "curriculum proposal", recommending the "replacement of Foods & N u t r i t i o n 11 and Introductory Foods & N u t r i t i o n 11 with a more comprehensive course i n t e r r e l a t i n g family and n u t r i t i o n concepts."  The course  could then serve as a "prerequisite to Family Studies 12, Foods & N u t r i t i o n 12...and Cafeteria 12A & 12B" (Promnitz, 1984).  This proposal was submitted  to the Ministry for consideration. The Home Economics Department Heads of Vancouver Secondary  Schools also  made several recommendations to the Ministry regarding the home economics revision.  I n i t i a l l y this group recommended that Family Studies 12 not be  required to have a grade 11 prerequisite, and that i t be a "highly recommended course for a l l students."  As well, the group recommended (as had the  University of B.C. ad hoc committee) that "Foods & N u t r i t i o n 11 be adjusted to become Family Foods & N u t r i t i o n 11", which could serve as a prerequisite to "either a Family Studies s p e c i a l , or a Foods & N u t r i t i o n Specialty" Home Economics Department Heads, 1984).  (Vancouver  When these recommendations appeared  to be unacceptable, this group submitted a second set of recommendations to the M i n i s t r y .  Acting on the Ministry's o r i g i n a l suggestion that Family  Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 be recombined, the group prepared a course outlined combining elements of both Family Studies 12 and Housing & It should be noted that the Home Economics Branch i n the Ministry of Education (previously c a l l e d the Home Economics Division) was disbanded i n 1980.  107 Interior Design 12, and e n t i t l e d i t "Families: Health and Management".  This  outline was developed i n consultation with "UBC home economics faculty, executive members of THESA and representatives  from twelve school  d i s t r i c t s . . . [ a l l of whom] endorsed the proposal."  Concern was expressed by  this group that i f a suitable two-year course was not developed quickly, home economics was i n danger of becoming "the two areas of Foods & N u t r i t i o n and Clothing & T e x t i l e s " (Favaro, According  1984).  to the Director of the Curriculum  Development Branch,  eliminating the two courses e n t i r e l y was a very real p o s s i b i l i t y , and i t was largely due to the e f f o r t s of these home economics groups that the Ministry retained the idea of a t h i r d stream specialty i n home economics.  He also  indicated that the p r o v i n c i a l cabinet was o r i g i n a l l y opposed to the use of the word "family" i n the course t i t l e , as i t was f e l t that the word was open to "misinterpretation".  I t was strongly suggested that "management" be included  in the t i t l e because of i t s "business connotations"  (Overgaard, 1985).  Following submission of the aforementioned course outline to the Ministry, this outline was agreed to i n p r i n c i p l e , but decisions regarding a name and structure of the course were to be made at a l a t e r date (Burnell, 1984). A t h i r d group of home economics professionals that was i n f l u e n t i a l i n this r e v i s i o n was the Home Economics Curriculum  Revision Committee.  Committee, composed of a number of home economics teachers  This  i n the province and  a curriculum coordinator, made s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to the selection of a t i t l e for the new home economics courses and to the development of their content.  Although, as noted e a r l i e r , the Ministry of Education had i n i t i a l l y  recommended that the new senior home economics specialty area be c a l l e d "Home Management", this Revision Committee negotiated was  for an alternate t i t l e .  It  f e l t that the proposed t i t l e r e f l e c t e d a somewhat narrow and outdated  conception  of home economics and. that i t was not i n d i c a t i v e of the intended  focus of the new course.  The Committee submitted several possible course  108 t i t l e s to the Ministry and the name "Family Management" was selected among these.  from  Contrary to previous indications, the word "family" was included  as part of the course t i t l e , for reasons d i f f i c u l t  to determine.  With some input from home economics teachers i n the province, the Home Economics Revision Committee also determined Management 11 and 12 courses.  the content of the two new Family  Drafts of these proposed courses were  c i r c u l a t e d at the annual THESA Conference  i n February of 1985 and comments and  suggestions made by members of that time were considered i n the preparation of the f i n a l drafts of the courses.  Implementation  of Family Management 11 was  planned for September of 1985, as Family Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 are phased out.  Family Management 12 was scheduled to be  implemented i n September of 1986. It should be noted that, i n addition to the s p e c i f i c curriculum recommendations passed on to the Ministry, a statement  regarding home  economics i n B.C. schools was submitted by home economics teachers  throughout  the province as a c o l l e c t i v e response to the Ministry document e n t i t l e d "Let's Talk About Schools". I n f l u e n t i a l Individuals  ~...\ \ V--\  As was the case i n the previous home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n , the names of several individuals such as Eda Favaro, Vancouver School Board Coordinator of Home Economics, Jane Promnitz, Assistant Professor at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and Bob Overgaard,  Director of the Curriculum  Development Branch i n the Ministry of Education, appeared associated with this r e v i s i o n .  on documents  The influence of these individuals appeared to  be related to their positions with respect to the curriculum r e v i s i o n and any other influence they might have had i s d i f f i c u l t  to determine.  109 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS  In this chapter, the data presented  i n Chapter III are discussed.  The  changes i n the B.C. home economics curriculum are reviewed, the forces that have influenced these changes are i d e n t i f i e d and analyzed using Cuban's four c u r r i c u l a r determinants and the role of p r o v i n c i a l home economics professionals i n the process of home economics curriculum change i s explicated.  Some conclusions are made based on these findings.  Changes i n the B.C. Home Economics Curriculum 1912-1985 As data i n the previous chapter  indicate, the formal home economics  c u r r i c u l a r documents i n the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia have undergone several general changes during the period from 1912 to 1985. These changes may be characterized i n four ways: the gradual expansion of the central focus in home economics education; fluctuations i n the educational status and relevance of home economics as a school subject; the s h i f t from education of females to coeducation  i n home economics; and changes i n home economics  curriculum format and i n course names. Analysis of the c u r r i c u l a r documents indicates that while the central concepts of home economics education i n B.C. have gradually expanded over time, the focus has primarily been on concerns of the home and family.  As  early as 1906 the aim of home economics i n the schools of B.C. was described as "arousing an interest i n the art of homemaking" (Vancouver School Board, 1906,  p.22).  S i m i l a r l y , i n 1922, this new school subject was considered "not  merely to teach g i r l s to be cooks or seamstresses...but...fits  [a g i r l ] to  become a worthy member of her family and society" (B.C. Department of Education,  1922, p.C51).  Following the f i r s t r e v i s i o n i n 1927, the home  economics curriculum emphasized the development of attitudes toward home and family l i f e .  In the f i v e subsequent r e v i s i o n s , the aims of home economics  education were variously described as t r a i n i n g for worthy home membership,  110 preparation for e f f e c t i v e home l i v i n g , understanding  the role of the homeraaker  and homemaking i n family l i f e and functioning e f f e c t i v e l y as i n d i v i d u a l s and family members.  Clearly the concepts of home and family have consistently  formed the central core of home economics education i n B.C. This central focus gradually expanded to include the concepts of vocationalism i n the workplace and community i n t e r a c t i o n .  I t should be noted  that references to vocationalism i n home economics education have occurred throughout i t s development as a school subject.  However, these  references  were primarily concerned with the notion of homemaking as a vocation for women and, as such, were d i r e c t l y related to the central concepts of home and family.  As noted i n Chapter I I , home economics for g i r l s (along with  i n d u s t r i a l education for boys) was o r i g i n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as a form of manual training.  While home economics education was f i r s t viewed as a means by which  g i r l s could learn manual dexterity and p r a c t i c a l lessons about science (Rury, 1984), i t gradually came to be associated with training g i r l s for the vocation of homemaking.  From the time of the introduction of needlework i n 1895 u n t i l  the m i d - s i x t i e s , the stated aims of home economics education  i n B.C. have  r e f l e c t e d this notion of vocationalism and have described i t s purpose i n terms of a woman's ultimate occupation as a homemaker.  In 1895 for example, home  economics was described as " t r a i n i n g i n those useful domestic arts which...render [ g i r l s ] competent i n the most e s s e n t i a l a f f a i r s of l i f e " (Vancouver Council of Women, 1895).  In 1922, a more overt reference to a  woman's eventual r o l e as homemaker was apparent.  At this time, home economics  was described as preparation for g i r l s to "eventually conduct homes of their own"  (B.C. Department of Education,  1922, p.C51).  Continued references were  made to this vocation of homemaking i n the aims and purposes of B.C. home economics curriculum guides  throughout the t h i r t i e s , f o r t i e s and f i f t i e s .  It  was not u n t i l the 1965 curriculum r e v i s i o n that the central concepts of home and family were expanded to include education for the workplace.  At this  Ill  time, vocational preparation was introduced at the senior l e v e l , and home economics s p e c i a l t y areas i n the new Community Services Programme senior students with the opportunity to prepare for occupations economics-related continued  areas.  provided  i n home  At the junior l e v e l , however, the central concepts  to be the home and family.  Although the concept of s p e c i a l t y areas  associated with the Community Services Programme was retained i n the 1979 curriculum r e v i s i o n , these areas were not limited to vocational preparation. They were intended to provide senior students with the opportunity for indepth study of a p a r t i c u l a r area of interest which could be related to future 22 employment.  Thus, while vocational preparation  i s a part of the home  economics curriculum i n B.C., i t assumes a role which i s secondary to that of the more central concepts of home and family. The most recent expansion, involving the notion of community i n t e r a c t i o n , was f i r s t introduced in'the 1979 r e v i s i o n and r e i t e r a t e d during the 1985 revision.  This focus acknowledges the r e l a t i o n s h i p of home and family with  the larger community ( s o c i e t y ) . understanding  This new emphasis represents a broader  of the concepts of home and family.  this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n "recognizes  According  to Brown (1985),  that the family and the public realm are  related and that they feed into one another" (p.235).  While the family i s  viewed as the center for the development of individuals, i t shares a reciprocal r e l a t i o n s h i p with society i n influencing this development.  As  Brown also states, " t h i s commitment to the f a m i l y . . . i s not a commitment to fixed roles...or to d i v i s i o n of labor according to sex...[and] i s not, therefore, commitment to a s t i f l i n g domesticity" (p.235). Vocational preparation continues to be associated with home economics i n this province as part of a Career Preparation Programme introduced i n 1980. However, this programme has a curriculum of i t s own and i s separate from the home economics curriculum. Several home economics-related areas of study are offered i n this programme, including Fashion Design and Production, I n t e r i o r Design and Food Services.  112 It i s c l e a r that the concepts of home and family t-amain as the nucleus of home economics education i n B.C. and that their early d e f i n i t i o n i n terras of women's roles has been expanded considerably to encompass a more contemporary understanding  of a l l facets of family l i f e .  Documents studied c l e a r l y reveal that, during this period, home economics as a school subject i n this province has experienced  both expansion and  contraction i n i t s relevance and i t s educational status.  Two d i s t i n c t periods  of expansion i n home economics education i n B.C. are apparent: the period from 1912-1952 and the period encompassed by the 1979 home economics curriculum revision.  During both of these periods, the educational relevance of home  economics as a school subject rested on i t s a b i l i t y to make contributions to the s o c i a l and personal goals of schooling.  At the time of the introduction  of home economics into B.C. schools, i t was purported by some that the purpose of t h i s new subject was to a s s i s t i n preserving the "general welfare of Canadian homes" and to "lay the foundations  of the future [for Canadian  f a m i l i e s ] " (National Council of Women, 1894; Vancouver Council of Women, 1895).  As Canada was experiencing extensive s o c i a l changes at this time, due  to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , these aims appeared to many to be most relevant. As w e l l , i t was f e l t by some that home economics had contributions to make to a new educational emphasis on the development of the whole i n d i v i d u a l : body, mind and s p i r i t . was  As part of this new " p r a c t i c a l " education, home economics  seen as a "means for the development of b r a i n , eye and hand, irhrough  handicraft" (White, 1951, p.333). was  The value of this aspect of '.-c-..•>. economics  recognized by the Inspector of V i c t o r i a Schools  i n 1896, who described the  p r a c t i c a l work of home economics as "valuable t r a i n i n g when i n t e l l i g e n t l y taught.  The mind i s then employed as well as the f i n g e r s , the taste and  judgement are c u l t i v a t e d , Department of Education, As educators  and habits of neatness are acquired" (B.C. 1896, p.226).  i n B.C. became increasingly concerned with the s o c i a l  113 implications of schooling, the perceived value of home economics as a school subject was enhanced.  At the time of the Putman-Weir Survey i n 1924, for  example, the Survey commissioners recommended a more " e l a s t i c " and less academic curriculum to suit the varied needs of individual students and to "enable the c h i l d to take h i s place as an e f f i c i e n t p a r t i c i p a n t i n the duties and a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e " (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.44).  Home economics was  included as part of this new curriculum ( i n which t r a d i t i o n a l academic subjects were de-emphasized) because of the contributions i t could ostensibly make to the development of s o c i a l l y responsible c i t i z e n s and to the education of those students who were unable to pursue academic studies leading to university  entrance.  This concern with the s o c i a l dimension of education persisted i n B.C. u n t i l the mid-1950 s. 1  With each curriculum r e v i s i o n undertaken during this  time, the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l contributions of home economics were emphasized and i t s p o s i t i o n i n the curriculum appeared to be strengthened.  For example, at  the time of the 1937 r e v i s i o n , the place of home economics i n the school curriculum was j u s t i f i e d "upon the doctrine of s o c i a l need as well as upon c u l t u r a l values to the i n d i v i d u a l . "  I t was described as "a necessary agency  in the development of...knowledge, s k i l l s and attitudes which are increasingly necessary  for successful l i v i n g i n a new and extremely complex s o c i a l and  economic order" (B.C. Department of Education,  1935, p.548).  the concern of home economics with strengthening  At that time,  the home and family and with  homemaking as a vocation for women closely p a r a l l e l e d those  general  educational objectives for B.C. schools concerned with "worthy home membership" and "vocation".  As w e l l , i t was noted i n the 1935 Programme of  Studies that home economics also had s i g n i f i c a n t contributions to make i n the "modification of character by i n c u l c a t i n g respect for materials, for workmanship, and honest labour" (B.C. Department of Education, During  the f o r t i e s , emphasis i n education  i n B.C. continued  1935b, p.35).  to be on providing  114 for i n d i v i d u a l differences through a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d school curriculum and  on  the development of s o c i a l l y e f f i c i e n t c i t i z e n s within the framework of a composite high school.  Home economics continued  to be part of the wide and  varied group of e l e c t i v e subjects which were intended to a s s i s t i n achieving these educational aims. The in B.C.  second, although much shorter, period of expansion for home economics occurred during the 1970's when, once again, schooling i n the province  emphasized individual development and s o c i a l concerns. intended that education i n B.C.  At that time i t was  "provide a measure of success  student" ("Directions for Change", 1974)  for every  through attention to " p a r t i c u l a r  pupil needs or future a s p i r a t i o n s " (B.C. Department of Education,  1972,  p.13).  Home economics was an e l e c t i v e subject which had assisted schools i n the past to accommodate d i v e r s i t y of student  interest and a b i l i t y , and appeared once  more to have relevant contributions to make i n this regard. These two periods of expansion were r e f l e c t e d i n increased educational status for home economics. introduced in B.C.  i n 1903  For example, when home economics was  first  i t had v i r t u a l l y no educational status.  l i s t e d as an "optional subject" and was  It was  included -in the school curriculum only  at the d i s c r e t i o n of l o c a l schoolboards.  During the course of the  period of expansion, however, home economics was  accepted  first  as an optional  subject for high school matriculation i n the 1920's, was made compulsory for g i r l s i n grades 7 and 8 in 1936  and was  leading to u n i v e r s i t y entrance  i n 1952.  expansion i n the number of courses 19 by 1952, Two  and  from 15 i n 1965  c l a s s i f i e d as a major f i e l d of study During these times, there was  l i s t e d in the curriculum (from 8 in 1927  to  to 21 by 1979).  periods of contraction i n home economics i n B.C.  one at the time of the 1965  also an  are also apparent;  r e v i s i o n and one at the time of the 1985  revision.  During these periods, the importance or educational relevance of home economics i n the school curriculum was  de-emphasized.  In 1965,  home economics  115 was  c l a s s i f i e d as an "outer" ( e l e c t i v e ) subject i n the curriculum of B.C.  schools and was considered to be of lesser importance than " c e n t r a l " and "inner" (academic) subjects.  Because i n t e l l e c t u a l development was the new  educational objective i n the province at this time and because home economics was viewed as a non-academic subject, i t was f e l t that this subject had fewer relevant contributions to make to schooling.  At this time home economics  ceased to be c l a s s i f i e d as a major f i e l d of study leading to high school graduation and i t no longer had equal status with academic subjects with respect to m a t r i c u l a t i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , i n 1984 a renewed emphasis on the  development of i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s resulted i n some contraction i n the home economics curriculum.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the consolidation of two senior courses  in order to create a new area of study reduced somewhat the scope of the programme.  These contractions i n the educational relevance of home economics  education were r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n the educational status of home economics.  I t should also be noted that i n 1965, grade 7 was returned to the  elementary school, r e s u l t i n g i n the reduction of the number of home economics courses offered.  Thus a reduction i n the number of home economics courses  outlined i n the programme of 'studies appeared to be-= c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these times of contraction.  \. M \  A t h i r d way i n which the home-economics curriculum appears to have changed i s i n the gradual evolution from a f i e l d of study concerned primarily with the education of females to one which is. coeducational. was  o r i g i n a l l y intended as education for females.  Home economics  At the time of i t s  introduction i n the middle of the nineteenth century, i t was considered to be the feminine counterpart of manual t r a i n i n g for boys (Sutherland, 1976; Rury, 1984).  In B.C. this notion was apparent i n the manner i n which home economics  courses were f i r s t organized.  For example, when manual training for boys was  f i r s t introduced, boys were required to leave their classrooms to receive i n s t r u c t i o n i n manual t r a i n i n g .  It was during this time that g i r l s received  116 i n s t r u c t i o n i n home economics (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971).  Because these  manual s k i l l s were associated with homemaking (which at that time was considered to be a g i r l ' s true vocation), home economics continued to be viewed as education for females.  The B.C. home economics c u r r i c u l a r documents  during the f i r s t h a l f of the twentieth century r e f l e c t e d this view.  In the  1927 home economics curriculum guide, for example, the aim of the junior programme was to prepare a young g i r l for the role she assumed as her mother's helper.  In the 1937 home economics curriculum guide, this view of home  economics as part of a g i r l ' s education was more overt, as i t was stated that the programme was intended to give students "knowledge of the profession of homemaking".  Home and family membership and homemaking for g i r l s continued to  be emphasized during the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s . of  Perhaps because of i t s legacy  the past and perhaps because many women continue to assume some of the  t r a d i t i o n a l female roles associated with homemaking and c h i l d r e a r i n g , home economics continues to r e t a i n a focus on education for women, even though the programme was o f f i c i a l l y made coeducational i n 1979. This move to coeducational home economics, however, did not mean that males were included i n home economics education i n this province for the f i r s t time.  Provision for boys i n the home economics curriculum was made as early  as 1928. At this time i t was recognized that boys as well as g i r l s were family members and the f i r s t Boys' Course was introduced.  This course  continued to be offered with each subsequent home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n u n t i l 1952 and i t s content gradually expanded during this time to include not only simple meal preparation but also care of the sick, c h i l d care and family r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  With the 1965 r e v i s i o n , however, the focus of the  course for boys was altered to r e f l e c t a vocational orientation i n the area of food preparation.  A junior l e v e l course was offered to boys, the successful  completion of which provided them with entry to the senior Foods Specialty area of the Community Services Programme.  However, boys were unable t'o e n r o l l  117 in any other courses i n the home economics programme at this time. changed i n 1979 when i t was o f f i c i a l l y  This  stated i n the curriculum guide that  "the home economics program [ i n B.C.] i s open to boys and g i r l s  and i t i s  intended that both content and methodology r e f l e c t a coeducational approach" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979b, p . l ) . The fourth way i n which the B.C. home economics curriculum has experienced change i s i n the areas of curriculum format and course names. While these a l t e r a t i o n s are technical aspects of change and therefore perhaps of  lesser importance  to the evolution of home economics as a f i e l d of study,  they appear to r e f l e c t the influence of educational trends that have s i g n i f i c a n t l y shaped home economics education i n other ways.  In this sense,  then, these changes are worthy of some scrutiny. During the period from 1927 to 1952, the format of the home economics curriculum was altered i n several ways.  After the f i r s t r e v i s i o n i n 1927, f o r  example, the l i s t of topics that formed the f i r s t curriculum was reorganized into units of study, each focusing on a p a r t i c u l a r topic.  Time allotments for  these various topics were suggested and objectives for the programme were outlined.  During the 1937 home economics r e v i s i o n , the format of the  curriculum was altered once again.  Objectives were included for units of  study as well as for i n d i v i d u a l courses.  Each unit of study included  descriptions of suggested student projects and each course provided optional units for "enrichment, exploration and individual differences" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.8,9).  The format of the home economics  curriculum remained much the same throughout  the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s .  However, when the f i f t h home economic r e v i s i o n was completed format was altered s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  i n 1979, this  While the objectives i n previous curriculum  guides were worded as teaching objectives, i . e . what the teacher was expected to accomplish i n classroom i n s t r u c t i o n , i n the revised curriculum, objectives were described as "learning outcomes" and referred to what the student was  118 expected to learn as a result of i n s t r u c t i o n . Nomenclature for courses also changed during the period studied.  The  numbering system for home economics courses gradually evolved from a system of levels  ( i . e . I, II and III) to the present system of numerical designation  according to grade l e v e l ( i . e . 8, 9, 10 e t c . ) . over time.  Course names have also changed  Following the 1927 r e v i s i o n , high school home economics courses  were i d e n t i f i e d by l e t t e r s of the alphabet ( i . e . A i d e n t i f i e d cookery, B_ i d e n t i f i e d needlework and C i d e n t i f i e d a composite of A & B). Beginning with the 1952 r e v i s i o n ,  course names were selected which were intended to r e f l e c t  the content of the courses.  These names have been modified as courses were  revised to r e f l e c t a new emphasis.  The Use of Cuban's Curricular Determinants to Analyze Home Economics Curriculum Change It i s apparent from a review of the documents that a number of forces have contributed to change i n the B.C. home economics curriculum.  In order to  understand these forces more c l e a r l y , the data were analyzed using a framework proposed by Cuban (1979).  In this framework he i d e n t i f i e s four forces or  c u r r i c u l a r determinants which may influence the curriculum to change: s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; i n f l u e n t i a l groups and/or i n f l u e n t i a l  individuals.  The Influence of S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements on Home Economics Curriculum Change Data from this study supports Cuban's b e l i e f that s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements are primary c u r r i c u l a r  influences.  These movements  appeared to exert great impact on the B.C. school curriculum, and may be viewed i n terms of both their general and their s p e c i f i c influence on the public school curriculum. At various points i n time, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements have influenced the nature of education i n North America.  In Canada, for example,  119 i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and urbanization i n the middle of the nineteenth  century  influenced a s h i f t from the t r a d i t i o n a l , academic focus i n education to a more progressive, or "new" education i n which the academic e l i t i s m long associated with schooling was de-emphasized and i n which s o c i a l and economic concerns associated with the changes incurred through the onslaught of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were addressed.  This progressive era i n education endured  in Canada from the turn of the century to the 1950's.  I t fostered the  development of a composite high school, a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d curriculum and reinforced the notion of  mas3  public education.  World events associated with  the Cold War and the launching of Sputnik i n the 1950's, however, contributed to a move toward a more t r a d i t i o n a l , academic emphasis i n schooling. academic focus i n education continued  This  throughout the s i x t i e s u n t i l s o c i a l and  p o l i t i c a l unrest i n the l a t t e r part of that decade contributed to a re-evaluation of the nature and purposes of schooling. as an era of "neo-progressivism"  The seventies emerged  (Tomkins, 1981b) i n which many of the  p r i n c i p l e s of progressive education introduced and developed during the f i r s t half of the twentieth century were re-emphasized.  As the decade of the 70's  closed, p o l i t i c a l and economic developments influenced a return to academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i n education.  Thus, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic forces have  contributed to a pattern of alternating cycles of progressivism and academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i n North America and i n B.C.  These cycles may then be  described as educational movements which, along with other s o c i a l ,  political  and economic movements and events, have influenced p a r t i c u l a r changes i n the B.C.  curriculum. These movements and events have had s p e c i f i c influence on the four home  economics curriculum changes described previously.  For example, educational  movements have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on home economics education i n B.C. Alternating cycles of progressivism and academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m p a r a l l e l d i r e c t l y the periods of expansion and contraction i n the educational  relevance  120 and status of home economics i n this province. . The f i r s t period of expansion from 1912 to 1952 coincided with the emergence and gradual expansion of progressive education i n B.C.  During  this time, courses i n home economics  increased i n number and home economics was given equal status with academic subjects with respect to u n i v e r s i t y entrance.  The progressive philosophies  concerned with democracy, s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and individual development which guided  the educational aims for B.C. schools reinforced the relevance of home  economics as a school subject.  The second period of expansion i n the home  economics curriculum during the seventies coincided with a time of "neo-progressivism"  (Tomkins, 1981b) i n education i n which s o c i a l issues,  individual development and c u r r i c u l a r f l e x i b i l i t y were emphasized.  Home  economics formed part of an extensive range of senior courses leading to high school graduation.  Because of i t s status as an e l e c t i v e subject and perhaps  because of i t s concern with i n d i v i d u a l s i n family settings, the educational relevance of home economics appeared to be renewed at this time. In contrast to times of progressivism, periods of academic emphasis i n B.C. resulted i n contraction in home economics.  The f i r s t period of  contraction i n 1958 followed the Chant Commission which was undertaken to investigate education i n B.C. i n l i g h t of c e r t a i n world events.  This  Commission resulted i n a new emphasis on i n t e l l e c t u a l development for schools in the province and a return to academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i n education.  Because  e l e c t i v e subjects i n the school curriculum were de-emphasized at that time, home economics lost i t s status as a major f i e l d of study.  In the 1980's a  back to basics movement i n education i n B.C. perhaps associated with advances in economic technology,  i n s t a b i l i t y and loss of public confidence  i n the  schools, once again emphasized academics i n schooling and resulted i n some contraction i n the home economics course of study. Educational movements also appeared to contribute to technical changes i n the format of the home economics curriculum.  For example, the influence of  121 various elements of the progressive education movement were apparent i n the home economics curriculum guides of the 20 s and 30's. 1  In the 1927 r e v i s i o n  the organization of topics with units of study, the i n c l u s i o n of programme objectives and suggestions  for time allotments suggest  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  p r i n c i p l e s of the new "science" of education which emphasized the p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c management i n education such as planning and standard instructions and operations (Callahan, 1962). of  study and the i n c l u s i o n of suggestions  The provision of optional units  for student projects and learning  a c t i v i t i e s i n the 1937 curriculum guide suggest  the a p p l i c a t i o n of another  dimension of progressive education concerned with individual differences and learning through experience.  By the time the f i f t h home economics curriculum  r e v i s i o n was completed i n 1979, the influence of yet another movement i n education was apparent.  According to Schubert  (1984), the use of learning  outcomes i n setting educational objectives during this period of time r e f l e c t e d the influence of a " s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i s t " o r i e n t a t i o n i n education, i n which measurement, mastery and competency were associated with new demands for accountability i n education.  /  Economic movements have also impacted on home economics, but .the nature of these influences i s not consistent.  For example, i t appears that f i n a n c i a l  i n s t a b i l i t y and economic recession during the'1980's have contributed to some contraction i n the home economics curriculum i n B.C.  During the Great  Depression of the 1930's, however, while there was some reduction i n the number of home economics centers i n operation i n the province due to lack of f i n a n c i a l resources, the formal curriculum i t s e l f was not apparently a f f e c t e d . An explanation for this discrepancy may rest i n the educational emphasis that prevailed during times of f i n a n c i a l constraint i n education.  The economic  recession of the 1980's coincided with a back to basics or academic emphasis in education which may have resulted i n reductions i n e l e c t i v e subjects. Conversely,  the Great Depression occurred during a time at which progressive  122 education prevailed i n the province.  Since the educational relevance of home  economics was i n keeping with this progressive philosophy, any s i g n i f i c a n t contraction i n home economics at that time may have been viewed as contrary to the continued  implementation of the p r i n c i p l e s of progressive education.  Thus  i t appears that the influence of f i n a n c i a l constraints on the home economics curriculum may be related to i t s perceived educational relevance at a p a r t i c u l a r point i n time. Some s o c i a l movements may have contributed to change i n home economics education i n B.C., although d i f f i c u l t to determine.  the nature and extent of their influence i s  For example, the Human Rights Movement during the  s i x t i e s and early seventies may have influenced the expansion of the central concepts of home and family to include a focus on the individual and society, and  increased concern with human rights may have influenced the move toward  coeducation  i n home economics i n 1979.  P o l i t i c a l movements and events have also had considerable influence on the nature of education at various points i n time and have contributed to changes i n home economics education. and World War I I .  Of p a r t i c u l a r relevance are World War I  During World War I, home economics education was described  by the National Council of Women i n Canada as a means of maintaining and strengthening War. home.  the family as the cornerstone  of Canadian society following the  The Council president emphasized that "the future of Canada l i e s i n the The v i c t o r y won on the b a t t l e f i e l d must be followed by a r e a l i z a t i o n of  the power of consecrated motherhood...Upon woman rests the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n a great measure, of the development of a higher c i v i l i z a t i o n " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.16).  Both world wars appeared to have contributed  to an emphasis i n home economics on vocationalism i n the workplace. The National Council of Women recognized  the p r o b a b i l i t y that both during and  after World War I more women would be required i n the work force, and resolved to "not only encourage the continuance  of t r a i n i n g in household arts, but to  123 urge that f u l l f a c i l i t i e s for i n d u s t r i a l and technical t r a i n i n g be provided for g i r l s and boys a l i k e " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.280).  Following  World War I I , which had generated growth i n technology and industry, renewed attention was paid to the notion of education of The Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education,  for the workplace.  The Report  for example, recommended the  provision of special courses for students unable to complete an academic programme i n order to prepare them for entry into the work force.  Home  economics was i d e n t i f i e d i n the Report as one of these special courses. Perhaps i t was because of this focus on preparation for the workplace that the central concepts of home economics were expanded to include a more overt emphasis on vocationalism.  The Influence of P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l Decisions on Home Economics Curriculum Change Cuban suggests that p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions are a secondary force that mediates or translates the influences of primary s o c i a l forces into schools. While the nature of education  i n B.C. was influenced by broad s o c i a l ,  p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l influenced the s p e c i f i c educational  changes to be made.  decisions  These decisions,  then, gave form or substance to the influences of broader, more general  \ primary forces.  1  As might be expected, p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions that influenced home economics were effected primarily by the Department (Ministry) of Education. These decisions appeared to influence changes i n the home economics curriculum in a number of ways.  For example, changes i n high school  graduation  requirements and i n the structure of programmes leading to high graduation  school  d i r e c t l y influenced changes i n the home economics curriculum.  the time of the 1952 home economics r e v i s i o n , graduation  At  requirements were  altered so that a l l students were required to complete study i n a major f i e l d and home economics was c l a s s i f i e d by the Department as one of these f i e l d s of  124 study which could lead to high school graduation and u n i v e r s i t y entrance. 1984,  In  revised high school graduation requirements again influenced changes i n  home economics.  In order to comply with prerequisite requirements for senior  courses, the senior home economics programme required r e v i s i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n the consolidation of the two e x i s t i n g courses  into one new course.  Government decisions to undertake investigations into education i n the province also had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on the home economics curriculum.  Following  the Putman-Weir Survey i n 1924, a P r o v i n c i a l Director of Home Economics was appointed  and extensive revisions were made to the structure and format of the  home economics curriculum under her leadership.  The Chant Commission of 1958  resulted i n several changes to the home economics curriculum:  a new emphasis  on vocationalism i n the workplace; the return of grade 7 students to the elementary school, r e s u l t i n g i n a reduction of the number of courses; and the loss of status as a major f i e l d of study leading to u n i v e r s i t y entrance. At various points i n time, the government has mandated compulsory in the school curriculum which have overlapped matter.  courses  with home economics subject  The impact of these compulsory courses appears not to be consistent.  For example, the introduction of compulsory health education i n 1929 resulted in the d e l e t i o n of physiology from the high school home economics course.  To  replace i t , a comprehensive course i n Home Management was introduced. However, the introduction of E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g i n 1950 and of Consumer Education  i n 1980 did not appear to r e s u l t i n s p e c i f i c changes i n the home  economics course of study. Several Departmental decisions concerned with curriculum development had direct influence on the home economics curriculum.  For example, a policy of  decentralization i n education i n B.C. during the seventies that provided for locally-developed courses contributed to expansion i n home economics.  New  home economics courses such as T e x t i l e Arts and Crafts, Housing and Interior Design and Family Studies were developed as a result of this p o l i c y .  125 S i m i l a r l y , p o l i c i e s concerning B.C.  the introduction of family l i f e education into  schools i n 1973 contributed to the development of Family Studies  in home economics.  courses  I t was also Department (Ministry) of Education policy to  make curriculum r e v i s i o n approximately  every ten years.  A number of other p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions have influenced the home economics curriculum.  While these decisions were not s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned  with curriculum change, they i n d i r e c t l y affected the educational status and position of home economics i n the school curriculum and thus influenced the home economics curriculum.  For example, the appointment of an Organizer of  Manual Training and Domestic Science following the introduction of home economics education  into B.C. schools, and the appointment of a P r o v i n c i a l  Director of Home Economics i n 1924 enhanced the status of home economics as a school subject and assisted i n r e i n f o r c i n g i t s position i n the public school curriculum.  A change i n the School Act i n 1936 made home economics compulsory  for g i r l s i n grades 7 and 8 i n schools i n c i t i e s of a c e r t a i n size also influenced the status and p o s i t i o n of home economics i n the school curriculum. In 1958 home economics was c l a s s i f i e d as an "outer" subject i n the curriculum with a r e s u l t i n g decrease i n educational status. P o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions o r i g i n a t i n g from outside the province have also influenced the home economics curriculum.  Some of these, such as the  Technical Education Act of 1919 and the Technical and Vocational Training Act of 1960, have appeared to coincide with educational p o l i c i e s introduced by the p r o v i n c i a l government but did not appear to create s p e c i f i c c u r r i c u l a r changes in and of themselves.  One exception might be the Royal Commission on  Industrial and Training and Technical Education  i n 1913.  The decision to  undertake this educational i n v e s t i g a t i o n eventually had extensive influence i n generating the development of a curriculum for technical education included home economics) i n high schools of the province.  (which  126  The Influence of Groups on Home Economics Curriculum Change According change.  to Cuban, groups are also secondary forces i n curriculum  While p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions gave substance to the influences of  primary forces, i n f l u e n t i a l groups assisted i n translating these p o l i c i e s into practice, that i s , developed formal curriculum documents. This study revealed that selected groups have consistently been  important  forces i n the process of home economics curriculum change i n the province of B.C.  Those which have participated i n this process may be c l a s s i f i e d as  groups d i r e c t l y associated with home economics such as THESA, groups not d i r e c t l y associated with home economics but a f f i l i a t e d with education such as the BCTF and groups external to both education and to home economics such as the National Council of Women. These groups appear to have influenced home economics curriculum change in a number of ways.  Some groups have appeared to act as advocates for home  economics and have promoted i t s value--o-r.--worth  as a school subject. The  National Council of Women, for example, were largely responsible for introducing home economics education  into B.C. schools and i n conjunction with  a f f i l i a t e d Local Councils of Women and the Parent-Teacher Federation lobbied for i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the public school curriculum.  Local school boards and  the BCTF have also acted as advocates on behalf of home economics by supporting home economics as a school subject and by supporting home economies' concerns and recommendations for curriculum change. however, have opposed home economics education.  During  Some groups,  the early stages of  development, taxpayers voiced their concerns regarding what they f e l t to be excessive expenditure 1958,  on a subject of questionable educational value.  i n b r i e f s presented  In  to the Chant Commission, groups such as the UBC  Faculty Association and some school boards requested time spent on this subject.  a reduction i n school  S t i l l other groups appeared to advocate home  economics but only i f the f i e l d was modified.  For example, the Vancouver  127 Counsellors' Association presented a b r i e f to the Chant Commission recommending that home economics be retained but reorganized to accommodate students of lower a b i l i t y . Some groups implemented policy decisions through the development of home economics curriculum.  The D i v i s i o n of Home Economics i n the Department of  Education, the Home Economics Section of the BCTF and THESA were involved i n development of curriculum following changes i n educational p o l i c y .  Other  groups influenced the home economics curriculum by making recommendations concerning the e x i s t i n g curriculum.  The BCTF, for example, stimulated the  Putman-Weir Survey conducted i n 1924 through i t s recommendation that the public school curriculum i n the province be reviewed. As a result of this Survey, the home economics curriculum underwent considerable change.  Home  economics groups, such as THESA, also made recommendations to the Department of Education concerning the i n s t i t u t i o n of s p e c i f i c changes to the home economics curriculum.  In p a r t i c u l a r , i n 1979 their recommendations to the  home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n committee were extensive and included suggestions for changes i n format, curriculum content and course  titles.  While these groups have played an important role i n curriculum change, their e f f o r t s have been subject to Department (Ministry) of Education veto. According to the documents studied, this veto appears to have been exercised infrequently but has been an important element i n the shaping of curriculum change.  For example, the Department of Education vetoed a 1964 proposal for  an academic stream of senior electives i n home economics and in the 1979 r e v i s i o n , the Department vetoed the inclusion of some family l i f e topics and prohibited the use of the course t i t l e "Human Development".  Thus the  influence of these groups i s limited on the one hand by p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions of the government and/or the Department (Ministry) of Education and on the other by this power of veto over proposed change. Although the data i s limited, i t can be assumed that groups d i r e c t l y  128 associated with home economics were instrumental  i n maintaining  concepts i n home economics i n the B.C. curriculum.  the central  With respect to the other  areas of change i n the home economics curriculum there are two p o s s i b i l i t i e s : 1) i t may be that the documents examined did not address the influence of p a r t i c u l a r groups on fluctuations i n educational  status, the move to  co-education and changes i n curriculum format, or 2) i t may be that the groups noted i n this study did not influence these aspects of curriculum change i n home economics.  The  The  Influence of Individuals on Home Economics Curriculum  Change  The  t h i r d of Cuban's secondary forces i s that of i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s .  impact of individuals i n curriculum change, however, i s d i f f i c u l t to  assess and, i n this sense, this category of c u r r i c u l a r determinants may be the most problematic.  Although i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l names  associated with various changes, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t actual influence of these i n d i v i d u a l s .  to determine the  For.example, while a c e r t a i n change  may have been the d i r e c t r e s u l t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s involvement or actions, the change may also have occurred  at a time where the i n d i v i d u a l was i n a  p a r t i c u l a r place or held a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n and, as a r e s u l t of these circumstances, influenced the course of change.  There may also be individuals  who, through the force of their personality, the strength of their professional commitment and their contributions i n classrooms and i n l o c a l curriculum development may have influenced the school curriculum and yet their names, and thus their influence, were not documented. Individuals appeared to have influenced the 3.C. home economics curriculum i n several ways.  A number of individuals were advocates for home  economics as a school subject and urged i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the public school curriculum.  These i n d i v i d u a l s include Lady Aberdeen, president of the  National Council of Women, who promoted the introduction of home economics  129 into B.C. schools through Local Councils of Women i n the province; Harry Dunnell and John Kyle, Organizers of Manual Training, who made numerous recommendations  to the Department of Education i n support of home economics  education; and A l i c e Ravenhill, a B r i t i s h lecturer on Household Science, Hygiene and Public Health, who wrote and spoke about the value of home economics education i n the province.  Following the establishment  of home  economics education i n the school curriculum, individuals continued to provide support  for this subject.  Jessie McLenaghen and Bertha Rogers, who were  P r o v i n c i a l Directors of Home Economics, provided leadership for home economics teachers and made recommendations the expansion  to the Department of Education  of home economics i n the public school system.  concerning  No individuals  were i d e n t i f i e d i n the documents examined who were i n opposition to home economics education. Some i n d i v i d u a l s influenced change i n home economics through the development of home economics curriculum. authored  Annie Juniper, for example,  the f i r s t home economics textbook, whil.e the various P r o v i n c i a l  Directors of Home Economics (Jessie McLenaghen, Bertha Rogers, Mildred Orr, Jean Campbell and Jean Irvine) were responsible for d i r e c t i n g the home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n committees. Individuals who helped develop educational policy- also influenced home economics curriculum.  G.M. Weir and H.B. King i n the Department of Education  introduced several p o l i c i e s that influenced the home economics curriculum at that time.  Weir, for example, amended the School Act i n 1936 to make home  economics compulsory for g i r l s i n grades 7 and 8.  King introduced the concept  of high school graduation and increased provision i n the school curriculum for e l e c t i v e subjects such as home economics and in this way contributed to the expansion of the home economics programme. These findings suggest  that the extent to which individuals were  acknowledged i n curriculum change was related to the role or position they  130 held.  Individuals holding positions i n the Department of Education, for  example, were able to exert their influence i n the development of p o l i c i e s and procedures which then influenced curriculum change.  These findings also  suggest that i n the early stages of home economics education i n B.C., individuals assumed a central role i n d i r e c t i n g i t s development.  As the  educational system i n B.C. became more bureaucratized, i t appeared that individuals came to play a less obvious role i n home economics curriculum change.  For example, the individual P r o v i n c i a l Directors of Home Economics  i n i t i a l l y assumed an instrumental role with respect to the home economics curriculum.  Records indicate that i n 1926 Jessie McLenaghen's observations of  d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the e x i s t i n g home economics curriculum d i r e c t l y influenced the changes made to this curriculum at that time.  In subsequent r e v i s i o n s , f i n a l  curriculum decisions rested with the Directors although  they did consult with  home economics teachers i n the province for c u r r i c u l a r input.  However, as the  position of P r o v i n c i a l Director evolved to include several individuals at one time and as the Department of Education expanded in size, the potential for individual influence seemed to decrease.  This trend appears consistent with  developments i n the Canadian educational system. by Sutherland  This conjecture i s supported  (1976) who suggests that, during the i n i t i a l period of  educational expansion i n Canada, the bureaucratization of education was "the only a v a i l a b l e means" of e f f e c t i n g change i n education.  Government o f f i c i a l s ,  as part of this developing bureaucracy, exerted considerable education i n general.  influence.on  Once this system was well-established, groups and  organizations, p a r t i c u l a r l y those outside the educational bureaucracy, began to emerge as influences on education. While i t i s clear that the i n d i v i d u a l s i d e n t i f i e d i n this analysis were in positions to exert c u r r i c u l a r influence, their influence on s p e c i f i c changes i n the home economics curriculum i s d i f f i c u l t to determine.  131 The R o l e  of  Home E c o n o m i c s P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n  One o f the  role  in B.C.  the  questions  identified  home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s  Of  particular  interest  p r o f e s s i o n a l s were  participation  process of  evolution  of  in  was  influential  c h a n g e and  change.  of  individuals  the  A n a l y s i s of  B . C . have been  and  through  very  the  the  and V a n c o u v e r )  organization.  subject  regarding  a number  concerning  the  preparation Section with  the  appeared  first  influence  until  the  of  or  was  less  Director of  in  overt. 1927  to  the  Thus, the  to  of  the  Director  that  the  of  of  1958  that  this the  position. activity  of  Documents the  the  of  involved  in  B.C. a  the  both  to  of  there  for  s u c h an  form  the  to  provincial  in  active  resolutions  appropriate In  this  group  from  teacher  1924,  Survey.  revision,  the the  be d i r e c t e d  reviewed  and  Home  indicated  the However,  Home E c o n o m i c s i n  period  in  became a p p a r e n t  Education.  of  were  home e c o n o m i c s , a  S e c t i o n was  lack  professional  primarily  need  example,  1952  home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s seemed holding  extent  Initially  Putman-Weir  the  the  in  introduced  activity  during  time  the  curriculum change,  little  For  Department  a Provincial  w h i c h home  home e c o n o m i c s  taught  organized  concerns.  recommendations  from documents examined  individuals not  submitted  to  in  with  change  throughout  the  exist.  t h e r e was  home e c o n o m i c s a n d  submitted  appointment  diminished the  of  not  Once o r g a n i z e d ,  professional  status  were  also  of  province,  home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s  BCTF.  in  became  that,  e c o n o m i c s was  home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s w e r e the  curriculum ways  they  introduced  did  1921  Section of  the  concerned  groups.  of  Economics  which  school d i s t r i c t s  prepared  of  reveals  this  shortage the  adequately  a s more  at  first  (home  s t u d y was  process of  participants  and c o n c e i v a b l y  However,  this  C u r r i c u l u m Change  curriculum change,  data  in  active  few home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s  Victoria  in  professional  associated with  for the  stage  When home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n was organization  in  Process of  identification  home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n  professionals as  central  of  economics their  the  the  1927,  it  either appointment curricular by  the  that  group once a g a i n  it  was  became  of  132 apparent.  The reasons for this s h i f t i n a c t i v i t y are d i f f i c u l t  to determine.  As noted i n the previous section, the re-appearance of this professional group may  have been related to the continued expansion of the educational  bureaucracy i n Canada.  At the same time, however, i t may  also have been  related to periods of c u r r i c u l a r c o n f l i c t i n home economics. According  to Goodson (1983), school subject associations often develop  during times of i n t e n s i f i e d c o n f l i c t concerning  teacher preparation and  recruitment and controversy over school curriculum.  Goodson also asserts that  i f subject associations are already i n existence, they tend to become more u n i f i e d or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d during times of c u r r i c u l a r c o n f l i c t . suggests that the B.C. similar ways.  home economics subject association may  This study  have evolved in  As just noted, the association became o f f i c i a l l y organized at a  time when the adequate preparation and recruitment of home economics teachers was  a central concern i n the profession.  in the B.C.  When the p o s i t i o n of home economics  school curriculum appeared to be i n t r a n s i t i o n (e.g. i n  following the Chant Commission and i n 1984  1958  following a mandated curriculum  change i n home economics), this group organized  to present a c o l l e c t i v e voice  on behalf of their subject. Documents examined in this study indicate that these home economics professionals appeared to use several forms of written materials in the of their involvement i n curriculum change. recommendations for change were submitted  course  For example, b r i e f s containing  by the home economics subject group  at the time of both investigations into education i n the province.  On several  occasions, surveys were used by home economics professionals, apparently attempt to i d e n t i f y possible d i r e c t i o n s for curriculum change.  i n an  More recently,  position papers have been written as a means for influencing change i n the curriculum. As noted e a r l i e r , these documents suggest that home economics professionals i n the province have appeared to influence the curriculum  133 principally  through implementing e d u c a t i o n a l  recommendations  f o r change.  Much o f t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the development o f c u r r i c u l u m Regardless  o f whether  p o l i c y and through making  f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c  I n 1985, f o r example, a l t h o u g h  p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the p r o v i n c e  objected  many home economics  to the r e q u i r e d change, they  f o r home economics.  with  i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g the  w i t h i n the g u i d e l i n e s o f the p o l i c i e s d e f i n i n g the change c u r r i c u l a r component  policies.  the home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s were i n agreement  the change, the group was c o n s i s t e n t l y and a c t i v e l y new c u r r i c u l u m .  i n change has i n v o l v e d  worked  to d e v e l o p a new  Surveys were used by home economics  c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n committees to i n v o l v e a l l home economics t e a c h e r s i n c u r r i c u l u m change and to p r o v i d e  them w i t h  an o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r input  i n t o the  revis ion. The i n f l u e n c e o f home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n B.C., however, has not been l i m i t e d  t o the development o f c u r r i c u l u m .  F o r example,  i n 1921 the  n e w l y - o r g a n i z e d Home Economics S e c t i o n o f the BCTF submitted  a series of  r e s o l u t i o n s concerning  the r e c r u i t m e n t  to the Department o f E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m recommendations extensive  and i n 1924, t h i s same group  to the Putman-Weir Survey.  teachers  submitted  I n 1973, THESA proposed  changes t o the p r o v i n c i a l home economics c u r r i c u l u m and many o f  these were i n c o r p o r a t e d addition,  and t r a i n i n g o f home economics  i n t o the 1979 home economics c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n .  those home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s who assumed  D i r e c t o r ( s ) o f Home Economics i n the Department have a m e d i a t i n g  role  i n the process  In  the p o s i t i o n o f  of Education  o f c u r r i c u l u m change.  appeared to a l s o T h i s group  i n t e r p r e t e d Departmental p o l i c y t o the home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d in developing documents  curriculum during a r e v i s i o n .  I t i s u n c l e a r , however,  from the  examined whether t h i s group a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d the aims and purposes  of home economics to the Department. A l t h o u g h the home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n B.C. have attempted t o i n f l u e n c e change through t h e i r a c t i o n s and recommendations  and, i n some  134 instances have been successful, their influence has tended to be as individuals or as members of groups.  There i s l i t t l e evidence of d i r e c t home  economics influence on policy development.  Even those home economics  professionals who held positions i n the Department (Ministry) of Education appeared to be mediators of p o l i c i e s rather than  policy-makers.  It should be noted that no record of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of other home economics groups (outside those d i r e c t l y associated with education) economics curriculum change i n this province appears to e x i s t .  i n home  I f home  economics groups other than the home economics subject group and the D i v i s i o n of Home Economics i n the Department of Education did influence the home economics curriculum, this influence has not been documented or the documents have not been retained.  S t a b i l i t y i n the Home Economics Curriculum Cuban emphasizes that while schools are vulnerable to the influence of s o c i a l change, at the same time they also appear to r e s i s t change, that i s , there e x i s t s a continuity or s t a b i l i t y i n the school curriculum.  Some  examples of such s t a b i l i t y i n the home economics curriculum were noted i n this study.  The concepts of home and family have persisted as the central focus i n  home economics education i n this province.  The concern i n home economics  education for the education of women has also endured over time.  In addition,  Foods and Clothing have continued as two major content areas i n the B.C. home economics curriculum.  Although this study was concerned with curriculum  change, these indications of s t a b i l i t y suggest that an examination of the forces for s t a b i l i t y i n the home economics curriculum might provide an additional perspective on the development of home economics curriculum.  Conclusions From the preceding discussion, a number of conclusions can be made concerning  changes i n the B.C. home economics curriculum, the forces that  135 influenced these changes and the role of home economics professionals i n this process of change.  This study of curriculum change i n home economics shows  that the concepts of home and family have endured as the central focus of home economics education i n this province.  While these concepts have been expanded  over time, this central focus has been retained.  As w e l l , this study reveals  that although provision for males has been made i n the B.C. home economics curriculum for over f i f t y years, the emphasis i n home economics education i n this province has; been on education for females.  The findings of this  study  also d i s c l o s e that the fluctuations i n educational status and relevance associated with home economics education i n this province have been related to changing emphases i n education, which have had their o r i g i n s outside of B r i t i s h Columbia and which were part of broader national and international events.  While i t has been stated by Goodson (1983) that the educational  status of a school subject i s associated with i t s academic heritage, this study indicates that the status of a subject may also be related to i t s perceived educational relevance according to the emphasis i n education at p a r t i c u l a r points i n time. The findings of this study support Cuban's assertion that s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements are the primary forces that determine change in curriculum.  In p a r t i c u l a r , this study found that a l t e r n a t i n g cycles of  progressivism and academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m have influenced the educational status and perceived relevance of home economics as a school subject i n this province.  While changes i n economic conditions have also influenced the home  economics curriculum, this influence appeared to be related to these alternating cycles i n educational philosophy.  Other movements, such as human  r i g h t s , have influenced the s p e c i f i c nature of the home economics curriculum, rather than i t s educational status or relevance. In this study, the three secondary forces i d e n t i f i e d by Cuban did not have equal influence.  Those influences categorized as p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l  136 decisions had the greatest influence on curriculum change, since these decisions not only defined the nature of education and the nature of intended curriculum changes but also defined the processes these changes.  to be followed in making  This would suggest that there might be a three-stage  process  of curriculum change, beginning with broad s o c i a l movements which lead to p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions to influence the d i r e c t i o n of education,  followed by  the actions of groups and individuals to influence and implement such change. Both groups and i n d i v i d u a l s have had some influence on the home economics curriculum.  Some have advocated (or opposed) the subject; some have made  recommendations concerning educational p o l i c y and/or home economics curriculum; and some have implemented educational p o l i c i e s through the development of home economics curriculum.  While the data i n this  indicate that these groups and individuals have played an important  study role i n  home economics curriculum change, their e f f o r t s have been subject to veto by the Department (Ministry) of Education.  I t has been d i f f i c u l t  to disentangle  the influence of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups because i n d i v i d u a l s may be associated with a group which has the capacity for influence.  Thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  determine wh&ther the influence was ultimately exerted by the individual or by the group.  This study also revealed that as bureaucratization i n education i n  B.C. has increased, the influence of i n d i v i d u a l s has apparently decreased. This study demonstrates that home economics professionals i n B.C. have assumed an important  role i n the process of home economics curriculum change  through making recommendations, implementing educational policy and, i n some cases, mediating  educational p o l i c y .  The influence of home economics  professionals has been as i n d i v i d u a l s or as members of groups rather than as policy-makers.  137 CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  In this chapter, a summary of the purposes, the method and the findings of the study i s provided.  Recommendations for further study are outlined.  Summary Recent changes i n the home economics curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia, mandated by the Ministry of Education but opposed by home economics professionals i n the f i e l d , have raised questions regarding previous home economics curriculum change i n this province.  By what process has home  economics curriculum h i s t o r i c a l l y changed i n B r i t i s h Columbia and what has been the r o l e of home economics professionals i n this process?  These  questions provided the impetus to study the forces that have influenced home economics curriculum change i n B.C. from i t s inception to the present, including the role of home economics professionals i n this process of change. The purposes of this study were to describe the changes i n home economics curriculum i n the province of B.C. during the period 1912-1985, to identify the forces that have influenced these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals i n this process of curriculum change. An analysis of h i s t o r i c a l documents was carried out i n order to gain an understanding  of curriculum change and the forces influencing i t over time.  Data for this study were obtained  from several sources.  Primary documents i n  the form of l e t t e r s , memos, d i r e c t i v e s , minutes of meetings, c i r c u l a r s , newsletters, b u l l e t i n s , reports and course o u t l i n e s , programmes of study and curriculum guides were examined systematically for reference both to curriculum change i n general and to home economics curriculum change.  These  documents were found i n several locations: the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, Vancouver City Archives, B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation Archives, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Special C o l l e c t i o n s , Vancouver School Board, as well as i n private f i l e s held by i n d i v i d u a l s .  In addition, some secondary h i s t o r i c a l  138 accounts of the development of education i n North America were used to understand the educational contexts i n which home economics c u r r i c u l a have been operative. Writings concerning the h i s t o r y of the province of B.C. and/or the development of education i n the province were consulted to understand the p r o v i n c i a l context. The data for this study are limited i n several ways. documents, for example, may not have been preserved.  Some primary  Moreover, documents are  constructed for purposes that vary and r e f l e c t the interests of those who constructed them.  Their r e l a t i o n to actual classroom practice cannot be  established i n this t h e s i s . The determinants of curriculum change i d e n t i f i e d by Cuban (1979) were selected as the framework for analysis i n this study.  Cuban postulates four  categories of c u r r i c u l a r determinants: 1) i n f l u e n t i a l s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; 2) p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; 3) i n f l u e n t i a l groups; and 4) i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s .  As he sees i t ,  the greatest impact on curriculum  is exerted by s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, which may therefore be called "primary" forces.  The remaining determinants then become "secondary"  forces, which, says Cuban, soften, select, modify and promote " d i f f e r e n t , less potent versions of movements j o l t i n g the c u l t u r e " (p. 157-158). then'7 these secondary forces mediate or translate s o c i a l change.  In e f f e c t , Six formal  home economics curriculum revisions i n B.C. were examined using this framework. Several findings concerning curriculum changes i n home economics emerged from this study.  According to the documents analyzed, the central focus of  the home economics curriculum i n B.C. has gradually expanded from an emphasis on concerns of the home and family to include vocationalism i n the workplace and community i n t e r a c t i o n . home and family.  However, the primary focus has remained on the  During the period studied, the educational relevance and  status of home economics has experienced both expansion (from 1912 to 1952 and  139 again  i n 1 9 7 9 ) and c o n t r a c t i o n  economics has g r a d u a l l y which  i s coeducational.  curriculum of  evolved  ( i n 1965 a n d i n 1 9 8 5 ) . from a c o u r s e o f study  A separate course  s t u d y was o p e n t o b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s .  Analysis claim  that  social,  political  philosophy.  political-legal  policies,  increased,  influenced  there this  forces  t o have been  t r a d i t i o n a l i s mi n  i d e n t i f i e d by Cuban,  i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m  change i n  found  this  that  t o p o t e n t i a l v e t o by t h e  As b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n  was a n a p p a r e n t d e c l i n e  i n education  i n the i n f l u e n c e  i n B.C.  of individuals.  B.C. home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s  have  c h a n g e p r i m a r i l y a s i n d i v i d u a l s o r a s members o f g r o u p s .  suggestions  Since  forces  Cuban's  through advocacy and/or implementation o f  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  1)  studied.  these e f f o r t s have been s u b j e c t  study  curriculum  Several  changes i n the  and academic  secondary  had the g r e a t e s t  (Ministry) of Education.  Finally,  course  W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s have had an i n f l u e n c e on  home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m  Department  the entire  A major i n f l u e n c e appears  Of t h e t h r e e  decisions  home e c o n o m i c s .  educational  i n the  a n d e c o n o m i c movements a r e t h e p r i m a r y  by a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e s o f p r o g r e s s i v i s m  educational  has  As w e l l , s e v e r a l  included  of the i n f l u e n c e of c u r r i c u l a r determinants supported  t h a t d e t e r m i n e change i n c u r r i c u l u m . exerted  1979 t h a t  were n o t e d over t h e p e r i o d  i n home  f o r f e m a l e s t o one  f o r boys had been  a s e a r l y a s 1 9 2 8 , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l  format o f the c u r r i c u l u m  Curriculum  Study  f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y emerged from t h i s  study emphasized  the importance of the p o l i t i c a l  d i m e n s i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s m i g h t be c o n d u c t e d  i n other  c h a n g e i n B.C., s i m i l a r  provinces  whether t h e apparent dominance o f t h i s is p a r t i c u l a r only  research.  i n order  political  t o home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n  to determine  d i m e n s i o n o f change  i n B.C.  140  2) As w e l l , similar studies might be conducted i n other  content  areas to determine whether the nature of changes and the forces that have influenced them have been the same or d i f f e r e n t .  3) A comparative study of the forces influencing curriculum change in both academic subjects and i n e l e c t i v e subjects might further c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these forces and the educational status of school subjects.  4) While this study focused on change i n the home economics curriculum, the data revealed aspects of s t a b i l i t y economics curriculum.  i n the home  Thus, a study of the forces influencing  s t a b i l i t y i n the home economics curriculum would supplement this research.  For example, a study of the role of textbooks i n home  economics curriculum s t a b i l i t y or a study of the home economics curriculum as i t i s a c t u a l l y taught might d i s c l o s e information about influences on c u r r i c u l a r s t a b i l i t y  i n home economics.  5) The home economics professional group emerged as a c u r r i c u l a r influence i n this study, yet very l i t t l e appears to exist regarding the nature of their involvement i n curriculum matters.  Exploration  of the o r i g i n s and functions of this group would be a useful addition to the h i s t o r y of home economics education  i n this  province. 6) Further study might also be directed to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the extent to which home economics education i n B.C. has been influenced by the development of home economics i n the United States. examination of documents for this study revealed very  While  little  regarding the influence of developments i n home economics outside of those i n B.C., development of the profession i t s e l f and the w r i t i n g  141 of textbooks may have been external influences. required to substantiate  More research i s  this.  Investigation of these kinds of questions would not only enrich the study of home economics curriculum  change but would also further the understanding of  home economics as a f i e l d of study.  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Vancouver, Canada: Publications Centre, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Juniper, A.B. (1913). G i r l s ' home manual of cookery, home management, home nursing and laundry. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r .  149 Kieren, D. Vaines, E. and Badir, D. (1983). Home economist as a helping professional . Winnipeg: Frye Publishing. King, H.B.  Letter to Jessie McLenaghen, June 8, 1936a.  King, H.B.  Letter to Jessie McLenaghen, July 24, 1936b.  K i r s t , M.W. and Walker, D.F. (1971). An analysis of curriculum policy-making. Review of Educational Research, 41, 479-509. Lawr, D. and Gidney, R. (1973). Educating Canadians: A documentary history of public education. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinholdt, Ltd. Levin, H.M..(1976). Educational reform: I t s meaning? In M. Carnoy and H. Levin (Eds.), The l i m i t s of educational reform (pp. 23-51). New York: Mckay. L i g h t f o o t , E.B. and Maynard, M. (1971). The introduction and progress of home economics i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: B.C. Teachers of Home Economics S p e c i a l i s t Association. Mackenzie, G.N. (1964). Curriculum change: P a r t i c i p a n t s , power, and processes. In M. Miles (Ed.), Innovation i n education (pp. 399-424). New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. Mann, J.S. (1978). Progressive education and the depression i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished master's thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. McEwan, -A.E. (1922). Convention sectional reports III - Home economics. The B.C. Teacher, 2, 47. McGee, R. (1967). Education and s o c i a l change. In D.A. Hansen and J.F. Gerstl (Eds.), On education - s o c i o l o g i c a l perspectives (pp. 69-104). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. McLenaghen, J . Letter to Head Teachers or Supervisors i n School D i s t r i c t s , March 10, 1936. McLenaghen, J .  Letter to G.M. Weir, October 4, 1940.  McLenaghen, J . and Rogers, B. Memo, 1946. McNeil, J.D. (1981). Curriculum: A comprehensive L i t t l e , Brown and Company.  introduction. Boston:  McNeil, J.D. (1969). Forces influencing curriculum. Review of Educational Research, 39(3), 299-318. Merchant, C. (1923). Some of the p r a c t i c a l problems i n Canadian education. The B.C. Teacher, 2, 133-135. Meredith, J.R. (no date). Handwritten notes added to "Home Economics Home Economics i n the Secondary School," A p r i l , 1964.  Brief:  Meredith, J.R. Memo to W.B. Naylor, Director, Curriculum Development, October 27, 1977.  150 Murphy,. M.E. (1970). Home economics and community services i n the changing curriculum. Paper presented at the Vancouver Secondary Schools P r i n c i p a l s ' Conference: Education for the 1970's, Vancouver, B.C. National Council of Women of Canada (1894). A report of the proceedings of the f i r s t annual meeting and conference of the National Council of Women of Canada. Ottawa: Thoburn & Co. 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Overgaard, B. (1985, January 9). Presentation to HMED 404: Home economics methods. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Patterson, R.S. (1970). Society and education during the war years and their interlude: 1914-1945. In J.D. Wilson, R.M. Stamp, and L.P. Audet (Eds.), Canadian education: A history (pp. 360-382). Scarborough: Prentice-Hall. Pitman, W. (1981). U n r e a l i s t i c hopes and missed opportunities — The 60's i n Canadian education. In J . Donald Wilson (Ed.), Canadian education i n the 80's (pp. 17-26). Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Ltd. Proranitz, J .  Letter to B. Overgaard, July 27, 1984.  Putman, J.H. and Weir, G.M. (1925). Province of B r i t i s h Columbia: Survey of the school system. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. Ralston, H.K. (1982). Time and pattern i n B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r y . In D.M. Falconer (Ed.), B.C.: Patterns i n economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l development (pp. 3-11). V i c t o r i a : Camosun College. Ravenhill, A. (1916a). Economy and e f f i c i e n c y . The Women's I n s t i t u t e Quarterly, 1_(4), 128-135.  151 Ravenhill, A. (1916b). Letter to William J . Bonavia, secretary, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Women's I n s t i t u t e Quarterly, 1_(2), 86-88. Roald, J.B. (1980). Private sector influences on curriculum making: The case of educational foundations and interest groups. In J . J . Bernier and G.S. Tomkins (Eds.), Curriculum Canada I I : Curriculum policy and curriculum development (pp. 120-126). Vancouver, B.C.: Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Robin, M. (1972). B r i t i s h Columbia: The p o l i t i c s of class c o n f l i c t . In M. Robin (Ed.), Canadian p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s (pp. 27-68). Scarborough: Prentice-Hall. Rogers, B. Letter to selected Home Economics teachers i n the Lower Mainland, February 19, 1947a. Rogers, B. Letter to C. Black, February 20, 1947b. Rogers, B. (1947c). Home economics b u l l e t i n . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: B.C. Department of Education. Rowles, E.C. (1956). A b r i e f history of some early Canadian developments i n home economics. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Columbia University. Rowles, E.C. (1964). Home economics i n Canada. Saskatoon: Modern Press. Rury, J.L. (1984). Vocationalism for home and work: Women's education i n the United States, 1880-1930. History of Education Quarterly, 24(1), 21-44. Russell, F. (1976, November 4 ) . The plan to make Johnny l i t e r a t e . The Vancouver Sun, p. 4. Sanderson, J.R. (1924). The high school curriculum. The B.C. Teacher, 3, 139-140. Schools under dominion c o n t r o l . (1910, December). Vancouver Daily Province, p. 22. Schubert, W.H. (1984). Curriculum books: The f i r s t eighty years. Lanham: University Press of America. Spragge, J.A.  Letter to B. Rogers, November 25, 1952.  Stamp, R. (1977). Teaching g i r l s their "God-given place i n l i f e . " A t l a n t i s , 2, 18-34. Stamp, Robert M. (1978). Canadian high schools i n the 1920's and 1930's: The s o c i a l challenge to the academic t r a d i t i o n . Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association: H i s t o r i c a l Papers. Stevenson, H.A. (1970a). C r i s i s and continuum: public education i n the s i x t i e s . In J.D. Wilson, R.M. Stamp, and L.P. Audet (Eds.), Canadian education: A history (pp. 471-506). Scarborough: Prentice-Hall. Stevenson, H.A. (1970b). Developing public education i n post-war Canada to 1960. In J . D. Wilson, R.M. Stamp, and L.P. Audet (Eds.), Canadian education: A history (pp. 386-413). Scarborough: Prentice-Hall.  152 Stevenson, H.A. (1979). So l i t t l e for the mind? Reaction and reform i n the modern curriculum. In G.S. Tomkins (Ed.), The curriculum i n Canada i n h i s t o r i c a l perspective (pp. 95-110). University of B.C.: Canadian Society for the Study of Education. Strong-Boag, V.J. (1976). The parliament of women: The National Council of Women i n Canada 1893-1929. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Sutherland, N. (1976). Children i n the English Canadian Society: Framing the twentieth century consensus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Teachers of Home Economics S p e c i a l i s t Association (1964, A p r i l ) . Home economics b r i e f : Home economics i n the secondary school. Vancouver, B.C.: B.C. Teachers' Federation. The American college d i c t i o n a r y (1955). New York: Random House. The public school system: Directions for change. (1974, March 20). A "white paper" tabled in the B.C. Legislature by the Honorable E i l e e n D a i l l y . THESA (1973a, February 13). B r i e f regarding curriculum r e v i s i o n i n home economics. Vancouver, B.C.: B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. THESA (1973b, December 27). B r i e f regarding curriculum r e v i s i o n i n home economics. 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Turning points i n American educational h i s t o r y . Waltham, Massachusetts: B l a i s d e l l Publishing Company. Vancouver Council of Women (1895). Papers and correspondence. Vancouver, B.C.: Special Collections D i v i s i o n , L i b r a r y , University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver Council of Women (1911, January). Minutes. Vancouver, B.C.: Special Collections D i v i s i o n , L i b r a r y , University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver Council of Women (1916, May). Minutes. Vancouver, B.C.: Special Collections D i v i s i o n , Library, University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  153 Vancouver Council of Women (1924, September). Minutes. Vancouver, B.C.: Special Collections D i v i s i o n , Library, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver Home Economics Department Heads (1984, September 20). Home economics curriculum: Present status and future d i r e c t i o n s . Unpublished position paper. Vancouver School Board (1906) . Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1907) . Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1908) . Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1910). Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1933) . Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1934) . Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1936). Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1974). Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vancouver School Board (1977). Annual report. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. Vincenti, V.B. (1981). A history of the philosophy of home economics. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Pennsylvania State University. V i n c e n t i , V.B. (1983). Antecedents.of reformism. Journal of Home Economics, 75(3), 26-31. Weir, G.M. (1933). A message to the teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia. The B.C. Teacher, 13, 3-4. Weir, G.M. (1935). The r e v i s i o n of the curriculum. The B.C. Teacher, 14, 20-23. Weir, G.M. (1941). Retrospect and prospect i n education. The B.C. Teacher, 10(June), 456-460. Witnesses favor technical schools. (1910, November). Vancouver Daily Province, p. 9. White, O.E. (1951). The history of the p r a c t i c a l education courses in Canadian secondary schools. Unpublished master's thesis, McGill University, Toronto, Ontario. Wormsbecker, J . (1961). The development of secondary education i n Vancouver. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.  154 APPENDIX A SUGGESTED OUTLINE OF WORK FOR DOMESTIC SCIENCE (1914)*  I.  Goals and Aims There were no stated aims for this Suggested Outline.  II.  First-Year Course A. Home Management:  The choice, cleaning and care of: A coal range; s i l v e r ; steel knives; wooden u t e n s i l s ; t i n and enamel ware; brushes; sinks; furniture; painted and varnished woodwork; sweeping and dusting.  B. Home Nursing: Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . . ..  Personal hygiene as a preventive of sickness. The sick person's room, location, v e n t i l a t i o n , furnishing. The treatment of common ailments. Emergencies and what to do. A b r i e f study of a r t e r i a l , venous and c a p i l l i a r y bleeding with bandaging.  P r a c t i c a l Work 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The care and cleaning of teeth and n a i l s . Bed-making and changing sheets with patient i n bed. Fomentations; poultices; applications of dry heat. Fainting; suffocation; sunstroke; drowning. Simple bandaging; r o l l e r and triangular.  C. Laundry-Work: Theory - Laundry equipment, cost and management. The study of t e x t i l e f i b r e s , including their sources and structure, and the effects of laundry apparatus and materials on such. The composition, source, and properties of water, soap, soap powders, soda, borax, starch, and laundry blue. P r a c t i c a l Work - The removal of stains and the d i s i n f e c t i o n of clothes. The laundering of white and coloured wools, cottons, linens, s i l k s and lace. The cleaning of k i d gloves and shoes. The management of a small family wash. Soap-making from kitchen grease. Simple methods of softening water.  155 Appendix A  Continued...  I I I . Second-Year Course A. Junior Cookery: Theory - Kitchen equipment - choice, cost, arrangment, and care. A study of combustion. The construction, regulation, and cleaning of a coal, gas, or e l e c t r i c range. Methods of cooking, and underlying p r i n c i p l e s with i l l u s t r a t i v e dishes. The food p r i n c i p l e s : their uses to the body; the r e l a t i v e amounts of each i n various foods; the e f f e c t s on them of moist and dry heat. Different foods i n combination. Balanced diets. P r a c t i c a l Work - Beverages; f r u i t s ; cereals; vegetables; starches; fats; sugars; milk; cheese; eggs. Different methods of rendering foods l i g h t . Batters; doughs; bread; meats; soups; f i s h ; pastry; i n v a l i d dishes. The preparation of a c h i l d ' s lunch-box. Table setting and service. The serving of a simple meal.  IV.  Third-Year Course B. Senior Cookery: Theory - Recapituation of the Junior Course, with the addition of the theory bearing on new work, and on elementary study of digestion. P r a c t i c a l Work - Further work covering course outlined in Junior Cookery, with the addition of: Canning; preserving; j e l l i e s ; pickles; salads; poultry; gelatine dishes; frozen desserts.  Regulations for Domestic Science Centres Rules r e l a t i n g to Domestic Science Centres 1.  Where Domestic Science Centres are established, attendance i s compulsory and must be continuous throughout the school-year. Thehours of i n s t r u c t i o n i n Domestic Science shall be as defined in A r t i c l e I, of the Rules and Regulations for the Government of Public Schools. G i r l s i n attendance at the morning session from distant schools may be dismissed at 11:45 a.m.  2.  A three-years' course of Domestic Science should be taken in the Public Schools.  3.  A l l pupils i n the Entrance class and i n the two classes below the Entrance class s h a l l take Domestic Science. Classes doing p a r a l l e l work i n other subjects s h a l l do p a r a l l e l work i n Domestic Science.  156 Appendix A Continued...  *  4.  Attendance r e g i s t e r s , records of lessons, an inventory of equipment, and a v i s i t o r s ' book must be kept and be open for inspection at a l l times.  5.  Expense sheets for food and other materials, exclusive of heating, l i g h t i n g , and permanent equipment, should be sent to the Secretary of the Board at the end of each month; also an attendance sheet.  6.  Only one course of work w i l l be recognized for a l l the schools i n any one c i t y . '  7.  Domestic Science Instructors s h a l l be subject to the same general regulations as Public School Teachers.  8.  The P r i n c i p a l of the Public School at which a Domestic Science Centre is situated s h a l l have supervision over the general d i s c i p l i n e of a l l classes i n attendance at that Centre.  9.  Plans for Domestic Science buildings must be submitted to the Education Department for approval. Needlework** Intermediate Grade and Senior Grade pupils may be included in the course.  B.C. Department of Education (1914). Curricula of public schools for general education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r , (pp. 49-50).  ** It i s interesting to note that suggested theory and p r a c t i c a l work for 'Needlework does not appear i n this document. Suggestions for the teaching of Needlework do appear, however, i n the 1915 and 1916 c u r r i c u l a for Domestic Science i n the Provincial Normal School.  157 APPENDIX B RESOLUTIONS OF THE HOME ECONOMICS SECTION (1924)*  Resolved that we p e t i t i o n the P r o v i n c i a l Government through the Department of Education: 19. (a) To make the Home Economics course compulsory for a l l g i r l s i n Public and High Schools i n a l l c i t i e s of the f i r s t and second c l a s s , and i n D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , throughout the province. Carried. (b) To include Home Economics as a subject for which reports s h a l l be made regularly to parents, with the idea of r a i s i n g the status of this subject in the minds of parents and children. Carried. (c) To dispense with special diplomas for Home Economics and instead to include i t as part of the regular course of study for entrance, to be added to the l i s t of subjects for which recommendation (for passing entrance) i s made by the p r i n c i p a l . Carried. 20. In order to e f f e c t the above as e a s i l y as possible, to appoint a thoroughly competent woman with a University degree, or i t s equivalent i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , as P r o v i n c i a l Organizer and Supervisor of Home Economics, to be d i r e c t l y responsible to the Department of Education. Carried. 21. To grant or obtain M a t r i c u l a t i o n status for students who have passed the three years' examination i n the Home Economics course as outlined by the Department of Education. Carried. 22. To do everything towards the establishment of a Home Economics Department i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia so that the students of our own province may have the advantage of the t r a i n i n g needed to f i t them as teachers and leaders i n a science which i s rapidly becoming recognized as an essential i n any broad educational plan for g i r l s . Carried. The Following Resolution was passed by the Home Economics Section: Whereas a very large proportion of our g i r l s never enter High School: And whereas many of these need further t r a i n i n g for successful economic home-making: And whereas others have marked a b i l i t i e s along purely vocational l i n e s , such as cookery, home decoration, commercial a r t , dressmaking, etc., for which at present there i s l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g . Therefore, be i t resolvevd that we ask the P r o v i n c i a l Government through the Department of Education to make i t compulsory for School Boards as soon as possible and wherever possible to e s t a b l i s h Technical and Vocational Schools for g i r l s throughout this province.  * B r i t i s h Columbia teachers' federation annual general meeting: Report of resolutions. (1924, June). The B.C. Teacher, p.218.  158 APPENDIX C 1927 I.  HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  Goals and Aims "Home Economics stands for: 1. The ideal home-life of today unhampered by t r a d i t i o n s of the past. 2. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the resources the home-life.  of modern science to improve  3. The freedom of the home from the dominance of things and their due subordination to i d e a l s . 4. The s i m p l i c i t y i n material surroundings which w i l l most free the s p i r i t for the more important and permanent interests of the home and of society." (p.65, 1927b)  II.  Outline of Junior High School (grades VII - IX) A. Aims: "1. Proper health habits and a t t i t u d e s . 2. Right attitudes toward home and family l i f e , together  with:-  (a) A working knowledge of the processes c a r r i e d on i n the home. (b) A degree of s k i l l commensurate with the present needs and age of the i n d i v i d u a l . 3. Recognition  of the importance i n society of the family group.  4. The a b i l i t y to spend and save the family income or i n d i v i d u a l earnings e f f i c i e n t l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y . 5. A b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a variety of a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l contribute to the worthy use of l e i s u r e . " (p.52, 1927c) B. Courses: Grade VII Grade VIII Grade IX III.  -  Foods 1, Clothing 1, Home Problems IA, IB Foods 2, Clothing 2, Home Problems 2 Foods 3, Clothing 3; Foods 4, Clothing 4 optional  Outline of High School (grades X - XII) A. Aims: "1. To give the g i r l a better appreciation of the home, i t s surroundings, and the l i f e within the home that she may more f u l l y understand the arts and sciences of the home...  159 Appendix C C o n t i n u e d . . .  2. To develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a h e a l t h y body and a p l e a s i n g appearance by s t u d y i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , and the r e l a t i o n o f a few simple r u l e s o f p e r s o n a l hygiene to h e a l t h o f young g i r l s . 3. To develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the wise c h o i c e o f food i n o r d e r that a g i r l may grow and be s t r o n g , and i n r e l a t i o n to working a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 4. To g i v e knowledge and develop a b i l i t y i n simple food p r e p a r a t i o n and s e r v i n g f o r the purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w e l l - c o o k e d food. 5. To teach the v a l u e o f economy i n time, energy, r e l a t i o n to household a c t i v i t i e s .  and money i n  6. To enable the g i r l s to p l a n t h e i r own wardrobes so as to be n e a t l y and a p p r o p r i a t e l y d r e s s e d w i t h a minimum e x p e n d i t u r e . 7. To develop possible.  independence and p o i s e through  socialized  8. To develop an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r t i n r e l a t i o n (p.65, 1927b) B.  l e s s o n s where  to home-life."  Courses: 1. G e n e r a l  Programme  (two y e a r s )  Year 1 - Foods, C l o t h i n g Year 2 - Foods, C l o t h i n g , The Home 2. S p e c i a l Programme HE (A) HE (B) HE (C) -  IV.  (three years)  Foods, N u t r i t i o n , P h y s i o l o g y , Hygiene, Home N u r s i n g i n 1929, Home Management r e p l a c e d P h y s i o l o g y Clothing, Textiles, Clothing Selection, Applied Art Comprehensive course i n c l u d i n g components o f HE(A) and HE(B) added i n 1929.  O u t l i n e o f Boys' Course There was no p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h i s c o u r s e , but other documents suggest i t focused on elementary sewing and camp c o o k i n g .  * There a r e two sources which document t h i s c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n : B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n (1927b). Programme o f s t u d i e s f o r the h i g h and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s o f B.C. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n (1927c). Programme o f s t u d i e s f o r the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s o f B.C. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r .  160 APPENDIX D 1937 I.  HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  Goals and Aims "...Home Economics education [ i s intended] to give the student a well-rounded conception of the many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s contributing to worthy home membership...[as well as] some knowledge of the profession of homemaking." (p.7)  II.  Outline of Junior High School (grades VII - IX) A. Aims: "1. The development of:(a.) An understanding of the r e l a t i o n to health of:(1.) Foods, as determined by their n u t r i t i o n a l value, their preparation, and their appetizing q u a l i t y . (2.) Clothing, as determined by materials and s t y l e s . (3.) Home s a n i t a t i o n , as determined by the personal hygiene of the members of the family and their care of the home. 2. The development of a desire and the a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the work and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s within the family. 3. The development of some dexterity i n the manipulation of materials, tools, and machinery used in the home. 4. The development of an appreciation of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of food values to q u a l i t y , appearance, and cost. 5. The development of an appreciation=of the value of wise planning for the use ofxtime, e f f o r t , and money, i n order that the /' i n d i v i d u a l , a s v w e 1.1 as the family, may l i v e r i c h , useful, purposeful l i v d s . 6. The development of good taste and high standards of quality i n the selection of clothing and home furnishings. / 7. The development of an appreciation of the home as a place i n which to spend leisure-hours, and the gaining of a b i l i t y to spend such leisure-hours iri^ways that w i l l contribute to the improvement of the i n d i v i d u a l and the home." (p.7) B. Courses: **HE (I)  - Foods, Clothing, Personal Appearance, and Child Care or Caring for the sick i n the home. **HE(II) - Foods, Clothing, Co-operation within the Family Group, and Care and Furnishing of a G i r l ' s Bedroom. HE(III) - Health and N u t r i t i o n , Foods and Cookery, Clothing, Kitchen E f f i c i e n c y and Budgeting  161 Appendix D continued...  III.  Outline of High School (grades X - XII) A. Aims: "1.  a. The development of an appreciation of the factors which a f f e c t successful family l i f e i n such phases of homemaking as:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Household management. Family economics. Provision for family health, education, and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Wise use of l e i s u r e .  b. The development within the g i r l of a desire to make her maximum contribution to home and community l i f e . 2. a. The development of the a b i l i t y to select and prepare an adequate family diet with due regard to:1. N u t r i t i v e requirements of the members of the family. 2. Comparative value of foods to meet these requirements. 3. Comparative cost of foods i n terms of time, money, and energy. 4. The provision of the diet i n a form that i s a t t r a c t i v e , palatable, and d i g e s t i b l e . b. The development of good food habits and good general health habits. 3. a. The development of an appreciation of the value i n successful personal and s o c i a l l i f e of becoming and suitable dress. b. The development of the a b i l i t y to analyse and provide for clothing needs i n r e l a t i o n t o : 1. 2. 3. 4.  Health. Becomingness. Suitability. Value i n time, money, and energy.  4. The development of an appreciation o f the contribution made to successful family and individual l i f e by:a. Suitable housing. b. Adequate household equipment. c. A t t r a c t i v e furnishings." (p.85) B. Courses: 1. General Programme (two years) HE(A) I I , I I I HE(B) I I , I I I HE(CC)II, I I I HE(C) -  Foods, N u t r i t i o n , Cookery and Home Management Clothing & T e x t i l e s , Applied Art Food3 Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art Foods, Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art offered for students not wishing more Home Economics t r a i n i n g . ;  162 Appendix D continued...  2. Senior Matriculation Programme (three years) HE(A) HE(B) HE(C)  II,III,IV - Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Cookery and Home Management II,III,IV - Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Applied Art II,III,IV - Foods, Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art  In addition: HE V & VI - "adapted from other courses" and intended to be "more prevocational i n purpose...[due to] conditions i n some parts of the province" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.1-4). HE V - Personal Hygiene, Foods, Home Management, Home Nursing, Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Applied A r t . HE VI - Foods, Child Care and Development, Clothing, Applied Art IV.  Outline of Boys' Course This course was intended to "help the boys to be more i n t e l l i g e n t and appreciative members of their f a m i l i e s ; to [enable boys to] plan and prepare simple outdoor meals; and to enable boys to prepare and serve a simple meal to a sick member of the family." Cp.79)  *  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1937b). Home economics for the junior and senior high schools. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r .  ** Compulsory for g i r l s .  163 APPENDIX E 1952 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  I.  Goals and Aims "...to prepare the students for e f f e c t i v e home l i v i n g . " (p.4)  II.  Outline of Junior High School Courses (grades 7 - 9 ) HE 7  -  ***HE 7a HE 8 ***HE 8a -  Personal Appearance, Foods, Clothing, Child Care, Home Care of the Sick Alternate to HE 7 A G i r l ' s Part i n Her Home, Foods, Clothing Alternate to HE 8  Homemaking 10  - Applied A r t , The Kitchen, Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management, Clothing Construction ***Homemaking 10a - Alternate to Homemaking 10 Dressmaking 11 - Clothing Construction I I I . Outline of High School Courses (grades 10 - 12) HE HE HE **HE **HE **HE **HE HE HE HE HE **HE IV.  20 21 22 23 24 25 26 30 31 32 39 91  -  --  -  Homemaking; replaced HE (CC)II Clothing Selection and Construction; replaced HE (B)II Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; replaced HE (A)II Home Furnishing Child Care and Home Nursing Arts and Crafts Boys' Course Homemaking; replaced HE (CC)III Clothing Selection and Construction; replaced HE (B)III Foods and N u t r i t i o n ; replaced HE (A)III Composite Course; replaced HE (C) Homemaking  Outline of Boys' Course The Boys' Course was open to boys i n grades 11 and 12 and to selected students i n grade 10. Units of study included: Personal Appearance Foods, N u t r i t i o n and Home Management Family Relations and Social Customs and Courtesies The Home, I t s Furnishings and I t s Use Child Care  *  B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1957b). Administrative b u l l e t i n supplement. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Author.  **  New course.  *** No curriculum materials a v a i l a b l e .  164 APPENDIX F  1965 I.  HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  Goals and Aims "Home economics education must s t r i v e to co-operate with the family in providing for the g i r l the best t r a i n i n g possible for the complex and demanding role of homeraaker and provide some introduction to home economics related employment p r o b a b i l i t i e s . " (1967a, Preface)  II.  Outline of Junior High School A.  (grades 8 -  10)  Aim:  "To help pupils understand and appreciate the importance of the role of homemaker and to gain knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding...of homemaking." (p.l) B. Courses: HE 8  -  Management, Foods, Clothing, The Home and Its Furnishings, Child Development FN 9 - Foods and N u t r i t i o n for grades 9 or 10 CT 9 - Clothing and T e x t i l e s for grades 9 or 10 **CC 9 - Child Care for grades 9 or 10 **CFS9 - Cooking and Food Services for grade 9 or 10 boys **Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s 1, 2 & 3 (Occupational Programme) I I I . Outline of Senior High School A.  (grades  11 &  12)  Aim:  "To develop the character and personality of individual pupils and to provide them with selected knowledge and s k i l l s applicable to personal and occupational l i f e as preparation for further t r a i n i n g or entry into a range of occupations related to the foods industry, the clothing and t e x t i l e s industry, home and community s e r v i c e . " (p.4) B. Courses: Community Services Programme - three s p e c i a l t y areas: Foods, T e x t i l e s and Home & Industrial Services - home economics course o f f e r i n g s : FN TX **Mgt FN FN  11 11 11 12A 12B  -  Foods and N u t r i t i o n Clothing and T e x t i l e s Management and Home Services Foods and N u t r i t i o n Foods and N u t r i t i o n  Appendix F Continued  TX 12A TX 12B CC 12 **HIS 12  IV.  Clothing and T e x t i l e s Clothing and T e x t i l e s Child Care Home and Industrial Services  Outline of Boys ' Course Boys were able to e n r o l l i n Cooking and Food Services 9 i n Junio High School or i n the Foods Specialty Area of the Community Services Programme i n Senior High School.  *  There are two sources which document this curriculum r e v i s i o n : B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1967a). Junior secondary schools home economics curriculum guide. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Author. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1967b). Senior secondary schools home economics curriculum guide. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Author.  ** New Course.  166 APPENDIX G  1979 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  I.  G o a l s And Aims "The Home Economics program w i l l  e n a b l e the s t u d e n t :  To a c q u i r e the knowledge, the s k i l l s and the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r i n c i p l e s n e c e s s a r y to p r o v i d e food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r , f o r the the i n d i v i d u a l and the f a m i l y . To d e v e l o p a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human n u t r i t i o n . To d e v e l o p e f f i c i e n t management and consumer of home economics.  skills  i n a l l aspects  To d e v e l o p a b i l i t i e s and a t t i t u d e s needed to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y s o c i a l , economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes.  with  To r e c o g n i z e the needs and customs o f v a r i o u s ages, l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e s i n order to a c h i e v e e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To d e v e l o p a v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s time.  f o r use i n l e i s u r e  To a p p r e c i a t e and to c r e a t e beauty i n one's environment. To a c q u i r e a broad base o f knowledge as a u s e f u l background f o r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g and/or f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . " (p.2) The home economics programme i s "open to boys and g i r l s and...both content and methodology r e f l e c t s a c o - e d u c a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . " ( p . l )  II.  O u t l i n e o f J u n i o r High School Courses (grades 8 - 10) HE 8  **Lifeskills 8 CT 9/10 **HE 9 **HE 10 **FS 10 **TAC 10 -  III.  Foods and N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Composite HE8 and IE8 C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism F a m i l y S t u d i e s , Management and Consumerism T e x t i l e A r t s and C r a f t s , Management and Consumerism  O u t l i n e o f S e n i o r High School Courses **IFN 11 FN 11 **ICT 11 CT 11 -  (grades 11 & 12)  I n t r o d u c t o r y Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism, C a r e e r s I n t r o d u c t o r y C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , , Management and and Consumerism C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism, C a r e e r s  167 Appendix G Continued...  **TAC 11 -  T e x t i l e Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12 - Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism, Careers FN 12 - Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12A - Clothing and T e x t i l e s - T a i l o r i n g , Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12B - Clothing and T e x t i l e s - Pattern Design and Drafting, Management and Consumerism, Careers **HID 12 - Housing and Interior Design, Management and Consumerism, Careers **FS 12 - Family Studies, Management and Consumerism, Careers CAF 12A - Foods and N u t r i t i o n - Cafeteria CAF 12B - Foods and N u t r i t i o n - Cafeteria  IV.  Outline of Boys' Course Since the entire home economics programme was open to boys, there was no longer any d i s t i n c t i o n between home economics courses intended for g i r l s and those intended for boys.  *  B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education (1979b). Home economics curriculum guide (8-12). V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Author.  ** New course.  168 APPENDIX H 1985  I.  HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION*  Goals and Aims The goals and aims of the home economics programme remain the same as i n the 1979 r e v i s i o n except for the new aim developed for "Family Management": "...to a s s i s t students to explore the reciprocal influences of family, s e l f and society, and to develop positive attitudes about themselves and t h e i r world...[in order to develop] the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge and a b i l i t i e s to meet the challenges of our dynamic and complex society."  II.  Outline of Junior High School Courses (grades 8 - 10) HE 8 -  Lifeskills 8 CT 9/10 FN 9/10 HE 9  -  HE 10 FS 10 TAC 10 -  Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Composite HE8 and IE8 Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Family Studies, Management and Consumerism T e x t i l e Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism  I I I . Outline of Senior High School Courses (grades 11 & 12) IFN 11 FN 11 ICT 11 CT 11 TAC 11 CT 12 FN 12 CT 12A  -  CT 12B **FM 11 **FM 12 CAF 12A CAF 12B  *  -  Introductory Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism, Careers Introductory Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management & Consumerism Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism, Careers T e x t i l e Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism, Careers Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism, Careers Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism, Careers Clothing and Textiles - T a i l o r i n g , Management and Consumerism Careers Clothing and Textiles - Pattern Design and Drafting, Management and Consumerism, Careers Family Management Family Management Foods and N u t r i t i o n - Cafeteria Foods and N u t r i t i o n - Cafeteria  B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Education (1985 February). Proposed home economics curriculum outline: Draft copy. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Author.  ** New course.  

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