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Forces influencing home economics curriculum change in British Columbia secondary schools 1912-1985 Thomas, Christie Jane 1986

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FORCES INFLUENCING HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CHANGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1912 - 1985. By CHRISTIE JANE THOMAS B.H.E., The University of British Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Curriculum and Instructional Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1986 ©Christie Jane Thomas, 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f C^rr-icuJof*i s^t^c^/yp-^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) Abstract The purposes of this study were to describe the changes that have occurred in home economics curricula in the province of British Columbia during the period 1912 - 1985, to identify the forces that have influenced these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals in this process of curriculum change. Documents concerning the six major home economics curriculum revisions were analyzed using Cuban's (1979) four curricular determinants: social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; influential groups; and influential individuals. Four major changes in the home economics curriculum were noted. These included an expansion of the central focus on concerns of the home and family to include vocationalism in the workplace and community interaction; expansion and contraction in the educational relevance and status of home economics education; the evolution of home economics as a course of study for females to one which is coeducational; and changes in the format of the curriculum documents. The major determinants found to influence these changes were broad social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, especially trends in educational philosophy. There were other movements, such as social movements and changes in economic conditions, which also had an impact. The major secondary force influencing curriculum change was pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions. These decisions defined the nature of education and of intended curriculum change and determined the process of curriculum change. While both groups and individuals have had an influence on the home economics curriculum through advocacy and/or implementation of educational policies, these efforts have been subject to potential veto by the Department (Ministry) of Education. As bureaucratization in education in B.C. has increased, there was an apparent decline in the influence of individuals. In this study, B.C. home economics professionals assumed a role in the process of home economics curriculum change through making recommendations, implementing educational policy and in some cases, mediating educational policy. The influence of home economics professionals has been as individuals or as members of groups rather than as policy-makers. Some suggestions for further study have been made. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Acknowledgements v Chapter I Introduction 1 Rationale and Purpose . 2 Procedure 4 Definition of Terms 7 Limitations 8 Chapter II Review of Literature and Framework of the Study 10 Perspectives on Curriculum Change 10 Cuban's Determinants of Curriculum Change 13 The First Curriculum Document in Home Economics 20 Influences on the Emergence of Domestic Science 21 Chapter III Findings of the Study 35 The 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 36 The 1937 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 51 The 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 63 The 1965 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 74 The 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 89 The 1985 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 100 Chapter IV Discussion of the Findings and Conclusions 109 Changes in the B.C. Home Economics Curriculum 1912-1985 109 The Use of Cuban's Curricular Determinants to Analyze Home Economics Curriculum Change 118 The Role of Home Economics Professionals in the Process of Curriculum Change 131 Stability in the Home Economics Curriculum 134 Conclusions 134 Table of Contents continued... iv Page Chapter V Summary and Recommendations 137 Summary 137 Recommendations for Further Study 139 Bibliography 142 Appendix A Suggested Outline of Work for Domestic Science (1914) 154 Appendix B Resolutions of the Home Economics Section (1924) 157 Appendix C 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 158 Appendix D 1937 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 160 Appendix E 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 163 Appendix F 1965 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 164 Appendix G 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 166 Appendix H 1985 Home Economics Curriculum Revision 168 V Acknowledgements I would like to dedicate this thesis to the memory of Dr. George Tomkins, whose teaching and writing inspired me to undertake this study. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Dr. Margaret Arcus, who assisted in clarifying both my thinking and my writing.. I deeply appreciate her generous contribution of time and her constant support and caring. I am also grateful to Dr. LeRoi Daniels and Dr. Jane Gaskell for their many perceptive comments arid helpful suggestions. I am indebted to Dr.,. Patrick Dunnae, Provincial Archivist, for his assistance in locating the wide variety of historical documents examined in thi's'study and to Mary Lou Morris, for her diligence in typing the many drafts of t/his thesis. Finally, I thank my husband Gordie, and my son Derek for their patience, tolerance and encouragement. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Traditionally educators have been concerned for and involved in the areas of curriculum and curriculum development. During undergraduate training educators study curriculum theory, gain practice in writing curriculum and have the opportunity to develop and evaluate curricular materials. Such curriculum theory and development forms a major focus of most professional preparation programmes in home economics education. It is assumed that home economics educators w i l l be responsible for the development of home economics curriculum in school programmes in order to ensure that the aims and purposes of the f i e l d are appropriately depicted (Chamberlain & Kelly, 1981; Fleck, 1980; Hall & Paolucci, 1970). In home economics the teacher is viewed as the "crucial factor in implementing the basic beliefs of home economics" and has a professional obligation to develop curriculum that reflects these beliefs (Hall & Paolucci, 1970, p.107). This assumption has been challenged by. recent changes in the home economics curriculum in the province of British Columbia (B.C.). General changes in the public school curriculum have been made by the B.C. Ministry of Education to provide a more academic focus and to increase graduation requirements. In home economics, two-year specialty streams for senior students were created and a name change for one of the streams was mandated. Since l i t t l e input was sought from professionals in the fi e l d regarding these changes, two questions may be raised regarding the nature of previous home economics curriculum change in B.C. By what process has home economics curriculum h i s t o r i c a l l y changed in B.C.? What has been the role of home economics professionals in this process? These questions provided the impetus to study the forces that have influenced home economics curriculum change in B.C. from i t s inception to the present, including the role of home economics professionals in this process of change. In this chapter the rationale for this study w i l l be identified and the purposes delineated. The method of procedure, sources of data and limitations of the study w i l l be described and the terms used in the study w i l l be defined. Rationale and Purpose A number of forces have influenced the emergence of home economics as a profession in North America. During the second half of the nineteenth century, for example, Enlightenment beliefs and the advent of sci e n t i f i c thought contributed to the development of the "home economics idea", that i s , the application of science in the home to improve the quality of l i f e and the moral and spiritual development of the family (Budewig, 1957; Carver, 1979; Vincenti, 1981). This early history of home economics corresponded with the development of education for women, which was motivated in part by concern for "the development of women's potentialities and for the role of women in their influence in the home" (Brown, 1985, p.227). In the early "twentieth century, industrialization influenced the development of home economics. Social problems associated with over-population in c i t i e s , child labour and juvenile delinquency developed, and appeared to some"to threaten the moral foundations of society and the family. The concern of home economics for the home and family came to be seen as increasingly relevant at this time, as strengthening the family was felt by many to be c r i t i c a l in the preservation of North American society (Kieren, Vaines & Badir, 1983; Vincenti, 1981). Women's Suffrage, World Wars I and II, the launching of Sputnik, and the C i v i l Rights Movement have also contributed to the evolution of the fi e l d (Carver, 1979; Kieren, Vaines & Badir, 1983; Vincenti, 1981). Although there are many accounts of these general forces influencing home economics as a profession, few have focused specifically on the emergence and evolution of home economics within the context of secondary education. As 3 schooling is histo r i c a l l y the primary means by which home economics has f u l f i l l e d its mission (Vincenti, 1981), study of this dimension of the profession appears worthy of attention. Those studies which have examined home economics in an educational setting have generally been chronological, identifying significant events both in the development of Canadian institutions of higher educaton in home economics (Rowles, 1956, 1964) and in the introduction of home economics as a school subject (Campbell, 1977; Chestnutt, 1975; Irvine, 1975; Light foot & Maynard, 1971). L i t t l e attention has been given to forces which have shaped home economics education. As noted earlier, i t is assumed in home economics that home economics professionals have a significant role to play in the development of home economics curriculum. However, concern has been expressed by some home economists that the actions of home economists are characterized by reaction and conformity rather than by influence and i n i t i a t i v e (Brown & Paolucci, _,__„..1978). A study of. the influences on home economics curriculum change would provide an opportunity to examine the role of home economics educators in the process of curriculum change, and as such, may advance understanding of the nature of the profession. In this way i t may contribute to the process of self-examination in which the profession is currently engaged (Vincenti, 1981). The purposes of this study were to describe the changes that have occurred in home economics curricula in the province of British Columbia during the period 1912^ - 1985, to identify the forces that have influenced While the f i r s t formal curriculum document located for this study is dated 1914, both this document and other references indicate that the f i r s t formal course outline for home economics in B.C. schools was printed by the Department of Education in 1912 (B.C. Department of Education, 1914b; English, 1937; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). Therefore, in this study, 1912 wi l l be considered to be the date of the f i r s t home economics curriculum document. these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals in this process of curriculum change. Specific objectives for the study were: 1) To describe changes in home economics curriculum in B.C. during the period 1912 - 1985; 2) To identify the forces that influenced change in home economics curricula; 3) To determine at what point, in what ways, and to what extent home economics professionals in the province have been involved in these curriculum changes; and 4) To make recommendations for further study. Procedure This study employs an historical mode of inquiry in order to gain an understanding of curriculum change and the forces influencing i t over time. Such an hi s t o r i c a l study looks at "the interplay between events and thoughts and the larger social context" (Vincenti, 1981, p.23). It becomes a process of "asking questions about continuities, lines of development, relationships among ideas and events, facts and values, and economic and social changes," in order to seek out organizing principles and to pursue their meanings (Greene, 1967, p.187). Goodson (1983) points out the dual advantage of using such an approach to studying curriculum. F i r s t , a depiction of the gradual evolution of curriculum may assist in illuminating contemporary situations. Historical inquiry can uncover "curriculum transformation and reproduction", providing a context for contemporary inquiry and extending our general understanding of curriculum. Second, curriculum histories may assist in developing and substantiating theoretical frameworks for viewing curriculum and in disclosing new areas for further study. Historical inquiry in curriculum then may assist in transforming a chronological recounting of events into the "reformulation of hypotheses and theories" (p. 406). Brown (1984) also notes the importance of historical investigation in making past actions i n t e l l i g i b l e , in stimulating reflection on both the past and present, and in considering the future in an enlightened way. If, as she (1980) states, the present form of home economics education is the result of its intellectual, social and p o l i t i c a l history, then a study of the evolution of home economics curriculum may help to c l a r i f y the present position of home economics in relation to schooling, as well as to provide some direction for its future. Data for this study were obtained from several sources. Primary documents in the form of letters, memos, directives, minutes of meetings, circulars, newsletters, bulletins and reports were examined systematically for reference both to curriculum change in general and to home economics curriculum change. These documents were found in several locations: the Provincial Archives, Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Teachers' Federation Archives, University of British Columbia Special Collections, Vancouver School Board, as well as in private files.held by individuals. Materials held in the Provincial Archives in Victoria were located in the Home Economics Branch f i l e s , covering the years 1927 to 1981, and in the Curriculum Branch f i l e s , which contained records dated 1949 to 1967. Annual reports of the B.C. Department of Education (1896-1980) provided information regarding the development of home economics in the public school curriculum of the province. They also furnished information regarding changes in policy and provided some insight into the decision-making process underlying these changes. Annual reports of the Vancouver School Board (1903-1980), located in the Vancouver City Archives, were reviewed for information regarding home economics curriculum as i t was operative in the school system and for educational trends and philosophies expressed at various points in time. Annual reports and yearbooks of the National Council of Women in Canada (1894-1927) provided information regarding the early development of home economics education in both Canada and B.C. The Vancouver Council of Women Papers, located in the Special Collections of the University of British Columbia Library were examined for information concerning the emergence of home economics education in B.C. Minutes of Executive and Annual Meetings of the B.C. Teachers' Federation, located in the B.C. Teachers' Federation Archives in Vancouver, yielded information concerning the role of B.C. teachers in the process of curriculum change. They also afforded access to numerous briefs dealing with curriculum recommendations. The Federation's professional magazine, The B.C. Teacher, provided insight into the educational philosophies held by local educators. Although records of the provincial home economic teacher association were d i f f i c u l t to access, minutes of annual general meetings were available through the association's professional publication, and furnished information concerning curriculum recommendations. Reports of major educational reviews in the province such as the Putman-Weir Report (1925), the Chant Report (1960), and Involvement: The Key to Better Schools (1968), were examined for information regarding educational trends and philosophies of the times. Views of local educators and of the general public concerning education were reflected in these documents. The report of the Royal Commission on Industrial Training and Technical Education (1913, Vol. I) provided information concerning the philosophy underlying the introduction of practical education into Canadian schools during the early part of the twentieth century. Home economics curricular documents, such as course outlines, programmes of study and curriculum guides (1914-1985) provided a record of specific curriculum changes made at various points in time. Textbooks were not examined, with the exception of the f i r s t home economics textbook published by the Department of Education in 1914. This text, Girl s ' Home Manual of  Cookery, Home Management, Home Nursing and Laundry, was reviewed because i t was originally developed as an adjunct to the f i r s t mimeographed course outline for home economics. Thus, i t was an extension of the curriculum document and a i d « d i n c l a r i f y i n g the a ims and p u r p o s e s o f the f i r s t home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m . S e v e r a l s e c o n d a r y h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a were u s e d to u n d e r s t a n d the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l a h a v e b e e n o p e r a t i v e . W r i t i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the h i s t o r y o f the p r o v i n c e o f B . C . a n d / o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e were c o n s u l t e d to p r o v i d e the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e x t . S e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s a l s o a s s i s t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g b r o a d s o c i a l movements w h i c h a p p e a r e d to i n f l u e n c e c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms F o r the p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y the te rm " c u r r i c u l u m " r e f e r s to the " c o u r s e o f s t u d y p u r p o r t e d l y t a u g h t and l e a r n e d . . . i n s c h o o l s " ( T o m k i n s , 1981a , p . 1 3 5 ) . I t r e f e r s t o the c u r r i c u l u m as i t i s s e t ou t i n documents and i n c l u d e s what i s to be t a u g h t and the m a t e r i a l s , s u c h as t e x t b o o k s , u s e d to t e a c h ( C u b a n , 1979 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n e x c l u d e s , f o r e x a m p l e , the h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m and the c u r r i c u l u m as a c t u a l l y t a u g h t i n the c l a s s r o o m . W h i l e t h i s may be a l i m i t e d v i e w o f c u r r i c u l u m , i t o f f e r s the b e s t a c c e s s to i d e n t i f i a b l e c u r r i c u l u m change o v e r a b r o a d expanse o f t i m e . " C u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e " i n t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s to d i s c e r n i b l e a l t e r a t i o n s (whether i n the fo rm o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s o r s u b s t i t u t i o n s ) i n c u r r i c u l u m g o a l s , a ims and p u r p o s e s , and r a t i o n a l e , i n c o u r s e names a n d / o r c o u r s e a u d i e n c e s and i n f o r m a t o f the c u r r i c u l u m . The te rm " i n f l u e n c e " i s d e f i n e d as " a c t i o n e x e r t e d by one t h i n g or p e r s o n on a n o t h e r . " I t i m p l i e s b r i n g i n g a b o u t , i n d u c i n g , m o d i f y i n g o r a f f e c t i n g s o m e t h i n g by i n d i r e c t o r i n t a n g i b l e means (The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e D i c t i o n a r y , 1955 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , " i n f l u e n c e s " on the c u r r i c u l u m r e f e r s to f o r c e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o h a v e i m p a c t e d on the c u r r i c u l u m i n some way t o s t i m u l a t e o r e f f e c t c h a n g e . The q u e s t i o n may be r a i s e d as to whether the f o r c e s t h e m s e l v e s 8 contributed to change or whether they were a means by which a change that would have occurred anyway was sanctioned. This study assumes the former. Limitations Several limitations and assumptions of the study should be noted: 1. Because education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and because the question of the study emerged from a curricular matter particular to the province of B.C., this study is limited to home economics curricula in B ritish Columbia. 2. This study spans the years from 1912 (publication of the f i r s t formal curriculum document for home economics) to 1985 (the date of the most recent home economics curriculum change). Only major curriculum revisions during this time were examined. 3. Study of home economics curricula was limited to those of the junior and senior secondary public schools of the province. Curricula for correspondence courses were not examined. 4. The examination of curriculum documents was confined to stated goals, aims and purposes, rationales, and course names, their intended audience(s), and curriculum format. Textbooks (other than the f i r s t home economics textbook indicated previously) were not scrutinized. Classroom practice of curriculum was not addressed. 5. Since some primary documents may hot have been preserved, the data for the study may be limited. For example, the earliest printed course outline for home economics is dated 1912, yet home economics was taught in the public schools of the province as early as 1903. Written materials documenting the role home economics professionals and others assumed in the process of curriculum change may also be limited. In particular, some records of many meetings or informal discussions w i l l not have been made or kept. Very few materials concerning the Vancouver and District Home Economics Association (in existence from 1913 until 1974), the Parent-Teacher Association and the Victoria Council of Women are available, and early records of the provincial home economics teachers' association (established in I960) could not be located. 6. It is assumed that the documents examined reflect the concerns and ideas of those who produced the documents. However, they may not be an accurate reflection of either behaviour or reality, as they may also reflect the self interests and standards of accuracy of the groups and individuals responsible for producing them. 7. The idea of change challenges the adequacy or appropriateness of existing curricula and implies that improvement is forthcoming. In some cases reasons were given for specific changes, and while the notion of value may be embedded in these, this study does not address the question of the worth of any curriculum changes made, nor of the reasons for change put forward. 9 In the remainder of this thesis, Chapter II describes the framework used for analyzing the data, reviews the literature relevant to the study and provides an overview of the influences on the f i r s t home economics curriculum in B.C. Analysis of the data w i l l be presented in Chapter III. In Chapter IV the findings w i l l be interpreted and conclusions made. Chapter V provides a summary and recommendations for further study. 10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY In this chapter the theoretical framework within which the study was conducted is described. Literature associated with the framework for analysis is reviewed, a rationale for using the framework is outlined and assumptions underlying i t are explicated. As well, the emergence of home economics education in the province and the f i r s t curriculum document associated with the subject are described. Perspectives on Curriculum Change Curriculum change may be considered as change in curriculum practice, as the implementation of curriculum innovations, or as the forces which influence the curriculum to change. While a great deal has been written about the f i r s t two aspects of curriculum change (e.g. Fullan, 1982), considerably less appears to have been written about the sources of curriculum change, i.e., what prompts the curriculum to change (McNeil, 1969). However, a number of different views regarding this latter aspect of curriculum change appear in the literature. In considering sources of curriculum change, several writers link social change and educational change. Levin (1976), for example, asserts that educational change is a reflection of social change. As he sees i t , because the educational sector serves to reinforce the existing social order, i t changes as society changes. He identifies two kinds of forces that contribute to change in the structure, organization and values of a society: 1) external forces such as natural disasters, imported technology and values, immigration or emigration and wars which have tremendous potential for altering an existing social, p o l i t i c a l and economic structure and 2) internal contradictions within a society, such as unanticipated consequences of technological changes, which may have far-reaching effects on a society and force i t to comply with a new set of conditions. According to Levin, these 11 changes w i l l be reflected in changes in educational policy. Hoyle (1969) also claims a relationship between social change and educational change, describing education as a subsystem of the larger social system. Although he indicates that a reciprocal relationship exists between education and other institutions of society, and between the values pervading education and the values pervading other parts of society, he does not indicate the direction of the flow of influence of one over the other. McGee (1967) proposes three possible functions of education in the process of social change: as an agent of social change (where social change occurs through education); as a condition of social change (where changes in education are required in order to effect social changes); and as an effect of social change (education adapts to and reflects social change). McGee believes that these functions are related to economic, technological and ideological factors in a society. He presents his theory as a way of understanding rather than explaining change. Tomkins (1979) suggests that the curriculum changes in alternating cycles. These cycles reflect changes in the purposes of schooling as perceived by society, and may provide a "measure of the pace of social change" (p.12). From this perspective, social change is mirrored by educational change.^ Other writers acknowledge that groups and individuals serve as stimulants for curriculum change. Kirst and Walker (1971), for example, indicate that some groups and individuals exert "curriculum leverage". Their capacity to effect substantial influence on the content of curriculum policy affects decisions regarding the content of the curriculum. Similarly, Mackenzie (1964) identifies individuals and groups as "participants in change". These participants may be internal or external to the school or its related social or legal systems and may influence the curriculum to change through a variety of actions, including the advocacy of a change or the control of money or resources. These groups have the potential for "indirect action" or influence 12 on those who have the power to take direct action. Roald (1980) also claims that various interest groups are influential in curriculum policy-making. According to his "interest group theory", curriculum policies result from "the conflict and compromises of a limited number of interest groups, each of which vies for the acceptance of i t s particular set of views, positions, or proposals." Roald suggests that policies resulting from this process represent the " p l u r a l i s t i c compromises of the views of the interest groups" (p. 122). Boyd (1978) describes groups of professional curriculum reformers who, "in the face of pressures for societal change and maintenance", act as a force in educational policy-making (p.584). These reformers are funded by private or federal groups, and promote the need for curriculum changes to be made. Boyd indicates that these groups may attempt social change (or maintenance) through educational change. Goodson (1983) believes that subject groups may be significant factors in the process of curriculum change. He claims that status and resources (financial support, s t a f f 4 equipment and books) are traditionally allocated to subjects on the basis of whether they have status as an academic discipline. In the pursuit of resources and academic status for their subject, subject groups may exert internal pressure for curriculum change. It is during times of conflict over school curriculum (e.g. which subjects should be included in the curriculum) that these subject groups may be created or ( i f they already exist) become more strongly institutionalized in order to negotiate their place in the school curriculum. Several writers include a l l of the preceding factors as forces influencing curriculum change. McNeil (1969) and Fullan (1982), for example, identify internal and external forces that, over time, create pressure for change in educational policy and subsequently a change in the curriculum. Cuban (1979) also identifies a series of forces, or "curricular determinants", which may be "planned or unplanned, external and internal to school systems", and, singly or collectively, may influence curriculum to change (p.141). 13 These forces include broad social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, p o l i t i c a l and legal decisions and influential groups and individuals. These writings indicate that the notion of influences on curriculum, be they general social forces or more specific policies, groups or individuals, may help to understand curriculum change over time. Although i t appears that a single theory of educational change does not exist, the preceding interpretations may assist in identifying both the nature of curriculum change and the manner in which the curriculum changes. Cuban's theory of curricular determinants was selected as the framework for analysis for this study of forces influencing home economics change in B.C. Several reasons guided this selection. F i r s t , i t encompasses several categories of curricular influences, each of which has been identified singly or in various combinations by other writers. Second, Cuban's depiction of broad social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements as one curricular influence is compatible with research concerning the origin and development of the home economics profession in North America. Third, since Cuban's theory includes groups and individuals as influences on curriculum, i t is appropriate for helping to determine the role of home economics professionals in curriculum change. Cuban's Determinants of Curriculum Change 1. Influential Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements In his description of curriculum determinants, Cuban identifies several significant social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements which appear to have dramatically altered the social and cultural fabric of North America and have had an impact on the public school curriculum. Two such movements are industrialization and progressivism. Others have also written about the impact of industrialization on schooling in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (e.g. Callahan, 14 1962; Cremin, 1961; Lawr & Gidney, 1976; Sutherland, 1976). Callahan (1962), for example, documents the impact of s c i e n t i f i c management principles in schools at the turn of the century. Uniformity and efficiency became watchwords in educaton, reflecting the values of efficient corporate management in industry. Both Lawr & Gidney (1976) and Sutherland (1976) detail the emergence of a "practical" education that was considered by many to be more relevant to a society increasingly concerned with the workplace and with the preparation of i t s members for occupations suited to a new economy. The period between 1890 and 1920 saw numerous social and p o l i t i c a l reforms in North America. Altered industrial conditions demanded a readjustment of the social purposes of schools (Lawr & Gidney, 1976). Concern for the total welfare of the student sparked an interest in a child-centered curriculum (Sutherland, 1976). A group of educational professionals called "progressives", espousing the ideals of progressive education, emerged. Cremin (1961) states that this progressive education movement began as part of a "vast humanitarian effort to apply the promise of American l i f e — the ideal of government by, of, and for the people — to the new urban-industrial c i v i l i z a t i o n that came into being during the latter half of the nineteenth century" ( p . v i i i ) . Progressivism was intended to improve the lives of individuals through education. From the beginning, however, the movement "was marked by a p l u r a l i s t i c character... and came to mean different things to different people" (p.x). Consequently a comprehensive definition of the term does not appear in the literature. Three general dimensions of progessivism, however, are apparent. To some educational progressives, schooling was viewed as an avenue to social reform, through emphasis on principles of democracy and citizenship. Democratic education was preparation for l i f e in a rapidly-changing world. Other progressives advocated a child-centered curriculum and pedagogy to meet the needs of diversified groups of students attending public schools. A third group of progressives promoted the "science 15 of education" concerned with the application of pedagogical principles gleaned from new sc i e n t i f i c research in psychology and the social sciences (Cremin, 1961; Lawr & Gidney, 1976; Tyack, 1967). Since a l l three of these approaches to progressivism influenced educational philosophy, methods and curriculum during the f i r s t half of the twentieth century, the term "progressivism" w i l l be used in this study to refer to a l l three dimensions of the movement. 2. Political-Legal Decisions . . . 2 . . Cuban identifies state and federal laws and court decisions as forces for change in curriculum. He indicates that government laws, for example, may either mandate specific courses to be included in the curriculum, or they may effect changes in the content to be taught. If "policy" is defined as any plan or course of action adopted by a government, p o l i t i c a l party or other organization intended to influence and determine decisions and/or actions (Calam, 1982), then the aforementioned "government laws" may be classified as "policy decisions". Some examples cited by Cuban are the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 concerning vocational education and the National Defense Education Act of 1958, which supported the teaching of science, mathematics and languages in American classrooms. According to Cuban, court or legal decisions made in relation to education and signifying j u d i c i a l intervention in the school curriculum are also curriculum determinants. Examples of these include court decisions regarding "teacher.rights, student rights, religious instruction, and other related issues" (p.152). 3. Influential Groups Cuban describes the groups of individuals that exert influence on the school curriculum as "mediators of social change". These groups are concerned For the purposes of this study, policy decisions w i l l be those of provincial or federal origin, as the designation of "state" is inappropriate in the Canadian context. with -selecting "what is important that needs doing." Based on their beliefs about what would be acceptable to both educational and public sectors, these groups identify, promote and attempt to implement changes implicit in national social movements. In "ever-changing, shifting coalitions", these influential groups help to determine curriculum change. Influential groups may be classified as external or internal. External groups are those outside the school community, including publishers, foundations and professors, as well as professional associations whose business i t is to promote curriculum reform. Publishers of textbooks are often responsible for translating "national curriculum efforts into marketable products". They may also introduce new technology such as audio-visual materials and computers. The curriculum may require adjustment to accommodate these innovations. Professional policy makers in government, national foundations and agencies raise or create curricular issues and subsequently make policy recommendations. Professional campaigns for change may be initiated and conducted by groups which view themselves as social c r i t i c s and advocates for change. The group's ideological conviction regarding the value of a curriculum change \\ provides the impetus for change (Fullan, 1982). The National Council of Women in Canada, self-professed advocates for social change, are one example of this kind of group. Since their founding in 1893, they have lobbied for the institution of numerous educational changes, some of which influenced curriculum decision-making (Strong-Boag, 1976). Universities may also influence school curriculum by the setting of entrance requirements (Fullan, 1982). As well, professors in universities and colleges of education may also influence the curriculum through their writings and research and through the students they teach. Internal groups exerting influence on the curriculum are those directly a f f i l i a t e d in some way with the school community, such as school and school 17 board personnel, teacher associations and parent groups. Cuban indicates that these groups, including students, teachers, principals and superintendents, exert influence over the curriculum by i n i t i a t i n g curriculum change through choosing among a number of curricular alternatives presented for possible adoption by external groups. As well, they may veto proposed changes. According to Goodson (1982), school subject associations often "take up and promote new ideas and opportunities" in the realm of curriculum. Changes in "economics, intellectual ideas, dominant values or educational systems" are "reinterpreted...by... subject associations and communities" (p.3). Subject groups may therefore be an important dimension of the process of curriculum change. 4. Influential Individuals Cuban also suggests that some individuals who have contact with and input into schools and who write and speak about education influence school curriculum. While he acknowledges the d i f f i c u l t y in determining an individual's direct impact on curricular events, he stresses that in looking at what has influenced curriculum change over time the forcefulness of certain w individuals cannot be ignored. For example, John Dewey, John Franklin M '^ Bob$.itt, Edward Thorndike. and Ralph Tyler, through their writing and teaching, affected theory, content, materials and instruction, as well as ideas in education (Schubert, 1984). Cuban describes these'individuals as "translators of social change...[mediating] between movements and school practice" (p.157). According to Cuban, they assisted in transmitting change into schools. Individuals may exert influence as individuals alone or as individuals holding a position that carries with i t the capacity for or the authority to exert influence. According to Cuban, these four categories constitute the forces that influence or shape curriculum. As he sees i t , the greatest impact is exerted 18 by social, economic and p o l i t i c a l movements, which may therefore be called "primary" forces. The remaining determinants then become "secondary" forces which, says Cuban, soften, select, modify and promote "different, less potent versions of movements jolting the culture" (Cuban, 1979, p. 157-158). In effect, then, these secondary forces mediate or translate social change. Cuban believes that schools are vulnerable to social change and, as a result, are easily penetrated by both of these primary and secondary forces. He states that schools lack control over external change and can only marginally influence the consequences- of change. In this sense, then, schools are involuntarily receptive to these influences. Cuban indicates that this vulnerability of schools stems from the organizational traits of schools and school systems. He describes these organizational characteristics as "blurred goals, unclear technology, uncertain outcomes and fluid participation" (p. 159). Cuban also suggests that the notion of change is intimately bound with the notion of s t a b i l i t y . He points out that although substantive changes have occurred in the kinds of courses students take and in the ideology underlying the style and content of instructional materials over the past century, there also appears to be a "stubborn continuity" in the public school curriculum and in what happens in classrooms. Both internal and external forces help to determine this s t a b i l i t y in curriculum. He suggests, for example, that because the socializing functions of schooling are "interwoven throughout the formal curriculum", they provide a barrier to the implementation of any innovation that might challenge them. Similarly, accreditation and state- (or province-) wide testing help to bring continuity to the curriculum. Textbooks are often integrated with course offerings and create an "interlocking pressure... for maintaining existing [curricular] arrangements" (p. 178). Legislation may also influence curriculum s t a b i l i t y . Once a legislated change has been implemented, i t is d i f f i c u l t for further change to occur. Forces promoting curriculum stability internal to schools, states Cuban, focus on certain organizational traits of schools and school systems. For example, the isolated nature of teaching may encourage "conservative responses to external demands for change" (p. 185). The rational model of curriculum development that may not account for what actually happens in classrooms may, according to Cuban, have strengthened continuity in curriculum "because i t [the model] was largely inappropriate for teachers." As well, Cuban believes that the systems of relationships in school bureaucracies allow for persistence of curriculum. Because these barriers to the successful implementation of curriculum changes exist, changes which appear in a curriculum guide may not be translated similarly in a classroom. The perspective of change must therefore be tempered with the notion of s t a b i l i t y . It is apparent from the preceding discussion that the process of curriculum change is exceedingly complex. Many factors contribute to change in the curriculum and i t is d i f f i c u l t to establish cause and effect relationships among them. A number of issues and assumptions embedded in Cuban's theory should be made explicit before using the framework for analysis of the data for this study. F i r s t , although this theory implies that the four categories of curricular determinants are mutually exclusive, in some instances they may interrelate or overlap. For example, a p o l i t i c a l decision may place an individual in a position with potential for exerting influence (the chair of an educational commission), or a major social movement may be associated with a particular individual (John Dewey and the progressive education movement). Second, this framework appears not to include those whose o f f i c i a l task i t is to implement p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions once they have been made i.e. those in positions of authority in Ministries or Departments of Education. Third, Cuban argues that as schools are "culturally bound in our society... they lack control over external forces...[and are therefore] 20 vulnerable to social change... and easily penetrated by social movements, po l i t i c a l lobbies, laws and court decisions" (p.146, 158). Thus he assumes that schools are dominated by the social, p o l i t i c a l and economic context of which they are a part. He does not address the issue of the potential role of education in contributing to or effecting social change. Fourth, there is a temptation to equate correlation with causation. Cuban himself indicates that while i t is relatively easy to document the impact of social movements upon schools and curriculum, i t is extremely d i f f i c u l t to prove that a movement led directly to consequences observed in schools and in school curriculum. Finally, the term " i n f l u e n t i a l " is not defined in Cuban's descriptions of influential groups and individuals. Presumably for groups or individuals to be influential they must be perceived by others as having some power or capacity for influence or i t must be proven that they did indeed influence the curriculum to change. In order to examine curriculum change in home economics in the province, i t is necessary to describe the f i r s t curriculum document and the influences which shaped i t . The First Curriculum Document in Home Economics Home economics in the form of needlework was f i r s t in evidence in Victoria public schools as early as 1895 (B.C. Department of Education, 1896). 3 Cookery was added in 1903, but i t was not until 1911 that domestic science During the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, education for homemaking or domestic training was variously known as domestic science, household science and domestic or household economy. In 1911, following the decision of the National Education Association to adopt the name "Home Economics" as more indicative of the areas of study included in this subject, domestic science instructors in the B.C. Teachers' Institutes forwarded a resolution to the Department of Education asking that this new t i t l e be used in British Columbia (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). In this study, the terms "domestic science" and "home economics" are used interchangeably. for g i r l s was o f f i c i a l l y placed in the public school curriculum (B.C. Department of Education, 1914). It was listed as an optional subject, to be offered at the discretion of individual d i s t r i c t s (B.C. Department of Education, 1911). According to English (1937), there were no formal regulations regarding equipment, methods or aims governing the teaching of either needlework or cookery until 1912 when the Department of Education produced a mimeographed course outline. This outline provided a l i s t of topics to be covered in needlework, textiles and hygenic clothing. In 1914, the outline was expanded to include cooking, housewifery, laundry and home nursing. This document appears to have set out the f i r s t formal home economics curriculum (see Appendix A). Influences on the Emergence of Domestic Science  Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Several social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements were influential in establishing home economics education in Canadian public schools. As Canada became industrialized toward the end of the nineteenth century, factories replaced cottage industry and population shifted from rural to urban centers. Rapid expansion of c i t i e s exacerbated numerous social problems already in existence, and, some believed, the moral foundations of Canadian society were seen to be threatened (Lawr & Gidney, 1976). Although i t was generally fe l t by reformers of the time that improvement of social conditions ultimately rested with the home, schools gradually came to be viewed as the agent which could shape the homes of the next generation (Sutherland, 1976). Educational reformers proposed two approaches to changing the schools. One group supported a more practical focus in schooling, in order to prepare children for a vocation in the new industrial workplace, while the other group promoted a more child- and family-centered orientation to schooling whereby childhood was protected and the family strengthened. By the turn of the 22 century, however, the interests of these two groups temporarily converged. 4 Both viewed what they called "manual training" as necessary for school reform (Sutherland, 1976). The "new" education"* which took root in Canada between 1880 and 1920 was founded in the manual training idea, and encompassed the notions of education for the workplace as well as education of the whole child: body, mind and s p i r i t . Its promoters envisioned i t as a means of preserving Canadian cultural morality in the midst of tremendous social dislocation created by industrialization. Domestic science for g i r l s (along with industrial education for boys) was originally c l a s s i f i e d as manual training. As part of the new education, instruction in domestic arts was f i r s t viewed as a means by which g i r l s could learn manual dexterity and practical lessons about science (Rury, 1984). As the new education movement gained momentum, however, domestic science was associated with training for the home. It was generally believed at this time that a woman's l i f e work (or vocation) was her family (Rury, 1984). Domestic science, as education for "correct l i v i n g " , was intended to prepare g i r l s for their "'God-given place in l i f e ' " (Stamp, 1977, p. 20). Thus, educating g i r l s for homemaking could assist in strengthening families, as home training and the early influence of the family were believed by many to be c r i t i c a l in the development of good citizens (Lawr & Gidney, 1976). 4 . . In i t s broadest sense, manual training was also referred to as "the practical arts" or "practical education". By 1910 five distinct areas of manual training were distinguishable: manual arts for young-children (hand-eye coordination through handicrafts), manual training (pre-vocational, concerned with manipulation of tools), vocational and technical education for adolescents and young adults, domestic science and nature study and school gardening (Sutherland, 1976). ^ The New Education in Canada reflected elements of the progressive education movement in the U.S. Education of the whole child — body, mind, and s p i r i t — was emphasized. As opposed to academic subjects, practical subjects could assist in forming a child's character and preparing him for the work of l i f e . Vocational preparation through schooling could assist in creating a 'prosperous and contented Canadian society' (Sutherland, 1976). 23 Domestic science for g i r l s gradually came to include education for the workplace. As industrialization caused a decline in home-centered (cottage) industry, g i r l s as well as boys required s k i l l s to enter the work force. Training in domestic science was then viewed as a way of preparing females for a vocation outside of the home (Lawr & Gidney, 1976; Sutherland, 1976). The Macdonald-Robertson Movement was a major force in the dissemination of the New Education during the years 1900-1913 (Sutherland, 1976). James W. Robertson and his supporter, Sir William Macdonald systematically spread the manual training idea to major c i t i e s across Canada. Funds were made available to finance a manual training center in one or two ci t i e s in each province. Although financial assistance was not provided for domestic science, the Movement indirectly promoted the subject, as i t , too, was a part of the new practical education. Soon after the introduction of home economics into schools, World War I further influenced its development by providing an opportunity for reinforcing its social and economic value. At a meeting of the National Council of Women during wartime, for example, home economics education was highlighted as a means of both maintaining and strengthening the family as the cornerstone of Canadian society, and as a means of securing technical training for women following the war (National Council of Women, 1917). These examples help to illustrate the importance of social, economic and po l i t i c a l movements in establishing home economics as part of the school curriculum in the early part of the twentieth century. Industrialization and urbanization, the emergence of the New Education and the Macdonald-Robertson Movement and World War I stimulated the development of home economics in Canada. Political-Legal Decisions -Several p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions made in the early 1900's encouraged the establishment of home economics in the schools. Largely as a result of the Macdonald-Robertson Movement and of the success of the manual training centers begun in B.C. in 1901, the Department of Education appointed an "Organizer of Manual Training" in 1908 (B.C. Department of Education, 1908). The supervision and inspection of both manual training and domestic science were part of the responsibilities assigned to this inspector. This brought new status to practical education, since previously only academic subjects had come under the jurisdiction of an inspector. There were no regulations regarding the training of teachers in these subjects and no standardized course of study was in existence at that time. Presumably, the appointment of an inspector would aid in prompting some degree of uniformity and continuity in the subjects. The Macdonald-Robertson Movement also provided the impetus for the federal government to undertake a Royal Commission on Industrial and Technical Education in 1910 to investigate "the needs and present equipment of Canada respecting industrial training and technical education" (Sutherland, 1976). The Commission, headed by James Robertson, surveyed the status of practical education in British Columbia in November and December of 1910 (Sutherland, 1976; B.C. Department of Education, 1911). Their v i s i t prompted a flurry of activity as coucerned groups and individuals presented briefs and recommendations at public meetings scheduled during the Commissioners' v i s i t . Among these were the Local Council of Women, various members of the Vancouver School Board, and the Inspector of high schools in Vancouver ("Schools Under", 1910; "Witnesses Favor", 1910). It was hoped by the Board of Trustees in Vancouver that the v i s i t of the Royal Commission would "tend toward bringing the public more in sympathy with this part of our work...and emphasize the necessity of a widening of the High School Course of Studies and the establishment at no very distant date of a large Technical High School" (Vancouver School Board, 1910, p.10,18). 25 The Commissioners' v i s i t to the province; however, did not influence the Department of Education to modify the high school program. It was not until 1912 that the Minister of Education stated that technical schools in the. province were essential and i t was 1919 before any changes regarding technical programmes in the high schools were instituted (Wormsbecker, 1961). Sutherland (1976) describes the Commissioners' Report as a "blueprint" for the implementation of the New Education in Canada. Many recommendations were made that reflected the philosophy of the New Education and supported the introduction of subjects such as manual training and home economics. They recommended for example, that education "should have regard to the growth of the powers of the body, mind and s p i r i t concurrently [as well as] preparation of the pupil for later l i f e as an individual, as a working earner, as a citizen and as a member of the race." They stressed that education "should be provided...to meet the needs arising from the changes in the nature and methods of occupations, the manner of li v i n g and the organization of society." They c r i t i c i z e d high schools for their emphasis on university preparation and recommended a broader curriculum, including subjects such as home economics. They indicated that "making homes...was creating a temple, not made with the hands, as a place of culture for the best in human l i f e " (Canada, Parliament, 1913, Vol.1, p.11-39). The Commissioners also recommended that a fund be created by the federal government to support technical education in the provinces. Following publication of the Commissioners' Report, the Technical Education Act was introduced in 1919 by the federal government. Ten million dollars was allocated to be spent on a "matching basis" with provincial governments over a ten-year period for building and maintaining technical schools (Sutherland, 1976). It was noted in the B.C. Department of Education Annual Report of that year that technical schools would at long last become a reality, and that both manual training and home economics would have a place in the new institution (B.C. Department of Education, 1919). 26 These p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions provided support for the inclusion of practical subjects such as home economics in B.C. schools. As the potential social and economic value of these subjects was publicized, opportunity for improved public understanding of a new kind of education for a new society was increased. Influential Groups Several groups external to home economics helped to establish home economics education in Canadian schools. One group instrumental in promoting home economics education was the National Council of Women. This "Parliament of Women" (as i t was called) was composed primarily of middle class women who, in the late 1800's were moved by "humanitarian, class and egalitarian concerns to attempt the redemption of [the Canadian] society" (Strong-Boag, 1976, p.30). At their f i r s t Annual Meeting in April of 1894, the Council adopted the following resolution put forth by Adelaide Hoodless: "That the National Council of Women [of Canada] do a l l in its power to further the introduction of industrial (or manual) training for g i r l s into the public school system of Canada, believing that such training w i l l greatly conduce to the general welfare of Canadian homes, and that copies of this resolution be sent to the ministers of education of each provincial government" (National Council of Women, 1894, p.114). This group did much to advance home economics education during the early stages of it s development. For example, during World War I, the Council actively promoted home economics education. The President's address at the 1917 Annual Meeting reflected the role envisioned for women and the home following the War: "The future of Canada lie s in the home. The victory won on the battlefield must be followed by a realization of the power of consecrated motherhood....Upon woman rests the responsibility, in a great measure, of the development of a higher c i v i l i z a t i o n " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.16). The implications of this statement were reiterated more definitively in the 27 Report of the Committee on Education: "It seems essential... for the National Council of Women not only to encourage the continuance of training in household arts but to urge that f u l l f a c i l i t i e s for industrial and technical training be provided for boys and g i r l s alike" (National Council of Women, 1917, p.280). The Resolutions Committee instructed local councils to "petition their provincial governments to supply vocational training for boys and g i r l s over fourteen years, following a sound education and such training to include household service and care of children" (National Council of Women, 1917, p.70). By the f a l l of that year, a g i r l s ' technical course, intended to train g i r l s for homemaking, but also "an excellent preparation for that industrial l i f e to which many g i r l s gravitate after leaving school" had been organized in Vancouver (B.C. Department of Education, 1919, p.A79). Through the influence of the National Council, Local Councils of Women were organized in Victoria, Vancouver and New Westminster (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). These Local Councils sent delegates to the National Council, where many issues of social import, including domestic science in the form of practical education, were discussed. As the Canadian domestic science movement originated in eastern Ontario, i t is significant that these delegates were participants in National Council annual meetings, where they were able to learn more about the subject, and where they made collective decisions regarding courses of action for further advancement of home economics in schools. -The Local Councils of Women in B.C. were instrumental in introducing domestic science into the public schools of the province. Following the v i s i t of Lady Aberdeen to B.C. in 1895, needlework was included in some Victoria elementary schools (B.C. Department of Education, 1896). In 1903, the 28 Victoria Council of Women organized to open and equip a cooking center^ in the Central School of that c i t y . Later that year, with plans obtained from the East and money for equipping the center raised through fundraising and donations, the f i r s t home economics center in the province was o f f i c i a l l y in operation. In 1905, Vancouver followed suit (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). As a guiding force behind the home economics movement in B.C., the Local Councils kept watch over the progress and status of the subject. In 1916, for example, when i t was announced that the Vancouver School Board intended to release subject supervisors in a number of departments (including home economics), the Council was quick to respond. The Council's concern was based on the fact that at that time there was no common curriculum for home economics and consequently a great range of content was taught with no consistency of teaching method. A resolution passed by the Council asking the Board to reconsider i t s decision resulted in the retention of one home economics supervisor, in a half-time capacity (Vancouver Council of Women, 1916). Clearly the-.COuncils of Women, both at the national and local levels, wereiinstrumental in introducing home economics into public schools of the province. By using every opportunity to promote its social and economic worth they worked hard at legitimizing home economics as a school subject. \] \. School boards in the ^.province also influenced the development of home economics education in B.C. For example, when manual training in woodwork was extended to the high school,^ the Vancouver School Board was insistent that ^ According to English (1937) and Lightfoot & Maynard (1971), these cooking classes were i n i t i a l l y attended by g i r l s in Grade 8, which at that time was part of the elementary school. By 1910, cooking (and in some cases, sewing) was included in some high schools. In 1912, the f i r s t formal outline for the course was printed by the Department of Education. It was not until 1917, however, that domestic science was o f f i c i a l l y extended to the high school (B.C. Department of Education, 1917; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). ^ As noted above, domestic science (and manual training) was f i r s t introduced in the elementary school (grades 6-8). domestic science receive parity. The Board fel t that "there should be some form of advanced domestic science...[as] people realize, more than ever before, the value of these subjects in a school curriculum" (B.C. Department of Education, 1908, p.A35). This stance was reiterated in 1912 when the Municipal Inspector indicated in his report to the Department of Education that "the Board [of Vancouver] is anxious to extend this work [domestic science] to the high schools, and to this end special accommodation has been provided in the addition to the King Edward High School." He went on to say that "a constant effort is being made to make the work in this department as practical and intimately related to home conditions as school equipment and the teaching of large classes w i l l permit" (B.C. Department of Education, 1912, p.A48). A supervisor for domestic science was appointed in the city, to "outline the work, and make frequent v i s i t s in order to assist the regular teacher in this subject" (B.C. Department of Education, 1912, P.A48). Through developments such as these, the Vancouver School Board supported home economics in the schools of the city. Influential Individuals Several individuals associated with school boards, and d i s t r i c t inspectors and superintendents demonstrated their support for home economics durings i t s formative years in the province and thus were influential in its development. Following the Macdonald-Robertson Movement, F.H. Eaton, Superintendent of Schools in Victoria,, requested recognition of domestic science as a "subject in the regular High School Course" (B.C. Department of Education, 1902, p.A58). Vancouver School Board Chairman R.P. McLennan was supportive of domestic science throughout a period of public uncertainty regarding the value of practical education in the schools (B.C. Department of Education, 1908). He lamented that "we seem to be so surrounded by an Arts atmosphere that whilst there is no open antagonism to anything along technical 30 lines...we receive no support or encouragement (Vancouver School Board, 1907, p. 10). The following year, Chairman McLennan observed that due to "the general worsening of the ties of home l i f e , schools are more and more taking the place and doing duties which parents used to do" (Vancouver School Board, 1908, p.12). He reiterated the need for subjects such as home economics to be included in the high school curriculum in order to teach the art of homemaking to young g i r l s . Although at this time home economics was accepted by many educators and school boards in the province, objections to the inclusion of this new subject were s t i l l evident. In 1912, for example, the Municipal Inspector of Victoria Schools, Edward B. Paul, had expressed his concern that many parents objected to time spent in domestic science or manual training in the elementary schools. They f e l t that this time could be better spent preparing for entrance examinations for admission to the high school. As a result of these concerns he made the following recommendations to the Department of Education: "To meet that objection, and to stimulate pupils to greater interest in domestic science and manual training work, I would respectfully suggest that those subjects be raised to the level of other subjects of the Entrance Examination by the assignment of marks for the year's work of each pupil" (B.C. Department of Education, 1912, p.A46). At that time pupils enrolled in the subject received no credit for i t . It is d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the Inspector's recommendations had any influence, but by 1914, both manual training and domestic science were recognized as contributing to students' e l i g i b i l i t y for entry into the high school (B.C. Department of Education, 1914, p.A62). Lady Aberdeen, President of the National Council of Women, was responsible for introducing the home economics idea into B.C. She visited B.C. in 1895 as part of a Standing Committee to extend home economics education across Canada (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). In an address to the Vancouver Council of Women she stated that courses such as domestic science 31 would "assist in laying the foundations of the future by giving...children ...training in those useful domestic arts which w i l l render them competent in the most essential affairs of l i f e " (Vancouver Council of Women, 1895). Harry Dunnell was appointed Organizer of Manual Training by the Department of Education in 1907, with Domestic Science as one of his responsibilities. He suggested that regulations for Manual Training and Domestic Science centers be developed and that both subjects be taught in every school, with a course of study "approved by the Department; that each g i r l receive a minimum of two hours instruction in the subject per week; and that instructors be qualified public school teachers" (B.C. Department of Education, 1908, p.B33). A few years later, an o f f i c i a l course outline for domestic science was produced. Although teacher training for domestic science instructors was an issue that took many more years to resolve, Mr. Dunnell drew attention to an aspect of the subject which was related to its status and cre d i b i l i t y as a school subject. John Kyle was appointed Organizer of Technical Education in 1914 and remained in this position with both domestic science and manual training under his supervision until 1926. His belief in the intrinsic value of these subjects influenced many of his efforts to integrate them more permanently into the school curriculum. He looked to teachers to help accomplish this goal: "The instructors of the subjects of manual training and domestic science have a most important mission to f u l f i l l as the ambit of their work is increasing year by year. The success of their labours and the importance of the position they w i l l occupy on the teaching staff depend entirely upon their outlook and professional s p i r i t " (B.C. Department of Education, 1915, p.A89). His concern for the role played by teachers in strengthening the place of practical education in the schools was also reflected in his attempts to ensure more adequate teacher training for both domestic science and manual training instructors. He recommended that summer school for teachers be utili z e d to train teachers for teaching domestic science or manual training (B.C. Department of Education, 1916). As well, he recommended "the appointment of a teacher to give lessons in household science and sewing to the student-teachers attending Normal School in Vancouver (B.C. Department of Education, 1917). During the war years, Kyle recognized the significant contributions made by domestic science. In his report of 1917 he referred to the "considerable attention paid [by domestic science in schools] to economic cookery, as well as to the canning and preserving of f r u i t , vegetables and fi s h . " "The necessity for such knowledge," he said, "has been amply demonstrated by the War" (B.C. Department of Education, 1917, p.A81). Kyle's concern for the retention of domestic science and manual training as school subjects, in spite of public opposition, was clearly reflected in his report of 1920. He saw opposition as a positive force: " . . . i t is gratifying to know that the result of having the limelight thus thrown directly on the subjects has been to establish them more securely than ever in the school curriculum" (B.C. Department of Education, 1920, p.A83). Annie Juniper was the author of the f i r s t textbook for domestic science in B.C. and contributed to the establishment of home economics in the province. Her text was entitled G i r l s ' Home Manual of Cookery, Home  Management, Home Nursing and Laundry, and was f i r s t published by the Department of Education in 1913. Miss Juniper had previously been Dean of Household Science at Macdonald College and Professor of Household Science at Manitoba Agricultural College (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). As a home economics professional, she had a clear notion of the intended purpose of the fiel d of study, and transmitted this to her readers in the preface of her book. According to Miss Juniper, "the noble art of homemaking...upon which the health of the individualj the family, and the nation depends, has [at 33 last] been thought worthy of sc i e n t i f i c study" (Juniper, 1913, p . i ) . Alice Ravenhill also promoted the home economics movement both internationally and locally. She had been a lecturer on Hygiene, Public Health and Household Science at King's College for Women, University of London, and joined the Vancouver Council of Women in 1911 (Vancouver Council of Women, 1911). She was called a "desirable acquisition of the society" (National Council of Women, 1911, p.xviii) because she was a much-admired and staunch supporter of domestic science as necessary education for g i r l s . Because Miss Ravenhill was internationally known as a pioneer in the f i e l d , her a f f i l i a t i o n with the Local Council undoubtedly added to the cr e d i b i l i t y of its work i n regard to domestic science. The Council requested that "the government add Miss Ravenhill to the Board of Governors of the B.C. University" (Vancouver Council of Women, 1911) because they fel t that the status of domestic science would be enhanced i f i t was connected with the university. The Council hoped that eventually a university course i n home economics would be established. Miss Ravenhill made several contributions to home economics in B.C. She visited existing Women's Institutions in the province, and organized several new ones (B.C. Women's Institute, 1959). Because these organizations espoused the same principles as the home economics movement, she was actively promoting the beliefs of the subject. She prepared bulletins on household health which were distributed by the Department of Agriculture, and she was editor of the Institute's Quarterly, where she published articles concerning topics such as increased t h r i f t among women and children in the province, and economy and efficiency (Ravenhill, 1916a, 1916b). Clearly these individuals played a significant role in influencing the development of home economics as a school subject during the early stages of its evolution. They worked actively on its behalf and missed few opportunities to advance understanding of the subject and to garner both 34 public and government support. These movements and events and significant groups and individuals constitute the forces which acted to introduce the home economics idea into British Columbian schools. However, its introduction did not occur without resistance. As noted earlier, i t was felt by many that school time was wasted in a non-academic subject such as home economics and could be better spent on the more important academic subjects. Others f e l t that the inclusion of home economics in the school curriculum created unnecessary, additional expense for school boards and taxpayers. During the early years, there was no common course of study for the subject and no definite qualifications for home economics teachers had been laid down by the Department of Education. In addition, there was no governmental inspection of home economics centers throughout the province. In spite of these obstacles and lack of educational status, home economics gradually came to form part of the British Columbian public school curriculum and ..slowly. gained both public and professional support. By the time the f i r s t Royal Commission into Education in the province was conducted in 1924, the stage had been set for revision and expansion of the home economics curriculum. 35 CHAPTER III FINDINGS OF THE STUDY In this chapter the six major curriculum revisions in home economics in B.C. are reviewed and br i e f l y characterized. Each is identified by the date of i t s completion. Influences on each revision are examined using the four categories of curricular influences as described by Cuban: social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; po l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; influential groups; and influential individuals. Several decisions concerning the use of these categories in this study were made. Cuban claims that social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements constitute the primary forces influencing school curricula. Since these forces are national or international in scope, they are not confined to any one province. Thus i t was necessary to consult secondary sources to identify these influences or forces. Only major movements which influenced educational change are included in this study. As noted earlier, "policy" may be defined as any plan or course of action adopted by a government, p o l i t i c a l party or other organization intended to influence and determine decisions and/or actions. For the purposes of this study, the category of p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions includes government decisions related to the process of education, such as policies concerning what should be taught and to whom, decisions to appoint investigations into any aspect of education and decisions to make o f f i c i a l government appointments of individuals to educational positions. Although such appointments are not, s t r i c t l y speaking, policy decisions, these appointments may significantly influence the direction of education in some way and are therefore included in this category, the examination of p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions was restricted primarily to those originating in the province of B.C., although some policies of federal origin are noted when they appear to have had specific influence on education in the province. 36 In this study, the examination of the influence of groups includes both those internal and external to education and to home economics as reflected in the documents reviewed. Where relevant, the curriculum implementation actions of governmental departments of education (as opposed to their p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decision-making influences) were also included in this category. The influence that was exerted by individuals on curriculum change in home economics was determined by the apparent extent of their involvement according to the role or position they held. The ideas, comments and actions of these individuals expressed in primary documents substantiated their apparent influence on curriculum change. Since these four categories are not mutually exclusive, some influences on curriculum change in home economics w i l l be discussed in more than one category. A chronological approach for reporting the revisions and the forces influencing them maintains the historical perspective taken in this study. THE 1927 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION In 1927, the f i r s t curriculum revision in home economics was completed, greatly expanding upon the f i r s t course outline. Course content was ordered into three main subject areas, each with a progressive series of courses to be taken by students in successive years. As well, specific aims for the programme were formulated, emphasizing "right attitudes toward home and family life...[and] the importance in society of the family group." Two course outlines were devised: one for middle or junior high schools, and the other for senior high and technical schools (B.C. Department of Education, 1927b; 1927c, p.52). The junior programme (grades 7 through 9) consisted of three content areas: Foods, Clothing, and Home Problems (B.C. Department of Education, 1927c). It centred on the role assumed by a young g i r l as her mother's helper 37 in various operations of the home. Revisions to the Clothing area stressed clothing selection and machine sewing, to replace what the Provincial Director fel t to be an undue emphasis on handwork. She fe l t that large projects tackled by hand took so long to complete that the result was often "weariness and general lack of interest on the part of the child" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63). Content in Foods was revised to emphasize health, nutrition, meal planning and preparation, and was "broadened...to include more than mere technical processes." Greater attention was to be paid to the "psychological aspects" of cooking, where individual dishes were prepared in relation to an entire meal and cooking in family quantities was to be stressed. As well, the food principles which underly food preparation were to be emphasized. To accompany these foods classes, a book of recipes for the classroom was developed by the Provincial Director in order to save the time spent copying recipes from the blackboard and to encourage greater home practice (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63-65). Home Problems, a new content area, dealt with the "function and organization" of the home and was intended to "develop and further the g i r l ' s interest in her home...[enabling her] to participate more effectively, in the l i f e of the home" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927c, p.55). Topics covered included home responsibilities and personal habits, managing an allowance, child care and the cleaning and furnishing of one's bedroom. The focus of the high school programme (grades 10-12) was "appreciation of the home, its surroundings and the l i f e within the home" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927b, p.68). Two programmes were offered at this level: a two-year General Programme and a three-year Special Programme. The two-year General Programme consisted of a foods and a clothing component in both years, with study of "The Home" added in the second year. The three-year Special Programme was intended for matriculation credit and included HE(A) (foods, nutrition, physiology, hygiene, and home nursing) and HE(B) (clothing, textiles, clothing selection and applied art) (B.C. Department of Education, 1928). Three modifications were made shortly after the curriculum was revised and may appropriately be included as part of this revision: 1) Home economics classes for boys were introduced in 1928. While there was no prescribed curriculum for this course, the focus was on elementary sewing and camp cooking. It was believed that these s k i l l s were suitable for males and would assist them in becoming useful members of the family and society (B.C. Department of Education, 1931; English, 1937; Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). 2) As recommended in the Putman-Weir Report, the high school was reorganized in 1929 to create a four-year course of studies (B.C. Department of Education, 1929). Because health education was made compulsory in this reorganization, physiology was deleted from the HE(A) course and was replaced with a "comprehensive course in Home Management" (B.C. Department of Education, 1932, p.L35). 3) HE(C), a third division of the Special Programme, was developed primarily for the small high school. This third division enabled students in those schools to enroll in a comprehensive course encompassing elements of foods, nutrition, clothing, textiles and applied art (B.C. Department of Education, 1934). The format of the curriculum guide was also modified at this time. Course content was organized into units of study. As well, suitable learning acti v i t i e s for students were suggested and time allotments for various topics were recommended. Specific instructions were frequently provided for the teacher in each unit of study. Words and phrases such as "emphasize", "stress", "teach", "encourage", and "attention should be drawn to" appeared throughout the curriculum, suggesting how the course was to be taught. (An 39 outline of the 1927 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix C ) Influential Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Developments Several social, p o l i t i c a l and economic developments influenced the nature of North American education and the nature of home economics education at this time. The end of World War I drew attention to the continued need for improved technical knowledge and s k i l l s . A post-war surge in industrialism contributed to population increases in urban centres. War had reinforced the importance of democracy, and as a result, there was pressure for more people to be equipped to serve as informed citizens. Technological advances were rapidly reducing the need for unskilled labour, resulting in changed requirements for the workforce (Patterson, 1970; Stamp, 1978). The progressive education movement continued to be influential in giving direction to education in North America. Developments such as these led to close scrutiny of the Canadian educational system-and its problems. One c r i t i c of the Canadian educational system, Dr. Merchant, then President of the Canadian Education Association, identified the extension of school age attendance, the extent of the school's concern with the training of youth for vocations and the need to embody modern philosophy in educational systems as the challenges facing educationists of the day (Merchant, 1923). Other c r i t i c s stressed the importance of imparting "character" through education. "Education...is a school for l i f e and livelihood, a school in which on the one hand the good citizen is formed, and in which on the other... some preparation is made to enable the pupil to earn a l i v i n g " (Currie, 1923, p.161). As well, J. Roy Sanderson (1924) emphasized the need for a "more varied curriculum" in view of the larger and more diverse school populations of post-War Canada (p.139). Preparing children to enter society upon leaving school appeared to be uppermost in the minds of these c r i t i c s . 40 They believed that fundamental changes to the traditional academic curriculum of the high school were required. High school enrollment in post-War Canada rose dramatically, reflecting the institution of compulsory education policies and changing requirements for entry into the workforce (Stamp, 1978). In British Columbia, for example, total enrollment increased from 23,615 pupils in 1901 to 91,919 pupils in 1922 (B.C. Department of Education, 1901; B.C. Department of Education, 1922). A more practical or vocationally-oriented education evolved as high school training increasingly came to be viewed as essential for gaining access to the workforce. In addition to the economic benefits to be accrued from attending high school, certain social and moral advantages of education became apparent. "Character building" and "citizenship training" came to be seen as part of the function of schooling (Stamp, 1978). Research in education was an important development at this time. Fergus Black (1924) referred to the new educationists who constituted "the world's f i r s t force of educational efficiency experts, familiar with a vast f i e l d of comparative s t a t i s t i c s relating to education." This group promoted the educational survey as a means of "concentrating public attention on educational needs and conditions and of strengthening the hands of progressive leaders...in their battle for the increased efficiency of schools" (p.105-106). Through educational publications much of the rhetoric and philosophy surrounding the progressive education movement was circulating in the province, providing local educational professionals with food for thought and with the opportunity to make comparisons with their own educational systems. Political-Legal Decisions It was not long before many of these ideas influenced educational activity in B.C. In 1924 John Oliver, Premier of the Province, announced the 41 resolution to undertake an educational survey "...embracing every angle of education in British Columbia" ("Educational Survey", 1924). This survey had a major impact on education in the province, including home economics education. Dr. J.H. Putman, Senior Inspector of Schools in Ottawa, and Dr. G.M. Weir, Professor of Education at the University of British Columbia, were appointed as Commissioners to undertake the survey and to consider such questions as extending the high school course to four years; adopting the unit system as in American high schools; the advisability of establishing junior high schools; and increasing efficiency in the administrative capacity of the Department of Education. As reflected in the following excerpt from local discussions concerning the proposed survey, specific questions and concerns regarding home economics were also expressed. Some issues put forth included: "The household science course (high school) and its relation to the University of B.C. Should manual training and domestic science be taken up in the elementary schools. If yes, what grade should they be started? Should these subjects be made obligatory in the elementary and high schools of (a) citie s of the f i r s t class; (b) ci t i e s of the second class? Should a supervisor of domestic science for the province be appointed?" ("Educational Survey", 1924). In keeping with general educational philosophy of the times, Putman and Weir believed that traditional academic formalism in education should be replaced with a more progressive approach based on sc i e n t i f i c learning theory and should be concerned with the present and future needs of the child. Because they saw the general aim of education as "to enable the child to take his place as an efficient participant in the duties and activities of l i f e " (Putraan-Weir, 1925, p.44), they fe l t that the present high school curriculum in B.C. was "too narrow [and] r i g i d " to accomplish this aim effectively. According to Putman and Weir, this curriculum was "meeting the...needs of at most only two classes of students... those who expect to enter a university and those who wish to teach...these two classes put together form an insignificant 42 proportion of the total number of pupils in high schools" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p. 112). They believed that a new curriculum, more reflective of the new aim of education was in order. Proposals for revisions to the curriculum reflected these beliefs of Putman and Weir and influenced the development of home economics education in both general and specific ways. The Commissioners proposed the creation of a middle or junior high school for pupils from twelve to fifteen years of age, covering grades 7 through 9. This middle school was intended to provide a curriculum "sufficiently elastic in content and requirements to give a choice of subjects to suit the varying needs of adolescent boys and g i r l s . " As well, i t was to include "courses that w i l l be profitable" for students leaving school without high school graduation (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.110, 89). They recommended that the high school include grades 10 through 12, providing a three-year course beyond the middle school. Students could graduate on one of five programmes: University Entrance (Matriculation), General, Normal School Entrance, Commercial or Technical (Putman-Weir, 1925). A core of compulsory subjects was recommended to help students develop into socially efficient citizens and to bridge the gap previously f i l l e d by the home, community and apprenticeship. The traditional academic focus in the programme of studies was to be de-emphasized and replaced with a differentiated curriculum, which included non-academic courses (Putman-Weir, 1925). Home economics was to form a part of this new differentiated curriculum. Specific recommendations were made regarding home economics. The Commissioners urged that home economics be "greatly extended" and that i t be "organized and directed...by a thoroughly competent woman acting as a provincial director...who w i l l insist on a wise expenditure of money, allow no waste of either pupils' time or materials, and co-ordinate lessons in home economics with other school activities...and with the home l i f e of the pupils" 43 (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.338-339). Because the concern of home economics with strengthening and maintaining the family as a building block of society conformed with the ideals of progressive education espoused by Putraan and Weir in their report, i t was seen as an important part of the new curriculum. Adoption of the report by the provincial government signalled the institution of many of the recommendations made by the Commissioners. One key decision was the appointment of a Provincial Director of Home Economics. This appointment helped to legitimize the subject in the public school curriculum and to provide leadership and direction for the recommended course expansion. Influential Groups Several groups were influential in the development of home economics education at this time. The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), for example, influenced home economics in a number of ways and was an important ally for home economics. The Federation provided the impetus for the Putman-Weir Survey, made recommendations regarding home economics to the ..Survey Commissioners and supported recommendations to the survey made by home economics professionals. As well, the BCTF formally recognized home economics as an a f f i l i a t e d subject association/and assigned i t the t i t l e "Home Economics Section". The BCTF recommended at their f i r s t executive-meeting in 1919 that "the . . . Department of Education be requested to proceed with a complete revision of the curriculum at an early date" (BCTF, 1919). In 1922, a resolution to undertake a provincial survey was passed at the Annual General Meeting (BCTF, 1922), prompting the generation and subsequent adoption of a series of specific recommendations. Those of note included: a "more elastic high school curriculum, comprising a few obligatory subjects, and several optional subjects...; wider options at the Matriculation Examinations, to include Home Economics subjects; and the need...to have the High School Course extended to 44 four years" ("BCTF Resolutions", 1923). When the Putman-Weir Survey was completed in 1925, the BCTF reiterated its support for the "one-year training course in Home Economics to be established in the Victoria Normal School" emphasizing that i t be "open only to graduates of the three-year Home Economics course in high schools, or to graduates of other approved Home Economics courses" (BCTF, 1926). Home economics teachers themselves were also influential in this curriculum revision. They were f i r s t organized as a subject group in 1906 (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971), and as part of the Teachers' Institute, met along with other subject areas in "sectional discussions" during conventions held throughout the year. Home economics was formally organized under the auspices of the BCTF in 1919 and classified as "The Home Economics Section". One of the f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s of the Section was to prepare a series of resolutions concerning the preparation of home economics teachers: "The Home Economics Section of the B.C. Teachers' Federation respectfully recommend: 1. That owing to the lack of a supply of qualified teachers of Home Economics in the Province and to the fact that there is at present in the Province no training school for such teachers we respectfully urge the following: (a) that a certain number of teachers of approved standing and possessing the qualities which would likely make them successful Home Economics teachers be granted a yearly bonus as an inducement to training in certain approved schools (b) that this arrangement be considered an emergency measure and that adequate training in our own Province be established at the earliest opportunity. 2. That candidates from a l l parts of the British Empire, excepting Canada, from the United States, who are applying for a British Columbia certificate must have taught for a period of at least six months, must hold a letter of recommendation from the principal of the school in which the work was done, and must have the qualifications outlined in the regulations of the Department of Education" (McEwan, 1922, p.47). The Home Economics Section believed that adequate training for home economics teachers was related to the cre d i b i l i t y and status of the subject in the 45 educational community and in the eyes of the public. Although these resolutions were forwarded to the Department of Education, l i t t l e appears to have been done with them. Institution of the Putman-Weir Survey prompted the Home Economics Section to prepare another series of resolutions regarding curricular concerns. (A copy of these resolutions is found in Appendix B.) These resolutions reiterated the need for the adequate training of home economics teachers; recommended that the subject be made compulsory for g i r l s in public and high schools of the province; and recommended that a "Provincial Organizer and Supervisor of Home Economics" be appointed to the Department of Education. Equality with other school subjects was requested, whereby credit would be granted for completion of home economics courses ("British Columbia", 1924). Local Councils of Women in the province were also influential in the development of home economics during this time in that they both supported the campaign for educational change in B.C. and endorsed the Home Economics Resolutions submitted to the Survey Commissioners. These Councils supported the proposed survey of education because of their concern for preserving the moral foundations of Canadian society and because they believed that education was one means to this end. The New Westminster Council, for example, adopted a resolution urging the government to make an educational survey, and asked that a woman to be a member of the survey committee (National Council of Women, 1924). The Vancouver Council was invited to send a representative to attend a conference regarding the survey in October of 1924 (Vancouver Council of Women, 1924). A l l of the Councils in the province compiled recommendations regarding education in the province, some of which were concerned with home economics. The memorandum submitted by Mrs. D.L. MacLaurin on behalf of the Local Council of Women in Victoria concluded with an eloquent statement which effectively portrayed the Councils' collective vision of the significance of and the respect due home economics in the public school system: 46 "We believe that the home is the natural and rightful domain of woman, and therefore that Home Economics, the Science of the Home, is pre-eminently the proper and logical study for womankind; we believe that as women are largely spenders of money, national t h r i f t would dictate that they be taught to spend wisely; that as keepers of the health of the nation, we believe they should be taught the principles of hygiene and dietetics; we believe that in the different branches of this subject there is ample scope for the varying a b i l i t i e s of the most b r i l l i a n t minds of the sex; we believe that much undesirable and unnecessary competition between the sexes w i l l be avoided and many other social problems resolved when the dignity of homemaking is adequately recognized and Home Economics given its rightful place in a national and international scheme of education. Finally, let us never forget that upon the physical stamina, the mental and moral fibre of the mothers-to-be depends the character of the l i f e , yea, the very l i f e of tomorrow" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.339). This statement was included in the text of the Putman-Weir Report and suggests that the inclusion of home economics in the public schools was viewed by the Commissioners as a progressive step in education for the province. As such i t reflected the belief that schooling should involve social implications as well as intellectual ones. Another group which supported home economics at the time of the Putman-Weir Survey was the Provincial Parent-Teacher Federation. This group endorsed both the Survey i t s e l f and the resolutions submitted to the Survey Commissioners by the Home Economics Section. M.G. Pankhurst, the convener of a Special Committee regarding Home Economics, submitted a report to the Commissioners on behalf of the Provincial Parent-Teacher Federation. The report pointed out that because approximately 95% of the g i r l s in school would be future horaemakers, home economics would probably be a "more important study for g i r l s than many subjects now compulsory." This report emphasized that the majority of g i r l s outside Vancouver, however, were not receiving any training in home economics in a school setting (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.540-541). On the basis of this report, a series of resolutions was compiled and then endorsed by the Home Economics Section of the BCTF at the 1924 Annual General Meeting. The resolutions submitted by the Parent-Teacher Federation 47 were identical to those submitted by the Home Economics teachers themselves. While there is considerable documentation of support for home economics during this time, relatively l i t t l e appears to have been recorded concerning opposition to this school subject. The Putman-Weir Report, however, notes that some of the general public were opposed to the inclusion of home economics in the school for financial reasons. According to the Report, i t was f e l t by some that the use of expensive equipment in home economics might "create in a g i r l discontent with the primitive furnishings of her mother's kitchen." The views of Putman and Weir were apparently not influenced by this expression of concern, as they countered the objection stating that "[this discontent] might not be a really serious matter...[as] Real economy has reference to the wise use of money and not to saving i t for the mere sake of saving" (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.339). Influential Individuals Two individuals in the province were prominent in effecting specific changes in the home economics curriculum. John Kyle, Organizer of Technical Education, supported home economics as a school subject and made numerous recommendations — many of which were implemented following the Putman-Weir Survey, while Jessie McLenaghen, the f i r s t Provincial Supervisor of Home Economics, was instrumental in formalizing the curriculum changes. John Kyle supported the introduction of home economics education into B.C. public schools in several ways. That he was in favour of the principles and ideals of the domestic science movement is apparent in many of his reports to the Department of Education. He f e l t , for example, that the lack of progress when compared to manual training was "regrettable, because the subject is one which is undoubtedly necessary and worthy of a prominent place in any educational system" (B.C. Department of Education, 1921, p.F47). He 48 g suggested that home economics be made "compulsory in ci t i e s of f i r s t and second class [in order to] place upon [it] an equality with others which have no greater claim to importance" (B.C. Department of Education, 1924, p.T75). "One cannot imagine," he said, "any educational subject more important than the management of a home...[for] i t gives the g i r l a sane attitude toward l i f e by requiring her to deal with real projects and solve l i f e problems" (B.C. Department of Education, 1926, p.R58 & 1925, p.M55). His philosophic support of the subject extended to include a number of recommendations for improving the status, st a b i l i t y and efficiency of the subject in the school setting. In his report to the Department of Education in 1918, for example, he indicated that the Household Science Course (the high school home economics offering) made "excellent preparation for entrance to the Provincial Normal School", and that the course should probably be lengthened "from three to four years" i f matriculation standing was to be secured (B.C. Department of Education, 1918, p.D68). Although supportive of home economics, Kyle was also c r i t i c a l of the f i e l d . He c r i t i c i z e d , for example, the lack of uniformity of courses taught in home economics and the varying standards of method and evaluation across the province. He stated that "Care should be taken to develop habits in domes t i c science centres which are above reproach, and no g i r l s should be found cooking without aprons and caps nor sewing without thimbles" (B.C. Department of Education, 1919, p.A79). His intent was j:pward the overall improvement of home economics and the eventual elevation of its status as a school subject in the eyes of the educational community and the general public. First class indicates Average Daily Attendance of pupils not less than 1,000 per school year. Second class indicates Average Daily Attendance of pupils between 250 and 1,000 per school year. 49 Kyle also saw the inadequate training of home economics teachers as a major threat to the future success of the subject and he recommended the establishment of Saturday classes to supplement training in home economics received at summer school (B.C. Department of Education, 1921). When the classes were fi n a l l y instituted, however, he remarked on the poor attendance, commenting that "Domestic Science teachers do not show the same inclination for further study on Saturdays as do the Manual Training instructors" (B.C. Department of Education, 1924, p.T75). Kyle noted that domestic science seemed to have lagged behind manual training in the number of centres opened, the number of teachers employed and the number of pupils enrolled (B.C. Department of Education, 1922). While he felt that the Domestic Science Teachers' Association was not as active as i t might have been "in furthering their aims in the community" and had not "obtained such a stronghold on public confidence" some of this may have been due in part to the fact that manual training received financial assistance for the institution of training centres while home economics did not (B.C. Department of Education, 1922, p.C50). He believed that the remedy for a l l these problems rested in the appointment of a provincial supervisor in home economics, who would oversee curriculum and instruction in the subject. Thus he supported the recommendations made by Putman and Weir. "There is much work to be done in the Province in regard to fostering and stimulating interest in the teaching of home economics and child welfare...a provincial supervisor would find a great duty awaiting her to broadcast the correct interpretation of the educational aims which stand behind the subject of home economics" (B.C. Department of Education, 1924, p.T75). Yet another indication of Kyle's influence is that many of his recommendations for the subject became the recommendations of others presenting their concerns to the Survey Commiss ioners. 50 Jessie McLenaghen was appointed Provincial Director of Home Economics in 1926, and made operational many of Kyle's recommendations. During her term, she also introduced several of her own innovations. She brought to her position an impressive professional background and "boundless enthusiasm, a strong belief in the future of home economics, and the courage to put into effect new ideas" (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971, p.35). It was Miss McLenaghen's observations of inconsistencies in home economics throughout the province which formed the basis for the 1927 curriculum revision. She found the curriculum "varied both in content and method of presentation...[resulting in a general] lack of uniformity in the work offered" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63, M65). She organized and coordinated a committee of home economics teachers to redraft the course of studies for both high schools and junior high schools. Through Miss McLenaghen1s direction the home economics curriculum was expanded to include the application of theory to practical situations. For example, she saw the the potential of clothing courses as "problem-solving situations" rather than concentration on hand sewing and emphasis on "mere technical processes" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63). The new.foods curriculum was intended to represent a "broader understanding of foods beyond the mere development of technique...", and the "logical procedure" regarding preparation of individual types of foods was replaced with "the psychological, in which each dish is prepared because of it s relation to a definite meal" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M63-64). Since Miss McLenaghen was aware of the need to enlist the support of the public in promoting her subject, the book of recipes she developed for use in the classroom was also intended as a "means of stimulating greater effort in home practice." She felt that i f students were to use the book in the home, i t would help to "secure the interest and cooperation of the parents — something absolutely v i t a l to the success of any home economics programme" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M64). 51 Excerpts from her f i r s t annual report to the Department of Education reflect Miss McLenaghen's perceptions of the role of Provincial Director, as well as the new thrust she envisioned for home economics education in B.C.: "Efforts were made to stimulate interest in the newer ideas in Home Economics education and to broadcast the best ideas of the various teachers by providing for classroom v i s i t i n g , by the publication of a News Letter...by the circulation of books from the Home Economics library, and by v i s i t s of the Director of Home Economics to each center. The convention at Easter offered an opportunity for open discussion of problems....[and]...the outlook for Home Economics in the future appears more promising. The interest of the general public has been greatly stimulated. Trustees are more interested in the type of work presented and are demanding better-trained teachers....No subject can reach i t s maximum efficiency without the best teachers" (B.C. Department of Education, 1927a, p.M65). Jessie McLenaghen influenced the home economics teachers of the province toward improved home economics teaching and training and toward increased status and public understanding of the subject. The 1927 curriculum revision was one step in this direction. THE 1937 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION The year 1937 marked the completion of the second major revision of the home economics curriculum. This revision maintained the focus of home economics on family and home membership and on preparation for the vocation of homemaking. Specific reference was made in this revision to two cardinal principles of education, worthy home membership and preparation for a vocation. According to the revised curriculum guide, studies in home economics education were intended to "give the student a well-rounded conception of the many responsibilities contributing to worthy home membership...[as well as] some knowledge of the profession of homemaking" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.7). The organization of subject matter in the revised programme was described as "closely related to home and living problems as i t is possible to make i t " (Vancouver School Board, 1936, P.34). Courses at both the junior and senior levels were expanded as well as reorganized. At the junior level, Home Problems as an area of study was eliminated, but was replaced by units of study such as "Social Customs and Usages" and "Cooperation with the Family Group". Provision was also made for optional units of study such as "Caring for the Sick." and "The Study of Child Care" to provide for "further enrichment, exploration and individual differences" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.8,9). At the senior level, a new course entitled "Home Relations for Senior High Schools" was introduced at this time. This was to be a non-laboratory course, suggested as an elective for senior students enrolled in an academic or a commercial course to "enable them to gain some preparation for what may be their true vocation — homemaking." Course content focused on financial and health considerations surrounding the selection of food and on the selection of clothing from the standpoint of "becomingness, durability and cost" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.199). As well, new units such as "The Home — a Social Centre", "Appreciation of a Satisfying Home Li f e " , and "Consumer Buying" were added to the Senior Course of Studies. These clearly reflected a more overt emphasis on the home and family. There was less f l e x i b i l i t y in the senior programme presumably because specific content was to be covered in preparation for examinations for high school graduation. The revised curriculum guide included an outline for a Boys' Course in home economics, which was to be "planned for two periods a week for one term. The aims of the course were to "help the boys to be more intelligent and appreciative members of their families; to [enable boys to] plan and prepare simple outdoor meals; and to enable boys to prepare and serve a simple meal t a sick member of the family" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.79). The format of the new curriculum was markedly changed. For each unit of study, recommendations were made regarding content to be covered, teaching 53 methods to be used, student assignments, projects and ac t i v i t i e s , and teacher references and visual aids. In addition to general aims for the programme, specific aims were included for each unit of study. In the previous curriculum document aims had been stated only for the programme. Both the revised Junior and Senior High School Programmes were combined into one bulletin, and implemented in 1937 (B.C. Department of Education, 1937a). Home Economics was made compulsory in grades 1 and 8 in 1936, and by 1938, i t qualified as an option for senior matriculation. (An outline of the 1937 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix D.) Influential Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Among the forces influencing North American education during the 1930's were the Great Depression, the progressive education movement and tensions leading to the onset of World War II. In Canada, the Great Depression had tremendous impact on education. While the principles of progressive education continued to influence the development of a new Canadian educational structure} economic conditions hindered its construction (Lawr & Gidney, 1978; Patterson, 1970). Social problems associated with poverty and unemployment during the Depression years and the threat of a^second world war in the latter half of the thirties contributed to renewed interest in the potential of education to reshape the future of Canadian society (Stamp, 1978). As was the case across Canada, the economic c r i s i s of the thirties in -B.C. presented an obstacle to the implementation of the progressive system of education recommended in the Putman-Weir Report. Money was increasingly scarce and schools were among the f i r s t public institutions to suffer (Lawr & Gidney, 1978). Because of lack of financial resources throughout the province, i t was not long before the public expressed concern over the seemingly "inefficient administration" of the school system, and the "fads and f r i l l s " associated with the varied and extensive curriculum. This was viewed 54 by some as i n d i c a t i v e o f w a s t e f u l government e x p e n d i t u r e (Mann, 1 9 7 8 ) . The d e s p a i r f e l t by s c h o o l b o a r d s i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s a p p a r e n t i n an e x c e r p t f rom the 1933 a n n u a l r e p o r t o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l s : " T o r e p o r t on c o n d i t i o n s i n the V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s f o r the s c h o o l y e a r 1932-33 i s t o t u r n f rom y e a r s o f ' e x p a n s i o n and c o n f i d e n c e ' to one o f ' c o n t r a c t i o n and p e r p l e x i t y ' . . . a f o r c e d r e t r e a t e d u c a t i o n a l l y , d e s p i t e s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s t o m a i n t a i n g r o u n d p r e v i o u s l y g a i n e d " ( B . C . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n , 1933, p . M 4 9 ) . C l e a r l y the s c h o o l s were s u f f e r i n g and a t t e m p t s t o put i n t o e f f e c t the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f the Pu tnam-Wei r R e p o r t were s h a r p l y c u r t a i l e d . The D e p r e s s i o n a l s o c r e a t e d s e v e r e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J a n u a r y o f 1930, f o r e x a m p l e , saw the number o f unemployed p e o p l e i n V a n c o u v e r i n c r e a s e by 300%. B r e a d l i n e s f o r m e d , and c i v i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y . By 1931, o n e - t e n t h o f V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n was on r e l i e f and the number o f r e g i s t e r e d unemployed s o a r e d to 6 7 , 1 2 8 . As w e l l , i n c i d e n t s o f v i o l e n c e and c r i m e e s c a l a t e d (Ormsby, 1 9 5 8 ) . These e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c r i s e s b r o u g h t a t t e n t i o n to e d u c a t i o n . H i g h s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e d u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s , p r i m a r i l y due to h i g h unemployment . The r a p i d emergence o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r m e e t i n g the v a r i e d needs and a b i l i t i e s o f t h i s l a r g e r , more d i v e r s e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . One a l t e r n a t i v e was to f u r n i s h a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l a to p r o v i d e f o r — i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . A second a l t e r n a t i v e l a y i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the. j u n i o r h i g h and c o m p o s i t e h i g h s c h o o l w h i c h i n c l u d e d t e c h n i c a l , c o m m e r c i a l and u n i v e r s i t y p rogrammes. T o g e t h e r t h e s e wou ld c o n t r i b u t e to an i n c r e a s e d emphas is on the s o c i a l r o l e o f the h i g h s c h o o l (S tamp, 1978) and a h e i g h t e n e d awareness among e d u c a t o r s o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s to be made by p r o g r e s s i v e p r i n c i p l e s i n e d u c a t i o n . 55 Political-Legal Decisions During this period of economic and social c r i s i s , conflict regarding management of the financial affairs of the province led to a provincial election and to a new government. The new premier had campaigned for the creation of a "new social order" and certainly progressive education with its ideals of citizenship and social welfare was consistent with his concern for social reform in the province. The government was faced with a "great clamor for reform during a period of serious social dislocation", and was under considerable pressure to take action to put the economic affairs of the province in order (Robin, 1972, p.48). These actions included several which affected education. In 1931, a cabinet advisory committee was formed, to enquire into government expenditures. The resulting document, entitled the Kidd Report, advocated 'drastic economies' with regard to educational and other expenditures (Ormsby, 1958). Among the recommendations concerning education were the limitation of free education to age fourteen and the replacement of local school boards with Municipal Councils (Mann, 1978; Johnson, 1964). While the Kidd Report was eventually tabled, i t had drawn education to the attention of the public. G.M. Weir^ was appointed as Minister of Education and Provincial Secretary in 1933, a p o l i t i c a l decision which was to have far-reaching effects on the direction education was to take in the province. While Weir had announced shortly after taking office that he intended to institute revisions to the school curriculum, he was forced to focus f i r s t on the more pressing problems of educational finance (Johnson, 1964). A Commission on School Finance was appointed in 1934 with H.B. King as technical adviser. King's Weir may be classified as an influential individual because of the impact his progressive ideas had ou B.C.'s school curriculum. His specific contributions in this regard w i l l be discussed under the heading of "Influential Individuals". 56 recommendations concerning school finance were generally referred to as "reactionary, i f not revolutionary" (Johnson, 1964, p.118) and in the end, the recommendations in this report were not adopted. It was felt by some that King's stringent application of sc i e n t i f i c management principles to school administration would improve economy and efficiency in the school but at the expense of many of the principles of the new education (Mann, 1978). Like the Kidd Report, the King Report, drew attention to education and prompted the Kidd public and the educational community alike to re-think the aims and purposes of schooling for children in B.C. Two amendments to the School Act influenced education in the province during this time. In 1934, the age for free tuition was raised from 15 to 18, or until the student completed grade 12 (B.C. Department of Education, 1934, p.N27). By so doing, the government publicly endorsed the notion of democracy in education — education available to a l l . In making schooling accessible to more students for a longer period, a strong case for a differentiated curriculum and the composite high school could be buil t , ensuring a place for practical as well as academic subjects. This amendment thus had implications for home economics. An amendment in 1936 also had direct implications for home economics. This amendment stated that: "In grade VII and VIII in city school d i s t r i c t s of the f i r s t and second class and in any other school d i s t r i c t where the Council of Public Instruction so directs, the Board of School Trustees, in conformity with the regulations governing equipment and courses of study, shall establish in the schools under i t s . j u r i s d i c t i o n courses in practical arts, including manual training and home economics" (B.C. Department of Education, 1936, p.H80). Up until this time, although home economics was a recognized subject in the school curriculum, i t was included in school programmes only at the discretion of individual school boards. This new policy indicated that home economics had "achieved equal status with academic subjects...and no longer does the 57 retention of this department in the school depend upon the attitude of the community" (B.C. Department of Education, 1936, p.H80). According to Jessie McLenaghen, the new legislation "added greatly to the prestige of the subject and has increased the zest of the teaching body" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937a, p.I49). Influential Groups Because of its role in this revision, the Central Revision Committee of the Department of Education had significant influence on curriculum change at this time. According to Weir, the Committee was to "give general direction to the work of revision...[and] a l l other committees wi l l conform with the principles laid down by the Central Committee and with i t s directions" (Weir, 1935, p.21). Thus the Revision Committee was able to exert considerable influence. The extent to which contributions were made from groups outside the Department of Education and its Central Revision Committee is more d i f f i c u l t to determine. The BCTF may have had some influence in the decision to undertake this curriculum revision. At their Annual General Meeting in 1932, the BCTF prepared a resolution recommending a province-wide review of the curriculum ("Annual General Meeting", 1932). -The review and revision were underway by 1935, with the BCTF included as part of individual subject revision committees. There appears to be l i t t l e information available, however, regarding the specific input by the BCTF and its a f f i l i a t e d subject groups. Other groups outside of the Department of Education were encouraged to make suggestions for the curriculum revision. Because he f e l t that "valuable assistance and contributions might be'obtained from many sources," Weir invited a l l teachers, school trustees, parent-teacher associations, industrial leaders and local councils of women to recommend improvements for the new 58 curriculum (B.C. Department of Education, 1936; Weir, 1935). No evidence was found regarding the number and types of suggestions made by these groups. There is some evidence that suggests that local school boards may have been influential in the retention of home economics in the provincial school curriculum during the early 1930's. Whether these school boards exerted any influence on curriculum change is almost impossible to determine, but their actions regarding the retention of subjects such as home economics may have had some influence on public and government attitudes toward the subject, which in turn may have influenced future development of home economics in the school system. At the height of the Depression, when drastic economic measures were suggested due to lack of goverment funds, subjects such as home economics were often labelled as " f r i l l s " and were targeted as one area where government expenditure could be curbed. While many home economics centers were closed during the Depression due to lack of funds, several remained in operation. Some local school boards which refused to eliminate the subject entirely devised alternate means of saving money while s t i l l retaining the home economics program. The Vancouver School Board, for example, employed a creative approach to retrenchment. The Report of the Chairman of the Finance Committee in 1933 indicated that "elimination of a l l but the most essential" would be required, with a general "cutting of the coat according to the cloth available" (Vancouver School Board, 1933, p.15). The Board considered that home economics was essential and decided to maintain the program and to reduce operating costs by integrating home economics and manual training into the larger school plant. Up to this time, these courses had been taught in centers separate from the main schools. Superintendent MacCorkindale argued on behalf of the Board that the possibility of an increasing number of centers being closed due to high operating costs emphasized "the importance of having these subjects incorporated in the school organization on the same basis as any other subject" (Vancouver School Board, 1934, p.23). The Board then proceeded to implement the plan, and home economics was successfully retained in the d i s t r i c t . Influential Individuals Three individuals had major roles in both introducing and effecting this curriculum revision. G.M. Weir and H.B. King, as advocates of progressive ideals in education, gave shape and direction to the new public school curriculum, and Jessie McLenaghen, as Provincial Director of Home Economics, provided leadership in the revision and implementation of the home economics curriculum. As noted earlier, Dr. Weir was appointed Minister of Education in 1933. He was regarded as a dynamic crusader, a man whose "diction f a i r l y sizzles like a high tension wire", a man f i l l e d with a "consuming fi r e of passionate protest, the zeal of a real reformer" (Johnson, 1964, p.113; Ormsby, 1958, p.456). And clearly, reform was on his mind. Immediately following his appointment, he addressed the B.C. teachers, referring to them as "sentinels of the new Social Order". Education was, he told them, "the chief cornerstone of national well-being" (Weir, 1933, p.3-4). By 1935, he had ordered a complete revision of the entire school curriculum as the "more recent contributions of the Science of Education j u s t i f i e d a complete revision of a l l programmes""(B.C. Department of Education, 1936, p.H26). Weir's progressive view of education influenced the direction that this curriculum was to take. While i t is debatable whether the philosophy guiding Weir's revision reflected the principles of progressive education in their purest sense (Mann, 1978), i t clearly contained elements of progressive dogma. In outlining the duties of the Central Revision Committee, Weir indicated that committee members were to familiarize themselves with "current curriculum building literature". They were instructed to devise some "fundamental principles" to 60 direct the revision by analyzing the writings of a diverse group of progressive education proponents such as Bobbitt, Snedden, Chapman, Counts and Harrap (Weir, 1935, p.21). The Report of the Committee on the Reorganization of Secondary Education in 1915 was also considered by Weir to be important reading for the Revision Committee. It outlined the Seven Cardinal Principles of Education — health, fundamental s k i l l s , worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, wise use of leisure and the cultivation of character — which were intended to form the foundation of the new curriculum (Black, 1925). Many of the progressive principles expressed in these readings were influential in shaping the new curriculum in B.C. For example, subject content was organized into units, "built around some fundamental thought or principle." The aims and objectives of the new curriculum sought to emphasize the social education of the child and social improvement through democratic processes. While traditional academic subjects were retained at the core of the curriculum for a l l students, new subjects such as music, art and home economics were considered to be valuable for their contributions to character development (BiC. Department of Education, 1937c). In the new curriculum, each subject was to make contributions to the Seven Cardinal Principles which were referred to as the "primary objectives of education" for B.C. schools (Black, 1935). Because the concepts central to the original conception of home economics — home and family and homemaking as a vocaton for women — paralleled these objectives of education proposed by Weir, home economics was considered to be a relevant school subject at this time. H.B. King appeared to hold similar views concerning both education and the place home economics would take in the school curriculum. As curriculum adviser for the Central Revision Committee, he had a direct impact on the programme for public schools in the province. He also endorsed the Seven Cardinal Principles of education and favored a wide range of goals so that 61 schools could meet a l l of a child's needs and interests. He was c r i t i c a l of the influence of the university in maintaining the primarily academic focus of the high school, even though a more "ela s t i c " curriculum had been introduced following the Putnam-Weir Report (Child, 1974). King was responsible for introducing the concept of "high school graduation",^ whereby a l l students were required to complete a set of "constants", with the remainder of the programme to be composed of elective subjects (Johns, 1950, p.42). This provided for the inclusion of subjects other than academic ones and gave courses such as home economics a more stable and secure position in the school curriculum with potential for future growth. King was hopeful that the composite high school with i t s diversified curriculum would assist in keeping more students in school for longer periods of time, and would be more responsive to the varied a b i l i t i e s and interests of a larger and probably more diverse student population. King engineered several changes in the structure of the home economics curriculum. In letters to Miss McLenaghen, he endorsed a general home economics course at the grade IX level, "embracing both Foods and Clothing" and emphasized that i t should be a course "capable of expansion...[and]... additional starred optional units should be provided for Enrichment, 12 Exploration and Individual Differences." King indicated also that the "Technical and Home Economics Courses" would be organized along the lines of the "Language Science Courses", where "each section of the work [would be] three sequences out of four beyond grade VIII." Out of the grade IX course might grow, at the senior level, "a Foods course, a Clothing course, and a This is distinct from graduation on one of five programmes s t i l l in existence after Putman-Weir: Matriculation, Normal, Entrance, Commercial, Technical and General. This statement is included in the 1937 Home Economics Bulletin III, p.9. 62 combined CC course, making three years of Home Economics above grade VIII" (King, 1936). King also took an active interest in the school lunch period in rural schools. He saw a definite role to be played by teachers trained in home economics in creating a learning situation for students at noon hour. "The noon lunch-time," he said "provides an opportunity to teach the children table manners...and some of the refinements of social l i v i n g . " Children tended to '"wolf their food...and may not trouble to wash their hands." He fel t strongly that as the Normal Schools had been "giving training in Home Economics to young teachers...here is an excellent way to apply this teaching" (B.C. Department of Education, 1941, p.D42-43). His suggestions may have been acted upon, for by the following year he commented that "the unregulated, unsupervised luncheon period in non-urban schools is passing away...[and]...it is not uncommon in country schools for pupils...to s i t down...and to eat in a c i v i l i z e d manner." He reiterated his belief that "the school lunch affords opportunity for social training...[and] i t offers the best approach to learning the principles of diet and nutrition" (B.C. Department of Education, 1942., p.B34-35). By the mid-1940's, a School Lunch Programme was operating in many rural school d i s t r i c t s , due to the fact that "large numbers of students [were] coming long distances to school by bus" (Orr, 1948, p . l ) . Home economics teachers were involved in a variety of ways, and while i t appears that no record exists of how this programme was instituted, i t seems reasonable to assume that King's intervention in 1941 may have influenced the course of events. Jessie McLenaghen, Provincial Director of Home Economics, continued to promote her subject during the thirties and tried to ensure that home economics reflected the more progressive view of education which had been defined for the province by the Putman-Weir Report of 1925. Her description of the role home economics played in the new conception of education was 63 included in her report of 1935 to the Department of Education: "Practical Arts courses justify their place in a curriculum today upon the doctrine of social need as well as upon cultural values to the individual, and therefore they have attained a new status in education. They are gradually being regarded as a necessary agency in the development of types of knowledge, s k i l l s and attitudes which are increasingly necessary for successful living in a new and extremely complex social and economic order...because of the controlling facts of present day l i f e , they are becoming basic fundamental phases in the education of youth"(B.C. Department of Education, 1935, p.S48). Every attempt was made to keep home economics responsive to the "social and economic order" during the depression. She emphasized that "despite the economic conditions... the teachers have accepted... the challenge, and...have doubled their efforts to make the work link more closely with daily l i v i n g . Assistance in planning expenditures on depleted budgets has been freely given, and the confidence of the public has steadily increased" (B.C. Department of Education, 1934, p.N44). During this period, Miss McLenaghen once again led a subject committee in developing a new curriculum for home economics. Since the Department was "anxious to make [the] Home Economics programme at school f i t with the home", a questionnaire to parents regarding suitable content for the new curriculum, was distributed through home economics classes (McLenaghen, 1936). The extent to which any parental input was used is impossible to determine, as no records of responses exist. THE 1952 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION The third home economics revision was begun in 1946 and completed in 1952. The stated objective for the programme at this time was "to prepare the students for effective home l i v i n g " and a l l courses were designed to center on "significant aspects of home and family l i v i n g " (B.C. Department of Education, 1957b, p.4). Thus home and family membership and homemaking as a vocation for 64 females were maintained as the organizing concepts of the home economics programme. As such they reflected the continued influence of progressive principles in education in B.C. Two changes were apparent in this revision: a change in the system by which courses were numbered and a marked increase in the number of course offerings. In the numbering system, Roman numerals were replaced with Arabic numerals and the lettering system for high school courses was abandoned. At the junior level, HE I, II and III were replaced with HE 7, 8 and 10. (Although these names were changed, the content remained the same.) As well, course names became more reflective of course content. Titles such as "Dressmaking" and "Clothing Construction", for example, indicated more clearly than HE (III) and HE (B) the intended focus of the course. Of greater significance to this revision was the increase in course offerings. Three new options were developed in the junior programme — HE 7a, 8a and 10a. These were alternative courses developed for those schools with minimal or no home economics f a c i l i t i e s . At the senior level, course content was re-organized to extend the scope of the programme. "Arts and Crafts", "Home Furnishing" and "Child Care and Home Nursing" were new courses which were expanded versions of optional^ units previously included in HE I, II and III at the junior level and in (CC) II .and Home Relations at the senior level. While these new courses were added to the programme of studies, these topics also continued to be included as units of study in other courses. The "Boys' Course" was offered to boys in grades 11 and 12 and was open only to selected students in grade 10. Units of study in the course included Personal Appearance; Foods, Nutrition and Home Management; Family Relations and Social Customs and Courtesies; The Home, Its Furnishings and Its Use; and Child Care (B.C. Department of Education, 1951c). The increase in courses may have been related to the establishment of home economics as a major f i e l d of study during this curriculum revision. 65 Students could graduate on the University Programme with a major, in home economics by completing three years of study in home economics (acquiring a minimum number of credits in the subject) and by completing an accompanying major in Mathematics and Science. Thus, according to the Department of Education, home economics now had "equal status with other subjects" for university entrance (B.C. Department of Education, 1950a, p.22). (An outline of the 1952 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix E.) Influential Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movement Several developments influenced school curriculum during the 1940's. The lean years of the Depression gave way to a period of economic renewal in Canada. World War II generated growth in industry and technology, which resulted in improved economic conditions and contributed to a resurgence of the birth rate (Patterson, 1970). These developments, along with an anticipated population increase due to immigration and affluence following the war (Tomkins, 1981b), prompted Canadian educators to once again reflect on the form education should take and on the role i t should assume in post-war Canada. These general trends were reflected in British Columbia. Growth in the forest industry and energy production and the revival of mining and smelting contributed to an expanding economy in B.C. throughout the forties (Ralston, 1982). Accompanying these improved economic conditions was a rapid increase in the birth rate. According to B.C.'s Minister of Education, "careful planning and study of...reconstruction and rehabilitation problems" would constitute the best efforts of education during wartime (Weir, 1941, p.460). There were generally more students in school due to the improved holding power of the high school, and in conjunction with a predicted post-war population increase, local educators were concerned about housing this burgeoning student population 66 ( J o h n s o n , 1964) . More s t u d e n t s meant t h a t , as i n the t h i r t i e s , c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t t o the v a r i e d needs o f a d i v e r s e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s would need to be a d d r e s s e d . W i t h many young p e o p l e employed i n war t ime i n d u s t r y and w i t h j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y a p p e a r i n g to be on the r i s e , many p e o p l e c o n t i n u e d to l o o k t o the s c h o o l s as a means o f i m p r o v i n g " t h e m o r a l f i b r e o f the c o u n t r y " ( P a t t e r s o n , 1970, p . 3 8 2 ) . P r o g r e s s i v e p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c i t i z e n s h i p , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and d e v e l o p m e n t o f the whole c h i l d c o n t i n u e d to make c o n t r i b u t i o n s to e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the p o s t - w a r p e r i o d . The c o n c e p t s o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l u m and the c o m p o s i t e h i g h s c h o o l were r e t a i n e d and e x p a n d e d , as e d u c a t i n g e v e r y m a n ' s c h i l d became a c e n t r a l a i m i n p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . Home e c o n o m i c s was one o f the c o u r s e s w h i c h h e l p e d to form the d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l u m . P o l i t i c a l - L e g a l D e c i s i o n s A number o f p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l d e c i s i o n s made i n the 1940 's i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . g e n e r a l l y and home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . C o n c e r n w i t h r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War II p r e c i p i t a t e d the a p p o i n t m e n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n t o s t u d y s c h o o l " f i n a n c e i n the p r o v i n c e . D r . M a x w e l l Cameron was a p p o i n t e d i n November , 1944 to i n v e s t i g a t e the c u r r e n t method o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and to make recommendat ions r e g a r d i n g s c h o o l f i n a n c e . In l i g h t o f d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d where l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were f a v o r e d , and i n l i g h t o f a g r o w i n g number o f c o m p l a i n t s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s c h o o l t r u s t e e s and the B C T F , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f e l t by some to be l o n g o v e r d u e . Cameron recommended t h a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n the p r o v i n c e be r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o u n i t s l a r g e enough to c o n s t i t u t e a "communi ty o r e c o n o m i c u n i t " and to s u p p o r t a d e q u a t e s c h o o l i n g f rom g r a d e s one t h r o u g h t w e l v e . He a l s o recommended t h a t a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d p o r t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n c o s t s be s u b s i d i z e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government 67 (Johnson, 1964). Adoption of Cameron's report created far-reaching and lasting effects in education in B.C. The recommendations were implemented by 1946, and quickly produced favourable results. According to Assistant Superintendent H.L. Campbell, the larger administrative units had resulted in "improvements in school plants and f a c i l i t i e s " and had a "most beneficial effect on the types of educational opportunity...being made throughout the Province" (B.C. Department of Education, 1948, p.JJ27). This report paved the way for the curriculum revision initiated in 1946 by the Department of Education. Improved school f a c i l i t i e s meant course offerings could be improved, particularly where specialized f a c i l i t i e s and equipment were required (as in the case of home economics), and larger d i s t r i c t s made possible greater uniformity in course content. More efficient administration of curriculum matters on a district-wide basis could conceivably reduce the need for tight provincial control by the Provincial Directors/Supervisors. In home economics for example, constant direction via letters from the Home Economics Director concerning pattern selection for clothing projects and equipment in laboratories would be lessened. The Department of Education's decision to undertake a curriculum revision in 1946 resulted in several changes which influenced the nature of home economics curriculum at this time. Two general changes involved the redefinition of the two high school graduation programmes and the institution of a new system of subject "majors". The two high school graduation programmes (previously called High School Graduation Without University Entrance and High School Graduation With University Entrance) were re-named General and University Entrance Programmes in order to better define their intended purposes. Both would lead to graduation, but only one would provide entry to the University (B.C. Department of Education, 1948). 68 It was fe l t by the Department that while the existing high school curriculum made provision for varying capacities and interests among students enrolled in one graduation programme through a variety of elective subjects, the second graduation programme leading to university entrance s t i l l consisted largely of required (or "constant") academic subjects. Hence there was l i t t l e opportunity for these students to pursue "advanced elective courses in fields of developing interests" (B.C. Department of Education, 1947, 1948; Johns, 1950, p.43). In order to rectify this situation, elective subjects were extended to the university entrance programme and the number of credits required for a l l students to graduate was increased. A new system of subject "majors" was introduced, wherein a l l students, regardless of the graduation programme they were enrolled in, were required to follow at least one major subject f i e l d throughout senior high school. The introduction of this new system was significant in that i t enabled students to major in an elective subject and s t i l l gain entry to the university. Thus students on either the General or University Entrance Programmes were able to take an increased number of elective subjects during their high school years. Through this new system, home economics was granted equal status with other subjects where high school graduation was concerned, and a g i r l could major in home economics and yet graduate on the University Entrance Programme (B.C. Department of Education, 1949, 1950b). This broadened framework for elective courses, designed to both accommodate individual differences among students and to fac i l i t a t e high school graduation through a system of subject majors, placed home economics in a position where i t s course offerings were expanded. According to the Director of Educational and Vocational Guidance, this revision marked a "third phase in [the] development of a Programme of Studies that fully recognizes individual differences and accepts the child's personal development as it s main purpose" (Johns, 1950, p.43). As such, i t continued to reflect the progressive principles of individual development, democracy and 69 c i t i z e n s h i p i n e d u c a t i o n . T h i s r e v i s i o n a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t to f o r m a l i z e and improve upon the c o n c e p t o f the c o m p o s i t e h i g h s c h o o l , i n w h i c h e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s formed a c e n t r a l p a r t o f s c h o o l i n g . The s c h o o l was v i e w e d by the Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n as a " s c h o o l f o r e v e r y m a n ' s c h i l d . . . [ a n d n o t ] a s e l e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the i n t e l l e c t u a l , c u l t u r a l o r e c o n o m i c e l i t e " ( B . C . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n , 1950a, p . 7 ) . P r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s were i n s t r u c t e d to " s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d g i v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the G e n e r a l Programme i s i n f e r i o r t o the U n i v e r s i t y P r o g r a m m e . . . [ a s ] the two programmes meet d i f f e r e n t n e e d s " ( B . C . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n , 1949, p . N 2 9 ) . In t h i s way the Depar tment a t t e m p t e d to d e - e m p h a s i z e the a c a d e m i c e l i t i s m l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e s , the Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d a new c o m p u l s o r y c o u r s e e n t i t l e d " E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g " , w h i c h was c l a s s i f i e d as a " c o n s t a n t c i t i z e n s h i p s u b j e c t " ( B . C . Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n , 1950a , p . 1 1 ) . E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g was d e s i g n e d to encompass t h r e e o f the Seven C a r d i n a l P r i n c i p l e s o f E d u c a t i o n — wor thy home m e m b e r s h i p , v o c a t i o n and use o f l e i s u r e . The c o u r s e was to e m p h a s i z e the " t h r e e f o l d r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l as 'homeraaker ' , ' w o r k e r ' and ' c i t i z e n ' . " I t i n c l u d e d u n i t s on h e a l t h ^ ' " /phys ica l e d u c a t i o n , ( v o c a t i o n a l ) g u i d a n c e , m e n t a l " h y g i e n e and home and \ f a m i l y l i v i n g ( J o h n s , 1 9 5 0 . , - p . 4 6 - 4 8 ) . W h i l e t h e r e was s u b s t a n t i a l o v e r l a p between E f f e c t i v e L i v i n g and e x i s t i n g home e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e s , home e c o n o m i c s was n o t one o f the s u b j e c t a r e a s s e l e c t e d to t e a c h i t . The documents do not i n d i c a t e the r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n . I n f l u e n t i a l G r o u p s E d u c a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g t h i s t ime i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e thought was g i v e n to e d u c a t i o n a l changes r e q u i r e d f o r p o s t - w a r C a n a d a . The C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s p o n s o r e d s e v e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t s d u r i n g the l a t t e r y e a r s o f the War , and e x e r t e d s u b s t a n t i a l curricular influence in Canada during the 1940's. In 1943, for example, a Committee of the Canada and Newfoundland Education Associations reported on the "Chief Educational Needs in Canada". This Report identified the small school administrative d i s t r i c t as costly and inefficient, described the curriculum as inadequate in scope and structure and reiterated the need for curriculum differentiation (Patterson, 1970). According to Tomkins (1981b), this Report was a restatement of progressive principles in education. Its impact was apparently f e l t in British Columbia, for soon after the results were published the Cameron Inquiry was instituted and a major curriculum revision was undertaken in order to define more clearly the concept of the composite high school in the province. Since the composite high school provided opportunity for expansion in elective subjects, the Canadian Education Association indirectly influenced the expansion of home economics curriculum during the early 1950's. In B.C., the findings of the above Report were reflected in the deliberations of the Department of Education and the Central [Curriculum] Revision Committee. Dissatisfaction had been expressed with the inability of the existing curriculum to meet the needs of the majority of students (B.C. Department of Education, 1942, p.B34-35; B.C. Department of Education, 1947), and i t was generally f e l t that the "high school is s t i l l probably too selective...[and many] are not likely to remain in high school until they are presented with a programme adjusted to their capacities and interests." As noted earlier, the programme of studies in most schools had continued to be determined by the university entrance curriculum, limiting the opportunity to pursue study in advanced elective courses (Johns, 1950). Because of anticipated increases in school populations resulting from post-war immigration and rising birth rates, new meaning was attached to the notion of mass education. Thus the Department was challenged to provide on the one hand "adequate cultural and vocational training for the many", while at the same 71 time developing "to -the f u l l those superior minds to whom society must ever look for the solutions to it s problems" (B.C. Department of Education, 1950a, p.7). It was in this context that the Department of Education undertook a revision of the existing curriculum. As indicated earlier, this subject-wide revision resulted in several changes in the home economics curriculum. As in the previous revision, the Central Revision Committee directed the efforts of various subject groups, with each subject revised in keeping with recommendations set down by the Committee. The Department of Education was therefore a significant curricular influence at this time and directly contributed to the expansion of home economics courses in the B.C. public school curriculum. The Department of Education continued to exert its influence as the newly-instituted curriculum revision was implemented. A Curriculum Circular in April of 1951 drew attention to a sharp decrease in enrollment in home economics, industrial education, art, and music when i t was expected that the new arrangement would have contributed to increased enrollment. An investigation revealed a misinterpretation of the system of "majors", and principals and guidance teachers were instructed that: "If this matter is not handled satisfactorily by guidance i t may be necessary to go back to a regulatory requirement that one of the "practical" subjects be included in a l l grade IX student programmes" (B.C. Department of Education, 1951b). While i t is not clear how this affected enrollments, i t does lndcajte the importance the Department attached to practical subjects such as home economics in the secondary school curriculum at this time. The British Columbia Teachers Federation did not appear to have a direct influence on the home economics curriculum during this revision, but its position regarding curriculum in general appeared to indirectly affect the role of home economics professionals in curriculum revision and development. In 1948 the BCTF requested o f f i c i a l representation on the Central Revision 72 Committee. By 1949 a working relationship with regard to curriculum revision was forged between the BCTF and the Department of Education, wherein the Federation was able to recommend its curriculum chairperson for membership on the Revision Committee (Johnson, 1964). Through the BCTF curriculum chairperson, individual subject groups (such as home economics) had access to the process of curriculum change. During the implementation of the new curriculum, the BCTF assumed the role of advocate for home economics. For example, the Federation supported and endorsed a brief submitted in November of 1952 on behalf of the Home Economics Section, expressing concern that in some schools double periods were not provided for foods classes as outlined in the revised curriculum (Spragge, 1952). The BCTF approached the Department of Education on behalf of home economics and subsequently a bulletin stressing the importance of adhering to the new time allottment for foods courses was published (B.C. Department of Education, 1953). In this revision there was considerable input from home economics groups. Since this input was coordinated by the Provincial Director of Home Economics, these contributions w i l l be discussed in the next section. Influential Individuals As had been the case in 1935, subject revisions were completed in conjunction with subject representatives. Because of her role as Provincial Director of Home Economics, Bertha Rogers played a major role with regard to the 1952 Curriculum Revision. She sought input from two groups: a home economics revision committee and home economics teachers in the province. The home economics revision committee was composed of a "representative group of [home economics] teachers". These teachers were located in the lower mainland and included Charlotte Black, Acting Head of The Home Economics Department of the University of British Columbia and H.L. Campbell, the Head of The Central Revision Committee (Rogers, 1947a, b). Issues to be addressed 73 by this group were the renaming of existing home economics courses, changes in course content and the allotment of credits for home economics courses (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1947). In November of 1947, Miss Rogers solicited input from home economics teachers in the province regarding the impending curriculum revision. Her intent was to u t i l i z e "the combined thinking of the whole group", in order that a "pattern for a new Outline may begin to take shape" (Rogers, 1947c). Questionnaire input was sought concerning such issues as the time allotment for home economics courses (the single period vs. the double period); the focus to be reflected in the Home Economics Programme; the over-emphasis of skill's and techniques in home economics; increased emphasis on "human relationships and social and economic aspects of li v i n g " ; "more Consumer Education and buymanship"; the preferred curriculum format; and the introduction of a separate course in Applied Arts and Crafts. Home economics for boys was also briefly addressed, presumably at the request of the Chief Inspector of Schools (and Head of the Central Revision Committee) who had indicated to Miss Rogers that "we shall have to do something about Home Economics for boys" (Campbell, 1946). While input from this questionnaire cannot be located, the request for professional opinions reflected the central role envisioned by Miss Rogers for home economics professionals in determining their own curriculum. This view of the role of home economics teachers in curricular matters was also reflected in the Home Economics Bulletins instituted in 1947. In the inaugural issue Miss Rogers indicated that: "I feel i t is of the utmost importance for us to take a keen interest in anything and everything that pertains to our subject, and to be constantly on the alert for new ideas. We a l l need to make a real effort to broaden our outlook and to increase our knowledge. It is only by keeping up with developments in Home Economics and by adapting to our own situation any suggestions that w i l l make for improvement... that we shall be in a position to give service of real worth to our students and to our community" (Rogers, 1947c). 74 Miss Rogers exerted her influence regarding the new home economics curriculum long after i t had been implemented. For example, the new course entitled Arts and Crafts could only be offered with her consent (B.C. Department of Education, 1950a). As only two requests had been made by 1955 and as an examination of the course content suggested a "closer relationship to Art courses, rather than Home Economics", the course was withdrawn (Rogers, 1955). This decision paralleled prior concerns regarding the applied art components of previous home economics courses. As i t was felt that they "proved a deterrent in registration in Home Economics courses", i t was advocated that some of this course content be incorporated into Clothing, with the remainder to be left to the Art Department (McLenaghen & Rogers, 1946). In light of these recommendations, i t is curious that in this revision, Arts and Crafts was s t i l l included as a separate course. THE 1965 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION In 1965 the fourth home economics curriculum revision (begun in 1958) was completed. Courses were revised and renamed in order to bring them "into line with the needs of homemakers in a modern world" (B.C. Department of Education, 1962, p . i ) . A new Community Services Programme at the senior level was added to bring a more overt vocational orientation to the home economics curriculum. This constituted a major change in emphasis for home economics in the secondary school setting. Although home economics had been associated with technical 13 . . . education for vocational training in the early part of the twentieth Some confusion seems to exist regarding the meaning of technical education. It appears to be used in two ways: (1) as vocational education or training for a trade, and (2) practical education or training in the practical arts. The latter orientation may or may not encompass the notion of vocation in the workplace. century, i t s primary focus was the vocation of homemaking i.e. the preservation of the home and family (Stamp, 1977). Training for the workplace was viewed as secondary to this homemaking education. Home and family were retained as central concepts in this revision, with the focus expanded to include both the community and the workplace. As in previous revisions, changes were made to both the junior and senior programmes. The primary aim of the new junior home economics curriculum was to "help pupils understand and appreciate the importance of the role of homemaker and to gain knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding...of homemaking (B.C. Department of Education, 1967a, p . l ) . Since grade 7 had been returned to the elementary school, Home Economics 7 was eliminated from the junior course of studies. Included in the junior programme were a "comprehensive" Home Economics 8 course; clothing, foods and childcare courses at the grade 9 level; and Boys' Cooking and Food Services 9. Home Economics 8 was introduced in 1962, and included a l l of the major areas of home economics: Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Management, Child Development and The Home and Its Furnishings. It was intended to be introductory and exploratory in nature and to provide students with the opportunity to discover specific areas of interest in which to pursue further study. The grade 9 courses were introduced in 1963, and could be taken as elective subjects in either grades 9 or 10. Successful completion of any two of these courses qualified a student for a specialty in the new Senior Community Services Programme. Although a comprehensive boys' course had existed in previous home economics programmes, a new course entitled "Boys' Cooking and Food Services" was developed at this time to equip boys with basic knowledge and s k i l l s in foods which could then be applied in a related occupation. As noted earlier, the term "vocation" in conjunction with home economics originally inferred the notion of a woman's calling rather than a particular occupation (Rury, 1984). At the senior level, the concept of specialty areas replaced the home economics major. The new Community Services Programme, introduced in 1964, included three home economics specialty areas — Foods, Textiles and Home and Industrial Services. The goal of this Community Services Programme was to "develop the character and personality of individual pupils, and to provide them with selected knowledge and s k i l l s applicable to personal and occupational l i f e as preparation for further training or entry into a range of occupations related to the foods industry, the clothing and textiles industry, home and community service" (B.C. Department of Education, 1967b, p.4). The programme was vocationally-oriented, combining homemaking preparation with training for related occupations. Home economics courses offered in conjunction with this programme were Management 11, Home and Industrial Services 12, Foods 11, 12A and 12B, Textiles 11, 12A and 12B, and Child Care 12. A student enrolling in a specialty area on this programme was required to take certain senior level general education constant subjects (English......Social-Studies and Physical and Health Education) and programme constants (General Business) in addition to required home economics specialty courses. It is interesting to note that although boys could enroll in a Foods Specialty on the Community Services Programme, they were required to take only Foods 11 and 12A, with the remainder of the required specialty courses in business education. Girls in a Foods Specialty, however, were required to take Foods 11, 12A and 12B, Textiles 11, Management 11 and Child Care 12. Business education courses were not offered to g i r l s in this specialty option and a rationale for this differentiation was not given. Teaching cafeterias for Foods 12B were established in schools with total enrollments of over 600 in grades 11 and 12. These f a c i l i t i e s were intended to simulate the workplace and to enable students to gain experience working with food service, quantity food preparation and commercial equipment. Home economics was also part of a new Occupational Programme for students 77 whose history of school achievement indicated that they would be unable to benefit from the regular secondary school curriculum and who would probably leave school before high school graduation. A home economcs course called "Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s " was introduced into some schools as part of this new programme in 1963. It was a three-year course, designed to provide "practical instruction in the basic s k i l l s of homemaking...as preparation for...occupations these pupils [having d i f f i c u l t y on a regular programme] are likely to enter" (B.C. Department of Education, 1963b, p.21). At the time of this revision the status of home economics with respect to academic courses and university entrance was altered. Because the home economics major was eliminated and because home economics was classified in the Chant Report as an "outer" elective subject (considered to be of lesser importance than other subjects), i t was no longer part of the central group of subjects leading to university entrance. Credits earned in home economics courses contributed to high school graduation, but did not contribute to university entrance for those students following the new Academic and Technical Programme. (An outline of the 1965 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix F.) \'\ '•' ""*---\.\ v Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements \. Following World War II, a number of developments influenced the growth of education in North America. Canada's emergence from the war signalled the onset of a period of reconstruction and reassessment^""A predicted post-war depression failed to materialize and, as the Canadian economy expanded, population increased rapidly due to an inceased birth rate and to immigration. With growing material prosperity and advances in industry and technology, the need for more and better education rapidly became apparent (Stevenson, 1979). Increases in the general population, coupled with the continued efforts of educators to retain students in school and to equalize educational 78 opportunity, caused schools to quickly become overcrowded. Teachers who were often inadequately trained were required to teach a wider variety of subjects to a broader spectrum of students than ever before. Industry at this time was demanding an increased number of trained employees and education for work "began to dominate the public mind." As a result, suggests Stevenson (1970b), the Canadian high school was faced with two issues, which many fe l t were "mutually inconsistent: the ideas of universal secondary education conflicted with the equally pressing desire for scholastic excellence" (p. 396). Thus, these conflicting pressures in the Canadian school system resulted in a "confused transition" through which Canadian education appeared to progress during the f i f t i e s (Stevenson, 1970b). According to Stevenson (1979), school curricula across the country during the post-war years reflected a mixture of progressivism and academic traditionalism, and uniformity of educational "opinion and practice" gradually disappeared. Several public investigations into education at this time (e.g. the Hope Commission) revealed that the progressive principles of democratization, child-centered curricula, the inculcation of good citizenship and respect for the child's individuality were widely accepted as "tenets of the curriculum for public education by i t s spokesmen" (p. 98). In reality, however, the curriculum of the high school continued to remain centered on the traditional academic subjects, and progressive pedagogy was not common practice among teachers. As the gap between educational rhetoric and practice became increasingly apparent, the ideals of progressivism became the focus of educational debate. Educators in B.C. openly expessed concern regarding progressive education in the schools of the province. There exists, wrote one contributor to The B.C. Teacher, a "wide gulf between the li b e r a l i z i n g ideals [of progressivism]...and what is made possible in practice." Another educator indicated that modern education contributed to the "lowering of standards in 79 foundation subjects." The feeling that students were now "passed from grade to grade by the Grace of God and the i l l - w i l l of the teacher advising the promotion" was, according to the writer, becoming widespread among teachers (Harries, 1948, p.146-149). The educational community was thus ripe for change when, in 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik. The peace that had replaced war was underlined by uncertainty accompanying the Cold War, and the sudden emergence of the Space Age proved unsettling for North America. In the U.S., fear of lagging behind in technology moved government to emphasize a more academic curriculum, particularly in the areas of science and mathematics (McNeil, 1981). Canada also responded to these events, and thus began a period of academic curriculum reform in North America (Tomkins, 1981a). Political-Legal Decisions P o l i t i c a l decisions made in B.C. during the late f i f t i e s and early sixties had a direct impact on education in.the province. One major decision made in 1958 was the appointment of a Royal Commission on Education. The extent to which world developments (such as the launching of Sputnik) influenced this decision are d i f f i c u l t to determine since Department of Education policy recommended curriculum evaluation every ten years and the B.C. curriculum was due for a revision at that time. However, the influence of changing societal conditions on the school curriculum was alluded to in the Department's annual report of the year preceding the appointment of the Royal Commission. It was emphasized that as "society is going through a transition...the curriculum...is no longer sufficient to meet the demands of present-day living...[and] basic courses may be in need of adjustment and revision" (B.C. Department of Education, 1957c, p.FF31). The Report of the Royal Commission states that the investigation of education in B.C. was intended to improve the educational system's effectiveness "in the light of 80 world conditions" and makes direct reference to "the launching of earth s a t e l l i t e s " as a significant world development (Chant, 1960, p.2-3). Such statements indicate that these world developments were a contributing factor in the Department's decision to appoint the Royal Commission. The Commissioners undertaking this investigation viewed the existing aims of education for the province as "vague and a l l encompassing." They described the curriculum as "overloaded", and noted the disproportionate number of courses in elective areas (i.e., home economics with over fourteen course offerings) as compared to academic subjects (i.e., Science with only seven offerings). "One gains the impression," they wrote, "that almost any course may be introduced into the curriculum, provided its advocates are able to show that i t is useful in some way" (Chant, 1960, p.15-16). The Commissioners recommended that the promotion of intellectual development should be the primary aim of education in the province and that i t should be the major emphasis throughout the entire programme. The commissioners stated that "there [was] a recognized order^ of priority [for school subjects]...and top priority must be given to the word and number subjects, which provided the base for learning practically a l l other subjects" (Chant, 1960, p.283). School subjects were classified into three categories according to the relative emphasis they should receive: 1) "Central" subjects were those considered of central importance in the curriculum, and were comprised of the basic academic courses traditionally offered in schools — reading, English language, and mathematics. It was recommended that increased time be spent on these. 2) "Inner" subjects were considered to be almost as important as the central subjects, and included the sciences, social studies, and foreign languages. Although the Commissioners indicated there was a "recognized order" they do not state the basis for this order. 81 3) "Outer" subjects were considered to be of lesser importance, and included the "elective" subjects such as the arts, commerce, industrial education, and home economics. (Chant, 1960,p.282-284). A reorganization of the school system was recommended in order to comply with this new aim of intellectual development. Some of the suggested changes included the transfer of grade 7 to the elementary school and the administration of departmental examinations at the end of grade 7 to determine which students should be enrolled in a newly proposed junior vocational programme. It was also suggested that the academic programme be intensified to give top priority to English and mathematics, less to history, social studies, science, geography, and languages, and s t i l l less to the arts, commerce, industrial arts, and home economics. Further qualifying exams at the end of grade 10 were suggested to determine which students should enter a senior vocational programme (Chant, 1960). Government adoption of this Report affected both the structure and focus of education in the province and had a number of implications for the home economics curriculum. It affected the status of home economics as a school subject and influenced the goals emphasized in the senior home economics curriculum. In 1961, grade 7 was transferred from the junior high school to the elementary school because of the "relative immaturity" of grade 7 students compared to other students in the secondary schools. As well, i t was believed that substantial financial saving would result since additions to elementary schools to accommodate more students would incur less cost than additions to secondary schools. As adequate f a c i l i t i e s for home economics were not normally available in elementary schools, home economics was to be discontinued in grade 7 (Chant, 1960, p.263). The loss of the grade 7 student population not only meant a reduction in the number of students enrolled in the home economics programme, but also the loss of a "direct link with the home". Home economics teachers believed that these students were more likely 82 to discuss the subject with their parents and to be involved in home practice ("Experts Protest", 1961). In this sense, these students had constituted a form of b u i l t - i n public relations for the subject. In 1960 the Technical and Vocational Training Act, passed by the federal government, strengthened the Commissioners' recommendations regarding vocational education in secondary schools. This Act provided funding to the provinces for construction of f a c i l i t i e s for vocational education at the high school level (Stevenson, 1970; Pitman, 1981). Some funding for the addition of teaching cafeterias to some schools facil i t a t e d the implementation of the Foods and Nutrition stream of the Community Services Programme and reinforced the new commercial-vocational emphasis in home economics education in British Columbian schools. The new emphasis in education in British Columbia had a major impact on the home economics curriculum. One year before the Royal Commission was appointed, the stated purpose of home economics education in the high school was "to prepare the student for effective home l i v i n g . " It was emphasized that home economics "was not a vocational training programme...[and] a l l courses are planned around significant aspects of home and family li v i n g , [as]...each one can make a major contribution to the general education of the student" (B.C. Department of Education, 1957b, p.4). However, within six years, vocational training had become an important dimension of home economics education in high schools of the province. Influential Groups A number of groups appeared to be influential in shaping the public school curriculum in B.C. during the f i f t i e s and early sixties. For example, several groups made submissions to the Chant Commission concerning the direction education should take in B.C. at this time. According to Johnson (1964), the Chant Commission relied heavily on public opinion in the 83 development of their report. A number of groups submitted briefs regarding the place of home economics in the public school curriculum and may have influenced the final recommendations for the subject made by the Commissioners. Some groups indicated that elective subjects such as home economics detracted from the academic curriculum. It was felt by the UBC Faculty Association and several school boards, for example, that home economics " i s a parental responsibility...and should be turned over to other agencies...[as it ] diverts pupil and teacher time and effort [as well as] a disproportionate share of funds from other subjects" (Chant, 1960, p.20,326,327). The UBC Faculty Association also recommended that there be a "drastic reduction in the number of options in the University Programme chiefly through the elimination of non-academic and vocational courses (Agriculture, Commerce, Home Economics, Industrial Arts)..." (Chant, 1960, p.261). Other groups supported the inclusion of home economics in the curriculum as they believed that i t f i l l e d a practical education need for students unable to cope with academic work. The Vancouver Counsellors' Association, for example, fel t that the "practical application" aspect of these courses would increase student motivation and reduce failure, loss of interest and behavior problems often associated with students of limited a b i l i t y . The Nanaimo Distr i c t Teachers' Association recommended that a "terminal homemaking course" be set up for those students on the General Programme, and for "lower a b i l i t y groups" (Chant, 1960, p.327). Those students leaving school prior to grade 11 or 12 would then have some training in preparation for a vocation upon leaving school. In view of their f i n a l recommendations that home economics be an "outer" subject and that i t should constitute part of a vocational stream for senior students, the Commissioners apparently considered the subject in similar ways. The Home Economics Teachers of B.C. also submitted a brief to the Chant 84 Commission outlining the importance of home economics as a school subject. In compiling this brief, they relied heavily on the reports of the Canadian Research Committee on Practical Education which were based on research undertaken in the mid-1940's and completed in the early f i f t i e s . These reports emphasized that while a varied curriculum was necessary in light of large and diverse student populations, i t s development tended to be inhibited by university entrance requirements. Because not a l l students could complete high school work associated with academic study, the Committee recommended provision of a special course with a core of "common" subjects for those unlikely to complete a "regular" course. Pupil retention could be increased, and students would conceivably be better prepared for entry into society and the workforce (Canadian Research Committee on Practical Education, 1951). The Committee identified home economics as one of the "special" courses recommended for inclusion in the school curriculum. " A l l secondary schools [should offer the course] and...more g i r l s be encouraged to enroll" (Canadian Research Committee on Practical Education, 1951, p.20). They fel t that this course should involve both preparation for homemaking as a vocation as well as an opportunity to explore work-related applications of the subject. The Committee viewed home economics as a valuable component of the secondary school curriculum at this time, particularly as education for the work place had become a public concern following World War II. In their brief to the Chant Commission, the Home Economics Teachers identified the home as the fundamental institution in the physical and mental development of individuals who make up society. The purpose of home economics was defined as "to train the individual in practices which w i l l lead to successful, happy, family lives in an ever-changing social and economic situation." Recognizing that many mothers worked outside the home, the brief emphasized the lack of time for home instruction in these matters, and hence the necessity for the school to assume some responsibility in this capacity. 85 The Home Economics Teachers cited in their brief the findings of the Canadian Research Committee on Practical Education (reported above) to indicate the very real need for home economics education in the public schools. Home economics was ranked the f i f t h highest school subject considered most useful by g i r l s , and third highest by young married women. It is interesting to note that while the brief stressed that the education of females constituted the foundation of home economics education, the inclusion of boys in home economics courses was strongly recommended. While the Report on Practical Education was supposedly used by the Home Economics teachers to strengthen the argument concerning the significance of home economics in schools, i t was quoted selectively. No mention was made, for example, of the role home economics could play in vocational training outside the realm of homemaking, a dimension of the subject indicated in the Report to be increasingly relevant due to the changing functions of schooling. The Home Economics Teachers also stressed the need to make home economics courses equal in status to others, with written examinations at a l l levels and standards comparable to those in other subjects. I In this regard, the home economics teachers appeared to disagree with other, groups that their courses '••"A \ were "vocational" or were a refuge for low ability-students. Instead, they \j \ recommended that home economics be organized into two streams — university and non-academic — in order to "accommodate children of varying mental a b i l i t y " (BCTF, 1959). \ The Home Economics Teachers group was recognized by the BCTF as one of the new subject area specialist associations in December of 1960 (BCTF, 1960). Following government adoption of the Chant Report, this newly-formed Teachers of Home Economics Specialist Association (THESA) suggested a number of specific changes for the subsequent curriculum revision in home economics. These included supporting compulsory Home Economics at the grade 8 level and recommending that "a comprehensive elective course in Home Economics...be 86 provided for the academic student...[and that] Home Economics...have a prominent place in the academic program of the secondary schools of British Columbia." They suggested that an academic approach to Home Economics would provide "introductory preparation for further study" in related fields, and "unless the academic g i r l can be given a challenging program in the senior secondary schools....professions related to Home Economics training w i l l suffer" (THESA, 1964, p.1-3). For reasons which w i l l become apparent shortly, the proposal was rejected and an academic stream of home economics was never instituted. THESA also attempted to effect change in the senior foods component of the Community Services Programme. Members of this group requested a realignment of the Foods 12A and Foods 12B courses. Among their concerns were the qualifications of the instructors in these courses, desegregation of the "Foods Specialty" option for boys, and the inclusion of an elective Foods 12 course for " g i r l s who have selected another specialty" (BCTF, 1967). Although these recommendations were considered by the Department of Education, no significant adjustments were made to accommodate them. The Department of Education also influenced home economics curriculum. In addition to their role in appointing the Royal Commission and subsequently adopting many of its recommendations, the Department also vetoed changes in the curriculum proposed by home economics professionals. Requests made by the home economics .educators for an academic stream of senior electives were rejected because i t was fe l t that the existing courses could be constructed to "adapt to [differing student] abilities...[and] attempting to provide separate courses for different a b i l i t i e s is not satisfactory." (Meredith, no date) The recommendation submitted by the Home Economics Teachers was viewed as weak in light of the dominant "homemaking aspect" of stated home economics philosophy. The Department felt that because of the emphasis in home economics on homemaking and manipulative s k i l l s i t was best viewed as an elective subject 87 with a strong vocational orientation. Action taken by the Department following adoption of the Chant Report confirmed this view of the subject. While the Department of Education did not adopt the Chant Commission's recommendations regarding a Junior Vocational Programme, i t did institute an Occupational Programme for low a b i l i t y students at the junior level, and home economics was included as part of this new course of study. In schools where the Occupational Programme was introduced, home economics teachers were assigned to teach a component of the programme entitled "Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s " (B.C. Department of Education, 1963b). At the senior level, the Community Services Programme constituted a vocational stream of home economics primarily to prepare students for further training or entry into an occupation following high school graduation. While the vocation of homemaking remained as one purpose of the home economics programme, the Department of Education had created an additional emphasis on vocation in the workplace. Home economics as an academic profession appeared to be less acceptable to the Department of Education than home economics in skill-oriented jobs. 16 The Division of Home Economics in the Department of Education also influenced the development of the B.C. home economics curriculum following the Chant Commission. The Division made several contributions to the home economics curriculum revision. F i r s t , they supported the continued inclusion of home economics in the school curriculum to both the Chant Commission and to the Department of Education. Using the findings of the Canadian Research Committee on Practical Education, the Home Economics Division emphasized the need for home economics education in the public schools of the province (Division of Home Economics, 1959). These same research findings served as the foundation for their later recommendation to the Department of Education At this time the Division of Home Economics consisted of Mildred Orr, Director, and Jean Irvine and Jean Campbell, Inspectors. 88 that home economics be made compulsory for g i r l s in grade 8 (Division of HomeEconomics, 1961). This recommendation was implemented by the Department in 1963 "in the belief that a l l pupils need or can benefit in a predominantly academic curriculum from some organized training in the practical s k i l l s involved [in home economics]" (B.C. Department of Education, 1963a, p.7). A third way in which the Division influenced the home economics curriculum was through the process of curriculum revision. As had been the case in the past, a home economics representative in the Department of Education directed the curriculum revision and was required to communicate with Department of Education o f f i c i a l s in the Division of Curriculum regarding a l l decisions made. Recommendations regarding the senior foods component of the new Community Services Programme forwarded by THESA in 1967, for example, were scrutinized f i r s t by the Division of Home Economics. These comments were then forwarded to another Departmental o f f i c i a l for final approval (Orr, 1968). In this instance, the Division of Home Economics did not support the THESA recommendations, and while there is no record of the final decision-making process, the curriculum guide associated with the courses in question indicates that the majority of recommendations were not implemented. . \ \ V \ . . . . . , / The Division of Home Economics was also instrumental "in disseminating information,.and clarifying the intent of the new programme. While these duties were not directly connected with change in the curriculum, their execution may have influenced implementation of the revised curriculum which, in turn may have influenced how changes were instituted. In 1962, for example, the Division of Home Economics prepared a memo for distribution to principals and guidance counsellors. This memo was intended to "make this [grade 8] programme more effective and acceptable," and described the rationale underlying education for homemaking and the kinds of learnings expected of students "when properly taught" (Orr, 1962). At this time the Division also prepared two articles concerning home economics education for 89 i n c l u s i o n i n the 1963 G u i d a n c e B u l l e t i n . One a r t i c l e o u t l i n e d c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r b o t h a c a d e m i c and n o n - a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the home e c o n o m i c s programme. The s e c o n d a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e d the w ide r a n g e o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n home e c o n o m i c s . T h e s e a r t i c l e s were i n t e n d e d to s o l i c i t e n r o l l m e n t i n the programme and to p u b l i c i z e the v e r s a t i l i t y o f the s u b j e c t . I t was f e l t by the D i v i s i o n t h a t home e c o n o m i c s c o u l d be " a p p l i e d i n d a i l y l i v i n g . . . f o r p r i v a t e and p e r s o n a l n e e d s . . . [ a n d c o u l d a l s o ] make the a c t i v i t i e s o f the homemaker more e f f e c t i v e . . . [ a s w e l l a s ] p r e p a r e g i r l s f o r v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f employment o u t s i d e the home" ( O r r , 1963). I n f l u e n t i a l I n d i v i d u a l s The names o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r e d i n many documents a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n : M i l d r e d O r r was P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r o f Home E c o n o m i c s and J e a n C a m p b e l l and J e a n I r v i n e were I n s p e c t o r s o f Home E c o n o m i c s i n the D i v i s i o n o f Home E c o n o m i c s , Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n ; S p e r r i n Chant was head o f the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n t o E d u c a t i o n ; and Hugh Crombie was c h a i r m a n o f the C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h Commit tee on P r a c t i c a l E d u c a t i o n . T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s may be c o n s i d e r e d to be i n f l u e n t i a l s i n c e they were i n p o s i t i o n s w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d and w i l l no t be f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d . I f t h e r e were o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t i o n and home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e , t h e i r names do not a p p e a r i n documents l o c a t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . THE 1979 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION In k e e p i n g w i t h M i n i s t r y p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n e v e r y t e n y e a r s , the f i f t h m a j o r r e v i s i o n o f the home e c o n o m i c s c u r r i c u l u m was begun i n the mid - 1 9 7 0 ' s and c o m p l e t e d i n September o f 1979. The a i m o f t h i s new c u r r i c u l u m was t o " e d u c a t e young p e o p l e . . . t o e n a b l e them t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y as i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l y members t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i f e c y c l e s . " 90 Study of "the family, nutrition, conservation, consumer s k i l l s and leisure a c t i v i t i e s , " dealing with social, economic and technological changes, and developing a broad knowledge base in preparation for specific training and/or further training received increased emphasis in this new curriculum (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979b, p.1,2). While the home and family continued to be unifying concepts in the programme of studies, these were expanded to reflect two additional dimensions: the individual as a family member and family-societal interaction. For the f i r s t time the entire home economics programme was open to both boys and g i r l s and "both content and methodology" reflected a coeducational approach. It was expected that Management and Consumerism would be integrated into subject matter of a l l home economics courses. In this revision, several new courses were introduced and some course t i t l e s were changed to more accurately reflect their content. While Home Economics 8 remained a composite course including the areas of Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles and Management and Consumerism, in some schools L i f e s k i l l s 8 was offered as an alternative to HE 8. L i f e s k i i l s 8 was designed as a coeducational course with condensed Home Economics 8 content plus an Industrial Education component. It was intended to be "child-centered rather than subject^centered...[focusing] on three areas of basic needs: home (shelter), food and clothing" (B.C. Department of Education, 1975b). Two new composite courses, Home Economics 9 and 10, were introduced at this time. Child Care 9 was revised to create a new course called Family Studies 10 which emphasized human development rather than child care. Textile Arts and Crafts 10 and 11 were new courses concerned with the application of the elements and principles of design to textiles. Since the new programme was co-educational there was no longer a need for a separate foods course for boys. Thus Cooking and Food Services 9 was deleted. At the senior level beginning courses in foods and clothing were 91 introduced for students who had not had the opportunity or inclination to take courses in these areas at the junior secondary level. Child Care 12, a course in child development, was expanded to include study of the human l i f e cycle, and was r e t i t l e d Family Studies 12. Management 11 was deleted from the programme of studies and was replaced with Housing and Interior Design 12. It was f e l t that this new t i t l e was more descriptive of course content (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1977). Since Home and Industrial Services 12 had never displayed sufficient enrollments, this course was eliminated (B.C. Department of Education, 1968, 1969). The concept of the Community Services Programme, where certain home economics courses were grouped to create a programme of study in a specialty area, was retained as part of the new Selected Studies Programme for senior students (B.C. Department of Education, 1974a). The new curriculum also featured a new format, characterized by "learning outcomes developed in scope and sequence using five levels which approximate grades at the secondary school." These learning outcomes (also called instructional objectives) described the anticipated results of instruction i.e. student performance associated with mastery of specific concepts. Learning outcomes for each home economics content area were organized so that basic concepts to be mastered were listed for each grade level~in a specified order of sequence for learning. Sometimes the same concept was listed for a l l five grade levels. Where this was the case, i t was expected that understanding of the concept would be continuously expanded as students built upon s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and knowledge acquired through mastery of the required learning outcomes in the preceding level(s) (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979b, p.3). This format differed greatly from that of the previous home economics curriculum in which topics to be covered for each grade level and in each content area were list e d with accompanying suggestions for student learning experiences. 92 This new curriculum was described as more flexible (B.C. Department of Education, 1975a) and was intended to provide some latitude for teachers in accommodating individual student needs, differences and a b i l i t i e s . (An out-line of the 1979 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix G.) Influential Social P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements Attention to the personal or human dimension of education became increasingly apparent as the seventies evolved. Several events contributed to the development of this new focus. During the sixties, there was considerable social instability in North America. Social and p o l i t i c a l unrest were influenced by Canadian francophone nationalism, racial c r i s i s in the U.S., and American involvement in the Vietnam War and were reflected in demonstrations, protests and r i o t s . As issues involving cultural minority and sexism were brought to public attention a movement concerned with human rights and freedoms emerged (Schubert, 1984). These developments, along with a still-expanding school population, shaped the direction of Canadian education in the sixties and early seventies. According to Tomkins (1981b), the decade of the sixties marked the zenith of mass education in Canada. Expansion in both educational programmes and f a c i l i t i e s reflected both the population explosion in schools and a renewed attention to equal opportunity in education, regardless of individual differences in a b i l i t y or interest. Studies of Canadian education during the sixties and early seventies advocated egalitarianism in education and emphasized "humanistic" and "personalistic" approaches to educating children. Attention was focused on the individuality of learners, increased f l e x i b i l i t y in curricular options for students, individualization of student programmes, and greater diversity of ' pedagogy (Stevenson, 1970, 1979; Tomkins, 1981b). Social relevance in education took on new meaning as meeting the needs of a l l students, regardless 93 of sex, age, race or a b i l i t y became paramount. The curriculum was expanded to encompass new social issues such as the concern for c i v i l rights and equality. More vocational and "alternate" programmes for students with social, emotional and learning d i s a b i l i t i e s were included in school curricula, and more electives were provided for academic students in order to reflect the "individual" nature of student interest (Stevenson, 1979). Political-Legal Decisions Several p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions influenced curriculum development in the province during the early seventies and did much to alter home economics curriculum during this decade. A document entitled "The Public School System - Directions for Change" was introduced in the legislature during its 1974 spring session and reflected a renewed emphasis on equal opportunity in education. It was fe l t that many students were treated "inequitably, since their education needs are not met." Because a l l pupils in the province should have the right to an education which "provided a measure of success for every student," the Department of Education announced its intent to "develop effective programmes in this area" ("Directions for Change", 1974). Changed graduation requirements in the secondary school were introduced in 1972 and marked the beginning of a period of-decentralization in education in the province. The purpose of the changes in the senior secondary curriculum was twofold. A distinction was made between requirements for graduation and requirements for admission to post secondary institutions. As well, an "increased measure of f l e x i b i l i t y in student programming" was provided, with programmes individually designed to meet "particular pupil needs or future aspirations". Local school d i s t r i c t s assumed increased authority for making decisions regarding requirements for graduation and for student programmes (B.C. Department of Education, 1972b, p.l3,D36). At the senior level a l l students were required to take four courses (English 11 and 94 12, Social Studies 11 and Physical and Health Education and Guidance 11) called "general education constants". Students could then elect to pursue either a Selected Studies Programme or a Combined Studies Programme. Students choosing to enroll in Selected Studies could study indepth a major f i e l d of learning in one of the areas of the following areas: Arts and Sciences, Commercial, Industrial, Community Services, Visual and Performing Arts or Agriculture. Those in Combined Studies could study related fields in breadth, choosing senior courses from "the broad spectrum of courses numbered 11 and 12... provided that school regulations pertaining to pupil programmes are met" (B.C. Department of Education, 1972a, p.35). Courses required for each programme were prescribed, and clearly there was great potential for expanded curriculum development in elective subject areas. Another decision which complemented this decentralization in education involved a 1974 amendment to the Public Schools Act. School d i s t r i c t s were permitted to introduce locally developed courses into their schools without f i r s t seeking final approval from the Department of Education. This amendment was intended to increase the authority of elected school trustees, enabling them "to be more directly responsible to local educational requirements." The Department however, continued to prescribe and to have authority over a "core" curriculum (B.C. Department of Education, 1974b, p.DIO). This decentralization in curriculum influenced the development of new home economics courses at this time. For example, a new course entitled "Textile Crafts" was introduced into some Vancouver schools in the mid-1970's (Cole, 1979). In 1973, several new policies intended to provide "opportunity for studies in the f i e l d of human growth and family l i v i n g " led to the introduction into B.C. schools of courses in family l i f e education (B.C. Department of Education, 1973c; 1973a, p.E25). The rationale for these policies were stated in terms of "the pressures, half-truths and conflicting 95 values" enpountered by young people. It was fe l t that the school had a role to play in "providing opportunity to acquire the knowledge and insight necessary to cope with this situation" and a curriculum which neglected these kinds of concerns might be viewed as "irrelevant". A series of provincial guidelines for programme development and implementation was to be developed and local authorities, "at their discretion", could oversee the development of local courses in family l i f e education "deemed appropriate to the needs of pupils and the desires of the community" (B.C. Department of Education, 1973b, p.1-2). Two home economics courses which were revised in Vancouver under these policies included Child Care 9 (re-titled Human Development 9) and Child Care 12 (re-titled Family Studies 12) (Vancouver School Board, 1974). These courses were eventually incorporated into home economics curriculum revisions initiated by the Department of Education later that year. Human rights policies contributed to further changes in the home economics curriculum during the decade of the seventies. In keeping with the B.C. Human Rights Code, the Department announced its intention to "review and revise" HE 8 and Industrial Education 8 in order to "increase their appropriateness for either sex," as traditional enrolment practices had resulted in segregation and sex discrimination in both courses (B.C. Department of Education, 1974c). But because at this time IE 8 and HE 8 were compulsory (B.C. Department of Education, 1974a), offering these courses to students of both sexes was d i f f i c u l t to implement. One locally-developed course assisted in resolving this problem. A coeducational mobile home economics programme for grade 7 students had been introduced in Vancouver in 1974 (B.C. Department of Education, 1974b). Because of i t s success, i t was felt that this concept could be extended to the grade 8 level and used to combine both Home Economics and Industrial Education. This locally-developed course became the basis of a coeducational course called " L i f e s k i l l s 8". This programme was introduced into two 96 Vancouver schools in 1976 (Vancouver School Board, 1977), and although the Department of Education considered developing a prescribed course entitled "Life S k i l l s " (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1978), i t did not materialize. Locally developed L i f e s k i l l s 8 programmes, however, remained in operation in many school d i s t r i c t s in the province. The concern with human rights influenced the integration of boys into traditionally female-dominated home economics courses and, i f necessary, the adjustment of course content and approaches used in teaching i t . Influential Groups The emergence of three new home economics courses over a period of three years reflects the impact of po l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions on the direction of home economics curriculum during the early seventies. The substance of these changes were ultimately determined by several groups which had direct input into the curriculum revision. THESA appeared instrumental in both advocating change and in determining the direction of change. While i t has already been noted that the curriculum was due for a major revision, the THESA group acted on their own i n i t i a t i v e to stimulate change in two ways. Early in 1972 THESA distributed a questionnaire to its members to "determine the extent to which teachers of home economics were satisfied with the...home economics curriculum in British Columbia" (THESA, 1973a). The results of this questionnaire formed the basis of a brief prepared for submission to the Department of Education in the f a l l of 1973. This brief recommended several ways in which provincial home economics educators believed the curriculum should change: 1) a new curriculum format^ 2) the inclusion of Family Life Education at both junior and senior levels The new format was not specified in this brief. 97 3) revision of a l l textiles courses in light of technological changes 4) coeducational course offerings 5) increased emphasis on consumer education at a l l levels 6) the inclusion of "handicrafts" in a l l textiles and management courses 7) deleting the "Community Services" programme component 8) adding an interior design course at the senior level 9) adapting Child Care courses to encompass family l i v i n g content 10) incorporating the boys' food course into a coeducational course at the grade IX level (THESA, 1973b). Many of these recommendations from THESA were incorporated in the final curriculum revision. The Home Economics Revision Committee, composed of five home economics teachers from different school d i s t r i c t s , two curriculum consultants and the Provincial Director of Home Economics, was a second influential group in this home economics revision. This Committee was influential in two ways. F i r s t , i t evaluated the current home economics guide and made decisions regarding what changes should be made. Second, as in past revisions, the Committee forwarded a l l proposed changes to the Department of Education. During the i n i t i a l stages of the revision, the Committee undertook to examine home economics curriculum guides from other provinces and the U.S. The Committee also undertook to determine what was currently being done in home economics education in B.C. and to evaluate the extent to which adolescent needs were addressed by the present home economics courses. In their deliberations they also examined the demand for "courses in Consumer Education and Family Life Education" (Home Economics Curriculum Revision Committee, 1974). Correspondence associated with this revision indicated that consumerism had long been a "problem area" in the B.C. home economics curriculum (Irvine, 1974). A number of home economics teachers in the province advocated that a course entitled "Consumer Education" be added to the revised home economics curriculum. Approximately one-third of 545 home economics teachers who responded to a questionnaire concerning this revision requested a programme name change from "Home Economics" to some t i t l e incorporating the concept of consumerism. "Life Management", "Family and Consumer Studies" and "Economics of Life S k i l l s " were some of the suggestions made (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1976). However, since the Committee generally f e l t that consumer education should be "an integral part of the [home economics] programme" (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1974), i t was subsequently decided that consumer education would be integrated with other home economics courses rather than be offered as a separate course (Home . . . •. -. > Economics Revision Committee, 1975b). The Committee also solicited input from provincial home economics teachers regarding family l i f e education in the new curriculum. Replies to their survey indicated that respondents generally fe l t that the current course name "Child Care" was unsuitable for courses which included family l i f e education concepts and that t i t l e s such as "Child Development" or "Human Development" would be more appropriate (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1976). The Committee, however, was hesitant to endorse the t i t l e "Human Development" as i t was fe l t that the "use of [this t i t l e ] may cause the public, teachers and students to expect that the course w i l l contain Family Life - Sex Education" (Campbell, 1977). The Committee recommended to the Department of Education that the t i t l e "Human Development" not be used for the \ courses developed to replace Child- Care and that a cautionary statement be included in the new guide indicating that "any extension of the courses as outlined here must have the approval of the local school board" (Campbell, 1977; B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979, p.4). The Department of Education played a central role in mediating this curriculum revision. It had been emphasized at the f i r s t Home Economics Curriculum Revision Committee meeting that "the Committee was appointed by the Department of Education and is therefore responsible to the Department of Education...[and a l l ] recommendations [will be] forwarded to the Department" (Home Economics Revision Committee, 1974). For example, fin a l approval of 99 course names was Co come from o f f i c i a l s in the Curriculum Development Branch, and the proposed course t i t l e s "Human Development 10 & 12" were vetoed. As well, the Superintendent of Educational Programmes indicated that some of the proposed units of study seemed inappropriate: "'Mate Selection' has primitive or agricultural or biological overtones. If this course is being developed i t should not be turned into a personal development course. Therefore i t s content seems to be becoming also a personal guidance course. If...so, i t should...not be a provincially prescribed...or authorized course" (Meredith, 1977). As a result of these decisions, the term 'mate selection' was deleted from the outline and the t i t l e "Human Development" was not used. Thus the Department of Education shaped to some extent the form Family Life Education was to take in the Home Economics curriculum document. A commission on education in the province undertaken by the BCTF in 1968 may have contributed indirectly to curriculum change in home economics during the 1970's. The commission report ("Involvement: The Key to Better Schools") had advocated that education be humanized and personalized. It was recommended that local school boards be empowered to "develop curriculum that meets... the...needs and interests of a community." It was also suggested that an "extensive diversity of courses" be provided by the curriculum, including "human relations [in the area of] family l i f e education" (BCTF, 1968, p.53, 57-59). As noted earlier, policies paralleling these recommendations were instituted by the Department of Education in the mid-1970's, and while i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine the extent to which this commission influenced educational policy in B.C., i t is conceivable that i t provided some impetus for change. The BCTF also endorsed THESA's recommendation for curriculum revision in home economics. The Federation supported a l l of the recommendations included in the THESA brief and indicated the willingness of the THESA executive to be involved in the revision (Church, 1974). 100 Influential Individuals Names of several individuals such as Jean Campbell and Jean Irvine in the Division of Home Economics and W.B. Naylor and J.R. Meredith in the Department of Education appeared on documents assocated with this curriculum revision. As their influence stemmed from their positions held with respect to the curriculum revision, i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine any individual influence beyond that documented earlier. Margaret Murphy, coordinator of home economics for the Vancouver School Board from 1966 to 1979, was also influential in home economics curriculum development throughout the seventies. She participated actively in the development of L i f e s k i l l s 8 as documented in minutes of meetings held with Department of Education o f f i c i a l s (B.C. Department of Education, 1975b). She also led a group of Vancouver home economics teachers who prepared two locally developed Family Life Education courses — Human Development 9 and Family Life 12 (Vancouver School Board, 1974). As well, Mrs. Murphy instituted other locally-developed courses in foods and textiles which were designed for senior students with no previous background in these areas (Cole, 1979; Murphy, 1970). THE 1985 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION 18 A sixth, partial revision of the home economics curriculum commenced in . . . 19 January of 1985. According to the Ministry of Education's ten year plan for curriculum evaluation, the entire home economics curriculum was due for revision; however only one area of the home economics programme was identified This analysis is based on the draft curriculum outline released by the Ministry of Education in February 1985. The Department of Education became the Ministry of Science, Education & Technology in 1976. 101 for revision at this time. Thus this revision is an anomaly in that i t did not involve the entire home economics programme. Although the revision is not yet complete, i t is worthy of scrutiny because of this uniqueness. No revisions were made to the general aims and objectives of the home economics programme or to the format of the curriculum. As well, no revisions were made to any part of the junior programme. Revisions to the senior programme focused on the elimination of two courses — Family Studies 12 and Housing and Interior Design 12 —. and their recombination into a new course entitled "Family Management 12". The aim of this new course was to "assist students to explore the reciprocal influences of family, self and society, and to develop positive attitudes about themselves and their world." The curriculum was designed to use processes of "decision-making, communicating and problem-solving" as a means of developing some of the "necessary s k i l l s , knowledge and a b i l i t i e s to meet the challenges of our dynamic and complex society" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1985). Four content areas were identified; human growth and development, interpersonal relationships, management of human and material resources and one's relationship with the environment. The family, self A \ (individual) and society were retained from the previous Family Studies 12 course (with an added emphasis on their "interactive nature") and the concepts of resource management and of environment were retained from the former Housing 12 course. This new course represented a major departure from the more traditional view of home economics as "practical arts", and was generally more reflective of the contemporary stated mission of home economics: to enable families to create systems of action leading to self development and to cooperative participation in the critique and formulation of social goals (Brown & Paolucci, 1978). (An outline of the 1985 Home Economics Curriculum Revision is found in Appendix H.) 102 Influential, Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements As the decade of the seventies unfolded, education was once again re-examined because of problems associated with declining school enrollments, increasing economic ins t a b i l i t y and financial constraints and an apparent decrease in public confidence in the schools. A move toward "accountability" and "back to basics" in education became apparent in North America and in B.C. (Stevenson, 1979; Tomkins, 1981b). According to Stevenson (1979) these accountability and back to basics movements replaced the previous emphasis on "variety, the individual and innovation" in education (p. 107). In B.C., attention was directed toward accountability in both student achievement and in educational finance and administration. Concern regarding what appeared to be a decline in the basic s k i l l s taught in schools of the province was reflected in public demands for a "return to the three R's" and a more rigorous, academic focus in schooling (Russell, 1976). Per pupil costs in B.C. had risen beyond general growth in the economy during the seventies, and although enrollments were declining, education expenditures had continued to increase (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1976, 1978). Funding for education became more d i f f i c u l t to negotiate and financial accountability became a central issue in educational debate of the seventies. In the 1980's, public interest and p o l i t i c a l response in B.C. appeared to center on inflation and unemployment during a period of economic recession. In education, retrenchment and cutbacks were applied to a l l areas: achievement, administration and finance. Thus, in contrast to the latter part of the sixties and the early seventies, there was a general move toward an increasingly centralized approach to education, where the development of intellectual s k i l l s was re-emphasized and where the concern with student achievement and with financial support of education were more overt. 103 Political-Legal Decisions The move to a more centralized approach in education and the re-emphasis on the development of intellectual s k i l l s as a general goal of education in B.C. were reflected in pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions made by the Ministry of Education during the latter part of the seventies and the early eighties. In 1976, for example, the Ministry had emphasized the need for "strong [Ministry] direction" in education in the province. Indicating that the "citizens of [B.C.] expect the government to take a more positive role in defining what should be taught in our schools" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1976), the Ministry introduced a Core Curriculum that outlined basic learnings for a l l students. By 1984 this centralized, back to basics movement was reflected in revised high school graduation requirements which directly influenced curriculum revision changes in six secondary school subjects, one of which was home economics (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984a). In a document released by the Ministry of Education, i t was stated that for many high school students, the senior secondary years had become "more exploratory than the junior years". Because many of these students appeared to be making course selections on the basis of such c r i t e r i a as "where friends are going and which courses do not require prerequisites," the Ministry \ -decided to eliminate the Selected Studies/Combined Studies programme structure of the 70's. It was also stated that a reaffirmation of the "central importance of English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies" was crucial for academic students, as well as those intending to secure immediate employment, "as the changing nature of the workplace demands a greater understanding of international developments and an increasing competence in language, computation and technological literacy" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984b, p.3,8). Also of concern to the Ministry was an apparent general decline in the 104 20 academic standards set for students in B.C. schools. In a presentation in January of 1985, the Director of the Curriculum Development Branch in the Ministry of Education made several points concerning achievement standards for high school completion in the province. He outlined, for example, the discrepancy between the smaller number of students completing high school successfully in the sixties and early seventies, and the larger number graduating in the late seventies. According to him, this increased number of students graduating during the seventies appeared to reflect a generally lowered standard of achievement in B.C. high schools. It appeared that more students were graduating on the Combined Studies Programme, which had minimum academic requirements for graduation and which enabled students to enroll in a wide variety of elective subjects. He indicated that because these elective areas were not provincially assessed in terms of student achievement (as were the academic "constant" subjects at that time), i t was more d i f f i c u l t to determine whether adequate standards of achievement were being met. Because the increased number of graduating students was deemed "too high to reflect adequate or appropriate standards," i t was decided by the Ministry of Education to revise- graduation requirements in order to "raise the standards for high school completion" (Overgaard, 1985). It was intended by the Ministry that these revised graduation requirements would in part help students "develop a focused program that provides a sense of direction and accomplishment in their last two.years of school" (Ministry of Education, 1984b, p.8). The changes involved both an increase in the number of courses required for graduation and changes in numerical course designations to satisfy a "prerequisite" requirement for On January 9, 1985, Bob Overgaard, the Director of the Curriculum Development Branch in the Ministry of Education, spoke to a class of under-graduate students enrolled in Education 404, at the University of B.C. and discussed the recent curriculum changes to be introduced into B.C. public schools. 105 senior level electives. As of September 1985, students enrolled in grade 11 would be required to take fourteen — rather than twelve — courses numbered .11 and 12, and would be required to pass thirteen of these in order to be eligible for graduation. A l l students would be required to take four provincially authorized "12" level courses, including an English 12 course. As of September 1986, a l l provincial "12" level courses would have grade 11 level prerequisites (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984a). These changes impacted on home economics and resulted in a revision to the senior home economics programme. Two home economics courses, Family Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 were identified as "12" level courses which did not have grade 11 prerequisites. In order to rectify this situation, the Ministry mandated that the two courses — Family Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 — were to be eliminated and recombined to create a third-stream specialty course for senior students called "Home Management". In keeping with other senior elective courses in the school curriculum, two levels, 11 and 12, were to be offered. As a result, the home economics programme was to be "consolidated to include only three areas of study: Foods & Nutrition, Clothing & Textiles and Home Management" (B.C. Ministry of ' \ Education, 1984a, p.3). V \ Prerequisites as part of the revised graduation requirements therefore had a direct and very specific influence on the home economics curriculum. Not only were student options for electives being reduced but also a revision to the curriculum was required. Influential Groups Although these p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions of the Ministry of Education influenced the nature of the home economics curriculum change, the home economics educators in the province were responsible for the specific changes to be made in the content of the revised courses. Thus collectively they were 106 influential in this home economics revision. Several groups of home economics professionals made contributions to the revision through submission of 21 recommendations to the Ministry of Education. For example, an ad hoc committee composed of the instructor and students in a home economics education graduate course at the University of B.C., lobbied for the retention of Family Studies 12 as part of the senior home economics programme. This committee drafted a "curriculum proposal", recommending the "replacement of Foods & Nutrition 11 and Introductory Foods & Nutrition 11 with a more comprehensive course interrelating family and nutrition concepts." The course could then serve as a "prerequisite to Family Studies 12, Foods & Nutrition 12...and Cafeteria 12A & 12B" (Promnitz, 1984). This proposal was submitted to the Ministry for consideration. The Home Economics Department Heads of Vancouver Secondary Schools also made several recommendations to the Ministry regarding the home economics revision. I n i t i a l l y this group recommended that Family Studies 12 not be required to have a grade 11 prerequisite, and that i t be a "highly recommended course for a l l students." As well, the group recommended (as had the University of B.C. ad hoc committee) that "Foods & Nutrition 11 be adjusted to become Family Foods & Nutrition 11", which could serve as a prerequisite to "either a Family Studies special, or a Foods & Nutrition Specialty" (Vancouver Home Economics Department Heads, 1984). When these recommendations appeared to be unacceptable, this group submitted a second set of recommendations to the Ministry. Acting on the Ministry's original suggestion that Family Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 be recombined, the group prepared a course outlined combining elements of both Family Studies 12 and Housing & It should be noted that the Home Economics Branch in the Ministry of Education (previously called the Home Economics Division) was disbanded in 1980. 107 Interior Design 12, and entitled i t "Families: Health and Management". This outline was developed in consultation with "UBC home economics faculty, executive members of THESA and representatives from twelve school d i s t r i c t s . . . [ a l l of whom] endorsed the proposal." Concern was expressed by this group that i f a suitable two-year course was not developed quickly, home economics was in danger of becoming "the two areas of Foods & Nutrition and Clothing & Textiles" (Favaro, 1984). According to the Director of the Curriculum Development Branch, eliminating the two courses entirely was a very real possibility, and i t was largely due to the efforts of these home economics groups that the Ministry retained the idea of a third stream specialty in home economics. He also indicated that the provincial cabinet was originally opposed to the use of the word "family" in the course t i t l e , as i t was fe l t that the word was open to "misinterpretation". It was strongly suggested that "management" be included in the t i t l e because of it s "business connotations" (Overgaard, 1985). Following submission of the aforementioned course outline to the Ministry, this outline was agreed to in principle, but decisions regarding a name and structure of the course were to be made at a later date (Burnell, 1984). A third group of home economics professionals that was influential in this revision was the Home Economics Curriculum Revision Committee. This Committee, composed of a number of home economics teachers in the province and a curriculum coordinator, made significant contributions to the selection of a t i t l e for the new home economics courses and to the development of their content. Although, as noted earlier, the Ministry of Education had i n i t i a l l y recommended that the new senior home economics specialty area be called "Home Management", this Revision Committee negotiated for an alternate t i t l e . It was f e l t that the proposed t i t l e reflected a somewhat narrow and outdated conception of home economics and. that i t was not indicative of the intended focus of the new course. The Committee submitted several possible course 108 t i t l e s to the Ministry and the name "Family Management" was selected from among these. Contrary to previous indications, the word "family" was included as part of the course t i t l e , for reasons d i f f i c u l t to determine. With some input from home economics teachers in the province, the Home Economics Revision Committee also determined the content of the two new Family Management 11 and 12 courses. Drafts of these proposed courses were circulated at the annual THESA Conference in February of 1985 and comments and suggestions made by members of that time were considered in the preparation of the fin a l drafts of the courses. Implementation of Family Management 11 was planned for September of 1985, as Family Studies 12 and Housing & Interior Design 12 are phased out. Family Management 12 was scheduled to be implemented in September of 1986. It should be noted that, in addition to the specific curriculum recommendations passed on to the Ministry, a statement regarding home economics in B.C. schools was submitted by home economics teachers throughout the province as a collective response to the Ministry document entitled "Let's Talk About Schools". Influential Individuals ~...\ \ V--\ As was the case in the previous home economics curriculum revision, the names of several individuals such as Eda Favaro, Vancouver School Board Coordinator of Home Economics, Jane Promnitz, Assistant Professor at the University of British Columbia and Bob Overgaard, Director of the Curriculum Development Branch in the Ministry of Education, appeared on documents associated with this revision. The influence of these individuals appeared to be related to their positions with respect to the curriculum revision and any other influence they might have had is d i f f i c u l t to determine. 109 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS In this chapter, the data presented in Chapter III are discussed. The changes in the B.C. home economics curriculum are reviewed, the forces that have influenced these changes are identified and analyzed using Cuban's four curricular determinants and the role of provincial home economics professionals in the process of home economics curriculum change is explicated. Some conclusions are made based on these findings. Changes in the B.C. Home Economics Curriculum 1912-1985 As data in the previous chapter indicate, the formal home economics curricular documents in the public schools of British Columbia have undergone several general changes during the period from 1912 to 1985. These changes may be characterized in four ways: the gradual expansion of the central focus in home economics education; fluctuations in the educational status and relevance of home economics as a school subject; the shift from education of females to coeducation in home economics; and changes in home economics curriculum format and in course names. Analysis of the curricular documents indicates that while the central concepts of home economics education in B.C. have gradually expanded over time, the focus has primarily been on concerns of the home and family. As early as 1906 the aim of home economics in the schools of B.C. was described as "arousing an interest in the art of homemaking" (Vancouver School Board, 1906, p.22). Similarly, in 1922, this new school subject was considered "not merely to teach g i r l s to be cooks or seamstresses...but...fits [a gi r l ] to become a worthy member of her family and society" (B.C. Department of Education, 1922, p.C51). Following the f i r s t revision in 1927, the home economics curriculum emphasized the development of attitudes toward home and family l i f e . In the five subsequent revisions, the aims of home economics education were variously described as training for worthy home membership, 110 preparation for effective home li v i n g , understanding the role of the homeraaker and homemaking in family l i f e and functioning effectively as individuals and family members. Clearly the concepts of home and family have consistently formed the central core of home economics education in B.C. This central focus gradually expanded to include the concepts of vocationalism in the workplace and community interaction. It should be noted that references to vocationalism in home economics education have occurred throughout i t s development as a school subject. However, these references were primarily concerned with the notion of homemaking as a vocation for women and, as such, were directly related to the central concepts of home and family. As noted in Chapter II, home economics for g i r l s (along with industrial education for boys) was originally classified as a form of manual training. While home economics education was f i r s t viewed as a means by which g i r l s could learn manual dexterity and practical lessons about science (Rury, 1984), i t gradually came to be associated with training g i r l s for the vocation of homemaking. From the time of the introduction of needlework in 1895 until the mid-sixties, the stated aims of home economics education in B.C. have reflected this notion of vocationalism and have described its purpose in terms of a woman's ultimate occupation as a homemaker. In 1895 for example, home economics was described as "training in those useful domestic arts which...render [girls] competent in the most essential affairs of l i f e " (Vancouver Council of Women, 1895). In 1922, a more overt reference to a woman's eventual role as homemaker was apparent. At this time, home economics was described as preparation for g i r l s to "eventually conduct homes of their own" (B.C. Department of Education, 1922, p.C51). Continued references were made to this vocation of homemaking in the aims and purposes of B.C. home economics curriculum guides throughout the thirt i e s , forties and f i f t i e s . It was not until the 1965 curriculum revision that the central concepts of home and family were expanded to include education for the workplace. At this I l l time, vocational preparation was introduced at the senior level, and home economics specialty areas in the new Community Services Programme provided senior students with the opportunity to prepare for occupations in home economics-related areas. At the junior level, however, the central concepts continued to be the home and family. Although the concept of specialty areas associated with the Community Services Programme was retained in the 1979 curriculum revision, these areas were not limited to vocational preparation. They were intended to provide senior students with the opportunity for indepth study of a particular area of interest which could be related to future 22 employment. Thus, while vocational preparation is a part of the home economics curriculum in B.C., i t assumes a role which is secondary to that of the more central concepts of home and family. The most recent expansion, involving the notion of community interaction, was f i r s t introduced in'the 1979 revision and reiterated during the 1985 revision. This focus acknowledges the relationship of home and family with the larger community (society). This new emphasis represents a broader understanding of the concepts of home and family. According to Brown (1985), this interpretation "recognizes that the family and the public realm are related and that they feed into one another" (p.235). While the family is viewed as the center for the development of individuals, i t shares a reciprocal relationship with society in influencing this development. As Brown also states, "this commitment to the family...is not a commitment to fixed roles...or to division of labor according to sex...[and] is not, therefore, commitment to a s t i f l i n g domesticity" (p.235). Vocational preparation continues to be associated with home economics in this province as part of a Career Preparation Programme introduced in 1980. However, this programme has a curriculum of it s own and is separate from the home economics curriculum. Several home economics-related areas of study are offered in this programme, including Fashion Design and Production, Interior Design and Food Services. 112 It is clear that the concepts of home and family t-amain as the nucleus of home economics education in B.C. and that their early definition in terras of women's roles has been expanded considerably to encompass a more contemporary understanding of a l l facets of family l i f e . Documents studied clearly reveal that, during this period, home economics as a school subject in this province has experienced both expansion and contraction in i t s relevance and its educational status. Two distinct periods of expansion in home economics education in B.C. are apparent: the period from 1912-1952 and the period encompassed by the 1979 home economics curriculum revision. During both of these periods, the educational relevance of home economics as a school subject rested on i t s a b i l i t y to make contributions to the social and personal goals of schooling. At the time of the introduction of home economics into B.C. schools, i t was purported by some that the purpose of this new subject was to assist in preserving the "general welfare of Canadian homes" and to "lay the foundations of the future [for Canadian families]" (National Council of Women, 1894; Vancouver Council of Women, 1895). As Canada was experiencing extensive social changes at this time, due to industrialization, these aims appeared to many to be most relevant. As well, i t was fe l t by some that home economics had contributions to make to a new educational emphasis on the development of the whole individual: body, mind and s p i r i t . As part of this new "practical" education, home economics was seen as a "means for the development of brain, eye and hand, irhrough handicraft" (White, 1951, p.333). The value of this aspect of '.-c-..•>. economics was recognized by the Inspector of Victoria Schools in 1896, who described the practical work of home economics as "valuable training when intelligently taught. The mind is then employed as well as the fingers, the taste and judgement are cultivated, and habits of neatness are acquired" (B.C. Department of Education, 1896, p.226). As educators in B.C. became increasingly concerned with the social 113 implications of schooling, the perceived value of home economics as a school subject was enhanced. At the time of the Putman-Weir Survey in 1924, for example, the Survey commissioners recommended a more "elastic" and less academic curriculum to suit the varied needs of individual students and to "enable the child to take his place as an efficient participant in the duties and ac t i v i t i e s of l i f e " (Putman-Weir, 1925, p.44). Home economics was included as part of this new curriculum (in which traditional academic subjects were de-emphasized) because of the contributions i t could ostensibly make to the development of socially responsible citizens and to the education of those students who were unable to pursue academic studies leading to university entrance. This concern with the social dimension of education persisted in B.C. until the mid-19501s. With each curriculum revision undertaken during this time, the potential social contributions of home economics were emphasized and its position in the curriculum appeared to be strengthened. For example, at the time of the 1937 revision, the place of home economics in the school curriculum was justi f i e d "upon the doctrine of social need as well as upon cultural values to the individual." It was described as "a necessary agency in the development of...knowledge, s k i l l s and attitudes which are increasingly necessary for successful living in a new and extremely complex social and economic order" (B.C. Department of Education, 1935, p.548). At that time, the concern of home economics with strengthening the home and family and with homemaking as a vocation for women closely paralleled those general educational objectives for B.C. schools concerned with "worthy home membership" and "vocation". As well, i t was noted in the 1935 Programme of Studies that home economics also had significant contributions to make in the "modification of character by inculcating respect for materials, for workmanship, and honest labour" (B.C. Department of Education, 1935b, p.35). During the forties, emphasis in education in B.C. continued to be on providing 114 for individual differences through a differentiated school curriculum and on the development of socially efficient citizens within the framework of a composite high school. Home economics continued to be part of the wide and varied group of elective subjects which were intended to assist in achieving these educational aims. The second, although much shorter, period of expansion for home economics in B.C. occurred during the 1970's when, once again, schooling in the province emphasized individual development and social concerns. At that time i t was intended that education in B.C. "provide a measure of success for every student" ("Directions for Change", 1974) through attention to "particular pupil needs or future aspirations" (B.C. Department of Education, 1972, p.13). Home economics was an elective subject which had assisted schools in the past to accommodate diversity of student interest and a b i l i t y , and appeared once more to have relevant contributions to make in this regard. These two periods of expansion were reflected in increased educational status for home economics. For example, when home economics was f i r s t introduced in B.C. in 1903 i t had virt u a l l y no educational status. It was listed as an "optional subject" and was included -in the school curriculum only at the discretion of local schoolboards. During the course of the f i r s t period of expansion, however, home economics was accepted as an optional subject for high school matriculation in the 1920's, was made compulsory for g i r l s in grades 7 and 8 in 1936 and was classified as a major f i e l d of study leading to university entrance in 1952. During these times, there was also an expansion in the number of courses listed in the curriculum (from 8 in 1927 to 19 by 1952, and from 15 in 1965 to 21 by 1979). Two periods of contraction in home economics in B.C. are also apparent; one at the time of the 1965 revision and one at the time of the 1985 revision. During these periods, the importance or educational relevance of home economics in the school curriculum was de-emphasized. In 1965, home economics 115 was c l a s s i f i e d as an "outer" (elective) subject in the curriculum of B.C. schools and was considered to be of lesser importance than "central" and "inner" (academic) subjects. Because intellectual development was the new educational objective in the province at this time and because home economics was viewed as a non-academic subject, i t was felt that this subject had fewer relevant contributions to make to schooling. At this time home economics ceased to be classified as a major f i e l d of study leading to high school graduation and i t no longer had equal status with academic subjects with respect to matriculation. Similarly, in 1984 a renewed emphasis on the development of intellectual s k i l l s resulted in some contraction in the home economics curriculum. In particular, the consolidation of two senior courses in order to create a new area of study reduced somewhat the scope of the programme. These contractions in the educational relevance of home economics education were reflected in changes in the educational status of home economics. It should also be noted that in 1965, grade 7 was returned to the elementary school, resulting in the reduction of the number of home economics courses offered. Thus a reduction in the number of home economics courses outlined in the programme of 'studies appeared to be-= characteristic of these times of contraction. \. M \ A third way in which the home-economics curriculum appears to have changed is in the gradual evolution from a f i e l d of study concerned primarily with the education of females to one which is. coeducational. Home economics was originally intended as education for females. At the time of its introduction in the middle of the nineteenth century, i t was considered to be the feminine counterpart of manual training for boys (Sutherland, 1976; Rury, 1984). In B.C. this notion was apparent in the manner in which home economics courses were f i r s t organized. For example, when manual training for boys was f i r s t introduced, boys were required to leave their classrooms to receive instruction in manual training. It was during this time that g i r l s received 116 instruction in home economics (Lightfoot & Maynard, 1971). Because these manual s k i l l s were associated with homemaking (which at that time was considered to be a g i r l ' s true vocation), home economics continued to be viewed as education for females. The B.C. home economics curricular documents during the f i r s t half of the twentieth century reflected this view. In the 1927 home economics curriculum guide, for example, the aim of the junior programme was to prepare a young g i r l for the role she assumed as her mother's helper. In the 1937 home economics curriculum guide, this view of home economics as part of a g i r l ' s education was more overt, as i t was stated that the programme was intended to give students "knowledge of the profession of homemaking". Home and family membership and homemaking for g i r l s continued to be emphasized during the f i f t i e s and sixties. Perhaps because of its legacy of the past and perhaps because many women continue to assume some of the traditional female roles associated with homemaking and childrearing, home economics continues to retain a focus on education for women, even though the programme was o f f i c i a l l y made coeducational in 1979. This move to coeducational home economics, however, did not mean that males were included in home economics education in this province for the f i r s t time. Provision for boys in the home economics curriculum was made as early as 1928. At this time i t was recognized that boys as well as gi r l s were family members and the f i r s t Boys' Course was introduced. This course continued to be offered with each subsequent home economics curriculum revision until 1952 and its content gradually expanded during this time to include not only simple meal preparation but also care of the sick, child care and family relationships. With the 1965 revision, however, the focus of the course for boys was altered to reflect a vocational orientation in the area of food preparation. A junior level course was offered to boys, the successful completion of which provided them with entry to the senior Foods Specialty area of the Community Services Programme. However, boys were unable t'o enroll 117 in any other courses in the home economics programme at this time. This changed in 1979 when i t was o f f i c i a l l y stated in the curriculum guide that "the home economics program [in B.C.] is open to boys and g i r l s and i t is intended that both content and methodology reflect a coeducational approach" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1979b, p . l ) . The fourth way in which the B.C. home economics curriculum has experienced change is in the areas of curriculum format and course names. While these alterations are technical aspects of change and therefore perhaps of lesser importance to the evolution of home economics as a f i e l d of study, they appear to reflect the influence of educational trends that have significantly shaped home economics education in other ways. In this sense, then, these changes are worthy of some scrutiny. During the period from 1927 to 1952, the format of the home economics curriculum was altered in several ways. After the f i r s t revision in 1927, for example, the l i s t of topics that formed the f i r s t curriculum was reorganized into units of study, each focusing on a particular topic. Time allotments for these various topics were suggested and objectives for the programme were outlined. During the 1937 home economics revision, the format of the curriculum was altered once again. Objectives were included for units of study as well as for individual courses. Each unit of study included descriptions of suggested student projects and each course provided optional units for "enrichment, exploration and individual differences" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.8,9). The format of the home economics curriculum remained much the same throughout the f i f t i e s and sixties. However, when the f i f t h home economic revision was completed in 1979, this format was altered significantly. While the objectives in previous curriculum guides were worded as teaching objectives, i.e. what the teacher was expected to accomplish in classroom instruction, in the revised curriculum, objectives were described as "learning outcomes" and referred to what the student was 118 expected to learn as a result of instruction. Nomenclature for courses also changed during the period studied. The numbering system for home economics courses gradually evolved from a system of levels ( i . e . I, II and III) to the present system of numerical designation according to grade level (i.e. 8, 9, 10 etc.). Course names have also changed over time. Following the 1927 revision, high school home economics courses were identified by letters of the alphabet (i.e. A identified cookery, B_ identified needlework and C identified a composite of A & B). Beginning with the 1952 revision, course names were selected which were intended to reflect the content of the courses. These names have been modified as courses were revised to reflect a new emphasis. The Use of Cuban's Curricular Determinants  to Analyze Home Economics Curriculum Change It is apparent from a review of the documents that a number of forces have contributed to change in the B.C. home economics curriculum. In order to understand these forces more clearly, the data were analyzed using a framework proposed by Cuban (1979). In this framework he identifies four forces or curricular determinants which may influence the curriculum to change: social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; influential groups and/or influential individuals. The Influence of Social, P o l i t i c a l and Economic Movements  on Home Economics Curriculum Change Data from this study supports Cuban's belief that social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements are primary curricular influences. These movements appeared to exert great impact on the B.C. school curriculum, and may be viewed in terms of both their general and their specific influence on the public school curriculum. At various points in time, social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements have influenced the nature of education in North America. In Canada, for example, 119 industrialization and urbanization in the middle of the nineteenth century influenced a shift from the traditional, academic focus in education to a more progressive, or "new" education in which the academic elitism long associated with schooling was de-emphasized and in which social and economic concerns associated with the changes incurred through the onslaught of industrialization were addressed. This progressive era in education endured in Canada from the turn of the century to the 1950's. It fostered the development of a composite high school, a differentiated curriculum and reinforced the notion of mas3 public education. World events associated with the Cold War and the launching of Sputnik in the 1950's, however, contributed to a move toward a more traditional, academic emphasis in schooling. This academic focus in education continued throughout the sixties until social and po l i t i c a l unrest in the latter part of that decade contributed to a re-evaluation of the nature and purposes of schooling. The seventies emerged as an era of "neo-progressivism" (Tomkins, 1981b) in which many of the principles of progressive education introduced and developed during the f i r s t half of the twentieth century were re-emphasized. As the decade of the 70's closed, p o l i t i c a l and economic developments influenced a return to academic traditionalism in education. Thus, social, p o l i t i c a l and economic forces have contributed to a pattern of alternating cycles of progressivism and academic traditionalism in North America and in B.C. These cycles may then be described as educational movements which, along with other social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements and events, have influenced particular changes in the B.C. curriculum. These movements and events have had specific influence on the four home economics curriculum changes described previously. For example, educational movements have had a significant impact on home economics education in B.C. Alternating cycles of progressivism and academic traditionalism parallel directly the periods of expansion and contraction in the educational relevance 120 and status of home economics in this province. . The f i r s t period of expansion from 1912 to 1952 coincided with the emergence and gradual expansion of progressive education in B.C. During this time, courses in home economics increased in number and home economics was given equal status with academic subjects with respect to university entrance. The progressive philosophies concerned with democracy, social efficiency and individual development which guided the educational aims for B.C. schools reinforced the relevance of home economics as a school subject. The second period of expansion in the home economics curriculum during the seventies coincided with a time of "neo-progressivism" (Tomkins, 1981b) in education in which social issues, individual development and curricular f l e x i b i l i t y were emphasized. Home economics formed part of an extensive range of senior courses leading to high school graduation. Because of its status as an elective subject and perhaps because of i t s concern with individuals in family settings, the educational relevance of home economics appeared to be renewed at this time. In contrast to times of progressivism, periods of academic emphasis in B.C. resulted in contraction in home economics. The f i r s t period of contraction in 1958 followed the Chant Commission which was undertaken to investigate education in B.C. in light of certain world events. This Commission resulted in a new emphasis on intellectual development for schools in the province and a return to academic traditionalism in education. Because elective subjects in the school curriculum were de-emphasized at that time, home economics lost i t s status as a major f i e l d of study. In the 1980's a back to basics movement in education in B.C. perhaps associated with advances in economic technology, instability and loss of public confidence in the schools, once again emphasized academics in schooling and resulted in some contraction in the home economics course of study. Educational movements also appeared to contribute to technical changes in the format of the home economics curriculum. For example, the influence of 121 various elements of the progressive education movement were apparent in the home economics curriculum guides of the 20 1s and 30's. In the 1927 revision the organization of topics with units of study, the inclusion of programme objectives and suggestions for time allotments suggest the application of principles of the new "science" of education which emphasized the principles of s c i e n t i f i c management in education such as planning and standard instructions and operations (Callahan, 1962). The provision of optional units of study and the inclusion of suggestions for student projects and learning ac t i v i t i e s in the 1937 curriculum guide suggest the application of another dimension of progressive education concerned with individual differences and learning through experience. By the time the f i f t h home economics curriculum revision was completed in 1979, the influence of yet another movement in education was apparent. According to Schubert (1984), the use of learning outcomes in setting educational objectives during this period of time reflected the influence of a "social behaviorist" orientation in education, in which measurement, mastery and competency were associated with new demands for accountability in education. / Economic movements have also impacted on home economics, but .the nature of these influences is not consistent. For example, i t appears that financial instability and economic recession during the'1980's have contributed to some contraction in the home economics curriculum in B.C. During the Great Depression of the 1930's, however, while there was some reduction in the number of home economics centers in operation in the province due to lack of financial resources, the formal curriculum i t s e l f was not apparently affected. An explanation for this discrepancy may rest in the educational emphasis that prevailed during times of financial constraint in education. The economic recession of the 1980's coincided with a back to basics or academic emphasis in education which may have resulted in reductions in elective subjects. Conversely, the Great Depression occurred during a time at which progressive 122 education prevailed in the province. Since the educational relevance of home economics was in keeping with this progressive philosophy, any significant contraction in home economics at that time may have been viewed as contrary to the continued implementation of the principles of progressive education. Thus it appears that the influence of financial constraints on the home economics curriculum may be related to it s perceived educational relevance at a particular point in time. Some social movements may have contributed to change in home economics education in B.C., although the nature and extent of their influence is d i f f i c u l t to determine. For example, the Human Rights Movement during the sixties and early seventies may have influenced the expansion of the central concepts of home and family to include a focus on the individual and society, and increased concern with human rights may have influenced the move toward coeducation in home economics in 1979. Po l i t i c a l movements and events have also had considerable influence on the nature of education at various points in time and have contributed to changes in home economics education. Of particular relevance are World War I and World War II. During World War I, home economics education was described by the National Council of Women in Canada as a means of maintaining and strengthening the family as the cornerstone of Canadian society following the War. The Council president emphasized that "the future of Canada lies in the home. The victory won on the battlefield must be followed by a realization of the power of consecrated motherhood...Upon woman rests the responsibility, in a great measure, of the development of a higher c i v i l i z a t i o n " (National Council of Women, 1917, p.16). Both world wars appeared to have contributed to an emphasis in home economics on vocationalism in the workplace. The National Council of Women recognized the probability that both during and after World War I more women would be required in the work force, and resolved to "not only encourage the continuance of training in household arts, but to 123 urge that f u l l f a c i l i t i e s for industrial and technical training be provided for g i r l s and boys alike" (National Council of Women, 1917, p.280). Following World War II, which had generated growth in technology and industry, renewed attention was paid to the notion of education for the workplace. The Report of The Committee on Practical Education, for example, recommended the provision of special courses for students unable to complete an academic programme in order to prepare them for entry into the work force. Home economics was identified in the Report as one of these special courses. Perhaps i t was because of this focus on preparation for the workplace that the central concepts of home economics were expanded to include a more overt emphasis on vocationalism. The Influence of Political-Legal Decisions  on Home Economics Curriculum Change Cuban suggests that p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions are a secondary force that mediates or translates the influences of primary social forces into schools. While the nature of education in B.C. was influenced by broad social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, provincial p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions influenced the specific educational changes to be made. These decisions, then, gave form or substance to the influences of broader, more general \ primary forces. 1 As might be expected, p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions that influenced home economics were effected primarily by the Department (Ministry) of Education. These decisions appeared to influence changes in the home economics curriculum in a number of ways. For example, changes in high school graduation requirements and in the structure of programmes leading to high school graduation directly influenced changes in the home economics curriculum. At the time of the 1952 home economics revision, graduation requirements were altered so that a l l students were required to complete study in a major f i e l d and home economics was classified by the Department as one of these fields of 124 study which could lead to high school graduation and university entrance. In 1984, revised high school graduation requirements again influenced changes in home economics. In order to comply with prerequisite requirements for senior courses, the senior home economics programme required revision, resulting in the consolidation of the two existing courses into one new course. Government decisions to undertake investigations into education in the province also had a direct effect on the home economics curriculum. Following the Putman-Weir Survey in 1924, a Provincial Director of Home Economics was appointed and extensive revisions were made to the structure and format of the home economics curriculum under her leadership. The Chant Commission of 1958 resulted in several changes to the home economics curriculum: a new emphasis on vocationalism in the workplace; the return of grade 7 students to the elementary school, resulting in a reduction of the number of courses; and the loss of status as a major f i e l d of study leading to university entrance. At various points in time, the government has mandated compulsory courses in the school curriculum which have overlapped with home economics subject matter. The impact of these compulsory courses appears not to be consistent. For example, the introduction of compulsory health education in 1929 resulted in the deletion of physiology from the high school home economics course. To replace i t , a comprehensive course in Home Management was introduced. However, the introduction of Effective Living in 1950 and of Consumer Education in 1980 did not appear to result in specific changes in the home economics course of study. Several Departmental decisions concerned with curriculum development had direct influence on the home economics curriculum. For example, a policy of decentralization in education in B.C. during the seventies that provided for locally-developed courses contributed to expansion in home economics. New home economics courses such as Textile Arts and Crafts, Housing and Interior Design and Family Studies were developed as a result of this policy. 125 Similarly, policies concerning the introduction of family l i f e education into B.C. schools in 1973 contributed to the development of Family Studies courses in home economics. It was also Department (Ministry) of Education policy to make curriculum revision approximately every ten years. A number of other po l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions have influenced the home economics curriculum. While these decisions were not specifically concerned with curriculum change, they indirectly affected the educational status and position of home economics in the school curriculum and thus influenced the home economics curriculum. For example, the appointment of an Organizer of Manual Training and Domestic Science following the introduction of home economics education into B.C. schools, and the appointment of a Provincial Director of Home Economics in 1924 enhanced the status of home economics as a school subject and assisted in reinforcing i t s position in the public school curriculum. A change in the School Act in 1936 made home economics compulsory for g i r l s in grades 7 and 8 in schools in ci t i e s of a certain size also influenced the status and position of home economics in the school curriculum. In 1958 home economics was classified as an "outer" subject in the curriculum with a resulting decrease in educational status. Po l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions originating from outside the province have also influenced the home economics curriculum. Some of these, such as the Technical Education Act of 1919 and the Technical and Vocational Training Act of 1960, have appeared to coincide with educational policies introduced by the provincial government but did not appear to create specific curricular changes in and of themselves. One exception might be the Royal Commission on Industrial and Training and Technical Education in 1913. The decision to undertake this educational investigation eventually had extensive influence in generating the development of a curriculum for technical education (which included home economics) in high schools of the province. 126 The Influence of Groups on Home Economics Curriculum Change According to Cuban, groups are also secondary forces in curriculum change. While p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions gave substance to the influences of primary forces, influential groups assisted in translating these policies into practice, that i s , developed formal curriculum documents. This study revealed that selected groups have consistently been important forces in the process of home economics curriculum change in the province of B.C. Those which have participated in this process may be classified as groups directly associated with home economics such as THESA, groups not directly associated with home economics but a f f i l i a t e d with education such as the BCTF and groups external to both education and to home economics such as the National Council of Women. These groups appear to have influenced home economics curriculum change in a number of ways. Some groups have appeared to act as advocates for home economics and have promoted its value--o-r.--worth as a school subject. The National Council of Women, for example, were largely responsible for introducing home economics education into B.C. schools and in conjunction with a f f i l i a t e d Local Councils of Women and the Parent-Teacher Federation lobbied for i t s inclusion in the public school curriculum. Local school boards and the BCTF have also acted as advocates on behalf of home economics by supporting home economics as a school subject and by supporting home economies' concerns and recommendations for curriculum change. Some groups, however, have opposed home economics education. During the early stages of development, taxpayers voiced their concerns regarding what they fe l t to be excessive expenditure on a subject of questionable educational value. In 1958, in briefs presented to the Chant Commission, groups such as the UBC Faculty Association and some school boards requested a reduction in school time spent on this subject. S t i l l other groups appeared to advocate home economics but only i f the f i e l d was modified. For example, the Vancouver 127 Counsellors' Association presented a brief to the Chant Commission recommending that home economics be retained but reorganized to accommodate students of lower a b i l i t y . Some groups implemented policy decisions through the development of home economics curriculum. The Division of Home Economics in the Department of Education, the Home Economics Section of the BCTF and THESA were involved in development of curriculum following changes in educational policy. Other groups influenced the home economics curriculum by making recommendations concerning the existing curriculum. The BCTF, for example, stimulated the Putman-Weir Survey conducted in 1924 through i t s recommendation that the public school curriculum in the province be reviewed. As a result of this Survey, the home economics curriculum underwent considerable change. Home economics groups, such as THESA, also made recommendations to the Department of Education concerning the institution of specific changes to the home economics curriculum. In particular, in 1979 their recommendations to the home economics curriculum revision committee were extensive and included suggestions for changes in format, curriculum content and course t i t l e s . While these groups have played an important role in curriculum change, their efforts have been subject to Department (Ministry) of Education veto. According to the documents studied, this veto appears to have been exercised infrequently but has been an important element in the shaping of curriculum change. For example, the Department of Education vetoed a 1964 proposal for an academic stream of senior electives in home economics and in the 1979 revision, the Department vetoed the inclusion of some family l i f e topics and prohibited the use of the course t i t l e "Human Development". Thus the influence of these groups is limited on the one hand by pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions of the government and/or the Department (Ministry) of Education and on the other by this power of veto over proposed change. Although the data is limited, i t can be assumed that groups directly 128 associated with home economics were instrumental in maintaining the central concepts in home economics in the B.C. curriculum. With respect to the other areas of change in the home economics curriculum there are two po s s i b i l i t i e s : 1) i t may be that the documents examined did not address the influence of particular groups on fluctuations in educational status, the move to co-education and changes in curriculum format, or 2) i t may be that the groups noted in this study did not influence these aspects of curriculum change in home economics. The Influence of Individuals on Home Economics Curriculum Change The third of Cuban's secondary forces is that of influential individuals. The impact of individuals in curriculum change, however, is d i f f i c u l t to assess and, in this sense, this category of curricular determinants may be the most problematic. Although i t is relatively easy to identify individual names associated with various changes, i t is extremely d i f f i c u l t to determine the actual influence of these individuals. For.example, while a certain change may have been the direct result of an individual's involvement or actions, the change may also have occurred at a time where the individual was in a particular place or held a particular position and, as a result of these circumstances, influenced the course of change. There may also be individuals who, through the force of their personality, the strength of their professional commitment and their contributions in classrooms and in local curriculum development may have influenced the school curriculum and yet their names, and thus their influence, were not documented. Individuals appeared to have influenced the 3.C. home economics curriculum in several ways. A number of individuals were advocates for home economics as a school subject and urged its inclusion in the public school curriculum. These individuals include Lady Aberdeen, president of the National Council of Women, who promoted the introduction of home economics 129 into B.C. schools through Local Councils of Women in the province; Harry Dunnell and John Kyle, Organizers of Manual Training, who made numerous recommendations to the Department of Education in support of home economics education; and Alice Ravenhill, a British lecturer on Household Science, Hygiene and Public Health, who wrote and spoke about the value of home economics education in the province. Following the establishment of home economics education in the school curriculum, individuals continued to provide support for this subject. Jessie McLenaghen and Bertha Rogers, who were Provincial Directors of Home Economics, provided leadership for home economics teachers and made recommendations to the Department of Education concerning the expansion of home economics in the public school system. No individuals were identified in the documents examined who were in opposition to home economics education. Some individuals influenced change in home economics through the development of home economics curriculum. Annie Juniper, for example, authored the f i r s t home economics textbook, whil.e the various Provincial Directors of Home Economics (Jessie McLenaghen, Bertha Rogers, Mildred Orr, Jean Campbell and Jean Irvine) were responsible for directing the home economics curriculum revision committees. Individuals who helped develop educational policy- also influenced home economics curriculum. G.M. Weir and H.B. King in the Department of Education introduced several policies that influenced the home economics curriculum at that time. Weir, for example, amended the School Act in 1936 to make home economics compulsory for g i r l s in grades 7 and 8. King introduced the concept of high school graduation and increased provision in the school curriculum for elective subjects such as home economics and in this way contributed to the expansion of the home economics programme. These findings suggest that the extent to which individuals were acknowledged in curriculum change was related to the role or position they 130 held. Individuals holding positions in the Department of Education, for example, were able to exert their influence in the development of policies and procedures which then influenced curriculum change. These findings also suggest that in the early stages of home economics education in B.C., individuals assumed a central role in directing its development. As the educational system in B.C. became more bureaucratized, i t appeared that individuals came to play a less obvious role in home economics curriculum change. For example, the individual Provincial Directors of Home Economics i n i t i a l l y assumed an instrumental role with respect to the home economics curriculum. Records indicate that in 1926 Jessie McLenaghen's observations of deficiencies in the existing home economics curriculum directly influenced the changes made to this curriculum at that time. In subsequent revisions, final curriculum decisions rested with the Directors although they did consult with home economics teachers in the province for curricular input. However, as the position of Provincial Director evolved to include several individuals at one time and as the Department of Education expanded in size, the potential for individual influence seemed to decrease. This trend appears consistent with developments in the Canadian educational system. This conjecture is supported by Sutherland (1976) who suggests that, during the i n i t i a l period of educational expansion in Canada, the bureaucratization of education was "the only available means" of effecting change in education. Government o f f i c i a l s , as part of this developing bureaucracy, exerted considerable influence.on education in general. Once this system was well-established, groups and organizations, particularly those outside the educational bureaucracy, began to emerge as influences on education. While i t is clear that the individuals identified in this analysis were in positions to exert curricular influence, their influence on specific changes in the home economics curriculum is d i f f i c u l t to determine. 131 The R o l e o f Home E c o n o m i c s P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the P r o c e s s o f C u r r i c u l u m Change One o f the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r o l e o f home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the p r o c e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m change i n B . C . O f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the ways i n w h i c h home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e , the e x t e n t o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n change and the s t a g e a t w h i c h t h e y became i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f c h a n g e . A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t , t h r o u g h o u t the e v o l u t i o n o f home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , the home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f B . C . have b e e n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e , b o t h as i n d i v i d u a l s and t h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s . When home e c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n B . C . a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s u b j e c t d i d not e x i s t . I n i t i a l l y t h e r e were v e r y few home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s (home e c o n o m i c s was t a u g h t p r i m a r i l y i n V i c t o r i a and V a n c o u v e r ) and c o n c e i v a b l y t h e r e was l i t t l e need f o r s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n . However , as more s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t r o d u c e d home e c o n o m i c s , a s h o r t a g e o f a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r s became a p p a r e n t and i n 1921 the home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s were o r g a n i z e d to form the Home E c o n o m i c s S e c t i o n o f the B C T F . Once o r g a n i z e d , the S e c t i o n was a c t i v e r e g a r d i n g a number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s . F o r e x a m p l e , r e s o l u t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s t a t u s o f home e c o n o m i c s and the l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n were s u b m i t t e d to the Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n . In 1924, the S e c t i o n a l s o s u b m i t t e d recommendat ions t o the Putman-Wei r S u r v e y . However , w i t h the a p p o i n t m e n t o f a P r o v i n c i a l D i r e c t o r o f Home E c o n o m i c s i n 1927, i t a p p e a r e d f r o m documents examined t h a t the a c t i v i t y o f t h i s g r o u p e i t h e r d i m i n i s h e d o r was l e s s o v e r t . T h u s , d u r i n g the p e r i o d f rom the a p p o i n t m e n t o f the f i r s t D i r e c t o r i n 1927 to the t ime o f the 1952 r e v i s i o n , the c u r r i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e o f home e c o n o m i c s p r o f e s s i o n a l s seemed to be d i r e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n . Documents r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was not u n t i l 1958 t h a t the a c t i v i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p once a g a i n became 132 apparent. The reasons for this shift in activity are d i f f i c u l t to determine. As noted in the previous section, the re-appearance of this professional group may have been related to the continued expansion of the educational bureaucracy in Canada. At the same time, however, i t may also have been related to periods of curricular conflict in home economics. According to Goodson (1983), school subject associations often develop during times of intensified conflict concerning teacher preparation and recruitment and controversy over school curriculum. Goodson also asserts that i f subject associations are already in existence, they tend to become more unified or institutionalized during times of curricular conflict. This study suggests that the B.C. home economics subject association may have evolved in similar ways. As just noted, the association became o f f i c i a l l y organized at a time when the adequate preparation and recruitment of home economics teachers was a central concern in the profession. When the position of home economics in the B.C. school curriculum appeared to be in transition (e.g. in 1958 following the Chant Commission and in 1984 following a mandated curriculum change in home economics), this group organized to present a collective voice on behalf of their subject. Documents examined in this study indicate that these home economics professionals appeared to use several forms of written materials in the course of their involvement in curriculum change. For example, briefs containing recommendations for change were submitted by the home economics subject group at the time of both investigations into education in the province. On several occasions, surveys were used by home economics professionals, apparently in an attempt to identify possible directions for curriculum change. More recently, position papers have been written as a means for influencing change in the curriculum. As noted earlier, these documents suggest that home economics professionals in the province have appeared to influence the curriculum 133 p r i n c i p a l l y through implementing educational p o l i c y and through making recommendations for change. Much of t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n change has involved the development of curriculum following the introduction of s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s . Regardless of whether the home economics professionals were i n agreement with the change, the group was co n s i s t e n t l y and a c t i v e l y involved i n developing the new curriculum. In 1985, for example, although many home economics professionals i n the province objected to the required change, they worked within the guidelines of the p o l i c i e s d e f i n i n g the change to develop a new c u r r i c u l a r component for home economics. Surveys were used by home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n committees to involve a l l home economics teachers i n curriculum change and to provide them with an opportunity for input into the rev i s ion. The influence of home economics professionals i n B.C., however, has not been l i m i t e d to the development of curriculum. For example, i n 1921 the newly-organized Home Economics Section of the BCTF submitted a series of resolutions concerning the recruitment and t r a i n i n g of home economics teachers to the Department of Education and in 1924, th i s same group submitted curriculum recommendations to the Putman-Weir Survey. In 1973, THESA proposed extensive changes to the p r o v i n c i a l home economics curriculum and many of these were incorporated into the 1979 home economics curriculum r e v i s i o n . In addi t i o n , those home economics professionals who assumed the p o s i t i o n of Di r e c t o r ( s ) of Home Economics i n the Department of Education appeared to also have a mediating r o l e i n the process of curriculum change. This group interpreted Departmental p o l i c y to the home economics professionals involved i n developing curriculum during a r e v i s i o n . It i s unclear, however, from the documents examined whether t h i s group also interpreted the aims and purposes of home economics to the Department. Although the home economics professionals i n B.C. have attempted to influence change through t h e i r actions and recommendations and, i n some 134 instances have been successful, their influence has tended to be as individuals or as members of groups. There is l i t t l e evidence of direct home economics influence on policy development. Even those home economics professionals who held positions in the Department (Ministry) of Education appeared to be mediators of policies rather than policy-makers. It should be noted that no record of the participation of other home economics groups (outside those directly associated with education) in home economics curriculum change in this province appears to exist. If home economics groups other than the home economics subject group and the Division of Home Economics in the Department of Education did influence the home economics curriculum, this influence has not been documented or the documents have not been retained. Stability in the Home Economics Curriculum Cuban emphasizes that while schools are vulnerable to the influence of social change, at the same time they also appear to resist change, that i s , there exists a continuity or sta b i l i t y in the school curriculum. Some examples of such s t a b i l i t y in the home economics curriculum were noted in this study. The concepts of home and family have persisted as the central focus in home economics education in this province. The concern in home economics education for the education of women has also endured over time. In addition, Foods and Clothing have continued as two major content areas in the B.C. home economics curriculum. Although this study was concerned with curriculum change, these indications of stability suggest that an examination of the forces for s t a b i l i t y in the home economics curriculum might provide an additional perspective on the development of home economics curriculum. Conclusions From the preceding discussion, a number of conclusions can be made concerning changes in the B.C. home economics curriculum, the forces that 135 influenced these changes and the role of home economics professionals in this process of change. This study of curriculum change in home economics shows that the concepts of home and family have endured as the central focus of home economics education in this province. While these concepts have been expanded over time, this central focus has been retained. As well, this study reveals that although provision for males has been made in the B.C. home economics curriculum for over f i f t y years, the emphasis in home economics education in this province has; been on education for females. The findings of this study also disclose that the fluctuations in educational status and relevance associated with home economics education in this province have been related to changing emphases in education, which have had their origins outside of British Columbia and which were part of broader national and international events. While i t has been stated by Goodson (1983) that the educational status of a school subject is associated with its academic heritage, this study indicates that the status of a subject may also be related to its perceived educational relevance according to the emphasis in education at particular points in time. The findings of this study support Cuban's assertion that social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements are the primary forces that determine change in curriculum. In particular, this study found that alternating cycles of progressivism and academic traditionalism have influenced the educational status and perceived relevance of home economics as a school subject in this province. While changes in economic conditions have also influenced the home economics curriculum, this influence appeared to be related to these alternating cycles in educational philosophy. Other movements, such as human rights, have influenced the specific nature of the home economics curriculum, rather than its educational status or relevance. In this study, the three secondary forces identified by Cuban did not have equal influence. Those influences categorized as pol i t i c a l - l e g a l 136 decisions had the greatest influence on curriculum change, since these decisions not only defined the nature of education and the nature of intended curriculum changes but also defined the processes to be followed in making these changes. This would suggest that there might be a three-stage process of curriculum change, beginning with broad social movements which lead to pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions to influence the direction of education, followed by the actions of groups and individuals to influence and implement such change. Both groups and individuals have had some influence on the home economics curriculum. Some have advocated (or opposed) the subject; some have made recommendations concerning educational policy and/or home economics curriculum; and some have implemented educational policies through the development of home economics curriculum. While the data in this study indicate that these groups and individuals have played an important role in home economics curriculum change, their efforts have been subject to veto by the Department (Ministry) of Education. It has been d i f f i c u l t to disentangle the influence of individuals and groups because individuals may be associated with a group which has the capacity for influence. Thus i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine wh&ther the influence was ultimately exerted by the individual or by the group. This study also revealed that as bureaucratization in education in B.C. has increased, the influence of individuals has apparently decreased. This study demonstrates that home economics professionals in B.C. have assumed an important role in the process of home economics curriculum change through making recommendations, implementing educational policy and, in some cases, mediating educational policy. The influence of home economics professionals has been as individuals or as members of groups rather than as policy-makers. 137 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this chapter, a summary of the purposes, the method and the findings of the study is provided. Recommendations for further study are outlined. Summary Recent changes in the home economics curriculum in British Columbia, mandated by the Ministry of Education but opposed by home economics professionals in the f i e l d , have raised questions regarding previous home economics curriculum change in this province. By what process has home economics curriculum h i s t o r i c a l l y changed in British Columbia and what has been the role of home economics professionals in this process? These questions provided the impetus to study the forces that have influenced home economics curriculum change in B.C. from i t s inception to the present, including the role of home economics professionals in this process of change. The purposes of this study were to describe the changes in home economics curriculum in the province of B.C. during the period 1912-1985, to identify the forces that have influenced these changes and to determine the role of home economics professionals in this process of curriculum change. An analysis of historical documents was carried out in order to gain an understanding of curriculum change and the forces influencing i t over time. Data for this study were obtained from several sources. Primary documents in the form of letters, memos, directives, minutes of meetings, circulars, newsletters, bulletins, reports and course outlines, programmes of study and curriculum guides were examined systematically for reference both to curriculum change in general and to home economics curriculum change. These documents were found in several locations: the Provincial Archives, Vancouver City Archives, British Columbia Teachers' Federation Archives, University of British Columbia Special Collections, Vancouver School Board, as well as in private f i l e s held by individuals. In addition, some secondary historical 138 accounts of the development of education in North America were used to understand the educational contexts in which home economics curricula have been operative. Writings concerning the history of the province of B.C. and/or the development of education in the province were consulted to understand the provincial context. The data for this study are limited in several ways. Some primary documents, for example, may not have been preserved. Moreover, documents are constructed for purposes that vary and reflect the interests of those who constructed them. Their relation to actual classroom practice cannot be established in this thesis. The determinants of curriculum change identified by Cuban (1979) were selected as the framework for analysis in this study. Cuban postulates four categories of curricular determinants: 1) influential social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements; 2) pol i t i c a l - l e g a l decisions; 3) influential groups; and 4) influential individuals. As he sees i t , the greatest impact on curriculum is exerted by social, p o l i t i c a l and economic movements, which may therefore be called "primary" forces. The remaining determinants then become "secondary" forces, which, says Cuban, soften, select, modify and promote "different, less potent versions of movements jolting the culture" (p. 157-158). In effect, then'7 these secondary forces mediate or translate social change. Six formal home economics curriculum revisions in B.C. were examined using this framework. Several findings concerning curriculum changes in home economics emerged from this study. According to the documents analyzed, the central focus of the home economics curriculum in B.C. has gradually expanded from an emphasis on concerns of the home and family to include vocationalism in the workplace and community interaction. However, the primary focus has remained on the home and family. During the period studied, the educational relevance and status of home economics has experienced both expansion (from 1912 to 1952 and 139 a g a i n i n 1979) and c o n t r a c t i o n ( i n 1965 and i n 1985). C u r r i c u l u m i n home economics has g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e d from a c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r females to one which i s c o e d u c a t i o n a l . A s e p a r a t e c o u r s e f o r boys had been i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m as e a r l y as 1928, but i t was not u n t i l 1979 t h a t t he e n t i r e c o u r s e of s t u d y was open t o b o t h boys and g i r l s . As w e l l , s e v e r a l changes i n the format o f the c u r r i c u l u m were n o t e d over the p e r i o d s t u d i e d . A n a l y s i s o f the i n f l u e n c e o f c u r r i c u l a r d e t e r m i n a n t s s u p p o r t e d Cuban's c l a i m t h a t s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic movements a r e the p r i m a r y f o r c e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e change i n c u r r i c u l u m . A major i n f l u e n c e a p p e ars to have been e x e r t e d by a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e s o f p r o g r e s s i v i s m and academic t r a d i t i o n a l i s m i n e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . Of the t h r e e s e c o n d a r y f o r c e s i d e n t i f i e d by Cuban, p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l d e c i s i o n s had the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m change i n home eco n o m i c s . W h i l e b o t h groups and i n d i v i d u a l s have had an i n f l u e n c e on home economics c u r r i c u l u m t h r o u g h advocacy and/or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s , t h e s e e f f o r t s have been s u b j e c t t o p o t e n t i a l v e t o by the Department ( M i n i s t r y ) o f E d u c a t i o n . As b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. has i n c r e a s e d , t h e r e was an a p p a r e n t d e c l i n e i n the i n f l u e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s . F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y found t h a t B.C. home economics p r o f e s s i o n a l s have i n f l u e n c e d c u r r i c u l u m change p r i m a r i l y as i n d i v i d u a l s o r as members o f g r o u p s . Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y emerged from t h i s r e s e a r c h . 1) S i n c e t h i s s t u d y emphasized the i m p o r t a n c e o f the p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n o f home economics c u r r i c u l u m change i n B.C., s i m i l a r s t u d i e s might be co n d u c t e d i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e whether the a p p a r e n t dominance o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n of change i s p a r t i c u l a r o n l y t o home economics e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. 140 2) As well, similar studies might be conducted in other content areas to determine whether the nature of changes and the forces that have influenced them have been the same or different. 3) A comparative study of the forces influencing curriculum change in both academic subjects and in elective subjects might further c l a r i f y the relationship between these forces and the educational status of school subjects. 4) While this study focused on change in the home economics curriculum, the data revealed aspects of st a b i l i t y in the home economics curriculum. Thus, a study of the forces influencing sta b i l i t y in the home economics curriculum would supplement this research. For example, a study of the role of textbooks in home economics curriculum st a b i l i t y or a study of the home economics curriculum as i t is actually taught might disclose information about influences on curricular s t a b i l i t y in home economics. 5) The home economics professional group emerged as a curricular influence in this study, yet very l i t t l e appears to exist regarding the nature of their involvement in curriculum matters. Exploration of the origins and functions of this group would be a useful addition to the history of home economics education in this province. 6) Further study might also be directed to an investigation of the extent to which home economics education in B.C. has been influenced by the development of home economics in the United States. 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Journal of Home Economics, 75(3), 26-31. Weir, G.M. (1933). A message to the teachers of British Columbia. The B.C.  Teacher, 13, 3-4. Weir, G.M. (1935). The revision of the curriculum. The B.C. Teacher, 14, 20-23. Weir, G.M. (1941). Retrospect and prospect in education. The B.C. Teacher, 10(June), 456-460. Witnesses favor technical schools. (1910, November). Vancouver Daily Province, p. 9. White, O.E. (1951). The history of the practical education courses in Canadian  secondary schools. Unpublished master's thesis, McGill University, Toronto, Ontario. Wormsbecker, J. (1961). The development of secondary education in Vancouver. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto. 154 APPENDIX A SUGGESTED OUTLINE OF WORK FOR DOMESTIC SCIENCE (1914)* I. Goals and Aims There were no stated aims for this Suggested Outline. II. First-Year Course A. Home Management: The choice, cleaning and care of: A coal range; silver; steel knives; wooden utensils; tin and enamel ware; brushes; sinks; furniture; painted and varnished woodwork; sweeping and dusting. B. Home Nursing: Theory -1. Personal hygiene as a preventive of sickness. 2. The sick person's room, location, ventilation, furnishing. 3. The treatment of common ailments. 4. Emergencies and what to do. 5. A brief study of a r t e r i a l , venous and capi l l i a r y bleeding with bandaging. . . .. Practical Work -1. The care and cleaning of teeth and nails. 2. Bed-making and changing sheets with patient in bed. 3. Fomentations; poultices; applications of dry heat. 4. Fainting; suffocation; sunstroke; drowning. 5. Simple bandaging; roller and triangular. C. Laundry-Work: Theory - Laundry equipment, cost and management. The study of textile fibres, including their sources and structure, and the effects of laundry apparatus and materials on such. The composition, source, and properties of water, soap, soap powders, soda, borax, starch, and laundry blue. Practical Work - The removal of stains and the disinfection of clothes. The laundering of white and coloured wools, cottons, linens, silks and lace. The cleaning of kid gloves and shoes. The management of a small family wash. Soap-making from kitchen grease. Simple methods of softening water. 155 Appendix A Continued... III. Second-Year Course A. Junior Cookery: Theory - Kitchen equipment - choice, cost, arrangment, and care. A study of combustion. The construction, regulation, and cleaning of a coal, gas, or electric range. Methods of cooking, and underlying principles with i l l u s t r a t i v e dishes. The food principles: their uses to the body; the relative amounts of each in various foods; the effects on them of moist and dry heat. Different foods in combination. Balanced diets. Practical Work - Beverages; f r u i t s ; cereals; vegetables; starches; fats; sugars; milk; cheese; eggs. Different methods of rendering foods light. Batters; doughs; bread; meats; soups; fish; pastry; invalid dishes. The preparation of a child's lunch-box. Table setting and service. The serving of a simple meal. IV. Third-Year Course B. Senior Cookery: Theory - Recapituation of the Junior Course, with the addition of the theory bearing on new work, and on elementary study of digestion. Practical Work - Further work covering course outlined in Junior Cookery, with the addition of: Canning; preserving; j e l l i e s ; pickles; salads; poultry; gelatine dishes; frozen desserts. Regulations for Domestic Science Centres Rules relating to Domestic Science Centres 1. Where Domestic Science Centres are established, attendance is compulsory and must be continuous throughout the school-year. The-hours of instruction in Domestic Science shall be as defined in Article I, of the Rules and Regulations for the Government of Public Schools. Girls in attendance at the morning session from distant schools may be dismissed at 11:45 a.m. 2. A three-years' course of Domestic Science should be taken in the Public Schools. 3. A l l pupils in the Entrance class and in the two classes below the Entrance class shall take Domestic Science. Classes doing parallel work in other subjects shall do parallel work in Domestic Science. 156 Appendix A Continued... 4. Attendance registers, records of lessons, an inventory of equipment, and a vi s i t o r s ' book must be kept and be open for inspection at a l l times. 5. Expense sheets for food and other materials, exclusive of heating, lighting, and permanent equipment, should be sent to the Secretary of the Board at the end of each month; also an attendance sheet. 6. Only one course of work w i l l be recognized for a l l the schools in any one c i t y . ' 7. Domestic Science Instructors shall be subject to the same general regulations as Public School Teachers. 8. The Principal of the Public School at which a Domestic Science Centre is situated shall have supervision over the general discipline of a l l classes in attendance at that Centre. 9. Plans for Domestic Science buildings must be submitted to the Education Department for approval. Needlework** Intermediate Grade and Senior Grade pupils may be included in the course. * B.C. Department of Education (1914). Curricula of public schools for general education in British Columbia. Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, (pp. 49-50). ** It is interesting to note that suggested theory and practical work for 'Needlework does not appear in this document. Suggestions for the teaching of Needlework do appear, however, in the 1915 and 1916 curricula for Domestic Science in the Provincial Normal School. 157 APPENDIX B RESOLUTIONS OF THE HOME ECONOMICS SECTION (1924)* Resolved that we petition the Provincial Government through the Department of Education: 19. (a) To make the Home Economics course compulsory for a l l girls in Public and High Schools in a l l c i t i e s of the f i r s t and second class, and in Distri c t Municipalities, throughout the province. Carried. (b) To include Home Economics as a subject for which reports shall be made regularly to parents, with the idea of raising the status of this subject in the minds of parents and children. Carried. (c) To dispense with special diplomas for Home Economics and instead to include i t as part of the regular course of study for entrance, to be added to the l i s t of subjects for which recommendation (for passing entrance) is made by the principal. Carried. 20. In order to effect the above as easily as possible, to appoint a thoroughly competent woman with a University degree, or it s equivalent in qualifications, as Provincial Organizer and Supervisor of Home Economics, to be directly responsible to the Department of Education. Carried. 21. To grant or obtain Matriculation status for students who have passed the three years' examination in the Home Economics course as outlined by the Department of Education. Carried. 22. To do everything towards the establishment of a Home Economics Department in the University of British Columbia so that the students of our own province may have the advantage of the training needed to f i t them as teachers and leaders in a science which is rapidly becoming recognized as an essential in any broad educational plan for g i r l s . Carried. The Following Resolution was passed by the Home Economics Section: Whereas a very large proportion of our g i r l s never enter High School: And whereas many of these need further training for successful economic home-making: And whereas others have marked a b i l i t i e s along purely vocational lines, such as cookery, home decoration, commercial art, dressmaking, etc., for which at present there is l i t t l e or no training. Therefore, be i t resolvevd that we ask the Provincial Government through the Department of Education to make i t compulsory for School Boards as soon as possible and wherever possible to establish Technical and Vocational Schools for g i r l s throughout this province. * British Columbia teachers' federation annual general meeting: Report of resolutions. (1924, June). The B.C. Teacher, p.218. 158 APPENDIX C 1927 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals and Aims "Home Economics stands for: -1. The ideal home-life of today unhampered by traditions of the past. 2. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the resources of modern science to improve the home-life. 3. The freedom of the home from the dominance of things and their due subordination to ideals. 4. The simplicity in material surroundings which w i l l most free the spi r i t for the more important and permanent interests of the home and of society." (p.65, 1927b) II. Outline of Junior High School (grades VII - IX) A. Aims: "1. Proper health habits and attitudes. 2. Right attitudes toward home and family l i f e , together with:-(a) A working knowledge of the processes carried on in the home. (b) A degree of s k i l l commensurate with the present needs and age of the individual. 3. Recognition of the importance in society of the family group. 4. The a b i l i t y to spend and save the family income or individual earnings e f f i c i e n t l y and intelligently. 5. Ability and inclination to participate in a variety of act i v i t i e s which w i l l contribute to the worthy use of leisure." (p.52, 1927c) B. Courses: Grade VII - Foods 1, Clothing 1, Home Problems IA, IB Grade VIII - Foods 2, Clothing 2, Home Problems 2 Grade IX - Foods 3, Clothing 3; Foods 4, Clothing 4 optional III. Outline of High School (grades X - XII) A. Aims: "1. To give the g i r l a better appreciation of the home, its surroundings, and the l i f e within the home that she may more fully understand the arts and sciences of the home... 159 Appendix C Continued... 2. To develop an appreciation of a healthy body and a pleasing appearance by studying the p r i n c i p l e s of h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , and the r e l a t i o n of a few simple rules of personal hygiene to health of young g i r l s . 3. To develop an appreciation of the wise choice of food in order that a g i r l may grow and be strong, and in r e l a t i o n to working a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l circumstances. 4. To give knowledge and develop a b i l i t y i n simple food preparation and serving for the purpose of developing an appreciation of well-cooked food. 5. To teach the value of economy i n time, energy, and money i n r e l a t i o n to household a c t i v i t i e s . 6. To enable the g i r l s to plan t h e i r own wardrobes so as to be neatly and appropriately dressed with a minimum expenditure. 7. To develop independence and poise through s o c i a l i z e d lessons where possib l e . 8. To develop an appreciation of art i n r e l a t i o n to home-life." (p.65, 1927b) B. Courses: 1. General Programme (two years) Year 1 - Foods, Clothing Year 2 - Foods, Clothing, The Home 2. Special Programme (three years) HE (A) - Foods, N u t r i t i o n , Physiology, Hygiene, Home Nursing - i n 1929, Home Management replaced Physiology HE (B) - Clothing, T e x t i l e s , Clothing Selection, Applied Art HE (C) - Comprehensive course including components of HE(A) and HE(B) added i n 1929. IV. Outline of Boys' Course There was no prescribed curriculum for th i s course, but other documents suggest i t focused on elementary sewing and camp cooking. * There are two sources which document th i s curriculum r e v i s i o n : B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1927b). Programme of studies for the high and technical schools of B.C. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r . B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education (1927c). Programme of studies for the junior high schools of B.C. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r . 160 APPENDIX D 1937 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals and Aims "...Home Economics education [is intended] to give the student a well-rounded conception of the many responsibilities contributing to worthy home membership...[as well as] some knowledge of the profession of homemaking." (p.7) II. Outline of Junior High School (grades VII - IX) A. Aims: "1. The development of:-(a.) An understanding of the relation to health of:-(1.) Foods, as determined by their nutritional value, their preparation, and their appetizing quality. (2.) Clothing, as determined by materials and styles. (3.) Home sanitation, as determined by the personal hygiene of the members of the family and their care of the home. 2. The development of a desire and the ab i l i t y to participate in the work and social a c t i v i t i e s within the family. 3. The development of some dexterity in the manipulation of materials, tools, and machinery used in the home. 4. The development of an appreciation of the relationship of food values to quality, appearance, and cost. 5. The development of an appreciation=of the value of wise planning for the use ofxtime, effort, and money, in order that the /' individual, asvwe 1.1 as the family, may live rich, useful, purposeful livds. 6. The development of good taste and high standards of quality in the selection of clothing and home furnishings. / 7. The development of an appreciation of the home as a place in which to spend leisure-hours, and the gaining of a b i l i t y to spend such leisure-hours iri^ways that w i l l contribute to the improvement of the individual and the home." (p.7) B. Courses: **HE (I) - Foods, Clothing, Personal Appearance, and Child Care or Caring for the sick in the home. **HE(II) - Foods, Clothing, Co-operation within the Family Group, and Care and Furnishing of a Girl's Bedroom. HE(III) - Health and Nutrition, Foods and Cookery, Clothing, Kitchen Efficiency and Budgeting 161 Appendix D continued... III. Outline of High School (grades X - XII) A. Aims: "1. a. The development of an appreciation of the factors which affect successful family l i f e in such phases of homemaking as:-1. Family relationships. 2. Household management. 3. Family economics. 4. Provision for family health, education, and social activity. 5. Wise use of leisure. b. The development within the g i r l of a desire to make her maximum contribution to home and community l i f e . 2. a. The development of the a b i l i t y to select and prepare an adequate family diet with due regard to:-1. Nutritive requirements of the members of the family. 2. Comparative value of foods to meet these requirements. 3. Comparative cost of foods in terms of time, money, and energy. 4. The provision of the diet in a form that is attractive, palatable, and digestible. b. The development of good food habits and good general health habits. 3. a. The development of an appreciation of the value in successful personal and social l i f e of becoming and suitable dress. b. The development of the a b i l i t y to analyse and provide for clothing needs in relation to:-1. Health. 2. Becomingness. 3. Suitability. 4. Value in time, money, and energy. 4. The development of an appreciation of the contribution made to successful family and individual l i f e by:-a. Suitable housing. b. Adequate household equipment. c. Attractive furnishings." (p.85) B. Courses: 1. General Programme (two years) HE(A) II, III - Foods, Nutrition, Cookery and Home Management HE(B) II, III - Clothing & Textiles, Applied Art HE(CC)II, III - Food3 ; Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art HE(C) - Foods, Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art - offered for students not wishing more Home Economics training. 162 Appendix D continued... 2. Senior Matriculation Programme (three years) HE(A) II,III,IV - Foods and Nutrition, Cookery and Home Management HE(B) II,III,IV - Clothing and Textiles, Applied Art HE(C) II,III,IV - Foods, Clothing, Home Management and Applied Art In addition: HE V & VI - "adapted from other courses" and intended to be "more prevocational in purpose...[due to] conditions in some parts of the province" (B.C. Department of Education, 1937b, p.1-4). HE V - Personal Hygiene, Foods, Home Management, Home Nursing, Clothing and Textiles, Applied Art. HE VI - Foods, Child Care and Development, Clothing, Applied Art IV. Outline of Boys' Course This course was intended to "help the boys to be more intelligent and appreciative members of their families; to [enable boys to] plan and prepare simple outdoor meals; and to enable boys to prepare and serve a simple meal to a sick member of the family." Cp.79) * British Columbia Department of Education (1937b). Home economics for the  junior and senior high schools. Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer. ** Compulsory for g i r l s . 163 APPENDIX E 1952 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals and Aims "...to prepare the students for effective home l i v i n g . " (p.4) II. Outline of Junior High School Courses (grades 7 - 9 ) HE 7 - Personal Appearance, Foods, Clothing, Child Care, Home Care of the Sick ***HE 7a - Alternate to HE 7 HE 8 - A Girl's Part in Her Home, Foods, Clothing ***HE 8a - Alternate to HE 8 Homemaking 10 - Applied Art, The Kitchen, Foods and Nutrition, Management, Clothing Construction ***Homemaking 10a - Alternate to Homemaking 10 Dressmaking 11 - Clothing Construction III. Outline of High School Courses (grades 10 - 12) HE 20 - Homemaking; replaced HE (CC)II HE 21 - Clothing Selection and Construction; replaced HE (B)II HE 22 - Foods and Nutrition; replaced HE (A)II **HE 23 - Home Furnishing **HE 24 - Child Care and Home Nursing **HE 25 - Arts and Crafts **HE 26 - Boys' Course HE 30 - Homemaking; replaced HE (CC)III HE 31 - Clothing Selection and Construction; replaced HE (B)III HE 32 - Foods and Nutrition; replaced HE (A)III HE 39 - Composite Course; replaced HE (C) **HE 91 - Homemaking IV. Outline of Boys' Course The Boys' Course was open to boys in grades 11 and 12 and to selected students in grade 10. Units of study included: Personal Appearance Foods, Nutrition and Home Management Family Relations and Social Customs and Courtesies The Home, Its Furnishings and Its Use Child Care * British Columbia Department of Education (1957b). Administrative bulletin  supplement. Victoria, B.C.: Author. ** New course. *** No curriculum materials available. 164 APPENDIX F 1965 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals and Aims "Home economics education must strive to co-operate with the family in providing for the g i r l the best training possible for the complex and demanding role of homeraaker and provide some introduction to home economics related employment probabilities." (1967a, Preface) II. Outline of Junior High School (grades 8 - 10) A. Aim: "To help pupils understand and appreciate the importance of the role of homemaker and to gain knowledge, s k i l l s and understanding...of homemaking." (p.l) B. Courses: HE 8 - Management, Foods, Clothing, The Home and Its Furnishings, Child Development FN 9 - Foods and Nutrition for grades 9 or 10 CT 9 - Clothing and Textiles for grades 9 or 10 **CC 9 - Child Care for grades 9 or 10 **CFS9 - Cooking and Food Services for grade 9 or 10 boys **Domestic and Related Service S k i l l s 1, 2 & 3 (Occupational Programme) III. Outline of Senior High School (grades 11 & 12) A. Aim: "To develop the character and personality of individual pupils and to provide them with selected knowledge and s k i l l s applicable to personal and occupational l i f e as preparation for further training or entry into a range of occupations related to the foods industry, the clothing and textiles industry, home and community service." (p.4) B. Courses: Community Services Programme - three specialty areas: Foods, Textiles and Home & Industrial Services - home economics course offerings: FN 11 - Foods and Nutrition TX 11 - Clothing and Textiles **Mgt 11 - Management and Home Services FN 12A - Foods and Nutrition FN 12B - Foods and Nutrition Appendix F Continued **HIS 12 TX 12A TX 12B CC 12 Clothing and Textiles Clothing and Textiles Child Care Home and Industrial Services IV. Outline of Boys ' Course Boys were able to enroll in Cooking and Food Services 9 in Junio High School or in the Foods Specialty Area of the Community Services Programme in Senior High School. * There are two sources which document this curriculum revision: British Columbia Department of Education (1967a). Junior secondary schools home economics curriculum guide. Victoria, B.C.: Author. British Columbia Department of Education (1967b). Senior secondary schools home economics curriculum guide. Victoria, B.C.: Author. ** New Course. 166 APPENDIX G 1979 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals And Aims "The Home Economics program w i l l enable the student: To acquire the knowledge, the s k i l l s and the understanding of p r i n c i p l e s necessary to provide food, c l o t h i n g and sh e l t e r , for the the i n d i v i d u a l and the family. To develop a basic understanding of human n u t r i t i o n . To develop e f f i c i e n t management and consumer s k i l l s i n a l l aspects of home economics. To develop a b i l i t i e s and attitudes needed to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with s o c i a l , economic and technological changes. To recognize the needs and customs of various ages, l e v e l s of society and cultures i n order to achieve e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To develop a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s and inte r e s t s for use i n l e i s u r e time. To appreciate and to create beauty i n one's environment. To acquire a broad base of knowledge as a useful background for s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g and/or further education." (p.2) The home economics programme i s "open to boys and g i r l s and...both content and methodology r e f l e c t s a co-educational approach." ( p . l ) I I . Outline of Junior High School Courses (grades 8 - 10) HE 8 * * L i f e s k i l l s 8 -CT 9/10 -**HE 9 -**HE 10 -**FS 10 -**TAC 10 -Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Composite HE8 and IE8 Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism Family Studies, Management and Consumerism T e x t i l e Arts and C r a f t s , Management and Consumerism I I I . Outline of Senior High School Courses (grades 11 & 12) **IFN 11 - Introductory Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism FN 11 - Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Management and Consumerism, Careers **ICT 11 - Introductory Clothing and Textiles,, Management and and Consumerism CT 11 - Clothing and T e x t i l e s , Management and Consumerism, Careers 167 Appendix G Continued... **TAC 11 - Textile Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12 - Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism, Careers FN 12 - Foods and Nutrition, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12A - Clothing and Textiles - Tailoring, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12B - Clothing and Textiles - Pattern Design and Drafting, Management and Consumerism, Careers **HID 12 - Housing and Interior Design, Management and Consumerism, Careers **FS 12 - Family Studies, Management and Consumerism, Careers CAF 12A - Foods and Nutrition - Cafeteria CAF 12B - Foods and Nutrition - Cafeteria IV. Outline of Boys' Course Since the entire home economics programme was open to boys, there was no longer any distinction between home economics courses intended for gi r l s and those intended for boys. * British Columbia Ministry of Education (1979b). Home economics curriculum  guide (8-12). Victoria, B.C.: Author. ** New course. 168 APPENDIX H 1985 HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM REVISION* I. Goals and Aims The goals and aims of the home economics programme remain the same as in the 1979 revision except for the new aim developed for "Family Management": "...to assist students to explore the reciprocal influences of family, self and society, and to develop positive attitudes about themselves and their world...[in order to develop] the necessary s k i l l s , knowledge and a b i l i t i e s to meet the challenges of our dynamic and complex society." II. Outline of Junior High School Courses (grades 8 - 10) HE 8 - Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism L i f e s k i l l s 8 - Composite HE8 and IE8 CT 9/10 - Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism FN 9/10 - Foods and Nutrition, Management and Consumerism HE 9 - Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism HE 10 - Foods and Nutrition, Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism FS 10 - Family Studies, Management and Consumerism TAC 10 - Textile Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism III. Outline of Senior High School Courses (grades 11 & 12) IFN 11 - Introductory Foods and Nutrition, Management and Consumerism FN 11 - Foods and Nutrition, Management and Consumerism, Careers ICT 11 - Introductory Clothing and Textiles, Management & Consumerism CT 11 - Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism, Careers TAC 11 - Textile Arts and Crafts, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12 - Clothing and Textiles, Management and Consumerism, Careers FN 12 - Foods and Nutrition, Management and Consumerism, Careers CT 12A - Clothing and Textiles - Tailoring, Management and Consumerism Careers CT 12B - Clothing and Textiles - Pattern Design and Drafting, Management and Consumerism, Careers **FM 11 - Family Management **FM 12 - Family Management CAF 12A - Foods and Nutrition - Cafeteria CAF 12B - Foods and Nutrition - Cafeteria * British Columbia Ministry of Education (1985 February). Proposed home  economics curriculum outline: Draft copy. Victoria, B.C.: Author. ** New course. 

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