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An analysis of the development of a literacy and life skills curriculum for native adults Mogan, Susan Barbara 1986

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LITERACY AND LIFE SKILLS CURRICULUM FOR NATIVE ADULTS By SUSAN BARBARA MOGAN B.A.,  The University of British Columbia, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF CURRICULUM & INSTRUCTION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1986 €) SUSAN BARBARA MOGAN, 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  Iti s thesis  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  written  permission.  Department o f fl/JA/utiAJJJha  &htJ J,njJ)'-Qc/^'nJ  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  7Q>  ii  ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to analyse the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines from two perspectives: a planning perspective and a teaching and learning perspective. This study was undertaken to contribute to the literature on program development for Native adults.  Further, the intent was to draw attention  to the fact that according to 1981 census data, 34.5% of Canadian Native adults are considered functionally i l l i t e r a t e . The field research approach was used to analyse the development of the Guidelines.  This approach was appropriate because research in the area of  Native programming is at an exploratory stage where few, i f any, theories or hypotheses could be tested using quantitative approaches.  Field  research is well suited to exploratory projects. Two methods were used to collect data, interviews and document analysis.  Jarvis' curriculum planning model for the education of adults  was used to collect and analyse interview and document data.  Data analysis  involved sorting information from interviews and documents according to a chronological sequence of events that occurred in the curriculum development project.  The interview and document data were categorized into  the 10 factors outlined in Jarvis' model. Conclusions were drawn regarding the outcomes of the project, the curriculum development process and the data collection process. Conclusions from the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project had direct implications for curriculum developers, policy makers and researchers.  11i  I t was found that a communication network i s necessary i n curriculum planning, that f i n a n c i n g i s a c r i t i c a l  issue i n the development process and  that a curriculum planning model i s a helpful tool f o r developing a curriculum. This research h i g h l i g h t s the need f o r a p o l i c y that includes the p r o v i s i o n f o r the development and implementation of a s e r i e s of programs to upgrade the education l e v e l s of Native a d u l t s .  These programs must also  provide Native adults with career o p p o r t u n i t i e s to enable them to f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n today's s o c i e t y .  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  Page  One  LITERACY ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROBLEM STATEMENTS PURPOSE SIGNIFICANCE  1 4 8 9 10  Two  LITERATURE REVIEW  11  Three  METHODOLOGY  32  Introduction The Field Research Approach Reasons for Using the Field Research Approach . . . Collecting Data Data Analysis  32 32 35 36 44  Four  DESCRIPTION OF EVENTS  48  Five  DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ACCORDING TO JARVIS' MODEL  70  Six  Introduction Philosophy Sociological Factors Social Policy Factors Perceived Demand Psychological Factors Resources Advertised Program Actual Demand Actual Curriculum Evaluation Summary  70 70 77 84 93 98 102 108 115 118 121 127  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  133  Outcomes of the Curriculum Development Project . . Curriculum Development Process Data Collection and Analysis Process The Curriculum Model Limitations ••••  133 138 144 148 150  V  IMPLICATIONS Implications for Curriculum Developers Policy Implications Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Study  REFERENCES Interviews APPENDICIES  151 151 154 156  159 163 164  vi FIGURES Figure  Page  1  Literacy Continuum  2  Giles, McCutcheon's and Zechriel's  3  Learning and Teaching Process Model  19  3  Goodlad's Framework for Data Collection  22  4  Houle's Decision Points and Components of an Adult Education Framework Jarvis' Curriculum Planning Model  27 28  5  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to acknowledge help received from my thesis committee, Dr. Donald Fisher, Dr. William G r i f f i t h and Dr. Bernard Mohan. I would also l i k e to acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of the members of the curriculum development project,  including advisory committee  members, the p i l o t teachers, p i l o t students and curriculum publisher. Without them, this study would not have been p o s s i b l e . Special thanks to my parents, John and Judith Mogan, to my friend P a t r i c i a C h r i s t i e and to my former boss Margaret Muckle for t h e i r continuing i n t e r e s t and support. Finally,  I would l i k e to thank my employer, the B r i t i s h Columbia  Telephone Company for sponsoring this  thesis.  1  Chapter One  LITERACY  In the summer of 1983, the Canadian Commission for UNESCO published a document, "Adult Literacy in Canada—A Challenge".  This document defines  and discusses the problems of illiteracy and the need for adult basic education programs.  It  synthesizes and analyses the major writings  available to date on literacy and adult basic education, and thus provides an excellent resource for the discussion of these two topics. This UNESCO document advocates the belief that "Education is a right of each citizen, due to each citizen irrespective of his place of residence" (Thomas, 1983, p. 11).  The nature of literacy has been debated  and discussed extensively in the past three decades.  In the late 1950s and  early 1960s, it was viewed as a process of training people for jobs.  The  World Congress on the Eradication of Illiteracy, in 1965, defined literacy in the following terms:  Rather than an end in i t s e l f , literacy should be regarded as a way of preparing man for a social, civic and economic role that goes far beyond the limits of rudimentary literacy  training  consisting merely in the teaching of reading and writing. (Literacy A right denied, 1980, p. 6)  Since the publication of The Pedagogy of the Oppressed, in 1972, the ideas and philosophy of Paulo Freire have had much influence on the  2  definition  of l i t e r a c y .  people to the  realities  themselves by c r i t i c a l l y (Thomas, 1983, Declaration  p.  16).  Freire's of t h e i r  belief life  ...not  The d e f i n i t i o n  Literacy  just  writing  so t h a t they can  "free  of l i t e r a c y  put forward  by  live" the  and adopted by UNESCO i n c o r p o r a t e s  is defined as:  the p r o c e s s of  and a r i t h m e t i c ,  man and to h i s f u l l creates  situation,  should awaken  a n a l y s i n g the c o n d i t i o n s under which they  o f P e r s e p o l i s (1975),  Freire's belief.  i s that l i t e r a c y  learning  the  s k i l l s of  but a c o n t r i b u t i o n  development.  the c o n d i t i o n s f o r  to  reading,  the l i b e r a t i o n  Thus c o n c e i v e d ,  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a  of  literacy  critical  c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of s o c i e t y i n which man lives  and o f  projects  its  aims; p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c a p a b l e of a c t i n g upon the w o r l d ,  human development.  It  Secretariat  literacy  literacy where  sentences,  speciality  of  authentic of  Coordination  1975)  have been p l a c e d on a continuum r a n g i n g from very b a s i c  the p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t y  to read and w r i t e  to read and w r i t e i n the  areas,  two extremes as:  literacy,  (International  such as names and a d d r e s s e s , to t e c h n i c a l  person i s a b l e  defined  for  of an  of  s h o u l d a l s o open the way to a mastery  t e c h n i q u e s and human r e l a t i o n s  Levels of  i n the c r e a t i o n  such as s c i e n c e ,  the continuum l i e s  is  limited  literacy  to  simple  where a  language a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  computers and p o l i t i c s . functional  literacy  Between  these  which has been  3  The possession of the s k i l l s perceived as necessary by particular persons and groups to f u l f i l l their own self-determined objectives as family and community members, citizens, consumers, job holders and members of social, religious or other associations of their choosing.  (Hunter & Harman,  1979, p. 7)  Humane literacy is defined as "the ability to read with comprehension and judgement the works of the best practitioners of the language, philosophers and poets in all their guises" (Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, 1980, p. 1).  BASIC  FUNCTIONAL  HUMANE  TECHNICAL  LITERACY  LITERACY  LITERACY  LITERACY  Figure 1.  Literacy Continuum  People unable to read and write a short, simple sentence about their lives are considered i l l i t e r a t e .  People "unable to engage in all those  activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning of their group and community and also" for enabling them to continue to use reading, writing and calculators for their own purpose" (Thomas, 1983, p. 19) are considered functionally  illiterate.  Where i t is impossible to measure a person's literacy abilities by  4  standardized tests, the i l l i t e r a t e population is estimated by studying the educational backgrounds of the surveyed population.  In Canada, 22.3  percent of the population has less than grade nine education (Canada, Statistics Canada Census, 1981).  "This population is considered  undereducated and estimated to be either i l l i t e r a t e or functionally i l l i t e r a t e " (Thomas, 1983, p. 55). If one considers literacy as simply the ability to read and write, appears that the number of i l l i t e r a t e s  it  in the Western world is shrinking.  However, i f one adopts the broader, social view of functional literacy, the problem of i l l i t e r a c y is not diminishing.  In fact, it is growing.  world is becoming more complex and technical.  Our  The ability to function in a  social or work setting requires a person to possess reading skills that go well beyond the basic comprehension level.  One must be able to analyse and  evaluate reading materials to understand the full written word.  ramifications of the  Individuals must now learn to "cope with electronic media  systems and their associated printed material" (Thomas, 1983, p. 2).  As  written documents and media systems become more complex, it becomes increasingly d i f f i c u l t for a person without basic communication skills to function effectively in our society.  ADULT BASIC EDUCATION  Adult basic education (ABE) programs are designed to address the problems of the under-educated adult and therefore, include literacy s k i l l s both at the basic and functional levels.  Broadly defined, adult basic  education is "that field of instruction where communication s k i l l s  5  (speaking, listening, reading and writing), numeracy and other  relevant  curriculum content areas are interspersed with a variety of l i f e s k i l l s from grades 1 to 12" (Thomas, 1979, p. 5). In countries, such as Canada, where 77.7% of adults are literate, is d i f f i c u l t to attract under-educated adults to ABE programs.  it  The stigma  attached to i l l i t e r a c y causes a number of adults who do not have basic literacy s k i l l s to keep their handicap a secret.  Illiterate adults prefer  to have close friends and relatives assist them in performing basic communication s k i l l s such as reading instructions and writing letters, rather than admitting their problems and seeking assistance. In Canada, associations such as the "Canadian Literacy Movement", "National Film Board" and "The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation" have taken great pains to inform and educate the general public about the dilemma facing i l l i t e r a t e adults.  Reading materials such as Canadian Basic  Literacy Resource Kit and Adult Basic Education—A Resource Book of Readings, films such as "J'ai pas mes Lunettes", and "Lettres des Mortes", and television programs similar to "Can't you Read", a documentary presented on "The Fifth Estate", are intended to describe and analyse the problems i l l i t e r a t e adults must suffer daily. The purpose of the reading material and television programs is to help dispell the stigma attached to i l l i t e r a c y ,  so that adults suffering from  this handicap will seek and demand their right to education.  The Canadian  government has "influenced adult basic education but only insofar as ABE is part of a manpower policy" (Thomas, 1983, p. 66).  For instance, Canada  Employment and Immigration Commission have two federally run adult basic  6  education programs: Basic training for s k i l l s development and basic job readiness.  However, as education is the responsibility of the provinces,  the Federal government is confined to supporting ABE programs through financial assistance such as cost sharing agreements and grants.  In  British Columbia, the focus on adult basic education has sharpened since 1976.  In fact, Thomas (1979), in her conference report, "Adult literacy in  the seventies" writes:  ...there was an increasing nervousness about the role of the Department of Manpower (now the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission) in basic literacy training and academic upgrading. Columbia.  The one bright spot was the province of British There as a result of a series of post-secondary  commissions and one on continuing and community education, in particular, adult basic education began to receive considerable attention and various initiatives were taken in this field throughout the province,  (p. 5)  The Report of the committee on continuing and community education in British Columbia, (1976) identified adult basic education as a priority. In 1977, approximately 120 projects focusing on ABE were initiated by the continuing education division of the Ministry of Education.  In 1978, a  co-ordinator for adult basic education was appointed to oversee existing programs in the f i e l d .  In 1980, the Ministry of Education published a  policy statement in which they recognized their responsibility to foster learning opportunities for adults in British Columbia who have not had the  7  chance to develop some or all of those s k i l l s required to function successfully in Canadian society.  In 1980, the Continuing Education  Department published the "Adult Basic Literacy and Resource Guide".  This  guide was followed by the "Adult Basic Literacy Assessment Kit" and "English as a Second Language Curriculum Guide," in 1981.  The "Adult Basic  Education—English and Communications Curriculum Guide" was published in 1982.  The Ministry f e l t that a "curriculum that is more clearly defined  and accepted province-wide would be useful in discussions and decisions about course content, standards, certification, transfer of student credit and general program articulation and coordination" (Harrison, 1982, p. 5). This curriculum guide is designed to address literacy s k i l l s that are above the grade 9 level. A second adult basic education curriculum guide focusing on literacy was submitted to the Ministry of Education in the spring of 1984.  This  curriculum guide "grew out of the concern expressed by the B.C. Native Education Advisory Committee of the Canada Employment Immigration Commission for the thousands of native adults in B.C. with s k i l l s below the grade 5 level" (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984).  It may be argued that  the existing "Adult Basic Education English and Communications Curriculum Guide" addresses the literacy requirements of the undereducated adult population in British Columbia, making a second literacy program redundant. However, the curriculum is designed to address the needs of the Native population operating at a minimal skill  level.  8  PROBLEM STATEMENT  This study analysed the development process of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines from two perspectives:  A planning  perspective and a teaching/learning perspective. Analysing the curriculum from a planning perspective, the following types of factors were considered:  the curriculum's philosophy; its  commitment to knowledge; national and local government involvement in the curriculum the method in which the program addressed the various learning d i f f i c u l t i e s or peculiarities of its target population; the curriculum's financial, physical and staff resources; the method in which the curriculum was advertised; and the means by which the curriculum was evaluated. Analysing the curriculum from a teaching and learning perspective, the factors studied refered to the aims and objectives of each section of the curriculum, the content or subject matter of each of the curriculum's sections, the method in which the curriculum was organized and taught, and, the method by which students were evaluated to ensure that the aims and objectives of each section of the course had been met. The planning perspective looked at the program as a whole and studied how outside factors influenced this whole program.  The teaching and  learning perspective looked at the program in sections and studied the method in which each section contributed to the whole curriculum.  Certain  factors considered in the planning perspective overlapped with factors studied in the teaching and learning perspectives and vice versa.  9  PURPOSE  The purpose of analysing the development of the Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines is two fold: a theoretical contribution.  F i r s t , this study will make  There is a dearth of literature in the area of  program development for Native adults in Canada.  A computer search  indicates that virtually all literature available on Native education is either American based or involves Native youths.  The research on Native  adults conducted in the United States shows that there are differences between Native and non-Native curriculum development projects.  There is  also research available that indicates that curriculum development for youths varies from the development of programs for adults.  We have yet to  determine what factors should be considered in the development of Canadian Native adult programs in general and in Canadian Native adult basic literacy programs in particular. Second, this study has social and political relevance. oppressive.  Illiteracy is  One cannot read to understand daily activities nor write to  respond to or c r i t i c i z e the environment.  In a society where the individual  is required to read and write to fully comprehend and respond to a situation, the i l l i t e r a t e individual is at a disadvantage when compared to other literate individuals.  He/she cannot use the same tools to understand  and decode messages in society and therefore is less capable of influencing or changing society than the individual who is capable of reading and writing. Canada is a country which advocates the right to freedom and democracy for each citizen; yet 22.3% of the overall population and 34.5% of the  10  Native population in this country, are functionally i l l i t e r a t e (Canada, Statistics Canada, 1981)  and does not and cannot know enough about  government policies to vote responsibly and knowledgably.  Conducting  research in literacy and adult education programs for Natives may focus some attention on the topic.  This attention may attract some badly needed  research funding.  SIGNIFICANCE  The analysis of this curriculum project should provide information about the design of curricula that has not at this point been considered. It  is hoped that this study will stimulate new research into the  development of curricula for Native adults. The analysis of the development of the program should also provide information to assist individuals who are not experienced in developing curricula for Native adults.  This study provides information about  planning as well as teaching and learning factors that should be considered in designing curricula. The study should provide new perspectives on the curriculum development process for the program developer, as well as those people concerned with the curriculum, including government o f f i c i a l s , school administrators, teachers and students.  They can analyse the strengths and  weaknesses of the curriculum guide and make changes where necessary or possible.  Where i t is impossible, they can perhaps learn from their  experience and use their knowledge in designing other programs.  11  Chapter Two •  LITERATURE REVIEW  Although there is literature available on program planning and program planning for adults, there is l i t t l e research available on program planning for Native adults in Canada.  Research reports (Arbess, 1981; Barnhardt,  1981; C o l l i e r , 1979; Kleinfeld, 1975)  regarding Natives are generally  American based or focused on Native youths.  Research findings available on  Native Indian programs tend to focus on educational goals, methods of instruction, teaching strategies and learning styles. In the area of curriculum goals, Barnhardt (1981) examined the aims of high schools working with Native populations in Alaska.  Barnhardt believes  that programs which aim to "culturally assimilate" the Native student into the patterns of the dominant society will likely be unsuccessful because they fail to recognize the student's ties to the Native community. student has been socialized to the norms of the Native community.  The Changing  the values and beliefs that one has grown up with can be d i f f i c u l t and sometimes impossible to accomplish. By the same token, a program advocating "cultural pluralism" will not, in most cases, be successful either.  A culturally pluralistic curriculum  attempts to encourage the student to maintain his/her minority culture by ignoring the acculturating influences of the larger society.  This approach  to curriculum ignores the fact that the student's exposure to the influences of the dominant culture occurs whether or not it is incorporated into the curriculum.  A curriculum that respects cultural diversity and  12  that recognizes students as products of varied experiences and cultural influences is recommended by Barnhardt.  Students are exposed to a wide  range of cultural influences so that "they themselves are able to exercise some degree of choice in their individual and group l i f e styles and goals" (Barnhardt, 1981, p. 11). In terms of method of instruction, Barnhardt (1981) argues the best means of developing learning and thinking s k i l l s is by completing projects. "In a project approach, content is not in an isolated context, but is assessed in terms of its functional contribution to the solution of the task at hand" (Barnhardt, 1981, p. 26).  Barnhardt recommends that teachers  select projects for Natives which involve the entire group of students working together to solve a particular problem related to their community. Effective teaching styles are discussed extensively in the reports of Kleinfeld (1975), Collier (1979) and Waite (1971).  Kleinfeld (1975) in her  ethnographic analysis of "Effective Teachers of Eskimo and Indian Students" distinguishes between successful and non-successful teachers of Native students.  Teacher effectiveness was indicated based on two criteria of  "pupil growth":  How much did the Indian and Eskimo students verbally in the classroom.  What was the cognitive level (e.g.  participate repetition  of scattered facts versus application of principles of their verbal communications as evaluated by Bloom's taxonomy). (Kleinfeld, 1975, p. 308)  13  Kleinfeld observed that effective educators of Indian students exude personal warmth in their teaching styles.  Teachers who develop friendships  outside the class and who communicate warmth and caring in their non-verbal cues were successful in building close relationships with Natives and in creating a positive learning environment (p. 320).  Genuine smiles of  encouragement, close body distance and touching are considered effective teaching approaches for Native students. A film study conducted by Collier (1979) on Alaskan teachers working with students focused on "pace (the rate of movements, actions and events in communications and interactions)  and flow (the interrelatedness of  movements of people who are interacting)"  (p. 10).  It was found that  'Native' teachers tended to pace their class much slower than 'Anglo' teachers.  'Anglo' teachers were brisk in helping individual students,  correcting, pointing things out and leaving, as opposed to 'Native' teachers who worked slowly with students, helping, waiting, watching, helping again and watching some more. Waite (1971), in her proposal for an adult literacy program designed primarily for Natives, argues that i f teachers are aware and acknowledge Native students' concerns and interests, they (the teachers) will be able to establish an environment conducive to learning.  Waite argues that  teachers need to recognize that i l l i t e r a t e adults are generally insecure about their ability to learn and their lack of basic communication s k i l l s . She argues that in order to work effectively with adult Natives, the following principles must be adhered to.  F i r s t , teachers need to recognize  and respect the student's adulthood, by developing a student-teacher relationship based on equality, by allowing students to move and speak  14  freely in the classroom situation and by using materials that are interesting.  Second, the teacher must encourage and praise students for  their efforts and achievements rather than embarrass them by pointing out mistakes. criticism.  Native students are particularly sensitive about individual Third, the teacher must provide goals and intermediate  objectives, so that students have "a sense of direction in their learning, measure their progress and have a sense of satisfaction of arriving at definite success points along the way" (Waite, 1971, p. 12). In short, Kleinfeld (1975), Collier (1979) and Waite (1971) argue that the Native learning environment needs to be relaxed, friendly and unthreatening; yet students must feel as though they are achieving worthwhile and challenging goals.  All three writers warn that their  suggestions and/or findings not be used as recipes or prescriptive guidelines for effective teaching.  Both the learning environment and the  students differ from one situation to the next. recognized and acknowledged.  Differences must be  It is important to recognize that certain  teaching strategies have proven successful with Native learners and these strategies can be employed in learning situations involving Native students. As stressed above, the teaching strategies employed for Native students should reflect the students' learning styles.  In the report of a  conference held at Stanford University on styles of learning among American Indians, i t was argued that students preferred visual rather than written resources.  The preference for visual learning among Native adults is  substantiated in three research studies cited by Arbess (1981).  Bland  15  (1970, 1975)  tested a Visual Recall Ability Indicator (V.R.A.I.) and  "demonstrated that both Inuit and Indian children scored significantly higher than Caucasion children" (cited by Arbess, 1981, p. 9).  Brooks  (1975) found that White students "perform better than Indian students in test situations requiring verbalization of concepts learned.  Indian  students used a complex of conceptual s k i l l s including memory in surpassing white students in tasks requiring spatial reasoning" (cited by Sawyer, 1984, unpublished, p. 20).  Brooks (1975) concluded that students are often  faced with classroom situations that require them to complete verbal tasks rather than spatial or non-verbal tasks and thereby find learning difficult. Similarly, Lawson (1981) noted that students are often confused when they are required to learn by written instructions.  Native students are  generally more comfortable with tasks involving observation, manipulation and experimentation. of Education, 1984)  From this evidence, i t was suggested (B.C. Ministry that projects such as building models, creating  thematic collages and producing video tapes require students to take advantage of their non-verbal abilities (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984, p. 16). In short, Bland's (1970, 1975) propensity for visual learning.  studies indicate that Natives have a  Brooks' study found that Natives surpass  non-Natives in tasks requiring spatial reasoning, whereas white students surpass Natives on tasks emphasizing "verbalization of concepts".  Although  i t is important to recognize differences between Native and non-Native learning styles and a b i l i t i e s , the limitation on research conclusions must also be recognized.  Research results provide generalizations or general  16  tendencies which need to be used as guidance when developing curricula, but should not be used as rules for the education of Natives. To summarize, research studies conducted by Barnhardt (1981) on educational goals and methods of teaching, as well as the studies conducted by Kleinfeld (1975), Collier (1979) on teaching strategies and Bland (1970) and (1975), Brooks (1975) and Lawson (1981) on learning styles were conducted in the United States and they generally refer to Native youths. Waite (1971) is perhaps one of the few researchers who makes some reference to the literacy needs of the Native adults in Canada.  There is a dearth of  literature on adult basic education for Native adults in Canada suggesting a real need for research in this critical area. Moreover, the research available on Native programs studies only teaching and learning aspects of curriculum or program.  Aims and  objectives, subject matter, organization and methods are the focus of most research referring to Native curricula, whereas factors pertaining to program planning such as program philosophy, educational policy, sociological concerns, and program evaluation are seldom discussed. Research needs to be conducted exploring both the teaching and learning aspects as well as the planning factors of the curriculum development process. In order to conduct research, a model is required which taps information relating to both the teaching and learning as well as the planning factors involved in program development.  The model most often  referred to in the literature is Tyler's (1949) classical ends/means design. The model is linear and uni-directional.  It focuses around the  17  following four questions:  1.  What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?  2.  What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?  3.  How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?  4.  How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?  (Tyler, 1949, p. 1)  The developer's role is to outline the goals and objectives to be met in a curriculum, the best means of achieving these goals and objectives and a method of determining whether or not these goals and objectives have been met.  Ends are always to precede means, in that objectives come before  activities. Although Tyler's model has been widely recognized and used by curriculum specialists over the years, i t has also been subject to much criticism.  Eisner (1979) found the model to be overly simplistic.  Its  prescriptive, uni-directional approach to curriculum design is typical of "a text book rendering of educational planning.  In complex organizations  ends can be constructed out of action" (Eisner, 1979, p. 9-10).  Documents  recounting the processes of curriculum design and decision making describe instances where learning activities were decided on, well before the objectives or goals had been thought through.  The model has also been  criticized for its failure to recognize students as part of the development process (Eisner, 1979, p.10), and its failure to include such factors as curriculum philosophy, student needs, and educational policy.  In short,  18  Tyler's uni-directional, ends/means model is seen to be overly simplified as well as prescriptive and unacceptable for describing the curriculum design and implementation process. Giles, McCutcheon and Zechriel (1942) produced a curriculum development model, which is similar to Tyler's in its focus on the teaching and learning aspects of curriculum development, yet different from Tyler's in its departure from the uni-directional ends/means approach to the development process.  (Taba, 1962)  curriculum development:  objectives, subject matter, method and  organization and evaluation. curriculum developer:  The model incorporates four factors of  This model suggests four questions for the  "What is to be done?; What subject matter is to be  used?; What methods and what organization are to be used?; and "How are the results to be appraised?" (Taba, 1962, p. 425).  Each of the factors is  inter-related in that "decisions regarding any of them are dependent on decisions made on others" (Taba, 1962, p. 425).  19  OBJECTIVES  SUBJECT  METHOD AND  MATTER  ORGANIZATION  EVALUATION  Figure 2.  G i l e s ' , McCutcheon's and Z e c h i e l ' s Learning and  Teaching Process Model f o r the Eudcation of A d u l t s .  This model has been c r i t i c i z e d by Taba (1962) and Eisner (1979) f o r i t s f a i l u r e to include such c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s as d e c i s i o n making p o l i c i e s and philosophy  i n t o the design.  Taba (1962) argues that the model f a i l s t o  i n d i c a t e "the bases on which the decisions regarding elements are made, such as the sources from which o b j e c t i v e s are derived".  Eisner (1979)  argues that the G i l e s e t a l . model represents an e s s e n t i a l l y technical approach to curriculum development which f a i l s to recognize f a c t o r s such as p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n to curriculum. Eisner (1979) documents the a c t i v i t i e s that took place during the development of an a r t program f o r elementary students i n the United States, known as the K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t .  The strength of Eisner's report i s that i t  documents the process i n which the curriculum evolved.  Developers',  teachers' and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' ideas and philosophies were recorded.  The  i n t e r a c t i o n between the people involved with the program i s also described and analysed.  The report i n d i c a t e s that the developers  were concerned  20  about identifying their attitudes, philosophies and/or beliefs about art education before endeavouring to adhere to a model or framework for curriculum development.  The process of developing this curriculum,  according to Eisner's report, was somewhat more complex than Tyler's ends/means model suggests.  Unit goals were not always decided before the  unit content was chosen and methods of appraising students' work was sometimes decided before either the content or goals were thought through. Although the report does describe the development process and it provides a loose framework that could be used to analyse other curriculum development projects, the major emphasis of the framework is on the teaching and learning aspects of curriculum development.  His discussion of  administrative factors of curriculum development is limited to curriculum philosophy.  Eisner explores primarily the philosophical orientation of the  people involved in the development process, in an attempt to show how one's philosophical stance in respect to curriculum influences decisions on the selection of curriculum goals, content and evaluation. Like Eisner, Goodlad (1979) has developed a framework for studying the curriculum development process.  Goodlad's framework is somewhat more  extensive than Eisner's and includes in i t factors pertaining to the implementation of a curriculum into the school system and into the classroom. The framework considers nine aspects of the curriculum development and implementation process:  Description, Decision Making, Rationale,  P r i o r i t i e s , Attitudes, Appropriateness, Comprehensiveness, Individualization,  and Barriers and Facilitators.  Goodlad then studies how  these nine aspects or qualitative factors of curriculum development and  21  implementation relate to nine commonplaces of curriculum: Goals and o b j e c t i v e s , M a t e r i a l s , Content, Learning A c t i v i t i e s , Evaluation, Grouping, Time and Space.  Strategies,  For instance, he would study the  decisions that were made in the selection of curriculum goals and the rationale for choosing the curriculum goals.  A third dimension of  Goodlad's curriculum development and implementation framework is perspectives.  Goodlad studies the curriculum development and  implementation process from the perspectives of the school government o f f i c i a l s ,  teachers,  students, and researchers.  administrators, For example,  using Goodlad's framework, one could tap information on the decisions  that  were made on the part of the teachers and students in the selection of curriculum goals.  Figure 3 depicts Goodlad's framework for data c o l l e c t i o n  in four c u r r i c u l a r domains. Although Goodlad's framework is comprehensive and elaborate  involving  484 factor combinations of curriculum development and' implementation, the use of this framework in conducting a small scale research project would probably prove i m p r a c t i c a l . the appropriate c e l l  The a b i l i t y to gather data and to determine  to s l o t the data in would be a monumental task  involving either a great deal of time or the services of research assistants.  Goodlad's framework has been used to conduct a large scale  study of the school  system in the United States.  Another drawback of  Goodlad's framework is that the factors included in the design consider only the teaching and learning aspects of curriculum development and implementation, without consideration for the planning aspects of these processes.  Important factors such as decision making, attitudes and  rationale are being studied, but they are only being examined as they  zzzz zz / / / z z  f fptmtl  /instructional /Opcrtliontl /itptiitntiil 1. Coals and Objective*  zz:2:  2. Materials 3 Content 4. Learning Activities 5. Strategies 6. Evaluation 7. Grouping 6. Time 9. Space Description  Decision Making  Rationale  Priorities Attitudes Appropriateness Comprehensiveness  Individualitalion  Figure 3. Goodlad's Framework for Data Collection  Barriers and Facilitators  23  r e l a t e to curriculum goals and o b j e c t i v e s , m a t e r i a l s , content,  learning  a c t i v i t i e s , s t r a t e g i e s , e v a l u a t i o n , grouping, time and space.  Factors such  as program philosophy,  government p o l i c y and psychological c o n s t r a i n t s are  not studied. In short, both Eisner and Goodlad have designed models to study curriculum development, and i n the case of Goodlad, curriculum development and implementation.  Although these models recognize that the development  and implementation processes are somewhat more involved than what the models of e i t h e r T y l e r (1949) or G i l e s et a l . (1942) suggest, the^Eisner and Goodlad models are concerned with teaching and learning aspects of curriculum design and focus on youth education  as opposed to a d u l t  education. Before d i s c u s s i n g a curriculum model f o r adult education, one consider the d i f f e r e n c e s between adult and youth education. education  or andragogy, according  four  The learner i s  s e l f - d i r e c t e d ; the learner's experiences are a r i c h resource the learner's readiness  Adult  to Knowles (1980, p. 44-45) has  premises that d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f from pedagogy:  should  for learning;  to learn i s i n c r e a s i n g l y oriented to the  developmental tasks of his/her s o c i a l r o l e s ; the learner's time perspective assumes an immediacy, so that l e a r n i n g i s problem and performance oriented rather than subject  centered.  Another d i s t i n c t i o n between andragogy and pedagogy l i e s i n the manner in which the terms program and curriculum are used. Hallenbeck (1964) e x p l a i n :  Jensen, L i v e r i g h t and  24  Where ever the term program is used we can detect some common features. continuity.  There i s , for example, a note of order and  Any program is made up of more than one item, or,  preferably, more than one event.  There is also a sense of  future purpose-that i s , a program is designed to lead to some perceived and identified end or, as is more often the case, to a great variety of ends; i t is not a random series of events or activities.  Each event in the program is related in some way  to every other event and the relationship is apparent to someone, though not always to everyone participating in i t . (p. 242)  According to Griffin (1978), the term curriculum refers to "entire range of educational practices or learning experiences" (p. 5).  The term  can then mean the total provision of the educational institution including all the courses and programs within the institution, or can mean the subject matter of one particular course within an institution.  Hence the  term 'program' can be incorporated within the larger or more global term 'curriculum'. Generally, adult educators prefer to avoid employing the term curriculum when refering to andragogy.  The major distinction between the  two terms curriculum and program according to Jensen, Liveright and Hallenback (1964) i s :  25  A curriculum, in current usage associated as i t is with formal institutions of learning, tends to be less flexible than a program. [The term 'curriculum'] contains more variables in practice than does the more formal system.  In the formal  system, place, time and the organization of personnel are held relatively constant, while blocks of subject matter and exposure to them, generally described as the curriculum, are altered.  In adult education there are few constants of any  kind, except an interest in learning or behavioural change. A program may therefore manipulate many more factors and evaluate each separately in terms of educational advantage, (p.244)  Another distinction between the two terms, curriculum and program lies in who is involved in the selection of the course content.  According to  Jarvis (1983) the term 'curriculum' is not used by some adult educators because its definition does not include students as part of the development process, whereas the definition of the term 'program' does. A program designed for adults should consider the differences between the adult and youth learner.  Hence a research model or framework designed  to study a program for adult learners should tap information that pertains to the adult learning situation.  Both Knowles (1970) and Verner (1964)  delve into the subject of program development and discuss a number of factors they believe crucial to any adult program.  For instance, Verner  divides the process of curriculum development into three major elements: Program Planning, Program Administration, and Managing Learning Experiences.  Within each of these elements are several factors that must  26  be considered, such as determination of need must be part of the program planning process; finance and f a c i l i t i e s must be considered when d i s c u s s i n g program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n of methods; techniques and devices need to be considered when d i s c u s s i n g the management of l e a r n i n g experiences.  Neither Knowles nor Verner suggests a t h e o r e t i c a l model that  can be used to design or to research the design of an a d u l t program. Houle (1972), recognizing the complexity of developing an educational program, designed a systematic model of curriculum design that includes many of the points that Verner r a i s e s .  Although Houle's model appears  comprehensive, there i s a drawback to applying i t when designing a program or when analysing the method i n which an a d u l t program has been  designed.  J a r v i s claims that c r u c i a l f a c t o r s such as s o c i a l p o l i c y , s o c i o l o g i c a l and psychological c o n s t r a i n t s are not included i n t h i s model.  Many of the  elements i n the model p e r t a i n to teaching and l e a r n i n g apsects of the curriculum development process.  Houle's model i s depicted i n Figure 4.  J a r v i s (1983) does provide a comprehensive and systematic model f o r developing and analysing adult programs.  Based on a case study conducted  by J a r v i s (1982) i n a small a d u l t education centre i n England, a two-part model d e s c r i b i n g the development of a program was produced: An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or planning part and a teaching and l e a r n i n g p a r t .  Figure 5  d e p i c t s J a r a v i s ' curriculum planning model f o r the education of a d u l t s . (See Appendix A f o r the d e f i n i t i o n s of the f a c t o r s i n J a r v i s ' model)  1.  A possible educations! a c t i v i t y i s identified  2.  » decision i s made to proceed  3.  Objectives are identified and refined Resources Leaders Methods Schedule  A suitable format i s designed  Sequence Social re-inforeesent Individualization Kolas and relationships C r i t e r i a of evaluation  .3- Clarity of design  r». S.  6.  The format im f i t t e d into larger patterns of l i f e  I  Guidance  b. Lifestyle c. Finance Ld-  Interpretation  The plan iss pi put into eff eet  I  The results are measured and appraised  r  Figure 4.  Houle's Decision Points and Components of  Adult Education Framework  Figure 5.  Jarvis' Curriculum Planning Model  29  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or planning model includes 10 f a c t o r s :  a.  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Factors e.g. Aims, values  b.  S o c i o l o g i c a l Factors e.g. technological change  c.  Social P o l i c y Factors e.g. f i n a n c i a l grants from government, professional body d e c i s i o n s  d.  Perceived demands e.g. successes, requests, needs  e.  Psychological f a c t o r e.g. ethos, motivation  f.  Resources  g.  Advertised programme e.g. prospectus,  h.  Actual demand e.g. enrolement  i.  Actual curriculum e.g. courses a c t u a l l y mounted  j.  Evaluation e.g. of the whole process.  e.g. human, physical brochure  ( J a r v i s , 1983, p. 221)  Stemming from f a c t o r ' i ' , i s a "Learning and Teaching Process Model f o r the Education of Adults" which i s based on the G i l e s et a l . (1942) model. model c o n s i s t s of four f a c t o r s or elements:  a.  Aims and Objectives  b.  Subject Matter  c.  Organization and Methods  d.  Evaluation  ( J a r v i s , 1983, p. 222)  The G i l e s et a l . model, should, according to J a r v i s , be used i n  This  30  conjunction with a planning model because i t i s "reasonably  familiar within  c u r r i c u l u m theory since i t contains the elements that occur 1n almost every l e a r n i n g and teaching process" (p. 223).  J a r v i s f e e l s that the planning  model i n conjunction with the G i l e s , McCutcheon and Zechiel model "contain a framework w i t h i n which i t 1s p o s s i b l e to analyse the education of adults both i n the United Kingdom and elsewhere" ( J a r v i s , 1983,  p. 223).  J a r v i s ' two part model w i l l be used to conduct a q u a l i t a t i v e study the development of the Native L i t e r a c y and L i f e S k i l l s Guidelines.  on  Curriculum  The model includes elements or categories which p e r t a i n  s p e c i f i c a l l y to the requirements of the adult l e a r n i n g population.  The  model i s comprehensive, considering both external and Internal f a c t o r s of the development process.  Factors p e r t a i n i n g to curriculum p o l i c y and  s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s r a r e l y appear i n other curriculum models.  Few  a d u l t educators are able to design an educational program free from external c o n s t r a i n t s and any model that f a i l s to include external f a c t o r s does not adequately development process.  r e f l e c t the r e a l i t y of what happens during the J a r v i s ' model allows f o r the generation of a p l e t h o r a  of s p e c i f i c a l l y guided questions which are compatible with the curriculum being s t u d i e d .  F i n a l l y , the model i s appropriate f o r conducting  q u a l i t a t i v e research because i t provides a mechanism for s o r t i n g through large amounts of data while allowing f o r f l e x i b i l i t y process.  i n the s o r t i n g  The elements or categories included i n the model are broad enough  to permit f a c t o r s to emerge.  The categories are intended to guide as  opposed to regulate the research.  In s h o r t , the strength of t h i s model i s  that i t combines, i n an organized and structured f a s h i o n , many of the f a c t o r s involved i n the development process discussed i n the w r i t i n g s of  other curriculum t h e o r i s t s Knowles.  such as E i s n e r , Goodlad, Verner, Houle and  32  Chapter Three  METHODOLOGY  Introduction  The methodology section will begin with a discussion of the field research approach and the reasons for using this research approach to study the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  This discussion will be followed by a description of the data  collection methodology and a description of the procedure employed to sort and analyse the data.  The section will conclude with a discussion on the  validity and generalizability of the research data.  The Field Research Approach  The field research approach was used to study the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  Field research has  qualities which lend i t s e l f well to the study of the curriculum development process.  This approach allows the researcher to explore the meanings,  attitudes and feelings underlying human actions and interactions. Researchers (Fiedler, 1979; Burgess, 1982; and Lofland, 1971)  comment that  fieldwork requires a great deal of personal commitment and involvement on the part of the investigator.  In order to understand and interpret  people's behaviour, the researcher must establish ties or friendships with the individuals under study (Becker, 1970).  Establishing ties or  33  friendships is a lengthy process often requiring the "principal investigator rather than his or her subordinates [to have] direct contact with the subjects of the study for prolonged periods of time" (Orenstein & P h i l l i p s , 1978, p. 310).  According to Cicourel (1964) and Filstead (1970),  data collection usually involves unstructured informal and formal interviews and participant observation.  Through these interviews and  observations the researcher creates a detailed picture of an event or a process that can be explored and analysed from various perspectives. Becker (1970) divides the process of analysing field data into four stages:  The selection and definition of problems, concepts and indices; the check on the frequency and distribution of phenomena; the incorporation of individual findings into a model of the organization under study; and the problems of presentation of evidence and proof, (p.27)  In the f i r s t stage, the researcher determines and defines through observations or interviews the major problems, issues or ideas prevalent within a situation or community.  The second stage involves counting the  number of occasions or situations in which the problems, issues or ideas emerge.  For instance, the investigator calculates the number of times an  issue is mentioned by a particular subject; or the number of times subjects display a certain behaviour pattern.  Based on the findings, the  investigator formulates a model or a detailed picture of the event or situation under study.  This model or picture is usually revised several  34  times, as the investigator produces evidence that runs counter to the original findings.  Once the model or picture has been designed, the  investigator writes a report describing the findings within the context of the model.  This process is d i f f i c u l t as the researcher must provide  sufficient evidence to validate the data presented. In qualitative  research, evidence of validity and r e l i a b i l i t y  be provided s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  cannot  Methods used to check validity of research  findings are through "structural corroboration." (Eisner, 1979, p. 215) and "searching for negative evidence" (Becker, 1970, p. 37).  Structural  corroboration is "a process of gathering data or information and using i t to establish links that eventually create a whole that is supported by bits of evidence that constitute it" (Eisner, 1979, p. 215).  More specifically,  research conclusions made are supported by several pieces of evidence coming from different sources all pointing in the same direction.  Having  corroborated the findings through evidence pointing in one direction, the researcher must now look for evidence that runs counter to the f i r s t conclusions. Reliability is checked by conducting numerous observations at the same site and interviews with the same people, on different occasions, to ensure data collected during the f i r s t v i s i t or interview represent typical behaviour or attitudes. matter experts external  All interview questions are reviewed with subject to the organization or situation under study, to  check that wording is not ambiguous or misleading.  35  Reasons for Using the Field Research Approach  It was f e l t that in order to understand and to capture the special nature of this curriculum project, i t would be necessary to employ a research approach that would allow for the exploration of the wide range of thoughts and feelings of the project advisory committee, publisher, pilot teachers and students.  The curriculum project was unique.  It was the  f i r s t Federally sponsored adult basic education program designed exclusively for a Native population with s k i l l s below the grade 7 l e v e l . This field study explored the method in which the project was initiated, developed, coordinated, and published.  The ideas, attitudes and opinions  of the people involved with the project were studied and analyzed. A second reason for using the field approach was that research in the area of Native adult literacy education was at a stage where few, i f any, theories and concepts could be tested using quantitative approaches. Glaser and Strauss (1967) describe a method by which social scientists can ground their theory and research in the reality they are studying:  In discovering theory, one generates conceptual categories or their properties from evidence; then the evidence from which the category emerged is used to illustrate  the concept.  The  evidence may not necessarily be accurate beyond a doubt (nor is it even in studies concerned only with accuracy), but the concept is undoubtedly a relevant theoretical what is going on in the area studied, (p. 23)  abstraction about  36  This research attempted to study the subject of Native adult literacy education in order to determine the areas of curriculum planning and design requiring further examination and the theories of curriculum development requiring further exploration.  It does not attempt to prove or disprove a  particular hypothesis or theory of curriculum development.  Collecting Data  Two methods were employed to collect data: analysis.  interviews and document  Interviews were conducted with seven members of the project  advisory committee, two curriculum writers, two teachers involved in the program pilot, three students participating in the program pilot and the program publisher.  Unfortunately, at the time of the interviews, only  three of the twenty-two students were available. volunteered to be interviewed.  These three students  Most of the participants involved in the  two program pilots had moved and could not be located.  The three students  interviewed included two males between the ages of twenty and thirty and one female, in her late forties.  They were s t i l l enrolled in the  educational institution where the pilot had been conducted.  All three  students were described by their teacher as "highly motivated and enthusiastic learners" (Urban pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). Documents analysed included the published Curriculum Guidelines, correspondence between curriculum advisory committee members and writers, the rough draft of the. curriculum guidelines, a "Ministerial Policy on the Provision of Adult Education Programs Including English Language Training  37  in the Public Education System of British Columbia", a Canada Employment and Immigration policy on "Basic Job Readiness Training", the publisher's notes, the pilot teachers' progress reports on the program pilots, and two projects completed by the pilot students:  collection of the students'  personal poems and stories and collection of Indian legends.  The  correspondence between curriculum advisory committee members and writers included a letter introducing the project, an outline of the curriculum proposal, two meeting reminder notices, minutes to meetings held on November 16, 1983 and January 20, 1984, and a letter thanking project members for their participation.  The publisher's notes included a query  sheet outlining the publisher's comments regarding the curriculum draft and five letters requesting copyright permission and nine copyright clearance forms. A letter of introduction was sent to each of the curriculum advisory committee members.  The letter outlined the objectives of the research,  requested permission to conduct an informal interview regarding the development of the curriculum project and requested copies of any documents pertaining to the project.  1.  1  (See Appendix C for a sample copy of the  Before beginning the data collection, an application had to be filed  with "The University of British Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects". Appendix B for the copy of the certificate of approval.  The ethical  review committee studied the application to ensure that individuals involved in the study or project would not be harmed personally or professionally.  (See  38  letter) Approximately 10 days later an attempt was made to reach each of the eight committee members by telephone to set up an interview date, time and location. office.^  The interviews were usually conducted in the person's home or one curriculum committee member was interviewed over the  telephone and another member was not interviewed as contact could not be made after five attempts. A separate interview schedule was prepared for each of the seven committee members.  Jarvis' conceptual model was used to assist in  developing interview questions.  The r e l i a b i l i t y of the interview schedule  was checked by two individuals external, to the curriculum project.  These  individuals were curriculum designers who were familiar with education and curriculum terminology, but were unfamiliar with the curriculum or thesis project.  Their task was to read through the questions and state orally  what the question was attempting to ask. of the questions was appreciated.  Their input as to the phraseology  Any of the questions considered  ambiguous or poorly written were either reformulated or removed from the interview schedule.  Two questions were removed as the external  f e l t they were redundant.  evaluators  Most interview questions had to be restructured,  as they were closed-ended as opposed to open-ended questions. The schedule was divided into three sections:  An introduction to the  project; a l i s t of interview questions; and, a discussion about plans for  2.  Spradley's (1979) recommendation is that the interviews resemble a  "friendly conversation into which the researcher slowly introduces new elements to assist informants to respond as informants" (p. 58).  39  data analysis.  The intent of the introduction was to help the interviewees  feel comfortable with the project and the interviewer.  It was stressed  that the interview was designed to resemble an informal relaxed discussion on the nature of the curriculum project.  The second section of the  interview schedule listed approximately 15 questions focusing around the factors of program development outlined in Jarvis' curriculum model.  The  questions were designed to be open-ended and broad in nature, in that the interviewee was given great latitude to expand or extrapolate whenever possible. questions.  Two types of questions were asked:  F i r s t , there were clarifying  More specifically, i f a topic or concern was mentioned or  discussed during the course of an interview, this topic or concern was also addressed in subsequent interviews with other curriculum committee members. For example, the f i r s t interviewee f e l t that the t i t l e of the curriculum guidelines was an issue in this particular project.  After learning about  this issue, other interviewees were asked how they felt about the t i t l e of the Curriculum and whether they f e l t i t was of concern. One reason for including these clarifying questions was to ensure that there was consensus among committee members that an issue really was an issue during the development process and not just an 'idiosyncrasy' of of the curriculum members.  one  Another reason for including clarifying  questions was to corroborate evidence on a particular problem or concern, in that one curriculum committee member may have perceived an issue from one perspective, whereas another member may have taken a different approach to the issue, while corroborating that it/indeed was a phenomenon in the development process. The second type of question addressed was definitive in nature.  40  Interviewees were asked to define terms or concepts discussed during the interview.  For instance, i f a participant discussed the term l i f e s k i l l s ,  clarification of the meaning of the term was asked and a request was made to discuss the use of the term by other other curriculum committee members. The purpose of these definitive questions was to ensure that when a term or concept was mentioned, there was a clear understanding as to how the person discussing the term intended i t to be used. The third and final section of the interview included a brief discussion on the method in which the data would be analysed.  It was f e l t  that providing information about the analysis of the interview data would enhance the interviewees'  understanding of the project.  As well,  interviewees were asked for documents pertaining to the curriculum project and were requested to grant a second interview to clarify points and to discuss the project further. interview schedule)  (See Appendix D for a sample copy of the  Documents provided by the advisory committee members  included letters, meeting schedules and project notes. While interviews were being conducted with the curriculum advisory committee, letters of introduction were sent to the curriculum writers, curriculum pilot teachers, pilot students and the curriculum publisher.3 The letters resembled those sent to the advisory committee in that they  3.  Before interviews could be conducted, written permission from the school  director had to be submitted to the ethical review committee.  Further,  students had to be informed by their teacher as to what the thesis entailed and what would be required of them. be fully explained to the students.  Details of the consent form also had to  41  o u t l i n e d the nature of the t h e s i s p r o j e c t and asked permission f o r an interview.  Ten days a f t e r the l e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n was sent, the  interviewees were c a l l e d to set up an i n t e r v i e w date, time and l o c a t i o n . One member of the curriculum w r i t i n g committee was also on the advisory committee.  This member was not sent a second l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n . A  second member of the w r i t i n g committee was not interviewed as contact could not be made a f t e r f i v e attempts. person.  A l l but one interview was conducted i n  This person agreed to be interviewed over the telephone.  There were three reasons why i t was important that the interviews w i t h the advisory committee preceded those of the other curriculum p r o j e c t members:  F i r s t , the advisory committee played the central r o l e i n the  curriculum p r o j e c t , so i t was f e l t that out of courtesy, they should be the f i r s t to be contacted and interviewed.  Second, the advisory committee  members could provide some valuable information about the r o l e s of other p r o j e c t members that would help i n developing  interview questions.  Finally,  the c u r r i c u l u m w r i t e r s , the p i l o t teachers and the curriculum publishers were a l l subordinate to the advisory committee, i n that they were hired by the advisory committee.  I t was f e l t that the curriculum p r o j e c t members  would be more comfortable d i s c u s s i n g the p r o j e c t i f they knew that t h e i r  42  employers had been interviewed.  4  Although the interviews with the advisory committee preceded those of the curriculum writers, pilot teachers, pilot students and publisher, the interview schedule was similar.  It was divided into three sections. An  introduction discussing the thesis intent and the nature of the interview; a series of open-ended interview questions focusing on Jarvis' curriculum development model; and, a concluding discussion on the data analysis.  5  The format of the interview schedule was much the same for all curriculum project members, whereas the focus of the questions was quite  4. Field researchers, such as Skolnick (1966) and Whyte (1955), advise that the best method of gaining access to a group or community is through legitimate channels.  Ranking o f f i c i a l s in the community should be  approached f i r s t , in order to obtain permission to study the group. Bypassing group authorities may jeopardize the researcher's project as people in most social situations or settings respect and/or fear their authorities and would probably guard against providing information to a stranger without their approval.  If authorities are approached immediately  and are provided information about the study, they are likely to be cooperative, particularly i f they approve of the research.  5.  The explanation provided to the students and the wording of the  questions were kept very simple to ensure comprehension.  Jargon and  technical terminology were omitted when describing the thesis or the nature of the interview.  Questions often had to be repeated and rephrased until  the students believed they completely understood what was being asked.  43  different:  The curriculum advisory committee was asked questions about the  program philosophy, financing, psychological barriers and government policy. The curriculum writers were asked questions involving curriculum content. The pilot teachers were asked questions revolving around the program in use or the actual curriculum.  The students were asked questions focusing  primarily on the actual curriculum, the advertised program, and the sponsoring or financing of the program.  The publisher was asked questions  pertaining to governmental policy on curriculum publication. At the completion of the interview, asked for a second clarifying interview.  curriculum project members were The documents provided included  reports, anecdotal notes, letters and query sheets from the curriculum publisher.  Students were not asked for a second interview,  asked for supporting documents.  nor were they  Reaching these students in the future  months would have been d i f f i c u l t ,  if not impossible.  Class projects were  supplied by the pilot teachers, so i t was not necessary to ask the students for the documents.  However, permission was sought from these students to  use their work in the thesis. of the writers',  (See Appendix E, F, G and H for sample copies  teachers', students' and publisher's interview schedule)  Once recorded interviews were completed, they were transcribed.  The  transcriptions took place as soon after the interview as possible in order to ensure accuracy of data.  A protocol format was used to record the data.  Each page was divided vertically. for data analysis.  The l e f t side of the page was kept free  The right side of the page was used to record the  content of the interview. in the transcription.  The interviewees were never referred to by name  Instead, the recorded conversation was divided into  44  statements labeled either as 'Interviewer' or 'Interviewee'.  At the top of  the f i r s t page of each separate interview transcription, the following information was recorded for identification purposes: The date and time of the interview, the location of the interview and the interviewee's position in the curriculum project: advisory committee member, writer, teacher, publisher, or student.  It was essential to preserve the anonymity of the:  interviewees, yet s t i l l be able to identify the individual interview data should a further clarification interview be required.  A letter was sent to  all interviewees thanking them for their participation and informing them as to the status of the thesis.  These letters were important because  interviewees had donated their time and energy and their efforts had to be acknowledged.  Further, i t was important to keep in contact with the  interviewees should a second interview be required.  (See Appendix I for a  sample copy of the letters thanking participants and Appendix J for a summary of data collection events.)  Data Analysis  Data analysis occurred in four stages termed for ease of reference as: a reading stage; a description stage; a sorting stage; and an evaluation stage.  Spradley (1979) discusses four methods of analysing interview data:  "Domain analysis", "Taxonomic analysis", "Componential analysis" and "Theme analysis" (p. 94).  Domain analysis involves determining the meaning of  cultural symbols.  Taxonomic analysis and componential analysis involve  sorting these cultural symbols into various categories and determining differences between categories, in order to create a picture or model of the  45  culture being studied.  Theme analysis involves "searching for relationships  among domains" (Spradley, 1979, p. 94) in order to determine their significance within a culture.  Spradley's four methods of data analysis  were used when reading, describing, sorting and evaluating interview and document data for this project. The reading stage involved a thorough study of all the interview transcriptions and related project documents, including both the rough draft and the published copy of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guide!ines.  Any words and/or ideas that appeared unclear, that required  clarification or that needed to be corroborated were circled in the body of the text and listed on a separate form for later reference.  Reading through  the material not only allowed for familiarization with the data, but also for a formulation of a method to categorize and analyse research findings. The description stage involved sorting the interview and document data according to a time line; the order in which events occured in the curriculum development project.  Generally dates were provided either in the  interview or on supporting documents, such as letters or minutes of meetings.  Where there were no dates given, a sequence of events could be  formulated based on the order in which phenomena were described by the interviewees.  Dates and events were plotted on a chart for easy reference.  Based on this time line, the project was described from the date of conception to the publication of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  This description allows for an understanding of the  various aspects involved in the evolvement of a curriculum development project. The third, sorting stage, involved categorizing the interview and  46  document data into the 14 factors outlined in Jarvis' "Curriculum Planning Model for the Education of Adults".  For ease of identification, the  interview and document data were color coded in the body of the text.  On  the l e f t hand side of the interview protocols and in the l e f t margin of the project related documents, a notation was made beside each line of data that pertained to one of the fourteen factors in the model. To cross reference data, two forms were developed for each interviewee: A 'Page' form listing the page numbers in consecutive order followed by the content on the page; and a 'Content' form listing the content on the page in alphabetical order followed by the pages on which the content appeared. (See Appendix K for a copy of the 'Page' form and Appendix L for a copy of the 'Content' form) The evaluation stage was the final and most d i f f i c u l t part of the data analysis process.  In this stage, all data listed on the 'Page' and  'Content' forms had to be appraised for their relevance in the curriculum development process.  Each of the factors had to be studied in the context  of the collected data, to determine whether the factor played a significant role in the development of the curriculum; i f so, what role did i t play and how did the project participants view the relevance of the factor? The evaluation stage of the analysis also involved determining the validity of results.  In order to check the validity of the data, the  interviews and documents were analysed to determine i f statements made by a project member regarding a particular factor were corroborated or supported by other curriculum project members or in project documents.  Once the  evidence was corroborated, the data were analysed to determine what factors ran counter to the original findings.  Both corroborating and contradicting  47  evidence had to be considered and weighed when reporting the research findings. In terms of generalizability, this field study was designed to analyse the development of one particular Native literacy curriculum, so there exists no firm basis for generalizing findings.  It  is hoped that the  curriculum advisory committee, curriculum writers, program publisher, pilot teachers and students involved in the curriculum project gain further insight into the development process.  This research will provide further  insight into the many factors and variables involved in the curriculum development process that could be used in guiding other curriculum projects. This study will generate new research topics in the area of curriculum development, adult basic education and, most importantly, Canadian based Native adult basic education which is sorely lacking in research literature.  48  Chapter Four  DESCRIPTION OF EVENTS  In the fall of 1983, the British Columbia Native Employment Advisory Committee (BCNEAC) approached the Canadian Employment and Immigration Commission (CEIC) requesting their sponsorship in the provision of a literacy program for Native adults with less than grade 7 education.  The  BCNEAC is composed of representatives of 10 districts set up by Canada Employment and Immigration to advise the Director General of policies and programs as they make an impact on Native people in British Columbia. One of the responsibilities of the committee is to discuss issues concerning the CEIC's National Institute Training Programs (NITP).  CEIC's National  Institute Training Program is responsible for buying programs for community colleges through the Ministry of Education.  The BCNEAC felt that NITP "was  not dealing effectively with people whose s k i l l s were below the grade 7 level, as measured on a standardized assessment test" (BCNEAC advisory committee member, personal communication, June 6, 1985). Since 1978, i t has been the policy of CEIC not to sponsor programs that are geared to students with below grade 7 education, or in CEIC terms, Basic Training for Skills Development (BTSD) Level I programs.  The maximum  duration of any referral to training under CEIC programs has been 52 weeks. To expect people with literacy levels below grade 7 to be ready for employment in that period of time has been considered "not possible in most cases" (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, June 6, 1985). CEIC established a National policy to sponsor only programs that lead  49  directly to employment. However, there have been some modifications made to that policy.  For  instance, "where basic literacy formed less than f i f t y percent of the content of a curriculum; in other words the curriculum also [included]  life  s k i l l s , job search s k i l l s , specific training s k i l l s , such as typing, or another skill which [could be] marketable, then CEIC [could]  deliver  training" (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, June 6, 1985). Both the BCNEAC and the Canadian Employment and Immigration Commission f e l t that since the basic education needs of the Native people with literacy s k i l l s below grade 7 had been neglected, an attempt should be made to rectify the situation.  The program was to be financed through CEIC's  1983/1984 regional allocation for Indian training for the province of B.C. (BCNEAC advisory committee member, personal communication, June 6,  1985)  In the fall of 1983, when CEIC was approached by the British Columbia Native Employment Advisory Committee, there was no curriculum that met CEIC criteria for sponsorship.  The CEIC consultant for Native training in  collaboration with members of the BCNEAC were responsible for establishing a means by which a curriculum could be developed.  A meeting of two BCNEAC  advisory committee members and two CEIC Industrial Training consultants, was held on October 27, 1983, to draft a proposal which specified the task to be accomplished, the target population, the anticipated outcomes of training, the program components or content and the duration of the training. Essentially the proposal stated that there would be a program developed that addressed the basic literacy needs of Native people within the "context of the National Training Act and Policies" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I, 1983).  The target population was to include Native people, 17 years of age  50  and 2 years out of school, whose employment had been restricted by educational levels of grades 0-5, "as assessed by standard literacy testing" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I, outcomes:  1983).  There would be two anticipated  Individual outcomes would be assessed by the graduate "pursuing  further academic or vocational training [and by the graduate] attaining a satisfactory score on a grade level achievement test" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I,  1983).  Community outcomes would be met when the graduate  demonstrated an awareness and utilization of community f a c i l i t i e s and when the graduate showed an appreciation of the "culture, heritage and role of the Native community" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I, were proposed:  1983).  Three components  a basic literacy component comprising 50% of the program; a  job readiness and l i f e s k i l l s component comprising 30% of the program; and, a cultural component comprising 20% of the program (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I,  1983).  CEIC defined 'basic literacy'  as "everything up to grade 7 or grade 7  equivalent education and in particularly maths and sciences".  The basic  literacy portion of the program would cover topics such as communication, computation and social studies.  'Life S k i l l s ' was defined as "people's  coping s k i l l s in a community or in an urban setting" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I,  1983).  It would include such topics as budget management, community  awareness and job search s k i l l s . as cultural heritage appreciation.  The third component, 'culture' was defined This part of the curriculum would  attempt to help students achieve pride in themselves and their  heritage  through "concrete, hands on language oriented activities, Indian oriented activities and Native community activities" (BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I, 1983).  (See Appendix M for BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I proposal).  51  Once the proposal had been drafted, CEIC contacted the British Columbia Ministry of Education, Continuing Education Department, to coordinate the project.  The provincial representatives were brought in because education  is a provincial responsibility.  As a matter of course, the Ministry of  Education for the province is contacted on all CEIC projects involving the development of programs or the training of individuals. On October 19, 1983, a CEIC Manager of Employment Training contacted the Coordinator of Adult Basic Education for the Ministry of Education by telephone.  The coordinator was told that the British Columbia Native  Employment Advisory Committee had approached the CEIC to sponsor a basic literacy program for Native adults.  The CEIC manager requested that the  Coordinator for Adult Basic Education for the Ministry of Education become involved with the Native training program.  This telephone call was followed  up by a letter inviting the Ministry Coordinator to a meeting on November 16, 1983, at the CEIC office in Vancouver.  The purpose of this meeting was  to discuss "strategies and time frames for course development and implementation"  (Canada Employment and Immigration Commission Training  Consultant, personal communication, November 16, 1983).  Included in this  letter was a copy of the BCNEAC proposal and a brief synopsis of the type of services requested by CEIC from the Ministry. The meeting was held as scheduled on November 16, 1983.  The Director  of Education and the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Coordinator for the Ministry of Education attended the meeting together with a representative from the BCNEAC, a CEIC Manager of Employment Training Services and a CEIC Training Consultant.  The proposal was presented to the Ministry of  Education representatives.  The Ministry representatives were asked the  52  following questions:  Would they become involved with the program?  What was  required to have the program implemented? and how can the CEIC and BCNEAC remain involved with the program to facilitate its successful completion? (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, November, 1983) The Ministry representatives f e l t that in order to develop the program, the assistance of several Provincial resource persons would need to be solicited; an advisory committee would need to be established; a locale for the program pilot would need to be selected; and, a program consultant would need to be hired.  The Ministry stated that i t would take one year to  complete the program.  Three problems were immediately identified.  First, a  curriculum resource person would have to be hired, as, due to budget cut-backs, the Ministry of Education's, Post-Secondary Department no longer employed curriculum consultants. for the project. was too long.  Second, money was not readily  available  Third, the BCNEAC representative f e l t that the time frame  The Ministry Adult Basic Education Coordinator agreed to  shorten the time frame, providing money was immediately available.  "The  work would have to be contracted to an institution and proceed under a "working group" rather than a proper advisory committee." (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, November 17, 1983).  The Ministry Adult  Basic Education Coordinator agreed to contact the BCNEAC advisory committee representative within three weeks to provide a l i s t of resource people available, a clarification of development procedures and a statement as to whether or not funding from CEIC would adequately cover the cost of development (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, November 17, 1983). On November 30, 1983, the ABE Coordinator for the Ministry wrote a  53  letter to the principal of a British Columbia college requesting the college to undertake the responsibility for developing the curriculum and coordinating the Curriculum P i l o t .  The Ministry's ABE Coordinator felt that  two individuals employed by the college were well qualified to manage and complete the project.  One individual would act as the program manager and  the other person would act as a curriculum developer.  The principal was  informed that should the college accept the project, the Ministry would fund the program development and pilot program, via funds provided through CEIC. The principal contacted the person recommended as project manager who in turn contacted the recommended curriculum developer. The Ministry representative had selected the project manager based on this person's previous experience working with the Ministry as a curriculum consultant.  The person selected was considered an expert in both Native  adult basic education and curriculum development.  Expertise in Native ABE  was also the reason for the choice of the curriculum developer hired.  The  developer had been involved in curriculum development projects since 1978. The BCNEAC representative knew the developer both professionally and personally and approved the Ministry's choice. A conference call was placed with the Ministry's ABE coordinator and the college representatives.  The project plan was outlined briefly and the  institution was told that "it could have the contract" (Curriculum advisory committee member, personal communication, December, 1983). 1983, the project was accepted by the college.  On December 14,  The Ministry ABE Coordinator  was responsible for coordinating the development of the guidelines, organizing the pilot study, and distributing the curriculum document.  A  letter was sent on December 14, 1983 from the CEIC Training Consultant in  54  Vancouver to the Manager of a CEIC Employment Development Branch located in the same city as the college.  The letter outlined the project proposal,  CEIC's, and the Ministry's involvement in the project, and the responsibilities of the institution coordinating the project.  The letter  requested the assistance of the Employment Development Branch in helping to coordinate the program pilot in March, 1984, at the local college. As well as identifying the institution and the resource people to complete the project, the responsibility of the Ministry ABE Coordinator was to provide a link between CEIC and the institution coordinating and developing the project to ensure that funds were properly provided and that CEIC's needs were being met. Once the project manager and the curriculum developer had been committed to the project, the advisory committee was selected. committee was composed of eight people:  The  the Adult Basic Education  Coordinator of Continuing Education Programs for the Ministry of Education, the project coordinator from the college, the curriculum developer, the CEIC Training Consultant for Institutional Training, two members of the British Columbia Native Employment Advisory Committee, an ABE instructor from a B.C. college; and a principal of a B.C. secondary school.  The people on the  curriculum advisory committee were selected because of their expertise in the area of adult basic education, experience with Native peoples, and/or experience with BCNEAC or CEIC policies. The f i r s t advisory committee meeting was held in Victoria, on January 20, 1984.  A notice of the meeting, including a one page agenda was  sent to all the committee members, on January 12, 1984.  The topics covered  included a discussion on the background of the project, an outline of the  55  purpose and tasks of the Advisory committee, a review of the proposed outline of the curriculum guide, a "brainstorming" session of ideas for curriculum content, and a discussion on writing assignments (Ministry of Education ABE Coordinator, personal communication, January 20, 1984).  (See  Appendix N, for a copy of the advisory committee agenda) In preparation for the meeting, the curriculum developer, with the assistance and direction of the project manager, laid out an outline for the organization of the curriculum. outline)  (See Appendix 0 for a copy of the proposed  This organization task was d i f f i c u l t as the curriculum had to meet  the needs of a number of interested groups, including BCNEAC, CEIC, the Ministry of Education and the targeted Native adult population.  The mandate  outlined by BCNEAC and CEIC stated that the curriculum had to incorporate a cultural  studies component, a literacy component, a math component and a  l i f e s k i l l s component.  The target population was varied in terms of  cultural background, levels of education, degrees of assimilation, age and locality.  The developer described the task of organizing the many facets of  the guide as "so many strands that had to be taken and interwoven to form a whole" (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985). In order to meet the needs of the different interest groups, a theme unit approach was recommended.  Each unit would not only address one or more  of the BCNEAC/CEIC requirements, but also would be geared to various aspects of the Native adult population. incorporate cultural  For instance, a unit on the community would  studies, l i f e s k i l l s and mathematics; it would also  address the needs of the Native adult living either in an urban and rural setting, and could be geared to accommodate various educational levels. As well as proposing an outline for the curriculum, the developer, once  56  again with the assistance and full support of the project manager, articulated a program philosophy.  This philosophy, labelled the "language  experience approach" is based on Paulo Freire's belief that the teacher and students are co-learners in the education process. facilitator,  The teacher acts as a  assisting the students to use their own language as the basis  for enhancing their literacy levels; the students learn the power of their own words.  The students enrich the teacher's understanding of the world by  sharing their thoughts, feelings and experiences.  The belief is that both  student and teacher have a lot to offer in the educational process. Education should give both the student and the teacher the insight to recognize the problems in society and the confidence to change and improve the world they live i n . Both the program outline and philosophy were discussed during the i n i t i a l advisory committee meeting.  According to the curriculum developer,  committee members were in favour of the theme unit approach, feeling that it was an excellent method of incorporating the needs of the people involved in the program.  Part of the meeting was devoted to brainstorming ideas for  theme units.  Although most of the committee members appeared to understand  and approve the use of the language experience approach in the guide, one person f e l t "a l i t t l e taken aback" about the radical nature of the philosophy (Curriculum Developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985). This person did not feel that education should always address people's problems, but should be looking at the positive aspects of a person's l i f e (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985). Other topics discussed during the meeting were the selection and hiring of the writers and the locations for the two pilot programs.  Several of the  57  committee members submitted names of candidates for the writing committee. The committee members agreed that there should be two program pilots:  the  urban pilot would be held in Vancouver at an education f a c i l i t y for Native adults;  the rural pilot would be conducted in the interior of British  Columbia. Once the committee meeting was completed, the curriculum designer began the arduous task of structuring the theme units, clarifying the curriculum philosophy, and studying research on Native education.  The  curriculum developer f e l t i t was important to suggest rather than prescribe methods of working and helping Native adult learners.  The one thing that I really wanted to guard against was the idea of presenting a curriculum as a sort of mandatory approach.  What I wanted to do was to show people some  different ways of approaching the issue of literacy instruction of l i f e s k i l l s instruction, and then encourage them—which seems to be totally consistent with Freire's model and with my personal philosophy—to individualize and to accommodate the particular needs of their individual students in their individual community.  (Curriculum developer, personal  communication, May 13, 1985)  There was a total of 81 theme unit ideas listed in the Guidelines. Ten of those 81 units were developed providing specific objectives, lesson activities and methods of evaluation.  The curriculum developer outlined  58  the basic organization of the theme units and hired three people to write them.  The three writers were telephoned in the early part of February,  1984.  The developer provided them with a description of the curriculum  project, of the writing task and of the approximate time they would be allowed to complete the task.  The writers were selected because of their  expertise in Native education and literacy. A meeting was held in the latter part of February to discuss writing assignments.  The curriculum developer provided the writers with the  structure, objectives and resources for developing the theme units.  A page  outlining the steps involved in developing a theme unit was given to the writers.  (See Appendix P for a copy of the theme unit outline)  Although  the writers were free to select the learning activities and evaluation tools of their choice, they were asked to adhere to the structure and objectives provided by the developer.  The writers were encouraged to  discuss their task amongst themselves and with the developer.  The writers  claimed that they never communicated with each other because of their tight writing schedules and because of their different geographic locations (Curriculum writers, personal communication, June, 1985).  However, tight  writing schedules and different geographic locations did not prevent the writers from consulting with the curriculum developer on a regular basis. The drafts of the theme units were sent to the developer for review and returned to the writers for modifications. approximately six weeks.  The writing process took  The curriculum developer was responsible for  writing the introductions to each of the sections, the review of the research of Native education, the program philosophy and the annotated  59  bibliography. units.  The writing team was responsible for completing the theme  Throughout the development process, the curriculum designer  received input from the project manager and the advisory committee. The f i r s t draft of the curriculum was submitted to the Ministry of Education in March, 1984.  The draft was entitled Native Adult Basic  Literacy/Life Skills Curriculum Guide.  A copy of this curriculum draft was  sent to CEIC for their suggestions and impressions.  Shortly after its  submission, a second advisory committee meeting was held to discuss the guide and the progress of the program pilots. The program pilots began on March 26, 1984.  As planned, one pilot was  held in Vancouver and one in the interior of British Columbia. a number of differences between the two pilot situations. facilitated the launching of the urban pilot:  There were  Three factors  F i r s t , an advisory committee  member was also the principal of the Native institution piloting the program, so i t was not d i f f i c u l t to find the urban sponsoring agency. Second, the students involved in the pilot were already registered in a literacy program at the institution, so no effort was required to try and attract students, and third, the literacy teacher at the Native  institution  took responsibility for piloting the program, so it was not necessary to hire a new teacher. The urban pilot teacher claimed that "while [he/she] was not told to pilot the program [he/she] was also not asked" (Pilot teacher, personal communication, June 1985).  One week before the pilot study was to begin,  the urban pilot teacher was given a copy of the curriculum draft, and asked to devote time to organizing the program.  After reading and studying the  Guidelines, the urban pilot teacher became concerned by the fact that i t  60  f a i l e d to discuss methods of d e a l i n g with students having l e a r n i n g difficulties.  His/her teaching experience had shown that a number of  students enter the classroom s i t u a t i o n s u f f e r i n g from l e a r n i n g and that these students required special  attention.  I think that a l o t of people landing i n l i t e r a c y have l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s .  handicaps,  classrooms  There i s a whole body of thought  that t a l k s about the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , and I think we can't a f f o r d to ignore i t .  I don't think that we serve anybody by  t a l k i n g as i f i t ' s a piece of cake f o r everybody to l e a r n ; that i t i s a natural process, because some people have a h e l l of a time, there i s no question about i t .  (Urban P i l o t teacher,  personal communication, June, 1985)  A l e t t e r was sent to the developer o u t l i n i n g t h i s teacher's concern. The developer claimed that he/she was astonished about the nature of the complaint, f e l t that d i s c u s s i n g student d i s a b i l i t i e s c o n t r a d i c t e d the philosophy of the program which advocates the e q u a l i t y of a l l students in the classroom s i t u a t i o n .  According to the developer, i f a student  encounters l e a r n i n g problems, i t i s not the weakness of the student but the i n a b i l i t y of the teacher or i n s t i t u t i o n to recognize the student's l i f e experiences, and use these experiences to enhance the l e a r n i n g .  The  developer designed the theme u n i t s to "accommodate a wide range of student experiences and academic a b i l i t i e s " (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985).  61  The curriculum developer met the teacher in Vancouver to discuss the philosophy and to organize the p i l o t .  The teacher, accompanied by several  students, greeted the curriculum developer at the airport.  The teacher  f e l t that i t was particularly important for the students to meet the curriculum developer as "they wanted to make an impression" (Urban pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985).  The developer and teacher  worked together for one afternoon, discussing the curriculum philosophy, selecting theme units and evaluation tools and organizing the pacing of the units.  Three of the theme units outlined in the curriculum were selected:  "Producing a Community Newspaper" was selected for its strong emphasis on the l i f e s k i l l s component.  "An Introduction to Interpersonal  Communications" was selected for its focus on the literacy component; and "Indian Self-Government What Does i t Mean?" was selected for its stress on the cultural component.  The approximate length of each unit was six  weeks. Before beginning the p i l o t , the 16 pilot students had to register with CEIC for sponsorship.  This was a traumatic event for some students, as  previous experience with government agencies had left them feeling hostile and frightened.  The urban pilot teacher commented:  It [signing up with CEIC] made a big difference for them. A number of students found i t traumatic to get signed up for Manpower. government.  We almost lost one student who really just hated the Whatever his experience had been at Manpower, he  didn't want to be part of i t .  Finally he went one to one.  counsellor went with him and got him to sign up, after he  The  62  raised a fuss there on his own.  (Urban pilot teacher, personal  communication, June, 1984)  In order to provide both moral support and assistance in completing the forms, the teacher and/or counsellor at the education centre accompanied the students during the registration process. The program began with the teacher adapting the "Producing a Community Newspaper" unit.  Rather than writing articles for a newspaper, students  were required to collect old stories from the library, anthropology museum, and Indian bands, and organize them into an anthology.  Students either  recorded the stories into tape recorders or copied information directly from books.  The students collaborated on a book entitled Memories and  Studies, in which they published either personal stories or legends they had collected and reproduced.  The teacher expressed concern about the  rather nebulous nature of the project and f e l t that at times "the project seemed to lose direction of focus" (Urban Pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). The second unit piloted focused on culture.  This unit had not been  selected at the time of the meeting between the developer and teacher. grew out of the student's apparent interest in Native culture.  It  Students  were asked to discuss the impact of one's culture on human needs, to watch a film entitled "Cree Hunters of Mistassini" which explores the Native culture, and to play the Road game which stresses the importance of cooperation over competition.  Based on the discussion, film and game, the  students were asked to write their own definition of culture. was well received by both the teacher and the students.  This unit  63  The third unit piloted was communication. reviews.  This unit met with mixed  According to the urban pilot teacher, some of the exercises  failed to interest the students due to their heavy emphasis on competition (Urban Pilot teacher, personal communication, May, 1985). body language virtually "fizzled" out.  A discussion on  The pilot teacher claimed that  he/she "was not sure why, perhaps just poor timing" (Urban Pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985).  On the other hand, students found  completing a personal communications inventory interesting.  They also  enjoyed an active listening exercise where they were asked to provide personal feedback to each other about their listening and communicating skills.  The teacher f e l t that the communications unit would have to be  simplified before teaching it again because students found the vocabulary, particularly in the "Basic Communications Skills" exercise, d i f f i c u l t and confusing (Urban Pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). The final unit piloted, "Indian Self-Government: What does i t Mean?" was taught by an assistant as the teacher was out of town. extremely interesting for both the students and the teacher.  This unit was The person  instructing the unit had been involved in Indian Self-Government issues over the years and came to the students with personal information and experience.  Students spent time reading and discussing the book Indian  North America which explores the ways in which Natives have been stereotyped and treated by the dominant society.  Speakers came into the  class in order to talk about "tradition, self-government, sex roles, and white government tactics.  Students watched a film, "Somewhere Between" and  read articles that focused on Indian status issues.  At the completion of  the unit, the class drew a time line which "reviewed the issues and events  64  that were studied" (Urban Pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). At the completion of the p i l o t , the 16 students were asked to write an evaluation of the program.  Reactions were mixed.  Most students were  excited about the program and their participation in the pilot.  Others,  used to a more structured classroom setting, f e l t that a lot of time was wasted.  The urban pilot teacher also completed an evaluation report.  This  report summarized the various classroom activities and outlined some of the teacher's pleasures and frustrations with the program.  The report  concluded by complimenting the Guidelines in terms of its writing and content.  The urban pilot teacher was especially pleased with the annotated  bibliography which the teacher f e l t was an asset to the Guidelines. Thus far, the discussion has focused on the urban pilot with l i t t l e mention of the rural p i l o t . number of d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Initially the rural pilot encountered a  F i r s t , i t was impossible to find a rural Reserve  community or band that could provide participants for the pilot.  The  project manager spent a good deal of time soliciting the band leaders for their assistance.  However, i t became apparent that spring was a very  d i f f i c u l t time of year to attract rural Natives to educational programs due to people's increased involvement in farming and ranching.  In the end, the  project manager managed to enroll six students at the Indian Friendship centre in an interior town of British Columbia. Unfortunately, the f i r s t teacher hired resigned one day before the pilot was scheduled to begin.  A second instructor was hired, however, this  person was unavailable to teach at the time the pilot was scheduled to begin.  A substitute teacher was hired with the agreement that he/she would  65  only teach the f i r s t week of the p i l o t .  At the end of the f i r s t week,  it  appeared that the regular teacher would not be available for another two weeks.  The substitute teacher, unfamiliar with the Curriculum Guidelines,  requested and received help from the program developer.  The meeting  between the developer and teacher took place on the Monday afternoon of the second week of the p i l o t .  The developer spent time discussing the program  philosophy, the methods of testing students literacy levels and the structure of the theme units.  The teacher decided to work with the values  clarification unit as i t was the easiest to prepare and the resources were immediately available.  The substitute teacher decided that subsequent  units would be selected by the students. The values clarification unit began poorly with the students unwilling to complete a values collage, an assignment they felt demeaning due to its apparent simplicity.  The teacher openly discussed the students' attitudes  and his/her own attitudes and feelings at all times and thus managed to build a good rapport with the class.  By the end of the three weeks, the  substitute teacher was requested and agreed to complete the piloting of the program.  According to the substitute teacher, the class worked well  together discussing issues that deeply troubled them, writing and sharing stories and poems of their l i f e experiences, and visiting local bands to discuss their policies and programs (Rural pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985).  By the end of the three month p i l o t , the  students had managed to organize and publish a book of their own personal stories and poems. There were two official reports submitted by the teacher during and at . the completion of the pilot:  a weekly attendance report was submitted to  66  CEIC and a teacher/student evaluation report was submitted to the curriculum developer and project leader at the completion of the pilot. The experiences with CEIC were described by the pilot teacher as "very positive" and "very supportive".  However, the teacher stated that  "discussing the students progress with a person who was not an educator was uncomfortable" (Rural pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). The student/teacher report documented both the students' and the teacher's attitudes toward their learning experiences.  Although the  teacher believed that the students literacy level had improved since the beginning of the p i l o t , he/she f e l t that none of the students would be ready to move up to the second level of language and skills training, or, in CEIC terms, BTSD level II.  Both the teacher and the students f e l t very  positive about their experiences.  The students felt that they were given  the opportunity to share their thoughts and ideas in a positive and unthreatening environment and the teacher f e l t that the "course had been a valuable and successful experience" (Rural pilot teacher, personal communication, July 26, 1984). In the latter part of July, 1984, the Native Adult Basic Literacy/ L i f e s k i l l s Curriculum Guide was submitted for editing and publication.  The  editor had worked for the Ministry of Education publication division for many years and was familiar with their policies and standards.  The editor  had been invited to the f i r s t advisory committee meeting to outline some of the publication options and to discuss publishing procedures.  Due to  budget restrictions, it was essential that the cost of editing and printing be kept to a minimum.  The advisory committee, together with the publisher,  decided not to include any publishing enhancements, including serrated  67  pages and coloured illustrations. could not afford.  These items were luxuries the Ministry  Committee members also decided to put the standard adult  basic education logo on the cover together with the provincial flag to identify the curriculum as a Ministry of Education product. During the i n i t i a l advisory committee meeting, the publisher could not advise on editorial issues as this person had not yet seen the Guidelines, however in July, the publisher's editorial  task became clearly defined.  Essentially the Guidelines had to be edited for substantive and mechanical or grammatical items.  A query sheet of all the problems and recommended  changes was prepared and sent to the curriculum developer for his/her perusal.  The publisher met with the curriculum developer for six hours to  discuss the Guidelines and the required revisions. were outlined:  The following changes  Two chapters had to be completely rewritten as they did not  meet the Ministry's publication standards.  The introduction had to be  rewritten because the Ministry f e l t that American statistics were irrelevant to the Canadian context.  Controversial statements such as "this  is an activist curriculum" had to be deleted as they were considered inappropriate for a curriculum guide published by the Ministry and sponsored by the CEIC.  Finally, the t i t l e would have to be changed from  Curriculum Guidelines to Resource Book as the Ministry official f e l t that the material presented resembled a resource book rather than a curriculum guide and that the Ministry had recently published an adult basic education literacy guide, and an additional guide focused directly at one particular segment of society was not required (The Ministry ABE coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985). The curriculum developer agreed to change most of the items  68  recommended, but was vehemently opposed to changing the t i t l e of the guide. There were a number of heated discussions between the Ministry of Education Adult Basic Education Coordinator and the curriculum developer regarding the t i t l e .  The Ministry ABE Coordinator f e l t strongly that the  colleges would be more willing to use the book i f i t was referred to as a resource book rather than a guide (Ministry of Education ABE Cooridnator, personal communication, May 25, 1985).  The curriculum developer on the  other hand, f e l t that "a guide" is more prestigious and more respected than a resource book, and by calling the document a resource book, the Ministry was, in effect, downgrading its value (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985).  The publisher and project manager acted as a  liaison between the curriculum developer and Ministry and attempted to help them resolve this impass.  Eventually, a compromise was reached and the  book was titled Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines. A Resource Book for Adult Basic Education. As well as outlining the changes required to the Guidelines, the publisher was responsible for ensuring copyright permission was secured for all references and recommended activities.  Once again, a query sheet was  devised listing all references and activities in the guide. mailed to the developer.  This l i s t was  Both the developer and publisher wrote letters to  the various publishing firms requesting permission to use copyrighted material.  In one instance, a copyright charge of $25.00 was levied for the  publication of a communication game. In the fall of 1984, the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines was completed to the satisfaction of the editor and project managers.  Approximately 500 copies of the book were reproduced for  69  distribution to the various colleges and Native organizations in the province.  All members of the curriculum project, including the advisory  committee, the writing team and the pilot teachers, received a personal copy of the Guidelines as a token of appreciation for their participation. Generally, the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines received excellent reviews.  For example, Executive Director for the  International Council on Adult Education wrote saying that the Guidelines were being used in a downtown Toronto literacy project.  The Correction  Services of Canada insisted on using the curriculum as a basis for prison programs.  The document was highly praised by the director of curriculum  development for the Ministry of Education.  Adult basic education teachers  have made a number of favourable comments regarding the quality of the guidelines.  Finally, members of the curriculum project stated that they  were pleased about their participation in the production of the Guidelines and f e l t the project was a success.  70  Chapter Five  DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ACCORDING TO JARVIS' MODEL  Introduction  Jarvis' "Curriculum Planning Model for the Education of Adults" is utilized to categorize as well as to analyse interview and document data in this study.  Although nine of the ten elements in the model directly relate  to the development of the Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guide!ines project, element h, Actual Demand, involves factors relating to the implementation of the program as opposed to the development of the curriculum.  L i t t l e information was available relating to the program's  implementation, hence this particular element is discussed only briefly. Each of the ten elements of curriculum planning is discussed separately. The analysis begins with a synopsis of the planning factors generally considered within the particular element, followed by an analysis of the factors as they relate to this particular curriculum project.  The chapter  will conclude with a summary of the major factors discussed in each of the 10 elements.  Philosophy  Every program of education has an underlying philosophy "whether i t is e x l i c i t , implicit, considered or rarely thought about, consistent or inconsistent; i t may be a philosophy constrained by other factors, such as  71  social policy, but it remains a philosophy" (Jarvis, 1982, p.  229).  Exploring philosophical factors allows one to consider the attitudes toward education held by each member of the curriculum committee and allows one to study the stated philosophy of the curriculum document. The Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines has an explicitly stated philosophy.  The stated philosophy of the program is  language experience and is based on the writings of Paulo Freire. Freire (1972), in his book the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, discusses two levels of education.  The f i r s t level, recognition, focuses on the  student in the classroom recognizing his or her value and worth both in the learning situation and in society as a whole.  Freire's belief is that the  teacher and student are equals in the classroom environment.  The teacher  and student enter into a dialogical relationship where they become co-learners actively involved in the educational process.  The purpose of  education, according to Freire, is to raise the consciousness of both teacher and student so they identify problems and/or injustices in society and work together to find solutions for these problems. The second level, action, has the student's applying principles and ideas discussed in the classroom to the wider society.  The problems and  solutions discussed are not simply l e f t in this closed environment, but are acted upon in "real" l i f e situations.  The actions involve, in most  instances, substantial political change.  Education, according to Freire,  is not merely a passive memorization of useless facts supporting the political  status-quo.  Education involves action.  Students must learn to  think, to reflect and to act upon their reflections in a meaningful yet dynamic manner.  Freire (1972) writes:  72  Acquiring literacy does not involve memorizing sentences, words or syllables—lifeless objects unconnected to an existential universe—but rather an attitude of creation and recreation, a self-transformation producing a stance of intervention in one's context,  (p.3)  The f i r s t level of Freire's philosophy is discussed in the published edition of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines. An entire chapter is devoted to describing the recognition level of Freire s 1  philosophy and demonstrating how this philosophy can be implemented in the classroom environment through the use of theme units.  The action level of  Freire s philosophy is discussed briefly in the draft copy of the 1  Curriculum Guidelines:  This curriculum takes an activist approach.  It reflects the  belief that the best education i s , in Paulo Freire's words "problem posing".  It takes as its starting points the  examination of the problems of men in their relations with the world and goes on to analyze the roots of those problems and to develop the s k i l l s and strategies necessary to create solutions...At the very heart of the curriculum is the belief that education can help learners become an active force in transforming their world, and as a result become more competent, confident individuals with an enhaced sense of personal efficacy and self-esteem. (Unpublished curriculum draft, p. 3)  73  The "action" level of the philosophy is seldom, i f ever, discussed in the published edition of the Guidelines.  However, by describing the  Guidelines' philosophy as Freirian, the second level is implied.  Readers  familiar with Freire*s writings recognize that the second level is as important to the philosophy as the f i r s t , and that the two must be integrated in order to create an effective program for the student. Statements that suggested an activist approach to education were edited from the published version of the Curriculum Guidelines by the Ministry ABE Coordinator.  The Ministry ABE Coordinator felt that terms  such as "activist" would be "perceived negatively" due to their political connotations.  The curriculum developer was not pleased with the removal of  these so called "political" terms, feeling that the intent of words such as "activist" was not all together political but rather descriptive.  The  attempt was to describe education as an active process as opposed to a passive process.  As the curriculum developer remarked:  I don't think of activist as being a politically loaded term. I guess I do to an extent, but I mean it seems to me that i t ' s consistent with Freire's ideas; either i t ' s activist or i t ' s passivist.  You are trying to encourage an active involvement  or you're trying to encourage a passive acceptance.  I am  trying to encourage an active involvement so, to say that i t ' s a c t i v i s t , just seems to me to be totally consistent with the nature of the activities that are in the guide.  But I think  they saw i t as sort of suggesting a kind of political activism that might be perceived as being outside the domain of  74 education. (Curriculum developer, personal  communication,  May 13, 1985)  Although there was some disagreement, the language experience philosophical  approach was generally well accepted by members of the  curriculum p r o j e c t .  According to one member of the advisory committee, the  philosophy of the program was readily accepted because four members of the eight member advisory committee had been involved in developing a programmer's manual using the language experience approach, less than one year p r i o r to the development of t h i s program. of the philosophical  This member f e l t that many  issues were resolved during the development of this  programmer's manual:  I am sure that a l o t of the discussion that [we] already had on t h i s other [programmer's manual] flowed into [ t h i s one].  We  d i d n ' t have to discuss i t because i t was done and we understood.  We d i d n ' t have to argue that out because we knew  the approach that each took.  There was an understanding.  I  think that there was c e r t a i n l y a basis of t r u s t between those three or four people to the project we worked on. [they] came from.  They knew where I came from.  I know where We had some  pretty lengthy discussions when we were putting this [programmer's manual] together, so I was able to t r u s t them. (Curriculum project member, personal communication, May, 1985)  The p o s i t i v e response to the language experience approach might also have been due to the fact that i t had been used frequently in programs  75  published by the British Columbia Ministry of Education, particularly in the area of adult basic education (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, May 24, 1985).  For instance, the Ministry of Education's  Adult Basic Education English & Communications Curriculum Guide, published in 1982, adopted the language experience philosophical approach.  Further,  community colleges using the Ministry's adult basic education programs favour the language experience approach.  It is generally considered ideal  for the adult learner as i t respects and values the adult's l i f e experiences.  UNESCO advocates the use of Freirian philosophy for adult  basic education literacy programs. There were negative responses to the language experience approach by a few of the project members.  One member felt that the approach focused too  heavily on finding fault with society.  This member f e l t that one should  focus "on the happier side of life" (Curriculum project member, personal communication, May, 1984).  Another member did not feel favourably disposed  to the language experience approach because this member felt that it was too "radical"; unsuited to the level, age group, needs of the target population, and geared toward experienced teachers only.  As this project  member explained:  The approach is not readily accepted nor do we have a great many instructors that are really conversant with the approach. It  is good in theory.  I don't know how i t would work in  practice...I had experienced or I had read this philosophy in terms of introducing language programs to children who had English as a second language or the instruction of a second  76  language where you had to develop the language based on something that was obtained from the students.  I had difficulty picturing  adult Native people coming from that perspective...Getting into a new language such as English.  We weren't starting from as far back.  (Curriculum project member, personal communication, June, 1985)  This member believed that the traditional  teaching approaches that  focused on s k i l l s development were more effective than the language experience approach in preparing the students to meet the challenges of our society.  This member f e l t that i f these curriculum guidelines were  designed to be a Basic Training for Skills Development Level I program, i t may not be transferable to a BTSD Level II  program, as most of these  training programs have not adopted the language experience approach.  It doesn't f i t in with the regular BTSD program, unless again you want to take i t apart and insert activities where you see they f i t . . . I t is a bit too radical for the normal BTSD levels. (Curriculum project member, personal communication, June 1985)  In a general way, all members were conversant with the philosophy and were well aware of its origins and of its premises. to describe the philosophy and comment upon i t .  Each member was able  In most cases, the  participants in the project elaborated more extensively on the recognition level of Freire's philosophy than on the action level.  Only three  participants made any comments about Freire's action level:  The curriculum  77  developer, the Ministry of Education Adult Basic Education Coordinator, and the rural pilot teacher.  The rural pilot teacher made the following  statement regarding the program philosophy:  I don't think we got beyond the f i r s t part, [of Freire's philosophy]. do that. units.  I can see how this program would really help to  We would be able to do some of those kinds of theme Theme units that would involve people in the community,  but we went the other route and were internal...I needed to spend time thinking about who we were and what we wanted and what our strengths were and what did we value and what did we care about.  Learning that we individually had personal power and  value and all of those good things. (Rural pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985)  Whether or not other people involved in the curriculum project recognized the social and political relevance of Freire's philosophy is d i f f i c u l t to say.  Most participants interviewed discussed the philosophy  in terms of using the language experience approach in the classroom situation as opposed to applying principles and ideas discussed in the classroom to the wider society.  Sociological Factors  When studying the development of a curriculum, it is important that one places the selection of curriculum content into a social context =  78  because "no curriculum in the education of adults can escape the social pressure exerted upon it"  (Jarvis, 1983, p. 231).  Sociological factors  analysed included how the curriculum content was decided upon, who was involved in the decision making process and when and where decisions regarding curriculum content were made. In the case of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guide!ines, decisions regarding curriculum content were made by the advisory committee.  The advisory committee was composed of two  representatives from the British Columbia Native Employment Advisory Committee (BCNEAC), a Training Consultant for Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, and a representative from the Continuing Education Department for the British Columbia Ministry of Education—Continuing Education Department, the project manager, the curriculum developer, a principal of a British Columbia secondary school and an instructor at a local community college. The advisory committee was formed in three stages.  The original  committee was formed in November, 1983 and included only representatives from BCNEAC and Canada Employment and Immigrations,  the two agencies  involved in the conception and sponsorship of the curriculum.  This  committee was responsible for sketching a proposal that outlined the program goals, the target population, the anticipated outcomes of the program and the program components.  (See Appendix M for the BCNEAC task  force on BTSD I proposal) In the second stage, the Ministry of Education, Continuing Education Department was invited by the CEIC representatives to join the committee; The Ministry of Education ABE Coordinator was asked to join the committee  79  in the latter part of November, once the program configurations had been outlined.  He/she was responsible for administering the development and  financing of the Curriculum Guidelines. In the third stage of the advisory committee formation the Ministry of Education ABE Coordinator selected the project manager, the developer and two members of the curriculum advisory committee, including the principal of the secondary school and an instructor at the local college.  The  project manager and the developer were selected because of their extensive backgrounds in the area of adult basic education and curriculum development.  The principal of the secondary school and the instructor at  the local college were selected because of their experience working with Native programming.  The project manager, the curriculum developer and the  two members of the advisory committee were selected in early December, 1983. The responsibility of the curriculum developer, in consultation with the program manager, was to "create a structure and a philosophy that could formulate the basis for the organization and development of the actual materials" (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1984). The curriculum developer had to consider several important factors when selecting and recommending curriculum material or content.  F i r s t , i t was  essential that the Guidelines addressed the four major components outlined by BCNEAC and CEIC--1iteracy, job readiness, l i f e s k i l l s , and culture.  In  addressing the question of culture, the developer had to recognize that culture incorporates different facets and dimensions, apart from material culture, including "social organizations, economic organizations, educational organizations, language, belief systems, religion and values"  80  (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1984). Second, i t was important for the curriculum to address the needs of a varied target population in terms of education, age, social background and degrees of assimilation.  Third, the developer had to gear the curriculum  to adults as opposed to adolescents or children.  Curriculum content in  terms of classroom material, learning a c t i v i t i e s , and teaching methods had to be designed to recognize and respect the students' adulthood.  The theme  unit approach was chosen because i t accommodated the interests and needs of all institutions and people involved in the program.  The curriculum  developer described the development task as follows:  Manpower needed a l i f e s k i l l s component as well as simply the literacy materials and that was very much a part of the mandate...The idea being that any program that's going to attempt to work with Native adults should incorporate all four streams: cultural  studies, literacy, math, [and]  ski 11s...There were so many different points.  life  Then you add the  other factor-who was i t for-which was the other bit of information that was fed to me. II  Basically anybody below a level  is grade 8, but actually we narrowed it down really to grade  5 and below.  We're looking at Native adults, all different  ages, all different backgrounds and so forth—degrees of assimilation—urban, rural, so there was all these different factors that somehow had to be brought together to a single coherent stream...It just seemed like a really d i f f i c u l t task and that's where the theme units idea came from.  It seemed  81  to be the only reasonable way of integrating these different factors and these different areas.  (Curriculum developer,  personal communication, May 13, 1984)  The curriculum developer had to present his ideas to the advisory committee for approval.  The developer commented that working with an  advisory committee could be d i f f i c u l t for several reasons:  "Their roles  are a l i t t l e bit hazy", people come together for very short periods of time and people have really different understandings of what is involved" (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1984).  He/she added  that in order to work effectively with an advisory committee, the curriculum developer should assume a leadership role in establishing and clarifying the program structure and philosophy.  The role of the advisory  committee should be to provide useful feedback to the curriculum developer, helping to modify and restructure the document and providing encouragement whenever possible. In the case of this curriculum project, the developer and advisory committee seemed to work well together.  The curriculum developer provided  the structure and philosophy while the advisory committee helped conceive and develop some of the theme units.  However, there were a few critical  comments made refering to the selection of curriculum content.  Two members  of the advisory committee remarked that they would have prefered more input into the development of the curriculum, whereas two others stated that due to personal commitments, they were pleased that they were not asked to play a more active role.  Three of the curriculum project members commented that  82  they would have prefered more Native involvement in the selection of curriculum content.  (Three of the eight member advisory committee were  Native; a total of five out of the 14 people involved in the curriculum project, including the advisory committee, writers, pilot teachers, and publisher were Native)  One curriculum project member made the following  statement regarding CEIC and the Ministry involvement in the curriculum project:  My perspective right now and not looking back to when the project was done, I see a lot of curriculum or curriculum development or material development being generated from the point of view of there being funds available for that sort of thing and people getting involved for that sort of thing.  I  don't have too much regard for Employment and Immigration being involved in the education of  Native people.  (Curriculum  project member, personal communication, June, 1984)  Another committee member made the following statement regarding the Ministry of Education's involvement in the project:  Well, i f I had the power, I would have not wanted it to go through the Ministry of Education.  Although after some  d i f f i c u l t i e s [the Curriculum Guidelines] came through quite nicely.  I guess I would like to have seen it done where an  Indian organization sponsored i t rather than the Ministry.  83  (Curriculum project member, personal communication, May, 1985).  It is important to note that although the Curriculum Guidelines provide a philosophy and structure, the theme units contained within the guidelines are designed to be suggestions only.  Teachers are encouraged to  develop their own unique theme units, based on the students' interests and needs.  Hence, although the curriculum content was decided by the advisory  committee, prior to the publication of the Guidelines, by choosing and developing theme units, teachers are also making curriculum content decisions.  The degree to which teachers will develop theme units depends  on several factors, including a b i l i t y , motivation, time and autonomy.  As  the curriculum developer states,  The number of possible theme units is l i t e r a l l y  infinite...  Once again, it must be pointed out that the theme outlines are to be regarded as sample units, not as a specific curriculum. They are designed to provide usable themes and helpful a c t i v i t i e s , but, more importantly, to provide a format around which to build additional teacher and/or student-initiated units.  them  (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13,  1985)  The Guidelines provide a total of 83 suggested theme topics.  The 83  topics are categorized into 12 units including community, health, housing, education, family, work, government, sports and recreation, communication, consumerism, environment and personal development  (Ministry of Education,  84  1984, p. 144-147).  There is a core of 12 developed theme topics within the Guidelines: "The Structure and Function of Traditional  Native Communities", "Producing  a Community Newspaper", "Investigating a Community Issue", "Child Care", "Looking at Your Community Schools", "The Indian and Non-Indian Family in Transition", "Identifying Personal Strengths and Weaknesses", "Indian Self-Government—What does i t Mean?", "The Critical Consumer", and "Personal Values Clarification"  (Ministry of Education, 1984, p.  144-147). There is at least one developed theme for each of the 12 units, with the exception of "Sports and Recreation" and "Environment".  There was no  reason given as to why these units were not further developed, outside of the fact that the advisory committee f e l t that the 12 developed themes related most directly to the BCNEAC/CEIC mandate, and to the needs of the target population (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985) .  Social Policy Factors  Education is often influenced by the decisions of national and local governments.  In studying social policy factors that have an impact on the  development of a curriculum, i t is important to discern how, why and when social policy affects the financing and distribution of a program. The development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum  85  Guidelines was influenced by the policies of both the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission and the Ministry of Education, Continuing Education Division.  The mandate or policy of CEIC is to sponsor only programs that  lead directly to employment.  Sponsorship involves financing the  development of the program, where applicable, and providing one year's tuition and a small monthly stipend for students enrolled in the program. Sponsorship is usually for no more than 52 weeks.  After this time period,  students are expected to actively seek employment.  Programs sponsored by  CEIC are referred to as Basic Training for Skills Development or more commonly BTSD.  There are four levels of BTSD programs, ranging from basic  training level I to an academic level roughly equivalent to grade 12.  As a  rule, the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission does not sponsor BTSD level I programs because these programs do not lead directly to employment.  BTSD level I programs are designed in most cases to provide  literacy s k i l l s for students with less than grade 7 education.  It  is most  unlikely that a student completing a BTSD level I program will be adequately trained for employment.  The CEIC Training Consultant  described  the policy as follows:  CEIC has a regulation, a National policy essentially that we not do BTSD level I training per se, the rationale behind that is essentially that CEIC is employment oriented, and the maximum duration of any referral to training under our programs is 52 weeks.  So to expect somebody from a grade 3 education  level to move to employment readiness in that period of time is generally inappropriate or just not possible in most cases.  It  86  was established as a National policy that we didn't do basic literacy. (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, May, 1985)  However, there is a provision in this National policy that states,  if  literacy forms less than 50% of the content of a curriculum and the curriculum includes l i f e s k i l l s , job search s k i l l s or other s k i l l s which might be marketable, then CEIC will sponsor i t . sponsors Basic Job Readiness programs.  More specifically, CEIC  These programs are geared to help  adults "who need basic non academic occupational knowledge, interpersonal s k i l l s and job attitudes to retain stable employment". (Basic Job Readiness Training Policy of 1977) It was under this basic job readiness provision that the CEIC training consultant was able to provide funding for the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines, and to sponsor students completing a program which uses this curriculum as its base.  The CEIC  representative worked hard to find a means by which this curriculum could be purchased, as i t was f e l t that Native programming had been virtually ignored over the years, and that there appeared to be a requirement for a curriculum that addressed the needs of Native adults with less than grade 7 education. In order to receive CEIC sponsorhship, the program had to meet very specific criteria both in terms of target population and content.  The  program was available only to Native persons who were "eligible for National Training Program support (17 years of age and 2 years out of school) and whose access to employment or vocational training was hindered by education levels of grades 0-5 as assessed by standard literacy testing"  87  (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, October, 1983).  The  program had to contain "up to 50% BTSD content at the basic literacy level. The remaining 50% had to focus on occupational s k i l l s or job readiness training and cultural heritage appreciation". Literacy, by CEIC's definition is everything up to grade 7. or grade 7 equivalent education, particularly language, math and science s k i l l s .  Life  s k i l l s addresses people's coping s k i l l s both within their community and in an urban setting.  It includes such items as budget management, job search  s k i l l s , and community service awareness.  The culture heritage appreciation  component attempts to help build people's pride in themselves and their cultural backgroud. The CEIC representative recognized that this curriculum is geared more to education than to job readiness training, a fact that CEIC was willing to overlook.  According to the CEIC Training Consultant:  We are not supposed to be putting people into training unless we can clearly see that within the referred period, the maximum of 52 weeks, a person can be expected to be trained to the level of employability.  Now, whether you like that definition  or not, that is the one we work with and anything beyond that, any training that we try whatever circumstances we get involved i n , we have to treat as education because it is not employment based to the extent of the 52 week regulation, so that's what we have to wrestle with. communication, May 1984)  (CEIC Training Consultant, personal,  88  Although the CEIC training consultant has helped the students in terms of reinitiating them into the educational system, the CEIC consultant may also have left the students in a very awkward position, where the students understand the value and importance of education, but are unable to pursue their educational endeavours due to financial restrictions. As CEIC only sponsors 52 weeks of schooling, the students will have to find other means of supporting themselves through the educational system. This may be a problem for some students facing financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . Although there appeared to be some criticism of CEIC policy, the attitude of most project members toward CEIC's sponsorship and involvement in the curriculum project was positive.  Members appreciated that CEIC  representatives had managed to interpret policy so as to provide sponsorship for the program.  The CEIC Training Consultants was also  praised by project members for his/her assistance in helping to organize the program pilot and in providing students with financial assistance. The Ministry ABE Coordinator made the following comment regarding CEIC's involvement and sponsorship:  CEIC tends to take a lot of abuse, particularly from adult basic education people, because they won't sponsor literacy. Their policies change from time to time and sometimes they're very narrow.  Sometimes they are d i f f i c u l t to deal with because  their sole focus is vocational, but that's their mandate; that's what they are supposed to do; that's what their legislation permits them to do.  I guess the point that I want  to make is that I think they were very flexible.  I'm trying to  89  make a positive statement about what CEIC has done.  I thought  i t would have made i t much easier for [the CEIC Training Consultant] not to be willing to interpret policies in a flexible kind of way.  I think that i t is to their credit that  they got involved with i t .  (Ministry ABE Coordinator personal  communication, May, 1985)  Thus far the discussion has focused on CEIC policy and its impact on the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  The other major influence was the Province of British  Columbia, Ministry of Education—Post Secondary Department policy on adult basic education programs.  The policy states that i t recognizes the  province's responsibility to "foster learning opportunities for adults in British Columbia who have not had the opportunity to develop some or all of those s k i l l s necessary to function successfully in Canadian society" (Ministry of Education, Post Secondary Department Policy Circular of 1982). The rest of the policy statement describes the Ministry's responsibilities both in terms of supporting institutions in British Columbia offering adult basic education programs and in terms of providing funding for, and access to, adult basic education programs. There are several points of interest in the Ministry's policy statement.  F i r s t , the term 'adult'  has a specific and distinct meaning.  The Ministry recognizes that the needs, interests and learning styles of the adult learner are different from those of children or youths. According to the Ministry's ABE Coordinator, curricula published by the Ministry's Post Secondary Department must include either a statement or a  90  section that deals specifically with the adult learner (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985).  There is a section in the  Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines which discusses working with adults in general and working with Native adults in particular. The second point of interest in the policy statement is that the Ministry of Education—Continuing Education branch, provides support for institutions offering adult basic education programs.  This support  involves developing curriculum guides, resource books, learning aids and assessment tools.  It must be made clear that educational documents  distributed by the Ministry are to be used at the discretion of the institution and/or teacher.  In the province of British Columbia, mandatory  curricula are not viewed appropriate for adult education.  Post secondary  institutions develop standards for courses or programs offered and choose curricula that match these standards.  The project manager explained:  In the school system, the curriculum guide is imposed and they enforce i t .  I don't mean this in a negative sense, but the way  in which they set their standards is really by imposing a curriculum guide; this is i t and this is what you teach.  Where  as in the adult division, we say here is a curriculum guide, i f you would like to use i t ,  i t ' s up to you.  Then the standards  are set through the articulation process, within the post secondary system. May, 1985)  (Project Manager, personal communication,  91  This subject of mandatory versus voluntary curricula is a sensitive issue in adult education, particularly as i t relates to the development of this Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines.  One member of  the curriculum advisory committee refused to refer to the guidelines as a program, feeling that programs are decided by post secondary institutions. The Guidelines are designed to assist, but not to prescribe, what or how learning should take place.  This curriculum project member made the  following comment during the interview, when the term 'program' was used to refer to the Guidelines:  I find your use of the term 'program' peculiar. referring to the book?  Are you  There may also be a course that looks  remarkably like a literacy program with CEIC sponsored students in i t that's not using this [Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines]. program.  In other words, this is not a literacy  No one has the authority to dictate that every  literacy program for Natives would use these [curriculum] guidelines].  I think that the approach we have taken in all  our curriculum development is to try to produce things that are so good that people will chose to use them. content standard is an institutional  But the course  responsibility (Curriculum  project member, personal communication, May, 1985).  Curricula can easily be rejected by post secondary institutions  if  they contain prescriptive statements regarding learning objectives, subject matter, teaching styles or evaluation methods.  It is imperative that the  92  autonomous nature of adult education be preserved.  The advisory committee,  in conjunction with the editor of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines, were careful that all prescriptive statements were removed from the document prior to its publication. The third point of interest in the Ministry of Education's policy concerns financing.  The policy indicates that the Ministry, in cooperation  with Federal and Provincial agencies, will provide financial assistance for adult basic education programs.  According to the policy, the Ministry  wi 11:  Provide financial assistance programs for those part-time and full-time adult basic education students who require such assistance.  Cooperate with appropriate Federal and Provincial agencies in developing a coordinated system of income support to eliminate financial barriers to adult basic education.  (Ministry of  Education, Post Secondary Department Policy Circular of 1982)  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated that a small amount of money was provided by the Ministry to allow for editing the Guidelines.  However, at  least 90% of the funding was Federal (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985).  Essentially, the Ministry helped fund the  publication of the Guidelines and provided personnel to administer the Federal government funds.  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated that the  Post-Secondary Department of the Provincial Ministry of Education supported  93  several major adult basic education projects each year; yet according to one member of the curriculum project:  The Ministry of Education has a somewhat d i f f i c u l t time dealing with Native programming because they don't recognize Native programming, that is why they have a d i f f i c u l t time with i t . Unless they feel p o l i t i c a l l y pushed into doing i t , or financially rewarded for doing i t , which is another way of saying politically pushed, then they aren't all that excited about getting involved in doing curriculum work.  (Curriculum  project member, personal communication, May, 1985)  Based on the fact that the Ministry of Education, Post-Secondary Department does not have a policy for Native adult education, i t is predictable that the province would not see i t s e l f as responsible for financing Native programming.  Perceived Demand  Perception of demand is one c r i t i c a l factor in the planning of a curriculum in adult and continuing education because "adult education is designed in the simplest possible way to respond to demand.  If classes can  be closed on the basis of attendance, they can also be set up" (Jarvis quoting Newman, 1983, p.  35).  It  is important when studying the  development of a curriculum that one explores who requested a program to be developed, why the request or demand was made, and whether the  94  curriculum meets the requirements of the people who requested  it.  According to one of the advisory committee members, the British Columbia Native Employment Advisory Committee (BCNEAC) felt that there was very l i t t l e being done by the federal and provincial governments to provide educational opportunities for the "fairly sizable Native adult population with s k i l l s below the grade 7 l e v e l , as measured by standardized assessment tests"  (Advisory committee member, personal communication, May, 1985).  In the fall of 1983, a member of the BCNEAC approached a Manager of Institutional Training for Canada Employment and Immigration with a request to "support a training program which would accommodate upgrading for Natives at the basic literacy level" (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, October, 1983).  This Manager of Institutional Training for  Canada Employment and Immigration agreed to sponsor "the development of a new curriculum for a combined basic literacy, job readiness and cultural awareness course" for Native people "17 years of age and two years out of school whose access to employment and/or vocational training [was] hindered by education levels of grades 0-5" (CEIC Training Consultant, personal communication, October, 1983).  Although the Ministry of Education had  developed an adult basic education program for individuals with less than grade 5 education, the BCNEAC representatives f e l t that the curriculum was too broad in nature to be meaningful to the targeted Native population (BCNEAC representative, personal communication, May, 1985).  It was  important that the curriculum address the special learning needs of the Native adult, providing s k i l l s that would help him or her to cope effectively  in the Native community and in society.  The following  statement appears in the Preface of the Native Literacy and Life Skills  95  Curriculum Guidelines:  This book was developed in response to the concern expressed by the B.C. Native Advisory Committee of the Canada Employment and Immigration Committee (CEIC), for the thousands of Native adults in B.C. whose literacy level is below grade 5 and who were therefore ineligible for B.T.S.D. Level II  to IV courses.  Although Canadian figures are far less complete than those for the U.S., they suggest that approximately two-thirds of all Canadian Indians over the age of fifteen and out of school have less than grade 9 education...It need for material  was clear that there was a  that is meaningful, not just to adults with  low literacy levels--material  that will provide Native adults  with the s k i l l s necessary to participate more fully and effectively in both their home, community and society at large (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984, p. v).  It  is interesting to note that the need for the curriculum was  determined by the Native Employment committee, as opposed to a Native community or individual.  The CEIC Training Consultant remarked that the  request by a committee is not unusual for two reasons.  F i r s t , the BCNEAC  is composed of Native representatives from 10 different geographical regions in British Columbia. needs of their regions.  These members are meant to speak for the  If a program is required in a particular community  or region, the representative will approach the BCNEAC with a recommendation for training.  Second, individuals may not recognize the  96  the need for a literacy program.  It  is not unusual for an individual to be  able to cope quite well within a community without literacy s k i l l s .  Some  may argue against the validity of sponsoring a program i f i t is not required by the individual.  However, the Native communities might feel  they want a better educated and self-sufficient population or the individual's needs could change.  In theory, the advisory committee serves  to recognize both the community's and the individual's needs.  As the CEIC  Training Consultant explained:  There has been a demand for basic literacy training in Native communities for a long time.  Now, in terms of defining that  demand, one of the problems pointed out by especially outsiders is that the literacy level in the Native community is very low. Why that's true comes down to a whole lot of factors.  The  demand for higher literacy may or may not come from those individuals themselves...The fact that I have a grade 3 education, I might think there is not anything wrong with that. I've  got a house and I've  happy.  got children, and I'm  perfectly  At the same time, obviously there are all kinds of  other people that are saying i f we had a better opportunity for these people to be employed, to be self-sufficient,  it probably  means that they will be less dependent upon government services...so in terms of defining need, it is a hard need to define individually.  (CEIC Training Consultant, personal  communication, May, 1985).  97  Although i t was imperative that the curriculum met the needs, as defined by the BCNEAC, of the Native adult student, i t was also important that the guide provided the instructor with information on effective teaching styles, principles of a "good cross-cultural curriculum" and resource material 1984, p. 1).  relevant to the Native adult (Ministry of Education,  It was made quite clear, by four advisory committee members,  that attempts had been made over the years to develop curriculum material for Native adults; however, due to a lack of sponsorship or insufficient funding, these programs were never published or widely distributed.  In  fact, a year prior to the development of this Native Literacy curriculum, a "Programming Manual.for Native Adults" had been developed through the Ministry of Education.  Due to budget cut-backs and other reasons unknown  to the authors, this book was never published.  One advisory committee  member stated that:  There was money alloted for the development, but not for the printing of the manual. with i t .  I have no idea.  I don't know what else was involved I mean with its not getting printed,  but this was done quite quickly.  Of course there was Federal  money involved in the development of this through Canada Manpower; whereas that was a Provincial matter.  (Advisory  committee member, personal communication, May, 1985)  All of the curriculum project members commented that there was a requirement for a guide or a book that served the needs of the Native adults and the teachers of Native students.  However, opinions were varied  98  as to whether or not this document will actually serve those needs.  On the  negative side, one project member stated the book does not adequately meet the needs of either the teacher or student i t provides some reference materials and teaching suggestions helpful to the teacher who has nothing. (Curriculum project member, personal communication, June, 1985)  However,  i t is far from being a comprehensive and totally functional guide.  Another  project member commented that the guide is very ambitious, almost intimidating, at f i r s t sight. (Curriculum project member, personal communicatio, June, 1985)  A third curriculum member commented that  although the curriculum attempts to address the needs of the adult student and instructor, i t is very idealistic and at times even "impractical" (Curriculum committee member, personal communication, June, 1985). On the positive side, one committee member stated that the book did an "excellent job of meeting the needs of both teacher and student and was to be commended"  (Curriculum committee member, personal communication, June,  1985).  Psychological Factors  The analysis of the curriculum development planning process involves studying the manner in which the curriculum committee has considered the psychological factors which either hinder or facilitate learning.  It  is  important to determine the psychological factors that impede or f a c i l i t a t e the learning process because these factors will have a bearing on the method by which the program is designed and the resources necessary to assist in the learning process.  99  Psychological factors associated with both the Native student and the adult learner were considered in the development of the Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines.  The curriculum developer, with the  approval of the advisory committee, decided to devote an entire chapter to the discussion of Native education in general and Native adult basic education in particular.  The chapter delves into principles of  cross-cultural curriculum, Native Indian learning styles and effective teaching methods for Native students.  The focus and intent of this chapter  is to illustrate that there are very clear differences between the Native and non-Native learner.  The Guidelines refer to a number of research  studies, including Barnhardt's (1979) study on cross cultural education, Lawson's (1983) and  Arbess' (1981) studies of Native learning styles, and  Kleinfeld's (1975), C o l l i e r ' s (1979) and Arbess' (1981) studies on effective teaching styles for Native students. Citing these research studies, the curriculum developer drew the following conclusions regarding Native education.  F i r s t , the cultural  background of the Native learner is quite different from that of the non-Native learner.  The Native adult must not only learn to value and  respect his/her own cultural heritage, but must also learn to cope with the culture of the dominant society.  Second, learning styles of the Native  student differ from that of the non-Native student.  Native students prefer  learning tasks involving observation, manipulation and experimentation (Ministry of Education, 1984, p. 16).  Consequently, teaching methods must  be adjusted to meet the students' learning needs.  Thirdly, due to often  very negative experiences within the school system, Native adults come to the learning situation with a history of failure and rejection.  The  100  student must work to overcome these feelings before learning can take place. Most of the research on cross cultural education, learning styles and teaching methods referred to in the Guidelines pertains to Native youths; very l i t t l e has been done specifically on teaching the Native adult. Consequently, the Guidelines could not present as in depth a discussion on Native adult education as they did on Native youth education.  The  guidelines l i s t principles for working with Native adults, including such points as recognizing the students' adulthood in terms of student/teacher relationships, classroom management and learning activities. a l i s t of suggestions for avoiding cultural  There is also  'faux pas' in the classroom.  The l i s t provides information of how best to work with Native adults without "trodding on their mores and values" (Ministry of Education, 1984, p.22). When dealing with psychological factors in the planning of a curriculum, some factors may be forgotten, and some may be over generalized.  Although most people involved with the Native curriculum  guidelines f e l t that the research section on Natives and adult learners was the most outstanding and commendable chapter of the book, one of the pilot teachers commented that the book's greatest flaw is that i t "ducked the issue of learning disabilities" June, 1984).  (Pilot teacher, personal communication,  This criticism bothered the curriculum developer who f e l t  that dealing with people with learning problems was outside of the scope of the Curriculum Guidelines.  He added that if i t were a requirement to  include a section on learning d i s a b i l i t i e s , this should have been outlined in the early stages of the guidelines' development.  Furthermore, research  101  in the guidelines oftern show how students can use learning strengths to help them overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s .  For instance, the developer, citing  research from a Stanford report (1968), concluded that:  One of the primary learning-style factors that emerges from the literature is the Native student's tendency to "learn by looking".  This proclivity for visual rather than verbal  learning is identified in the Stanford report (1968) which also argues that learning through oral language, stemming from the Native story-telling tradition, is a related learning preference  (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984, p.16).  The developer f e l t the definition of the term learning disability was not provided by the teacher so i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine what was meant by this term.  The curriculum developer wondered i f the term 'learning  disability' referred to a "physical disability, such as a perceptual or hearing problem, or if the term referred to a basic inability to grasp concepts" (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 13, 1985). The second problem when dealing with psychological factors is a tendency toward overgeneralizing research findings, a problem which greatly concerned the curriculum developer and advisory committee members. Although the curriculum developer f e l t that i t was important to include sections such as "Native Learning Styles" in the curriculum guidelines, he also warned repeatedly to assess each student and learning situation -individually.  The chapter on understanding and teaching Native adults was  included to "sensitize" the teacher to the learning needs of Native adults  102  and not to provide a description of the prototype Native adult student, and the typical classroom environment.  The curriculum developer provided the  following explanation:  I guess I wanted to sensitize the average non-Native teacher going into a Native classroom to the fact that they might be dealing with somebody coming from a very different kind of cultural set of behaviours and perceptions than what they were accustomed to; that's what my basic concern was...I wanted to at least alert people to the fact that the kinds of sanctions for learning and the kind of learning and the kind of learning styles and approaches and language patterns and approaches and communication patterns.  All those kinds of things might not  necessarily be there, but at least [teachers] should evaluate them from their own context  (Curriculum developer, personal  communication, May 13, 1985).  Resources  Every curriculum requires resources, whether these resources are financial, physical or human.  Financial resources refer to the payment of  the costs associated with the development and implementation of the program; physical resources refer to the f a c i l i t i e s and materials required to teach the program; and human resources refer to the people hired or recruited to teach the program.  In planning a curriculum, one must  consider what resources are required and who will provide these resources.  103  Naturally, the provision of resources is directly contingent upon other factors in the curriculum model, such as social policy factors and sociological factors.  For instance, the development and the implementation  of the curriculum was almost solely financed by Canada Employment and Immigration Commission who managed to fund the program by using money allocated for Native training.  Both the CEIC and the British Columbia  Native Employment Advisory Committee had some stake or interest in the project.  However, i f both agencies were responsible for the program's  financing, then both had some claims to the guide.  As discussed previously  in order for CEIC to become financially involved with the curriculum project, the guidelines had to include content pertaining to l i f e s k i l l s , job readiness training and culture.  BCNEAC insisted that the curriculum be  developed in a six month period, feeling that i f the project took longer to be completed then more money would be drained from the Native training fund.  As one of the BCNEAC advisory committee members explained,  The [Ministry ABE Coordinator] said that the amount of time that would be required to do a clean job would be a year, and we [BCNEAC] told them to forget i t ; i t can be done in six months, probably less than that, because the longer it runs the more money i t costs, and we had committed through CEIC that the development fund through this would be taken off the regional allocation for Indian training in the Province for 83/84 and any more than that amount of money is ridiculous, and i f they couldn't do it then CEIC would make a contract with a person to do the curriculum and i t wouldn't be done through the Ministry.  0  104  (BCNEAC advisory committee representative, personal communication, May, 1985)  Although CEIC paid 90% of the costs for the development of the Guidelines, the Ministry financed the editing of the curriculum as "money had run out, and the editing cost ended up being a l i t t l e more than what was expected" (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985).  During the editing process, the Ministry ABE Coordinator made some  very specific changes to the guidelines.  First the t i t l e of the curriculum  was changed from Native Adult Literacy/Life Skills Curriculum Guide to Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines Adult Basic Education.  A Resource Book for  The Ministry ABE Coordinator f e l t that the document  resembled a resource book more than a curriculum guide, and that the Ministry had already published a literacy guide for all adults in the province and did not feel a second one was necessary for Natives.  As well,  the book was published with the Ministry's adult basic education logo on the cover, thus identifying it as a provincial project.  According to the  Ministry ABE Coordinator:  We didn't think that there should be a different curriculum for Natives.  We already had a basic literacy curriculum guide.  We  didn't want to discriminate and create special groups and treat them differently...Even it.  It's  though the federal government paid for  [the Curriculum Guidelines] got our name on i t , so  i t ' s a Ministry of Education document.  (Ministry ABE  coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985)  105  Thus far, the discussion has focused on the provision of financial resources for the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  Both physical and human resources were discussed  during the curriculum planning process.  The curriculum advisory committee  decided that the program would be available to post secondary institutions including colleges, friendship centers, and Native education centres. Included in the guidelines is a chart outlining factors important to implementing a Native adult program in both urban and rural (on Reserve) environments.  For instance, the chart makes the following types of  recommendations, for a rural (on Reserve) environment:  1.  Be accountable to the community.  2.  Get the community involved in operating the program through the education co-ordinator.  3.  Utilize local resources.  4.  Make concrete contributions to the community.  5.  Use the issues and problems of the community as a basis for study.  6.  Have a school without walls where learning activities occur in the context of the community.  (B.C. Ministry of  Education, 1984, pp. 26-28)  and for an urban environment:  1.  Develop close relationships with other urban Indian organizations.  106  2.  Remain accountable to an Indian board of directors or Indian advisors.  3.  Utilize guest speakers from the urban Indian community.  4.  Take advantage of community activities and resources. (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1984, pp. 26-28)  The chart not only identifies resources in terms of location, f a c i l i t i e s and materials, but also in terms of human resources. The curriculum guidelines recommend that in both rural and urban settings, a Native teacher and teacher's aide be used and that Native personnel be invited to the class to give a speech or presentation.  The Guidelines also  provide a section on effective teaching styles, and an extensive annotated bibliography of reference material, instructional resources, and classroom resources together with a l i s t of publishers and distributors. Although the Guidelines delve into the area of physical and human resources, according to the developer, very l i t t l e time was spent discussing resources during the actual development of the program.  The  advisory committee wanted a resource section and the curriculum developer complied with their wish.  As the curriculum developer stated:  Other than the fact that we knew that there was going to be a resource section, I don't think we discussed resources at any great depth.  I sort of took what they wanted and I did what  they [the advisory committee] wanted and I did the best job that I possibly could.  They wanted a resource section.  Curriculum developer, personal communication, May 1985)  107  The subject of resources became an issue during the piloting of the program.  The curriculum advisory committee wanted to conduct the pilot in  two locations, an urban off Reserve environment and a rural on Reserve environment.  Although the urban off Reserve location was easily  established, i t was impossible to set up a pilot in a rural on Reserve environment due to the lack of interest on the part of the Native population.  According to the curriculum project manager, this lack of  interest was due to the timing of the pilot.  The pilot was to be held in  the spring, a time when many "Natives are involved in farming or ranching and are not going to spend five hours a day in school".  In order not to  postpone the progress of the curriculum project, and to delay the publication of the guidelines, the advisory committee decided to conduct the pilot at a friendship center in a semi-rural location.  As the  curriculum project manager explained:  On Reserve we were not able to find any place where we could get a sufficient number of people like ten to 12 people who were willing to be students during that period of time. (Curriculum project manager, personal communication, May, 1985)  Furthermore, the teacher hired to conduct the rural pilot resigned, without an explanation, a day before the pilot was to begin, forcing the committee to hire another instructor "on the spot". committee member commented:  As one advisory  108  All I know is that with the [Rural p i l o t ] , the teacher at the last moment decided not to take the job, and so there was kind of a last minute appointment and I understand that it worked out quite well in spite of that.  (Curriculum advisory  committee member, personal communication, May, 1985)  A third problem encountered during the pilot was the lack of material resources, particularly in the semi-rural location forcing the instructors to borrow materials from the local college and from the curriculum developer.  The pilot teacher "had to sort of scrounge, collect and  buy/order material, and ordering at that time was a joke because the stuff ordered didn't come until the last week of classes" (Rural pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985).  In short, although the subject of accommodation and human resources was not discussed extensively during the development of the Guidelines, i t became an important factor during the program pilot.  The curriculum  committee found itself without a location and teacher just days before the pilot was about to commence.  Advertised Program  Crucial to the planning of a curriculum is the method employed to advertise or promote the curriculum document, so that potential and/or teachers become aware of its existence.  students  Analysing factors of the  advertised program involves studying the method in which the curriculum  109  planners chose to publish and to distribute the curriculum document.  Both  topics will be discussed in turn. The publication of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines was perhaps one of the most sensitive issues in this curriculum project.  It was not until the Guidelines were submitted for publication  that conflict arose between the curriculum developer and the Ministry ABE Coordinator.  The developer was told by the editor that the Ministry wanted  to change the t i t l e of the document from a curriculum guide to a resource book.  The curriculum developer was "miffed" by this decision feeling that  referring to the document as a resource book would substantially reduce its value and use in the " f i e l d " .  The curriculum developer made the following  statement regarding the t i t l e change:  I was concerned that what I saw, a down-grading [of the guide] to a resource book, would mean that it would have less of a profile in the f i e l d .  People wouldn't take i t as seriously as  they would i f i t were identified as a curriculum guide. (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May, 1985)  The curriculum developer and the Ministry ABE Coordinator compromised, deciding to include both Guidelines and Resource Book in the t i t l e .  The  Training Consultant from CEIC stated that within the Commission the document is not being referred to as either Guidelines or a Resource Book. Instead i t is being called a "job readiness program", emphasizing the point that the curriculum was designed to be a program rather than a resource book.  110  A second issue or problem that arose during the publication of the guide concerned the editing of statistics and controversial language.  Both  the Ministry ABE Coordinator and the publisher f e l t that all American statistics and all statistics that did not refer directly to the education of Native adults be removed from the Guidelines.  The publisher explained  that:  An earlier draft of the research section opens up with a long quote on an American study cited.  [The developer] tried to  draw conclusions in a Canadian context based on American data. We were afraid that a reader would pick i t up, look at i t and say, "well they made all these incorrect generalizations". They can't necessarily make those generalizations from an American situation to a Canadian context.  (Publisher, personal  communication, May, 1985)  The curriculum developer disagreed with the decision to remove the statistics and the terminology.  The American statistics were included in  the document because research on the education of Natives in Canada was scarce.  The developer f e l t that data from the American context would  provide at least an indication of the type of problems facing many Native adults in Canada, due to a lack of proper education.  The curriculum  developer f e l t that the statistics pertaining to suicide and imprisonment rates provided a background or historical perspective to the problems facing Native adults in society, a perspective that must be understood by people working with Native adults.  Ill  As to the terminology used in the guide, the Ministry ABE Coordinator and the publisher f e l t that any words or terms that appeared p o l i t i c a l l y controversial needed to be removed.  These two project members believed  that the Guidelines would be more acceptable in the field i f political terminology were avoided.  The developer disagreed with their viewpoint and  argued that the terminology used in the gudelines was designed to be descriptive as opposed to p o l i t i c a l .  He/she f e l t that i t was important to  recognize the nature of the curriculum and its intentions.  The terms used  were very much a part of the philosophy of the Curriculum Guidelines. The following is a statement by the developer describing his/her reaction to the editing of the term ' a c t i v i s t : 1  I mean I guess I was somewhat taken aback because I don't think of activist as being in particularly a loaded term...Well  I  guess I do to an extent, but I mean i t seems to me that i t ' s consistent with Freire's ideas; either i t ' s activist or i t ' s passivist; you know either you are trying to encourage active involvement or you're trying to encourage a kind of passive acceptance and I'm trying to encourage an active involvement, so to say that i t ' s activist just seems to me to be totally consistent with the nature of the activities that are in the guide. 1985)  (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May,  112  Another issue that arose during publication concerned the correction of substantive and mechanical errors, in the Guidelines.  The editor  prepared several query sheets listing all the problems he found with the Guidelines, including writing style, organization, and referencing.  The  editor f e l t that there were at least two sections of the guide that had to be completely rewritten,  and several chapters that had to be reorganized in  order to enhance the appearance and effectiveness of the Guidelines. Furthermore, there were a number of suggestions or ideas listed in the Guidelines that were borrowed from books and journals without permission from the publisher.  Both the curriculum developer and the publisher were  responsible for reorganizing and rewriting sections of the Guidelines and for establishing copyright clearances.  The editor took full  responsibility  for writing the curriculum's introduction, acknowledgements and preface. The curriculum developer was pleased with changes to the Guidelines in terms of reorganization but was not pleased with the introduction, as much of its content was removed and i t contained mechanical errors due mostly to poor or inappropriate punctuation.  The curriculum developer made the  folowing comments regarding the editor's work:  I think the re-organization has much improved the document. think that the editing has done some really good things.  I  I  think that the publisher reorganized much more effectively.  I  f e l t good about that...On the down side, I really don't like the introduction.  I think [the editor] really gutted the  introduction...They took that [the statistics] out of the introduction which sort of left it a real shell of what it was...  113  Mechanically, this is not a big deal, but the publisher uses commas very differently  than I do and so there are places I  ask why is there a comma here. here.  There is no reason for a comma  It looks grammatically incorrect and that bothers me.  (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May, 1985)  It is important to note that although there were some problems with the publication of the Guidelines, due largely to editorial changes required by the Ministry ABE Coordinator and implemented by the publisher, generally the response by project members to the document has been favourable.  In fact, there were a number of remarks made solely about the  appearance of the Guidelines.  For example, one advisory committee member  remarked on the excellent packaging of the Guidelines, feeling that its "shiny" appearance would add to the curriculum's legitimacy.  Another  advisory member remarked:  I really think i t ' s a snappy looking product.  When i t  first  came off the press and when we f i r s t got twenty copies, I just took a stack of them in my arm and gave one to each of the directors.  I was quite proud to say, this is the latest thing  off the press in the ABE area, and it has gone very well and i t ' s really popular.  The director of curriculum development  keeps this [the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines] on his coffee table.  You walk past his office, on  a round table this is the book that sits on his coffee table. (Advisory committee member, personal commumication, May, 1985)  114  The discussion has focused on. the publication of the Curriculum Guidelines; particularly as the publication influenced the actual content of the curriculum and its appearance.  At this juncture i t is necessary to  draw attention to the fact that courses and programs must be distributed. Plans for the distribution and advertisement of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines were made early in the development process.  The Ministry ABE Coordinator decided to employ a number of people  in the curriculum project because the more people involved with a curriculum project, the greater the likelihood that the curriculum is supported, distributed and promoted.  As the Ministry ABE Coordinator  stated:  Part of the reason of involving many people in various aspects of the process; everything from advisory committee to the review panel to the p i l o t s , is in addition to helping with that specific aspect of the project; they contribute greatly towards the overall long term implementation.  The more poeple that are  involved the more people that are hopefully supportive of the program.  (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication,  May, 1985)  Twelve project members commented that they willingly and happily promote the guidelines.  However, two members seemed somewhat less  enthusiastic about the proposition.  One member remarked that he/she  occasionally brings the guidelines to meetings, but doesn't go around "waving a flag" (Curriculum project member, personal communication,  115  June, 1985).  The other member remarked that although he/she had given an  instructor on the Reserve a copy of the Guidelines, he/she did not feel a "priority to recommend the book to others"  it  (Curriculum project member,  personal communicaton, June, 1985). As well as using project members to promote the Guidelines, 150 free copies of the curriculum were sent by the Ministry's publication branch to every school board and college in the province.  The Ministry ABE  Coordinator distributed copies of the guidelines at every meeting, conference or workshop he/she attended, just after the curriculum was published.  Information about the publication of the guidelines was  highlighted in post secondary newsletters, informational catalogues.  bulletins and  The Guidelines were stocked and available for sale through the  Publication Services Branch, and for perusal at the Ministry Resource Center.  Lastly, the Ministry sponsored two introductory workshops.  These  workshops, conducted by the curriculum developer and one of the pilot teachers were designed to orient people to the Guidelines and to discuss methods of using the curriculum in various classroom situations. In short, the distribution and promotion of the guidelines was a much less sensitive issue.  Outside of the advisory committee promoting the  guidelines by, "word of mouth", the Ministry took the bulk of the responsibility for the distribution and promotion process.  Actual Demand  Although i t is important to develop a program according to the perceived needs of the target population, i t is equally important to  116  determine whether the curriculum prepared by the curriculum planners actually responds to the demands of the potential students.  If the program  does not meet the learner's needs, students will either not enroll in the program or will drop out prematurely.  Factors pertaining to the actual  demand of a curriculum are largely concerned with the number of students enrolling in a program using the curriculum and the degree to which teachers or institutions request and use the Curriculum Guidelines in the classroom situation.  Both these factors focus on program implementation as  opposed to program development. When the study began, the Curriculum Guidelines had just been distributed throughout the province and the second introductory workshop had been completed.  It would be d i f f i c u l t ,  i f not impossible, to determine  the acceptance of the curriculum based on student enrollment or even teacher acceptance. However, statements made by the interviewees and certain documents collected suggest that the curriculum has been well received by both secondary and post-secondary teachers and that several institutions within the province have made plans to implement the program within the year.  For  example, the Native Education Centre planned to use the Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines in their 1985/86 agenda.  One of the  instructors at the Center f e l t encouraged by the program as this teacher had managed to develop a theme unit on nutrition.  The Corrections Services  of Canada put out tenders for the delivery of literacy programs within four or five correctional f a c i l i t i e s with very large Native populations. corrections services indicated in their tenders that they were only "interested in programs based on the Native Literacy and Life Skills  The  117  Curriculum Guidelines (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, May 1985).  Several members on the curriculum advisory and writing  committees remarked that they, as well as their associates, were using the guidelines in their work with Native adults.  One of the writers commented  that:  One of my student teachers finished with the SFU program and returned to his Reserve, as he was given a job to do adult basic ed., and so he knew that I worked at this.  I said "do  you folks have this Curriculum Guidelines book?", and he said, "No"....I had an extra copy, so I gave i t to him. utilizing i t now.  It makes sense to him.  He is  (Curriculum writer,  personal communication, June, 1985)  The curriculum is also being used in Ontario.  A letter was sent to  the Ministry ABE Coordinator indicating that a downtown Toronto literacy project was using the program for non-Native students.  The program  director commented that i t was the "best material he has seen on literacy" (Ministry ABE Coordinator, personal communication, A p r i l , 1985). In short, while the curriculum had only been available in the field for six months, there were signs indicating that implementation has already begun.  It would be interesting to conduct an implementation study on the  program sometime within the next year, to determine the institutions using the curriculum, the method in which the curriculum is being used and the rate of student enrollment.  118  Actual Curriculum  Taba (1962) writes:  A curriculum usually contains a statement of aims and of specific objectives; i t indicates some selection and organization of content; i t either implies or manifests certain patterns of learning and teaching whether because the objectives demand them or because the content organization requires them.  Finally, i t includes a program of evaluation of  the outcomes, (p. 425)  By analysing the curriculum document in terms of its documented aims, objectives, subject matter, organization, methods and evalution, one can assess the degree to which curriculum planning affected the design and content of the curriculum document and also determine how well these six factors bond together to form a unified and coherent whole that supports the curriculum philosophy. Although the content of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guide!ines was decided by the curriculum advisory committee, the organization and structure of the content within the guidelines was the responsibility of the curriculum developer in conjunction with the writing team.  The developer decided to organize the curriculum into theme units.  Each theme unit began with an introductory section "of background and s k i l l s objectives for each of the four specific areas that had to be addressed: literacy, l i f e s k i l l s , computation and culture" (Curriculum  119  developer, personal communication, May, 1985). areas, 12 theme units were developed.  Based on these four major  The developer decided to integrate  literacy, l i f e s k i l l s , computation and culture into each of the 12 developed units.  Each unit was designed to contain several short  paragraphs discussing the historical background of the theme; key words discussed or incorporated within the unit; a l i s t of questions for oral discussion; theme and skill objectives that relate back to the introductory section; learning activities related to the theme; modifications for varied skill levels; and a l i s t of resources.  In addition to these 12 developed  theme units, the Guidelines provide a l i s t of 71 theme unit topics that can be developed, based on the structure discussed above. This theme unit approach was selected because i t supported the program's philosophy and was flexible enough to meet the needs of the adult educator.  Although these theme units provide a structure for the teacher,  i t is in no way prescriptive.  The teacher is free to choose or develop the  theme that best f i t s the classroom situation.  As the developer explained:  I had already been exposed to the idea of theme units.  What I  wanted to do was to show people some different ways of approaching the issue of literacy instruction, of l i f e s k i l l s instruction and then encourage them, which seems to be totally consistent with Freire's model and what my personal philosophy i s , to encourage them to individualize, to accommodate the particular needs of their individual students in their particular community.  (Curriculum developer, personal  communication, May, 1985)  120  It was the responsibility of the writing team to select and develop at least one of the introductory units and three of the theme units.  The  curriculum developer provided the writers with the theme unit structure and some resources to assist them in their writing.  Despite the developer's  efforts to organize and structure the units, two of the writers f e l t that their task was d i f f i c u l t due to a lack of time and a lack of knowledge. One writer f e l t that given more time, the units could have been developed more f u l l y .  As i t was, this writer had to combine his/her writing tasks  with the responsibilties of a regular job, making it impossible to develop the units as fully as this writer might have liked (Curriculum writer, personal communication, June, 1985). Another writer explained that before beginning to develop the units, he/she needed to read and learn about the principles of adult education. As this writer explained:  I had gone through that f i r s t stage of reading about how the world perceives adult education.  How to do it in different  parts of the world, I didn't realize how expansive i t can be and how other people had really accomplished what we were going through.  (Curriculum writer, personal communication, June,  1985)  Despite these two writers' problems, the curriculum guidelines were completed and submitted to the publisher on schedule, and people involved in the project have commented favourably on the curriculum guidelines' content, objectives and structure.  However, there have been a few negative  121  comments made regarding student evaluation.  Both pilot teachers remarked,  that there was very l i t t l e mention of appraisal methods in the Guidelines. Although the curriculum provides objectives, i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine how well these objectives are being achieved (Pilot teacher, personal communication, June, 1985). The Guidelines recommend evaluating students' progress by discussing their work with them on a regular basis, by suggesting methods of improvement where necessary, and by engaging students in classroom activities or projects where the students' progress can be measured through participation.  It also cautions against using evaluation to single out or  isolate the student from the rest of the class.  Although standardized  tests are listed in the reference section of the Guidelines, their use is not advocated in the Guidelines.  According to the curriculum developer,  the use of written or oral tests would clearly run counter to the curriculum philosophy which advocates the belief that teachers and students are equals in the educational process. (Curriculum developer, personal communication, May, 1985)  Evaluation  It  is important that one takes into consideration the formative and  summative evaluations of the actual curriculum planning process and the documents that are generated from this planning process, in order to determine the acceptance of the curriculum document in the f i e l d , and the attitudes of the people involved in the curriculum project.  Results from  an evaluation study would determine whether the curriculum document needs  122  to be altered to meet the needs of the people utilizing i t .  The opinions  of people involved with the project should be assessed in order to determine the factors that either hindered or promoted the curriculum development process.  Results from an evaluation study would be helpful in  guiding future curriculum development projects. According to the Ministry ABE Coordinator, plans for a formative evaluation of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines were made in the early stages of the development process.  One of the  purposes of employing an advisory committee was to have a feedback mechanism whereby the Guidelines could be altered and adjusted on a continual basis.  In essence, the advisory committee not only provided  input to the curriculum, but they also reviewed and evaluated the Guidelines as they were being formulated.  As the Ministry ABE Coordinator  explained:  We had all sorts of checks in terms of formative evaluation during the development process.  The whole thing was  essentially a formative evaluation.  The advisory committee  was, in fact, the primary tool for formative evaluation refining and extracting stuff.  (Ministry ABE Coordinator,  personal communication, May, 1985)  The program pilot was also designed as a part of the formative evaluation process.  The pilot was supposed to provide feedback as to how  the curriculum operated in both an urban and rural environment, and to provide some indication as to how well or poorly the theme units worked  123  within an actual classroom situation.  As discussed previously, the rural  pilot never took place due to organizational d i f f i c u l t i e s , so the pilot provided feedback on how the curriculum functioned in an urban and a semi-rural location.  The teachers were asked to keep notes or journals  during the p i l o t , and to write a report at the end of the pilot, recording both their own and their students' feelings about the program. teachers were quite positive about their experiences.  Both  They had each  experimented with three to four of the theme units outlined in the guidelines.  According to both pilot teachers, units which allowed students  to discuss either their experiences with the white community or with their own communities were much more successful than the theme units requiring students to explore their values or communication s k i l l s personal communication, May, 1985).  (Pilot teachers,  In fact, both teachers reported that  the communication theme unit generally did not go as well as the rest of the units due to the lesson a c t i v i t i e s .  Students either misunderstood the  intent of the exercise or f e l t that the lesson activities were inappropriate.  As the urban pilot teacher reported:  The communications [theme unit] didn't go as well with me.  I  think that there were assumptions about communications made that didn't f i t this group of people.  I had preconceived  notions about the end point of these exercises because they seemed pretty straightforward to me, I thought they were really going to be fun, and they were really d i f f i c u l t for my students, and I think because i t was almost like a test where they had to perform well which inhibited them.  (Urban pilot  124  teacher, personal communication, June, 1985)  Both teachers had the students complete a class project which involved organizing and publishing a newsletter or booklet of personal stories or folk legends, an activity which both classes reportedly enjoyed.  As well,  the pilot teachers commented that they had tried to incorporate community activities into the lessons as much as possible, inviting guest speakers into the classroom and conducting field trips to local Reserves or Native agencies. Finally, both teachers reported that the students had indicated either orally or on an evaluation form that they enjoyed the pilot and had benefited from i t .  Interestingly, when three of the students involved in  the urban pilot were interviewed, they did not seem to recall the program. They remembered the fact that they were involved in the pilot and that they had enjoyed the experience.  They also remembered that the curriculum had  been designed for Native adults. projects they participated i n .  They could not remember the lessons or One student made the following comment when  asked about the pilot program:  I don't remember there was so many different things we were working on. There is so many different activities i t ' s hard to remember.  Every day we were doing something different.  (Student, personal communication, June, 1985).  125  Although it is d i f f i c u l t to determine exactly why these students remembered so l i t t l e specific detail about the pilot program, one could provide several explanations for this phenomenon.  One explanation could be  that i t was almost a year after the pilot that students were interviewed. The time period might have been too great for the students to recall the program.  Another explanation could be that the students had been involved  in a literacy program in the same school with the same teacher prior to the commencement of the p i l o t .  There had been no changes made to the  environment, just to the curriculum.  It may have been d i f f i c u l t for these  students to distinguish the differences between the two programs. Nevertheless, both these reasons point to the conclusion that the program clearly did not have a significant impact on the three students.  It  is  worth noting that only three out of 22 students involved in the curriculum pilot could be interviewed. Although the pilot was designed to be a formative evaluation of the program, it really became a summative evaluation as the reports written by the teachers were never used to change or alter the curriculum.  In fact,  the curriculum guide went to the publisher a month after the pilot was completed.  As the curriculum developer explained:  Theoretically, the pilot was to provide me with information as to how well the program actually worked in practice so that I could modify the guidelines appropriately.  But the reality was  that by the time the pilots were completed and the reports came in, it was too late really to change the basic structure of the  126  Guidelines anyway.  (Curriculum developer, personal communication,  May, 1985)  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated that there were no formal plans to provide a summative evaluation of the curriculum.  The CEIC planned to  conduct a study of the number of people who completed the program in order to determine the employability of these individuals. Coordinator, personal communication, May, 1985).  (Ministry ABE  As well, the Ministry of  Education—Continuing Education department, planned to conduct an informal summative evaluation of the program based on the number of books sold or distributed, and the actual demand for the program from agencies such as the Correctional Services of Canada. In terms of the evaluation of the curriculum development process i t s e l f , there have been no formative or summative studies conducted to date.  However, based on comments made by the curriculum committee members,  some form of evaluation should have been conducted.  Seven project members  remarked that there was poor feedback on the project once the pilot began (Curriculum project members, personal communication, May, 1985).  As one  member put i t :  I guess the one thing that I feel is that i t kind of came to an abrupt end for me. happen.  That the closure whatever really didn't  Some of the questions I was kind of floundering about  like the evaluation stuff.  I am not really sure what the  distribution was; how many people are using i t ; has there been  127  any feedback; so the follow up after the guide was published and after the pilot projects, I have not really heard much about. (Curriculum project member, personal communication, May, 1985)  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated that all members received a copy of the final draft of the curriculum with a letter thanking them for their participation.  In short, despite the fact that the Ministry made an  attempt to acknowledge the curriculum project members' participation on the project, many of the members f e l t that plans should have been made to keep them current on the progress of the Curriculum once they were no longer directly involved with the project.  Summary  Jarvis' ten factor "Curriculum Planning Model for the Education of Adults" was used to analyse interview and document data.  One of the most •  important factors of the curriculum development process is the philosophy. The curriculum project members needed a clear understanding of the curriculum philosophy in order to develop, write, teach and publish the curriculum document. The stated philosophy of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines is based on the writings of Paulo Freire.  Although  Freire's philosophy advocates the importance of education for change both in the classroom and in the wider society, the Guidelines discuss only the f i r s t level or part of,the- philosophy, education for change in the classroom.  The second part or level of the philosophy, education for  128  change in society, was left implicit.  Most people involved in the project  were in favour of using this curriculum philosophy because of its stance toward the adult learner.  The few people that did c r i t i c i z e the philosophy  were not so vehemently opposed to i t that they could not participate in the curriculum project. The only significant problem reported in regards to the philosophy concerned the removal of political terminology in the Guidelines.  This  editing caused bitter feelings among some of the curriculum project members.  However, due to the fact that CEIC was sponsoring the Guidelines,  and the Ministry of Education was publishing i t ,  the Ministry ABE  Coordinator had l i t t l e choice but to remove terminology which might have affected either government agency and thus might have jeopardized the acceptance and implementation of the Guidelines. In terms of curriculum content, or sociological factors, several points should be stressed.  F i r s t , in this particular project, curriculum  content was selected by the program developer in consultation with the curriculum coordinator and an advisory committee.  The curriculum content  had to reflect the interests and requirements of the BCNEAC, CEIC and the Ministry of Education.  Second, in order to meet the needs of these three  interest groups, the curriculum developer, with the approval of the advisory committee, decided to organize the Guidelines into 12 theme units. The theme units incorporated the four major components outlined in the BCNEAC task force proposal: literacy, job readiness, l i f e skills and cuiture. Third, although the curriculum content was specified by BCNEAC, CEIC and the Ministry prior to the publication of the Native Literacy and Life  129  S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines, all content selections in the Guidelines were designed to be flexible.  Teachers were encouraged to select and develop  theme units to meet the needs and/or interests of their class. As one might expect, because three different agencies were involved in the development of the Curriculum Guidelines, the policies of these agencies would have an impact on the development process.  In fact, the  policies of the CEIC, BCNEAC and the Ministry of Education-Post Secondary : department played an important role in the development of the Guidelines. According to CEIC policy, the curriculum had to be employment oriented.  Both the target population and the content of the program were  specified in a task force proposal.  The BCNEAC was responsible for  ensuring that the Guidelines be directed toward the Native population with skill levels below the grade 7 level.  According to provincial policy, the  program had to be oriented toward the adult learner.  It had to be written  in a loose, yet non-prescriptive manner, and, i t had to be funded by the federal government.  Although both CEIC and the Ministry of Education were  c r i t i c i z e d , project members generally f e l t that the policies of the two governments did not hinder the development and publication of the Curriculum Guidelines. The BCNEAC was not only involved in policy decisions, but i t was also involved with defining the requirement for the Native literacy program. Canada Employment and Immigration responded to this need by sponsoring the development of the curriculum guide.  In order for the guide to be  effective and fully u t i l i z e d , i t not only had to meet the needs of the Native adult, but also the teachers of these Native students. Incorporated within the Guidelines is a chapter summarizing research  130  on "Native learning styles", "effective teaching strategies for Natives" "principles of a good cross cultural curriculum" and "Native learning styles and teaching methods".  This chapter was devoted to discussing  psychological factors as they pertained to the Native adult learner.  The  chapter has been favourably reviewed; however, one person commented that the Guidelines were seriously flawed by their failure to recognize learning disabilities.  This criticism puzzled the curriculum developer who felt  that i f he/she erred, i t was in the direction of devoting too much attention to psychological factors as opposed to too l i t t l e . In terms of resources, the funding for the curriculum was provided by both the federal and provincial governments with the federal government paying the much larger portion of the costs.  By financing the curriculum,  both agencies had input into the content and publication of the Guidelines. With respect to accommodation and human resources, the Guidelines include a chart outlining the factors involved in implementing the curriculum in a rural  (on Reserve) and an urban environment.  The Guidelines also include  an annotated bibliography, 1isting; references and resource materials useful in the cl assroom. Although the subject of accommodation and human resources was not discussed extensively during the development of the Guidelines, they became important factors during the program pilot in that the curriculum committee found themselves without a location and teacher just days before the pilot was ready to commence. Another important and c r i t i c a l aspect of this curriculum development project concerned program advertising, or more specifically, publication. It was not until the submission of the Guidelines for publication that  131  problems between the curriculum designer and the Ministry developed. There were a number of disagreements between the curriculum developer and the Ministry ABE Coordinator regarding the program's t i t l e , content and style, suggesting that perhaps more discussion and communication should have taken place during the early stages of the curriculum development process or certainly before the curriculum went to publication.  The  distribution and promotion of the Guidelines was a much less sensitive issue.  Outside of the advisory committee promoting the Guidelines by 'word  of mouth', the Ministry ABE Coordinator took the bulk of the responsibility for the distribution and promotion process. Although i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine how people would use the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines, as the document had only been in circulation for six months, some general comments should be made about the format of the curriculum and people's view of i t .  The developer,  with the assistance of the writers, was responsible for organizing and developing the curriculum guide, based on the prerequisite content.  The  curriculum developer structured the Guidelines using the theme unit approach.  Each theme unit consisted of background information to the  theme, key words, questions for oral discussion, theme and s k i l l s objectives, learning a c t i v i t i e s , modifications for levels and resources. The theme unit approach seemed to be an ideal method of organizing the required content, a method that people responding to the Guidelines praised and appreciated.  The organization of the theme and s k i l l s objectives as  well as the discussion on teaching methodologies were comprehensive and helpful.  However, both pilot teachers commented that concrete and tangible  methods of evaluating students should have been included in the Guidelines.  132  Finally, a comment should be made about the overall evaluation of the curriculum and the project.  The formative evaluation of the Curriculum  Guidelines was definitely considered in the early stages of the curriculum planning process.  Both the advisory committee and the program pilot were  to provide feedback on the program so changes or alterations to the guidelines could be made.  However, the pilot served more as a summative  than a formative evaluation, as the feedback did not alter or affect the Guidelines in any manner.  The CEIC Training Consultant and the Ministry  ABE Coordinator both planned to conduct summative evaluations of the program.  However, these evaluations would not be designed to evaluate the  program's content, but to determine either the number of people going through the program or the number of programs sold.  Evaluation of the  actual curriculum development process had not yet been conducted and there was no immediate plans to do so. In discussing the project with the curriculum members, the only consistent complaint or concern people expressed about the overall  project  was that there was not enough feedback on the progress of the project once the Guidelines were being piloted and published.  However, despite this  feedback problem, one could conclude that the project was a success.  The  Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines was developed within the time frame expected.  Both curriculum pilots were reportedly a success.  The published document has been described by a number of people as comprehensive and attractive, involvement on the project.  and the committee members were proud of their  133  Chapter Six  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Conclusions can be drawn regarding the outcomes of the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project, the curriculum development process and the data collection process.  These  conclusions have direct policy implications for Native adult education and will lead to further research in curriculum planning and design in general and Native programming in particular.  Outcomes of the Curriculum Development Project  Positive outcomes of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum project are comparatively greater than the negative outcomes.  F i r s t , and  most importantly, the BCNEAC perceived a need for a literacy and l i f e s k i l l s program to address the needs of Native adults with less than grade 7 education, and the CEIC, in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, was able to meet this need by providing funding and support for the development and publication of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  This curriculum is one of the f i r s t adult programs published  in British Columbia and one of the few curricula available to date in Canada that specifically address the educational needs of the Native adult population. The research and resource sections of the Guidelines have drawn a number of favourable comments from administrators and educators who have  134  been impressed by the developer's ability to summarize the research data and to collect resource material geared directly for Native adults.  These  educators and administrators frequently remarked that they were not aware that so many differences existed between Native and non-Native learners, and that recognizing these differences would be a definite asset to the teacher of Native adults.  Through this curriculum project, administrators  and educators became aware of the differences between Native and non-Native programming.  This may help in 'paving the way' to further research and/or  curriculum development for the Native adults. A second positive outcome of the project was that according to reports made by the pilot teachers, students appeared to have enjoyed being involved in the curriculum p i l o t , and seemed to have benefited both on a personal and an educational level from the experience.  Both teachers  stated that students enjoyed the theme units, especially those units that allowed them to discuss Native heritage.  As standardized tests were not  administered either before or after the pilot study, the pilot teachers could not statistically prove that there had been an improvement in the students' literacy levels.  Both teachers claimed that the six week pilot  was too short to allow the students to move up a grade level in terms of their literacy s k i l l s .  However, both teachers remarked that class projects  indicated that there was improvement in the students' confidence and the students' ability to express themselves orally as well as in written form. The three students interviewed, one year after the pilot study, recalled that i t was a positive experience.  One can thus assume that at least from  a personal level the pilot was a success. A third positive outcome of this curriculum project was that the  135  Provincial and Federal government representatives cooperated in producing a document that addressed the needs of the targeted Native population, while complying with the policies and standards of both governments.  More  specifically, the policy of the CEIC, states that i t will only support programs that lead directly to employment or at the very least, employment preparation.  Hence, any program sponsored by CEIC must include a job  s k i l l s component. not be mandated.  Ministry of Education policy states that curricula can It is the responsibility of the colleges to decide the  content and standards of the programs offered.  The CEIC Manager of  Employment and Training and the CEIC Training Consultant could have insisted that the program content was mandatory, before accepting sponsorship of the project.  The Ministry's Post-Secondary Director of  Education and ABE Coordinator could have stated that they would only become involved i f the content of the Guidelines was not specified.  Instead,  CEIC, in conjunction with BCNEAC, provided the Ministry of Education with a proposal outlining the curriculum content required and then allowed the Ministry of Education representatives to administer the development of the Guidelines as they saw f i t . The Ministry, in turn, complied with CEIC's content requirements. However they did so within a format and structure that allowed the colleges and/or instructors to select the content and standards that met the needs of the institution and/or classroom situation. cooperation and f l e x i b i l i t y  Hence, through the  of both levels of government, the curriculum  Guidelines was produced so that it resembled other curriculum documents published by the Ministry, met the content requirements of CEIC and addressed the needs of the Native population.  136  A fourth positive outcome of the curriculum project was that members were proud of their participation and efforts in the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  For instance, the  majority of members commented favourably on the philosophy, structure and overall appearance of the document.  They f e l t that the language experience  approach would be ideal for the adult learner because i t respected and valued the adult's l i f e experiences, and it did not place the teacher in a hierarchical position over the student. The theme unit approach was also supported and praised by project members due to this f l e x i b i l i t y .  The curriculum not only provided 12  developed theme units and 71 theme unit suggestions, but i t also provides a structure which allows for the creation of new theme units.  In terms of  the overall appearance of the Guidelines, three members commented proudly on the packaging of the document, feeling that its shiny appearance would enhance its acceptance and its perceived legitimacy in the f i e l d . Finally, the fifth positive outcome of the project was that i t was completed on time and within budget.  The curriculum developer's  organizational abilities facilitated the development process.  The  developer was able to articulate the program philosophy and structure the Guidelines and theme units in a clear and comprehensible manner.  If one  considers that 14 people were involved in the project, i t is quite remarkable that there were few misunderstandings and disagreements.  The  conflicts that did arise had l i t t l e to no affect on the progress of the program's development.  In fact, as the developer and Ministry ABE  Coordinator reported, most problems were solved through discussion and compromise.  The smooth and speedy progress of the program's development  137  probably allowed the project to be completed within budget, for as the BCNEAC member commented, "the longer a project runs, the more money it costs" (BCNEAC representative,  personal communication, May, 1985).  Thus far, the discussion has focused on the positive outcomes of the project with l i t t l e to no discussion on the conflicts or issues that arose during the development of the curriculum.  The only significant  difficulty  encountered during the development of the curriculum concerned problems in the communication network among the project members.  For instance, the  developer was not informed of the intentions for the Guidelines in the early stages of program development which led to the problems during the publication process.  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated that the decision  to refer to the document as a resource book was made after the f i r s t meeting between the Ministry and the CEIC and prior to the hiring of the developer.  This decision to refer to the Guidelines as a resource book was  not communicated to the developer until  the document went to the publisher.  As a result, the developer resented the Ministry ABE Coordinator's attempts to diminish the value of the curriculum document. Another example of problems in the communication network occurred between the project manager and the advisory committee members.  The  project manager did not provide feedback to the advisory committee members on the progress of the pilots or the publication of the Guidelines.  The  advisory committee members met for the last time in the spring of 1984.  In  the fall of that same year, they received a copy of the Curriculum Guidelines with a letter thanking them for their participation.  There was  no communication between the project manager and the advisory committee members during the intervening time.  Three advisory committee members  138  reported feeling a sense of incompletion about the project. A third problem in the communication network occured between the advisory committee and the rural Native community.  The advisory committee  planned, during their f i r s t meeting in January, 1984, to conduct an urban and a rural pilot of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  Although the urban pilot was organized soon after this f i r s t  meeting, attempts to organize the rural pilot did not begin until March of that same year.  The two curriculum members responsible for organizing the  pilots assumed that the pilot study would not be d i f f i c u l t to organize, and therefore did not attempt to contact any Native community before the Curriculum Guidelines were near completion.  They were not aware that rural  Native adults would not be willing to go to school during the spring and summer months.  As a result, the project manager spent two frustrating  weeks trying to find students to participate in the rural pilot, and in the end decided that, due to time restrictions, the second pilot would be conducted with six students in a semi-rural location. In short, although there were some problems that occurred during the curriculum development project as a result of a problem in communications, these problems did not impede the successful completion of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  It is clear that members  were pleased to be involved with the project and felt they had produced a quality document.  Curriculum Development Process  As Jarvis (1983) claimed, the curriculum development process can be  139  divided into two phases: a planning phase and a teaching and learning phase.  The planning phase involves articulating the curriculum philosophy,  determining the curriculum content, interpreting and implementing social policy, perceiving the needs and demands of the target population, outlining the psychological factors that might either hinder or facilitate learning, coordinating financial, physical and staff reesources, organizing the publication and distribution of the curriculum document, assessing the actual demand of the curriculum document and evaluating both the curriculum document and the curriculum development process. The teaching and learning phase involves designing the actual curriculum document.  Four factors are considered: setting the aims and  objectives of each unit within the document, selecting the subject matter to be included in each section of the curriculum, providing teaching methodologies and suggestions for organizing the teaching situation and recommending tools for assessing student progress. It  is important to recognize that there is an affinity between the  planning phase of the program and the teaching and learning phase and that there may be many factors in the latter contained in the former phase.  The  teaching and learning phase of the program is contingent upon factors contained in the planning of the program and the planning of the program is reflected in the teaching and learning phase. For instance, the articulation of the program philosophy will determine the types of aims and objectives.  In the case of the Native  Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines, the philosophy advocated an exploratory approach to education, where teacher and students study and learn from the world around them.  The teacher and student discuss certain  140  problems in society and work together in discovering a solution for the problem. education.  The aims and objectives reflect this problem solving approach to The objective outlines a problem that needs to be solved or a  s k i l l that needs to be developed.  Once the students, together with the  teacher, have provided recommendations or solutions to the problem, the objective is attained. The curriculum planning process will also determine the subject matter outlined in the curriculum document.  The content requirements specified by  the sponsoring agency are generally reflected in the document.  For  example, the CEIC Training Consultant outlined the content requirements of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Guidelines.  The curriculum developer  organized the Curriculum Guidelines so that the subject matter of each of the theme units reflected one or more of the content requirements. It is important to note that certain elements of the curriculum planning process are more crucial than other factors.  The three elements  most crucial to this project were social policy, philosophy and evaluation, in that order.  Factors related to social policy have a direct impact on  philosophical and sociological factors.  More specifically, the policy of  the sponsoring agency will have an impact on the curriculum philosophy and on the content of the curriculum document.  This fact was evident in the  Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project.  Here the  policies of CEIC largely determined what content had to be included within the Guidelines, and the Ministry policy determined how the philosophy was to be stated and how the guidelines were to be published. Social policy factors also determine how the financial resources will be accommodated.  In order for the curriculum to receive sponsorship, an  141  agency such as CEIC or the Ministry of Education must provide financial support.  The policy of the sponsoring agency will determine the amount of  funding available and how this funding will be allocated.  For instance,  CEIC policy allowed for the funding of the curriculum development and the curriculum pilot.  CEIC also sponsored Native students who wished to  complete a program using these Curriculum Guidelines as its base. The articulation of the curriculum philosophy is also important to the curriculum development process.  As stated earlier, the philosophy of the  program determines the types of aims and objectives that would be included in the curriculum document.  More importantly,  though the philosophy of the  program provides a focal point around which one can plan and design the curriculum document, the curriculum philosophy is an expression of the curriculum committee's attitudes toward education, toward the role of education within society, and toward the responsibilities and the roles of student and teacher in the educational process.  Three advisory committee  members remarked that before the Guidelines could be developed, the curriculum committee had to decide what the philosophy would be.  The  organization and structure of the curriculum document were also dependent upon this decision. Evaluation takes into consideration all aspects of curriculum planning and design.  Evaluation allows one to examine the curriculum development  process to determine whether the needs of all people involved with the process were met.  It also allows examination of the curriculum document to  determine i f the document meets the needs of the target population.  This  examination should reveal areas where the process and/or the document were successful and areas for improvement.  The Native Literacy and Life Skills  142  Curriculum Guidelines was evaluated through a pilot study.  This pilot  study revealed that students, according t the pilot teachers, preferred units that allowed them to explore their Native heritage, and disliked theme units that emphasized competition.  However, the curriculum  development process was not evaluated and thus the problems with the communications network were only revealed through this present study. The analysis of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project also revealed that the curriculum development process involves the assistance of an advisory committee, curriculum writers, teachers and students, and a publisher.  pilot  Each person or group of people had  a role to perform within the curriculum development process.  For instance,  the advisory committee members were responsible for planning the Curriculum Guidelines.  This included articulating the program's philosophy, outlining  the curriculum structure and content, coordinating the curriculum pilot and organizing the publication and distribution of the curriculum document. The role of the curriculum writers was to develop the theme units according to a structure outlined by the advisory committee.  The pilot teachers and  students were responsible for evaluating the curriculum document, and the publisher was responsible for ensuring that the Guidelines were edited and published. Within the advisory committee, there were five members who had specific roles to perform.  The curriculum developer was responsible for  outlining for the advisory committee the program philosophy structure.  The  role of the CEIC Training Consultant was to interpret CEIC policy and to prepare a curriculum proposal.  The role of the Ministry ABE Coordinator  was to administer the curriculum project and to ensure that the document  143  produced met the needs of the sponsoring agency.  The BCNEAC  representative's role was to ensure that the curriculum met the needs of the target population.  The role of the project manager was to provide  direction to the curriculum developer and to organize the project finances. Another requirement revealed by the analysis of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines concerns the need for negotiation and compromise as there were several areas where curriculum project members disagreed.  For instance, six of the eight member advisory committee agreed  that the curriculum should advocate a language experience approach. Two members f e l t that the approach was too radical.  The language experience  approach was adopted because the majority of people agreed to use i t , and those people who disagreed with the philosophy were not vehemently against using the approach.  There was also disagreement between the curriculum  developer and the Ministry ABE Coordinator regarding the t i t l e of the curriculum document.  This disagreement was resolved by incorporating both  the term guide and resource book in the t i t l e . There was also disagreement between the curriculum developer and the urban pilot teacher regarding the focus of the Curriculum Guidelines. According to the urban pilot teacher, the Guidelines were missing two important sections: a section on the learning disabled and a section on student appraisal methods.  This teacher f e l t that the developer simply  "ducked" the issue of learning disabilities and learning assessment because these were sensitive topics. viewpoint.  The developer disagreed with this teacher's  According to the developer, these topics were not avoided.  Learning disabilities were not mentioned in the Guidelines because the  144  curriculum takes the position that all students have something to offer in the educational process. on their d i s a b i l i t i e s .  One should focus on the students' a b i l i t i e s , not In terms of learning assessment, the curriculum  developer believed the subject had been addressed in the Guidelines, and although the curriculum does not advocate the use of standardized tests, does provide means of assessing the student's performance.  The rural  it  pilot  teacher also commented that the Guidelines failed to provide standardized tools for assessing student performance.  However, this teacher f e l t that  the evaluation methods recommended in the Guidelines were compatible with the philosophy of the Guidelines.  In short, curriculum development  involves more than simply listing a set of goal and objectives.  Curriculum  development is a social process requiring negotiation and compromise among various different people and various different interested groups.  Data Collection and Analysis Process  An explanation of data collection and data analysis revealed the following information:  F i r s t , each interviewee or curriculum project  member appeared to have different interests or concerns regarding the curriculum project.  These interests appeared to focus mostly on areas that  specifically related to the role the member played in the curriculum development process.  Documents supplied by the member further corroborated  the information provided by the interviewee.  The curriculum developer  discussed at great lengths the curriculum philosophy, the structure of the Curriculum Guidelines, and the role of the Native adult student and the sponsoring agencies in the curriculum project.  Documents provided by the  145  curriculum developer included a draft and a published copy of the Curriculum Guidelines, as well as an outline and structure of the theme units.  Documents provided substantiated and enhanced the developer's  discussion. The policies of the two sponsoring agencies were discussed in detail by the Ministry ABE Coordinator.  This discussion focused on the different  roles these two agencies played in the development of the Guidelines.  The  Ministry ABE Coordinator also provided a chronological account of the sequence of events that occurred in the curriculum development project. Documents supplied by the Ministry ABE Coordinator included a "Ministerial Policy on the Provision of Adult Basic Education Programs Including English Language Training in the Public Education System in British Columbia", the minutes of meetings (held on November 16, 1983 and on January 20, 1984) and the correspondence between the Ministry of Education and the different project members.  This correspondence provided exact dates of and further  outlined the project events.  The policy statement corroborated the  Ministry ABE Coordinator's comments regarding these policies. The BCNEAC representative provided an in depth discussion regarding the role of BCNEAC, CEIC and the Ministry of Education in the project. BCNEAC member also spent time discussing the urban curriculum pilot. documentation was provided.  The No  The project manager's discussion focused on  the problems organizing the rural pilot and the reasons for the selection of the advisory committee members.  Correspondence between the CEIC and the  project manager were the only documents received from this  interviewee.  This documentation had already been obtained through the Ministry ABE Coordinator and therefore provided no new data.  146  The CEIC Training Consultant primarily discussed CEIC policy and the provision of financial resources.  Documentation provded by this  interviewee included CEIC policy and correspondence between the CEIC training consultant and project members.  The policy statement  further  clarified the Commission's stance on basic training for skills development and job readiness training.  The correspondence was a duplication of the  documentation provided by the Ministry ABE Coordinator. An ABE instructor from a B.C. college, one of the advisory committee members, provided an in depth discussion regarding the program philosophy and the content of the Curriculum Guidelines.  This advisory committee  member provided a programmer's manual for Native adults that had been developed by four of the eight member advisory committee a year prior to the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  This advisory committee member f e l t that the programmer's  manual could have been instrumental development of the Guidelines.  to the rapid and relatively smooth  Indeed, the manual showed some  similiarities to the Guidelines.  The theme unit approach was the focal  point of discussion for another committee member, a principal of a secondary school. In terms of the writers, one discussed the self perceived needs of the Native adult in details, and the other writer gave an in depth discussion on adult literacy.  Neither of the two writers provided any documentation.  The urban pilot teacher discussed the content and structure of the Curriculum Guidelines whereas the rural pilot teacher discussed the philosophy of the Guidelines.  Students' projects and teachers' reports  were provided by these two interviewees.  The reports gave a detailed  147  description of the pilot studies.  Students' projects provided an  illustration of the students' writing a b i l i t i e s at the completion of the pilot studies.  The three pilot students discussed the urban program p i l o t ,  emphazing how much they enjoyed the opportunity to have been involved in a program that recognized their interests.  No documents were supplied by the  students. Finally, the publisher discussed factors pertaining to the editing and publication of the curriculum document.  The query sheets provided by the  publisher outlined the mechanical changes made to the published curriculum, and thereby substantiated the publisher's comments.  All interviewees  willingly discussed the project and seemed interested in learning how other members perceived i t . One major difficulty encountered in the data collection process was the unavailability of project members, particularly the 19 former students. A lack of student input from the rural pilot limits the evaluation of this pilot to the teacher's perceptions only.  The limited student input  regarding the urban pilot biases the evaluation as well.  Although the  teachers and the few students available considered the pilots a success, additional data from the students' perspective might have further corroborated or mitigated this evaluation.  In terms of the curriculum  advisory committee member and the writer unavailable for the interview, their lack of input was also regrettable as they may have provided new information or corroborated information provided by other members. The absence of these two project members was not as crucial a problem in the data collection process as the absence of the students, since the views of 12 of the 14 members involved in the project were represented, whereas  148  only the views of three of the 22 students were recorded. Another difficulty encountered in the data collection process was that participants were reluctant to reveal their personal feelings regarding the curriculum development project.  Project members wanted to preserve an  attitude of professionalism toward their involvement in the project and thereby either hesitated to discuss personal feelings or would ask that personal comments not be recorded or included in the analysis of the data.  The Curriculum Model  Jarvis (1983) claimed that his curriculum model for the Education of Adults "contained a framework within which i t is possible to analyse the education of adults both in the United Kingdom and elsewhere" (p.  223).  Although the purpose of this study was not to prove Jarvis' claim, and certainly one study could never prove such a claim, there are indications that Jarvis' model does work in a Canadian context. As the research by Eisner (1979), Goodlad (1979), Houle (1972) and Jarvis (1982) indicated, curriculum development is a complex undertaking. It would have been d i f f i c u l t ,  i f not impossible, to gather all the data for  this research without a structured model to guide questions and to analyse data.  Jarvis' model served well for collecting and analysing data on the  development of the Curriculum Guidelines.  First i t allowed for the  generation of a plethora of specifically guided questions which were compatible with the curriculum being studied.  The model includes many of  the factors important to an adult education program.  It takes into  consideration the determination of need, the administration of finances and  149  f a c i l i t i e s and the role of social policy in the curriculum development process.  The model is comprehensive considering both external and internal  factors of the curriculum development process.  As the analysis of the  Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project indicated, external  factors such as curriculum policy and sociological constraints  played an important role in the educational program and need to be considered when planning and designing a curriculum.  As well, the model  recognizes the differences between curriculum planning and curriculum design; yet i t also recognizes that these two processes are interelated, and the planning of the curriculum greatly influences the method in which the curriculum will be designed.  For instance, the program philosophy will  often determine the structure and organization of the curriculum document. The model not only assisted in the formulation of interview questions, but also provided a mechanism for categorizing and analysing the data provided from both interviews and document analysis.  The elements were  broadly defined, making categorization an easy process.  Data could be  categorized into more than one of the elements, as the elements were designed to overlap.  This overlapping of elements was helpful when  analysing the data because i t showed the interrelationships between elements of the curriculum development process.  For instance, it showed  that social policy factors related to sociological factors, resources and advertising.  More specifically, the policies of CEIC and the Ministry of  Education determined the curriculum content, the financial resources and the publication standards.  In short, this model provided assistance in the  data collection and analysis by allowing for interview questions to be generated and by providing a mechanism for sorting, categorizing and  150  analysing large amounts of data. If the model is to be used as a research tool, one must recognize its limitation.  Jarvis, when designing the model, defined curriculum in its  broadest sense, the "total learning situation".  "The total learning  situation refers to all the learning experiences, intended or unintended, provided by the educational institution" (Jarvis, 1983, p. 213).  Hence,  when Jarvis described the 10 elements in the model, he discussed them in terms of this large view of curriculum.  If one were planning to develop a  particular course abstracted from an institution, and therefore was not defining curriculum in the same manner as Jarvis, the descriptions of these 10 factors would have to be modified to meet the needs of the development project. In short, Jarvis' model served as an excellent tool to collect and analyse data from the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project. internal  It  is a comprehensive model that considers both external and  factors of the curriculum development process, as well as  recognizing the differences between curriculum planning and curriculum design.  Limitations  Generalizability of the research findings is one of the limitations of this study.  As is often the case with qualitative  focused on one particular phenomenon.  studies, research is  Data from a single study often  cannot determine whether the same pattern of events will occur in another situation.  Qualitative researchers such as Fiedler (1979), Becker (1970),  151  and Cicourel (1964) warn field workers to limit the scope of their generalizations. Generalizing the findings from the analysis of the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines would be d i f f i c u l t , as the curriculum project was unique in its focus.  Programming for Native  adults in British Columbia and in Canada has been virtually ignored over the years.  It would be d i f f i c u l t ,  if not impossible, to state that this  curriculum project is typical of all curriculum development projects.  At  best, the analysis of the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines will provide further insight into the many factors and variables involved in the curriculum development process that could be useful in guiding other curriculum projects and in helping to highlight the need for research into Native adult basic education, an area which is sorely lacking in research literature. A second limitation of this study is that research data was collected one year after the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines was completed.  As a result, curriculum project members interviewed, at  times, forgot the specific details of a particular event associated with the development project.  More importantly though, due to the time gap, 19  of the 22 pilot students could not be located for an.interview.  Data from  these 19 pilot students might have provided information as to the u t i l i t y of the Guidelines in meeting the needs of the target population.  152  IMPLICATIONS  Implications for Curriculum Developers  Although i t is important to draw conclusions from the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines project, i t is also necessary to assess how these conclusions could potentially impact other curriculum development projects.  Essentially, one can imply from this study that  adequate communication is crucial during the curriculum development process.  The sponsorship or financing of a project is one of the most  important aspects of the curriculum development process and the planning of a curriculum project, like the planning of a curriculum guide, needs to be structured and organized in order for i t to be successful. F i r s t , in terms of communications, i t is clear that a number of the problems that occured during the development of the Curriculum Guidelines stem from lack of communication.  For instance, the Ministry ABE  Coordinator did not discuss with the developer the expectations or intentions for the Guidelines, hence the problems during the publication process.  The project manager did not provide feedback to project members  after the Guidelines went to publication, thereby leaving the project members with a sense of incompletion.  It appears that communications is an  important consideration when developing a curriculum, particularly i f the curriculum project involves a committee or a team of developers, writers and teachers and i f the project is focused on a target population that was virtually ignored-in terms of educations.  People involved with the  153  curriculum need to know what their role in the project i s ; what is expected of them; how their efforts impact the project; what type of assistance or guidance is available to them; and what the results of their efforts are. In order for a curriculum project to be successful, the communication network must be established and continuously maintained.  Members should  feel a sense of commitment to the project; they should be involved in the promotion and implementation of the curriculum.  However, in order to  establish this committment and involvement, the lines of communication must always be kept open. Next, i t is important to recognize the role of sponsorship or funding in the curriculum planning process.  The two agencies, Canada Employment  and Immigration Commission and the Ministry of Education who were financing the Native Literacy and Life Skills curriculum project determined the curriculum content, the time perimeters, the accommodation and human resources, and the publication standards.  These two agencies had specific  policies they were required to adhere to before they could even supply the necessary finances.  Hence, when the curriculum designer and writers  developed the Guidelines, they had to be careful to meet the requirements of both agencies, recognizing that these two agencies' policy directives were very much their (the developer's and writers') own directives. Once an organization or an individual agrees to accept funding for a project, this organization or individual must realize that the funding agency has a vested interest and will expect to have input into the planning process.  In the case of curriculum development, the funding  agency would quite likely want to have a say in the selection and organization of curriculum content.  While i t is important that a  154  curriculum project receives funding, i t is also vital that the goals of the funding agency do not contradict or seriously interfere with the aims of the organization or individual requiring the funding.  Contradictions in  goals could result in project delays, or worse yet, project cancellation. Hence, i t is advisable that before accepting funding, the requesting and funding parties meet to discuss the compatibility of their  respective  goals. The third implication of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum project involves curriculum planning.  As Jarvis writes,  curriculum development does not only require a model or a method for organizing the teaching and learning process, i t also requires an organizational method for the planning or administration of the curriculum project, hence Jarvis developed the two phase curriculum model for the education of adults.  This model served well for collecting and analysing  data on the development of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum project.  A number of the respondents remarked on the comprehensiveness of  the questions, suggesting that the model encompassed most, i f not a l l , the factors considered relevant to the project.  Furthermore, the information  obtained from the interviews and the documents was easily slotted into one or more of the ten categories or factors in the model.  Although the  planning of the Native Literacy and Lifes Skills curriculum project appeared to be done in an organized fashion, this model may have provided some assistance in creating a systematic and efficient method of addressing curriculum issues.  In short, it is quite conceivable that Jarvis  could be used to plan a curriculum.  1  model  155  Policy Implications  In analysing the planning of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines, i t became clear that neither the Federal nor Provincial governments had a policy for Native adult education or for training Native adult learners.  Not only do the Provincial and Federal  govenrments fail to have a policy for Native adult education, it appears that neither government has a clear and concrete plan or schedule to upgrade the education of Native adults in B.C.  A plan appears to be needed  i f one considers that "83% of all Native students leave school before grade 12" (Ministry of Education, 1984, p. v) and 34.5% are considered functionally i l l i t e r a t e (Canada, Statistics Canada, 1981). These figures suggest that the education system has failed to address the needs of a fairly substantial portion of the Native population. Although the CEIC provided funding for the development of the Curriculum Guidelines, they did so within the context of a policy or job readiness training.  This policy supports programs that train people for  employment as opposed to programs that provide people with basic literacy skills.  The policy does not address the special requirements of the Native  adult population.  More specifically, the policy of CEIC is to sponsor only  programs that lead directly to employment. According to the Ministry ABE Coordinator, the Ministry of Education does not recognize adult education for Natives as distinct from education of non-Native adults.  The Ministry ABE Coordinator stated "we [the  Ministry of Education] didn't think that there should be a different curriculum for Natives as we [the Ministry of Education] did not want to  156  discriminate by creating special groups and treating them differently". However, contrary to the beliefs of the Ministry ABE Coordinator, the Guidelines clearly indicate that the educational goals and the learning needs and requirements of the Native adult population are distinctly different from those of the non-Native population which provides evidence of the need for education programs for Native adults. Although the BCNEAC's responsibility is to determine the educational requirements of the Native population, the committee does not have the financial backing to support Native programming so they are required to turn to the Federal or Provincial government for sponsorship.  Thus i t  behooves both the Federal and the Provincial governments to support the Native population in furthering their education by providing sufficient funding.  A policy must be developed that includes a provision for the  development and implementation of a series of programs to upgrade the educational levels of the Native adults. in isolation is not sufficient.  However, the support of education  Education must lead not only to a fuller  enjoyment of l i f e , but must also provide Native adults with career opportunities in order to enable them to be involved in Native programming and to allow them to take their rightful  place in today's society.  Recommendations for Further Study  Before a sound policy on Native adult education is developed, a detailed and comprehensive study has to be conducted to determine the educational needs of Native adults.  Brod and McQuiston (1983) conducted a  national survey of American Indian literacy and educational levels.  This  157  study identified the knowledge Native adults had acquired regarding literacy and l i f e s k i l l s such as law, consumerism and health.  Brod and  McQuiston not only studied the educational attainment of the American Native population, but also analysed the living conditions and job opportunties of this undereducated population.  They concluded that:  Indians are at such a disadvantage as compared to the [American population] as a whole that they cannot be considered a serious contender for jobs of understanding contemporary l i f e , taking advantage of health benefits, being effective consumers and availing themselves of legal remedies.  (Brod and  McQuiston, 1983, p. 8)  Brod and McQuiston's study should be replicated in Canada in order to determine the extent and gravity of the Native population's problems within Canadian society.  This study would give some indication of the types of  programs required to upgrade the Native adult's educational levels. A study should also be conducted on the u t i l i t y of Jarvis' ten factor model in order to determine whether results from this study are typical of the findings in other curriculum projects.  This study might not only  reveal similarities and differences between different curriculum projects, but could also determine whether this curriculum model functions both as a tool for analysing a curriculum project and an instrument for curriculum planning and design.  More specifically, i f this model proved effective in  a second study, it could possibly be used to assist in the planning, development and analyses of new programs for Native adults.  158  Finally, research should also be conducted on the implementation of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines in order to determine how the Guidelines are being used in the f i e l d , and how teachers and students are reacting to the curriculum.  For instance, are teachers  using the curriculum document as a resource book or a guide?, and Do students recognize and appreciate the Native content within the curriculum guidelines?  It would also be important to know whether the "anticipated  outcomes of training" set by the BCNEAC and the CEIC had been met, in order to determine i f the training was successful.  More specifically, do  students who complete training using this curriculum "pursue further educational or vocational activity?  Is there an improvement in the  students' literacy levels? and has the students' ability to function within society and to recognize and appreciate their cultural heritage been enhanced as a result of completing this training program" (CEIC/BCNEAC Task Force, personal communication, May 1985)?  Results from an implementation  study would determine whether a second or follow-up program should be developed using the same philosophy and structure as the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines.  159 REFERENCES LIST A Ministerial Policy On The Provision Of Adult Basic Education Programs Including English Language Training in the Public Education System of British Columbia, (1982). Arbess, S. (1975). Optimizing the environment of the inter-cultural classroom for the Native Indian student. New Strategies in Indian Education; Utilizing the Indian Child's Advantages in the Elementary Classroonu Victorfa: Ministry of Education. Barnhardt, R. (1981). Culture, community, and the curriculum. Fairbanks: Centre for Cross Cultural Studies, University of Alaska. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 202 633). Basic Job Readiness Policy of 1976, MA 23, Circular No.2 (1977). Becker, H.S. (1970). Aldine.  Sociological work:  Methods and substance.  Chicago:  B.C. Ministry of Education (1984). Native literacy and l i f e s k i l l s curriculum guidelines. Victoria! Queen's Printer for British Columbia. Brod, R. & McQuiston, J . (1983). American Indian adult education and literacy: The f i r s t national survey. Journal of American Indian Education, 22: 1-16Brooks, I.R. (1975). A cross cultural study of concept Learning. University of Calgary.  Calgary:  Burgess, R.G. (Ed.) (1982). Field research: A sourcebook and field manual. London: George Allen and Unwin. Canada, Statistics Canada Census, (1981). Profile Services (95-901 to 95-981). Cicourel, A.V. (1964). Free Press.  Census of population, Volume 3.  Method and measurement in sociology.  New York:  160 C o l l i e r , M. (1979). A film study of classrooms in Western Alaska. Fairbanks: Centre for Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alaska. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 180 704). Eisner, E.W. (1979). The educational imagination on the design and evaluation of school programs. New York: MacMillan. Fiedler, J . (1979).  Field research, London: Sage and Jossey-Bass.  Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.  (M.B. Ramer Trans.).  Giles, H.H., McCutcheon, S.P. & Zechriel, A.N. (1942). curriculum. New York: Harper.  Exploring the  Goodlad, J . I . (1983). A place called school: Prospects for the future. New York: McGraw-Hill. G r i f f i n , C. (1978). Curriculum analysis of adult and lifelong education. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 2: 5-10. Harrison, D. (1982). Adult basic education English and communications curriculum guide. Victoria: B.C. Ministry of Education. Houle, C O . (1972).  The design of education.  Hunter, C . S t . J . , & Harman, D. (1978). States. New York: McGraw H i l l .  San Francisco:  Jossey Bass.  Adult i l l i t e r a c y in the United  Jarvis, P. (1983). Adult and continuing education theory and practice. London: Croom Helm. Kleinfeld, J . (1975). Effective teachers of Eskimo and Indian students, School Review, 83, 302-344. Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education. Association Press.  Chicago:  161 Lawson, L. (1981). reservations.  Learning styles of Pacific Northwest Indian students on Unpublished Manuscript.  Lofland, J . A . (1971).  Analyzing social settings.  Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth.  Orenstein, A. & P h i l l i p s . W.R.F. (1978). Understanding social research: An introduction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1978. Sawyer, D. (1984). Native adult basic l i t e r a c y / l i f e s k i l l s curriculum guide. Victoria! B.C. Ministry of Education. Unpublished manuscript. Skolnick, J . H . (1966).  Justice without t r i a l .  New York:  Spradley, J . P . (1979). The ethnographic interview. Rinehart and Winston.  Wiley and Sons.  New York:  Holt,  Styles of learning among American Indians: An outline for Research. ~~ (1968). Report on Conference held at Stanford University. Washington, B.C. Centre for Applied Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, NO. ED 026 638). Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: Harcourt, Brace and World.  Theory and practice.  Thomas, A.M. (1978). Adult Literacy in the Seventies: Toronto: The Movement for Canadian Literacy.  New York:  Conference Report.  Thomas, A.M. (1979). Canadian adult basic literacy resource k i t . Movement for Canadian Literacy.  Toronto:  Thomas, A.M. (1983). Adult literacy in Canada: A challenge. (Occasional paper 42). Ottawa: Canadian Commission for UNESCO. Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  162 Verner, C , Booth, C. ( a s s i s t a n t ) , (1964). A d u l t education. Center f o r Applied Research i n Education.  Washington:  Waite, N. (1971). Curriculum proposal f o r an a d u l t basic l i t e r a c y program f o r implementation i n northern Saskatchewan. P r i n c e A l b e r t : Saskatchewan. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 250 345). Whyte, W. (1955). Press.  S t r e e t corner s o c i e t y .  Chicago:  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  163 Interviews ABE Instructor from a British Columbia College (personal communication, May, 1985) British Columbia Native Education Advisory Committee Member (personal communication, May, 1985) Canada Employment and Immigration Training Consultant (personal communication, May 1985) Curriculum Developer (personal communication, May, 1985) Curriculum Publisher (personal communication, June, 1985) Curriculum Writer (personal communication, June 1985) Curriculum Writer (personal communication, June 1985) Ministry ABE Coordinator (personal communication, May, 1985) Principal from a British Columbia Secondary School (personal communication, May, 1985) Project Manager (personal communication, May, 1985) Rural Pilot Teacher (personal communication, June, 1985) Urban Pilot Student (personal communication, June, 1985) Urban Pilot Student (personal communication, June, 1985) Urban Pilot Student (personal communication, June, 1985) Urban Pilot Teacher (personal communication, June 1985)  164 APPENDICES Page A  Definition of Jarvis' Fourteen Elements  165  B  Application to the Ethics Committee  169  C  Sample Letter to the Curriculum Project Committee Members  170  D  Sample Interview Schedule for the Advisory Committee  171  E  Sample Interview Schedule for the Writers  175  F  Sample Interview Schedule for the Pilot Teachers  179  G  Sample Interview Schedule for the Pilot Students  184  H  Sample Interview Schedule for the Publisher  187  I  Sample Copy of the Letter Thanking Participants  191  J  Project Event Time Line  192  K  Sample Copy of Page Form  193  L  Sample Copy of Content Form  194  M  BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I Proposal  195  N  Advisory Committee Agenda  198  0  Proposed Outline on Native Adult Basic Literacy/Life Skills Curriculum Guide Theme Unit Outline  199 201  P  165  Appendix A  Definitions of Jarvis' Fourteen Elements  Philosophical Factors:  Concerns the attitudes towards education, held  by the people involved in the development of a program. an analysis of the stated philosophy of a program.  It also includes  Attitudes toward  teaching, learning, evaluation, educational institutions, student rights and human growth are a few of the plethora of items explored when analysing philosophical factors. Sociological Factors:  Concerns the study of the information of the  knowledge being offered in a particular program or course. contain socially organized knowledge selected from culture.  "Curricula It  is  significant to know where, why and by whom such a selection of knowledge is being made," (Jarvis, 1983, p. 230). Social Policy Factors:  Concerned with government and institutional  policies which have bearing on the development of a program.  How, why and  when social policy affects the financing and distribution of a program is analysed. Perceived Demands: to adult education. which i t serves?  Concerns with the concept of 'need', as i t applies  Is the program "needed" by the people or community  Did the adult learners request or demand the course  feeling that i t was essential to their personal growth or enjoyment?  Or  did an outside person, such as a teacher or administrator, decide that the program was 'needed' to help-a particular population of clientel? Basically, information regarding reasons for why a program was initiated is  166  being analysed. Psychological Factors: facilitate learning.  Concern with the factors which hinder and  The method in which students are best able to learn  and student aversions or fears of the learning environment need to be studied when planning programs. Resources:  Concern with the financing, accommodation and staff in the  program planning process.  Finding suitable accommodation for adult  education, providing appropriate and sufficient materials to facilitate the education process and hiring experienced and interested staff to teach the program are some of the factors that should be considered when planning resources. Advertised Program:  Concerns with the method in which a program is  published or presented to the public and the method in which the program is distributed.  The method in which the program is edited and the method in  which the public is made aware of a program are factors considered when studying the advertised program. Actual Demand:  Concerns with the responses of students towards a  program after its i n i t i a l implementation. questions should be considered.  If  The following factors or  the program consists of several  courses, which of these courses are students enrolling in? which are being enrolled i n , which are the most popular?  Of the courses Why?  What is the  rate of attrition for the program as a whole? Evaluation:  Concerns with the formative and summative evaluations of  the development process, by all people involved with the program including the students, teachers, developers, resource people, administrators and government o f f i c i a l s .  Some factors that are evaluated are the affects of  167  government policy on the program, physical resources and program philosophy. Actual Curricula:  Concerns with the design of the actual program.  Involves studying the content of the curriculum guide in terms of its aims and objectives, subject matter, organization, methods and evaluation: Aims and Objectives: Concerns the actually stated or documented aims and objectives of each course within a program.  Some factors  that are analysed concern the method in which aims and objectives are stated within a program; teachers and students personal course objectives or aims and the method in which the aims and objectives reflect or fail to reflect the overall philosophy of the program. Subject Matter: program.  Concerns the content of each course within the  Some factors analysed are the method in which course content  is outlined in the curriculum guide.  The ways in which the course  content matches the program's aims and objectives.  The way in which  the course content reflects or f a i l s to reflect the overall philosophy of the program. Organization and Method:  Concerns the location of the teaching,  the organization of the room in which the teaching and learning is to occur, the content of the session and the methods to be employed. Some factors analysed are the actual methods employed by the teachers to teach a session or course, the manner in which the organization of the teaching reflects or f a i l s to reflect the learning needs and styles of the students and the manner in which the organization and  168  methods reflect or fail  to reflect the course's aims and objectives as  well as the entire program's philosophy.  Evaluation:  Concerns appraising whether the aims and objectives  of each course have been met, and more importantly, whether the aims and objectives are worth meeting.  Some factors analysed are the  manner in which students are tested or appraised; the manner in which students are asked to appraise the courses and the program; and the suitability of the appraisal system to meet the demands of the individual courses and the overall program.  171  Appendix D  Sample Interview Schedule for the Advisory Committee  INTERVIEWEE:  Advisory Committee Member (CEIC)  DATE: TIME: LOCATION:  BACKGROUND TO INTERVIEW 1.  Purpose of the study—What is involved in the planning of the curriculurn?  2.  Why this person has been selected—Member of the advisory committee and sponsoring agent.  3.  Type of questions to be asked:  Open-ended and broad in nature.  Designed as discussion questions.  4.  Show interviewee model around which questions were designed and how data will be sorted.  5.  Discuss consent form and have interviewee sign i t .  6.  Mention the t i t l e of other people that will be interviewed, curriculum developer)  (eg. the  172  Appendix D continued  QUESTIONS  1.  Please describe your involvement in the project.  2.  How is this project similar or different from other projects that you have been involved with?  3.  Describe the history of the project.  4.  Are you familiar with the philosophy of the program? i t for me?  Can you describe  What was your involvement in developing the philosophy?  Are you in agreement with this philosophy?  5.  Describe how decisions were made regarding curriculum content? was your involvement?  What  Would you like to have had more or less  involvement?  6.  Does CEIC have a policy on Native adult basic education? describe that policy for me?  Do you feel that policy had any affect on  the development of this curriculum?  7.  How was the project financed?  Will you  Why or why not?  173  Appendix D continued  8.  What considerations were made in regards to resources, material and accommodation during the planning process?  9.  10.  How would you like to see the Curriculum Guidelines being used?  What was your involvement in the pilot study?  Did you receive  feedback regarding the pilot?  11.  What was your involvement with the publication of the document? you like to see any changes made? published document?  Would  What are your feelings about the  Do you consider this document a Guideline or a  resource book?  12.  Are there any plans to evaluate the project?  How will these  evaluations take place? or How did these evaluations take place?  13.  Was there a great demand for the Guidelines? curriculum meets the demand? community?  14.  Do you feel that this  Does i t f u l f i l l the needs of the Native  Does i t f u l f i l l CEIC's needs?  What is your overall impression of the project?  What stands out?  there anything that you would like to see changed?  Is  174  Appendix D continued  15.  Do you have any additional remarks?  CONCLUSION  1.  Discuss what will happen with the data.  2.  Ask i f there are any documents available and if copies can be made and used in the thesis.  3.  Explain purpose of the documents.  Ask i f a second clarifying interview can be conducted at a later date to verify points made and to ask questions not covered in the f i r s t interview.  4.  Tell the person that he/she will be given a copy of the report or the abstract of the report if he/she wish i t .  175  Appendix E  Sample Interview Schedule for the Writers  INTERVIEWEE:  Writer  DATE: TIME: LOCATION:  BACKGROUND TO INTERVIEW 1.  Purpose of the study—What is involved in the planning of'the curricul urn?  2.  Why this person has been selected.  3.  Type of questions to be asked:  Open-ended and broad in nature.  Designed as discussion questions.  4.  Show interviewee model around which questions were designed and how data will be sorted.  5.  Discuss consent form and have interviewee sign i t .  6.  Mention the t i t l e of other people that will be interviewed, curriculum developer)  (eg. the  176  Appendix E continued  QUESTIONS  1.  I would like to begin by asking how you became involved with the curriculum project?  2.  What was your role in the project?  3.  Can you provide me with a brief history of the project?  4.  Are you familiar with the curriculum philosophy? have any impact on your role as a writer?  Did the philosophy  Do you share the same  philosophy?  5.  What was the process for deciding curriculum content? involvement in this process?  What was your  What was your involvement in the  development of the theme units?  Were you involved in the writing of  the research section of the Guidelines?  Were you involved in  developing the resource section of the Guidelines?  6.  Are you aware that two levels of government were involved in this project?  (CEIC and the provincial Ministry of Education)  Did their  involvement affect the method in which you wrote the guidelines?  177  Appendix E continued  7. Did you have any input into the publication of the Guidelines?  Please  describe your input?  8. In writing the Guidelines, did you have to consider resources, such as the types of materials teachers will use or the accommodation requirements?  9. What was your involvement in the design of the Curriculum Guidelines, in terms of selecting aims and objectives?  subject matter?  teaching  methodologies? and evaluation tools?  10. Do you feel the Guidelines meet the needs of the Native students?  Do  you feel that it meets the needs of CEIC?  11. What is your overall impression of the project? anything changed?  Would you like to see  Would you like to have had more or less involvement?  CONCLUSIONS  1. Discuss what will happen with the data.  2. Ask if there are any documents available and if copies can be made and used in the thesis.  Explain purpose of the documents.  178  Appendix E continued  3.  Ask i f a second clarifying interview can be conducted at a later date to verify points made and to ask questions not covered in the f i r s t interview.  4.  Tell person that he/she will be given a copy of the report or the abstract of the report i f he/she wish  it.  179  Appendix F  Sample Interview Schedule for the Pilot Teachers  INTERVIEWEE:  Pilot Teacher  DATE: TIME: LOCATION:  BACKGROUND TO INTERVIEW 1.  Purpose of the study—What is involved in the planning of the curriculurn?  2.  Why this person has been selected.  3.  Type of questions to be asked:  Open-ended and broad in nature.  Designed as discussion questions.  4.  Show interviewee model around which questions were designed and how data will be sorted.  5.  Discuss consent form and have interviewee sign i t .  6.  Mention the t i t l e of other people that will be interviewed, curriculum developer)  (eg. the  180  Appendix F continued  QUESTIONS  1.  I would like to begin by asking you how you became involved with the curriculum project?  2.  Can you describe the philosophy of the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines?  3.  Does the viewpoint on adult education described in the Guidelines concur with your own beliefs about Native literacy education? i t similar?  4.  How is i t  How is  different?  Were you involved in decisions regarding curriculum content? (For instance, what topics should be included? sought?)  What objectives should be  If so, please describe your involvement.  If  not, would you  like to have been more involved?  5.  Would you like to see any changes to the curriculum content?  Please  describe these changes.  6.  As I understand i t ,  both the Federal and Provincial governments were  involved in the development of this program.  Did you have any  involvement with either government agencies?  Please describe your  involvement with them.  181  Appendix F continued  7. In what ways does the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines consider the adult student experiencing learning difficulties?  Would you like to have changed the program in any way to  accommodate the adult students' learning needs?  8. Were you given the resources necessary to pilot the curriculum?  (For  instance, adequate classroom space and sufficient learning and reference materials)  What resources were you given?  Who provided you  with the resources? What resources would you like to have had but were unable to get?  9. How did students come to know about the program? program was adequately advertised? students?  Do you feel the  Would you like to have had more  How do you think more students could have been attracted?  10. Were you involved in anyway with the program publication?  Do you  consider this document a guideline or resource book?  11. Do you feel that this program addresses the needs of the Native adult learner? changed?  The Native community?  CEIC?  What would you like to see  182  Appendix F continued  12.  Please describe how you worked with the Curriculum Guidelines during the pilot.  Can you tell me what objectives you tried to achieve?  What are some of the activities the classroom in any way?  that you worked with?  What units did you teach?  you use to teach these units?  Did you alter What method did  What were some of the class projects?  How did you evaluate the students?  How did students respond to the  program pilots?  13.  What is your overall impression of the Guidelines?  14.  What is your overall impression of the pilot study?  15.  Are there any changes you would like to see made to the Guidelines?  16.  Are there any comments that you would like to add?  CONCLUSION  1.  Discuss what will happen with the data.  2.  Ask i f there are any documents available and i f copies can be made and used in the thesis.  Explain purpose of the documents.  183  Appendix F continued  3.  Ask i f a second clarifying interview can be conducted at a later date to verify points made and to ask questions not covered in the f i r s t interview.  4.  Tell person that he/shewill be given a copy of the report or the abstract of the report i f he/she wish i t .  184  Appendix G  Sample Interview Schedule for Pilot Students  INTRODUCTION  I am a student at the University of British Columbia.  I am working on  a special project that looks at the literacy program that you were involved in last spring with . . .  This was a special program and I am interested in  learning about your involvement in i t .  I will be asking you a number of  questions that are about this program and how you worked in  it.  Before I begin asking you questions, I need you to sign a form. form asks your permission or your 'OK' to ask you questions. you that I will be asking you questions for about one hour.  It  This  also tells  I would also  like your permission to tape the interview so that I do not have to take notes and so that I can listen and ask questions easier.  I will read the  form to you and I would like you to ask i f you don't understand what I want you to do. questions.  Your teacher is also available i f you want to ask her  185  Appendix G continued  QUESTIONS  1.  Do you remember the special program that you were involved in last year?  2.  (If  not, describe the program further.)  Can you tell me how you became involved in the program? have to do to become involved? program?  3.  What did you  Did somebody tell you about the  Who told you about it?  Can you remember some of the projects or work you did in the program? Was i t any different from the work you were doing before the project began?  4.  Can you tell me some of the things your teacher did?  Was it any  different from the things she was doing before the program began?  5.  Did you have any tests during the program? your work?  6.  How did the teacher mark  How did the teacher know when you completed a project?  What did the program teach you?  Were you able to find employment  after you finished the program?  Did you want to go back to school?  Do you have some special goals that you would like to accomplish with your education?  What are some of these goals?  186  Appendix G continued  7.  Did you like the program?  Would you recommend i t to anybody else?  What did you like best about the program?  What did you like least  about the program?  8.  Did your teacher ask you to write or talk about your feelings toward the program?  9.  Will you tell me what you said?  Do you have any further comments about the project?  CONCLUSION  1.  Tell student what will be done with the interview data.  2.  Thank student for participation in the project.  187  Appendix H  Sample Interview Schedule for the Publisher  INTERVIEWEE:  Publisher  DATE: TIME: LOCATION:  BACKGROUND TO INTERVIEW 1.  Purpose of the study—What is involved in the planning of the curriculum?  2.  Why this person has been selected.  3.  Type of questions to be asked:  Open-ended and broad in nature.  Designed as discussion questions.  4.  Show interviewee model around which questions were designed and how data will be sorted.  .5.  Discuss consent form and have interviewee sign i t .  6.  Mention the t i t l e of other people that will be interviewed, curriculum developer)  (eg. the  188  Appendix H continued  QUESTIONS  1.  I would like to begin by asking you how you became involved with the Native Literacy and Life Skills Curriculum Guidelines?  2.  What was your role in the project?  3.  Will you describe what is involved in publishing a curriculum of this nature?  4.  What changes did you make to the Guidelines?  5.  I understand the t i t l e of the Guidelines was changed. why i t was changed?  Who requested the change?  Can you tell me  Do you view this  document as a guideline or a resource book?  6.  Is this project similar to other projects that you have been involved with?  7.  How is i t similar?  How is i t  different?  How was the publication of this document financed?  189  Appendix H continued  8.  Is there a policy associated with publishing guides or guidelines for the Ministry?  Does the federal government have a policy for  publishing educational documents of this nature?  What is this policy?  How did you feel about working with two levels of government?  9.  Were you involved in the development of the program philosophy?  If  so, what was your involvement?  10.  Did you participate in the selection of content for the Guidelines? If so, what was your participation?  11.  Were you involved with the program pilot?  What was your involvement?  Did the program pilot have any impact on the publication of this document that you are aware of?  12.  Were you involved in any way in the distribution of the Guidelines? What was your involvement?  13.  Do you feel these Guidelines meet the needs of the Native student?, the CEIC?, the Ministry of Education?  14.  What is your overall impression of the Guidelines?  190  Appendix H continued  15.  What is your overall impression of the project?  16.  Would you like to see any changes made to the Guidelines?  What are  these changes?  17.  Do you wish to make any further comments about the Guidelines, the curriculum project, and/or your role in the project?  CONCLUSION  1.  Discuss what will happen with the data.  2.  Ask if there are any documents available and i f copies can be made and used in the thesis.  3.  Explain purpose of the documents.  Ask i f a second clarifying interview can be conducted at a later date to verify points made and to ask questions not covered in the f i r s t interview.  4.  Tell person that he/she will be given a copy of the report or the abstract of the report if he/she wish i t .  191 Appendix I Sample Copy of the Letter Thanking Participants September 24, 1985  Dear Ms I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for participating in my thesis by granting me an interview and by providing me with documents pertaining to the development of the Native Literacy and Life S k i l l s Curriculum Guidelines and Resource Book. I have managed over the summer months to transcribe the interview tapes, and in doing so, have been able to formulate a solid data base on which I can write my thesis. I found the interview both interesting and informative. Thank you again for your help and cooperation. Yours faithfully  SUSAN MOGAN  192 Appendix J Project Event Time Line DATE  EVENT  August, 1984  Application to the ethical review committee submitted.  September, 1984  Ethics committee approved application, pending letter of permission from the Native Education Center.  A p r i l , 1985  Letter of introduction sent to project members.  May 7, 1985  Ethics committee issued certificate of approval.  May 12, 1985  Interviews with advisory committee members began.  June 7, 1985  Interviews with advisory committee completed.  June 8, 1985  Began transcribing interview tapes.  June 21, 1985  Interview with teachers and publisher completed.  June 24, 1985  Interview with students completed.  June 27, 1985  Interview with writers completed.  July, 1985  Completed transcribing tapes of publisher, writers and students.  September, 1985  Thank you letters sent to project committee.  Appendix K Sample Copy of Page Form PAGE: 5 (T) CODE: PERCEIVED DEMAND TOPIC: BCNEAC DISCUSSION ON THE NEED FOR BASIC LITERACY FOR ADULTS PAGE: 6 (T) CODE: POLICY TOPIC: CEIC NATIONAL POLICY ON BTSD LEVEL I PAGE: 6 (T) CODE: POLICY TOPIC: EXPLANATION OF POLICY PAGE: 6 (T) CODE: POLICY TOPIC: METHOD OF ALTERING POLICY PAGE: 7 (T) CODE: PERCEIVED DEMAND TOPIC: THE PEOPLE WHO REQUIRE THE PROGRAM PAGE: 7 (T) CODE: POLICY TOPIC: MEETING TO DISCUSS LAYOUT OF THE PROGRAM. WHO AND WHAT IS INVOLVED? PAGE: 10 (T) CODE: POLICY TOPIC: RECEIVING SPONSORSHIP FOR BTSD LEVEL I COURSES PRIOR TO CEIC  194 Appendix L Sample Copy of Content Form ADVISORY COMMITTEE PHILOSOPHICAL FACTORS: Employment vs education reason why the guide is referred to as Native job readiness (p. 20) Involvement in the philosophy of the program in terms of selecting target population (p. 21) Rationale for philosophy. (p. 9)  Academic s k i l l s required to survive in society,  Using academics to help get a job (p. 9) Sees the program as a three year program, which runs counter to CEIC policy of a one year training program (p. 9) Explanation of philosophy to place people in a job that is required in society (p. 10) Explanation of the language experience approach (p. 10) Opinion of philosophy (p. 10) Philosophy bent toward training (p. 22) Using the guide more for education that for training—specifically relates to target population (p. 26-27)  195  Appendix M  BCNEAC Task Force on BTSD I Proposal  Target Population:  Native persons who are eligible for NTP support (17 years of age and 2 years out of school, etc.)  and whose access to employment and/or vocational  training is hindered by education levels of grades 0-5 as assessed by standard literacy testing.  These persons w i l l , by and large, show evidence  of d i f f i c u l t i e s in coping in social or employment settings.  It would be  expected that the most succesful candidates for training would be those who have demonstrated a readiness for a l i f e change.  Anticipated Outcomes of the Training:  There would be two anticipated types of outcomes:  (1)  Individual: Graduates of this training would be expected to pursue further educational or vocational activity.  This would be taken to be a  demonstration of academic achievement, improved decision-making and increased self-image.  Success in the training would also be defined  by satisfactory score on a grade level achievement test.  196  Appendix M continued  (2)  Community: Greater awareness and utilization of community f a c i l i t i e s is seen to be a measure of the success of this program.  An appreciation of the culture, heritage and role of the Native community is seen to be an expected positive outcome.  Content:  Roughly, the program components would be as follows:  - Basic Literacy (50%) - Communication - Computation - Social Studies  - Job Readiness/Life Skills  (30%)  - Self awareness - Job getting/keeping - Community survival - Community identity - Success orientation - Value clarification - decision making  197  Appendix M continued  - Personal growth and interpersonal s k i l l s - Health/consumer education - Group dynamics - Typing and other generic "hands on" s k i l l s - Other -developed as appropriate  - Cultural  (20%)  - Language orientated activities * - Indian oriented activities * - Native community activities *  * These would be concrete, "hands on" in nature.  c?  198  Appendix N  Advisory Committee Agenda  ADVISORY COMMITTEE  Life Skills--Basic L i t for Natives Curriculum Development Project  Kwantlen College Room 314  9:30 - 12:00:  1.  Introduction  2.  Background re> project  3.  Purpose and tasks of advisory committee  4.  Review of proposed outline of curriculum guide including outline of theme units  1:00 - 4:00:  5.  Discussion  1.  Brain storm ideas for units  2.  Discussion of writing assignments  199 Appendix 0 Proposed Outline of Native Adult Basic Literacy/Life Skills Curriculum Guide 1.  Introduction A. Background B. Purpose C. Audience D. Literacy need among Native adults  2.  Research on Native Education and Native Adult Programs A. Effective teachers of Native students B. Principles of good cross-cultural curriculum C. Native Indian learning styles (?) D. Factors relating to successful Native programs  3.  Introduction to Basic Literacy for Native Adults A. Definition B. Assessment C. Approaches and Techniques D. Objectives E. Resources  4.  Introduction of Language Experience for Native Adults A. Philosophy B. Techniques and Approaches C. Using language experience as the basis for language study D. Resources  5.  Introduction to Pre-employment/Life Skills for Native Adults A. Definition B. Taxonomy of Life Skills (objectives) C. Techniques and Approaches D. Resources  6.  Introduction to Basic Computation for Native Adults A. Scope and sequence (objectives) B. Approaches and techniques C. Resources  7.  Introduction to Incorporating Native Culture in Curriculum A. Culture defined B. Material and non-material outline C. Linking contemporary and traditional culture D. Scope and objectives E. Approaches and techniques F. Resources  200 Appendix 0 continued 8.  Introduction to Theme Units A. Theory B. Integration of subject area C. Working with different levels D. Explanation of unit organization  9.  Sample Theme Units A. Chart outlining Unit and Theme suggestions B. Ten sample units chosen from above  10. Annotated Bibliography of classroom materials for use with Native adults.  Appendix P  Theme Unit Outline  Questions Key Words Background Theme Objectives Skill Objectives Learning Activities Modification for Levels Resources.  

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