UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The story-retellings of preschoolers from differing home-literacy environments Doiron, Ray 1986

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THE STORY-RETELLINGS OF PRESCHOOLERS FROM DIFFERING HOME-LITERACY ENVIRONMENTS by RAY DOIRON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES C e n t e r f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h 6 r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e 1986 © RAY DOIRON, 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . C e n t e r f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e : J u n e 1986 A b s t r a c t R e s e a r c h i n t o e m e r g e n t r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a s c e n t e r e d on t h e i r m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t . E m e r g i n g a t t h e same t i m e i s t h e i r s e n s e o f s t o r y a n d a b i l i t y t o engage i n v a r i o u s s t o r y i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A c a u s a l - c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y l i n k e d t h e s e two a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h by e x a m i n i n g t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . C o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s were b a s e d on age a n d r e s u l t s t a k e n f r o m an i n v e n t o r y o f l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t f o u r y e a r o l d s w o u l d i n c l u d e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t e more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s i n t h e i r r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e y e a r o l d s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be a p p a r e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e s by age a n d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h r e e y e a r o l d g r o u p s were i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , b u t were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . W i t h e v i d e n c e t h a t a r i c h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t n u r t u r e s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t o r y t e l l i n g , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a t o r s were d i s c u s s e d , a s w e l l a s f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s . i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s 1 . CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1 1 .1 INTRODUCTION 1 1 .2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM 2 1.2.1 P r i n t A w a r e n e s s 4 1.2.2 R e a d i n g A l o u d t o C h i l d r e n 5 1.2.3 C o n c e p t o f S t o r y 8 1 .3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 12 1 .4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 14 1 .5 QUESTIONS 14 1 . 6 HYPOTHESES 15 1.7 D E F I N I T I O N OF TERMS 16 2. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 18 2.1 INTRODUCTION 18 2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 18 2.2.1 L o o k i n g a t t h e S u c c e s s f u l R e a d e r 18 2.2.2 L o o k i n g a t L i t e r a t e Homes 22 2.2.3 C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t 25 2.2.4 P r i n t A w a r e n e s s 30 2.2.5 A L i m i t a t i o n t o C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t 31 2.2.6 The I m p o r t a n c e o f S t o r i e s 34 2.3 CONCEPT OF STORY 39 2.3.1 S t o r y t e l l i n g 45 2.4 SUMMARY 49 3. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 52 3.1 DESIGN 52 3.2 SUBJECTS 58 3.3 COMPARISON GROUPS 59 i i i 3.4 TASK 60 3.5 DATA COLLECTION 62 3.6 TRANSCRIPTIONS 63 3.7 DATA ANALYSIS 63 3.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 65 4. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 67 4.1 STORY ELEMENTS 67 4.2 LITERARY DEVICES 72 4.3 BOOK ORIENTATION 76 4.4 DISCUSSION 80 5. CHAPTER F I V E : CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 83 5.1 SUMMARY 83 5.2 CONCLUSIONS 84 5.2.1 T h r e e Y e a r O l d s 85 5.2.2 F o u r Y e a r O l d s 88 5.3 IMPLICATIONS 91 5.4 RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 92 BIBLIOGRAPHY '. 95 APPENDIX A •. 100 APPENDIX B 103 APPENDIX C 1 06 APPENDIX D 109 APPENDIX E 110 i v L i s t o f T a b l e s 1. T a b l e 1 C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s 58 2. T a b l e 2 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r S t o r y E l e m e n t s 66 3. T a b l e 3 t - t e s t R e s u l t s f o r S t o r y E l e m e n t s 67 4. T a b l e 4 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s 71 5. T a b l e 5 t - t e s t R e s u l t s f o r L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s 72 6. T a b l e 6 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Book O r i e n t a t i o n 76 7. T a b l e 7 t - t e s t R e s u l t s f o r Book O r i e n t a t i o n 76 v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s Many p e o p l e have h e l p e d make t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o : 1 . D r . J o n S h a p i r o f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t a nd f r i e n d s h i p , h i s e x p e r t a d v i c e , a n d e s p e c i a l l y f o r h i s s u p p o r t i v e c r i t i c i s m . 2. D r . Wendy S u t t o n f o r h e r e n t h u s i a s m a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and a b o v e a l l , h e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f my b e l i e f i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i t e r a t u r e . 3. D r . R i t a W a tson f o r t h e t i m e a n d i n t e r e s t s h e i n v e s t e d i n my w o r k , a n d e s p e c i a l l y h e r i n v a l u a b l e c r i t i q u e . 4. D r . Nanc y S u z u k i a n d D r . B i l l W h i t e f o r t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l a d v i c e . 5. D o r o t h y Hoek, f r i e n d a n d c o l l e a g u e , f o r h e r c o n s c i e n t i o u s work i n v e r i f y i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . 6. M a r g o t F i l i p e n k o , f r i e n d a n d c o l l e a g u e , f o r h e r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e on t h e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . 7. D r . G l e n D i x o n a n d t h e s t a f f a n d c h i l d r e n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r , f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t w h i l e I c o n d u c t e d t h i s s t u d y . I am e s p e c i a l l y i n d e b t e d t o my w i f e , E l i z a b e t h , who s e t a s i d e h e r own c a r e e r f o r a y e a r a n d s u p p o r t e d me f u l l y a s I p u r s u e d t h i s d ream. v i 1. CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1.1 INTRODUCTION D u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e , a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h h a s e x a m i n e d t h e e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ; H a r s t e , e t a l , 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ; D o a k e , l 9 8 3 ; H o l d a w a y , 1 9 7 9 ; C l a y , 1 9 7 9 ) A t t e m p t s h a v e been made t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t n u r t u r e r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s a n d p r o v i d e m o t i v a t i o n f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n a s t h e y l e a r n t o r e a d ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ; T e a l e , l 9 8 l ) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d on t h e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t . P a r a l l e l i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h a r e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s c h i l d r e n u s e t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r w o r l d . T h i s s e c o n d body o f work s u g g e s t s c h i l d r e n a r e d e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them, and a r e s e e k i n g t o o r g a n i z e i t by u s i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s common t o us a l l ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 7 ; B e t t l e h e i m , 1 9 7 6 ; S e a r l e , 1 9 7 3 ) . As we r e l a t e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a n d c r e a t e s t o r i e s , we a r e a p p l y i n g t h e s e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . S i n c e s t o r y t e l l i n g i s a c t i v e i n a l l c h i l d r e n , i t may p r o v i d e a m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o b e t t e r o b s e r v e a n d u n d e r s t a n d c h i l d r e n ' s e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s . T h i s s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t t o l i n k t h e s e two a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h by u t i l i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g k n o w l e d g e . How 1 2 c h i l d r e n apply s t o r y t e l l i n g i n the reading s i t u a t i o n may le a d to a f u l l e r understanding of t h e i r reading development. 1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM Educators t r a d i t i o n a l l y began c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l i n g with an assumption that c h i l d r e n know very l i t t l e about reading and w r i t i n g . Therefore the job of the teacher was to get c h i l d r e n 'ready', before beginning the te a c h i n g of rea d i n g . W r i t i n g was only taught a f t e r many reading s k i l l s were mastered. However, r e s e a r c h e r s have shown that l i t e r a c y s k i l l s begin to emerge at a much e a r l i e r age, w e l l before school s t a r t s (Doake,1983; Holdaway,1979). Research i n t o the r o o t s of l i t e r a c y arose i n an attempt to determine the best environment i n which c h i l d r e n can l e a r n to read and w r i t e . Holdaway(1979)made a l i n k between c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l language development and the s i m i l a r development of a l l language s t r a n d s . Other r e s e a r c h e r s (Bissex,1980;Chomsky,1972) developed l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a s i n g l e case i n order to observe and document the emerging reading and w r i t i n g behaviors of a pr e s c h o o l c h i l d . Goodman(1981) d e s c r i b e d the importance of p r i n t awareness and how c h i l d r e n begin to a c t on l i t e r a t e forms w i t h i n t h e i r environment. In ext e n s i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , W e l l s ( l 9 8 5 ) attempted t o i d e n t i f y l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d events w i t h i n the home that l e a d to success i n s c h o o l . F o l l o w i n g h i s s u b j e c t s f o r e i g h t years, Wells was abl e to prov i d e a wide p e r s p e c t i v e on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n the 3 l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n . As w e l l a s o b s e r v i n g a n d d o c u m e n t i n g t h e l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t s , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e f o c u s e d on t h e b e h a v i o r o f e a r l y r e a d e r s i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y any common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may have been s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . D u r k i n ( l 9 6 6 ) i d e n t i f i e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b o o k s a n d b e i n g r e a d t o f r e q u e n t l y a s key f a c t o r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a r l y r e a d e r s . K e s h i a n ( 1 9 6 3 ) , P l e s s a s a n d O a k e s ( l 9 6 4 ) , a n d F r o s t ( 1 9 6 4 ) u s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o document t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g r e a d t o a t an e a r l y a g e . T h e s e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s l i n k i n g t h e r e a d i n g o f b o o k s t o c h i l d r e n a n d f u t u r e s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l went m o s t l y u n h e e d e d i n t h e l a t e 1960's a nd 1 9 7 0 ' s , an e d u c a t i o n a l e r a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v a s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s . I t was o n l y w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r o o t s o f l i t e r a c y a n d an a w a k e n i n g t o t h e r o l e o f t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t , i n t h e emer g e n c e o f r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g s k i l l s , t h a t a t t e n t i o n a g a i n became f o c u s e d on t h e r o l e o f r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n . H a r t y d 9 7 5 ) , B r o w n ( l 9 7 9 ) , a n d T e a l e ( 1 978) c o n c e n t r a t e d r e n e w e d a t t e n t i o n on i d e n t i f y i n g c o n s i s t e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o e a r l y r e a d i n g . Many o f t h e m a j o r f a c t o r s t h e y i d e n t i f i e d i n v o l v e d p r i n t m a t e r i a l s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s own u s e o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r e n t s r e a d i n g t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n were c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d a s common f a c t o r s i n t h e homes o f c h i l d r e n who l e a r n e d t o 4 r e a d e a s i l y o r e a r l y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e home f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e r e s e a r c h l o o k i n g a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r h a v e been c e n t e r e d a r o u n d c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a n d i n b o o k s . 1 . 2 . 1 PRINT AWARENESS The m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f e m e r g i n g l i t e r a c y i s i n t h e a r e a o f c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t . R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s C l a y ( 1 9 7 7 ) , B i s s e x ( 1 9 8 0 ) , R e a d ( l 9 7 1 ) , and C h o m s k y ( 1 9 7 1 ) have a t t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e a n d c l a s s i f y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e p r i n t . P r e s c h o o l e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s k n o w l e d g e a b l e u s e r s o f p r i n t , c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r i n t - t a s k s t h a n e d u c a t o r s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d . C e r t a i n l y t h i s body o f r e s e a r c h i s h a v i n g a d i r e c t p e d a g o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g p r o g r a m s . C l a y ' s C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t T e s t ( S a n d ) i s a d i r e c t e x a m p l e o f how f a r t h i s a r e a h a s d e v e l o p e d . By m e a s u r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t , we c a n l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e some o f t h e r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t e d i n s c h o o l . C l o s e l y l i n k e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e p r i n t i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . G o o d m a n ( 1 9 8 1 ) , L u s e ( l 9 8 3 ) , a n d H a r s t e , e t a l ( l 9 8 l ) p r o v i d e many e x a m p l e s o f how c h i l d r e n a r e aware o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l 5 p r i n t . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o p u l a r l o g o s , common s t r e e t s i g n s , and o t h e r s t r o n g l y c o n t e x t u a l i z e d u s e s f o r p r i n t a r e o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r s i n a l l c h i l d r e n i n our h i g h l y p r i n t - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . As c h i l d r e n g e t o l d e r , t h e y a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o l i n k t h e i r knowledge o f t h e p r i n t a r o u n d them w i t h r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t have much of t h e c o n t e x t removed ( G o o d m a n , 1 9 8 1 ; L u s e , l 9 8 3 ) . C h i l d r e n n o t o n l y r e c o g n i z e p r i n t i n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e , t h e y l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d i t a s h a v i n g a f u n c t i o n and p u r p o s e . H a r s t e , e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) have d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l t h e meaning c h i l d r e n a t t r i b u t e t o p r i n t . C h i l d r e n r e c o g n i z e t h e w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s p u r p o s e f u l l y engage i n a n d t h e y l e a r n t h a t p r i n t c a n t e l l them s o m e t h i n g . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d even i n t h e e a r l y s c r i b b l i n g s o f v e r y young c h i l d r e n ( H a r s t e , e t a l , l 9 8 4 ) . 1 . 2 . 2 READING ALOUD TO CHILDREN As t h e r e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t c o n t i n u e s t o grow and add new knowledge t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f emergent r e a d i n g , i t has s p a r k e d renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e r o l e o f r e a d i n g a l o u d t o young c h i l d r e n . Many o f t h e p r i n t - o r i e n t e d t a s k s e n g a g e d i n by p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n a r e c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e b o o k - r e a d i n g e v e n t . R e a d i n g a l o u d f r o m good q u a l i t y b o o k s , p u r c h a s i n g o r r e c e i v i n g b ooks a s g i f t s , and v i s i t s t o t h e l i b r a r y a r e t i m e s when books p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e i n p r i n t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . 6 The i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a d i n g a l o u d t o c h i l d r e n i s s t r e s s e d o v e r and o v e r a g a i n i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s l i n k i n g i t t o s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d . D a t a g a t h e r e d on t h e home e x p e r i e n c e s o f p r e s c h o o l e r s i n s t u d i e s by G l a z e r ( l 9 8 l ) a n d W a l k e r and K u e r b i t z ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who were r e a d t o more o f t e n i n t h e i r p r e s c h o o l y e a r s s u c c e e d e d more e a s i l y i n s c h o o l . R e a d i n g a l o u d i s a t t r i b u t e d t o m o t i v a t i n g c h i l d r e n t o want t o l e a r n t o r e a d , t e a c h i n g them s y n t a c t i c a nd p h o n e m i c l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n s , a s w e l l a s p r o m o t i n g l i s t e n i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s ( S c h i c k e d a n z , 1 9 7 8 ; M c C o r m i c k , 1 9 7 7 ; H i l l m a n , 1 9 7 5 ) . R e a d i n g a l o u d t o c h i l d r e n h a s a l s o b een e x p l o r e d w i t h s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n i n a t t e m p t s t o o b s e r v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t a f t e r an i n c r e a s e i n r e a d i n g a l o u d e x p e r i e n c e s . C h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l age i m p r o v e d i n t h e i r r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t when t h e y were r e a d t o ( M i l e s , 1 9 8 5 ; L a u r i t z e n , 1 9 8 0 ; Chomsky,1974; C o h e n , 1 9 6 6 ) . W h i l e some o f t h e e a r l y r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t h e q u a n t i t y o f b o o k s r e a d t o c h i l d r e n ( S u t t o n 1 9 6 4 ) , more a t t e n t i o n i s now p l a c e d on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g book r e a d i n g . T e a l e ( 1 9 8 l ) saw a n e e d t o c l o s e l y e x a m i n e t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f book r e a d i n g e v e n t s . R o s e r a n d M a r t i n e z ( 1 9 8 5 ) i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l r o l e s p a r e n t s t a k e d u r i n g t h e book s h a r i n g e v e n t . As w e l l , c h i l d r e n a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e r e a d i n g e v e n t s . They l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t r e a d i n g f r o m t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , a n d t h e n p r a c t i c e t h e i r s k i l l s t h r o u g h p r i v a t e m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e i r b o o k s 7 ( H o l d a w a y , 1 9 7 9 ) . W i t h l o t s o f book e x p e r i e n c e s , a s h i f t d e v e l o p s f r o m t h e h i g h l y c o n t e x t u a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f e a r l y o r a l l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o t h e more d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f book r e a d i n g a n d s t o r y t e l l i n g ( S n o w , 1 9 8 3 ) . N e l s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , i n h e r f o c u s on c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f s h a r e d m e a n i n g f e l t t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r e n t a nd c h i l d a r e c e n t e r e d a r o u n d s o c i a l p u r p o s e s a n d o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s . C h i l d r e n move i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l p h a s e where t h e l a n g u a g e c e n t e r e d on a c t i v i t y i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o r e f l e c t i v e l a n g u a g e where c h i l d r e n u s e w o r d s t o r e f e r t o o b j e c t s i n t h e w o r l d . S h a r i n g o f c o n t e x t s g i v e s r i s e t o a s h a r i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d c h i l d r e n r e f i n e t h e i r c o n c e p t s t o f i t t h e m e a n i n g s c o n v e y e d by o t h e r s ( N e l s o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . B o o k - s h a r i n g a l l o w s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n t o s h a r e t h e c o n c e p t s o f o t h e r s a nd r e f i n e t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t o f i t t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a c o n c e p t . B r u n e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) d e s c r i b e d " g a m e - l i k e " f o r m a t s t h a t a d u l t s u s e when t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h e s e f o r m a t s h e l p e s t a b l i s h a s t r u c t u r e t h a t f i r s t f o c u s e s c h i l d r e n ' s a t t e n t i o n on o b j e c t s t o g e t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s . I n b o o k - r e a d i n g , a s t r u c t u r a l l a n g u a g e r o u t i n e i s p r o v i d e d , a l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n t o t a k e on a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e w h i c h r e q u i r e s them t o c o n t r i b u t e more and more l a n g u a g e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . H e a t h ( 1 9 8 3 ) i d e n t i f i e d p a r e n t s who t a l k e d a b o u t l a n g u a g e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d showed them how l a n g u a g e i s 8 b r o k e n i n t o b i t s a n d p i e c e s . T h i s p r e p a r e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r t h e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c n a t u r e o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n s c h o o l . P a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t i n g a r o u n d b o o k s i s one way t h i s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p s . L i t e r a c y e v e n t s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d d a i l y l i f e , r e l i g i o n , a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t a l s o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n a n d p a r e n t s t o use l a n g u a g e t o t a l k a b o u t r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g ( A n d e r s o n a n d S t o k e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s s e e n t h e n a s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i r d e v e l o p i n g m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s a n d t h e i r g r o w i n g c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t . H o w e v e r , d e v e l o p i n g a t t h e same t i m e a n d e q u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n a r o u n d l i t e r a c y e v e n t s i s c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t o f s t o r y . 1.2.3 CONCEPT OF STORY To u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t o f s t o r y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o go b a c k t o t h e i r e a r l y o r a l l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e r o l e n a r r a t i v e p l a y s i n t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t . N a r r a t i v e i s u n d e r s t o o d a s a " p r i m a r y a c t o f t h e m i n d " ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 7 ) t h a t e n a b l e s u s t o make s e n s e o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s . From an e a r l y a g e , c h i l d r e n e ngage i n a l l s o r t s o f " s t o r y i n g " a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e y c r e a t e f i c t i o n s b a s e d on a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . As w e l l , t h e y i m a g i n e new s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y p l a y o u t t h e i r e v o l v i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e w o r l d ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ) . C h i l d r e n u s e l a n g u a g e t o c r e a t e t h e c o n t e x t f o r t h e i r s t o r i e s a n d 9 l a n g u a g e becomes a n a r r a t i v e t o o l u s e d t o c r e a t e t h e i r s t o r i e s . E v e n i n t o a d u l t h o o d , we u s e n a r r a t i v e t o d r e a m , f a n t a s i z e , work o u t p r o b l e m s , d a y d r e a m , a n d o r g a n i z e o u r w o r l d . N a r r a t i v e r e m a i n s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o c e s s by w h i c h we o r d e r o u r l i v e s ( S e a r l e , 1 9 7 3 ) . A r i s i n g f r o m t h i s p r i v a t e o r i n n e r n a r r a t i v e comes a w i l l i n g n e s s t o s h a r e i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s o f o t h e r s , w h i c h we c a l l " s t o r i e s " . As c h i l d r e n , we c r e a t e o u r own s t o r i e s a s w e l l a s l i s t e n t o t h e s t o r i e s o f o t h e r s . T h e s e s t o r i e s c a n be t o l d t o us o r r e a d t o u s . S t o r y becomes a way t o c o m m u n i c a t e o u r own n a r r a t i v e s , a s w e l l as s h a r e i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s o f o t h e r s . B e c a u s e i t a r i s e s f r o m a common human p r o c e s s , s t o r y a l l o w s s h a r i n g a n d b o n d i n g a c r o s s c u l t u r e s a n d f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r . A l l c u l t u r e s c o n t a i n s t o r i e s w i t h common themes a n d t h e s e s t o r i e s a r e h a n d e d down t o e a c h g e n e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o r a l a n d w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n s . N ot o n l y i s n a r r a t i v e a common p r o c e s s , b u t many o f t h e f o r m s a nd s t y l e s o f s t o r y a r e c o n s i s t a n t a c r o s s c u l t u r e s a n d f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r ( M e e k , 1 9 7 7 ) . A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 , 1980) p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d e v i d e n c e o f c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g " s e n s e o f s t o r y " . C h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y s t o r y i n g b e g i n s w i t h v e r y p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , s u c h a s a v i s i t t o g r a n d p a r e n t s o r a day a t t h e z o o . G r a d u a l l y , c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , a c t i o n s a n d s e t t i n g s become removed f r o m t h a t e x p e r i e n c e a n d n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s become more t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d . A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 ) r e f e r s t o " c e n t e r i n g " 10 a n d " c h a i n i n g " a s two s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h h e l p t o c o n t r o l n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e a n d w h i c h c h i l d r e n u s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r s t o r i e s . U s i n g e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d f r o m c h i l d r e n ' s r e t e l l i n g o f s t o r i e s , A p p l e b e e d e s c r i b e s how c h i l d r e n a d d a m a i n theme ( c e n t e r i n g ) t o t h e i r s t o r i e s a s w e l l a s l i n k c h a r a c t e r s a n d e v e n t s w i t h a common t h r e a d ( c h a i n i n g ) . S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 81) o u t l i n e s how c h i l d r e n u s e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s t o make up s t o r i e s i n t h e i r p l a y a n d t o c r e a t e d ramas t h a t t h e y a c t o u t a l o n e o r w i t h p e e r s . Dreams a n d p l a y p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e n t f o r t h e i r s t o r i e s a n d p a r e n t s a n d o l d e r s i b l i n g s p r o v i d e m o d e l s o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f s t o r y t e l l i n g . S u t t o n - S m i t h d e s c r i b e s p a r e n t s a s " c o a c h e s " who p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h s c a f f o l d s t h a t a s s i s t them i n s t o r y t e l l i n g . P a r e n t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n when t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v e s t o r i e s t o t e l l may a l s o be c r u c i a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t o r y t e l l i n g ( S u t t o n - S m i t h 1 9 8 1 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d i r e c t c o a c h i n g by a d u l t s , a l a r g e p a r t o f c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g s e n s e o f s t o r y comes f r o m l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s t o l d o r r e a d t o them by p a r e n t s . I n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e what p r e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s were r e l a t e d t o l a t e r l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t , W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a c t i v i t y o f l o o k i n g a t a n d t a l k i n g a b o u t b o o k s h e l p s a c h i l d d e v e l o p new v o c a b u l a r y a s w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e a t a s k i n g a n d a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , by l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s r e a d a l o u d , c h i l d r e n g a i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e a n d i t s 11 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r h y t h m s and s t r u c t u r e s . C h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e l a n g u a g e a s i t i s u s e d t o c r e a t e new e x p e r i e n c e s , s u c h a s e s c a p i n g t h e " b i g bad w o l f " o r s a i l i n g away t o "where t h e w i l d t h i n g s a r e " . T h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l o r a l a n d w r i t t e n f o r m s . L i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o c l o s e t o a c h i l d ' s own i n n e r s e n s e o f s t o r y . The b e s t s t o r i e s a c u l t u r e h a s t o o f f e r i t s c h i l d r e n a r e f o u n d w i t h i n i t s l i t e r a t u r e ( S p e n c e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . The b a s i c t y p e s o f l i t e r a t u r e s u c h a s f a b l e s , f a i r y t a l e s , p a r a b l e s , p r o v e r b s a n d m y t h s a r e t h e c l o s e s t t o t h e c h i l d ' s own i n n e r s t o r y ( B e t t l e h e i m , 1 9 7 6 ) . B e t t l e h e i m s u g g e s t s t h e s e f o r m s o f l i t e r a t u r e p a r r a l l e l a c h i l d ' s a t t e m p t s t o o r g a n i z e t h e w o r l d a s t h e y s e e k t o u n d e r s t a n d i t . L i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r c h i l d r e n t o c ompare t h e i r own s t o r i e s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o n e s o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s . As c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e y r e s p o n d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g s e n s e o f f o r m ( B r i t t o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . As t h e y g a i n more e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l i t e r a t u r e , c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e more c o m p l e x p a t t e r n s o f e v e n t s w i t h i n a s t o r y a n d t h e y s t a r t t o p e r c e i v e t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e s t o r y a n d t h e r e a l w o r l d a r o u n d them ( B r i t t o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . The t e l l i n g a n d r e a d i n g o f s t o r i e s a l l o w t h e d e e p e n i n g s e n s e o f l i t e r a r y f o r m t o d e v e l o p c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e n a t u r a l l y e v o l v i n g s e n s e o f s t o r y . By s c h o o l a g e , c h i l d r e n a r e s e e n a s e x p e r i e n c e d u s e r s o f n a r r a t i v e . T h e i r own i n n e r s t o r y i n g i s a c t i v e w i t h i n t h e i r p l a y ; t h e y c r e a t e s t o r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h o r d e r i n t h e i r w o r l d ; t h e y h a v e l i s t e n e d t o many s t o r i e s t o l d o r r e a d by a d u l t s a n d t h e y a r e h e i g h t e n i n g t h e i r s e n s e o f s t o r y w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s o f f o r m a l l i t e r a r y e l e m e n t s . C h i l d r e n b e g i n t o l e a r n how t o r e a d and w r i t e w i t h a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d s e n s e o f s t o r y ( A p p l e b e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . 1 . 3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h a v e p r o d u c e d no m e a s u r e s t h a t a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t what t h e y know a b o u t r e a d i n g . R e s e a r c h h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d on c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t , t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f p r i n t i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . R e s e a r c h e r s seem t o be m a t c h i n g c h i l d r e n ' s e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w i t h t h e i r m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s a n d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o p r i n t . H o wever, a p p r o a c h i n g t h e p r o b l e m f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s e x p e c t i n g v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t r e a d i n g i n a v e r y a b s t r a c t manner. The t a s k s t h e y a r e a s k e d t o p e r f o r m may n o t m a t c h t h e i r c o g n i t i v e a n d l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s . A p p r o a c h i n g t h e q u e s t i o n f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e may p r o v e more f r u i t f u l . The m a j o r s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d by y o u n g c h i l d r e n t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d o r g a n i z e t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them i s s t o r y t e l l i n g . B o t h t h e i r i n n e r s t o r y i n g a n d t h e o v e r t s t o r y i n g o f t h e i r p l a y a l l o w c h i l d r e n t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l o f t h e i r w o r l d by o r g a n i z i n g i t i n ways t h e y c a n u n d e r s t a n d . 1 3 I f s t o r y i s t h e way t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e w o r l d , t h e n d r a w i n g on t h a t s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y may r e v e a l more o f t h e i r e m e r g i n g book b e h a v i o r s . P r e s e n t i n g p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book a n d a s k i n g them t o t e l l t h e s t o r y may h e l p us e x p l o r e e l e m e n t s o f e m e r g i n g book b e h a v i o r n o t e v i d e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e a b s t r a c t t a s k s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d t o them. The u s e of a w o r d l e s s book w i l l remove t h e p r i n t v a r i a b l e a n d a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f s t o r y l a n g u a g e w i t h i n a b o o k - s h a r i n g s i t u a t i o n . C h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d a s e n g a g i n g i n more s t o r y t e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ; D o a k e , l 9 8 3 ) . C h i l d r e n f r o m t h e s e h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d a s r e c e i v i n g more i n p u t i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y f r o m t h e o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g a n d b o o k - r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s . We c a n i n f e r t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be o b s e r v e d i n t h e t y p e o f r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r d e m o n s t r a t e d by c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h and l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d t h e s e two g r o u p s may u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t s t o r y e l e m e n t s and l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . A l l o w i n g c h i l d r e n t o a p p l y t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s k i l l s i n a b o o k - s h a r i n g s i t u a t i o n may be a more n a t u r a l a n d p r o d u c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y f o r e x p l o r i n g e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s . 1 4 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e what d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be e v i d e n t i n t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s o f t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r i n g home l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The s t o r y e l e m e n t s , l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a n d book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s , e v i d e n c e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s , were m e a s u r e d t o d i s c o v e r d i f f e r e n c e s c o m p a r a b l e by age a n d l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d . 1.5 QUESTIONS T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What s t o r y e l e m e n t s do t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k ? 2. What l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s do t h r e e a nd f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k ? 3. What book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s do t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e i n t h e i r r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k ? 4. W i l l t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ? 15 5. W i l l t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e more l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ? 6. W i l l t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s d u r i n g t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ? 1.6 HYPOTHESES The r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e : 1. T h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l i n c l u d e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s t o r y e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 2. T h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h home l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l i n c l u d e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a nd f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 3. T h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s d u r i n g t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g o f a 16 w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m low h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 1.7 D E F I N I T I O N OF TERMS The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s w i l l c l a r i f y t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s e t e r m s a s t h e y were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 1. S t o r y E l e m e n t s : t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s f o u n d w i t h i n most s t o r i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , f o r m a l o p e n i n g , f o r m a l c l o s i n g , t h e s e t t i n g , p l o t , e t c . 2. L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s : l a n g u a g e t e c h n i q u e s common t o t h e o r a l a n d w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o a d d i n t e r e s t , drama o r e m o t i o n t o a s t o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , r e p e t i t i o n o f w o r d s , i n t o n a t i o n , d i a l o g u e , s i m i l e , e t c . 3. E m e r g e n t R e a d i n g B e h a v i o r s : any b e h a v i o r d e m o n s t r a t e d by a n o n - r e a d e r t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o known b e h a v i o r s u s e d by a b l e r e a d e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , f o l l o w i n g i n a b o o k , t u r n i n g p a g e s i n t h e boo k , m o v i n g f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t , e t c . 4. S t o r y R e t e l l i n g : The p i c t u r e s i n t h e w o r d l e s s book u s e d by t h e c h i l d r e n do t e l l a s p e c i f i c s t o r y , s o t h e c h i l d ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y i s i n a c t u a l i t y a r e t e l l i n g o f t h e s t o r y i n t h e book. By way o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r h a s p r e s e n t e d a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a n d h y p o t h e s e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h i s s t u d y . C h a p t e r Two r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m a n d p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r d e t a i l on t h e b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r T h r e e o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y a n d p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e 1 7 c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . C h a p t e r F o u r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y comes i n C h a p t e r F i v e , h i g h l i g h t e d by an o u t l i n i n g o f t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e a l s o g i v e n . 2. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r o f f e r s a r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h i s s t u d y . The i n t e n t o f t h i s r e v i e w i s t o a c q u a i n t t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e m a j o r s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s a r e a , a s w e l l a s f u r n i s h b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y o p e r a t e d . The r e v i e w i s o r g a n i z e d u n d e r two m a j o r h e a d i n g s . The f i r s t i s E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g e m e r g e n t r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s , l i t e r a t e homes, c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t o r i e s . The s e c o n d h e a d i n g i n c l u d e s r e s e a r c h o u t l i n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s e v o l v i n g C o n c e p t o f S t o r y a n d how i t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g s . 2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 2.2.1 LOOKING AT THE SUCCESSFUL READER P r i o r t o t h e m i d 1970's i n t e r e s t i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d on c h i l d r e n who were a l r e a d y r e a d i n g ( F r o s t , 1 9 6 8 ; N a p o l i , l 9 6 8 ; D u r k i n , l 9 6 6 ; P l e s s a a a n d O a k e s , l 9 6 4 ; S u t t o n , 1 9 6 4 ; K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ) . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e s e r e a d e r s c o n c e r n e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a n d t h e t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s e c h i l d r e n h a d i n t h e i r p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t m i g h t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r l a t e r r e a d i n g 18 19 a c h i e v e m e n t . A v a r i e t y o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were u s e d t o p r o b e t h e s e b a c k g r o u n d e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e q u e s t i o n s w e re a s k e d o f p a r e n t s , t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r t e a c h e r s . S e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s were c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e s e s t u d i e s . The s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s were d e s c r i b e d a s c o n s c i e n t i o u s a n d s e r i o u s - m i n d e d ( D u r k i n , 1 9 6 1 ) , i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g ( P l e s s a s a n d O a k e s , l 9 6 4 : S u t t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , w i t h a w e l l - a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y ( K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ) . A c o n s i s t a n t p i c t u r e o f p a r e n t q u a l i t i e s a l s o emerged f r o m t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P a r e n t s h a d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n a n d r e g a r d f o r r e a d i n g ( D u r k i n , 1 9 6 1 ; K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ; S u t t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . They r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s q u e s t i o n s a n d e x p r e s s e d an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n w o u l d r e a d ( F r o s t , 1 9 6 8 ) . I n v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e homes s u r v e y e d , b o o k s h e l d a s p e c i a l p l a c e . P a r e n t s r e a d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e g u l a r l y a n d c o n s i d e r e d i t h e l p f u l a s t h e i r c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d t o r e a d ( D u r k i n , 1 9 6 1 ; K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ; S u t t o n , 1 9 6 4 ; P l e s s a s a n d O a k e s , l 9 6 4 ; F r o s t , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l l o f t h i s s u r v e y r e s e a r c h was r e t r o s p e c t i v e . S u b j e c t s h a d t o remember b a c k t o t h e i r p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s . Some s u b j e c t s w e re q u e s t i o n e d a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were i n t o G r a d e 5 o r 6 ( K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ; D u r k i n , 1 9 6 6 ) , a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e s i n c e t h e p r e s c h o o l f a c t o r s were e v i d e n t . When t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o c u s e d on p a r e n t s r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n a n d t h e r o l e o f b o o k s i n t h e home, t h e i r q u e s t i o n s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l u s e d , f r e q u e n c y o f u s e o f t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , a n d how o f t e n p a r e n t s 20 r e a d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( D u r k i n , 1 9 6 6 ; K e s h i a n , 1 9 6 3 ; F r o s t , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s i g n o r e d o r c o u l d n o t i l l u m i n a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e b e t w e e n p a r e n t a n d c h i l d d u r i n g b o o k - r e a d i n g e v e n t s , a s w e l l a s t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n . G e n e r a l l y t h i s r e s e a r c h showed us t h a t r e a d e r s came f r o m homes where r e a d i n g was d o n e . T h i s f a c t was i n t e r p r e t e d a s n o t r e a l l y t e l l i n g e d u c a t o r s s o m e t h i n g t h e y d i d n ' t a l r e a d y know. I t d i d n o t i d e n t i f y any s p e c i f i c s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d i n r e a d i n e s s p r o g r a m s , so t h e r e s e a r c h was b a s i c a l l y o v e r l o o k e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t e 1960's a n d e a r l y 1970's when many t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s were b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o o u r s c h o o l s . The home and i t s i n f l u e n c e on c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t was v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d . I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , new s u r v e y r e s e a r c h began t o p r o b e t h e p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s o f c h i l d r e n who h a d been i n s c h o o l s e v e r a l y e a r s . Rossman (1974) a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a nd b e i n g r e a d t o a t home. She s u r v e y e d 261 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w i t h r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s a nd f o u n d t h a t l e s s t h a n h a l f ( 4 4 % ) were r e a d t o a s c h i l d r e n . W h i l e l i m i t e d by t h e s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y t o remember b a c k so f a r , Rossman f e l t t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r e n t a l r e a d i n g t o p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r f u t u r e i n t e r e s t a n d s k i l l i n r e a d i n g . H a n s e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u r v e y e d t h e m o t h e r s o f G r a d e 4 c h i l d r e n a n d f o u n d t h e same b a s i c f a c t o r s o f p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t a n d 21 i n v o l v e m e n t , r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n , a n d c h i l d r e n m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n , t h a t were f o u n d i n t h e o t h e r r e p o r t e d s u r v e y s . One o f t h e more c l e a r l y d o c u m e n t e d a n d f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d s u r v e y s t u d i e s o f home e n v i r o n m e n t f a c t o r s i s M a r g a r e t C l a r k ' s s t u d y o f Young F l u e n t R e a d e r s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C l a r k i n t e r v i e w e d t h e p a r e n t s o f 32 c h i l d r e n who a t t h e age of f i v e were r e a d i n g f l u e n t l y . T h e s e same p a r e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d two y e a r s l a t e r t o i d e n t i f y what i n f l u e n c e s t h e home c o n t i n u e d t o s u p p l y a s t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g d e v e l o p e d . A l t h o u g h h e r p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d c h i l d r e n o f w e l l - e d u c a t e d a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r e n t s , h e r i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The p a r e n t s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g a n d t h e y p r o v i d e d e x p e r i e n c e s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d b o o k s . P a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y a n d t h e y s t r e s s e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d s h a r e d e n j o y m e n t . They d e s c r i b e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s c u r i o u s a n d p o s s e s s i n g a good memory a n d power o f o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e i r c h i l d r e n showed an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g a n d were p r o v i d e d w i t h v a r i o u s p r i n t - r e l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s . A l t h o u g h h e r s t u d y was r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n d e s i g n a n d d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e , i t d i d c o n f i r m t h e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , i t s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n a s f o r m i n g t h e b a s i s f o r l a n g u a g e g r o w t h a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n t e r e s t i n p r i n t , a s w e l l a s n u r t u r i n g t h e d e s i r e t o l e a r n t o r e a d 22 and w r i t e . 2.2.2 LOOKING AT LITERATE HOMES D u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1970's a r e n e w e d i n t e r e s t was shown i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t p r o d u c e d s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s ( C homsky,1972; C l a y , 1 9 7 2 ) . I n s t e a d o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e c h i l d who c o u l d a l r e a d y r e a d , t h i s r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d d i r e c t l y on p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t was ho p e d t h i s e f f o r t w o u l d i d e n t i f y e a r l y c l u e s t h a t m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o l a t e r l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . A t t e m p t s were made t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e b e h a v i o r s t h a t m i g h t be s i g n s o f e a r l y r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n were l o n g i t u d i n a l i n s c o p e a n d r a n g e d f r o m s i n g l e c a s e s t u d i e s t o l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s f o l l o w e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ; D o a k e , l 9 8 l ; B i s s e x , 1980; H o l d a w a y , 1979; C h o m s k y , 1 9 7 2 ) . F o l l o w i n g one o r s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e was s e e n a s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t a i l a ny d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t may be t a k i n g p l a c e . Many o f t h e same e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e a r l i e r s u r v e y r e s e a r c h became b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n d e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s on e m e r g i n g l i t e r a c y . Some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c l a r i f i c a t i o n s came i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how c h i l d r e n l e a r n . C h i l d r e n w e r e d e s c r i b e d a s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 23 t h e i r l e a r n i n g , c a p a b l e o f f o r m u l a t i n g , t e s t i n g , a n d r e f o r m u l a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s ( R e a d , 1 9 7 1 ; Chomsky,1972; B i s s e x , 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n d e t e r m i n e d what t h e y w o u l d l e a r n by s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t s e r v e d t h e i r n e e d s . C h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d a p p l y i n g a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s a s t h e y a p p r o a c h e d new l e a r n i n g ( B i s s e x , 1 9 8 0 ) . U s i n g t h e s i n g l e c a s e s t u d y d e s i g n , B i s s e x ( 1 9 8 0) o b s e r v e d h e r s o n ' s l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r a n i n e y e a r p e r i o d . She r e c o r d e d h i s e a r l i e s t a t t e m p t s a t l i t e r a c y e v e n t s t h r o u g h t o t h e f u l l m a t u r i n g o f h i s r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g a b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h B i s s e x ' s f i n d i n g s l a c k any g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y b e c a u s e she o b s e r v e d o n l y one c h i l d , h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e a t home c o m p a r e d t o how h i s t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p o s e s some i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s i n s c h o o l s . W h i l e h e r s u b j e c t l e a r n e d f r o m d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , i n s c h o o l , t h e t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d a l l t h e l e a r n i n g by s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g a n d c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o what she t h o u g h t t h e c h i l d n e e d e d t o l e a r n . W i t h i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s u b j e c t a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e a t s c h o o l t h e t e a c h e r a s k e d a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d t h e c h i l d s u p p l i e d t h e a n s w e r s . B i s s e x ' s s u g g e s t i o n s a r e s u p p o r t e d by Chomsky's ( 1 9 7 2 ) c a s e s t u d y a n d Read's ( 1 9 7 1 ) d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e n t e d s p e l l i n g . I n t h e s e s t u d i e s , c h i l d r e n a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g , a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g a n s w e r s t o t h e i r own q u e s t i o n s . 24 T h e s e d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s l a i d t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y a w a r e n e s s a s t h e y e n t e r s c h o o l . The work o f C l a y ( 1 9 7 2) a n d H o l d a w a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) i n New Z e a l a n d a n d t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f H a r s t e e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) a n d W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) a d d e d more s u p p o r t t o t h i s d y n a m i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how l i t e r a c y was d e v e l o p i n g . Don H o l d a w a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) o b s e r v e d t h e " r e a d i n g - l i k e " b e h a v i o r s o f p r e s c h o o l e r s a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e " l i t e r a c y s e t " a s t h e r a n g e o f e a r l y s k i l l s a n d a t t i t u d e s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e s e c h i l d r e n . They had h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i n t ; t h e y c o u l d o r a l l y m o d e l t h e l a n g u a g e o f b o o k s ; t h e y r e c o g n i z e d w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s ; t h e y knew p r i n t c o n t a i n s a message a n d t h e y h a d some c o n c e p t o f p r i n t d i r e c t i o n ; t h e y c o u l d l i s t e n f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e ; t h e y c o u l d r e s p o n d t o l a n g u a g e i n c o m p l e x ways and were n o t bound t o t h e h e r e a n d now; a n d t h e y h a d an e x t e n s i v e b a c k g r o u n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b o o k s . H o l d a w a y c o m b i n e d t h e b e h a v i o r s he o b s e r v e d i n t o f o u r m a j o r g r o u p s m o t i v a t i o n a l , l i n g u i s t i c , o p e r a t i o n a l and o r t h o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s p r o v i d i n g a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a s t r o n g l i t e r a c y s e t . H o l d a w a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Goodman ( 1 9 8 1 ) , C l a y ( 1 9 7 2 ) a n d F r a n k S m i t h ( 1 9 71) p a i n t a p i c t u r e o f c h i l d r e n a s h a v i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g a n d a s c a p a b l e o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h p r i n t i n more s o p h i s t i c a t e d ways t h a n p r e v i o u s l y u n d e r s t o o d . 25 H o l d a w a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) d e s c r i b e s t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h a t e m u l a t e t h e e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d by c h i l d r e n w i t h a s t r o n g l i t e r a c y s e t . He a l s o o u t l i n e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e a d i n e s s p r o g r a m s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e g i n i n s t r u c t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g a s e t o f h i e r a r c h i c a l s k i l l s t h a t were s e e n a s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n t o r e a d a n d w r i t e . The s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e s h a r e d book e x p e r i e n c e , s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n , l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e a n d h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g were a l l f i e l d - t e s t e d by H o l d a w a y i n p r o g r a m s i n h i s n a t i v e New Z e a l a n d . They r e p r e s e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n . T h e y h ave been a d a p t e d t o t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , where l a r g e g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n must i n t e r a c t w i t h one a d u l t . 2.2.3 CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT Some o f t h e e a r l i e s t o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t were c o n d u c t e d by M a r i e C l a y ( 1 9 6 7 , 1970, 1 9 7 2 ) . She u s e d v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s , s a m p l e s i z e s a n d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s t o g a t h e r d a t a t h a t w o u l d h e l p h e r i d e n t i f y what c h i l d r e n know a b o u t p r i n t . R e a d i n g : T h e P a t t e r n i n g o f Complex B e h a v i o r ( 1 9 7 2 ) p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d e x a m p l e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p r i n t . She t r a c e s p r i n t a w a r e n e s s f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l i e s t i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t o a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p r i n t c o n t a i n s a m e s s a g e . C l a y ( 1 9 7 9 ) s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f o s t e r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n p r i n t . P a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s n e e d t o be 26 k e e n o b s e r v e r s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t a k i n g p l a c e a s c h i l d r e n move f r o m t h e e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n o f p r i n t a s f u n c t i o n a l t o a more a d v a n c e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t p r i n t moves i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n ( f o r e x a m p l e , i n E n g l i s h f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t a n d t o p t o b o t t o m ) , a n d c o n t a i n s a c o n s i s t a n t a n d s y s t e m a t i c v i s u a l f o r m , composed o f l e t t e r s , s p a c e s a n d p u n c t u a t i o n m a r k s . C l a y ' s r e s e a r c h l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C o n c e p t s  A b o u t P r i n t T e s t ( S A N D , 1 9 7 2 ) , w h i c h p r o v i d e d a new a n d v a l u a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e how f a r a c h i l d ' s c o n c e p t a b o u t p r i n t h a d d e v e l o p e d . T e a c h e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l c o m ed t h e Sand T e s t a s one way t o a c c u r a t e l y o b s e r v e how c h i l d r e n h a n d l e b o o k s a n d r e a c t t o p r i n t . S u b s e q u e n t e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be p l a n n e d t o b u i l d on c h i l d r e n ' s s t r e n g t h s a n d a l l o w w e a k e r p r i n t c o n c e p t s t o d e v e l o p . A l t h o u g h t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o a d m i n i s t e r , t h e S and T e s t h a s g a i n e d an i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y a n d a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e o f C l a y ' s r e s e a r c h i s a l s o b e i n g f e l t i n h e r c a l l f o r t e a c h e r s t o l o o k a t c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t i n g a s one way f o r them t o d e m o n s t r a t e what t h e y u n d e r s t a n d a b o u t p r i n t ( C l a y , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h i s one r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a l o n e h a s p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n l a u n c h i n g o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o a n a l y s e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y w r i t i n g , most p a r t i c u l a r l y H a r s t e , Woodward a n d B u r k e ( 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) . The r e s u l t s p u b l i s h e d i n L a n g u a g e S t o r i e s a n d L i t e r a c y  L e s s o n s ( H a r s t e , e t a l , l 9 8 4 ) r e p r e s e n t d a t a a n a l y s e s f r o m s e v e r a l l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . The o r i g i n a l s t u d y (begun i n 27 1977) c o n s i s t e d o f a random s a m p l e of t w e n t y t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e a n d s i x y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n , r e p r e s e n t i n g m i d d l e a nd u p p e r c l a s s c h i l d r e n . F o u r r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g s were e m p l o y e d : ( l ) t h e r e a d i n g o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t , (2) d i c t a t i n g a l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e s t o r y a n d r e a d i n g a nd r e r e a d i n g i t , (3) w r i t i n g t h e i r name a n d a n y t h i n g e l s e t h e y c o u l d w r i t e , and (4) d r a w i n g a n d l a b e l l i n g a s e l f - p o r t r a i t . T h e s e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n s were v i d e o - t a p e d d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t s t u d y a nd t h e c h i l d r e n were t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h s i t e . T h i s p r o c e d u r e p r o v e d t o be i n h i b i t i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , so i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s t h e r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l o c a t i o n . S e v e r a l o t h e r s t u d i e s grew o u t o f t h i s o r i g i n a l one a n d h e l p e d b r o a d e n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e a n d s a m p l i n g o f t h e s t u d y . S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d i e s were a l s o c o n d u c t e d by g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . I n t h e s e c o n d m a j o r component o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h , H a r s t e , Woodward a n d B u r k e ( 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g a n d d r a w i n g s a m p l e s f r o m 68 t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e a n d s i x y e a r o l d s o v e r a s i x y e a r p e r i o d . T h e s e s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f u l l r a n g e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , e t h n i c g r o u p s a n d r u r a l a n d s u b u r b a n f a m i l i e s . H a r s t e , e t a l e s t a b l i s h e d t h e U n i n t e r r u p t e d W r i t i n g a nd U n i n t e r r u p t e d D r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e s w i t h i n s e v e r a l p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s . T h e s e p r o c e d u r e s a l l o w e d f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n work a n d t h e v i d e o - t a p i n g o f what t h e y were d o i n g w h i l e w r i t i n g o r d r a w i n g . The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n , a s w e l l a s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r p r o d u c t s , l e d 28 t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n w r i t i n g a s a p r i n t medium a n d d r a w i n g a s a way o f r e p r e s e n t i n g m e a n i n g p i c t o r a l l y . The s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s were o r g a n i z e d , i n t e n t i o n a l a n d p l a n n e d . E ven t h e " s c r i b b l i n g " o f v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n showed t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e p r i n t a s m e a n i n g f u l . When c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o w r i t e , o b s e r v a t i o n s o f what t h e y s a i d a s t h e y w r o t e were r e c o r d e d . C h i l d r e n were a s k e d t h e n t o " r e a d " what t h e y h a d w r i t t e n . They u s e d t h e i r m a r k i n g s much a s we u s e p r i n t t o c o n s e r v e memory a n d t o make t h e r e t r i e v a b i l i t y o f t h a t memory p o s s i b l e ( H a r s t e , e t a l , l 9 8 4 ) . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e o r a l l a n g u a g e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n e n g a g e d i n w h i l e t h e y w r o t e was s i g n i f i c a n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s a way o f o r g a n i z i n g what t h e y were d o i n g . H a r s t e , Woodward a n d B u r k e ( 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) h a d p i c k e d up on M a r i e C l a y ' s s u g g e s t i o n s a n d a p p r o a c h e d t h e i r r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e u s e r s a n d l e a r n e r s p r i o r t o c o m i n g t o s c h o o l . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y f e l t t h a t by c o m p a r i n g , c o n t r a s t i n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s e v i d e n t i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y p r i o r t o s c h o o l e n t r y , we c o u l d d e t e r m i n e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s f o r o u r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l ( H a r s t e , e t a l , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e i r r e s e a r c h h e l p e d c h a n g e t h e f o c u s o f much o f t h e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f r o m p r o d u c t a l o n e t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e a c t u a l c r e a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t a n d an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o d u c t i t s e l f . T h ey c o n s i d e r e d t h e c h i l d a s " i n f o r m a n t " d u r i n g t h e i r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a n d f e e l i t i s 29 e s s e n t i a l t o o b s e r v e t h e c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e y a r e w o r k i n g . R e s e a r c h e r s were e n c o u r a g e d t o move i n t o t h e homes and c l a s s r o o m s where c h i l d r e n were w o r k i n g a n d l e t t h e c h i l d r e n " i n f o r m " t h e r e s e a r c h e r o f what t h e y a r e d o i n g . M o s t o f t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by H a r s t e , e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 , 1984) a r o s e f r o m t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e c o r d s a n d p r o d u c t a n a l y s i s a n d a r e n o t b a s e d on any e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e o r e v e n c o r r e l a t i o n a l s u p p o r t . They f o r m e d s e v e r a l g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h t h e y f e e l c h a r a c t e r i z e how c h i l d r e n t r e a t p r i n t . F i r s t , w r i t i n g s e r v e s a p r a g m a t i c f u n c t i o n . S e c o n d l y , w r i t i n g c a n " p l a c e h o l d " t h o u g h t s . T h i r d l y , w r i t i n g a n d d r a w i n g a r e o r g a n i z e d d i f f e r e n t l y , a l t h o u g h b o t h a r e u s e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e . F i n a l l y , c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g c o m p l e x d e c i s i o n s when d e a l i n g w i t h p r i n t . The work o f C l a y ( 1 9 7 0 , 1972) a n d H a r s t e e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 , 1984) drew t h e a t t e n t i o n o f e d u c a t o r s t o t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t c h i l d r e n h a v e a b o u t p r i n t . They a r e a c t i v e u s e r s o f p r i n t i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s a n d t h e y r e c o g n i z e p r i n t a s f u n c t i o n a l a n d s y m b o l i c . B o t h t h e s e b o d i e s o f work r e s p e c t t h e c h i l d a s t h e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t s t a k i n g p l a c e . They e n c o u r a g e t e a c h e r s a n d o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s t o e m p l o y m u l t i - m o d a l a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n , s i n c e no one a p p r o a c h c a n p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o a l l q u e s t i o n s . 30 2.2.4 PRINT AWARENESS As w e l l a s e x a m i n i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t i n b o o k s , r e s e a r c h e r s l o o k e d a t t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f p r i n t i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . Y e t t a Goodman (1981) o u t l i n e d a d e v e l o p m e n t she saw t a k i n g p l a c e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t a w a r e n e s s . C h i l d r e n c o u l d most e a s i l y i d e n t i f y p r i n t w i t h t h e s t r o n g c o n t e x t u a l i z e d b a c k g r o u n d o f i t s l o g o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; f o r e x a m p l e , "Coke" a s i t i s commonly p o r t r a y e d i n i t s r e d a n d w h i t e s i g n . As t h e c o n t e x t i s remo v e d , a n d we move c l o s e r t o t h e p r i n t a s i t w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a boo k , t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t becomes f o r t h e p r e s c h o o l e r t o i d e n t i f y (Goodman,1981). C h i l d r e n t r y t o r e a d t h e s e p r i n t e x a m p l e s by na m i n g t h e i r s p e c i f i c b r a n d name o r by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e g e n e r i c t y p e o f p r o d u c t o r t h e u s e t h e p r o d u c t may h a v e . So f o r "Coke", t h e c h i l d may s a y "Pop" o r "You d r i n k i t . " A s c h i l d r e n become more a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e g r a p h o p h o n e m i c s y s t e m , t h e y b e g i n t o a p p l y p h o n i c r u l e s t o t h e t a s k a n d t r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e wo r d f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g s o u n d (Goodman,1981). I n an a t t e m p t t o f o c u s on t h e p r i n t a w a r e n e s s o f h e r k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s , L u s e ( 1983) c o n d u c t e d a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e i f c h i l d r e n who a r e aw a r e o f p r i n t i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t were a l s o a w a r e o f p r i n t i n b o o k s . She d e v e l o p e d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t A w a r e n e s s A s s e s s m e n t a nd c o m p a r e d t h e r e s u l t s on t h i s t e s t t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e on t h e C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t T e s t ( C l a y , 1 9 7 2 ) . H e r c h i l d r e n seemed a w a r e o f t h e s a m p l e s o f p r i n t f r o m h e r t e s t a n d t h e i r 31 r e s u l t s f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n t o t h o s e o f Goodman (1981) i n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s were d e p e n d e n t on t h e u s u a l f o r m and a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e i t e m f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . As t h e t e s t i t e m l o s t c o n c r e t e n e s s , i t became more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o g n i z e . When t h e s c o r e s on t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t  A w a r e n e s s A s s e s s m e n t T e s t were c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e C o n c e p t s  A b o u t P r i n t T e s t , t h e y were f o u n d n o t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . L u s e (1983) c o n c l u d e d t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween h e r c h i l d r e n ' s a w a r e n e s s o f p r i n t i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f p r i n t i n b o o k s . The s t u d y c o u l d be l i m i t e d by t h e i t e m s u s e d on t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t A w a r e n e s s A s s e s s m e n t , s i n c e s u c h i t e m s a r e d e p e n d e n t on a c h i l d ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h them. However, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s c o r e s d r o p p e d a s t h e i t e m s became l e s s c o n c r e t e d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t a w a r e n e s s i s v e r y much c o n t e x t - b a s e d . 2.2.5 A L I M I T A T I O N TO CONCEPTS ABOUT PRINT A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r who u s e d C l a y ' s C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t  T e s t was D a v i d Doake ( 1 9 8 1 ) . H i s r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h l e d h i m t o c o n c l u d e t h a t (1) p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o d i r e c t , r e g u l a t e a n d m o n i t o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . ( 2) Our c o n c e p t s o f what c o n s t i t u t e s r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g , p r e - r e a d i n g o r e v e n p r e - l i t e r a c y a r e u n t e n a b l e . (3) L e a r n i n g t o r e a d s h o u l d be a n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g t a s k ( D o a k e , 1 9 8 1 ) . Doake was p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s t o r y r e a d i n g e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e home. He v i s i t e d f o u r homes, 56 32 t i m e s o v e r a s e v e n - m o n t h p e r i o d . He g a t h e r e d 67 h o u r s o f t a p e on f o u r c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age f r o m two y e a r s a n d e l e v e n months t o f i v e y e a r s a n d f i v e m o n t h s . A l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n were r e a d t o f r e q u e n t l y . Doake a l s o a d a p t e d t h e C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t T e s t ( C l a y , 1 9 7 2 ) a n d i n c l u d e d h i s own s t o r y b o o k a s t h e t e s t m e a s u r e . He n o t o n l y m e a s u r e d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f p r i n t , b u t he a l s o e x a m i n e d some o f t h e f u n c t i o n s w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e s e r v e s . The t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n was i n t e r a c t i v e a n d r e f l e c t e d t h e t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n s p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n m i g h t n a t u r a l l y e n gage i n . H i s s t o r y b o o k was more l i k e a " r e a l " s t o r y b o o k a n d n o t a s m e c h a n i s t i c a s t h e Sand book o f t h e C o n c e p t s  A b o u t P r i n t T e s t . Doake ( 1 9 8 1 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e a d i n g was o c c u r r i n g a s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y o r g a n i z e d t a s k , c o n t r o l l e d a n d m o n i t o r e d by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h r e a d i n g a n d r e - r e a d i n g t h e i r f a v o r i t e s t o r y b o o k s . The c h i l d r e n ' s g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s o f p r i n t a n d o f what r e a d i n g i s a l l a b o u t i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e p r o g r e s s t h e y were m a k i n g i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e i r l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g a r o s e f r o m t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s n u r t u r e d i n t h e b o o k - r e a d i n g e v e n t s a n d became m a n i f e s t e d e a r l y on by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s t o r i e s ( D o a k e , 1 9 8 1 ) . They w a n t e d t o c o n t r o l t h e o r a l d i m e n s i o n o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e f i r s t . So t h e y t o l d s t o r i e s t o t h e m s e l v e s a n d " r e a d " t h e i r s t o r y b o o k s 33 a s t h e y w e re r e a d t o them. W i t h t h e g a i n o f c o n t r o l o f t h e o r a l d i m e n s i o n , c h i l d r e n a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f p r i n t . A t t e m p t s a t w r i t i n g and a f o c u s on w o r d s a n d l e t t e r s a l l r e f l e c t t h i s d e s i r e . Doake s e e s t h e f i n a l s t a g e of r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a s a r e t u r n t o t h e o r a l , w here t h e c h i l d a g a i n a t t e m p t s t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e o r a l a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g , b u t t h i s t i m e t h e v i s u a l a s p e c t s a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o i t ( D o a k e , 1 9 8 1 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t T e s t r e a l l y o n l y p r o b e s one a s p e c t o f r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and i g n o r e s t h e s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g a s t h e m a i n g o a l i n r e a d i n g . T e s t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p r i n t a w a r e n e s s must n o t be s e e n a s a c o m p l e t e m e a s u r e o f t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . C h i l d r e n seem i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e " s t o r y " f i r s t a n d t h e n i n how we i n t e r p r e t t h e w ords t o t e l l t h e s t o r y . How c h i l d r e n g e t m e a n i n g f r o m t e x t s h o u l d n o t be l o o k e d a t s o l e l y f r o m t h e p r i n t a w a r e n e s s p e r s p e c t i v e . D o a k e ' s R e a d i n g C o n c e p t s O b s e r v a t i o n a l S c a l e r e p r e s e n t s a s t r o n g a t t e m p t t o p r o b e r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h i s b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c e he c o m b i n e d a t e s t o f p r i n t a w a r e n e s s w i t h p r o b e s a b o u t t h e s t o r y i t s e l f . D oake ( 1 9 8 1 ) r e c o g n i z e d t h e l i m i t s o f h i s s a m p l e s i z e a n d t h e f a c t he u s e d c h i l d r e n o f h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , b u t h i s r e s e a r c h d o e s r a i s e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s on t h e r o l e o f t h e book s h a r i n g e v e n t i n homes t h a t p r o d u c e r e a d e r s . I t c o u l d be s u g g e s t e d t h a t Doake s h o u l d have f o l l o w e d h i s s a m p l e l o n g e r a n d p e r h a p s r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d h i s t e s t t o 34 document more f u l l y h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e s t a g e s of r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . However, h i s i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n t h e Sand T e s t o f i t e m s on t h e f u n c t i o n s of w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , as w e l l as a f o c u s on t h e s t o r y i t s e l f , g r e a t l y expands t h e l i m i t e d a p p r o a c h o f t e s t s t h a t p r o b e a w a r e n e s s o n l y . The s u r v e y r e s e a r c h , o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , i d e n t i f i e d homes where r e a d i n g was done as ones t h a t p r o d u c e r e a d e r s . The use o f books w i t h i n t h e s e homes was c o n s i s t a n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e b a c k g r o u n d of s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s . The most r e c e n t r e s e a r c h , f o c u s i n g on l i t e r a r y a c q u i s i t i o n has d e t a i l e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t s o f p r i n t t h a t w i l l p r e p a r e them t o r e a d . However, m e a s u r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t c a n o n l y be s e e n as one i n d i c a t o r of t h e i r e m e r g i n g l i t e r a c y . From t h e s h a r i n g o f b o o k s , c h i l d r e n n o t o n l y d e v e l o p c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t , t h e y a l s o g a i n i m p o r t a n t messages a b o u t what w r i t t e n i s and how i t w orks. 2.2.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF STORIES F o r a p e r i o d o f e i g h t y e a r s , Gordon W e l l s (1985) p r o b e d t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t s of 128 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i s t o l E n g l a n d . T h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e what p r e s c h o o l l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o l a t e r s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . U s i n g a s y s t e m o f e l e c t r o n i c a l l y t i m e d and r e g u l a t e d t a p e - r e c o r d e d s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , W e l l s was a b l e t o c o l l e c t n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e samples from h i s s u b j e c t s . O n l y a t o t a l o f 35 36 m i n u t e s p e r day w e re r e c o r d e d , s o t h e c o u n t t a k e n on t h e f r e q u e n c y an a c t i v i t y was e n g a g e d i n a r e r e a l l y o n l y e s t i m a t e s . H owever, t h e s a m p l e s were t a k e n f r o m n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d t h e y d i d n o t r e l y c o m p l e t e l y on q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . As h i s s u b j e c t s e n t e r e d s c h o o l , t h e y seemed t o have a c h i e v e d a f a i r l y c o n s i s t a n t l e v e l o f o r a l l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d g e n e r a l m a t u r i t y . H owever, o n c e t h e y were i n s c h o o l , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e began t o be o b s e r v e d c o n s i s t a n t w i t h t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f t h e c h i l d r e n . A r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l e s s s u c c e s s f u l c h i l d r e n came f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t s j u d g e d l e s s l i t e r a t e b a s e d on t h e p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e s t u d y . H i s q u e s t i o n a i r e c e n t e r e d on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b a c k g r o u n d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l i t e r a c y e v e n t s . S i n c e t h i s p a r t o f h i s d a t a was b a s e d on q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s , W e l l s went b a c k t o h i s t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e r e c o r d i n g s made i n t h e homes an d d i d a c o u n t o f f o u r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y e n g a g e d i n : (1) l o o k i n g a t p r i n t m a t e r i a l s ; ( 2 ) l i s t e n i n g t o a s t o r y r e a d o r t o l d o r a l l y ; ( 3 ) d r a w i n g a n d c o l o r i n g ; a nd ( 4 ) w r i t i n g . H i s s u b - s a m p l e o f 32 e n g a g e d i n l o o k i n g a t b o o k s more t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s . O n l y 5 3 % o f t h e s a m p l e were o b s e r v e d l i s t e n i n g t o a s t o r y , w h i l e 78% e n g a g e d i n d r a w i n g o r c o l o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . O n l y two c h i l d r e n were o b s e r v e d i n any w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y . E a c h o f t h e f o u r a c t i v i t i e s became t h e i n d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e 36 a c t i v i t y a n d s u b s e q u e n t p r o g r e s s i n l i t e r a c y , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e K n o w l e d g e o f L i t e r a c y s c o r e a n d R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s , w h i c h were t a k e n a t a g e s 5 and 7. The K n o w l e d g e o f L i t e r a c y s c o r e was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m b i n i n g t h e s c o r e s on C l a y 's C o n c e p t s A b o u t P r i n t T e s t a n d L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( C l a y 1 9 7 2 ) . N e i t h e r l o o k i n g a t b o o k s n o r d r a w i n g a n d c o l o r i n g c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e m e a s u r e s . However, l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s d i d p r o v e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h m e a s u r e s ( p . 0 5 ) . S i n c e l o o k i n g a t b o o k s f a i l e d t o show any s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i l e l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s r e a d o r t o l d d i d p r o v e t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n h a d been made i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t e r l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . H o w e v e r , W e l l s d i d n o t d i s m i s s t h e a c t i v i t y o f l o o k i n g a t b o o k s . I n f a c t , W e l l s f e l t t h a t t h i s a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e d i m p o r t a n t a s s i s t a n c e i n l e a r n i n g new v o c a b u l a r y s i n c e o b j e c t s a r e p o i n t e d o u t a n d t h e i r names g i v e n . As w e l l , l o o k i n g a t b o o k s a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e a n s w e r i n g d i s p l a y q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t e a c h e r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . W e l l s d e s c r i b e s d i s p l a y q u e s t i o n s a s o n e s t h a t a r e a s k e d by someone who a l r e a d y knows t h e a n s w e r b u t w a n t s t h e c h i l d t o t e l l i t t o them ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ) . When p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n l o o k a t b o o k s , o f t e n t h e p a r e n t w i l l p o i n t t o a p i c t u r e i n t h e book a n d s a y "What's t h a t ? " a n d t h e c h i l d a n s w e r s . T h i s i s a d i s p l a y q u e s t i o n , s i n c e t h e a d u l t a l r e a d y knows t h e a n s w e r a n d 37 m e r e l y w a n t s t h e c h i l d t o " d i s p l a y " t h e i r a b i l i t y t o name o r d e s c r i b e i t . W h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g l o o k i n g a t b o o k s i m p o r t a n t , W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) f e l t i t d o e s l i t t l e t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c h i l d t o a c t u a l w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . L i s t e n i n g a s s t o r i e s a r e r e a d t o them o r t o l d t o them p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r h y t h m s a n d s t r u c t u r e s of w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ) . C h i l d r e n a l s o e x p e r i e n c e l a n g u a g e i n t h e f o r m w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o c r e a t e e x p e r i e n c e s . S t o r i e s p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a l i z e t h a t l a n g u a g e h a s t h e power t o c r e a t e " p o s s i b l e w o r l d s " , w h i c h c h i l d r e n c a n e x p l o r e w i t h t h e i r own m i n d s . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d an i m p o r t a n t l i n k b e t w e e n l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s a n d l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n , W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) moved f u r t h e r a n d l i n k e d t h e l a n g u a g e o f s t o r i e s t o c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e s t o r i e s i n t h e i r p l a y . W e l l s s a y s t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y l a n g u a g e u s e d i n p l a y i s s i m i l a r t o t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e t h a t c r e a t e s a s t o r y s i n c e t h e y b o t h c r e a t e " t h e c o n t e x t a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . " F o r e x a m p l e , c h i l d r e n u s e l a n g u a g e t o c r e a t e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e i r p l a y ( a c a v e p e r h a p s ) ; t h e y c h a n g e p e o p l e i n t o s t o r y c h a r a c t e r s ("You be t h e b e a r i n t h e c a v e a n d I ' l l be t h e e x p l o r e r . " ) ; a n d o b j e c t s i n t o s t o r y p r o p s ( " I ' l l u s e t h i s s t i c k f o r a s w o r d . " ) . I n t h e s t o r y r e a d i n g e v e n t , a d u l t s m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d a nd t h e t e x t a n d h e l p w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t e x t . S u c h d i s c u s s i o n s a r o u n d t h e s t o r y a l l o w t h e c h i l d t o r e l a t e t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s t o t h e 38 events that occur i n the s t o r y (Wells 1985). These d i s c u s s i o n s f a c i l i t a t e c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of the e s s e n t i a l nature of w r i t t e n language and h e l p them cope with the disembedded uses of spoken language so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of sch o o l (Wells 1985). In summary, Wells' r e s e a r c h combined the t r a d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e format with the d i r e c t " n a t u r a l " o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home environments. I t c l a r i f i e d the d i s t i n c t i o n between merely l o o k i n g at books and l i s t e n i n g to s t o r i e s read. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n focused a t t e n t i o n on the i n t e r a c t i o n between parent and c h i l d and di s m i s s e d as l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t the q u a n t i t y of books read and the socio-economic l e v e l of the f a m i l y as p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s i n l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . For the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s study, Wells removed the focus on concepts of p r i n t or p r i n t awareness as the d e f i n i t i v e determinant of l i t e r a c y s k i l l and pushed t h i s r e s e a r c h e r to look at the connections between c h i l d r e n ' s use of s t o r y i n t h e i r p l a y and i t s l i n k s with the w r i t t e n language of books. I t d i r e c t s us to look beyond the mechanics or s t r u c t u r e of w r i t t e n language to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of w r i t t e n language as "meaning making" (Wells,1985) . I t a l s o makes i t necessary to look at the l i t e r a t u r e about c h i l d r e n ' s concept of s t o r y t o expand our understanding of the n a t u r a l " s t o r y i n g " a b i l i t y t h a t c h i l d r e n possess and to examine how i t can be demonstrated by t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g . 39 2.3 CONCEPT OF STORY R e s e a r c h on o u r c o n c e p t o f s t o r y began w i t h a t t e m p t s t o document t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o b s e r v e d i n t h e o r a l n a r r a t i v e s o f c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h by A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 , 1980) a n d S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) was b a s e d on an a c c e p t a n c e o f n a r r a t i v e a s "a p r i m a r y a c t o f t h e m i n d " ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 7 ) . H a r d y ' s t h e o r y s u g g e s t s n a r r a t i v e i s t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e c h i l d r e n u s e t o o r g a n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them. I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , n a r r a t i v e i s t h e way t h e m i n d w o r k s a n d o u r s t o r i e s a r e n o t c o n s c i o u s o r d e l i b e r a t e . As c h i l d r e n m a t u r e a n d g a i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e w o r l d , t h e i r u s e . o f n a r r a t i v e becomes more c o n s c i o u s a n d t h e y b e g i n t o s e l e c t a n d o r d e r t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r s t o r y ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ) . E v en two y e a r o l d s c a n t e l l a s t o r y ( A p p l e b e e , 1 9 7 8 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e y n e e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a d u l t a s s i s t a n c e . As t h e y h e a r more s t o r i e s a n d g a i n e x p e r i e n c e s t e l l i n g t h e i r own s t o r i e s i n t h e i r p l a y , c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g t a k e s on t h e f o r m a n d l a n g u a g e u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t o r i e s . W e l l s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s a y s t h e c o n s t r u c t i n g o f s t o r i e s i n t h e m i n d ( s t o r y i n g ) p e r v a d e s a l l a s p e c t s o f o u r l e a r n i n g a n d s h o u l d n o t be l i m i t e d t o t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g . A l l a s p e c t s o f c u r r i c u l u m c a n be a d d r e s s e d f r o m t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . As w e l l a s c o n s t r u c t i n g s t o r i e s i n o u r m i n d s , we g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o o u r s t o r i e s t h r o u g h w o r d s . A l l c u l t u r e s t e l l s t o r i e s a n d many w r i t e them down a s w e l l . M o s t o f o u r m y t h s 40 a n d l e g e n d s a r o s e f r o m a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m y s t e r i e s o f l i f e a r o u n d u s . The l i t e r a t u r e o f any c u l t u r e c o n t a i n s t h e b e s t s t o r i e s o f t h a t c u l t u r e a n d r e f l e c t s t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i t s t i m e . S t o r i e s r e m a i n one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e ways we h a v e t o s h a r e o u r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s a n d i d e a s . The l a n g u a g e we use t o e x p r e s s o u r s e l v e s i s s e e n a s o p e r a t i n g i n two r o l e s . James B r i t t o n ( 1 9 7 0) d i f f e r e n t i a t e s l a n g u a g e u s e d i n t h e s p e c t a t o r a n d p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e s . W i t h i n t h e s p e c t a t o r r o l e , t h e r e i s no e x p e c t a t i o n t o d i r e c t l y i n t e r v e n e i n t h e a c t i o n a n d t h e p a r t s o f l a n g u a g e a r e j u d g e d a g a i n s t t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n t h e w h o l e . The p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e r e q u i r e s some s o r t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d a t t e m p t s t o make s e n s e o f s o m e t h i n g by l o o k i n g a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s a s s e p a r a t e d e t a i l s . From t h e s p e c t a t o r r o l e we a d o p t a c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e o r a p p r o a c h t o e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n a d d r e s s i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h an e x t e r n a l s e t o f s t a n d a r d s f o r m e a s u r i n g a n d j u d g i n g . The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t a n d s p e c t a t o r u s e s o f l a n g u a g e f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f A r t h u r A p p l e b e e ' s o u t l i n i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n c e p t o f s t o r y . A p p l e b e e ( I 9 7 8 ) u s e d p a r t i c i p a n t r o l e t o d e s c r i b e o u r u s e o f l a n g u a g e a s a t o o l t o e x c h a n g e i d e a s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e i n t h e s p e c t a t o r r o l e , we u s e l a n g u a g e t o c r e a t e a new e x p e r i e n c e . E a c h p e r s o n r e a d i n g o u r e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r a c t s w i t h i t a n d g i v e s i t a m e a n i n g o f t h e i r own ( A p p l e b e e 1 9 7 8 ) . A p p l e b e e a t t e m p t e d t o d e t a i l how we u s e t h e 41 s p e c t a t o r r o l e a n d what d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e s p l a c e i n o u r u s e o f i t . A p p l e b e e u s e d a s a m p l e o f 360 s t o r i e s t o l d t o P i t c h e r a n d P r e l i n g e r ( 1 9 6 3) by a g r o u p o f two t o f i v e y e a r o l d s . He a n a l y s e d t h e s e s t o r i e s t o e x a m i n e c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f s i m p l e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r s t o r i e s , a n d t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f c h a r a c t e r s , a c t i o n s a n d s e t t i n g s . A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 ) f e l t a c l e a r d e v e l o p m e n t was t a k i n g p l a c e a l o n g age l i n e s . As c h i l d r e n g o t o l d e r , t h e i r s t o r i e s became more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . They began w i t h " h e a p s " , d e s c r i b e d a s a c o l l e c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s o r t h i n g s r e l a t e d i n some way t o a s t o r y c o n t e x t . C h i l d r e n q u i c k l y d e v e l o p t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f " c e n t e r i n g " a n d " c h a i n i n g " , w h i c h t h e y i m p o s e on t h e i r i n i t i a l h e a p s . A p p l e b e e s a y s c e n t e r i n g i n v o l v e s t h e h o l d i n g c o n s t a n t o f some c e n t r a l e l e m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y . The o t h e r e l e m e n t s i n t h e s t o r y a r e t i e d t o t h i s c e n t r a l e l e m e n t . C h a i n i n g s e t s up e v e n t s i n s u c h a way t h a t one e v e n t l e a d s t o a n o t h e r w h i c h l e a d s t o a n o t h e r . By t h e t i m e c h i l d r e n e n t e r s c h o o l , A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e s t h e i r s t o r i e s a s c o n t a i n i n g e l e m e n t s bound t o g e t h e r i n c o m p l e x c h a i n s a n d w i t h an o v e r a l l c e n t e r a s w e l l . A p p l e b e e f e e l s c h i l d r e n a t t h i s age h a v e a " f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what a s t o r y i s " . T h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s g u i d e them i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o new s t o r i e s a n d i n t h e i r own s t o r y t e l l i n g . I n a n o t h e r component o f h i s s t u d y , A p p l e b e e p u r s u e d c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f what c e r t a i n s t o r y c h a r a c t e r s 42 a r e u s u a l l y l i k e i n s t o r i e s . C h i l d r e n aged s i x t o n i n e were a s k e d q u e s t i o n s l i k e : What i s a w o l f u s u a l l y l i k e i n a s t o r y ? , and What's a w i t c h u s u a l l y l i k e i n a s t o r y ? F o r t y one p e r c e n t of t h e s i x y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n c o u l d i d e n t i f y how t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s u s u a l l y a r e p o r t r a y e d . By t h e age o f n i n e , t h i s number r o s e t o e i g h t y - s i x p e r c e n t . When q u e s t i o n e d on t h e f a c t o r f a n t a s y o f c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s , c h i l d r e n a g a i n d i f f e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y . F i v e y e a r o l d s were n o t c o n s i s t a n t i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t of r e a l and m a k e - b e l i e v e w h i l e n i n e y e a r o l d s were q u i t e c o n s i s t a n t . A p p l e b e e (1978) p o i n t s o u t t h a t any d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t o f s t o r y i s not c o n s t r u c t e d on a l e v e l t o l e v e l b a s i s , s i n c e many c h i l d r e n m a i n t a i n e d l e s s d e v e l o p e d t r a i t s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g o r u s e d ones more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n many a t t h e i r age l e v e l . A p p l e b e e d o e s f e e l t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n , but not one t h a t c a n be s t r u c t u r e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . O b v i o u s l y c o l l e c t i n g one s t o r y f r o m a c h i l d c o u l d n o t be u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h any a s s e s s m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . A p p l e b e e a n a l y s e d them a s a g r o u p i n s e a r c h o f c o n s i s t a n t p a t t e r n s and f r e q u e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t r a i t s . In an a t t e m p t t o u p d a t e and e x t e n d t h e r a n g e o f t h e P i t c h e r and P r e l i n g e r (1963) c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s u s e d by A p p l e b e e , B r i a n S u t t o n - S m i t h (1981) i n c l u d e d s t o r i e s f r o m two y e a r o l d s t o t e n y e a r o l d s . O v er a two y e a r p e r i o d , S u t t o n - S m i t h c o l l e c t e d s t o r i e s f r o m 16 p r e s c h o o l e r s a g e d two t o f i v e . He c o l l e c t e d o v e r 1000 s a m p l e s , but r e p o r t e d on o n l y 500 i n The F o l k s t o r i e s o f C h i l d r e n ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S u t t o n - S m i t h 43 r e c o g n i z e d h i s s a m p l e a s n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e t h e y were h i g h l y v e r b a l c h i l d r e n , o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , who were b e i n g r a i s e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a m b i t i o u s p a r e n t s . The p a r e n t s were f i n a n c i a l l y a b l e t o pay t h e r e q u i r e d f e e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d t h e p r i v a t e p r e s c h o o l i n New Y o r k C i t y . A f t e r a p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n a n d o r i e n t a t i o n , g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s r e c o r d e d t h e s t o r i e s o f any c h i l d who w i s h e d t o t e l l o n e. S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 81) a l s o a c c e p t e d n a r r a t i v e a s t h e b a s i c m o d e l o f t h e human m i n d . He f e l t n a r r a t i v e was o f two k i n d s : p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s , w h i c h a r e r e p o r t s o f o n e ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s ; f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e s , w h i c h a r e t h e s t o r y k i n d . H i s p u r p o s e was t o g i v e s c o p e t o t h e i d e a t h a t c h i l d r e n m a n i p u l a t e themes a n d ways o f a c t i n g i n a s y s t e m a t i c a n d p a t t e r n e d way. He f e e l s c h i l d r e n a p p l y t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s f i r s t t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e s a n d t h e n b r i n g t h a t e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g ( S u t t o n - S m i t h , 1 9 8 1 ) . W i t h t h e s t o r y s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d , S u t t o n - S m i t h a n a l y z e d t h e s t o r i e s i n t o 91 e l e m e n t s , w h i c h c o u l d d e s c r i b e t h e s t o r i e s . T h e s e e l e m e n t s were t h e n g r o u p e d i n t o t h e m a j o r h e a d i n g s o f b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e a n d e n d . When t h i s was d o n e , he f o u n d t h a t t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n u s e d m a i n l y b e g i n n i n g s a n d e n d i n g s , w h i l e t h e o l d e s t c h i l d r e n d i s t r i b u t e d t h e 91 e l e m e n t s o v e r t h e t h r e e m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s . A p l o t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was no r e a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p l o t o f t h e i r s t o r i e s . They were u s u a l l y i n t h e p a s t t e n s e ; t h e y were o f t e n a b o u t i m p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r s ; t h e 44 c h a r a c t e r s u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a p r o b l e m e v e n t ; a n d t h e r e was l i t t l e s e n s e o f t i m e . S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 81) r e f e r s t o " c h r o n i c i t y " , where t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n s e q u e n c e e a c h e v e n t a s one e v e n t t i e d t o t h e one b e f o r e i t . T h i s i s a s t r a t e g y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l n a r r a t v e f i r s t a n d i t i s t h e n b r o u g h t t o t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e . When he l o o k e d a t t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e v e r y y o u n g c h i l d r e n , S u t t o n - S m i t h made an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t a b o u t o u r me t h o d o f a n a l y s i s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t we h a v e a p p r o a c h e d t h e i r s t o r i e s as p r o s e a n d have a t t e m p t e d t o do p l o t a n a l y s i s on them. S u t t o n - S m i t h c l a i m s t h a t i n many ways t h e s e s t o r i e s a r e r e a l l y v e r s e . A l l t h e s t o r i e s t e n d t o w a r d a l i n e - b y - l i n e r e g u l a r i t y . They a r e t o l d l i k e a n u r s e r y rhyme i n a s t r o n g a n d r e g u l a r v o i c e a n d t h e y a r e f u l l o f r e p e a t e d s o u n d , much l i k e p o e t r y . S u t t o n - S m i t h r e f e r s t o t h e s e a s " v e r s e - s t o r i e s " t o d i s t i n g u i s h them f r o m t h e p r o s e s t r u c t u r e , s o e v i d e n t by age t h r e e a n d a h a l f . The s t u d i e s o f A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 ) a n d S u t t o n - S m i t h h a v e p r o v i d e d a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f d e t a i l on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r s e n s e o f s t o r y . B o t h r e s e a r c h e r s g r o u n d t h e i r work i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a r r a t i v e a n d t h e y c o n c l u d e t h a t o u r c o n c e p t o f s t o r y o p e r a t e s w i t h i n u s a s we a p p r o a c h new s t o r i e s o r t r y t o t e l l a s t o r y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r work may be l i m i t e d by t h e i r s a m p l e s i z e s a n d p o p u l a t i o n t r a i t s , b u t t h e y do s u g g e s t t h a t a c o n c e p t o f s t o r y i s an i m p o r t a n t component o f o u r r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a n d one t h a t i s " e m e r g i n g " j u s t a s o t h e r c o n c e p t s a r e . S u c h r e s e a r c h i s 45 t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a n d d i f f i c u l t t o a n a l y z e , b u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e p r o b i n g t h i s i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t . B o t h S u t t o n - S m i t h a n d A p p l e b e e u s e d m e t h o d s o f a n a l y s e s t h a t were s e l f - m a d e o r b o r r o w e d f r o m o t h e r s , p o i n t i n g t o a n e e d f o r r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o c e d u r e s f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . One u s e d s t o r i e s g a t h e r e d 15 y e a r s e a r l i e r by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s a n d t h e o t h e r c o l l e c t e d s a m p l e s f r o m v o l u n t e e r s , p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h may l i m i t t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . T h e r e i s a n e e d t o d e v e l o p a p r o c e d u r e t o g a t h e r s t o r i e s f r o m c h i l d r e n , a s w e l l a s a n e e d t o c o l l e c t t h e s e s t o r i e s f r o m a b r o a d e r s a m p l i n g o f c h i l d r e n . 2.3.1 STORYTELLING The m a j o r s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d by r e s e a r c h e r s t o p r o b e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t o f s t o r y a n d how t h e y e m p l o y i t h a s been s t o r y t e l l i n g . C h i l d r e n a r e a s k e d t o s p o n t a n e o u s l y t e l l a s t o r y ( A p p l e b e e , 1 9 7 8 ; S u t t o n - S m i t h , 1 9 8 1 ) o r a f t e r t h e y h e a r a s t o r y r e a d t o them o r one t h e y r e a d t o t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y a r e a s k e d t o r e t e l l t h a t s t o r y ( M a n d l e r a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 7 ; M o r r o w , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e , r e s e a r c h e r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t a i l i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t o f s t o r y , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r g r o u p e x a m i n e d how c h i l d r e n a p p l y t h e i r c o n c e p t o f s t o r y . S t o r y t e l l i n g a n d s t o r y r e t e l l i n g a r e b e c o m i n g more common a s method s t o e x p l o r e r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r . M a n d l e r a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , w o r k i n g a t t h e same t i m e a s A p p l e b e e , f e l t t h e r e was a s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e common t o s t o r i e s t h a t c o u l d be 46 d e s c r i b e d a n d e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by a p p l y i n g s p e c i f i c r u l e s ( o r a s t o r y grammar) t o t h e s t o r y . They f e l t i f c h i l d r e n h a d t h i s k n o w l e d g e , t h e y w o u l d d e v e l o p a s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t s t o r y a n d w o u l d be a b l e t o r e c a l l t h e s t o r y o r p r e d i c t what m i g h t h a p p e n . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s u s e d c h i l d r e n ' s r e t e l l i n g s o f s t o r i e s t o e x a m i n e w h i c h s t o r y e l e m e n t s t h e y c o n t a i n e d . C h i l d r e n p r o d u c i n g r e t e l l i n g s t h a t c o n t a i n e d more o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t o r i e s , and t h a t m a t c h e d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t o r y , w e r e s a i d t o be b e t t e r u s e r s o f t h e i r s t o r y s t r u c t u r e . The s t u d i e s o f M a n d l e r a n d J o h n s o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , T h o r n d y k e ( 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d R u m m e l h a r t ( 1 9 7 5 ) i n v o l v e d d e v e l o p i n g a s t o r y grammar t h e y f e l t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o s t o r i e s a n d t h e n a s k i n g c h i l d r e n t o r e t e l l a s t o r y a f t e r t h e y h a d h e a r d i t o r r e a d i t t h e m s e l v e s . J i l l W h a l e y ( 1 9 8 1 ) a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e how c h i l d r e n were u s i n g s t o r y s t r u c t u r e w h i l e t h e y were r e a d i n g r a t h e r t h a n a f t e r t h e y h a d f i n i s h e d r e a d i n g . She u s e d p r e d i c t i o n and c l o z e t a s k s r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l e r e c a l l o r memory t a s k s . The u s e o f s t o r y grammar h a s been c r i t i c i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y b e c a u s e o f i t s l i m i t e d n a t u r e ( R a n d , 1 9 8 4 ) . S t o r y grammar (1) c o n c e n t r a t e s on s t r u c t u r e a n d n o t c o n t e n t ; (2) i t t e l l s n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e key e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t o r y ; (3) i t t e l l s n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e s t o r y l a n g u a g e ; (4) i t i s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o s i m p l e s t o r i e s ; a n d (5) i t c o n c e n t r a t e s on l i t e r a l r e c a l l f r o m t h e s t o r y . The i n h e r e n t w e a k n e s s e s o f s t o r y grammars p l u s t h e new r e s e a r c h 47 i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y w h i c h l i n k s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s t o r i e s w i t h f u t u r e s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l ( W e l l s , 1 9 8 5 ; D o a k e , 1 9 8 1 ) has c h a n g e d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f how s t o r y t e l l i n g a n d s t o r y r e t e l l i n g a r e b e i n g u s e d i n r e s e a r c h . Some o f t h i s new r e s e a r c h s t i l l u s e s s t o r y r e t e l l i n g s a s t h e t a s k done by t h e s u b j e c t s , b u t a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o what i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t . M a r t i n e z ( 1 9 8 3 ) m o n i t o r e d a p a r e n t r e a d i n g a f a v o r i t e s t o r y b o o k t o a p r e s c h o o l e r and f o u n d t h a t t h e c h i l d was m o v i n g f r o m t h e l i t e r a l l e v e l o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a t t h e f i r s t r e a d i n g t o t h e i n f e r e n t i a l a nd e v e n e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l s a f t e r r e p e a t e d s t o r y t e l l i n g s . M o r row (1985) e m p l o y e d t h e s t r a t e g y o f s t o r y r e t e l l i n g a s a t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g y . K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e t e l l a s t o r y h e a r d by t h e w h o l e c l a s s w e r e f o u n d t o s c o r e h i g h e r on a c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t t h a n c h i l d r e n who were n o t g i v e n t h e c h a n c e t o r e t e l l t h e s t o r y b e f o r e t h e y were q u e s t i o n e d . R e p e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s t o r y r e t e l l i n g moved t h e s e same c h i l d r e n t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h a n c h i l d r e n who were j u s t b e i n g r e a d t o w i t h no c h a n c e t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s t o r y r e t e l l i n g s k i l l s . One r e s e a r c h e r who h a s l i n k e d t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f e m e r g e n t r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s i s E l i z a b e t h S u l z b y ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S u l z b y d e v e l o p e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m f o r d e s c r i b i n g e m e r g e n t s t o r y b o o k r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s ( 1 9 8 3 ) a n d o r d e r e d t h e s e b e h a v i o r s 48 d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y . S e v e r a l of h e r s t u d i e s have u s e d t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m and f o u n d i t c o n s i s t a n t a c r o s s s t o r y b o o k s u s e d and age g r o u p d e s c r i b e d . Her t a s k s r e q u i r e t h e c h i l d t o use a book o f t h e i r own c h o o s i n g and t o " r e a d " i t t o t h e e x a m i n e r . The s u b s e q u e n t r e a d i n g i s r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d b e f o r e t h e C a t e g o r i e s o f S t o r y b o o k R e a d i n g Scheme i s a p p l i e d ( S u l z b y 1983). W i t h e a c h new s t u d y , S u l z b y i s a b l e t o c l a r i f y t h e c a t e g o r i e s and add new b e h a v i o r s t o d e s c r i b e them more c l e a r l y . She has u s e d c h i l d r e n f r o m ages two t o s i x and from h i g h and low l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d s . S u l z b y (1985) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d s showed g r e a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e i r r e a d i n g o f f a v o r i t e s t o r y b o o k s as m easured by h e r C a t e g o r i e s of S t o r y b o o k R e a d i n g t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m low l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d s . A l t h o u g h h e r s a m p l e s were s m a l l (21 t o 24 s t u d e n t s p e r s t u d y ) and t h e measures u s e d a r e s t i l l i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s , S u l z b y does p r o v i d e i m p e t u s f o r o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s t o p u r s u e emergent r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r s f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y t o t e l l back a s t o r y by p r e t e n d i n g t o r e a d i t . S uch methods r e q u i r e c h i l d r e n t o a p p l y a h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e t a s k and t h e y a l l o w t h e c h i l d r e n t o draw on t h e i r g r o w i n g s e n s e o f s t o r y and a p p l y i t t o t h e r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n . Fox (1983) s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n have l e a r n e d many n a r r a t i v e c o n v e n t i o n s w e l l b e f o r e t h e y b e g i n t h e f o r m a l i z e d l e a r n i n g o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Many c h i l d r e n have t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f l i t e r a r y c o m p e t e n c i e s b e f o r e t h e y a r e 49 independant r e a d e r s and w r i t e r s . Fox s t u d i e d these competencies by examining the s t o r y monologues of a s m a l l group of p r e s c h o o l e r s . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t books e x e r t e d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on the s t o r i e s her s u b j e c t s produced. T h i s i n f l u e n c e was m a n i f e s t e d on the s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l where a c h a r a c t e r name from a book , a s m a l l p a r t of the p l o t or a quoted phrase was i n c l u d e d . On the l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l , her sample made t h e i r language sound l i k e t h a t of books and even adapted the l a r g e r forms and t e c h n i q u e s found i n books t o t h e i r own s t o r y t e l l i n g purposes (Fox, 1983). Fox encouraged f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of p r e s c h o o l e r ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the i n f l u e n c e t h a t s t o r i e s from a l l s o u r c e s and not j u s t from books have on c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y development. 2.4 SUMMARY The r e s e a r c h p r o b i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l has been d i v i d e d i n t o two major c a t e g o r i e s r e s e a r c h t h a t l o o k e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y a t s u c c e s s f u l r e a d e r s and r e s e a r c h t h a t l o o k e d a t p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r home en v i r o n m e n t s . The r e s e a r c h c e n t e r i n g on c h i l d r e n who were a l r e a d y a b l e t o r e a d u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . Sample s i z e s were l a r g e and c o v e r e d a broad base of socioeconomic s t a t u s , grade l e v e l s and achievement l e v e l s . Responses t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s depended on the s u b j e c t s a b i l i t y t o remember back t o t h e i r e a r l y development. 50 R e s e a r c h t h a t l o o k e d a t t h e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d was d e s c r i p t i v e a n d o b s e r v a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l i n s c o p e . C h i l d r e n became i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e r e s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h e r s c o n d u c t e d t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e n a t u r a l home o r p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n . S i n g l e c a s e s t u d i e s , s m a l l g r o u p s a n d l a r g e g r o u p s f o r m e d t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s l o o k e d a t t h e s u b j e c t s ' p r o d u c t s , b u t a l s o a t what t h e y were d o i n g w h i l e t h e y c r e a t e d t h e i r p r o d u c t s . The m a j o r f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g l a t e r l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n , c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d a c r o s s a l l t h i s r e s e a r c h , i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s t o r i e s . The e a r l i e r s u r v e y r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r e d q u a n t i t y o f book e x p e r i e n c e a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l u s e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t . The more c o n t e m p o r a r y r e s e a r c h has c l a r i f i e d t h i s f i n d i n g t o e m p h a s i z e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w een p a r e n t a n d c h i l d a s t h e c r u c i a l e l e m e n t i n t h e s t o r y s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . L o o k i n g a t b o o k s on t h e i r own o r w i t h p a r e n t s i s c o n s i d e r e d a v a l u a b l e a c t i v i t y f o r c h i l d r e n , b u t l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s r e a d t o them o r t o l d t o them p r o v i d e s c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e a s i t i s u s e d t o c r e a t e new e x p e r i e n c e s , n o t p a r t o f t h e h e r e a nd now. R e s e a r c h i n t o e m e r g i n g l i t e r a c y h a s f o c u s e d on c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t s a b o u t p r i n t a n d t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h p r i n t . A l t h o u g h t h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s t o e x a m i n e , a n o t h e r b ody o f r e s e a r c h e m p h a s i z e s o u r e m e r g i n g c o n c e p t o f s t o r y a s a v i t a l f a c t o r i n l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . A t t e m p t s t o 5 1 t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u r c o n c e p t o f s t o r y h a v e u s e d s t o r y t e l l i n g a s t h e m a j o r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e . As w e l l , t h i s s t r a t e g y h a s been u s e d t o p r o b e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l s t o r y e v e n t s , c o m p r e h e n d s t o r y m e a n i n g and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . T h i s l i n k i n g o f s t o r y t e l l i n g w i t h e m e r g i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a d d s a new d i m e n s i o n t o o u r e x p l o r a t i o n o f l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . 3. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 DESIGN A c a u s a l - c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n w h i c h s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d a s s i m i l a r i n age a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s b u t d i f f e r e n t on a me a s u r e o f t h e i r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The p e r f o r m a n c e s on a s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g t a s k by c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p s f r o m h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were c o m p a r e d . The i n d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e was t h e t o t a l s c o r e on t h e H o m e - L i t e r a c y E n v i r o n m e n t I n d e x ( H L E I ) ( S h a p i r o , 1 9 8 5 ) . The HLEI i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t e e n i t e m s i n t e n d e d t o p r o b e t h e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s a m p l e . A r e a s q u e s t i o n e d i n c l u d e : 1. Q u a n t i t y a n d v a r i e t y o f p r i n t m a t e r i a l w i t h i n t h e home. 2. F r e q u e n c y c h i l d r e n were r e a d t o by t h e p a r e n t s . 3. T y p e s o f l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e d , s u c h a s t r i p s t o t h e l i b r a r y . 4. E x p o s u r e t o t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . 5. M o d e l l i n g o f l i t e r a c y s k i l l s by p a r e n t s . 6. C h i l d r e n ' s a t t e m p t s a t l i t e r a c y e v e n t s a t home. P a r e n t s o f a l l t h e c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d S t u d y C e n t r e c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e i r homes. The t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e on t h e HLEI i s 72 a n d t h e r a n g e o f s c o r e s f o r t h e s a m p l e u s e d 52 53 i n t h i s s t u d y was 37 t o 66. S u b j e c t s a t t h e e x t r e m e e n d s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s on t h e HLEI were t h e n i d e n t i f i e d a n d f o r m e d i n t o t h e f o u r c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p s : F o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s and t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : S t o r y E l e m e n t s A c h e c k l i s t o f e i g h t e e n s t o r y e l e m e n t s was c o m p l e t e d on e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . I t e m s w e r e m a r k e d w i t h 0 i f t h e e l e m e n t was a b s e n t a n d w i t h 1 i f i t was p r e s e n t . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was c o m p u t e d a n d t h e n t h e mean s c o r e f o r e a c h c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p was c a l c u l a t e d . The e i g h t e e n s t o r y e l e m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d by N u r s s , e t a l ( 1 9 8 1 ) , S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d A p p l e b e e ( 1 9 7 8 ) . D e t a i l s on t h e s t o r y e l e m e n t s and how t h e y were a p p l i e d a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w . 1. T i t l e — W a s t h e book t i t l e r e p e a t e d o r p a r a p h r a s e d a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g ? F o r e x a m p l e , P a n c a k e s f o r  B r e a k f a s t o r P a n c a k e s . 2. F o r m a l Opening--Was a f o r m a l o p e n i n g u s e d ? F o r e x a m p l e , Once upon a t i m e , One day 3. S e t t i n g — W a s a s e t t i n g f o r t h e s t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d ? F o r e x a m p l e , on a f a r m , o r i n t h e c o u n t r y . 4. M a i n C h a r a c t e r (a)--Was t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r (an o l d woman) i d e n t i f i e d a n d u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y ? 5. M a i n C h a r a c t e r ( b ) — I f a m a i n c h a r a c t e r was u s e d , was t h e c h a r a c t e r i d e n t i f i e d g e n e r i c a l l y o r s p e c i f i c a l l y ? 54 F o r e x a m p l e , She o r h e r ( g e n e r i c ) a n d t h e l i t t l e o l d woman, o r t h e G r a n d m o t h e r ( s p e c i f i c a l l y ) . 6. S e c o n d a r y C h a r a c t e r s — W e r e s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g ? F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c a t and dog , t h e man s e l l i n g s y r u p o r t h e n e i g h b o u r s . 7. Time--Was i t e s t a b l i s h e d what t i m e t h e s t o r y t o o k p l a c e ? F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e w i n t e r o r a t b r e a k f a s t t i m e . 8. P a s t Tense--Was t h e p a s t t e n s e u s e d c o n s i s t a n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g ? 9. M a i n P r o b l e m — W a s t h e m a i n p r o b l e m w i t h i n t h e s t o r y i d e n t i f i e d ? The m a i n p r o b l e m c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e mai n c h a r a c t e r ' s f r u s t r a t i o n t r y i n g t o g e t p a n c a k e s f o r h e r b r e a k f a s t . 10. R e s o l u t i o n o f t h e Problem--Was t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e mai n p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d ? The m a i n c h a r a c t e r s o l v e s h e r p r o b l e m by g e t t i n g p a n c a k e s f r o m h e r u n s u s p e c t i n g n e i g h b o u r s . 11. S t o r y A c t i o n 1--Was t h e f i r s t s t o r y a c t i o n i n c l u d e d ? S t o r y a c t i o n 1 c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e mai n c h a r a c t e r w a k i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d d e c i d i n g t o ha v e p a n c a k e s f o r b r e a k f a s t . 12. S t o r y A c t i o n 2 — W a s t h e s e c o n d s t o r y a c t i o n i n c l u d e d ? S t o r y a c t i o n 2 c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e f r u s t r a t e d e f f o r t s o f t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r t o g a t h e r t h e m a t e r i a l s n e e d e d t o make t h e p a n c a k e s . 13. S t o r y A c t i o n 3 — W as t h e t h i r d s t o r y a c t i o n i n c l u d e d ? S t o r y a c t i o n 3 c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e mess made by t h e c a t 55 a n d d o g w h i l e t h e o l d l a d y was o u t o f t h e h o u s e . 14. S t o r y A c t i o n 4--Was t h e f o u r t h s t o r y a c t i o n i d e n t i f i e d ? S t o r y a c t i o n 4 c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e o l d l a d y s m e l l i n g s o m e t h i n g i n t h e a i r a n d d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t h e r n e i g h b o u r s a r e c o o k i n g p a n c a k e s . 15. S t o r y A c t i o n 5—Was t h e f i f t h s t o r y a c t i o n i n c l u d e d ? S t o r y a c t i o n 5 c e n t e r s a r o u n d t h e o l d l a d y e a t i n g h e r f i l l o f p a n c a k e s a n d f a l l i n g a s l e e p . 16. F o r m a l C l o s i n g — W a s a f o r m a l c l o s i n g u s e d ? T h i s i n c l u d e d s t a t e m e n t s t h a t b r o u g h t t h e s t o r y a c t i o n t o c l o s u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , "and t h e n s he f e l l a s l e e p . " o r "She was s o f u l l s he went t o s l e e p . " 17. Tag E n d i n g — W a s a t a g e n d i n g u s e d ? T h i s r e f e r r e d t o an e n d i n g t h a t a b r u p t l y s t o p p e d t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g b u t d i d n o t b r i n g t h e s t o r y t o any c l o s u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , "The e n d . " o r " T h a t ' s t h e e n d . " 18. E x p r e s s i o n o f F e e l i n g s - - W e r e a n y f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d amongst t h e c h a r a c t e r s ? F o r e x a m p l e , "The o l d l a d y g o t mad...." o r "She was v e r y s a d ". L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s A c h e c k l i s t o f e i g h t l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s was c o m p l e t e d on e a c h s u b j e c t ' s s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . The v i d e o - t a p e s were u s e d t o s c o r e a n y s h i f t i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s v o i c e i n t o n a t i o n a n d e m p h a s i s o f w o r d s . The t r a n s c r i p t s were u s e d t o s c o r e t h e o t h e r s i x i t e m s . I t e m s were m a r k e d 0 i f t h e y w e re a b s e n t , 1 i f p r e s e n t o n c e , a n d 2 i f p r e s e n t two o r more t i m e s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was c o m p u t e d a nd t h e n t h e mean s c o r e 56 f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p s was c a l c u l a t e d . The e i g h t l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a s t h e y were a p p l i e d t o t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w . 1. I n t o n a t i o n . D i d t h e c h i l d s h i f t v o i c e i n t o n a t i o n t o s i g n a l s t o r y t e l l i n g ? The v i d e o - t a p e s were v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e c h i l d m o d u l a t e d t h e v o i c e o r a c c e n t e d s p e e c h w h i l e t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y . 2. R e p e t i t i o n o f Words. Were w o r d s r e p e a t e d a s a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e ? F o r e x a m p l e , "more and more a n d more" o r " l o t s a n d l o t s a n d l o t s o f p a n c a k e s . " 3. E m p h a s i s o f Words. Were v o i c e a c c e n t i n g o r m o d u l a t i o n u s e d t o e m p h a s i z e a p a r t i c u l a r w ord? F o r e x a m p l e , " v v e e e r r r r y y y s a d o r c o o o o l d o u t s i d e . A g a i n t h e v i d e o - t a p e s were u s e d t o l i s t e n f o r s u c h e m p h a s i s . 4. M a k i n g S o u n d s . D i d t h e c h i l d make s o u n d s t o e n h a n c e t h e s t o r y ? F o r e x a m p l e , a n i m a l s o u n d s "Moo o r Meow"; s o u n d s t o e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s s u c h a s " B B B r r r ! i t ' s c o l d . " 5. L i t e r a r y L a n g u a g e . Was any l a n g u a g e u s e d t h a t i s t y p i c a l o f s t o r y b o o k s ? F o r e x a m p l e , "Once upon a t i m e . . . . " o r " I n a d a r k , d a r k f o r e s t . . . " 6. D i a l o g u e . D i d t h e c h i l d p r o d u c e any d i a l o g u e amongst t h e s t o r y c h a r a c t e r s ? F o r e x a m p l e , "She s a i d , "Get o u t o f my h o u s e ! " 7. D e s c r i p t i v e L a n g u a g e . D i d t h e c h i l d u s e any a d j e c t i v e s a n d a d v e r b s t o a d d d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s t o t h e s t o r y ? F o r e x a m p l e . " I t was v e r y c o l d o u t s i d e . . . . " o r "The s i l l y o l d l a d y . . " 57 8. I n t e r j e c t i o n s . D i d t h e s t o r y c o n t a i n any i n t e r j e c t i o n s ? F o r e x a m p l e , " S u d d e n l y ! ' o r " L o o k ! " Book O r i e n t a t i o n B e h a v i o r s F i v e m a j o r book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s were i d e n t i f i e d f r o m a c l o s e s c r u t i n y o f t h e v i d e o - t a p e s . They were r a t e d i n f r e q u e n c y on a s c a l e o f 0,1 o r 2. A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t was c o m p u t e d a n d t h e n t h e mean s c o r e f o r e a c h c o n t r a s t i n g g r o u p was c a l c u l a t e d . The f i v e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s a n d t h e i r f r e q u e n c y r a t i n g a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w . 1. P o i n t i n g I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i t e m were a l l i n s t a n c e s where t h e c h i l d t o l d a b o u t s o m e t h i n g i n t h e p i c t u r e w h i l e p o i n t i n g t o i t . A c o u n t o f 0-5 t i m e s r a t e d a 0; a c o u n t o f 6-10 t i m e s r a t e d a 1; a n d a c o u n t o v e r 10 r a t e d a 2. 2. R e a d i n g - R e l a t e d Comments I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i t e m were a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l a c k o f p r i n t i n t h e b ook, a n d t o t h e t a s k o f r e a d i n g i t s e l f . F o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e m e n t s l i k e , " T h i s i s j u s t a l o o k i n g b o o k." " I c a n ' t r e a d . " " T h e r e a r e no w o r d s i n t h i s b o o k." R a t i n g : No r e f e r e n c e s was r a t e d a 0; one r e f e r e n c e r a t e d a 1: a n d two o r more r e f e r e n c e s r a t e d a 2. 3. P a g e s a s S e p a r a t e M e a s u r e d w i t h i n t h i s i t e m was t h e number o f t i m e s t h e c h i l d t r e a t e d p a g e s a s s e p a r a t e . When t h e c h i l d t u r n e d a p a g e , were s e p a r a t e s t a t e m e n t s made a b o u t t h e p i c t u r e s o r were t h e two p a g e s t r e a t e d a s one. R a t i n g : 0-5 t i m e s 58 r a t e d a 0; 6-10 t i m e s r a t e d a 1; and 11-15 t i m e s r a t e d a 2. 4. L e f t t o R i g h t From t h e v i d e o - t a p e , a c o u n t was made o f t h e number o f t i m e s t h e s u b j e c t s b e gan on t h e l e f t - h a n d page a n d moved t o t h e r i g h t - h a n d p a g e . R a t i n g : 0-5 t i m e s was g i v e n 0; 6-10 t i m e s was g i v e n 1; a n d 11-15 t i m e s was g i v e n a 2. 5. S e l f - C o r r e c t i o n s I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i t e m were any a t t e m p t s t o c o r r e c t p a g e - t u r n i n g b e h a v i o r ( f o r e x a m p l e , r e a l i z i n g two p a g e s ha d b e e n t u r n e d r a t h e r t h a n one) o r t u r n i n g b a c k i n t h e book t o c h e c k a d e t a i l o r c o r r e c t a s t a t e m e n t made. R a t i n g : No r e f e r e n c e s was r a t e d a 0; one r e f e r e n c e r a t e d a 1; a n d two o r more i n s t a n c e s r a t e d a 2. 3.2 SUBJECTS The s u b j e c t s were f o r t y t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g p r e s c h o o l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d S t u d y C e n t r e . The t w e n t y m a l e a n d t w e n t y f e m a l e c h i l d r e n r a n g e d i n age f r o m 41 t o 61 m onths a n d t h e y a t t e n d e d t h e C e n t e r t h r e e o r f o u r h a l f - d a y s a week. The s u b j e c t s were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d amongst f o u r c l a s s e s a t t h e C e n t e r a n d were a l l h e a l t h y p r e s c h o o l e r s w i t h no a p p a r e n t p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s a v e r a g e t o a b o v e - a v e r a g e i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w i t h t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g a w i d e 59 range o f p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . P a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n a t t h e C e n t e r a r e a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t o be a c t i v e i n C e n t e r p r o g r a m s and a r e o f t e n c a l l e d upon t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n m e e t i n g s , f u n d - r a i s i n g , and f i e l d t r i p s by p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A l l s u b j e c t s were f r o m t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and had an o l d e r o r you n g e r s i b l i n g . 3.3 COMPARISON GROUPS P a r e n t s o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of 90 p r e s c h o o l e r s a t t e n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r c o m p l e t e d t h e Home L i t e r a c y E n v i r o n m e n t  I n d e x ( H L E I ) ( S h a p i r o , 1985). F o u r c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s o f t e n s u b j e c t s e a c h were formed b a s e d on t h e s u b j e c t s ' age and t o t a l s c o r e on t h e H L E I . The t e n f o u r y e a r o l d s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t t o t a l s c o r e on HLEI formed G r o u p A. The t e n f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s on t h e HLEI f o r m e d Group B. The t e n t h r e e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s on t h e HLEI formed G r o u p C. The t e n t h r e e y e a r o l d s w i t h t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s on t h e HLEI f o r m e d G r o u p D. T a b l e 1 o u t l i n e s t h e f o u r g r o u p s w i t h t h e i r mean age and HLEI s c o r e s . T a b l e 1: C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p s C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p Mean Age(months) Mean HLEI(max.72) Group 1 H i g h 4's 55.2 60.2 Group 2 Low 4's 54.7 45.2 Group 3 H i g h 3's 45.6 54.6 Group 4 Low 3's 45.7 48.0 60 G r o u p One and Two were s i m i l a r i n age y e t d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r s c o r e on t h e H L E I , so G r o u p One was d e s c r i b e d a s t h e H i g h F o u r s a n d G r o u p Two a s t h e Low F o u r s . G r o u p T h r e e a nd F o u r were s i m i l a r i n age y e t d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r s c o r e on t h e H L E I , so G r o u p T h r e e was d e s c r i b e d a s t h e H i g h T h r e e s a nd G r o u p F o u r a s t h e Low T h r e e s . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n were one month o v e r t h e t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r age mark, t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . The mean a g e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e b a s e d on t h e i r a g e s a t t h e t i m e t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e r e s e a r c h t a s k . 3.4 TASK A f t e r a b r i e f warm-up c o n v e r s a t i o n , e a c h s u b j e c t was a s k e d t o "Use t h i s book t o t e l l a s t o r y . " S u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t a s t h e y went t h r o u g h t h e b o o k , t h e y were t o make-up t h e b e s t s t o r y t h e y c o u l d t h i n k o f . S u b j e c t s were n o t t a k e n t h r o u g h t h e book f i r s t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I f t h e y c h o s e t o go t h r o u g h i t f i r s t , t h e y were a l l o w e d . The r e s e a r c h e r n o t e d t h o s e who went t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e book b e f o r e t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r y . S u b j e c t s who seemed r e l u c t a n t o r h e s i t a n t i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g were p r o m p t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h q u e s t i o n s l i k e "What's h a p p e n i n g h e r e ? a n d What c a n y o u t e l l me a b o u t t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t o r y ? " The r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t make s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e s u b j e c t s n o r d i d he t u r n p a g e s o r p o i n t o u t i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h e s t o r y f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . I f a s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r a b o u t an i t e m i n t h e s t o r y b o o k , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n o f t h e 61 s u b j e c t t o e n c o u r a g e them t o t e l l a b o u t t h e i n c i d e n t . Comments o f a c c e p t a n c e ( Y e s , Good) and t h o s e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t (Good j o b . Y o u ' r e d o i n g f i n e . K e e p g o i n g . ) were made by t h e r e s e a r c h e r when a p p r o p r i a t e . A l l s u b j e c t s u s e d t h e same w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e b o o k , P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t by Tomie d e P a o l a ( 1 9 7 8 ) . ( F o r a summary o f t h e s t o r y t o l d by t h i s w o r d l e s s b o o k , s e e A p p e n d i x D.) T h i s book was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t h a s a c l e a r t i t l e p age a n d an o b v i o u s o p e n i n g page t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e s t o r y . I t a l s o h a s a m a i n c h a r a c t e r , s e v e r a l s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s a n d r e p e t i t i v e s t o r y a c t i o n s t h a t move t h e s t o r y t o a c l i m a x . A m a i n p r o b l e m i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s t o r y a n d an a m u s i n g a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p r o b l e m i s e v i d e n t . The l a s t page a l l o w s f o r t h e t e l l i n g o f a f o r m a l c l o s i n g . The p i c t u r e s i n P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t a r e c l e a r a n d c o n s i s t a n t l y t e l l t h e s t o r y i n an a m u s i n g a n d e n t e r t a i n i n g way. The s e q u e n c e o f t h e s t o r y i s e a s y t o f o l l o w a n d t h e p i c t u r e s do n o t r u n a c r o s s t h e w h o l e o f two p a g e s , b u t a r e k e p t s e p a r a t e a s l e f t - p a g e a n d r i g h t - p a g e . T h i s was e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e i f s u b j e c t s f o l l o w e d t h e s t o r y w i t h a l e f t - t o - r i g h t s e q u e n c e . T h e r e i s no t e x t i n t h i s book d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e l l t h e s t o r y , b u t p r i n t c a n be f o u n d a s l a b e l s on s u p p l i e s i n t h e k i t c h e n a n d i n t h e c o o k b o o k t h a t t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r r e a d s on one page o f t h e book. 62 3.5 DATA COLLECTION The r e s e a r c h e r s p e n t s e v e r a l months a s a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t a t t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r , s o a l l s u b j e c t s were q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h h i m . The r e s e a r c h e r s p e n t t i m e i n a l l t h e c l a s s r o o m s o b s e r v i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . H e h a d w o r k e d w i t h a l l t h e s u b j e c t s p r e v i o u s l y on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s f o r o t h e r t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s . Once t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f 40 s u b j e c t s h a d been i d e n t i f i e d , t h e s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t o go w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k . A l l s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r o v e r a t h r e e week p e r i o d i n A p r i l . S u b j e c t s showed no a p p r e h e n s i o n a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s t o c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k . T e a c h e r s a t t h e C e n t e r s a i d t h e y h a d n o t u s e d t h e book P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n a n d o n l y one c h i l d m e n t i o n e d t h a t h e r m o t h e r h a d s h a r e d t h e book w i t h h e r a t home and she was r e p l a c e d i n t h e s a m p l e . A l l o f t h e r e s e a r c h s e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d i n an u n o c c u p i e d c l a s s r o o m a d j a c e n t t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' c l a s s r o o m s . S u b j e c t s were c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h i s room s i n c e i t was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s . The v i d e o e q u i p m e n t r e m a i n e d s e t - u p i n t h i s c l a s s r o o m a n d was n o t c o n s p i c u o u s t o t h e s u b j e c t s . The s m a l l t a b l e u s e d t o do t h e t a s k was a l s o p a r t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t . The r e s e a r c h s e s s i o n s were v i d e o - t a p e d a n d t r a n s c r i b e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e s e s s i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o made a n e c d o t a l n o t e s w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t s were t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s a n d / o r a f t e r t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d 63 t h e t a s k . 3.6 TRANSCRIPTIONS C a r e f u l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s t o r i e s were made by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . ( F o r sa m p l e s of t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s , s ee A p p e n d i x E.) They i n c l u d e d a l l t h e v e r b a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n and any q u e s t i o n s or comments made by t h e r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . Any i n t r o d u c t i o n and t h e warm-up c o n v e r s a t i o n s were o m i t t e d from t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . V e r b a l i z a t i o n s made by t h e c h i l d r e n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s and t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e t i t l e and a u t h o r were t r a n s c r i b e d a s w e l l . A f u l l - t i m e r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t , u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p u r p o s e and d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y b ut w i t h two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e a t t r a n s c r i b i n g a u d i o -and v i d e o - t a p e s , went t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s t o v e r i f y t h e i r a c c u r a c y w i t h t h e v i d e o - t a p e s . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l n o t e s were t y p e d and u s e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . A n o t h e r r a t e r r a n d o m l y c o d e d 20% o f t h e s t o r y r e t e l l i n g s a f t e r a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n i n v o l v i n g 26 o f t h e t e s t i t e m s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f agreement r a n g e d from 80% t o 95% w i t h an o v e r a l l i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of 85%. 3.7 DATA ANALYSIS F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s were made o f e a c h o f t h e e i g h t e e n s t o r y e l e m e n t s , e i g h t l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s and t h e f i v e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n on 64 e a c h o f t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s was c o m p u t e d a nd t h e n mean s c o r e s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s were c a l c u l a t e d . An i t e m a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t a n c y o f t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s . R e s u l t s w a r r a n t e d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m e a s u r e s f o r s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s w i t h t h e i t e m s c o r r e l a t i n g p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e o v e r a l l t e s t ( H o y t E s t i m a t e o f R e l i a b i l i t y = .74 and .76, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . R e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e book o r i e n t a t i o n m e a s u r e was o n l y .25, a r e s u l t p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e l o w number o f t e s t i t e m s (5) a n d a l s o t h e r a t i n g s y s t e m o f t h r e e l e v e l s r a t h e r t h a n two. When t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t m e a s u r e s were c o m b i n e d , r e s u l t s c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y ( H o y t E s t i m a t e . 8 6 ) . One-way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were p e r f o r m e d on mean f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s o f e a c h o f t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s . The Home L i t e r a c y E n v i r o n m e n t I n d e x ( S h a p i r o , 1 9 8 5 ) s c o r e was t r e a t e d a s t h e i n d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e a n d t h e s u b j e c t s ' t o t a l s c o r e s on e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s were u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r 1 were r e p l a c e d by t h e s e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s : 1. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f t h r e e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 2. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f f o u r y e a r o l d 65 c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d low h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 3. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f t h r e e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 4. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s u s e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d low h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 5. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s c o u n t e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f t h r e e y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 6. T h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s c o u n t e d i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h a n d l o w h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 3.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. The s t u d y was c o n f i n e d t o s u b j e c t s d r a w n f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y one p r e s c h o o l , w h i c h may be an e n v i r o n m e n t a t y p i c a l o f o t h e r p r e s c h o o l s . 2. S u b j e c t s w e r e n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r , b u t a s s i g n e d t o a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p b a s e d on age ( t h r e e y e a r s v e r s e s f o u r y e a r s ) a n d s c o r e on t h e Home L i t e r a c y E n v i r o n m e n t I n d e x ( S h a p i r o , 1 9 8 5 ) . 66 3. O n l y one s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g was t a k e n f r o m e a c h c h i l d . Two o r t h r e e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s w o u l d h e l p e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a s v a l i d i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a b i l i t y . 4. The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e b e c a u s e o f f a c t o r s l i k e t h e h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n on p a r e n t s t o t a k e p a r t i n C e n t e r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g number o f t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , a n d t h e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e d u c a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t s . 5. I n t h e s t o r y r e t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n , t h e more v e r b a l , o u t g o i n g c h i l d may h a v e an a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e c h i l d r e l u c t a n t t o s p e a k . 6. The r e s u l t s may be hampered by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b e i n g a s k e d t o t e l l s t o r i e s . I f s t o r y t e l l i n g was more f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n t h e home and p r e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , c h i l d r e n may be b e t t e r a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e what t h e y know a b o u t s t o r i e s . 7. The u s e o f a book t o i n i t i a t e s t o r y t e l l i n g may be s e e n a s an a s s e t s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s a c o n t e n t f o r s u b j e c t s t o u s e i n t h e i r own s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s . I t may a l s o be s e e n a s i n h i b i t i n g t h e f r e e d o m s u b j e c t s may n o r m a l l y e x e r c i s e i n a s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n n o t bound by t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t o f a book. 4. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e s u l t s a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n u n d e r h e a d i n g s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s , S t o r y E l e m e n t s , L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s , a n d Book O r i e n t a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s a r e f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e d e t a i l s o f e a c h g r o u p s ' r e s u l t s f o r i t e m s w i t h i n e a c h c h e c k l i s t . 4.1 STORY ELEMENTS A p p e n d i x A c o n t a i n s t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s o r g a n i z e d by c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t a n d f o r e a c h i t e m i s p r o v i d e d t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . T a b l e 2 ( b e l o w ) p r e s e n t s t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s on s t o r y e l e m e n t s . TABLE 2 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s — S t o r y E l e m e n t s G r o u p M SD G r o u p 1-High 4's 7.7 2.83 G r o u p 2-Low 4's 4.7 3.302 G r o u p 3 - H i g h 3*s 3.6 2.591 G r o u p 4-Low 3's 2.3 1.636 One-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s by g r o u p d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o u r g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r . The F v a l u e was 7.495, w h i c h was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( p . 0 0 1 ) . The f i n d i n g o f a m a i n e f f e c t by g r o u p was f o l l o w e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Duncan m u l t i p l e - r a n g e t e s t a s a p o s t hoc t - t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h g r o u p means d i f f e r e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . I t was 67 68 h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t G r o u p s One a n d Two and G r o u p s T h r e e and F o u r w o u l d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m ' e a c h o t h e r . T a b l e 3 ( b e l o w ) p r e s e n t s t h e t t e s t r e s u l t s . TABLE 3 t - t e s t R e s u l t s — S t o r y E l e m e n t s G r o u p s t v a l u e 2 - t a i l p r o b . H i g h 3's-Low 3's 1.34 0.196 H i g h 4's-Low 4's 2.18 0.043* W i t h t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s , c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s d i d i n c l u d e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e , w h i l e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s #1 c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e number o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s i n c l u d e d by f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h u s , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s #2 was r e j e c t e d . Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e i t e m c o u n t s f o r t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d f o r h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n f o r m a l c o m p a r i s o n s o f i t e m f r e q u e n c i e s a c r o s s age a n d l i t e r a c y g r o u p s i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1. T i t l e ( I t e m 1 ) . Of t h e t w e n t y f o u r y e a r o l d s , o n l y t h r e e r e p e a t e d o r p a r a p h r a s e d t h e t i t l e w h i l e e i g h t o f t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s u s e d t h e t i t l e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f i t e m 69 c o u n t s f o r G r o u p One w i t h G r o u p Two a n d G r o u p T h r e e w i t h G r o u p F o u r i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n i t e m c o u n t s by l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d , d i s r e g a r d i n g age i n t h e u s e o f t h e t i t l e . F o r m a l O p e n i n g ( I t e m 2 ) . The f o u r y e a r o l d s u s e d a f o r m a l o p e n i n g n i n e t i m e s c o m p a r e d t o o n l y one i n s t a n c e f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . No d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n c e d when h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were c o m p a r e d . S e t t i n g ( I t e m 3 ) . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s t o r y s e t t i n g was n o t s t r o n g l y e v i d e n c e d i n any o f t h e g r o u p s . S i x o f t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s g a v e a s t o r y s e t t i n g c o m p a r e d t o o n l y one t h r e e y e a r o l d . M a i n C h a r a c t e r ( I t e m s 4 a n d 5 ) . S u b j e c t s o f b o t h age g r o u p s i d e n t i f i e d t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r o f t h e bo o k . E i g h t e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d t h i r t e e n t h r e e y e a r o l d s u s e d a m a i n c h a r a c t e r a t l e a s t g e n e r i c a l l y . I t e m 5 a l l o w e d f o r a f u r t h e r c o u n t o f w h i c h c h i l d r e n u s e d a s p e c i f i c noun t o r e f e r t o t h e i r m a i n c h a r a c t e r . ( F o r e x a m p l e , " t h e l i t t l e o l d l a d y " a s o p p o s e d t o " s h e " . ) O n l y two t h r e e y e a r o l d s a n d e i g h t f o u r y e a r o l d s u s e d a s p e c i f i c name f o r t h e i r m a i n c h a r a c t e r . Of t h e s e t e n e x a m p l e s o f s p e c i f i c name, n i n e came f r o m G r o u p s One and T h r e e , t h e h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . S e c o n d a r y C h a r a c t e r s ( I t e m 6 ) . A d i f f e r e n c e by age i n t h e u s e o f s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s was o b s e r v e d . Ten o f t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s c o m p a r e d t o o n l y t h r e e o f t h e t h r e e y e a r 70 o l d s made u s e of s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s . Time a n d P a s t T e n s e ( I t e m s 7 a n d 8 ) . A d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n age g r o u p s was a l s o o b s e r v e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f what t i m e t h e s t o r y t o o k p l a c e a n d i n t h e u s e o f p a s t t e n s e t o t e l l t h e s t o r y . N i n e o f t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d f o u r o f t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s e t a t i m e f o r t h e i r s t o r i e s a n d f o u r t e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s u s e d t h e p a s t t e n s e t o t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s a s c o m p a r e d t o o n l y two t h r e e y e a r o l d s . M a i n P r o b l e m a n d R e s o l u t i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m ( I t e m s 9 a n d 1 0 ) . None o f t h e f o r t y s u b j e c t s made any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a i n p r o b l e m i n t h e s t o r y o r t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h a t p r o b l e m . T h i s may be a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t s u b j e c t s were n o t t a k e n t h r o u g h t h e book f i r s t where t h e y c o u l d " l e a r n t h e s t o r y " b e f o r e t h e y t o l d t h e i r own v e r s i o n . I t may a l s o be j u s t a s t o r y e l e m e n t t h a t e merges w i t h i n c r e a s e d a g e . S t o r y A c t i o n s 1-5 ( I t e m s 1 1 - 1 5 ) . F i v e m a j o r s t o r y a c t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e book. N i n e t e e n c o u n t s o f i n c l u s i o n o f a s t o r y a c t i o n by f o u r y e a r o l d s were o b s e r v e d , w h i l e o n l y f o u r i n s t a n c e s were o b s e r v e d among t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . The g r o u p s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e d s i x t e e n s t o r y a c t i o n s w h i l e o n l y e i g h t w e re i n c l u d e d by c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . F o r m a l C l o s i n g a n d Tag E n d i n g ( I t e m s 16 a n d 1 7 ) . 71 C h i l d r e n f r o m b o t h age g r o u p s were f a i r l y c o n s i s t a n t i n t h e i r u s e o f a f o r m a l c l o s i n g o r a t a g e n d i n g . E i g h t e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s u s e d one o r t h e o t h e r a s c o m p a r e d t o e i g h t e e n o f t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . The u s e o f f o r m a l c l o s i n g o r t a g e n d i n g o c c u r r e d t w e n t y t i m e s among c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s and o n l y t h i r t e e n t i m e s among c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 10. E x p r e s s i o n o f F e e l i n g s ( I t e m 1 8 ) . T h e r e were n o t many i n s t a n c e s o f c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s t o r y c h a r a c t e r s . The f o u r y e a r o l d s i n c l u d e d them n i n e t i m e s a n d t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s f i v e t i m e s . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s amongst s t o r y c h a r a c t e r s n i n e t i m e s , w h i l e c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s u s e d them o n l y f i v e t i m e s . I n summary, when i t e m c o u n t s f o r t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s were c o m p a r e d , f o u r y e a r o l d s g e n e r a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d more s t o r y e l e m e n t s i n t o t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s t h a n d i d t h r e e y e a r o l d s . The o n l y i t e m n o t u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y by f o u r y e a r o l d s was t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e book t i t l e ( I t e m 1 ) . D i s r e g a r d i n g a g e , s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e d a h i g h e r t o t a l number o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . An i t e m - b y - i t e m c o u n t showed t h a t s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d b e t t e r on most i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r 72 h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T - t e s t s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e q u e n c y o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s between f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s and f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s . T o t a l f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r t h e e i g h t e e n s t o r y e l e m e n t s f o r t h e t h r e e o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s from l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , b u t t - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus , t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . 4.2 LITERARY DEVICES A p p e n d i x B c o n t a i n s t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s on l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s o r g a n i z e d by c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t and f o r e a c h i t e m i s p r e s e n t e d t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . T a b l e 4 (below) p r o v i d e s t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s on l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . TABLE 4 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s - - L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s G r o u p M SD Gr o u p 1-High 4's 6.5 3.20 G r o u p 2-Low 4's 3.6 4.03 G r o u p 3-High 3's 1 .9 2.07 G r o u p 4-Low 3's 0.5 1 .08 73 One-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s by g r o u p d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o u r g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r . The F v a l u e was 9.735, w h i c h was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( p . 0 0 0 ) . The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was f o l l o w e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Duncan m u l t i p l e - r a n g e t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h g r o u p means d i f f e r e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t G r o u p s One a n d Two a n d G r o u p s T h r e e a n d F o u r w o u l d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T a b l e 5 ( b e l o w ) p r e s e n t s t h e t t e s t r e s u l t s . TABLE 5 t - t e s t R e s u l t s — L i t e r a r y D e v i c e s G r o u p s t v a l u e 2 - t a i l p r o b . H i g h 3's-Low 3's 1.89 0.075 H i g h 4's-Low 4's 2.15 0.046* W i t h t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s , c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s d i d i n c l u d e more l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e , w h i l e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s #3 c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e number o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n c l u d e d by f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h u s , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s #4 was r e j e c t e d . Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e i t e m r a t i n g f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d b e t w e e n 74 g r o u p s from h i g h e r and l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n f o r m a l c o m p a r i s o n s o f i t e m f r e q u e n c i e s a c r o s s age and l i t e r a c y g r o u p s i l l u s t r a t e s some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 . I n t o n a t i o n ( I t e m 1 ) . The f r e q u e n c y of t h i s i t e m f o r t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s was n i n e t e e n and s e v e n f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . D i s r e g a r d i n g age, s u b j e c t s from h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s (Groups One and T h r e e ) had a t o t a l f r e q u e n c y of n i n e t e e n compared t o a t o t a l of s e v e n f o r s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s (Groups Two and F o u r ) . 2. R e p e t i t i o n o f Words ( I t e m 2 ) . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d a t o t a l o f e i g h t and t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t h r e e . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d e i g h t and s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d t h r e e . 3. E m p h a s i s of Words ( I t e m 3 ) . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r b o t h g r o u p s o f f o u r y e a r o l d s was t w e n t y and f o u r f o r a l l t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . The s c o r e f o r t h e two g r o u p s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s was e i g h t e e n a n d o n l y s i x f o r s u b j e c t s f r o m t h e l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 4. M a k i n g Sounds ( I t e m 4 ) . O n l y one s u b j e c t i n c l u d e d any sounds t o enhance t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . I n c l u d i n g a n i m a l sounds s u c h as "Mooo and Meow" or sounds t h a t e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s s u c h as " B r r r r r ! I t ' s c o l d " may be a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e t h a t emerges w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age. 5. L i t e r a r y Language ( I t e m 5 ) . The use of l a n g u a g e t y p i c a l 75 o f s t o r y b o o k s was o b s e r v e d t w e n t y t i m e s f o r t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d o n l y o n c e f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d t h i r t e e n , w h i l e t h o s e f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d o n l y e i g h t . 6. D i a l o g u e ( I t e m 6 ) . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d s e v e n a n d t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d one i n t h e i r u s e o f d i a l o g u e . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d f i v e i n t h e u s e o f d i a l o g u e i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s a n d s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d t h r e e . 7. D e s c r i p t i v e L a n g u a g e ( I t e m 7 ) . L a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s w e re o b s e r v e d b e t w e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d t h r e e y e a r o l d s a n d b e t w e e n h i g h e r and l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d s i n t h e i r use o f a d j e c t i v e s a n d a d v e r b s t o a d d d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l . The f o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w e n t y - o n e a n d t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w o . The s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d f i f t e e n a n d t h e s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d e i g h t . 8. I n t e r j - e c t i o n s ( I t e m 8 ) . N o t many s u b j e c t s u s e d i n t e r j e c t i o n s , s u c h a s " S u d d e n l y ! o r L o o k ! " i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . The f o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d s i x , w h i l e t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d e i g h t . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d s e v e n a n d t h o s e f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d f o u r . 76 To s u m m a r i z e , when f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s were c o m p a r e d , f o u r y e a r o l d s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d more l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s t h a n t h r e e y e a r o l d s . An i n d i v i d u a l i t e m e x a m i n a t i o n showed t h a t on e v e r y i t e m f o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d h i g h e r . D i s r e g a r d i n g a g e , s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e d a h i g h e r t o t a l number o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , a n d t h e y s c o r e d h i g h e r on e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i t e m t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T - t e s t s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f r e q u e n c y o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s b e t w e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s . T o t a l f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r t h e e i g h t l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m w - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , b u t t - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h u s , t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . 4.3 BOOK ORIENTATION A p p e n d i x C c o n t a i n s t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s on d e m o n s t r a t e d book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s f o r a l l s u b j e c t s o r g a n i z e d by c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . A t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t a n d f o r e a c h i t e m i s p r e s e n t e d t o a l l o w f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . T a b l e 6 ( b e l o w ) p r o v i d e s t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s on book o r i e n t a t i o n . 77 TABLE 6 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s - - B o o k O r i e n t a t i o n G r o u p M SD G r o u p 1-High 4's 5.2 2.09 G r o u p 2-Low 4's 2.8 1.75 G r o u p 3 - H i g h 3's 3.7 1.63 G r o u p 4-Low 3's 2.9 1.37 One-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f book o r i e n t a t i o n by g r o u p d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f o u r g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r . The F v a l u e was 4.092, w h i c h was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p . 0 1 3 ) . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o was a g a i n f o l l o w e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Duncan m u l t i p l e - r a n g e t e s t a s a p o s t hoc t - t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h g r o u p means d i f f e r e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t G r o u p s One a n d Two a n d G r o u p s T h r e e a n d F o u r w o u l d d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T a b l e 7 ( b e l o w ) p r e s e n t s t h e t - t e s t r e s u l t s . TABLE 7 t - t e s t R e s u l t s — B o o k O r i e n t a t i o n G r o u p s t v a l u e 2 - t a i l p r o b . H i g h 3's-Low 3's 1.19 0.251 H i g h 4's-Low 4's 2.78 0.012* W i t h t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s , c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s d i d d e m o n s t r a t e more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e , w h i l e i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 78 #5 c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The t - t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e number o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d by f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s c o m p a r e d t o f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h u s , n u l l h y p o t h e s i s #6 was r e j e c t e d . Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e r a t i n g s f o r t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s a n d b e t w e e n h i g h e r a n d l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n f o r m a l c o m p a r i s o n s o f i t e m f r e q u e n c i e s a c r o s s age a n d l i t e r a c y g r o u p s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . 1 . P o i n t i n g ( I t e m 1 ) . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d f i f t e e n i n t h e i r u s e o f p o i n t i n g b e h a v i o r , w h i l e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w e n t y . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d t w e n t y , w h i l e s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d f i f t e e n . 2. R e a d i n g R e l a t e d Comments ( I t e m 2 ) . Q u i t e a c o n s i s t a n t r e s u l t was o b s e r v e d i n t h e f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r r e a d i n g - r e l a t e d comments. F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d s e v e n t e e n i n t h e i r u s e o f comments t h a t r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a c k o f p r i n t i n t h e book o r t o t h e t a s k o f r e a d i n g i t s e l f , w h i l e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d n i n e t e e n . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d t w e n t y - o n e and s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d f i f t e e n . 3. P a g e s a s S e p a r a t e ( I t e m 3 ) . Wide d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e number o f t i m e s s u b j e c t s t r e a t e d t h e 79 p a g e s a s s e p a r a t e . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w e n t y a n d t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d s e v e n . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d e i g h t e e n a n d s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d n i n e . 4. L e f t t o R i g h t ( I t e m 4 ) . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w e n t y - t w o i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o b e g i n on t h e l e f t a n d move t o t h e r i g h t , w h i l e t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d e i g h t . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d n i n e t e e n c o m p a r e d t o e l e v e n f o r s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y , e n v i r o n m e n t s . 5. S e l f - C o r r e c t i o n s ( I t e m 5 ) . F o u r y e a r o l d s s c o r e d s i x i n t h e i r u s e o f s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n s a n d t h r e e y e a r o l d s s c o r e d t w e l v e . S u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d e l e v e n a n d s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d s e v e n . I n summary, when i t e m c o u n t s f o r t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s were c o m p a r e d , f o u r y e a r o l d s g e n e r a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . T h r e e y e a r o l d s d i d s c o r e h i g h e r on I t e m s o n e , two a n d f i v e , b u t t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s were c l o s e t o t h e same s c o r e a s t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . However, t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s were h i g h e r t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s on I t e m s t h r e e a n d f o u r , t r e a t i n g t h e p a g e s a s s e p a r a t e a n d m o v i n g f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . D i s r e g a r d i n g a g e , s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s on e v e r y i t e m . 80 T - t e s t s on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s b e t w e e n f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w e re s i g n i f i c a n t , s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s . T o t a l f r e q u e n c y c o u n t s f o r t h e f i v e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w e re h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , b u t t - t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h u s , t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . 4.4 DISCUSSION The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween t h e h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t g r o u p s on e a c h o f t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s was d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h o f t h e two age g r o u p s . F r e q u e n c y c o u n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t e d more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s u b j e c t s . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by d e v e l o p m e n t a l f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a g e s , b u t d o c u m e n t i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , a s was done h e r e , c l a r i f i e s o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t a k i n g p l a c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y . W h i l e age may h a v e b e e n a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g how o f t e n o r t o what e x t e n t t h e o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r was d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d was a s i g n i f i c a n t 81 f a c t o r when w i t h i n - a g e g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s were made. The r e j e c t i o n o f n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t w o , f o u r a n d s i x ( w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s ) s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t s u b j e c t s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w o u l d i n c l u d e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s a n d d e m o n s t r a t e more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The f a i l u r e o f t h e r e s u l t s t o show a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t w o u l d a l l o w f o r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f n u l l h y p o t h e s e s o n e , t h r e e a n d f i v e ( w h i c h i n v o l v e t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s ) r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t why s u c h s t r o n g s i g n i f i c a n c e was a c h i e v e d f o r t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s a nd n o t f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . Were t h e two g r o u p s o f t h r e e y e a r o l d s a s d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r a s t h e f o u r y e a r o l d g r o u p s on t h e m e a s u r e o f t h e i r l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d ? The mean s c o r e on t h e Home E n v i r o n m e n t L i t e r a c y I n d e x ( S h a p i r o , 1985) f o r t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s was 60.2 f o r t h e H i g h 4's a n d 45.2 f o r t h e Low 4's, a d i f f e r e n c e o f f i f t e e n p o i n t s b e t w e e n g r o u p s . The mean s c o r e on t h e HLEI f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s was 54.6 f o r t h e H i g h 3's a n d 48.0 f o r t h e Low 3's, w h i c h i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f o n l y 6.6 p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e p r o v e d t o be a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d g r o u p s a n d t h e f o u r y e a r o l d g r o u p s , i t may be t h a t an e v e n w i d e r s p r e a d b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e HLEI i s n e e d e d b e f o r e a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w o u l d show up on t h e d e p e n d a n t m e a s u r e s t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y . The r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d h e r e were c e r t a i n l y i n t h e p r e d i c t e d 82 d i r e c t i o n b u t may h a v e b e e n weakened by t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s on t h e H L E I . T h r e e y e a r o l d s may a l s o be l e s s c o n f i d e n t and a r e c e r t a i n l y l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h s t o r y t e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a n f o u r y e a r o l d s . W h i l e a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h i g h e r and l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i s e v i d e n t i n t h r e e y e a r o l d s , more o p p o r t u n i t y t o use t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y may be n e e d e d b e f o r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e c a n be a c h i e v e d . 5. CHAPTER F I V E : CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 SUMMARY The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e what d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d be e v i d e n t i n t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s o f t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The s t u d y a n a l y s e d t h e s t o r y e l e m e n t s a nd l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e t e l l i n g o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book and made o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r i n g t h e s e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m i n g f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s w o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t e more book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . T r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e v i d e o - t a p e d s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s y i e l d e d i t e m c o u n t s f o r e i g h t e e n s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d r a t i n g s o f 0,1 o r 2 f o r b o t h t h e e i g h t l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s a n d t h e f i v e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . G r o u p means were a l s o t a k e n f r o m t h e i t e m c o u n t s a n d r a t i n g s , a n d c o m p a r i s o n s on t h e t h r e e d e p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s were t h e n made b a s e d on age ( e i t h e r t h r e e o r f o u r .year o l d ) a n d s c o r e on t h e H o m e - L i t e r a c y  E n v i r o n m e n t I n d e x , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d t o i d e n t i f y a r a n g e i n h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . H y p o t h e s e s p r e d i c t e d a b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e on e a c h m e a s u r e by t h e t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . S t a t i s t i c a l 83 84 s i g n i f i c a n c e s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s e s f o r f o u r y e a r o l d s b u t n o t f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . 5.2 CONCLUSIONS D i f f e r e n c e s i n e a c h g r o u p ' s p e r f o r m a n c e were a t t r i b u t e d f i r s t o f a l l t o a g e , where i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t f o u r y e a r o l d s w o u l d p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h a n t h r e e y e a r o l d s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t b e t w e e n t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s f r o m t h e d i f f e r i n g h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o r t h i s s u b - s a m p l e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h s t o r y t e l l i n g i s n u r t u r e d i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c h i l d r e n w i l l m a n i f e s t l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t a l s o i n f l u e n c e s t h e q u a l i t y o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r d e m o n s t r a t e d by s u b j e c t s who were a s k e d t o u s e a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t o t e l l a s t o r y . W h i l e t h e e v i d e n c e i s n o t c o n c l u s i v e , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t e v e n a t t h r e e y e a r s o f a g e , c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s i n c l u d e more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The same s u g g e s t i o n i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s by t h r e e y e a r o l d s . A r i c h e r l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d p r o d u c e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , b u t t h e age o f t h r e e may be t o o e a r l y f o r o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s t o r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . By f o u r y e a r s o f age s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e v i d e n t . 85 I n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t ways t h e f o u r c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e d t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . T h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x p e c t e d age d i f f e r e n c e s a n d t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t s o f l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t . 5.2.1 THREE YEAR OLDS On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t a s k i n t h i s s t u d y , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s g e n e r a l l y d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o t h e t a s k w i t h a s t o r y . They t e n d e d t o t e l l a b o u t t h e p i c t u r e s by s i m p l y l a b e l l i n g t h e a c t i o n s . They were more i n t e r a c t i v e i n t h e i r r e l a t i n g o f t h e s t o r y by a s k i n g t h e r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n s , p o i n t i n g o u t d e t a i l s t o h i m an d n e v e r r e a l l y t a k i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . They d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y assume t h e s t o r y t e l l e r r o l e a n d s o s c o r e d l e s s on t h e number o f s t o r y e l e m e n t s t h e y i n c l u d e d . They r e p e a t e d o r p a r a p h r a s e d t h e t i t l e o f t h e book more o f t e n t h a n t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s , s e e m i n g l y i n an a t t e m p t t o g e t s t a r t e d a t t h e t a s k . T hey r a r e l y u s e d a f o r m a l o p e n i n g and u s u a l l y moved i n t o p i c t u r e o r a c t i o n l a b e l l i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e s s i o n . They b r o u g h t t h e i r s t o r y t o an end w i t h a f o r m a l c l o s i n g o r a t a g e n d i n g . They c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d i n g o f t h e i r " s t o r y " w i t h few s t o r y e l e m e n t s e v i d e n c e d i n t h e m i d d l e . Q u i t e a d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d i n t h e number o f l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s i n c l u d e d by t h r e e y e a r o l d s c o m p a r e d t o f o u r y e a r o l d s . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r t h r e e y e a r o l d s was 86 t w e n t y - f o u r , w h i l e t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s r a t e d a t o t a l o f one h u n d r e d a n d o n e . S i n c e t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s d i d n ' t s w i t c h i n t o t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g mode, t h e y w o u l d o b v i o u s l y i n c l u d e f e w e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t a s k o r a l a c k o f r e a l l y k n o w i n g what t h e y w e re e x p e c t e d t o do may h a v e p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e i r f a i l u r e t o use t h e s t o r y f o r m . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n t h e f o u r y e a r o l d g r o u p f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s f o r book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r i n g t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s . The t h r e e y e a r o l d s i n G r o u p T h r e e s c o r e d t h i r t y - s e v e n on book o r i e n t a t i o n , w h i l e t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s i n G r o u p Two o n l y s c o r e d t w e n t y - e i g h t . W h i l e n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n d l i m i t e d by t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e book o r i e n t a t i o n m e a s u r e , i t d o e s p o s e an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f a h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t , where c h i l d r e n a r e r e c e i v i n g more l i t e r a r y i n p u t a n d h a v e more o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e l l s t o r i e s a n d h a n d l e b o o k s . A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f w h i c h i t e m s on t h e HLEI c o r r e l a t e t o s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e a n d a b e t t e r m e a s u r e o f book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s may p r o v e f r u i t f u l i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l i n g o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a r i c h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o l o o k a t any d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . The p r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r 87 t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s on t h e t h r e e m e a s u r e s was n o t s u p p o r t e d . Some o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d , b u t were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . T h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ( G r o u p T h r e e ) s c o r e d h i g h e r on a l l m e a s u r e s t h a n t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s ( G r o u p F o u r ) . As s t a t e d a b o v e , t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s u s e d a l o t o f l a b e l l i n g b e h a v i o r i n t h e i r s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s . G r o u p T h r e e u s e d w h o l e s e n t e n c e s when l a b e l l i n g , w h i l e G r o u p F o u r t e n d e d t o use one w o r d o r a s h o r t p h r a s e ( f o r e x a m p l e , " S h e ' s m a k i n g t h e p a n c a k e s . " a s o p p o s e d t o " C o o k i n g " . ) A l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s u s e d a few l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , G r o u p T h r e e by f a r u s e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f them. T h e i r b e s t s c o r i n g i t e m u n d e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s was I t e m 1 , s h i f t i n g i n t o n a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e y a r e b e c o m i n g more aware o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r a n d a u d i e n c e and t h a t v o i c e i s one way t o s i g n a l t h a t r o l e . The o t h e r i t e m s , w h i l e n o t h i g h s c o r i n g , d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s g r o u p was b e c o m i n g more a w a r e o f some o f t h e ways s t o r y t e l l e r s u s e l a n g u a g e t o e x p r e s s drama a n d e m o t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r made n o t e o f any s u b j e c t who went t h r o u g h t h e book t o l o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e s b e f o r e t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y . No s u g g e s t i o n t o do s o was g i v e n , n o r was a n y a t t e m p t made t o s t o p a s u b j e c t who w a n t e d t o v i e w t h e book f i r s t . Of t h e e i g h t s u b j e c t s who d i d go t h r o u g h t h e book on t h e i r own b e f o r e t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r y , f i v e were f r o m G r o u p F o u r , t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s f r o m t h e l o w e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s b e h a v i o r may r e f l e c t t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e t h e t a s k 88 o r may h a v e been u s e d a s a d e l a y t a c t i c t o g e t some i d e a o f what t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o do. Many s u b j e c t s i n G r o u p F o u r seemed u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n , y e t t h e y f o u n d l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e book. I t was a s i f t h e y e x p e c t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o l e a d t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h r e e y e a r o l d s d i d d e m o n s t r a t e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s i n t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k , b u t t h e y d i d n o t e a s i l y s t e p i n t o t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g r o l e . S i n c e t h r e e y e a r o l d s w i l l t e l l s t o r i e s i n t h e i r p l a y a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y when a l o n e w i t h b o o k s , i t c o u l d be t h a t t h e t a s k was i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r t h a t t h r e e y e a r o l d s s t i l l n e e d a d u l t s a s t h e m a j o r m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d a boo k . E v i d e n c e f r o m t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r i c h l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t t o n u r t u r e c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y t e l l i n g , b u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d i s c o v e r m e t h o d s t o g e t t h r e e y e a r o l d s t o g e n e r a t e a s t o r y f r o m a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book a n d t o c l a r i f y t h e way t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e i n t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . 5.2.2 FOUR YEAR OLDS A v e r y d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e e merges when t h e f o u r y e a r o l d g r o u p s a r e e x a m i n e d . G e n e r a l l y , t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e t a s k by a t t e m p t i n g t o t e l l a s t o r y . They knew t h a t t h e book c o n t a i n e d a s t o r y . By a s s u m i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d a c o n t r o l o f t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . They r e l i e d l e s s on r e p e a t i n g t h e t i t l e t o b e g i n t h e i r s t o r y a n d t h e y u s e d a f o r m a l o p e n i n g o r jumped r i g h t 89 i n t o t h e s t o r y a c t i o n . They r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a ma i n c h a r a c t e r a n d k e p t h e r c o n s i s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r s t o r y . S i n c e t h e y t o l d s t o r i e s r a t h e r t h a n l a b e l l i n g p i c t u r e s , t h e f o u r y e a r o l d s i n c l u d e d many more s t o r y e l e m e n t s a n d l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s , a s i g n t h e y h a v e a good g r a s p o f what makes up a s t o r y . They were a l s o a b l e t o k e e p t h e i r v o i c e i n t o n a t i o n more c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a s k , an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how a s t o r y i s t o l d . The f o u r y e a r o l d s a l s o showed more s k i l l a t t h e book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . T h e s e c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t e d more w i t h t h e book t h a n w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e i r s t o r y came f r o m t h e i r l o o k i n g a t t h e p i c t u r e s a n d u s i n g them a s a g u i d e f o r t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g . They q u e s t i o n e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r a b o u t d e t a i l s i n t h e book much l e s s o f t e n , a n d g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d l e s s d i r e c t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t a s k a n d d u r i n g t h e a c t u a l s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g . They knew what t h e y were t o do a n d q u i c k l y went a t t h e t a s k a n d c o m p l e t e d i t on t h e i r own. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t age i s p l a y i n g a r o l e h e r e . As f o u r y e a r o l d s , t h e y h a v e h a d a w h o l e y e a r more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h b o o k s a n d s t o r i e s t h a n t h e t h r e e y e a r o l d s . The f o u r y e a r o l d s h a v e had more s t o r i e s r e a d t o them a n d t o l d t o them, a s w e l l a s more c h a n c e t o engage i n s t o r y t e l l i n g i n t h e i r p l a y a n d t h e n a t u r a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . 90 Agreeing that four year o l d s are more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to handle t h i s task, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to do some within-age comparisons. On each of the dependant v a r i a b l e s used i n t h i s study, the four year o l d s from the higher h o m e - l i t e r a c y environments (Group One) out-performed four year o l d s from lower h o m e - l i t e r a c y environments (Group Two). A l l the between-group comparisons done with these two groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The e f f e c t s of a r i c h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y environment are c l e a r l y e v ident i n the performance of Group One. The c h i l d r e n of Group One were the r e a l s t o r y t e l l e r s i n t h i s study. They switched e a s i l y i n t o the s t o r y t e l l i n g mode and used many more s t o r y elements and l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s . A l l of them used a main c h a r a c t e r , but more im p o r t a n t l y , seven of the ten gave that c h a r a c t e r a s p e c f i c name or l a b e l t h a t they r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t a n t l y throughout t h e i r s t o r y (For example, " C o l d i e " and "the L i t t l e Old Lady"). The s t o r i e s t o l d by t h i s group a l s o matched more c l o s e l y the a c t u a l s t o r y t o l d by the p i c t u r e s i n the book. They i d e n t i f i e d t h i r t e e n s t o r y a c t i o n s , while Group Two only i n c l u d e d s i x . Within the measures f o r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , Group One maintained the i n t o n a t i o n of v o i c e more c o n s i s t a n t l y than Group Two and used more examples of l i t e r a r y and d e s c r i p t i v e language. Group One was a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y adept i n t h e i r book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . They made more r e a d i n g - r e l a t e d comments about the lack of p r i n t i n the book and they were much more c o n s i s t a n t i n t h e i r t r e a t i n g of the pages as 9 1 s e p a r a t e a n d i n m o v i n g f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e H L E I , t h a t i s , t h o s e who d i f f e r e d o n l y i n t h e i r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i n p u t c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e i n t o t h e i r l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f many a n d v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h s t o r i e s i s e v i d e n t when t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e a s k e d t o u s e a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book t o t e l l a s t o r y . The m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t an e m e r g i n g c o n c e p t o f s t o r y i s more e v i d e n t i n t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f f o u r y e a r o l d s t h a n t h r e e y e a r o l d s and a l s o i s more r e f i n e d a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d among c h i l d r e n f r o m r i c h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . 5 . 3 IMPLICATIONS T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s r i c h i n s t o r y t e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on p r e s c h o o l e r s ' a b i l i t y t o t e l l a s t o r y f r o m a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book a n d t o d e m o n s t r a t e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d book o r i e n t a t i o n b e h a v i o r s . P a r e n t s w i l l want t o c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e t h i s r i c h b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d may e v e n e x t e n d i t t o i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t a k e - o v e r t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g r o l e d u r i n g t h e i r a l r e a d y r i c h b o o k - s h a r i n g e v e n t s . C h i l d r e n ' s p r i v a t e h a n d l i n g o f b o o k s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d s o t h e y c a n p l a y - o u t t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g r o l e i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n . P a r e n t s may want t o t e l l more s t o r i e s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a 92 m o d e l o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r r o l e . I n e v e r y d a y l i f e a t home, s t o r y t e l l i n g c o u l d be u s e d t o e x p l a i n how t h i n g s work and why t h i n g s a r e done t h e way t h e y a r e . C h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l d e s i r e t o t e l l s t o r i e s must be n u r t u r e d i n r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t s f u l l o f many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l i s t e n t o a n d t e l l s t o r i e s . As c h i l d r e n move i n t o t h e p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s o f n u r s e r y s c h o o l s a n d d a y c a r e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t s t o r y t e l l i n g c o n t i n u e t o be e n c o u r a g e d a s p a r t o f t h e s e p r e s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . P r e s c h o o l s o f f e r a c h a n c e t o s h a r e e v e n more s t o r i e s i n an e n v i r o n m e n t f u l l o f l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s . E n c o u r a g i n g s t o r y t e l l i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g s t r o n g i n p u t f r o m l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s o r a l a n d w r i t t e n f o r m s s h o u l d be c e n t r a l i n any p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . 5.4 RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS W i t h e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m h i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e more e f f e c t i v e s t o r y t e l l e r s , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e g i v e n . Some o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s w o u l d c l a r i f y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a n d o t h e r s w o u l d b r o a d e n t h e f o c u s f o r new s t u d y . 1. To s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d h e r e , t h e t a s k c o u l d be r e p e a t e d w i t h a n o t h e r w o r d l e s s book o f e q u a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . S u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r t h e two s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s w o u l d be a t r u e r m e a s u r e o f t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t y . 2. Some a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e t a s k may be n e e d e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h r e e y e a r o l d s t o u s e t h e s t o r y mode. S u g g e s t i o n One 93 above may h e l p them e s t a b l i s h a b i t of c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p o n d t o t h e t a s k w i t h a s t o r y . Some m o d e l l i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e whole p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m may show t h e s u b j e c t s how t h e t a s k i s done. In a n o t h e r s t u d y u s i n g t h e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s o f a w o r d l e s s p i c t u r e book, i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o g i v e t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r t h e same t a s k and c o r r e l a t e t h o s e r e s u l t s t o t h e i r s c o r e s on t h e H o m e - L i t e r a c y E n v i r o n m e n t I n d e x . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n and a l l o w f o r more p o w e r f u l s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t would p i n p o i n t more a c c u r a t e l y where d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t l i e . Such a s t u d y would a l s o a l l o w f o r an a n a l y s e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s on t h e HLEI t o see w h i c h i t e m s c o r r e l a t e t h e h i g h e s t on e a c h o f t h e de p e n d a n t v a r i a b l e s . T h i s may h e l p more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t n u r t u r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t o r y t e l l i n g . Any r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g s f r o m two y e a r o l d s and f i v e y e a r o l d s . A b r o a d e r p o p u l a t i o n would p r o v i d e more d e t a i l s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e v i d e n c e d a c r o s s a g e s . H i g h e r h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s p r o v i d e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s c e n t e r e d on s t o r i e s . Some a n a l y s e s o f t h e s e p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s would h e l p i d e n t i f y i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t may be c o n d u c i v e t o s t o r y t e l l i n g amongst p r e s c h o o l e r s . 94 In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y adds t o our knowledge of how p r e s c h o o l e r s a p p l y t h e i r s t o r y t e l l i n g a b i l i t i e s 'in a r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n . C h i l d r e n a t t h r e e and f o u r y e a r s o f age a r e a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t i n g some c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e books and t e l l t h e s t o r i e s f o u n d i n t h o s e b o o k s . I t r e m a i n s t o p o i n t out t h a t s u c h h o l i s t i c t a s k s as s t o r y - r e t e l l i n g p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n of e m p i r i c a l d a t a f o r m e a s u r i n g s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s , a s w e l l a s e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a e s s e n t i a l i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f e a r l y r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r . More d e t a i l s on r i c h h o m e - l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s and more e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e s t o r y t e l l i n g o f p r e s c h o o l e r s w i l l h e l p p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w i l l e nhance and n u r t u r e l i t e r a c y a c q u i s i t i o n . BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n , A l o n z o B. and S t o k e s , S h e l l e y B. S o c i a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p r a c t i c e o f l i t e r a c y . I n H. Goelman e t a l ( E d s . ) A w a k e n i n g t o  L i t e r a c y . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , E x e t e r , New H a m p s h i r e , 1984. A p p l e b e e , A r t h u r N. The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t o f S t o r y : A g e s Two  t o S e v e n t e e n . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1978. A p p l e b e e , A r t h u r N. C h i l d r e n ' s n a r r a t i v e s : New d i r e c t i o n s . The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , November 1980, 137-142. B e t t l e h e i m , B r u n o . The U s e s o f E n c h a n t m e n t : The M e a n i n g a n d  I m p o r t a n c e o f F a i r y t a l e s . Random House I n c . , New Y o r k , 1977. B i s s e x , G l e n d a L. Gyns a t Wrk: A C h i l d L e a r n s t o Read a n d  W r i t e . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1980. B i s s e x , G l e n d a L. The c h i l d a s t e a c h e r . I n H. Goelman e t a l ( E d s . ) . A w a k e n i n g t o L i t e r a c y . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , E x e t e r , New H a m p s h i r e , 1984. B r i t t o n , J a m e s . L a n g u a g e a n d L e a r n i n g . H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , L o n d o n , 1975. Brown, G a r t h H. C h i l d r e n ' s s e n s e o f s t o r y a nd t h e i r r e a d i n g . E n g l i s h i n A u s t r a l i a , M a r c h 1979, 47, 43-50. B r u n e r , J e r o m e S. C h i l d ' s T a l k : L e a r n i n g t o Use L a n g u a g e . N o r t o n a n d Company, New Y o r k , 1983. Chomsky, C a r o l . W r i t e f i r s t , r e a d l a t e r . C h i l d h o o d  E d u c a t i o n , 1971, 47, 2 9 6 - 2 9 9 . Chomsky, C a r o l . S t a g e s i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1972, 42, 1-33. C l a r k , M a r g a r e t . Young F l u e n t R e a d e r s . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , E x e t e r , New H a m p s h i r e , 1976. C l a r k , M a r g a r e t . L i t e r a c y a t home a n d i n s c h o o l : I n s i g h t s f r o m a s t u d y o f y o u n g f l u e n t r e a d e r s . I n H. G o e l m a n e t a l ( E d s . ) . A w a k e n i n g t o L i t e r a c y . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , E x e t e r , New H a m p s h i r e , 1984. C l a y , M a r i e M. The E a r l y D e t e c t i o n o f R e a d i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s :  A D i a g n o s t i c S u r v e y . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , L o n d o n , 1972. C l a y , M a r i e M. R e a d i n g : The P a t t e r n o f Complex B e h a v i o r . 95 96 Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , A u c k l a n d , New Z e a l a n d , 1977. C o h e n , D o r o t h y . E f f e c t s o f a s p e c i a l p r o g r a m i n l i t e r a t u r e on t h e v o c a b u l a r y a n d r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f s e c o n d g r a d e c h i l d r e n i n s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s c h o o l s . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k , 1966. d e P a o l a , T o m i e . P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t . H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v i c h P u b l i s h e r s , New Y o r k , 1978. Doak e , D a v i d B. Book e x p e r i e n c e a n d e m e r g e n t r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e p r e c o n v e n t i o n i n s t i t u t e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , A t l a n t a , G e o r g i a , 1979. Doak e , D a v i d B. Book k n o w l e d g e a n d e m e r g e n t r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r . PH.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , S e p t e m b e r , 1981. D u r k i n , D. C h i l d r e n who r e a d b e f o r e g r a d e 1. The R e a d i n g  T e a c h e r , 1961, J_4, 163-166. D u r k i n , D. C h i l d r e n Who Read E a r l y . T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k , 1966. F o x , C a r o l . T a l k i n g l i k e a b o o k : Young c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l m o n o l o g u e s . I n M. Meek ( E d . ) . O p e n i n g M o v e s ( 1 7 ) : Work i n  P r o g r e s s i n t h e S t u d y o f C h i l d r e n ' s L a n g u a g e  D e v e l o p m e n t . I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n , 1983. F r o s t , J . L . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n R e d i s c o v e r e d . H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1968. G l a z e r , J . I . R e a d i n g a l o u d w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n . I n L. Lamme(Ed.). L e a r n i n g t o L o v e L i t e r a t u r e . N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s , 1981. Goodman, Y.M. a n d A l t w e r g e r , B. P r i n t a w a r e n e s s i n p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n : A s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l i t e r a c y i n p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r no. 4. P r o g r a m i n l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a , S e p t e m b e r 1981. H a n s e n , H.S. The home l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t A f o l l o w - u p r e p o r t . E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , J a n u a r y 1973, 5 0 : 1 , 9 7 - 9 8 . H a r s t e , J e r o m e C , Woodward, V i r g i n i a A. a n d B u r k e , C a r o l y n L. C h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e a n d w o r l d : I n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r s w i t h p r i n t . I n J . L a n g e r a n d M. S m i t h - B u r k e ( E d s . ) . B r i d g i n g t h e G a p / R e a d e r M e e t s A u t h o r . I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , Newark, D e l a w a r e , 1981. 97 H a r s t e , J e r o m e C , Woodward, V i r g i n i a A. a n d B u r k e , C a r o l y n L. L a n g u a g e S t o r i e s a n d L i t e r a c y L e s s o n s . Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s , E x e t e r , New H a m p s h i r e , 1984. H a r t z , K.R. A c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n who e n t e r k i n d e r g a r t e n r e a d i n g a n d c h i l d r e n o f t h e same age who r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1975. H e a t h , S h i r l e y B r i c e . W a y s W i t h W ords: L a n g u a g e , L i f e a n d Work i n C o m m u n i t i e s a n d C l a s s r o o m s . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1983. H a r d y , B a r b a r a . N a r r a t i v e s a s t h e p r i m a r y a c t o f m i n d . I n M. Meek e t a l ( E d s . ) . The C o o l Web: The P a t t e r n o f  C h i l d r e n ' s R e a d i n g . B o d l e y Head, L o n d o n , 1977. H i l l m a n , J u d i t h . R e a d i n g a l o u d t o c h i l d r e n : A r a t i o n a l e . E r i c Document ED172 152, S t . M i c h a e l ' s C o l l e g e , 1975. H o l d a w a y , Don. The F o u n d a t i o n s o f L i t e r a c y . A s h t o n S c h o l a s t i c , S y d n e y , A u s t r a l i a , 1979. K e s h i a n , J.G. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s o f c h i l d r e n who l e a r n t o r e a d s u c c e s s f u l l y . E l e m e n t a r y  E n g l i s h , 1 9 6 3 , 40, 615- 6 1 6 . L a u r i t z e n , C a r o l . O r a l l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f r e a d i n g . The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , A p r i l 1980, 33:7, 78 7 - 7 9 0 . L u s e , E l i z a b e t h . A d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t s o f p r i n t a n d home e n v i r o n m e n t o f s u b u r b a n k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . M.A. T h e s i s , T e x a s Women's U n i v e r s i t y , D e n t o n , T e x a s , 1983. M a n d l e r , J e a n M. and J o h n s o n , N a n c y S. Remembrance o f t h i n g s p a r s e d : S t o r y s t r u c t u r e a n d r e c a l l . C o g n i t i v e  P s y c h o l o g y , J a n u a r y 1977, 1_, 111-151. Meek, M., W a r l o w , A. a n d B a r t o n , G . ( E d s . ) . The C o o l Web: The  P a t t e r n o f C h i l d r e n ' s R e a d i n g . B o d l e y H ead, L o n d o n , 1 977. M i l e s , D a v i d R. Smooth a n d c r u m p l y : C h i l d r e n ' s m e a n i n g m a k i n g w i t h s t o r y . L a n g u a g e A r t s , A p r i l 1985, 62:4, 343- 3 4 8 . Morrow, L e s l e y M. 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J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g B e h a v i o r , 1981, J_3: 1 , 2 3 - 3 1 . P l e s s a s , G.P. and O a k e s , C R . P r e - r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f s e l e c t e d e a r l y r e a d e r s . The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1964, 17, 241 - 2 4 5 . R a n d , M u r i e l K. S t o r y schema: T h e o r y , r e s e a r c h a n d p r a c t i c e . T h e R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , J a n u a r y 1984, 37:4, 377-38 2 . R e a d , C h a r l e s . P r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h p h o n o l o g y . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1971,41, 1-34. R e u n i n g , C h r i s t a M. and S u l z b y , E l i z a b e t h . E m e r g e n t r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s i n h i g h a n d l o w l i t e r a c y b a c k g r o u n d c h i l d r e n . I s s u e s i n L i t e r a c y : A T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , 3 4 t h A n n u a l Y e a r b o o k , N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1985. 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P r e s c h o o l l i t e r a c y - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s a n d s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . I n D. O l s o n e t a l ( E d s . ) . L i t e r a c y ,  L a n g u a g e a n d L e a r n i n g . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 8 5 . W e l l s , G o r d o n . The M e a n i n g M a k e r s . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , L o n d o n , 1 9 8 5 . W h a l e y , J i l l . R e a d e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t o r y s t r u c t u r e . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 8 1 , J _ 7 : 1 , 9 0 - 1 1 4 . APPENDIX A FREQUENCY COUNTS STORY ELEMENTS GROUPS ONE AND TWO GROUP ONE ( H i g h 4's) MEAN AGE= 55.2 MEAN HLEI= 60.2 ID AGE SEX HLEI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 7 18 TOTAL F-01 52 F 66 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 9 M-02 52 M 63 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 M-03 55 M 62 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 10 F-04 61 F 61 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 9 M-05 58 M 61 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 M-06 55 M 59 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 F-07 52 F 58 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 8 M-08 55 M 58 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 F-09 52 F 57 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 • 4 F-1 0 60 F 57 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 6 I t e m T o t a l s 2 4 310 7 6 4 8 0 0 3 1 7 1 1 4 7 5 77 GROUP TWO (Low 4' s) MEAN AGE= 54. 7 MEAN HLEI = 45 .2 ID AGE SEX HLEI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 1 5 16 1 7 18 TOTAL F-1 1 54 F 51 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 M-12 58 M 49 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 7 F-1 3 53 F 48 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 6 M-1 4 59 M 48 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 9 M- 1 5 52 M 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-1 6 53 M 45 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F-1 7 55 F 44 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 8 F-1 8 55 F 44 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 F-19 56 F 42 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 8 F-20 57 F 37 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5 I tern T o t a l s 1 5 3 8 1 4 5 6 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 4 3 4 50 100 101 STORY ELEMENTS GROUPS THREE AND FOUR FREQUENCY COUNTS GROUP THREE ( H i g h 3's) MEAN AGE= 45.6 MEAN HLEI= 54.6 ID AGE SEX HLEI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 TOT; M-21 49 M 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 4 F-22 43 F 57 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 F-23 46 F 55 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 F-24 41 F 55 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F-25 49 F 55 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 8 F-26 43 F 54 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 M-27 46 M 54 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4 F-28 49 F 54 0 0 0 1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 M-29 41 M 53 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .3 F-30 49 F 51 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 8 I tern T o t a l s 5 0 0 8 2 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 5 4 4 3i GROUP FOUR (Low 3's) MEAN AGE= 45.1 MEAN HLEI= 48.0 ID AGE SEX HLEI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TOTJ M-31 45 M 50 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 M-32 47 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 M-33 47 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 M-34 44 M 50 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F-35 45 F 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-36 43 M 48 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 M-37 49 M 46 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 M-38 43 M 46 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 M-39 44 M 46 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F-40 50 F 44 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 5 Item T o t a l s 3 1 1 5 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 4 1 2: 1 0 2 ITEM TOTALS BY GROUP STORY ELEMENTS FREQUENCY COUNTS Comparison Group 1 2 3 4 ITEM: Ti t l e 2 1 5 3 Formal Opening 4 5 0 1 Setting 3 3 0 1 Main Character 10 8 8 5 Main Character(specific) 7 1 2 0 Secondary Characters 6 4 2 1 Time 4 5 1 3 Past Tense 8 6 2 0 Main Problem 0 0 0 0 Resolution of Problem 0 0 0 0 Story Action 1 3 1 1 1 Story Action 2 1 0 0 0 Story Action 3 7 4 2 1 Story Action 4 1 1 0 0 Story Action 5 1 0 0 0 Formal Closing 4 4 5 2 Tag Ending 7 3 4 4 Expression of Feelings 5 4 4 1 Group Totals 77 50 36 23 APPENDIX B FREQUENCY COUNTS LITERARY DEVICES GROUPS ONE AND TWO GROUP ONE ( H i g h 4's) MEAN AGE= 55.2 MEAN HLEI= 60. ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TO r F-01 52 F 66 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 1 9 M-02 52 M 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 M-03 55 M 62 2 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 6 F-04 61 F 61 2 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 7 M-05 58 M 61 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 6 M-06 55 M 59 1 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 8 F-07 52 M 58 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 2 12 M-08 55 M 58 2 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 9 F-09 52 F 57 1 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 6 F-1 0 60 F 57 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 ITEM TOTAL 12 614 012 414 5 67 GROUP TWO (Low 4's) AGE= 54.7 MEAN HLEI= 45.2 ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL F-1 1 54 F 51 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 M-12 58 M 49 1 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 7 F-1 3 53 F 48 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 M-1 4 59 M 48 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 6 M-1 5 52 M 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-1 6 53 M 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-1 7 55 F 44 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 F-1 8 55 F 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-19 56 F 42 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 4 F-20 57 F 37 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 ITEM TOTALS 7 2 6 0 8 3 7 1 34 103 104 APPENDIX B ( c o n t i n u e d ) LITERARY DEVICES GROUPS THREE AND FOUR GROUP THREE ( H i g h 3's) MEAN AGE= 45.6 MEAN HLEI= 54.6 ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL M-21 49 M 58 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 F-22 43 F 57 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 F-23 46 F 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-24 41 F 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-25 49 F 55 2 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 7 F-26 43 F 54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-27 46 M 54 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F-28 49 F 54 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 M-29 41 M 53 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 F-30 49 F 51 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 ITEM TOTALS 7 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 GROUP FOUR (Low 3's) MEAN AGE= — 45. 1 MEAN HLEI = ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOT M-31 45 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-32 47 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-33 47 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-34 44 M 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-35 45 F 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-36 43 M 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M-37 49 M 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 M-38 43 M 46 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 M-39 44 M 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-40 50 F 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ITEM TOTALS 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 5 1 0 5 ITEM TOTALS BY GROUP LITERARY DEVICES -FREQUENCY COUNTS Comparison Group 1 2 3 4 ITEM: Intonation 12 7 7 0 Repetition of Words 6 2 2 1 Emphasis of Words 14 6 4 0 Making Sounds 0 0 1 0 Literary Language 12 8 1 0 Dialogue 4 3 1 0 Descriptive Language 14 7 1 1 Interjections 5 1 2 3 Group Totals 76 34 19 5 APPENDIX C FREQUENCY COUNTS BOOK ORIENTATION GROUPS ONE AND TWO GROUP ONE ( H i g h 4's) MEAN AGE= 55.2 MEAN HLEI= 60.2 ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL F-01 52 F 66 2 0 1 0 0 3 M-02 52 M 63 1 2 1 2 0 6 M-03 55 M 62 1 2 1 2 1 7 F-04 61 F 61 1 1 0 0 0 2 M-05 58 M 61 1 2 2 2 0 7 M-06 55 M 59 0 0 2 2 1 5 F-07 52 M 58 0 0 1 2 1 4 M-08 55 M 58 0 2 1 1 0 4 F-09 52 F 57 2 2 2 2 1 9 F-1 0 60 F 57 1 0 2 2 0 5 Item T o t a l s 9111315 4 52 GROUP TWO (Low 4's) MEAN AGE= 54.7 MEAN HLEI= 45.2 ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 .5 TOTAL F-1 1 54 F 51 0 0 0 1 1 2 M-1 2 58 M 49 0 0 1 0 0 1 F-1 3 53 F 48 0 0 0 1 0 1 M-1 4 59 M 48 0 1 1 1 0 3 M-1 5 52 M 45 2 1 0 0 0 3 M-1 6 53 M 45 2 0 0 1 1 4 F-1 7 55 F 44 0 2 2 0 0 4 F-1 8 55 F 44 0 2 1 2 0 5 F-1 9 56 F 42 2 0 2 1 0 5 F-20 57 F 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 Item T o t a l s 6 6 7 7 2 30 1 0 6 APPENDIX C ( c o n t i n u e d ) BOOK ORIENTATION GROUPS THREE AND FOUR GROUP THREE ( H i g h 3's) MEAN AGE= 45.6 MEAN HLEI= 54, ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 . TOTAL M-21 49 M 58 2 2 0 0 1 5 F-22 43 F 57 1 2 1 1 0 5 F-23 46 F 55 2 2 0 0 2 6 F-24 41 F 55 0 0 0 0 0 0 F-25 49 F 55 0 0 1 1 1 3 -F-26 43 F 54 2 0 1 1 0 4 M-27 46 M 54 1 1 1 0 0 3 F-28 49 F 54 1 2 0 0 0 3 M-29 41 M 53 0 1 1 1 1 4 F-30 49 F 51 2 0 0 0 2 4 I tern T o t a l s 1110 5 4 7 37 GROUP FOUR (Low 3's) MEAN AGE= 45. 1 MEAN HLEI ID AGE SEX HLEI ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL M-31 45 M 50 0 1 0 0 0 1 M-32 47 M 50 0 0 0 1 1 2 M-33 47 M 50 0 2 0 0 0 2 M-34 44 M 50 2 0 0 0 1 3 F-35 45 F 49 2 1 0 1 1 5 M-36 43 M 48 1 2 1 0 0 4 M-37 49 M 46 2 1 0 0 1 4 M-38 43 M 46 1 0 i 1 0 3 M-39 44 M 46 0 0 0 0 1 1 F-40 50 F 44 1 2 0 1 0 4 It e m T o t a l s 9 9 2 4 5 29 1 0 8 ITEM TOTALS BY GROUP BOOK ORIENTATION FREQUENCY COUNTS Comparison Group 1 2 3 4 ITEM: Pointing 9 6 11 9 Reading-Related Comments 11 6 10 9 Pages as Separate 13 7 5 2 Left to Right 15 7 4 4 Self-Corrections 4 2 7 5 Group Totals 52 30 37 29 APPENDIX D P a n c a k e s f o r B r e a k f a s t by Tomie d e P a o l a A Summary o f t h e S t o r y The s t o r y c e n t e r s on t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by an o l d l a d y w i t h a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o h a v e p a n c a k e s f o r h e r b r e a k f a s t . The o p e n i n g page e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s t o r y s e t t i n g a s a f a r m a n d t h e t i m e o f y e a r a s w i n t e r . The m a i n c h a r a c t e r g e t s o u t o f b e d and w h i l e s he i s d r e s s i n g a n d w a s h i n g s h e dreams o f p a n c a k e s . H e r two p e t s g e t up w i t h h e r a n d move t h r o u g h t h e s t o r y a c t i o n a s i n q u i s i t i v e b y - s t a n d e r s , c u r i o u s a b o u t a l l t h e woman's a c t i o n s . The O l d L a d y s t a r t s t o g a t h e r a l l t h e m a t e r i a l s t o make p a n c a k e s a n d r e a l i z e s s h e h a s no e g g s . She g o e s o u t t o t h e b a r n a n d g a t h e r s f r e s h e g g s . Upon r e t u r n i n g t o h e r h o u s e , she d i s c o v e r s she h a s no b u t t e r . She m i l k s t h e cow a n d u s e s t h e m i l k t o c h u r n some b u t t e r . She h a s no s y r u p a n d b u y s some f r o m h e r n e i g h b o u r . When she r e t u r n s home, h e r two p e t s h a v e k n o c k e d o v e r t h e m i l k , b u t t e r a n d e g g s . The O l d L a d y s e e s h e r dream o f p a n c a k e s d i s a p p e a r i n g . She s m e l l s s o m e t h i n g c o o k i n g a t a n e i g h b o u r ' s h o u s e a n d f o l l o w s t h e s m e l l . She i n v i t e s h e r s e l f i n f o r a l a r g e p l a t e f u l o f p a n c a k e s . The s t o r y e n d s w i t h t h e O l d L a d y a n d h e r p e t s s l e e p i n g c o m f o r t a b l y . 109 APPENDIX E SAMPLES OF STORY-RETELLINGS GROUP ONE STORY SAMPLE ONCE UPON A TIME, THERE WAS A VERY COLD WINTER. IT WAS ALMOST THE COLDEST WINTER IN THE WORLD. THE WORLD. COLDIE'S MOTHER DECIDED TO HAVE PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST. WHILE COLDIE WAS IN BREAKFAST, HER MOTHER GOT OUT OF BED AND SHE STARTED WASHING AND GOT READY TO PUT HER BOOTS ON. AND THEN SHE WENT OUT TO GET THE PANCAKES. (THERE'S NO WORDS) You can j u s t t e l l t h e s t o r y w i t h t h e p i c t u r e s . THEN SHE BROUGHT EVERYTHING FROM...FOR THE PANCAKES. AND THEN SHE BROUGHT THE EGGS FOR THE PANCAKES. AND THEN COLDIE WOKE UP AND SAW ALL THESE THINGS'ON THE TABLE. SHE SAID" WHAT ON EARTH IS HAPPENING?" THEN SHE MADE A PANCAKE. SHE STARTED MAKING THE PANCAKES. AND THEN WHEN IT WAS EARLY OR LATE, SHE WENT OUTSIDE. THEN SHE GOT SOME MILK. THEN SHE WAS THINKING OF HOW SHE COULD MAKE THE PANCAKES. THEN SHE SAW EVERYTHING WAS SPILLED. AND SHE SCCCRREEAAMMED! SAW WHAT'S HAPPENING. ; ( b r e a k f o r a d i s t r a c t i o n ) AND WHEN COLDIE STARTED TO COME BACK, SHE WAS OUT. WHEN COLDIE CAME BACK, THE PANCAKES WERE ALMOST READY. ALL AT ONCE. THEN THEY ALL WENT TO SLEEP. THAT'S THE END OF THE STORY. 110 I l l STORY SAMPLE GROUP ONE I gave d i r e c t i o n s . OKAY. I gave t i t l e and a u t h o r , ( t i t l e page) THERE'S PANCAKES ALL OVER THE HOUSE AND WE DON'T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH THEM. IT'S WINTER NOW AND WE CAN'T GET ANY MORE APPLES. W i n t e r now, Yes. I WOKE UP THIS MORNING BECAUSE MY DOG WAS RUFFING ALL THE TIME R u f f i n g a l l t h e t i m e , Y es. Keep g o i n g . MY MOMMY WAS MAKING SOMETHING AND THE KITTIES WERE SAD BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T GET ANY OF THE PORRIDGE. THEY'RE GOOFY AREN'T THEY? -v-~ Yes. AND LOOK. What? SHE'S TRYING TO PUT THAT I N . DON'T KNOW WHY. SHE HAD A BIG BOWL IN HER HAND AND SHE COULDN'T LIFT IT UP. WE WENT OUT WITH MY DOG AND DIDN'T HAVE TO COME. LOOK! ( p o i n t s and l a u g h s ) THE EARS WENT UP. THERE WERE SO MANY CHICKENS WE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH ALL THEIR EGGS. A GREY CAT WANTED SOME MILK BUT SHE COULDN'T GET ANY. A COW EAT A LOT OF HAY BUT SHE COULDN'T FIND ANY MORE HAY. THERE'S MILK FOR KITTY AND KITTY.WANTED MILK. AND SHE PUT SUGER IN THE BOWL AND SHE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH THIS ALL THE SUGAR AND THERE WAS SO MUCH SUGER AROUND THE HOUSE SHE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH IT. SHE HAD SO MUCH PLAY-DOUGH, SO MUCH EGGS. SHE CRACKED THEM SO MUCH SHE HAD TO GET MORE AND MORE AND MORE AND MORE. AND THEY ALL THEY DIDN'T HAVE ANY FOOD IN THE HOUSE. SO THEY HAD TO EAT SNOW ALL THE TIME WHEN IT SNOWED. IT KEPT SNOWING ALL THE TIME AND WE COULDN'T GET ANY MORE FOOD AND GRASS. LOOK! ( p o i n t s and l a u g h s ) THE KITTY CAME DOWN THE TABLE TO GET SOME MILK. SO CRAZY! WE SPILLED SOME MILK...AND THEN WE....AAAHHHHHHHHHH!!!! LOOKIT THAT TERRIBLE KITCHEN! WE....I AND MY KITTY AND THE DOG...WE...THE KITTY WAS UP ON THE COUNTER DRINKING MILK. THE THINGS SPILLED OVER AND THE PLACE WAS SUCH A MESS. WHEN THE LADY GOT BACK SHE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH ALL THE MESS. WHAT'S THAT? STEAM. Uh PANCAKES. SHE GETS ALL THE PANCAKES. ONE BIG PANCAKE. 112 STORY SAMPLE GROUP TWO S m i l e d a t my d i r e c t i o n s . Laughed a t my s a y i n g of the t i t l e and a u t h o r . IT'S A LOT OF PANCAKES. LOOKS LI K E CAKES. They do l o o k l i k e c a k e s . Yes. Pancakes. ONCE UPON A TIME IT WAS A VERY COLD DAY. THAT"S THE BOY. THAT GIRL...THAT GIRL WASHED HER HAIR IN HOT WATER. AFTER THAT SHE READ A BOOK. SHE LOOKED IN THE DOG'S DISH BUT THERE WAS NOTHING IN I T . SHE PUT SOME SALT IN SOME... IN A BOWL. SOME MORE THINGS AS WELL. THEN SHE PUT THE EGGS IN A BASKET. SHE WENT OUT THE HOUSE FOR A WALK. BUT BEFORE THAT SHE POURED SOME WATER IN (pause) FOR THE CAT. AND WHEN SHE CAME BACK THERE WAS NO BUTTER MADE. AFTER THAT SHE WAS TIRED. SHE WAITED AND WAITED AND WAITED A LATE TIME. IT WAS A LONG TIME FOR NIGHT TIME. AND SHE MADE SOME PANCAKES. SHE SPILLED EVERYTHING. SHE WENT OUTSIDE. THERE WERE PANCAKES MADE EVERYWHERE. THE END. 113 STORY SAMPLE GROUP TWO I gave t h e t i t l e and d i r e c t i o n s . She nodded "Yes". ONE TIME IT WAS SNOWING. One t i m e i t was snowing. Yes Good f o r You. Go on. One time i t was snowing. AND I WAS IN BED. AND WE HAD PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST. I WAS READING A BOOK. I was r e a d i n g a book. I WAS MAKING BREAKFAST. Making b r e a k f a s t , Yes. " I WAS FEEDING THE CHICKENS. Uh-Huh. I WAS LOOKING OUTSIDE. T h a t ' s r i g h t . Good f o r you. I WAS DOING SOMETHING. I WAS MAKING CAKES. Yes . I WAS MILKING COWS. I WAS PUTTING IT INTO A CHURN. A c h u r n , Y e s . I WAS PUTTING IT ON THE PLATE. I WAS GOING OUT IN THE SNOW. WHILE I WAS OUT IN THE SNOW, MY MOM WAS COOKING. WHEN I CAME I N , IT WAS A MESS IN HERE. AND SHE DIDN'T STAND THIS MESS. She d i d n ' t s t a n d t h i s mess. I s e e . WE WERE HAVING BREAKFAST WITH PANCAKES. I WAS HAVING A NAP. STORY SAMPLE GROUP THREE I DON'T KNOW HOW TO READ. You don't have t o r e a d . J u s t t e l l me a s t o r y . I r e a d t h e t i t l e and the a u t h o r ; THERE ARE LOTS OF PANCAKES. WHERE DO YOU HAVE TO START? I DON'T KNOW HOW TO READ. You don't have t o r e a d . What do you see h e r e ? A HOUSE Oh l o o k . SHE'S DREAMING ABOUT PANCAKES. - v-She's dreaming about pancakes. T h a t ' s how you do i t T e l l me what you see. (She l a u g h s ) LOOK I T . . SHE'S MAKING PANCAKES. SHE MADE EGGS. SHE'S FEEDING THE COWS. MILKING THEM. AND...WHAT'S SHE DOING NOW? WHAT IS...WHAT IS SHE DOING? What do you t h i n k ? Make up a l i t t l e s t o r y . HE'S GIVING SOME MILK TO HER. (pause) I'M READING I T . SHE'S... LOOK AT WHAT SHE'S DOING. SHE WAKED SHE WAKED SHE'S GOING UP IN THE UP SKY. She's g o i n g up i n the s k y . WHAT. WHAT HAPPENED? What do you t h i n k happened? THIS...THEY CRACKED. They c r a c k e d ? YEAH.WHY DID SHE? WHY DID SHE LOOK LI K E THAT? Why do you t h i n k she l o o k s l i k e t h a t ? BECAUSE SHE SCARED OF THE CRACK. WHO DID THIS? ( b r o k e away I WANT TO PLAY WITH MY MUSIC. F i r s t t e l l me the r e s t . SHE'S GOING TO V I S I T . AND HE'S... WHO'S THAT? EVERYONE EATS THEM UP. AND NOW SHE'S GOING TO SLEEP. 115 STORY SAMPLE GROUP THREE No r e a c t i o n t o the d i r e c t i o n s . S m i l e d as I s a i d t h e t i t l e and t h e a u t h o r . A n x i o u s t o get a s t a r t . THAT. ( f o r t h e c o v e r page) LOOK WHAT'S ON I T . Th a t ' s b u t t e r . I GUESS THAT IS BUTTER. PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST, ( f o r t h e t i t l e page) SNOW. Snow, good. Th a t ' s t h e boy. T e l l me about t h e s t o r y . CAT'S SLEEPING WITH HER. (laughed) Funny. PANCAKES IN THE SKY. .. ,-LOOKIT WHAT THEY'RE DOING..SLEEPING ON THE FLOOR. LOOK AT WHAT SHE'S DOING. SHE'S NOT MAKING PANCAKES. THE DRESS IS GOING ON A COAT HANGER. NOTHING ELSE. Go on then t o the ne x t page, i f t h e r e i s n o t h i n g . PANCAKES LIGHT. PUTTING BOOKS AWAY WITH HER APRON ON. PUTTING THE BOOKS AWAY. P u t t i n g t h e books away. READING A BOOK WITH AN APRON ON. LOOKIT WHAT SHE'S DOING. SHE'S NOT MAKING ANYTHING AND SHE'S GOT HER BAKING STUFF OUT. B a k i n g s t u f f , y e s . GOING OUT IN THE SNOW WITH HER DOG AND A BASKET. DOGS HAVE TO BE ON A LEASH. BUT NICE DOGS DON'T HAVE TO BE ON A LEASH.CAN'T EVEN GET THIS OVER..(the page) A COW EATING HAY THROUGH A WINDOW. Through a window. HE CAN'T REACH THERE. POURING (pause) SUGAR WITH A SOUP THING. A soup t h i n g , y e s . A soup t h i n g . WHAT IS SHE DOING? SHE'S DOING THAT. I DON'T KNOW WHAT SHE IS DOING THERE. OH! LOOKIT WHAT SHE'S DOING. SHE'S MAKING STUFF TO PUT ON TOP OF THE PANCAKES. Ye s LOOK AT WHAT SHE DID! What? LOOK WHAT SHE DID ALL THERE. Uh-Huh. LOOK WHAT SHE DID THERE. LOTS OF THINGS THERE. Uh-Huh. LOTS OF THINGS THERE TOO. THERE THEY ARE EATING THE BREAKFAST. FATHER (pause) FATHER HADN'T GOT ANY PANCAKES. Hasn't got any? NO. THERE'S THE PERSON MAKING PANCAKES. ( s t u d i e d t h e l a s t two pages w i t h no comment) 116 STORY SAMPLE GROUP FOUR Nodded 'yes' as I gave d i r e c t i o n s . PANCAKES FOR DINNER ( f o r the t i t l e page) J u s t t a k e one page a t a t i m e . You don't want t o m i s s any of the SNOW. story, S n o w . T e l l me about t h i s p a r t . GOING TO BED. Goi n g t o bed. Can you t e l l me more? UP AGAIN. Up a g a i n . T h a t ' s t h e boy. Go t h r o u g h t h e book now. C o n t i n u e . T h a t ' s r i g h t . T h a t ' s t h e next page. READING BOOKS. Rea d i n g books. AND COOKING PANCAKES. C o o k i n g p a n c a k e s . A l r i g h t . Good. AND COOKING PANCAKES AGAIN. And c o o k i n g pancakes a g a i n . Good, ( s k i p p e d s e v e r a l pages and I had t o put him on t h e r i g h t one. SNOW AGAIN. Snow a g a i n . What e l s e ? A DOG. .• A dog. AND A CAT AND THEY ARE MAKING PANCAKES AGAIN. They're making t h e pancakes a g a i n . T h a t ' s t h e boy = 1 , < : ^ . You're making a g r e a t j o b . THEY'RE DOING IT AGAIN. They're d o i n g i t a g a i n . THEY'RE MAKING PANCAKES AGAIN. Okay. THEY'RE MAKING PANCAKES AGAIN. I s e e . What's she d o i n g h e r e ? SNOW AGAIN. What? SNOW AGAIN. Snow a g a i n . What's happening i n t h i s ' p a r t ? CLOUD. CLOUDS. What? C l o u d s ? I see. (pause)(He t u r n e d t h e page, s t u d i e d t h e p i c t u r e s but s a i d n o t h i n g . WORKING. Wo r k i n g . What? SNOWING AGAIN. COOKING DINNER AGAIN. DOING IT AGAIN. 117 STORY SAMPLE GROUP FOUR I g a v e the d i r e c t i o n s . i I DON'T KNOW WHAT THESE THINGS ARE. ( p o i n t i n g t o the pancakes) 5 I gave the d i r e c t i o n s and the t i t l e and a u t h o r . • Do you know what t h e s e a r e now? N 0 * They're pancakes a l l s t a c k e d up. (He went i n t o a p e r s o n a l narrative aisout how he l i k e s pancakes.) D i f f i c u l t t o get him t o f o c u s on t h e t a s k . He i g n o r e d t h e book. I t o l d the t i t l e a g a i n . What can you t e l l me? PANCAKES FOR BREAKFAST ( f o r t he t i t l e page) IT'S SNOWING OUT. Yes t h a t ' s r i g h t . THEY'RE INSIDE THE HOUSE. READING BOOKS. MAKING. Making. GOING OUT IN THE SNOW. Yes. GOING OUT IN THE SNOW. COWS. LADIES Pardon me. LADIES. L a d i e s . T e l l me what i s happeninh h e r e ? THEY'RE MAKING SOMETHING. They're making something. OUT IN THE SNOW, i What about h e r e ? I THE MAN IS SOMETHING. The man i s so m e t h i n g . HAVING SOME PANCAKES. What about h e r e now? SPILLED THE MILK. Uh-Huh. THEY'RE GOING WITH MORE PANCAKES. 

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